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Sample records for danish finishing pigs

  1. Prevalence of intestinal pathogens in Danish finishing pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stege, H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the prevalence of the intestinal bacteria: Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Serpulina intermedia, Brachyspira innocens, Brachyspira pilosicoli, pathogenic Escherichia coli (serogroups 0138, 0139, 0141 and 0149) and Salmonella enterica in Danish...

  2. Occurrence and Tissue Distribution of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Identified by Immunohistochemistry in Danish Finishing Pigs at Slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Pors, S. E.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2010-01-01

    Infection with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) may be subclinical or lead to the development of porcine circovirus disease (PCVD), which includes the entities of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). PCV2 infection and PMWS occur...... in the early post-weaning period and are also recognized in finishing pigs of 12-19 weeks of I e. The aim of the present study was to assess Hie role of PCV2 infection in disease of finishing pigs. Accordingly, the occurrence and tissue distriubution of PCV2 was examined in Danish finishing pigs at the time...... of slaughter. Multiple lymph nodes and thes spleen, lungs and kidneys from 136 pigs with PRDC (case group) and 36 pigs without lung lesions (control group) were examined by immunolabelling for the Presence of PCV2. Additionally, follicular dendritic cells (FDC) were identified immunohistochemically. One...

  3. Comparison of risk-based versus random sampling in the monitoring of antimicrobial residues in Danish finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Lis; Rugbjerg, Helene; Petersen, Jesper Valentin; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2016-06-01

    In Denmark, a monitoring program for residues of antimicrobials in pork is in place involving annual testing of around 20,000 samples from finishing pigs corresponding to 0.1% of the animals slaughtered. Annually, zero to two samples are found above the maximum residue limit. Both authorities and industry have expressed interest in adjusting the monitoring to a risk-based system. The objective of this study was to assess the opportunities and consequences of the monitoring considering: 1) replacing the current bioassay with high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC LC-MS/MS), 2) replacing kidney with muscles as sample matrix, and 3) using indicators to identify high-risk (HR) herds and increase sampling intensity in these herds, lowering sampling in the low-risk (LR) herds, while aiming at continued detection of similar numbers of test-positives at the lowest possible costs. A state-of-the-art stochastic scenario tree modelling approach including economic evaluation of different model outcomes was used. A total of six scenarios were run for penicillin and tetracycline, respectively. Relevant information was obtained through the literature, statistical analysis of existing data as well as consultations with laboratory and slaughterhouse experts. Abattoir recordings of chronic pleuritis were used as an indicator for finishing pig herds (HR=within-herd prevalence>40%). Such risk-based monitoring would have to use muscles and not kidneys, because of logistic challenges in identifying and storing of plucks until testing. However, the bioassay cannot be used on muscle tissue due to low sensitivity for tetracyclines. Different plausible combinations of sample sizes were also modelled. The HPLC LC-MS/MS method detected the same number of cases compared to the bioassay when kidney was used as matrix. HPLC LC-MS/MS has a higher sensitivity when used on muscle but it is almost twice as costly as the bioassay. Risk-based sampling resulted in detection of

  4. Herd-level risk factors for antimicrobial demanding gastrointestinal diseases in Danish herds with finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybschmann, G. K.; Ersbøll, A.K.; Vigre, Håkan

    2011-01-01

    quarter per herd. Three potential herd-level risk factors were evaluated: herd size (number of finishers delivered for slaughter); herd health status (herds in the Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) System, conventional herds); and herd type (herds including only finishers, integrated herds). Data were analyzed...... using general linear mixed models with repeated measurements. Smaller herds had a larger AMU per finisher than larger herds. Integrated herds had lower AMU as compared with herds with only finishers. Herds within the SPF System had a larger decrease in AMU with increasing herd size compared...

  5. Assessment of human health risk associated with pyaemia in Danish finisher pigs when conducting visual-only inspection of the lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Amanda Brinch; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Skou, Peter Bæk; Alban, Lis

    2015-03-02

    The most important lesion to be overlooked when performing visual-only inspection of the lungs is embolic pneumonia. The aim of the present study was to assess the additional human health risk represented by overlooking cases of pyaemia represented by embolic pneumonia in finisher pigs, when conducting visual-only compared to palpation of the lungs, as is the traditional meat inspection procedure. An examination of bacteria isolated from 19 finisher pigs identified with embolic pneumonia at traditional meat inspection was undertaken. From each pig samples were taken from various organs (lungs, spleen, heart, liver and kidney), from the carpal joints (A. carpi) and flexor muscle (M. flexor digitorum superficialis) on the right foreleg. These data were included in a risk assessment following OIE guidelines. Bacteria were isolated from 78 out of 127 tissue and swap samples taken (61% positive samples). Staphylococcus aureus (N=37) was the most frequently isolated bacterium. The predominant site of S. aureus was the lung. S. aureus was detected although less frequently in low numbers in some organs (risk of a food-borne intoxication from S. aureus in relation to pyaemia in pigs was considered very low due to the low quantitative numbers of S. aureus in muscle tissue samples. Implementing visual-only inspection will reduce the exposure of S. aureus due to less cross-contamination and handling of the plucks by the meat inspectors. The human health risk associated with S. warneri was considered very low, due to the limited zoonotic potential of this bacterium. In conclusion, the additional human health risk in relation to possibly overlooking pyaemia in Danish finisher pigs was considered negligible when conducting visual-only compared to traditional meat inspection.

  6. The effect of discontinued use of antimicrobial growth promoters on the risk of therapeutic antibiotic treatment in Danish farrow-to-finish pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigre, Håkan; Larsen, P.B.; Andreasen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    ) the proportion of days per farm where treatment was performed (PDT) and (2) the proportion of pigs treated per day per farm at days where treatment was performed (PPT) before and after duAGPs at 68 farrow-to-finish farms. The farms were selected using, a two-stage (veterinarian/farm) convenience sampling...

  7. Serological characterization of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 2 strains isolated from pigs in two Danish herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Plambeck, Tamara

    1997-01-01

    Eight Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 2 strains were isolated in pure culture from lungs of pigs originating from two Danish herds with growing and finishing pigs. The antigenic properties were studied by indirect haemagglutination (IHA) and immunodiffusion (ID) tests using soluble surface...

  8. Salmonella surveillance and control for finisher pigs and pork in Denmark — A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alban, L.; Baptista, F.M.; Møgelmose, V.

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella can either be controlled pre-harvest, post-harvest or by a combination of both approaches. This paper describes the lessons learned in Danish Salmonella surveillance and control programme for finisher pigs and pork. Initially, main focus was on pre-harvest initiatives and correct ident...

  9. Salmonella infection and immune response in finishing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finishing pigs infected with Salmonella pose significant food safety risks by carrying the pathogen into abattoirs. A study was conducted to determine the dynamic of Salmonella infection in finishing pigs, and the immunological alterations that occur in Salmonella-carrier pigs, by longitudinally com...

  10. Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on finisher pig growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science ... meal on finisher pig growth performance, meat quality, shelf life and fatty acid composition of pork ... Feed intake was measured daily, pig liveweight was measured weekly, and average daily gains ...

  11. Factors influencing Salmonella carcass prevalence in Danish pig abattoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitas de Matos Baptista, Filipa; Dahl, J.; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2010-01-01

    The Danish Salmonella Surveillance-and-Control Programme in finisher pigs includes both herd and carcass surveillance. Herd surveillance consists of serological testing of meat-juice samples and classification of herds into three Salmonella seroprevalence levels. At the abattoirs, carcass swabs f...

  12. Phylogenetic Analysis of PRRSV from Danish Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Larsen, Lars Erik

    in antigenicity of viruses. Antigenic differences between EU subtypes have been demonstrated (Stadejek et al. 2008). PRRSV is a very diverse virus with a high mutation rate. It is therefore extremely important to continuously monitor and sequence the virus. The present data suggests, that the PRRSV vaccines used......Introduction and Objectives Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Arteriviridae family. It is the causative agent of significant respiratory and reproductive disease in swine worldwide. The virus is a recently emerged pathogen...... also was recognized. According to serologic testing, both types are prevalent in the Danish pig population. However, the genetic drift of the virus during the past 10 years has not been determined. The objective of this study was to examine the genetic diversity and evolution of PRRSV in Danish pigs...

  13. Population dynamics of swine influenza virus in finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Influenza virus infections in swine were first noticed in the US in 1918, during the human pandemic of the Spanish flu. In Europe, seroprevalences for the three most common swine influenza strains at the moment, H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2, range from 20-80% in finishing pigs at the end of the finishing per

  14. Population dynamics of swine influenza virus in finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Influenza virus infections in swine were first noticed in the US in 1918, during the human pandemic of the Spanish flu. In Europe, seroprevalences for the three most common swine influenza strains at the moment, H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2, range from 20-80% in finishing pigs at the end of the finishing

  15. Immunological, physiological and behavioral effects of Salmonella enterica carriage and shedding in experimentally infected finishing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finishing pigs infected with Salmonella pose significant food safety risks by carrying the pathogen into abattoirs. This study was conducted to determine the dynamic of Salmonella infection in finishing pigs, and associated immunological, physiological, and behavioral alterations, by longitudinally ...

  16. Dietary starch types affect liver nutrient metabolism of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chen; Li, Yanjiao; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Zhou, Guanghong; Gao, Feng

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different starch types on liver nutrient metabolism of finishing pigs. In all ninety barrows were randomly allocated to three diets with five replicates of six pigs, containing purified waxy maize starch (WMS), non-waxy maize starch (NMS) and pea starch (PS) (the amylose to amylopectin ratios were 0·07, 0·19 and 0·28, respectively). After 28 d of treatments, two per pen (close to the average body weight of the pen) were weighed individually, slaughtered and liver samples were collected. Compared with the WMS diet, the PS diet decreased the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 in liver (P0·05). Compared with the WMS diet, the PS diet reduced the expressions of glutamate dehydrogenase and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 in liver (Pliver compared with the WMS diet (Pliver of finishing pigs.

  17. Changes in group treatment procedures of Danish finishers and its influence on the amount of administered antimicrobials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Boklund, Anette; Dupont, Nana Hee

    2016-01-01

    antimicrobials between the years was significantly different in Cohort Change when compared to both Cohort Water and Cohort Feed. Results from this study demonstrate that farms changing their procedure of group treatment from feed administration to water administration may increase their overall use......When treating groups of pigs orally, antimicrobials can be administered through either feed or water. During the last decade, the group treatment procedure for finishers has shifted from feed to water administration. We hypothesized that farms implementing this change in treatment procedure would...... increase their total amount of administered antimicrobials. Based on Danish national register data, we performed a retrospective cohort study with three groups. The cohort of primary interest (Cohort Change) consisted of 50 finisher farms which changed their group treatment procedure from feed...

  18. Recovery of Salmonella enterica from seropositive finishing pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dahl, J.; van der Wolf, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    , apparent 'false-positive' serological results may well represent real infections not detected by bacteriological testing. For screening purposes, serological testing provides an indication of exposure to Salmonella, which forms the basis for targeted sampling, intervention and logistic slaughter procedures....... by the blood-sampling of 50 finishing pigs. Bacteriological sampling was performed by 20 pen faecal samples per herd. Over-all, 47% of the blood samples had an OD% larger than 10 and 23% larger than 40. Salmonella was isolated from 135 (9.3%) pen faecal samples in 32 herds (42%). Twenty-eight of these herds...

  19. Herd-level risk factors for subclinical Salmonella infection in European finishing-pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dahl, J.; Stege, H.

    2004-01-01

    Our objective was to find herd factors associated with pigs testing seropositive for Salmonella. Data were collected from 359 finishing-pig herds in Germany, Denmark, Greece, The Netherlands and Sweden, between 1996 and 1998. Pigs fed non-pelleted feed (dry or wet) had 2- and 2.5-times lower odds...

  20. BEEF TALLOW AND EMULSIFIER IN GROWING-FINISHING PIG DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KASSIA M. SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two trials were aimed to evaluate beef tallow in diets with and without emulsifier on performance of pigs at growing-finishing phases. In the first trial, 15 barrows (22.03±0.62 kg were distributed among three treatments: reference diet; test diet 1 (5% beef tallow and test diet 2 (10% beef tallow. Beef tallow presented average value of 7130.97 kcal ME/kg. For the performance trail, 30 barrows (24.85±1.18 kg were distributed among five treatments: T1 - diet with soybean oil and 3230 kcal ME /kg; T2 - diet with beef tallow and 3230 kcal ME/kg; T3 - diet with beef tallow and 3080 kcal ME/kg; T4 - diet with beef tallow, 3080 kcal/kg and 0.1% emulsifier; T5 - diet with beef tallow, 2930 kcal ME/kg and 0.1% emulsifier. Feed conversion was worse in animals fed diet with 3080 kcal ME/kg containing beef tallow and with 2930 kcal ME/kg with beef tallow and emulsifier. For economic availability, animals fed diet with beef tallow and 3230 kcal ME/kg and those fed diet with 3080 kcal ME/kg containing beef tallow and emulsifier, did not differ from animals fed diet with soybean oil, which enables the reduction up to 150 kcal ME/kg be compensated by emulsifier addition.

  1. A system response to an outbreak of enzootic pneumonia in grow/finish pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae-negative commercial swine production system broke with enzootic pneumonia at their grow/finish site in southern Manitoba in October, 2003. System responses included feed medication, depopulation, delayed shipment of pigs to the infected site, vaccination of at risk sow herds, and disinfection when grow/finish site depopulation was completed. PMID:15532888

  2. Novel Mycoplasma hyosynoviae vaccination of one herd failed to prevent lameness in finishing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøll; Nielsen, Elisabeth Okholm; Christensen, Dennis;

    difference in the prevalence of lameness was found (P=0.157). All lame finishers were treated with Lincosin® and Flunixin® by injection for three days. In conclusion, this novel M. hyosynoviae vaccine could not successfully prevent the development of lameness in finishing pigs presumed to have been caused...

  3. Risk factors for intestinal pathogens in Danish finishing pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stege, H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian;

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to identify risk factors for infection with the intestinal bacteria: Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Serpulina intermedia, Brachyspira innocens, Brachyspira pilosicoli and swine-pathogenic Escherichia coli (serogroups O138, O139, O141......) or culture (all other agents). Information on feed and management procedures was collected by filling in questionnaires at the herd visits. The questionnaire, included information on 29 dichotomous variables and three continuous variables. Variables with P ...-test) were selected for the statistical modelling. Our conclusions, based on the results of multifactorial logistic regression (out-off: P = 0.05), were the following: 1. Consistent batch production was associated with reduced prevalences of L. intracellularis and weakly beta -haemolytic spirochetes (S...

  4. Indications and patterns of therapeutic use of antimicrobial agents in the Danish pig production from 2002 to 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2011-01-01

    This study describes trends in the use and indications for prescriptions of antimicrobial agents in the Danish pig production in the period between 2002 and 2008 and is the first description of a complete prescription pattern for one animal species in an entire country. Data on all prescription....../piglets, by 141% for weaning pigs, and by 81% for finisher pig. The most commonly used class of antibiotics was tetracycline for all age-groups, replacing the previously used macrolide/lincosamide group. The use of pleuromutilin increased in 2008 to the level of macrolides. In sow/piglets, the second most used...... class was penicillins. The switch in choice of antimicrobial classes prescribed seems to be related primarily to changes in the price of the drugs....

  5. Economic versus environmental improvement potentials of Danish pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    2006-01-01

    with manure and nutrients removed with the crops. These environmental variables are combined with a series of economic variables, including the costs of fertilizer. Furthermore, subvector efficiency and a two-step analysis are used in order to consider economic and environmental (technical) efficiency......This article demonstrates how economic and environmental improvement potentials of Danish pig farms can be estimated using Data envelopment analysis (DEA). To avoid some of the problems associated with the definition of undesirable outputs, environmental variables are included as nutrients applied...

  6. Hepatitis E. virus is prevalent in the Danish pig population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; De Deus, N.;

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for major outbreaks of acute hepatitis in humans from developing countries, but evidence increases that also in industrialized countries locally acquired HEV infections acor. The disease usually affects young adults and has a relatively high mortality in inf...... with swine or ingestion of undercooked swine meat. The aim of this study was to clarify if HEV is prevalent in the Danish pig population. Presence of HEV was examined by detection of HEV by real time RT-PCR or serological screening for HEV antibodies....

  7. Microbiology and pathology of fibrinous pericarditis in Danish slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttenschøn, J.; Friis, N.F.; Aalbaek, B.

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of fibrinous pericarditis detected at slaughter in Danish slaughter pigs is approximately 0.02 %. The microbiology and pathology of this disorder was studied through 46 field cases collected at slaughter from May 1994 to August 1995. Mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, M...... from the pericardium in three cases. The pericardium was sterile in three cases and contained a low grade mixed flora in two; the latter is believed to be a result of the slaughter procedure rather than an infection. No chlamydiae were found in connection with the microbiological examination...

  8. Microbiology and pathology of fibrinous pericarditis in Danish slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttenschøn, J.; Friis, N.F.; Aalbaek, B.

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of fibrinous pericarditis detected at slaughter in Danish slaughter pigs is approximately 0.02 %. The microbiology and pathology of this disorder was studied through 46 field cases collected at slaughter from May 1994 to August 1995. Mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, M...... from the pericardium in three cases. The pericardium was sterile in three cases and contained a low grade mixed flora in two; the latter is believed to be a result of the slaughter procedure rather than an infection. No chlamydiae were found in connection with the microbiological examination...

  9. The effects of ractopamine on the behavior and physiology of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant-Forde, J N; Lay, D C; Pajor, E A; Richert, B T; Schinckel, A P

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of ractopamine (RAC) on the behavior and physiology of pigs during handling and transport. Twenty-four groups of three gilts were randomly assigned to one of two treatments 4 wk before slaughter: finishing feed plus RAC (10 ppm) or finishing feed alone. Pigs were housed in the same building in adjacent pens with fully slatted floors and ad libitum access to feed and water. Behavioral time budgets were determined in six pens per treatment over a single 24-h period during each week. Behavioral responses of these pigs to routine handling and weighing were determined at the start of the trial and at the end of each week. Heart-rate responses to unfamiliar human presence were measured in all pigs and blood samples were taken from a single pig in each pen on different days during wk 4. At the end of wk 4, all pigs were transported for 22 min to processing. Heart rate was recorded from at least one pig per pen during transport and a postmortem blood sample was taken from those pigs that were previously sampled. During wk 1 and 2, RAC pigs spent more time active (P pigs exited the home pen voluntarily, they took longer to remove from the home pen, longer to handle into the weighing scale and needed more pats, slaps, and pushes from the handler to enter the scales. At the end of wk 4, RAC pigs had higher heart rates in the presence of an unfamiliar human (P pigs had higher circulating catecholamine concentrations (P pigs. Circulating cortisol concentrations and cortisol responses to transport did not differ between treatments. The results show that ractopamine affected behavior, heart rate, and catecholamine profile of finishing pigs and made them more difficult to handle and potentially more susceptible to handling and transport stress.

  10. A European longitudinal study in Salmonella seronegative and seropositive-classified finishing pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dahl, J.; Wingstrand, Anne;

    2004-01-01

    in pig herds. For this purpose, 17 finishing pig herds initially classified as seropositive and 15 as seronegative, were followed for a 2-year period through serological and bacteriological sampling. The study included 10 herds from Denmark, 13 from The Netherlands, 4 from Germany and 5 from Sweden...... and was performed between October 1996 and May 1999. The Salmonella status of finishing pig herds was determined by an initial blood sampling of approximately 50 finishing pigs close to market weight per herd. The development of the Salmonella status of the selected herds was assessed at seven subsequent sampling.......0, 95 % CI 3.2-32.8). When Salmonella was isolated from pen faecal samples, the herd was more likely to be classified seropositive in the same sampling round, compared to no Salmonella being detected (OR 4.0, 95 % CI 1.1-14.6). The stability of an initially allocated Salmonella status was found to vary...

  11. Novel reassortant swine influenza viruses are circulating in Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    The Danish surveillance program for influenza A virus in pigs has revealed that two novel reassortant swine influenza viruses may now be circulating in the Danish swine population, since they each have been detected in at least two submissions from different herds in 2011 as well as in 2012. One...... of the reassortant viruses comprised a HA gene similar to H1 of H1N1 avian-like swine influenza virus (SIV) and a NA gene most closely related to N2 gene of human H3N2 influenza virus that circulated in humans in the mid 1990s. The internal genes of this reassortant virus with the subtype H1avN2hu all belonged......1pdm09 influenza virus lineage. Swine influenza virus with a similar subtype to H1pdm09N2sw has previously been found in pigs in Italy and Germany. Detailed analyses of viral genes will further elucidate the relationship between these new swine influenza viruses found in the different countries...

  12. Performance of finishing pigs in hoop structures and confinement during winter and summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman, M S; Harmon, J D

    2003-07-01

    Performance of finishing pigs in hoop structures or confinement during winter and summer was evaluated in Iowa. Hoops are large, tent-like shelters with cornstalks or straw for bedding. During summer and winter seasons for 3 yr (1998 to 2001), six trials were conducted using three hoop barns (designed for 150 pigs per pen, one pen per hoop) or a mechanically ventilated confinement barn with slatted floors (designed for 22 pigs per pen, six pens in the barn). A total of 3,518 pigs started the trials. Summer trials were June through October, and winter trials were December through April. Target stocking density was 1.11 m2/pig in hoops and 0.74 m2/pig in confinement. Identical corn-based diets were fed ad libitum from 16 to 118 kg for 127 d. Pigs were scanned before harvest for backfat and loin muscle area. When seasons were merged (season x housing interaction, P > or = 0.05), hoop-fed pigs had more backfat (21.8 +/- 0.3 vs 20.8 +/- 0.2 mm; P 3.0 +/- 0.2 cm2; P marketing (marketing from hoops (3.9 vs 1.3%; P = 0.01) than from confinement. Bedding use in hoops was 92 and 122 kg/pig for summer and winter, respectively. Performance of finishing pigs in bedded hoop structures depends in part on thermal environment.

  13. Associations between feed and water antimicrobial use in farrow-to-finish swine herds and antimicrobial resistance of fecal Escherichia coli from grow-finish pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Leigh B; Waldner, Cheryl L; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Dowling, Patricia M; Harding, John C S

    2007-01-01

    Escherichia coli (n = 1439), isolated from the feces of apparently healthy grow-finish pigs in 20 herds, were tested for susceptibility to 16 antimicrobials. Logistic regression models were developed for each resistance that was observed in more than 5% of the isolates. Each production phase's (suckling, nursery, grow-finish pigs or sows) antimicrobial exposure rate, through feed or water, was considered as a risk factor. Management variables were evaluated as potential confounders. Six resistance outcomes were associated with an antimicrobial use risk factor and four included exposures of pigs outside the grow-finish phase. In the case of sulfamethoxazole, the odds of resistance increased 2.3 times for every 100,000 pig-days of nursery pig exposure to sulfonamides. Thus, swine producers and veterinarians must be aware that antimicrobial use in pigs distant from market could have food safety repercussions. Five resistance outcomes were associated with exposure to an unrelated antimicrobial class. Most notably, the odds of sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol resistance were each six times higher in herds reporting high (more than 500/1,000 pig-days) grow-finish pig, macrolide exposure compared to herds with no macrolide use in grow-finish pigs. Therefore, the potential for co-selection should be considered in antimicrobial use decisions. This study emphasizes the importance of judicious antimicrobial use in pork production.

  14. Herd level husbandry factors associated with the serological Salmonella prevalence in finishing pig herds in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wolf, P J; Wolbers, W B; Elbers, A R; van der Heijden, H M; Koppen, J M; Hunneman, W A; van Schie, F W; Tielen, M J

    2001-02-12

    A national program to reduce Salmonella in pork and pork products should include monitoring and intervention at farm level. To develop an adequate intervention strategy at farm level, risk factors for Salmonella infections in finishing pigs have to be determined. In this study, blood samples were collected randomly at two slaughterhouses from slaughter pigs. Samples were tested by the Dutch Salmonella ELISA, based on the O-antigens 1, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 12, using a cut-off of OD%=10. This ELISA has been calibrated against the Danish ELISA to give comparable results. Workers from herds from which at least forty blood samples had been collected, were asked to participate in a questionnaire. In total, 353 questionnaires were obtained and analysed. Significant risk factors associated with the proportion of seropositive samples were identified by multiple linear logistic regression. The feeding of a complete liquid feed containing fermented by-products and the omission of disinfection after pressure washing a compartment as part of an all-in/all-out procedure, were both associated with a lower Salmonella seroprevalence. A small to moderate herd size (feed, or herds which had more than 16% of the livers of their pigs condemned at the slaughterhouse as a result of white spots were associated with a higher Salmonella seroprevalence. Hypothetical intervention strategies based on these risk factors can be studied for their effect on the Salmonella seroprevalence and practical applicability in field studies.

  15. Effects of finishing diet and pre-slaughter fasting time on meat quality in crossbred pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the carbohydrate composition of finishing diet (fed from 80 to 107 kg of body weight and the length of pre-slaughter fasting on pork quality were studied in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment with 80 crossbred pigs. The control finishing diet was based on barley and soybean meal, and the fibrous finishing diet was based on barley, barley fibre, faba beans, and rapeseed cake. These diets contained 465 and 362 g starch and 177 and 250 g dietary fibre per kg, respectively. The fasting times of 25 and 41 h were obtained by giving the pigs their last meal at different times. Longer fasting lowered the glycolytic potential of the longissimus lumborum muscle (P = 0.01, whereas the finishing diet had no effect. Different muscles responded differently to the treatments. Longer fasting increased the ultimate pH of the semimembranosus muscle (P = 0.02, but did not affect that of the longissimus lumborum and semispinalis capitis muscles. The finishing diets did not affect the ultimate pH of the investigated muscles. A diet × fasting time interaction was seen in the lightness of the semimembranosus muscle (P = 0.05. The fibrous diet resulted in darker meat than the control diet did in pigs that were fasted for 25 h (P < 0.05. Longer fasting darkened the meat colour in pigs fed the fibrous diet (P < 0.05 but not in those fed the control diet. The meat from the semispinalis capitis muscle was darker in pigs fed the fibrous than those fed the control diet (P = 0.04. The treatments did not affect the colour of the longissimus lumborum muscle. Longer fasting decreased drip loss from the meat of pigs fed the control diet (P < 0.05. The eating quality of the pork was not influenced by the finishing diets or the fasting time. The pigs also grew equally fast on both finishing diets. In conclusion, a moderate alteration in the carbohydrate composition of a finishing diet or longer pre-slaughter fasting can have some effects on pork quality in crossbred pigs

  16. Effect of sow history features on growth and feed intake in grow-finish pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell-Kubiak, E; Knol, E F; Bijma, P

    2012-01-01

    The sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation and lactation. Certain features in the early life of the sow (sow history features) may affect her ability to deliver and feed a healthy litter. In genetic analyses of grow-finish traits, these effects are estimated as common litter or permanent sow effects. The objective of this research was to identify sow history features that affect the growth rate (GR) and feed intake (FI) of her offspring during the grow-finish stage. Data from 17,743 grow-finish pigs, coming from 604 sires and 681 crossbred sows, were recorded between May 2001 and February 2010 at the experimental farm of the Institute for Pig Genetics (Beilen, the Netherlands). The grow-finish stage was divided into 2 phases (phase 1: 26 to 75 kg; phase 2: 75 to 115 kg). The sow history features were birth litter size, birth year and season, birth farm, weaning age, age of transfer to the experimental farm, and age at first insemination. The sow features were added to the basic model one at a time to study their effect on the grow-finish traits of the pigs. Subsequently, significant sow features (P finish pigs by 0.1 g/d. The heritability estimates for GR and FI (only in phase 2 of the grow-finish stage) decreased after adding the sow features to the model. No differences were found in estimates of the common litter effects between the basic model and the model with all significant sow features. The estimates of the permanent sow effect changed for FI from 0.03 (basic model) to 0.00 (model with sow features), and for FI in phase 1, the permanent sow effect decreased from 0.03 (basic model) to 0.01 (model with sow features). In conclusion, selected sow features do affect the grow-finish traits of the pigs, but their estimates are small and explain only a small proportion of the differences in the GR and FI of grow-finish pigs. The sow features partially explained the permanent sow effect of FI-related traits and did not explain the

  17. Avocado waste for finishing pigs: Impact on muscle composition and oxidative stability during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-López, Silvia H; Rodríguez-Carpena, Javier G; Lemus-Flores, Clemente; Grageola-Nuñez, Fernando; Estévez, Mario

    2016-06-01

    The utilization of agricultural waste materials for pig feeding may be an interesting option for reducing production costs and contributing to sustainability and environmental welfare. In the present study, a mixed diet enriched with avocado waste (TREATED) is used for finishing industrial genotype pigs. The muscle longissimus thoracis et lomborum (LTL) from TREATED pigs was analyzed for composition and oxidative and color stability and compared with muscles obtained from pigs fed a CONTROL diet. Dietary avocado had significant impact on the content and composition of intramuscular fat (IMF), reducing the lipid content in LTL muscles and increasing the degree of unsaturation. This did not increase the oxidative instability of samples. On the contrary, muscles from TREATED pigs had significantly lower lipid and protein oxidation rates during chilled storage. The color of the muscles from TREATED pigs was also preserved from oxidation.

  18. Effects of Lawsonia intracellularis on Average Daily Gain in finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, M.; Nielsen, M.; Dahl, J.;

    Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) is the causative agent of porcine proliferative enteropathy1, a disease that is found with high prevalence in all countries with industrial pig production. The infection is known to cause disease in different age groups. In pigs between 6 to 20 weeks of age the endem...... form called Porcine Intestinal Andenomatosis (PIA) is predominant. The clinical signs are diarrhoea, ill-thriftiness and wasting. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of LI detected in faeces on Average Daily Gain (ADG) in grower-finisher pigs....

  19. Evaluation of the antibacterial residue surveillance programme in Danish pigs using Bayesian methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, F M; Alban, L; Olsen, A M; Petersen, J V; Toft, N

    2012-10-01

    Residues of pharmacological active substances or their metabolites might be found in food products from food-producing animals. Maximum Residue Limits for pharmacological active substances in foodstuffs of animal origin are established to assure high food safety standards. Each year, more than 20,000 samples are analysed for the presence of antibacterial residues in Danish pigs. This corresponds to 0.1% of the size of the slaughter pig population and more than 1% of the sows slaughtered. In this study, a Bayesian model was used to evaluate the Danish surveillance system accuracy and to investigate the impact of a potential risk-based sampling approach to the residue surveillance programme in Danish slaughter pigs. Danish surveillance data from 2005 to 2009 and limited knowledge about true prevalence and test sensitivity and specificity were included in the model. According to the model, the true antibacterial residue prevalence in Danish pigs is very low in both sows (∼0.20%) and slaughter pigs (∼0.01%). Despite data constraints, the results suggest that the current screening test used in Denmark presents high sensitivity (85-99%) and very high specificity (>99%) for the most relevant antibacterial classes used in Danish pigs. If high-risk slaughter pigs could be identified by taking into account antibacterial use or meat inspection risk factors, a potential risk-based sampling approach to antibacterial residue surveillance in slaughter pigs would allow reducing the sample size substantially, while increasing or maintaining the probability of detection. Hence, the antibacterial residue surveillance programme in Danish pigs would be more cost-effective than today.

  20. A new Salmonella surveillance and control programme in Danish pig herds and slaughterhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B.; Alban, L.; Stege, H.;

    2001-01-01

    The Danish Salmonella Surveillance and Control Programme for pigs operates at all stages of the production chain and has been applied nationally since 1995. Due to the program the level of Salmonella in Danish pork has declined from 3.5 % in 1993 to 0.7 % in the year 2000. Simultaneously, the num......-treated or decontaminated with hot water....

  1. Why Danish pig farms have far more land and pigs than Dutch farms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, Jaap; van Grinsven, H.J.M.; Jacobsen, Brian H

    2016-01-01

    for land, resulting in higher land prices, and stimulation of intensive animal husbandry in the Netherlands, while in Denmark environmental policies more strongly coupled manure production to land area. As a result the Dutch pig farmers have focused on intensification of livestock production on small...... holdings using external sources of feed supply, and Danish farmers on efficient production of feed cereals on large holdings. Due to a gradual lowering of manure and fertiliser application standards, Dutch farmers increasingly have to process manure and export manure, further increasing the total costs...

  2. Heterogeneity among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Italian pig finishing holdings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battisti, A.; Franco, A.; Merialdi, G.;

    2010-01-01

    A survey for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in finishing pig holdings was carried out in Italy in 2008. MRSA isolates were characterised by spa-. SCCmec- and antimicrobial susceptibility typing. A prevalence of 38% (45/118, 95% CI 29.4-46.9%) positive holdings was observed...

  3. Mapping carcass and meat quality QTL on Sus Scrofa chromosome 2 in commercial finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuven, H.C.M.; van Wijk, R.H.J.; Dibbits, B.; van Kampen, T.A.; Knol, E.F.

    2009-01-01

    Genet Sel Evol. 2009 Jan 5;41:4. Mapping carcass and meat quality QTL on Sus Scrofa chromosome 2 in commercial finishing pigs. Heuven HC, van Wijk RH, Dibbits B, van Kampen TA, Knol EF, Bovenhuis H. Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands. h.c.m.heuven

  4. Enterobacteriaceae levels in finishing pigs subjected to a ractopamine feeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food safety concerns regarding potential effects of feed additives are currently at the center of the public/consumer attention. Ractopamine (RAC) has been widely used in the U.S. swine industry for its effects of improving production performance in finishing pigs. Although extensive research has be...

  5. Mycoplasma hyosynoviae arthritis in grower-finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, E.O.; Nielsen, N.C.; Friis, N.F.

    2001-01-01

    pigs had soft fluctuating joint swellings (odds ratio (OR), 7.21; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.40-15.47). No indication of suppurative arthritis was observed. Joint infection with Mycoplasma hysoynoviae was found by culture in 20% (17 of 86) of the lame pigs and in 8% (seven of 83) of the non...... history of lameness. The cubital joints were most frequently affected and a history of hind leg lameness was not statistically associated with osteochondrotic lesions at slaughter (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 0.94-3.05), or joint infection with M hyosynoviae at slaughter (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.31-2.40). Arthritis due...

  6. Effects of Low Protein Diets on Nutrient Digestibility and Excretion in Finishing Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Qin; Zhu Jianping; Liu Chunxue; Hong Ping; Du Li; Cheng Yufei; Fan Xueliang; Zhou Yanmin; Li Linfeng; Wen Chao

    2015-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to study the effects of low protein diets on nutrient digestibility and excretion of finishing pigs. For the 30-d trial,fortytwo duroc × landrace × yorkshire( DLY) finishing pigs with the initial weight of( 91. 13 ± 1. 64) kg were randomly divided into two groups,with three replicates in each group. The pigs in the two groups were fed with different crude protein( CP) levels( control groups: 15. 49% and low protein groups: 12. 59%). The results showed that:( 1) The digestibility of dry matter and crude fat( CF) in low protein groups were increased significantly( P 0. 05). The results showed that 2. 9% reduction of the CP in diets could improve nutrient digestibility and reduce the excretion of N,but reduced the digestibility of Arg.

  7. Reappearance of Salmonella serovar Choleraesuis var. Kunzendorf in Danish pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Sørensen, Gitte; Löfström, Charlotta;

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis is a porcine adapted serovar which may cause serious outbreaks in pigs. Here we describe outbreaks of salmonellosis due to S. Choleraesuis in four Danish pig farms in 2012–2013 by clinic, serology, and microbiology and compare the isolates to those...

  8. Modeling digestibility of dietary phosphorus in growing and finish pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeou, V; Edwards, S A; Kyriazakis, I

    2012-12-01

    Low P digestibility combined with intensive pig production can lead to water pollution. The aim of this paper was to develop a model able to represent P digestion in pigs across diets and contribute towards the reduction of P excretion. Phosphorus in plant feedstuffs includes some nonphytate P (NPP) that is readily digested but is mostly as organic phytate P (oP) that is indigestible unless it is dephosphorylated. The ability of pigs to dephosphorylate oP using endogenous phytase enzymes is limited and is a function of Ca intake. The effect of Ca (g/kg diet) on the proportion of oP dephosphorylated (kg/kg) in the small intestine (SI) and large intestine (LI) was determined as 0.26 - (0.015 × dietary Ca) and 0.69 - (0.059 × dietary Ca), respectively. The dephosphorylated oP in the LI was assumed to be indigestible and was excreted. Proportion of oP dephosphosphorylation (kg/kg) by microbial and plant phytase activity (FTU) in the stomach was estimated to be 0.56 × [1 - exp(-0.001 × FTU)] and 0.38 × [1 - exp(-0.002 × FTU)], respectively. Phosphorus digestibility (kg/kg) of NPP and dephosphorylated oP in the SI was assumed to be constant at 0.8. The model was used to predict P digestibility in 2 experiments by Stein et al. (2011) and Poulsen et al. (2010) and compare the predictions with experimental outcomes. The model successfully predicted the P digestibility to a range of dietary Ca concentrations and for 2 levels of supplementation with microbial phytase. However, the predictions overestimated P digestion systematically but always within a 10% margin of the observed values. The model could be a useful tool for formulating strategies to improve the efficiency of P digestion and reduce soluble P excretion in pigs.

  9. Effects of sex and dietary lysine on performances and serum and meat traits in finisher pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Belloch, J; Guada, J A; Latorre, M A

    2015-10-01

    A total of 160 Duroc×(Landrace×Large White) pigs, 50% barrows and 50% gilts, of 28.3 ± 4.52 kg of BW were used to study the effect of lysine (Lys) restriction in the finisher period, on growth performances and serum and carcass and meat quality traits. The grower diet (from 30 to 90 kg BW) was slightly Lys-restricted (7.8 g standardised ileal digestible (SID) Lys/kg) in accordance with results from a previous trial. During the finisher period (90 to 130 kg BW), four experimental diets with decreasing SID Lys contents (6.3, 5.6, 4.2 and 3.2 g/kg) were tested. Each of the eight treatments (two sexes×four levels of Lys) was replicated five times. Each replicate was a pen with four pigs allocated together. When animals achieved 129 ± 2.59 kg were slaughtered and carcass and meat characteristics were evaluated. No significant interaction sex×diet was found. During the finisher period, barrows grew faster (Pdietary Lys restriction during finisher period in pigs impaired growth performances and was not successful to increase the carcass fat deposition, although it could have positive effects on IMF proportion of pork.

  10. Deletion of supplemental minerals and vitamins during the late finishing period does not affect pig weight gain and feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, J J

    2000-11-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of eliminating the supplemental vitamin and minerals during the last 30 d of finishing on pig performance. The first study was conducted in a controlled university environment and the second under field conditions. Deletion of vitamin and mineral supplements for the last 30 d of finishing had no effects on pig performance or general health of pigs in either the university or the field trial. Besides lowering feed costs, deletion of dietary supplements may reduce the environmental impact of late finishing diets.

  11. Noninfectious factors associated with pneumonia and pleuritis in slaughtered pigs from 143 farrow-to-finish pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fablet, C; Dorenlor, V; Eono, F; Eveno, E; Jolly, J P; Portier, F; Bidan, F; Madec, F; Rose, N

    2012-05-01

    A cross-sectional study involving 143 farrow-to-finish herds was carried out to identify herd-level noninfectious factors associated with pneumonia and pleuritis in slaughter pigs. Data related to herd characteristics, biosecurity, management and housing conditions were collected by questionnaire during a farm visit. Climatic conditions were measured over 20 h in the post-weaning and finishing rooms where the slaughter pigs were kept. After these on-farm investigations, the finishing pigs were examined at slaughter for lung lesions. A sample of 30 randomly selected pigs per herd was scored for pneumonia and pleuritis. Herds were grouped into three categories according to their pneumonia median score (class 1: ≤ 0.5; class 2: 0.53.75). For pleuritis, a herd was deemed affected if at least one pig had a high pleuritis score (≥ 3). A multinomial logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with pneumonia classes 2 and 3. A logistic regression for binary outcome was used to identify risk factors for severe pleuritis. An interval of less than four weeks between successive batches (OR=4.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.5-13.6, ppleuritis score was increased when the farrowing facilities were not disinsected (OR=2.7, 95% CI: 1.2-5.8, p=0.01), when tail docking was performed later than 1.5 days after birth (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.2-5.7, p=0.01) and if the piglets were castrated when more than 14 days old (OR=2.7, 95%CI: 1.1-6.8, p=0.03). A temperature range of less than 5°C for the ventilation control rate in the farrowing room (OR=2.7, 95% CI: 1.2-5.9, p=0.01), a mean temperature in the finishing room below 23°C (OR=3.0, 95% CI: 1.3-6.8, ppleuritis. The factors affecting pneumonia and pleuritis seemed to be different. All rearing steps from farrowing to finishing must be taken into account in any health programme aimed at controlling pneumonia and pleuritis and lung health may be improved through several pathways, i.e. correcting managerial and

  12. Arcobacter population dynamics in pigs on farrow-to-finish farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Sarah; De Zutter, Lieven; Debruyne, Lies; Vangroenweghe, Frédéric; Vandamme, Peter; Houf, Kurt

    2011-03-01

    Healthy pigs are an important reservoir for the emerging human pathogen Arcobacter which can result in contamination of porcine carcasses and pork and the spread of arcobacters into the environment. Up to now, the excretion of arcobacters by pigs has been studied, but information about the transmission routes in fattening pigs is lacking. The present study aimed to elucidate the Arcobacter population dynamics in pigs during the fattening period on four farrow-to-finish farms. On each farm, 30 clinically healthy, 12-week-old piglets were selected. Fecal samples were collected on 10 sampling occasions until a slaughter age of 30 weeks was reached. Arcobacter spp. were isolated by a selective method and identified by multiplex PCR. The genetic diversity was examined by amplified fragment length polymorphism and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR. The Arcobacter presence in the fecal samples on the four farms ranged from 11.3 to 50.0%, with excretion levels of up to 10(4) CFU/g feces. The ratio in which Arcobacter species were isolated varied between the farms and over time. Characterization revealed a high degree of genotypic diversity among the isolates. Arcobacter strains persisted and spread within the finishing unit during the fattening period. The occurrence of both unique and shared genotypes in pigs in adjacent and nonadjacent pens demonstrates that transmission routes other than fecal-oral transmission occur.

  13. Factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in confined farrow-to-finish pig herds in western France: an exploratory study in 60 herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djokic, V; Fablet, C; Blaga, R; Rose, N; Perret, C; Djurkovic-Djakovic, O; Boireau, P; Durand, B

    2016-08-24

    Infection by Toxoplasma gondii postnatally can occur after ingestion of contaminated meat or water (tissue cysts/oocysts). In Europe, percentage of meat borne infections is estimated between 30 and 63 %, out of which pork makes the most important source. The aim of this study was to (i) investigate the seroprevalence of T. gondii in intensive pig farms from western France; and (ii) identify the risk factors associated with seropositivity. Data were collected between November 2006 and February 2008 in 60 intensive farrow-to-finish farms, where sera were taken from 3595 fattening pigs, weaned and suckling piglets. Information about three classes of potential seropositivity risk factors were obtained through a questionnaire concerning: (i) breeding characteristics; (ii) farm management; and (iii) husbandry and hygiene. The modified agglutination test (MAT) was used for detection of specific anti T. gondii antibodies in pig sera, starting from 1/6 dilution. The overall proportion of seropositive animals was 6.9 %, but the proportion of herds with at least one positive pig was 100 %. Multivariate logistic mixed model showed an increased seropositivity risk in weaned compared to suckling piglets, and a decreasing risk for mid-sized and large farms. The presence of a Danish entry facility, that clearly separates clean and dirty areas, had a protective effect on T. gondii seropositivity as well. The observed proportion of herds with at least one T. gondii seropositive animal provides further evidence that even in confined conditions of pig breeding, infection occurs, and is common. The highest risk for acquiring T. gondii is at the end of weaning period. Smaller confined pig farms demonstrate higher T. gondii seropositivity levels. This study also showed that Danish entry on farm buildings provides effective protection against T. gondii.

  14. Effect of floor type on the growth performance and health status of growing-finishing pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcimartin, M. A.; Ovejero, I.; Vazquez Minguela, J.; Daza, A.

    2008-07-01

    Using a factorial design: two full floor types, concrete vs. concrete waterproofed with resin (resin floor) and two slat types, concrete vs. metal, were used to house 72 pigs in four rooms (18 pigs room-1). During the experimental period which lasted from 22.9 kg to 112.7 kg live weight the four groups of pigs received the same feed. Growth, water consumption and health status of the pigs as well as subjective odour level inside the rooms were studied. The resin floor with metal slats tended (P < 0.1) to improve feed conversion efficiency and positively affected (P < 0.03) pig health. In the room with the resin floor and metal slats odour level was significantly lower than in the other three rooms. The potential predictive function for the relationship between average daily water consumption (WC, in L) and feed average daily intake (FADI, in kg) is WC = 2.692 x FADI{sup 1}.265. Odour level increased with pig live weight. The use of resin as an impermeable floor material is promising for housing growing, finishing pigs. (Author)

  15. Distribution of Salmonella serovars in breeding, nursery, and grow-to-finish pigs, and risk factors for shedding in ten farrow-to-finish swine farms in Alberta and Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Wendy; Rajić, Andrijana; Waldner, Cheryl; McFall, Margaret; Chow, Eva; Muckle, Anne; Rosengren, Leigh

    2010-04-01

    The study objectives were to investigate Salmonella prevalence, serovar distribution, and risk factors for shedding in 10 purposively selected farrow-to-finish farms in Saskatchewan and Alberta. Pooled fecal samples from the breeding and grow-finish phases and individual fecal samples from breeding, nursery, and grow-finish pigs were cultured for Salmonella; serotyping of isolates was performed. Pig and pen characteristics were recorded for each pig and pen sampled.Overall, 407/1143 (36%) of samples were Salmonella positive; within-farm prevalence ranged from 1% to 79%. Sows, nursery, and grow-finish pigs accounted for 43%, 29%, and 28% of positive samples, respectively. More Salmonella were detected in pooled pen than individual pig samples (P finisher (OR 2.9, P finish farms and should be targeted in control efforts. The latter might also apply to the use of pelleted feed, which remains the most consistently reported significant risk factor for Salmonella shedding in pigs.

  16. Salmonella Enterica Prevalence in Finishing Pigs at Slaughter Plants in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Cristina; Lanzoni, Elisa; Brindani, Franco; Bonardi, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Finishing pigs carrying Salmonella enterica are believed to be the main source of carcass contamination at the beginning of slaughtering. The aim of this study was to assess the S. enterica carrier status of finishing pigs at herd level by sampling pooled faeces on farm and mesenteric lymph nodes at slaughter in the North East of Italy. Environmental faecal samples belonging to 30 batches of pigs were collected on farm. At slaughter, mesenteric lymph nodes were collected from five randomly selected pigs per batch. S. enterica was isolated from 16 lymph nodes out of 150 (10.6%) and from seven out of 30 (23.3%) faecal samples. Four batches (13.3%) were positive to S. enterica both in lymph nodes and in faeces. The number of batches positive to S. enterica either in lymph nodes or in faeces was 13 out of 30 (43.3%). The most prevalent serovars from lymph nodes were S. Derby (25.0%) and S. Typhimurium monophasic variant 1, 4,[5],12:i:- (18.6%), which were also isolated from faecal material (14.3 and 42.8% respectively). Contaminated faecal material or lymph nodes could be a primary source of carcass contamination at slaughter during evisceration. S. enterica contamination is widespread on pig farms and carrier pigs pass undetected the inspection visits at slaughter, entering the food chain. Therefore, in order to control S. enterica in pigs, the need to quantify possible risk factors at slaughter and develop effective management strategies on farm is of paramount importance to ensure food safety.

  17. Evaluation of Digestible lysine levels in diets with high energy density for finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeth Colina R

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective. To evaluate the effects of different levels of digestible lysine in diets with high energy density on productive performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs. Materials and Methods. Seventy crossbred barrows (initial body weight of 83.36 kg were used and allotted in a randomized block design with five treatments, seven replications and two pigs per experimental unit. Pigs were fed ad libitum with diets containing 3.5 kcal/kg of ME and five levels of digestible lysine (0.46, 0.52, 0.58, 0.64 and 0.70% during four weeks. Final live weight (FLW, daily feed intake (DFI, daily weight gain (DWG, feed conversion (FC, daily lysine intake (DLI, and the amount of lysine per body weight gain (DLI/DWG, were evaluated. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were taken from each pig to determine urea nitrogen concentration (UN in serum and slaughtered to evaluate quantitative and qualitative carcass characteristics. Results. The FLW increased linearly (p<0.05.There were no differences among treatments for DFI, DWG, FC, carcass characteristics and UN. The DLI and DLI/DWG varied significantly (p<0.001 and increased linearly (p<0.001 with each lysine level. Pigs that consumed the limiting diet in lysine (0.46% showed less DLI and DLI/DWG (p<0.001 than pigs fed the other diets. Conclusions. The amount of DLI/DWG increased with the evaluated levels of digestible lysine in diets with high energy density, without effects on productive performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs.

  18. Manufacturing technology in the Danish pig slaughter industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, Lars

    2010-02-01

    The Danish pig meat industry is very export oriented. Ninety per cent of the production of the big cooperative slaughterhouses is exported to more than 100 countries all over the world. This poses a requirement for the industry to be globally competitive in the sense of quality, product safety and--of course--price. A big challenge for the industry is therefore to maintain sufficient low unit costs in spite of the high factor costs of Denmark. In particular the high labour costs must be accompanied by correspondingly high labour productivity. And, it should be emphasized, this high labour productivity must be achieved without compromising the concern for good working conditions of the employees in the manufacturing. Technology is one of the means to achieve this combination of good working conditions and high labour productivity. One of the most important benefits from automation is the improved working environment. Pig slaughtering, cutting and boning is traditionally very labour intensive and requires hard and repetitive work. For many people a job in a slaughterhouse is therefore not their first choice. This situation can be changed by automation, which will not only reduce arduous and repetitive work but in addition will introduce more motivating jobs in terms of planning, supervision and control of the new technology. Automation will also improve the hygiene and thereby the food safety. This applies in particular to the clean slaughter line where cross contamination between carcasses is reduced because of less manual handling and because the tools in the machines can be sterilised more effectively between each carcass. Automated processes are more accurate and repeatable than manual work. For some processes, in particular in cutting and boning, this will enhance the product yield. New technology can also improve the animal welfare. The group-stunning system and mechanised lairage systems are examples of that. Improved animal welfare has an ethical value in

  19. Strategies for subtyping influenza viruses circulating in the Danish pig population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    2010-01-01

    in the Danish pig population functional and rapid subtyping assays are required. The conventional RT-PCR influenza subtyping assays developed by Chiapponi et al. (2003) have been implemented and used for typing of influenza viruses found positive in a pan influenza A real time RT-PCR assay. The H1 and N1 assays...... assays based on RT-PCR and subsequent sequencing were implemented for the four subtypes H1, H3, N1, and N2. The assays were based on primer sets published by the WHO, but slightly modified for improved detection of Danish subtype variants. Sequencing of circulating influenza viruses is beneficial since......Influenza viruses are endemic in the Danish pig population and the dominant circulating subtypes are H1N1, a Danish H1N2 reassortant, and H3N2. Here we present our current and future strategies for influenza virus subtyping. For diagnostic and surveillance of influenza subtypes circulating...

  20. Evaluation of the antibacterial residue surveillance programme in Danish pigs using Bayesian methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitas de Matos Baptista, Filipa; Alban, L.; Olsen, A. M.;

    2012-01-01

    Residues of pharmacological active substances or their metabolites might be found in food products from food-producing animals. Maximum Residue Limits for pharmacological active substances in foodstuffs of animal origin are established to assure high food safety standards. Each year, more than 20......,000 samples are analysed for the presence of antibacterial residues in Danish pigs. This corresponds to 0.1% of the size of the slaughter pig population and more than 1% of the sows slaughtered. In this study, a Bayesian model was used to evaluate the Danish surveillance system accuracy and to investigate...... increasing or maintaining the probability of detection. Hence, the antibacterial residue surveillance programme in Danish pigs would be more cost-effective than today....

  1. Performance, behaviour and physiological responses of finishing pigs under different lighting programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ivo Sodré Amaral

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Technologies that improve productivity are essentials for competitiveness in the pork market. The consumer market is always requiring information about the technologies applied in swine production, mainly from the perspective of animal welfare. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of lighting on performance, behavioral and physiological characteristics in finishing pigs. Thirty-six pigs were distributed in a completely randomized design with three treatments and six replications. The animals were subjected to three light programs: natural light (NL, 16 hours of light and eight hours of dark (16L:8D and 23 hours of light and one hour of dark (23L:1D for 28 days. Daily feed intake (DFI, average daily gain (ADG and feed conversion (FC were evaluated. The physiological parameters evaluated were rectal temperature (RT, respiratory rate (RR and surface temperature (ST. The behavioral standards observed were: standing, lying, eating, drinking, sniffing, interacting, sitting, urinating and defecating. The lighting programs did not affect animal performance. However, pigs that received 23L:1D, showed, in the afternoon, ST upper than others treatments. Providing supplemental light promoted the elevation of RR, also in the afternoon. The RT was not influenced by treatments. The extended light program altered the behavior of the animals, which animals were most active, especially at night. Anyway, there was no improvement or reduction of the performance with the use of different lighting programs for finishing pigs.

  2. Foot lesions in finishing pigs and their associations with the type of floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouttotou, N; Hatchell, F M; Green, L E

    1999-06-01

    The associations between individual foot lesions and different types of floor were investigated in 4038 finishing pigs on 21 units. The overall prevalence of foot lesions was 93.8 per cent and the prevalence ranged from 79.4 per cent to 100 per cent on different units. Analysis showed that pigs kept on bedded floors, with either sparse or deep straw, had a lower prevalence of sole erosions, heel erosions and heel flaps and a higher prevalence of white line lesions, false sand cracks, wall separations and toe erosions than pigs kept on bare solid concrete floors. Partially slatted floors were associated with an increased prevalence of heel erosions, heel flaps, white line lesions, wall separations and false sand cracks, and totally slatted floors were associated with an increased prevalence of sole erosions and heel flaps.

  3. Effect of supplemental vitamins and trace minerals on performance and carcass quality in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, M S; Arentson, B E

    2001-01-01

    Two trials with finishing pigs (PIC line 355 x Camborough 22) were conducted to evaluate the effects of vitamin and trace mineral (VTM) supplement deletions on performance, carcass quality, and tissue nutrient levels. Trial 1, a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments involving three VTM supplement regimens and two stress regimens, was conducted for 12 wk with 252 pigs (mixed sex). Average initial weight of pigs was 54 kg. The VTM regimens consisted of control (adequate level of VTM throughout trial), VTM deleted for the final 6 wk, and VTM deleted for entire 12 wk of the trial. The stress regimens consisted of leaving half the treatments in their original location or moving the other half of the treatments to a new pen location every 3 wk. There were three replications (pens) per treatment with 14 pigs per pen (0.80 m2). Diets were medicated with bacitracin methylene disalicylate. Overall, there were no treatment differences (P > 0.05) for ADG, ADFI, gain:feed ratio, longissimus muscle area, or last-rib backfat. However, there was a greater than 75% decrease (P < 0.001) in vitamin E content of longissimus muscle from deleting VTM for 6 or 12 wk. Trial 2, a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments involving three VTM regimens and two genders, was conducted for 12 wk with 306 pigs. Average initial weight of pigs was 58 kg. The VTM regimens were identical to those used in Trial 1. Each treatment consisted of three gender replications of 17 pigs per pen (0.66 m2), and all diets were unmedicated. Overall, pigs fed diets without VTM for 12 wk had lower (P < 0.06) ADG than those fed the control diets. Vitamin E content of the ham muscle was reduced by greater than 50% (P < 0.001) when pigs were fed diets without VTM for 6 or 12 wk compared with those fed the control diet. Concentrations of copper in ham muscle were reduced (P < 0.05) in pigs fed diets without VTM. These data suggest that deleting VTM during the finishing stage markedly lowers the vitamin E content of

  4. The effects of R-salbutamol on growth, carcass measures, and health of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant-Forde, J N; Lay, D C; Marchant-Forde, R M; McMunn, K A; Richert, B T

    2012-11-01

    A pure form of salbutamol has the potential to deliver positive production benefits to the swine industry. The aim of this experiment was to determine the effects of salbutamol on growth, carcass measures, and health of finishing pigs. The study used 192 pigs (89 ± 1 kg BW) housed in groups of 6 in 32 pens and assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: 1) control (CTL), 0 mg/kg salbutamol; 2) 2R, control diet with 2 mg/kg of the pure R-enantiomer of salbutamol; 3) 4R, control diet with 4 mg/kg of pure R-salbutamol; or 4) 8RS, control diet with 8 mg/kg of a 50:50 mixture of the R- and S-enantiomers. All diets were offered ad libitum for 4 wk. All pigs were weighed and pen feed intakes were recorded weekly. At slaughter, individual HCW and measurements of the 10th-rib loin muscle area (LMA), color, marbling, firmness, and back fat, last lumbar, and midline back fat depths were collected. Data were analyzed using Proc GLM of SAS, with pen as the experimental unit. Overall, 2R and 4R pigs had greater ADG than CTL pigs (P salbutamol-fed pigs had 5 to 6 kg greater HCW (P salbutamol-treated pigs. Taken together, these data indicate that as little as 2 mg/kg R-salbutamol has a positive effect on pig growth and carcass composition. However, the effects of salbutamol on meat quality require further research.

  5. Meat safety consequences of implementing visual postmortem meat inspection procedures in Danish slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousing, Jan; Kyrval, J.; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    1997-01-01

    The consequences of a change from a traditional meat inspection procedure, including manual handling, palpation and incision, to an entirely postmortem meat inspection procedure in Danish slaughter pigs were assessed by a comparative study of the two methods in 188,383 slaughter pigs. Out of 58 l...... for decreased cross-contamination (no handling, cutting and incision) and reduced inspection costs. The resources released as a result may be reallocated to hygiene and surveillance programmes....

  6. A comparison of early pathogenesis of CSFV-Glentorf and CSFV-Romania in Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Nielsen, Jens

    forms. Crucial factors for the clinical outcome of infection include strain virulence and host characteristics such as pig age, microbial health status and genetic background. In the presented experimental animal study, we inoculated young conventional Danish pigs with two different strains of CSFV: One...... effect on these two groups, and clinical symptoms resolved after 1-2 days of therapy. For the Romania-infected pigs, CS increased throughout the experiment from PID6 with mean CS=3 until termination of the experiment with mean CS=19 at PID18. Clinical symptoms in this group were dominated by diarrhea......, lethargy, changed body shape, coordination problems and further on respiratory symptoms and ataxia. Antibiotic therapy had no effect in this group. Virus distribution: Control pigs were all negative by RT-PCR analysis for CSFV. In Glentorf-infected pigs, CSFV RNA was found in blood samples of 6/10 pigs...

  7. Evaluation of glycerol, a biodiesel coproduct, in grow-finish pig diets to support growth and pork quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieck, S J; Shurson, G C; Kerr, B J; Johnston, L J

    2010-12-01

    Crossbred pigs (n = 216; BW = 31.3 ± 1.8 kg) were used to determine the effects of long- and short-term feeding of crude glycerol on growth performance, carcass traits, and pork quality of grow-finish pigs. Pigs were blocked by initial BW, and pens within blocks were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 dietary treatments (24 pens; 9 pigs/pen). Dietary treatments were control, a corn-soybean meal-based diet (CON); long-term, CON + 8% glycerol fed throughout the experiment (LT); and short-term, pigs fed CON for the first 6 wk followed by CON + 8% glycerol fed during the last 8 wk of the experiment (ShT). Pigs fed LT had greater (P 0.60) on pork quality of loins based on taste panel assessments. Feeding pigs 8% crude glycerol throughout the grow-finish period resulted in a 3% improvement in growth rate and a 2% depression in BW gain efficiency compared with CON diets. Grow-finish pigs fed diets containing 8% crude glycerol during the last 8 wk before slaughter achieved growth performance similar to pigs fed CON diets. Effects of crude glycerol on carcass traits seem to be limited to improvements in belly firmness with short-term feeding of glycerol.

  8. Antimicrobial use in Swedish farrow-to-finish pig herds is related to farmer characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhans, Annette; Sjölund, Marie; Lindberg, Ann; Emanuelson, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing problem and reducing AM use is critical in limiting its severity. The underlying causes of antimicrobial use at pig farm level must be understood to select effective reduction measures. We previously showed that antimicrobial use on Swedish pig farms is comparatively low but varies between farms, although few farms are high users. In the present survey of a convenience sample of 60 farrow-to-finish herds in Sweden, we investigated farmers' attitudes to antimicrobials and the influence of information provided by veterinarians about antimicrobial resistance. Farm characteristics were also recorded. We had previously quantified antimicrobial use for different age categories of pigs during one year, as well as external and internal biosecurity. Risk factors based on hypothetical causal associations between these and calculated treatment incidence (TI) for the different age categories were assessed here in a linear regression model. There were no significant associations between biosecurity and TI for any pig age category. Increasing farmer age was associated with higher TI for suckling piglets and fatteners. For suckling piglets, the age group with the highest frequency of treatment, TI was also significantly associated with farmer and education of the staff, where female farmers, and university educated staff was associated with a higher TI. Larger farms were associated with a higher TI in fatteners. In the investigated Swedish pig farms, factors that influenced antimicrobial usage were more related to characteristics of the individual farmer and his/her staff than to biosecurity level, other management factors or farmers' attitudes to antimicrobials.

  9. Evaluating the removal of pigs from a group and subsequent floor space allowance on the growth performance of heavy-weight finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, J R; Tokach, M D; DeRouchey, J M; Woodworth, J C; Goodband, R D; Dritz, S S

    2016-10-01

    A total of 1,092 finishing pigs (initially 36.3 kg) were used in a 117-d study to evaluate the impact of initial floor space allowance and removal strategy on the growth of pigs up to 140 kg BW. There were 4 experimental treatments with 14 pens per treatment. The first treatment provided 0.91 m per pig (15 pigs/pen). The other 3 treatments initially provided 0.65 m per pig (21 pigs/pen) with 3 different removal strategies. The second treatment (2:2:2) removed the 2 heaviest pigs from pens on d 64, 76, and 95 when floor space allowance was predicted to be limiting. Treatment 3 (2:4) removed the 2 heaviest pigs on d 76 and the 4 heaviest pigs on d 105. Treatment 4 (6) removed the heaviest 6 pigs on d 105. All pigs remaining in pens after removals were fed to d 117. Overall (d 0 to 117), pigs initially provided 0.91 m of floor space had increased ( strategy, but ADG was not different compared with pigs on the 2:2:2 removal strategy. Total BW gain per pen was greater ( strategies; however, feed usage per pig was greater ( strategies. Feed usage, on a pig or pen basis, was less ( strategy compared to pigs on the 2:4 or the 6 removal strategy. Income over feed and facility cost (IOFFC) was less ( strategies. Also, IOFFC was less ( strategies. In conclusion, increasing the floor space allowance or the time points at which pigs are removed from the pen improved the growth of pigs remaining in the pen; however, IOFFC may be reduced because fewer pigs are marketed from each pen (pigs stocked at 0.91 m throughout the study) or from reducing total weight produced (2:2:2 removal strategy).

  10. Endogenous phosphorus losses in growing-finishing pigs and gestating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikker, P; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; Gerrits, W J J; Sips, V; Walvoort, C; van Laar, H

    2017-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diet composition, feeding level (FL), and BW on endogenous phosphorous losses (EPL) using growing-finishing (GF) pigs and sows. After an adaptation period, 48 GF pigs (initial BW 90.5 kg) and 48 just-weaned sows (initial BW 195 kg), both individually housed, were allotted to 12 dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments were animal type (GF pigs or sows), diet composition (a semipurified starch (STA), inulin (INU), or lignocellulose (CEL) based low-P diet), and FL (2.0 or 3.0 kg/d). Digestibility of DM, OM, CP, crude fat, and carbohydrates (COH), and fecal P excretion (in g/d, mg/kg DMI, and g/(kg BW·d)) were determined using TiO as indigestible marker. Digestibility of OM and COH differed among diets ( sows and GF pigs that were fed the STA diet and the CEL diet, on the INU diet, sows had, compared with GF pigs, a greater digestibility of OM (92.2 vs. 87.2%) and COH (92.5 vs. 88.4%), respectively. Both BW and FL increased fecal P excretion (g/d). When expressed in mg/kg DMI, P excretion was higher in sows than in GF pigs on the STA diet (498 versus 236 mg/kg DMI), the INU diet (526 vs. 316 mg/kg DMI), and the CEL diet (928 vs. 342 mg/kg DMI). When expressed in mg/(kg BW·d), however, P excretion was similar in GF pigs and sows that were fed the STA diet and in those that were fed the INU diet, whereas it was greater in sows than in GF pigs that were fed the CEL diet (11.6 vs. 7.3 mg/(kg BW·d)). The results of this study indicate that EPL (mg/kg DMI) in pigs substantially increase with increasing BW. Application of EPL (mg/kg DMI) determined in GF pigs may underestimate EPL and therefore P requirements in gestating sows. Moreover, EPL is diet dependent and increases with an increasing content of dietary nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP). The degree of this increase may differ between sows and GF pigs and seems to depend on properties of dietary fiber.

  11. Herd prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Danish pig herds after implementation of the Danish Salmonella Control Program with reference to a pre-implementation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jette; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Nielsen, Bent

    2002-01-01

    The problems addressed are: (1) comparison of prevalences of Salmonella spp. in different herd types in the Danish pig population after implementation of the Danish Salmonella Control Program (DSCP), and (2) to make a reference to a study from 1993/1994 (pre-implementation) with a discussion...... of possible biases when diagnostic methods differ slightly. The objectives were to present the prevalences of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Typhimurium, and multiresistant S. Typhimurium DT104 in Danish pig herds in 1998. Further, to discuss how herd prevalences may be compared to a previous study...

  12. Ractopamine as a metabolic modifier feed additive for finishing pigs: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Vezzoni de Almeida

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The β-adrenergic agonist ractopamine is increasingly used in the swine industry due to higher consumer demand for leaner pork products. Redirecting nutrients to favor leanness rather than fat deposition, ractopamine improves growth and carcass traits of finishing pigs. However, the impact of this agonist on pork quality is not clearly defined. Understanding the biological effects of dietary ractopamine dose, treatment period, lysine levels, and the lysine to metabolizable energy ratio will help pork producers achieve improvements in animal performance, carcass leanness, and economic efficiency in swine production systems.

  13. Effect of the inclusion of dry pasta by-products at different levels in the diet of typical Italian finishing heavy pigs: Performance, carcass characteristics, and ham quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandini, A; Sigolo, S; Moschini, M; Giuberti, G; Morlacchini, M

    2016-04-01

    The effect of pasta inclusion in finishing pig diets was evaluated on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ham quality. Pigs (144) were assigned to 4 diets with different pasta levels: 0 (control, corn-based diet), 30, 60, or 80%. Pigs fed pasta had greater (linear, PPasta increased (quadratic, PPasta decreased (linear, Ppasta. Pasta could be considered as an ingredient in the diet for typical Italian finishing heavy pigs.

  14. Content of ochratoxin A in paired kidney and meat samples from healthy Danish slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Petersen, Annette

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, paired samples of kidney and meat were taken from 300 healthy Danish pigs and analysed for ochratoxin A. The concentrations of ochratoxin A in kidney ranged from 0 to 15 mug kg(-1) (mean 0.50 mug kg(-1), median 0.18 mug kg(-1)) and in meat from 0 to 2.9 mug kg(-1) (mean 0.12 mug kg(-1......), median 0.03 mug kg(-1)). The data together with the Danish control data show that today the pig industry in Denmark has no problem keeping the content of ochratoxin A in pig at very low levels even in years with wet harvest conditions. The mean ratio 'content in meat/content in kidney' for paired samples...

  15. Postweaning multisystematic wasting syndrome in Danish pig herds: productivity, clinical signs and pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okholm Nielsen, Elisabeth; Enøe, Claes; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind;

    2008-01-01

    A case-control study of 74 herds with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and 74 matched control herds was carried out. In the case herds the mortality rates of weaner and finisher pigs were 11·2 and 5·2 per cent respectively, compared with 3·1 and 3·2 per cent in the control herds....

  16. Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in Danish pig herds: productivity, clinical symptoms, and pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, E. Okholm; Enøe, Claes; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind;

    2008-01-01

    A case-control study of 74 herds with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and 74 matched control herds was carried out. In the case herds the mortality rates of weaner and finisher pigs were 11·2 and 5·2 per cent respectively, compared with 3·1 and 3·2 per cent in the control herds....

  17. Antimicrobial usage in 60 Swedish farrow-to-finish pig herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjölund, Marie; Backhans, Annette; Greko, Christina; Emanuelson, Ulf; Lindberg, Ann

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify antimicrobial consumption in Swedish farrow-to-finish pig herds. Sixty herds with 100 sows or more producing more than 500 fatteners per year participated in a study where data on antimicrobial consumption over a period of one year were collected. Data on antimicrobial use were collected by substance, administration route and per age category. Antimicrobial use was measured as defined daily doses and expressed as treatment incidence (TI) per 1000 pig-days at risk. The TIs for growing pigs varied between herds, from 1.6 to 116.0 with a median of 14.3. The highest TI was recorded for suckling piglets with a median of 54.7 (range; 1.6-367.9), while the median TIs for weaners, fatteners and adults were 6.2, 2.8 and 8.4, respectively (range; 0.0-260.5; 0.0-64.9; 0.0-45.0, respectively). The within herd TIs for the different age categories were not correlated. Individual treatment, mainly consisting of injectables, was the most common form of application except for weaners for which a majority (54.8%) of the treatments were group treatments. Benzylpenicillin was the most commonly applied substance except for weaners for which oral formulations of tylosin were most common. For fatteners, group treatments constituted 8.4% of the total TI. Group treatments with oral colistin were applied to suckling piglets in five herds. Group treatments were not applied to adult pigs. The TI for weaners was significantly lower for specific pathogen-free herds. The results show that the overall antimicrobial use in Swedish farrow-to-finish pig herds varied to a great extent, and the between-herd variation indicates that there is room for improvement of pig health. Targeting suckling piglets may be most beneficial, but further studies are required to identify specific focus areas which may reduce the need for antimicrobials in this particular age group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental impact of replacing soybean meal with rapeseed meal in diets of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, H H E; Bikker, P; Mollenhorst, H; Meerburg, B G; de Boer, I J M

    2015-11-01

    The major impact of the livestock sector on the environment may be reduced by feeding agricultural co-products to animals. Since the last decade, co-products from biodiesel production, such as rapeseed meal (RSM), became increasingly available in Europe. Consequently, an increase in RSM content in livestock diets was observed at the expense of soybean meal (SBM) content. Cultivation of SBM is associated with high environmental impacts, especially when emissions related to land use change (LUC) are included. This study aims to assess the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets. As RSM has a lower nutritional value, we assessed the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM using scenarios that differed in handling changes in nutritional level. Scenario 1 (S1) was the basic scenario containing SBM. In scenario 2 (S2), RSM replaced SBM based on CP content, resulting in reduced energy and amino acid content, and hence an increased feed intake to realize the same growth rate. The diet of scenario 3 (S3) was identical to S2; however, we assumed that pigs were not able to increase their feed intake, leading to reduced growth performance. In scenario 4 (S4), the energy and amino acid content were increased to the same level of S1. Pig performances were simulated using a growth model. We analyzed the environmental impact of each scenario using life-cycle assessment, including processes of feed production, manure management, piglet production, enteric fermentation and housing. Results show that, expressed as per kg of BW, replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets marginally decreased global warming potential (GWP) and energy use (EU) but decreased land use (LU) up to 12%. Between scenarios, S3 had the maximum potential to reduce the environmental impact, due to a lower impact per kg of feed and an increased body protein-to-lipid ratio of the pigs, resulting in a better feed conversion ratio. Optimization of the body protein

  19. Influence of tail biting on weight gain, lesions and condemnations at slaughter of finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Maria F.P.P. Marques

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the association of tail-biting lesions in finishing pigs with weight gain, occurrence of locomotion or respiratory disorders and abscesses during finishing period, and carcass condemnation at slaughter. The study was carried out on 4 different farms. For each animal with a tail biting lesion, two control pigs were selected. The total number of animals in the study was 312, with 104 of them being tail-bitten. Tail lesions were classified according to the degree of severity into four scores: score 0 -normal tail withou lesion; score 1-3 - increasing lesion severity, and score 4 - healed lesions. Overall, the occurrence of severe tail lesions (score 3 varied from 55 to 73% of tail-bitten pigs among farms. On all farms, healing of tail lesions was observed in 95% to 100% of the animals at the evaluation performed within 41-43 days after the commencement of the study. In two out of the four evaluated farms, pigs with score of 3 showed lower weight gain (P<0.05 compared with score 0 pigs. Before slaughter, the occurrence of locomotion problems and nodules/abscesses was associated (P<0.05 with the presence of tail-biting lesions. At slaughter, tail-biting lesions were associated (P<0.05 with the presence of abscesses, lung lesions (pleuritis and embolic pneumonia or arthritis in carcasses. Carcass condemnation was associated with the presence of tail-biting lesions (P<0.05. Overall, carcass condemnation rate was 21.4%, of which animals with tail-biting lesions accounted for 66.7% of condemnations. Among the animals diagnosed with cannibalism at farm level, only two had not healed their lesions at slaughter. The fact that there were a lot of carcass condemnations, despite the fact that tail-bitten animals had no more active lesions, suggests that different situations may be observed between the field and slaughter, reinforcing the need to analyze pigs both at farm and slaughter to allow proper assessment of losses related to

  20. Influence of production factors on feed intake and feed conversion ratio of grow-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Abércio da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify and quantify, through mathematical models, the production factors of grow-finishing (GF phases that influence the daily feed intake (DFI and feed conversion ratio (FCR in pigs. Sixty-five GF farms were evaluated between 2010 and 2013, linked to a cooperative system located in the western Parana State, Brazil, representing 463 batches, with a mean of 642.79 ± 363.29 animals per batch, equalling approximately 300,000 animals. Forty production factors were considered that related to management, sanitation, installations and equipment, nutrition, genetics and environment on the farms. The DFI was influenced by the barn's position relative to the sun (P = 0.048, initial body weight (P < 0.0001 and final body weight (P < 0.0001. It was observed that the FCR was influenced by the barn’s position relative to the sun (P = 0.0001, the use of humidifiers/misting (P = 0.03, the presence of composters (P = 0.006, trees on the sides of barns (P < 0.045, the initial body weight of the pigs (P < 0.0001 and duration of the grow-finishing phase (P < 0.0001. The variables selected in the models explained approximately 44 and 20% of the total variance in the DFI and FCR, respectively, demonstrating that this resource is a good tool for interpreting the factors related to the parameters evaluated.

  1. Animal and management factors influencing grower and finisher pig performance and efficiency in European systems: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, S L; Szyszka, O; Stoddart, K; Edwards, S A; Kyriazakis, I

    2015-07-01

    A meta-analysis on the effects of management and animal-based factors on the performance and feed efficiency of growing pigs can provide information on single factor and interaction effects absent in individual studies. This study analysed the effects of such factors on average daily gain (ADG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of grower and finisher pigs. The multivariate models identified significant effects of: (1) bedding (Panimals with the least amount of floor space having a higher FI when given a feed with a low metabolisable energy (ME) content, in contrast to all other pigs, which showed a higher FI with increased ME content. The meta-analysis confirmed the significant effect of several well-known factors on the performance and efficiency of grower and finisher pigs, the effects of some less established ones and, importantly, the interactions between such factors.

  2. A consumer study of Danish entire male pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godt, Jannik; Kristensen, Kai; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    1996-01-01

    made in-home by consumers, thus bringing the analysis out of the laboratory and into the market place. The vast majority of the population of uncastrated male pigs have low concentrations of skatole and androstenone. The cutlets that were evaluated in this study were selected from uncastrated male pigs...... with high concentrations of the odour components as compared to the population. The uncastrated male pigs were selected in nine groups representin skatole contents in the interval 0.00 till 0.39 ppm, and androstenone contents in the interval 0.00 til 1.99 ppm. For comparison, evaluation was also done....... Skatole is a more effective parameter than androstenone for identification of the unpleasant odour of uncastrated male pigs. However, a small increase in consumer reactions was seen at extreme concentrations of androstenone 8>1.25 ppm) as the skatole content comes nearer to 0.25 ppm. situation appears...

  3. Enzymatic complex in feed containing defatted corn germ meal for pigs during growth and finish phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Abércio da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the use of defatted corn germ meal (DCGM with an enzymatic complex (EC in feed for pigs in growing and finishing phases on the performance, digestibility, carcass, meat quality and economic efficiency characteristics. A total of 50 pigs (Agroceres PIC, 25 castrated male and 25 female, with initial average weight of 41.14 ± 2.95 kg, were used The animals were submitted to 5 treatments: T1- control feed (corn + soya meal, T2- ration with corn + soybean meal + 20% DCGM (isonutrient and isoenergetic compared to T1, T3- ration with corn + soybean meal + 20% DCGM and CE (isonutrient and isoenergetic compared to T1, T4 - ration with corn + soybean meal + 20% DCGM without EC (formulated equal T3, without considering the nutritional matrix of CE, with lower nutritional and energetic levels than T1, T5-ration with corn + soybean meal + 20% DCGM and EC (formulated equal T2, with EC added in on top form, presenting higher nutritional and energetic levels than T1. The experimental design was in random blocks, with 5 treatments and 5 repetitions per treatment, being each pen with two animals of different genders considered an experimental unit. Significant difference was verified for average weight gain when was considered the entire experimental period, with advantages for T5 and worst results for T4. For feed conversion, the worst result was verified in T4 (P<0.05. The highest final pH values for meat were observed for T1, but influences from this parameter could not be verified (in any of the treatments on the quality of the meat. Economic evaluations have shown best results for T3. Adding the enzymatic complex to diets in growing and finishing pigs with 20% DCGM has improved the zoo-technical performance without compromising carcass characteristic neither meat quality, with an increase in economic feasibility.

  4. Perceptions of pork and modern pig breeding among Danish consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2002-01-01

    This project report summarises the results of a focus group survey of Danish consumers. This survey was conducted by the MAPP Centre in connection with the project 'Sustainability in the production of pork with improved nutritional and eating quality using strategic feeding in outdoor production...

  5. Early pathogenesis of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strains in Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Nielsen, Jens; Uttenthal, Åse

    2012-01-01

    Host–virus interactions play an important role for the clinical outcome of classicalswinefevervirus (CSFV) infections in pigs. Strain virulence, host characteristics and environment are all factors that markedly influence disease severity. We tested CSFV strains of varying virulence in an experim......Host–virus interactions play an important role for the clinical outcome of classicalswinefevervirus (CSFV) infections in pigs. Strain virulence, host characteristics and environment are all factors that markedly influence disease severity. We tested CSFV strains of varying virulence...... tested in Danish outbred pigs before. Clinical observations grouped the infected pigs into two different categories reflecting either non-specific, mainly gastro-intestinal, problems, or severe disease including high fever within the first week after inoculation. Gross-pathological findings varied...

  6. Effect of functional oils and algae on the performance of finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Dendena

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters because of the problems arising from this use, especially bacterial resistance and residues in animal products, he led the search for new alternatives that stood out the use of additives with natural components, who presented economically viable and beneficial. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of functional oils and algae on the weight gain of variables (WG, feed intake (FI, feed conversion (FC, feed cost per kilogram of animals produced and consistency of stool finishing pigs. Was used 18 animals distributed in a completely randomized design with two treatments (T1 - T2 and control treatment - Treatment with additives, three repetitions and three animals each. Performance data were submitted to analysis of variance, the difference between the averages verified by test F. The additive used is a mark consisting of castor oil, cashew nut oil, meal oyster shell, vermiculite and gender algae Spirulina.The daily feed intake was not affected by treatments (P> 0.05 and no significant differences were in fecal score of pigs. But the average daily gain and feed conversion were influenced significantly (P <0.05 by the treatments, and the additive treatment obtained the best results for both variables. It can be concluded that the use of functional oils and algae improved the productive and economic performance of pigs

  7. Voluntary ban on cephalosporin use in Danish pig production has effectively reduced extended-spectrum cephalosporinase-producing Escherichia coli in slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To measure the effect of a voluntary ban on cephalosporin usage in the Danish pig production on the prevalence of extended-spectrum cephalosporinase (ESC)-producing Escherichia coli in pigs and pork.Methods Data on cephalosporin consumption were obtained from the VetStat database. For ...

  8. Association Between Tetracycline Consumption and Tetracycline Resistance in Escherichia coli from Healthy Danish Slaughter Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieira, Antonio; Houe, Hans; Wegener, Henrik Caspar;

    2009-01-01

    the intestinal tract of healthy pigs and patterns of tetracycline Consumption in the herds of origin, together with other risk factors. Data oil antimicrobial resistance, antimicrobial consumption, and pig herd demographics were obtained from different Danish surveillance programs. Descriptive statistics were...... Susceptibility status were number of produced animals in the year and year of sampling. Other antimicrobial consumption risk factors, Such as number of prescriptions and amount prescribed, although not included in the final model, presented indirect impact in the tetracycline resistance probability. From...

  9. Effect of Lysine to Digestible Energy Ratio on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Cho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was performed to investigate the effects of lysine (Lys to DE ratio on growth performance, and carcass characterics in finishing barrows. Ninety six cross-bred finishing barrows ((Landrace×Yorkshire ×Duroc, average BW 58.25±0.48 kg were assigned as a randomized complete block design by 2 energy levels and 4 Lys:DE ratios on the basis of BW to one of 8 treatments with 3 replications with 4 animals per pen. The levels of DE and Lys:DE ratio for each treatment were i DE 3.35 Mcal/kg, 1.5 g Lys/Mcal DE, ii DE 3.35 Mcal/kg, 1.8 g Lys/Mcal DE, iii DE 3.35 Mcal/kg, 2.1 g Lys/Mcal DE, iv DE 3.35 Mcal/kg, 2.4 g Lys/Mcal DE, v DE 3.60 Mcal/kg, 1.5 g Lys/Mcal DE, vi DE 3.60 Mcal/kg, 1.8 g Lys/Mcal DE, vii DE 3.60 Mcal/kg, 2.1 g Lys/Mcal DE, viii DE 3.60 Mcal/kg, 2.4 g Lys/Mcal DE. During finishing period from 58 kg to 103 kg of BW, increased energy density in the diet increased (p<0.05 ADG and gain:feed ratio, but did not influence ADFI. As Lys:DE ratio was increased, ADG, ADFI and gain:feed ratio were improved in finishing barrows (p<0.05. There were positive interactions (p<0.05 between carcass weight, grade, and backfat thickness and energy density and Lys level (p<0.05. In conclusion, data from our current study suggest that maximum yields including ADG, gain:feed ratio, carcass weight and grade can be achieved by administrating finishing pigs with an ideal Lys:DE ratio, Lys 2.1 g/DE Mcal.

  10. Persistent Spatial Clusters of Prescribed Antimicrobials among Danish Pig Farms - A Register-Based Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Sanchez, Javier; Boklund, Anette

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of pathogens resistant to antimicrobials has prompted political initiatives targeting a reduction in the use of veterinary antimicrobials in Denmark, especially for pigs. This study elucidates the tendency of pig farms with a significantly higher antimicrobial use to remain....... Repeated spatial cluster analyses were performed to identify persistent clusters, i.e. areas included in a significant cluster throughout all four time periods. Antimicrobials prescribed for weaners did not result in any persistent clusters. In contrast, antimicrobial use in finishers clustered...... persistently in two areas (157 farms), while those issued for sows clustered in one area (51 farms). A multivariate analysis including data on antimicrobial use for weaners, finishers and sows as three separate outcomes resulted in three persistent clusters (551 farms). Compared to farms outside the clusters...

  11. Carcass and meat quality traits of Celta heavy pigs. Effect of the inclusion of chestnuts in the finishing diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Temperan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carcass and meat quality traits were studied in 36 Celta pigs (a breed native from NW of Spain reared for 16 months in an extensive regime and slaughtered at a live weight of around 170 kg. The effect of partially or totally replacing commercial compound feed with chestnuts in the finishing diet was also investigated. Celta heavy pigs were characterised by high killing out, subcutaneous fat thickness, and ham length values, and by low ham perimeter, and Longissimus lumborum muscle area values. Meat showed high myoglobin contents and a* values, and very high hardness. By increasing the proportion of chestnuts in the finishing diet the quantity of back fat increased and the pH of the meat decreased. However, neither these effects, nor any of those on the other traits studied were statistically significant. The absence of significant effects may be due to the fact that pigs fed with chestnuts were not subjected to feed restrictions.

  12. Effects of wheat supplementation levels on growth performance, blood profiles, nutrient digestibility, and pork quality in growing-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hee Han

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to evaluate various wheat supplementation levels on growth performance, blood profiles, nutrient digestibility, and pork quality in growing-finishing pigs. Methods A total of 120 growing pigs ([Yorkshire×Landrace]×Duroc, with an average 27.75± 1.319 kg body weight, were used in growth trial. Pigs were allotted into each treatment by body weight and sex in 4 replicates with 6 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design. Four-phase feeding programs were used in this experiment. The treatments included the following: i corn-soybean meal (SBM – based diet (CON, ii corn-SBM – based diet+15% of wheat (W15, iii corn-SBM – based diet+30% of wheat (W30, iv corn-SBM – based diet+45% of wheat (W45, and 5 corn-SBM–based diet+60% of wheat (W60. Results There was no significant difference in growth performance among the dietary treatments. However, the gain-to-feed (G:F ratio tended to increase (quadratic, p<0.08 when the pigs were fed a higher wheat diet during the finishing period. The digestibility of crude ash and fat tended to decrease as the wheat supplementation level increased (p<0.08. The proximate analysis of the longissimus muscle was not affected by the dietary level of wheat. The crude ash content in pork was decreased linearly as the wheat supplementation level increased (p = 0.05. There was no significant difference in the pH level, shear force, water holding capacity, and cooking loss of the pork. In pork and fat, L*, a*, and b* values were not significantly different among dietary treatments. Conclusion Wheat can be supplemented up to 60% in a growing-finishing pig without detrimental effects on growth and pork quality. The G:F ratio tended to improve in the finishing period by wheat inclusion.

  13. Plasma concentrations of acyl-ghrelin are associated with average daily gain and feeding behavior in grow-finish pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lents, C A; Brown-Brandl, T M; Rohrer, G A; Oliver, W T; Freking, B A

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of sex, sire line, and litter size on concentrations of acyl-ghrelin and total ghrelin in plasma of grow-finish pigs and to understand the relationship of plasma concentrations of ghrelin with feeding behavior, average daily gain (ADG), and back fat in grow-finish swine. Yorkshire-Landrace crossbred dams were inseminated with semen from Yorkshire, Landrace, or Duroc sires. Within 24 h of birth, pigs were cross-fostered into litter sizes of normal (N; >12 pigs/litter) or small (S; ≤ 9 pigs/litter). At 8 wk of age, pigs (n = 240) were blocked by sire breed, sex, and litter size and assigned to pens (n = 6) containing commercial feeders modified with a system to monitor feeding behavior. Total time eating, number of daily meals, and duration of meals were recorded for each individual pig. Body weight was recorded every 4 wk. Back fat and loin eye area were recorded at the conclusion of the 12-wk feeding study. A blood sample was collected at week 7 of the study to quantify concentrations of acyl- and total ghrelin in plasma. Pigs from small litters weighed more (P finish phase. Barrows spent more time eating (P < 0.001) than gilts, but the number of meals and concentrations of ghrelin did not differ with sex of the pig. Pigs from Duroc and Yorkshire sires had lesser (P < 0.0001) concentrations of acyl-ghrelin than pigs from Landrace sires, but plasma concentrations of total ghrelin were not affected by sire breed. Concentrations of acyl-ghrelin were positively correlated with the number of meals and negatively correlated with meal length and ADG (P < 0.05). A larger number of short-duration meals may indicate that pigs with greater concentrations of acyl-ghrelin consumed less total feed, which likely explains why they were leaner and grew more slowly. Acyl-ghrelin is involved in regulating feeding behavior in pigs, and measuring acyl-ghrelin is important when trying to understand the role of this hormone in

  14. High frequency of porcine norovirus infection in finisher units of Brazilian pig-production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia F N; Alfieri, Alice F; Barry, Aline F; de Arruda Leme, Raquel; Gardinali, Noemi R; van der Poel, Wim H M; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is a member of the Caliciviridae family and is considered an emerging human enteric pathogen. NoVs are detected in farm animals such as cattle, sheep and pigs. Porcine NoV (PoNoV) is widespread worldwide, but frequency of infection is often low. This study aimed to investigate the natural PoNoV infection from adult animals of an important Brazilian pig-production region. Faecal samples (n = 112) of asymptomatic pigs aged 9 to 24 weeks old were collected from 16 grower-to-finish herds located in Paraná state, Brazilian Southern region, and evaluated for PoNoV presence. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was performed using specific primers that target a conserved region of the virus capsid gene (VP1). PoNoV was detected in 58 (51.8%) of the 112 faecal samples and in 14 (87.5%) of the 16 herds evaluated. Six of the obtained amplicons were submitted to phylogenetic genotyping analysis. The higher nucleotide (86.5-97.4%) and amino acid (100%) similarities of the sequences in this study were with the representative strains of the porcine NoV genogroup II genotype 11 (PoNoV GII-11). These results reveal that PoNoV infection is endemic in one of the most important pork production areas of Brazil and that the PoNoV GII-11 is prevalent in this region.

  15. Modelling phosphorus intake, digestion, retention and excretion in growing and finishing pigs: model description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeou, V; Leinonen, I; Kyriazakis, I

    2014-10-01

    Low phosphorus (P) digestibility combined with intensive pig production can increase P diffuse pollution and environmental load. The aim of this paper was to develop a deterministic, dynamic model able to represent P digestion, retention and ultimately excretion in growing and finishing pigs of different genotypes, offered access to diets of different composition. The model represented the limited ability of pig endogenous phytase activity to dephosphorylate phytate as a linear function of dietary calcium (Ca). Phytate dephosphorylation in the stomach by exogenous microbial phytase enzymes was expressed by a first order kinetics relationship. The absorption of non-phytate P from the lumen of the small intestine into the blood stream was set at 0.8 and the dephosphorylated phytate from the large intestine was assumed to be indigestible. The net efficiency of using digested P was set at 0.94 and assumed to be independent of BW, and constant across genotype and sex. P requirements for both maintenance and growth were made simple functions of body protein mass, and hence functions of animal genotype. Undigested P was assumed to be excreted in the feaces in both soluble and insoluble forms. If digestible P exceeded the requirements for P then the excess digestible P was excreted through the urinary flow; thus the model represented both forms of P excretion (soluble and insoluble) into the environment. Using a UK industry standard diet, model behaviour was investigated for its predictions of P digestibility, retention and excretion under different levels of inclusion of microbial phytase and dietary Ca, and different non-phytate P : phytate ratios in the diet, thus covering a broad space of potential diet compositions. Model predictions were consistent with our understanding of P digestion, metabolism and excretion. Uncertainties associated with the underlying assumptions of the model were identified. Their consequences on model predictions, as well as the model

  16. Carcass composition of market weight pigs subjected to heat stress in utero and during finishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzen, S M; Boddicker, R L; Graves, K L; Johnson, T P; Arkfeld, E K; Baumgard, L H; Ross, J W; Safranski, T J; Lucy, M C; Lonergan, S M

    2015-05-01

    Objectives were to investigate the effects of prolonged gestational and/or postnatal heat stress on performance and carcass composition of market weight pigs. Pregnant gilts were exposed to gestational heat stress (GHS, 28°C to 34°C, diurnal) or thermal neutral (18°C to 22°C, diurnal) conditions during the entire gestation or during the first or second half of gestation. At 14 wk of age (58 ± 5 kg), barrows were housed in heat stress (32°C, HS) or thermal neutral (21°C, TN) conditions. Feed intake and BW were recorded weekly, and body temperature parameters were monitored twice weekly until slaughter (109 ± 5 kg). Organs were removed and weighed, and loin eye area (LEA) and back fat thickness (BF) were measured after carcass chilling. Carcass sides were separated into lean, separable fat, bone, and skin components and were weighed. Moisture, lipid, and protein content were determined in the LM at the 10th rib. Data were analyzed using a split plot with random effect of dam nested within gestational treatment. Carcass measurements included HCW as a covariate to control for weight. Planned orthogonal contrast statements were used to evaluate the overall effect of GHS in the first half, second half, or any part of gestation. Gestational heat stress did not alter postnatal performance or most body temperature parameters (P > 0.10). However, ADFI in the finishing period was increased (P heat stress during the first half of gestation decreased head weight as a percent of BW (P = 0.02), whereas GHS in the second half of gestation decreased bone weight as a percent of BW (P = 0.02). Heat stress reduced ADG, BW, and HCW (P < 0.0001). Lean tissue was increased in HS pigs on both a weight and percentage basis (P < 0.0001), but LEA was similar to TN carcasses (P = 0.38). Carcasses from HS barrows also had less carcass separable fat (P < 0.01) and tended to have less BF (P = 0.06) compared with those from TN barrows, even after controlling for HCW. However, percent

  17. Regression analysis to predict growth performance from dietary net energy in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitikanchana, S; Dritz, S S; Tokach, M D; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; White, B J

    2015-06-01

    Data from 41 trials with multiple energy levels (285 observations) were used in a meta-analysis to predict growth performance based on dietary NE concentration. Nutrient and energy concentrations in all diets were estimated using the NRC ingredient library. Predictor variables examined for best fit models using Akaike information criteria included linear and quadratic terms of NE, BW, CP, standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys, crude fiber, NDF, ADF, fat, ash, and their interactions. The initial best fit models included interactions between NE and CP or SID Lys. After removal of the observations that fed SID Lys below the suggested requirement, these terms were no longer significant. Including dietary fat in the model with NE and BW significantly improved the G:F prediction model, indicating that NE may underestimate the influence of fat on G:F. The meta-analysis indicated that, as long as diets are adequate for other nutrients (i.e., Lys), dietary NE is adequate to predict changes in ADG across different dietary ingredients and conditions. The analysis indicates that ADG increases with increasing dietary NE and BW but decreases when BW is above 87 kg. The G:F ratio improves with increasing dietary NE and fat but decreases with increasing BW. The regression equations were then evaluated by comparing the actual and predicted performance of 543 finishing pigs in 2 trials fed 5 dietary treatments, included 3 different levels of NE by adding wheat middlings, soybean hulls, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS; 8 to 9% oil), or choice white grease (CWG) to a corn-soybean meal-based diet. Diets were 1) 30% DDGS, 20% wheat middlings, and 4 to 5% soybean hulls (low energy); 2) 20% wheat middlings and 4 to 5% soybean hulls (low energy); 3) a corn-soybean meal diet (medium energy); 4) diet 2 supplemented with 3.7% CWG to equalize the NE level to diet 3 (medium energy); and 5) a corn-soybean meal diet with 3.7% CWG (high energy). Only small differences were observed

  18. Effects of dietary lysine levels on plasma free amino acid profile in late-stage finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Naresh; Wang, Taiji; Crenshaw, Mark A; Rude, Brian J; Wu, Guoyao; Liao, Shengfa F

    2016-01-01

    Muscle growth requires a constant supply of amino acids (AAs) from the blood. Therefore, plasma AA profile is a critical factor for maximizing the growth performance of animals, including pigs. This research was conducted to study how dietary lysine intake affects plasma AA profile in pigs at the late production stage. Eighteen crossbred (Large White × Landrace) finishing pigs (nine barrows and nine gilts; initial BW 92.3 ± 6.9 kg) were individually penned in an environment controlled barn. Pigs were assigned randomly to one of the three dietary treatments according to a randomized complete block design with sex as block and pig as experiment unit (6 pigs/treatment). Three corn- and soybean meal-based diets contained 0.43 % (lysine-deficient, Diet I), 0.71 % (lysine-adequate, Diet II), and 0.98 % (lysine-excess, Diet III) l-lysine, respectively. After a 4-week period of feeding, jugular vein blood samples were collected from the pigs and plasma was obtained for AA analysis using established HPLC methods. The change of plasma lysine concentration followed the same pattern as that of dietary lysine supply. The plasma concentrations of threonine, histidine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, valine, arginine, and citrulline of pigs fed Diet II or III were lower (P pigs fed Diet I. The plasma concentrations of alanine, glutamate, and glycine of pigs fed Diet II or III were higher (P pigs fed Diet I. The change of plasma leucine and asparagine concentrations followed the patterns similar to that of plasma lysine. Among those affected AAs, arginine was decreased (P pigs may be further increased with a lysine-excess diet if the plasma concentration of arginine can be increased through dietary supplementation or other practical nutritional management strategies.

  19. Effects of dietary L-carnitine and ractopamine HCl on the metabolic response to handling in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, B W; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Dritz, S S; Owen, K Q; Woodworth, J C; Sulabo, R C

    2013-09-01

    results suggest that pigs fed 20 mg/kg of RAC are more susceptible to stress when handled aggressively compared with pigs not fed RAC. Dietary L-carnitine fed in combination with RAC did not alleviate the effects of stress. This research emphasizes the importance of using proper animal handling techniques when marketing finishing pigs fed RAC.

  20. Dietary marker effects on fecal microbial ecology, fecal VFA, nutrient digestibility coefficients, and growth performance in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Ziemer, C J

    2015-05-01

    Use of indigestible markers such as Cr2O3, Fe2O3, and TiO2 are commonly used in animal studies to evaluate digesta rate of passage and nutrient digestibility. Yet, the potential impact of indigestible markers on fecal microbial ecology and subsequent VFA generation is not known. Two experiments utilizing a total of 72 individually fed finishing pigs were conducted to describe the impact of dietary markers on fecal microbial ecology, fecal ammonia and VFA concentrations, nutrient digestibility, and pig performance. All pigs were fed a common diet with no marker or with 0.5% Cr2O3, Fe2O3, or TiO2. In Exp. 1, after 33 d of feeding, fresh fecal samples were collected for evaluation of microbial ecology, fecal ammonia and VFA concentrations, and nutrient digestibility, along with measures of animal performance. No differences were noted in total microbes or bacterial counts in pig feces obtained from pigs fed the different dietary markers while Archaea counts were decreased (P = 0.07) in feces obtained from pigs fed the diet containing Fe2O 3compared to pigs fed the control diet. Feeding Cr2O3, Fe2O3, or TiO2 increased fecal bacterial richness (P = 0.03, 0.01, and 0.10; respectively) when compared to pigs fed diets containing no marker, but no dietary marker effects were noted on fecal microbial evenness or the Shannon-Wiener index. Analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis gels did not reveal band pattern alterations due to inclusion of dietary markers in pig diets. There was no effect of dietary marker on fecal DM, ammonia, or VFA concentrations. Pigs fed diets containing Cr2O3 had greater Ca, Cu, Fe, and P (P ≤ 0.02), but lower Ti ( P= 0.08) digestibility compared to pigs fed the control diet. Pigs fed diets containing Fe2O3 had greater Ca (P = 0.08) but lower Ti (P = 0.01) digestibility compared to pigs fed the control diet. Pigs fed diets containing TiO2 had greater Fe and Zn (P ≤ 0.09), but lower Ti ( P= 0.01) digestibility compared to pigs fed the

  1. Reporting the national antimicrobial consumption in Danish pigs: influence of assigned daily dosage values and population measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Nana Hee; Fertner, Mette Ely; Kristensen, Charlotte Sonne

    2016-01-01

    , two new methods for assigning values for ADDs have recently emerged, one implemented by DANMAP, responsible for publishing annual reports on antimicrobial consumption, and one by the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration (DVFA), responsible for the Yellow Card initiative. In addition to new ADD......-values, respectively. Through 2007 to 2013, the production of pigs increased from 26.1 million pigs per year with 18 % exported live to 28.7 million with 34 % exported live. In the same time span, the annual pig antimicrobial consumption increased by 22.2 %, when calculated using the new DVFA ADD-values and pigs...... assignment methods, Denmark has also experienced a shift in the production pattern, towards a larger export of live pigs. The aims of this paper were to (1) describe previous and current ADD assignment methods used by the major Danish institutions and (2) to illustrate how ADD assignment method and choice...

  2. EFFECT OF REPLACING CORN AND SOYBEAN MEAL WITH BREWERS RICE AND DRIED DISTILLERS BREWERS YEAST ON PERFORMANCE OF GROWING-FINISHING PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondieki Gekara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of replacing corn and Soybean Meal (SBM with Brewers Rice (BR and Dried Distillers Brewers Yeast (DDBY, respectively, on ADG, G:F, Apparent Total Tract Digestibility (ATTD, fecal DM output and fecal loss of N and P of growing-finishing pigs. Sixty four Yorkshire x Duroc x Hampshire crosses (BW = 73±5.7 kg were randomly assigned to corn/SBM (CSM, BR/SBM (RSM, corn/DDBY (CBY or BR/DDBY (RBY diets. Compared with pigs finished on corn based diets, pigs fed BR based diets gained faster (0.868 vs. 0.730 kg.pig-1; p<0.01 and had better gain to feed ratio (0.30 vs. 0.25; p<0.01. Pigs finished on RBY diet had the least fecal DM output (0.245, 0.352, 0.575, 0.639 kg.pig-1; p<0.001 and greatest ATTD (91.5, 87.8, 80.0, 77.9%; p<0.001 followed by RSM, CBY and CSM pigs, respectively. Pigs finished on RBY diet lost the least (p<0.001 amount of N (0.010, 0.013, 0.019, 0.021 kg.pig-1 and P (0.010, 0.014, 0.016, 0.019 kg.pig-1 in the feces followed by pigs finished on RSM, CBY and CSM, respectively. In conclusion, BR and DDBY can replace all corn and SBM in swine diets with no negative effects on performance of growing-finishing pigs.

  3. Swine influenza virus infection in different age groups of pigs in farrow-to-finish farms in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding swine influenza virus (SIV) ecology has become more and more important from both the pig industry and public health points of views. However, the mechanism whereby SIV occurs in pig farms is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a proper strategy for SIV surveillance. Findings We conducted longitudinal monitoring in 6 farrow-to-finish farms in the central region of Thailand from 2008 to 2009. Nasal swabs and serum samples were collected periodically from clinically healthy pigs consisting of sows, fattening pigs, weaned piglets and pigs transferred from other farms. A total of 731 nasal swabs were subjected to virus isolation and 641 serum samples were subjected to detection of SIV antibodies against H1 and H3 subtypes using the hemagglutination inhibition test and ELISA. Twelve SIVs were isolated in this study and eleven were from piglets aged 4 and 8 weeks. Phylogenetical analysis revealed that SIVs isolated from different farms shared a common ancestor. Antibodies against SIVs were detected in fattening pigs on farms with no SIV isolation in the respective periods studied. These observations suggested that piglets aged 8 weeks or younger could be a main target for SIV isolation. Farm-to-farm transmission was suggested for farms where pigs from other farms are introduced periodically. In addition, antibodies against SIVs detected in fattening pigs could be a marker for SIV infection in a farm. Conclusions The present study provided important information on SIV surveillance that will enable better understanding of SIV ecology in farrow-to-finish farms. PMID:22166074

  4. Data-quality issues and alternative variable-screening methods in a questionnaire-based study on subclinical Salmonella enterica infection in Danish pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stege, H.; Christensen, J.; Nielsen, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Our aim was to determine risk factors for subclinical Salmonella enterica infection in Danish finishing-pig herds. In this paper, the evaluation, combining and initial reduction of variables is presented, along with assessment of the hypothesis in the preliminary statistical testing. The first...... seroprevalence. This resulted in a hybrid case-"control" design of the study and therefore, five different methods of categorising the data were used to ensure that variables were not wrongfully excluded as a result of using an improper design. Our questionnaire focused on management, infection......-limiting precautions and feed and feeding procedures. To establish the prevalence of S. enterica infection within herds at the time of the visit, 50 blood samples from each herd were collected and serologically examined. The reliability of each variable from the questionnaire was assessed and it was decided which...

  5. Effect of supplementing finishing pigs with different sources of chromium on performance and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Manha Peres

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the dietary supplementation of different sources of chromium (inorganic: chromium sulfate and chelated: chromium-methionine during the finishing period of pigs to obtain improvements in the animal performance, and carcass and meat quality. The statistical design was randomized blocks, where 44 barrows, with an initial weight 60.49±5.12 kg, were divided into four blocks (heavier, heavy, light and lighter according to initial weight. The experimental diets were isoenergetic and isonutrient, except for the chromium level. The treatments were divided as follows: control (without chromium, control + 200 ppb of inorganic chromium (chromium sulfate, and control + 200 ppb of chelated chromium (chromium-methionine. In the performance measures, the stall was considered the experimental unit and in the blood parameters, carcass and meat evaluations each animal constituted the experimental unit. Animals were slaughtered when they reached the final average weight of 107.23±5.23 kg. Blood samples were collected and tested for blood parameters (cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose as well as carcass quality (hot and cold weights, yield, loin-eye area, muscle depth and backfat thickness and meat quality (initial and final pH, drip loss, color, chemical composition and lipid oxidation parameters. Chromium-methionine supplementation provides a greater daily weight gain only compared with the animals that are not supplemented with chromium, because feed conversion is better as compared with the other treatments. After 24 hours of storage, the meat from pigs supplemented either with chromium-methionine or with chromium sulfate presents lower lipid oxidation than that from non-supplemented animals. However, after three days of storage, only chromim-methionine is effective in reducing lipid oxidation.

  6. Spatial patterns of antimicrobial resistance genes in a cross-sectional sample of pig farms with indoor non-organic production of finishers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkegård, Anna Camilla; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    and to test if the AMR genes were spatially randomly distributed with respect to the geographic distribution of the pig farm population at risk. Faecal samples from 687 Danish pig farms were collected in February and March 2015. DNA was extracted and the levels of seven AMR genes (ermB, ermF, sulI, sulII, tet...

  7. Variations in the severity of classical swine fever infections in Danish pigs - the clinical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Bruun, Camilla S.

    Aim The severity of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infection is believed to be determined by different factors, including virulence of the specific strain as well as factors related to the host, e.g. age, genetic background and health status of the pig [1, 2]. In recent Danish experiments...... also wanted to use these experiments to introduce a scoring system to standardize the parameters of clinical disease in future animal experiments. The present study focuses on the clinical outcome of 3 animal experiments. The immunological and virological examinations carried out will be published...... of CSF infection and body temperatures were recorded. To obtain a semi-quantitative measure for clinical disease, all pigs were evaluated in a clinical scoring (CS) system previously described by Mittelholzer et al. [3]. A maximum score of 27 (severe CSF symptoms) could be obtained in the present study...

  8. Random regression models for daily feed intake in Danish Duroc pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Mark, Thomas; Jensen, Just

    The objective of this study was to develop random regression models and estimate covariance functions for daily feed intake (DFI) in Danish Duroc pigs. A total of 476201 DFI records were available on 6542 Duroc boars between 70 to 160 days of age. The data originated from the National test station...... and were collected using ACEMO electronic feeders in the period of 2008 to 2011. The pedigree was traced back to 1995 and included 17222 animals. The phenotypic feed intake curve was decomposed into a fixed curve, being specific to the barn-year-season effect and curves associated with the random pen....... Eigenvalues of the genetic covariance function showed that 33% of genetic variability was explained by the individual genetic curve of the pigs. This proportion was covered by linear (27%) and quadratic (6%) coefficients. Genetic eigenfunctions revealed that altering the shape of the feed intake curve...

  9. Assessing Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Excreta from Grower-finisher Pigs Fed Prevalent Rations in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van, Vu Thi Khanh; Sommer, Sven G.; Vu, C. C.

    2010-01-01

    Livestock production in Vietnam is, as in most Asian countries, increasing rapidly and changing into specialized highly intensified operations. The volume of animal excreta generated exceeds the capacity of the operation land base and cannot be utilized efficiently. As a consequence, there is a l......Livestock production in Vietnam is, as in most Asian countries, increasing rapidly and changing into specialized highly intensified operations. The volume of animal excreta generated exceeds the capacity of the operation land base and cannot be utilized efficiently. As a consequence......, there is a loss of plant nutrients from livestock farms that causes environmental pollution. This study carried out a feed and excretion experiment measuring fecal characteristic, daily fecal production, daily nitrogen and phosphorous excretion from grower-finisher pigs fed prevalent rations in Vietnam....... Furthermore, equations for assessing the excretion were tested, which can be used in farm models for optimal recycling of manure while focusing on reducing pollution. The results indicated that fecal production and nutrient excretion were affected by the different rations tested. This study showed that five...

  10. Efficacy and safety of a combined Porcine Circovirus and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine in finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Witvliet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety and protective efficacy of a new one dose combination vaccine containing Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2 and M. hyopneumoniae antigens – Porcilis® PCV M Hyo - was evaluated in laboratory studies and under field conditions. Vaccination resulted in a moderate temperature increase on the day of vaccination and mild systemic and local reactions were found in only a low percentage of the vaccinated pigs. The local reactions observed were small (max. 2 cm and transient (max. 1 day. In short term (onset of immunity and long term (duration of immunity challenge studies with the individual pathogens, the vaccine significantly reduced the PCV2 load in lymphoid tissue and lungs and M. hyopneumoniae-induced lung lesions. In a placebo-controlled field trial on a farm where both PCV2 and M. hyopneumoniae were present, vaccination of piglets at 3 weeks of age resulted in a reduction of PCV2 viremia and shedding and lower lung lesion scores at slaughter. In addition, a positive effect on the average daily weight gain (+ 34 g/day in the finishing phase was observed. It can therefore be concluded that this new ready to use combination vaccine is safe and efficacious against PCV2 and M. hyopneumoniae single and combined infections.

  11. Quantitative and qualitative antimicrobial usage patterns in farrow-to-finish pig herds in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjölund, M; Postma, M; Collineau, L; Lösken, S; Backhans, A; Belloc, C; Emanuelson, U; Beilage, E Groβe; Stärk, K; Dewulf, J

    2016-08-01

    Data on sales of antimicrobials using a standardised methodology have shown that there are vast differences between countries in amounts of antimicrobials sold for food-producing animals, but these data do not provide insight on how sales are distributed by species and age groups. The aim of this study was to compare herd level antimicrobial usage for pigs by age category, antimicrobial class and administration route for farrow-to-finish herds in four EU countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 227 farrow-to-finish pig herds with at least 100 sows and 500 finishing pigs in Belgium (n=47), France (n=60), Germany (n=60) and Sweden (n=60). Detailed information about the antimicrobial consumption for breeding and growing pigs was collected. Antimicrobial usage was quantified as active substance expressed as mg and then converted to treatment incidence (TI) based on Defined Daily Doses Animal per 1000 pig-days at risk. TIs varied between and within countries, herds and age groups. The Swedish herds had the lowest and the German herds the highest overall use. Most treatments were applied to weaned piglets except in the Swedish herds where treatments of suckling piglets were most frequent. Antimicrobials were most often applied through feed or water except in the Swedish herds where parenteral treatments were most frequent. Aminopenicillins was the antimicrobial class most commonly used. Use of third and fourth generation cephalosporins constituted 11% of use for the Belgian herds, which was higher compared to the other countries. There was a significant (pfinish herds of similar size when actual consumption data were compared. Collecting detailed usage data can be used to efficiently target high users in order to reduce antimicrobial consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. in finishing pigs in Polish farrow-to-finish swine herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dors, A; Pomorska-Mól, M; Czyżewska, E; Wasyl, D; Pejsak, Z

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the herd-level, within-herd prevalence, the frequency of mixed infections and risk factors for L. intracellularis, B. hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. in selected farrow-to-finish Polish pig herds. A total of 254 pooled fecal samples were collected from 9 to 24 week-old pigs in 70 herds. Real time PCR for detection of L. intracellularis and B. hyodysenteriae was performed. For Salmonella spp. bacteriological examination was performed. The herd-level prevalences of L. intracellularis, B. hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. among examined herds were 65.7%, 1.4% and 8.6%, respectively. The within-herd prevalences (in positive herds) for L. intracellularis, B. hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. were 51.5%, 75.0% and 30.4%, respectively. All herds with diarrhea observed during sampling were infected with L. intracellularis and 60% of herds with no diarrhea at the moment of sampling were infected with L. intracellularis (p=0.035). In herds with more than 200 sows the prevalence of Salmonella spp. was significantly higher compared to herds with less than 200 sows (p=0.027). In herds where all-in/all-out (AIAO) was respected, prevalence of L. intracellularis was significantly lower than in herds where this rule was not kept (p=0.024). Obtained results confirm that L. intracellularis is the major cause of bacterial diarrhea in finishing pigs. The present study identified AIAO and herd size as a risk factor, at the herd level, for L. intracellularis and Salmonella spp., respectively.

  13. A pilot study on the improvement of the lying area of finishing pigs by a soft lying mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savary, Pascal; Gygax, Lorenz; Jungbluth, Thomas; Wechsler, Beat; Hauser, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    In this pilot study, we tested whether a soft mat (foam covered with a heat-sealed thermoplastic) reduces alterations and injuries at the skin and the leg joints.The soft mat in the lying area of partly slatted pens was compared to a lying area consisting of either bare or slightly littered (100 g straw per pig and day) concrete flooring. In this study we focused on skin lesions on the legs of finishing pigs as indicators of impaired welfare. Pigs were kept in 19 groups of 8-10 individuals and were examined for skin lesions around the carpal and tarsal joints either at a weight of concrete floor. Pens with a littered concrete floor did not differ compared to pens with a bare concrete floor. The soft lying mat thus improved floor quality in the lying area in terms of preventing skin lesions compared to bare and slightly littered concrete flooring. Such soft lying mats have thus the potential to improve lying comfort and welfare of finishing pigs.

  14. Establishing Bedding Requirements during Transport and Monitoring Skin Temperature during Cold and Mild Seasons after Transport for Finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McGlone

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The broad aim of this study was to determine whether bedding level in the transport trailer influenced pig performance and welfare. Specifically, the objective was to define the bedding requirements of pigs during transportation in commercial settings during cold and mild weather. Animals (n = 112,078 pigs on 572 trailers used were raised in commercial finishing sites and transported in trailers to commercial processing plants. Dead on arrival (DOA, non-ambulatory (NA, and total dead and down (D&D data were collected and skin surface temperatures of the pigs were measured by infrared thermography. Data were collected during winter (Experiment 1 and fall/spring (Experiment 2. Total D&D percent showed no interaction between bedding level and outside air temperature in any experiments. Average skin surface temperature during unloading increased with outside air temperature linearly in both experiments (P < 0.01. In conclusion, over-use of bedding may be economically inefficient. Pig skin surface temperature could be a useful measure of pig welfare during or after transport.

  15. Wean-to-finish feeder space availability effects on nursery and finishing pig performance and total tract digestibility in a commercial setting when feeding dried distillers grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, E K; Stalder, K J; Patience, J F

    2015-04-01

    The study objectives were to determine nursery phase feeder space allowance effects on pig performance when double stocked and, second, to determine feeder space allowance and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) inclusion level effects on pig performance and nutrient digestibility during the growing-finishing phase. This study was performed on the same group of pigs within a commercial wean-finish system. For the nursery phase, a completely randomized design was used to compare 3 feeder space allowance treatments (2.1, 2.5, and 2.9 cm/pig). A total of 3,720 pigs were randomly allotted to same-sex pens (10 feeders/treatment) housing 62 pigs/pen. Thirty 7-hole, double-sided feeders were utilized in the study. Differing linear feeder space treatments were established by blocking off sections for the nursery and grow-finish portions of this experiment. All pigs were provided equal floor space (0.26 m2/pig). In the grow-finish phase, a total of 1,860 pigs (n = 60 pens) were utilized in a 2 × 3 factorial design with 3 feeder space allowances (4.1, 4.9, or 5.7 cm/pig) and 2 dietary DDGS treatments (30% [D30] or 60% [D60]). Fecal and diet samples were collected and analyzed to estimate apparent total tract digestibility percentage (ATTD %). In the nursery portion of the trial, there was no feeder space treatment effect on ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.10) from weaning to d 56 postweaning or during any weigh period. In the grow-finish portion of the trial, feeder space allowance and DDGS inclusion level did not affect ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.05) from d 57 postweaning to market. Pigs fed the D30 diet had greater HCW, percent yield, and loin depth than those on the D60 diet (P finish production phases. Inclusion of DDGS at higher levels will decrease ADFI but not ADG or efficiency when isocaloric diets are fed. The inclusion level of DDGS does impact HCW and percent yield because of increasing intestinal weights when pigs are fed diets containing

  16. Behavior and peripheral amine concentrations in relation to ractopamine feeding, sex, and social rank of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, R; Meisel, R L; Richert, B T; Cheng, H W; Marchant-Forde, J N

    2010-03-01

    Aggression can impair productivity and well-being. The association between aggression in finishing pigs and the feed additive ractopamine (RAC), a beta-adrenoreceptor agonist, is unknown and warrants further investigation. Our goal was to examine behavioral activity, including aggression, in the home pen and concentrations of peripheral amines in barrows and gilts, taking into account diet (RAC) and social rank. Sixty-four finishing pigs, housed in pens of 4 by sex, were fed either a control (CTL) or RAC-added (5 mg/kg for 2 wk plus 10 mg/kg for another 2 wk) diet. The top dominant and bottom subordinate pigs in each pen were determined at mixing (2 wk pretrial). The behavior of all pigs was recorded continuously during the pretrial week (baseline) and for the following 4 wk. These behavioral data were used to evaluate home pen aggression, including the number of agonistic interactions (AINX) and constituent aggressive actions, during a 3-h period (0800 to 1100 h) once per week and their change in relation to the baseline. Time-budget behaviors and postures were analyzed over eight 24-h periods (2 d/wk) using 10-min instantaneous scan sampling that focused on only the dominant and subordinate pigs in each pen. These 2 pigs were also subjected to blood collection once per week during the trial to determine concentrations of dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and serotonin (5-HT) using HPLC. Gilts performed more bites and total actions per AINX than barrows, and RAC-fed gilts increased bites and pursuits, whereas these behaviors decreased compared with baseline values in all other subgroups (P pigs were more behaviorally active, spending more time alert, bar biting, and sham chewing compared with CTL pigs (P pigs tended to have the greatest norepinephrine concentrations among the tested subgroups (P = 0.08). Dominant barrows had greater epinephrine concentrations than subordinate barrows (P 0.10). Greater activity and the increase in oral-related behaviors

  17. Farm-economic analysis of reducing antimicrobial use whilst adopting improved management strategies on farrow-to-finish pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Gimeno, Cristina; Postma, Merel; Dewulf, Jeroen; Hogeveen, Henk; Lauwers, Ludwig; Wauters, Erwin

    2016-07-01

    Due to increasing public health concerns that food animals could be reservoirs for antibiotic resistant organisms, calls for reduced current antibiotic use on farms are growing. Nevertheless, it is challenging for farmers to perform this reduction without negatively affecting technical and economic performance. As an alternative, improved management practices based on biosecurity and vaccinations have been proven useful to reduce antimicrobial use without lowering productivity, but issues with insufficient experimental design possibilities have hindered economic analysis. In the present study a quasi-experimental approach was used for assessing the economic impact of reduction of antimicrobial use coupled with improved management strategies, particularly biosecurity strategies. The research was performed on farrow-to-finish pig farms in Flanders (northern region of Belgium). First, to account for technological progress and to avoid selection bias, propensity score analysis was used to compare data on technical parameters. The treatment group (n=48) participated in an intervention study whose aim was to improve management practices to reduce the need for use of antimicrobials. Before and after the change in management, data were collected on the technical parameters, biosecurity status, antimicrobial use, and vaccinations. Treated farms were matched without replacement with control farms (n=69), obtained from the Farm Accountancy Data Network, to estimate the difference in differences (DID) of the technical parameters. Second, the technical parameters' DID, together with the estimated costs of the management intervention and the price volatility of the feed, meat of the finisher pigs, and piglets served as a basis for modelling the profit of 11 virtual farrow-to-finish pig farms representative of the Flemish sector. Costs incurred by new biosecurity measures (median +€3.96/sow/year), and new vaccinations (median €0.00/sow/year) did not exceed the cost reduction

  18. Meta-analysis on the effects of the physical environment, animal traits, feeder and feed characteristics on the feeding behaviour and performance of growing-finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Averos, X.; Brossard, L.; Dourmad, J.Y.; Greef, de K.H.; Edwards, S.A.; Meunier-Salaün, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis, using information from 45 experiments on growing-finishing pigs published in 39 manuscripts, was carried out to determine the simultaneous effects of the physical environment (space allowance, group size, flooring conditions, temperature, presence of enrichment), pig traits (initial

  19. Meta-analysis of the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride on carcass cutability and primal yields of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, B M; Kyle, J M; Boler, D D; Rincker, P J; Ritter, M J; Carr, S N

    2013-02-01

    The objective was to summarize previous literature, using a meta-analysis approach, on the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) when fed at doses of 5 to 10 mg/kg for up to 35 d before harvest on carcass cutability and belly quality of finishing pigs. The meta-analysis provided an opportunity to determine the consensus of previously published literature. Ten studies were evaluated to determine cutting yields and 8 studies were used to determine belly quality in this review. Pooled dietary RAC concentrations (5 mg/kg, 7.4 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and step-up feeding programs) and pooled feeding durations (up to 35 d before harvest) were compared with pigs not fed RAC (controls) and were analyzed as a meta-analysis using the mixed procedure of SAS. Ractopamine inclusion was the fixed effect in the model and the individual study was considered a random variable. The only difference between RAC and control pigs for whole primals as a percentage of side weight was the whole ham (P pigs having a carcass cutting yield (74.70% vs. 73.69%, respectively; P = 0.02; SED = 0.33) advantage of 1.01% units and a bone in lean cutting yield (61.43% vs. 60.33%, respectively; P = 0.03; SED = 0.40) advantage of 1.10% units when compared with control pigs. The advantage in bone-in cutability was a result of increased boneless sub primal yields in each of the lean cuts (shoulder, loin, and ham). When further evaluated, RAC pigs had a boneless shoulder (Boston butt + picnic) yield advantage of 0.32% units (P pigs when compared with control pigs. There were no subprimal yield differences (P = 0.93) in the trimmed belly between RAC pigs (12.18%) and control pigs (12.18%). However, RAC pigs (15.27 cm; 73.42) had narrower flop distances (P = 0.02; SED = 0.62) and greater iodine values (P = 0.01; SED = 0.33), respectively, when compared with control pigs (17.08 cm; 71.48).

  20. Escherichia coli phytase improves growth performance of starter, grower, and finisher pigs fed phosphorus-deficient diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendza, J A; Dilger, R N; Adedokun, S A; Sands, J S; Adeola, O

    2005-08-01

    Corn-soybean meal-based diets, consisting of a high-P control (HPC) containing supplemental dicalcium phosphate (DCP), a basal diet containing no DCP, and the basal diet plus Escherichia coli phytase at 500 or 1,000 phytase units per kilogram (FTU/kg; as-fed basis) were fed to evaluate growth performance in starter, grower, and finisher pigs. Pigs were blocked by weight and gender, such that average weight across treatments was similar, with equal numbers of barrows and gilts receiving each treatment in each block. In Exp. 1, 48 pigs with an average initial BW of 11 kg, housed individually, with 12 pens per diet, were used to evaluate growth performance over 3 wk. Overall ADG and G:F were increased linearly (P < 0.05) by dietary phytase addition. Final BW and plasma P concentrations at 3 wk also increased linearly (P < 0.05). In Exp. 2, 128 pigs with an average initial BW of 23 kg, housed four pigs per pen, with eight pens per diet, were used to evaluate growth performance over 6 wk. A linear increase in response to phytase was noted for ADG and G:F in all three 2-wk periods, as well as overall (P < 0.05). Percentage of bone ash also showed a linear increase (P < 0.01). In Exp. 3, 160 pigs (53 kg), housed five pigs per pen, with eight pens per diet, were used to evaluate growth performance over 6 wk. A linear increase was detected for final BW, as well as ADG and G:F in the first and second 2-wk periods, and overall (P < 0.01). Twenty-four 15-kg individually housed pigs were used to evaluate total-tract nutrient digestibility in Exp. 4. Daily absorption of P linearly increased (P < 0.05) with phytase supplementation. Results of this research indicate that E. coli phytase is effective in liberating phytate P for uptake and utilization by starter, grower, and finisher pigs.

  1. Early pathogenesis of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strains in Danish pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Louise; Nielsen, Jens; Uttenthal, Ase

    2012-10-12

    Host-virus interactions play an important role for the clinical outcome of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infections in pigs. Strain virulence, host characteristics and environment are all factors that markedly influence disease severity. We tested CSFV strains of varying virulence in an experimental set-up, reducing the influence of host and environmental factors. Thus, weaner pigs were inoculated with one of 4 CSFV strains in order to compare the pathogenesis for a 3-week-period after infection. CSFV strains selected were 2 new and 2 previously characterized. None of these strains had been tested in Danish outbred pigs before. Clinical observations grouped the infected pigs into two different categories reflecting either non-specific, mainly gastro-intestinal, problems, or severe disease including high fever within the first week after inoculation. Gross-pathological findings varied between strains, however, lymphoid atrophy and growth retardation represented a consistent finding for all 4 strains. Virus distribution, viral load and in particular virus persistence differed, but supported present practice that recommends lymphoid tissue, most optimal tonsil and lymph nodes, as target material to be applied for early laboratory diagnosis. The present study demonstrated constraints associated with early detection of infections with CSFV strains of low virulence. Since neither clinical symptoms nor pathological lesions observed with these strains constituted characteristic signs of CSF, the risk of neglecting a CSF suspicion is immediate. Therefore, topical information on new outbreaks and continuous enhancement of an efficient surveillance system is of great importance to prevent further spread of CSF within the pig population.

  2. Econometric estimation of investment utilization, adjustment costs, and technical efficiency in Danish pig farms using hyperbolic distance functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Fabricius, Ole; Olsen, Jakob Vesterlund

    2014-01-01

    Based on a theoretical microeconomic model, we econometrically estimate investment utilization, adjustment costs, and technical efficiency in Danish pig farms based on a large unbalanced panel dataset. As our theoretical model indicates that adjustment costs are caused both by increased inputs...

  3. Effect of crude glycerin on feed manufacturing, growth performance, plasma metabolites, and nutrient digestibility of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, J; Villodre, C; Valera, L; Orengo, J; Martínez, S; López, M J; Megías, M D; Hernández, F

    2013-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary addition of crude glycerin on pellet production efficiency and to evaluate its effect on growth performance and digestibility in growing-finishing pigs. Three dietary treatments were created by addition of 0, 2.5, or 5% crude glycerin to barley-soybean meal-based diet, and 4 batches of each dietary treatment (2 each for grower and finisher diets) were prepared. In the manufacturing process, crude glycerin supplementation linearly increased the feeder speed and production rate (P feed production rate compared with the control. Production efficiency (kg/kWh) increased linearly (P feed increased. A growth experiment was performed with 240 barrows (30 ± 1 kg initial BW) using a 2-phase feeding program over a 12-wk period with 4 pens per treatment and 20 pigs per pen. On the last day of the growth experiment, blood samples were collected to determine circulating glucose, fructosamine, and IGF-1 concentrations. Overall growth performance was not affected (P > 0.05) by dietary treatment, and there was no effect (P > 0.05) of dietary treatment on any plasma metabolite measured. A digestibility experiment involving 9 male pigs housed in metabolic cages was used to determine the coefficients of apparent fecal digestibility and N and mineral balances. Pigs were assigned to 1 of the 3 diets in each feeding period using a 3 × 3 Latin square arrangement of treatments (43 ± 3 and 74 ± 3 kg initial BW in the growing and finishing periods, respectively). In both feeding periods, fecal digestibility of OM and ether extract were affected by dietary treatment, increasing linearly (P feeding period. In conclusion, adding crude glycerin to the diet before pelleting improved feed mill production efficiency. The addition of crude glycerin up to 5% in the diet of growing-finishing pigs had no effect on growth performance, blood metabolites, nutrient digestibility, and N balance, but more studies are needed to

  4. Use of a live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine on farrow-to-finish pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ridder, L; Maes, D; Dewulf, J; Butaye, P; Pasmans, F; Boyen, F; Haesebrouck, F; Van der Stede, Y

    2014-11-01

    Salmonella enterica infection in pigs is economically important and poses a zoonotic risk. In this study, the efficacy of an attenuated S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain was evaluated in three farrow-to-finish pig herds. In each herd, 120 piglets were vaccinated orally at 3 and 24 days of age, while 120 piglets served as unvaccinated controls. Faeces, ileocaecal lymph nodes and caecal contents were examined for S. Typhimurium by isolation and serum was analysed for antibodies against S. Typhimurium by ELISA. All pigs were weighed at pre-weaning and slaughter to determine daily weight gain. In vaccinated pigs prior to slaughter, significantly fewer animals excreted S. enterica, there was a significantly lower S. enterica-specific mean antibody titre and there was a significantly higher mean daily weight gain compared to unvaccinated controls. In two herds, there were significantly lower proportions of S. enterica positive ileocaecal lymph nodes and caecal contents at slaughter between the vaccinated and control groups, but this difference was not significant across all three herds. S. enterica with the same auxotrophic characteristics and genotype as the vaccine strain was isolated from several samples of faeces, ileocaecal lymph nodes and caecal contents from vaccinated pigs. These findings indicate that vaccination with an attenuated S. Typhimurium strain reduces S. enterica shedding, but the reduction is not consistent and the vaccine strain may persist in tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased intramuscular fat induced by reduced dietary protein in finishing pigs: effects on the longissimus lumborum muscle proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, V M R; Madeira, M S; Dowle, A A; Thomas, J; Almeida, A M; Prates, J A M

    2016-07-19

    Due to genetic selection towards reduced subcutaneous fat, the amount of intramuscular fat (IMF) in commercial pigs has been reduced (increase IMF in pigs. We have previously shown that increased IMF promoted by RPD is mediated by lysine restriction. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. Here we performed a proteomics study to quantify differentially regulated proteins in the longissimus lumborum muscle of pigs (n = 4) fed a normal protein diet (NPD) (16.0% CP) or a reduced protein diet (RPD) (13.0% CP). Both isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) and label-free methods were used. Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, mitochondrion, contractile proteins, respiratory chain, and calcium signalling were significantly enriched in muscle samples. Thirty five proteins shown to be differentially expressed and were classified using gene ontology (GO) terms and functional annotation clustering, highlighting main relevant biological networks and proteins associated with muscle physiology and meat quality. Members of GO categories "muscle contraction" and "structural constituents of cytoskeleton", were the most significantly up-regulated proteins in muscle from pigs fed RPD. Conversely, in animals fed NPD most up-regulated proteins were enzymes involved in the regulation of energy metabolism. Our data revealed that RPD affects the amounts of proteins related to fibre type and structure, and energy metabolism. It is suggested that the increased IMF promoted by dietary protein reduction in growing-finishing pigs is mediated by shifting the metabolic properties of fibres from glycolytic to oxidative.

  6. Distribution of antibodies against influenza virus in pigs from farrow-to-finish farms in Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Alessandra S; Costa, Érica A; Rajão, Daniela S; Guedes, Roberto M C; Ciacci Zanella, Janice R; Lobato, Zélia I P

    2015-05-01

    Swine influenza virus (SIV) is the cause of an acute respiratory disease that affects swine worldwide. In Brazil, SIV has been identified in pigs since 1978. After the emergence of pandemic H1N1 in 2009 (H1N1pdm09), few studies reported the presence of influenza virus in Brazilian herds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the serological profile for influenza virus in farrow-to-finish pig farms in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Thirty farms with no SIV vaccination history were selected from the four larger pig production areas in Minas Gerais state (Zona da Mata, Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba, South/Southwest and the Belo Horizonte metropolitan area). At each farm, blood samples were randomly collected from 20 animals in each production cycle category: breeding animals (sows and gilts), farrowing crate (2-3 weeks), nursery (4-7 weeks), grower pigs (8-14 weeks), and finishing pigs (15-16 weeks), with 100 samples per farm and a total of 3000 animals in this study. The samples were tested for hemagglutination inhibition activity against H1N1 pandemic strain (A/swine/Brazil/11/2009) and H3N2 SIV (A/swine/Iowa/8548-2/98) reference strain. The percentages of seropositive animals for H1N1pdm09 and H3N2 were 26.23% and 1.57%, respectively, and the percentages of seropositive herds for both viruses were 96.6% and 13.2%, respectively. The serological profiles differed for both viruses and among the studied areas, suggesting a high variety of virus circulation around the state, as well as the presence of seronegative animals susceptible to influenza infection and, consequently, new respiratory disease outbreaks. © 2015 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effects of sires with different weight gain potentials and varying planes of nutrition on growth of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Duck-Min; Jung, Dae-Yun; Park, Man Jong; Park, Byung-Chul; Lee, C Young

    2014-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of two groups of sires with 'medium' and 'high' weight gain potentials (M-sires and H-sires, respectively) on growth of their progenies on varying planes of nutrition during the growing-finishing period. The ADG of the M-sires' progeny was greater (P plane of nutrition (H plane) followed by the medium (M) and low (L) planes (0.65, 0.61, and 0.51 kg, respectively; P planes vs. L plane (0.63, 0.62, and 0.54 kg, respectively). The ADG of pigs on the M or H plane during the grower phase and switched to the H plane thereafter (M-to-H or H-to-H planes) was greater than that of pigs on the L-to-L planes (0.99 vs. 0.78 kg) during the early finisher phase in the M-sires' progeny (P planes did not differ from that of pigs on the M-to-M or H-to-M planes (0.94 vs. 0.96 kg). Results suggest that the H-to-H or H-to-M planes and M-to-M or M-to-L planes are optimal for maximal growth of the M- and H-sires' progenies, respectively.

  8. Dynamics of Quinolone Resistance in Fecal Escherichia coli of Finishing Pigs after Ciprofloxacin Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Kang; Xu, Chang-Wen; Zeng, Bo; XIA, Qing-Qing; Zhang, An-Yun; LEI, Chang-Wei; Guan, Zhong-Bin; Cheng, Han; Wang, Hong-ning

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Escherichia coli resistance to quinolones has now become a serious issue in large-scale pig farms of China. It is necessary to study the dynamics of quinolone resistance in fecal Escherichia coli of pigs after antimicrobial administration. Here, we present the hypothesis that the emergence of resistance in pigs requires drug accumulation for 7 days or more. To test this hypothesis, 26 pigs (90 days old, about 30 kg) not fed any antimicrobial after weaning were selected and divided in...

  9. Herd-level risk factors for subclinical Salmonella infection in European finishing-pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dahl, J.; Stege, H.

    2004-01-01

    . Pigs produced in batches in herds with hygienic-lock facilities had >3-times lower odds for testing seropositive compared to pigs in herds where only one or neither factor was present. In herds where the caretaker(s) washed hands consistently before tending to the animals, pigs had 1.5-times lower odds...

  10. Pigs and profits: hybrids of animals, technology and humans in Danish industrialised farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger; Vaarst, Mette; Bubandt, Nils

    2013-01-01

    Farm animals live and die as part of a food production system rich in paradoxes. One central paradox of modern farming revolves around the classic anthropological opposition between ‘nature’ and ‘culture’. Inspired by Bruno Latour's diagnosis of the processes of purification and mediation...... that attend the separation between ‘nature’ and ‘culture’ in the modern constitution, we trace how this paradox plays itself out on Danish pig farms. The paper argues that, although they have to be consistently ignored, hybrids of various kinds are essential to the co-production of meat and profit...... on industrial, debt-ridden and highly effective farms in the Western world....

  11. Tetracycline consumption and occurrence of tetracycline resistance in Salmonella typhimurium phage types from Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Vigre, Håkan; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær;

    2007-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate at the farm-owner level the effect of prescribed tetracycline consumption in pigs and different Salmonella Typhimurium phage types on the probability that the S. Typhimurium was resistant to tetracycline. In this study, 1,307 isolates were included......, originating from 877 farm owners, and data were analyzed using logistic regression. The analysis showed that both the S. Typhimurium phage type (p consumption (p = 0.0007) were significantly associated with tetracycline resistance. In particular, the phage type...... was strongly associated with tetracycline resistance. A further analysis of data from the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme (DANMAP) indicates that the tetracycline-susceptible phage types only slowly become tetracycline resistant, although tetracycline consumption...

  12. Effect of fenbendazole in water on pigs infected with Ascaris suum in finishing pigs under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Brian; Oliviero, Claudio; Orro, Toomas; Jukola, Elias; Laurila, Tapio; Haimi-Hakala, Minna; Heinonen, Mari

    2017-03-06

    The husbandry of pigs for meat production is a constantly developing industry. Most studies on the effects of Ascaris suum infection in pigs and its prevention with anthelmintics are over a decade old. We examined the effect of 2.5mg fenbendazole per kg bodyweight administered in drinking water for two consecutive days on A. suum infection 1 and 6 weeks after pigs arrived to fattening units. We hypothesised that the treatment would reduce the presence of A. suum-infections, improve the average daily weight gain of pigs, reduce the percentage of liver rejections in pens by 50% and increase the lean meat percentage at slaughter by 1%. The study included a placebo group (427 pigs) and a treatment group (420 pigs) spanning four different farms previously reporting ≥15% liver rejection. The treatment was given for 2 consecutive days 1 and 6 weeks after the pigs arrived to the fattening unit. Faecal samples were collected during weeks 1, 6 and 12 from all pigs and examined for A. suum eggs. Blood was collected during weeks 1 and 12 from a subgroup of the pigs and examined for anti-A. suum antibodies and clinical blood parameters. Data on liver rejection and lean meat percentage were collected post-mortem. The proportion of Ascaris seropositive pigs changed from 8.6% to 22.2% and 20.3% to 16.3% in the placebo and treatment group respectively. Fenbendazole reduced the presence of A. suum eggs in faeces the percentage of liver rejections by 69.8%. The treatment did not affect daily weight gain or lean meat percentage. Pigs with A. suum eggs in faeces at week 6 had a lower average daily weight gain of 61.8g/day compared with pigs without parasite eggs. Fenbendazole treatment may be a useful option for farms struggling with persistent A. suum problems and demonstrate a beneficial effect on the weight gain of the animals shedding eggs in faeces and result in fewer condemned livers at slaughter.

  13. Effects of Dietary Energy Sources on Post Mortem Glycolysis, Meat Quality and Muscle Fibre Type Transformation of Finishing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjiao; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Changning; Lin, Meng; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Yuanfang; Nuldnali, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Dietary energy source can influence muscle glycogen storage at slaughter. However, few studies have demonstrated whether the diet-induced change of muscle glycogen is achieved by the transformation of muscle fibre type. This study investigated the effects of dietary energy sources on meat quality, post mortem glycolysis and muscle fibre type transformation of finishing pigs. Seventy-two barrows with an average body weight of 65.0 ± 2.0 kg were selected and were allotted to three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets A, B or C, and each treatment consisted of three replicates (pens) of eight pigs each. Diet A contained 44.1% starch, 5.9% crude fat and 12.6% neutral detergent fiber (NDF); diet B contained 37.6% starch, 9.5% crude fat and 15.4% NDF; and diet C contained 30.9% starch, 14.3% crude fat and 17.8% NDF. The duration of the experiment was 28 days. After feed withdrawal 12 h, 24 pigs (eight per treatment) were slaughtered, samples from M. longissimus lumborum (LL) were collected for subsequent analysis. The results showed that pigs fed diet C had lesser average daily gain, average daily feed intake and back fat depth than those fed diet A (Ppigs fed diet A showed increased contents of lactate and greater glycolytic potential (GP) compared with those fed diet C (Ppigs fed diet C, than in pigs fed diet A. In addition, pigs fed diet C resulted in downregulation of miR23a and upregulation of miR409 and miR208b (Ppigs. This reduction of GP may be partially associated with the improvement of oxidative fibre composition in LL muscle, and the change in myofibre type may be correlated with the change in the miRNA expression.

  14. Effect of split marketing on the welfare, performance, and carcass traits of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, S; Lawlor, P G; O'Connell, N; Boyle, L A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a split marketing (SM) strategy, in which the heaviest pigs in a group are removed and slaughtered earlier than the others, with an all-out (AO) marketing strategy, in which all pigs are removed from the pen simultaneously and slaughtered on the same day, in terms of welfare, performance, and carcass traits of noncastrated (i.e., intact) male and female pigs. The experimental treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial array with 1) marketing strategy (SM vs. AO) and 2) sex (males vs. females), which yielded 4 treatment groups of 14 pigs (73.1 ± 4.8 kg): male SM, male AO, female SM, and female AO (7 replicates/group). Pigs in AO groups were all slaughtered after 6 wk on trial, whereas in SM groups the 3 heaviest pigs were removed and slaughtered 2 wk before the remainder of the group, which were slaughtered at the same time as the AO pigs. Pigs were fed a liquid diet from a long trough 3 times daily. Behavioral observations were conducted before and after SM, the day of SM, and 1 and 2 wk later. Behavior was recorded both during and between feed events, and skin lesions were scored on all, except the 3 pigs removed from SM groups before and 2 wk after SM. Growth performance, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were recorded. The number of aggressive interactions during feed events decreased after the 3 pigs were removed from SM groups. This reduction in aggressive interactions was observed on the day of SM in male groups (before SM: 24.3 vs. the day of SM: 14.7, SED = 3.31, P 0.10). There were no differences between the 11 remaining pigs in SM groups and the 14 pigs in AO groups in terms of growth performance, feed efficiency, and carcass traits of female or intact male pigs (P > 0.10). However, reduced within-pen CV in carcass weight was detected in pigs from SM groups compared with pigs from AO groups (8.6 vs. 10.9, SEM = 0.72, P < 0.05). Therefore, in restrictively fed pigs, a SM strategy improved the welfare of both

  15. Feeding weaned piglets and growing-finishing pigs with diets based on mainly home-grown organic feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, EU regulations for organic animal production set new guidelines for organic pig feeding requiring that this be based on mainly home-grown organic feedstuffs. Doubts were however raised whether these feeding regimes can maintain good growth performance and carcass quality of pigs. Three experiments were carried out to study different organic feeding regimes in weaned piglets and fattening pigs. In Experiment 1, we evaluated the use of peas and faba beans (0, 120, or 240 g kg-1 in diets for weaned piglets. Piglets fed pea diets performed as well as those fed the control diet, whereas the highest faba bean level resulted in reduced feed intake and growth performance. In Experiment 2, we studied the replacement (0, 33, or 67% of rapeseed cake with blue lupins in fattening pig diets. The dietary lupin level had a quadratic effect on the weight gain of growing pigs, the best performance being observed at the 33% replacement level. However, dietary lupin level did not influence weight gain during the finishing period and total fattening. Back fat became softer with increasing dietary lupin levels. In Experiment 3, different protein supplements were compared in organic diets from weaning to slaughter. In two-phase feeding, the best performance was observed when whey protein was used as the protein supplement, followed by soya bean cake + whey protein and rapeseed cake + fish meal. The effects of a one-phase organic feeding regime with cold-pressed rapeseed cake + whey protein did not differ from those of the two-phase organic feeding regimes. Fattening pigs fed organic diets required from two to seven days longer to reach slaughter weight than those fed conventional diets. Pigs fed organic diets had fatter carcasses, but the eating quality of organic pork did not differ from that of pork from pigs fed conventional diets. Feed costs and the circulation rate of pigs, weaners in particular, were greater and carcass prices lower in the organic

  16. Characterisation of recently emerged multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104 and other multiresistant phage types from Danish pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1998-01-01

    A total of 670 isolates of Salmonella enterica were isolated from Danish pig herds, phage typed and tested for susceptibility to amoxycillin + clavulanate, ampicillin, colistin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, neomycin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim + sulphadiazine. S ent...

  17. The new classification system for slaughter-pig herds in the Danish Salmonella surveillance-and-control program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alban, L.; Stege, Helle; Dahl, J.

    2002-01-01

    The Danish surveillance-and-control program for Salmonella in slaughter pigs was introduced in 1995. The key element of the program is a quick and correct identification of herds with high seroprevalence. After 5 years, the classification scheme was evaluated-and a revision was made. Data from two...... the Danish Salmonella Database including all herds in 2000. The classification scheme has been adjusted on the following points. (1) The sampling has been simplified into 60, 75, or 100 samples per herd per year depending on herd size. This means more-precise estimates for the seroprevalence among smaller...

  18. Associations of antimicrobial uses with antimicrobial resistance of fecal Escherichia coli from pigs on 47 farrow-to-finish farms in Ontario and British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akwar, Holy T.; Poppe, Cornelis; Wilson, Jeff; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Dyck, Monica; Waddington, Josh; Shang, Dayue; McEwen, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the associations between antimicrobial use and other management practices in pigs and antimicrobial resistance in generic Escherichia coli recovered from feces of weaner and finisher pigs on 39 purposefully selected farrow-to-finish farms in Ontario and 8 in British Columbia. Antimicrobials (n = 13), most frequently penicillins and tetracycline, were administered to different age groups of pigs on study farms through various routes of administration. Logistic regression was used to model risk factors to antimicrobial resistance in fecal E. coli of pigs for the following antimicrobials: ampicillin, apramycin, carbadox, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, neomycin, nitrofurantoin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole). Use of antimicrobials in weaner pigs compared with use in finisher pigs was associated with resistance in most models. There was phenotypic evidence of different mechanisms of resistance selection, including direct selection [use of carbadox was associated with carbadox resistance (OR = 6.48)]; cross-resistance [use of spectinomycin was associated with streptomycin resistance (OR = 2.29)]; and possible co-selection [ceftiofur use was associated with tetracycline resistance (OR = 6.12)]. These results provide further evidence that use of antimicrobials in pigs selects for resistance among fecal E. coli within and between classes of antimicrobials. PMID:18505211

  19. Survey of quantitative antimicrobial consumption per production stage in farrow-to-finish pig farms in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To characterise antimicrobial use (AMU) per production stage in terms of drugs, routes of application, indications, duration and exposed animals in farrow-to-finish pig farms in Spain. Design Survey using a questionnaire on AMU during the six months prior to the interview, administered in face-to-face interviews completed from April to October 2010. Participants 108 potentially eligible farms covering all the country were selected using a multistage sampling methodology; of these, 33 were excluded because they did not fulfil the participation criteria and 49 were surveyed. Results The rank of the most used antimicrobials per farm and production stage and administration route started with polymyxins (colistin) by feed during the growing and the preweaning phases, followed by β-lactams by feed during the growing and the preweaning phases and by injection during the preweaning phase. Conclusions The study demonstrates that the growing stage (from weaning to the start of finishing) has the highest AMU according to different quantitative indicators (number of records, number of antimicrobials used, percentage of farms reporting use, relative number of exposed animals per farm and duration of exposure); feed is the administration route that produces the highest antimicrobial exposure based on the higher number of exposed animals and the longer duration of treatment; and there are large differences in AMU among individual pig farms. PMID:26392868

  20. Effect of increasing temparature on space requirements of group housed finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoolder, H.A.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Vermeer, H.M.; Riel, van J.W.

    2012-01-01

    For groups of pigs to cope adequately with their housing conditions they need sufficient static space (occupied by the body of the pig), activity space (for movement between different functional areas and behaviours relating to these) and interaction space (for appropriate social behaviour). Estimat

  1. A meta-analysis of the effects of high ambient temperature on growth performance of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaudeau, D; Gourdine, J L; St-Pierre, N R

    2011-07-01

    High ambient temperature (T) is one of the most important climatic factors influencing pig performance. Increased T occurs sporadically during summer heat waves in temperate climates and year round in tropical climates. Results of published experiments assessing the effects of high T on pig performance are surprisingly variable. Thus, a meta-analysis was performed to aggregate our knowledge and attempt to explain differences in the results across studies on the effect of increased T on ADFI and ADG in growing-finishing pigs. Data for ADFI and ADG were extracted from 86 and 80 trials, respectively, from articles published in scientific journals indexed in PubMed, Science Direct, and from proceedings of scientific meetings through November 2009. Data on ADFI and ADG were analyzed using a linear mixed model that included the linear and the quadratic effects of T and BW, and their interactions as continuous, fixed effects variables, and the trial as a random effect factor (i.e., block). In addition, the effects of housing type (2 levels: individual and group housing) and the year of publication (3 levels: 1970 to 1989, 1990 to 1999, and 2000 to 2009) on the intercept and the linear regression term for T (i.e., the slope) were also tested. Results showed that high T had a curvilinear effect on ADFI and ADG and that this effect was more pronounced in heavier pigs. Across T, ADFI was less when pigs were group-housed. The intercept and the regression coefficient (slope) for T were significantly affected by the year of publication. The effect of increased T was greater in more contemporary works, suggesting that modern genotypes could be more sensitive to heat stress than older genotypes of lesser growth potential. In conclusion, pig performance decreases at an accelerating rate as T is increased. The large between-study variability on the effects of high T on pig performance is partially explained by differences in pig BW and to a lesser extent by the year the study was

  2. Effects of pantothenic acid on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs fed diets with or without ractopamine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groesbeck, C N; Goodband, R D; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Nelssen, J L; DeRouchey, J M

    2007-10-01

    Two experiments evaluated effects of added pantothenic acid on performance of growing-finishing pigs. In Exp. 1, 156 pigs (PIC, initial BW = 25.7 kg) were used in a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial to evaluate the effects of added pantothenic acid (PA; 0, 22.5, or 45 ppm), ractopamine.HCl (RAC; 0 or 10 mg/kg), and sex on growth performance and carcass traits. Pigs were fed increasing PA from 25.7 to 123.6 kg (d 0 to 98) and RAC for the last 28 d before slaughter. Increasing the amount of added PA had no effect (P > 0.40) on ADG, ADFI, or G:F from d 0 to 70. A PA x sex interaction (P 0.38) on carcass traits. Added RAC increased (P PIC, initial BW = 40.4 kg, final BW = 123.6 kg) were used to determine the effects of increasing PA on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs reared in a commercial finishing facility. Pigs were fed 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 90 mg/kg of added PA. Increasing the amount of added PA had no effect (P > 0.45) on ADG, ADFI, or G:F, and no differences were observed (P > 0.07) for carcass traits. In summary, adding dietary PA to diets during the growing-finishing phase did not provide any advantages in growth performance or carcass composition of growing-finishing pigs. Furthermore, it appears that the pantothenic acid in corn and soybean meal may be sufficient to meet the requirements of 25- to 120-kg pigs.

  3. Role of wild bird and rodents in the epidemiology of subclinical salmonellosis in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Barranco, Sara; Vico, Juan P; Garrido, Victoria; Samper, Sofía; Herrera-León, Silvia; de Frutos, Cristina; Mainar-Jaime, Raúl C

    2014-09-01

    Wild birds and rodents may play an important role in the dynamics of subclinical pig salmonellosis, either as the introducers of the bacteria into the farm or as receptors of an infection already established in the farm. We tried to gain further insight into the epidemiology of this infection by studying the phenotypic (i.e., serotype and antimicrobial resistance patterns) and molecular characteristics of Salmonella strains isolated from samples collected from pigs and wildlife captured in the vicinity of pig farms. Salmonella-positive pig fecal samples were identified in 56.1% of the 41 farms investigated. Birds shedding Salmonella spp. were detected in 21.4% of the farms despite the low numbers of birds captured in many farms. Most Salmonella isolates from birds (74%) did not show any antimicrobial resistance (AR) pattern and belonged to phage types rarely seen in the pig population (U310, DT56, DT137, DT164), supporting the likely avian source of infection for most birds. The proportion of farms showing Salmonella-infected rodents was higher (46.2%), with Salmonella isolates showing a high homology with those likely originated from pigs. Salmonella-positive environmental samples were found in >50% of the farms, and the characteristics of these Salmonella strains supported the idea of pigs as a major source of Salmonella contamination of the farm environment. Dissemination of Salmonella in pig farms from areas of high Salmonella prevalence appeared to depend to some extent upon rodents and wild birds present in the farm, but the role of rodents in its maintenance seemed to be somewhat more relevant than that of birds. In conclusion, activities aimed at reducing the contact of these wild species with pigs will probably assist in the control of pig salmonellosis. Strict hygienic measures should be considered in areas of high prevalence of infection to lower the high load of environmental contamination.

  4. Evaluation of dietary fructan supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, meat quality, fecal microbial flora, and fecal noxious gas emission in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, P Y; Wang, J P; Kim, I H

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary fructan supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, meat quality, fecal microbial flora, and fecal noxious gas emission in finishing pigs. A total of 96 finishing pigs [(Yorkshire×Landrace)×Duroc] with an average BW of 73.1±2.5 kg were used in a 6-wk study. Pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments: 1) CON, basal diet, 2) CON+1% fructan (FC1), and 3) CON+2% fructan (FC2) with 8 replicate pens per treatment and 2 barrows and 2 gilts per pen. During the overall study, pigs fed the fructan supplementation diets had a greater (Ppigs fed the CON diet. The levels of fructan supplementation did not affect growth performance and ATTD of DM, N, and GE. Fecal E. coli concentrations in the fructan treatments were lower (Ppigs.

  5. Effect of N-methyl-aspartate and Betaine on Growth Performance and Correlation Between Growth Hormone, Growth Performance and Carcass Composition in Finishing Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X(U) Zi-rong; FENG Jie; ZOU Xiao-ting

    2002-01-01

    Ninety finishing pigs were selected to study the effect of N-methyl-aspartate and betaine on the internal growth hormone level in the serum and the correlation between the growth hormone level, growth performance and carcass characteristic of finishing pig. The study showed that the two matters could improve pig growth and carcass composition significantly. The correlation analyses indicated that the growth hormone and IGF-I have a positive correlation with the growth rate. Carcass lean ratio, longissimus dorsi area, serum free fatty acid and lipase activity have a negative correlation with the feed conversion ratio, carcass fat ratio and urine nitrogen. But the growth hormone is more effective than IGF-I (P< 0.01 ). The results implicated that both the two matters may act through growth hormone axis(growth hormone - IGF-I) to manipulate pig growth.

  6. Carcass and Internal Organs Characteristics of Growing-Finishing Pigs Fed Diets Containing Four Different Maize Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Rahaman Saibu Salifu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the carcass and internal organ characteristics of growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing four different maize varieties. Twenty individually-housed, Large White pigs (12 males and 8 females with an average initial body weight of 13.2 kg were allotted to four dietary treatments labeled, Local Normal maize (LNM, Imported Normal Yellow maize (INYM, Golden Jubilee maize (GJM and Etubi maize (ETM in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD. The last two treatments were approved Quality Protein Maize (QPM based diets. Each treatment was replicated five times, with a pig representing a replicate. Feed and water were provided ad-libitum. Values for the final weight, dressing percentage, shoulder, loin, belly, thigh, carcass length, backfat thickness, head and trotters were statistically similar (P>0.05. However, the values for heart, liver, kidney and respiratory tract were statistically different (P>0.05. The values for the liver (LNM=1.34, IMYM=1.26, GJM=1.51 and ETM=1.52 and the kidney (LNM=0.20, IMYM=0.17, GJM=0.21 and ETM=0.20 were significantly higher in favour of QPM-based diets. The results showed that using GJM and ETM varieties could be more profitable due to premium price placed on liver and lean pork in Ghana.

  7. Effects of lowering dietary fiber before marketing on finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, carcass fat quality, and intestinal weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, M D; Derouchey, J M; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Houser, T A; Nelssen, J L; Goodband, R D

    2014-01-01

    A total of 264 pigs (initially 41.0 kg BW) were used in a 90-d study to determine the effects of lowering dietary fiber before market on pigs fed high dietary fiber [provided by wheat middlings (midds) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)] on growth performance, carcass characteristics, carcass fat quality, and intestinal weights of growing-finishing pigs. Pens of pigs were randomly allotted by initial BW and sex to 1 of 6 treatments with 6 replications per treatment and 7 or 8 pigs per pen. A positive control (corn-soybean meal-based) diet containing no DDGS or midds (9.3% NDF) and a negative control diet with 30% DDGS and 19% midds (19% NDF) were fed throughout the entire trial (d 0 to 90). The other 4 treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with the main effects of length of fiber reduction (23 or 47 d before marketing) and fiber level fed during the reduction period (low or medium). Pigs on these treatments were fed the negative control before the reduction treatment. The medium-fiber diet contained 15% DDGS and 9.5% midds (14.2% NDF) with the low-fiber diet was the positive control diet. Increasing the feeding duration of the low-fiber diets lowered overall ADFI (linear, P = 0.03) and improved G:F (linear, P fiber level for the last 23 d did not influence growth performance; however, lowering the fiber level improved carcass yield (P = 0.002), with a greater response (P fiber diet was fed for 23 d. Jowl fat iodine value (IV) decreased when the longer lower fiber diets were fed (linear, P fiber diet during the fiber reduction period than pigs fed the medium-fiber diet during the same time period; however, increasing the time lower fiber diets were fed from 23 to 47 d further reduced (P fiber level decreased full large intestine weight (linear, P = 0.005) with a greater response (P = 0.04) when the low-fiber diet was fed during the reduction period instead of the medium-fiber diet. In summary, lowering the fiber level before marketing can

  8. Farm-specific lineages of methicillin-resistant Staphyloccus aureus clonal complex 398 in Danish pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, J.; Moodley, Arshnee

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex (CC) 398 using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Dust and pigs at five age groups were sampled in six Danish MRSA-positive pig farms. MRSA CC398 was iso...

  9. Development of an Index for the Assessment of Welfare of Finishing Pigs from Farm to Slaughter based on Expert Opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Pia; Rousing, Tine; Herskin, Mette S

    2017-01-01

    , lairage and race (AWIStage) and across the stages (AWIOverall). The AWIs were tested in 5 farms including a total of 45 fattening pigs delivered to two Danish abattoirs. Possible inter-relations between the AWI and heart rate measurements were examined. For each welfare measurement within stage......, significant differences between the mean expert scores were found. However, no difference between stage weights was found. Statistically significant differences in average heart rate between stages were found: 123a (pick up pen), 139b (loading), 120a (transport), 132d (unloading), 114c (lairage) and 134bd...... (race) bpm, respectively, (different letters indicate differences of Pheart rate within stage (r=0.61, P=0.19) or between AWIStage and heart rate (r=0.43, P=0.40) was found. In conclusion...

  10. Effect of sow history features on growth and feed intake in grow-finish pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Sell-Kubiak, E.B.; Knol, E.F.; Bijma, P

    2012-01-01

    The sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation and lactation. Certain features in the early life of the sow (sow history features) may affect her ability to deliver and feed a healthy litter. In genetic analyses of grow-finish traits, these effects are estimated as common litter or permanent sow effects. The objective of this research was to identify sow history features that affect the growth rate (GR) and feed intake (FI) of her offspring during the grow-finish st...

  11. The effects of feeder design and dietary dried distillers' grains with solubles on the performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, J R; Nelssen, J L; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M

    2014-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to compare the effects of a conventional dry (five 30.5-cm spaces 152.4 cm wide; Staco Inc., Schaefferstown, PA) vs. a wet-dry (double sided; each side = 38.1-cm space; Crystal Spring; GroMaster Inc., Omaha, NE) finishing feeder (Exp. 1 and 2) and to evaluate the effects of feeder design and dietary level of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS; >10% oil; Exp. 3) on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs. In Exp. 1, 1,186 pigs (32.1 kg BW) were used in a 69-d experiment. There were 26 to 28 pigs per pen and 22 pens per feeder design, and all pigs received the same diets in 4 phases. In Exp. 2, 1,236 pigs (28.7 kg BW) were used in a 104-d experiment, with 25 to 28 pigs per pen and 23 pens per feeder design, and all pigs received the same diets in 5 phases. Carcass measurements were obtained from 11 pens of each feeder design after harvest. In Exp. 3, 1,080 pigs (35.1 kg BW) were used in a 99-d 2 × 2 factorial with main effects of feeder design (dry vs. wet-dry feeders) and DDGS (20 vs. 60%) with 10 pens of 27 pigs per treatment and all diets fed in 4 phases. Jowl fat samples were collected from 2 pigs per pen for fatty acid analysis and iodine value (IV) determination. In all experiments, pigs fed with the wet-dry feeder had greater (P pigs fed with a wet-dry feeder, but G:F and fat-free lean index (FFLI) were reduced. Jowl IV was also reduced (P Pigs fed 60% DDGS in Exp. 3 had decreased (P pigs fed with this specific type of wet-dry feeder had improved ADG and ADFI, poorer G:F, and increased backfat depth compared to pigs fed with a conventional dry feeder. The poorer growth performance and increased jowl IV of pigs fed diets with 60% DDGS was similarly exhibited for pigs fed on both feeders.

  12. Effects of a “step-up” ractopamine feeding program, sex and social rank on growth performance, hoof lesions, and Enterobacteriaceae shedding in finishing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing concern for animal well-being and food safety has driven the investigation of feed additives such as ractopamine (RAC), a ß-agonist widely used to improve production performance of finishing pigs. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a “step-up” RAC feeding program ...

  13. Effect of a ractopamine feeding program on growth performance and carcass composition in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, M T; Armstrong, T A; Weldon, W C

    2004-08-01

    Barrows and gilts (n = 100 per gender) were used to determine the effects of an increasing, decreasing, or constant ractopamine (RAC) dietary concentration on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Pigs, within a gender, were assigned randomly to pens (five pigs per pen and 10 pens per treatment). Pens were assigned randomly to one of four dietary treatments at a starting weight of 71.2 kg, to target an average ending weight of 109 kg. The four dietary treatments (as-fed basis) were 1) control = 0 ppm RAC, wk 0 to 6; 2) RAC step-up = 5.0 ppm, wk 1 to 2; 10.0 ppm, wk 3 to 4; and 20.0 ppm, wk 5 to 6; 3) RAC step-down = 20.0 ppm, wk 1 to 2; 10.0 ppm, wk 3 to 4; and 5.0 ppm, wk 5 to 6; and 4) RAC constant = 11.7 ppm, wk 0 to 6. Feed allocation was recorded daily, and pigs were weighed and feed was weighed back every 2 wk. Jugular blood samples were obtained from two randomly selected pigs per pen on d -3, 7, 21, 35, and 41 for determination of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) concentrations. Two pigs were selected randomly per pen and sent to a commercial slaughter facility at the end of the 6-wk experimental period. Carcass data were evaluated on an equal time basis and on an equal weight basis by using hot carcass weight (HCW) as a covariate. Overall, ADG and G:F were improved (P pigs fed RAC compared with control, with no differences among RAC feeding programs. In wk 3 and 4, improvements (P pigs. The concentrations of PUN were decreased (P pigs fed RAC. If pigs were considered to be on feed for an equal time period, advantages (P < 0.05) were observed for weight of boneless trimmed ham, shoulder and loin for the step-up and constant RAC treatments compared with the controls. Feeding a RAC step-up or constant feeding program resulted in favorable responses in growth performance and yielded more lean pork.

  14. Time-response relationship of ractopamine feeding on growth performance, plasma urea nitrogen concentration, and carcass traits of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, V V; Nuñez, A J C; Schinckel, A P; Andrade, C; Balieiro, J C C; Sbardella, M; Miyada, V S

    2013-02-01

    Ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) improves swine production efficiency by redirecting nutrients to favor muscle accretion rather than fat deposition. In the present study, the time-dependent effect of RAC feeding on performance, plasma urea N (PUN) concentrations, and carcass traits of finishing pigs were evaluated. In a 28-d growth study, 80 barrows (average initial BW = 69.4 ± 7.9 kg) were assigned to 1 of 5 treatments in a randomized complete block design with 8 replicate pens per treatment and 2 pigs per pen. The pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet with no added RAC (control) or 10 mg of RAC/kg fed for 7, 14, 21, or 28 d before slaughter. All diets were formulated to contain 0.88% standardized ileal digestible Lys (1.0% total Lys) and 3.23 Mcal of ME/kg. Individual pig BW and pen feed disappearance were recorded weekly to determine BW changes, ADG, ADFI, and G:F. Anterior vena cava blood samples were taken on d 28 for determination of PUN concentrations. After 28 d on trial, the pigs were slaughtered and carcass measurements made at 24 h postmortem. Overall, providing pigs with different RAC feeding durations did not affect the final BW and ADFI but resulted in a tendency (P = 0.09) for a linear increase in ADG and a linear improvement (P = 0.003) in G:F. No effect of RAC feeding was found for weekly ADFI. Weekly improvements (P < 0.05) in ADG and G:F were observed over the first 21 d of RAC feeding. However, the growth response declined (P < 0.05) in wk 4 of RAC treatment. The concentrations of PUN exhibited a quadratic decrease (P = 0.004) as the RAC feeding duration increased. Although RAC feeding did not affect any backfat measurements and carcass length, increasing the RAC feeding duration linearly increased HCW (P = 0.01), dressing percentage (P = 0.03), LM depth (P = 0.001), LM area (P < 0.001), muscle-to-fat ratio (P = 0.004), and predicted carcass lean percentage (P = 0.02). These results indicate that a greater growth rate was achieved within

  15. Effect of sow history features on growth and feed intake in grow-finish pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sell-Kubiak, E.B.; Knol, E.F.; Bijma, P.

    2012-01-01

    The sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation and lactation. Certain features in the early life of the sow (sow history features) may affect her ability to deliver and feed a healthy litter. In genetic analyses of grow-finish traits, these effects are estimated as common

  16. Effect of sow history features on growth and feed intake in grow-finish pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sell-Kubiak, E.B.; Knol, E.F.; Bijma, P.

    2012-01-01

    The sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation and lactation. Certain features in the early life of the sow (sow history features) may affect her ability to deliver and feed a healthy litter. In genetic analyses of grow-finish traits, these effects are estimated as common

  17. Identification of post-mortem indicators of welfare of finishing pigs on the day of slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Pia; Rousing, Tine; Herskin, Mette S

    2013-01-01

    and lifting by other pigs in the race to the stunning chamber. At sticking, a blood sample was collected for analysis of glucose, lactate and creatine kinase activity (CK), the blood and the m. longissimus dorsi (LD) temperature and the LD pH were measured, and skin damages were recorded. PCA and PLSR...... analyses were performed to investigate the correlation structures between the ante- and post-mortem measurements. The PCA plot indicated that the plasma concentration of glucose and lactate was correlated with lifting, falling and handling in the race to the stunning chamber, lactate was correlated with pH......Welfare measurements inspired by the Welfare Quality® (2009) Protocol for slaughter pigs at the abattoir were recorded for a total of 80 pigs from four herds in order to investigate the relationship between selected ante-mortem observations and post-mortem measurements with the aim of identifying...

  18. Effects of dietary sulfur and distillers dried grains with solubles on carcass characteristics, loin quality, and tissue concentrations of sulfur, selenium, and copper in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B G; Kil, D Y; Mahan, D C; Hill, G M; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Inclusion of up to 0.38% S in diets that contain 30% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) has no negative effect on growth performance of growing-finishing pigs, but there is no information about the effects of dietary S on accumulation of S in tissues in pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine if the concentration of S in diets containing DDGS affects carcass characteristics, loin quality, or tissue mineral concentrations in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 120 barrows (34.2 ± 2.3 kg BW) were allotted to 3 dietary treatments with 10 replicate pens and 4 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were fed grower diets for 42 d and finisher diets for 42 d. At the conclusion of the experiment, the pig in each pen with the BW closest to the pen average was slaughtered. The control diet was based on corn and soybean meal and the finisher diet contained 0.14% S, 0.19 mg/kg Se, and 15.3 mg/kg Cu. The DDGS diet was formulated with corn, soybean meal, and 30% DDGS and the finisher diet with DDGS contained 0.16% S, 0.32 mg/kg Se, and 14.0 mg/kg Cu. The DDGS plus S (DDGS-S) diet was similar to the DDGS diet, except that 1.10% CaSO4 (16.2% S) was included in this diet, and the finisher diet with DDGS-S contained 0.37% S, 0.35 mg/kg Se, and 13.8 mg/kg Cu. Results indicated that organ weights and loin quality, 24-h pH, drip loss, loin subjective color, marbling, and firmness did not differ among treatments, but loin a* was greater (P pigs fed the control diet than for pigs fed the DDGS-S diet. Concentrations of S in hair, liver, heart, loin, and all other tissues did not differ among treatments, but urinary S concentration was greater (P pigs fed the DDGS-S diet than for pigs fed the other diets. Pigs fed the DDGS diet or the DDGS-S diet had greater (P pigs fed the control diet, but liver concentrations of Cu did not differ among treatments. In conclusion, inclusion of 30% DDGS in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs did not

  19. Influence of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine and dietary standardized ileal digestible lysine level on growth performance and carcass quality of grower-finisher pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molist, F; Gerritsen, R; van der Aar, P; Prüst, H

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys levels of the diet on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of entire males (EM), surgical castrates (SC), and males vaccinated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine (GV). In total, 252 crossbred pigs were fed 6 different experimental diets consisting of 3 sexes (EM, SC, and GV pigs) and 2 dietary SID Lys levels (2008 CVB standard SID Lys recommendation [Std] or 15% extra SID Lys [+15]) according to a 3-phase feeding scheme (d 0 to 35, 35 to 70, and 70 to 105 of experiment) with 6 pens per treatment and 6 pigs per pen. To determine if dietary SID Lys could be reduced for GV males after the second vaccination, an additional dietary treatment was included (GV+15-Std). The GV males on the GV+15-Std were fed the diet with 15% extra SID Lys in the starter and grower phases and the standard SID Lys level in the finisher phase. First vaccination was administered to pigs at the start of the experiment (23.4 kg BW and 63.6 d of age), and the second vaccination occurred 6 wk before slaughter (77.2 kg BW and 126.6 d of age). Until the second vaccination, GV pigs showed a lower (P ≤ 0.05) ADFI than SC but similar to EM. After the second vaccination, GV pigs had an intermediate (P ≤ 0.05) G:F between EM and SC. The GV+15 pigs showed a better G:F (P ≤ 0.05) than GV pigs fed the GV+15-Std diet in the finisher phase. No differences in the growth rate of the pigs were observed. The SC had a greater (P ≤ 0.05) carcass weight and dressing percentage than EM and GV pigs. The GV-Std pigs had a lower (P ≤ 0.05) meat percentage and greater (P ≤ 0.05) backfat thickness than the GV+15 pigs. The GV pigs and SC fed the standard SID Lys diet had a greater (P ≤ 0.05) percentage of SFA in the subcutaneous fat than EM+15 pigs. On the other hand, SC showed the greatest (P ≤ 0.05) concentration of MUFA compared to EM and GV pigs. The SC and GV pigs

  20. Dynamics of quinolone resistance in fecal Escherichia coli of finishing pigs after ciprofloxacin administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kang; Xu, Chang-Wen; Zeng, Bo; Xia, Qing-Qing; Zhang, An-Yun; Lei, Chang-Wei; Guan, Zhong-Bin; Cheng, Han; Wang, Hong-Ning

    2014-09-01

    Escherichia coli resistance to quinolones has now become a serious issue in large-scale pig farms of China. It is necessary to study the dynamics of quinolone resistance in fecal Escherichia coli of pigs after antimicrobial administration. Here, we present the hypothesis that the emergence of resistance in pigs requires drug accumulation for 7 days or more. To test this hypothesis, 26 pigs (90 days old, about 30 kg) not fed any antimicrobial after weaning were selected and divided into 2 equal groups: the experimental (EP) group and control (CP) group. Pigs in the EP group were orally treated daily with 5 mg ciprofloxacin/kg of body weight for 30 days, and pigs in the CP group were fed a normal diet. Fresh feces were collected at 16 time points from day 0 to day 61. At each time point, ten E. coli clones were tested for susceptibility to quinolones and mutations of gyrA and parC. The results showed that the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for ciprofloxacin increased 16-fold compared with the initial MIC (0.5 µg/ml) after ciprofloxacin administration for 3 days and decreased 256-fold compared with the initial MIC (0.5 µg/ml) after ciprofloxacin withdrawal for 26 days. GyrA (S83L, D87N/ D87Y) and parC (S80I) substitutions were observed in all quinolone-resistant E. coli (QREC) clones with an MIC ≥8 µg/ml. This study provides scientific theoretical guidance for the rational use of antimicrobials and the control of bacterial resistance.

  1. Escherichia coli O157 prevalence in Dutch poultry, pig finishing and veal herds and risk factors in Dutch veal herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, J M; van de Giessen, A W; Frankena, K; De Jong, M C M; Graat, E A M

    2005-08-12

    In the period October 1996 through December 2000, a total of 7163 pooled faecal samples of laying hen and broiler flocks, finishing-pig herds and veal herds were examined for the presence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 as part of a national monitoring programme in The Netherlands. Isolates were tested for eae and VT genes. Risk factors for Dutch veal herds were quantified. For all herd/flock types, faecal samples were cultured for E. coli O157. Of broiler flocks, laying flocks and finishing pig herds, respectively, 1.7%, 0.5% and 0.4% were E. coli O157 positive. In total, 42 of the 454 veal herds (9.3%) showed at least one positive pooled sample. E. coli O157-positive herds were compared (with logistic regression) to negative herds, regarding variables obtained from the questionnaire taken from the farm manager. To account for season, a sine function was included in the logistic regression as offset variable. In the final model, 'pink-veal production' (compared to white-veal production), 'group housing of the sampled herd' (compared to individual housing), 'more than one stable present' (compared to one stable present), 'hygienic measures regarding visitors' (compared to no hygienic measures), 'interval arrival-sampling of a herd of >20 weeks' (compared to < or =10 weeks), and 'presence of other farms within 1 km' (compared to no presence of farms <1 km) showed associations (P<0.05) with the presence of E. coli O157. These results need careful interpretation; they should be considered as indications for further (experimental or cohort-based) research rather then causal associations.

  2. Effects of preslaughter feed withdrawal time on finishing pig carcass, body weight gain, and food safety characteristics in a commercial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frobose, H L; Dritz, S S; Tokach, M D; Prusa, K J; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L

    2014-08-01

    The effects of feed withdrawal time before slaughter on finishing pig carcass composition were evaluated in 2 studies. In Exp. 1, 728 pigs (BW = 128.9 ± 1.2 kg) were allotted to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized design with number of pigs per pen and location within barn balanced across treatment. The 4 treatments were feed withdrawal times of 8, 24, 36, or 48 h and there were 12 replicate pens per treatment. Before feed withdrawal, pigs were fed a standard corn-soybean meal diet containing dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), bakery coproducts, and 5.0 mg/kg ractopamine HCl. Feed withdrawal time decreased (linear; P pigs (BW = 125.4 ± 1.6 kg) were used to determine the impact of feed withdrawal on growth, carcass, blood lactate, and meat quality. There were 4 treatments: withholding feed for 8, 12, 24, or 36 h, with 10 replicates per treatment. Pigs were fed a common corn-soybean meal-based diet containing 20% DDGS and 5.0 mg/kg ractopamine HCl. Withholding feed decreased (linear; P blood lactate, visual color score, and purge loss were unaffected. Withholding feed increased 45-min pH (quadratic; P > 0.02) and ultimate pH (linear; P pig. Although several heavyweight pigs were removed before trial commencement and the variable number of remaining pigs per pen may have influenced the response to feed withdrawal, the present data indicates that finishing pigs can experience between 24 and 36 h of feed withdrawal without negatively affecting carcass composition. However, the increased incidence of leaking ingesta beyond 12 h of feed withdrawal is concerning.

  3. Fresh wood reduces tail and ear biting and increases exploratory behaviour in finishing pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telkanranta, H.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Valros, A.

    2014-01-01

    Chewing and rooting are high behavioural priorities in pigs. Lack of suitable materials can lead to abnormal behaviours such as tail and ear biting. In commercial farming, slatted floors limit the use of straw, and various point-source objects have therefore been developed. The crucial challenge is

  4. Modelling phosphorus intake, digestion, retention and excretion in growing and finishing pig: model evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeou, V; Leinonen, I; Kyriazakis, I

    2014-10-01

    A deterministic, dynamic model was developed, to enable predictions of phosphorus (P) digested, retained and excreted for different pig genotypes and under different dietary conditions. Before confidence can be placed on the predictions of the model, its evaluation was required. A sensitivity analysis of model predictions to ±20% changes in the model parameters was undertaken using a basal UK industry standard diet and a pig genotype characterized by British Society Animal Science as being of 'intermediate growth'. Model outputs were most sensitive to the values of the efficiency of digestible P utilization for growth and the non-phytate P absorption coefficient from the small intestine into the bloodstream; all other model parameters influenced model outputs by excretion. In general, the model predicted satisfactorily the quantitative pig responses, in terms of P digested, retained and excreted, to variation in dietary inorganic P supply, Ca and phytase supplementation. The model performed well with 'conventional', European feed ingredients and poorly with 'less conventional' ones, such as dried distillers grains with solubles and canola meal. Explanations for these inconsistencies in the predictions are offered in the paper and they are expected to lead to further model development and improvement. The latter would include the characterization of the origin of phytate in pig diets.

  5. Effect of protein level on performance, nitrogen utilisation and carcass composition in finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Hansen, Michael Jørgen; Assadi Soumeh, Elham;

    2014-01-01

    and back fat depth differed among treatments. In conclusion, the study indicated that CP could be decreased to 136 g/kg as-fed for growing pigs in the weight range 50–100 kg without negative impact on growth performance and carcass traits. Moreover, leanness was not affected by excess CP....

  6. Ammonia emission from excreta of growing-finishing pigs as affected by dietary composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canh, T.T.

    1998-01-01

    Ammonia, volatilised from pig slurry decreases manure's fertiliser value. Furthermore, the deposition of ammonia emitted into the atmosphere may cause undesirable changes in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. At present, there is increasing interest in nutritional means to reduce ammonia

  7. Effect of dietary oil supplementation on fatty acid profile of backfat and intramuscular fat in finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pulina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two groups of finishing gilts were fed, for 4 weeks, a commercial feed enriched (2% with either rapeseed oil or sunflower oil. Pig growth was monitored bi-weekly and the fatty acid composition of backfat and Longissimus muscle was determined after slaughtering. Type of dietary oil affected significantly the fatty acid profile of pork fat, especially the C18:3n-3 concentration which was higher in pigs fed rapeseed oil than in those fed sunflower oil. The content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA of Longissimus muscle was significantly higher than that of backfat, due to the its higher concentration of C18:1cis9 and C16:1. Differently, the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content was higher in backfat than in Longissimus muscle. These results confirm that it is possible to manipulate the fatty acid composition of the diet, in order to improve the health properties of the adipose tissues of pork meat.

  8. Effect of dietary amylose/amylopectin ratio on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Can; Chen, Daiwen; Yu, Bing; Huang, Zhiqing; Mao, Xiangbing; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping; He, Jun

    2015-10-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary amylose/amylopectin ratio (DAR) on body health and meat quality in finishing pigs. A total of forty-eight DLY pigs (initial body weight of 74.9±5.0kg) were randomly allotted to two treatments, and fed either with LR (DAR: 12/88) or HR (DAR: 30/70) diet. Results showed that ingestion of a HR diet not only decreased the triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations in plasma (P<0.05), but also reduced the lipid contents in liver (P<0.05). Interestingly, ingestion of a HR diet tended to reduce the intramuscular fat content (P=0.06), and significantly increased the firmness (P<0.05) and loin-eye area (P<0.01). Moreover, ingestion of a HR diet significantly decreased the levels of MyHC I (P<0.05), and elevated the levels of MyHCIIb (P<0.05) gene expression in longissimus dorsi. Ingestion of a HR diet has resulted in down-regulation of the FAS3 gene in liver and longissimus dorsi (P<0.05). These findings suggested that a HR diet is helpful to reduce the lipogenesis both in liver and muscle.

  9. Serum inoculation as a possibility for elimination of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) from a farrow-to-finish pig farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štukelj, Marina; Plut, Jan; Toplak, Ivan

    2015-09-01

    The large heterogeneity among porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolates is probably the main obstacle to its effective control using current commercial vaccines. Intentionally exposing all breeding pigs to PRRSV circulating on the farm could eliminate porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) from the herd. The objective of this study was to eliminate PRRS from a farrow-to-finish pig farm by serum inoculation. The owner was acquainted with the strict biosecurity measures. Breeding pigs were immunised with serum, which was obtained from PRRSV-positive weaners from the same farm. The percent of antibody high positive breeding pigs decreased six months after serum inoculation, while 34 months after serum inoculation no more antibody high positive pigs were detected and 56.8% of breeding pigs and all other categories were free of antibodies. In the breeding herd no virus was detected during all testing while PRRSV circulated in 2-month-old weaners until 12 months after serum inoculation. Later all tested samples from weaners, growers and fatteners were negative. Herd closure and the adoption of strict biosecurity measures are essential. Serum inoculation of the breeding herd proved to be a successful measure for eliminating PRRS from this farrow-to-finish farm.

  10. The effect of wind shielding and pen position on the average daily weight gain and feed conversion rate of grower/finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dan B.; Toft, Nils; Cornou, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Pigs are known to be particularly sensitive to heat and cold. If the temperature becomes too low, the pigs will grow less efficiently and be more susceptible to diseases such as pneumonia. If the temperature is too high, the pigs will tend to foul the pen, leading to additional risks of infection...... producers and research stations have implemented a shielding to prevent winds from blowing between separate sections of the pig housing buildings. However, according to our search of the literature, no published studies have ever investigated the effectiveness of such shielding.To determine the significance...... of the effects of wind shielding, linear mixed models were fitted to describe the average daily weight gain and feed conversion rate of 1271 groups (14 individuals per group) of purebred Duroc, Yorkshire and Danish Landrace boars, as a function of shielding (yes/no), insert season (winter, spring, summer, autumn...

  11. Effects of Replacing of Inorganic Trace Minerals by Organically Bound Trace Minerals on Growth Performance, Tissue Mineral Status, and Fecal Mineral Excretion in Commercial Grower-Finisher Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Xiong, Pingwen; Chen, Nana; He, Junna; Lin, Gang; Xue, Yan; Li, Weifen; Yu, Dongyou

    2016-10-01

    A total of 180 crossbred pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Large White; BW = 47.1 ± 4.8 kg) were used to investigate the effects of totally replacing inorganic trace minerals (ITMs) by organically bound trace minerals (OTMs) on growth performance, tissue mineral status, liver antioxidant enzyme activities, and fecal mineral excretion in grower-finisher pigs. A randomized complete block design with three treatments and six replicates (n = 10 pigs per pen) was used in this 69-day, 2-phase feeding trial. Experimental treatments were as follows: (1) a basal diet without trace mineral supplementation, (2) basal + ITMs (Fe, Mn, and Zn from sulfates, Cu oxychloride, and sodium selenite providing commercially recommended levels in China at 125, 22.5, 117.5, 30, and 0.3 mg/kg, respectively), and 3) basal + OTMs (Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu from Bioplex and Se as Sel-Plex (Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) providing levels identical to ITMs). No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among the treatments during the entire grower-finisher period. Supplementation with minerals, regardless of source, increased (P supplemented. Pigs supplemented with OTMs displayed greater activities of Cu/Zn-SOD, ALP, and GSH-Px in the liver compared to pigs supplemented with ITMs. Dietary mineral supplementation to pig diets greatly increased (P mineral (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Se) excretion in both grower and finisher phases. Fecal concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Se excretion were lower (P supplementation than that in pigs fed diets containing ITMs. These results indicate that use of organic trace minerals, as well as no trace mineral supplementation, did not influence pig growth performance. Totally replacing ITMs by equivalent levels of OTMs could improve hepatic Cu/Zn-SOD, ALP, and GSH-Px activities and reduce fecal Mn, Cu, and Se excretion for grower-finisher pigs when supplemented at commercially recommended levels.

  12. Blood parameters and corneal-reflex of finishing pigs with and without lung affections observed post mortem in two abattoirs stunning with CO₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, R; Rindermann, G; Siegling-Vlitakis, C; Bandick, N; Bräutigam, L; Buschulte, A; Irsigler, H; Wolf, K; Hartmann, H

    2013-02-01

    In two pig abattoirs of different slaughter capacities, the stunning efficacy of CO2 on finishing pigs with and without pneumonic lesions (observed post mortem) was reflected against the corneal-reflex and blood parameters (blood pH, pCO2 and pO2) from individual finishers. Stunning duration was 120 s (abattoir A) and 90 s (abattoir B), respectively. Pneumonia in finisher pigs is frequently observed during post mortem inspection, which may raise concerns about a delay of unconsciousness because of hampered gas exchange in the lungs. The aim of this study was to examine possible pneumonia consequences for stunning efficacy under commercial conditions. For that, corneal reflex, O2 and CO2 partial pressure in the blood as well as blood pH were measured in 2650 finishers from abattoir A and 2100 from abattoir B. The partial pressure of O2 after stunning accounted to about 3 kPa, the partial pressure of CO2 was found at levels of about 24 kPa in abattoir A (after 120 s CO2 exposure) and 17.5 kPa in abattoir B (after 90 s CO2 exposure). In abattoir A, the blood pH was at 6.9, and at 7.0 in abattoir B. The corneal reflex was observed in 6.2% of pigs in abattoir A and 17.1% of pigs in abattoir B. A correlation between pneumonic lesions and blood status was not observed. However, for some individual farms, a significant correlation between pneumonia and corneal reflex was observed.

  13. Effect of PUFA at sn-2 position in dietary triacylglycerols on fatty acid composition of adipose tissue in growing-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheeder Martin R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A potential effect of the specific composition of plant oil triacylglycerols, with PUFAs predominantly esterified at the sn-2 position, on the fatty acid composition of adipose tissues of pigs was investigated. Two blends with a ratio of 1/3 and 3/1 of soybean oil and beef tallow were randomised or left unmodified and fed at 4% of a conventional diet to 4 * 12 pigs. The randomisation of fatty acids at sn-1, 2 and 3 positions did not affect the fatty acid composition of pig adipose tissues. It is concluded that the position of PUFA in dietary triacylglycerols is of minor relevance for the composition of depot fat in growing-finishing pigs

  14. The biosecurity status and its associations with production and management characteristics in farrow-to-finish pig herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, M; Backhans, A; Collineau, L; Loesken, S; Sjölund, M; Belloc, C; Emanuelson, U; Grosse Beilage, E; Stärk, K D C; Dewulf, J

    2016-03-01

    Disease prevention through biosecurity measures is believed to be an important factor for improvement of the overall health status in animal production. This study aimed at assessing the levels of implementation of biosecurity measures in pig production in four European Union (EU) countries and to describe possible associations between the biosecurity level and farm and production characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 232 farrow-to-finish pig herds in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden between December 2012 and December 2013. The biosecurity status in each of these herds was described and quantified by using the risk-based scoring tool Biocheck.UGentTM (www.biocheck.ugent.be). Production and management characteristics, obtained from the herd management system and by interviewing the farmer, were analysed for their association with the biosecurity level. A causal path was designed to study statistical associations. The results showed that there was substantial room for improvement in the biosecurity status on many pig farms. Significant differences (P<0.01) both in internal and external biosecurity levels were observed between countries. The external biosecurity status, combining all measures taken to prevent disease introduction into the herd, was highest in Germany and lowest in France. The internal biosecurity status, combining all measures taken to prevent within herd disease transmission, was highest in Sweden and lowest, with a large variation, in Belgium. External biosecurity scores were in general higher compared to internal biosecurity scores. The number of pathogens vaccinated against was significantly associated with internal biosecurity status, suggesting an overall more preventive approach towards the risk of disease transmission. A higher external biosecurity was associated with more weaned piglets per sow per year. Furthermore also the weaning age and the mortality till weaning were highly associated with the number of weaned

  15. Econometric estimation of investment utilization, adjustment costs, and technical efficiency in Danish pig farms using hyperbolic distance functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Fabricius, Ole; Olsen, Jakob Vesterlund

    2014-01-01

    and by reduced outputs, we estimate hyperbolic distance functions that account for reduced technical efficiency both in terms of increased inputs and reduced outputs. We estimate these hyperbolic distance functions as “efficiency effect frontiers” with the Translog functional form and a dynamic specification......Based on a theoretical microeconomic model, we econometrically estimate investment utilization, adjustment costs, and technical efficiency in Danish pig farms based on a large unbalanced panel dataset. As our theoretical model indicates that adjustment costs are caused both by increased inputs...

  16. Sunflower meal and supplementation of enzyme complex in diets for growing and finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Azis Garcia de Araújo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to evaluate the performance of pigs from 30 to 100 kg of live a total of 96 pigs with average live weight of 32.19±3.27 kg were distributed in randomized blocks design in a 4 × 2 (four levels of SM: 0, 8, 16 and 24%; with or without inclusion of EC  factorial arrangement with six replicates and two animals per experimental unit. The parameters analyzed were feed intake (kg, weight gain (kg, feed conversion (kg/kg, backfat thickness (mm, carcass muscularity (kg, hot carcass weight (%, percentage of lean meat in the carcass (%, and quantity of lean meat in the carcass (kg. There was no interaction between EC and SM levels in the diet. The addition of EC in the diet affected the performance of the animals, but not carcass characteristics. Feed conversion of animals from 30 to 70 kg weight was improved by the inclusion of EC. The increasing levels of SM in the diet presented quadratic effect on weight gain and on backfat thickness, with inclusion points of SM that promoted maximum values of these parameters of 7.26% and 8.16%, respectively.

  17. Effect of amount of straw provided to growing/finishing pigs on gastric ulceration at slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S; Jensen, Henrik E.; Jespersen, A.;

    2014-01-01

    The effect of a current commercial xylanase (DAN) and experimental xylanase (EX), and EX in combination with protease (EXP), on the degradation and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in wheat Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS), was studied in 8 ileum-...... enzymes increase the degradation of NSP and arabinoxylan in wheat DDGS, with ranking of DAN > EXP > EX. Keywords: DDGS, non-starch polysaccharide digestibility, xylanase......The effect of a current commercial xylanase (DAN) and experimental xylanase (EX), and EX in combination with protease (EXP), on the degradation and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in wheat Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS), was studied in 8 ileum......-cannulated pigs (initial BW 36.6±2.8 kg) following a double 4x4 Latin Square design. The control and three enzyme diets, each containing 96% DDGS, were supplemented with vitamins, minerals, L-lysine, 500 FTU phytase/kg feed, dust-binder and chromic oxide (3 g/kg). The pigs were fed 3 times daily for 1 week...

  18. Pasture-Based Swine Management: Behaviour and Performances of Growing-Finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Fortina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A pasture-based swine management (PBSM trial was conducted in Piemonte (N-W Italy to study the performances and the carcass yield of 16 hybrid pigs (8 castrated males and 8 females; average initial weight: 90 kg. Animals were allowed to forage pea, clover, beet and alfalfa pastures for 170 days in a crop-pasture rotation on different paddocks. A concentrate was fed to supply 50% of estimated energy requirements. Forage dry matter intake (DMI ranged from 0.32 kg/day (alfalfa to 2.85 kg/day (pea, depending on the period and forage type. Pigs were weighted every 30 days and at slaughtering; average daily gain (ADG was 0.29 kg. The stocking rate (SR ranged from 109 kg/ha LW (clover to 2347 kg/ha LW (pea. Data collected at slaughtering (average final weight: 141 kg were: hot carcass weight and yield, lean and fat cuts weight, backfat thickness, pH45 and pH24. The statistical analysis (ANOVA of SPSS did not show differences between males and females. Results showed that PBSM should be especially appealing to limited-resource farmers due to low inputs needed; pasture can be used to replace 50% of the nutritional needs, helping to save on grain costs, without affecting carcass characteristics.

  19. Use of register data to assess the association between use of antimicrobials and outbreak of Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS) in Danish pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigre, Håkan; Dohoo, Ian R; Stryhn, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the first case of Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS) was reported in the Danish pig population. During subsequent years, the number of affected farms increased exponentially. The aim of this study was to determine how this increase influenced the use of antimicrobials......, compared to herds not experiencing PMWS. Generalisation of the results to the entire Danish pig population indicated that the increase of PMWS infected herds from almost zero to about 20% during a 4-year period resulted in a national increase of 4-5% in antimicrobials usage in weaners. The effect of PMWS...

  20. A longitudinal study of serological patterns of respiratory infections in nine infected Danish swine herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Margit; Nielsen, Jens; Bækbo, Poul

    2000-01-01

    Sixteen litters of seven pigs from each of nine Danish farrow-to-finish herds were followed to investigate the serological patterns caused by natural infection with Mycoplasma hyponeumoniae, Pasteurella multocida toxin and Actinobacillus pleuroneumoniae serotypes 2, 5-7, 12. In seven of the herds...

  1. The influence of raw grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L. seeds on growth performance and biochemical and haematological parameters in the blood of grower-finisher pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. WINIARSKA-MIECZAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of raw seeds of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L. in feed mixtures for grower-finisher pigs on growth performance, and biochemical and haematological parameters in their blood, as well as on the weight of the liver and the kidney. The experiment was performed on 96 grower-finisher pigs of (Polish Landrace × Polish Large White × Pietrain, weighing from 25 to ca. 100 kg. The pigs were divided into four diet groups. The feed compound of the control group contained extracted soybean meal. In experimental groups soybean meal protein was replaced by raw grass pea seeds in quantities of 50% in grower and/or finisher diet, and 100% in both fattening period. The use of raw grass pea seeds amounting to 50% of protein feeds in finisher diet did not result in lower growth performance in comparison to the control group. However, the fatteners fed grass pea seeds amounting to 50% of protein feedstuffs in both fattening periods revealed the highest feed and energy intake per kg of live weight gain, compared to the group feed grass pea only in the second phase of the fattening period. A higher share of grass pea seeds in the mixture led to weaker growth performance and carcass characteristics. Hypertrophy of kidney and liver was noted in the animals which were fed with raw seeds of grass pea amounting to 100% of protein feeds. Also, hyperactivity of ALAT, ASAT and alkaline phosphatase was observed in the animals’ serum. No negative influence of applying raw seeds of grass pea amounting up to 50% of protein feeds in grower and/or finisher periods on the parameters examined was noted.;

  2. Environmental contamination and transmission of Ascaris suum in Danish organic pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran K.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Dalsgaard, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although Ascaris suum is the most common pig nematode, the on-farm transmission dynamics are not well described. Methods: We performed a 1-year field study on five organic pig farms, mapping egg contamination levels in pens and pasture soil as well as faecal egg counts in starter pigs...

  3. Variations in the severity of classical swine fever infections in Danish pigs - the clinical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Bruun, Camilla S.

    were observed few days after inoculation, soft feces from several pigs were observed from PID 2. At PID 5, one pig (pig 52) was lethargic with pyrexia, anorexia and dyspnea. Further progression of disease, including watery diarrhea, ataxia, intermittent convulsions and purple discoloration...

  4. Temperature and Relative Humidity Inside Trailers During Finishing Pig Loading and Transport in Cold and Mild Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McGlone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bedding levels and trailer compartment on internal trailer temperature and relative humidity (RH during loading and transport of finishing pigs was evaluated in cold and mild weather. Three levels of bedding were used in each experiment: 0.6 m3, 1.2 m3, and 2.4 m3. In mild weather, internal temperatures were lower when 1.2 m3 or 2.4 m3 of bedding were used during loading and transport compared to 0.6 m3 (P < 0.05. Internal trailer temperature increased in a quadratic fashion in the top front compartment when 1.2 m3 was used (P < 0.05, and in a linear fashion in the top rear compartment when 2.4 m3 were used in cold weather (P < 0.05. In mild weather, temperature increased linearly in the top front compartment with heavy bedding levels. Relative humidity increased in a linear fashion in the top front compartment with 0.6 m3, bottom front with 1.2 m3, and top front with 1.2 m3 in cold weather (P < 0.05. In general, temperature and RH increased as bedding levels increased in both cold and mild temperatures. Excess bedding can absorb more moisture, resulting in transport loss and decreased animal welfare.

  5. Carcass fat quality of pigs is not improved by adding corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol to finishing diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J W; Kil, D Y; Keever, B D; Killefer, J; McKeith, F K; Sulabo, R C; Stein, H H

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the reduced carcass fat quality that is often observed in pigs fed diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may be ameliorated if corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol is added to diets fed during the finishing period. A total of 36 barrows and 36 gilts (initial BW 43.7 ± 2.0 kg) were individually housed and randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 6 factorial arrangement, with gender and diet as main factors. Each dietary treatment had 12 replicate pigs. A corn-soybean meal control diet and a diet containing corn, soybean meal, and 30% DDGS were formulated. Four additional diets were formulated by adding 15% corn germ, 3% beef tallow, 3% palm kernel oil, or 5% glycerol to the DDGS-containing diet. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, and LM quality were determined, and backfat and belly fat samples were collected for fatty acid analysis. There was no gender × diet interaction for any of the response variables measured. For the entire finisher period (d 0 to 88), diet had no effect on ADG, but pigs fed 3% palm kernel oil tended (P tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol in finishing diets could not be confirmed.

  6. Effects of space allocation within a deep-bedded finishing system on pig growth performance, fatty acid composition and pork quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, B S; Huff-Lonergan, E; Honeyman, M S; Kerr, B J; Lonergan, S M

    2008-03-01

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the degree to which space allocation in a deep-bedded system influences swine performance and pork quality. The deep-bedded method employed was hoop structures, which are large, tent-like shelters with cornstalks or straw for bedding. One hundred gilts ranging in weight from 59 to 71 kg were randomly assigned to treatments of low (0.70 m2 per pig, n = 50) or high (1.13 m2 per pig, n = 50) space allocation. During the 45-day experimental period, gilts were ad libitum fed a two-phase diet. Six gilts per treatment were used for carcass composition and pork quality evaluation for each replication. Five replications were conducted over a period of 4 months. Pigs finished with greater space allocation had smaller longissimus muscle area and produced pork that appeared to be darker. Variations in fatty acid composition and lipid percentage of subcutaneous adipose and longissimus dorsi muscle were observed when space allocation was changed within hoop structures. Less space resulted in greater proportion of lipid present as polyunsaturated fatty acids. Greater space allocation resulted in lower total lipid in subcutaneous pork adipose tissue. Space allocation did not affect fat firmness. Replications spanned the months of August to November, with temperatures ranging from 32°C to -2°C within the hoop structure. As environmental temperature declined, the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids increased. Providing more space during finishing in these systems had only a small affect on pig growth and pork quality. Variations observed from replication to replication at fluctuating temperatures provide insight to seasonal differences in growth and adipose tissue composition and firmness. Therefore, finishing pigs in these systems may lead to seasonal variation in lipid composition.

  7. Mapping carcass and meat quality QTL on Sus Scrofa chromosome 2 in commercial finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Kampen Tony A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantitative trait loci (QTL affecting carcass and meat quality located on SSC2 were identified using variance component methods. A large number of traits involved in meat and carcass quality was detected in a commercial crossbred population: 1855 pigs sired by 17 boars from a synthetic line, which where homozygous (A/A for IGF2. Using combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium mapping (LDLA, several QTL significantly affecting loin muscle mass, ham weight and ham muscles (outer ham and knuckle ham and meat quality traits, such as Minolta-L* and -b*, ultimate pH and Japanese colour score were detected. These results agreed well with previous QTL-studies involving SSC2. Since our study is carried out on crossbreds, different QTL may be segregating in the parental lines. To address this question, we compared models with a single QTL-variance component with models allowing for separate sire and dam QTL-variance components. The same QTL were identified using a single QTL variance component model compared to a model allowing for separate variances with minor differences with respect to QTL location. However, the variance component method made it possible to detect QTL segregating in the paternal line (e.g. HAMB, the maternal lines (e.g. Ham or in both (e.g. pHu. Combining association and linkage information among haplotypes improved slightly the significance of the QTL compared to an analysis using linkage information only.

  8. The contribution of social effects to heritable variation in finishing traits of domestic pigs (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsma, R; Kanis, E; Knol, E F; Bijma, P

    2008-03-01

    Social interactions among individuals are ubiquitous both in animals and in plants, and in natural as well as domestic populations. These interactions affect both the direction and the magnitude of responses to selection and are a key factor in evolutionary success of species and in the design of breeding schemes in agriculture. At present, however, very little is known of the contribution of social effects to heritable variance in trait values. Here we present estimates of the direct and social genetic variance in growth rate, feed intake, back fat thickness, and muscle depth in a population of 14,032 domestic pigs with known pedigree. Results show that social effects contribute the vast majority of heritable variance in growth rate and feed intake in this population. Total heritable variance expressed relative to phenotypic variance was 71% for growth rate and 70% for feed intake. These values clearly exceed the usual range of heritability for those traits. Back fat thickness and muscle depth showed no heritable variance due to social effects. Our results suggest that genetic improvement in agriculture can be substantially advanced by redirecting breeding schemes, so as to capture heritable variance due to social effects.

  9. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid modify gene expression in liver, muscles, and fat tissues of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tous, N; Theil, P K; Lauridsen, C; Lizardo, R; Vilà, B; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate underlying mechanisms of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism in various tissues of pigs. Sixteen gilts (73 ± 3 kg) were fed a control (containing sunflower oil) or an experimental diet in which 4% of sunflower oil was replaced by CLA, and slaughtered at an average BW of 117 ± 4.9 kg. Transcription of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), fatty acid synthase (FAS), sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), delta-6-desaturase (D6D), and stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) were determined by real-time PCR in longissimus thoracis (LT) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles, LT subcutaneous and SM intermuscular fat, and in the liver. Fatty acid (FA) composition was analyzed using gas chromatography in these tissues, except for SM intermuscular fat. Dietary CLA increased PPARγ in LT muscle (P tissues studied (P muscle and liver (SREBP1, both P muscle and reduced (P muscle and intermuscular fat. Saturated FA were increased in all studied tissues (P tissue-specific way by CLA. It was concluded that dietary CLA affected transcription of genes and fat metabolism in a tissue-specific manner.

  10. Effect of replacing conventional soybean meal with low-oligosaccharide soybean meal on growth performance and carcass characteristics of wean-to-finish pigs1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangeni, D; Jendza, J A; Anil, L; Yang, X; Baidoo, S K

    2017-06-01

    A trial was conducted to determine the effect of replacing conventional soybean meal (CSBM) with low-oligosaccharide soybean meal (LOSBM) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of wean-to-finish pigs. A total of 432 crossbred pigs (19 d and 6.6 ± 1.2 kg BW) were blocked by sex and BW and assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments: 1) CSBM in all phases and fishmeal and spray-dried plasma protein (FM/SDPP) in phases 1 to 3, 2) CSBM in all phases but with no FM/SDPP, 3) LOSBM and FM/SDPP in phases 1 to 3 and CSBM in phases 4 to 6, 4) LOSBM in phases 1 to 3 and CSBM in phases 4 to 6, 5) LOSBM in phases 1 to 6 and FM/SDPP in phases 1 to 3, and 6) LOSBM in phases 1 to 6. The results showed that pig growth performance (ADG, ADFI, and G:F) during the overall period (phases 1 to 6) and carcass traits (HCW, dressing percentage, fat depth, loin depth, and lean percentage) were not affected ( > 0.05) by dietary treatments. Moreover, replacing CSBM with LOSBM in phases 1 to 3 did not affect early phase growth performance in the absence of FM/SDPP but reduced ( ≤ 0.05) ADFI and increased ( finish period did not improve growth performance and carcass characteristics of pigs.

  11. Effects of supplementing growing-finishing pig diets with Bacillus spp. probiotic on growth performance and meat-carcass grade qualitytraits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamuralikrishnan Balasubramanian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seventy five pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc] with an initial body weight of 23.3±1.40 kg were used in the present study to investigate the influence of supplementation of a Bacillus spp. combination as probiotic (0%, 0.01%, and 0.02% with basal diet in growing-finishing pig diets on performance parameters with a feeding trial period of 16 weeks. Growth performance was analyzed at the start and at weeks 6, 12, and 16 of the experimental period. The entire experiment using probiotic supplementation in the diet revealed significant differences in average daily gain and gain:feed, but no effects on average daily feed intake. The result showed significant effects on digestibility of dry matter (0.002, nitrogen (0.069, and energy (0.099 at week 16; and number of fecal Lactobacillus (0.082, 0.041, E. coli (0.097, 0.052, and blood glucose (0.001, 0.049 at weeks 6 and 16. Dietary supplementation with Bacillus spp. probiotic resulted in a significant linear effect on sensory evaluation of meat color, drip loss at day 3, and carcass weight in pigs. In contrast, there was no significant difference in blood metabolic profiles and noxious gas emissions in this experiment. Dietary combination of Bacillus spp. can be used as a probiotic for enhancing the growth performances and carcass quality of growing-finishing pigs.

  12. Effect of dietary energy levels and phase feeding by protein levels on growth performance, blood profiles and carcass characteristics in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J S; Lee, G I; Jin, X H; Kim, Y Y

    2016-01-01

    Providing of insufficient nutrients limits the potential growth of pig, while feeding of excessive nutrients increases the economic loss and causes environment pollution. For these reasons, phase feeding had been introduced in swine farm for improving animal production. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary energy levels and phase feeding by protein levels on growth performance, blood profiles and carcass characteristics in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 128 growing pigs ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc), averaging 26.62 ± 3.07 kg body weight, were assigned in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with 4 pigs per pen. The first factor was two dietary energy level (3,265 kcal of ME/kg or 3,365 kcal of ME/kg), and the second factor was four different levels of dietary protein by phase feeding (1growing(G)-2finishing(F) phases, 2G-2F phases, 2G-3F phases and 2G-3F phases with low CP requirement). In feeding trial, there was no significant difference in growth performance. The BUN concentration was decreased as dietary protein level decreased in 6 week and blood creatinine was increased in 13 week when pigs were fed diets with different dietary energy level. The digestibility of crude fat was improved as dietary energy levels increased and excretion of urinary nitrogen was reduced when low protein diet was provided. Chemical compositions of longissimus muscle were not affected by dietary treatments. In backfat thickness (P2) at 13 week, pigs fed high energy diet had thicker backfat thickness (P = 0.06) and pigs fed low protein diet showed the trend of backfat thinness reduction (P = 0.09). In addition, water holding capacity was decreased (P = 0.01) and cooking loss was increased (P = 0.07) as dietary protein level reduced. When pigs were fed high energy diet with low subdivision of phase feeding, days to 120 kg market weight was reached earlier compared to other treatments. Feeding the low energy diet

  13. Meta-analysis on the effects of the physical environment, animal traits, feeder and feed characteristics on the feeding behaviour and performance of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averós, X; Brossard, L; Dourmad, J Y; de Greef, K H; Edwards, S A; Meunier-Salaün, M C

    2012-08-01

    A meta-analysis, using information from 45 experiments on growing-finishing pigs published in 39 manuscripts, was carried out to determine the simultaneous effects of the physical environment (space allowance, group size, flooring conditions, temperature, presence of enrichment), pig traits (initial body weight (BW) for each studied time interval, sex, genetics), feeder characteristics (water provision within the feeder, feeder design (individual/collective), feeder places/pig, presence of feeder protection) and feed characteristics (feed allowance (ad libitum/restricted), net energy content, crude protein (CP) content), as well as their potential interactions, on the feeding behaviour and performance of growing-finishing pigs. The detrimental effect of low temperature on performance was particularly evident for restricted-fed pigs (P < 0.05). At reduced feeder space allowance, a reduction in the percentage of time spent eating was predicted when increasing initial BW, whereas the opposite was predicted for larger feeder space allowances (P < 0.001). The reduction in visit duration to the feeder in higher BW groups became gradually more important with increasing feeder space allowance (P < 0.01), whereas the increase in the ingestion rate and average daily feed intake (ADFI) with increasing initial BW became smaller with increasing feeder space (P < 0.05). The model predicted a reduction in feed conversion ratio (FCR) with increasing group size (P < 0.05) and floor space allowance (P < 0.01) and on solid floors with or without bedding (P < 0.05). In comparison with other feeders, wet/dry feeders were associated with more frequent but shorter feeder visits (P < 0.05), higher ingestion rates (P < 0.001) and higher ADFI (P < 0.10). The use of protection within individual feeders increased the time spent feeding (P < 0.001), reduced the number of visits per day (P < 0.01), the ingestion rate (P < 0.001) and FCR (P < 0.01) in comparison with other feeder types. Sex

  14. Ten years of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella from Danish pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This study analysed the trends in antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella serovars and phage types from pigs in Denmark from 1997 to 2006. Methods: Salmonella isolates collected through the Salmonella surveillance programme in pigs were serotyped and phage-typed, and susceptibilities t...

  15. Effects of dietary wheat middlings, distillers dried grains with solubles, and choice white grease on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, J A; DeRouchey, J M; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Petry, D B

    2012-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of adding combinations of wheat middlings (midds), distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), and choice white grease (CWG) to growing-finishing pig diets on growth, carcass traits, and carcass fat quality. In Exp. 1, 288 pigs (average initial BW = 46.6 kg) were used in an 84-d experiment with pens of pigs randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments with 8 pigs per pen and 9 pens per treatment. Treatments included a corn-soybean meal-based control, the control with 30% DDGS, the DDGS diet with 10% midds, or the DDGS diet with 20% midds. Diets were fed in 4 phases and formulated to constant standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys:ME ratios within each phase. Overall (d 0 to 84), pigs fed diets containing increasing midds had decreased (linear, P ≤ 0.02) ADG and G:F, but ADFI was not affected. Feeding 30% DDGS did not influence growth. For carcass traits, increasing midds decreased (linear, P pigs (initial BW = 42.3 kg) were used in an 87-d experiment with pens of pigs randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 8 pigs per pen and 6 pens per treatment. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with 2 amounts of midds (0 or 20%) and 3 amounts of CWG (0, 2.5, or 5.0%). All diets contained 15% DDGS. Diets were fed in 4 phases and formulated to constant SID Lys:ME ratios in each phase. No CWG × midds interactions were observed. Overall (d 0 to 87), feeding 20% midds decreased (P Pigs increasing CWG had improved ADG (quadratic, P = 0.03) and G:F (linear, P Dietary midds or CWG did not affect ADFI. For carcass traits, feeding 20% midds decreased (P Pigs fed CWG had decreased (linear, P pig growth performance, carcass yield, and increased jowl fat iodine value. Although increasing diet energy with CWG can help mitigate negative effects on live performance, CWG did not eliminate negative impacts of midds on carcass yield, HCW, and jowl fat iodine value.

  16. Effects of the standardized ileal digestible lysine to metabolizable energy ratio on performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Pengfei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A total of 2,121 growing-finishing pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Large White were utilized in six experiments conducted to determine the effects of different ratios of standardized ileal digestible lysine (SID-Lys to metabolizable energy (ME on the performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. Exps. 1 (30 to 50 kg, 2 (52 to 70 kg and 3 (81 to 104 kg were conducted to find an optimum ME level and then this level was used in Exps. 4 (29 to 47 kg, 5 (54 to 76 kg and 6 (84 to 109 kg to test the response of pigs to different ratios of SID-Lys:ME. In Exps.1 to 3, four treatments were used consisting of diets with a formulated ME content of 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 or 3.4 in Exps. 1 and 2 while Exp. 3 used 3.05, 3.15, 3.25 or 3.35 Mcal/kg. A constant SID-Lys:ME ratio of 2.6, 2.3 or 2.0 g/Mcal was used in Exps. 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Weight gain was significantly increased with increasing energy level in Exp.1 while weight gain was unaltered in Exps. 2 and 3. For all three experiments, feed intake was decreased (P P P P P P

  17. Effects of Dietary Crude Protein Levels and Cysteamine Supplementation on Protein Synthetic and Degradative Signaling in Skeletal Muscle of Finishing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Lin; Li, Jiaolong; Luo, Yiqiu; Zhang, Bolin; Xing, Shen; Zhu, Yuping; Sun, Hui; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary protein levels and cysteamine (CS) supplementation can affect growth performance and protein metabolism of pigs. However, the influence of dietary protein intake on the growth response of CS-treated pigs is unclear, and the mechanisms involved in protein metabolism remain unknown. Hence, we investigated the interactions between dietary protein levels and CS supplementation and the effects of dietary crude protein levels and CS supplementation on protein synthetic and degradative signaling in skeletal muscle of finishing pigs. One hundred twenty barrows (65.84 ± 0.61 kg) were allocated to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with five replicates of six pigs each. The primary variations were dietary crude protein (CP) levels (14% or 10%) and CS supplemental levels (0 or 700 mg/kg). The low-protein (LP) diets (10% CP) were supplemented with enough essential amino acids (EAA) to meet the NRC AA requirements of pigs and maintain the balanced supply of eight EAA including lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, and leucine. After 41 days, 10 pigs per treatment were slaughtered. We found that LP diets supplemented with EAA resulted in decreased concentrations of plasma somatostatin (SS) (Pdietary protein levels did not affect other traits. However, CS supplementation increased the average daily gain (Ppigs receiving CS. Additionally, CS supplementation increased the protein levels for the phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), eIF-4E binding protein 1, and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (Pdietary protein levels and CS supplementation for all traits. In conclusion, dietary protein levels and CS supplementation influenced growth and protein metabolism through independent mechanisms in pigs. In addition, LP diets supplemented with EAA did not affect growth performance and other traits except the concentrations of SS and PUN probably through maintenance of protein synthesis and degradation signaling. Moreover, CS

  18. Single versus double testing of meat-juice samples for Salmonella antibodies, in the Danish pig-herd surveillance programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekeroth, Lars; Alban, Lis; Feld, Niels Christian

    2003-01-01

    In Denmark, a national serological surveillance-and-control programme for Salmonella in pigs has been in operation since 1995. The programme is based on the Danish mix-ELISA and uses double testing (two ELISA-wells used per sample) of meat-juice samples taken in relation to slaughter. All herds...... are classified monthly into one of the three levels; the classification is based on the percentage of positive serological results in the previous 3 months. In connection with evaluation of the programme in 2001, we investigated whether single testing (testing in one well only) could be expected...... to be sufficiently precise compared to double testing. Data from the year 2000 were used, and mathematical modelling. Single testing was simulated by randomised selection of one of the two results in the double testing. A slight increase in the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples (1.02-1.09 times more through...

  19. Effects of the ratio of unsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acid on the growth performance, carcass and meat quality of finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandee Tartrakoon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects on finishing pigs (80–100 kg BW fed diets supplemented with oil sources containing different ratios of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids (UFA:SFA ratio were evaluated in 15 barrows and 15 gilts (Duroc × Large White × Landrace. Three experimental diets were evaluated using a randomized complete block design, with broken rice, soybean meal and rice bran as the main feedstuffs in the control diet. Diets 2 and 3 consisted of the control diet supplemented with 3% oil, with UFA:SFA ratios of 2.5:1 and 5:1, respectively. Overall, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05 found in the average daily gain (ADG of the pigs fed the treatment diets; however, the pigs fed the control diet and diet 3 had better (P  0.05 among the treatment groups with regard to the carcass quality of the pigs; however, it was found that the gilts had greater (P < 0.01 loin eye areas than the barrows fed diets 2 and 3 and the loin eye area of pig fed diet 2 was the largest (P < 0.05. In the case of the meat quality parameters, it was clearly found that the pigs fed the control diet had a greater (P < 0.05 lightness (L∗ in the meat colour, and the lowest cooking loss was found in the pigs fed the diet supplemented with fat containing the UFA:SFA ratio of 5:1. Overall, the dietary treatment did not significantly affect the drip loss, thawing loss and shear force of the pork. In conclusion, the supplementation of oil with UFA:SFA ratios of 2.5:1 and 5:1 has the potential to improve pork quality.

  20. A dynamic growth model for prediction of nutrient partitioning and manure production in growing–finishing pigs: Model development and evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danfær, Allan Christian; Jørgensen, Henry; Kebreab, E;

    2015-01-01

    minor mean bias. Root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) was used in evaluation of the model for its predictive power. The overall RMSPE was 2.2 and 4.1 g/d for protein and lipid deposition, respectively. The excretion database used for evaluation of the model was constructed from 150 digestibility...... trials using growing–finishing pig diets that had a wide range of nutrient chemical composition. Nutrient and water excretion were quantified using the principle of mass conservation. The average daily observed and predicted manure production was 3.79 and 3.99 kg/d, respectively, with a RMSPE of 0.49 kg...

  1. PCR diagnosis of PRRS virus in oral fluids from weaned Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, P. R.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Pedersen, K. S.

    Introduction Oral fluid testing has been suggested as an alternative diagnostic approach for surveillance of pathogens in swine herds3. In Denmark oral fluid has been used for detection of PCV22 and swine veterinarians are eager to use it for diagnosis of other pathogens. The aim of the present s...... in this study is applicable for PRRS surveillance and diagnosis under Danish conditions....

  2. Maternally Derived Immunity Extends Swine Influenza A Virus Persistence within Farrow-to-Finish Pig Farms: Insights from a Stochastic Event-Driven Metapopulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cador, Charlie; Rose, Nicolas; Willem, Lander; Andraud, Mathieu

    Swine Influenza A Viruses (swIAVs) have been shown to persist in farrow-to-finish pig herds with repeated outbreaks in successive batches, increasing the risk for respiratory disorders in affected animals and being a threat for public health. Although the general routes of swIAV transmission (i.e. direct contact and exposure to aerosols) were clearly identified, the transmission process between batches is still not fully understood. Maternally derived antibodies (MDAs) were stressed as a possible factor favoring within-herd swIAV persistence. However, the relationship between MDAs and the global spread among the different subpopulations in the herds is still lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to understand the mechanisms induced by MDAs in relation with swIAV spread and persistence in farrow-to-finish pig herds. A metapopulation model has been developed representing the population dynamics considering two subpopulations-breeding sows and growing pigs-managed according to batch-rearing system. This model was coupled with a swIAV-specific epidemiological model, accounting for partial passive immunity protection in neonatal piglets and an immunity boost in re-infected animals. Airborne transmission was included by a between-room transmission rate related to the current prevalence of shedding pigs. Maternally derived partial immunity in piglets was found to extend the duration of the epidemics within their batch, allowing for efficient between-batch transmission and resulting in longer swIAV persistence at the herd level. These results should be taken into account in the design of control programmes for the spread and persistence of swIAV in swine herds.

  3. Effects of triticale-based diets on finishing pig performance and pork quality in deep-bedded hoop barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Zebblin M; Honeyman, Mark S; Gibson, Lance R; Prusa, Ken J

    2007-07-01

    Effects of triticale diets on pig performance and pork quality were evaluated in summer and winter. Diets were: corn-soy, 40% triticale, or 80% triticale. Pigs (72kg) were fed 49d. Loins were evaluated for meat and fat quality and sensory evaluation. Average daily gain decreased as triticale inclusion increased (Ptriticale had least gain:feed ratio (Ptriticale diet had smallest loin muscle area (PTriticale fed to pigs in hoop barns slightly decreased growth without compromising pork quality.

  4. Bacterial antibiotic resistance levels in Danish farmland as a result of treatment with pig manure slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Gitte; Agersø, Yvonne; Halling-Sørensen, B.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to tetracycline, macrolides and streptomycin was measured for a period of 8 months in soil bacteria obtained from farmland treated with pig manure slurry. This was done by spread plating bacteria on selective media (Luria Bertani (LB) medium supplemented with antibiotics). To account...... for seasonal variations in numbers of soil bacteria, ratios of resistant bacteria divided by total count on nonselective plates were calculated. Soil samples were collected from four different farms and from a control soil on a fifth farm. The control soil was not amended with animal manure. The occurrence...... of tetracycline-resistant bacteria was elevated after spread of pig manure slurry but declined throughout the sampling period to a level corresponding to the control soil. Higher load of pig manure slurry yielded higher occurrence of tetracycline resistance after spreading; however, the tetracycline resistance...

  5. A comment on the paper 'A comparison between lesions found during meat inspection of finishing pigs raised under organic/free-range conditions and conventional indoor conditions' by Alban et al. 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2016-01-01

    This is a critical comment on a paper published in Porcine Health Management in 2015, presenting a comparison between lesions from meat inspection at one abattoir on slaughter pigs classified in to two different production forms: organic/free-range conditions and conventional indoor conditions. The conclusion made by the paper that 13 lesion types has a higher prevalence in organic/free-range pigs and 4 lesion types occurred less frequently in organic/free-range finishers compared to conventional finishers is correct except that 5 (instead of 4) lesion types occurred less frequently in organic/free-range finishers. However, these five types of lesions represent 74 % of all lesions recorded among conventional indoor, conventional free-range and organic pigs in one slaughter house from October 1 2012 to September 26 2013.

  6. Alternating dietary fat sources for growing-finishing pigs fed dried distillers grains with solubles: II. Fresh belly and bacon quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, N A; Apple, J K; Maxwell, C V; Yancey, J W; Johnson, T M; Galloway, D L; Bass, B E

    2013-03-01

    Crossbred pigs (n = 216) were used to test the effects of phase-feeding beef tallow (BT) and yellow grease (YGr) on fresh belly and bacon quality characteristics of growing-finishing swine fed dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Pigs were blocked by initial BW (26.0 ± 5.3 kg) before allotment to pens (6 pigs/pen), and pens (6 pens/block) were assigned randomly to 1 of 6 dietary treatments: 1) corn-soybean meal-based grower and finisher diets formulated with 4.7% YGr fed during all 5 feeding phases (YG15); 2) corn-soybean meal-based diets formulated with 5.0% BT fed during all 5 phases (BT15); 3) diets containing 5.0% BT fed during the first 2 phases and diets with 4.7% YGr fed the last 3 phases (YG345); 4) diets formulated with 5.0% BT fed during first 3 phases and diets containing 4.7% YGr fed during the last 2 phases (YG45); 5) diets containing 4.7% YGr fed during the first 3 phases and diets with 5.0% BT fed during the last 2 feeding phases (BT45); or 6) diets formulated with 4.7% YGr fed during the first 2 phases and diets with 5.0% BT fed during the last 3 phases (BT345). All dietary treatments were formulated with 30% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) during the first 3 phases, 15% DDGS in the fourth phase, and no DDGS during the last phase. Fresh belly quality data were collected on the left-side bellies, whereas bacon from the right-side bellies was prepared under commercial processing conditions. Additionally, USDA-certified No. 1 slices were collected for cooking characteristics and sensory panel evaluations. Bellies from the YG15-fed pigs were softer (P ≤ 0.05) than bellies from BT15-fed pigs; however, instrumentally measured belly firmness was not (P ≥ 0.06) different among treatments. Concentrations of palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids, as well as all SFA and all MUFA, were greater (P bacon (P ≥ 0.06), mechanical bacon tenderness (P ≥ 0.69), and bacon palatability attributes (P ≥ 0.55) were not affected by the dietary

  7. Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Carbon Excretion and Losses in Growing Pigs Fed Danish or Asian Diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prapaspongsa, Trakarn; Vu, T K V; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine inputs and outputs of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) and to estimate the nutrient losses during housing and storage in order to address these important parts of the whole manure management systems in pigs fed different diets.......The objectives of this study were to determine inputs and outputs of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) and to estimate the nutrient losses during housing and storage in order to address these important parts of the whole manure management systems in pigs fed different diets....

  8. Effects of varying nursery phase-feeding programs on growth performance of pigs during the nursery and subsequent grow-finish phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chai Hyun; Jung, Dae-Yun; Park, Man Jong; Lee, C Young

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of varying durations of nursery diets differing in percentages of milk products on growth performance of pigs during the nursery phase (NP) and subsequent grow-finish phase (GFP) to find the feasibility of reducing the use of nursery diets containing costly milk products. A total of 204 21-d-old weanling female and castrated male pigs were subjected to one of three nursery phase feeding programs differing in durations on the NP 1 and 2 and GFP diets containing 20%, 7%, and 0% lacrosse and 35%, 8%, and 0% dried whey, respectively, in 6 pens (experimental units) for 33 d: HIGH (NP 1, 2 and 3 diets for 7, 14, and 12 d), MEDIUM (NP 2 and 3 for 14 and 19 d), and LOW (NP 2 and 3 and GFP 1 for 7, 14, and 12 d). Subsequently, 84 randomly selected pigs [14 pigs (replicates)/pen] were fed the GFP 1, 2 and 3 diets during d 54-96, 96-135, and 135-182 of age, respectively. The final body weight (BW) and average daily gain (ADG) of nursery pigs did not differ among the HIGH, MEDIUM, and LOW groups (14.8, 13.3, and 13.7 kg in BW and 273, 225, and 237 g in ADG, respectively). The average daily feed intake during the nursery phase was greater (p <0.01) in the HIGH group than in the MEDIUM and LOW groups, whereas the gain:feed ratio did not differ across the treatments. The BW on d 182 and ADG during d 54-182 were greater in the HIGH and MEDIUM groups vs. the LOW group (110.0, 107.6, and 99.6 kg in BW, respectively; p <0.01). The backfat thickness and carcass grade at slaughter on d 183 did not differ across the treatments. In conclusion, the MEDIUM program may be inferior to the commonly used HIGH program in supporting nursery pig growth. Nevertheless, the former appears to be more efficient than the latter in production cost per market pig whereas the LOW program is thought to be inefficient because of its negative effect on post-nursery pig growth.

  9. Gross and histopathological evaluation of human inflicted bruises in Danish slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, Kristiane; Agger, Jens Frederik Gramstrup; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose;

    2016-01-01

    %), bruises had a tram-line pattern due to blunt trauma inflicted with long objects such as sticks. Other bruises reflected the use of tattoo-hammers, plastic paddles, double U profiles and chains. Histological evaluation of two bruises from a pig with multiple lesions was found insufficient to assess...

  10. Herd prevalence of Salmonella enterica infections in Danish slaughter pigs determined by microbiological testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Bager, Flemming;

    1996-01-01

    enterica were isolated from 832 pigs (6.2%). The predominant serotype was S. Typhimurium, comprising 536 (64.4%) of the isolates. Four hundred and forty-eight isolates of S. Typhimurium were examined by phage typing, resulting in detection of 17 different phage types (definitive types, DT) with DT12 being...

  11. A retrospective study of forensic cases of skin ulcerations in Danish pigs from 2000 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, Kristiane; Dich-Jørgensen, Kristine; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulcerations in pigs, as in other farm animals, are considered to be painful and therefore hampering the welfare. Farmers are obliged to provide an intervention to protect animals against unnecessary suffering and failure to do so is considered negligence. Moreover, animals with severe...

  12. Scales of renewability exemplified by a case study of three Danish pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Christina; Østergård, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    (C)) exemplifies the use of this set of indicators. The results show that at the on-site scale the pig production systems had about the same fraction of renewable inputs of less than 0.5%. However, when the renewability fraction of inputs was accounted for at the global scale, the two organic systems...

  13. Determination and Prediction of Digestible and Metabolizable Energy from the Chemical Composition of Chinese Corn Gluten Feed Fed to Finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME contents of corn gluten feed (CGF for finishing pigs and to develop equations predicting the DE and ME content from the chemical composition of the CGF samples, as well as validate the accuracy of the prediction equations. In Exp. 1, ten CGF samples from seven provinces of China were collected and fed to 66 finishing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire with an initial body weight (BW of 51.9±5.5 kg. The pigs were assigned to 11 diets comprising one basal diet and 10 CGF test diets with six pigs fed each diet. The basal diet contained corn (76%, dehulled soybean meal (21% and premix (3%. The ten test diets were formulated by substituting 25% of the corn and dehulled soybean meal with CGF and contained corn (57%, dehulled soybean meal (15.75%, CGF (24.25% and premix (3%. In Exp. 2, two additional CGF sources were collected as validation samples to test the accuracy of the prediction equations. In this experiment, 18 barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire with an initial BW of 61.1±4.0 kg were randomly allotted to be fed either the basal diet or two CGF containing diets which had a similar composition as used in Exp. 1. The DE and ME of CGF ranged from 10.37 to 12.85 MJ/kg of dry matter (DM and 9.53 to 12.49 MJ/kg of DM, respectively. Through stepwise regression analysis, several prediction equations of DE and ME were generated. The best fit equations were: DE, MJ/kg of DM = 18.30–0.13 neutral detergent fiber–0.22 ether extract, with R2 = 0.95, residual standard deviation (RSD = 0.21 and p<0.01; and ME, MJ/kg of DM = 12.82+0.11 Starch–0.26 acid detergent fiber, with R2 = 0.94, RSD = 0.20 and p<0.01. These results indicate that the DE and ME content of CGF varied substantially but the DE and ME for finishing pigs can be accurately predicted from equations based on nutritional analysis.

  14. A comment on the paper ‘A comparison between lesions found during meat inspection of finishing pigs raised under organic/free-range conditions and conventional indoor conditions’ by Alban et al. 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2016-01-01

    This is a critical comment on a paper published in Porcine Health Management in 2015, presenting a comparison between lesions from meat inspection at one abattoir on slaughter pigs classified in to two different production forms: organic/free-range conditions and conventional indoor conditions....... The conclusion made by the paper that 13 lesion types has a higher prevalence in organic/free-range pigs and 4 lesion types occurred less frequently in organic/free-range finishers compared to conventional finishers is correct except that 5 (instead of 4) lesion types occurred less frequently in organic...

  15. Effect of replacing corn with hulled and hulless or low-amylose hulless barley varieties on growth performance and carcass quality of Italian growing-finishing pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandini, A; Sigolo, S; Giuberti, G; Moschini, M; Marchetto, G; Della Casa, G

    2015-02-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of diets based on hulled or hulless (normal- and low-amylose) barley varieties on growth performance and carcass characteristics in heavy growing-finishing pigs for the production of protected designation of origin (PDO) Italian products. The study was performed with 40 gilts and 40 barrows (Italian Duroc × Italian Large White). Four diets were formulated: 1) corn-based diet (control), 2) control diet with 80% of a normal-amylose hulled barley variety named Cometa (Cometa), 3) control diet with 80% of a normal-amylose hulless barley variety named Astartis (Astartis), and 4) control diet with 80% of a low-amylose hulless barley variety named Alamo (Alamo). The diets were formulated according to 3 growth phases (P1, 40 to 80 kg BW; P2, 80 to 120 kg BW; and P3, 120 to 170 kg BW), with the same Lys:DE ratio (2.60, 2.20, and 1.80, respectively in P1, P2, and P3) according to the NRC requirements for P1 and P2 and according to requirements for high-performing pigs for P3. The diets were analyzed for their in vitro starch digestion potentials (predicted glycemic index, pGI) and for their resistant starch (RS) contents. In P1, P2, and P3, the Alamo diet had the numerically lowest RS contents and greatest pGI values, whereas the control diet had the numerically greatest RS contents and the lowest pGI values. Throughout the study, the pigs fed Cometa and Alamo diets grew faster (P 0.05). This study showed that diets based both on hulled and hulless barley might be suitable for the heavy pig breeding intended to the production of Italian PDO products. In addition, hulled or low-amylose hulless barley could be valuable to support maximum pig growth performance without affecting carcass composition.

  16. Dynamics and Diversity of Escherichia coli in Animals and System Management of the Manure on a Commercial Farrow-to-Finish Pig Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the dynamics and diversity of Escherichia coli populations in animal and environmental lines of a commercial farrow-to-finish pig farm in Spain along a full production cycle (July 2008 to July 2009), with special attention to antimicrobial resistance and the presence of integrons. In the animal line, a total of 256 isolates were collected from pregnant sows (10 samples and 20 isolates), 1-week-old piglets (20 samples and 40 isolates), unweaned piglets (20 samples and 38 isolates), growers (20 samples and 40 isolates), and the finishers' floor pen (6 samples and 118 isolates); from the underfloor pits and farm slurry tank environmental lines, 100 and 119 isolates, respectively, were collected. Our results showed that E. coli populations in the pig fecal microbiota and in the farm environment are highly dynamic and show high levels of diversity. These issues have been proven through DNA-based typing data (repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR [REP-PCR]) and phenotypic typing data (antimicrobial resistance profile comprising 19 antimicrobials). Clustering of the sampling groups based on their REP-PCR typing results showed that the spatial features (the line) had a stronger weight than the temporal features (sampling week) for the clustering of E. coli populations; this weight was less significant when clustering was performed based on resistotypes. Among animals, finishers harbored an E. coli population different from those of the remaining animal populations studied, considering REP-PCR fingerprints and resistotypes. This population, the most important from a public health perspective, demonstrated the lowest levels of antimicrobial resistance and integron presence. PMID:23160136

  17. Ensiled citrus pulp as a by-product feedstuff for finishing pigs: nutritional value and effects on intestinal microflora and carcass quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moset, V.; Piquer, O.; Cervera, C.; Fernández, J.; Hernández, P.; Cerisuelo, A.

    2015-07-01

    Forty pigs of 76.8 ± 4.2 kg body weight were fed four different diets varying in ensiled citrus pulp (ECP) inclusion level (0, 50, 100, and 150 g of ECP/kg of diet on dry matter base). The trial lasted 5 weeks. During the last week, faecal samples were obtained to calculate apparent nutrient digestibility; also volatile fatty acids (VFA) content in faeces was determined. The digestible energy and protein of ECP was estimated by regression analysis. During the trial faecal samples were collected to determine enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts. At slaughter, carcass characteristics were registered. The inclusion of ECP in the diets decreased energy digestibility but increased neutral and acid detergent fibre digestibility linearly (p<0.05). The estimated digestible energy and protein of ECP were lower than expected (7.0 MJ/kg dry matter (DM) and 33.8 g/kg DM, respectively). Total VFA production in faeces was not affected by the diet. Both enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts were lower (p<0.01) with than without ECP inclusion at the end of the study. Carcass yield decreased linearly (p<0.05) and backfat at gluteus medius increased quadratically (p<0.05) with the inclusion of ECP in the diet. The polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the internal subcutaneous fat layer decreased quadratically (p<0.05) with the inclusion of ECP. Thus, the nutritive value of ECP for finishing pigs is low and levels of 150g/kg can negatively affect carcass yield. However, including up to 100 g of ECP/kg in finishing pig diets did not affect nutrient digestibility, carcass yield and subcutaneous fat FA profile. Additionally, increasing ECP levels in diets decreases faecal enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts in faeces. (Author)

  18. Ensiled citrus pulp as a by-product feedstuff for finishing pigs: nutritional value and effects on intestinal microflora and carcass quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Moset

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Forty pigs of 76.8 ± 4.2 kg body weight were fed four different diets varying in ensiled citrus pulp (ECP inclusion level (0, 50, 100, and 150 g of ECP/kg of diet on dry matter base. The trial lasted 5 weeks. During the last week, faecal samples were obtained to calculate apparent nutrient digestibility; also volatile fatty acids (VFA content in faeces was determined. The digestible energy and protein of ECP was estimated by regression analysis. During the trial faecal samples were collected to determine enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts. At slaughter, carcass characteristics were registered. The inclusion of ECP in the diets decreased energy digestibility but increased neutral and acid detergent fibre digestibility linearly (p<0.05. The estimated digestible energy and protein of ECP were lower than expected (7.0 MJ/kg dry matter (DM and 33.8 g/kg DM, respectively. Total VFA production in faeces was not affected by the diet. Both enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts were lower (p<0.01 with than without ECP inclusion at the end of the study. Carcass yield decreased linearly (p<0.05 and backfat at gluteus medius increased quadratically (p<0.05 with the inclusion of ECP in the diet. The polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the internal subcutaneous fat layer decreased quadratically (p<0.05 with the inclusion of ECP. Thus, the nutritive value of ECP for finishing pigs is low and levels of 150g/kg can negatively affect carcass yield. However, including up to 100 g of ECP/kg in finishing pig diets did not affect nutrient digestibility, carcass yield and subcutaneous fat FA profile. Additionally, increasing ECP levels in diets decreases faecal enterobacteria and lactobacilli counts in faeces.

  19. Maternally Derived Immunity Extends Swine Influenza A Virus Persistence within Farrow-to-Finish Pig Farms: Insights from a Stochastic Event-Driven Metapopulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cador, Charlie; Rose, Nicolas; Willem, Lander; Andraud, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Swine Influenza A Viruses (swIAVs) have been shown to persist in farrow-to-finish pig herds with repeated outbreaks in successive batches, increasing the risk for respiratory disorders in affected animals and being a threat for public health. Although the general routes of swIAV transmission (i.e. direct contact and exposure to aerosols) were clearly identified, the transmission process between batches is still not fully understood. Maternally derived antibodies (MDAs) were stressed as a possible factor favoring within-herd swIAV persistence. However, the relationship between MDAs and the global spread among the different subpopulations in the herds is still lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to understand the mechanisms induced by MDAs in relation with swIAV spread and persistence in farrow-to-finish pig herds. A metapopulation model has been developed representing the population dynamics considering two subpopulations—breeding sows and growing pigs—managed according to batch-rearing system. This model was coupled with a swIAV-specific epidemiological model, accounting for partial passive immunity protection in neonatal piglets and an immunity boost in re-infected animals. Airborne transmission was included by a between-room transmission rate related to the current prevalence of shedding pigs. Maternally derived partial immunity in piglets was found to extend the duration of the epidemics within their batch, allowing for efficient between-batch transmission and resulting in longer swIAV persistence at the herd level. These results should be taken into account in the design of control programmes for the spread and persistence of swIAV in swine herds. PMID:27662592

  20. Antimicrobial reduction measures applied in Danish pig herds following the introduction of the "Yellow Card" antimicrobial scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Nana; Diness, Line Hummelmose; Fertner, Mette; Kristensen, Charlotte Sonne; Stege, Helle

    2017-03-01

    Following introduction of the antimicrobial restrictive "Yellow Card Scheme" in summer 2010, a rapid decrease in the Danish national pig antimicrobial consumption was observed. The aims of this study were to (i) investigate which measures had been implemented to reduce the antimicrobial consumption according to farmers and veterinarians and (ii) where possible, investigate if said measures were reflected in the herds' antimicrobial purchase data. Based on national register data from VetStat and the Central Husbandry Register, the study population was selected among Danish pig herds which had decreased their annual antimicrobial consumption with ≥10% following the introduction of the Yellow Card Scheme comparing June 1, 2009-May 31, 2010 to June 1, 2010-May 31, 2011. Subsequently, questionnaire surveys of both farmers and veterinarians were carried out, resulting in responses from 179 farmers accounting for 202 herds (response ratio: 83%) and 58 veterinarians accounting for 140 herds. Prior to the introduction of the Yellow Card Scheme, 24% of the participating herds had an antimicrobial consumption for one or more age groups which exceeded the Yellow Card Scheme threshold values on antimicrobial consumption, while 50% of the herds had an antimicrobial consumption below the national average. The measures most frequently stated as having contributed to the antimicrobial reduction were increased use of vaccines (52% of farmers; 35% of the veterinarians), less use of group medication (44% of the farmers; 58% of the veterinarians) and staff education (22% of the farmers; 26% of the veterinarians). Reduced usage of antimicrobials for oral use accounted for 89% of the total reduction in antimicrobial use. Among the farmers, 13% also stated that change in choice of product had contributed to reducing their antimicrobial consumption. However, when analyzing purchase data, no general trend was seen towards a larger purchase of products with a higher registered dosage per

  1. Influence of finishing diet on fatty acid profiles of intramuscular lipids, triglycerides and phospholipids in muscles of the Iberian pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cava, R; Ruiz, J; López-Bote, C; Martín, L; García, C; Ventanas, J; Antequera, T

    1997-02-01

    Thirty Iberian × Duroc pigs allotted in groups of ten animals were fed in three traditional different management systems ('Montanera' (MO), fed on acorns; 'Recebo' (RE), fed on acorns and a commercial diet; and 'Cebo' (CE), fed on a commercial diet). Masseter muscle was obtained to evaluate the influence of management system on fatty acid (FA) composition of lean. The FA composition of the intramuscular total lipids, triglyceride (TG) and phospholipid (PL) fractions was evaluated. Muscle from MO pigs had greater quantities of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the total lipids, triglyceride and phospholipid fractions than the other feedings. The percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA) of i.m. total lipids and TGs increased (P < .05) with duration of feeding on RE and CE, from 35.13-35.10% in MO pigs to 37.47-37.84% in RE pigs and 39.98-41.11% in CE pigs. PLs from RE and CE pigs contained more C(18:2) and C(20:4) and less C(18:1) than MO pigs.

  2. Metagenomic Analysis of Cecal Microbiome Identified Microbiota and Functional Capacities Associated with Feed Efficiency in Landrace Finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Tan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Feed efficiency (FE appears to vary even within closely related pigs, and may be partly affected by the diversity in the composition and function of gut microbes. To investigate the components and functional differences of gut microbiota of low and high FE pigs, high throughput sequencing and de novo metagenomics were performed on pig cecal contents. Pigs were selected in pairs with low and high feed conversion ratio. The microorganisms of individuals with different FE were clustered according to diversity. The genus Prevotella was the most enriched in both groups, and the abundance of species Prevotella sp. CAG:604 was significantly increased in low efficiency individuals compared to that in animals showing high efficiency. In contrast, other differential species, including lactic acid bacteria, were all enriched in the group with good feeding characteristics. Functional analysis based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases demonstrated that differential genes for the metabolism of carbohydrates were most abundant in both groups, but pathways of pyruvate-related metabolism were more intense in pigs with higher FE. All these data indicated that the microbial environment was closely related to the growth traits of pigs, and regulating microbial composition could aid developing strategies to improve FE for pigs.

  3. Effects of Dietary Crude Protein Levels and Cysteamine Supplementation on Protein Synthetic and Degradative Signaling in Skeletal Muscle of Finishing Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhou

    Full Text Available Dietary protein levels and cysteamine (CS supplementation can affect growth performance and protein metabolism of pigs. However, the influence of dietary protein intake on the growth response of CS-treated pigs is unclear, and the mechanisms involved in protein metabolism remain unknown. Hence, we investigated the interactions between dietary protein levels and CS supplementation and the effects of dietary crude protein levels and CS supplementation on protein synthetic and degradative signaling in skeletal muscle of finishing pigs. One hundred twenty barrows (65.84 ± 0.61 kg were allocated to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with five replicates of six pigs each. The primary variations were dietary crude protein (CP levels (14% or 10% and CS supplemental levels (0 or 700 mg/kg. The low-protein (LP diets (10% CP were supplemented with enough essential amino acids (EAA to meet the NRC AA requirements of pigs and maintain the balanced supply of eight EAA including lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, and leucine. After 41 days, 10 pigs per treatment were slaughtered. We found that LP diets supplemented with EAA resulted in decreased concentrations of plasma somatostatin (SS (P<0.01 and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN (P<0.001, while dietary protein levels did not affect other traits. However, CS supplementation increased the average daily gain (P<0.001 and lean percentage (P<0.05, and decreased the feed conversion ratio (P<0.05 and back fat (P<0.05. CS supplementation also increased the concentrations of plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 (P<0.001, and reduced the concentrations of leptin, SS, and PUN (P<0.001. Increased mRNA abundance of Akt1 and IGF-1 signaling (P<0.001 and decreased mRNA abundance of Forkhead Box O (FOXO 4 (P<0.01 and muscle atrophy F-box (P<0.001 were observed in pigs receiving CS. Additionally, CS supplementation increased the protein levels for the phosphorylated mammalian target of

  4. Effects of choice white grease or poultry fat on growth performance, carcass leanness, and meat quality characteristics of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, J J; Smith, J W; Unruh, J A; Goodband, R D; O'Quinn, P R; Tokach, M D; Nelssen, J L

    2001-06-01

    Eighty-four crossbred gilts were used to evaluate the effects of dietary choice white grease (CWG) or poultry fat (PF) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and quality characteristics of longissimus muscle (LM), belly, and bacon of growing-finishing pigs. Pigs (initially 60 kg) were fed a control diet with no added fat or diets containing 2, 4, or 6% CWG or PF. Diets were fed from 60 to 110 kg and contained 2.26 g lysine/Mcal ME. Data were analyzed as a 2 x 3 factorial plus a control with main effects of fat source (CWG and PF) and fat level (2, 4, and 6%). Pigs fed the control diet, 2% fat, and 4% fat had greater (P 0.05) were observed for ADG, dressing percentage, leaf fat weight, LM pH, backfat depth, LM area, percentage lean, LM visual evaluation, LM waterholding capacity, Warner-Bratzler shear and sensory evaluation of the LM and bacon, fat color and firmness measurements, or bacon processing characteristics. Adding dietary fat improved G/F and altered the fatty acid profiles of the LM and bacon, but differences in growth rate, carcass characteristics, and quality and sensory characteristics of the LM and bacon were minimal. Dietary additions of up to 6% CWG or PF can be made with little effect on quality of pork LM, belly, or bacon.

  5. Development of sustainable precision farming systems for swine: estimating real-time individual amino acid requirements in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, L; Lovatto, P A; Pomar, J; Pomar, C

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a mathematical model used to estimate the daily amino acid requirements of individual growing-finishing pigs. The model includes empirical and mechanistic model components. The empirical component estimates daily feed intake (DFI), BW, and daily gain (DG) based on individual pig information collected in real time. Based on DFI, BW, and DG estimates, the mechanistic component uses classic factorial equations to estimate the optimal concentration of amino acids that must be offered to each pig to meet its requirements. The model was evaluated with data from a study that investigated the effect of feeding pigs with a 3-phase or daily multiphase system. The DFI and BW values measured in this study were compared with those estimated by the empirical component of the model. The coherence of the values estimated by the mechanistic component was evaluated by analyzing if it followed a normal pattern of requirements. Lastly, the proposed model was evaluated by comparing its estimates with those generated by the existing growth model (InraPorc). The precision of the proposed model and InraPorc in estimating DFI and BW was evaluated through the mean absolute error. The empirical component results indicated that the DFI and BW trajectories of individual pigs fed ad libitum could be predicted 1 d (DFI) or 7 d (BW) ahead with the average mean absolute error of 12.45 and 1.85%, respectively. The average mean absolute error obtained with the InraPorc for the average individual of the population was 14.72% for DFI and 5.38% for BW. Major differences were observed when estimates from InraPorc were compared with individual observations. The proposed model, however, was effective in tracking the change in DFI and BW for each individual pig. The mechanistic model component estimated the optimal standardized ileal digestible Lys to NE ratio with reasonable between animal (average CV = 7%) and overtime (average CV = 14%) variation

  6. Simulation study of the mechanisms underlying outbreaks of clinical disease caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkenberg, D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/248331485; Tobias, T J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323926789; Bouma, A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156999080; van Leengoed, L A M G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073994979; Stegeman, J A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/137144040

    2014-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a major cause of respiratory disease in pigs. Many farms are endemically infected without apparent disease, but occasionally severe outbreaks of pleuropneumonia occur. To prevent and control these outbreaks without antibiotics, the underlying mechanisms of these

  7. Impact of ractopamine hydrochloride on growth, efficiency, and carcass traits of finishing pigs in a three-phase marketing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlemann, G D; Allee, G L; Rincker, P J; Ritter, M J; Boler, D D; Carr, S N

    2014-03-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) in a 3-phase marketing strategy. One thousand seven hundred forty pigs were used in 80 single-sex pens in 2 blocks. Each pen housed approximately 22 pigs. Sixteen percent of the total population of pigs was sold during the first marketing period, 18% was sold during the second marketing period, and the remaining 66% was sold during the third marketing period. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design of 2 treatments. Pigs in the second marketing group had greater growth performance indicators than pigs in the first marketing group. Over the entire feeding period, pigs fed RAC were 2.73 kg heavier (P < 0.0001), had 0.11 kg/d greater (P < 0.0001) ADG, and had 0.04 greater (P < 0.0001) G:F than pigs not fed RAC. Hot carcass weights were 3.3% greater (P < 0.0001), carcass yields were 0.68 (% units) greater (P < 0.0001), fat depth was 7.2% less (P < 0.0001), loin depth was 5.6% greater (P < 0.0001), and estimated carcass lean was 0.97% units greater (P < 0.0001) in RAC-fed pigs when compared with pigs not fed RAC. By the end of the first marketing period carcasses from pigs fed RAC (89.73 kg) were 2.1% heavier (P = 0.04) and gained 0.19 kg/d more (P = 0.03) carcass weight than carcasses from pigs not fed RAC (87.89 kg). By the end of the second marketing period carcasses from pigs fed RAC (99.00 kg) were 3.1% heavier (P < 0.001) and gained 0.14 kg/d more (P < 0.001) carcass weight than carcasses from pigs not fed RAC (96.02 kg). By the end of the third marketing period carcasses from pigs fed RAC (102.75 kg) were 3.7% heavier (P < 0.0001) and gained 0.10 kg/d more (P < 0.0001) carcass weight than carcasses from pigs not fed RAC (99.06 kg). Although carcass gain per day decreased with extended RAC feeding duration, HCW advantages continued to increase as feeding duration was increased from 7 d to 35 d. Growth benefits were evident during the initial marketing period, but as

  8. Impact of ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance, carcass and pork quality characteristics, and responses to handling and transport in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puls, C L; Trout, W E; Ritter, M J; McKeith, F K; Carr, S N; Ellis, M

    2015-03-01

    The effect of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on growth performance, carcass and pork quality, and blood acid-base and catecholamine responses to handling and transport in finishing pigs was evaluated using a randomized complete block design to compare 2 RAC levels (0 vs. 10 mg/kg). Crossbred pigs ( = 144) were housed in single-sex pens (barrow or gilt) of 3 with 24 pens/RAC level. The study was carried out for a 28-d period from 104.0 ± 5.99 to 136.7 ± 6.44 kg BW. At the end of the growth study, pigs were subjected to handling and transport procedures that involved an initial aggressive handling procedure (pigs moved 50 m with 8 shocks from an electric prod) followed by a 30-min transport on a standard livestock trailer at a floor space of 0.46 m/pig followed by a final gentle handling procedure (pigs moved 100 m using sort boards and slap paddles). A blood sample was taken and rectal temperature was measured 2 h before (baseline) and immediately after the final handling procedure (final). Barrows ( = 72) were harvested and carcass and pork quality were measured. Feeding RAC increased ( ≤ 0.05) ADG (19.6%), ADFI (4.2%), and G:F (14.8%). The increase in plasma epinephrine levels from baseline to final was greater ( ≤ 0.05) for pigs fed RAC; there was a trend ( ≤ 0.10) for pigs fed RAC to have greater final blood lactate and to show a greater change from baseline to final in blood bicarbonate, partial pressure of and total carbon dioxide, and oxygen saturation levels. However, there were no differences between treatments for changes from baseline to final in rectal temperature, blood pH and lactate, and plasma norepinephrine levels. The incidence of physical indicators of stress and of nonambulatory, noninjured pigs during the handling and transport procedures was similar for the 0 and 10 mg/kg RAC levels. Final farm BW was 4.1 kg heavier, carcass yield was 1.4 percentage units greater, and LM area was 5.18 cm greater for pigs fed RAC compared to the

  9. Effect of added zinc in diets with ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ileal mucosal inflammation mRNA expression of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulk, C B; Burnett, D D; Tokach, M D; Nelssen, J L; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; Hill, G M; Haydon, K D; Gonzalez, J M

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of increasing the dietary Zn content on growth performance, carcass characteristics, plasma Zn, and ileal mucosal inflammation mRNA expression of finishing pigs fed diets containing ractopamine HCl (RAC; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN). In Exp. 1, 312 pigs (327 × 1050; PIC, Hendersonville, TN; 94 kg BW) were used in a 27-d study. There were 2 pigs per pen and 26 pens per treatment. Treatments included a corn-soybean meal diet (control; 0.66% standardized ileal digestible [SID] Lys); a diet (0.92% SID Lys) with 10 mg/kg RAC; and the RAC diet plus 50, 100, or 150 mg Zn/kg from ZnO or 50 mg Zn/kg from a Zn AA complex (ZnAA; Availa-Zn; Zinpro, Eden Prairie, MN). All diets also contained 83 mg Zn/kg from ZnSO4 in the trace mineral premix. Pigs fed the RAC diet without added Zn had increased (P diet. Increasing Zn from ZnO in diets containing RAC tended to increase (linear, P = 0.067) G:F and loin weight (quadratic, P = 0.064). Pigs fed diets with 50 mg Zn/kg from ZnAA tended to have increased (P = 0.057) ADG compared with pigs fed the RAC diet. In Exp. 2, 320 pigs (327 × 1050; PIC; 98 kg BW) were used in a 35-d study. There were 2 pigs per pen and 20 pens per treatment. Treatments included a control diet (0.66% SID Lys); a diet (0.92% SID Lys) with 10 mg/kg RAC; or the RAC diet plus 75, 150, and 225 mg Zn/kg from ZnO or ZnAA. All diets also contained 55 mg Zn/kg from ZnSO4 from the trace mineral premix. Pigs fed the RAC diet had increased (P diet. No Zn level or source effects or level × source interactions were observed for growth performance. A Zn level × source interaction (quadratic, P = 0.007) was observed in liver Zn concentrations. This resulted from liver Zn concentrations plateauing at 150 mg Zn/kg when ZnO was supplemented, while there was a linear increase when using ZnAA. Increasing Zn in diets containing RAC increased (linear, P diet compared with those fed the control diet. Expression of IL

  10. Effects of narasin (Skycis) on live performance and carcass traits of finishing pigs sold in a three-phase marketing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkfeld, E K; Carr, S N; Rincker, P J; Gruber, S L; Allee, G L; Dilger, A C; Boler, D D

    2015-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of feeding narasin (Skycis; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs sold in a 3-phase marketing system. Pigs ( = 1,232) were housed in 56 single-sex pens (22 pigs/pen) divided into 2 even blocks based on initiation of treatment. Each treatment × sex combination was replicated 14 times. Pigs were fed either 0 mg/kg narasin (control) or 15 mg/kg narasin for up to 85 d of finishing (initiated at an average of 52.95 kg BW). In each pen, 18% (4 pigs per pen) of pigs were sold in the first marketing group (Day 64 of dietary treatment), 50% (11 of the original 22) were sold in the second marketing group (Day 78), and 32% (the remaining 7 pigs) were sold in the third marketing group (Day 85). Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with pen as the experimental unit. The model included the fixed effects of diet, sex, and their interaction. Block and replicate nested within block were random variables. Carcass data from pigs in marketing group 3 of block 2 was not collected due to inclement weather. Narasin had no effect on growth performance traits ( ≥ 0.15) in phases 1 (Days 1-28) or 2 (Days 29-56), regardless of sex. Barrows fed narasin had a 2.0% greater overall (Day 0-85) ADG than barrows fed the control diet ( < 0.01), but ADG of gilts was not different due to diet ( = 0.69). Regardless of sex, narasin improved ( = 0.03) feed efficiency (G:F) by 1.3% throughout the 85-d feeding period. There were no effects ( ≥ 0.21) of narasin on carcass composition in marketing groups 1 and 2. Narasin-fed barrows in marketing group 3 had 0.9 percentage units lower ( < 0.01) estimated carcass lean compared with barrows fed control diets (51.0 vs. 52.0%); no difference existed in gilts ( = 0.21). This is likely due to narasin-fed barrows of marketing group 3 tending ( = 0.06) to have 7.7% greater fat depth than control barrows of marketing group 3. Pooled

  11. Effect of gestating sow body condition, feed refusals, and group housing on growth and feed intake in grower-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell-Kubiak, E; van der Waaij, E H; Bijma, P

    2013-08-01

    The main focus of this study was to identify sow gestation features that affect growth rate (GR) and feed intake (FI) of their offspring during grower-finishing stage. Because the sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation, certain features (e.g., BW of the sow), feed refusals or gestation group, may affect her ability to deliver and feed a healthy litter. Data on 17,743 grower-finishing pigs, coming from 604 sires and 681 crossbred sows, were obtained from the Institute for Pigs Genetics. Sow gestation features were collected during multiple gestations and divided into 3 clusters describing i) sow body condition (i.e., BW, backfat, and gestation length), ii) sow feed refusals (FR), the difference between offered and eaten feed during 3 periods of gestation: 1 to 28, 25 to 50, 45 to 80 d, and iii) sow group features (i.e., number of sows, and average parity). Sow gestation features were added to the base model 1 at a time to study their effect on GR and FI. Significant gestation features (P Gestation length had effect on GR [1.4 (g/d)/d; P = 0.04] and FI [6.8 (g/d)/d; P = 0.007]. Body weights of the sow at insemination [0.07 (g/d)/kg; P = 0.08], at farrowing [0.14 (g/d)/kg; P gestation and average FR during 45 to 80 d of gestation had negative effect on GR and when substantially increased had also a positive effect on FI. Sow FR from 1 to 28 d of gestation were not significant. Number of sows in gestation group had effect on FI [-9 (g/d)/group member; P = 0.04] and day sow entered group had an effect on GR [-0.9 (g/d)/day; P = 0.04]. Sow gestation features explained 1 to 3% of the total variance in grower-finishing pigs. Gestation features did explain phenotypic variance due to permanent sow and part of phenotypic variance due to common litter effects for FI but not for GR.

  12. Environmental contamination and transmission of Ascaris suum in Danish organic pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran K.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    , but mainly younger animals were infected. Deep litter appeared to be a less important source of A. suum eggs than previously believed compared to shallow litter. Long-term pasture rotation to eliminate pasture contamination was not possible, and control programs should therefore include thorough cleaning......, but overall there were very few fully developed (i.e., infective) eggs in the bedding material. Laboratory embryonation of eggs from the bedding material nevertheless revealed that an overall mean of 79 % of the eggs were viable. Conclusion: The organic pigs of all ages were continuously exposed to A. suum...

  13. Digestibility of nutrients in growing-finishing pigs is affected by Aspergillus niger phytase, phytate and lactic acid levels. 2. Apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium and ileal degradation of phytic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemme, P.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Mroz, Z.; Kogut, J.; Beynen, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    In growing-finishing pigs, the effects of supplemental microbial phytase, lactic acid and Na phytate in a maize-soybean meal based diet on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of ash, total P, Ca and Mg and the ileal degradation (AID) of phytic acid were studied. The experimental design was

  14. Evaluation of commercially available enzymes, probiotics, or yeast on apparent total-tract nutrient digestion and growth in nursery and finishing pigs fed diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of enzymes, direct fed microbials, or yeast to enhance nutrient utilization or growth performance in nursery or finishing pigs fed diets containing increased levels of corn fiber from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is largely unknown. Ten commercially available feed additiv...

  15. Digestion and deposition of individual fatty acids in growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing either beef tallow or sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchaothai, J; Everts, H; Yuangklang, C; Wittayakun, S; Vasupen, K; Wongsuthavas, S; Srenanul, P; Hovenier, R; Beynen, A C

    2008-08-01

    The apparent digestibility and deposition in carcass of individual dietary fatty acids (FA) were determined in growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing either beef tallow or sunflower oil. The beef tallow was rich in saturated FA (SFA) and the sunflower oil had a high content of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA). A total of 39 barrows was used. The experimental diets contained 5% (w/w) of the variable fat source and were fed ad libitum. The dietary fat type had no effect (p > 0.05) on growth performance, even though the apparent digestibilities of crude fat and crude protein were higher (p tallow, the deposition:intake ratio was raised for the SFA (p tallow improved apparent digestibility of SFA, MUFA and PUFA, increased the deposition:digestible intake ratio for SFA, but lowered that for MUFA and PUFA.

  16. Swine plasma and whole egg in ration for weaner pigs in performance in initial phase and residual effect until finishing phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Thomaz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Were used 64 weaned pigs, distributed in eight treatments: ration with skim milk (SM, three rations with crescent levels of swine plasma (SP, three rations with whole egg (WE and a ration with high inclusion of soybean meal (SB. Daily weight gain (DWG, daily feed intake (DFI and feed conversion (FC were evaluated. The animals that consumed ration SB have the mean of DWG higher that other treatments, and inferior FC, from 35 to 48 days of age. The crescent levels of SP promoted linear reduction in DWG, from 21 to 35, and from 35 to 48 days of age, in DFI from 48 to 138 days of age and linear increased in FC from 21 to 35 of age. Considering the weaned phase until finishing, initial rations can be formulated with SP and WE substituted partially the CP of skim milk in 25 and 45%, respectively.

  17. Farm-level prevalence and risk factors for detection of hepatitis E virus, porcine enteric calicivirus, and rotavirus in Canadian finisher pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Barbara; Leblanc, Danielle; Leger, David; Gow, Sheryl; Deckert, Anne; Pearl, David L; Friendship, Robert; Rajić, Andrijana; Houde, Alain; McEwen, Scott

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), norovirus (NoV), and rotavirus (RV) are all hypothesized to infect humans zoonotically via exposure through swine and pork. Our study objectives were to estimate Canadian farm-level prevalence of HEV, NoV [specifically porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC)], and RV in finisher pigs, and to study risk factors for farm level viral detection. Farms were recruited using the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) and FoodNet Canada on-farm sampling platforms. Six pooled groups of fecal samples were collected from participating farms, and a questionnaire capturing farm management and biosecurity practices was completed. Samples were assayed using validated real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We modeled predictors for farm level viral RNA detection using logistic and exact logistic regression. Seventy-two herds were sampled: 51 CIPARS herds (15 sampled twice) and 21 FoodNet Canada herds (one sampled twice). Hepatitis E virus was detected in 30/88 farms [34.1% (95% CI 25.0%, 44.5%)]; PEC in 18 [20.5% (95% CI: 13.4%, 30.0%)], and RV in 6 farms [6.8% (95% CI: 3.2%, 14.1%)]. Farm-level prevalence of viruses varied with province and sampling platform. Requiring shower-in and providing boots for visitors were significant predictors (P < 0.05) in single fixed effect mixed logistic regression analysis for detection of HEV and PEC, respectively. In contrast, all RV positive farms provided boots and coveralls, and 5 of 6 farms required shower-in. We hypothesized that these biosecurity measures delayed the mean age of RV infection, resulting in an association with RV detection in finishers. Obtaining feeder pigs from multiple sources was consistently associated with greater odds of detecting each virus.

  18. Farm-level prevalence and risk factors for detection of hepatitis E virus, porcine enteric calicivirus, and rotavirus in Canadian finisher pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Barbara; Leblanc, Danielle; Leger, David; Gow, Sheryl; Deckert, Anne; Pearl, David L.; Friendship, Robert; Rajić, Andrijana; Houde, Alain; McEwen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), norovirus (NoV), and rotavirus (RV) are all hypothesized to infect humans zoonotically via exposure through swine and pork. Our study objectives were to estimate Canadian farm-level prevalence of HEV, NoV [specifically porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC)], and RV in finisher pigs, and to study risk factors for farm level viral detection. Farms were recruited using the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) and FoodNet Canada on-farm sampling platforms. Six pooled groups of fecal samples were collected from participating farms, and a questionnaire capturing farm management and biosecurity practices was completed. Samples were assayed using validated real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We modeled predictors for farm level viral RNA detection using logistic and exact logistic regression. Seventy-two herds were sampled: 51 CIPARS herds (15 sampled twice) and 21 FoodNet Canada herds (one sampled twice). Hepatitis E virus was detected in 30/88 farms [34.1% (95% CI 25.0%, 44.5%)]; PEC in 18 [20.5% (95% CI: 13.4%, 30.0%)], and RV in 6 farms [6.8% (95% CI: 3.2%, 14.1%)]. Farm-level prevalence of viruses varied with province and sampling platform. Requiring shower-in and providing boots for visitors were significant predictors (P < 0.05) in single fixed effect mixed logistic regression analysis for detection of HEV and PEC, respectively. In contrast, all RV positive farms provided boots and coveralls, and 5 of 6 farms required shower-in. We hypothesized that these biosecurity measures delayed the mean age of RV infection, resulting in an association with RV detection in finishers. Obtaining feeder pigs from multiple sources was consistently associated with greater odds of detecting each virus. PMID:27127336

  19. Prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance of fecal Escherichia coli among pigs on 47 farrow-to-finish farms with different in-feed medication policies in Ontario and British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akwar, Holy T.; Poppe, Cornelis; Wilson, Jeff; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Dyck, Monica; Waddington, Josh; Shang, Dayue; McEwen, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance in pigs on farms that medicated swine ration and those that did not. A total of 940 isolates of Escherichia coli from 188 pooled fecal samples obtained from weaner and finisher pigs on 47 farrow-to-finish swine farms (34 farms used in-feed medication and 13 did not) were tested for susceptibility to 21 antimicrobials using a breakpoint concentration method. The prevalence of resistance varied widely (0.0% to 81.3%) among the antimicrobials tested. Ninety percent of all the isolates tested were resistant to one or more antimicrobials. The most common multi-drug resistance patterns were to 2 to 6 antimicrobials. Resistance was significantly more frequent (P finisher pigs. These findings indicate that resistance to a broad range of antimicrobials was prevalent among fecal E. coli isolates of pigs on study farms, and that this constitutes a potential reservoir for resistance genes that could spread to pathogens. The findings also provide further evidence that use of medication in swine rations provides selective pressure for antimicrobial resistance in E. coli in pigs. PMID:18505210

  20. Single versus double testing of meat-juice samples for Salmonella antibodies, in the Danish pig-herd surveillance programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeroth, Lars; Alban, Lis; Feld, Niels

    2003-08-01

    In Denmark, a national serological surveillance-and-control programme for Salmonella in pigs has been in operation since 1995. The programme is based on the Danish mix-ELISA and uses double testing (two ELISA-wells used per sample) of meat-juice samples taken in relation to slaughter. All herds are classified monthly into one of the three levels; the classification is based on the percentage of positive serological results in the previous 3 months. In connection with evaluation of the programme in 2001, we investigated whether single testing (testing in one well only) could be expected to be sufficiently precise compared to double testing. Data from the year 2000 were used, and mathematical modelling. Single testing was simulated by randomised selection of one of the two results in the double testing. A slight increase in the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples (1.02-1.09 times more through the four quarters of the year 2000) was found in the simulated single testing, as compared to the double testing. Around 0.5% of the herds would be allocated to another herd level in single testing-almost equal numbers one level up and one level down. No herd being seronegative in double testing would be allocated to levels 2 or 3 (herds with >40 or >70%, respectively, serological reactors) in single testing. The prevalence of "false-positive" diagnoses (positive in single testing and negative in double testing) and inversely defined "false-negative" diagnoses varied from 4.2 to 8.7% and from 3.2 to 4.5%, respectively, through the four quarters of the year 2000. The probability of allocating a herd to a wrong level due to sampling error was on the average 6.2 (varying from 1.66 to over 100) times higher than the probability of allocating a herd to a wrong level due to the test inaccuracy introduced by going from double to single testing. This is, however, an average; a herd with a true prevalence close to one of the level border cut-offs (40 and 70% weighted seroprevalence

  1. Environmental and economic impacts of using co-products in the diets of finishing pigs in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Beshir M.; Zanten, van Hannah H.E.; Berentsen, Paul; Bastiaansen, John W.M.; Bikker, Paul; Lansink, Alfons Oude

    2017-01-01

    Alternative feed sources are required to improve the environmental and economic sustainability of current pig production systems and to reduce the competition for cropland between the feed and food sectors. The objective of this study was to assess the environmental and economic impacts of utilizing

  2. Dietary lysine affected the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of finishing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been reported that some amino acids can function as signaling molecules to regulate skeletal muscle growth in mammals. This study was conducted to identify those genes that may be regulated by amino acid lysine and responsible for muscle growth and meat quality of pigs. Nine crossbred barrows...

  3. Usefulness of food chain information provided by Dutch finishing pig producers to control antibiotic residues in pork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Backus, G.B.C.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Urlings, H.A.P.

    2012-01-01

    The EU prescribes that food business operators must use food chain information to assist in food safety control. This study analyses usefulness of food chain information about antibiotic usage covering the 60-day period prior to delivery of pigs to slaughter in the control of antibiotic residues in

  4. Effect of the dietary net energy concentration on feed intake and performance of growing-finishing pigs housed individually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiniou, N; Noblet, J

    2012-12-01

    The effect of dietary NE content on feed intake and performance of pigs was investigated using crossbred barrows with initial and final BW of approximately 35 and 110 kg, respectively. Pigs were housed individually and allowed ad libitum access to feed. Pigs were randomly allotted to 6 wheat and soybean meal-based diets (8.1, 8.7, 9.3, 9.9, 10.5, and 11.1 MJ NE/kg) with 16 pigs/diet. Ratios between standardized ileal digestible AA and NE were similar in all diets. Over the entire experiment, increase in dietary NE concentration was associated with a decreased ADFI (3.216, 3.216, 3.122, 2.910, 2.732, and 2.684 kg/d, respectively, for diets containing 8.1 to 11.1 MJ NE/kg; linear, P dietary NE increased from 8.1 to 11.1 MJ NE/kg (26.04, 27.98, 29.03, 28.81, 28.68, and 29.77 MJ/d, respectively; linear, P dietary NE concentration increased (1.046, 1.126, 1.135, 1.177, 1.156, and 1.152 kg/d, respectively, for diets containing 8.1 to 11.1 MJ NE/kg; linear and quadratic, P dietary NE concentration was associated with an increase in dressing percentage (76.5, 77.0, 77.4, 78.0, 78.2, and 78.4% of BW; linear, P dietary NE concentration increased from 8.1 to 11.1 MJ/kg, the G:F increased (0.326, 0.352, 0.364, 0.405, 0.425, and 0.428 kg/kg, respectively; linear, P dietary energy concentration. These results confirm the ability of individually housed pigs to adjust their spontaneous feed intake over a very wide range of NE concentrations (8.7 to 10.5 MJ/kg). Under commercial conditions, pigs may experience less variation in ADFI than the results obtained in this experiment because of differences in dietary energy concentrations. However, it seems that only a severe reduction in dietary energy concentration will be effective in restricting energy intake of pigs that are allowed ad libitum access to feed.

  5. The use of third and fourth generation cephalosporins affects the occurrence of extended-spectrum cephalosporinase-producing Escherichia coli in Danish pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalhoff Andersen, Vibe; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Vigre, Håkan;

    2015-01-01

    Extended-spectrum cephalosporinase resistance is currently the fastest emerging antimicrobial resistance problem worldwide; however, evidence documenting the effect of potential risk factors is limited. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of using third and fourth...... generation cephalosporins on the occurrence of extended-spectrum cephalosporinase-producing Escherichia coli (ESC-Ec) in Danish pig herds.Conventional, integrated, medium to large herds were selected based on information from the Danish Central Husbandry Register and two groups were formed based on the use...... of third and fourth generation cephalosporins within a specified period, namely, 20 herds with no cephalosporin use (non-exposed) and 19 herds with frequent use (exposed). Data on prescribed antimicrobials were obtained from the National database (VetStat). Management data were obtained through...

  6. The Expression of Carnosine and Its Effect on the Antioxidant Capacity of Muscle in Finishing Pigs Exposed to Constant Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peige Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effects of constant high ambient temperatures on meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and carnosine expression in longissimus dorsi muscle of finishing pigs. Castrated 24 male DLY (crossbreeds between Landrace×Yorkshire sows and Duroc boars pigs were allocated to one of three treatments: constant ambient temperature at 22°C and ad libitum feeding (CON, n = 8; constant high ambient temperature at 30°C and ad libitum feeding (H30, n = 8; and constant ambient temperature at 22°C and pair-fed with H30 (PF, n = 8. Meat quality, malondialdehyde (MDA content, antioxidant capacity, carnosine content, and carnosine synthetase (CARNS1 mRNA expression in longissimus dorsi muscle were measured after three weeks. The results revealed that H30 had lower pH24 h, redness at 45 min, and yellowness at 24 h post-mortem (p<0.05, and higher drip loss at 48 h and lightness at 24 h post-mortem (p<0.01. Constant heat stress disrupted the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance in longissimus dorsi muscle with higher MDA content (p<0.01 and lower antioxidant capacity (p<0.01. Carnosine content and CARNS1 mRNA expression in longissimus dorsi muscle of H30 pigs were significantly decreased (p<0.01 after three weeks at 30°C. In conclusion, constant high ambient temperatures affect meat quality and antioxidant capacity negatively, and the reduction of muscle carnosine content is one of the probable reasons.

  7. Metabolizable energy content of refined glycerin and its effects on growth performance and carcass and pork quality characteristics of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, O F; Ellis, M; McKeith, F K; Gaines, A M

    2010-12-01

    Two studies were conducted with refined glycerin (97.7 and 97.5% glycerin for studies I and II, respectively) to determine ME content and effects on growth performance and carcass and pork quality measures of finishing pigs. An energy balance study using 24 barrows (21.5 ± 0.6 kg initial BW) determined the apparent ME content of glycerin using a generalized randomized block design with 2 dietary treatments: 1) control (99.85% corn + vitamins and minerals) and 2) glycerin (30% of corn in the control diet replaced with glycerin). A 7-d adaptation was followed by a 5-d collection period for feces and urine. The energy content of diets, feces, and urine was determined by bomb calorimetry. The DE of the glycerin diet was greater (P glycerin (estimated by difference) was 3,584 kcal/kg of DM. A growth study was conducted with 128 gilts housed in groups of 4 and reared from 92.5 ± 0.24 kg of BW for a 28-d period, using a split-plot design with a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) dietary glycerin level (0, 5, 10, and 15%) and 2) preslaughter handling (gentle vs. intense). The handling treatment was included to simulate the range in handling intensities that are likely to be experienced in practice. At the end of the 28-d period, one-half of the pens on study were slaughtered and used for carcass and pork quality evaluation with 2 pigs from each pen being subjected to each of the preslaughter handling treatments. There were no interactions (P > 0.05) between dietary glycerin and preslaughter handling treatment. Dietary glycerin had no effect (P > 0.05) on growth performance, carcass measures, or meat quality. There were no differences (P > 0.05) between the gentle and intense handling treatments for carcass or pork quality measures. In conclusion, feeding glycerin to finishing pigs at up to 15% of the diet had no negative effect on growth performance or carcass and pork quality characteristics.

  8. Simulation study of the mechanisms underlying outbreaks of clinical disease caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkenberg, D; Tobias, T J; Bouma, A; van Leengoed, L A M G; Stegeman, J A

    2014-10-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a major cause of respiratory disease in pigs. Many farms are endemically infected without apparent disease, but occasionally severe outbreaks of pleuropneumonia occur. To prevent and control these outbreaks without antibiotics, the underlying mechanisms of these outbreaks need to be understood. Outbreaks are probably initiated by a trigger (common risk factor) changing the host-pathogen interaction, but it is unclear whether this trigger causes all cases directly (trigger mechanism), or whether the first case starts a transmission chain inducing disease in the infected contacts (transmission mechanism). The aim of this study was to identify conditions under which these mechanisms could cause A. pleuropneumoniae outbreaks, and to assess means for prevention and control. Outbreaks were first characterised by data from a literature review, defining an average outbreak at 12 weeks of age, affecting 50% of animals within 4 days. Simple mathematical models describing the two mechanisms can reproduce average outbreaks, with two observations supporting the trigger mechanism: (1) disease should be transmitted 50 times faster than supported by literature if there is a transmission chain; and (2) the trigger mechanism is consistent with the absence of reported outbreaks in young pigs as they have not yet been colonised by the bacterium. In conclusion, outbreaks of A. pleuropneumoniae on endemic farms are most likely caused by a trigger inducing pneumonia in already infected pigs, but more evidence is needed to identify optimum preventive interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of Environmental Impacts from Finishing Pig Production in Liaoning Province, China%辽宁省育肥猪生产环境影响的生命周期评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鸣达; 赵妍; 刘显军; 王耀晶

    2012-01-01

    采用生命周期评价方法,以1 000头出栏育肥猪的规模化养殖场为功能单位,对辽宁地区育肥猪生产进行污染物排放清单分析,评价其环境影响.结果表明,1000头育肥猪生产的生命周期环境影响综合指数为56.59,环境影响大小依次为富营养化、酸化、全球变暖,环境影响指数依次为36.31、13.84和6.44;富营养化影响主要来源于猪粪尿中氮、磷的排放,酸化影响主要来源于猪粪尿中NH3的排放,全球变暖影响主要来源于种植饲料作物使用的化肥生产过程中NOx的排放.因此,加强养猪粪污无害化处理,促进养殖业废物资源化,增加育肥猪饲料中青饲料比例,提高饲料作物生产过程中化肥利用率是降低辽宁地区育肥猪生产环境负荷的主要措施.%Life cycle assessment was used to analyze the inventory of pollutants' emission from 1 000 finishing pigs in large scale pig farms to assess the environmental impacts of finishing pig production in Liaoning Province. The results showed that the impact index of life cycle environment of 1 000 finishing pigs was 56.59. The sequence of environmental impacts from finishing pig production was eutrophication, acidification and global warming, and their potential value of the environmental impacts was 36.31, 13.84 and 6.44 respectively. The eutrophication effect was primarily caused by the nitrogen and phosphorus in pig's manure and urine. The acidification effect was mainly resulted from NH3 emission from pig's manure and urine. The global warming effect was mainly due to the emission of NO, in the production of chemical fertilizers used for pig's feeding crops. Our results suggested that the major measures to decrease the environmental loads from the finishing pig production in Liaoning Province was to enhance the harmless treatment of pig's manure, the recycle of waste from pig's farms, increase the ratio of green fodder for finishing pig's feed and increase the utilization

  10. Use of a glucomannan polymer to reduce the effects of mycotoxin-contaminated diets in finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pulina

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of feed additives with mycotoxin adsorption capacity is a common strategy for controlling negative effects of mycotoxins in swine production systems. However, adsorbents that may results very effective under experimental conditions, i.e. when feed contamination level is rather high, do not necessarily retain their efficacy when tested under field conditions feed with generally low mycotoxin contamination. In this study, the effects of diets artificially contaminated with aflatoxin B1 or ochratoxin A on fattening performance and serum chemistry of fattening pigs are investigated. Moreover, the ability of a commercial glucomannan polymer (Gm polimer to reduce or eliminate the effects of the contaminated feeds is tested. Thirty heavy pigs (BW = 110±10.6 kg were fed 6 diets (n = 5 pigs/diet for 4 weeks until slaughtering. Diets were: control without toxin added (C; added with 0.02 ppm of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1; added with 0.05 ppm of ochratoxin A (OTA; other three diets as the previous but the addition of 2.0 g/kg of Gm polymer (C-GM, AFB1-GM, OTA-GM. Daily weight gain (ADG and Feed efficiency ratio (FE were measured every two weeks. Data were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA that included the fixed effect of diet, time and their interaction. After the first 2 weeks the ADG did not differ significantly between the diets, even if the ADG of AFB1 diet was about 20% lower than AFB1-Gm or C. In the last 2 weeks the ADG of AFB1 diet was significantly lover than the other diets (P<0.01 and was about one-half of the values reported for the same group in the first period. The contamination with ochratoxin A did not affect fattening performance of pigs during the whole experimental period. No damages were found in kidneys of all diets. Moreover, no evidence of association between observed liver damages and different diets was found. Finally, no differences between experimental diets were evidenced for the haematological parameters.

  11. Effects of immunological castration (Improvest) on further processed belly characteristics and commercial bacon slicing yields of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, J M; Bohrer, B M; Schroeder, A L; Matulis, R J; Boler, D D

    2014-09-01

    Objectives were to compare fresh belly characteristics, further processed belly characteristics, and commercial bacon slicing yields of immunologically castrated (IC) barrows, IC barrows fed ractopamine hydrochloride (IC+RAC), physically castrated (PC) barrows, intact males, and gilts. One hundred eighty-eight bellies from pigs housed in single sex pens (n = 48) slaughtered at 130 kg ending live weight were evaluated for flop distance, length, width, thickness, and fatty acid composition. Bellies were injected, thermally processed, and sliced according to standard protocols at a USDA federally inspected facility. Complete slices were sorted by trained plant personnel. Then, sliced bellies were individually packaged to maintain anatomical orientation. The effects of treatments were analyzed as a generalized linear mixed model with pen of pigs serving as the experimental unit for all comparisons. Belly thickness was not different (P ≥ 0.11) in bellies from IC barrows (3.74 cm) compared with bellies from IC+RAC (3.60 cm), PC barrows (3.94 cm), or gilts (3.64 cm); however, bellies were 0.42 cm thicker (P bacon manufactured from IC barrows were less than both PC barrows and gilts.

  12. Sequence-Based Genotyping of Expressed Swine Leukocyte Antigen Class I Alleles by Next-Generation Sequencing Reveal Novel Swine Leukocyte Antigen Class I Haplotypes and Alleles in Belgian, Danish, and Kenyan Fattening Pigs and Göttingen Minipigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Maria Rathmann; Ilsøe, Mette; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Bishop, Richard; Erbs, Gitte; Hartmann, Sofie Bruun; Jungersen, Gregers

    2017-01-01

    The need for typing of the swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) is increasing with the expanded use of pigs as models for human diseases and organ-transplantation experiments, their use in infection studies, and for design of veterinary vaccines. Knowledge of SLA sequences is furthermore a prerequisite for the prediction of epitope binding in pigs. The low number of known SLA class I alleles and the limited knowledge of their prevalence in different pig breeds emphasizes the need for efficient SLA typing methods. This study utilizes an SLA class I-typing method based on next-generation sequencing of barcoded PCR amplicons. The amplicons were generated with universal primers and predicted to resolve 68–88% of all known SLA class I alleles dependent on amplicon size. We analyzed the SLA profiles of 72 pigs from four different pig populations; Göttingen minipigs and Belgian, Kenyan, and Danish fattening pigs. We identified 67 alleles, nine previously described haplotypes and 15 novel haplotypes. The highest variation in SLA class I profiles was observed in the Danish pigs and the lowest among the Göttingen minipig population, which also have the highest percentage of homozygote individuals. Highlighting the fact that there are still numerous unknown SLA class I alleles to be discovered, a total of 12 novel SLA class I alleles were identified. Overall, we present new information about known and novel alleles and haplotypes and their prevalence in the tested pig populations. PMID:28670315

  13. Characterisation of recently emerged multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104 and other multiresistant phage types from Danish pig herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggesen, D L; Aarestrup, F M

    1998-07-25

    A total of 670 isolates of Salmonella enterica were isolated from Danish pig herds, phage typed and tested for susceptibility to amoxycillin + clavulanate, ampicillin, colistin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, neomycin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim + sulphadiazine. S enterica serovar typhimurium (S typhimurium) isolates resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline and three isolates of S typhimurium DT104, two from 1994 and one from 1995, were further tested for resistance against chloramphenicol and sulphonamide and analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using the restriction enzyme Xba I. Overall, 66 per cent of the 670 isolates were sensitive to all the antimicrobial agents tested. Eleven isolates of S typhimurium were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline and also resistant to other antibiotics in different resistance patterns. Seven different multiresistant clones were identified. The most common clones were four isolates of DT104 and three isolates of DT193. Two of the three S typhimurium DT104 from 1994 and 1995 were sensitive to all the antimicrobials tested whereas the remaining isolate from 1994 was resistant to spectinomycin, streptomycin and sulphonamides. All three isolates showed PFGF profiles identical to the four multiresistant DT104 isolates. Compared with most other countries antimicrobial resistance among S enterica isolated from Danish pig herds is uncommon. However, several different multiresistant clones were found.

  14. Cloridrato de ractopamina em dietas para suínos em terminação = Ractopamine hidrochloride in diets for finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Soares da Silva Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o uso de ractopamina em diferentes niveis de inclusao na dieta para suinos em terminacao. Foram utilizados 50 suinos hibridos comerciais com peso inicial de 74,08 (1,42 kg, aleatoriamente distribuidos em cinco blocos casualizados. Havia dois animais em cada parcela experimental, macho e femea, alimentados com dieta suplementada com ractopamina (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20 ppm durante 28 dias. Foram avaliados desempenho e caracteristicas de carcaca dos animais. A ractopamina melhorou odesempenho, espessura de toucinho, profundidade, area de olho de lombo e rendimento de carne na carcaca, porem sem influenciar no consumo de racao, rendimento de cortes e qualidade da barriga. Exceto a dose de 0 ppm, nao houve diferenca entre as doses de ractopamina utilizadas. O modelo de regressao Linear Response Plateau, aplicado nas variaveis onde houve significancia, estimou o ponto otimo de suplementacao deste aditivo entre 4,09 a 5,14 ppm. Houve aumento de 6,09% no indice de bonificacao quando foi utilizado o nivel de 5 ppm de ractopamina. Conclui-se que a ractopamina e eficaz em melhorar odesempenho e as caracteristicas de carcaca de suinos em terminacao.The present work was carried out to evaluate different inclusion levels of ractopamine in diets for finishing pigs. Fifty animals with initial weight of 74.08 (1.42 kg selected for high meat deposition were used, randomly allotted in five blocks. Each experimental unit had two animals, barrow and gilt, fed diets with ractopamine (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 ppm for 28 days. Growth performance and carcass characteristics were evaluated. Ractopamine improved final weight, average daily gain, feed:gain ratio, backfat thickness, loin depth, loin eye area and lean tissue yield, but did not influence feed intake, cut yields and belly quality. No differences were found among the doses of ractopamine utilized. The optimum level of supplementation of this additive, as estimated by the Linear

  15. Space-time clustering of ampicillin resistant Escherichia coli isolated from Danish pigs at slaughter between 1997 and 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abatih, E. N.; Ersbøll, A. K.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo;

    2009-01-01

    or clustered in space and time. Data on E coli isolates between 1997 and 2005 were obtained from the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme (DANMAP) whereas data on the quantity of ampicillin consumed was obtained from the Danish Register of Veterinary Medicines (Vet...

  16. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Danish organic pig farms: Seasonal and age-related variation in prevalence, infection intensity and species/genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Heidi H; Jianmin, Wang; Katakam, Kiran K; Mejer, Helena; Thamsborg, Stig M; Dalsgaard, Anders; Olsen, Annette; Enemark, Heidi L

    2015-11-30

    scrofarum excreted fewer oocysts (mean CPG: 54,848 ± 194,508CI: 9085-118,781) compared to pigs infected with Cryptosporidium suis (mean OPG: 351,035 ± 351,035CI: 67,953-634,117). No correlation between faecal consistency and (oo-)cyst excretion levels was observed. Of the successfully genotyped isolates, 38/56 (67.9%) were C. scrofarum and 18/56 (32.1%) were C. suis, while the livestock specific G. duodenalis Assemblage E was detected in 11/13 (84.6%) isolates and the potentially zoonotic Assemblage A was identified in 2/13 (15.4%) isolates. Piglets exclusively hosted C. suis, with one exception, while starter pigs and fatteners predominantly hosted C. scrofarum. As organic pigs are partly reared outdoors, environmental contamination with Cryptosporidium and Giardia is inevitable. Nevertheless, the present data indicate that the potential public health risk associated with both of these parasites in Danish organic pig production seems to be negligible.

  17. Evaluation of the relationship between the biosecurity status, production parameters, herd characteristics and antimicrobial usage in farrow-to-finish pig production in four EU countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Merel; Backhans, Annette; Collineau, Lucie; Loesken, Svenja; Sjölund, Marie; Belloc, Catherine; Emanuelson, Ulf; Grosse Beilage, Elisabeth; Nielsen, Elisabeth Okholm; Stärk, Katharina D C; Dewulf, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    High antimicrobial usage and the threat of antimicrobial resistance highlighted the need for reduced antimicrobial usage in pig production. Prevention of disease however, is necessary to obtain a reduced need for antimicrobial treatment. This study aimed at assessing possible associations between the biosecurity level, antimicrobial usage and farm and production characteristics in order to advice on best practices for a low antimicrobial usage and maximum animal health and production. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 227 farrow-to-finish pig herds in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden between December 2012 and December 2013. Associations between biosecurity status, antimicrobial usage, and production parameters were evaluated with multivariable general linear models, according to an assumed causal pathway. The results showed that higher antimicrobial usage in sows tended to be associated with higher antimicrobial usage from birth until slaughter (p = 0.06). The antimicrobial usage from birth until slaughter was positively associated with the number of pathogens vaccinated against (p < 0.01). A shorter farrowing rhythm (p < 0.01) and a younger weaning age (p = 0.06) tended to be also associated with a higher antimicrobial usage from birth until slaughter whereas a better external biosecurity (p < 0.01) was related with a lower antimicrobial usage from birth until slaughter. Management practices such as weaning age and biosecurity measures may be important factors indirectly impacting on antimicrobial usage. We therefore promote a holistic approach when assessing the potential to reduce the need for antimicrobial treatments.

  18. Addition of arginine and leucine to low or normal protein diets: performance, carcass characteristics and intramuscular fat of finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Tous

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary crude protein (CP reduction, supplementation with arginine or leucine on intramuscular fat (IMF content was evaluated in (Landrace × Duroc × Pietrain pigs. One-hundred and eight barrows (67 ± 4 kg were assigned to six diets (n=6 pens of 3 pigs each: four normal CP diets containing 16% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 13% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (normal protein; normal protein high Arg, normal protein high Leu or normal protein high Arg and Leu and two low CP diets containing 14% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 11.8% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (with or without supplementation of both amino acids. The high Leu and Arg diets were supplemented to obtain ratios of standard ileal digestible Leu/Lys and Arg/Lys of 4 and 2, respectively. While feed to gain ratio tended to increase (p<0.05, final weight (p<0.01, average daily feed intake (ADFI (p<0.05 and average daily gain (ADG (p<0.01 were reduced in animals fed low-protein diets supplemented with Arg and Leu compared to the ones fed low-protein diet unsupplemented. Marbling and IMF content in loin were reduced when Arg was supplemented (p<0.05 in normal protein diets. Supplementing these diets with Arg also reduced belly weight (p<0.01 and increased lean meat percentage (p<0.05. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, reduction of CP or dietary supplementation with Leu had no effect on IMF content and supplementation with Arg reduced it.

  19. Triple-reassortant influenza A virus with H3 of human seasonal origin, NA of swine origin, and internal A(H1N1) pandemic 2009 genes is established in Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Michael Albin

    2017-01-01

    This report describes a triple-reassortant influenza A virus with a HA that resembles H3 of human seasonal influenza from 2004 to 2005, N2 from influenza A virus already established in swine, and the internal gene cassette from A(H1N1)pdm09 has spread in Danish pig herds. The virus has been detec...

  20. Triple-reassortant influenza A virus with H3 of human seasonal origin, NA of swine origin, and internal A(H1N1) pandemic 2009 genes is established in Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Michael Albin

    2017-01-01

    This report describes a triple-reassortant influenza A virus with a HA that resembles H3 of human seasonal influenza from 2004 to 2005, N2 from influenza A virus already established in swine, and the internal gene cassette from A(H1N1)pdm09 has spread in Danish pig herds. The virus has been detec...

  1. Polyunsaturated fat and fish oil in diets for growing-finishing pigs: effects on fatty acid composition and meat, fat, and sausage quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryhni, E A; Kjos, N P; Ofstad, R; Hunt, M

    2002-09-01

    Forty-eight crossbred growing-finishing pigs were used to study the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 31%= low and 50%= high) and fish oil (0, 0.2, and 0.4% capelin) diets on fatty acid composition, chemical traits, and sensory properties of the longissimus muscle, fat, and sausages. High levels of PUFA, independent of the level of fish oil, increased oxidation and rancidity for whole muscle (stored at 1 and 8 months at -23 °C) and sausages (TBARS 0.6-1.3). Fish oil at 0.4% in the diet increased TBA values of loin, but did not affect sensory evaluation scores. An interaction between PUFA and fish oil occurred for TBARS values and rancid odour in sausage, where the 0.4% fish oil and high PUFA level showed highest oxidation (TBARS 1.9). Although fish oil and high PUFA levels might contribute to a more healthy meat, their undesirable affects on palatability would limit their use.

  2. Effects of feeding diets containing distillers' dried grains with solubles and wheat middlings with equal predicted dietary net energy on growth performance and carcass composition of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F; Johnston, L J; Urriola, P E; Hilbrands, A M; Shurson, G C

    2016-01-01

    This experiment evaluated the effects of feeding distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat middlings (WM) in diets with similar estimated NE content on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. Pigs ( = 384; 29.1 ± 3.6 kg initial BW) were blocked by initial BW, and within blocks, pens were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (8 pigs/pen and 12 replicates/treatment) in a 4-phase feeding program (29 to 50, 50 to 75, 75 to 100, and 100 to 120 kg BW). Dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design and formulated to consist of: 1) corn and soybean meal (CON), 2) CON with 30% DDGS, 3) CON with 15% WM, and 4) CON with 30% DDGS and 15% WM. Diets met or exceeded nutrient requirements published by the and were formulated to contain the same concentrations of standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys and meet or exceed minimum SID AA to Lys ratios within phases. No significant interactions for DDGS × WM × phase or DDGS × WM were observed for all growth performance criteria. Pigs fed diets containing 30% DDGS had reduced ( pigs fed diets with no DDGS in phase 1 but not in other phases. The G:F of pigs fed diets containing DDGS was not different during phase 1 to 3 but was greater ( pigs fed diets with no DDGS. Pigs fed diets containing 15% WM had similar ADFI and G:F but reduced ( pigs fed diets without WM in phase 1, but no difference in ADG was observed in phases 2 to 4. No DDGS × WM interaction was observed for carcass traits. Pigs fed diets containing 30% DDGS had reduced ( pigs fed diets with no DDGS. Pigs fed diets containing 15% WM had lower carcass yield (72.7 vs. 73.1%; pigs fed diets with no addition of WM, but other carcass traits were not affected. In conclusion, overall ADG and G:F were not affected by feeding 30% DDGS or 15% WM when diets were formulated on the NE basis, but more accurate and dynamic estimation of NE content for DDGS sources is needed to optimize caloric efficiency at

  3. Pea (Pisum sativum and faba bean (Vicia faba L. seeds as protein sources in growing-finishing heavy pig diets: effect on growth performance, carcass characteristics and on fresh and seasoned Parma ham quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Prandini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pea and faba bean inclusion in growing-finishing heavy pig diets was evaluated. The following iso-lysinic and iso-energetic diets offered to the pigs in three phases (40-80; 80-120; 120-160 kg were compared: CTR, control diet with soybean meal (SBM as protein source; RP, CTR diet where pea replaced SBM; RF, CTR diet where faba bean replaced SBM. 126 animals were randomly distributed in 3 homogeneous groups with 42 animals each (7 pens with 6 animals each per treatment. The RP and RF diets did not negatively affect the carcass characteristics both of the pigs slaughtered at the conventional weight (127.5 kg and heavy pigs (158.5 kg. The pigs fed the RP and RF diets ate similarly to the pigs fed the CTR overall the trial but RF pigs grew better than CTR animals. The subcutaneous fat of the fresh hams destined for Parma ham production and obtained from pigs fed RP diet had a higher omega 3 fatty acid percentage. Moreover, the RP and RF diets resulted in fat with better omega 3/omega 6 ratio compared with CTR. All the fat samples had iodine numbers within the limit value (70 reported by the Production Disciplinary of Parma ham. No treatment effect was found on the analytical and sensorial characteristics of the Parma hams, except for the aged taste which was more intense in the hams obtained from pigs fed the RF diet. These results indicate that pea and faba bean may be used as an alternative to imported SBM.

  4. Investigation of the association of growth rate in grower-finishing pigs with the quantification of Lawsonia intracellularis and porcine circovirus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Markku; Nielsen, MaiBritt; Dahl, Jan

    2013-01-01

    As a part of a prospective cohort study in four herds, a nested case control study was carried out. Five slow growing pigs (cases) and five fast growing pigs (controls) out of 60 pigs were selected for euthanasia and laboratory examination at the end of the study in each herd. A total of 238 pigs...

  5. Evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of routine meat inspection of Danish slaughter pigs using Latent Class Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne; Toft, Nils; Thomsen, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    Two groups of observers, regular meat inspectors and two veterinary researchers, respectively, conducted independent veterinary meat inspection of organs of slaughter pigs from organic or conventional production systems slaughtered at one abattoir in April 2005. A total of 3054 pigs (899 organic ...

  6. Population dynamics of swine influenza virus in farrow-to-finish and specialised finishing herds in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.; Hunneman, W.A.; Quak, J.; Verheijden, J.H.M.; Stegeman, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Influenza virus infections with subtypes H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2 are very common in domestic pigs in Europe. Data on possible differences of population dynamics in finishing pigs in farrow-to-finish herds and in specialised finishing herds are, however, scarce. The presence of sows and weaned piglets on

  7. The interaction of fiber, supplied by distillers dried grains with solubles, with an antimicrobial and a nutrient partitioning agent on nitrogen balance, water utilization, and energy digestibility in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, C M; Arentson, R; Patience, J F

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a higher-fiber diet alters the response of finishing pigs to an antimicrobial (tylosin phosphate [TP]) and a nutrient partitioning agent (ractopamine HCl [RAC]) in terms of N and water utilization and energy digestibility. Seventy-two gilts (initial BW = 107.4 ± 4.2 kg) were blocked by weight and allotted to 1 of 8 dietary treatments. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial: distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 0 vs. 30%), RAC (0 mg of RAC/kg and 0.70% standardized ileal digestible [SID] Lys vs. 5 mg of RAC/kg and 0.95% SID Lys) and TP (0 vs. 44 mg of TP/kg). Pig was the experimental unit, with 9 replications per treatment. Pigs were housed in individual metabolism crates and fed treatment diets for 17 d. Feed was provided twice daily, as much as the pigs could consume within 1 h per meal, and water was provided to the pigs between feeding periods, ad libitum. Fecal and urine collection occurred on d 7 and 8 and on d 15 and 16, for sampling periods 1 and 2, respectively. Pigs fed the DDGS diets had reduced ADG ( interaction ( 0.10). Pigs fed DDGS diets had higher N intake ( < 0.01) and higher fecal ( < 0.0001) and urinary ( < 0.01) N excretion with no difference in N retention (g/d). Overall, RAC increased N retention by 33% ( < 0.0001) and the response to RAC was similar in both corn-soybean meal-based and corn-soybean meal-DDGS-based diets. Tylosin phosphate tended to improve growth performance in pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diets but not in diets containing 30% DDGS; however, this response was not explained by changes in N balance or in energy digestibility.

  8. The effects of medium-oil dried distillers grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass traits, and nutrient digestibility in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, A B; Goodband, R D; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Nitikanchana, S

    2014-02-01

    A total of 288 mixed-sex pigs (PIC 327 × 1050; initially 68.9 kg BW) were used in a 67-d study to determine the effects of increasing medium-oil dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS; 7.63% ether extract, 30.1% CP, 19.53% ADF, 36.47% NDF, and 4.53% ash; as-fed basis) on growth performance and carcass traits in finishing pigs. Treatments consisted of a corn-soybean meal control diet or the control diet with 15, 30, or 45% medium-oil DDGS. Diets were fed over 2 phases (69 to 100 and 100 to 126 kg) and were not balanced for energy. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed the AA, vitamin, and mineral requirements and contained constant standardized ileal digestible lysine levels within phase. Increasing medium-oil DDGS decreased (linear, P < 0.02) ADG and G:F. Average daily gain decreased approximately 2.3% for every 15% added medium-oil DDGS whereas G:F decreased approximately 1.3% with every 15% added DDGS. In addition, final BW, HCW, carcass yield, and loin-eye depth decreased (linear, P < 0.03) and jowl iodine value (IV) increased (linear, P < 0.001) with increasing medium-oil DDGS. Nutrient digestibility of the DDGS source was determined using pigs (initially 25.6 kg BW) that were fed either a corn-based basal diet (96.6% corn and 3.4% vitamins and minerals) or a DDGS diet, which was a 50:50 blend of the basal diet and medium-oil DDGS. There were 12 replications for each diet consisting of a 5-d adaptation period followed by 2 d of total fecal collection on a timed basis. Feces were analyzed for GE, DM, CP, crude fiber, NDF, ADF, and ether extract. On an as-fed basis, corn was analyzed to contain 3,871 and 3,515 kcal/kg GE and DE, respectively. Medium-oil DDGS was analyzed to contain 4,585 and 3,356 kcal/kg GE and DE, respectively (as-fed basis). Digestibility coefficients of the medium-oil DDGS were 70.3% DM, 82.9% CP, 61.4% ether extract, 77.4% ADF, 67.5% NDF, and 67.2% crude fiber. Caloric efficiency (ADFI × kcal energy intake/kg BW gain) was not

  9. Effects of abrupt introduction and removal of high and low digestibility corn distillers dried grains with solubles from the diet on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbrands, A M; Johnston, L J; McClelland, K M; Cox, R B; Baidoo, S K; Souza, L W O; Shurson, G C

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding continuously a diet containing 40% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or intermittently diets containing 20 or 40% DDGS on growth performance and carcass quality of pigs. Responses of the pigs to abrupt introduction and removal of dietary DDGS with differing concentrations of standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA were also evaluated. In Exp. 1, crossbred pigs (n=216; initial BW=51.3±3.1 kg) were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 treatments, which included a corn-soybean meal control (CON), a 20% DDGS diet (D20), a switch between D20 and CON (D20-CON), and a switch between a 40% DDGS diet and CON (D40-CON) with 6 pens per treatment. Pigs abruptly introduced and removed from a 20% DDGS diet (D20-CON) exhibited no differences in growth performance or carcass quality compared with CON pigs. However, intermittently feeding a 40% DDGS diet (D40-CON) resulted in lighter HCW (Ppigs (n=324; initial BW=33.2±3.0 kg) were assigned randomly to 1 of 6 treatments, including a corn-soybean meal control (CON), a 40% low SID AA DDGS diet (LD), a 40% high SID AA DDGS diet (HD), LD and CON diets alternated (LD-CON), HD and CON diets alternated (HD-CON), or HD and LD diets alternated (HD-LD) with 6 pens per treatment. Final BW and ADG were less (Ppigs compared with CON pigs, but HD pigs tended to have reduced (Ppigs compared with CON pigs (Pdietary treatment. Backfat of DDGS-fed pigs was more unsaturated than CON pigs, but AA digestibility of DDGS did not affect this response. Digestibility of AA in DDGS can influence pig performance and carcass quality when fed at high concentrations (40% or more). The use of a high SID AA DDGS source may diminish some of the negative responses observed for growth performance and carcass characteristics when feeding high concentrations of DDGS if accurate values of SID AA are used in diet formulation. Periodic inclusion and removal of 40% DDGS from diets did not adversely affect

  10. A dynamic growth model for prediction of nutrient partitioning and manure production in growing-finishing pigs: Model development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathe, A B; Danfær, A; Jørgensen, H; Kebreab, E

    2015-03-01

    Nutrient loading and air emissions from swine operations raise environmental concerns. The objective of the study was to describe and evaluate a mathematical model (Davis Swine Model) of nutrient partitioning and predict manure excretion and composition on a daily basis. State variables of the model were AA, fatty acids, and a central pool of metabolites that supplied substrate for lipid synthesis and oxidation. The model traced the fate of ingested nutrients and water through digestion and intermediary metabolism into body protein, fat, water, and ash, where body protein and fat represented the body constituent pools. It was assumed that fluxes of metabolites follow saturation kinetics, depending on metabolite concentrations. The main inputs to the model were diet nutrient composition, feed intake, water-to-feed ratio, and initial BW. First, the model was challenged with nutrient partitioning data and then with excretion data. The data had 48 different feeding regimes with contrasting energy and lysine intakes at 2 different stages of growth. The overall observed and predicted mean were 109 and 112 g/d for protein deposition and 132 and 136 g/d for lipid deposition respectively, suggesting minor mean bias. Root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) was used in evaluation of the model for its predictive power. The overall RMSPE was 2.2 and 4.1 g/d for protein and lipid deposition, respectively. The excretion database used for evaluation of the model was constructed from 150 digestibility trials using growing-finishing pig diets that had a wide range of nutrient chemical composition. Nutrient and water excretion were quantified using the principle of mass conservation. The average daily observed and predicted manure production was 3.79 and 3.99 kg/d, respectively, with a RMSPE of 0.49 kg/d. There was a good agreement between observed and predicted mean fecal N output (9.9 and 9.8 g/d, respectively). Similarly, the overall observed and predicted mean urine N output

  11. Genomewide association analysis of sow lactation performance traits in lines of Yorkshire pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake during grow-finish phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekkoot, D M; Young, J M; Rothschild, M F; Dekkers, J C M

    2016-06-01

    Lactation is an economically and biologically important phase in the life cycle of sows. Short generation intervals in nucleus herds and low heritability of traits associated with lactation along with challenges associated with collecting accurate lactation performance phenotypes emphasize the importance of using genomic tools to examine the underlying genetics of these traits. We report the first genomewide association study (GWAS) on traits associated with lactation and efficiency in 2 lines of Yorkshire pigs that were divergently selected for residual feed intake during grow-finish phase. A total of 862 farrowing records from 2 parities were analyzed using a Bayesian whole genome variable selection model (Bayes B) to locate 1-Mb regions that were most strongly associated with each trait. The GWAS was conducted separately for parity 1 and 2 records. Marker-based heritabilities ranged from 0.03 to 0.39 for parity 1 traits and from 0.06 to 0.40 for parity 2 traits. For all traits studied, around 90% of genetic variance came from a large number of genomic regions with small effects, whereas genomic regions with large effects were found to be different for the same trait measured in parity 1 and 2. The highest percentage of genetic variance explained by a 1-Mb window for each trait ranged from 0.4% for feed intake during lactation to 4.2% for back fat measured at farrowing in parity 1 sows and from 0.2% for lactation feed intake to 5.4% for protein mass loss during lactation in parity 2 sows. A total of thirteen 1-Mb nonoverlapping windows were found to explain more than 1.5% of genetic variance for either a single trait or across multiple traits. These 1-Mb windows were on chromosomes 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 11, 14, 15, 17, and 18. The major positional candidate genes within 1 Mb upstream and downstream of these windows were , (SSC2), (SSC6) (SSC7), (SSC8), (SSC11), (SSC14), (SSC17). Further validation studies on larger populations are required to validate these findings and

  12. Imputation of genotypes in Danish purebred and two-way crossbred pigs using low-density panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiang, Tao; Ma, Peipei; Ostersen, Tage;

    2015-01-01

    in crossbred animals and, in particular, in pigs. The extent and pattern of linkage disequilibrium differ in crossbred versus purebred animals, which may impact the performance of imputation. In this study, first we compared different scenarios of imputation from 5 K to 8 K single nucleotide polymorphisms...

  13. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different age groups of Danish cattle and pigs - Occurrence and management associated risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2006-01-01

    and sow herds, respectively. Each herd was visited once for the collection of faecal samples and registration of basic management parameters. Faecal samples were collected from three different age groups of animals, i.e. 5 sows/cows. 10 nursing piglets/calves less than 1 month, and 10 weaner pigs 8-45 kg...

  14. Reporting the national antimicrobial consumption in Danish pigs: influence of assigned daily dosage values and population measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Nana Hee; Fertner, Mette Ely; Kristensen, Charlotte Sonne

    2016-01-01

    of population and population measurement affect the calculated national antimicrobial consumption in pigs (2007-2013). The old VetStat ADD-values were based on SPCs in contrast to the new ADD-values, which were based on active compound, concentration and administration route. The new ADD-values stated by both...

  15. The interactive effects of high-fat, high-fiber diets and ractopamine HCl on finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, A B; Goodband, R D; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Nitikanchana, S

    2014-10-01

    A total of 576 mixed-sex pigs (PIC 327 × 1,050; initial BW = 55.8 ± 5.5 kg) were used to determine the effects of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat middlings (midds) withdrawal 24 d before harvest in diets without or with ractopamine HCl (RAC) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality. From d 0 to 49, pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet (CS) or a diet high in unsaturated fat and crude fiber provided by 30% DDGS and 19% wheat midds (HFF) and not balanced for energy. On d 49, pens of pigs previously fed CS diets remained on the CS diet. Half of the HFF-fed pigs were switched to the CS-based diets, which served as the withdrawal regimen. Finally, half of the HFF-fed pigs remained on the same HFF diet. All 3 regimens were fed without or with 10 mg/kg RAC. There were 12 pens per treatment with 8 pigs per pen. No significant diet regimen × RAC interactions were observed. From d 0 to 49, pigs fed the CS diet had increased (P diet. Overall (d 0 to 73), pigs fed the CS diets throughout had greater (P diets throughout. Pigs fed the withdrawal diets had greater (P = 0.014) ADG, but similar G:F to those fed the HFF diets throughout. Pigs fed the CS diets throughout had greater (P = 0.025) carcass yield compared with pigs fed the HFF diets throughout, with those fed the withdrawal diets intermediate. Pigs fed RAC had greater (P diets, highest (P diets throughout, and intermediate for pigs fed the withdrawal diet. There were no differences in either full or rinsed intestine or organ weights between pigs that were fed CS diets throughout and pigs fed the withdrawal diet; however, pigs fed the HFF diets throughout the study had increased (P = 0.002) rinsed cecum and full large intestine weights (P = 0.003) compared with the pigs fed the withdrawal diets. Withdrawing the HFF diet and switching to a CS diet for the last 24 d before harvest partially mitigated negative effects on carcass yield and IV often associated

  16. The association between disease and profitability in individual finishing boars at a test station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Birk; Baadsgaard, Niels Peter; Houe, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Endemic diseases in finisher herds are considered to be costly for the pig producer. We investigated the effect of diseases on the profit margin using data from a Danish boar test station (n = 5777) collected from July 2002 to December 2004. Boars reaching a target slaughter weight of at least 80......: profit margin. The results showed that treatment in the finishing period had a negative effect on the profit margin. According to the least square means estimates, boars that were treated parenterally had a reduction in the profit margin of 2.24 €. This corresponded to a reduction in the profit margin...... of 17%. Boars treated orally had a reduction of 0.88 €, which corresponded to a reduction in the profit margin of 7%. Pathological findings, breed and weight at 4 weeks were also significantly associated with the profit margin. The effect of pathological findings was influenced by breed and caused...

  17. Carcass characteristics and fat depots in Iberian and F Large White × Landrace pigs intensively finished or raised outdoors in oak-tree forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, M C; Almeida, J; Santos Silva, J; Bettencourt, C; Francisco, A; Gama, L T

    2016-06-01

    A factorial experiment was performed with 117 barrows belonging to the Iberian (IB) and crossbred F Large White × Landrace (F) genetic groups, either intensively finished (IN) or finished outdoors on pasture in an oak and cork tree forest (EX). Information was collected on carcass weight, yield, and dimensions; weight of organs, carcass cuts, and abdominal fat depots; backfat depth; measurements of the longissimus thoracis (LT); and yield of different leg tissues. For the 41 slaughter and carcass traits analyzed, the interaction between genetic group and finishing system was significant ( 0.05), indicating that it is feasible to reduce subcutaneous and abdominal fat without compromising IMF and meat quality.

  18. Effects of feeding pelleted diets without or with distillers dried grains with solubles on fresh belly characteristics, fat quality, and commercial bacon slicing yields of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, M F; Lowell, J E; Wilson, K B; Matulis, R J; Stein, H H; Dilger, A C; Boler, D D

    2016-05-01

    One hundred ninety-two pigs were blocked by age and stratified by initial BW (25.7 ± 2.3 kg) into pens (2 barrows and 2 gilts/pen), and within blocks, pens were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with main effects of diet form (meal vs. pelleted) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) inclusion (0% vs. 30%). Pigs were slaughtered after a 91-d feeding trial, and carcasses were fabricated after a 24-h chilling period. Belly dimensions and flop distance were measured, and an adipose tissue sample from each belly was collected for fatty acid analysis. Bacon was manufactured at a commercial processing facility before being returned to the University of Illinois Meat Science Laboratory for further evaluation. Although bellies from pigs fed pelleted diets were 5.3% heavier ( bacon weight and cooked yield were greater ( ≤ 0.01) for bellies from pellet-fed than meal-fed pigs. Despite pellet-fed pigs having a 3.1-unit greater iodine value (IV) than meal-fed pigs, there was no effect ( ≥ 0.16) of diet form on commercial bacon slicing yields. Bacon slabs from pellet-fed pigs produced more ( bacon slices, but 3.1% fewer ( bacon slices than feeding 30% DDGS. Distillers dried grains with solubles inclusion had no effect on slice yields ( ≥ 0.14) or slices per kilogram ( = 0.08). Overall, bellies from pellet-fed pigs were heavier and had greater IV but did not differ in commercial slicing yields from meal-fed pigs. Feeding pigs 30% DDGS produced thinner, softer bellies with greater IV, but slicing yields were not different from bellies of pigs fed 0% DDGS. Thus, swine producers can feed pelleted diets, without or with 30% DDGS, without negatively affecting commercial bacon slicing yield.

  19. Influence of genotype and feeding strategy on pig performance, plasma concentrations of micro nutrients, immune responses and faecal microbiota composition of growing-finishing pigs in a forage-based system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Jensen, Søren Krogh;

    2015-01-01

    ' ability to take advantage of direct foraging to cover their nutritional needs and how this interacts with breed and affects robustness. Pig performance, plasma concentration of micro nutrients, immune response and faecal microbiota composition were studied in 72 growing pigs (34 to 105 kg live weight......In free-range pig production it is important to reduce the input of nutrients from supplementary feed to reduce nutrient leaching and improve the resource efficiency of the system. A promising development might be to encourage foraging behaviour of the pigs. However, very little is known about pigs...

  20. Evaluation of three commercial enzyme-linked imuunosorbent assays for the detection of antibodies against Salmonella spp. in meat juice from finishing pigs in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vico, J.P.; Engel, B.; Buist, W.G.; Mainar-Jaime, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    The control of animal salmonellosis is considered as a major objective in Europe and indirect ELISAs will be important tools for the implementation of control programs for this infection in pigs. We analyse the results yielded by three commercial ELISAs (Herdcheck Swine Salmonella, SALMOTYPE Pig Scr

  1. Effects of feeding finisher pigs with chicory or lupine feed for one week or two weeks before slaughter with respect to levels of Bifidobacteria and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Hansen, L. L.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess whether inclusion of chicory or lupine (prebiotics) in the diet of pre-slaughter pigs for just 1 or 2 weeks could change the composition of their intestinal microbiota, stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria and help to lower the amount of thermoplilic Campylobacter spp....... (mainly Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli), which are a major cause of food-borne infections in humans. A total of 48 pigs that had an initial live weight of 90 kg were fed with either a lupine (organic concentrate with 25% blue lupine seeds), chicory (organic concentrate with 10% dried chicory...... bacterial DNA by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Campylobacter spp. were excreted by all pigs and present in the luminal content from distal ileum to midway colon with particularly high numbers in the caecum, but the excretion was reduced by 10-fold in pigs fed lupines for 1 week as compared with control...

  2. Comparison of recording of pericarditis and lung disorders at routine meat inspection with findings at systematic health monitoring in Danish finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Nielsen, Gitte Blach; Denwood, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of secondary data is widespread in a range of surveillance and monitoring applications because of the low cost and high availability associated with this form of data. However, as they are often collected for quite unrelated purposes, they are not necessarily fit for the new pu...

  3. Comparison of recording of pericarditis and lung disorders at routine meat inspection with findings at systematic health monitoring in Danish finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Nielsen, Gitte Blach; Denwood, Matt;

    2015-01-01

    ). Conclusions Overall, the results suggest that the correlation between findings at RMI and SHM was moderate for pleuritis and lungs with lesions, but poor for pericarditis. The latter could partly be explained by the type of meat inspection conducted at the abattoir. We conclude that caution should be used...

  4. Effects of feeding finisher pigs with chicory or lupine feed for one week or two weeks before slaughter with respect to levels of Bifidobacteria and Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, A N; Hansen, L L; Baggesen, D L; Mølbak, L

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess whether inclusion of chicory or lupine (prebiotics) in the diet of pre-slaughter pigs for just 1 or 2 weeks could change the composition of their intestinal microbiota, stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria and help to lower the amount of thermoplilic Campylobacter spp. (mainly Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli), which are a major cause of food-borne infections in humans. A total of 48 pigs that had an initial live weight of 90 kg were fed with either a lupine (organic concentrate with 25% blue lupine seeds), chicory (organic concentrate with 10% dried chicory roots) or control (100% organic concentrate) diet for 1 week (24 pigs) or 2 weeks (24 pigs) before slaughter. The Campylobacter spp. level in rectal faecal samples after 0, 1 and 2 weeks of feeding and in the luminal content from ileum, caecum and colon at slaughter was determined by direct plating on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar plates. DNA extracted from the luminal content of distal ileum and caecum was used for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the composition of intestinal microbiota and for measuring the amount of bifidobacterial and total bacterial DNA by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Campylobacter spp. were excreted by all pigs and present in the luminal content from distal ileum to midway colon with particularly high numbers in the caecum, but the excretion was reduced by 10-fold in pigs fed lupines for 1 week as compared with control- and chicory-fed pigs (mean log(10) 2.9 v. 4.1 CFU/g; P lupines resulted in higher levels of bifidobacteria in caecum as compared with the other diets (P 5% relative to the intensity of total abundance differed between the feed treatments (P lupine increased the level of bifidobacteria in caecum and reduced the Campylobacter spp. excretion level after 1 week.

  5. Effect of gestating sow body condition, feed refusals, and group housing on growth and feed intake in grower-finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sell-Kubiak, E.B.; Waaij, van der E.H.; Bijma, P.

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of this study was to identify sow gestation features that affect growth rate (GR) and feed intake (FI) of their offspring during grower–finishing stage. Because the sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation, certain features (e.g., BW of the sow), feed refu

  6. A cross-sectional study of the prevalence and associated risk factors for bursitis in weaner, grower and finisher pigs from 93 commercial farms in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, C E; Kilbride, A L; Ossent, P; Green, L E

    2008-03-17

    A cross-sectional study of 93 farms in England was carried out to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors for bursitis. A total of 6250 pigs aged 6-22 weeks were examined for presence and severity of bursitis. Details of pen construction, pen quality and farm management were recorded including floor type, presence of bedding, condition of the floor and floor materials. The prevalence of bursitis was 41.2% and increased with each week of age (OR 1.1). Two-level logistic regression models were developed with the outcome as the proportion of pigs affected with bursitis in a pen. Pigs kept on soil floors with straw bedding were used as the reference level. In comparison with these soil floors, bursitis increased on concrete floors where the bedding was deep throughout (OR 4.6), deep in part (OR 3.7), and sparse throughout (OR 9.0), part slatted floors (OR 8.0), and fully slatted floors (OR 18.8). Slip or skid marks in the dunging area (OR 1.5), pigs observed slipping during the examination of the pen (OR 1.3) and wet floors (OR 3.6) were also associated with an increased risk of bursitis. The results indicate that bursitis is a common condition of growing pigs and that the associated risk factors for bursitis were a lack of bedding in the lying area, presence of voids and pen conditions which increased the likelihood of injury.

  7. Effects of dietary leucine supplementation in low crude protein diets on performance, nitrogen balance, whole-body protein turnover, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shihai; Chu, Licui; Qiao, Shiyan; Mao, Xiangbing; Zeng, Xiangfang

    2016-07-01

    Eighteen Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire barrows, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 75.4 ± 2.0 kg, were randomly allotted to one of three diets with six replicates per treatment for 25 days. The diets comprised a normal protein diet (NP, 14.5% crude protein), a low crude protein diet supplemented with 0.27% alanine (LP + Ala, 10.0% crude protein), or a low crude protein diet supplemented with 0.40% leucine (LP + Leu, 10.0% crude protein). The whole-body protein synthesis rate, whole-body protein breakdown rate and protein deposition rate in pigs fed the LP + Leu diet were similar to the NP diet (P > 0.05), and both were significantly higher than pigs fed the LP + Ala diet (P pigs fed the LP + Leu diet was larger than those fed the LP + Ala diet (P = 0.05). In addition, drip loss and intramuscular fat of pigs fed the LP + Ala diet were higher than that of the others (P pigs more than an alanine-supplemented one.

  8. Sulfur concentration in diets containing corn, soybean meal, and distillers dried grains with solubles does not affect feed preference or growth performance of weanling or growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B G; Zhang, Y; Stein, H H

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and dietary S on feed preference and performance of pigs. In a 10-d feed preference experiment (Exp. 1), 48 barrows (20.1 ± 2.2 kg of BW) were randomly allotted to 3 treatment groups, with 8 replicate pens per treatment and 2 pigs per pen. A control diet based on corn and soybean meal, a DDGS diet containing 20% DDGS, and a DDGS-sulfur (DDGS-S) diet were prepared. The DDGS-S diet was similar to the DDGS diet with the exception that 0.74% CaSO(4) was added to the diet. Two diets were provided in separate feeders in each pen: 1) the control diet and the DDGS diet, 2) the control diet and the DDGS-S diet, or 3) the DDGS diet and the DDGS-S diet. Preference for the DDGS diet and the DDGS-S diet vs. the control diet was 35.2 and 32.6%, respectively (P diet and the DDGS-S diet. In Exp. 2, a total of 90 barrows (10.3 ± 1.4 kg of BW) were allotted to 3 treatments, with 10 replicate pens and 3 pigs per pen, and were fed the diets used in Exp. 1 for 28 d, but only 1 diet was provided per pen. Pigs fed the control diet gained more BW (497 vs. 423 and 416 g/d; P diet, but no differences between the DDGS and the DDGS-S diets were observed. In a 10-d feed preference experiment (Exp. 3), 30 barrows (49.6 ± 2.3 kg of BW) were allotted to 3 treatment groups, with 10 replicates per group. The experimental procedures were the same as in Exp. 1, except that 30% DDGS was included in the DDGS and DDGS-S diets and 1.10% CaSO(4) was added to the DDGS-S diet. Feed preference for the DDGS and the DDGS-S diets, compared with the control diet, was 29.8 and 32.9%, respectively (P diets. In Exp. 4, a total of 120 barrows (34.2 ± 2.3 kg of BW) were fed grower diets for 42 d and finisher diets for 42 d. Diets were formulated as in Exp. 3. Pigs on the control diets gained more BW (1,021 vs. 912 and 907 g/d; P diet, respectively, but no differences between pigs fed the DDGS and the DDGS

  9. Population dynamics of swine influenza virus in farrow-to-finish and specialised finishing herds in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffen, W L A; Hunneman, W A; Quak, J; Verheijden, J H M; Stegeman, J A

    2009-05-28

    Influenza virus infections with subtypes H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2 are very common in domestic pigs in Europe. Data on possible differences of population dynamics in finishing pigs in farrow-to-finish herds and in specialised finishing herds are, however, scarce. The presence of sows and weaned piglets on the same premises may, however, affect the exposure of finishing pigs to influenza viruses. In a longitudinal study on 14 farrow-to-finish herds and 15 finishing herds, groups of pigs were followed by repeatedly testing the same animals for antibodies against all three influenza virus subtypes (H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2). At the end of the finishing period, the seroprevalences in farrow-to-finish and specialised finishing herds were 44.3% and 62.0%, respectively for H1N1, 6.6% and 19.3%, respectively for H3N2, and 57.2% and 25.6%, respectively for H1N2. For all three subtypes, the incidence of influenza virus infections was highest at the beginning of the finishing period in farrow-to-finish herds, while the incidence of influenza virus infections was highest at the end of the finishing period in finishing herds. Respiratory disease, probably related to the influenza infections, was observed in five of these herds only, but also occurred at the beginning of the finishing period in farrow-to-finish herds and at the end of the finishing period in finishing herds. The observed differences of population dynamics of influenza virus may affect choice and timing of intervention measures.

  10. Associations between Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes, Antimicrobial Resistance Genes, and Virulence Genes of Fecal Escherichia coli Isolates from Healthy Grow-Finish Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Escherichia coli often carries linked antimicrobial resistance genes on transmissible genetic elements. Through coselection, antimicrobial use may select for unrelated but linked resistance or virulence genes. This study used unconditional statistical associations to investigate the relationships between antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and antimicrobial resistance genes in 151 E. coli isolates from healthy pigs. Phenotypic resistance to each drug was significantly associated with phenotyp...

  11. Evaluation of three commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of antibodies against Salmonella spp. in meat juice from finishing pigs in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico, J P; Engel, B; Buist, W G; Mainar-Jaime, R C

    2010-11-01

    The control of animal salmonellosis is considered as a major objective in Europe and indirect ELISAs will be important tools for the implementation of control programs for this infection in pigs. We analyse the results yielded by three commercial ELISAs (Herdcheck Swine Salmonella, SALMOTYPE Pig Screen, and PrioCHECK Salmonella) on meat juice samples from a population of slaughter pigs of Aragon, NW Spain, to assess their efficacy using traditional and latent-class approaches. Overall, the Herdcheck Swine Salmonella detected more Salmonella-infected pigs than the other two tests, but its relative sensitivity was low (65.9%). A similar result was observed when only serotypes detectable by this test were considered (69.1%). When a Bayesian approach was used the Herdcheck Swine Salmonella showed also the highest overall accuracy (sensitivity = 88% and specificity = 74%). Our results suggest that a relatively small proportion of the observed prevalence in herds would be explained by using these ELISAs. Also, this study points out that when different ELISA tests are used within the same herd, results may differ substantially. Thus, caution is advised if it is decided to use these assays for herd health classification in Spanish Salmonella control programs.

  12. Comparison of bacterial culture, polymerase chain reaction, and a mix-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of Salmonella status in grow-to-finish pigs in western Canada with a Bayesian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Wendy; Waldner, Cheryl; Rajić, Andrijana; McFall, Margaret; Chow, Eva; Muckle, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Among grow-to-finish pigs from 10 herds in Alberta and Saskatchewan, 23 (16%) of 144 fecal samples were culture-positive and 40 (28%) of 144 pigs were seropositive for Salmonella. With a Bayesian model specifying dependence between the 2 tests, the sensitivity (Se) of culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was 79% to 86%, depending on the cut-off value for the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Culture specificity (Sp) was assumed to be 100%; RT-PCR Sp was found to be 94%. The ELISA Se was 76% and 51% at optical density cut-off values ≥ 20% and ≥ 40%, respectively; the Sp was 94% at each cut-off value. The model showed some sensitivity to ELISA prior information, the ELISA Se being approximately 8% lower when informative prior information was specified in the model. When there was no adjustment for dependence between culture and RT-PCR, the posterior estimates for both culture and RT-PCR Se were 11% higher than with the conditional-dependence model and had considerably narrower probability intervals, which suggests that correlation between culture and PCR is important and should be adjusted for in future studies. PMID:22468029

  13. α-硫辛酸对育肥猪生产性能和抗氧化功能的影响%Effects of dietary alpha-lipoic acid on growth performance and anti-oxidative ability in finishing pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪善锋; 周光宏; 高峰; 徐孝宙

    2013-01-01

    研究日粮中添加α-硫辛酸对肥育猪生产性能和抗氧化功能的影响.对照组饲喂基础日粮,试验组在基础日粮中分别添加300、600和900 mg/kg的旷硫辛酸,试验期28 d.结果表明:与对照组相比,添加600、900 mg/kgα-硫辛酸降低了平均日增重(P<0.05)和平均日采食量(P<0.01),而各组料重比差异均不显著(P>0.05);900mg/kgα-硫辛酸组总抗氧化能力增加显著(P<0.05),谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶活性极显著增强(P<0.01).α-硫辛酸添加组血清中丙二醛含量均显著降低(P<0.05).α-硫辛酸的适宜添加水平为600 mg/kg.%The 28 d experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary alpha-lipoic acid (LA) on growth performance and anti-oxidative ability in finishing pigs.The feed diets were containing 0,300,600 and 900 mg/kg LA,respectively.The results showed that addition of 600 or 900 mg/kg LA decreased ADG (P<0.05) and AFI (P<0.01),compared with the control group.FCR was not affected by dietary LA content(P>0.05).Dietary 900 mg/kg LA significantly increased TAOC(P<0.05) and GSH-Px(P<0.01).Pigs fed LA had lower MDA(P<0.05).The optimal amount of LA addition in the dietary of finishing pigs was 600 mg/kg.

  14. Effects of adding supplemental tallow to diets containing 30% distillers dried grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and pork fat quality in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J M; Urriola, P E; Shurson, G C; Baidoo, S K; Johnston, L J

    2015-01-01

    Crossbred pigs (n = 315) were blocked by initial BW (6.8 ± 1.1 kg) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of tallow and corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on pig growth, carcass traits, and pork fat quality. Diets consisted of a corn-soybean meal control diet (CON) and another 3 corn-soybean meal diets containing 5% tallow (T), 30% DDGS (D), or 5% tallow plus 30% DDGS (TD) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets were formulated to contain similar levels of available P and standardized ileal digestible Lys:ME among treatments. Pigs were housed in 40 pens, with 7 to 8 pigs per pen, to provide 10 replicates per treatment. Overall ADG did not differ among treatments. Compared with CON (2.76 kg/d) and T (2.59 kg/d), feeding 30% DDGS reduced the ADFI (interaction, P > 0.05) of pigs when fed with 5% tallow (2.45 kg/d for TD) but not when fed alone (2.76 kg/d for D). There was no effect of DDGS on overall G:F, but pigs fed diets with tallow had greater (P tallow (0.37). Feeding tallow increased (P tallow (D = 71.8° and TD = 57.7° vs. CON = 134.0° and T = 113.4°) and tallow also tended to reduce belly firmness (P tallow reduced the concentration of SFA in belly fat, while the concentration of MUFA were increased (P tallow but not DDGS. Conversely, feeding DDGS increased (P tallow. An interaction (P = 0.03) between DDGS and tallow for iodine value (IV) of belly fat was observed, in which addition of tallow or DDGS increased the IV of belly fat (64.22 for T and 71.22 for D vs. 59.01 for CON) but addition of both reduced IV (67.88 for TD). The IV of belly fat and backfat were correlated (P tallow to 30% DDGS diets improved G:F and carcass yield while reducing the IV of belly fat. However, pork fat firmness as measured by belly flop angle was not improved.

  15. Effect of Chinese Herbal Additive on Growth Performance and Immune Function of Finishing Pigs%中草药添加剂对育肥猪生长性能和免疫功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜卫星; 袁文军; 李伟; 唐松元; 黄兴国

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Chinese herbal additive on growth performance and immune function of finishing pigs in summer season.A total 200 of crossed growing pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire),weighted about 60 kg,sorted by weight and gender,were allotted to 4 treatments,with 5 replicates per treatment and 10 pigs per replicate.The basal diet was corn - soybean, without antibiotics and Chinese herbal additives.The control group was fed with basal diets added with 50 mg/kg virginiamycin(50%) and the test group( Ⅰ , Ⅱ , Ⅲ ) were fed with basal diets added with 0.5 %, 1.0 %, 1.5 % Chinese herbal additive.The results were as follows: compared with control group,average daily gain and average daily intake of group Ⅲ were significantly increased (P< 0.05), and the feed/gain ration of all test groups were decreased (P<0.05).In contrast to control group, the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein,calcium, phosphorus and the utilization of energy of all test group were tended to increase.And compared with control group, the concentration of serum IgA, IgG, IgM,C3,C4 of test group pigs were significantly increased ( P<0.05).In conclusion, in summer season, the diet added with Chinese herbal additive can improve growth performance,utilization of nutrients and immune function of finishing pigs.%本试验旨在探讨夏季在育肥猪日粮中添加中草药添加剂对其生长性能和免疫功能的影响.选取200头体重约60kg的杜长大(杜洛克×长白×大白)育肥猪,随机分为4个组(处理),每个组5个重复,每个重复10头猪.对照组饲喂在基础日粮中添加50 mg/kg维吉尼亚霉素(50%)的对照日粮,Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ组为试验组,分别饲喂在基础日粮中添加0.5%、1.0%、1.5%中草药添加剂的日粮.试验结果表明,与抗生素对照组相比,日粮中添加1.5%中草药添加剂显著提高育肥猪平均日增重、平均日采食量(P<0.05),各试验组

  16. 采用精准饲养技术评估生长育肥猪的赖氨酸需要量%Estimation of Lysine Requirement for Growing-Finishing Pigs Using a Precision Feeding Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国华; PomarC; 杨公社

    2011-01-01

    [目的]通过测定日粮赖氨酸水平对生长育肥猪生长性能和体蛋白沉积的影响,评定生长育肥猪个体赖氨酸的日需要量,为精准饲养营养需要量的估计和应用奠定基础.[方法]按每日赖氨酸维持需要为0.036×BW0.75,蛋白质的需要量为体增重的16%(其中,赖氨酸的需要量为7%,日粮可消化赖氨酸存留率为72%)计算生长育肥猪赖氨酸预期日需要量,以该需要量的60%-110%设计6个赖氨酸水平组;(28±2.2)kg的生长猪和(68±5.8)kg的育肥猪各60头,每个群体随机分为6个处理,每个处理10头,试验期28d.智能精准饲喂器将配制的4种预混日粮以不同比例混合,得到每头猪每日相应赖氨酸水平的日粮.[结果]当生长育肥猪日粮赖氨酸供给量由预期日需要量的60%增加至110%时,日增重、蛋白沉积及饲料转化率呈增加趋势,且生长猪的日增重、蛋白沉积及饲料转化率在赖氨酸供给量达需要量的100%时出现平台阶段.赖氨酸摄入量差值分析发现,当生长猪和育肥猪赖氨酸的供给量达预期日需要量的110%时,赖氨酸摄入量差值最接近于0.精准饲养与传统三阶段饲养相比,25-55 kg生长猪氮、磷的摄入量及排泄量分别减少13%和35%以上;68-100 kg育肥猪氮、磷的摄入量及排泄量分别减少约10%和20%.[结论]在体重25-55 kg生长阶段,精准评估每头猪只每天的赖氨酸需要量方法准确;而对体重68-100 kg的实验猪,该方法可能低估了赖氨酸需要量.此外,精准饲养可以显著降低氮、磷的摄入量和排泄量.%[Objective] An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary lysine concentration on performance and body composition by precision feeding technique in growing-finishing pigs. [Method] Daily lysine requirements were calculated assuming that maintenance requirements are of 0.036×BW0.75, that 16% of the body weight gain is protein, that 7 % of

  17. Effect of the Inclusion of Chestnut in the Finishing Diet on Volatile Compounds of Dry-Cured Ham from Celta Pig Breed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jos M. Lorenzo; Javier Carballo; Daniel Franco

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the inclusion of chestnut in pigs ifnishing diet on volatile compounds of dry-cured Celta ham was studied. Twelve hams of each type (from three different pigs ifnishing diets:concentrate (CO), mixed (MI) and chestnut (CH)) were used. Volatiles were extracted using a purge-and-trap method and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Thirty-nine volatile compounds were identified in dry-cured Celta ham samples. Most abundant volatiles in ham samples were aldehydes, which represented respectively, 53% (CO), 51% (MI) and 46% (CH) of the total volatile composition. With the exception of 2-butenal, 2-methyl, all aldehydes were affected by feeding system. On the other hand, hydrocarbons n-alkanes were the second major group in the volatile proifle of dry-cured Celta hams and represented 28.9, 35.7 and 32.4%of the total volatile composition for CO, MI and CH groups, respectively. Ham samples from chestnut group showed a higher content of alcohols and this result could be related with the inclusion of chestnut in the ifnishing diet of pigs. Principal component analysis showed a good separation among groups. The discriminant analysis selected eight variables (butanoic acid, hexanal, octanal, nonenal (E), decenal (E), tetradecane, decane trimethyl and pyridine 2-methyl) and calculated two discriminating functions to predict if chestnut has been included in the ifnishing diet. Thus, it was possible to discriminate between groups fed with ifnishing diets containing chestnuts in their composition (mixed and chestnut group).

  18. Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed as an n-3 fatty acid source for finishing pigs: effects on fatty acid composition and fat stability of the meat and internal fat, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, W; Ayerza, R

    2009-11-01

    Coronary heart disease is caused by arteriosclerosis, which is triggered by an unbalanced fatty acid profile in the body. Today, Western diets are typically low in n-3 fatty acids and high in SFA and n-6 fatty acids; consequently, healthier foods are needed. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.), which contains the greatest known plant source of n-3 alpha-linolenic acid, was fed at the rate of 10 and 20% to finishing pigs, with the goal to determine if this new crop would increase the n-3 content of the meat as has been reported for other n-3 fatty acid-rich crops. The effects of chia on fatty acid composition of the meat, internal fats, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics were determined. Productive performance was unaffected by dietary treatment. Chia seed modified the fatty acid composition of the meat fat, but not of the internal fat. Significantly (P < 0.05) less palmitic, stearic, and arachidic acids were found with both chia treatments. This is different than trials in which flaxseed, another plant based source of omega-3 fatty acid, has been fed. Alpha-linolenic acid content increased with increasing chia content of the diet; however, only the effect of the 20% ration was significantly (P < 0.05) different from that of the control. Chia seed increased panel member preferences for aroma and flavor of the meat. This study tends to show that chia seems to be a viable feed that can produce healthier pork for human consumption.

  19. Danish Cool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Anne Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Danish Cool. Keld Helmer-Petersen, Photography and the Photobook Handout exhibition text in English and Chinese by Anne Elisabeth Toft, Curator The exhibition Danish Cool. Keld Helmer-Petersen, Photography and the Photobook presents the ground-breaking work of late Danish photographer Keld Helmer...

  20. PCR detection of seven virulence and toxin genes of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from Danish pigs and cattle and cytolethal distending toxin production of the isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Nielsen, E.M.; Scheutz, F.

    2003-01-01

    demonstrated that these putative pathogenic determinants are widespread among Campylobacter isolates from pigs and cattle. Campylobacter coli isolates from pigs produced much higher CDT titres compared with C. coli isolates from other sources suggesting that C. coli may be particularly adapted to or associated...

  1. Prevalence of extended-spectrum cephalosporinase (ESC)-producing Escherichia coli in Danish slaughter pigs and retail meat identified by selective enrichment and association with cephalosporin usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Pedersen, Karl;

    2012-01-01

    with ceftriaxone (1 mg/L). ESC genotypes were detected using PCR, microtube array and sequencing. The MIC of cefotaxime was determined for 150 E. coli from the pigs and 606 E. coli from meat isolated without selective enrichment. RESULTS: Eleven percent (86/786) of slaughter pigs contained ESC E. coli...

  2. Utilização de glicerol na dieta de suínos em crescimento e terminação Use of glycerol in growing and finishing pig diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Berenchtein

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar três níveis de utilização de glicerol (0, 3, 6 e 9%, um subproduto da produção de biodiesel, na dieta de suínos em crescimento e terminação sobre o desempenho, as características de carcaça e a qualidade da carne desses animais. Foram utilizados 64 animais Topigs com peso inicial de 33,27 ± 4,66 kg, distribuídos em 32 baias de acordo com o peso inicial, em um delineamento em blocos casualizados com oito repetições (blocos por nível de glicerol. Em cada uma das três fases - crescimento 1 (33,27 a 65,00 kg, crescimento 2 (65,00 a 85,00 kg e terminação (85,00 a 99,97 kg -, os animais receberam rações isonutritivas e água à vontade. Ao atingirem o peso vivo médio de 99,97 ± 1,92 kg, os animais foram abatidos e as carcaças avaliadas quanto ao rendimento de carcaça quente, ao comprimento de carcaça, à espessura de toucinho, à área de olho-de-lombo e quanto à relação gordura/carne. Amostras do músculo longissimus dorsi foram retiradas para medição do pH, da cor e da perda de água por gotejamento. A adição de glicerol na dieta promoveu redução apenas no ganho diário de peso durante os períodos de crescimento 1 e 2. De modo geral, o glicerol pode ser utilizado como ingrediente energético em rações para suínos em crescimento e terminação, pois em níveis de até 9%, não influencia o desempenho, as características de carcaça e a qualidade da carne.The purpose of this work was to evaluate three levels of use of glycerol (0, 3, 6 and 9% a byproduct of biodiesel production, in the diets of growing and finishing swines on performance, on carcass traits and on meat quality. A total of sixty-four Topigs pigs with 33.27 ± 4.66 kg initial body weight were distributed in 32 pens accordingly to the initial weight in a complete random block design with eight replicates (blocks per level of glycerol. In each of the three phases: growth 1 (33.27 to 65.00 kg, growth 2 (65.00 to 85.00 kg and

  3. Desempenho bioeconômico de suínos em crescimento e terminação alimentados com rações contendo farelo de coco Bioeconomic performance of growing - finishing pigs fed diet with coconut meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Evânio da Costa Siebra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho de suínos em crescimento e terminação alimentados com rações contendo farelo de coco. Foram utilizados 20 suínos machos castrados mestiços Landrace × Large White com 19,7 ± 2,9 kg de peso vivo inicial e 89,2 ± 5,8 kg de peso vivo final distribuídos em delineamento de blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos (0, 10, 20 ou 30% de farelo de coco e cinco repetições. Avaliaram-se o desempenho, o ganho de peso médio diário, o consumo de ração médio diário e a conversão alimentar nas fases de crescimento (65 a 107 dias de idade e crescimento-terminação (65 a 149 dias de idade. Os parâmetros econômicos avaliados foram a receita bruta média, o custo médio da alimentação, a margem bruta média e a rentabilidade média. Os melhores resultados de ganho de peso médio diário e receita bruta média na fase de crescimento foram obtidos com o nível de 22,5% de farelo de coco na ração. Na fase de crescimento-terminação, a receita bruta média no período total indica que é possível incluir 22,4% de farelo de coco em dietas para suínos formuladas com farelo residual de milho e farelo de soja.The objective was to evaluate the performance of growing- finishing pigs fed diet with coconut meal. Twenty crossbred Large White × Landrace barrows with initial 19.7 ± 2.9 kg BW and final 89.2 ± 5.8 kg BW were allotted to complete a randomized blocks design with four levels (0, 10, 20 or 30% of coconut meal and five replications. Performance traits, as average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio in grower phase (65 to 107 days old and grower-finisher phase (65 to 149 days old were evaluated. Economic parameters evaluated were: average gross income, average feed cost, gross margin and average return. The best results of average weight daily gain and average gross income in the grower phase were obtained with the level of 22.5% of coconut meal in the diet. In grower-finisher

  4. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Danish organic pig farms: seasonal and age-related variation in prevalence, infection intensity and species/genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Jianmin, Wang; Katakam, Kiran K.

    2015-01-01

    intensity was age-related for both parasites, and dual-infected pigs tended to excrete lower levels of oocysts compared to pigs harbouring only Cryptosporidium. Likewise, pigs infected with C. scrofarum excreted fewer oocysts (mean CPG: 54,848±194,508CI: 9085–118,781) compared......Although pigs are commonly infected with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis, including potentially zoonotic species or genotypes, little is known about age-related infection levels, seasonal differences and genetic variation in naturally infected pigs raised in organic management systems....... Therefore, the current study was conducted to assess seasonal and age-related variations in prevalence and infection intensity of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, evaluate zoonotic potential and uncover correlations between species/genotypes, infection intensity and faecal consistency. Shedding of oocysts...

  5. Effect of housing system, slaughter weight and slaughter strategy on carcass and meat quality, sex organ development and androstenone and skatole levels in Duroc finished entire male pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fàbrega, E; Gispert, M; Tibau, J; Hortós, M; Oliver, M A; Furnols, M Font I

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of housing system (HS), slaughter weight (SW) and strategy (SS) on carcass a nd meat quality, sexual organ development and boar taint in entire males. Twelve pens of 10 pigs were used (two trials). Half of male pens were allowed visual contact with females (MF) and half with males (MM). Half MM or MF were slaughtered at 105 or 130 kg in trial 1, or penwise or by split marketing in trial 2 at 120 kg. Housing system showed no significant effect on carcass or meat quality. MF presented significantly longer testicles and heavier bulbourethral glands compared to MM. The distribution of androstenone and skatole levels was affected by SW but not by HS or SS, samples with androstenone >1 μg/g of the different groups falling within the range of 16 to 22%. All correlations between androstenone and sex organs were significant. Housing system and slaughter strategy did not reduce the risk of boar tainted carcasses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Determining the optimal number of individual samples to pool for quantification of average herd levels of antimicrobial resistance genes in Danish pig herds using high-throughput qPCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Julie; Mellerup, Anders; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the minimum number of individual fecal samples to pool together in order to obtain a representative sample for herd level quantification of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes in a Danish pig herd, using a novel high-throughput qPCR assay....... The secondary objective was to assess the agreement between different methods of sample pooling. Quantification of AMR was achieved using a high-throughput qPCR method to quantify the levels of seven AMR genes (ermB, ermF, sulI, sulII, tet(M), tet(O) and tet(W)). A large variation in the levels of AMR genes...

  7. Danish Vernacular

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyams, Inger Louise Berling

    2014-01-01

    Despite the number of internationally successful Danish architects like Jacobsen, Utzon and in recent years Ingels just to name a few, Danish architecture has always leaned greatly on international architectural history and theory. This is only natural for a small nation. However, since the begin...... the teachers had on their students. Such a perspective does not just inform us of past practices but could inspire to new ones....... the beginning of Danish architecture as a professional discipline, there has also been a formation of a certain Danish vernacular. This paper explores how the teaching of and interest in Danish historical buildings could have marked the education of Danish architecture students. Through analysis of the drawings...... of influential teachers in the Danish school, particularly Nyrop, this development is tracked. This descriptive and analytic work concludes in a perspective on the backdrop of Martin Heidegger’s differentiation between Historie and Geschichte – how history was used in the curriculum and what sort of impact...

  8. Virginiamycin improves phosphorus digestibility and utilization by growing-finishing pigs fed a phosphorus-deficient, corn-soybean meal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, J H; Lindemann, M D; Cromwell, G L; Newman, M C; Nimmo, R D

    2007-09-01

    Evaluations of the nutritional effect of antibiotics have largely centered on effects related to the digestibility and utilization of protein and energy. The current study evaluated the potential effect of virginiamycin (VIR) on P digestibility in swine. A total of 70 barrows (mean initial BW = 51 to 64 kg) were used in 4 nutrient-balance experiments. A basal, corn-soybean meal diet that was not supplemented with any inorganic source of P was used in each experiment. In Exp. 1, two diets were tested: basal vs. basal plus 11 mg/kg of VIR. In Exp. 2, four diets were used with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of 0 and 11 mg/kg of VIR and 0 and 750 phytase (PHY) units/kg of diet (PU/kg). Experiments 3 and 4 were the same as Exp. 2, except PHY was reduced to 300 PU/kg. For all experiments, VIR improved P digestibility (32.71 to 37.72%, P < 0.001) and Ca digestibility (54.99 to 58.30%, P = 0.002). The addition of PHY improved both P and Ca digestibility (P < 0.001); 750 PU/kg increased P digestibility 27.3% (from 34.6 to 61.9%, P < 0.001), whereas 300 PU increased it 13.8% (from 33.4 to 47.2%, P < 0.001). In an experiment conducted to evaluate the long-term effects of VIR on gut microbial profile, pigs (24 gilts and 8 barrows; mean BW = 29.1 +/- 0.50 kg) were fed a simple corn-soybean meal diet for 16 wk with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of VIR (0 and 11 mg/kg) addition and 0.15% dicalcium phosphate deletion. The long-term feeding of VIR in both the control diet and the diet with a marginally reduced P level resulted in a change in ileal microbial profile. A positive numerical increment in the number of phytate-utilizing bacteria was observed in both the normal and P-deleted diets (log unit increments of 12.4 and 17.2% over the respective controls, P = 0.13) when VIR was added. The addition of VIR also tended to affect lactobacilli populations (main effect, P = 0.11; interaction, P = 0.02); VIR decreased lactobacilli in the normal-P diet but did not affect this bacterial

  9. CHANGES AND PERSPECTIVES OF SLOVENIAN PIG PRODUCTION BEFORE AND AFTER ACCESSION TO THE EU: THE CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kastelić

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes in pig production during the last six to ten years were studied in case of Farme Ihan d. d., the Slovenian pig producer. At the beginning of the period, the company produced 70 to 75 thousand slaughtering pigs per year. At the end of the period the production increased to 150 thousand. As expected, the prices of pigs were reduced during that period. According to the new legislation, the large part of facilities was reconstructed and some environment protection investments were done. The production was improved: the number of weaned pigs per sow per year increased from 19.2 in 1996 to 25.48 in 2006 and reached the Danish average. The percentage of meat was increased in the same period from 52.7 % to 58.6 %. The progress in daily gain and in feed conversion ratio was moderate. To secure the access to the market, the own slaughter facility was bought and reconstructed. For the same reason, the company became shareholder of two meat processing companies. The transition period has not been finished yet. Production results may improve faster than in old EU member countries. Investment cycle has also not been finished yet. More investments, especially in environment protection are needed.

  10. 生长肥育猪胴体品质和瘦肉生长指数的研究%Research in Carcass Quality and Lean Growth Index of Growing-finishing Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立彬; 李德发; 龚利敏; 谯仕彦; 张德福

    2001-01-01

    为验证NRC(1998)生长猪营养需要模型,进而建立我国生长猪营养需要模型,本试验在较高营养水平下研究测定了生长肥育猪生产性能、胴体品质和瘦肉生长指数。全期试验结果表明,在一定营养水平和环境条件下,公、母猪日增重、采食量、饲料转化率差异不显著(P>0.05),但公猪日增重有高于母猪日增重的趋势。胴体品质上,公、母猪热胴体重、瘦肉重、背脂、瘦肉脂肪含量差异不显著(P>0.05)。通过测定热胴体重、最后肋背脂得到瘦肉生长指数为:去势公猪278g/d,母猪282g/d,公母平均281g/d。通过测定热胴体重,第10肋背脂、第10肋眼肌面积得到的瘦肉生长指数为:去势公猪256g/d;母猪272g/d;公母平均264g/d。将瘦肉生长指数、温度、饲养密度等参数输入NRC(1998)模型得到的营养需要量估测值有一定实际意义,但在实践中的应用情况有待进一步评估验证。%The performance, carcass quality and lean growth index of growing finishing pigs were determined, in order to test nutrient requirement model of NRC(1998) and establish nutrient requirement model for Chinese pigs. The result of the experiment indicated that ADG,ADFI, FCR was not significant between male pigs and female pigs (P>0.05). And hot carcass weight, lean weight, back fat, content of fat in the lean was not significant also (P>0.05). Lean growth index of barrows and gilts determined from hot carcass weight, back fat at the last rib and loin muscle area at the last rib was 278g/d, 287g/d, respectively. The average is 281g/d. Lean growth index of barrows and gilts determined from hot carcass weight, back fat at the 10thrib and loin muscle area at the 10thrib was 256g/d,272g/d, respectively. The average is 264g/d. Lean growth index, ambient temperature, feed stocking density and body weight was entered into the computer model. We found that the evaluation data of nutrient requirement

  11. Morfologia de órgãos digestivos e não digestivos de suínos de linhagens modernas durante as fases de crescimento, terminação e pós-terminação = Morphology of digestive and non-digestive organs of pigs from modern lineages during growth, finishing and post-finishing phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta Diva Ferrugem Gomes

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O melhoramento genético de suínos levou ao surgimento de diversas linhagens suínas que apresentam elevada capacidade de desenvolvimento de massa muscular. Entretanto, pouco se sabe cientificamente sobre a morfologia de órgãos destes animais, conhecimento que ajuda a elucidar características relacionadas ao desempenho zootécnico como ganho de peso e conversão alimentar em carne magra. Objetivou-se, assim, comparar a morfologia dos órgãos digestivos e não-digestivos de suínos de linhagens modernas ao final das fases de Crescimentos Ie II, Terminação e Pós-terminação. O peso dos órgãos em relação ao peso vivo diminuiu significativamente (p The genetic market makes use of various modern swine genotypes that present high capacity for muscular mass development. These genetic lines have been used in swine production without existing scientificinformation about morphology, knowledge that can elucidate factors related to growth performance, such as weight gain and food conversion in lean meat yield. The aim of this experiment was to compare the morphology of digestive and non-digestive organs of moderngenotypes. At the end of the phases: Growing I, Growing II, Finishing and Post-finishing, the pigs were slaughtered and the organs were weighed. The weight of the organs decreased (p < 0.01 with body development, in agreement with the biological growth of the animals. The morphology of the digestive organs were different (p < 0.06 among lineages, which showed that differences can exist, mainly regarding digestive capacity and, possibly, food intake and efficiency. The length of the small intestine was different (p < 0.06 among lines, which can be an indicative of increased body development due to an extended food exposition area to intestinalcells. The scientific knowledge of swine lines morphology is important because this information can contribute to animal growth performance.

  12. Morphologic studies of the pathogenesis of naturally occurring porcine circovirus type 2 diseases in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif

    of an outbreak of naturally occurring PCV2 associated reproductive failure in a Danish herd. In stillborn and Summary VIII mummified foetuses PCV2 was detected mainly in the heart and bone marrow, by IHC, and replication was detected in myocardiocytes, by ISH. The study showed that measurements of total....... • Manuscript IV is an update on the pathology and pathogens present in porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) in Danish finishing pigs. Multiple pathogens were detected, including PCV2, confirming the previously reported pathogen profile and multifactorial aetiology of PRDC. The histopathology was very......This Ph.D. thesis presents different aspects of porcine circovirus diseases (PCVDs), based upon work performed at The Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark and at The National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark. The introduction, chapter 1, briefly presents...

  13. 日粮中添加红花油对生长育肥猪生产性能和胴体品质的影响%Effect of safflower oil on growth performance and meat quality in finishing pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金文吉; 耿春银; 严昌国; 赵雪; 金英海

    2011-01-01

    Evaluated the effect of dietary different safflower oil on growth performance and carcass quality of growth-finishing pig. The dietary of safflower oil level is 0,0.4%, 0. 6% ,0.8% and 1.0%. The results indicated that the average daily gain of the testing groups were significantly greater than treatment 1 group; the using rate of feed was improved; the apparent rate of assimilation was increased; the slaughter rate and lean meat percentage of the testing groups were significantly greater than treatment 1 group; the eye muscle area was improved; the fatty acid content was increased; the cholesterol content was reduced; the quality of pork was improved.%研究日粮中添加不同水平的红花油对生长育肥猪生长性能和胴体品质的影响.日粮中添加红花油水平分别为0,0.4%,0.6%,0.8%和1%.结果表明:添加红花油的各试验组的平均日增重、粗蛋白、粗脂肪、粗纤维等消化率显著提高(P〈0.05),饲料利用率得到改善;各试验组猪的屠宰率和瘦肉率显著高于试验组1,眼肌面积、脂肪酸含量也比试验组1得到提高,降低了胆固醇含量,改善了猪肉品质.

  14. Danish orientalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zerlang, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Orientalism became an important current in nineteenth-century Danish culture, but although it was contemporaneous with the orientalism of the leading European nations - Great Britain, France, Germany...

  15. Differentially Analysis of Liver Transcriptomes of Finishing Pigs Fed Different Dietary Fats Sources%不同脂肪源饲粮育成猪肝脏转录组差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建平; 秦贵信; 赵志辉; 张巧灵; 王大力; 孙博兴; 姜海龙

    2015-01-01

    本试验旨在肥育猪饲粮中分别添加红花籽油和椰子油,采集育成猪肝脏组织,进行高通量转录组测序,找出2种处理间的差异表达基因. 利用Illumina HiSeqTM 2500高通量RNA-seq测序技术对2种处理育成猪肝脏进行转录组测序,使用TopHat2软件将测序得到的Reads序列与猪参考基因组(Sscrofa 10.2)序列比对,找出差异表达基因,并在Nr、GO和KEGG数据库中进行功能注释、富集分析和聚类分析. 结果显示:红花籽油组和椰子油组肝脏差异表达基因共有938个,与椰子油组相比,红花籽油组表达上调基因有479个,下调基因有459个;GO功能分类注释到细胞组成、生物学过程和分子功能数据库中差异表达基因数分别有773、768 和729个;注释到KEGG通路中差异表达基因数346个,显著富集通路为酮体生成与降解通路和类萜骨架生物合成通路( P<0.05).%The study was to detect differentially expressed genes in liver of finishing pigs which were divided into two groups and separately fed safflower seed oil and coconut oil. The chosen pigs were slaughtered and liv-er tissue were isolated and their mRNA were respectively extracted. The liver transcriptomes were analyzed by Illumina HiSeq TM 2500 high-throughput RNA sequencing system. All RNA-Seq reads were mapped on the reference pig genome ( Sscrofa10.2) using TopHat2 software. All of differentially expressed genes were anno-tated using Nr, GO and KEGG databases. The results showed that there were 938 differentially expressed genes in liver between two groups. 479 genes were up-regulated and 459 genes were down-regulated in safflower seed oil group vs. coconut oil group. There were 773 differentially expressed genes annotated into database of cellu-lar component, 768 into biological process, 729 into molecular function in GO databases. There were 346 dif-ferentially expressed genes annotated into KEGG databases, and clustered pathways of differentially expressed

  16. Genome-wide association study reveals a locus for nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in Danish crossbred pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is an important human opportunistic pathogen residing on skin and mucosae of healthy people. Pigs have been identified as a source of human colonization and infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and novel measures are needed to control......-pathogen interaction seems to be independent of S. aureus genotype. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest it may be possible to select pigs genetically resistant to S. aureus nasal colonization as a tool to control transmission of livestock-associated MRSA to humans....

  17. Intra-unit correlations in seroconversion to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae at different levels in Danish multi-site pig production facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigre, Håkan; Dohoo, I.R.; Stryhn, H.;

    2004-01-01

    2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh). Based on the estimated variances, three newly described computational methods (model linearisation, simulation and linear modelling) and the standard method (latent-variable approach) were used to estimate the correlations (intra-class correlation components......, ICCs) between pigs in the same production unit regarding seroconversion. Substantially different values of ICCs were obtained from the four methods. However, ICCs obtained by the simulation and the model linearisation were quite consistent. Data used for estimation were collected from 1161 pigs from...

  18. Danish Vernacular

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyams, Inger Louise Berling

    2014-01-01

    Despite the number of internationally successful Danish architects like Jacobsen, Utzon and in recent years Ingels just to name a few, Danish architecture has always leaned greatly on international architectural history and theory. This is only natural for a small nation. However, since the begin...

  19. Avoparcin used as a growth promoter is associated with the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium on Danish poultry and pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Flemming; Madsen, M.; Christensen, J.;

    1997-01-01

    We determined the association between the use of the glycopeptide antibiotic avoparcin as a growth promoter and the occurrence of Enterococcus faecium (VREF) with high-level resistance to vancomycin (MIC greater than or equal to 64 mu g ml(-1)) on poultry and pig farms. The investigations were...

  20. A two-nucleotide deletion renders the mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) gene nonfunctional in Danish Landrace and Duroc pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ingrid-Maria; Edman, K; van As, P;

    2014-01-01

    ) affect mRNA expression, serum concentration, and susceptibility to disease, but the combinatory effect of pMBL1 and pMBL2 genotypes needs further elucidation. In the present study, pMBL1 and pMBL2 alleles, combined pMBL haplotypes, and MBL-A concentration in serum were analyzed in purebred Landrace (N...... = 30) and Duroc (N = 10) pigs. Furthermore, the combined pMBL haplotypes of 89 Piètrain × (Large White × Landrace) crossbred pigs were studied, and the genotypes of 67 crossbreds challenged with Escherichia coli were compared to their individual disease records. In the purebred animals, three non......-synonymous SNPs and a two-nucleotide deletion were detected in the coding sequence of pMBL2. The two-nucleotide deletion was present at a frequency of 0.88 in the Landrace pigs and 0.90 in the Duroc pigs, respectively. In the crossbreds, the T allele of the SNP G949T in pMBL1—previously shown to have profound...

  1. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Danish organic pig farms: seasonal and age-related variation in prevalence, infection intensity and species/genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Jianmin, Wang; Katakam, Kiran K.;

    2015-01-01

    infected pigs were successfully analysed by PCR amplification and partial sequencing of the small subunit (SSU) 18S rRNA and hsp70genes, while 13/67 Giardia subsamples were successfully analysed by amplification and partial sequencing of the 18S rRNA and the gdh genes. Altogether, Cryptosporidium...

  2. BHA STUDY IN PIGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, G.; Olsen, P.

    1986-01-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was given to pregnant SPF pigs (Danish Landrace) in doses of 0, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day from mating to day 110 of the gestation period. The BHA was mixed in the diet (pelleted). Caesarean section was performed on gestation day 110. BHA affected neither...

  3. Characterization of Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli obtained from Danish pigs, pig farmers and their families from farms with high or no consumption of 3rd or 4th generation cephalosporins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Anette M.; Larsen, Jesper; Dalhoff Andersen, Vibe;

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To compare and characterize extended-spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli from pigsties, pig farmers and their families on farms with previous high or no use of third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins. Methods: Twenty farms with no third- or fourth-generation ceph...

  4. Nation-wide Salmonella enterica surveillance and control in Danish slaughter swine herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousing, Jan; Jensen, P.T.; Halgaard, C.

    1997-01-01

    A nation-wide Salmonella enterica surveillance and control programme was initiated in Danish finishing herds over the first quarter of 1995, In Denmark, all swine for slaughter are identifiable by a unique herd code. For each herd code, and depending on the herd's annual kill, random samples...... ranging from four to more than 60 swine are obtained quarterly at the abattoir. A meat sample from each pig is frozen, and meat juice (harvested after thawing) is examined for specific antibodies against S. enterica using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ELISA combines several S.......0% of the total kill. In December 1995, 15 522 herds (representing > 90% of the national production) were categorized into one of the three levels: 14 551 herds (93.7%) in Level 1; 610 herds (3.9%) in Level 2; 361 herds (2.3%) in Level 3. The proportion of serologically positive meat-juice samples collected...

  5. A two-nucleotide deletion renders the mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) gene nonfunctional in Danish Landrace and Duroc pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, I M; Edman, K; van As, P; Huisman, A; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl

    2014-03-01

    The mannose-binding lectins (MBLs) are central components of innate immunity, facilitating phagocytosis and inducing the lectin activation pathway of the complement system. Previously, it has been found that certain single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in porcine MBL1 and MBL2 (pMBL1, pMBL2) affect mRNA expression, serum concentration, and susceptibility to disease, but the combinatory effect of pMBL1 and pMBL2 genotypes needs further elucidation. In the present study, pMBL1 and pMBL2 alleles, combined pMBL haplotypes, and MBL-A concentration in serum were analyzed in purebred Landrace (N = 30) and Duroc (N = 10) pigs. Furthermore, the combined pMBL haplotypes of 89 Piètrain × (Large White × Landrace) crossbred pigs were studied, and the genotypes of 67 crossbreds challenged with Escherichia coli were compared to their individual disease records. In the purebred animals, three non-synonymous SNPs and a two-nucleotide deletion were detected in the coding sequence of pMBL2. The two-nucleotide deletion was present at a frequency of 0.88 in the Landrace pigs and 0.90 in the Duroc pigs, respectively. In the crossbreds, the T allele of the SNP G949T in pMBL1-previously shown to have profound effect on MBL-A concentration even in the heterozygote condition-was detected in 47 % of the animals. Finally, an association was found between low-producing MBL genotypes and low body weight on the day of weaning in the same animals.

  6. Mortality on grower/finisher-only swine operations in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Losinger W.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available For 53 grower/finisher-only swine operations that participated in the United States National Animal Health Monitoring System 1995 National Swine Study, mortality among finisher pigs ranged from 0 to 12.0% over a 6-month period. Twenty-six (49.1% had 2% mortality. Nine (17.0% operations experienced >4% mortality. Fisher's exact test revealed that operations with all-in all-out management were significantly more likely to have 1 grower/finisher pig came from another source. Larger operations (where >900 pigs entered the grower/finisher phase practiced all-in, all-out management more frequently than smaller operations, and had a lower mean percent mortality than smaller operations. Diagnosis of Salmonella in finisher pigs performed at a laboratory or by a veterinarian in the 12 months prior to interview was associated with both increased percent mortality and increased percent mortality per day.

  7. Polishing Metal Mirrors to 0,025 Micron Surface Finish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, P. E.

    1978-01-01

    A research program undertaken by the Danish Atomic Energy Commission required the fabrication of metal mirrors measuring 1 m long by 53 mm wide, which had to be finished to extremely tight tolerances on thickness, plane-parallelism and surface characteristics. Progressively finer diamond compounds...

  8. Efeitos da inclusão de níveis crescentes de milheto (Pennisetum Glaucum (L. R. Brown grão na alimentação de suínos em crescimento e terminação Effect of feeding increasing levels of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Brown grain for growing and finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Orio Bastos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento de desempenho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a viabilidade nutricional e econômica da utilização de rações com níveis crescentes de milheto na alimentação de suínos em crescimento e terminação. Foram utilizados 40 suínos (metade machos castrados e metade fêmeas, com peso inicial de 25,1±2,11 kg, distribuídos em quatro tratamentos, em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições e dois animais (um macho castrado e uma fêmea por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de rações com níveis crescentes de milheto (0, 25, 50 e 75%. Não foram observados efeitos dos níveis de milheto sobre o consumo diário de ração (CDR, o ganho diário de peso (GDP e a conversão alimentar (CA na fase de crescimento. Entretanto, na fase de terminação, constatou-se efeito quadrático para o CDR e GDP, comprovando que a inclusão de 26,44% de milheto otimizou o GDP. A inclusão de até 75% de milheto em rações para suínos em crescimento e terminação atende aos requerimentos nutricionais dos animais nessas fases, sendo economicamente viável quando o valor de mercado corresponde a 70% do valor do milho.A performance trial was carried out to evaluate the nutritional and economical analyses of feeding increasing dietary levels of pearl millet for growing and finishing pigs. Forty crossbreed pigs averaging initial body weight of 25.1 ± 2.1 kg were assigned to four treatments as a randomized blocks design with five replicates and two pigs (one barrow and one gilt per experimental unit. The treatments contained the followign levels of pearl millet: 0, 25, 50 and 75%. No effects on daily feed intake (DFI, daily weight gain (DWG, and feed:gain ratio (FGR in the growing phase was detected. However, in the finishing phase, quadratic effect on DWG and DFI was observed, showing that the inclusion of 26.44% of pearl millet increased DWG. The inclusion of pearl millet up to 75% in the diets of growing and

  9. Pyelonephritis in slaughter pigs and sows: Morphological characterization and aspects of pathogenesis and aetiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isling Louise K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyelonephritis is a serious disease in pig production that needs to be further studied. The purpose of this study was to describe the morphology, investigate the pathogenesis, and evaluate the aetiological role of Escherichia coli in pyelonephritis in slaughtered pigs by concurrent bacteriological, gross and histopathological examinations. Methods From Danish abattoirs, kidneys and corresponding lymph nodes from 22 slaughtered finishing pigs and 26 slaughtered sows with pyelonephritis were collected and evaluated by bacteriology and pathology. Based on gross lesions, each kidney (lesion was grouped as acute, chronic, chronic active, or normal and their histological inflammatory stage was determined as normal (0, acute (1, sub-acute (2, chronic active (3, or chronic (4. Immunohistochemical identification of neutrophils, macrophages, T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, plasma cells, E. coli and Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP in renal sections was performed. The number of E. coli and the proportion of immunohistochemically visualized leukocytes out of the total number of infiltrating leukocytes were scored semi-quantitatively. Results Lesions in finishing pigs and sows were similar. Macroscopically, multiple unevenly distributed foci of inflammation mostly affecting the renal poles were observed. Histologically, tubulointerstitial infiltration with neutrophils and mononuclear cells and tubular destruction was the main findings. The significant highest scores of L1 antigen+ neutrophils were in inflammatory stage 1 while the significant highest scores of CD79αcy+ B-lymphocytes, IgG+ and IgA+ plasma cells were in stage 3 or 4. Neutrophils were the dominant leukocytes in stage 1 while CD3ε+ T-lymphocytes dominated in stage 2, 3 and 4. Interstitially THP was seen in 82% and 98% of kidneys with pyelonephritis from finishing pigs and sows, respectively. E. coli was demonstrated in monoculture and/or identified by immunohistochemistry in

  10. Pyelonephritis in slaughter pigs and sows: Morphological characterization and aspects of pathogenesis and aetiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Pyelonephritis is a serious disease in pig production that needs to be further studied. The purpose of this study was to describe the morphology, investigate the pathogenesis, and evaluate the aetiological role of Escherichia coli in pyelonephritis in slaughtered pigs by concurrent bacteriological, gross and histopathological examinations. Methods From Danish abattoirs, kidneys and corresponding lymph nodes from 22 slaughtered finishing pigs and 26 slaughtered sows with pyelonephritis were collected and evaluated by bacteriology and pathology. Based on gross lesions, each kidney (lesion) was grouped as acute, chronic, chronic active, or normal and their histological inflammatory stage was determined as normal (0), acute (1), sub-acute (2), chronic active (3), or chronic (4). Immunohistochemical identification of neutrophils, macrophages, T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, plasma cells, E. coli and Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) in renal sections was performed. The number of E. coli and the proportion of immunohistochemically visualized leukocytes out of the total number of infiltrating leukocytes were scored semi-quantitatively. Results Lesions in finishing pigs and sows were similar. Macroscopically, multiple unevenly distributed foci of inflammation mostly affecting the renal poles were observed. Histologically, tubulointerstitial infiltration with neutrophils and mononuclear cells and tubular destruction was the main findings. The significant highest scores of L1 antigen+ neutrophils were in inflammatory stage 1 while the significant highest scores of CD79αcy+ B-lymphocytes, IgG+ and IgA+ plasma cells were in stage 3 or 4. Neutrophils were the dominant leukocytes in stage 1 while CD3ε+ T-lymphocytes dominated in stage 2, 3 and 4. Interstitially THP was seen in 82% and 98% of kidneys with pyelonephritis from finishing pigs and sows, respectively. E. coli was demonstrated in monoculture and/or identified by immunohistochemistry in relation to inflammation in

  11. Níveis de cromo-ácido nicotínico em dietas de suínos em crescimento e terminação Levels of chromium-nicotinic acid in diets for growing-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Julio Mello Monteiro de Lima

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de níveis crescentes de cromo dietético, na forma de ácido nicotínico, sobre o desempenho e nas características de carcaça de suínos. Noventa e seis suínos (Landrace x Large White x Duroc, machos castrados e fêmeas, com peso médio inicial de 25,93±0,57 kg foram distribuídos ao acaso em baias de dois animais do mesmo sexo, segundo um esquema fatorial 6 x 2 (6 níveis de Cr e 2 sexos. Uma dieta basal (0 ppb Cr foi suplementada com 100, 200, 300, 400 e 500 ppb de Cr, na forma de Cr-ácido nicotínico, incluído através do premix vitamínico. Os animais, aos 70 dias de experimento, foram pesados, abatidos, e as carcaças avaliadas utilizando-se a pistola Hennessy e o Método Brasileiro de Classificação de Carcaças. Houve efeito significativo (P0,05 do nível de Cr sobre qualquer dos parâmetros estudados, seja de desempenho ou de avaliação de carcaça por qualquer dos métodos utilizados. A adição de níveis de até 500 ppb de Cr, na forma de Cr-ácido nicotínico, não altera o desempenho e a qualidade de carcaça de suínos em crescimento e em terminação.Ninety-six barrows and gilts (Landrace x Large White x Duroc, with average initial weight of 25.93±0.57 kg, were used in order to evaluate the effects of Cr on performance and carcass characteristics, in a random block design, according to a 6 x 2 factorial arrangement (6 Cr levels x 2 sexes. A basal diet (0 ppb Cr was supplemented with 100, 200, 300, 400 e 500 ppb Cr, as Cr-nicotinic acid, added to the vitamin premix. On the 70th day of the experimental period, all animals were weighted, slaughtered and had their carcass evaluated using Hennessy probe and the Brazilian Carcass Classification Method. There was a significant sex effect (P0.05. The addition of up to 500 ppb Cr in the diet, in the form of Cr-nicotinic acid, did not improve performance and carcass traits of growing-finishing pigs.

  12. The effect of production type and antimicrobial usage on the occurrence of tetracycline resistant E. coli in danish slaughter pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struve, Tina; Vigre, Håkan; Wingstrand, Anne;

    was estimated in two separate models using logistic regression, taking into account the correlation of results obtained from the same farm. Among the 411 isolates, 129 was found resistant to Tetracycline (Organic: 10%, Free Range: 27 % Conventional: 39 %). Differences was seen in the consumption pattern among...... of antimicrobial resistance, with the lowest occurrence in Organic production and the highest in Conventional production. When analyzing the effect of production type and usage of antimicrobials on occurrence of resistance in the same model, the usage of antimicrobials was not found to have an effect. This lack...... systems. At nine different slaughterhouses 1500 ceacum samples were collected from slaughter pigs originating from 226 farms. One thousand samples were analyzed and one E. coli isolate per sample was susceptibility tested to Tetracycline. Data on management practice and health status at farm level...

  13. Magnetic Electrochemical Finishing Machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    How to improve the finishing efficiency and surface roughness have been all along the objective of research in electrochemical polishing. However, the research activity, i.e. during electrochemical polishing, directly introduce the magnetic field to study how the magnetic field influences on the finishing efficiency, quality and the electrochemical process in the field of finishing machining technology, is insufficient. When introducing additional magnetic field in the traditional electrochemical pol...

  14. A cross-sectional study of the prevalence and associated risk factors for capped hock and the associations with bursitis in weaner, grower and finisher pigs from 93 commercial farms in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KilBride, A L; Gillman, C E; Ossent, P; Green, L E

    2008-03-17

    The prevalence of capped hock in 5601 post-weaning pigs from 93 pig farms in England was 17.2%. The prevalence increased with age. Once adjusted for age, the lowest prevalence of capped hock was observed in pigs kept on soil floors (usually covered with deep straw bedding). There was no significant increase in the risk of capped hock in pigs kept on solid concrete floors with deep straw bedding. However, pigs kept on solid concrete with some, or the entire pen, sparsely bedded and pigs kept on partially or fully slatted floors had an approximately threefold increased risk of capped hock. This did not vary significantly between these four floor types. This was in contrast to the associated risks for bursitis in the same pigs, where as the floor went from highly resilient (straw and solid floors) to hard and perforated (fully slatted) the risk of bursitis increased in a similar way to a dose response. No other variables that were measured were associated with a change in risk for capped hock, while observation of pigs slipping or slip marks and wet, dirty and worn pens were also associated risks for bursitis. These results indicate that capped hock and bursitis are both affected by exposure to floors, but in different ways. The prevalence of capped hock was associated only with floor hardness, with deep straw protecting the pigs, while bursitis was associated with both changes in bedding depth (hardness), floor material (soil versus concrete) and floor construction (solid versus slatted floors) and in factors associated with locomotion (slipping and slip marks). These results indicate that the aetiology of capped hock and bursitis might differ.

  15. Efeito de diferentes sistemas de pastejo sobre o desempenho de suínos mantidos em pastagem de trevo-branco (Trifolium repens L. Effect of different grazing systems on the performance of pigs, in growing and finishing phases, kept on white clover (Trifolium repens L. pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denyse Maria Galvão Leite

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito dos sistemas de pastejo contínuo, alternado e rotativo sobre as características de desempenho de suínos (consumo de ração, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e espessura de toucinho nas fases de crescimento e terminação mantidos em pastagem de trevo-branco (Trifolium repens L.. Foram realizadas também avaliações da disponibilidade e composição química da pastagem. Trinta e seis suínos machos foram distribuídos em um delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três tratamentos e três repetições, e doze foram mantidos em sistema de confinamento. Não foi observada influência significativa dos sistemas de pastejo sobre as características de desempenho dos animais e a disponibilidade de forragem. Entretanto, houve diferença significativa na composição química da pastagem entre os sistemas de pastejo estudados. Os suínos em sistemas de pastejo contínuo, alternado e rotativo consumiram de 13,41 a 15,92% a menos de ração e apresentaram menores ganhos de peso e espessura de toucinho que aqueles criados em confinamento. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas na conversão alimentar entre os suínos mantidos em confinamento e em pastagem.This trial was carried out to determine the effect of continuous, alternated or rotational grazing systems on the performance of pigs (feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and backfat thickness, in the growing and finishing phases, as well as the forage availability and chemical composition of a white clover pasture (Trifolium repens L.. Thirty-six castrated pigs were allotted to a randomized complete-block experimental design with three treatments and three replications. Twelve feedlot pigs were kept on a rearing system. No significant differences were found between grazing systems on parameters of animal performance and forage on offer. However, significant differences were observed on the pasture chemical composition

  16. Metanálise dos níveis de ractopamina em dietas para suínos em terminação Meta-analysis of the ractopamine levels in diets for finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kiefer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada uma metanálise para avaliar o desempenho e as características de carcaça de suínos em terminação alimentados com rações contendo ractopamina. Utilizaram-se resultados de 18 experimentos com 2.991 animais e 4 tratamentos, constituídos dos níveis de 0, 5, 10 e 20 ppm de ractopamina. Foram analisados o desempenho e as características quantitativas da carcaça. A duração dos períodos experimentais foi de 28 ± 0,32 dias e os pesos inicial e final foram de 74,7 ± 10,9 kg e 107,6 ± 9,7 kg, respectivamente. Não houve efeito dos níveis de ractopamina sobre o consumo de ração, o peso de carcaça quente, o comprimento de carcaça e a espessura de toucinho. Os níveis de ractopamina influenciaram o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar, o rendimento de carcaça, a porcentagem de carne magra da carcaça e a área de olho-de-lombo. Houve efeito linear dos níveis de lisina sobre o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar, o peso de carcaça quente, a espessura de toucinho e a porcentagem de carne magra nos suínos alimentados com rações contendo 20 ppm de ractopamina. A área de olho-de-lombo dos suínos alimentados com rações contendo 10 e 20 ppm de ractopamina variou de forma quadrática com os níveis de lisina. As demais variáveis não foram influenciadas pelos níveis de lisina. O nível de 15 ppm de ractopamina otimiza o desempenho dos suínos, enquanto o de 20 ppm de ractopamina melhora as características quantitativas de carcaça. O ganho de peso, a espessura de toucinho e o percentual de carne magra na carcaça de suínos alimentados com rações contendo ractopamina melhoram com o nível de 1,0% de lisina digestível verdadeira.A meta-analytical study was conducted to evaluate the performance and characteristics of the carcass of finishing pigs fed with diets containing ractopamine. Eighteen experiments containing four treatments and 2.991 animals were used. The treatments were composed of 0, 5, 10 and 20 ppm of

  17. Influence of Constant High Ambient Temperature on Fat Metabolism of Different Parts in Finishing Pigs%持续高温对育肥猪不同部位脂肪代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴鑫; 冯京海; 张敏红; 苏红光; 贾安峰

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of constant high ambient temperature on fat metabolism in finishing pigs and to preliminarily explore the mechanism of the impact.[Method] Sixteen Duroc × Landrace × Large White castrated male pigs were randomly assigned into a high-temperature environment (HT group: 30℃,ad libtum) and a normal thermal group (NT group: 22℃,ad libtum) with eight pigs in each treatment. Pigs were housed in individual wire cages under a 14-h lighting schedule and had free access to water. The experiment lasted for 3 weeks, and the temperature kept unchanged during this time. The relative humidity in the room was controlled at (55±5)%. The pigs were electrically stunned and exsanguinated after a 12-h period of feed withdrawal with free access to water at the end of the experiment.[Result] The results of the experiment showed that the carcass weight and backfat depth at 30℃ were lower than that at 22℃, but the differences were not significant (P>0.10). And high ambient temperature had a trend to increase the proportion of flare fat in carcass weight (+22.06%,P=0.07), to decrease the lipid content of longissimus dorsi (LM) (-22.39%,P=0.08). The activities of fatty acid synthase (FAS) (P0.10). High ambient temperature significantly increased the content of LPL in flare fat (P=0.05), and decreased the content of LPL in LM (P=0.05). The rule how high ambient temperature influenced fat deposition of the three parts was in accordance with the rule how high ambient temperature influenced the contents of LPL in the same part, which means that high ambient temperature may influence the fat deposition by regulating the content of LPL. The activities ofβ-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HAD) at the front (P0.10). The plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) was higher (P0.10).[Conclusion]The results demonstrated that high ambient temperature had different effects on adipose tissues in different

  18. Danish Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The book is presenting the results of studies on culture and social constructions of technology supported by The technology and Society Initiative etablished in 1983 by the Danish Social Science Reseach Council. Peter Duelund was a part of this research eam and has edited the book togather with T...

  19. Danish Ultras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jonas; Joern, Lise; Rasmussen, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    is the result of a qualitative study of the self-declared nonviolent segment of the Danish risk supporters, i.e. the ultra culture. The study’s empirical data stems from qualitative interviews and participant observation primarily focusing at matches involving Brøndby IF, the club supported by the interviewees...

  20. 甜菜碱对生长肥育猪体脂重分配的作用及机理研究%EFFECT OF BETAINE ON REPARTITION OF CARCASS FAT IN GROWING AND FINISHING PIGS AND APPROACH TO IT’S MECHANISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪以真; 许梓荣

    2001-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to investigate the effect of feeding betaine on the deposition of subcutaneous fat,carcass fat and the contents of intramusclar fat of the growing and finishing pigs and approach to mechanism of the effect by feeding experiment,determination of carcass,and liver,muscle and serum sample analysis.Trial 1 examined the effect of betaine supplementation (1000 mg/kg of diet) to the growing pigs.Forty-eight pigs(Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire,20 kg initially) were allotted to two treatments set with three replicate pens per treatments by weight and sex.Trial 2 examined the effect of feeding betaine (1500 mg/kg of diet) to the finishing pigs.Sixty pigs (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire,60 kg initially) were allotted to two treatments set with three replicate pens per treatments by weight and sex.The results showed that betaine supplementation increased the ADG of growing pigs by 13.20%(P<0.05),decreased the FCR by 7.93%(P<0.05),decreased the mean backfat depth of the growing and finishing pigs by 14.82%(P<0.05) and 14.93%(P<0.05),decreased the percentage of dissected fat of carcass by 5.76%(P>0.05) and 11.51%(P<0.05),increased the contents of intramusclar fat in longissimus dorsi(LD) of the growing and finishing pigs by 36.00%(P<0.01) and 17.66%(P<0.05) respectively.The serum analysis indicated that betaine supplementation increased the lipase activity of the growing pig and finishing pigs by 10.49%(P<0.05) and 7.50%(P=0.06),increased the FFA contents of growing and finishing pigs by 20.16%(P<0.05) and 13.43%(P<0.05) respectively.In addition,the contents of free carnitine in liver of the growing and finishing pigs fed betaine increased by 20.68%(P<0.05) and 23.53%(P<0.05) respectively.The contents of acid-insoluble carnitine,the ratio

  1. 日粮中限制赖氨酸水平对育肥猪生长性能和血液尿素氮的影响%Effect of dietary lysine restriction on growth performance and serum urea nitrogen in finishing pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金英海; 耿春银; 梁婉薪; 张敏

    2012-01-01

    试验研究日粮中限制赖氨酸水平对育肥猪生长性能和血液尿素氮的影响.试验选择健康的体重为(59.92±0.99) kg的杂交(约克夏×长白×杜洛克)育肥猪60头,随机分为3个处理组,每个处理组5个重复,每个重复4头猪,进行了8周的饲养试验.分为对照组是基础日粮中养分参照NRC(1998)饲养标准、日粮中赖氨酸水平限制15%和限制30%的3个处理组.结果表明:试验组在育肥期(0~8周)和育肥前期(0~4周),赖氨酸水平的降低,试验末重、平均日增重、平均日采食量(P<0.01)、饲料效率呈显著降低趋势(P<0.05).对照组与试验组之间差异显著(P<0.05).育肥后期(5~8周)血液尿素氮的浓度有显著性差异(P<0.01).%This experiment was to study the effect of dietary lysine restriction on growth performance and serum urea nitrogen in finishing pigs. 60 hybrid fattening pigs (York summer× Landrace X Duroc) with the initial body weight of (59.92±0.99) kg were randomly divided into 3 groups with 5 repetitions, each repetition had 4 pigs, the experiment lasted 8 weeks. The 3 groups were basic diet formulated by NRC(1998), dietary with lysine restriction level of 15% and 30% Respectively. The result indicated that, in the fattening time(0~8 week) and the earlier finishing period(0~4 week), with the decrease of dietary lysine level, the final body weight, average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake(P<0.01) and feed efficiency of experimental groups were significantly decreased(P<0.05). The blood urea nitrogen density has the significant differences in the latter finishing period(5~8 week).

  2. 日粮添加大麻籽粕对生长肥育猪生产性能和肉品质的影响%Effect of Supplementation with Dietary Hempseed Meal on Growth Performance and Meat Quality in Growing-finishing Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安清聪; 张春勇; 陈克嶙; 潘洪彬; 郭荣富

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary hempseed meal levels on growth performance and meat quality in growing-finishing pigs. Two hundred and sixteen pigs with initial body weight of 35 kg were randomly designed to 4 groups with 6 replicates in each group and 9 piglets in each replicate. All pigs were given isocaloric and isonitrogen diets, and supplementation with different levels of hempseed meal were 0, 4%, 8%, \\2% for 35~60 kg and 0, 8%, 12%, 16% for 60-110 kg, respectively. The results showed as follows: (1) Supplementation with different level hempseed meal had no significant effects on growth performance, daily gain of weight, daily feed intake and feed conversion during the whole stage(P>0. 05). (2) No significant difference was found in porcine meat quality (P>0. 05). (3) Tetrahydrocannabinal (THC) , canna-bidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) were not detected in liver, muscle, plasma and serum. As a new protein feed resource, hempseed meal could be safely used to partly replace soybean meal in diet of growing-finishing pigs.%试验旨在研究日粮中添加不同水平大麻籽粕对生长育肥猪生产性能及猪肉品质的影响.选用体重约35 kg猪216头,随机分为4个处理,每个处理6个重复,每个重复9头猪.在等能等氮条件下,大麻籽粕添加水平为35~60 kg(0,4%、8%、12%);60~110 kg(0、8%、12%、6%).结果表明:(1)大麻籽粕的不同添加水平均未显著影响生长肥育猪的日增重、日采食量和饲料利用率(P>0.05);(2)不同添加水平的大麻籽粕对猪肉品质的影响不显著(P>0.05);(3)肌肉、肝、血清和血浆中均未检出四氢大麻酚、大麻二酚和大麻酚.大麻籽粕作为蛋白质饲料资源,可部分替代豆粕,安全地应用于生长肥育猪生产中.

  3. Description of Extended Pre-Harvest Pig Salmonella Surveillance-and-Control Programme and its Estimated Effect on Food Safety Related to Pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alban, L.; Barfod, Kristen; Petersen, J. V.;

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella in pork can be combated during pre- or post-harvest. For large slaughterhouses, post-harvest measures like decontamination might be cost-effective while this is less likely with small-to-medium sized slaughterhouses. In this study, pre-harvest measures might be more relevant. We describe...... an extended surveillance-and-control programme for Salmonella in finisher pigs, which, to establish equivalence to the Swedish control programme, is intended for implementation on the Danish island, Bornholm. The effect of the programme on food safety was estimated by analysing Salmonella data from pig...... programme were obtained from Bornholm. We used a simulation model developed to estimate the number of human cases based on the prevalence of Salmonella on carcass swabs. Herds are only accepted in the programme if they have one or less seropositive sample within the previous 6 months. In this way...

  4. Níveis de resíduo industrial de fécula da mandioca na alimentação de suínos em crescimento e terminação Levels of cassava residue in diets for growing and finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresinha Marisa Bertol

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos para avaliação da inclusão do resíduo industrial de fecularia da mandioca (RIFM em dietas para suínos em crescimento e terminação. No experimento 1, foram avaliados quatro níveis de RIFM (0; 6,67; 13,33 e 20,00% na dieta de suínos em crescimento. A inclusão do RIFM na dieta provocou efeito cúbico sobre o ganho de peso médio diário (GPMD, P0,10 o desempenho dos suínos. Concluiu-se que a inclusão do RIFM na dieta de suínos em crescimento, à partir de 6,67%, provoca redução do desempenho. Na fase de terminação, o desempenho não é afetado pela inclusão do RIFM até o nível de 30% da dieta.Two experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the inclusion of cassava residue (RIFM in diets for growing and finishing pigs. In the first experiment, four levels (0, 6.67, 13.33 and 20% of RIFM in growing diets were studied. The inclusion of RIFM in the diets caused a cubic effect on average daily gain (GPMD, P0.10 by the inclusion of any level of RIFM. It was concluded that the inclusion of RIFM in diets for growing pigs, in levels like 6.67% or higher, decrease swine performance. In the finishing phase, the performance is not affected by the inclusion of any levels of RIFM, up to 30%.

  5. 发酵菜籽饼用作肥育猪饲料的营养价值评定%Evaluation on Nutritional Value of Fermented Rapeseed Cake as Finishing Pigs Feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴东; 钱坤; 徐鑫; 李吕木

    2015-01-01

    The experiment aims to study mixed microbial strains solid-state aerobic fermentation of rapeseed cake,and to study its nutrient value on finishing pigs.Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus cereus,mixed solid-state aerobic fermented rapeseed cake.A total of 3 healthy crossbred(Duroc×Landrace×Large White) barrows with an initial body weight of (75 ±1.34) kg.The indicator method was used.Using corn starch-semi-purified protein feed diets,rapeseed cake,fermented rapeseed cake and casein was respectively as the sole protein source.The loss of endogenous nitrogen was measured by casein group.The results showed that under the best conditions the degradation rates of glucosinolates,isothiocyanates and oxazolidine-thione were 67.26%,60.38%and 53.24%,re-spectively.Crude protein and small peptide content increased by 2.74 percentage and 2.4 percentage,respectively. Digestible energy and metabolizable energy of fermented rapeseed cake were 12.11 and 10.99 MJ/kg,respective-ly,significantly higher than rapeseed cake (P<0.05).The apparent digestibility of DM and CP of fermented rape-seed cake were increased by 7.67% and 13.66% respectively compared with rapeseed cake.The apparent ileal (true) digestibility of CP was 79.38%(86.67%),significantly higher than rapeseed cake (P<0.05).In addition to va-line,phenylalanine,arginine and cystine,the apparent and true digestibility of essential amino acids and non-es-sential amino acids of fermented rapeseed cake were significantly higher than rapeseed cake.Mixed bacteria sol-id-state fermentation could effectively improve forage quality,and improve digestion and utilization of nutrients of rapeseed cake.%为研究微生物混菌固态好氧发酵菜籽饼并评价其在肥育猪上的营养价值,选择植物乳杆菌和蜡样芽孢杆菌混菌固态好氧发酵菜籽饼,制得发酵菜籽饼,选择3头(75±1.34) kg健康回肠末端安装"T"型瘘管的杜长大杂种阉公猪,采用指示剂法进行氨基酸回肠末

  6. Salmonella in slaughter pigs: the effect of logistic slaughter procedures of pigs on the prevalence of salmonella on pork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanenburg, M.; Wolf, van der P.J.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Snijders, J.M.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2001-01-01

    A substantial part of the finishing pigs in the Netherlands is infected with Salmonella. Infection of pigs with Salmonella can occur already on the farm. Pigs can also get infected or contaminated during transport, lairage or slaughter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of separating

  7. Salmonella in slaughter pigs: the effect of logistic slaughter procedures of pigs on the prevalence of salmonella on pork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanenburg, M.; Wolf, van der P.J.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Snijders, J.M.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2001-01-01

    A substantial part of the finishing pigs in the Netherlands is infected with Salmonella. Infection of pigs with Salmonella can occur already on the farm. Pigs can also get infected or contaminated during transport, lairage or slaughter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of separating

  8. On Danish Legal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2014-01-01

    On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method......On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method...

  9. Plutonium Finishing Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Plutonium Finishing Plant, also known as PFP, represented the end of the line (the final procedure) associated with plutonium production at Hanford.PFP was also...

  10. BHA study in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würtzen, G; Olsen, P

    1986-01-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was given to pregnant SPF pigs (Danish Landrace) in doses of 0, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day from mating to day 110 of the gestation period. The BHA was mixed in the diet (pelleted). Caesarean section was performed on gestation day 110. BHA affected neither the reproduction data nor the incidence of defects in the foetuses. Significantly lower weight gain was observed in the group of dams on the highest dose. Absolute and relative organ weights for the liver and thyroid gland showed a dose-related increase. Proliferative and parakeratotic proliferative changes of the stratified epithelium of the stomach were found in both control and treated pigs. In addition, proliferative and parakeratotic changes of the oesophageal epithelium were observed in a few pigs in the two groups on the highest doses. Papillomas were not found, and no changes of the glandular part of the stomach were observed.

  11. Avaliação nutricional do fósforo disponível de quatro fontes de fósforo para suínos em fase de terminação Nutritional evaluation of available phosphorus from four sources for finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.F. Veloso

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a inclusão de fontes de fósforo (P, considerando-se seu fósforo disponível, sobre o desempenho de suínos em fase de terminação (60 a 100kg. As fontes avaliadas foram: fosfato bicálcico padrão (FBP, fosfato supertriplo (FST, fosfato monoamônio (FMA e a consorciação de fosfato bicálcico padrão (80% com o fosfato de Patos de Minas (FPM - 20%. Foram utilizados 32 leitões, machos, castrados, mestiços de raça tipo carne, com peso médio de 60kg. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com 4 tratamentos, com 4 repetições de 2 animais cada. As dietas foram isoprotéicas e isoenergéticas adequadas para a fase de terminação. Avaliaram-se o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração, a conversão alimentar e o consumo de flúor. Foram observadas diferenças significativas (PThe objective of this experiment was to evaluate four phosphorus (P sources on finishing pigs perfomance from 60 to 100kg weight, considering their available phosphorus. Thirty two castrated male crossbred pigs, were randomly distributed in four treatments with four replications with two animals each. The rations used were isoproteic and isocaloric and the P sources were added to complete 100% of the available P pig requirements, according to the P biological value, previously determined. The P sources were: bicalcium phosphate standard (BPS, triple superphosphate (TSP, monoammonium phosphate (MAP and the association between 20% Patos de Minas rock phosphate (PMP and 80% BPS. The parameters analyzed by SNK test were: weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion and fluorine consumption. Only weight gain and feed consumption were significantly different (P<0,05 amongst the treatments. TSP treatment showed the lowest values of weight gain and feed consumption. The fluorine consumption was significantly different amongst the treatments. Lower fluorine consumption was observed in MAP and BPS, while it was

  12. Levedura de cana-de-açúcar spray dry na alimentação de suínos na fase de crescimento e terminação Sugar cane spray dry yeast on growing and finishing pigs feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Poveda-Parra

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o valor nutricional (digestibilidade total e ileal de duas leveduras spray dry (cana-de-açúcar - LEV35 e cerveja+cana-de-açúcar - LEV40 e o efeito da sua inclusão em rações para suínos na fase de crescimento e terminação. Os valores de ED (kcal/kg da LEV35 e da LEV40 foram 3.496 e 3.901 e EM (kcal/kg foram 3.475 e 3.862, respectivamente. Os valores de lisina, metionina+cistina e treonina digestível para a levedura de cana-de-açúcar e da levedura de cerveja+cana-de-açúcar são 2,66 e 2,64, 1,11 e 1,03, 1,95 e 1,92, respectivamente. No desempenho foram utilizados 40 suínos com peso inicial de 34,39± 7,57kg (crescimento e de 62,45± 5,68kg (terminação, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco níveis de inclusão (0, 5, 10, 15 e20% da LEV35. Na fase de crescimento, houve piora do GDP e da CA com o aumento da inclusão. Na fase de terminação, porém, houve efeito quadrático para o CDR, sendo o melhor nível 3.32%. Da mesma forma, ocorreu piora linear para o GDP, CA, peso de carcaça quente, rendimento de carcaça fria e peso de pernil. Os resultados sugerem que a adição de níveis crescentes da LEV35 pode prejudicar o desempenho dos suínos.The nutritional value of two spray dry yeast (sugar cane - SCYSD and brewer+sugar cane - BYSD and their inclusion effects on growing and finishing pigs feeding was studied. The DE (kcal/kg values for SCYSD and BYSD were 3.496 and 3.901 and for ME (kcal/kg they were 3.475 and 3.862. The values of digestible lysine, methionine+cistine and threonine for SCYSD and BYSD were: 2.66 and 2.64%; 1.11 and 1.03%: 1.95 and 1.92%. 40 pigs with initial weight of 34.39±7.57kg (growing and 62.45±5.68kg (finishing, allotted in a completely randomized design with five levels of SCYSD inclusion were used in the performance assay. In the growing phase, there was an impairing on DWG and F:G, however, in the finishing phase, DFI presented a quadratic effect, being 3

  13. Inclusão de diferentes níveis de casca de soja moída em dietas isoenergéticas para suínos em crescimento e terminação Different inclusion levels of soybean hull on isoenergetic growing-finishing pig diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlei Rodrigues Bonet de Quadros

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da inclusão de diferentes níveis de casca (CS de soja em dietas isoenergéticas para suínos em crescimento e terminação. Quarenta suínos híbridos, machos castrados e fêmeas, com peso inicial de 27,8 ± 2,1kg, foram bloqueados por peso e distribuídos ao acaso em cinco tratamentos, com quatro repetições de dois animais/baia (unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram da inclusão de 0; 4; 8; 12 e 16% de CS moída (2,5mm em dietas isoenergéticas (16,4 e 15,0% PB e 3.385 e 3.390kcal ED kg-1 para as fases de crescimento e terminação, respectivamente. Nenhuma variável de desempenho foi influenciada pela inclusão de CS nas dietas. Os níveis crescentes de CS promoveram redução linear da espessura de toucinho (ET, do rendimento de carcaça quente (RCQ e do rendimento de carcaça fria (RCF e aumento da quebra por resfriamento (QR. Para as variáveis peso de carcaça quente (PCQ e peso de carcaça fria (PCF, foram observados efeitos quadráticos, sendo os menores valores observados com 8,0% de inclusão de CS. O aumento do nível de CS na dieta elevou a QR, que piorou o rendimento de carcaça e diminuiu a ET. Não houve diferença para comprimento de carcaça, peso de pernil, área de olho de lombo e relação carne: gordura. Os resultados sugerem que a inclusão de até 16% de CS nas dietas dos suínos em crescimento/terminação não altera seu desempenho e pode produzir carcaças mais magras.The experiment was carried out to verify the effect of different soybean hull (SH inclusion levels on isoenergetic growing-finishing pig diets. Forty crossbred pigs, barrows and gilts, with 27.8 ± 2.1kg of BW, were blocked according to the weight and distributed in a randomized way in five treatments, with four replicates of two pigs per pen (experimental unit. The treatments consisted of the inclusion of 0; 4; 8; 12 and 16% of ground SH (2.5mm on isoenergetic diets (16.4 and

  14. 黄腐酸对生长育肥猪生长性能、胴体性状和肉品质的影响%Effects of Fulvic Acid on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality in Growing-Finishing Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白会新; 常启发; 石宝明; 单安山; 魏传玉; 于长青; 仝宝生

    2013-01-01

    本文主要研究饲粮中添加不同剂量的黄腐酸(fulvic acid,FA)对生长育肥猪生长性能、胴体性状和肉品质的影响.选取平均体重(30.0±2.5) kg的“长×大”二元杂交生长猪216头,随机分为6个组,每个组6个重复,每个重复6头猪.对照组(CT组)饲喂基础饲粮,试验组饲喂在基础饲粮中分别添加1、2、4、6、8 g/kg FA(即FA1、FA2、FA3、FA4、FA5组)的试验饲粮.试验期为87 d.结果表明:1)与对照组相比,FA各组平均日增重都表现出提高的趋势,其中FA4和FA5组平均日增重均显著高于对照组(P<0.05),分别提高了8.86%和8.25%;FA2、FA3、FA4和FA5组的料重比均显著低于对照组(P<0.05).2)与对照组相比,FA各组屠宰重、胴体重、屠宰率和眼肌面积均呈现上升趋势,但并未达到显著水平(P>0.05).FA各组平均背膘厚和板油率均有所下降,其中FA2、FA3和FA4组的平均背膘厚显著低于对照组(P<0.05),而板油率各组间未见显著性差异(P>0.05).3)与对照组相比,FA各组肉色亮度和黄度值有增加趋势,但差异不显著(P>0.05);FA4和FA5组肉色红度值显著高于对照组(P<0.05);FA各组pH、滴水损失、蒸煮损失和剪切力未见显著性差异(P>0.05).结果提示,基础饲粮中添加FA能够有效地提高生长育肥猪的生长性能,降低背膘厚,改善肉品质.本试验条件下,建议生长育肥猪饲粮中FA的最适宜添加剂量为6g/kg.%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary fulvic acid (FA) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 216 crossbred (Landrace × Yorkshire) pigs with an average body weight of (30. 0 ±2. 5) kg were randomly allotted to 6 groups with 6 replicates per group and 6 pigs per pen. The basal diet was supplemented without FA (control group) or with different levels of FA (1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 g/kg; groups FA1 to FA5). The trial period lasted for 87 days

  15. Impact of vitamin and mineral supplement withdrawal and wheat middling inclusion on finishing pig growth performance, fecal mineral concentration, carcass characteristics, and the nutrient content and oxidative stability of pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, D T; Rozeboom, D W; Hill, G M; Booren, A M; Link, J E

    2002-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine if supplement withdrawal (omission of dietary vitamin and trace mineral premixes and a two-thirds reduction in dietary inorganic phosphorus) for 28 d preslaughter and the feeding of wheat middlings (dietary concentrations of 5, 15, and 30% from weaning to 16, 16 to 28, and 28 kg to slaughter, respectively) affect growth performance, carcass characteristics, and fecal mineral concentrations ofthe pig, as well as the nutrient content and oxidative stability of the longissimus dorsi muscle. Crossbred pigs (n = 64) were blocked by weight and assigned to one of four dietary treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial design (with or without supplement withdrawal, and with or without wheat middlings). Supplement withdrawal and wheat middling inclusion did not influence average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake, gain/feed, or carcass traits, except for a decrease (P pigs from 28 to 65 kg when fed wheat middlings. Supplement withdrawal decreased (P mineral supplementation, wheat middling inclusion decreased (P Supplement withdrawal decreased (P 0.05) longissimus dorsi Ca, P, Fe, and Zn concentrations. Dietary treatment did not affect either Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase or glutathione peroxidase activity in the longissimus dorsi. The results from this study indicate that supplement withdrawal and dietary wheat middling inclusion alter pork nutrient content and fecal mineral concentration, but not the oxidative stability of pork.

  16. Effects of Different Consists of Dietary Energy Supply on Nutrient Apparent Digestibility, Serum Biochemical Indices and Hormones Levels of Finishing Pigs%不同供能物质组成饲粮对育肥猪养分表观消化率、血清生化指标和激素水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于长宁; 李艳娇; 张柏林; 林猛; 李蛟龙; 张林; 杨文卫; 高峰; 周光宏

    2015-01-01

    本文旨在探讨不同供能物质组成饲粮对育肥猪养分表观消化率、血清生化指标和血清激素水平的影响。选用平均体重(65.0±2.0) kg、日龄相近的去势“杜×长×大”三元杂交肥育公猪72头,随机分为3组,即A、B和C组,分别饲喂A、B和C 3种等能等氮饲粮,每组3个重复,每个重复8头,淀粉水平为44.1%的传统育肥猪饲粮(饲粮A)作为对照饲粮,饲粮B和C的淀粉水平是在饲粮A淀粉水平的基础上分别减少约15%和30%。其中饲粮A含有44.1%的淀粉、5.9%的粗脂肪和12.6%的中性洗涤纤维( NDF);饲粮B含有37.6%的淀粉、9.5%的粗脂肪和15.4%的NDF;饲粮C含有30.9%的淀粉、14.3%的粗脂肪和17.8%的NDF。预试期7 d,试验期28 d。结果表明:1)与A组相比,C组育肥猪的干物质、粗蛋白质和粗灰分的表观消化率和血清甲状腺素(T4)水平显著降低(P0.05)。3)除血清T4水平以外,B与A组在养分表观消化率、血清生化指标和激素水平上均差异不显著( P>0.05)。本试验结果提示,过度降低育肥猪饲粮中的淀粉水平并提高油脂和NDF用量会影响育肥猪激素分泌、降低养分表观消化率。%The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of different consists of dietary energy supply on nutrient apparent digestibility, serum biochemical indices and hormones levels of finishing pigs. All 72 castrated“Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire” finishing barrows used in this experiment had similar initial body weight [(65.0±2.0) kg] and days of age, they were divided into three groups (groups A, B and C) of 3 replicates of 8 pigs and fed three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets, respectively. Groups A, B and C were fed with diets A, B and C, respectively. Diet A had 44.1% starch as a control and traditional finishing pigs diet. The content of starch in diets B and C was reduced about 15% and 30% based on the content of starch in the diet A, respectively. Diet A contained

  17. Surface finish measurement studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, E. C.

    1983-01-01

    The performance of stylus instruments for measuring the topography of National Transonic Facility (NTF) model surfaces both for monitoring during fabrication and as an absolute measurement of topography was evaluated. It was found that the shop-grade instruments can damage the surface of models and that their use for monitoring fabrication procedures can lead to surface finishes that are substantially out of range in critical areas of the leading edges. The development of a prototype light-scattering instrument which would allow for rapid assessment of the surface finish of a model is also discussed.

  18. Ultrasonic magnetic abrasive finishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ya-ping; MA Ji; ZHANG Jun-qiang; WANG Long-shan

    2006-01-01

    Put forward a new kind of polishing method, ultrasonic magnetic abrasive finishing (UMAF), and studied its mechanism of improving polishing efficiency. By analyzing all kind of forces acting on single abrasive particle in the polishing process and calculating the size of the composition of forces, get the conclusion that UMAF will enhance the efficiency of the normal magnetic abrasive finishing(MAF) due to the ultrasonic vibration increases the cutting force and depth. At last the idea of designing the UMAF system based on numerical control milling machine is put forward which is convenient to setup and will accelerate the practical application of MAF.

  19. Sequence-Based Genotyping of Expressed Swine Leukocyte Antigen Class I Alleles by Next-Generation Sequencing Reveal Novel Swine Leukocyte Antigen Class I Haplotypes and Alleles in Belgian, Danish, and Kenyan Fattening Pigs and Göttingen Minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Maria Rathmann; Ilsøe, Mette; Strube, Mikael Lenz

    2017-01-01

    for the prediction of epitope binding in pigs. The low number of known SLA class I alleles and the limited knowledge of their prevalence in different pig breeds emphasizes the need for efficient SLA typing methods. This study utilizes an SLA class I-typing method based on next-generation sequencing of barcoded PCR...

  20. Utilização do farelo de germe de milho desengordurado na alimentação de suínos em crescimento e terminação: digestibilidade e desempenho Utilization of defatted corn germ meal on growing-finishing pigs feeding: digestibility and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Moreira

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos (Digestibilidade e Desempenho, objetivando avaliar o valor nutricional e a viabilidade de utilização do farelo de germe de milho desengordurado (FGMD em rações de suínos, na fase de crescimento e terminação. I Ensaio de digestibilidade: foram utilizados 12 suínos com peso vivo médio de 42,0±5,4 kg, alojados em gaiolas de metabolismo, em que seis receberam rações compostas de 70% de ração referência e 30% de FGMD e seis receberam ração referência. O FGMD apresentou coeficiente de digestibilidade da energia de 80,98 % e coeficiente de metabolização de 78,04%, o que corresponde a 3.060 kcal de ED/kg e 2.949 kcal de EM/kg. II Ensaio de desempenho: foram utilizados 32 suínos mestiços, sendo metade de fêmeas e metade de machos castrados, com peso inicial médio de 31,9±3,6 kg. Os suínos foram alojados em 16 baias, perfazendo, assim, 2 animais por baia. Os animais receberam ração à vontade, contendo níveis crescentes (0, 15, 30 e 45% de farelo de germe de milho desengordurado. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos, quatro repetições, com dois animais por unidade experimental. A inclusão de níveis crescentes de FGMD prejudicou o desempenho dos suínos, reduziu a espessura de toucinho e não influenciou a profundidade do lombo, medidas no animal vivo. A análise econômica, considerando o preço do FGMD, sendo 80% do preço do milho, mostrou que o nível de 15% de inclusão do FGMD é o mais econômico, tanto para a fase de crescimento, quanto para a fase de terminação.Two studies (Digestibility and Performance were carried out to evaluate the nutritional value and the feasibility of using defatted corn germ meal (DCGM fed to growing-finishing pigs. I Digestibility trial: Twelve pigs with initial body weight of 42.0±5.4 kg were hold in metabolism cage. Six pigs were fed a diet with 70% of basal diet plus 30% of DCGM and six received basal diet

  1. Evaluation of sunflower meal on growth and carcass traits of finishing pigs Avaliação de farelo de girassol no desempenho e características de carcaca de suínos em terminação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas de Carvalho Carellos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to evaluate the influence of increasing levels of inclusion of sunflower meal (SFM solvent extraction (DM: 92.71%, CP: 27.50%, NDF: 43.57%, ADF: 32.96%, CF: 25.91%, EE: 3,08% and GE: 4390 kcal on the performance and carcass characteristics of finishing swine, a performance trial was conducted in the Department of Animal Science of the Federal University of Lavras - MG. A total of 80 crossbred pigs (LD x LW with initial weight of 62.20 ± 4.21 kg were utilized, one barrow and one gilt per experimental unit, allocated in a randomized block design. The treatments were represented by five diets with increasing levels of inclusion (0, 4, 8, 12 and 16% of SFM. At the end of the experimental period, all pigs were slaughtered (99.80 ± 6.91kg and submitted to the carcass evaluation by the Brazilian Method of Carcass Evaluation (ABCS, 1973. The increasing levels of SFM shown a linear reduction (P0.05 for any increasing levels of SFM in the diets, however, sex effect was found, in the barrows, which shown higher ETM, P2, AG and RCG and lower AOL in relation to the females In conclusion Sunflower meal should be included up to 16% in pig diet (isocaloric and isolysinic, basis with no major effects on growth performance or carcass traits of finishing pigs.Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de níveis crescentes de inclusão do farelo de girassol (FG em rações (MS: 92,71%; PB: 27,50%; FDN: 43,57%; FDA: 32,96%; FB: 25,91% e a atuação deste no desempenho e características de carcaça para suínos em terminação, conduziu-se uma pesquisa no Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Lavras-MG. Foram utilizados 80 suínos mestiços (LD x LW com peso inicial de 62,20 ± 4,21 kg, sendo 1 macho e 1 fêmea por baia, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos ao acaso. As rações apresentaram níveis crescentes de inclusão (0, 4, 8, 12 e 16% de FG. Ao final do ensaio de desempenho os 80 suínos foram abatidos (99,80 ± 6,91kg

  2. Effects of different litter depths on environmental parameters and growth performance of growing finishing pigs Efeito de diferentes profundidades de cama usada para suínos em crescimento e em terminação sobre parâmetros ambientais e desempenho de crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Kunde Corrêa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep litter systems represent low cost alternatives to raise growing-finishing pigs, reducing slurry accumulation, although pig's thermal comfort may be negatively affected by the heat produced inside the litter. This study compared environmental and performance parameters for growing-finishing pigs raised on deep litter systems having distinct depths and on solid floor. The experiment was conducted in a region of temperate climate of Brazil, comparing three treatments: litter having rice husk 0.5m (T1; and 0.25m deep (T2; and solid concrete floor (T3. The first litter was used in two lots and replaced by a second litter used in other two lots, during 52 weeks. Each lot included five pigs in a 7m² pen, from 60 to 145 d of age. Environmental parameters were determined at weekly intervals, including: atmospheric temperature; relative humidity; temperature at the center of the pen, in the surface (TSF; and at half of the depth (THD, only for T1 and T2. Feed consumption and weight of pigs were measured every four weeks. Atmospheric temperature and relative humidity were not influenced by the treatments (P>0.05. Mean TSF was 22.8 ± 3.6°C, being lower for T3 (P0.05. TSF was higher for new than for used litters (P0.05. Despite the potential unfavorable thermal comfort under high temperatures, deep litter systems can be used to raise pigs in the growing-finishing phases due to the absence of negative effects for growth performance.O uso de cama representa uma alternativa de baixo custo para a criação de suínos em crescimento e em terminação, promovendo redução do acúmulo de dejetos, embora o conforto térmico dos animais possa ser prejudicado pelo calor produzido no interior da cama. Este estudo compara os parâmetros ambientais e o desempenho de crescimento de suínos em sistemas de criação sobre cama, com profundidades distintas, e sobre piso concreto. O experimento foi realizado em uma região de clima temperado na região Sul do Brasil

  3. The Danish East India Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2005-01-01

    The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la......The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la...

  4. Nanometric Finishing on Biomedical Implants by Abrasive Flow Finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Kavithaa Thirumalai; Balashanmugam, Natchimuthu; Shashi Kumar, Panaghra Veeraiah

    2016-01-01

    Abrasive flow finishing (AFF) is a non-conventional finishing technique that offers better accuracy, efficiency, consistency, economy in finishing of complex/difficult to machine materials/components and provides the possibility of effective automation as aspired by the manufacturing sector. The present study describes the finishing of a hip joint made of ASTM grade Co-Cr alloy by Abrasive Flow Machining (AFM) process. The major input parameters of the AFF process were optimized for achieving nanometric finishing of the component. The roughness average (Ra) values were recorded during experimentation using surface roughness tester and the results are discussed in detail. The surface finished hip joints were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and residual stress analysis using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The discussion lays emphasis on the significance, efficacy and versatile nature of the AFF process in finishing of bio-medical implants.

  5. Recruited into Danishness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapina, Linda

    2017-01-01

    This article critically examines emergence of Danishness via an autoethnography of passing as Danish. Drawing on feminist scholarship, the author conceptualizes passing as an embodied, affective and discursive relation; simultaneously spontaneous and laboured, fleeting and solid, emergent and con...

  6. Danish dental education:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    1985-01-01

    The effects of Danish cultural traditions on dental education in Denmark are described, as well as the system's current structure and developing issues. Some Danish ideas for future exports of dental education programs and dental personnel are also discussed.......The effects of Danish cultural traditions on dental education in Denmark are described, as well as the system's current structure and developing issues. Some Danish ideas for future exports of dental education programs and dental personnel are also discussed....

  7. Danish dental education:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    1985-01-01

    The effects of Danish cultural traditions on dental education in Denmark are described, as well as the system's current structure and developing issues. Some Danish ideas for future exports of dental education programs and dental personnel are also discussed.......The effects of Danish cultural traditions on dental education in Denmark are described, as well as the system's current structure and developing issues. Some Danish ideas for future exports of dental education programs and dental personnel are also discussed....

  8. PERFIL SOROLÓGICO E DE ISOLAMENTO DE Salmonella sp. EM SUÍNOS NO INÍCIO DA TERMINAÇÃO E AO ABATE SEROLOGY AND ISOLATION OF SALMONELLA SP. IN PIGS AT THE FINISHING SITE AND AT SLAUGHTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Müller

    2009-09-01

    of this study were to compare the prevalence of Salmonella positive pigs at the beginning of the finishing phase and at slaughter, and to identify the possible sources of contamination in the farms. In three finishing farms, environmental swabs from the barns and from the feed silos were collected during the sanitary emptiness. Furthermore, samples of feces and blood from the animals on the day of housing; and aliquots from all feed lots were taken. At slaughter, blood, mesenteric lymph nodes (LM and intestinal content (CI were sampled. Blood samples were submitted to a S. Typhimurium ELISA-LPS test. All other samples were submitted to a Salmonella isolation protocol. Feed samples were also submitted to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR targeting the invA gene. Feces samples from all pigs were Salmonella negative at the beginning of the finishing phase, in two farms seropositive animals were found. In two farms, residual environmental contamination was detected, and, in the third farm, one of the feed batches was Salmonella positive on the PCR assay. At slaughter, over 90% of the animals were positive on the ELISA-LPS test and, in all cohorts, a variable number (12%-92% of carriers in LM and CI was detected. From this on, it was concluded that the finishing phase was critical for the amplification of Salmonella infection, and the residual environmental contamination in the farms as well as Salmonella positive feed batches were the probable infection sources.

    KEY WORDS: Isolation, finishing and slaughter, Salmonella, serology, swine.

  9. Utilização da casca de café na alimentação de suínos nas fases de crescimento e terminação Coffee hulls utilization in growing and finishing pigs feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Rocio Poveda Parra

    2008-03-01

    fase de terminação, por ser economicamente viável, sem prejudicar o desempenho, além de produzir carcaças mais magras.Two experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional values of sticky (SC and dry coffee hulls (DC and their effects on the performance and carcass quality of growing and finishing pigs. The hulls were ground in 2.5 mm (for SC2 and DC2 and 4.0 mm (SC4 and DC4. In Exp 1, two digestibility assays were carried out with 15 barrow pigs weighting 45.7 ± 4.12 kg and 77.5 ± 6.28 kg for growing and finishing phases, respectively. The digestible energy (DE values (kcal/kg for SC2, SC4, DC2 and DC4 were 2,494, 2498, 1,236 and 1,345. The values of the SC showed DE values superior to DC, however, the grinding process did not improved the DE values. In experiment 2, 40 crossbred pigs were used, averaging initially 33.42 ± 0.53 kg and 59.45 ± 0.14 kg in the growing and finishing phases, respectively. Five SC4 inclusion levels (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% were evaluated. In the growing phase, the daily feed intake (DFI presented differences for 20% inclusion level when compared with control diet (CD. There was a linear decrease on daily weight gain (DWG when DC4 increase on diet and F: G ratio was the same for CM4 inclusions and CD. In the finishing phase, there was a linear reduction of DFI with the increasing inclusion SC4 level. There was quadratic effect for DWG, which was better in the inclusion of 8.43%. The backfat thickness values in SC4 treatments were lower as compared to CD in both phases. There was a linear reduction of hot carcass weight and ham weight in the inclusion levels. The hot carcass yielding worst in each inclusion levels as compared to CD. The results suggest that the inclusion up to 5.0% of SC4 in the growing phase and 9.5% in the finishing phase, because it is economically viable with no effect on performance, besides to produce lean meat carcasses.

  10. The Danish Welfare Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with the main report of the Danish Welfare Commission and the one-hundred-and-nine proposals on the structure of the future Danish welfare state that the com-mission has put forward. Following upon a brief review of the discussion on the work of the Danish Welfare Commission...

  11. Effects of Dietary Standardized Ileal Digestible Valine Level on Growth Performance, Plasma Amino Acid and Urea Nitrogen Contents of Finishing Pigs%饲粮标准回肠可消化缬氨酸水平对育肥猪生长性能、血浆氨基酸和尿素氮含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易孟霞; 易学武; 贺喜; 陈达图; 胡官波; 张石蕊

    2015-01-01

    通过2个试验探讨饲粮中标准回肠可消化缬氨酸( SID Val)水平对育肥猪生长性能、血浆氨基酸和尿素氮含量的影响. 试验 1、试验 2 分别选用 360 头初始体重为( 53. 75 ± 2.63) kg、(83.67±2.92) kg的杜×长×大三元杂交育肥猪,按体重相近、遗传基础相似的原则,随机分为5个处理,每个处理6个重复,每个重复12头猪. 同一试验中,各处理的饲粮除缬氨酸外,其余营养水平均参照NRC(2012)推荐标准设计. 试验1中各处理试验饲粮的SID Val水平分别为0.50%、0.55%、0.60%、0.65%和0.70%,试验期为50~80 kg阶段;试验2中各处理试验饲粮的SID Val水平分别为0.43%、0.48%、0.53%、0.58%和0.63%,试验期为80~120 kg阶段.结果表明:试验1中饲粮SID Val水平为0.65%和0.70%的处理的平均日增重和料重比差异不显著( P>0.05) ,但较饲粮SID Val水平为0.50%的处理得到显著改善( P0.05) ,但显著高于饲粮SID Val水平为0.43%的处理( P0.05). 采用折线模型和二次曲线回归模型,综合平均日增重和料重比得出,育肥猪50~80 kg、80~120 kg阶段饲粮标准回肠可消化赖氨酸水平分别为0.85%、0.70%时,其SID Val需要量范围值分别为0.61%~0.66%、0.52%~0.56%,最佳需要量分别为0.65%和0.53%.%Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary standardized ileal digestible ( SID) valine ( Val) level on growth performance, plasma amino acid and urea nitrogen contents of finishing pigs. Each experiment contained 360 barrows ( Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) which were allotted to five treat-ments with six replicates per treatment and 12 pigs per replicate according to the similar body weight and genet-ic foundation. Average initial body weight of pigs in experiment 1 was (53.75±2.63) kg and in experiment 2 was (83.67±2.92) kg. In the same experiment, except dietary Val, the nutrient levels of experimental diets were referred to recommend the nutrient requirements of swine in

  12. Effects of Dietary Fiber Sources on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Finishing Pigs%饲粮纤维源对育肥猪生长性能、胴体组成和肉品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹佳; 毛湘冰; 余冰; 陈洪; 郑萍; 何军; 黄志清; 虞洁; 陈代文

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fiber sources on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of finishing pigs. A total of 125 healthy crossed-bred ( Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshine) finishing pigs with an average body weight of (48.88 ±0.81) kg were randomly allotted to 5 groups with 5 replicates per group and 5 pigs per replicate. Pigs were fed 5 formulated diets contained a basal diet (control group) and 4 experimental diets, which were basal diets supplemented with maize fiber (MF group) , soybean fiber ( SF group) , wheat bran fiber ( WBF group) and pea fiber (PF group) , respectively, and the dietary fiber level in diets was 30% . The experiment was ended when the average body weight of pigs reached about 100 kg. The results showed as follows: 1) compared with the control group, finial weight and average daily gain in SF group were significantly reduced (P 0. 05) ; average back fat thickness in SF, WBF and PF groups was significantly decreased compared with the control group (P 0. 05) ; compared with the control group, pH24h in PF group was significantly increased (P < 0. 05) , and drip loss was significantly decreased ( P < 0. 05) ; in addition, intramuscular fat content of longissimus dorsi muscle in SF and WBF groups was significantly decreased (P <0. 05). The results indicate that dietary fiber sources make different effects on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of pigs, and the effect of pea fiber on growth performance and meat quality is better than that of the other fibers.%本文旨在探讨不同纤维源对育肥猪生长性能、胴体组成和肉品质的影响.试验选用125头初始体重为(48.88±0.81) kg健康“杜×长×大”三元杂交生长肥育猪,随机分为5组,每组5个重复,每个重复5头猪,分别饲喂基础饲粮(对照组)以及添加玉米纤维、大豆纤维、小麦麸纤维和豌豆纤维的4种试验饲粮,饲粮纤维的添加量为30

  13. Impact of organic pig production systems on CO2 emission, C sequestration and nitrate pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Niels; Hermansen, John Erik; Kristensen, Ib Sillebak

    2010-01-01

    compares the environmental impact of the main organic pig systems in Denmark. Normally, sows are kept in huts on grassland and finishing pigs are raised in stables with access to an outdoor run. One alternative practice is also rearing the fattening pigs on grassland all year round. The third method...

  14. Temperature and body weight affect fouling of pig pens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, A.J.A.; Schrama, J.W.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Stefanowska, J.; Huynh, T.T.T.

    2006-01-01

    Fouling of the solid lying area in pig housing is undesirable for reasons of animal welfare, animal health, environmental pollution, and labor costs. In this study the influence of temperature on the excreting and lying behavior of growing-finishing pigs of different BW (25, 45, 65, 85, or 105 kg) w

  15. Description of extended pre-harvest pig Salmonella surveillance-and-control programme and its estimated effect on food safety related to pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, L; Barfod, K; Petersen, J V; Dahl, J; Ajufo, J C; Sandø, G; Krog, H H; Aabo, S

    2010-11-01

    Salmonella in pork can be combated during pre- or post-harvest. For large slaughterhouses, post-harvest measures like decontamination might be cost-effective while this is less likely with small-to-medium sized slaughterhouses. In this study, pre-harvest measures might be more relevant. We describe an extended surveillance-and-control programme for Salmonella in finisher pigs, which, to establish equivalence to the Swedish control programme, is intended for implementation on the Danish island, Bornholm. The effect of the programme on food safety was estimated by analysing Salmonella data from pig carcasses originating from herds that would have qualified for the programme during 2006-2008. Food safety was interpreted as prevalence of Salmonella on carcasses as well as the estimated number of human cases of salmonellosis related to pork produced within the programme. Data from the Danish Salmonella programme were obtained from Bornholm. We used a simulation model developed to estimate the number of human cases based on the prevalence of Salmonella on carcass swabs. Herds are only accepted in the programme if they have one or less seropositive sample within the previous 6 months. In this way, the Salmonella load is kept to a minimum. The programme is not yet in operation and pigs that qualify for the programme are currently mixed at slaughter with those that do not qualify. Therefore, we had to assess the impact on the carcass prevalence indirectly. The prevalence of Salmonella in carcass swabs among qualifying herds was 0.46% for the 3 years as a whole, with 2006 as the year with highest prevalence. According to the simulation the expected number of human cases relating to pork produced within the programme was below 10. When the programme is in operation, an extra effect of separating pigs within the programme from those outside is expected to lower the prevalence of Salmonella even further.

  16. A Genetic Analysis of Mortality in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varona, Luis; Sorensen, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of mortality is undertaken in two breeds of pigs: Danish Landrace and Yorkshire. Zero-inflated and standard versions of hierarchical Poisson, binomial, and negative binomial Bayesian models were fitted using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). The objectives of the study were to investig...

  17. SNP-finding in pig mitochondrial ESTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Gilchrist, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Sino-Danish pig genome project produced 685 851 ESTs (Gorodkin et al. 2007), of which 41 499 originated from the mitochondrial genome. In this study, the mitochondrial ESTs were assembled, and 374 putative SNPs were found. Chromatograms for the ESTs containing SNPs were manually inspected...

  18. Effects of different space allowances on growth performance, blood profile and pork quality in a grow-to-finish production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J C; Jin, X H; Hong, J S; Kim, Y Y

    2017-06-26

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the optimal space allowance on growth performance, blood profile and pork quality of growing-finishing pigs. A total of ninety crossbred pigs ([Yorkshire x Landrace] x Duroc, 30.25 ± 1.13 kg) were allocated into three treatments (0.96: four pigs / pen, 0.96 m2/pig; 0.80: five pigs / pen, 0.80 m2/pig; 0.69: six pigs / pen, 0.69 m2/pig) in a randomized complete block (RCB) design. Pigs were housed in balanced sex and had free access to feed in all phases for 14 weeks (growing phase I, growing phase II, finishing phase I and finishing phase II). There was no statistical difference in growing phase, but a linear decrease was observed on average daily gain (ADG, pfinishing phase. On the other hand, a quadratic effect was observed on gain to feed ratio in early finishing phase (pfinish production system is more than 0.80 m2/pig for maximizing growth performance and production efficiency.

  19. Utilização da fitase em dietas com ou sem farelo de arroz desengordurado para suínos em crescimento/terminação Use of phytase in diets with or without defatted rice bran for growing/finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Mohaupt Marques Ludke

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de comparar a eficiência de diferentes níveis de fitase em relação à suplementação de fosfato inorgânico (fosfato bicálcico, quando adicionados em dietas sem e com farelo de arroz desengordurado (FAD. Foram utilizados 128 suínos com peso inicial médio de 21,2 ± 2,4 kg, alojados em baias coletivas, para avaliar o desempenho nas fases de crescimento e terminação. Os suínos foram abatidos com peso médio de 95,4 ± 5,3 kg e coletado o osso metacarpo para determinação do cálcio e do fósforo. Foram usados oito tratamentos, sendo quatro dietas sem FAD (milho e farelo de soja e quatro dietas com 30% de inclusão de FAD, nas quais foram adicionados níveis de 0, 750 ou 1000 UF (Unidades de Fitase/kg. Foi observado que adicionar fitase, tanto em dietas sem FAD quanto em dietas com FAD, melhora a disponibilidade do fósforo orgânico. Com os níveis de 750 e 1000 UF/kg adicionados em ambas as dietas, sem suplementação de fosfato bicálcico, não houve prejuízo sobre o desempenho dos animais. Entretanto, as características ósseas são prejudicadas se as dietas com fitase não forem suplementadas com a fonte de fósforo inorgânico.The objective of this work was to compare the efficiency of different levels of phytase with the use of inorganic phosphate (dicalcium phosphate when added to diets with or without defatted rice bran (DRB. One hundred and twenty eight pigs with average initial weight of 21.6 ± 2.4 kg were housed in collective boxes for the pig performance evaluation in the growing and finishing phase. The pigs were slaughtered with an average weight of 95.42 ± 5.3 kg and the metacarpus bones were collected to determine the calcium and phosphorus content. Eight treatments were used with four diets being formulated without DRB (corn-soybean meal and the other four diets with DRB. The phytase levels added in the diets were 0, 750 or 1000 PU/kg of the diet. It was observed that

  20. Programming Pig

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This guide is an ideal learning tool and reference for Apache Pig, the open source engine for executing parallel data flows on Hadoop. With Pig, you can batch-process data without having to create a full-fledged application-making it easy for you to experiment with new datasets. Programming Pig introduces new users to Pig, and provides experienced users with comprehensive coverage on key features such as the Pig Latin scripting language, the Grunt shell, and User Defined Functions (UDFs) for extending Pig. If you need to analyze terabytes of data, this book shows you how to do it efficiently

  1. Sequence-based genotyping of expressed SLA class I alleles by Next Generation Sequencing reveal novel SLA class I haplotypes and alleles in Belgian, Danish and Kenyan fattening pigs and Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Maria Rathmann; Ilsøe, Mette; Strube, Mikael Lenz

    The need for typing of the swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) is increasing with the expanded use of pigs as models for human diseases and organ-transplantation experiments, their use in infection studies, and for design of veterinary vaccines. Knowledge of SLA sequences is furthermore a prerequisite...... for the prediction of CTL epitopes based on predicted MHC binding in pigs. The low number of known SLA class I alleles and the limited knowledge of their prevalence in different pig breeds, emphasizes the need for efficient SLA typing methods. Here we obtain SLA class I–typing and –expression based on Illumina Mi......Seq Next Generation Sequencing of barcoded PCR amplicons. Universal primers were designed to generate amplicons spanning exon 2 and exon 3 of the SLA class I genes and predicted to resolve 68% to 88% of all known SLA class I alleles dependent on amplicon size. Based on whole blood mRNA we analyzed the c...

  2. Optimum ratio to lysine of threonine, tryptophan, and sulfur amino acids for finishing swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, J D; Baker, D H

    1995-02-01

    Forty-eight crossbred (PIC line 26 x Camborough 15) pigs were used in two finishing trials to compare the ideal ratios of threonine (Thr), tryptophan (Trp), and sulfur amino acids (SAA) to lysine (Lys) determined for young pigs to a proposed ratio of these amino acids for finishing pigs. Trial 1 involved 20 barrows and 20 gilts that were self-fed in sex groups of two. Trial 2 was a Latin square design that used four barrows and four gilts that were individually fed in metabolism cages. Separate diets were used for the early (EF = 56 to 90 kg) and late (LF = 90 to 112 kg) finishing periods. Diets were formulated from a corn-soybean meal mixture and contained 11% CP and .55% digestible lysine for EF pigs and 10% CP and .50% digestible lysine for LF pigs. Negative-control diets in both the EF and LF periods were designed to be slightly deficient in lysine and to contain digestible Thr (65%), Trp (18%), and SAA (60%) at the ideal ratio to digestible Lys determined for 10- to 20-kg pigs. The experimental diet in both the EF and LF periods was formulated to contain digestible Thr (70%), Trp (20%), and SAA (65%) at the proposed ideal ratio to digestible Lys for finishing pigs. In Trial 1, increased ratios of Thr, Trp, and SAA improved gain:feed ratio, whole-body and carcass protein concentration, and whole-body and carcass protein accretion. In Trial 2, LF pigs responded to the increased ratios of Thr, Trp, and SAA with decreased urinary nitrogen excretion and increased N retention.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, T.; Erlandsen, M.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded in decreasing the N surplus by 40% since the mid 1980s while at the same time maintaining crop yields and increasing the animal production of especially pigs. Trend analyses prove that the youngest (0-15 years old) oxic groundwater shows more pronounced significant downward nitrate trends (44%) than the oldest (25-50 years old) oxic groundwater (9%). This amounts to clear evidence of the effect of reduced nitrate leaching on groundwater nitrate concentrations in Denmark. Are the Danish groundwater monitoring strategy obtimal for detection of nitrate trends? Will the nitrate concentrations in Danish groundwater continue to decrease or are the Danish nitrate concentration levels now appropriate according to the Water Framework Directive?

  4. EFECTO DE VARIOS NIVELES DE TREONINA: LISINA SOBRE PARAMÉTROS PRODUCTIVOS EN CERDOS EN FINALIZACION TRATADOS CON RACTOPAMINA EFFECT OF VARIOUS LEVELS OF THREONINE: LYSINE ON PRODUCTION PARAMETERS IN FINISHING PIGS TREATED WITH RACTOPAMINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Eduardo Parra Suescún

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar el efecto de la adición de Ractopamina (RAC y la relación Treonina:Lisina (Thr:Lys sobre los rendimientos productivos, se realizó un experimento durante 28 días. Para este fin se utilizaron 42 cerdos de aproximadamente 72,4± 2,3 kg, en los cuales se evaluó el efecto de dos niveles de RAC (5 y 10 ppm y tres relaciones Thr:Lys (0,60; 0,65 y 0,70 en la dieta, sobre el consumo de alimento diario (CDA, la ganancia diaria de peso (GDP, ganancia diaria de tejido magro libre de grasa (GDTMLG, y además, la eficiencia (Ef se expresó como GDTMLG en función del CDA. El experimento se realizó mediante un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 3x2 y se hizo un análisis de medidas repetidas en el tiempo. Todas las variables fueron medidas en cada animal 14 y 28 días después de iniciado el suministro de la dieta. Los valores medios/animal/día de todas las variables presentaron interacciones. En general se observó que niveles altos de Rac tuvieron un mejor desempeño con niveles bajos o intermedios de Thr:Lys mientras que los niveles bajos de Rac tuvieron mejores resultados con niveles altos de Thr:Lys. Por esta razón, es de esperarse que las diferencias entre las variables con los dos niveles de Rac se deban al manejo nutricional (relación Thr:Lys, ya que este factor influencia la magnitud de la respuesta. Desde el punto de vista productivo, la combinación a recomendar es 10 ppm de Rac y Thr:Lys 0,6.To determine the effect of adding Ractopamine (RAC and Threonine:Lysin ratio (Thr: Lys on the productive yields, an experiment during 28 days was made. 42 pigs of approximately 72,4± 2,3 kg were used in which the effect of two levels of RAC was evaluated (5 and 10 ppm and three relate Thr:Lys (0,60; 0,65 and 0,70 in the diet on the consumption of daily food (CDF, the daily weight gain (DWG, daily lean fat-free tissue gain (DLFFTG, and also, the efficiency (Ef was expressed as DLFFTG in function of CDF. A randomized

  5. Phenotypic and Genotypic Diversity of Salmonella in Finishing Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Alda F A; Funk, Julie A; Habing, Greg G; Bolin, Carole

    2016-04-01

    Salmonella enterica (nontyphoidal) is one of the major causes of foodborne diseases in the United States and worldwide. Molecular typing methods are significant tools used to better understand the transmission and ecology of Salmonella in order to implement pre-harvest control measures. The objectives of this study were to describe the Salmonella genotypes, the distribution of isolate subtypes from different ecological niches (i.e., barn environment, nursery, and individual pigs) and their evolution over time in a longitudinal study conducted in three finishing sites (housing pigs from 10 weeks of age until slaughter at 24-26 weeks of age). Among the 107 Salmonella isolates submitted for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, there were 25 distinct subtypes. PFGE genotyping results were consistent with the serotype findings. A large number of distinguishable PFGE patterns (i.e., within the same serovar) were observed and different combinations of subtypes were identified within and across sites and cohorts. New subtypes may result of the introduction of new strains, genetic changes, or ongoing transmission of evolved strains within the production system. The same subtypes were detected intermittently during the study period, which suggests the persistence of indistinguishable subtypes in this production system. In addition, this study suggests persistence of the same subtype over several cohorts of pigs and potential residual contamination from the barn. Factors affecting adaptation and transmission of Salmonella within and among ecological systems (e.g., finishing pigs, nursery, and environment) should be further investigated. Understanding genotypic diversity of Salmonella in different ecological niches during pre-harvest may contribute to the development of more targeted and cost effective control programs during nursery and finishing phases.

  6. The Danish letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie; Ejlers, Steen

    2011-01-01

    The talk will focus on Danish type designers and their work on Æ (AE), Ø (Oslash) and Å (Aring). These 'anomalies' found in the Danish written language, often causes difficulties for type designers. The counters of Ø/ø sometimes appear overcrowded, the uppercase Æ can result in an uncomfortably o......' attempt to create the optimal variation of these letters, we will give a brief introduction to the Danish typography tradition ranging from the early 20th Century and up until today....

  7. The Danish letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie; Ejlers, Steen

    2011-01-01

    The talk will focus on Danish type designers and their work on Æ (AE), Ø (Oslash) and Å (Aring). These 'anomalies' found in the Danish written language, often causes difficulties for type designers. The counters of Ø/ø sometimes appear overcrowded, the uppercase Æ can result in an uncomfortably o......' attempt to create the optimal variation of these letters, we will give a brief introduction to the Danish typography tradition ranging from the early 20th Century and up until today....

  8. 玉米酒精糟和复合酶对生长育肥猪血液生化指标和肠道健康的影响%Effects of corn DDGS and compound enzyme preparations on the blood biochemical indicator and gut health in growing-finishing pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王潇; 李根来; 姚文

    2012-01-01

    本试验旨在探讨生长育肥猪饲粮中添加一定量的玉米酒精糟(DDGS)和复合酶对生长育肥猪血液生化指标和肠道健康的影响.150头70日龄杜×长×大三元杂交商品猪,根据体重和性别随机分成3个处理,每个处理5个重复,每个重复10头猪,进行两阶段饲养.对照组饲喂玉米-豆粕型日粮,试验1组和2组在生长期和育肥期饲料中分别以10%和15%的玉米DDGS替代部分玉米和豆粕,试验2组添加200 g/T的复合酶.于试验开始后的第24,48,70和90天,每栏随机选取一头猪,直肠无菌采集粪样以检测其中的乳酸菌和大肠杆菌的数量.试验结束时,每栏随机选取一头猪进行屠宰,采集血液和组织样品,进行血液生化指标的测定和小肠形态的观察.结果显示,添加玉米DDGS和复合酶对肝、脾指数和血液AKP、γ-GT、GOT和GPT水平没有显著影响(P>0.05);试验组猪的十二指肠和回肠绒毛高度与隐窝深度之比值大于对照组,且试验2组在育肥期达到显著水平(P<0.05).试验2组育肥期粪样中乳酸菌数量较对照组显著升高(P<0.05),试验1组生长期粪样中大肠杆菌数量则显著低于对照组(P<0.05).因此,本研究中玉米DDGS的添加量不仅没有对生长育肥猪的肠道形态和肝脏等器官产生明显的毒害作用,而且结合复合酶的使用有利于提高十二指肠和回肠绒毛高度与隐窝深度之比值,一定程度上促进了生长育肥猪后肠中乳酸菌的生长,抑制了大肠杆菌的生长,有助于维持肠道健康.%To investigate the effect of corn DDGS and compound enzyme preparations on blood biochemical indicator and gut health in growing-finishing pigs, 150 pigs (DurocxLandracexYorkshire) at the age of 70 days were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments on the basis of body weight and gender. Control diets were a basic corn-soybean meal diet. Treatments 1 and 2 were corn-soybean meal-DDGS diets with 10% corn DDGS

  9. 复合氨基酸络合铁、锌对肥育猪铁、锌吸收代谢的影响%Effects of Iron and Zinc Complex Amino Acid Chelate on Absorption Metabolism of Iron and Zinc of Finishing Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹康; 占今舜; 赵国琦; 霍永久

    2014-01-01

    本试验旨在研究复合氨基酸络合铁、锌对肥育猪血液生化指标,血清中免疫球蛋白含量,毛发中铁、锌含量及铁、锌表观消化率的影响。选择体重[(55.63±1.33)kg]相近的“杜×长×大”肥育猪36头,随机分至对照组和2个试验组,每组3个重复,每个重复4头猪。对照组饲喂铁、锌含量均为100 mg/kg(由硫酸亚铁、硫酸锌提供)的基础饲粮,试验1组饲喂铁、锌含量均为50 mg/kg(由硫酸亚铁、硫酸锌提供)+50 mg/kg(由复合氨基酸络合铁、锌提供)的基础饲粮,试验2组饲喂铁、锌含量均为100 mg/kg(由复合氨基酸络合铁、锌提供)的基础饲粮。结果表明:1)3组间的红细胞数量、血细胞压积、血清免疫球蛋白A和免疫球蛋白M含量无显著差异( P>0.05)。2)试验2组的血红蛋白含量和血清免疫球蛋白 G含量显著高于对照组( P<0.05)。3)试验2组毛发中铁含量显著高于对照组( P<0.05),试验2组毛发中锌含量显著高于试验1组和对照组( P<0.05);4)试验2组粪中铁含量和试验2组、试验1组粪中锌含量显著低于对照组( P<0.05);3组间铁和锌表观消化率无显著差异( P>0.05)。由此可见,添加复合氨基酸络合铁、锌可显著增加肥育猪血红蛋白、血清免疫球蛋白G含量及毛发中铁、锌含量,显著降低粪中铁、锌含量。%To study the effects of iron and zinc complex amino acid chelate on blood biochemical indexes,im-munoglobulin content in serum,iron and zinc contents in hair and apparent digestibility of iron and zinc of fin-ishing pigs,thirty-six finishing pigs( Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire ) with an average initial body weight of (55.63±1.33)kg were selected and randomly allotted to three groups. There were three replicates per group and four pigs in each replicate. Pigs of the control group fed a basal diet with 100 mg

  10. 玉米脱水酒精糟及其可溶物和维生素E水平对肥育猪生长性能、胴体和肉品质的影响%Effects of Dietary Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles and Vitamin E on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Finishing Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红; 石宝明; 单安山; 王连生

    2012-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲粮中玉米脱水酒精糟及其可溶物( DDGS)和维生素E(VE)水平对肥育猪生长性能、胴体和肉品质的影响.采用3×2两因子完全随机试验设计,设3个玉米DDGS水平(0、15%、30%)和2个维生素E水平(10、210 mg/kg).选取平均体重为(60±2) kg的“杜×长×大”三元杂交肥育猪48头(公母各占1/2),按性别、体重随机分为6个组,每个组8个重复,每个重复1头猪.试验期为42 d.结果表明:1)玉米DDGS水平对肥育猪平均日增重和料重比无显著影响(P>0.05),对平均日采食量影响极显著(P =0.006),维生素E水平及玉米DDGS和维生素E的互作对生长性能无显著影响(P>0.05);2)玉米DDGS和维生素E水平及其互作对胴体重、屠宰率、胴体斜长、背膘厚度、板油率和眼肌面积等胴体品质评定指标影响均不显著(P>0.05),胴体脂肪碘值随饲粮中玉米DDGS水平的提高而极显著升高(P=0.001);3)玉米DDGS水平对肌肉pH、肉色、剪切力、滴水损失和大理石评分影响均不显著(P>0.05),饲粮中添加210mg/kg维生素E可显著降低肌肉剪切力和滴水损失(P<0.05).可见,在肥育猪基础饲粮中添加15% ~30%玉米DDGS和210 mg/kg维生素E对其生长性能、胴体和肉品质无显著负影响.%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and vitamin E (VE) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing pigs. The experiment was designed in a 3 ×2 factorial arrangement with three corn DDGS levels (0, 15% and 30% ) and two VE levels (10 and 210 mg/kg). A total of forty-eight crossbred pigs ( Duroc x Landrace x Large) with an average body weight of (60 ± 2) kg were randomly allotted into 6 groups with 8 replicates per group and one pig in each pen. The results showed as follows; 1) different levels of dietary corn DDGS had no significant effects on average daily gain

  11. Relações treonina:lisina digestíveis e níveis de energia líquida para suínos em crescimento e terminação Digestible threonine:lysine ratios and net energy levels in growing/finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diovani Paiano

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para estudar o efeito de cinco relações treonina:lisina digestíveis (TL sobre o balanço de nitrogênio em suínos em crescimento e de cinco níveis de energia líquida (EL sobre o desempenho de suínos em crescimento-terminação. No primeiro experimento, foram utilizados 15 suínos machos castrados com peso inicial de 37,0 ± 2,6 kg, híbridos comerciais de média a alta deposição de tecido magro, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos (relações treonina:lisina digestíveis de 0,574; 0,624; 0,673; 0,722 e 0,772 em rações formuladas com baixo nível de proteína, 14,7% e três repetições. A TL influenciou de forma quadrática a proteína bruta absorvida (PBA e o nitrogênio da uréia plasmática (NUP, os quais apresentaram melhores resultados com a TL de 0,658 (média do PBA e NUP. No segundo experimento, foram estudados cinco níveis de EL em rações com a relação TL de 0,658. Utilizaram-se 40 suínos (20 machos castrados e 20 fêmeas com 30,2 ± 1,3 kg, de características semelhantes às dos utilizados no experimento para balanço de nitrogênio, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 × 2, composto de cinco níveis de energia líquida (2.410; 2.450; 2.490; 2.530 ou 2.570 kcal/kg e dois sexos, com um animal por baia. Na fase de terminação e no período total, o aumento nos níveis de EL ocasionou redução do consumo diário de ração (CDR, melhora da conversão alimentar (CA e acréscimo na deposição de gordura. A relação TL de 0,658 melhora a retenção de nitrogênio e níveis crescentes de energia líquida diminuem o CDR e melhoram a CA, mas podem aumentar a deposição de gordura em suínos.Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of five digestible threonine:lysine ratios (TL on the nitrogen balance of growing pigs and five levels of net energy (NE on growing-finishing pigs performance. In

  12. Relações metionina mais cistina digestível: lisina digestível em dietas suplementadas com ractopamina para suínos em terminação Digestible methionine plus cystine to digestible lysine ratio in diets supplemented with ractopamine for finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio de Miranda Pena

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar a relação metionina+cistina digestível:lisina digestível (met+cis:lis para suínos machos castrados, selecionados geneticamente para deposição de carne magra na carcaça, sob suplementação com ractopamina (RAC na fase de terminação. Foram utilizados 64 suínos com peso inicial de 84,68 ± 1,34 kg, distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro dietas com relações de 0,54; 0,58; 0,62 e 0,66 de met+cis:lis suplementadas com RAC, oito repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental, durante um período de 28 dias. As relações met+cis:lis não influenciaram o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso diário, a conversão alimentar, a espessura de toucinho, a quantidade de carne magra, o peso da carcaça, a porcentagem de carne magra e o rendimento de carcaça dos suínos. As relações met+cis:lis influenciaram de forma quadrática as concentrações de colesterol total no lombo e de forma linear as concentrações de colesterol no toucinho. O menor teor de colesterol total foi observado nos suínos alimentados com a dieta com relação 0,66 met+cis:lis. Em suínos de 85 a 109 kg sob suplementação com ractopamina, a relação 0,54 met+cis:lis atende às exigências para melhor desempenho e melhores características de carcaça, enquanto, para menores níveis de colesterol no lombo e no toucinho, a relação é de 0,66 met+cis:lis.The experiment was carried out to determine digestible methionine + cystine: digestible lysine (Met + Cys/Lys ratio for barrows selected for deposition of lean meat in the carcass supplemented with ractopamine (RAC in the finishing phase. Sixty-four barrows with 84.68 ± 1.34 kg BW was allotted to an experimental randomized block design, fed diets containing four Met + Cys/Lys ratio (0.54, 0.58, 0.62 and 0.66 supplemented with ractopamine, eight replications, during a period of 28 days. Met + Cys

  13. Danish SDHW Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon

    1996-01-01

    The status of Danish technology for solar heating systems for hot water supply as well as R&D work in the field is presented.......The status of Danish technology for solar heating systems for hot water supply as well as R&D work in the field is presented....

  14. Danish Technology Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Sten; Jørgensen, Tom Rydahl

    This report investigates the occurrence of foundation failures within the context of the Danish construction technology framework. The report comprises a definition/typology section on the basis of which Danish regulatory and administrative procedures in relation to foundation failures are reviewed....

  15. The Danish Adoption Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-01

    The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia.......The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia....

  16. The Danish Pathology Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Beth; Larsen, Ole B

    2011-01-01

    The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established.......The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established....

  17. Greening of Danish Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne

    2002-01-01

    The article outlines the major changes in the discourse on cleaner technology and on pollution prevention, together with policy instuments applied in the Danish industry.......The article outlines the major changes in the discourse on cleaner technology and on pollution prevention, together with policy instuments applied in the Danish industry....

  18. Danish Exports and Danish Bilateral Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John

    countries. This Evaluation Study presents an econometric analysis of Danish exports to 144 countries over the period from 1981 to 2010. The analysis is based on the gravity model of bilateral trade; a structural model developed over decades and now the central model in analyses of bilateral trade flows...... and trade policies. The main result of the study is that Danish bilateral aid has a positive and statistically significant impact on Danish exports to the recipient countries. Bilateral development assistance may affect exports through several channels. Three of the main channels are direct aid tying......; increasing recipient income where higher income leads to higher imports, and decreased trade costs, say due to improved information about cultural and administrative customs and practices. Thus, as for preferential trade arrangements, bilateral aid has two potential economic effects; trade creation working...

  19. More Danish, More English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chopin, Kimberly Renée

    Universities in Denmark are becoming increasingly internationalized, and areincreasingly using English as a language of research, teaching, and administration. At the same time, the Danish language is seen by some as being under threat, and Danish public discourse has focused on what role...... the Danish language may play in higher education in Denmark. This study investigates both trends through a focus on recently implemented language policies at one Danish university faculty which mandate that graduate instruction becarried out only in English, and undergraduate instruction only in Danish.......This study investigated the decision making process over time in order to reveal how such language policies would be received in one affected department. Interviews with department teaching staff were carried out both before and after the implementation of the decisions, along with interviews of department...

  20. The Danish Melanoma Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Klausen, Siri; Spaun, Eva;

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the database is to monitor and improve the treatment and survival of melanoma patients. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish patients with cutaneous melanoma and in situ melanomas must be registered in the Danish Melanoma Database (DMD). In 2014, 2,525 patients with invasive...... melanoma and 780 with in situ tumors were registered. The coverage is currently 93% compared with the Danish Pathology Register. MAIN VARIABLES: The main variables include demographic, clinical, and pathological characteristics, including Breslow's tumor thickness, ± ulceration, mitoses, and tumor...... quality register. The coverage is high, and the performance in the five Danish regions is quite similar due to strong adherence to guidelines provided by the Danish Melanoma Group. The list of monitored indicators is constantly expanding, and annual quality reports are issued. Several important scientific...

  1. Danish Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    In a normal wind year, Danish wind turbines generate the equivalent of approx. 20 percent of the Danish electricity demand. This paper argues that only approx. 1 percent of the wind power production is exported. The rest is used to meet domestic Danish electricity demands. The cost of wind power...... is paid solely by the electricity consumers and the net influence on consumer prices was as low as 1-3 percent on average in the period 2004-2008. In 2008, the net influence even decreased the average consumer price, although only slightly. In Denmark, 20 percent wind power is integrated by using both......, a study made by the Danish think tank CEPOS claimed the opposite, i.e. that most of the Danish wind power has been exported in recent years. However, this claim is based on an incorrect interpretation of statistics and a lack of understanding of how the international electricity markets operate...

  2. Elimination of Salmonella typhimurium infection by the strategic movement of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J.; Wingstrand, Anne; Nielsen, B.

    1997-01-01

    Three field investigations were tarried out to assess the feasibility of raising salmonella-free finishers from pigs born in infected herds, by moving the pigs to clean and disinfected facilities before their expected exposure to the bacteria from the environment. Three herds with persistently high...... levels of subclinical infection with S typhimurium in the finishing pigs were used, They practised all-in all-out management in the nurseries and in the grower units, A total of 844 pigs were moved, either at weaning, from the nursery, or from the grower unit to newly built or rigorously cleaned...

  3. Estimating the number of undetected multi-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 infected pig herds in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugbjerg, Helene; Wingstrand, Anne; Hald, Tine; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo M A; Korsgaard, Helle

    2004-10-14

    In Denmark, the detection of multi-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (MRDT104)-infected pig herds relies on the national Salmonella surveillance programme at the farm and slaughterhouse levels of production. With the surveillance sampling protocol and the diagnostic methods currently used, some herds might remain undetected. The number of undetected Danish pig herds infected with MRDT104 in the period 1 August 2001-31 July 2002 was estimated and compared with the number of culture-confirmed detected herds. A flow chart was constructed to illustrate where infected herds will go undetected in the surveillance system and Monte Carlo simulation was used to model the actual number of pig herds infected with MRDT1104. We estimated that 52 (90% CI [28, 178]) finisher herds were infected with MRDT104 compared to 23 (44%) detected. Among sow herds with production of weaners or growers, we estimated that 38 (90% CI [23, 74]) were infected with MRDT104 compared to 7 (18%) actually detected. Among breeder and multiplier herds, we estimated that five (90% CI [3, 8]) herds were infected with MRDT104 compared to three (60%) detected. In total, we estimated that 102 pig herds were infected with MRDT104 from 1 August 2001 till 31 July 2002 (90% CI [63, 228]). In comparison, 33 (32%) infected herds were detected in this period. The predicted proportion of undetected herds varied considerably with herd type. We infer that the proportion of detected MRDT104 infected herds depended on the intensity of the combined serological and bacteriological testing.

  4. Effects of Different Types of Diet with or without Supplementation of Vitamins and Trace Minerals on Growth Performance, Carcass and Muscle Quality, and Fecal Mineral Excretion in Late Finishing Pigs%饲粮类型和肥育后期不添加维生素和微量矿物元素对猪生长性能、胴体和肌肉品质、粪中矿物元素排泄的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董国忠; 李周权; 赵建辉; 周生太; 曾强

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of different types of diets with or without supplementation of vitamin-trace mineral premix (hereinafter referred to as VTM) on growth performance, carcass and muscle quality and fecal mineral concentrations in late finishing pigs. In Exp. 1,one hundred and twenty-eight pigs, with an average initial body weight (BW) of (78.5 + 4.6) kg, were allotted to treatments on the basis of BW and gender with 4 replications of 8 pigs per replicate pen for each treatment. The treatments were designed in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, and were as follows: (1)corn-soybean meal (C-SBM) diet with VTM, (2) C-SBM diet without VTM,(3) corn-mixed meals (C-MM) diet with VTM,and (4) C-MM diet without VTM. In Exp. 2,112 pigs (average initial BW of (90.3 ± 6.3) kg) were allotted to treatments on the basis of BW and gender with 4 replications of 7 pigs per replicate pen for each treatment. The treatments were the same as in Exp. 1. During the finishing period from 79 to 110 kg (Exp. 1), pigs fed C-SBM diets grew faster (P<0.01) and ate more than those fed C-MM diets (P<0.05).During the finishing period from 90 to 105 kg (Exp. 2), pigs also grew faster when they were provided C-SBM diets rather than C-MM diets (P<0.05). However, diets with or without VTM in both types of diets during either finishing period had not significant effect on growth performance (P>0.05). Dietary type and diets without VTM had no effects on carcass traits and muscle quality during either finishing period (P>0.05). Fecal mineral concentrations were not affected by dietary type (P>0.05), but diets without VTM had significantly reduced fecal Cu,Fe an d Mn concentrations ( P<0.01 ), and had the tendency to reduce fecal Zn concentrations(P>0.05). The interactions of dietary type × VTM interactions had no significant effect on growth performance, carcass traits, muscle quality and fecal mineral excretion in both experiments (P>0.05). These results

  5. Avaliação nutricional do milho com maior teor de óleo, nas formas de grãos secos e silagens, para suínos nas fases de crescimento e terminação Nutritional evaluation of dry grain and silage of higher oil corn on growing - finishing pigs feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Augusto Alves da Silva

    2006-06-01

    determine nutritive value and verify performance of growing and finishing swine feed high moisture corn silage (HMCS and reconstituted silage (RS of higher oil corn. The digestibility assay was carried twelve cross breed barrow, were allotted in metabolism cages, in a completely randomized design. The values of digestible dry matter (DDM, digestible protein (DP, digestible starch (DS, digestible ether extract (DEE, digestible organic matter (DOM, digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME were for DG, HMCS and RS; 83.42, 7.54, 63.90, 4.40, 82.28%; 3,587 and 3,513 kcal/kg; 60.80, 4.85, 45.01, 3.10, 59.50%; 2,647 and 2,509 kcal/kg; 66.48, 6.16, 49.04, 3.41, 65.67%; 2,853 and 2,797 kcal/kg, respectively, based on natural matter. In the performance experiment thirty-two cross breed swine were distributed in four treatments in a completely randomized design, with four experimental units and two pigs per experimental units. The treatments consisted of a basal corn and soybean meal diet and three diets with total replacement of common corn by DG, HMCS and RS higher oil corn based on the digestible energy. No differences were found among the treatments in the growing phase. In finishing phase, daily feed intake increased for the HMCS when compared with the control diet. The price of the diet per kilogram gain of body weight for the HMCS had decreased, in growing phase and finishing phase. It was concluded that the DG, HMCS and RS, could totally replace the common corn on growing and finishing diet, without impairing performance. Diets with high moisture corn silage resulted in smaller cost per kilogram of produced animal.

  6. A study to demonstrate freedom from Trichinella spp. in domestic pigs in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuppers, M E; Rosenberg, G; Graf, R; Eidam, V; Wittwer, C; Zimmermann, W; Gottstein, B; Frey, C F

    2010-12-01

    Trichinellosis is a food-borne zoonotic disease caused by the nematode Trichinella spp. Many omnivorous and carnivorous animal species can act as host for this parasite, including domestic pigs. To protect public health, it should be ensured that pork should not contain infective Trichinella larvae. Surveillance for Trichinella spp. can be done using direct (larval detection) and indirect (antibody detection) diagnostic techniques. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the absence of infection in Swiss domestic pigs. An ELISA was used as the initial screening test, and sera reacting in ELISA were further investigated using both a Western blot for serology and an artificial digestion test with 20 g of diaphragm tissue for larval detection. A total of 7412 adult pigs, 9973 finishing pigs and 2779 free-ranging pigs were tested. Samples from 17 (0.23%) adult pigs, 16 (0.16%) finishing pigs and nine (0.32%) free-ranging pigs were ELISA-positive, but all of these sera were subsequently negative by Western blot and by the artificial digestion method. Based on these findings, an absence of Trichinella infections in adult pigs (target prevalence 0.04%) and finishing pigs (target prevalence 0.03%) can be concluded. The results also demonstrated that the prevalence of Trichinella infections does not exceed 0.11% in free-ranging pigs, the group with the highest risk of exposure.

  7. Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on finisher pig growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Felistus

    2014-12-12

    Dec 12, 2014 ... The effect of dietary inclusion of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on the ... 20 weeks old and measurements of backfat thickness, pH45min and pH24h were taken. ..... Universal Testing Machine (Advanced Laboratory Solutions, USA) .... were analysed using PROC GLM procedures of SAS (2003) and ...

  8. Longitudinal study on transmission of MRSA CC398 within pig herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.; Espinosa-Gongora, C.; Graat, E.A.M.; Vendrig, N.J.; Wolf, van der P.J.; Guardabassi, L.; Butaye, P.; Nielsen, J.P.; Jong, de M.; Giessen, van de A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Since the detection of MRSA CC398 in pigs in 2004, it has emerged in livestock worldwide. MRSA CC398 has been found in people in contact with livestock and thus has become a public health issue. Data from a large-scale longitudinal study in two Danish and four Dutch pig herds were used to

  9. Energy and nutrient cycling in pig production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Peter J.

    United States pig production is centered in Iowa and is a major influence on the economic and ecological condition of that community. A pig production system includes buildings, equipment, production of feed ingredients, feed processing, and nutrient management. Although feed is the largest single input into a pig production system, nearly 30% of the non-solar energy use of a conventional--mechanically ventilated buildings with liquid manure handling--pig production system is associated with constructing and operating the pig facility. Using bedded hoop barns for gestating sows and grow-finish pigs reduces construction resource use and construction costs of pig production systems. The hoop based systems also requires approximately 40% less non-solar energy to operate as the conventional system although hoop barn-based systems may require more feed. The total non-solar energy input associated with one 136 kg pig produced in a conventional farrow-to-finish system in Iowa and fed a typical corn-soybean meal diet that includes synthetic lysine and exogenous phytase is 967.9 MJ. Consuming the non-solar energy results in emissions of 79.8 kg CO2 equivalents. Alternatively producing the same pig in a system using bedded hoop barns for gestating sows and grow-finish pigs requires 939.8 MJ/pig and results in emission of 70.2 kg CO2 equivalents, a reduction of 3 and 12% respectively. Hoop barn-based swine production systems can be managed to use similar or less resources than conventional confinement systems. As we strive to optimally allocate non-solar energy reserves and limited resources, support for examining and improving alternative systems is warranted.

  10. Danish Gynecological Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sarah Mejer; Bjørn, Signe Frahm; Jochumsen, Kirsten Marie;

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) is a nationwide clinical cancer database and its aim is to monitor the treatment quality of Danish gynecological cancer patients, and to generate data for scientific purposes. DGCD also records detailed data on the diagnostic measures...... for gynecological cancer. STUDY POPULATION: DGCD was initiated January 1, 2005, and includes all patients treated at Danish hospitals for cancer of the ovaries, peritoneum, fallopian tubes, cervix, vulva, vagina, and uterus, including rare histological types. MAIN VARIABLES: DGCD data are organized within separate...... Danish personal identification number (CPR number). DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Data from DGCD and registers are available online in the Statistical Analysis Software portal. The DGCD forms cover almost all possible clinical variables used to describe gynecological cancer courses. The only limitation...

  11. The Danish Retail Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Jesper; Bjerre, Mogens; Kornum, Niels

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Danish retail market. A detailed picture of the Danish grocery sector is provided, and we highlight issues from the specialty sectors of fashion and DIY as well as patterns of internationalisation among Danish retailers. We further profile the Danish consumer...... in terms of consumption patterns and demographic changes as well as some specific consumer tendencies with a special emphasis on sustainability issues. E-commerce is taken up as a special theme, both profiling the consumer side and the retailer side. This part is exemplified with books and groceries....... Finally, we present the state-of-the-art of retail logistics in Denmark and analyse the impact on retailing of law on planning and law on opening hours....

  12. Contemporary Danish landscape research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejre, Henrik; Brandt, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Danish landscape research blossomed during the 1990’ies thanks to several transdisciplinary research programmes involving several institutions. The main themes of the programmes encompassed Landscape change, landscape and biological diversity, nature and landscape management, use and monitoring o...

  13. Translating Fashion into Danish

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Riegels Melchior; Lise Skov; Fabian Faurholt Csaba

    2009-01-01

    With their association to enterprise and innovation, creative industries have emerged as a legitimate concern in national cultural and economical policy in many countries across the world. In Denmark, the fashion business, in particular, has been hailed as a model for successful (post)industrial transformation. In this paper, we explore the birth of Danish fashion from the ashes of the country’s clothing manufacturing industry, suggesting that the very notion of Danish fashion is indicative o...

  14. The Danish Press during the German Occupation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng-Jensen, Palle

    2010-01-01

    Censorship, self-censorship in Danish newspapers and Danish Radio during the German occupation of Denmark 1940-45......Censorship, self-censorship in Danish newspapers and Danish Radio during the German occupation of Denmark 1940-45...

  15. From Danish Yugoslavs to Danish Serbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Immigrants from Serbia who came to Denmark in the 1970s and 1980s found a large number of shared values between Yugoslav ideals of brotherhood and unity and the Scandinavian welfare model. As a result, they felt well integrated into Danish society, almost to the point of being invisible. This inv......Immigrants from Serbia who came to Denmark in the 1970s and 1980s found a large number of shared values between Yugoslav ideals of brotherhood and unity and the Scandinavian welfare model. As a result, they felt well integrated into Danish society, almost to the point of being invisible....... This invisibility is upheld through a constant emphasis on sameness between themselves and the majority population in the public sphere, while the cultivation of difference has been relegated to the private realm or to cultural associations such as the Yugoslav Clubs. Over the last decade, this ‘sharing of values...

  16. From Danish Yugoslavs to Danish Serbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Immigrants from Serbia who came to Denmark in the 1970s and 1980s found a large number of shared values between Yugoslav ideals of brotherhood and unity and the Scandinavian welfare model. As a result, they felt well integrated into Danish society, almost to the point of being invisible. This inv......Immigrants from Serbia who came to Denmark in the 1970s and 1980s found a large number of shared values between Yugoslav ideals of brotherhood and unity and the Scandinavian welfare model. As a result, they felt well integrated into Danish society, almost to the point of being invisible....... This invisibility is upheld through a constant emphasis on sameness between themselves and the majority population in the public sphere, while the cultivation of difference has been relegated to the private realm or to cultural associations such as the Yugoslav Clubs. Over the last decade, this 'sharing of values...

  17. Pigs in sequence space: A 0.66X coverage pig genome survey based on shotgun sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernersson, Rasmus; Schierup, M.H.; Jorgensen, F.G.

    2005-01-01

    efficient in pig compared to human, but not as efficient as in mouse, and pig seems to have an isochore structure most similar to the structure in human. Conclusion: The addition of the pig to the set of species sequenced at low coverage adds to the understanding of selective pressures that have acted...... sequences (0.66X coverage) from the pig genome. The data are hereby released (NCBI Trace repository with center name "SDJVP", and project name "Sino-Danish Pig Genome Project") together with an initial evolutionary analysis. The non-repetitive fraction of the sequences was aligned to the UCSC human......-mouse alignment and the resulting three-species alignments were annotated using the human genome annotation. Ultra-conserved elements and miRNAs were identified. The results show that for each of these types of orthologous data, pig is much closer to human than mouse is. Purifying selection has been more...

  18. 母体妊娠期和哺乳期蛋白限饲对后代育肥猪肌纤维特性的影响%Influence of maternal protein restriction in pregnancy and lactation on the property of muscle fibre of the finishing pig offsprings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢鹏; 赵茹茜; 杨倩

    2011-01-01

    为探讨母猪妊娠期和哺乳期蛋白限饲对后代育肥猪肌纤维特性的影响,试验选用16头配种日期、系谱、体重、日龄等相近的纯种小梅山初产母猪(80 kg左右),采用单因子试验设计,根据在整个妊娠期和哺乳期饲喂不同蛋白水平(正常水平和限饲水平,限饲蛋白水平为正常蛋白水平的50%)的日粮,将16头母猪随机分为2组:限饲组和对照组,每组8头;母猪正常分娩后,分别选取同窝中接近于平均体重的公猪一头,共16头,仔猪断奶后饲喂正常蛋白水平的日粮至80 kg左右(育肥猪).比较2组后代育肥猪背最长肌的肌纤维类型、糖原含量、乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)活性和琥珀酸脱氢酶(SDH)活性.结果表明:(1)限饲组后代育肥猪Ⅰ型肌纤维面积显著低于对照组(P0.05);限饲组后代育肥猪Ⅰ型肌纤维比例显著降低(P0.05).(2)限饲组后代育肥猪背最长肌中的糖原含量极显著高于对照组(P0.05);SDH活性显著高于对照组(P<0.05).可见,母猪妊娠期和哺乳期蛋白限饲能改变后代育肥猪肌纤维类型的分布,降低肌肉有氧氧化能力,并对肉质产生不利影响.%The experiment was designed to investigate the influence of maternal protein restriction in pregnancy and lactation, the period from pregnancy to weaning, on the property of muscle fibre of the finishing pig offspring. Single factor experiment design was adopted in this expefiment and 16 purebred little meishan sows with similar first mating date, genealogy, weight and age were chosen and divided into two groups randomly: Restriction group and control group, eight sows in each group. Sows in the restriction group were fed with 50% of normal protein content, while those in control group were fed with normal protein content. After normal delivery of the sows, 16 boars of average weight were chosen and fed to 80 kg ( fnishing pigs) with a normal level of dietary protein after weaning. Four parameters were compared

  19. Exigência de lisina para suínos em crescimento e terminação, alimentados com rações de baixo teor de proteína, formuladas de acordo com o conceito de proteína ideal - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1760 Lysine requirement of growing-finishing pigs, fed low protein diets, formulated according to ideal protein concept - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1760

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Nunes Martins

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento objetivou determinar a exigência de lisina total em rações com baixo teor de proteína, formuladas de acordo com o conceito de proteína ideal, para suínos em crescimento e terminação (35,1±3,35 a 84,7±7,09kg. Foram utilizados 32 suínos machos castrados, 16 do grupo genético comum (GGC e 16 do grupo genético melhorado (GGM. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro dietas (0,75% 0,90% 1,05% e 1,20% de lisina total para o crescimento e 0,60% 0,75% 0,90% e 1,05% para a terminação. Para o GGM, tanto na fase de crescimento como na de terminação, níveis crescentes de lisina levaram à redução do CRD e do GPD, sem, contudo, influenciar a CA. No GGC, o desempenho e o nitrogênio da uréia plasmática não foram influenciados. Os resultados sugerem que a exigência de lisina total para suínos machos castrados, de ambos os grupos genéticos, é 0,75% para o crescimento e 0,60% para a terminação.A performance trial was carried out to determine the total lysine requirement of growing-finishing pigs (35.1±3.35 a 84.7±7.09kg, fed low protein diet, formulated according to ideal protein concept. It was used 32 barrows, 16 pigs from a common genetic group (CGG and 16 from an improved genetic group (IGG. The treatments consisted of four diets (0.75, 0.90, 1.05 and 1.20% of total lysine in the growing phase and 0.60, 0.75, 0.90, 1.05 in the finishing phase. The results for IGG, either for growing and finishing phase, showed a decrease of DFI and DWG, without effect on G:F. In the CGG there was no effect of lysine level on pigs performance and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN. The results suggest that the total lysine requirement of barrows from both genetic groups is 0.75 and 0.60%, respectively for growing and finishing phase.

  20. Elimination of Salmonella typhimurium infection by the strategic movement of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J.; Wingstrand, Anne; Nielsen, B.

    1997-01-01

    and disinfected finishing units with no known history of salmonella infection, No detectable infection was observed at slaughter either serologically or bacteriologically by random testing of the pigs which had been moved, whereas a proportion of the pigs raised at the same time in the continuous systems...

  1. Dimensioning, Tolerancing, and Machine Finishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, George C.

    Intended for use with the vocational education student interested in technical drawing, this guide provides answers to questions relating to dimensioning and tolerancing machine drawings. It also gives examples of standard dimensioning practices, tolerancing applications, and finish applications. The problems and examples presented are based on…

  2. LCA of Danish fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    The article presents the main results from a PhD dissertation about environmental impacts from Danish fish products.......The article presents the main results from a PhD dissertation about environmental impacts from Danish fish products....

  3. An object-oriented Bayesian network modeling the causes of leg disorders in finisher herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Birk; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard; Toft, Nils

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of an effective control strategy against disease in a finisher herd requires knowledge regarding the disease level in the herd. A Bayesian network was constructed that can estimate risk indexes for three cause-categories of leg disorders in a finisher herd. The cause...... pigs (e.g. results from diagnostic tests) were used to estimate the most likely cause of leg disorders at herd level. As information to the model originated from two different levels, we used an object-oriented structure in order to ease the specification of the Bayesian network. Hence, a Herd class...

  4. Prevention of edema disease in pigs by passive immunization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, M.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Thomsen, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of treatment with verotoxin 2e (VT2e) specific antiserum was evaluated in 3 Danish pig herds with edema disease (ED). The antiserum was prepared by immunizing horses with a VT2e toroid. The study was performed as a randomized blind field trial with parallel treatment and control groups...

  5. historical review of pig testing programs in Denmark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henning; STAUN

    2005-01-01

    Until1887pig breeding in Denmark wasbased upon the export to Germany of heavy pigs,weighing from120to150kg.To satisfy thismarket the old native Danish Landrace breed wascrossed with Middle White and Berkshire boarsimported from England in order to produce stillfatter pigs.In1887the importation of Danishpigs became prohibited by Germany and ourfarmers had to change over to the production ofbacon for the English market.This change over was not an easy one.Forthe production of bacon,a completely differenttype ...

  6. Danish-accented Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Sloos, Marjoleine 莱娜; Zhang, Chun

    In search for a linguistic basis for the education of Chinese as a foreign language CFL in Denmark, we set up a new line of investigation into CFL. This research focuses on the phonetics and phonology of Mandarin Chinese as compared to Danish. Considering the sound systems of both languages, we......-ba /pha pa/ ta-da /tha ta/ ka-ga / kha-ka/ For L2 acquisition it is held that same and new phonemes are (relatively) easy acquired, whereas similar but not identical sounds are difficult to learn. New sounds are initially mapped onto the L1 phoneme inventory (Kuhl 1991). For Danish, this would predict...... instruction, which pitch contours do the Danish learners of Chinese use on neutral tones and to what extent does their production match that of native speakers? Future research may include Norwegian and Swedish-accented Chinese and a comparison between the different Germanic accents of CFL. Reference Kuhl, P...

  7. The Danish Stroke Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Ingeman, Annette; Hundborg, Heidi Holmager

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the Danish Stroke Registry is to monitor and improve the quality of care among all patients with acute stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) treated at Danish hospitals. STUDY POPULATION: All patients with acute stroke (from 2003) or TIA (from 2013) treated...... at Danish hospitals. Reporting is mandatory by law for all hospital departments treating these patients. The registry included >130,000 events by the end of 2014, including 10,822 strokes and 4,227 TIAs registered in 2014. MAIN VARIABLES: The registry holds prospectively collected data on key processes...... of care, mainly covering the early phase after stroke, including data on time of delivery of the processes and the eligibility of the individual patients for each process. The data are used for assessing 18 process indicators reflecting recommendations in the national clinical guidelines for patients...

  8. The Danish Twin Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvik, K O; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, A;

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Population based twin registers represent a valuable tool for genetic epidemiological research, since twin studies aim at separating the effect of genes and environment for complex traits. The Danish Twin Register's history, size, ascertainment and completeness of data, as well as data...... accessibility and availability are described. RESULTS: The Danish Twin Register comprises 14,051 twin pairs born 1870-1930, representing all twins surviving to age six years, and 20,888 twin pairs born 1953-1982, representing 75% of those born 1953-1967 and 95% of those born 1968-1982. The birth cohorts 1931......-1952 og 1983-1993 are being ascertained at the moment. The register is available for research given certain conditions are fulfilled. CONCLUSION: This register will in a few years be the most comprehensive twin register in the world. It is a very valuable Danish research resource....

  9. The Danish Twin Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvik, K O; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, A

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Population based twin registers represent a valuable tool for genetic epidemiological research, since twin studies aim at separating the effect of genes and environment for complex traits. The Danish Twin Register's history, size, ascertainment and completeness of data, as well as data...... accessibility and availability are described. RESULTS: The Danish Twin Register comprises 14,051 twin pairs born 1870-1930, representing all twins surviving to age six years, and 20,888 twin pairs born 1953-1982, representing 75% of those born 1953-1967 and 95% of those born 1968-1982. The birth cohorts 1931......-1952 og 1983-1993 are being ascertained at the moment. The register is available for research given certain conditions are fulfilled. CONCLUSION: This register will in a few years be the most comprehensive twin register in the world. It is a very valuable Danish research resource....

  10. The Danish CORINAIR Inventories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, M.; Illerup, J. B.; Fenhann, J.;

    CORINAIR is the most comprehensive European air emission inventory programme. It consists of a defined emission calculation methodology and software for storing and further data processing. In CORINAIR 28 different emission species are estimated in 11 main sectors which are further sub-divided, a......CORINAIR is the most comprehensive European air emission inventory programme. It consists of a defined emission calculation methodology and software for storing and further data processing. In CORINAIR 28 different emission species are estimated in 11 main sectors which are further sub...... of emissions per unit activity. This report describes the structure of the Danish CORINAIR emission inventory on a 1996 level and international conventions to which Denmark submits emission data. Furthermore the most important activities in the Danish inventory are explained. Subsequently the Danish 1996...

  11. The Danish CORINAIR Inventories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, M.; Illerup, J. B.; Fenhann, J.

    CORINAIR is the most comprehensive European air emission inventory programme. It consists of a defined emission calculation methodology and software for storing and further data processing. In CORINAIR 28 different emission species are estimated in 11 main sectors which are further sub-divided, a......CORINAIR is the most comprehensive European air emission inventory programme. It consists of a defined emission calculation methodology and software for storing and further data processing. In CORINAIR 28 different emission species are estimated in 11 main sectors which are further sub...... of emissions per unit activity. This report describes the structure of the Danish CORINAIR emission inventory on a 1996 level and international conventions to which Denmark submits emission data. Furthermore the most important activities in the Danish inventory are explained. Subsequently the Danish 1996...

  12. Danish subsidiaries in Poland 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla

    2003-01-01

    Purpose of the studyThis working paper aims to explain the main results of a survey as send out in the summer of 2003 by the Royal Danish Embassy in Warsaw (the Danish Embassy) and Copenhagen Business School (CBS) in cooperation. The Confederation of Danish Industries and the Dept. for Internatio...

  13. Identification of bacterial agents of enteric diseases by multiplex PCR in growing-finishing pigs Identificação de agentes bacterianos de doenças entéricas em suínos por PCR-multiplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Baccaro

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the most common bacterial enteric diseases affecting growing and finishing pigs are porcine proliferative enteritis, porcine intestinal spirochetosis, swine dysentery, and salmonellosis. The diagnosis of these diseases by routine culture techniques is expensive, difficult, time-consuming, and even impossible, in cases of porcine proliferative enteritis. The detection of pathogens by polymerase chain reaction is a highly sensitive and specific method that can be an useful tool in veterinary diagnosis. Two multiplex PCR (M-PCR assays were tested for simultaneous detection and identification of bacterial agents associated with porcine proliferative enteritis, porcine intestinal spirochetosis, swine dysentery, and salmonellosis in diarrheic fecal samples. The DNA obtained from pure cultures of each bacterial agent or mixed in different combinations and concentrations was amplified by using Lawsonia intracellularis and Salmonella, or Brachyspira pilosicoli and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae specific M-PCR assays. After electrophoresis in agarose gel and staining, the amplification products indicated the presence of individual or simultaneous amplification of L. intracellularis and Salmonella or B. pilosicoli and B. hyodysenteriae specific DNA sequences. After standardization, the M-PCR tests were used to test 541 swine diarrheic fecal samples obtained from different regions in Brazil. The most frequently detected pathogen was Lawsonia intracellularis (13%, followed by Salmonella (4.8%, B. hyodysenteriae (1.4%, B. pilosicoli (1% and their various associations. Results from this study suggest that the two M-PCR assays can be used for specific detection and identification of four important enteric bacterial pathogens alone or in combination.A enterite proliferativa suína, a espiroquetose colônica, a disenteria suína e a salmonelose são as doenças entéricas mais freqüentes em suínos das fases de crescimento e terminação no Brasil. O

  14. Efeitos da restrição energética para suínos na fase final de terminação sobre o desempenho, característica de carcaça e poluição ambiental - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.223 Effect of energy restriction for late finishing pigs on performance, carcass traits and environmental pollution - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.223

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cláudio Furlan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available . Foram conduzidos dois experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar níveis de restrição energética (3.200, 2.960 e 2.720 kcal de EM kg-1, por meio da elevação da fibra dietéica (casca de arroz, para suínos abatidos com peso elevado. Experimento 1 - Foram utilizados 36 suínos (69,39 ± 5,38 kg. As variáveis estudadas (desempenho, carcaça e NUP foram agrupadas de acordo com o peso de abate (70 - 90 kg e 90 - 115 kg. Ao todo, foram abatidos 12 animais com peso de 87,55 ± 3,12 kg e 15 animais com peso de 115,41 ± 6,20 kg. Nenhuma das variáveis estudadas foi influenciada pelos diferentes níveis de EM. Experimento 2 - Foram utilizados 15 suínos machos (84,8 ± 4,5 kg, alojados em gaiolas de metabolismo. Houve aumento linear da produção total de fezes, matéria seca e matéria orgânica, com a redução do nível energético, contudo sem aumentar a excreção total de fósforo (P e nitrogênio (N. Houve redução do coeficiente de digestibilidade da MS e PB das raízes com a redução da energia (elevação da fibra, o que levou a redução do GDP e piora na CA. Os resultados sugerem que o abate de suínos com peso de até 115 kg é possível sem prejuízo do desempenho e das características da carcaça, independente do nível de EM das dietas, entretanto ocorre aumento na produção total de fezes com a redução da EM e aumento da fibra dietética sem, contudo, aumentar a excreção de N e P.Two trials were carried out to study the energy restriction (3200, 2960 and 2720 kcal of ME kg-1 for late finishing pigs, by means of adding dietary fiber (ground rice hull. Experiment I - 36 pigs were used (69.39 ア 5.38 kg. The variables studied (performance, carcass traits and PUN were separated according to the slaughter weight (70-90 kg and 90-115 kg. 12 pigs weighting 87.55 ア 3.12 kg and 15 pigs weighting 115.41 ア 6.20 kg were slaughtered. None of the variables studied were influenced by the different levels of ME. Experiment II -15

  15. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance.

  16. Stress susceptibility in pigs supplemented with ractopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athayde, N B; Dalla Costa, O A; Roça, R O; Guidoni, A L; Ludtke, C B; Oba, E; Takahira, R K; Lima, G J M M

    2013-09-01

    Ractopamine is a β-adrenergic agonist used as an energy repartitioning agent in the diets of finishing pigs. Most ractopamine studies are limited to evaluations of growth performance and meat quality, and there is little information on the effects of this additive on the behavior and welfare of pigs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate various indicators of stress caused by feeding diets containing ractopamine. One hundred seventy barrows and 170 gilts weighing 107.3 kg were allocated to 30 pens with 10 to 12 barrows or gilts per pen. Pigs were offered 1 of the 3 dietary treatments (0, 5, or 10 mg ractopamine/kg) for 28 d with 5 barrow pens and 5 gilt pens per treatment. Pigs were evaluated for behavior 3 d per week 1 wk before the initiation of the experiment and throughout the experiment. Each pig was classified into 1 of the 13 activities (drinking water, lying alone, lying in clusters, standing, nosing pig, sitting, feeding, biting pig, walking, exploring, running away, playing, and mounting pen mates) and also grouped into 1 of the 3 categories (calm, moving, and feeding themselves) based on those activities. At the end of the experiment, 3 pigs from each pen were slaughtered, and blood samples were collected during exsanguination to determine physiological indicators of stress (cortisol, lactate, and creatine-kinase enzymes). The incidence of skin and carcass lesions was determined at shoulder, loin, and ham. Ractopamine had no effect (P > 0.05) on pig behavior, total number of skin and carcass lesions, or blood concentrations of cortisol or lactate. However, there was an increase (P pigs receiving ractopamine-supplemented feed. This finding is consistent with the concept that ractopamine may cause muscular disorders, and this warrants further investigation.

  17. New influenza A virus reassortments have been found in Danish swine in 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    2012-01-01

    % of the samples were positive for swine influenza virus. All influenza positive samples were tested for the H1N1pdm09 virus by a real time RT-PCR assay specific for the pandemic HA gene and 26% of the samples were positive. Subtyping of 90 samples by sequencing revealed the presence of; i) H1N1 “avian like......” viruses which have been circulating in Danish pigs since it was found for the first time in 1981. ii) H1N2 reassortant viruses which comprise HA from “avian like” H1N1 and NA from swine H3N2. The reassortant H1N2 virus was discovered in Danish pig for the first time in 2003 and is now well established...... in the Danish pig population. iii) H1N1pdm09 viruses which were found the first time in Danish pigs in January 2010. iv) Three new subtype variants comprising H1 “avian like” together with N2 “human like”, H1 pandemic with N2 “human like” and finally H1 pandemic with N2 from swine H3N2. The presence of N2...

  18. CAPSULE REPORT - MANAGING CYANIDE IN METAL FINISHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to surface finishing manufacturers, metal finishing decision maker and regulators on management practices and control technologies for managing cyanide in the workplace. This information can benefit key industry stakeholder gro...

  19. The Danish Heart Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özcan, Cengiz; Juel, Knud; Flensted Lassen, Jens;

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The Danish Heart Registry (DHR) seeks to monitor nationwide activity and quality of invasive diagnostic and treatment strategies in patients with ischemic heart disease as well as valvular heart disease and to provide data for research. STUDY POPULATION: All adult (≥15 years) patients...... undergoing coronary angiography (CAG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass grafting, and heart valve surgery performed across all Danish hospitals were included. MAIN VARIABLES: The DHR contains a subset of the data stored in the Eastern and Western Denmark Heart Registries (EDHR...

  20. The Danish Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    Industrial foundations are foundations that own companies. Typically, they combine charitable and business goals. This book is about industrial foundation ownership of business companies and what we can learn about it from the Danish evidence. It is about how foundation ownership is ruled, taxed...... and governed, what role it plays in the Danish economy, and how industrial foundation-owned companies perform. The book is the result of a large collaborative research project, led by the author, on industrial foundations. Some global companies such as IKEA, Robert Bosch or the Tata Group are foundation...

  1. The Danish Melanoma Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Klausen, Siri; Spaun, Eva

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the database is to monitor and improve the treatment and survival of melanoma patients. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish patients with cutaneous melanoma and in situ melanomas must be registered in the Danish Melanoma Database (DMD). In 2014, 2,525 patients with invasive......, nature, and treatment hereof is registered. In case of death, the cause and date are included. Currently, all data are entered manually; however, data catchment from the existing registries is planned to be included shortly. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: The DMD is an old research database, but new as a clinical...

  2. Danish Gynecological Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sarah Mejer; Bjørn, Signe Frahm; Jochumsen, Kirsten Marie

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) is a nationwide clinical cancer database and its aim is to monitor the treatment quality of Danish gynecological cancer patients, and to generate data for scientific purposes. DGCD also records detailed data on the diagnostic measures...... is the registration of oncological treatment data, which is incomplete for a large number of patients. CONCLUSION: The very complete collection of available data from more registries form one of the unique strengths of DGCD compared to many other clinical databases, and provides unique possibilities for validation...

  3. The Danish Education Registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    2011-01-01

    Collection of systematic information on education is a long established practice in Denmark. Since 1910, the Danish Ministry of Education’s annual reports collects information about individual-level test scores in e.g. compulsory schooling. Today, several registers from compulsory schooling...... to adults continuing education and training stem from administrative education reports. Therefore, for cohorts born 1945-1990, 97 percent of the Danish population has a valid education identifier. For the immigrant population born in the same cohorts the coverage is 85-90 percent. Despite a higher level...

  4. The Danish Education Registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    Collection of systematic information on education is a long established practice in Denmark. Since 1910, the Danish Ministry of Education's annual reports collects information about individual-level test scores in e.g. compulsory schooling. Today, several registers from compulsory schooling...... to adults continuing education and training stem from administrative education reports. Therefore, for cohorts born 1945-1990, 97 percent of the Danish population has a valid education identifier. For the immigrant population born in the same cohorts the coverage is 85-90 percent. Despite a higher level...

  5. The Danish Education Registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; Würtz Rasmussen, Astrid

    to adults continuing education and training stem from administrative education reports. Therefore, for cohorts born 1945-1990, 97 percent of the Danish population has a valid education identifier. For the immigrant population born in the same cohorts the coverage is 85-90 percent. Despite a higher level......Collection of systematic information on education is a long established practice in Denmark. Since 1910, the Danish Ministry of Education’s annual reports collects information about individual-level test scores in e.g. compulsory schooling. Today, several registers from compulsory schooling...

  6. Danish Pancreatic Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Claus; Detlefsen, Sönke; Palnæs Hansen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Pancreatic Cancer Database aims to prospectively register the epidemiology, diagnostic workup, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of patients with pancreatic cancer in Denmark at an institutional and national level. STUDY POPULATION: Since May 1, 2011, all patients......, and survival. The results are published annually. CONCLUSION: The Danish Pancreatic Cancer Database has registered data on 2,217 patients with microscopically verified ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. The data have been obtained nationwide over a period of 4 years and 2 months. The completeness...

  7. Measuring the drinking behaviour of individual pigs housed in group using radio frequency identification (RFID)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the drinking behaviour of pigs may indicate health, welfare or productivity problems. Automated monitoring and analysis of drinking behaviour could allow problems to be detected, thus improving farm productivity. A high frequency radio frequency identification (HF RFID) system was designed to register the drinking behaviour of individual pigs. HF RFID antennas were placed around four nipple drinkers and connected to a reader via a multiplexer. A total of 55 growing-finishing pigs w...

  8. Anaerobic biodigestion of pigs feces in the initial, growing and finishing stages fed with diets formulated with corn or sorghum Biodigestão anaeróbia de dejetos de suínos nas diferentes fases alimentados com dietas formuladas com milho ou sorgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adélia P. Miranda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality and the production of biogas and biofertilizer obtained from biodigester supplied with pig feces in the initial, growing and finishing stages, fed with diets formulated based on corn or sorghum. Twenty bench biodigesters were used with hydraulic retention time of 30 days and daily loads that contained 4 to 6% of total solids (TS and 3.6 to 5.2% of volatile solids (VS. In the effluent of the biodigesters, mean levels of TS were observed ranging between 1.6 and 2.0% and of VS between 1.2 and 1.6%. The mean reductions of TS were 57.7 to 64.7% and of VS from 61.7 to 69.0%, and there was only difference in the finishing phase, in which the major averages reductions were produced by the biodigesters supplied with feces from animals fed with diets based on corn. In biodigesters supplied with feces from animals in the initial and growing stages fed with diets based on corn, were observed higher average productions of biogas and the greatest average potentials of biogas production. The average potentials obtained were 0.033; 0.181; 0.685; 0.788 and 1.132 m³ per kg of affluent, manure, TS added, VS added and VS reduced, respectively. No differences were found on the average content of methane in the biogas between diets and stages. The average concentrations of nutrients N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in the biodigester affluent and effluent, ranged between diets and stages.Objetivou-se avaliar a produção e a qualidade do biogás e do biofertilizante obtidos em biodigestores abastecidos com dejetos de suínos, nas fases inicial, crescimento e terminação, alimentados com dietas formuladas à base de milho ou sorgo. Foram utilizados 20 biodigestores de bancada, com tempo de retenção hidráulica de 30 dias, e cargas diárias que continham 4,0 a 6,0% de sólidos totais (ST e 3,6 a 5,2% de sólidos voláteis (SV. Nos efluentes dos biodigestores, foram verificados teores médios de ST

  9. Effect of stocking rate and floor types on performance, skin temperature and leukogram in pigs raising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diovani Paiano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance, thermoregulatory characteristics and the leukogram of growing finishing pigs reared in different stocking rates kept on compact floor pens or with shallow pool pens. Material and methods. Thirty-six pigs were used in two steps (total of 72 animals were used. In the first step it was analysed performance pig (daily feed intake, weight gain and feed: gain ratio and backfat thickness (P2. In the second step, the same analyzes were repeated, in addition, analysis of leukogram and skin temperature was performed in P2 and anal region, at the end of growing and finishing phase. Results. It was evaluated for differences between treatments and stocking. It was not found effect of floor type on growing phase, but the use of shallow pool had a negative effect on the gain and feed: gain ratio in the finishing phase, as well as lower surface temperature in the anal region on treatment with shallow pool in the finishing phase. No effect of treatments and type of floor on pig leukogram. Allowing more space/animal decreased backfat thickness. The use of shallow pool affected negatively the performance in the finishing phase. Conclusions. The shallow pool uses impair the finishing pig performance, despite improving thermolysis, with no effect observed on cell immune response.

  10. Do the ban on use of anti-microbial growth promoter impact on technical change and the efficiency of slaughter-pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson, Lartey; Otto, Lars; Jensen, Peter Vig

    2005-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the effects of the ban on the use of anti-microbial growth promoters in the production of “Finishing Pigs” for slaughter. We investigate if the ban on the use of anti-microbial growth promoters has for specialised pig-producers altered the productivity of inputs......, technical change and the efficiency of production. This paper complements an earlier paper that investigated the impact of the ban on weaned-pig produc-tion. Background: The study is motivated by the fact that antimicrobial growth promoters have been known world wide to protect livestock from bacteria...... of the use of growth promoters in 1995, which re-sulted in a total ban in 2000. EU as a follow-up to the Danish action also initiated a ban on the use of growth promoters that are known to contribute to human health hazard. In the US the discussion of a ban is an ongoing subject of debate. For US producers...

  11. 7 CFR 29.3517 - Finish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finish. 29.3517 Section 29.3517 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3517 Finish. The reflectance factor in color perception. Finish indicates the sheen or...

  12. 7 CFR 29.3022 - Finish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finish. 29.3022 Section 29.3022 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Finish. The reflectance factor in color perception. Finish indicates the sheen or shine of the surface of...

  13. 7 CFR 29.1017 - Finish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finish. 29.1017 Section 29.1017 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1017 Finish. The reflectance factor in color perception. Finish indicates the sheen or...

  14. 7 CFR 29.2518 - Finish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finish. 29.2518 Section 29.2518 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2518 Finish. The reflectance factor in color perception. Finish indicates the sheen or shine of the surface of a tobacco leaf. (See chart, § 29.2601.) ...

  15. 7 CFR 29.2268 - Finish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finish. 29.2268 Section 29.2268 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2268 Finish. The reflectance factor in color perception. Finish indicates the sheen or shine of the surface of a...

  16. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The purchasing...

  17. A longitudinal study of Salmonella enterica infections in high- and low-seroprevalence finishing swine herds in the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Wolf, P.J.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Wolbers, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the incidence and course of Salmonella infections in finishing pig herds in order to asses the stability of a given Salmonella herd status. Five low- and 7 high-seroprevalence herds were followed for seven sampling rounds. Each round, blood and faecal...

  18. From Danish Yugoslavs to Danish Serbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Immigrants from Serbia who came to Denmark in the 1970s and 1980s found a large number of shared values between Yugoslav ideals of brotherhood and unity and the Scandinavian welfare model. As a result, they felt well integrated into Danish society, almost to the point of being invisible. This inv......Immigrants from Serbia who came to Denmark in the 1970s and 1980s found a large number of shared values between Yugoslav ideals of brotherhood and unity and the Scandinavian welfare model. As a result, they felt well integrated into Danish society, almost to the point of being invisible......' has been contested from several points of view. During their absence, Yugoslav migrants have witnessed the destruction of their homeland and have been forced to take on a new Serbian identity. In what remained of their former homeland, social and political instability has stimulated a re......-traditionalisation of society. Meanwhile, the growing attention given to religion and origins has changed the room for manoeuvre of immigrant families in Denmark, challenging the tight networks hitherto maintained with the home village. Through interviews with members of the Serbian community in Denmark, I explore how...

  19. From Danish Yugoslavs to Danish Serbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Immigrants from Serbia who came to Denmark in the 1970s and 1980s found a large number of shared values between Yugoslav ideals of brotherhood and unity and the Scandinavian welfare model. As a result, they felt well integrated into Danish society, almost to the point of being invisible. This inv......Immigrants from Serbia who came to Denmark in the 1970s and 1980s found a large number of shared values between Yugoslav ideals of brotherhood and unity and the Scandinavian welfare model. As a result, they felt well integrated into Danish society, almost to the point of being invisible......’ has been contested from several points of view. During their absence, Yugoslav migrants have witnessed the destruction of their homeland and have been forced to take on a new Serbian identity. In what remained of their former homeland, social and political instability has stimulated a re......-traditionalisation of society. Meanwhile, the growing attention given to religion and origins has changed the room for manoeuvre of immigrant families in Denmark, challenging the tight networks hitherto maintained with the home village....

  20. The Robotic Edge Finishing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loucks, C.S.; Selleck, C.B.

    1990-08-01

    The Robotic Edge Finishing Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories is developing four areas of technology required for automated deburring, chamfering, and blending of machined edges: (1) the automatic programming of robot trajectories and deburring processes using information derived from a CAD database, (2) the use of machine vision for locating the workpiece coupled with force control to ensure proper tool contact, (3) robotic deburring, blending, and machining of precision chamfered edges, and (4) in-process automated inspection of the formed edge. The Laboratory, its components, integration, and results from edge finishing experiments to date are described here. Also included is a discussion of the issues regarding implementation of the technology in a production environment. 24 refs., 17 figs.

  1. Danish High Performance Concretes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. P.; Christoffersen, J.; Frederiksen, J.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the main results obtained in the research program High Performance Concretes in the 90's are presented. This program was financed by the Danish government and was carried out in cooperation between The Technical University of Denmark, several private companies, and Aalborg University...

  2. The Danish Education Registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; Würtz Rasmussen, Astrid

    Collection of systematic information on education is a long established practice in Denmark. Since 1910, the Danish Ministry of Education’s annual reports collects information about individual-level test scores in e.g. compulsory schooling. Today, several registers from compulsory schooling to ad...... of missing information on immigrants, the level is still low in an international context....

  3. The Danish Heart Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özcan, Cengiz; Juel, Knud; Lassen, Jens Flensted

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The Danish Heart Registry (DHR) seeks to monitor nationwide activity and quality of invasive diagnostic and treatment strategies in patients with ischemic heart disease as well as valvular heart disease and to provide data for research. STUDY POPULATION: All adult (≥15 years) patients...

  4. The Danish Twin Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytthe, Axel; Ohm Kyvik, Kirsten; Vilstrup Holm, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The Danish Twin Registry is a unique source for studies of genetic, familial and environmental factors on life events, health conditions and diseases. Content: More than 85,000 twin pairs born 1870-2008 in Denmark. Validity and coverage: Four main ascertainment methods have been emp...

  5. Danish Regulation of Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet; Vinding, Niels-Valdemar

    Presentation and analysis of current and upcoming conflicts in relations between religion and family; labour market; religion in the public sphere and state support to religion. Part of a comparative European analysis in the context of www.religareproject.eu. based on 18 Danish elite interviews...

  6. The Danish Anaesthesia Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen, Kristian; Rosenstock, Charlotte Vallentin; Lundstrøm, Lars Hyldborg

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the Danish Anaesthesia Database (DAD) is the nationwide collection of data on all patients undergoing anesthesia. Collected data are used for quality assurance, quality development, and serve as a basis for research projects. STUDY POPULATION: The DAD was founded in 2004...

  7. The Danish Pesticide Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2015-01-01

    This case study analyses the effects of the Danish pesticide tax (1996-2013) on agriculture which was introduced as an ad valorem tax in 1996, doubled in 1998, and redesigned in 2013 as a tax based on the toxicity of the pesticides. The Danish pesticide taxes probably represent the world’s highes...... individuals in the target group necessarily react to the economic incentives as predicted by economic modeling. It also demonstrates that a small first green-tax-step over time might develop into a better tax design.......This case study analyses the effects of the Danish pesticide tax (1996-2013) on agriculture which was introduced as an ad valorem tax in 1996, doubled in 1998, and redesigned in 2013 as a tax based on the toxicity of the pesticides. The Danish pesticide taxes probably represent the world’s highest...... pesticide taxes on agriculture, which makes it interesting to analyze how effective they have been. Here the effects of the ad valorem tax (1996-2013) are analyzed. The case study demonstrates the challenges of choosing an optimal tax design in a complex political setting where, additionally, not all...

  8. Danish rocked my world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Morris

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available My life took an unexpected twist when I fell in love with a Dane and moved to Denmark. Faced with mastering the next to impossible Danish language, my modern day fairytale quickly turned into one of the most challenging epochs of my life.

  9. Danish rocked my world

    OpenAIRE

    Corey Morris

    2012-01-01

    My life took an unexpected twist when I fell in love with a Dane and moved to Denmark. Faced with mastering the next to impossible Danish language, my modern day fairytale quickly turned into one of the most challenging epochs of my life.

  10. The Danish Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Elm; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt; Frederiksen, Morten

    The Danish Welfare State analyzes a broad range of areas, such as globalization, labor marked, family life, health and social exclusion, the book demonstrates that life in a modern welfare state is changing rapidly, creating both challenges and possibilities for future management....

  11. The Danish welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Elm; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt; Frederiksen, Morten

    The Danish Welfare State analyzes a broad range of areas, such as globalization, labor marked, family life, health and social exclusion, the book demonstrates that life in a modern welfare state is changing rapidly, creating both challenges and possibilities for future management....

  12. The Danish Euro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I analyse the political debate leading up to the Danish euro referendum in 2000. I show how the euro-positive government unintentionally reinforced the arguments of the euro-sceptics by framing the euro as something belonging to the nation-state. I argue that this paradoxical...

  13. Annoying Danish Relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen de López, Kristine M.; Sundahl Olsen, Lone; Chondrigianni, V.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI...

  14. The Danish heart register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Steen Z; Madsen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The Danish Heart Register (DHR) is a clinical database of invasive procedures within cardiology. Content: All providers of these procedures have been obliged to report to DHR since 2000. DHR is used to monitor the activity and quality of the procedures and serves as a data source...

  15. The Danish HD Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, M.; Budtz-Jorgensen, E.; Boonen, S. E.

    2017-01-01

    The Danish Huntington's Disease Registry (DHR) is a nationwide family registry comprising 14 245 individuals from 445 Huntington's disease (HD) families of which the largest family includes 845 individuals in 8 generations. 1136 DNA and/or blood samples and 18 fibroblast cultures are stored...

  16. A cost-benefit analysis of Salmonella-control strategies in Danish pork production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbach, Stine Gissel; Alban, Lis

    2006-11-17

    In Denmark, it was agreed to lower the Salmonella prevalence in pork to 1.2% before the end of 2006. The current control did not seem to be sufficient to attain this goal. Therefore, four alternatives to the existing Danish control strategy for Salmonella in pork were compared in a cost-benefit analysis: (1) hot-water decontamination of all pigs at slaughter, (2) sanitary slaughter of pigs from herds with high levels of Salmonella, (3) use of home-mixed feed in herds with slaughter pigs and (4) use of acidified feed for slaughter pigs. The data originated from official statistics, published papers as well as expert opinion. The partial cost-benefit analysis was restricted to slaughterhouses affiliated with the Danish Meat Association and Danish human cases ascribable to pork from these slaughterhouses. Only hot-water decontamination was socio-economically profitable. Hot-water decontamination had a net present value over 15 years of 3.5 million euros. For sanitary slaughter the net present value was - 43.6 million euros, for home-mixed feed it was - 262.3 million euros and for acidified feed it was - 79.9 million euros. For all alternatives the costs were born solely by the pig sector, whereas primarily the consumers and public authorities received the benefits. The conclusions were robust in sensitivity analyses.

  17. Effect of variation in oxytetracycline treatment of Lawsonia intracellularis diahrea in nursery pigs on treatment-efficacy and resistance development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, I.; Mellerup, Anders; Zachariasen, C.

    2015-01-01

    A Danish research project, MINIRESIST, investigated the consequences of varying doses and treatment strategies for oxytetracycline treatment of Lawsonia intracellularis diarrhea in nursery pigs. Batches of nursery pigs in five herds were randomly allocated to one of five treatment protocols (batch...

  18. Consequences of two or four months of finishing feeding of culled dry dairy cows on carcass characteristics and technological and sensory meat quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, M.; Madsen, N. T.; Bligaard, H. B.;

    2007-01-01

    Finishing feeding was evaluated as a way to improve carcass-, meat- and eating quality of culled dairy cows. In total, 125 Danish Friesian cows were purchased from commercial dairy herds. Cows were culled for various typical reasons at different stages of lactation, were non-pregnant and had milk...... and better technological as well as sensory quality characteristics....

  19. Variables associated with odds of finishing and finish time in a 161-km ultramarathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegelin, Jacob A; Hoffman, Martin D

    2011-01-01

    We sought to determine the degree to which age, sex, calendar year, previous event experience and ambient race day temperature were associated with finishing a 100-mile (161-km) trail running race and with finish time in that race. We computed separate generalized linear mixed-effects regression models for (1) odds of finishing and (2) finish times of finishers. Every starter from 1986 to 2007 was used in computing the models for odds of finishing (8,282 starts by 3,956 individuals) and every finisher in the same period was included in the models for finish time (5,276 finishes). Factors associated with improved odds of finishing included being a first-time starter and advancing calendar year. Factors associated with reduced odds of finishing included advancing age above 38 years and warmer weather. Beyond 38 years of age, women had worse odds of finishing than men. Warmer weather had a similar effect on finish rates for men and women. Finish times were slower with advancing age, slower for women than men, and less affected by warm weather for women than for men. Calendar year was not associated with finish time after adjustment for other variables.

  20. The association between measurements of antimicrobial use and resistance in the faeces microbiota of finisher batches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalhoff Andersen, Vibe; de Knegt, Leonardo; Munk, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The objectives were to present three approaches for calculating antimicrobial (AM) use in pigs that take into account the rearing period and rearing site, and to study the association between these measurements and phenotypical resistance and abundance of resistance genes in faeces samples from 10...... finisher batches. The AM use was calculated relative to the rearing period of the batches as (i) 'Finisher Unit Exposure' at unit level, (ii) 'Lifetime Exposure' at batch level and (iii) 'Herd Exposure' at herd level. A significant effect on the occurrence of tetracycline resistance measured by cultivation...... effect was observed on the occurrence of genes coding for the AM resistance classes: aminoglycoside, lincosamide, macrolide, β-lactam, sulfonamide and tetracycline. No effect was observed for Finisher Unit Exposure. Overall, the study shows that Lifetime Exposure is an efficient measurement of AM use...

  1. Effects of cast gold surface finishing on plaque retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, M P; Shillingburg, H T; Duncanson, M G; Wade, C K

    1980-02-01

    The relationship between the surface finish on cast gold restorations and the amount of plaque deposited on that surface was examined. Six different finishes were tested. The rough finish was found to accumulate significantly less plaque than the other finishes. Every finish exhibited some plaque accumulation, even after the first 24 hours. Each finish accumulated progressively more plaque at each successive time interval.

  2. Ideal digestible lysine level for early- and late-finishing swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, J D; Biehl, R R; Baker, D H

    1995-03-01

    Two hundred sixteen crossbred (PIC line 26 x Camborough 15) pigs were used in three trials to determine optimal digestible lysine levels during early (EF = 50 to 95 kg) and late (LF = 90 to 110 kg) finishing periods. Pigs were self-fed in sex groups of two in all trials. The assay diets for EF and LF periods were 11 and 10% CP corn-soybean meal diets, respectively, supplemented with threonine, methionine, tryptophan, valine, and isoleucine. Corn-soybean meal positive-control diets were included in each trial (14.5% CP for EF and 13.5% CP for LF). This dietary CP regimen was shown to give the same performance and carcass quality as a 17% CP corn-soybean meal diet fed during both EF and LF. Plateau portions of the lysine response curves resulted in performance levels that were equal to or greater than those achieved with pigs fed the 14.5/13.5% CP positive-control diets. Early-finishing pigs responded (P < .05) to graded doses of digestible lysine (.41 to .71%) for daily weight gain, gain:feed, longissimus muscle area, 10th-rib fat depth, lean gain, and plasma urea N. Digestible lysine requirement estimates based on average plateau points were .58% for EF barrows and .64% for EF gilts. Late-finishing pigs responded (P < .05) to digestible lysine doses (.35 to .65%) for daily weight gain, gain:feed, lean gain, and plasma urea N. Digestible lysine requirement estimates based on average plateau points were .49% for LF barrows and .52% for LF gilts.

  3. An object-oriented Bayesian network modeling the causes of leg disorders in finisher herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Birk; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard; Toft, Niels

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of an effective control strategy against disease in a finisher herd requires knowledge regarding the disease level in the herd. A Bayesian network was constructed that can estimate risk indexes for three cause-categories of leg disorders in a finisher herd. The cause-categories......The implementation of an effective control strategy against disease in a finisher herd requires knowledge regarding the disease level in the herd. A Bayesian network was constructed that can estimate risk indexes for three cause-categories of leg disorders in a finisher herd. The cause...... pigs (e.g. results from diagnostic tests) were used to estimate the most likely cause of leg disorders at herd level. As information to the model originated from two different levels, we used an object-oriented structure in order to ease the specification of the Bayesian network. Hence, a Herd class...... and a Pig class comprised the basic components of the object-oriented structure. The causal structure of the model was based on evidence from published literature. The conditional probabilities used in the model were elicited from experts within the field and from the published literature. To illustrate...

  4. Prevalences of welfare-related lesions at post-mortem meat-inspection in Danish sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland-Nielsen, A; Christensen, G; Ersbøll, A K

    2004-07-16

    We investigated the prevalences and intercorrelations of all daily meat-inspection recordings at four Danish sow abattoirs in the year 2000 from 23,794 sows coming from 207 sow or farrow-to-finisher herds. The meat-inspection data were obtained from databases at the Danish Bacon and Meat Council (DBMC). Prevalences generally were low--but large herd-to-herd variations were seen. Despite low prevalences, many slaughtered sows had recordings which raise welfare concerns. Intercorrelations between the meat-inspection recordings were evaluated using exploratory factor analysis describing underlying latent factors related to health and welfare problems within herds.

  5. The Danish Melanoma Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hölmich Lr

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lisbet Rosenkrantz Hölmich,1 Siri Klausen,2 Eva Spaun,3 Grethe Schmidt,4 Dorte Gad,5 Inge Marie Svane,6,7 Henrik Schmidt,8 Henrik Frank Lorentzen,9 Else Helene Ibfelt10 1Department of Plastic Surgery, 2Department of Pathology, Herlev-Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev, 3Institute of Pathology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 4Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Breast Surgery and Burns, Rigshospitalet – Glostrup, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 5Department of Plastic Surgery, Odense University Hospital, Odense, 6Center for Cancer Immune Therapy, Department of Hematology, 7Department of Oncology, Herlev-Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev, 8Department of Oncology, 9Department of Dermatology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 10Registry Support Centre (East – Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Glostrup – Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup, Denmark Aim of database: The aim of the database is to monitor and improve the treatment and survival of melanoma patients.Study population: All Danish patients with cutaneous melanoma and in situ melanomas must be registered in the Danish Melanoma Database (DMD. In 2014, 2,525 patients with invasive melanoma and 780 with in situ tumors were registered. The coverage is currently 93% compared with the Danish Pathology Register.Main variables: The main variables include demographic, clinical, and pathological characteristics, including Breslow’s tumor thickness, ± ulceration, mitoses, and tumor–node–metastasis stage. Information about the date of diagnosis, treatment, type of surgery, including safety margins, results of lymphoscintigraphy in patients for whom this was indicated (tumors > T1a, results of sentinel node biopsy, pathological evaluation hereof, and follow-up information, including recurrence, nature, and treatment hereof is registered. In case of death, the cause and date

  6. Danish Rural Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Ellervik, Christina

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of amblyopia in Denmark before and after the initiation of the Danish national preschool vision screening programme. METHODS: In a population-based cross-sectional study, 3826 participants of the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) aged 20 years...... 45-degree retinal fundus photographs of each eye. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed when indicated. RESULTS: The prevalence of monocular visual impairment (MVI) was 4.26% (95% CI, 3.66-4.95, n = 163). Amblyopia was the most common cause, accounting for 33%. The prevalence...... of amblyopia was 1.44% (95% CI, 1.01-1.81, n = 55), being higher among non-preschool vision screened persons compared to those who were offered (estimated 95% attendance) preschool vision screening (1.78%, n = 41, 95% CI 1.24-2.33 versus 0.44%, n = 2, 95% CI, 0.12-1.60, p = 0.024). The leading cause...

  7. Esco in Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    , with relatively few buildings, energy retrofitting and low investments, the integrative and strategic approach include a higher degree of partnership, a more ambitious building renovation approach, and more innovative understandings of facilities management. We also compare ESCO with energy retrofitting as an in...... municipalities see an in-house approach as a better alternative. Approach (Theory/Methodology): Our research is based on literature studies and on qualitative interviews with Danish municipalities carrying out ESCO projects, as well as with ESCO providers. Results: Our studies suggest that different ESCO...... approaches are being used in Danish municipalities, which we label the basic, the integrated and the strategic ESCO approaches. The three approaches include different ambitions, technologies, economies and innovation potentials. Whereas the basic approach implies a ‘traditional’ guarantee-based model...

  8. Esco in Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    2012-01-01

    , with relatively few buildings, energy retrofitting and low investments, the integrative and strategic approach include a higher degree of partnership, a more ambitious building renovation approach, and more innovative understandings of facilities management. We also compare ESCO with energy retrofitting as an in...... municipalities see an in-house approach as a better alternative. Approach (Theory/Methodology): Our research is based on literature studies and on qualitative interviews with Danish municipalities carrying out ESCO projects, as well as with ESCO providers. Results: Our studies suggest that different ESCO...... approaches are being used in Danish municipalities, which we label the basic, the integrated and the strategic ESCO approaches. The three approaches include different ambitions, technologies, economies and innovation potentials. Whereas the basic approach implies a ‘traditional’ guarantee-based model...

  9. The Danish Urogynaecological Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg, Rikke; Brostrøm, Søren; Hansen, Jesper Kjær

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The Danish Urogynaecological Database (DugaBase) is a nationwide clinical database established in 2006 to monitor, ensure and improve the quality of urogynaecological surgery. We aimed to describe its establishment and completeness and to validate selected variables....... This is the first study based on data from the DugaBase. METHODS: The database completeness was calculated as a comparison between urogynaecological procedures reported to the Danish National Patient Registry and to the DugaBase. Validity was assessed for selected variables from a random sample of 200 women...... in the DugaBase from 1 January 2009 to 31 October 2010, using medical records as a reference. RESULTS: A total of 16,509 urogynaecological procedures were registered in the DugaBase by 31 December 2010. The database completeness has increased by calendar time, from 38.2 % in 2007 to 93.2 % in 2010 for public...

  10. The Danish Sarcoma Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Holmberg; Lausten, Gunnar Schwarz; Pedersen, Alma B

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the database is to gather information about sarcomas treated in Denmark in order to continuously monitor and improve the quality of sarcoma treatment in a local, a national, and an international perspective. STUDY POPULATION: Patients in Denmark diagnosed with a sarcoma, both...... skeletal and ekstraskeletal, are to be registered since 2009. MAIN VARIABLES: The database contains information about appearance of symptoms; date of receiving referral to a sarcoma center; date of first visit; whether surgery has been performed elsewhere before referral, diagnosis, and treatment; tumor...... of Diseases - tenth edition codes and TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours, and date of death (after yearly coupling to the Danish Civil Registration System). Data quality and completeness are currently secured. CONCLUSION: The Danish Sarcoma Database is population based and includes sarcomas occurring...

  11. Danish farmers and investors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajderllari, Luljeta; Karantininis, Konstantinos; Bonnichsen, Ole

    The purpose of this paper is to provide some evidence on the push and pull factors that motivate farmers to expand across their home countries’ borders. The focus is on Danish expansion farmers and investor farmers setting up activities in Central and Eastern European countries like Slovakia......, Poland, Romania and Latvia. Data from 44 mail surveys was analysed to explore the push and pull factors that contribute to farmers’ level of activities outside their home country. The responses given in the mail survey are analysed using two analytical methods of frequency analysis and an ordered probit...... model. The results indicate that the important factors for Danish farmers to extend overseas are price and availability of land, institutional governance, network and image with regard to farming. These findings generally support the literature regarding reasons for farmers to increase their cross...

  12. A Danish case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Mikael; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, Kirsten; Larsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    A political agreement from 2005 stated that an evaluation of the entire Danish energy efficiency policy portfolio must be carried out before the end of 2008, with the aim to assess the following: (1) Is the policy portfolio sufficient to meet the energy efficiency targets? (2) Do the policies...... enable the national goals to be met in a cost-effective manner? (3) Is the overall design of the policy portfolio appropriate? The evaluation gave recommendations on how to improve and develop the portfolio, mainly using cost-effectiveness as criteria. The evaluation was completed in December 2008......, and this paper presents the main findings and the subsequent impact on Danish policy. A key lesson learned is the importance of including all energy efficiency policies in the evaluation. Examining the entire portfolio of policies (as opposed to only selected policies) gave way to findings that would otherwise...

  13. More Danish, More English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chopin, Kimberly Renée

    Universities in Denmark are becoming increasingly internationalized, and areincreasingly using English as a language of research, teaching, and administration. At the same time, the Danish language is seen by some as being under threat, and Danish public discourse has focused on what role.......This study investigated the decision making process over time in order to reveal how such language policies would be received in one affected department. Interviews with department teaching staff were carried out both before and after the implementation of the decisions, along with interviews of department......-up approachto determining language use. This research has implications for other institutions which are affected by similar language issues. It adds to existing work on English-medium instruction in higher education, and adds to discussions on domain loss and the language of education inuniversities....

  14. The Danish school reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Ann; Mølholm, Martin; Horsbøl, Anders

    (Latour), e.g. civil service and municipal practices and texts, into the organizational practices of two local schools. On the basis of these analyses, we will establish a participatory process in which local actors are involved in the co-creation of new plurivocal and egalitarian dialogue designs......The paper presents a methodological framework for the study of the discursive emergence of the recent Danish School reform (2014). The framework will enable discourse scholars to hold an actively involved position in changing and furthering plurivocal processes of translations, negotiations...... and implementation of the reform. The framework is operationalized through research-based participatory collaborative processes involving local actors in two Danish public schools. It interlinks diverse discourse strategies and perceptive distances that traditionally belong to separate branches within discourse...

  15. Hypertension in Danish seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Mingshan; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2016-01-01

    intake, and body mass index. Results: The overall prevalence of hypertension in the study population was 44.7% (95% CI 40.8–48.6). In a comparison sample of adult Danes, the crude rate of hypertension was 12.6%. In addition, 41.8% (95% CI 38.0–45.7) of seafarers were pre-hypertensive. Hypertension......Background: Due to the high prevalence of arterial hypertension and its role in the development of athe- rosclerosis, myocardial infarction and stroke, hypertension is a major public health challenge worldwide. There is limited knowledge of the prevalence of hypertension among seafarers who......, however, are known to have an excess morbidity and mortality from these disorders. This article addresses the prevalence of hypertension among Danish seafarers and discusses potential risk factors for hypertension in maritime settings. Materials and methods: A representative sample of 629 Danish seafarers...

  16. Genetic relatedness of commensal Escherichia coli from nursery pigs in intensive pig production in Denmark and molecular characterization of genetically different strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero Fresno, Ana; Larsen, Inge; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the genetic relatedness and the presence of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes in commensal Escherichia coli from nursery pigs in Danish intensive production. METHODS AND RESULTS: The genetic diversity of 1000 E. coli strains randomly picked (N = 50 isolates) from cultured...... faecal samples (N = 4 pigs) from five intensive Danish pigs farms was analysed by repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (REP-PCR) and 42 unique REP-profiles were detected (similarity commensal E. coli......-producing genes were observed in 20 isolates. CONCLUSIONS: A low genetic diversity was found in commensal gut E. coli from nursery pigs in Denmark. No correlation was observed between REP-profiles, ST-types and resistance/virulence patterns. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This is the first study analysing...

  17. The Danish Youth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde; Riegels, Mette; Rod, Morten Hulvej

    2010-01-01

    income. Loss to follow-up was only associated with adolescents' higher probability of drinking and use of tobacco, and none of the other factors were associated with attrition. CONCLUSIONS: The participants in the Danish Youth Cohort represent a great variety of different groups of socio-demographic...... factors, although they differ from non-participants as regards a range of socio-demographic factors. This should be taken into account in future analyses....

  18. Questioning Danish Cartoon Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    The article discusses the language and satirical cartoons that describe African Danes in the Danish media. Starting with a brief historical overview of the social fonction of satirical cartoons in Denmark since the Reformation, it is discussed whether satire and satirical cartoons actually have s...... that the individual black child has to take up the fight by herself when meeting racist images og jokes in school material and elsewhere....

  19. Translating Fashion into Danish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Riegels Melchior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available With their association to enterprise and innovation, creative industries have emerged as a legitimate concern in national cultural and economical policy in many countries across the world. In Denmark, the fashion business, in particular, has been hailed as a model for successful (postindustrial transformation. In this paper, we explore the birth of Danish fashion from the ashes of the country’s clothing manufacturing industry, suggesting that the very notion of Danish fashion is indicative of – and enabled by – a development towards a polycentric fashion system. The intriguing idea that fashion could emanate from Denmark and secure growth, jobs and exports even outside the fashion business has taken hold among policymakers, and compelled the government to embrace fashion as a national project. In investigating the emergence and rising stature of Danish fashion, particular at home, we first establish a theoretical frame for understanding the cultural economic policy and the motives, principles and strategies behind it. Then – drawing inspiration from Michel Callon’s “sociology of translation” with its moments of translation: problematization, interessement, enrolment and mobilization – we identify the actors and analyze their strategic roles and interrelationship through various phases of the development of Danish fashion. Callon’s actor network theory (ANT is based on the principle of “generalized symmetry” – originally using a single repertoire to analyze both society and nature. We adapt this principle to study the realms of market, culture and politics within a common analytical framework. In our analysis, the state responds to industry transformation, interprets it and develops its own agenda. But it can hardly be said to develop policies for the industry. On the contrary, we suggest, fashion is mobilized to lend its luster to the nation, its institutions and politicians.

  20. The Danish National Prescription Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Toft Sørensen, Henrik; Hallas, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Individual-level data on all prescription drugs sold in Danish community pharmacies has since 1994 been recorded in the Register of Medicinal Products Statistics of the Danish Medicines Agency. Content: The register subset, termed the Danish National Prescription Registry (DNPR...... on the dispensed drug. Conclusion: The possibility of linkage with many other nationwide individual-level data sources renders the DNPR a very powerful pharmacoepidemiological tool...