WorldWideScience

Sample records for damage track detectors

  1. Solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, J.A.; Carvalho, M.L.C.P. de

    1992-12-01

    Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) are dielectric materials, crystalline or vitreous, which registers tracks of charged nuclear particles, like alpha particles or fission fragments. Chemical etching of the detectors origin tracks that are visible at the optical microscope: track etching rate is higher along the latent track, where damage due to the charged particle increase the chemical potential, and etching rate giving rise to holes, the etched tracks. Fundamental principles are presented as well as some ideas of main applications. (author)

  2. Forward tracking detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Forward tracking is an essential part of a detector at the international linear collider (ILC). The requirements for forward tracking are explained and the proposed solutions in the detector concepts are shown.

  3. Solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, H.

    1976-11-01

    This paper gives a survey of the present state of the development and the application of solid state track detectors. The fundamentals of the physical and chemical processes of the track formation and development are explained, the different detector materials and their registration characteristics are mentioned, the possibilities of the experimental practice and the most variable applications are discussed. (author)

  4. Co-visualization of DNA damage and ion traversals in live mammalian cells using a fluorescent nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodaira, Satoshi; Konishi, Teruaki; Kobayashi, Alisa

    2015-01-01

    The geometric locations of ion traversals in mammalian cells constitute important information in the study of heavy ion-induced biological effect. Single ion traversal through a cellular nucleus produces complex and massive DNA damage at a nanometer level, leading to cell inactivation, mutations and transformation. We present a novel approach that uses a fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD) for the simultaneous detection of the geometrical images of ion traversals and DNA damage in single cells using confocal microscopy. HT1080 or HT1080–53BP1-GFP cells were cultured on the surface of a FNTD and exposed to 5.1-MeV/n neon ions. The positions of the ion traversals were obtained as fluorescent images of a FNTD. Localized DNA damage in cells was identified as fluorescent spots of γ-H2AX or 53BP1-GFP. These track images and images of damaged DNA were obtained in a short time using a confocal laser scanning microscope. The geometrical distribution of DNA damage indicated by fluorescent γ-H2AX spots in fixed cells or fluorescent 53BP1-GFP spots in living cells was found to correlate well with the distribution of the ion traversals. This method will be useful for evaluating the number of ion hits on individual cells, not only for micro-beam but also for random-beam experiments. (author)

  5. Latent tracks in polymeric etched track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Tomoya

    2013-01-01

    Track registration properties in polymeric track detectors, including Poly(allyl diglycol carbonate), Bispenol A polycarbonate, Poly(ethylen terephtarate), and Polyimide, have been investigated by means of Fourie transform Infararede FT-IR spectrometry. Chemical criterion on the track formation threshold has been proposes, in stead of the conventional physical track registration models. (author)

  6. Preparation of bubble damage detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Caiqing; Guo Shilun; Wang Yulan; Hao Xiuhong; Chen Changmao; Su Jingling

    1997-01-01

    Bubble damage detectors have been prepared by using polyacrylamide as detector solid and freon as detector liquid. Tests show that the prepared detectors are sensitive to fast neutrons and have proportionality between bubble number and neutron fluence within a certain range of neutron fluence. Therefore, it can be used as a fast neutron detector and a dosimeter

  7. Applications of nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medveczky, L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a scientific research-work are summarized. Nuclear track detectors were used for new applications or in unusual ways. Photographic films, nuclear emulsions and dielectric track detectors were investigated. The tracks were detected by optical microscopy. Empirical formulation has been derived for the neutron sensitivity of certain dielectric materials. Methods were developed for leak testing of closed alpha emitting sources. New procedures were found for the application and evaluation of track detector materials. The results were applied in the education, personnel dosimetry, radon dosimetry etc. (R.J.)

  8. Processing of plastic track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of some actual problems of the track processing methods available at this time for plastics is presented. In the case of the conventional chemical track-etching technique, mainly the etching situations related to detector geometry, and the relationship between registration sensitivity and the etching parameters are considered. Special attention is paid to the behaviour of track-revealing by means of electrochemical etching. Finally, some properties of a promising new track processing method based on graft polymerization are discussed. (author)

  9. Processing of plastic track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of some actual problems of the track processing methods available at this time for plastics is presented. In the case of the conventional chemical track etching technique mainly the etching situations related to detector geometry and the relationship of registration sensitivity and the etching parameters are considered. A special attention is paid to the behaviour of track revealing by means of electrochemical etching. Finally, some properties of a promising new track processing method based on graft polymerization is discussed. (orig.) [de

  10. Radiation damage in semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraner, H.W.

    1981-12-01

    A survey is presented of the important damage-producing interactions in semiconductor detectors and estimates of defect numbers are made for MeV protons, neutrons and electrons. Damage effects of fast neutrons in germanium gamma ray spectrometers are given in some detail. General effects in silicon detectors are discussed and damage constants and their relationship to leakage current is introduced

  11. Calibration of Nuclear Track Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, J.B; Antanasijevic, R.; Novakovic, V.; Tasic, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this work we compare some of our preliminary results relating to the calibration Nuclear Track Detectors (NTD) with corresponding results obtained from other participants at the First International Intercomparison of Image Analyzers (III 97/98). Thirteen laboratories from Algeria, China, Czech Rep., France. Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Italy, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Slovenia and Yugoslavia participated in the III A 97/98. The NTD was 'Tustrack', Bristol. This type of CR-39 detector was etched by the organizer (J.Paltarey of al, Atomic Energy Research Institute, HPD, Budapest, Hungary). Etching condition was: 6N NaOH, 70 0C . Seven series detectors were exposed with the sources: B(n,a)Li, Am-241, Pu-Be(n,p), Radon and Am-Cm-Pu. Following parameters of exposed detectors were measured: track density of different sorts of tracks (circular, elliptical, track overlapping, their diameters, major and minor axis and other). (authors)

  12. Single charged-particle damage to living cells: a new method based on track-etch detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, M.; Grossi, G.F.; Pugliese, M.; Manti, L.; Nappo, M.; Gialanella, G.

    1994-01-01

    Biological effects of ionizing radiation are usually expressed as a function of the absorbed dose. Low doses of high-LET radiation correspond to one or few particle traversals through the cell. In order to study the biological effectiveness of single charged particles, we have developed a new method based on solid state nuclear track detectors. Cells are seeded on mylar and a LR-115 film is stuck below the mylar base. After irradiation, the LR-115 film is etched and cells observed at a phase contrast microscope connected to a video camera and an image analyzer. In this way, it is possible to measure the number of traversals through the cell nucleus or cytoplasm. Coordinates of each cell on the microscope bench are saved. After incubation for about one week, cells are fixed and stained and the colonies observed at the microscope. The fate of each irradiated cell is therefore correlated to the number of traversals. We have tested this method with two different rodent embryo fibroblast cell lines, C3H 10T1/2 and V79, exposed to 3.2 MeV accelerated α-particles (LET =124 keV/μm). The studied endpoint was cell killing. Preliminary biological results suggest that few α-particle tracks in V79 hamster cells are sufficient to reduce surviving fraction. ((orig.))

  13. Development of nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, Gyoergy

    1985-01-01

    The birth and development of two decades of a new nuclear detection method is briefly summarized by one of the first inventors. The main steps of the development and broadening application of nuclear solid state track detectors are described underlying the contribution and main results of the research group of ATOMKI, Hungary (i.e. the finding of the proper plastic materials for track detectors, the discovery of correlations between the track diameter and the particle energy, the increasing of energy resolution, explanation of the track developing process, elaboration of new electrochemical track analyzing methods and automatic track analyzers). Recently, this detecting technique has grown to the phase of the industrial mass production and broad application in radiogeochemistry, mining, radioecology, personal monitoring in nuclear power plants, etc. (D.Gy.)

  14. Cryogenic Tracking Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Luukka, P R; Tuominen, E M; Mikuz, M

    2002-01-01

    The recent advances in Si and diamond detector technology give hope of a simple solution to the radiation hardness problem for vertex trackers at the LHC. In particular, we have recently demonstrated that operating a heavily irradiated Si detector at liquid nitrogen (LN$_2$) temperature results in significant recovery of Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE). Among other potential benefits of operation at cryogenic temperatures are the use of large low-resistivity wafers, simple processing, higher and faster electrical signal because of higher mobility and drift velocity of carriers, and lower noise of the readout circuit. A substantial reduction in sensor cost could result The first goal of the approved extension of the RD39 program is to demonstrate that irradiation at low temperature in situ during operation does not affect the results obtained so far by cooling detectors which were irradiated at room temperature. In particular we shall concentrate on processes and materials that could significantly reduce th...

  15. High tracking resolution detectors. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasile, Stefan; Li, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution tracking detectors based on Active Pixel Sensor (APS) have been valuable tools in Nuclear Physics and High-Energy Physics research, and have contributed to major discoveries. Their integration time, radiation length and readout rate is a limiting factor for the planed luminosity upgrades in nuclear and high-energy physics collider-based experiments. The goal of this program was to demonstrate and develop high-gain, high-resolution tracking detector arrays with faster readout, and shorter radiation length than APS arrays. These arrays may operate as direct charged particle detectors or as readouts of high resolution scintillating fiber arrays. During this program, we developed in CMOS large, high-resolution pixel sensor arrays with integrated readout, and reset at pixel level. Their intrinsic gain, high immunity to surface and moisture damage, will allow operating these detectors with minimal packaging/passivation requirements and will result in radiation length superior to APS. In Phase I, we designed and fabricated arrays with calorimetric output capable of sub-pixel resolution and sub-microsecond readout rate. The technical effort was dedicated to detector and readout structure development, performance verification, as well as to radiation damage and damage annealing.

  16. Radiation damage in silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lindström, G

    2003-01-01

    Radiation damage effects in silicon detectors under severe hadron and gamma-irradiation are surveyed, focusing on bulk effects. Both macroscopic detector properties (reverse current, depletion voltage and charge collection) as also the underlying microscopic defect generation are covered. Basic results are taken from the work done in the CERN-RD48 (ROSE) collaboration updated by results of recent work. Preliminary studies on the use of dimerized float zone and Czochralski silicon as detector material show possible benefits. An essential progress in the understanding of the radiation-induced detector deterioration had recently been achieved in gamma irradiation, directly correlating defect analysis data with the macroscopic detector performance.

  17. Performance of ATLAS tracking detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lacuesta, V; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The track and vertex reconstruction algorithms of the ATLAS Inner Detector have demonstrated excellent performance in the early data from the LHC. However, the rapidly increas- ing number of interactions per bunch crossing introduces new challenges both in computational aspects and physics performance. The combination of both silicon and gas based detectors provides high precision impact parameter and momentum measurement of charged particles, with high efficiency and small fake rate. Vertex reconstruction is used to identify with high efficiency the hard scattering process and to measure the amount of pile-up interactions, both aspects are cru- cial for many physics analyses. The performance of track and vertex reconstruction efficiency and resolution achieved in the 2011 and 2012 data-taking period are presented.

  18. PHENIX central arm tracking detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adcox, K.; Ajitanand, N.N.; Alexander, J.; Autrey, D.; Averbeck, R.; Azmoun, B.; Barish, K.N.; Baublis, V.V.; Belkin, R.; Bhaganatula, S.; Biggs, J.C.; Borland, D.; Botelho, S.; Bryan, W.L.; Burward-Hoy, J.; Butsyk, S.A.; Chang, W.C.; Christ, T.; Dietzsch, O.; Drees, A.; Rietz, R. du; El Chenawi, K.; Evseev, V.A.; Fellenstein, J.; Ferdousi, T.; Fraenkel, Z.; Franz, A.; Fung, S.Y.; Gannon, J.; Garpman, S.; Godoi, A.L.; Greene, S.V.; Gustafsson, H.-A.; Harder, J.; Hemmick, T.K.; Heuser, J.M.; Holzmann, W.; Hutter, R.; Issah, M.; Ivanov, V.I.; Jacak, B.V.; Jagadish, U.; Jia, J.; Johnson, S.C.; Kandasamy, A.; Kann, M.R.; Kelley, M.A.; Khanzadeev, A.V.; Khomutnikov, A.; Komkov, B.G.; Kopytine, M.L.; Kotchenda, L.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kozlov, V.S.; Kravtsov, P.A.; Kudin, L.G.; Kuriatkov, V.V.; Lacey, R.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lebedev, V.D.; Li, X.H.; Libby, B.; Liccardi, W.; Machnowski, R.; Mahon, J.; Markushin, D.G.; Matathias, F.; Marx, M.D.; Messer, F.; Miftakhov, N.M.; Milan, J.; Miller, T.E.; Milov, A.; Minuzzo, K.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mitchell, J.T.; Muniruzzamann, M.; Nandi, B.K.; Negrin, J.; Nilsson, P.; Nystrand, J.; O'Brien, E.; O'Connor, P.; Oskarsson, A.; Oesterman, L.; Otterlund, I.; Pancake, C.E.; Pantuev, V.S.; Petersen, R.; Pinkenburg, C.H.; Pisani, R.P.; Purwar, A.K.; Rankowitz, S.; Ravinovich, I.; Riabov, V.G.; Riabov, Yu.G.; Rosati, M.; Rose, A.A.; Roschin, E.V.; Samsonov, V.M.; Sangster, T.C.; Seto, R.; Silvermyr, D.; Sivertz, M.; Smith, M.; Solodov, G.P.; Stenlund, E.; Takagui, E.M.; Tarakanov, V.I.; Tarasenkova, O.P.; Thomas, J.L.; Trofimov, V.A.; Tserruya, I.; Tydesjoe, H.; Velkovska, J.; Velkovsky, M.; Vishnevskii, V.I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Vznuzdaev, E.A.; Vznuzdaev, M.; Wang, H.Q.; Weimer, T.; Wolniewicz, K.; Wu, J.; Xie, W.; Young, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    The PHENIX tracking system consists of Drift Chambers (DC), Pad Chambers (PC) and the Time Expansion Chamber (TEC). PC1/DC and PC2/TEC/PC3 form the inner and outer tracking units, respectively. These units link the track segments that transverse the RICH and extend to the EMCal. The DC measures charged particle trajectories in the r-phi direction to determine p T of the particles and the invariant mass of particle pairs. The PCs perform 3D spatial point measurements for pattern recognition and longitudinal momentum reconstruction and provide spatial resolution of a few mm in both r-phi and z. The TEC tracks particles passing through the region between the RICH and the EMCal. The design and operational parameters of the detectors are presented and running experience during the first year of data taking with PHENIX is discussed. The observed spatial and momentum resolution is given which imposes a limitation on the identification and characterization of charged particles in various momentum ranges

  19. Future developments in etched track detectors for neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tommasino, L.

    1987-01-01

    Many laboratories engaged in the field of personal neutron dosimetry are interested in developing better etching processes and improving the CR-39 detecting materials. To know how much effort must still be devoted to the development of etch track dosimetry, it is necessary to understand the advantages. limitations and degree of exploitation of the currently available techniques. So much has been learned about the chemical and electrochemical etching processes that an optimised combination of etching processes could make possible the elimination of many of the existing shortcomings. Limitations of etched track detectors for neutron dosimetry arise mainly because the registration occurs only on the detector surface. These damage type detectors are based on radiation induced chain scission processes in polymers, which result in hole-type tracks in solids. The converse approach, yet to be discovered, would be the development of cure-track detectors, where radiation induced cross linking between organic polymer chains could result in solid tracks in liquids. (author)

  20. Development of the ZEUS central tracking detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, C. B.; Bullock, F. W.; Cashmore, R. J.; Devenish, R. C.; Foster, B.; Fraser, T. J.; Gibson, M. D.; Gilmore, R. S.; Gingrich, D.; Harnew, N.; Hart, J. C.; Heath, G. P.; Hiddleston, J.; Holmes, A. R.; Jamdagni, A. K.; Jones, T. W.; Llewellyn, T. J.; Long, K. R.; Lush, G. J.; Malos, J.; Martin, N. C.; McArthur, I.; McCubbin, N. A.; McQuillan, D.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Morgado, C.; Nash, J.; Nixon, G.; Parham, A. G.; Payne, B. T.; Roberts, J. H. C.; Salmon, G.; Saxon, D. H.; Sephton, A. J.; Shaw, D.; Shaw, T. B.; Shield, P. D.; Shulman, J.; Silvester, I.; Smith, S.; Strachan, D. E.; Tapper, R. J.; Tkaczyk, S. M.; Toudup, L. W.; Wallis, E. W.; Wastie, R.; Wells, J.; White, D. J.; Wilson, F. F.; Yeo, K. L.; ZEUS-UK Collaboration

    1989-11-01

    The design concept and development of the ZEUS central tracking detector is described. This is a cylindrical drift chamber designed for track reconstruction, electron identification and event triggering in a high-crossing-rate, high-magnetic-field environment.

  1. Development of the ZEUS central tracking detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, C.B.; Cashmore, R.J.; Gingrich, D.; Harnew, N.; Heath, G.P.; Holmes, A.R.; Martin, N.C.; McArthur, I.; Nash, J.; Salmon, G.; Shield, P.D.; Silvester, I.; Smith, S.; Wastie, R.; Wells, J.; Jamdagni, A.K.; McQuillan, D.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Shulman, J.; Toudup, L.W.

    1989-01-01

    The design concept and development of the ZEUS central tracking detector is described. This is a cylindrical drift chamber designed for track reconstruction, electron identification and event triggering in a high-crossing-rate, high-magnetic-field environment. (orig.)

  2. Nanoscale measurements of proton tracks using fluorescent nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawakuchi, Gabriel O., E-mail: gsawakuchi@mdanderson.org; Sahoo, Narayan [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Ferreira, Felisberto A. [Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Sao Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); McFadden, Conor H. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Hallacy, Timothy M. [Biophysics Program, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Granville, Dal A. [Department of Medical Physics, The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8L6 (Canada); Akselrod, Mark S. [Crystal Growth Division, Landauer, Inc., Stillwater, Oklahoma 74074 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: The authors describe a method in which fluorescence nuclear track detectors (FNTDs), novel track detectors with nanoscale spatial resolution, are used to determine the linear energy transfer (LET) of individual proton tracks from proton therapy beams by allowing visualization and 3D reconstruction of such tracks. Methods: FNTDs were exposed to proton therapy beams with nominal energies ranging from 100 to 250 MeV. Proton track images were then recorded by confocal microscopy of the FNTDs. Proton tracks in the FNTD images were fit by using a Gaussian function to extract fluorescence amplitudes. Histograms of fluorescence amplitudes were then compared with LET spectra. Results: The authors successfully used FNTDs to register individual proton tracks from high-energy proton therapy beams, allowing reconstruction of 3D images of proton tracks along with delta rays. The track amplitudes from FNTDs could be used to parameterize LET spectra, allowing the LET of individual proton tracks from therapeutic proton beams to be determined. Conclusions: FNTDs can be used to directly visualize proton tracks and their delta rays at the nanoscale level. Because the track intensities in the FNTDs correlate with LET, they could be used further to measure LET of individual proton tracks. This method may be useful for measuring nanoscale radiation quantities and for measuring the LET of individual proton tracks in radiation biology experiments.

  3. Using track detectors in neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Turek, K.

    1977-01-01

    The usage of track detectors of charged particles provides a new possibility of neutron dosimetry. Presented is a comparison of the main dosimetric characteristics of three various types of track detectots of fast neutrons, i.e. glass in the contact with 232 Th; KODAK LR115 cellulose nitrate; MAKROFOL E polycarbonate. Results of studing energy dependences of detectors are presented. Results obtained using phantoms under radiation fields of various sources of complex gamma-neutron radiation are discussed [ru

  4. Monitoring the Radiation Damage of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Pixel Detector is the innermost charged particle tracking component employed by the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The instantaneous luminosity delivered by the LHC, now routinely in excess of 5x10^{33} cm^{-2} s^{-1}, results in a rapidly increasing accumulated radiation dose to the detector. Methods based on the sensor depletion properties and leakage current are used to monitor the evolution of the radiation damage, and results from the 2011 run are presented.

  5. Monitoring the radiation damage of the ATLAS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, M.

    2013-01-01

    The pixel detector is the innermost charged particle tracking component employed by the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The instantaneous luminosity delivered by the LHC, now routinely in excess of 5×10 33 cm −2 s −1 , results in a rapidly increasing accumulated radiation dose to the detector. Methods based on the sensor depletion properties and leakage current are used to monitor the evolution of the radiation damage, and results from the 2011 run are presented

  6. Kit with track detectors aiming at didactic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, M.F.; Koskinas, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    The kit intends to improve the possibilities in performing experiments of Nuclear Physics in Modern Physics Laboratories of Physics Course introducing the solid state nuclear track detectors. In these materials the passage of heavily ionizing nuclear particles creates paths (tracks) that may be revealed and made visible in an optical microscope. By the help of the kit several experiments and/or demonstrations may be performed. The kit contains solid state nuclear track detectors unirradiated and irradiated, irradiated etched and uneteched sheets; an alpha source of 241 Am and an instrution text with photomicrographs. To use the kit the laboratory must have an ordinary optical microscope. (author) [pt

  7. Device for glass detector tracks processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, A.V.; Mikheev, V.P.; Pis'mennyj, G.V.; Pribytov, V.I.; Rozov, B.S.

    1974-01-01

    The authors describe a semi-automatic installation for measuring angular distribution of tracks from nuclear fission fragments. The measurements were performed on glass detectors represented by a cylinder surface section with central angle 110-120 deg, height 20 mm and radius 45 mm. The tracks were in the form of lunes, 10/25 mm deep. Treatment of one detector lasted 10-15 min. The installation affords the possibility of finding the angular distribution of tracks by counting them in zones, whose sizes may vary from 1 to 90 deg. Data output was performed on a digitizer [ru

  8. Automatic measurement for solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Koichi

    1982-01-01

    Since in solid state track detectors, their tracks are measured with a microscope, observers are forced to do hard works that consume time and labour. This causes to obtain poor statistic accuracy or to produce personal error. Therefore, many researches have been done to aim at simplifying and automating track measurement. There are two categories in automating the measurement: simple counting of the number of tracks and the requirements to know geometrical elements such as the size of tracks or their coordinates as well as the number of tracks. The former is called automatic counting and the latter automatic analysis. The method to generally evaluate the number of tracks in automatic counting is the estimation of the total number of tracks in the total detector area or in a field of view of a microscope. It is suitable for counting when the track density is higher. The method to count tracks one by one includes the spark counting and the scanning microdensitometer. Automatic analysis includes video image analysis in which the high quality images obtained with a high resolution video camera are processed with a micro-computer, and the tracks are automatically recognized and measured by feature extraction. This method is described in detail. In many kinds of automatic measurements reported so far, frequently used ones are ''spark counting'' and ''video image analysis''. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  9. Temperature effects on radiation damage in plastic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza A, D.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of present work was to study the temperature effect on radiation damage registration in the structure of a Solid State Nuclear Track Detector of the type CR-39. In order to study the radiation damage as a function of irradiation temperature, sheets of CR-39 detectors were irradiated with electron beams, simulating the interaction of positive ions. CR-39 detectors were maintained at a constant temperature from room temperature up to 373 K during irradiation. Two techniques were used from analyzing changes in the detector structure: Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Infrared Spectroscopy (IR). It was found by EPR analysis that the amount of free radicals decrease as irradiation temperature increases. The IR spectrums show yield of new functional group identified as an hydroxyl group (OH). A proposed model of interaction of radiation with CR-39 detectors is discussed. (Author)

  10. The Cosmic Ray Tracking (CRT) detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernloehr, K.; Gamp, S.; Hermann, G.; Hofmann, W.; Kihm, T.; Knoeppler, J.; Leffers, G.; Matheis, V.; Panter, M.; Trunk, U.; Ulrich, M.; Wolf, T.; Zink, R.; Heintze, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Tracking (CRT) project represents a study on the use of tracking detectors of the time projection chamber type to detect secondary cosmic ray particles in extensive air showers. In reconstructing the arrival direction of the primary cosmic ray particles, the CRT detectors take advantage of the angular correlation of secondary particles with the cosmic rays leading to these air showers. In this paper, the detector hardware including the custom-designed electronics system is described in detail. A CRT detector module provides an active area of 2.5 m 2 and allows to measure track directions with a precision of 0.4 circle . It consists of two circular drift chambers of 1.8 m diameter with six sense wires each, and a 10 cm thick iron plate between the two chambers. Each detector has a local electronics box with a readout, trigger, and monitoring system. The detectors can distinguish penetrating muons from other types of charged secondaries. A large detector array could be used to search for γ-ray point sources at energies above several TeV and for studies of the cosmic-ray composition. Ten detectors are in operation at the site of the HEGRA air shower array. (orig.)

  11. Effect of track etch rate on geometric track characteristics for polymeric track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Naby, A.A.; El-Akkad, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of the variable track etch rate on geometric track characteristic for polymeric track detectors has been applied to the case of LR-155 II SSNTD. Spectrometric characteristics of low energy alpha particles response by the polymeric detector have been obtained. The track etching kinematics theory of development of minor diameter of the etched tracks has been applied. The calculations show that, for this type of detector, the energy dependence of the minor track diameter d is linear for small-etched removal layer h. The energy resolution gets better for higher etched removal layer

  12. Influence of tracks densities in solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes O, S.; Hadler N.; Lunes, P.; Saenz T, C.

    1996-01-01

    When Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD) is employed to measure nuclear tracks produced mainly by fission fragments and alpha particles, it is considered that the tracks observation work is performed under an efficiency, ε 0 , which is independent of the track density (number of tracks/area unit). There are not published results or experimental data supporting such an assumption. In this work the dependence of ε 0 with track density is studied basing on experimental data. To perform this, pieces of CR-39 cut from a sole 'mother sheet' were coupled to thin uranium films for different exposition times and the resulting ratios between track density and exposition time were compared. Our results indicate that ε 0 is constant for track densities between 10 3 and 10 5 cm -2 . At our etching conditions track overlapping makes impossible the counting for densities around 1.7 x 10 5 cm -2 . For track densities less than 10 3 cm -2 , ε 0 , was not observed to be constant. (authors). 4 refs., 2 figs

  13. Electronics for very high rate tracking detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, H.H.; Dressnandt, N.; Ekenberg, T.; Gerds, E.J.; Newcomer, F.M.; Tedja, S.; Van Berg, R.; Van der Speigel, J.

    1995-01-01

    Results are presented on a system of electronics designed for very high rate tracking detectors at the SSC and LHC. The primary goal was a system for signal detection, time measurement, and readout for the straw tracker for SDC. An integrated circuit incorporating eight channels of amplifier-shaper-discriminator (including detector tail cancellation), and two different integrated circuits for time measurement are described. The performance of tracking measurements up to counting rates of 8 MHz per wire is reported, as well as preliminary results from a baseline restoration circuit. (orig.)

  14. Scintillating fibre tracking neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Joakim.

    1995-04-01

    A detector for measurements of collimated fluxes of neutrons in the energy range 2-20 MeV is proposed. It utilizes (n.p) elastic scattering in scintillating optical fibres placed in successive orthogonal layers perpendicular to the neutron flux. A test module has been designed, constructed and tested with respect to separation of neutron and gamma events. The pulse height measurements show the feasibility to discriminate between neutron, gamma and background events. Application to measurements of fusion neutrons is considered. 18 refs, 22 figs, 4 tabs

  15. Monopole track characteristics in plastic detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlen, S. P.

    1975-01-01

    Total and restricted energy loss rates were calculated for magnetic monopoles of charge g = 137 e in Lexan polycarbonate. Range-energy curves are also presented. The restricted energy loss model is used to estimate the appearance of a monopole track in plastic detectors. These results should be useful for the design and analysis of monopole experiments.

  16. Properties of silver chloride track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, V.D.; Kocherov, N.P.; Novikova, N.R.; Perfilov, N.A.

    1976-01-01

    The experiments on preparation of silver chloride track detectors and their properties are described. The results of X-ray structural analysis and data on sensitivity to charged particles and actinic light of silver chloride crystals, doped with several elements, are presented. (orig.) [de

  17. Pion-induced damage in silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, S; Glaser, M; Lemeilleur, F; León-Florián, E; Gössling, C; Kaiser, B; Rolf, A; Wunstorf, R; Feick, H; Fretwurst, E; Lindström, G; Moll, Michael; Taylor, G; Chilingarov, A G

    1995-01-01

    The damage induced by pions in silicon detectors is studied for positive and negative pions for fluence up to 10(14)cm-2 and 10(13) cm-2 respectively. Results on the energy dependence of the damage in the region of 65-330 MeV near to the  resonance are presented. The change in detector characteristics such as leakage current, charge collection efficiency and effective impurity concentration including long-term annealing effects have been studied. Comparisons to neutron and proton-induced damage are presented and discussed.

  18. Tracking the NOvA Detectors' Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psihas, Fernanda; NOvA Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The NOvA experiment measures long baseline νμ -->νe oscillations in Fermilab's NuMI beam. We employ two detectors equipped with over 10 thousand sets of data-taking electronics; avalanche photo diodes and front end boards which collect and process the scintillation signal from particle interactions within the detectors. These sets of electronics -as well as the systems which power and cool them- must be monitored and maintained at precise working conditions to ensure maximal data-taking uptime, good data quality and a lasting life for our detectors. This poster describes the automated systems used on NOvA to simultaneously monitor our data quality, diagnose hardware issues, track our performance and coordinate maintenance for the detectors.

  19. THE ATLAS INNER DETECTOR TRACK BASED ALIGNMENT

    CERN Document Server

    Marti i Garcia, Salvador; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector is performed with a track-based alignment algorithm. Its goal is to provide an accurate description of the detector geometry such that track parameters are accurately determined and free from biases. Its software implementation is modular and configurable, with a clear separation of the alignment algorithm from the detector system specifics and the database handling. The alignment must cope with the rapid movements of the detector as well as with the slow drift of the different mechanical units. Prompt alignment constants are derived for every run at the calibration stage. These sets of constants are then dynamically split from the beginning of the run in many chunks, allowing to describe the tracker geometry as it evolves with time. The alignment of the Inner Detector is validated and improved by studying resonance decays (Z and J/psi to mu+mu-), as well as using information from the calorimeter system with the E/p method with electrons. A detailed study of these res...

  20. CR-39 as induced track detector in reactor: irradiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zylberberg, H.

    1989-07-01

    A systematic study about reactor's neutrons radiation effect and gamma radiation effect on the properties of CR-39 that are significant for its use as induced fission track detector is showed. The following studies deserved attention: kinetics of the fission track chemical development; efficiency to register and to develop fission track; losses of developable tracks; variation in the number of developable tracks and variation in the visible and ultraviolet radiation spectrum. The dissertation is organized in seven specific chapters: solid state nuclear tracks (SSNT); CR-39 as SSNT; objectives and problems presentation; preparation and characterization of CR-39 as SSNT; gamma irradiation effect on the properties of CR-39 as SSNT; reactor neutron irradiation effect on the properties of CR-39 as SSNT and, results discussions and conclusions. The main work contributions are the use of CR-39 in the determination of fissionable nuclide as thorium and uranium in solid and liquid samples; gamma radiation damage on CR-39 as well as the reactor's neutron damage on CR-39. (B.C.A.) 62 refs, 53 figs, 21 tabs

  1. Method of plastic track detector electrochemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'yakov, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    The review of studies dealing with the development of the method for the electro-chemical etching (ECE) of the plastic track detectors on the base of polyethy-leneterephthalate (PET) and polycarbonate (PC) is given. Physical essence of the method, basic parameters of the processes, applied equipment and methods of measurement automation are considered. The advantages of the method over the traditional chemical etching are pointed out. Recommendations on the detector operation modes when detecting fission fragments, α-particles and fast neutrons are given. The ECE method is based on the condition that during chemical etching the high-voltage sound frequency alternating electric field is applied to the detector. In this case the detector serves as an isolating layer betWeen two vessels with etching solution in which high-voltage electrode are submerged. At a fixed electric field potential higher (over than the threshold value) at the end of the etching track cone atree-like discharge spot arises. It is shown that when PET is used for fast neutron detection it is advisable to apply for ECE the PEW solution (15g KOH+40 g C 2 H 2 OH + 45g H 2 O) the field potential should constitute 30 kVxcm -1 at the freqUency of 9 kHz. In the case of fission fragment detection Using ECE and PC the following ECE conditions are recommended: 30% KOH etcher, field potential of 10 kVxcm -1 , 2-4 kHz frequency. It is concluded that the ECE method permits considerably eXtend the sphere of plastic track detector application for detecting ionizing particles,

  2. Radiation damage in barium fluoride detector materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levey, P.W.; Kierstead, J.A.; Woody, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    To develop radiation hard detectors, particularly for high energy physics studies, radiation damage is being studied in BaF 2 , both undoped and doped with La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Gd and Tm. Some dopants reduce radiation damage. In La doped BaF 2 they reduce the unwanted long lifetime luminescence which interferes with the short-lived fluorescence used to detect particles. Radiation induced coloring is being studied with facilities for making optical measurements before, during and after irradiation with 60 C0 gamma rays. Doses of 10 6 rad, or less, create only ionization induced charge transfer effects since lattice atom displacement damage is negligible at these doses. All crystals studied exhibit color center formation, between approximately 200 and 800 nm, during irradiation and color center decay after irradiation. Thus only measurements made during irradiation show the total absorption present in a radiation field. Both undoped and La doped BaF 2 develop damage at minimum detectable levels in the UV---which is important for particle detectors. For particle detector applications these studies must be extended to high dose irradiations with particles energetic enough to cause lattice atom displacement damage. In principle, the reduction in damage provided by dopants could apply to other applications requiring radiation damage resistant materials

  3. Neutron radiation damage studies on silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zheng; Chen, W.; Kraner, H.W.

    1990-10-01

    Effects of neutron radiation on electrical properties of Si detectors have been studied. At high neutron fluence (Φ n ≥ 10 12 n/cm 2 ), C-V characteristics of detectors with high resistivities (ρ ≥ 1 kΩ-cm) become frequency dependent. A two-trap level model describing this frequency dependent effect is proposed. Room temperature anneal of neutron damaged (at LN 2 temperature) detectors shows three anneal stages, while only two anneal stages were observed in elevated temperature anneal. 19 refs., 14 figs

  4. Fast neutron damage in germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraner, H.W.

    1979-10-01

    The effects of fast neutron radiation damage on the performance of both Ge(Li) and Ge(HP) detectors have been studied during the past decade and will be summarized. A review of the interaction processes leading to the defect structures causing trapping will be made. The neutron energy dependence of observable damage effects will be considered in terms of interaction and defect production cross sections

  5. Studies of isothermal annealing of fission fragment and alpha particle tracks in Cr-39 polymer detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaky, M.F.; Youssef, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Two groups of CR-39 detectors samples are exposed to two types of charged particle radiation. The first group are severe damaged with fission fragment tracks from 2 52C f source. The second accepted alpha particles resulting from the interaction of highly energetic 1 9F -ions and a copper disk with thickness 1 cm, which are of less damage tracks than fission fragments. , The isothermal annealing of tracks in the temperature range from 175 to 300 degree C in step 25 degree C for annealing time of 10,15,20,25 and 30 minutes has been investigated. The changes introduced in the track density and track diameter for two types of irradiation in the detector have been observed and compared between them. The results indicate that the track density and the size of the tracks are considerably changed due to annealing

  6. Track fitting and resolution with digital detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerdoth, I.

    1982-01-01

    The analysis of data from detectors which give digitised measurements, such as MWPCs, is considered. These measurements are necessarily correlated and it is shown that the uncertainty in the combination of N measurements may fall faster than the canonical 1/√N. A new method of track fitting is described which exploits the digital aspects and which takes the correlations into account. It divides the parameter space into cells and the centroid of a cell is taken as the best estimate. The method is shown to have some advantages over the standard least-squares analysis. If the least-squares method is used for digital detectors the goodness-of-fit may not be a reliable estimate of the accuracy. The cell method is particularly suitable for implementation on microcomputers which lack floating point and divide facilities. (orig.)

  7. Central Tracking Detector Based on Scintillating Fibres

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Scintillating fibres form a reasonable compromise for central tracking detectors in terms of price, resolution, response time, occupancy and heat production. \\\\ \\\\ New fluorescents with large Stokes shifts have been produced, capable of working without wavelength shifters. Coherent multibundles have been developed to achieve high packing fractions. Small segments of tracker shell have been assembled and beam tests have confirmed expectations on spatial resolution. An opto-electronic delay line has been designed to delay the track patterns and enable coincidences with a first level trigger. Replacement of the conventional phosphor screen anode with a Si pixel chip is achieved. This tube is called ISPA-tube and has already been operated in beam tests with a scintillating fibres tracker. \\\\ \\\\ The aim of the proposal is to improve hit densities for small diameter fibres by increasing the fraction of trapped light, by reducing absorption and reflection losses, by reflecting light at the free fibre end, and by inc...

  8. Track length estimation applied to point detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rief, H.; Dubi, A.; Elperin, T.

    1984-01-01

    The concept of the track length estimator is applied to the uncollided point flux estimator (UCF) leading to a new algorithm of calculating fluxes at a point. It consists essentially of a line integral of the UCF, and although its variance is unbounded, the convergence rate is that of a bounded variance estimator. In certain applications, involving detector points in the vicinity of collimated beam sources, it has a lower variance than the once-more-collided point flux estimator, and its application is more straightforward

  9. Monopole-track characteristics in plastic detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlen, S. P.

    1976-01-01

    Total and restricted energy loss rates are calculated for magnetic monopoles of charge g = 137 e in Lexan polycarbonate. Range-energy curves are also presented. The restricted-energy-loss model is used to estimate the appearance of a monopole track in plastic detectors. The results are applied to the event observed by Price et al. and identified by them as a monopole. It is found that the observed etch rate is consistent with what one would expect for a slow magnetic monopole. These results should also be of use to other investigators for both the design and analysis of monopole experiments.

  10. Silicon detectors for tracking and vertexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomerotski, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    This review covers recent developments in silicon detectors used for particle physics experiments for the tracking and vertexing systems. After a general introduction the main focus of the report is on new challenges for this field posed by requirements of the future generation machines. Technologies reviewed in more detail are column parallel CCDs, DEPFET, vertical integration of sensors and electronics and several others which allow fast readout and low mass design. Important system issues such as mechanical arrangements for the sensors and power distribution, which are critical for the low mass design, are also discussed.

  11. Tracking and vertexing with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, F.

    2011-01-01

    The Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN contains three tracking systems: The silicon Pixel Detector, the Silicon Microstrip Tracker and the Transition Radiation Tracker. In combination these detectors provide excellent track and vertex reconstruction efficiencies and resolutions. This paper describes studies which show the performance of track and vertex reconstruction on data collected at 7 TeV center-of-mass energy.

  12. Nuclear Track Detectors. Searches for Exotic Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomelli, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    We used Nuclear Track Detectors (NTD) CR39 and Makrofol for many purposes: i) Exposures at the SPS and at lower energy accelerator heavy ion beams for calibration purposes and for fragmentation studies. ii) Searches for GUT and Intermediate Mass Magnetic Monopoles (IMM), nuclearites, Q-balls and strangelets in the cosmic radiation. The MACRO experiment in the Gran Sasso underground lab, with ~1000 m^2 of CR39 detectors (plus scintillators and streamer tubes), established an upper limit for superheavy GUT poles at the level of 1.4x10^-16 cm^-2 s^-1 sr^-1 for 4x10^-5 detectors exposed for 4.22 y, gave an upper limit for IMMs of ~1.3x10^-15 cm^-2 s^-1 sr^-1. The experiments yielded interesting upper limits also on the fluxes of the other mentioned exotic particles. iii) Environmental studies, radiation monitoring, neutron dosimetry.

  13. Discovery Mondays - The detectors: tracking particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    View of a module from the LHCb vertex detector, which will be presented at the next Discovery Monday. How do you observe the invisible? In order to deepen still further our knowledge of the infinitely small, physicists accelerate beams of particles and generate collisions between them at extraordinary energies. The collisions give birth to showers of new particles. What are they? In order to find out, physicists slip into the role of detectives thanks to the detectors. At the next Discovery Monday you will find out about the different methods used at CERN to detect particles. A cloud chamber will allow you to see the tracks of cosmic particles live. You will also be given the chance to see real modules for the ATLAS and for the LHCb experiments. Strange materials will be on hand, such as crystals that are heavier than iron and yet as transparent as glass... Come to the Microcosm and become a top detective yourself! This event will take place in French. Join us at the Microcosm (Reception Building 33, M...

  14. Detector independent cellular automaton algorithm for track reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisel, Ivan; Kulakov, Igor; Zyzak, Maksym [Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Track reconstruction is one of the most challenging problems of data analysis in modern high energy physics (HEP) experiments, which have to process per second of the order of 10{sup 7} events with high track multiplicity and density, registered by detectors of different types and, in many cases, located in non-homogeneous magnetic field. Creation of reconstruction package common for all experiments is considered to be important in order to consolidate efforts. The cellular automaton (CA) track reconstruction approach has been used successfully in many HEP experiments. It is very simple, efficient, local and parallel. Meanwhile it is intrinsically independent of detector geometry and good candidate for common track reconstruction. The CA implementation for the CBM experiment has been generalized and applied to the ALICE ITS and STAR HFT detectors. Tests with simulated collisions have been performed. The track reconstruction efficiencies are at the level of 95% for majority of the signal tracks for all detectors.

  15. A parameterization of nuclear track profiles in CR-39 detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azooz, A. A.; Al-Nia'emi, S. H.; Al-Jubbori, M. A.

    2012-11-01

    In this work, the empirical parameterization describing the alpha particles’ track depth in CR-39 detectors is extended to describe longitudinal track profiles against etching time for protons and alpha particles. MATLAB based software is developed for this purpose. The software calculates and plots the depth, diameter, range, residual range, saturation time, and etch rate versus etching time. The software predictions are compared with other experimental data and with results of calculations using the original software, TRACK_TEST, developed for alpha track calculations. The software related to this work is freely downloadable and performs calculations for protons in addition to alpha particles. Program summary Program title: CR39 Catalog identifier: AENA_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENA_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Copyright (c) 2011, Aasim Azooz Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met • Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. • Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution This software is provided by the copyright holders and contributors “as is” and any express or implied warranties, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose are disclaimed. In no event shall the copyright owner or contributors be liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, special, exemplary, or consequential damages (including, but not limited to, procurement of substitute goods or services; loss of use, data, or profits; or business interruption) however caused and

  16. Inner Detector Track Reconstruction and Alignment at the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Danninger, Matthias; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is responsible for reconstructing the trajectories of charged particles (‘tracks’) with high efficiency and accuracy. It consists of three subdetectors, each using a different technology to provide measurements points. An overview of the use of each of these subdetectors in track reconstruction, as well as the algorithmic approaches taken to the specific tasks of pattern recognition and track fitting, is given. The performance of the Inner Detector tracking will be summarised. Of crucial importance for optimal tracking performance is precise knowledge of the relative positions of the detector elements. ATLAS uses a sophisticated, highly granular software alignment procedure to determine and correct for the positions of the sensors, including time-dependent effects appearing within single data runs. This alignment procedure will be discussed in detail, and its effect on Inner Detector tracking for LHC Run 2 proton-proton collision data highlighted.

  17. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Lacuesta, V; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    ATLAS is a multipurpose experiment that records the LHC collisions. To reconstruct trajectories of charged particles produced in these collisions, ATLAS tracking system is equipped with silicon planar sensors and drift‐tube based detectors. They constitute the ATLAS Inner Detector. In order to achieve its scientific goals, the alignment of the ATLAS tracking system requires the determine accurately its almost 36000 degrees of freedom. Thus the demanded precision for the alignment of the silicon sensors is below 10 micrometers. This implies to use a large sample of high momentum and isolated charge particle tracks. The high level trigger selects those tracks online. Then the raw data with the hits information of the triggered tracks is stored in a calibration stream. Tracks from cosmic trigger during empty LHC bunches are also used as input for the alignment. The implementation of the track based alignment within the ATLAS software framework unifies different alignment approaches and allows the alignment of ...

  18. Studies on nitrogen mapping by various CR-39 track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, G.; Varga, Zs.; Hunyadi, I.; Freyer, K.; Treutler, H.Ch.

    1986-01-01

    The use of CR-39 track detectors for nitrogen distribution measurements via the /sup 14/N(n,p)/sup 14/C reaction is studied. The proton detection properties of different CR-39 products have been analyzed. The variation of background track density induced in the bulk of detectors is examined under different conditions of neutron irradiation. Analysis of our experimental data has led to the conclusion that the sources of proton background tracks are the fast neutron component of the neutron source, chlorine impurities in the detector and nitrogen diffused from the air into the upper layer of the detector. Efforts have been made to decrease the nitrogen content of diffusion origin by removing the upper detector layer and by outgassing the CR-39 sheet in vacuum before irradiation. Finally the ''signal/noise'' ratio for a steel specimen and the sensitivity of nitrogen determination are given.

  19. Technologies pioneered by LHC. Superconducting magnet and radiation-tolerant tracking detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akira; Unno, Yoshinobu

    2007-01-01

    In the LHC project of proton-proton collisions exploring the energy frontier, superconducting magnets and radiation-tolerant tracking detector play fundamental roles as key technologies. The superconducting magnets contribute to bending and focusing particle beam by using high magnetic field created with the NbTi superconductor cooled to the superfluid temperature of He (1.9 K). In order to overcome the unprecedented radiation damage and to capture the particles emerging with high energy and high density, the large area and highly radiation-tolerant silicon semiconductor tracking detector has been developed for the LHC experiment. (author)

  20. Measurement of fission track of uranium particle by solid state nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, S. C.; Pyo, H. W.; Ji, K. Y.; Kim, W. H.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we discussed results of the measurement of fission tracks for the uranium containing particles by solid state nuclear track detector. Uranium containing silica and uranium oxide particles were prepared by uranium sorption onto silica powder in weak acidic medium and laser ablation on uranium pellet, respectively. Fission tracks for the uranium containing silica and uranium oxide particles were detected on Lexan plastic detector. It was found that the fission track size and shapes depend on the particle size uranium content in particles. Correlation of uranium particle diameter with fission track radius was also discussed

  1. Tracking Detectors in the STAR Experiment at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieman, Howard

    2015-04-01

    The STAR experiment at RHIC is designed to measure and identify the thousands of particles produced in 200 Gev/nucleon Au on Au collisions. This talk will focus on the design and construction of two of the main tracking detectors in the experiment, the TPC and the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) pixel detector. The TPC is a solenoidal gas filled detector 4 meters in diameter and 4.2 meters long. It provides precise, continuous tracking and rate of energy loss in the gas (dE/dx) for particles at + - 1 units of pseudo rapidity. The tracking in a half Tesla magnetic field measures momentum and dE/dX provides particle ID. To detect short lived particles tracking close to the point of interaction is required. The HFT pixel detector is a two-layered, high resolution vertex detector located at a few centimeters radius from the collision point. It determines origins of the tracks to a few tens of microns for the purpose of extracting displaced vertices, allowing the identification of D mesons and other short-lived particles. The HFT pixel detector uses detector chips developed by the IPHC group at Strasbourg that are based on standard IC Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. This is the first time that CMOS pixel chips have been incorporated in a collider application.

  2. Efficiency of a concentric matrix track detector surface scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bek-Uzarov, Dj.; Nikezic, D.; Kostic, D.; Krstic, D.; Cuknic, O.

    1995-01-01

    Heavy particle ionizing radiation track counting on the surface of a solid state round surface detector is made using the microscope and scanning step by step by a round field of vision. The whole solid state detector surface could not be fully or completely covered by round fields of visions. Therefore detector surface could be divided on the two parts, the larger surface, being under fields of vision, really scanned and no scanned missed or omitted surface. The ratio between omitted and scanned surfaces is so called track scanning efficiency. The knowledge of really counted, or scanned surface is a important value for evaluating the real surface track density an exposed solid state track detector. In the paper a matrix of a concentric field of vision made around the first microscope field of vision placed in center of the round disc of the scanned track detector is proposed. In a such scanning matrix the real scanned surface could be easy calculated and by the microscope scanning made as well. By this way scanned surface is very precisely obtained as well. Precise knowledge of scanned and omitted surface allows to obtain more precise scanning efficiency factor as well as real surface track density, the main parameter in solid state track detection measurements. (author)

  3. The design and construction of the ZEUS central tracking detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, B.; Malos, J.; Saxon, D.H.; Clark, D.E.; Jamdagni, A.K.; Markou, C.; Miller, D.B.; Miller, D.G.; Toudup, L.W.; Auty, C.G.; Blair, G.A.; Brooks, C.B.; Cashmore, R.J.; Hanford, A.T.; Harnew, N.; Holmes, A.R.; Linford, W.; Martin, N.C.; McArthur, I.C.; Nash, J.; Nobbs, K.N.; Wastie, R.L.; Williams, M.T.; Wilson, F.F.; Wilson, R.D.; Hart, J.C.; Hatley, R.W.; Hiddleston, J.W.; Gibson, M.D.; McCubbin, N.A.; Middleton, A.; Morrissey, M.C.; Morrow, D.; O' Brien, P.; Payne, B.T.; Roberts, J.C.H.; Shaw, T.B.; Sinclair, C.K.; Wallis, E.W.G.; White, D.J.; Yeo, K.L.; Bullock, F.W.; Dumper, J.; Fraser, T.J.; Hayes, D.; Jones, T.W.; Strachan, D.E.; Vine, I.A. (H.H. Wills Physics Lab., Univ. of Bristol (United Kingdom) Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Glasgow (United Kingdom) Blackett Lab., Physics Dept., Imperial Coll., London (United Kingdom) Dept. of Physics, Nuclear Physics Lab., Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom) Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom) Dept. of Physics an

    1994-01-15

    The mechanical, electrical and electronic design and construction of the ZEUS central tracking detector are described, together with the chamber monitoring and environmental control. This cylindrical drift chamber is designed for track reconstruction, electron identification and fast event triggering in a high beam-crossing rate, high magnetic field application. (orig.)

  4. Rank Detector Preprocessor for Glint Reduction in a Tracking Radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Guest, IW

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available A rank detector is used to defect instantaneous received power fades in tracking radar. On detection of a fade, censorship of the angular position measurement is implemented in a Kalman tracking filter. It is shown that this technique can typically...

  5. Characterization of the polymer Durolon as a solid state nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliesi, Fabio

    2008-01-01

    The polymer Durolon has been characterized as a solid state nuclear track detector. In these detectors a track, resulting from the damages in its molecular structure, induced by a heavy charged particle, is the testimony of the passage of the particle through the polymer. In order to characterize the Durolon the track diameter, track production rate, light transmission through the polymer and the critical angle of incidence of the particle have been studied. The main objective of such studies was to provide the necessary subsidies to understand the information registered. The damages have been induced by alpha particles from the nuclear reaction 10 B(n,α) 7 Li, by irradiating a boron screen in a thermal neutron field from an experimental facility installed in the beam-hole 08 of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The study of the parameters have been performed by using a digital system developed in the present work. Its use has provided a higher quality and quickness regarding data acquisition and data analysis as well as the opportunity to quantify several other parameters regarding the imaging formation theory in solid state nuclear track detectors. The characteristics of the Durolon have been compared with the ones of two other detectors Makrofol-E and Makrofol-DE and have demonstrated its potentiality to use. (author)

  6. Secondary electrons detectors for beam tracking: micromegas and wire chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancin, J; Chaminade, T; Drouart, A; Kebbiri, M; Riallot, M; Fernandez, B; Naqvi, F

    2009-01-01

    SPIRAL2 or FAIR will be able to deliver beams of radioactive isotopes of low energy (less than 10 MeV/n). The emittance of these new beams will impose the use of beam tracking detectors to reconstruct the exact impact position of the nuclei on the experimental target. However, due to their thickness, the classical detectors will generate a lot of energy and angular straggling. A possible alternative is the SED principle (Secondary Electron Detector). It consists of an emissive foil placed in beam and a detector for the secondary electrons ejected by the passing of the nuclei through the foil. An R and D program has been initiated at CEA Saclay to study the possibility to use low pressure gaseous detectors as SED for beam tracking. Some SED have been already used on the VAMOS spectrometer at GANIL since 2004. We have constructed new detectors on this model to measure their performances in time and spatial resolution, and counting rate. Other detector types are also under study. For the first time, a test with different micromegas detectors at 4 Torr has been realized. A comparison on the time resolution has been performed between wire chamber and micromegas at very low pressure. The use of micromegas could be promising to improve the counting rate capability and the robustness of beam tracking detectors.

  7. Single track coincidence measurements of fluorescent and plastic nuclear track detectors in therapeutic carbon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osinga, J-M; Jäkel, O; Ambrožová, I; Brabcová, K Pachnerová; Davídková, M; Akselrod, M S; Greilich, S

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for single track coincidence measurements using two different track detector materials. We employed plastic and fluorescent nuclear track detectors (PNTDs and FNTDs) in the entrance channel of a monoenergetic carbon ion beam covering the therapeutic energy range from 80 to 425 MeV/u. About 99% of all primary particle tracks detected by both detectors were successfully matched, while 1% of the particles were only detected by the FNTDs because of their superior spatial resolution. We conclude that both PNTDs and FNTDs are suitable for clinical carbon beam dosimetry with a detection efficiency of at least 98.82% and 99.83% respectively, if irradiations are performed with low fluence in the entrance channel of the ion beam. The investigated method can be adapted to other nuclear track detectors and offers the possibility to characterize new track detector materials against well-known detectors. Further, by combining two detectors with a restricted working range in the presented way a hybrid-detector system can be created with an extended and optimized working range

  8. Earthquake prediction research with plastic nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woith, H.; Enge, W.; Beaujean, R.; Oschlies, K.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1984 a German-Turkish project on earthquake prediction research has been operating at the North Anatolian fault zone in Turkey. Among many other parameters changes in Radon emission have also been investigated. Plastic nuclear track detectors (Kodak cellulose nitrate LR 115) are used to record alpha-particles emitted from Radon and Thoron atoms and their daughter isotopes. The detectors are replaced and analyzed every 3 weeks. Thus a quasi-continuous time sequence of the Radon soil gas emission is recorded. We present a comparison between measurements made with electronic counters and plastic track detectors. (author)

  9. The Siegen automatic measuring system for track detectors: new developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusch, G.; Winkel, E.; Noll, A.; Heinrich, W.

    1991-01-01

    Starting twelve years ago we have developed completely automatic scanning and measuring systems for nuclear track detectors. The hardware and software of these systems have continuously been improved. They were used in different heavy ion and cosmic ray experiments. In this paper we describe methods for high resolution REL measurements in plastic nuclear track detectors and methods to scan and measure nuclear disintegration stars in AgCl detectors using an automatic measuring technique. The system uses a stepping motor driven microscope stage, a video camera and an image analysis computer based on a MC68020 microprocessor. (author)

  10. The track finding algorithm of the Belle II vertex detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilka Tadeas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Belle II experiment is a high energy multi purpose particle detector operated at the asymmetric e+e− - collider SuperKEKB in Tsukuba (Japan. In this work we describe the algorithm performing the pattern recognition for inner tracking detector which consists of two layers of pixel detectors and four layers of double sided silicon strip detectors arranged around the interaction region. The track finding algorithm will be used both during the High Level Trigger on-line track reconstruction and during the off-line full reconstruction. It must provide good efficiency down to momenta as low as 50 MeV/c where material effects are sizeable even in an extremely thin detector as the VXD. In addition it has to be able to cope with the high occupancy of the Belle II detectors due to the background. The underlying concept of the track finding algorithm, as well as details of the implementation are outlined. The algorithm is proven to run with good performance on simulated ϒ(4S → BB̄ events with an efficiency for reconstructing tracks of above 90% over a wide range of momentum.

  11. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the multipurpose experiments that records the products of the LHC proton-proton and heavy ion collisions. In order to reconstruct trajectories of charged particles produced in these collisions, ATLAS is equipped with a tracking system built using two different technologies, silicon planar sensors (pixel and microstrips) and drift-tube based detectors. Together they constitute the ATLAS Inner Detector, which is embedded in a 2 T axial field. Efficiently reconstructing tracks from charged particles traversing the detector, and precisely measure their momenta is of crucial importance for physics analyses. In order to achieve its scientific goals, an alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector is required to accurately determine its more than 700,000 degrees of freedom. The goal of the alignment is set such that the limited knowledge of the sensor locations should not deteriorate the resolution of track parameters by more than 20% with respect to the intrinsic tracker resolution. The implementation of t...

  12. Nuclear track detector kit for use in teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medveczky, L.; Somogyi, G.

    1986-01-01

    By the use of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) one may carry out several useful and impressive educational experiments and demonstrations to illustrate different phenomena when teaching of nuclear physics. Realizing this situation the authors have published, since 1970, reports on several experiments for teaching demonstrations. Based on the authors instructions, a factory in Hungary (TANFRT, National Manufacturers and Suppliers of School Equipment, Budapest) constructed a kit for the use of nuclear track detectors in teaching. The portable kit contains the following items: alpha-emitting weak sources, solid state nuclear track detectors (unirradiated, irradiated, unetched and etched sheets), simple tools for carrying out experiments (facilities for irradiation and etching, etc.), slides showing photos of typical etch-tracks of light and heavy nuclei, user manual. By the help of the kit both pupils and teachers can perform various useful experiments and/or demonstrations. (author)

  13. Nuclear track detector kit for use in teaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medveczky, L.; Somogyi, G.; Nagy, M.

    1986-01-01

    By the use of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) one may carry out several useful and impressive educational experiments and demonstrations to illustrate different phenomena when teaching of nuclear physics. Realizing this situation the authors have published, since 1970, reports on several experiments for teaching demonstrations. Based on the authors instructions, a factory in Hungary (TANFRT, National Manufacturers and Suppliers of School Equipment, Budapest) constructed a kit for the use of nuclear track detectors in teaching. The portable kit contains the following items: alpha-emitting weak sources, solid state nuclear track detectors (unirradiated, irradiated, unetched and etched sheets), simple tools for carrying out experiments (facilities for irradiation and etching, etc.), slides showing photos of typical etch-tracks of light and heavy nuclei, user manual. By the help of the kit both pupils and teachers can perform various useful experiments and/or demonstrations.

  14. Robust track fitting in the Belle II inner tracking detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadler, Moritz; Frühwirth, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Track fitting in the new inner tracker of the Belle II experiment uses the GENFIT package. In the latter both a standard Kalman filter and a robust extension, the deterministic annealing filter (DAF), are implemented. This contribution presents the results of a simulation experiment which examines the performance of the DAF in the inner tracker, in terms of outlier detection ability and of the impact of different kinds of background on the quality of the fitted tracks.

  15. Determination of nuclear tracks parameters on sequentially etched PADC detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwacik, Tomasz; Bilski, Pawel; Koerner, Christine; Facius, Rainer; Berger, Thomas; Nowak, Tomasz; Reitz, Guenther; Olko, Pawel

    Polyallyl Diglycol Carbonate (PADC) detectors find many applications in radiation protection. One of them is the cosmic radiation dosimetry, where PADC detectors measure the linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of charged particles (from protons to heavy ions), supplementing TLD detectors in the role of passive dosemeter. Calibration exposures to ions of known LET are required to establish a relation between parameters of track observed on the detector and LET of particle creating this track. PADC TASTRAK nuclear track detectors were exposed to 12 C and 56 Fe ions of LET in H2 O between 10 and 544 keV/µm. The exposures took place at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) in Chiba, Japan in the frame of the HIMAC research project "Space Radiation Dosimetry-Ground Based Verification of the MATROSHKA Facility" (20P-240). Detectors were etched in water solution of NaOH with three different temperatures and for various etching times to observe the appearance of etched tracks, the evolution of their parameters and the stability of the etching process. The applied etching times (and the solution's concentrations and temperatures) were: 48, 72, 96, 120 hours (6.25 N NaOH, 50 O C), 20, 40, 60, 80 hours (6.25 N NaOH, 60 O C) and 8, 12, 16, 20 hours (7N NaOH, 70 O C). The analysis of the detectors involved planimetric (2D) measurements of tracks' entrance ellipses and mechanical measurements of bulk layer thickness. Further track parameters, like angle of incidence, track length and etch rate ratio were then calculated. For certain tracks, results of planimetric measurements and calculations were also compared with results of optical track profile (3D) measurements, where not only the track's entrance ellipse but also the location of the track's tip could be directly measured. All these measurements have been performed with the 2D/3D measurement system at DLR. The collected data allow to create sets of V(LET in H2 O) calibration curves suitable for short, intermediate and

  16. A computer program TRACK_P for studying proton tracks in PADC detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nikezic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A computer program for studying proton tracks in solid state nuclear track detectors was developed and described in this paper. The program was written in Fortran 90, with an additional tool for visualizing the track appearance as seen under the optical microscope in the transmission mode, which was written in the Python programming language. Measurable track parameters were determined and displayed in the application window and written in a data file. Three-dimensional representation of tracks was enabled. Examples of calculated tracks were also given in the present paper.

  17. Tracking detectors for the sLHC, the LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Sadrozinski, Hartmut F W

    2005-01-01

    The plans for an upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to the Super-LHC (sLHC) are reviewed with special consideration of the environment for the inner tracking system. A straw-man detector upgrade for ATLAS is presented, which is motivated by the varying radiation levels as a function of radius, and choices for detector geometries and technologies are proposed, based on the environmental constraints. A few promising technologies for detectors are discussed, both for sensors and for the associated front-end electronics. On-going research in silicon detectors and in ASIC technologies will be crucial for the success of the upgrade.

  18. Study the radiation damage effects in Si microstrip detectors for future HEP experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalwani, Kavita, E-mail: kavita.phy@mnit.ac.in [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT) Jaipur, Jaipur-302017 (India); Jain, Geetika; Dalal, Ranjeet; Ranjan, Kirti; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh [University of Delhi (DU), Delhi-110007 (India)

    2016-07-15

    Silicon (Si) detectors are playing a key role in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments due to their superior tracking capabilities. In future HEP experiments, like upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN, the silicon tracking detectors will be operated in a very intense radiation environment. This leads to both surface and bulk damage in Si detectors, which in turn will affect the operating performance of Si detectors. It is important to complement the measurements of the irradiated Si strip detectors with device simulation, which helps in understanding of both the device behavior and optimizing the design parameters needed for the future Si tracking system. An important ingredient of the device simulation is to develop a radiation damage model incorporating both bulk and surface damage. In this work, a simplified two-trap model is incorporated in device simulation to describe the type-inversion. Further, an extensive simulation of effective doping density as well as electric field profile is carried out at different temperatures for various fluences.

  19. Study the radiation damage effects in Si microstrip detectors for future HEP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalwani, Kavita; Jain, Geetika; Dalal, Ranjeet; Ranjan, Kirti; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si) detectors are playing a key role in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments due to their superior tracking capabilities. In future HEP experiments, like upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN, the silicon tracking detectors will be operated in a very intense radiation environment. This leads to both surface and bulk damage in Si detectors, which in turn will affect the operating performance of Si detectors. It is important to complement the measurements of the irradiated Si strip detectors with device simulation, which helps in understanding of both the device behavior and optimizing the design parameters needed for the future Si tracking system. An important ingredient of the device simulation is to develop a radiation damage model incorporating both bulk and surface damage. In this work, a simplified two-trap model is incorporated in device simulation to describe the type-inversion. Further, an extensive simulation of effective doping density as well as electric field profile is carried out at different temperatures for various fluences.

  20. Application of solid state nuclear track detectors in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, T.V.; Subba Ramu, M.C.; Mishra, U.C.

    1989-01-01

    This article reviews the current status of the application of nuclear track detectors with emphasis on recent developments in the field of radiation protection. Track etch detectors have been used for the measurements of low level radiation in the environment, fast neutron and radon daughter inhalation dose. Recent developments in the field of dosimetry seem to be promising. In fast neutron dosimetry, track etch detectors can be used without inclusion of fissile materials by using the electrochemical etching technique. These detectors can provide important information in the energy range upto 250 keV. Survey of this range of energy with TLD is difficult because they are extremely energy dependent and over-respond to low energy neutrons. Measurement of radon using track detectors can help to lower the cost of the radon dosimeters. Certain detectors are sensitive to alpha particles from radon and their progeny. Higher sensitivity permits their use in a passive type of personnel dosimeter, which does not require the troublesome aspects of air sampling for the collection of radon daughter samples. (author), 38 refs., 8 tabs., 12 figs

  1. Low-level radon measurements by nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koksal, E. M.; Goksel, S. A.; Alkan, H.

    1985-01-01

    In the work to be described here we have developed a passive nuclear track dosimeter to measure the integrated value of indoor radon (Rn-222) over a long period of time. Passive radon dosimeter which we have developed in our laboratories makes use of two small pieces of CR-39 plastic (Allyl diglycol carbonate) as detectors for registering tracks of alpha particles emitted by radon. These CR-39 plastic detectors are fixed on the inside bottom of a cup-shaped polystrene enclosure which is closed at the top by a tissue permeable for gases only. CR-39 detectors exposed to radon gas in the indoor air for a period of six months then are removed and chemically etched to make the alpha particle tracks visible under the microscope. The counts of tracks are evaluated to determine the radon concentration in the air in comparison with the number of tracks produced by a known concentration of radon gas. By using the passive dosimeters developed and the chemical etching procedure descriped here, measurements of indoor radon concentrations were carried out in 45 houses in different districts of the city of Istanbul. In this pilot experiment mean radon concentrations between 0.7 and 3.5 pCi/l have been found in these houses. In order to improve the counting of alpha tracks produced on the detectors a prototype electrochemical etching system in addition to chemical etching, is being developed. (author)

  2. Mechanism of track formation by charged particles in inorganic and organic solid-state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerschel, B.; Pretzsch, G.; Streubel, G.

    1979-01-01

    Knowledge of the individual phases of track formation mechanism is necessary in some applications of solid-state track detectors. The generation of latent tracks is described by energy transfer processes of the charged particles along their paths using several different models. Etchability of the latent tracks is discussed on the basis of some distinct criteria taking into account different fractions of energy release by the primary and secondary particles during track generation. If these etchability criteria for latent tracks are fulfilled, visual particle tracks can be produced by a chemical etching process. Etch pit formation depends on the etching conditions. The geometrical parameters of the etching pits are given on the basis of known etching rates. Evaluation of individual particle tracks or determination of track density yields results depending on both the properties of the particles and the etching conditions. Determination of particle energy and particle fluence is discussed as an example. (author)

  3. 4D tracking with ultra-fast silicon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    F-W Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Seiden, Abraham; Cartiglia, Nicolò

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of particle detectors has always pushed the technological limit in order to provide enabling technologies to researchers in all fields of science. One archetypal example is the evolution of silicon detectors, from a system with a few channels 30 years ago, to the tens of millions of independent pixels currently used to track charged particles in all major particle physics experiments. Nowadays, silicon detectors are ubiquitous not only in research laboratories but in almost every high-tech apparatus, from portable phones to hospitals. In this contribution, we present a new direction in the evolution of silicon detectors for charge particle tracking, namely the inclusion of very accurate timing information. This enhancement of the present silicon detector paradigm is enabled by the inclusion of controlled low gain in the detector response, therefore increasing the detector output signal sufficiently to make timing measurement possible. After providing a short overview of the advantage of this new technology, we present the necessary conditions that need to be met for both sensor and readout electronics in order to achieve 4D tracking. In the last section, we present the experimental results, demonstrating the validity of our research path.

  4. Proposal for a semiconductor high resolution tracking detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.

    1983-01-01

    A 'new' concept for detection and tracking of charged particles in high energy physics experiments is proposed. It combines a well known high purity semiconductor diode detector (HPSDD) with a heterojunction structure (HJ) and a negative electron affinity (NEA) surface. The detector should be capable of providing a two dimensional view (few cm 2 ) of multi-track events with the following properties: a) position resolution down to a few μm (10 8 position elements); b) high density of information (10 2 -10 3 dots per mm of minimum ionizing track); c) high rate capabilities (few MHz); d) live operation with options to be triggered and/or the information from the detector can be used as an input for the decision to record an event. (orig.)

  5. Feasibility studies for a wireless 60 GHz tracking detector readout

    CERN Document Server

    Dittmeier, Sebastian; Soltveit, Hans Kristian; Wiedner, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The amount of data produced by highly granular silicon tracking detectors in high energy physics experiments poses a major challenge to readout systems. At high collision rates, e.g. at LHC experiments, only a small fraction of data can be read out with currently used technologies. To cope with the requirements of future or upgraded experiments new data transfer techniques are required which offer high data rates at low power and low material budget. Wireless technologies operating in the 60 GHz band or at higher frequencies offer high data rates and are thus a promising upcoming alternative to conventional data transmission via electrical cables or optical fibers. Using wireless technology, the amount of cables and connectors in detectors can be significantly reduced. Tracking detectors profit most from a reduced material budget as fewer secondary particle interactions (multiple Coulomb scattering, energy loss, etc.) improve the tracking performance in general. We present feasibility studies regarding the in...

  6. Response of cellulose nitrate track detectors to electron doses

    CERN Document Server

    Segovia, N; Moreno, A; Vazquez-Polo, G; Santamaría, T; Aranda, P; Hernández, A

    1999-01-01

    In order to study alternative dose determination methods, the bulk etching velocity and the latent track annealing of LR 115 track detectors was studied during electron irradiation runs from a Pelletron accelerator. For this purpose alpha irradiated and blank detectors were exposed to increasing electron doses from 10.5 to 317.5 kGy. After the irradiation with electrons the detectors were etched under routine conditions, except for the etching time, that was varied for each electron dose in order to reach a fixed residual thickness. The variation of the bulk etching velocity as a function of each one of the electron doses supplied, was interpolated in order to obtain dosimetric response curves. The observed annealing effect on the latent tracks is discussed as a function of the total electron doses supplied and the temperature.

  7. Diallyl phthalate (DAP) solid state nuclear track detector

    CERN Document Server

    Koguchi, Y; Ashida, T; Tsuruta, T

    2003-01-01

    Diallyl phthalate (DAP) solid state nuclear track detector is suitable for detecting heavy ions such as fission fragments, because it is insensitive to right ions such as alpha particles and protons. Detection efficiency of fission tracks is about 100%, which is unaffected under conditions below 240degC lasting for 1h or below 1 MGy of gamma-ray irradiation. Optimum etching condition for the DAP detector for detection of fission fragments is 2-4 h using 30% KOH aqueous solution at 90degC or 8-15 min using PEW-65 solution at 60degC. DAP detector is useful in detecting induced fission tracks for dating of geology or measuring intense heavy ions induced by ultra laser plasma. The fabrication of copolymers of DAP and CR-39 makes it possible to control the discrimination level for detection threshold of heavy ions. (author)

  8. Study of a Tracking/Preshower Detector for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD-2 Study of a Tracking/Preshower Detector for the LHC \\\\ \\\\An important goal in the design of a detector to operate with high machine luminosity at the LHC is the detection of electrons at either the trigger or analysis level as a signature of rare physics processes. The purpose of this R~\\&~D activity is the study of track-stub/preshower techniques in electron identification. Activities include the study of radiation tolerance for silicon pad counters of the preshower detector, with the associated development of fast, low-noise, radiation hard and low-power electronics readout for the counters. The final aim is the construction of a prototype detector capable of operating at LHC.

  9. Track finding and fitting in the H1 Forward Track Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, S.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Maxfield, S.J.; Patel, G.D.; Morris, J.V.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Skillicorn, I.O.

    1995-07-01

    The tracking environment in the H1 Forward Tracker Detector, where the hit multiplicity from proton fragments is high, is parituclarly hostile. The techniques and software which have been developed for pattern recognition and Kalman fitting of charged particle tracks in this region are described in detail. (orig.)

  10. Image formation in track-etch detectors: Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, Radomir; Najzer, Mitja

    1990-01-01

    The radiographic performance of solid state nuclear track detectors was analysed with respect to image quality. Image quality is expressed in terms of three image quality factors: contrast or gradient of the detector, image unsharpness and detail discernment. Equations for the image quality factors were derived from the radiographic transfer function, taking into account image inhomogeneity caused by statistical fluctuations of track density. To find optimal radiographic conditions for a given application, a single quantity called the figure of radiographic merit was defined. It is expressed as the weighted product of the image quality factors. It was found that optimum image quality of a balanced image, characterized by equal importance of all three image quality factors, is obtained at an exposure value (defined as the product of the average visible track area and track density) of unity. (author)

  11. A fast neutron detector with IP by track measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Zhengqiang; Yang Jun; Zhang Qiang; Zhao Xiangfeng; Wang Daohua

    2004-01-01

    Imaging Plate(IP) is very sensitive to electric particles, especially to heavy ions. As we know, the recoiling protons are produced while fast neutrons scattered in light material containing hydrogen. When the recoiling proton enters in the sensitive layer of IP, a track will be recorded by IP. In this paper, a fast neutron detector based on IP and (n, p) reaction is described in detail, the detector's efficiency is studied also. (authors)

  12. Studies on neutron detection with solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khouri, M.C.; Vilela, E.C.; Andrade, C. de.

    1993-03-01

    The detection of thermal and fast neutrons was studied. For thermal neutrons, alpha sensitive plastic was used in order to register the products of nuclear reactions taking place in boron and /or lithium converters. Fast neutrons produce recoil tracks within the detector. In the present case, CR-39 and Makrofol E were used. Chemical and electrochemical etching processes were used for thermal and fast neutron detectors, respectively. (F.E.). 6 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  13. Observation of anomalons in CR-39 track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tincknell, M.L.; Price, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have observed fragments of 1.85 GeV/nucleon 40 Ar in CR-39 etched track detector and they find anomalously short mean free paths (mfp's) of secondary nuclei with 11 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 17 in the first 2 cm after their production, at approx.3 standard deviations. This confirms previous reports of this anomalon effect in nuclear emulsion in a new detector with dissimilar potential systematic errors

  14. Evaluation of a digital optical ionizing radiation particle track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, S.R.

    1987-06-01

    An ionizing radiation particle track detector is outlined which can, in principle, determine the three-dimensional spatial distribution of all the secondary electrons produced by the passage of ionizing radiation through a low-pressure (0.1 to 10 kPa) gas. The electrons in the particle track are excited by the presence of a high-frequency AC electric field, and two digital cameras image the optical radiation produced in electronic excitation collisions of the surroundings gas by the electrons. The specific requirements of the detector for neutron dosimetry and microdosimetry are outlined (i.e., operating conditions of the digital cameras, high voltage fields, gas mixtures, etc.) along with an estimate of the resolution and sensitivity achievable with this technique. The proposed detector is shown to compare favorable with other methods for obtaining the details of the track structure, particularly in the quality of the information obtainable about the particle track and the comparative simplicity and adaptability of the detector for measuring the secondary electron track structure for many forms of ionizing radiation over a wide range of energies

  15. Track structure model of cell damage in space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Robert; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Shinn, Judy L.; Ngo, Duc M.

    1992-01-01

    The phenomenological track-structure model of cell damage is discussed. A description of the application of the track-structure model with the NASA Langley transport code for laboratory and space radiation is given. Comparisons to experimental results for cell survival during exposure to monoenergetic, heavy-ion beams are made. The model is also applied to predict cell damage rates and relative biological effectiveness for deep-space exposures.

  16. Detectors for Linear Colliders: Tracking and Vertexing (2/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Efficient and precise determination of the flavour of partons in multi-hadron final states is essential to the anticipated LC physics program. This makes tracking in the vicinity of the interaction region of great importance. Tracking extrapolation and momentum resolution are specified by precise physics requirements. The R&D towards detectors able to meet these specifications will be discussed, together with some of their application beyond particle physics.

  17. Calibration and alignment of the CMS silicon tracking detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoye, M.

    2007-07-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will dominate the high energy physics program in the coming decade. The discovery of the standard model Higgs boson and the discovery of super-symmetric particles are within the reach at the energy scale explored by the LHC. However, the high luminosity and the high energy of the colliding protons lead to challenging demands on the detectors. The hostile radiation environment requires irradiation hard detectors, where the innermost subdetectors, consisting of silicon modules, are most affected. This thesis is devoted to the calibration and alignment of the silicon tracking detector. Electron test beam data, taken at DESY, have been used to investigate the performance of detector modules which previously were irradiated with protons up to a dose expected after 10 years of operation. The irradiated sensors turned out to be still better than required. The performance of the inner tracking systems will be dominated by the degree to which the positions of the sensors can be determined. Only a track based alignment procedure can reach the required precision. Such an alignment procedure is a major challenge given that about 50000 geometry constants need to be measured. Making use of the novel χ 2 minimization program Millepede II an alignment strategy has been developed in which all detector components are aligned simultaneously, as many sources of information as possible are used, and all correlations between the position parameters of the detectors are taken into account. Utilizing simulated data, a proof of concept of the alignment strategy is shown. (orig.)

  18. Calibration and alignment of the CMS silicon tracking detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoye, M.

    2007-07-15

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will dominate the high energy physics program in the coming decade. The discovery of the standard model Higgs boson and the discovery of super-symmetric particles are within the reach at the energy scale explored by the LHC. However, the high luminosity and the high energy of the colliding protons lead to challenging demands on the detectors. The hostile radiation environment requires irradiation hard detectors, where the innermost subdetectors, consisting of silicon modules, are most affected. This thesis is devoted to the calibration and alignment of the silicon tracking detector. Electron test beam data, taken at DESY, have been used to investigate the performance of detector modules which previously were irradiated with protons up to a dose expected after 10 years of operation. The irradiated sensors turned out to be still better than required. The performance of the inner tracking systems will be dominated by the degree to which the positions of the sensors can be determined. Only a track based alignment procedure can reach the required precision. Such an alignment procedure is a major challenge given that about 50000 geometry constants need to be measured. Making use of the novel {chi}{sup 2} minimization program Millepede II an alignment strategy has been developed in which all detector components are aligned simultaneously, as many sources of information as possible are used, and all correlations between the position parameters of the detectors are taken into account. Utilizing simulated data, a proof of concept of the alignment strategy is shown. (orig.)

  19. The in-beam tracking detectors for R3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschalis, Stefanos; Johansen, Jacob; Scheit, Heiko [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet, D 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Heil, Michael [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Aumann, Thomas [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet, D 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Krivshich, Anatoly [PNPI St. Petersburg, 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The R3B experiment is part of the NUSTAR pillar at FAIR. One of the great strengths of the R3B experiment is the kinematically complete measurement of reactions with exotic ions with energies of up to 1 AGeV. Key components of the R3B experiment are the neutron detector NeuLAND, the γ and charge-particle calorimeter CALIFA, the Si Tracker and the in-beam tracking detectors. A cornerstone instrument of the setup is the new dipole magnet (GLAD) which bends and momentum analyses the high-rigidity beams. A precise tracking of the charged particles through the magnetic field is crucial to resolve the masses of heavy ions and measure the momentum of the fragments with high resolution. In this contribution we present the technical design details of the in-beam tracking detectors that will be used in the R3B experiment together with recent results obtained from in-beam prototype testing. In particular, we discuss Si detectors, detectors based on plastic-scintillator fibers and paddles, straw-tube gas detectors and the overall performance of the system.

  20. Radiation damage studies for the D0 silicon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, F.

    2004-01-01

    We report on irradiation studies performed on spare production silicon detector modules for the current D0 silicon detector. The lifetime expectations due to radiation damage effects of the existing silicon detector are reviewed. A new upgrade project was started with the goal of a complete replacement of the existing silicon detector. In that context, several investigations on the radiation hardness of new prototype silicon microstrip detectors were carried out. The irradiation on different detector types was performed with 10 MeV protons up to fluences of 10 14 p/cm 2 at the J.R. Mcdonald Laboratory at Kansas State University. The flux calibration was carefully checked using different normalization techniques. As a result, we observe roughly 40-50% less radiation damage in silicon for 10 MeV p exposure than it is expected by the predicted NIEL scaling

  1. Radiation damage studies for the DOe silicon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, Frank

    2004-01-01

    We report on irradiation studies performed on spare production silicon detector modules for the current DOe silicon detector. The lifetime expectations due to radiation damage effects of the existing silicon detector are reviewed. A new upgrade project was started with the goal of a complete replacement of the existing silicon detector. In that context, several investigations on the radiation hardness of new prototype silicon microstrip detectors were carried out. The irradiation on different detector types was performed with 10 MeV protons up to fluences of 10 14 p/cm 2 at the J.R. Mcdonald Laboratory at Kansas State University. The flux calibration was carefully checked using different normalisation techniques. As a result, we observe roughly 40-50% less radiation damage in silicon for 10 MeV p exposure than it is expected by the predicted NIEL scaling

  2. Capillary detectors for high resolution tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annis, P.; Bay, A.; Bonekaemper, D.; Buontempo, S.; Ereditato, A.; Fabre, J.P.; Fiorillo, G.; Frekers, D.; Frenkel, A.; Galeazzi, F.; Garufi, F.; Goldberg, J.; Golovkin, S.; Hoepfner, K.; Konijn, J.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Liberti, B.; Martellotti, G.; Medvedkov, A.; Mommaert, C.; Panman, J.; Penso, G.; Petukhov, Yu.; Rondeshagen, D.; Tyukov, V.; Vasilchenko, V.; Vilain, P.; Vischers, J.L.; Wilquet, G.; Winter, K.; Wolff, T.; Wong, H.

    1997-01-01

    We present a new tracking device based on glass capillary bundles or layers filled with highly purified liquid scintillator and read out at one end by means of image intensifiers and CCD devices. A large-volume prototype consisting of 5 x 10 5 capillaries with a diameter of 20 μm and a length of 180 cm and read out by a megapixel CCD has been tested with muon and neutrino beams at CERN. With this prototype a two track resolution of 33 μm was achieved with passing through muons. Images of neutrino interactions in a capillary bundle have also been acquired and analysed. Read-out chains based on electron bombarded CCD (EBCCD) and image pipeline devices are also investigated. Preliminary results obtained with a capillary bundle read out by an EBCCD are presented. (orig.)

  3. Capillary detectors for high resolution tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Annis, P

    1997-01-01

    We present a new tracking device based on glass capillary bundles or layers filled with highly purified liquid scintillator and read out at one end by means of image intensifiers and CCD devices. A large-volume prototype consisting of 5 × 105 capillaries with a diameter of 20 μm and a length of 180 cm and read out by a megapixel CCD has been tested with muon and neutrino beams at CERN. With this prototype a two track resolution of 33 μm was achieved with passing through muons. Images of neutrino interactions in a capillary bundle have also been acquired and analysed. Read-out chains based on Electron Bombarded CCD (EBCCD) and image pipeline devices are also investigated. Preliminary results obtained with a capillary bundle read out by an EBCCD are presented.

  4. Tracking with heavily irradiated silicon detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casagrande, L.; Barnett, B.M.; Bartalina, P.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, the authors show that a heavily irradiated double-sided silicon microstrip detector recovers its performance when operated at cryogenic temperatures. A DELPHI microstrip detector, irradiated to a fluence of ∼4 x 10 14 p/cm 2 , no longer operational at room temperature, cannot be distinguished from a non-irradiated one when operated at T < 120 K. Besides confirming the previously observed Lazarus effect in single diodes, these results establish, for the first time, the possibility of using standard silicon detectors for tracking applications in extremely demanding radiation environments

  5. Radiation damage resistance in mercuric iodide X-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patt, B E; Dolin, R C; Devore, T M; Markakis, J M [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (USA); Iwanczyk, J S; Dorri, N [Xsirius, Inc., Marina del Rey, CA (USA); Trombka, J [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (USA). Goddard Space Flight Center

    1990-12-20

    Mercuric iodide (HgI{sub 2}) radiation detectors show great potential as ambient-temperature solid-state detectors for X-rays, gamma rays and visible light, with parameters that are competitive with existing technologies. In a previous experiment, HgI{sub 2} detectors irradiated with 10 MeV protons/cm{sup 2} exhibited no damage. The 10 MeV protons represent only the low range of the spectrum of energies that are important. An experiment has been conducted at the Saturne accelerator facility at Saclay, France, to determine the susceptibility of these detectors to radiation damage by high-energy (1.5 GeV) protons. The detectors were irradiated to a fluence of 10{sup 8} protons/cm{sup 2}. This fluence is equivalent to the cosmic radiation expected in a one-year period in space. The resolution of the detectors was measured as a function of the integral dose. No degradation in the response of any of the detectors or spectrometers was seen. It is clear from this data that HgI{sub 2} has extremely high radiation-damage resistance, exceeding that of most other semiconductor materials used for radiation detectors. Based on the results shown to date, HgI{sub 2} detectors are suitable for applications in which they may be exposed to high integral dose levels. (orig.).

  6. Radon detection in soils by solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.A.P.V. de; Khouri, M.T.F.C.

    1986-01-01

    The solid state nuclear track detectors technique was developed to be used in radon detection, by alpha particles tracks, and its application in uranium prospecting on the ground. The sensitive films to alpha particles used are the cellulose nitrate films LR 115 and CA 8015. Several simulations experiments and field measurements were carried out to verify the method possibilities. Maps of some anomalies in Caetite City (Bahia, Brazil) were made with the densities of tracks obtained. The results were compared with scintillation counter measurements. (Author) [pt

  7. Discovery Mondays - The detectors: tracking particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    View of a module from the LHCb vertex detector, which will be presented at the next Discovery Monday. How do you observe the invisible? In order to deepen still further our knowledge of the infinitely small, physicists accelerate beams of particles at close to the speed of light, then generate collisions between them at extraordinary energies, giving birth to showers of new particles. What are these particles? In order to find out, physicists transform themselves into detectives with the help of the detectors. Located around the collision area, these exceptional machines are made up of various layers, each of which detects and measures specific properties of the particles that travel through them. Powerful computers then reconstruct their trajectory and record their charge, mass and energy in order to build up a kind of particle ID card. At the next Discovery Monday you will be able to find out about the different methods used at CERN to detect particles. A cloud chamber will provide live images of the trac...

  8. Calculation of track and vertex errors for detector design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harr, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Kalman Filter technique has come into wide use for charged track reconstruction in high-energy physics experiments. It is also well suited for detector design studies, allowing for the efficient estimation of optimal track covariance matrices without the need of a hit level Monte Carlo simulation. Although much has been published about the Kalman filter equations, there is a lack of previous literature explaining how to implement the equations. In this paper, the operators necessary to implement the Kalman filter equations for two common detector configurations are worked out: a central detector in a uniform solenoidal magnetic field, and a fixed-target detector with no magnetic field in the region of the interactions. With the track covariance matrices in hand, vertex and invariant mass errors are readily calculable. These quantities are particularly interesting for evaluating experiments designed to study weakly decaying particles which give rise to displaced vertices. The optimal vertex errors are obtained via a constrained vertex fit. Solutions are presented to the constrained vertex problem with and without kinematic constraints. Invariant mass errors are obtained via propagation of errors; the use of vertex constrained track parameters is discussed. Many of the derivations are new or previously unpublished

  9. Some aspects of solid track detector usage in ecological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzina, I.G.; Gusev, E.B.; Ivanov, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    The ability of plants to accumulate large quantities of uranium in areas with unfavorable environmental conditions caused by the open working of various deposits and the mining of uranium containing minerals is discussed. The experimental data show the need for qualitative and quantitative revisions of radiation safety levels. Aspects of the use of solid state track detectors in this research are presented. (author)

  10. Particularization of alpha contamination using CR-39 track detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    detecting devices and as a passive system to detect alpha contamination on different sur- faces. This work presents ... these plastic detectors can be cut into sizes and shapes according to the specific area that has to be ... of nuclear track materials observed under a microscope, after chemical etching for the same time and ...

  11. Radiation damage to DNA: The importance of track structure

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, M A

    1999-01-01

    A wide variety of biological effects are induced by ionizing radiation, from cell death to mutations and carcinogenesis. The biological effectiveness is found to vary not only with the absorbed dose but also with the type of radiation and its energy, i.e., with the nature of radiation tracks. An overview is presented of some of the biological experiments using different qualities of radiation, which when compared with Monte Carlo track structure studies, have highlighted the importance of the localized spatial properties of stochastic energy deposition on the nanometer scale at or near DNA. The track structure leads to clustering of damage which may include DNA breaks, base damage etc., the complexity of the cluster and therefore its biological repairability varying with radiation type. The ability of individual tracks to produce clustered damage, and the subsequent biological response are important in the assessment of the risk associated with low-level human exposure. Recent experiments have also shown that...

  12. A gamma-ray tracking detector for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, C.J.; Lewis, R.A.; Helsby, W.I.; Nolan, P.; Boston, A.

    2003-01-01

    A design for a gamma-ray detector for molecular imaging is presented. The system is based on solid-state strip detector technology. The advantages of position sensitivity coupled with fine spectral resolution are exploited to produce a tracking detector for use with a variety of isotopes in nuclear medicine. Current design concepts employ both silicon and germanium layers to provide an energy range from 60 keV to >1 MeV. This allows a reference X-ray image to be collected simultaneously with the gamma-ray image providing accurate anatomical registration. The tracking ability of the gamma-ray detector allows ambiguities in the data set to be resolved which would otherwise cause events to be rejected in standard non-tracking system. Efficiency improvements that high solid angle coverage and the use of a higher proportion of events make time resolved imaging and multi-isotope work possible. A modular detector system, designed for viewing small animals has been accepted for funding

  13. Technologies for Future Vertex and Tracking Detectors at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Spannagel, Simon

    2018-01-01

    CLIC is a proposed linear e$^{+}$e$^{-}$ collider with center-of-mass energies of up to 3 TeV. Its main objectives are precise top quark and Higgs boson measurements, as well as searches for Beyond Standard Model physics. To meet the physics goals, the vertex and tracking detectors require not only a spatial resolution of a few micrometers and a very low material budget, but also timing capabilities with a precision of a few nanoseconds to allow suppression of beam-induced backgrounds. Different technologies using hybrid silicon detectors are explored for the vertex detectors, such as dedicated readout ASICs, small-pitch active edge sensors as well as capacitively coupled High-Voltage CMOS sensors. Monolithic sensors are considered as an option for the tracking detector, and a prototype using a CMOS process with a high-resistivity epitaxial layer is being designed. Different designs using a silicon-on-insulator process are under investigation for both vertex and tracking detector. All prototypes are evaluate...

  14. Application of solid state track detector to neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, Takao

    1979-01-01

    Though solid state track detectors (SSTD) are radiation measuring instrument for heavy charged particles by itself, it can be used as radiation measuring instrument for neutrons, if nuclear reactions such as (n, f) or (n, α) reaction are utilized. Since the means was found, which permits to observe the tracks of heavy charged particles in a solid with an optical microscope by chemically etching the tracks to enlarge them to etch pits, various types of detectors have been developed for the purpose of measuring neutron dose. The paper is described on the materials and construction of the SSTDs for neutron dosimetry, and the sensitivity is explained with mathematical equations. The features of neutron dosimetry with SSTDs are as follows: They are compact, and scarcely disturb neutron field, thus delicate dose distribution can be known; integration measurement is possible regardless of dose rate values because of integrating type detectors; it is not influenced by β-ray or γ-ray except the case when there is high energy radiation such as causing photonuclear reactions or high dose such as degrading solids, it has pretty high sensitivity; track fading is negligible during the normal measuring time around room temperature; and the etching images of tracks are relatively clear, and various automatic counting systems can be employed. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  15. Particularisation of Alpha Contamination using CR-39 Track Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakia, M.F.; El-Shaer, Y.H.

    2008-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear track detectors have found wide use in various domains of science and technology, e.g. in environmental experiments. The measurement of alpha activity on sources in an environment, such as air is not easy because of short penetration range of the alpha particles. Furthermore, the measurement of alpha activity by most gas ionization detectors suffers from the high background induced by the accompanying gamma radiation. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) have been used successfully as detecting devices as passive system to detect the alpha contamination different surfaces. This work presents the response of CR-39 (for two types) to alpha particles from two sources, 238 Pu with energy 5 MeV and 241 Am with energy 5.4 MeV. The methods of etching and counting are investigated, along with the achievable linearity, efficiency and reproducibility. The sensitivity to low activity and energy resolution are studied

  16. Radon measurements technique in air using a track plastic detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, J.F.A.; Silva Estrada, J.J. da; Binns, D.A.C.; Urban, M.

    1983-01-01

    A difusion chamber is used to measure the radon concentration in air through alpha particles tracks in Makrofol E, 300μm thick. This system was developed by Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre, Germany, and is already used by the Occupational Radiological Protection Department of IRD/CNEN, for premilimar measurements in Pocos de Caldas and Rio de Janeiro. In the chamber, the plastic detector is set at the lower end and a filter is placed at the upper end. In this way, a known volume is defined in the detector system. To amplify the tracks produced by the alpha particles due to radon and short-lived dadon-daughter products, an electrochemical system is employed. Some theoretical questions about the treeing produced by the electrochemical etching, the detector characteristics, as well as the adapted statistics model are also discussed. (Author) [pt

  17. Range measurements and track kinetics in Dielectric Nuclear Track Detectors (DNTDs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aframian, A

    1981-01-01

    Observations of nuclear track development profiles and the kinetics of etched tracks in sensitive dielectric nuclear track detectors indicate three separate phases: the inception phase or the cone phase, the transition phase and the sphere phase. Continued etching of the sphere phase to through-tracks yields accurate range data for particles of different masses and energies and minimum critical angles of registration for each particle. The present results show an energy resolution of 40 keV (fwhm) for 5.48 MeV alpha-particles emitted from Am-241.

  18. Enabling technologies for silicon microstrip tracking detectors at the HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.

    2016-04-01

    While the tracking detectors of the ATLAS and CMS experiments have shown excellent performance in Run 1 of LHC data taking, and are expected to continue to do so during LHC operation at design luminosity, both experiments will have to exchange their tracking systems when the LHC is upgraded to the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) around the year 2024. The new tracking systems need to operate in an environment in which both the hit densities and the radiation damage will be about an order of magnitude higher than today. In addition, the new trackers need to contribute to the first level trigger in order to maintain a high data-taking efficiency for the interesting processes. Novel detector technologies have to be developed to meet these very challenging goals. The German groups active in the upgrades of the ATLAS and CMS tracking systems have formed a collaborative ''Project on Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC'' (PETTL), which was supported by the Helmholtz Alliance ''Physics at the Terascale'' during the years 2013 and 2014. The aim of the project was to share experience and to work together on key areas of mutual interest during the R and D phase of these upgrades. The project concentrated on five areas, namely exchange of experience, radiation hardness of silicon sensors, low mass system design, automated precision assembly procedures, and irradiations. This report summarizes the main achievements.

  19. Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, C; Bloch, I.; Bögelspacher, F.; de Boer, W.; Daniels, M.; Dierlamm, A.; Eber, R.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Erfle, J.; Feld, L.; Garutti, E.; Gregor, I. -M.; Guthoff, M.; Hartmann, F.; Hauser, M.; Husemann, U.; Jakobs, K.; Junkes, A.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Kuehn, S.; Lacker, H.; Mahboubi, K.; Müller, Th.; Mussgiller, A.; Nürnberg, A.; Parzefall, U.; Poehlsen, T.; Poley, L.; Preuten, M.; Rehnisch, L.; Sammet, J.; Schleper, P.; Schuwalow, S.; Sperlich, D.; Stanitzki, M.; Steinbrück, G.; Wlochal, M.

    2016-01-01

    While the tracking detectors of the ATLAS and CMS experiments have shown excellent performance in Run 1 of LHC data taking, and are expected to continue to do so during LHC operation at design luminosity, both experiments will have to exchange their tracking systems when the LHC is upgraded to the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) around the year 2024. The new tracking systems need to operate in an environment in which both the hit densities and the radiation damage will be about an order of magnitude higher than today. In addition, the new trackers need to contribute to the first level trigger in order to maintain a high data-taking efficiency for the interesting processes. Novel detector technologies have to be developed to meet these very challenging goals. The German groups active in the upgrades of the ATLAS and CMS tracking systems have formed a collaborative "Project on Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC" (PETTL), which was supported by the Helmholtz Alliance "Phys...

  20. Enabling technologies for silicon microstrip tracking detectors at the HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Institut B; Collaboration: The PETTL Collaboration; and others

    2016-04-15

    While the tracking detectors of the ATLAS and CMS experiments have shown excellent performance in Run 1 of LHC data taking, and are expected to continue to do so during LHC operation at design luminosity, both experiments will have to exchange their tracking systems when the LHC is upgraded to the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) around the year 2024. The new tracking systems need to operate in an environment in which both the hit densities and the radiation damage will be about an order of magnitude higher than today. In addition, the new trackers need to contribute to the first level trigger in order to maintain a high data-taking efficiency for the interesting processes. Novel detector technologies have to be developed to meet these very challenging goals. The German groups active in the upgrades of the ATLAS and CMS tracking systems have formed a collaborative ''Project on Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC'' (PETTL), which was supported by the Helmholtz Alliance ''Physics at the Terascale'' during the years 2013 and 2014. The aim of the project was to share experience and to work together on key areas of mutual interest during the R and D phase of these upgrades. The project concentrated on five areas, namely exchange of experience, radiation hardness of silicon sensors, low mass system design, automated precision assembly procedures, and irradiations. This report summarizes the main achievements.

  1. A Vertex and Tracking Detector System for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)718101

    2017-01-01

    The physics aims at the proposed future CLIC high-energy linear $e^+e^−$ collider pose challenging demands on the performance of the detector system. In particular the vertex and tracking detectors have to combine precision measurements with robustness against the expected high rates of beam-induced backgrounds. The requirements include ultra-low mass, facilitated by power pulsing and air cooling in the vertex-detector region, small cell sizes and precision hit timing at the few-ns level. A detector concept meeting these requirements has been developed and an integrated R&D program addressing the challenges is progressing in the areas of ultra-thin sensors and readout ASICs, interconnect technology, mechanical integration and cooling.

  2. Performance characteristics and radiation damage results from the Fermilab E706 silicon microstrip detector system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, E Jr; Mani, S; Orris, D; Shepard, P F; Weerasundara, P D; Choudhary, B C; Joshi, U; Kapoor, V; Shivpuri, R; Baker, W

    1989-07-01

    A charged particle spectrometer containing a 7120-channel silicon microstrip detector system, one component of Fermilab experiment E706 to study direct photon production in hadron-hadron collisions, was utilized in a run in which 6 million events were recorded. We describe the silicon system, provide early results of track and vertex reconstruction, and present data on the radiation damage to the silicon wafers resulting from the narrow high intensity beam. (orig.).

  3. Coupling Between Doppler Radar Signatures and Tornado Damage Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Carey, Lawrence; Carcione, Brian; Smith, Matthew; Schultz, Elise V.; Schultz, Christopher; Lafontaine, Frank

    2011-01-01

    On April 27, 2011, the southeastern United States was raked with several episodes of severe weather. Numerous tornadoes caused extensive damage, and tragically, the deaths of over 300 people. In Alabama alone, there were 61 confirmed tornados, 4 of them produced EF5 damage, and several were on the ground an hour or more with continuous damage tracks exceeding 80km. The use of Doppler radars covering the region provided reflectivity and velocity signatures that allowed forecasters to monitors the severe storms from beginning to end issuing hundreds of severe weather warnings throughout the day. Meteorologists from the the NWS performed extensive surveys to assess the intensity, duration, and ground track of tornadoes reported during the event. Survey activities included site visits to the affected locations, analysis of radar and satellite data, aerial surveys, and interviews with eyewitnesses. Satellite data from NASA's MODIS and ASTER instruments played a helpful role in determining the location of tornado damage paths and in the assessment. High resolution multispectral and temporal composites helped forecasters corroborate their damage assessments, determine starting and ending points for tornado touchdowns, and helped to provide forecasters with a better big-picture view of the damage region. The imagery also helped to separate damage from the April 27th tornados from severe weather that occurred earlier that month. In a post analysis of the outbreak, tornado damage path signatures observed in the NASA satellite data have been correlated to "debris ball" signatures in the NWS Doppler radars and a special ARMOR dual-polarization radar operated by the University of Alabama Huntsville during the event. The Doppler radar data indicates a circular enhanced reflectivity signal and rotational couplet in the radial velocity likely associated with the tornado that is spatially correlated with the damage tracks in the observed satellite data. An algorithm to detect and

  4. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Moles-Valls, R

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is equipped with a tracking system for c harged particles built on two technologies: silicon and drift tube base detectors. These kind of detectors compose the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID). The Alignment of the ATLAS ID tracking s ystem requires the determination of almost 36000 degrees of freedom. From the tracking point o f view, the alignment parameters should be know to a few microns precision. This permits to att ain optimal measurements of the parameters of the charged particles trajectories, thus ena bling ATLAS to achieve its physics goals. The implementation of the alignment software, its framewor k and the data flow will be discussed. Special attention will be paid to the recent challenges wher e large scale computing simulation of the ATLAS detector has been performed, mimicking the ATLAS o peration, which is going to be very important for the LHC startup scenario. The alignment r esult for several challenges (real cosmic ray data taking and computing system commissioning) will be...

  5. Measurement of indoor radon concentration by CR-39 track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Yoneda, Shigeru; Nakanishi, Takashi.

    1990-01-01

    A convenient and cheap method for measuring indoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentration with a CR-39 track detector is described. The detector consisted of two sheets of CR-39 enclosed separately in two plastic pots : one covered by a filter (cup method) and another no covering (bare method). The bare method was used here to supplement the cup method. To compare with the result of the CR-39 detector, alpha-ray spectrometry was carried out with a Si(Au) detector in a controlled radon exposure chamber. Indoor radon concentration measured in 133 houses in several districts of Ishikawa Prefecture have been found to range from 6 Bq/m 3 to as high as 113 Bq/m 3 with a median value of 24 Bq/m 3 . The problems to measure indoor radon concentration using the CR-39 detector are also discussed with emphasis on the position of setting the detector in the room and the possible thoron contribution to the detector. (author)

  6. Scintillating fiber detector performance, detector geometries, trigger, and electronics issues for scintillating fiber tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbaugh, A.E.

    1994-06-01

    Scintillating Fiber tracking technology has made great advances and has demonstrated great potential for high speed charged particle tracking and triggering. The small detector sizes and fast scintillation fluors available make them very promising for use at high luminosity experiments at today's and tomorrow's colliding and fixed target experiments where high rate capability is essential. This talk will discuss the current state of Scintillating fiber performance and current Visual Light Photon Counter (VLPC) characteristics. The primary topic will be some of the system design and integration issues which should be considered by anyone attempting to design a scintillating fiber tracking system which includes a high speed tracking trigger. Design. constraints placed upon the detector system by the electronics and mechanical sub-systems will be discussed. Seemingly simple and unrelated decisions can have far reaching effects on overall system performance. SDC and DO example system designs will be discussed

  7. Modifications of radiation detection response of PADC track detectors by photons

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, D

    1998-01-01

    Photon induced modifications in polyalyldiglycol carbonate (PADC) track detectors have been studied in the dose range of 10 sup 1 -10 sup 6 Gy. It was found that some of the properties like bulk-etch rate, track-etch rate got enhanced at the dose of 10 sup 6 Gy. Activation energy for bulk-etching has been determined for different gamma doses. In order to correlate the high etch rate with the chemical modifications, UV-Vis, IR and ESR studies were carried out. These studies clearly give the indication that radiation damage results into radical formation through bond cleavage. TGA study was performed for understanding the thermal resistance of this detector. The results are presented and discussed.

  8. Track based alignment of the Mu3e detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartenstein, Ulrich [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Mu3e experiment searches for the lepton flavor violating decay μ{sup +} → e{sup +}e{sup -}e{sup +} with a sensitivity goal for the branching fraction of better than 10{sup -16}. This process is heavily supressed in the standard model of particle physics (BR < 10{sup -50}) which makes an observation of this decay a clear indication of new physics. For track reconstruction, four barrel shaped layers consisting of about 3000 high-voltage monolithic active pixel sensors (HV-MAPS) are used. The position, orientation and possible deformations of these sensors must be known to greater precision than the assembly tolerances. A track based alignment via the General Broken Lines fit and the Millepede-II algorithm will be used to achieve this precision in the final detector. The talk discusses a study of the required alignment precision and preparations for aligning the detector using a detailed simulation.

  9. Progress in the development of a tracking transition radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, J.S.; Beatty, J.; Shank, J.T.; Wilson, R.J.; Polychronakos, V.A.; Radeka, V.; Stephani, D.; Beker, H.; Bock, R.K.; Botlo, M.; Fabjan, C.W.; Pfennig, J.; Price, M.J.; Willis, W.J.; Akesson, T.; Chernyatin, V.; Dolgoshein, B.; Nevsky, P.; Potekhin, M.; Romanjuk, A.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Gavrilenko, I.; Maiburov, S.; Muravjev, S.; Shmeleva, A.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the TRD/Tracker is to provide charged particle tracking in the r-z plane and to provide particle identification capabilities that are independent of and complementary to calorimetric methods. The tracking goals include observation of the charged particle multiplicity and topology, reconstruction of the primary vertex or vertices, and assignment of charged particles to the correct vertex. Particle identification goals include the independent validation of electron candidates selected by calorimetric signatures, the rejection of false electron candidates that rise from accidental overlaps of low momentum charged particles with photon-induced electromagnetic showers in the calorimeter, and the identification of electrons arising from Dalitz decays or from photon conversions. The authors report on progress towards the development of an integrated transition radiation detector and charged particle tracker. Mechanical design and simulation of a detector has been pursued; a prototype device with 240 channels has been constructed and tested. Innovative construction techniques have been developed

  10. Application of nuclear track detectors for radon related measurments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Jarad, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    The application of nuclear track detectors for radon related measurements is discussed. The ''Can Technique'', used for measuring radon emanation from building materials, walls and soil; the ''Working Level Monitor'', used for measuring short period working levels of radon daughters in houses; and ''Passive Radon Dosimeters'', used to measure radon levels in houses for long term (few months) periods are described. Application of nuclear track detectors for measuring the radon daughters plate-out on the surface of mixing fan blades and walls are discussed. The uranium content of some wall papers was found to be 6 ppm. The variation of radon progeny concentration in the same room was measured and supported by another study through Gas Chromatograph measurements. The independence of radon concentration on room level in high-rise buildings was established. The effect of sub-floor radon emanation on radon concentration in houses is dependent on whether there is sub-floor ventilation or not. (author)

  11. Fine grained nuclear emulsion for higher resolution tracking detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naka, T., E-mail: naka@flab.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Asada, T.; Katsuragawa, T.; Hakamata, K.; Yoshimoto, M.; Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, M.; Sato, O.; Nakano, T. [Graduated School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Tawara, Y. [Division of Energy Science, EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); De Lellis, G. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Sirignano, C. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); D' Ambrossio, N. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (L' Aquila) (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Fine grained nuclear emulsion with several 10 nm silver halide crystals can detect submicron tracks. This detector is expected to be worked as dark matter detector with directional sensitive. Now, nuclear emulsion became possible to be produced at Nagoya University, and extreme fine grained nuclear emulsion with 20 nm diameter was produced. Using this emulsion and new reading out technique with expansion technique, for optical selection and X-ray microscopy, recoiled tracks induced by dark matter can be detected automatically. Then, readout efficiency is larger than 80% at 120 nm, and angular resolution for final confirmation with X-ray microscopy is 20°. In addition, we started to construct the R and D underground facility in Gran Sasso.

  12. Dilute scintillators for large-volume tracking detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeder, R.A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Dieterle, B.D. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Gregory, C. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Schaefer, F. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Schum, K. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Strossman, W. (University of California, Riverside, CA (United States)); Smith, D. (Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Prescott, AZ (United States)); Christofek, L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Johnston, K. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Louis, W.C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Schillaci, M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Volta, M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); White, D.H. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Whitehouse, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Albert, M. (University of Pennsylvania, Phi

    1993-10-01

    Dilute scintillation mixtures emit isotropic light for both fast and slow particles, but retain the Cherenkov light cone from fast particles. Large volume detectors using photomultipliers to reconstruct relativistic tracks will also be sensitive to slow particles if they are filled with these mixtures. Our data show that 0.03 g/l of b-PBD in mineral oil has a 2.4:1 ratio (in the first 12 ns) of isotropic light to Cherenkov light for positron tracks. The light attenuation length is greater than 15 m for wavelength above 400 nm, and the scintillation decay time is about 2 ns for the fast component. There is also a slow isotropic light component that is larger (relative to the fast component) for protons than for electrons. This effect allows particle identification by a technique similar to pulse shape discrimination. These features will be utilized in LSND, a neutrino detector at LAMPF. (orig.)

  13. Monitoring radiation damage in the ATLAS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Schorlemmer, André Lukas; Quadt, Arnulf; Große-Knetter, Jörn; Rembser, Christoph; Di Girolamo, Beniamino

    2014-11-05

    Radiation hardness is one of the most important features of the ATLAS pixel detector in order to ensure a good performance and a long lifetime. Monitoring of radiation damage is crucial in order to assess and predict the expected performance of the detector. Key values for the assessment of radiation damage in silicon, such as the depletion voltage and depletion depth in the sensors, are measured on a regular basis during operations. This thesis summarises the monitoring program that is conducted in order to assess the impact of radiation damage and compares it to model predictions. In addition, the physics performance of the ATLAS detector highly depends on the amount of disabled modules in the ATLAS pixel detector. A worrying amount of module failures was observed during run I. Thus it was decided to recover repairable modules during the long shutdown (LS1) by extracting the pixel detector. The impact of the module repairs and module failures on the detector performance is analysed in this thesis.

  14. Low dose radiation damage effects in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiącek, P.; Dąbrowski, W.

    2016-01-01

    The radiation damage effects in silicon segmented detectors caused by X-rays have become recently an important research topic driven mainly by development of new detectors for applications at the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (E-XFEL). However, radiation damage in silicon strip is observed not only after extreme doses up to 1 GGy expected at E-XFEL, but also at doses in the range of tens of Gy, to which the detectors in laboratory instruments like X-ray diffractometers or X-ray spectrometers can be exposed. In this paper we report on investigation of radiation damage effects in a custom developed silicon strip detector used in laboratory diffractometers equipped with X-ray tubes. Our results show that significant degradation of detector performance occurs at low doses, well below 200 Gy, which can be reached during normal operation of laboratory instruments. Degradation of the detector energy resolution can be explained by increasing leakage current and increasing interstrip capacitance of the sensor. Another observed effect caused by accumulation of charge trapped in the surface oxide layer is change of charge division between adjacent strips. In addition, we have observed unexpected anomalies in the annealing process.

  15. Low dose radiation damage effects in silicon strip detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiącek, P.; Dąbrowski, W.

    2016-11-01

    The radiation damage effects in silicon segmented detectors caused by X-rays have become recently an important research topic driven mainly by development of new detectors for applications at the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (E-XFEL). However, radiation damage in silicon strip is observed not only after extreme doses up to 1 GGy expected at E-XFEL, but also at doses in the range of tens of Gy, to which the detectors in laboratory instruments like X-ray diffractometers or X-ray spectrometers can be exposed. In this paper we report on investigation of radiation damage effects in a custom developed silicon strip detector used in laboratory diffractometers equipped with X-ray tubes. Our results show that significant degradation of detector performance occurs at low doses, well below 200 Gy, which can be reached during normal operation of laboratory instruments. Degradation of the detector energy resolution can be explained by increasing leakage current and increasing interstrip capacitance of the sensor. Another observed effect caused by accumulation of charge trapped in the surface oxide layer is change of charge division between adjacent strips. In addition, we have observed unexpected anomalies in the annealing process.

  16. Neutron damage of silicon detectors at 20 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardos, R.; Gorfine, G.; Guy, L.; Moorhead, G.; Taylor, G.; Tovey, S.

    1992-01-01

    This contribution reports new data on the damage of silicon detectors by low energy (1 MeV) neutrons. The data were taken at the end of 1991. Three exposures of UA2 Inner Silicon detectors were made: at +20 deg C, -15 deg C and -95 deg C. A high neutron flux enabled the required fluences to be achieved in relatively short times. This increases the sensitivity of the experiment to damage types with shorter self-annealing time constants. This note discusses the new data taken at +20 deg C. Analysis of the low temperature exposures is in progress. 5 refs., 15 figs

  17. HZE dosimetry in space using plastic track detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kopp, J; Reitz, G; Enge, W

    1999-01-01

    Plastic nuclear track detectors were used to measure the contribution of High charge Z and energy E (HZE) particles to the radiation exposure of manned space missions. Results from numerous space missions in the orbit planned for the International Space Station are compared. The measurements cover the declining phase of the last solar cycle during the past 7 years and various shielding conditions inside the US Space Shuttle and the Russian MIR-station.

  18. Track fitting in the opal vertex detector with stereo wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shally, R; Hemingway, R J; McPherson, A C

    1987-10-01

    The geometry of the vertex chamber for the OPAL detector at LEP is reviewed and expressions for the coordinates of the hits are given in terms of the measured drift distance and z-coordinate. The tracks are fitted by a procedure based on the Lagrange multipliers method. The increase in the accuracy of the fit due to the use of the stereo wires is discussed.

  19. Data acquisition for the Zeus central tracking detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinton, S.; Allen, D.; Cambell, D.; Mcarthur, I.

    1990-01-01

    The Zeus experiment is being installed on the Hera electron-proton collider being built at the Desy laboratory in Hamburg. The high-beam crossover rate of the Hera machine will provide experience in data acquisition and triggering relevant to the environment of future accelerators such as the SSC. The Transputer-based data acquisition system for the Zeus central tracking detector is described

  20. Track fitting in the opal vertex detector with stereo wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shally, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; McPherson, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    The geometry of the vertex chamber for the OPAL detector at LEP is reviewed and expressions for the coordinates of the hits are given in terms of the measured drift distance and z-coordinate. The tracks are fitted by a procedure based on the Lagrange multipliers method. The increase in the accuracy of the fit due to the use of the stereo wires is discussed. (orig.)

  1. Modeling Radiation Damage to Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Nachman, Benjamin Philip; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector. As the detector in closest proximity to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the HL-LHC, the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of $10^{15}$ 1 MeV $n_\\mathrm{eq}/\\mathrm{cm}^2$ and the HL-LHC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. This talk presents a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS Pixel sensors for the first time. After a thorough description of the setup, predictions for basic Pixel cluster properties are presented alongside first validation studies with Run 2 collision data.

  2. Fast neutron detection using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilela, E.C.

    1990-01-01

    CR-39 and Makrofol-E solid state nuclear track detectors were studied aiming their application to fast neutron detection. Optimum etching conditions of those two kinds of materials were determined the followings - the Makrofol-E detector is electrochemically etched in a PEW solution (15% KOH, 40% ethilic alcohol and 45% water) for 2 h., with an applied electric field strength of 30 kV/cm (r/m/s/) and frequency of 2 kHz, at room temperature; - the CR-39 detector is chemically pre-etched during 1 h in a 20% (w/v) NaOH solution at 70 sup(0)C, followed by 13 h electrochemical etch using the same solution at room temperature and an electric field strength of 30 kV/cm (r.m.s.) and frequency of 2 kHz.(E.G.)

  3. Diamond detector time resolution for large angle tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiodini, G., E-mail: chiodini@le.infn.it [INFN - Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Fiore, G.; Perrino, R. [INFN - Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Pinto, C.; Spagnolo, S. [INFN - Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Dip. di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Uni. del Salento (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    The applications which have stimulated greater interest in diamond sensors are related to detectors close to particle beams, therefore in an environment with high radiation level (beam monitor, luminosity measurement, detection of primary and secondary-interaction vertices). Our aims is to extend the studies performed so far by developing the technical advances needed to prove the competitiveness of this technology in terms of time resolution, with respect to more usual ones, which does not guarantee the required tolerance to a high level of radiation doses. In virtue of these goals, measurements of diamond detector time resolution with tracks incident at different angles are discussed. In particular, preliminary testbeam results obtained with 5 GeV electrons and polycrystalline diamond strip detectors are shown.

  4. Energy-loss measurement with the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, D.

    2007-05-15

    The measurement of the specific energy loss due to ionisation, dE/dx, in a drift chamber is a very important tool for particle identification in final states of reactions between high energetic particles. Such identification requires a well understood dE/dx measurement including a precise knowledge of its uncertainties. Exploiting for the first time the full set of ZEUS data from the HERA operation between 1996 and 2005 twelve detector-related influences affecting the dE/dx measurement of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector have been identified, separately studied and parameterised. A sophisticated iterative procedure has been developed to correct for these twelve effects, which takes into account the correlations between them. A universal parameterisation of the detector-specific Bethe-Bloch curve valid for all particle species has been extracted. In addition, the various contributions to the measurement uncertainty have been disentangled and determined. This yields the best achievable prediction for the single-track dE/dx resolution. For both the analysis of the measured data and the simulation of detector performance, the detailed understanding of the measurement and resolution of dE/dx gained in this work provides a tool with optimum power for particle identification in a physics studies. (orig.)

  5. Energy-loss measurement with the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch, D.

    2007-05-01

    The measurement of the specific energy loss due to ionisation, dE/dx, in a drift chamber is a very important tool for particle identification in final states of reactions between high energetic particles. Such identification requires a well understood dE/dx measurement including a precise knowledge of its uncertainties. Exploiting for the first time the full set of ZEUS data from the HERA operation between 1996 and 2005 twelve detector-related influences affecting the dE/dx measurement of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector have been identified, separately studied and parameterised. A sophisticated iterative procedure has been developed to correct for these twelve effects, which takes into account the correlations between them. A universal parameterisation of the detector-specific Bethe-Bloch curve valid for all particle species has been extracted. In addition, the various contributions to the measurement uncertainty have been disentangled and determined. This yields the best achievable prediction for the single-track dE/dx resolution. For both the analysis of the measured data and the simulation of detector performance, the detailed understanding of the measurement and resolution of dE/dx gained in this work provides a tool with optimum power for particle identification in a physics studies. (orig.)

  6. The effects of radiation damage accumulation and annealing on fission-track dating of titanite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enkelmann, Eva; Jonckheere, Raymond; Ratschbacher, Lothar

    2005-01-01

    Fission-track dating of titanite is hindered by the fact that track etching is anisotropic in fresh titanites and becomes isotropic with increasing radiation damage. Independent age determinations with the population method are problematic due to different track counting efficiencies (Q) for ρ s in unannealed and ρ i in annealed titanite. Independent age determinations with the external detector method depend on correction factors for the track registration geometries (G = 0.5), counting efficiencies (Q) and range deficit (R = 1.38); however, Q is unaffected by annealing. It was attempted to determine GQR through calculation, direct experiment and on the basis of age standards. The direct experiment involves measurements of the ratio of the induced-track densities in titanite and a co-irradiated external detector. The track densities in the internal titanite surfaces could not be measured but the results for the external surfaces confirm that this approach leads to a significant overestimation of GQR, due to prior annealing. The GQR-values determined on the basis of age standards are consistent with that obtained by calculation assuming that Q ∼ 1, although there is no experimental confirmation for this fact apart from their isotropic etching characteristics. The fact that identical GQR-factors were obtained on standards of different age and uranium content suggests that a single GQR-value is appropriate for dating titanites within a broad range of radiation damage. In terms of the ζ-calibration this implies that a single ζ-factor is also suitable for dating different titanites. These findings suggest that other factors besides the accumulation of alpha-recoil damage, such as a phase transition, could be co-responsible for the different etching characteristics of annealed and unannealed titanites

  7. Fast simulation of the forward tracking detector of HPLUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yapeng; Fan Ruirui; Fu Fen; Yue Ke; Yuan Xiaohua; Xu Huagen; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Yao Nan; Xu Hushan; Jin Genming; Liang Jinjie; Chen Ruofu; Sun Zhiyu; Duan Limin; Xiao Zhigang; Tsinghua Univ., Beijing

    2008-01-01

    The necessity of installing a forward tracking detector stack is discussed for the Hadron Physics Lanzhou Spectrometer(HPLUS). A local tracker is developed to solve the multi-track finding problem. The track candidates are searched iteratively via Hough Transform. The fake tracks are removed by a least square fitting process. With this tracker we have studied the feasibility of pp→pp+φ(→K + K - ), a typical physical channel proposed on HPLUS. The single track momentum resolution due to the uncertainty of the positioning in FTD is 1.3%. The multiple scattering effect contributes about 20% to the momentum resolution in the FTD coverage. The width and the signal-to-background ratio of the reconstructed φ are 1.51 MeV and 4.36, respectively, taking into account the direct Kaon channel pp→pp+K + K - as background. The geometry coverage of FTD for qb events is about 85.4%. Based on the current fast simulation and estimation, the geometrical configuration of FTD meets the physical requirement of HPLUS under the current luminosity and multiplicity conditions. The tracker is applicable in the full simulation coming next and is extendable to other tracking component of HPLUS. (authors)

  8. The RASNIK real-time relative alignment monitor for the CDF inner tracking detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, David; Saltzberg, David

    2003-01-01

    We describe the design and operation of the RASNIK optical relative alignment system designed for and installed on the CDF inner tracking detectors. The system provides low-cost minute-by-minute alignment monitoring with submicron precision. To reduce ambiguities, we modified the original three-element RASNIK design to a two-element one. Since the RASNIKs are located within 10-40 cm of the beam line, the systems were built from low-mass and radiation-hard components and are operated in a mode which reduces damage from radiation. We describe the data-acquisition system, which has been running without interruption since before the CDF detector was rolled into its collision hall in March 2001. We evaluate what has been learned about sources of detector motion from almost 2 years of RASNIK data and discuss possible improvements to the system

  9. The physics of radiation damage in particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Lint, V.A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Intense high-energy particle beams cause damage to semiconductor detectors and signal-conditioning electronics by displacement and long-term ionization effects. While first-principles prediction of effects are not practical, the magnitude of each effect can be scaled approximately between particle energy and type by using an appropriate scaling parameter. (orig.)

  10. Modeling Radiation Damage to Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ducourthial, Audrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As the closest detector component to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of $10^{15} n_{eq}/cm^2$ and the HL-HLC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. Simulating radiation damage is critical in order to make accurate predictions for current future detector performance that will enable searches for new particles and forces as well as precision measurements of Standard Model particles such as the Higgs boson. We present a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS pixel sensors for the first time. In addition to thoroughly describing the setup, we present first predictions for basic pixel cluster properties alongside...

  11. Modeling Radiation Damage to Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Rossini, Lorenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As the closest detector component to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of 10^15 neq/cm^2 and the HL-HLC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. Simulating radiation damage is critical in order to make accurate predictions for current and future detector performance that will enable searches for new particles and forces as well as precision measurements of Standard Model particles such as the Higgs boson. We present a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS pixel sensors for the first time and considers both planar and 3D sensor designs. In addition to thoroughly describing the setup, we compare predictions for b...

  12. Modeling radiation damage to pixel sensors in the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ducourthial, Audrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As the closest detector component to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of $10^{15}n_{eq}/cm^2$ and the HL-HLC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. Simulating radiation damage is critical in order to make accurate predictions for current future detector performance that will enable searches for new particles and forces as well as precision measurements of Standard Model particles such as the Higgs boson. We present a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS pixel sensors for the first time. In addition to thoroughly describing the setup, we present first predictions for basic pixel cluster properties alongside ...

  13. Modeling radiation damage to pixel sensors in the ATLAS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducourthial, A.

    2018-03-01

    Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) . As the closest detector component to the interaction point, these detectors will be subject to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) [1], the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of 1015 neq/cm2 and the HL-LHC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. Simulating radiation damage is essential in order to make accurate predictions for current and future detector performance that will enable searches for new particles and forces as well as precision measurements of Standard Model particles such as the Higgs boson. We present a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects on the ATLAS pixel sensors for the first time. In addition to thoroughly describing the setup, we present first predictions for basic pixel cluster properties alongside early studies with LHC Run 2 proton-proton collision data.

  14. Modeling Radiation Damage to Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Rossini, Lorenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As the closest detector component to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the High- Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of 10^15 neq/cm2 and the HL-HLC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. Simulating radiation damage is critical in order to make accurate predictions for current future detector performance that will enable searches for new particles and forces as well as precision measurements of Standard Model particles such as the Higgs boson. We present a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS pixel sensors for the first time and considers both planar and 3D sensor designs. In addition to thoroughly describing the setup, we compare predictions for basic...

  15. Radiation damage monitoring in the ATLAS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, Sally

    2013-01-01

    We describe the implementation of radiation damage monitoring using measurement of leakage current in the ATLAS silicon pixel sensors. The dependence of the leakage current upon the integrated luminosity is presented. The measurement of the radiation damage corresponding to an integrated luminosity 5.6 fb −1 is presented along with a comparison to a model. -- Highlights: ► Radiation damage monitoring via silicon leakage current is implemented in the ATLAS (LHC) pixel detector. ► Leakage currents measured are consistent with the Hamburg/Dortmund model. ► This information can be used to validate the ATLAS simulation model.

  16. Building a tracking detector for the P2 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Marco [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); PRISMA Cluster of Excellence (Germany); Collaboration: P2-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The P2 Experiment aims to measure the weak mixing angle at low Q{sup 2} via the parity violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering. It will be located at the new Mainz Energy Recovery Superconducting Accelerator (MESA), which will provide a 150 μA beam of alternatingly polarized 150 MeV electrons. While the main asymmetry measurement is performed with integrating Cherenkov detectors, the tracking system is developed in order to determine the average momentum transfer of the electron and to reconstruct individual electron tracks for systematic studies. It will be built using the new technology of High Voltage Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (HV-MAPS) made of silicon thinned to 50 μm. The main challenge for the tracking system are very high expected particle rates. The expected rate of electrons that are scattered in the liquid hydrogen target and hit the tracking system is of the order 10{sup 5}mm{sup -2}s{sup -1} and is overwhelmed by more than 10{sup 7} mm{sup -2}s{sup -1} bremsstrahlung photons. Each of the tracking layers is envisaged to have a disc-like geometry. They are arranged as two double layers. Since only limited sensor area is affordable, each layer is divided into four segments with about 15 degree azimutal coverage. This layout is presented and motivated by investigations on the expected hit rates and the sensor response.

  17. Feasibility studies for a wireless 60 GHz tracking detector readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmeier, S.; Schöning, A.; Soltveit, H.K.; Wiedner, D.

    2016-01-01

    The amount of data produced by highly granular silicon tracking detectors in high energy physics experiments poses a major challenge to readout systems. At high collision rates, e.g. at LHC experiments, only a small fraction of data can be read out with currently used technologies. To cope with the requirements of future or upgraded experiments new data transfer techniques are required which offer high data rates at low power and low material budget. Wireless technologies operating in the 60 GHz band or at higher frequencies offer high data rates and are thus a promising upcoming alternative to conventional data transmission via electrical cables or optical fibers. Using wireless technology, the amount of cables and connectors in detectors can be significantly reduced. Tracking detectors profit most from a reduced material budget as fewer secondary particle interactions (multiple Coulomb scattering, energy loss, etc.) improve the tracking performance in general. We present feasibility studies regarding the integration of the wireless technology at 60 GHz into a silicon tracking detector. We use spare silicon strip modules of the ATLAS experiment as test samples which are measured to be opaque in the 60 GHz range. The reduction of cross talk between links and the attenuation of reflections is studied. An estimate of the maximum achievable link density is given. It is shown that wireless links can be placed as close as 2 cm next to each other for a layer distance of 10 cm by exploiting one or several of the following measures: highly directive antennas, absorbers like graphite foam, linear polarization and frequency channeling. Combining these measures, a data rate area density of up to 11 Tb/(s·m"2) seems feasible. In addition, two types of silicon sensors are tested under mm-wave irradiation in order to determine the influence of 60 GHz data transmission on the detector performance: an ATLAS silicon strip sensor module and an HV-MAPS prototype for the Mu3e

  18. Feasibility studies for a wireless 60 GHz tracking detector readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittmeier, S., E-mail: dittmeier@physi.uni-heidelberg.de; Schöning, A.; Soltveit, H.K.; Wiedner, D.

    2016-09-11

    The amount of data produced by highly granular silicon tracking detectors in high energy physics experiments poses a major challenge to readout systems. At high collision rates, e.g. at LHC experiments, only a small fraction of data can be read out with currently used technologies. To cope with the requirements of future or upgraded experiments new data transfer techniques are required which offer high data rates at low power and low material budget. Wireless technologies operating in the 60 GHz band or at higher frequencies offer high data rates and are thus a promising upcoming alternative to conventional data transmission via electrical cables or optical fibers. Using wireless technology, the amount of cables and connectors in detectors can be significantly reduced. Tracking detectors profit most from a reduced material budget as fewer secondary particle interactions (multiple Coulomb scattering, energy loss, etc.) improve the tracking performance in general. We present feasibility studies regarding the integration of the wireless technology at 60 GHz into a silicon tracking detector. We use spare silicon strip modules of the ATLAS experiment as test samples which are measured to be opaque in the 60 GHz range. The reduction of cross talk between links and the attenuation of reflections is studied. An estimate of the maximum achievable link density is given. It is shown that wireless links can be placed as close as 2 cm next to each other for a layer distance of 10 cm by exploiting one or several of the following measures: highly directive antennas, absorbers like graphite foam, linear polarization and frequency channeling. Combining these measures, a data rate area density of up to 11 Tb/(s·m{sup 2}) seems feasible. In addition, two types of silicon sensors are tested under mm-wave irradiation in order to determine the influence of 60 GHz data transmission on the detector performance: an ATLAS silicon strip sensor module and an HV-MAPS prototype for the Mu3e

  19. Radiation damage to DNA: The importance of track structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    A wide variety of biological effects are induced by ionizing radiation, from cell death to mutations and carcinogenesis. The biological effectiveness is found to vary not only with the absorbed dose but also with the type of radiation and its energy, i.e., with the nature of radiation tracks. An overview is presented of some of the biological experiments using different qualities of radiation, which when compared with Monte Carlo track structure studies, have highlighted the importance of the localized spatial properties of stochastic energy deposition on the nanometer scale at or near DNA. The track structure leads to clustering of damage which may include DNA breaks, base damage etc., the complexity of the cluster and therefore its biological repairability varying with radiation type. The ability of individual tracks to produce clustered damage, and the subsequent biological response are important in the assessment of the risk associated with low-level human exposure. Recent experiments have also shown that biological response to radiation is not always restricted to the 'hit' cell but can sometimes be induced in 'un-hit' cells near by

  20. Compton recoil electron tracking with silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, T.J.; Ait-Ouamer, F.; Schwartz, I.; Tumer, O.T.; White, R.S.; Zych, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    The application of silicon strip detectors to Compton gamma ray astronomy telescopes is described in this paper. The Silicon Compton Recoil Telescope (SCRT) tracks Compton recoil electrons in silicon strip converters to provide a unique direction for Compton scattered gamma rays above 1 MeV. With strip detectors of modest positional and energy resolutions of 1 mm FWHM and 3% at 662 keV, respectively, 'true imaging' can be achieved to provide an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity to 1.6 x 10 - 6 γ/cm 2 -s at 2 MeV. The results of extensive Monte Carlo calculations of recoil electrons traversing multiple layers of 200 micron silicon wafers are presented. Multiple Coulomb scattering of the recoil electron in the silicon wafer of the Compton interaction and the next adjacent wafer is the basic limitation to determining the electron's initial direction

  1. Tracking performance of the ATLAS inner detector and observation of known hadrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayl, M.; Trischuk, W.

    2010-01-01

    The inner detector is the central tracking device of the ATLAS detector. In these proceedings the tracking performance of the inner detector is presented on collision data recorded at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 900 GeV and 7 TeV. The identification of resonances like $\\Xi$ and $\\Omega$ baryons in cascade decays

  2. CMS detector tracking performance in Run-II

    CERN Document Server

    Brondolin, Erica

    2017-01-01

    Since the start of Run-II in June 2015, LHC has delivered pp collisions at a center of mass energy of 13TeV and with a bunch time separation of 25 ns. On avarage, more than 25 inelastic collisions are superimposed on the event of interest. Under these new conditions, the CMS collaboration has re-calibrated and verified the performance of the whole detector. In particular, the CMS tracking performance has been measured both directly and indirectly. Direct measurements are, among others, the beam spot determination, the vertex resolution and the muon reconstruction efficiency with the tag and probe technique. An indirect assessment can be given by the pion reconstruction efficiency and the low-mass resonance parameters as a function of different single track kinematics.

  3. A passive monitor for radon using electrochemical track etch detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massera, G.E.; Hassib, G.M.; Piesch, E.

    1980-01-01

    A passive, inexpensive monitor for radon detection and dosimetry is described in detail. It consists of a Makrofoil track etch detector inside a diffusion chamber which is sealed by a fibreglass filter through which radon may diffuse while radon daughters and aerosols are retained on the surface of the filter. The α-particle tracks are revealed by etching the Makrofoil in KOH. The lower detection limit of the radon dosimeter is equivalent to a mean dose in the lung of 130 mrem. After an exposure period of 3 months, a mean radon concentration of 0.3 pCi/l can be detected. The instrument is intended for use in a study to measure the long-term radon exposure in buildings in West Germany. (UK)

  4. Track reconstruction in discrete detectors by neutral networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glazov, A A; Kisel` , I V; Konotopskaya, E V; Neskoromnyj, V N; Ososkov, G A

    1993-12-31

    On the basis of applying neutral networks to the track recognition problem the investigations are made according to the specific properties of such discrete detectors as multiwire proportional chambers. These investigations result in the modification of the so-called rotor model in a neutral neural network. The energy function of a network in this modification contains only one cost term. This speeds up calculations considerably. The reduction of the energy function is done by the neuron selection with the help of simplegeometrical and energetical criteria. Besides, the cellular automata were applied to preliminary selection of data that made it possible to create an initial network configuration with the energy closer to its global minimum. The algorithm was tested on 10{sup 4} real three-prong events obtained from the ARES-spectrometer. The results are satisfactory including the noise robustness and good resolution of nearby going tracks. 12 refs.; 10 figs.

  5. Track reconstruction in discrete detectors by neutral networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazov, A.A.; Kisel', I.V.; Konotopskaya, E.V.; Neskoromnyj, V.N.; Ososkov, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of applying neutral networks to the track recognition problem the investigations are made according to the specific properties of such discrete detectors as multiwire proportional chambers. These investigations result in the modification of the so-called rotor model in a neutral neural network. The energy function of a network in this modification contains only one cost term. This speeds up calculations considerably. The reduction of the energy function is done by the neuron selection with the help of simplegeometrical and energetical criteria. Besides, the cellular automata were applied to preliminary selection of data that made it possible to create an initial network configuration with the energy closer to its global minimum. The algorithm was tested on 10 4 real three-prong events obtained from the ARES-spectrometer. The results are satisfactory including the noise robustness and good resolution of nearby going tracks. 12 refs.; 10 figs

  6. UV-irradiation effects on polyester nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Chhavi; Kalsi, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of UV irradiation (λ=254 nm) on polyester nuclear track detector have been investigated employing bulk-etch technique, UV-visible spectrophotometry and infra-red spectrometry (FTIR). The activation energy values for bulk-etching were found to decrease with the UV-irradiation time indicating the scission of the polymer. Not much shift in the absorption edge due to UV irradiation was seen in the UV-visible spectra. FTIR studies also indicate the scission of the chemical bonds, thereby further validating the bulk-etch rate results.

  7. Measurements of radon in dwellings with CR-39 track detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majborn, Benny

    1986-01-01

    A passive integrating dosemeter has been designed for measuring natural radiation in dwellings. The dosemeter contains one or two CR-39 track detectors to measure radon and three thermoluminescence dosemeters to measure external radiation. The dosemeter was investigated in a pilot study in 1983....../84, and it is now used in a nationwide survey of natural radiation in Danish dwellings. The characteristics of the dosemeter with respect to radon measurements are presented, and the radon monitoring results obtained in the pilot study are summarized...

  8. Charged particle spectroscopy with solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunyadi, I.; Somogyi, G.

    1984-01-01

    Some of earlier and recent methods for differentiation of charged particles according to their energy, based on the use of polymeric etch-track detectors (CN, CA, PC and CR-39) are outlined. The principle of three track methods suitable for nuclear spectroscopy is discussed. These are based on the analysis of the diameter, surface size and shape of etch-track 'cones' produced by charged particles in polymers, after using shorter or longer chemical etching processes. Examples are presented from the results of the last decade in ATOMKI, Debrecen, Hungary, concerning the application of nuclear track spectroscopy to different low-energy nuclear reaction studies, angular distribution and excitation function measurements. These involve the study of (d,α) reaction on sup(14)N, sup(19)F and sup(27)Al nuclei, (sup(3)He,α) reactions on sup(15)N, (p,α) reaction on sup(27)Al and the process sup(12)C(sup(12)C, sup(8)Be)sup(16)O. (author)

  9. Nuclear track detectors for charged particles and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tommasino, L.

    2006-01-01

    It was with great emotion that I accepted to be a guest speaker to this memorial section dedicated to my old-time friend, Prof. Radomir Ilic. In addition to being one of the most outstanding scientists in the field of nuclear tracks, Prof. Radomir Ilic has been always highly acclaimed by the scientific community for his enthusiasm, his warm friendship, and his great vitality. Through his successful editorial activities, Prof. Ilic has proved to be very able to address the field of nuclear tracks to very wide audiences with special regards to young students. It was here in Portoroz, that Prof. Radomir Ilic was our host as the organiser of the 21st International Conference on Nuclear Tracks in Solids. All the participants have great memories of this very successful international conference. For all these reasons, the 2006 edition of the International Conference on Nuclear Energy for new Europe, with its wide audience and its venue at Portoroz, can be considered as one of the most appropriate forum for the memorial lecture of Prof. Radomir Ilic. The present paper will be dealing with the solid state nuclear track detectors-SSNTDs and their successful applications for the measurements of cosmic-ray-neutrons and terrestrial radioactivity, namely radon. (author)

  10. Field oxide radiation damage measurements in silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laakso, M [Particle Detector Group, Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States) Research Inst. for High Energy Physics (SEFT), Helsinki (Finland); Singh, P; Shepard, P F [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Surface radiation damage in planar processed silicon detectors is caused by radiation generated holes being trapped in the silicon dioxide layers on the detector wafer. We have studied charge trapping in thick (field) oxide layers on detector wafers by irradiating FOXFET biased strip detectors and MOS test capacitors. Special emphasis was put on studying how a negative bias voltage across the oxide during irradiation affects hole trapping. In addition to FOXFET biased detectors, negatively biased field oxide layers may exist on the n-side of double-sided strip detectors with field plate based n-strip separation. The results indicate that charge trapping occurred both close to the Si-SiO[sub 2] interface and in the bulk of the oxide. The charge trapped in the bulk was found to modify the electric field in the oxide in a way that leads to saturation in the amount of charge trapped in the bulk when the flatband/threshold voltage shift equals the voltage applied over the oxide during irradiation. After irradiation only charge trapped close to the interface is annealed by electrons tunneling to the oxide from the n-type bulk. (orig.).

  11. Radiation damage of pixelated photon detector by neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Isamu [KEK, 1-1 Oho Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)], E-mail: isamu.nakamura@kek.jp

    2009-10-21

    Radiation Damage of Pixelated Photon Detector by neutron irradiation is reported. MPPC, one of PPD or Geiger-mode APD, developed by Hamamatsu Photonics, is planned to be used in many high energy physics experiments. In such experiments radiation damage is a serious issue. A series of neutron irradiation tests is performed at the Reactor YAYOI of the University of Tokyo. MPPCs were irradiated at the reactor up to 10{sup 12}neutron/cm{sup 2}. In this paper, the effect of neutron irradiation on the basic characteristics of PPD including gain, noise rate, photon detection efficiency is presented.

  12. Radiation damage measurements on CZT drift strip detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Korsbech, Uffe C C

    2003-01-01

    from 2 x 10(8) to 60 x 10(8) p(+)/cm(2). Even for the highest fluences, which had a dramatic effect on the spectroscopic performance, we were able to recover the detectors after an appropriate annealing procedure. The radiation damage was studied as a function of depth inside the detector material...... with the proton dose. The radiation contribution to the electron trapping was found to obey the following relation: (mutau(e)(-1))(rad) = (2.5+/-0.2) x 10(-7) x Phi (V/cm)(2) with the proton fluence, Phi in p(+)/cm(2). The trapping depth dependence, however, did not agree well with the damage profile calculated...

  13. Development of a cylindrical tracking detector with multichannel scintillation fibers and pixelated photon detector readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akazawa, Y.; Miwa, K.; Honda, R.; Shiozaki, T.; Chiga, N.

    2015-07-01

    We are developing a cylindrical tracking detector for a Σp scattering experiment in J-PARC with scintillation fibers and the Pixelated Photon Detector (PPD) readout, which is called as cylindrical fiber tracker (CFT), in order to reconstruct trajectories of charged particles emitted inside CFT. CFT works not only as a tracking detector but also a particle identification detector from energy deposits. A prototype CFT consisting of two straight layers and one spiral layer was constructed. About 1100 scintillation fibers with a diameter of 0.75 mm (Kuraray SCSF-78 M) were used. Each fiber signal was read by Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC, HPK S10362-11-050P, 1×1 mm{sup 2}, 400 pixels) fiber by fiber. MPPCs were handled with Extended Analogue Silicon Photomultipliers Integrated ReadOut Chip (EASIROC) boards, which were developed for the readout of a large number of MPPCs. The energy resolution of one layer was 28% for a 70 MeV proton where the energy deposit in fibers was 0.7 MeV.

  14. Radiation damage status of the ATLAS silicon strip detectors (SCT)

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, Takahiko; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Silicon microstrip detector system (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at LHC has been working well for about 7 years since 2010. The innermost layer has already received a few times of 10**13 1-MeV neutron-equivalent fluences/cm2. The evolutions of the radiation damage effects on strip sensors such as leakage current and full depletion voltages will be presented.

  15. The measurement of radon and thoron by solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.A.; Akhwand, R.A.; Bukhari, K.M.; Saddarudin, A.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to study a) the development and annealing properties of the latent damage trails produced by radon/thoron alpha particles in plastic Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs), and b) the diffusion properties of radon and thoron in various media by using SSNTDs. The information thus obtained has been employed for a) the optimization of the conditions for the construction of radon/thoron dosimeters for uranium/thorium mines, and b) the use of SSNTDs for the prospection and estimation of uranium and thorium. The results indicate that these gases can diffuse even through rocks, and cellulose nitrate detectors, LR-115 and CA80-15, can be profitably employed in dosimetry, prospection, and for the discrimination between uranium and thorium deposits. (orig.) [de

  16. Visualization of complex DNA damage along accelerated ions tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, Elena; Boreyko, Alla; Bulanova, Tatiana; Ježková, Lucie; Zadneprianetc, Mariia; Smirnova, Elena

    2018-04-01

    The most deleterious DNA lesions induced by ionizing radiation are clustered DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Clustered or complex DNA damage is a combination of a few simple lesions (single-strand breaks, base damage etc.) within one or two DNA helix turns. It is known that yield of complex DNA lesions increases with increasing linear energy transfer (LET) of radiation. For investigation of the induction and repair of complex DNA lesions, human fibroblasts were irradiated with high-LET 15N ions (LET = 183.3 keV/μm, E = 13MeV/n) and low-LET 60Co γ-rays (LET ≈ 0.3 keV/μm) radiation. DNA DSBs (γH2AX and 53BP1) and base damage (OGG1) markers were visualized by immunofluorecence staining and high-resolution microscopy. The obtained results showed slower repair kinetics of induced DSBs in cells irradiated with accelerated ions compared to 60Co γ-rays, indicating induction of more complex DNA damage. Confirming previous assumptions, detailed 3D analysis of γH2AX/53BP1 foci in 15N ions tracks revealed more complicated structure of the foci in contrast to γ-rays. It was shown that proteins 53BP1 and OGG1 involved in repair of DNA DSBs and modified bases, respectively, were colocalized in tracks of 15N ions and thus represented clustered DNA DSBs.

  17. CR-39 α track detector and its application in observing of the hot particles in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Benchuan

    1992-01-01

    CR-39 α track detector is a new α remitting radionuclides plastic detector. It is audio-visual, convenient and economic in the detection of α particle track and the distribution of α emitting radionuclides in environmental samples. CR-39 α track detector is used to observe the hot particles in rock and the hot particles coming from the liquid effluents discharged by spent fuel reprocessing plant in UK in marine environment and got good results

  18. Thermal stability of dyed tracks and electrochemical etching sensitivity of some polymeric detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnin, M.; Gourcy, J.; Somogyi, G.; Dajko, D.

    1980-01-01

    Recent results on the mechanism of the formation of tracks obtained by the dyed tracks technique are given and the thermal annealing of the detectors is used to demonstrate their ability to retain tracks under more severe conditions than by the etching technique. Electrochemical etching of polycarbonate and polyethylene terephthalate detectors is investigated both from the background and sensitivity points of view. The polyethylene terephthalate detector is shown to be well suited for low neutron flux measurements. (author)

  19. Fast Neutron Dosimetry Using CR-39 Nuclear Track Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZAKI, M.; ABDEL-NABY, A.; MORSY, A.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of the neutron dose in and around the neutron sources is important for the purpose of personnel and environmental neutron dosimetry. In the present study, a method for the measurement of neutron dose using the UV-Vis spectra of CR-39 plastic track detector was investigated. A set of CR-39 plastic detectors was exposed to 252 Cf neutron source, which had the yield of 0.68x10 8 /s, and neutron dose equivalent rate 1m apart from the source is equal to 3.8 mrem/h. The samples were etched for 10 h in 6.25 N NaOH at 70 o C. The absorbance of the etched samples was measured using UV-visible spectrophotometer as a function of neutron dose. It was observed that there was a linear relationship between the optical absorption of these detectors and neutron dose. This means that the exposure dose of neutron can be determined by knowing the optical absorption of the sample. These results were compared with previous study. It was found that there was a matching and good agreement with their investigations.

  20. The Control System for the CMS Strip Tracking Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrer, Manuel; Chen, Jie; Dierlamm, Alexander; Frey, Martin; Masetti, Lorenzo; Militaru, Otilia; Shah, Yousaf; Stringer, Robert; Tsirou, Andromachi

    2008-01-01

    The Tracker of the CMS silicon strip tracking detector covers a surface of 206 m2. 9648128 channels are available on 75376 APV front-end chips on 15232 modules, built of 24328 silicon sensors. The power supply of the detector modules is split up in 1944 power supplies with two low voltage for front end power and two high voltage channels each for the bias voltage of the silicon sensors. In addition 356 low voltage channels are needed to power the control chain. The tracker will run at -20°C at low relative humidity for at least 10 years. The Tracker Control System handles all interdependencies of control, low and high voltages, as well as fast ramp downs in case of higher than allowed temperatures or currents in the detector and experimental cavern problems. This is ensured by evaluating $10^{4}$ power supply parameters, $10^{3}$ information from Tracker Safety System and $10^{5}$ information from the tracker front end.

  1. The ZEUS central tracking detector. Der zentrale Spuren-Detektor von ZEUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxon, D H

    1989-12-01

    The Central Tracking Detector (CTD) of ZEUS covers a wide angular range, whilst the Forward Detector - comprising the Forward Tracking Detector (FTD) and electron identification by transition radiation - concentrates on the important forward cone. The RTD (Rear Tracking Detector) provides accurate angle measurement of the recoil electron and the vertex detector (VXD) aims to find particles from heavy flavour decay. To measure momentum accurately the CTD sits in a high magnetic field (B=1,8 T) within the ZEUS calorimeter. (orig./HSI).

  2. Radiation damage and rate limitations in tracking devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilchriese, M.G.D.

    1984-01-01

    In this note the author briefly discusses radiation damage to wire chambers and silicon strip devices and the electronics that may be associated with each of these. Scintillating fibers and CCD's are not discussed although the former appears to be a potentially radiation-resistant detector. In order to calculate radiation levels and rates the author assumed the following: an inelastic cross section of 100 mb at the SSC - six charged particles per unit of rapidity - photons and neutrons do not contribute to the background (photon conversions are negligible with a thin Be beam pipe) - beam gas interactions and beam losses (except during injection when I assume that the detector is ''off'') are negligible. This is discussed in a later section. - 1 Rad = 3.5 x 10 7 minimum ionizing particlescm 2

  3. Time-Lapse Monitoring of DNA Damage Colocalized With Particle Tracks in Single Living Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFadden, Conor H. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hallacy, Timothy M. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, Texas (United States); Flint, David B. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Granville, Dal A. [Department of Medical Physics, The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Asaithamby, Aroumougame [Division of Molecular Radiation Biology, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Centre, Dallas, Texas (United States); Sahoo, Narayan [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Akselrod, Mark S. [Crystal Growth Division, Landauer, Inc, Stillwater, Oklahoma (United States); Sawakuchi, Gabriel O., E-mail: gsawakuchi@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: Understanding the DNA damage and repair induced by hadron therapy (HT) beams is crucial for developing novel strategies to maximize the use of HT beams to treat cancer patients. However, spatiotemporal studies of DNA damage and repair for beam energies relevant to HT have been challenging. We report a technique that enables spatiotemporal measurement of radiation-induced damage in live cells and colocalization of this damage with charged particle tracks over a broad range of clinically relevant beam energies. The technique uses novel fluorescence nuclear track detectors with fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy in the beam line to visualize particle track traversals within the subcellular compartments of live cells within seconds after injury. Methods and Materials: We designed and built a portable fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscope for use in the beam path, coated fluorescence nuclear track detectors with fluorescent-tagged live cells (HT1080 expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein tagged to XRCC1, a single-strand break repair protein), placed the entire assembly into a proton therapy beam line, and irradiated the cells with a fluence of ∼1 × 10{sup 6} protons/cm{sup 2}. Results: We successfully obtained confocal images of proton tracks and foci of DNA single-strand breaks immediately after irradiation. Conclusions: This technique represents an innovative method for analyzing biological responses in any HT beam line at energies and dose rates relevant to therapy. It allows precise determination of the number of tracks traversing a subcellular compartment and monitoring the cellular damage therein, and has the potential to measure the linear energy transfer of each track from therapeutic beams.

  4. Flame Spread and Damaged Properties of RCD Cases by Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chung-Seog; Kim, Hyang-Kon; Shong, Kil-Mok; Kim, Dong-Woo

    In this paper, the flame spread and damaged properties of residual current protective devices (RCDs) by tracking were analyzed. Pictures of tracking process were taken by High Speed Imaging System (HSIS), and fire progression was observed by timeframe. During the tracking process of RCD, it seemed to explode just once in appearance, but in the results of HSIS analysis, a small fire broke out and disappeared repeatedly 35 times and a flash of light repeated 15 times. Finally, an explosion with a flash of light occurred and lots of particles were scattered. Electric muffle furnace was used for heat treatment of RCD cases. The surface characteristics of specimens due to heat treatment and tracking deterioration were taken by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Chemical and thermal properties of these deteriorated specimens were analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FT-IR) and Differential Thermal Analyzer (DTA). The carbonization characteristics showed different chemical properties due to energy sources, and the results could be applicable to judge the accident causes.

  5. Radiation damage in silicon. Defect analysis and detector properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenniger, F.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon microstrip and pixel detectors are vital sensor-components as particle tracking detectors for present as well as future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments. All experiments at the large Hadron Collider (LHC) are equipped with such detectors. Also for experiments after the upgrade of the LHC (the so-called Super-LHC), with its ten times higher luminosity, or the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) silicon tracking detectors are forseen. Close to the interaction region these detectors have to face harsh radiation fields with intensities above the presently tolerable level. defect engineering of the used material, e. g. oxygen enrichment of high resistivity float zone silicon and growing of thin low resistivityepitaxial layers on Czochralski silicon substrates has been established to improve the radiation hardness of silicon sensors. This thesis focuses mainly on the investigation of radiation induced defects and their differences observed in various kinds of epitaxial silicon material. Comparisons with other materials like float zone or Czochralski silicon are added. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) and Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurements have been performed after γ-, electron-, proton- and neutron-irradiation. The differenced in the formation of vacancy and interstitial related defects as well as so-called clustered regions were investigated for various types of irradiation. In addition to the well known defects VO i , C i O i , C i C s , VP or V 2 several other defect complexes have been found and investigated. Also the material dependence of the defect introduction rates and the defect annealing behavior has been studied by isothermal and isochronal annealing experiments. Especially the IO 2 defect which is an indicator for the oxygen-dimer content of the material has been investigated in detail. On the basis of radiation induced defects like the bistable donor (BD) defect and a deep acceptor, a model has been introduced to

  6. Radiation damage in silicon. Defect analysis and detector properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenniger, F.

    2008-01-15

    Silicon microstrip and pixel detectors are vital sensor-components as particle tracking detectors for present as well as future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments. All experiments at the large Hadron Collider (LHC) are equipped with such detectors. Also for experiments after the upgrade of the LHC (the so-called Super-LHC), with its ten times higher luminosity, or the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) silicon tracking detectors are forseen. Close to the interaction region these detectors have to face harsh radiation fields with intensities above the presently tolerable level. defect engineering of the used material, e. g. oxygen enrichment of high resistivity float zone silicon and growing of thin low resistivityepitaxial layers on Czochralski silicon substrates has been established to improve the radiation hardness of silicon sensors. This thesis focuses mainly on the investigation of radiation induced defects and their differences observed in various kinds of epitaxial silicon material. Comparisons with other materials like float zone or Czochralski silicon are added. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) and Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurements have been performed after {gamma}-, electron-, proton- and neutron-irradiation. The differenced in the formation of vacancy and interstitial related defects as well as so-called clustered regions were investigated for various types of irradiation. In addition to the well known defects VO{sub i}, C{sub i}O{sub i}, C{sub i}C{sub s}, VP or V{sub 2} several other defect complexes have been found and investigated. Also the material dependence of the defect introduction rates and the defect annealing behavior has been studied by isothermal and isochronal annealing experiments. Especially the IO{sub 2} defect which is an indicator for the oxygen-dimer content of the material has been investigated in detail. On the basis of radiation induced defects like the bistable donor (BD) defect and a deep

  7. Radon measurements by track detectors in Calabrian workplaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nastro, V.; Niceforo, G.; Vuono, D.; Luca, P. de; Nastro, A. [Calabria Univ., Dipt. di Pianificazione Territoriale, Arcavacata di Rende, CS (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Indoor radon studies have been carried out in some workplaces of the South Calabria (Italy) by track detectors CR-39. This study has been undertaken for the purpose of safeguarding the public healthy: since the European population spends, in average, the most greater part of their time in confined environments(residences and offices) the risks of exposure can be elevated. This radon passive measurements are been effectuated according to the recommendations. The exposure time in the workplaces was two different cycle: three months, and six months. The obtained results indicate a radon concentration not only in an average of low level but also in the range of action level (>500 Bq/m{sup 3}). In this last case will be necessary to reduce the radon pollution by adequate land operation works, and a continuous monitoring is also necessary.

  8. Radon measurements by track detectors in Calabrian workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastro, V.; Niceforo, G.; Vuono, D.; Luca, P. de; Nastro, A.

    2006-01-01

    Indoor radon studies have been carried out in some workplaces of the South Calabria (Italy) by track detectors CR-39. This study has been undertaken for the purpose of safeguarding the public healthy: since the European population spends, in average, the most greater part of their time in confined environments(residences and offices) the risks of exposure can be elevated. This radon passive measurements are been effectuated according to the recommendations. The exposure time in the workplaces was two different cycle: three months, and six months. The obtained results indicate a radon concentration not only in an average of low level but also in the range of action level (>500 Bq/m 3 ). In this last case will be necessary to reduce the radon pollution by adequate land operation works, and a continuous monitoring is also necessary

  9. Precision Muon Tracking Detectors for High-Energy Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Gadow, Philipp; Kroha, Hubert; Richter, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Small-diameter muon drift tube (sMDT) chambers with 15 mm tube diameter are a cost-effective technology for high-precision muon tracking over large areas at high background rates as expected at future high-energy hadron colliders including HL-LHC. The chamber design and construction procedures have been optimized for mass production and provide sense wire positioning accuracy of better than 10 ?m. The rate capability of the sMDT chambers has been extensively tested at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility. It exceeds the one of the ATLAS muon drift tube (MDT) chambers, which are operated at unprecedentedly high background rates of neutrons and gamma-rays, by an order of magnitude, which is sufficient for almost the whole muon detector acceptance at FCC-hh at maximum luminosity. sMDT operational and construction experience exists from ATLAS muon spectrometer upgrades which are in progress or under preparation for LHC Phase 1 and 2.

  10. A passive monitor for radon using electrochemical track etch detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massera, G.E.; Hassib, G.M.; Piesch, E.

    1980-01-01

    A passive monitor for radon and its decay products based on the electrochemical etching (ECE) of α-particle tracks on Makrofol is described. The monitor has been constructed in such a way that radon and radon daughters attached to aerosols can easily pass through a chamber while dust, heavy particles and water droplets are collected outside. The decay products are accumulated on the bottom of the chamber and a Makrofol detector foil is fixed on the top to register alpha particles. The ECE condition was maintained to detect alpha particles coming mainly from radon daughters trapped on the bottom of the chamber. The response of the monitor was determined at different exposure conditions and compared with those of some active techniques such as working level meters. The merits of this system are low cost, good sensitivity, portability and reliable, unattended operation. (author)

  11. Radon measurements using track detector in Wadi Sannur cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, F.; Eissa, M.F.; Mostafa, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    The most important contributors to the committed effective dose received by population due to natural sources are the short-lived decay products of radon ( 222 Rn). In natural voids, such as caves, most radon will enter the system from diffusion across the rock-air interface. It is well known that factors such as air pressure and temperature control the distribution of radon. The radon concentration measurements in the Wadi Sannur cave in Beni-Suef governorate in the period from 14 th of July 2005 to 17 th of October 2005. The average radon concentrations in the right, left and whole first cave are 916.12 ± 179.09, 819.63 ± 54.72 and 873.90± 147.11 Bq m -3 respectively. The measurements were performed using track etch detector of type Cr-39. After exposure, all detectors were etched chemically in 6.25 M NaOH solution at 70 C degrees for 6 h. The tracks were counted with an optical microscope magnifying 400 times. The average temperature inside the first cave during the period of measurements is 25-26 C degrees. The annual effective doses for the workers and visitors in the cave have been calculated. The average radon concentration in the Wadi Sannur cave, was 873.90 ± 147.11 Bq m -3 . The annual effective doses for worker and visitor in the cave were 1.33 ± 0.24 and 0.041 ± 0.007 mSv respectively. The doses are within the international recommended dose of 1.15 mSv. (author)

  12. Equipment for electrochemical etching of dielectric track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turek, K.; Novak, M.

    1992-01-01

    The facility is designed for electrochemical etching of solid state track detectors, devised for thicknesses in excess of 200 μm as employed for direct detection of charged particles or neutrons. The device consists of a high-voltage a.c. supply for the electrodes and an assembly whose body consists of a flat tank, on the surface of which is formed a channel for feeding the heating and cooling media. The tank is covered by a gasket, an earthed metal plate for the detector, a mask with holes determining the shape of the etched area, and a pressure plate. The pressure plate is fitted with a system of holes for the etching solution. Needle-shaped high-voltage electrodes are accommodated in the holes of the mask. The underlying principle of the invention consists in the fact that a rubber pad with guide holes for the needle-shaped electrodes lies on the pressure plate. Each electrode is composed of a central tip and an outer jacket, separated by an insulating layer; connection is provided by a light emitting diode. (Z.S.). 2 figs

  13. Cosmic radiation dose in aircraft - a neutron track etch detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovic, B.; Radolic, V.; Miklavcic, I.; Poje, M.; Varga, M. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, P.O. Box 125, Gajev trg 6 (Croatia); Planinic, J. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, P.O. Box 125, Gajev trg 6 (Croatia)], E-mail: planinic@ffos.hr

    2007-12-15

    Cosmic radiation bombards us at high altitude by ionizing particles. The radiation environment is a complex mixture of charged particles of solar and galactic origin, as well as of secondary particles produced in interaction of the galactic cosmic particles with the nuclei of atmosphere of the Earth. The radiation field at aircraft altitude consists of different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The non-neutron component of cosmic radiation dose aboard ATR 42 and A 320 aircrafts (flight level of 8 and 11 km, respectively) was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A 320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Other experiments, or dose rate measurements with the neutron dosimeter, consisting of LR-115 track detector and boron foil BN-1 or 10B converter, were performed on five intercontinental flights. Comparison of the dose rates of the non-neutron component (low LET) and the neutron one (high LET) of the radiation field at the aircraft flight level showed that the neutron component carried about 50% of the total dose. The dose rate measurements on the flights from the Middle Europe to the South and Middle America, then to Korea and Japan, showed that the flights over or near the equator region carried less dose rate; this was in accordance with the known geomagnetic latitude effect.

  14. Cosmic radiation dose in aircraft - a neutron track etch detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, B.; Radolic, V.; Miklavcic, I.; Poje, M.; Varga, M.; Planinic, J.

    2007-01-01

    Cosmic radiation bombards us at high altitude by ionizing particles. The radiation environment is a complex mixture of charged particles of solar and galactic origin, as well as of secondary particles produced in interaction of the galactic cosmic particles with the nuclei of atmosphere of the Earth. The radiation field at aircraft altitude consists of different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The non-neutron component of cosmic radiation dose aboard ATR 42 and A 320 aircrafts (flight level of 8 and 11 km, respectively) was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A 320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Other experiments, or dose rate measurements with the neutron dosimeter, consisting of LR-115 track detector and boron foil BN-1 or 10B converter, were performed on five intercontinental flights. Comparison of the dose rates of the non-neutron component (low LET) and the neutron one (high LET) of the radiation field at the aircraft flight level showed that the neutron component carried about 50% of the total dose. The dose rate measurements on the flights from the Middle Europe to the South and Middle America, then to Korea and Japan, showed that the flights over or near the equator region carried less dose rate; this was in accordance with the known geomagnetic latitude effect

  15. Fast tracking detector with fiber scintillators and a position sensitive photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, M.; Li, V.; Smith, G.; Wu, Y.S.

    1988-11-01

    We have studied the properties of a tracking detector composed of 32 fiber scintillators coupled to a multianode photomultiplier placed in a pion beam at TRIUMF. We measured the efficiency of the detector, as well as its tracking capabilities and double hit resolution

  16. A proposal to study a tracking/preshower detector for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Munday, D J; Anghinolfi, Francis; Bonino, R; Campbell, M; Fassò, A; Gildemeister, O; Heijne, Erik H M; Jarron, Pierre; Mapelli, Livio P; Pentney, J M; Poppleton, Alan; Stevenson, Graham Roger; Gössling, C; Pollmann, D; Sondermann, V; Tsesmelis, E; Clark, A G; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Martin, M; Rosselet, L; Fretwurst, E; Lindström, G; Reich, V; Bardos, R A; Gorfine, G W; Taylor, G; Tovey, Stuart N; Stapnes, Steinar; Weidberg, A R; Lubrano, P; Pepé, M; Grayer, Geoffrey H; Sharp, P; Bakich, A M; Peak, L S; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1990-01-01

    We describe a program of studies aimed at determining whether the track stub/preshower technique of electron identification can be used at the highest operating luminosities of the proposed LHC collider. The proposal covers detector and electronics developments required for the construction of a track-stub and preshower detector preceding the electromagnetic calorimeter of an LHC experiment.

  17. Radiation damage studies of detector-compatible Si JFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Boscardin, Maurizio; Candelori, Andrea; Pancheri, Lucio; Piemonte, Claudio; Ratti, Lodovico; Zorzi, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    We have largely improved the performance of our detector-compatible Si JFETs by optimizing the fabrication technology. New devices feature thermal noise values close to the theoretical ones, and remarkably low 1/f noise figures. In view of adopting these JFETs for X-ray imaging and HEP applications, bulk and surface radiation damage tests have been carried out by irradiating single transistors and test structures with neutrons and X-rays. Selected results from static and noise characterization of irradiated devices are discussed in this paper, and the impact of radiation effects on the performance of JFET-based circuits is addressed

  18. Measurement of Radon concentration in groundwater by technique of nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh Van Giap; Nguyen Manh Hung; Dang Duc Nhan

    2000-01-01

    A method for measuring radon concentration in groundwater using nuclear track detector LR-115 stripping is reported. The radon-monitoring device in groundwater is a small box with two pieces of nuclear track detector and all these materials is placed in a plastic bag made by polyethylene. It is very suitable to measure radon concentration in groundwater well in long term. Alpha tracks produced by radon and it daughter on nuclear track detector is counted automatically by spark counting method. The paper also presents some results of radon concentration in some groundwater well and mineral water sources. (author)

  19. Detection alpha particles and Cf-252 fission fragments with track solid detectors and with surface barrier detectors: efficiency determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khouri, M.T.F.C.; Koskinas, M.F.; Andrade, C. de; Vilela, E.C.; Hinostroza, H.; Kaschiny, J.R.A.; Costa, M.S. da; Rizzo, P.; Santos, W.M.S.

    1990-01-01

    The technique of particle detection by solid track detectors, types of developing and analysis of results are presented. Efficiency measurements of alpha particle detection with Makrofol e and surface barrier detector are made. Detection of Cf-252 fission fragments is shown. (L.C.)

  20. Detection of alpha particles and Cf-252 fission fragments with solid track detectors and surface barrier detector. Efficiency calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khouri, M.T.F.C.; Koskinas, M.F.; Andrade, C. de; Vilela, E.C.; Hinostroza, H.; Kaschiny, J.E.A.; Costa, M.S. da; Rizzo, P.; Santos, W.M.S.

    1990-01-01

    A technique for particle detection by using track solid detector and also types of revealing and result analysis are presented concerned to Cf-252 fission fragments detection. Measurements of alpha particles detection efficiency using Makrofol E and surface barrier detector are performed. (L.C.J.A.)

  1. Energy loss and online directional track visualization of fast electrons with the pixel detector Timepix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Granja, C.; Krist, Pavel; Chvátil, David; Šolc, J.; Pospíšil, S.; Jakubek, J.; Opalka, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, DEC (2013), s. 245-261 ISSN 1350-4487 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : interaction of radiation with matter * dE/dx detectors * particle tracking detectors * hybrid pixel detectors * active nuclear emulsion * energy loss Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2013

  2. Ageing effects on polymeric track detectors: studies of etched tracks at nano size scale using atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J. I.; Fragoso, R.; Vazquez L, C.; Saad, A. F.; El-Namrouty, A. A.; Fujii, M.

    2012-01-01

    Among several different techniques to analyze material surface, the use of Atomic Force Microscope is one of the finest method. As we know, the sensitivity to detect energetic ions is extremely affected during the storage time and conditions of the polymeric material used as a nuclear track detector. On the basis of the surface analysis of several track detector materials, we examined the detection sensitivity of these detectors exposed to alpha particles. The preliminary results revealed that the ageing effect on its sensitivity is very strong, that need to be considered on the routine applications or research experiments. The results are consistent with the experimental data in the literature. (Author)

  3. Solid state nuclear track detectors and their application in industrial health, radiological and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, M.

    1993-09-01

    Passive Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors are electrically non conductive solids, mainly used for the registration of α-particles and neutron induced recoils. The stability of the particle tracks in the solid allow longer integration periods, what is essential for the measurement of small, time variant radiation exposures. This report gives an overview on non-photographic track detectors, their processing, dosimetric properties and examples for their application in industrial health, radiological and environmental protection. (orig.) [de

  4. A TPC-like readout method for high precision muon-tracking using GEM-detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flierl, Bernhard; Biebel, Otmar; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Hertenberger, Ralf; Klitzner, Felix; Loesel, Philipp; Mueller, Ralph [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Zibell, Andre [Julius-Maximilians-Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Gaseous electron multiplier (GEM) detectors are well suited for tracking of charged particles. Three dimensional tracking in a single layer can be achieved by application of a time-projection-chamber like readout mode (μTPC), if the drift time of the electrons is measured and the position dependence of the arrival time is used to calculate the inclination angle of the track. To optimize the tracking capabilities for ion tracks drift gas mixtures with low drift velocity have been investigated by measuring tracks of cosmic muons in a compact setup of four GEM-detectors of 100 x 100 x 6 mm{sup 3} active volume each and an angular acceptance of -25 to 25 . The setup consists of three detectors with two-dimensional strip readout layers of 0.4 mm pitch and one detector with a single strip readout layer of 0.25 mm pitch. All strips are readout by APV25 frontend boards and the amplification stage in the detectors consists of three GEM-foils. Tracks are reconstructed by the μTPC-method in one of the detectors and are then compared to the prediction from the other three detectors defined by the center of charge in every detector. We report our study of Argon and Helium based noble gas mixtures with carbon-dioxide as quencher.

  5. Status and trends of solid state track detector use in radiation protection monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerschel, B.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristic properties of solid state track detectors allow them to be used for determining the radiation fields of charged and uncharged particles and, consequently, for solving some problems involved in radiation protection monitoring. Aptitude of various detector materials is investigated on the basis of the track formation mechanism taking into account the properties of the particles to be detected. Use of these detectors in radiation protection monitoring presumes appropriate methods of intensifying the latent tracks, which are discussed as a function of various physical parameters. Readout methods of solid state track detectors are based on variations in detector properties determined by number and size of particle tracks in the detector. The choice of a special readout method, among other things, depends on the purpose, detector material, and pretreatment of the detectors. The most prospective methods are described and investigated with respect to their possible use in various fields of radiation protection monitoring. The trends of development of the application of solid state track detectors in radiation protection monitoring are discussed, using some typical applications as examples. (author)

  6. Radiation damage measurements in room temperature semiconductor radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, L.A.; Olsen, R.W.; James, R.B.; Brunett, B.A.; Walsh, D.S.; Doyle, B.L.; Vizkelethy, G.; Trombka, J.I.

    1998-01-01

    The literature of radiation damage measurements on cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), cadmium telluride (CT), and mercuric iodide (HgI 2 ) is reviewed and in the case of CZT supplemented by new alpha particle data. CZT strip detectors exposed to intermediate energy (1.3 MeV) proton fluences exhibit increased interstrip leakage after 10 10 p/cm 2 and significant bulk leakage after 10 12 p/cm 2 . CZT exposed to 200 MeV protons shows a two-fold loss in energy resolution after a fluence of 5 x 10 9 p/cm 2 in thick (3 mm) planar devices but little effect in 2 mm devices. No energy resolution effects were noted from moderated fission spectrum of neutrons after fluences up to 10 10 n/cm 2 , although activation was evident. Exposures of CZT to 5 MeV alpha particle at fluences up to 1.5 x 10 10 α/cm 2 produced a near linear decrease in peak position with fluence and increases in FWHM beginning at about 7.5 x 10 9 α/cm 2 . CT detectors show resolution losses after fluences of 3 x 10 9 p/cm 2 at 33 MeV for chlorine-doped detectors. Indium doped material may be more resistant. Neutron exposures (8 MeV) caused resolution losses after fluences of 2 x 10 10 n/cm 2 . Mercuric iodide has been studied with intermediate energy protons (10 to 33 MeV) at fluences up to 10 12 p/cm 2 and with 1.5 GeV protons at fluences up to 1.2 x 10 8 p/cm 2 . Neutron exposures at 8 MeV have been reported at fluences up to 10 15 n/cm 2 . No radiation damage was reported under these irradiation conditions

  7. Plastic nuclear track detectors as high x-ray and gamma dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong Chon Sing

    1995-01-01

    A brief review of recent studies on the effects of high doses of x-ray and gamma ray on the track registration properties of several plastic track detectors is presented. The bulk etching rates and the etched track sizes have been found to increase with the dose in the range up to 100 Mrad. These results suggest that the changes in track registration characteristics can be employed as an index of the radiation dose in the megarad region. In particular, recent results on the effect of X-ray irradiation on two types of cellulose nitrate track detectors obtained in our laboratory are reported in this paper. (author)

  8. Early Inner Detector Tracking Performance in the 2015 data at $\\sqrt s$ = 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    This note summarises the studies undertaken to recommend benchmark values and systematic uncertainties for various aspects of the ATLAS Inner Detector tracking based on $\\sqrt{s}= 13$ TeV proton-proton collisions from the Large Hadron Collider Run 2 data. The track reconstruction efficiency, fake rate, and related systematic uncertainties are presented for two different track quality selections, along with the impact parameter resolution and the alignment weak mode systematic uncertainities. These recommendations apply to physics analyses using Inner Detector tracks in Run 2 data and are important inputs for other objects based on tracks.

  9. Liquid nitrogen enhancement of alpha particle tracks in a polycarbonate detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilione, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    Makrofol-E polycarbonate detectors were exposed to 1 to 3 MeV alpha particles and subsequently immersed in liquid nitrogen for various periods of time. The influence of the liquid nitrogen on the track recording properties of the detector has been found by measuring the track densities and diameters. Track densities increase with immersion time with a maximum gain of approximately 9% after 1200 min in liquid nitrogen. Track enhancement decreases with waiting time between the end of alpha particle exposure and the beginning of liquid nitrogen immersion. Track diameters decrease with time after passage of the particles and this process is accelerated by immersion in liquid nitrogen. (author)

  10. The forward detector of the ANKE spectrometer. Tracking system and its use in data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymov, S.; Erven, W.; Kacharava, A.

    2004-01-01

    The tracking system of the forward detector of the ANKE magnetic spectrometer at the internal beam of the accelerator COSY (Juelich, Germany) is described. Data analysis procedures, including track search and momentum reconstruction, are presented, and the performance of the tracking system is illustrated with the use of experimental data

  11. Development of radiation hard microstrip detectors for the CBM silicon tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterji, Sudeep [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Radiation damage in Silicon microstrip detectors is of the one main concerns for the development of the Silicon Tracking System (STS) in the planned Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR. The STS will consist of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSD) having pitch around 60 {mu}m, width 20 {mu}m, stereo angle of {+-}7.5{sup 0} on n and p sides with double metallization on either side making it challenging to fabricate.We are using 3-dimensional TCAD simulation tools from SYNOPSYS to carry out process (using Sentaurus Process) and device (using Sentaurus Device) simulations.We have simulated the impact of radiation damage in DSSDs by changing the effective carrier concentration (N{sub eff}) with fluence using the Hamburg model. The change in minority carrier life time has been taken into account using the Kraners model and the Perugia trap model has been used to simulate the traps. We have also extracted macroscopic parameters like Coupling Capacitance, Interstrip Capacitance (both DC and AC), Interstrip Resistance of DSSDs using Mixed Mode simulation (using SPICE with Sentaurus Device) and studied the variation of these parameters with fluence. The simulation results have been compared to the experimental results. We also simulated transients by passing a Heavy Ion through a DSSD and studied the charge collection performance.

  12. Gamma radiation damage in pixelated detector based on carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva, A.; Pinnera, I.; Leyva, D.; Abreu, Y.; Cruz, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the possible gamma radiation damage in high pixelated based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes detectors, grown on two different substrata, when it is operating in aggressive radiational environments. The radiation damage in displacements per atom (dpa) terms were calculated using the MCCM algorithm, which takes into account the McKinley-Feshbach approach with the Kinchin-Pease approximation for the damage function. Was observed that with increasing of the gamma energy the displacement total number grows monotonically reaching values of 0.39 displacements for a 10 MeV incident photon. The profiles of point defects distributions inside the carbon nanotube pixel linearly rise with depth, increasing its slope with photon energy. In the 0.1 MeV - 10 MeV studied energy interval the electron contribution to the total displacement number become higher than the positron ones, reaching this last one a maximum value of 12% for the 10 MeV incident photons. Differences between the calculation results for the two used different substrata were not observed. (Author)

  13. Combined performance tests before installation of the ATLAS Semiconductor and Transition Radiation Tracking Detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abat, E.; Abdesselam, A.; Andy, T.N.; Böhm, Jan; Šťastný, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 3, - (2008), P08003/1-P08003/67 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08032; GA MŠk 1P04LA212 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : solid state detectors * particle tracking detectors * large detector systems for particle and astroparticle physics * transition radiation detectors Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2008

  14. Tracking in full Monte Carlo detector simulations of 500 GeV e+e- collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronan, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    In full Monte Carlo simulation models of future Linear Collider detectors, charged tracks are reconstructed from 3D space points in central tracking detectors. The track reconstruction software is being developed for detailed physics studies that take realistic detector resolution and background modeling into account. At this stage of the analysis, reference tracking efficiency and resolutions for ideal detector conditions are presented. High performance detectors are being designed to carry out precision studies of e + e - annihilation events in the energy range of 500 GeV to 1.5 TeV. Physics processes under study include Higgs mass and branching ratio measurements, measurement of possible manifestations of Supersymmetry (SUSY), precision Electro-Weak (EW) studies and searches for new phenomena beyond their current expectations. The relatively-low background machine environment at future Linear Colliders will allow precise measurements if proper consideration is given to the effects of the backgrounds on these studies. In current North American design studies, full Monte Carlo detector simulation and analysis is being used to allow detector optimization taking into account realistic models of machine backgrounds. In this paper the design of tracking software that is being developed for full detector reconstruction is discussed. In this study, charged tracks are found from simulated space point hits allowing for the straight-forward addition of background hits and for the accounting of missing information. The status of the software development effort is quantified by some reference performance measures, which will be modified by future work to include background effects

  15. Radiation damage: special reference to gas filled radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, Sudha; Joshi, Pankaj Kumar; Rathore, Shakuntla

    2012-01-01

    Radiation damage is a term associated with ionizing radiation. In gas filled particle detectors, radiation damage to gases plays an important role in the device's ageing, especially in devices exposed to high intensity radiation, e.g. detector for the large hadrons collide. Ionization processes require energy above 10 eV, while splitting covalent bond in molecules and generating free radical require only 3-4 eV. The electrical discharges initiated by the ionization event by the particles result in plasma populated by large amount of free radical. The highly reactive free radical can recombine back to original molecules, or initiate a chain of free radical polymerization reaction with other molecules, yielding compounds with increasing molecular weight. These high molecular weight compounds then precipitate from gases phase, forming conductive or non-conductive deposits on the electrodes an insulating surfaces of the detector and distorting it's response. Gases containing hydrocarbon quenchers, e.g. argon-methane, are typically sensitive to ageing by polymerization; addition of oxygen tends to lower the ageing rates. Trace amount of silicon oils, present form out gassing of silicon elastomers and especially from traces of silicon lubricant tend to decompose and form deposits of silicon crystals on the surfaces. Gases mixture of argon (or xenon) with CO 2 and optimally also with 2-3 % of oxygen are highly tolerant to high radiation fluxes. The oxygen is added as noble gas with CO 2 has too high transparency for high energy photons; ozone formed from the oxygen is a strong absorber of ultra violet photons. Carbon tetra fluoride can be used as a component of the gas for high-rate detectors; the fluorine radical produced during the operation however limit the choice of materials for the chambers and electrodes (e.g. gold electrodes are required, as the fluorine radicals attack metals, forming fluorides). Addition of carbon tetra fluoride can however eliminate the

  16. Study of the behavior of automatic track detectors for radon determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno C, A.

    1997-01-01

    Both the alpha decay and the alpha and beta emitting radon daughters, may affect the living cells. In this thesis, experiments have been performed to study the response of environmental radon using different alpha particle detectors. A study was performed both in the laboratory and in the field of two kinds of detectors: a) Passive solid state nuclear track detectors, LR 115 type II, capable to integrate the alpha particles in a given period of time and, b) an automatic active detector, Clipperton, that continuously accumulate the alpha counting from radon decay. LR-115 track detectors were exposed in the laboratory to alpha particles from a radioactive source and a controlled radon atmosphere. The detectors were also exposed to electrons from an electron accelerator. The number of alpha tracks in the detectors were evaluated with two kinds of spark counters. The response of the track detectors as a function of the number of alpha tracks showed a reproducibility of 92%, and the effect of electron doses showed that the bulk etching velocity varied as a function of the electron dose. Additionally some changes were introduced in an SSNTD exchanger, exposed to the radon chamber in order to reduce the background in the non exposed positions. A conversion factor of 0.016 tracks/cm 2 . 10h per Bq/m 3 was obtained. The response of the two spark counters was similar. Field soil radon determinations were performed with track detectors during 11 months and with the active detector during 5 months with exposures each month and each hour respectively. When calculated for the same time periods exposure the response of both systems was similar. However differences were quite striking in the patterns of short and long term exposure periods since short term fluctuations are explicitly shown with the active detector while integrated within the passive one. (Author)

  17. Tracking Performance in High Multiplicity Environment for the CLIC ILD Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Killenberg, M

    2012-01-01

    We report on the tracking efficiency and the fraction of badly reconstructed tracks in the CLIC ILD detector for high multiplicity events (tt ̄@3 TeV) with and without the presence of γγ →hadrons background. They have been studied for the silicon tracking, the TPC tracking and the so called FullLDC tacking, which combines silicon and TPC measurements.

  18. Radiation damage measurements in room-temperature semiconductor radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Franks, L A; Olsen, R W; Walsh, D S; Vizkelethy, G; Trombka, J I; Doyle, B L; James, R B

    1999-01-01

    The literature of radiation damage measurements on cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), cadmium telluride (CT), and mercuric iodide (HgI sub 2) is reviewed and in the case of CZT supplemented by new alpha particle data. CZT strip detectors exposed to intermediate energy (1.3 MeV) proton fluences exhibit increased interstrip leakage after 10 sup 1 sup 0 p/cm sup 2 and significant bulk leakage after 10 sup 1 sup 2 p/cm sup 2. CZT exposed to 200 MeV protons shows a two-fold loss in energy resolution after a fluence of 5x10 sup 9 p/cm sup 2 in thick (3 mm) planar devices but little effect in 2 mm devices. No energy resolution effects were noted from a moderated fission spectrum of neutrons after fluences up to 10 sup 1 sup 0 n/cm sup 2 , although activation was evident. Exposures of CZT to 5 MeV alpha particles at fluences up to 1.5x10 sup 1 sup 0 alpha/cm sup 2 produced a near linear decrease in peak position with fluence and increases in FWHM beginning at about 7.5x10 sup 9 alpha/cm sup 2. CT detectors show resolution...

  19. The effects of sunlight exposure on the neutron response of CN-85 track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.; Mirza, N.M.; Mirza, S.K.; Tufail, M.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of sunlight exposure on the neutron response of CN-85 track detectors has been studied. It has been observed that the response during the first 28 days of sunlight exposure is slightly enhanced (10%) and then deceases continuously with increase in the sunlight exposure. After 84 days of sunlight exposure the response of the exposed detector relative to an unexposed detector is only 22%. It is also observed that the response can not be maintained by wrapping the CN-85 etch track detectors in typewriter black carbon papers if they are exposed to sunlight. (author)

  20. The FCMM, a Fastbus Control and Memory Module for readout of the DELPHI SAT track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikne, J.C.; Skaali, B.

    1990-02-01

    The Small Angle Tagger (SAT) in the DELPHI experiment at CERN concists of detector units placed close to the beam on both sides of the interaction point. The track detector part of the SAT is built of Si-strip detectors where position can be measured to an accurancy of 1 mm in the radial direction. A specially developed Fastbus module for reading and front end buffering of the data from the track detector is decribed in the report. The description is intended as a complete technical manual for the module. 13 refs.; 27 figs

  1. The solid state track detectors for α-particles angular distribution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakr, M.H.S.

    1978-01-01

    The solid state track detectors technique is described in details from the point of view of applying them in nuclear reactions research. Using an optimum developing solution, the etching rate of polycarbonate detector was found to be 10.5 μ/hour. The energy resolution of this detector was estimated using 241 Am α-source at α-energies between 1 and 3 Mev. The scattering chamber designed for angular distribution measurements using solid state track detectors is described. A special schematic normograph for range-energy-degrading foils relation is given

  2. PixTrig: a Level 2 track finding algorithm based on pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Baratella, A; Morettini, P; Parodi, F

    2000-01-01

    This note describes an algorithm for track search at Level 2 based on pixel detector. Using three pixel clusters we can produce a reconstruction of the track parameter in both z and R-phi plane. These track segments can be used as seed for more sophisticated track finding algorithms or used directly, especially when impact parameter resolution is crucial. The algorithm efficiency is close to 90% for pt > 1 GeV/c and the processing time is small enough to allow a complete detector reconstruction (non RoI guided) within the Level 2 processing.

  3. Radiation Damage Effects and Performance of Silicon Strip Detectors using LHC Readout Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067734

    1998-01-01

    Future high energy physics experiments as the ATLAS experiment at CERN, will use silicon strip detectors for fast and high precision tracking information. The high hadron fluences in these experiments cause permanent damage in the silicon.Additional energy levels are introduced in the bandgap thus changing the electrical properties such as leakage current and full depletion voltage V_fd .Very high leakage currents are observed after irradiation and lead to higher electronic noise and thus decrease the spatial resolution.V_fd increases to a few hundred volts after irradiation and eventually beyond the point of stable operating voltages. Prototype detectors with either p-implanted strips (p-in-n) and n-implanted strip detectors (n-in-n) were irradiated to the maximum expected fluence in ATLAS.The irradiation and the following study of the current and V_fd were carried out under ATLAS operational conditions.The evolution of V_fd after irradiation is compared to models based on diode irradiations.The qualitative ...

  4. 2. International workshop Solid state nuclear track detectors and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perelygin, V.P.

    1992-01-01

    The 2. Workshop on Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) held in Dubna, 24-26 Mar 1992. Possibilities of SSNTD applications in the fields of high and low energy physics, dosimetry and radioecology were discussed

  5. Radon diffusion studies in some building materials using solid state nuclear track detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, S; Singh, B; Singh, J

    1999-01-01

    LR-115 plastic track detector has been used to study radon diffusion through some building materials, viz. cement, soil, marble chips, sand and lime as well as air. Diffusion constant and diffusion length is calculated for all these materials.

  6. Development of alpha spectroscopy method with solid state nuclear track detector using aluminium thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwaikat, N., E-mail: ndwaikat@kfupm.edu.sa [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, College of Sciences, Department of Physics, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-10-15

    This work presents the development of alpha spectroscopy method with Solid-state nuclear track detectors using aluminum thin films. The resolution of this method is high, and it is able to discriminate between alpha particles at different incident energy. It can measure the exact number of alpha particles at specific energy without needing a calibration of alpha track diameter versus alpha energy. This method was tested by using Cf-252 alpha standard source at energies 5.11 MeV, 3.86 MeV and 2.7 MeV, which produced by the variation of detector -standard source distance. On front side, two detectors were covered with two Aluminum thin films and the third detector was kept uncovered. The thickness of Aluminum thin films was selected carefully (using SRIM 2013) such that one of the films will block the lower two alpha particles (3.86 MeV and 2.7 MeV) and the alpha particles at higher energy (5.11 MeV) can penetrate the film and reach the detectors surface. The second thin film will block alpha particles at lower energy of 2.7 MeV and allow alpha particles at higher two energies (5.11 MeV and 3.86 MeV) to penetrate and produce tracks. For uncovered detector, alpha particles at three different energies can produce tracks on it. For quality assurance and accuracy, the detectors were mounted on thick enough copper substrates to block exposure from the backside. The tracks on the first detector are due to alpha particles at energy of 5.11 MeV. The difference between the tracks number on the first detector and the tracks number on the second detector is due to alpha particles at energy of 3.8 MeV. Finally, by subtracting the tracks number on the second detector from the tracks number on the third detector (uncovered), we can find the tracks number due to alpha particles at energy 2.7 MeV. After knowing the efficiency calibration factor, we can exactly calculate the activity of standard source. (Author)

  7. Development of alpha spectroscopy method with solid state nuclear track detector using aluminium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwaikat, N.

    2015-10-01

    This work presents the development of alpha spectroscopy method with Solid-state nuclear track detectors using aluminum thin films. The resolution of this method is high, and it is able to discriminate between alpha particles at different incident energy. It can measure the exact number of alpha particles at specific energy without needing a calibration of alpha track diameter versus alpha energy. This method was tested by using Cf-252 alpha standard source at energies 5.11 MeV, 3.86 MeV and 2.7 MeV, which produced by the variation of detector -standard source distance. On front side, two detectors were covered with two Aluminum thin films and the third detector was kept uncovered. The thickness of Aluminum thin films was selected carefully (using SRIM 2013) such that one of the films will block the lower two alpha particles (3.86 MeV and 2.7 MeV) and the alpha particles at higher energy (5.11 MeV) can penetrate the film and reach the detectors surface. The second thin film will block alpha particles at lower energy of 2.7 MeV and allow alpha particles at higher two energies (5.11 MeV and 3.86 MeV) to penetrate and produce tracks. For uncovered detector, alpha particles at three different energies can produce tracks on it. For quality assurance and accuracy, the detectors were mounted on thick enough copper substrates to block exposure from the backside. The tracks on the first detector are due to alpha particles at energy of 5.11 MeV. The difference between the tracks number on the first detector and the tracks number on the second detector is due to alpha particles at energy of 3.8 MeV. Finally, by subtracting the tracks number on the second detector from the tracks number on the third detector (uncovered), we can find the tracks number due to alpha particles at energy 2.7 MeV. After knowing the efficiency calibration factor, we can exactly calculate the activity of standard source. (Author)

  8. Measuring variation of indoor radon concentration using bare nuclear tracks detectors, scintillation counters and surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak, I.; Mahat, R.H.; Amin, Y.M.

    1996-01-01

    Bare LRI 15 nuclear track detectors , scintillators counter and surface barrier detectors were used to measured the indoor radon concentration in various location within two rooms. Spatial variation of the radon concentration is caused by positioning of the door, windows, furniture, cracks in the building and also distances from floor, wall and ceiling. It is found that the change in temperature are causing radon concentration to increase at certain time of the day

  9. Charged projectile spectrometry using solid-state nuclear track detector of the PM-355 type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinowska Aneta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To use effectively any radiation detector in high-temperature plasma experiments, it must have a lot of benefits and fulfill a number of requirements. The most important are: a high energy resolution, linearity over a wide range of recorded particle energy, high detection efficiency for these particles, a long lifetime and resistance to harsh conditions existing in plasma experiments and so on. Solid-state nuclear track detectors have been used in our laboratory in plasma experiments for many years, but recently we have made an attempt to use these detectors in spectroscopic measurements performed on some plasma facilities. This paper presents a method that we used to elaborate etched track diameters to evaluate the incident projectile energy magnitude. The method is based on the data obtained from a semiautomatic track scanning system that selects tracks according to two parameters, track diameter and its mean gray level.

  10. Completely automated measurement facility (PAVICOM) for track-detector data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksandrov, A B; Feinberg, E L; Goncharova, L A; Konovalova, N S; Martynov, A G; Polukhina, N G; Roussetski, A S; Starkov, NI; Tsarev, V A

    2004-01-01

    A review of technical capabilities and investigations performed using the completely automated measuring facility (PAVICOM) is presented. This very efficient facility for track-detector data processing in the field of nuclear and high-energy particle physics has been constructed in the Lebedev physical institute. PAVICOM is widely used in Russia for treatment of experimental data from track detectors (emulsion and solid-state trackers) in high- and low-energy physics, cosmic ray physics, etc. PAVICOM provides an essential improvement of the efficiency of experimental studies. In contrast to semi-automated microscopes widely used until now, PAVICOM is capable of performing completely automated measurements of charged particle tracks in nuclear emulsions and track detectors without employing hard visual work. In this case, track images are recorded by CCD cameras and then are digitized and converted into files. Thus, experimental data processing is accelerated by approximately a thousand times. Completely autom...

  11. The Siegen automatic measuring system for nuclear track detectors: new developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noll, A.; Rusch, G.; Roecher, H.; Dreute, J.; Heinrich, W.

    1988-01-01

    Starting ten years ago we developed completely automatic scanning and measuring systems for nuclear track detectors. In this paper we describe some new developments. Our autofocus systems based on the contrast of the video picture and on a laser autofocus have been improved in speed and in reliability. Based on new algorithms, faster programs have been developed to scan for nuclear tracks in plastic detectors. Methods for separation of overlapping tracks have been improved. Interactive programs for track measurements have been developed which are very helpful for space bio-physics experiments. Finally new methods for track measurements in nuclear emulsions irradiated with a beam perpendicular to the detector surface are described in this paper. (author)

  12. Nuclear Track Detector Characterization via Alpha-Spectrometry for Radioprotection Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morelli, D.; Imme, G.; Catalano, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Catania, via S. Sofia, 64- 95123 Catania (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia, 64- 95123 Catania (Italy); Aranzulla, M. [Istituto Nazionale Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania, piazza Roma, 2- 95127 Catania (Italy); Tazzer, A. L. Rosselli; Mangano, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Catania, via S. Sofia, 64- 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2011-12-13

    Solid Nuclear Track Detectors (SNTDs), CR-39 type, are usually adopted to monitor radon gas concentrations. In order to characterize the detectors according to track geometrical parameters, detectors were irradiated inside a vacuum chamber by alpha particles at twelve energy values, obtained by different Mylar foils in front of a {sup 241}Am source. The alpha energy values were verified using a Si detector. After the exposure to the alpha particles, the detectors were chemically etched to enlarge the tracks, which were then analyzed by means of a semiautomatic system composed of an optical microscope equipped with a CCD camera connected to a personal computer to store images. A suitable routine analyzed the track parameters: major and minor axis length and mean grey level, allowing us to differentiate tracks according to the incident alpha energy and then to individuate the discrimination factors for radon alpha tracks. The combined use of geometrical and optical parameters allows one to overcome the ambiguity in the alpha energy determination due to the non-monotonicity of each parameter versus energy. After track parameter determination, a calibration procedure was performed by means of a radon chamber. The calibration was verified through an inter-comparing survey.

  13. A novel generic framework for track fitting in complex detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeppner, C.; Neubert, S.; Ketzer, B.; Paul, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel framework for track fitting which is usable in a wide range of experiments, independent of the specific event topology, detector setup, or magnetic field arrangement. This goal is achieved through a completely modular design. Fitting algorithms are implemented as interchangeable modules. At present, the framework contains a validated Kalman filter. Track parameterizations and the routines required to extrapolate the track parameters and their covariance matrices through the experiment are also implemented as interchangeable modules. Different track parameterizations and extrapolation routines can be used simultaneously for fitting of the same physical track. Representations of detector hits are the third modular ingredient to the framework. The hit dimensionality and orientation of planar tracking detectors are not restricted. Tracking information from detectors which do not measure the passage of particles in a fixed physical detector plane, e.g. drift chambers or TPCs, is used without any simplification. The concept is implemented in a light-weight C++ library called GENFIT, which is available as free software.

  14. A novel generic framework for track fitting in complex detector systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeppner, C., E-mail: christian.hoeppner@cern.c [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, 85748 Garching (Germany); Neubert, S.; Ketzer, B.; Paul, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-08-21

    This paper presents a novel framework for track fitting which is usable in a wide range of experiments, independent of the specific event topology, detector setup, or magnetic field arrangement. This goal is achieved through a completely modular design. Fitting algorithms are implemented as interchangeable modules. At present, the framework contains a validated Kalman filter. Track parameterizations and the routines required to extrapolate the track parameters and their covariance matrices through the experiment are also implemented as interchangeable modules. Different track parameterizations and extrapolation routines can be used simultaneously for fitting of the same physical track. Representations of detector hits are the third modular ingredient to the framework. The hit dimensionality and orientation of planar tracking detectors are not restricted. Tracking information from detectors which do not measure the passage of particles in a fixed physical detector plane, e.g. drift chambers or TPCs, is used without any simplification. The concept is implemented in a light-weight C++ library called GENFIT, which is available as free software.

  15. Revision of the concept of registration threshold in plastic track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.; Grabisch, K.; Scherzer, R.; Enge, W.

    1976-01-01

    Response curves (V identical Vsub(T)/Vsub(B) versus REL) of various plastic track detectors (CN, CA, PC, PET) were determined in the region of relatively low etching rate ratios V. Comparative investigations made it clear thay the registration threshold concept needs revision. It was found that for most of the commercial plastics the V(REL) curves can be well described by the relation V = 1 + αRELsup(β), where the power index is about 3 within a limit +- 10% for pure materials. With CN the situation proved to be more complex in the presence of a relatively large amount of camphor in the matrix of the detector. For the interpretation of the observed shape of the V(REL) curves, a theoretical model similar to the one that is used to describe the survival curves of irradiated biological objects, was proposed. Experiments performed for a better understanding of the nature of the radiation-damage in plastics yielded a simple relation REL = const x √D between the REL value of nuclei and the volume dose D deposited by accelerated electron beams, which produced equivalent chemical etchability in the irradiated plastics. (orig./ORU) [de

  16. Design, construction, and operation of SciFi tracking detector for K2K experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, A.; Park, H.; Aoki, S.; Echigo, S.; Fujii, K.; Hara, T.; Iwashita, T.; Kitamura, M.; Kohama, M.; Kume, G.; Onchi, M.; Otaki, T.; Sato, K.; Takatsuki, M.; Takenaka, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Tashiro, K.; Inagaki, T.; Kato, I.; Mukai, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nishikawa, K.; Sasao, N.; Shima, A.; Yokoyama, H.; Chikamatsu, T.; Hayato, Y.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Ishino, H.; Jeon, E.J.; Kobayashi, T.; Lee, S.B.; Nakamura, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakai, A.; Sakuda, M.; Tumakov, V.; Fukuda, S.; Fukuda, Y.; Ishizuka, M.; Itow, Y.; Kajita, T.; Kameda, J.; Kaneyuki, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Koshio, Y.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakayama, S.; Obayashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Sakurai, N.; Shiozawa, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Takeuchi, H.; Takeuchi, Y.; Totsuka, Y.; Toshito, T.; Yamada, S.; Miyano, K.; Nakamura, M.; Tamura, N.; Nakano, I.; Yoshida, M.; Kadowaki, T.; Kishi, S.; Yokoyama, H.; Maruyama, T.; Etoh, M.; Nishijima, K.; Bhang, H.C.; Khang, B.H.; Kim, B.J.; Kim, H.I.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, S.B.; So, H.; Yoo, J.H.; Choi, J.H.; Jang, H.I.; Jang, J.S.; Kim, J.Y.; Lim, I.T.; Pac, M.Y.; Kearns, E.; Scholberg, K.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Walter, C.W.; Casper, D.; Gajewski, W.; Kropp, W.; Mine, S.; Sobel, H.; Vagins, M.; Matsuno, S.; Hill, J.; Jung, C.K.; Martens, K.; Mauger, C.; McGrew, C.; Sharkey, E.; Yanagisawa, C.; Berns, H.; Boyd, S.; Wilkes, J.; Kielczewska, D.; Golebiewska, U.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the construction and performance of a scintillating fiber detector used in the near detector for the K2K (KEK to Kamioka, KEK E362) long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. The detector uses 3.7 m long and 0.692 mm diameter scintillating fiber coupled to image-intensifier tubes (IIT), and a CCD camera readout system. Fiber sheet production and detector construction began in 1997, and the detector was commissioned in March 1999. Results from the first K2K runs confirm good initial performance: position resolution is estimated to be about 0.8 mm, and track finding efficiency is 98±2% for long tracks (i.e., those which intersect more than 5 fiber planes). The hit efficiency was estimated to be 92±2% using cosmic-ray muons, after noise reduction at the offline stage. The possibility of using the detector for particle identification is also discussed

  17. Performance of a 6x6 segmented germanium detector for {gamma}-ray tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valiente-Dobon, J.J. E-mail: j.valiente-dobon@surrey.ac.uk; Pearson, C.J.; Regan, P.H.; Sellin, P.J.; Gelletly, W.; Morton, E.; Boston, A.; Descovich, M.; Nolan, P.J.; Simpson, J.; Lazarus, I.; Warner, D

    2003-06-01

    A 36 fold segmented germanium coaxial detector has been supplied by EURISYS MESURES. The outer contact is segmented both radially and longitudinally. The signals from the fast preamplifiers have been digitised by 12 bit, 40 MHz ADCs. In this article we report preliminary results obtained using this detector and their relevance for future germanium {gamma}-ray tracking arrays.

  18. A 1024 pad silicon detector to solve tracking ambiguities in high multiplicity events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simone, S.; Catanesi, M.G.; Di Bari, D.; Didonna, V.; Elia, D.; Ghidini, B.; Lenti, V.; Manzari, V.; Nappi, E.

    1996-01-01

    Silicon detectors with two-dimensional pad readout have been designed and constructed for the WA97 experiment at CERN, in order to solve ambiguities for track reconstruction in a silicon microstrip telescope. A high density fanouts has been developed on a glass support to allow the electrical contacts between the detector and the front end electronics. Silicon pad detectors have been successfully operated both during the proton-Pb and Pb-Pb runs of the WA97 experiment. (orig.)

  19. Critical angles for fission fragment registrations in some solid state track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaev, A D; Bahromi, I I; Beresina, N V [AN Uzbekskoj SSR, Tashkent. Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki; and others

    1980-03-01

    In studies of the registration efficiency of various solid state track detectors (polycarbonate, polyethyleneterephthalate, cellulose nitrate and muscovite) the detectors were irradiated with spontaneous fission fragments from /sup 252/Cf and with fission fragments from /sup 235/U separated according to mass and energy. Experimental details are given. Critical angles for the registration of fission fragments in the various detectors are given for specified energies and masses.

  20. Test beam performance of a tracking TRD [Transition Radiation Detector] prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shank, J.T.; Whitaker, J.S.; Polychronakos, V.A.; Radeka, V.; Stephani, D.; Beker, H.; Bock, R.K.; Botlo, M.; Fabjan, C.W.; Pfennig, J.; Price, M.J.; Willis, W.J.; Akesson, T.; Chernyatin, V.; Dolgoshein, B.; Nevsky, P.; Potekhin, M.; Romanjuk, A.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Gavrilenko, I.; Muravjev, S.; Shmeleva, A.

    1990-01-01

    A Tracking Transition Radiation Detector prototype has been constructed and tested. It consists of 240 straw tubes, 4 mm in diameter, imbedded in a polyethylene block acting as the radiator. Its performance as an electron identifier as well as a tracking device for minimum ionizing particles has been determined. 2 refs., 6 figs

  1. A Novel Generic Framework for Track Fitting in Complex Detector Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Höppner, C.; Neubert, S.; Ketzer, B.; Paul, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel framework for track fitting which is usable in a wide range of experiments, independent of the specific event topology, detector setup, or magnetic field arrangement. This goal is achieved through a completely modular design. Fitting algorithms are implemented as interchangeable modules. At present, the framework contains a validated Kalman filter. Track parameterizations and the routines required to extrapolate the track parameters and their covariance matrices th...

  2. Neutron activation analysis of uranium by means of electrochemical etching of tracks in lawsan detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Son Chun; Chuburkov, Yu.T.; Zvara, I.I.

    1982-01-01

    The method of neutron activation analysis of uranium in natural and artificial materials using track lavsan detectors of fission fragments has been developed. The method of electrochemical etching (etching reagent NaOH) of fragment tracks in lavsan is improved. Using statistical method of experiment planning the equation, describing the dependence of diometer value of fission fragment tracks on parameters of etching process, is obtained. The analysis sensitivity is 10 - 7 g/g - 10 - 8 g/g

  3. Muon-track studies in a water Cherenkov detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etchegoyen, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida del Libertador 8250 (1429) Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: etchegoy@tandar.cnea.gov.ar; Bauleo, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida del Libertador 8250 (1429) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bertou, X. [Enrico Fermfi Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bonifazi, C.B. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida del Libertador 8250 (1429) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Filevich, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida del Libertador 8250 (1429) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Medina, M.C. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida del Libertador 8250 (1429) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Melo, D.G. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida del Libertador 8250 (1429) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rovero, A.C. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, CC 67, Suc. 28 (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Supanitsky, A.D. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida del Libertador 8250 (1429) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tamashiro, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida del Libertador 8250 (1429) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2005-06-21

    Background muons may be used in cosmic ray experiments to understand the response of a given detector system and to lay the basis for the further theoretical and simulation work needed in the analysis of air showers. Experiments were performed using a water Cherenkov detector at the Tandar Laboratory. Monte Carlo and semi-analytical calculations were compared to the data.

  4. Precision tracking with a single gaseous pixel detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsigaridas, S.; van Bakel, N.; Bilevych, Y.; Gromov, V.; Hartjes, F.; Hessey, N.P.; de Jong, P.; Kluit, R.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of micro-pattern gaseous detectors has grown over the past few years after successful usage in a large number of applications in physics experiments and medicine. We develop gaseous pixel detectors using micromegas-based amplification structures on top of CMOS pixel readout chips.

  5. CATS: a cellular automaton for tracking in silicon for the HERA-B vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, I.; Emeliyanov, D.; Kisel, I.; Masciocchi, S.

    2002-01-01

    The new track reconstruction program CATS developed for the Vertex Detector System of the HERA-B experiment at DESY is presented. It employs a cellular automaton for track searching and the Kalman filter for track fitting. This results in a very fast algorithm that combines highly efficient track recognition with accurate and reliable track parameter estimation. To reduce the computational cost of the fit an optimized numerical implementation of the Kalman filter is used. Alternative approaches to the track reconstruction in the VDS are also discussed. Since 1999, after extensive tests on simulated data, CATS has been employed to reconstruct experimental data collected in HERA-B. Results regarding tracking performance, the accuracy of track parameter estimates and CPU time consumption are presented

  6. Mitigating radiation damage of single photon detectors for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anisimova, Elena; Higgins, Brendon L.; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Cranmer, Miles [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Choi, Eric [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Magellan Aerospace, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Hudson, Danya; Piche, Louis P.; Scott, Alan [Honeywell Aerospace (formerly COM DEV Ltd.), Ottawa, ON (Canada); Makarov, Vadim [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Jennewein, Thomas [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Quantum Information Science Program, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2017-12-15

    Single-photon detectors in space must retain useful performance characteristics despite being bombarded with sub-atomic particles. Mitigating the effects of this space radiation is vital to enabling new space applications which require high-fidelity single-photon detection. To this end, we conducted proton radiation tests of various models of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) and one model of photomultiplier tube potentially suitable for satellite-based quantum communications. The samples were irradiated with 106 MeV protons at doses approximately equivalent to lifetimes of 0.6, 6, 12 and 24 months in a low-Earth polar orbit. Although most detection properties were preserved, including efficiency, timing jitter and afterpulsing probability, all APD samples demonstrated significant increases in dark count rate (DCR) due to radiation-induced damage, many orders of magnitude higher than the 200 counts per second (cps) required for ground-to-satellite quantum communications. We then successfully demonstrated the mitigation of this DCR degradation through the use of deep cooling, to as low as -86 C. This achieved DCR below the required 200 cps over the 24 months orbit duration. DCR was further reduced by thermal annealing at temperatures of +50 to +100 C. (orig.)

  7. Solid state nuclear track detectors kit for the use in teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khouri, M.T.F.C.; Koskinas, M.F.

    1988-11-01

    The kit intends to improve the possibilities in performing experiments of Nuclear Physics in Modern Physics laboratories of Physics Course introducing the solid state nuclear track detectors. In these materials the passage of heavily ionizing nuclear particles creates paths (tracks) that may be revealed and made visible in an optical microscope. By the help of the kit several experiments and/or demonstrations may be performed. The kit contains solid state nuclear track detectors unirradiated and irradiated, irradiated etched and unetched sheets: an alpha source of 241 Am and an instrution text with photomicrographs. To use the kit the laboratory must have an ordinary optical microscope. (author) [pt

  8. Relay tracking control for second-order multi-agent systems with damaged agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lijing; Li, Jing; Liu, Qin

    2017-11-01

    This paper investigates a situation where smart agents capable of sensory and mobility are deployed to monitor a designated area. A preset number of agents start tracking when a target intrudes this area. Some of the tracking agents are possible to be out of order over the tracking course. Thus, we propose a cooperative relay tracking strategy to ensure the successful tracking with existence of damaged agents. Relay means that, when a tracking agent quits tracking due to malfunction, one of the near deployed agents replaces it to continue the tracking task. This results in jump of tracking errors and dynamic switching of topology of the multi-agent system. Switched system technique is employed to solve this specific problem. Finally, the effectiveness of proposed tracking strategy and validity of the theoretical results are verified by conducting a numerical simulation. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Studding the phenomenon of pair production of tracks on plastic detectors during radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Jourbi, B.

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies showed the appearance of many pairs of alpha tracks on the surface of the solid state nuclear track detectors (CR39) when exposed to radon. So the aim of this study was to judge whether this is a statistical or a physical phenomenon. Therefore, a theoretical function representing the probability of forming pairs of tracks on the detector was developed. A statistical studying was done for two sets of (1) mm thickness of CR39 detectors, the first set was exposed in the radon calibration chamber (RCC) with stable radon concentration (170 kBq/m 3 ) for different detectors positions inside and outside the exposure chamber (EC). While the second set was exposed to 241 Am source (1667 Bq) for different exposure times. The results show that the concentration of the single tracks on the detectors in case of covered EC was lower than the same situation without cover. In addition, the concentrations of the single tracks in various exposure situations inside and outside the EC were associated to the effective volumes that each detector sees. Finally, no considerable deference was found between pairs concentration in the two exposure cases (Radon chamber and 241 Am source), and both were lower than the theoretical values which calculated using the theoretical function. This means that pairs formation phenomena is a statistical phenomenon and there is no physical parameters related to radon gas or its daughter's behavior. (author)

  10. Gamma-ray tracking: Characterisation of the AGATA symmetric prototype detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Dimmock, M.R.; Nelson, L.; Nolan, P.J.; Rigby, S.; Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J.; Medina, P.; Santos, C.; Parisel, C.

    2007-01-01

    Each major technical advance in gamma-ray detection devices has resulted in significant new insights into the structure of atomic nuclei. The next major step in gamma-ray spectroscopy involves achieving the goal of a 4pi ball of Germanium detectors by using the technique of gamma-ray energy tracking in electrically segmented Germanium crystals. The resulting spectrometer will have an unparalleled level of detection power for nuclear electromagnetic radiation. Collaborations have been established in Europe (AGATA) [J. Simpson, Acta Phys. Pol. B 36 (2005) 1383. ] and the USA (GRETA/GRETINA) to build gamma-ray tracking spectrometers. This paper discusses the performance of the AGATA (Advanced Gamma Tracking Array) symmetric prototype detectors that have been tested at University of Liverpool. The use of a fully digital data acquisition system has allowed detector charge pulse shapes from a selection of well defined photon interaction positions to be analysed, yielding important information on the position sensitivity of the detector

  11. Gamma-ray tracking: Characterisation of the AGATA symmetric prototype detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, A.J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ajboston@liv.ac.uk; Boston, H.C. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Cresswell, J.R. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Dimmock, M.R. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Nelson, L. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Nolan, P.J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Rigby, S. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Medina, P. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg BP28 67037 (France); Santos, C. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg BP28 67037 (France); Parisel, C. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg BP28 67037 (France)

    2007-08-15

    Each major technical advance in gamma-ray detection devices has resulted in significant new insights into the structure of atomic nuclei. The next major step in gamma-ray spectroscopy involves achieving the goal of a 4pi ball of Germanium detectors by using the technique of gamma-ray energy tracking in electrically segmented Germanium crystals. The resulting spectrometer will have an unparalleled level of detection power for nuclear electromagnetic radiation. Collaborations have been established in Europe (AGATA) [J. Simpson, Acta Phys. Pol. B 36 (2005) 1383. ] and the USA (GRETA/GRETINA) to build gamma-ray tracking spectrometers. This paper discusses the performance of the AGATA (Advanced Gamma Tracking Array) symmetric prototype detectors that have been tested at University of Liverpool. The use of a fully digital data acquisition system has allowed detector charge pulse shapes from a selection of well defined photon interaction positions to be analysed, yielding important information on the position sensitivity of the detector.

  12. Radiation Damage Modeling for 3D Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wallangen, Veronica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector. As the detector in closest proximity to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the HL-LHC, the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of 10^15 neq/cm2 and the HL-LHC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. This poster presents the details of a new digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the 3D Pixel sensors for the ATLAS Detector.

  13. Modeling Radiation Damage Effects in 3D Pixel Digitization for the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Giugliarelli, Gilberto; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector. As the detector in closest proximity to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the HL-LHC, the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of 10^15 neq/cm2 and the HL-LHC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. This poster presents the details of a new digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the 3D Pixel sensors for the ATLAS Detector.

  14. Modeling Radiation Damage Effects in 3D Pixel Digitization for the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wallangen, Veronica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector. As the detector in closest proximity to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the HL-LHC, the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of 10$^{15}$ n$_\\mathrm{eq}$/cm$^2$ and the HL-LHC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. This work presents the details of a new digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the 3D Pixel sensors for the ATLAS detector.

  15. LHCb: Alignment of the LHCb Detector with Kalman Filter Fitted Tracks

    CERN Multimedia

    Amoraal, J; Hulsbergen, W; Needham, M; Nicolas, L; Pozzi, S; Raven, G; Vecchi, S

    2009-01-01

    We report on an implementation of a global chisquare algorithm for the simultaneous alignment of all tracking systems in the LHCb detector. Our algorithm uses hit residuals from the standard LHCb track fit which is based on a Kalman filter. The algorithm is implemented in the LHCb reconstruction framework and exploits the fact that all sensitive detector elements have the same geometry interface. A vertex constraint is implemented by fitting tracks to a common point and propagating the change in track parameters to the hit residuals. To remove unconstrained or poorly constrained degrees of freedom (so-called weak modes) the average movements of (subsets of) alignable detector elements can be fixed with Lagrange constraints. Alternatively, weak modes can be removed with a cutoff in the eigenvalue spectrum of the second derivative of the chisquare. As for all LHCb reconstruction and analysis software the configuration of the algorithm is done in python and gives detailed control over the selection of alignable ...

  16. Tracking in Dense Environments for the HL-LHC ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cormier, Felix; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Tracking in dense environments, such as in the cores of high-energy jets, will be key for new physics searches as well as measurements of the Standard Model at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The HL-LHC will operate in challenging conditions with large radiation doses and high pile-up (up to $\\mu=200$). The current tracking detector will be replaced with a new all-silicon Inner Tracker for the Phase II upgrade of the ATLAS detector. In this talk, characterization of the HL-LHC tracker performance for collimated, high-density charged particles arising from high-momentum decays is presented. In such decays the charged-particle separations are of the order of the tracking detector granularity, leading to challenging reconstruction. The ability of the HL-LHC ATLAS tracker to reconstruct the tracks in such dense environments is discussed and compared to ATLAS Run-2 performance for a variety of relevant physics processes.

  17. Thermal neutron detection by means of an organic solid-state track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerschel, B.; Streubel, G.

    1979-01-01

    Thermal neutrons can be detected by means of organic solid-state track detectors if they are combined with radiators in which charged secondary particles are produced in neutron interaction processes. The secondary particles can produce etchable tracks in the detector material. For thermal neutron fluence determination from the track densities, the thermal neutron sensitivity was calculated for cellulose triacetate detectors with LiF radiators, taking into account energy and angular distribution of the alpha particles produced in the LiF radiator. This value is in good agreement with the sensitivity measured during irradiation in different neutron fields if corrections are considered the production of etchable or visuable tracks. Measuring range and measuring accuracy meet the requirements of thermal neutron detection in personnel dosimetry. Possibilities of extending the measuring range are discussed. (author)

  18. Development of cryogenic tracking detectors for very high luminosity experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Härkönen, J; Anbinderis, T; Bates, R; de Boer, W; Borchi, E; Bruzzi, M; Buttar, C; Chen, W; Cindro, V; Czellar, S; Eremin, V; Furgeri, A; Gaubas, E; Heijne, E; Ilyashenko, I; Kalesinskas, V; Krause, M; Li, Z; Luukka, P; Mandic, I; Menichelli, D; Mikuz, M; Militaru, O; Mueller, S; Niinikoski, T O; O’Shea, V; Parkes, C; Piotrzkowski, K; Pirollo, S; Pusa, P; Räisänen, J; Rouby, X; Tuominen, E; Tuovinen, E; Vaitkus, J; Verbitskaya, E; Väyrynen, S; Zavrtanik, M

    2009-01-01

    Experimental results and simulations of Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE) of Current Injected Detectors (CIDs) are focused. CID is a concept where the current is limited by the space charge. The injected carriers will be trapped by the deep levels. This induces a stable electric field through the entire bulk regardless of the irradiation fluence the detector has been exposed. Our results show that the CCE of CIDs is about two times higher than of regular detectors when irradiated up to 1×1016 cm−2. The higher CCE is achieved already at −50 °C temperatures.

  19. Development of a new approach to simulate a particle track under electrochemical etching in polymeric detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostofizadeh, Ali; Huang, Yudong; Kardan, M. Reza; Babakhani, Asad; Sun Xiudong

    2012-01-01

    A numerical approach based on image processing was developed to simulate a particle track in a typical polymeric detector, e.g., polycarbonate, under electrochemical etching. The physical parameters such as applied voltage, detector thickness, track length, the radii of curvature at the tip of track, and the incidence angle of the particle were considered, and then the boundary condition of the problem was defined. A numerical method was developed to solve Laplace equation, and then the distribution of the applied voltage was obtained through the polymer volume. Subsequently, the electric field strengths in the detector elements were computed. In each step of the computation, an image processing technique was applied to convert the computed values to grayscale images. The results showed that a numerical solution to Laplace equation is dedicatedly an attractive approach to provide us the accurate values of electric field strength through the polymeric detector volume as well as the track area. According to the results, for a particular condition of the detector thickness equal to 445 μm, track length of 21 μm, the radii of 2.5 μm at track tip, the incidence angle of 90°, and the applied voltage of 2080 V, after computing Laplace equation for an extremely high population of 4000 × 4000 elements of detector, the average field strength at the tip of track was computed equal to 0.31 MV cm −1 which is in the range of dielectric strength for polymers. The results by our computation confirm Smythe’s model for estimating the ECE-tracks.

  20. The former tests realized to a personal neutron dosemeter based on solid nuclear tracks detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho, M.E.; Tavera, L.; Balcazar, M.

    1997-01-01

    Due to the increase in the use of neutron radiation a personal neutron dosemeter based on solid nuclear tracks detector (DSTN) was designed and constructed. The personal dosemeter design consists of three arrangements. The first one consists of a plastic nuclear tracks detector (LR115 or CR39) in contact with a LiF pellet. The second one is the same that above but it placed among two cadmium pellets and, the third one is formed by the alone detector without converter neither neutron absorber. The three arrangements are placed inside a plastic porta detector hermetically closed to avoid the bottom produced by environmental radon whichever both detectors (LR115 and CR39) are sensitive. In this work the former tests realized to that dosemeter are presented. (Author)

  1. Radiation Damage in Silicon Detectors Caused by Hadronic and Electromagnetic Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Fretwurst, E.; Stahl, J.; Pintilie, I.

    2002-01-01

    The report contains various aspects of radiation damage in silicon detectors subjected to high intensity hadron and electromagnetic irradiation. It focuses on improvements for the foreseen LHC applications, employing oxygenation of silicon wafers during detector processing (result from CERN-RD48). An updated survey on hadron induced damage is given in the first article. Several improvements are outlined especially with respect to antiannealing problems associated with detector storage during LHC maintenance periods. Open questions are outlined in the final section, among which are a full understanding of differences found between proton and neutron induced damage, process related effects changing the radiation tolerance in addition to the oxygen content and the lack of understanding the changed detector properties on the basis of damage induced point and cluster defects. In addition to float zone silicon, so far entirely used for detector fabrication,Czochralski silicon was also studied and first promising re...

  2. Personal neutron dosimeter using solid-state track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettripan, S.

    1980-01-01

    A cellulose nitrate film coated on both sides with lithium tetraborate was used as a neutron dosimeter for surveillance of personnel exposed to thermal and epithermal neutron. It was found that the optimum etching conditions used were 10% solution of sodium hydroxide, 60 degrees C and 20 minutes etching time and the alpha track densities from the (n,α) reaction on the films were proportional to thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes. The response of the film was found to be 1.068 x 10 -3 tracks per thermal neutron and 3.438 x 10 -4 tracks per epithermal neutron

  3. Fast track trigger processor for the OPAL detector at LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Ward, D R; Heuer, R D; Jaroslawski, S; Wagner, A

    1986-09-20

    A fast hardware track trigger processor being built for the OPAL experiment is described. The processor will analyse data from the central drift chambers of OPAL to determine whether any tracks come from the interaction region, and thereby eliminate background events. The processor will find tracks over a large angular range, vertical strokecos thetavertical stroke < or approx. 0.95. The design of the processor is described, together with a brief account of its hardware implementation for OPAL. The results of feasibility studies are also presented.

  4. Fast neutron dosimetry by means of different solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Turek, K.

    1977-01-01

    The comparative study of three different types of fast neutron dosimeters based on solid state nuclear track detectors is presented; the dosimeters studied were: - microscopic soda glass in contact with 232 Th; - polycarbonate Makrofol E; and - cellulose nitrate Kodak LR 115. All detectors were evaluated by visual counting in a microscope. The authors have studied such properties as the background, angular as well as energetical dependences of detectors. The results obtained show that all studied detectors are suitable for fast neutron dosimetry; their application depends however on the concrete experimental conditions (neutron spectrum, fluence etc.). Both advantages and disadvantages of each of them are presented. (Auth.)

  5. Fast track-finding trigger processor for the SLAC/LBL Mark II Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brafman, H.; Breidenbach, M.; Hettel, R.; Himel, T.; Horelick, D.

    1977-10-01

    The SLAC/LBL Mark II Magnetic Detector consists of various particle detectors arranged in cylindrical symmetry located in and around an axial magnetic field. A versatile, programmable secondary trigger processor was designed and built to find curved tracks in the detector. The system operates at a 10 MHz clock rate with a total processing time of 34 μsec and is used to ''trigger'' the data processing computer, thereby rejecting background and greatly improving the data acquisition aspects of the detector-computer combination

  6. Vacuum effect on the etch induction time and registration sensitivity of polymer track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csige, I.; Hunyadi, I.; Somogyi, G.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of a vacuum on etch induction time and track etch rate ratio of some polymer track detectors was studied systematically with alpha particles of different energies. It was found that the etch induction time increases, and the track etch rate ratio decreases, drastically when the detectors were irradiated in a vacuum and also kept in a vacuum for a few hours before and for a few minutes after the irradiation. These times proved to be characteristic for the outgassing of oxygen from the sheets and the stabilization of latent tracks, respectively. The role of oxygen in latent track formation is discussed. We have found that the vacuum effect is most significant near the surface. Its diminution with depth depends on the time of outgassing in accordance with the time variation of the dissolved oxygen concentration profile inside the sheets. (author)

  7. Vacuum effect on the etch induction time and registration sensitivity of polymer track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csige, I.; Hunyadi, I.; Somogyi, G. (Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Debrecen (Hungary). Atommag Kutato Intezete); Fujii, M. (Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara (Japan))

    1988-01-01

    The effect of a vacuum on etch induction time and track etch rate ratio of some polymer track detectors was studied systematically with alpha particles of different energies. It was found that the etch induction time increases, and the track etch rate ratio decreases, drastically when the detectors were irradiated in a vacuum and also kept in a vacuum for a few hours before and for a few minutes after the irradiation. These times proved to be characteristic for the outgassing of oxygen from the sheets and the stabilization of latent tracks, respectively. The role of oxygen in latent track formation is discussed. We have found that the vacuum effect is most significant near the surface. Its diminution with depth depends on the time of outgassing in accordance with the time variation of the dissolved oxygen concentration profile inside the sheets. (author).

  8. Tests of Bubble Damage Detectors in a Heavy Ion Beam from the SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment is designed to investigate the properties of a bubble damage polymer (BDP) using ion beams from the SPS. These polymers are already used commercially for making neutron and gamma-ray dosimeters. \\\\ \\\\ An attractive feature of BDP detectors is the ability to ``design'' a material to have a particular dE/dx threshold which can be used to detect such objects as monopoles and heavy ions as well as relativistic, singly charged tracks originating f particle interactions. \\\\ \\\\ The BDP detector is a polymer which holds droplets of super-heated liquid in suspension. The droplet size is typically a few microns and the droplet density is normally between 10|5 and 10|7 droplets/cm|3. The passage of a particle with a dE/dx exceeding the threshold of the material will cause the droplets with a sufficiently s parameter to change state, giving rise to bubbles. The dE/dx threshold of the BDP varies with pressure and temperature. The growth of bubbles in the bubble trail is limited by the polymer matrix and th...

  9. A ''quick DYECET'' method for ECE particle tracks in polymer detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Mahdi, S.

    1993-01-01

    The new dyed electrochemically etched track (DEYCET) method recently developed at the National Radiation Protection Department (NRPD) of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) using sensitization and dyeing steps is a useful and powerful method for dyeing charged particle and neutron-induced-recoil tracks in polymer detectors. This original DYECET method is effective but time consuming due to the steps for sensitization and dyeing which usually takes several hours. A ''Quick DYECET'' method, also recently developed in our laboratory, is introduced in this paper which dyes ECE tracks effectively in different colours within a few minutes. This new method can dye ECE tracks, cracks, fractures and fractals with different water and/or alcohol soluble dyes using cold or hot dyebaths. The method provides a high contrast and a high resolution of ECE tracks for visual track counting especially at high track densities. Some preliminary results are reported and discussed. (author)

  10. Determining of the track parameters in solid state nuclear track detectors Cr 39 due to alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostic, D.; Nikezic, D.

    1997-01-01

    An equation of the etch pit wall is proposed to be used for simulation of the track growth and calculating the major and the minor axis of etch pit opening. Dependence on the following parameters is set up: distance along a track from the point where the particle entered the detector, ratio of the track etch wall to the bulk etch rate, integration constant determined from particle penetration depth and normal distance from the particle trajectory to the etch pit wall. The corresponding computer program was written. The input parameters of this program are: alpha particles energy, incidence angle and removed layer; the output gives track parameters. The results obtained by this method are compared to another approach given by Somogy and Szalay (1973) and a reasonably good agreement is found. (author)

  11. Radiation damage study in CZT matrix detectors exposed to gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva Fabelo, Antonio; Pinnera Hernandez, Ibrahin; Cruz Inclan, Carlos Manuel; Abreu Alfonso, Yamiel; Dona Lemus, Olga; Diaz Garcia, Angelina; Montanno Zetina, Luis Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Radiation damage in terms of atomic displacements in a typical CZT detector used in medical imaging applications was studied using the Monte Carlo statistical method. All detector structural and geometric features as well as different energies of the photons usually used in the application were taken into account. Considering the Mott McKinley Feshbach classical approach, effective cross sections of the displacements were calculated, including the number of displacements per atom for each atomic species present in the material and each photon energy considered. These results are analyzed and compared. Finally, the radiation damage on CZT detector is compared to that calculated in a similar detector manufactured with other semiconducting materials. (author)

  12. Tracking and b-tagging with pixel vertex detector in ATLAS experiment at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacavant, L.

    1997-06-01

    The capability of the ATLAS detector to tag b-jets is studied, using the impact parameter of charged tracks. High b-tagging performance is needed at LHC, especially during the first years of running, in order to see evidence of the Higgs boson if its mass lies between 80 and 120 GeV/c 2 . A pattern-recognition algorithm has been developed for this purpose, using a detailed simulation of the ATLAS inner detector. Track-finding starts from the pixel detector layers. A 'hyper-plane' concept allows the use of a simple tracking algorithm though the complex geometry. High track-finding efficiency and reconstruction quality ensure the discrimination of b-jets from other kinds of jets. After full simulation and reconstruction of H → bb-bar, H → gg, H → uu-bar, H → ss-bar and H → cc-bar events (m H = 100 GeV/c 2 ), the mean rejections achieved against non-b-jets for a 50% b-jet tagging efficiency are as follows: R g =39±5 R u = 60 ± 9 R s = 38 ± 5 R c = 9 ± 1 The analysis of data from the first radiation-hard pixel detector prototypes justifies the potential of these detectors for track-finding and high-precision impact parameter measurement at LHC. (author)

  13. Automatic methods for processing track-detector data at the PAVICOM facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, A.B.; Goncharova, L.A.; Polukhina, N.G.; Fejnberg, E.L.; Davydov, D.A.; Publichenko, P.A.; Roganova, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    New automatic methods essentially simplify and hasten the data treatment of tracking detectors. It allows handling big data files and appreciably improves their statistics; this fact predetermines an elaboration of new experiments, which suppose to use large volume targets, emulsive and solid-state large square tracking detectors. Thereupon the problem of training competent physicists able to work on modern automatic equipment is very relevant. About ten Moscow students working in LPI at PAVICOM facility master new methods every year. Most of the students working in high-energy physics take the print only about archaic hand methods of data handling from tracking detectors. In 2005 on the base of the PAVICOM facility and physics training of the MSU a new educational work for determination of the energy of neutrons passing through nuclear emulsion, which lets students acquire a base habit of data handling from tracking detectors using an automatic facility, was prepared; it can be included in the training process for students of any physical faculty. Specialists mastering methods of an automatic handling by the simple and obvious example of tracking detectors will be able to use their knowledge in various areas of science and techniques. The organization of upper division courses is a new additional aspect of using the PAVICOM facility described in an earlier paper [4

  14. Further development of a track detector as the spectrometer of linear energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Bednar, J.; Vlcek, B.; Botollier-Depois, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Track revealing in a track etch detector is a phenomenon related to the linear energy transfer (LET) of the particle registered. The measurements of track parameters permit to determine the LET corresponding to each revealed track, i.e. LET spectrum. We have recently developed a spectrometer of LET based on the chemically etched polyallyldiglycolcarbonate (PADC). In this contribution the results obtained with such spectrometer in some neutron fields are presented, analyzed and discussed. Several radionuclide neutron sources have been used, LET spectrometer has been also exposed in high energy neutron reference fields at CERN and JINR Dubna, and on board aircraft. (author)

  15. Implementation of the P barANDA Planar-GEM tracking detector in Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divani Veis, Nazila; Ehret, Andre; Firoozabadi, Mohammad M.; Karabowicz, Radoslaw; Maas, Frank; Saito, Nami; Saito, Takehiko R.; Voss, Bernd; PANDA Gem-Tracker Subgroup

    2018-02-01

    The P barANDA experiment at FAIR will be performed to investigate different aspects of hadron physics using anti-proton beams interacting with a fixed nuclear target. The experimental setup consists of a complex series of detector components covering a large solid angle. A detector with a gaseous active media equipped with gas electron multiplier (GEM) technique will be employed to measure tracks of charged particles at forward direction in order to achieve a high momentum resolution. In this work, a full setup of the GEM tracking detector has been implemented in the P barANDA Monte Carlo simulation package (PandaRoot) based on the current technical and conceptual design, and the expected performance of the P barANDA GEM-tracking detector has been investigated. Furthermore, material-budget studies in terms of the radiation length of the P barANDA GEM-tracking detector have been made in order to investigate the effect of the detector materials and its associated structures to particle measurements.

  16. Determination of Nuclear Track Parameters for LR-115 Detector by Using of MATLAB Software Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Jomaily, F.M.; AL-joburi, H.A.; Mheemeed, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear track detector parameters, such as nuclear track diameter D(μm), number of track N T and area of track A T were determined by using MATLAB software technique for IR-115 detector irradiated by alpha particle from 241 Am source under 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 MeV at etching time T B of 90, 120, 150 and 180 min.By using the image analysis of MATLAB software for nuclear track, the full width at half maximum FWHM and relative resolution R% were calculated for each energy of alpha particles.In this study, it was shown that increasing the alpha energy on the IR-115 detector leads to increased etching time T B and the dropping of R% to minimum value, and then reach a stable value before dropping at values 1.5, 2.5 MeV and unstable at 3.5 MeV. Imaging analysis by MATLAB technique which used in this study reflect good and accurate results for nuclear track detector parameters and we recommend using this technique for determination of these parameters

  17. Proceedings of the seventeenth national symposium on solid state nuclear track detectors and their applications: abstracts and souvenir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Gaurang; Kishore, Sangeeta; Patel, Purvi

    2011-10-01

    The proceedings of the seventeenth national symposium on solid state nuclear track detectors and their applications (SSNTD-17) contains a number of research papers on different areas of solid state nuclear track detectors. It provides a common scientific platform to the scientists for sharing their knowledge and reviews the present state-of-art and advancements in the field of solid state nuclear track detectors and their applications and also some aspects of nuclear energy. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  18. Magnetic Field Requirements for a Detector at the Linear Collider Using a TPC as Main Tracking Device

    CERN Document Server

    Klempt, W

    2010-01-01

    This note describes the requirements to the magnetic field which occur in an ILD like detector at ILC or CLIC. In particular we describe requirements introduced by choosing a TPC as main tracking detector.

  19. The effect of the nuclear track detectors' position on the radon concentration measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, A.; Kuerkcueoglu, M. E.; Haner, B.

    2009-01-01

    It is important to determine the radon concentration values of the underground mines according to workers' health. For this purpose, to be able to measure radon concentrations by using passive nuclear etched track detectors, CR-39 detectors were placed into 66 points on the way of aeration galleries of Armutcuk, Amasra, Karadon, Kozlu and Uezuelmez bituminous coal mines which are known as the Carboniferous outcrops of the Western Black Sea Area in Turkey. In every measurement point, a pair of detectors, one of them is being perpendicular and the other one is parallel to air flow, were exposed to radon gases over 40 days for four seasons of the year 2008. The relationship between the readings of vertically and horizontally positioned detectors was investigated by evaluating the effect of the detectors' positions on the detected radon concentrations. It can be concluded that, the vertically positioned detectors, in general, recorded higher radon gases concentration values than that of the horizontally positioned ones.

  20. Development of the dyed-track method for Kodak CN-85 detector. No. E/3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.; Toth-Szilagyi, M.; Varga, Zs.; Monnin, M.; Lferde, M.

    1983-01-01

    The dyed-track method has been successfully developed for cellulose derivatives. The track parameters (width, coloration deepness, contrast, registration sensitivity), however, proved to be very dependent on the detector material and on the track processing conditions. In the authors' previous works optimum conditions were presented mostly for cellulose acetate sheets. In the present work the influence of track processing parameters on the dyed-track formation was studied in Kodak cellulose nitrate detector called CN-85. It is found that in this material optimum dyed-tracks can be produced with using no swelling but with a thermal annealing at 100 deg C for 1 hour after particles irradiation. For sensitization a treatment with 15% HCL at 22 deg C for 20 hours and for dyeing 0.3 wt% Rhodamine-B at 100 deg C for 1 hour proved to be best. For understanding the track dyeing phenomenon the coloration behaviour of electron-irradiated CN-85 detectors was studied. (author)

  1. Development of the dyed-track method for Kodak CN-85 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.; Toth-Szilagyi, M.; Varga, Z.; Monnin, M.; Lferde, M.

    1984-01-01

    The dyed-track method has been successfully developed for cellulose derivatives. The track parameters (width, colouration deepness, contrast, registration sensitivity), however, proved to be very dependent on the detector material and on the track processing conditions. In our previous works optimum conditions were presented mostly for cellulose acetate sheets. In the present work we have studied the influence of track processing parameters on the dyed-track formation in Kodak cellulose nitrate detector called CN-85. It is found that in this material optimum dyed-tracks can be produced with using no swelling but with a thermal annealing at 100 deg C for 1 hour after particle irradiation. For sensitization a treatment with 15% HCl at 22 deg C for 20 hours and for dyeing 0.3 wt% Rhodamine-B at 100 deg C for 1 hour proved to be the best. For better understanding the track dyeing phenomenon we have studied the colouration behaviour of electron-irradiated CN-85 detectors. (author)

  2. Development of the dyed-track method for Kodak CN-85 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, G.; Toth-Szilagyi, M.; Varga, Z. (Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Debrecen. Atommag Kutato Intezete); Monnin, M.; Lferde, M. (Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire)

    1984-01-01

    The dyed-track method has been successfully developed for cellulose derivatives. The track parameters (width, colouration deepness, contrast, registration sensitivity), however, proved to be very dependent on the detector material and on the track processing conditions. In our previous works optimum conditions were presented mostly for cellulose acetate sheets. In the present work we have studied the influence of track processing parameters on the dyed-track formation in Kodak cellulose nitrate detector called CN-85. It is found that in this material optimum dyed-tracks can be produced with using no swelling but with a thermal annealing at 100 deg C for 1 hour after particle irradiation. For sensitization a treatment with 15% HCl at 22 deg C for 20 hours and for dyeing 0.3 wt% Rhodamine-B at 100 deg C for 1 hour proved to be the best. For better understanding the track dyeing phenomenon we have studied the colouration behaviour of electron-irradiated CN-85 detectors.

  3. CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector and its application in nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Pengji; Tang Xiaowei; Wang Long; Liang Tianjiao

    2000-01-01

    The transparent and stable plastic material CR-39 can be used as a nuclear track detector which is highly sensitive to charged particles. It can record tracks induced by protons , alphas, fission fragments and other charged particles. Among various available solid state nuclear track detectors CR-39 has the lowest deposited energy density detection-threshold. The response of CR-39 to charged particles and the response curve of υ T of different charged particles to REL are given. The CR-39 detector is widely used in studies of nuclear reactions, angular distributions and reaction cross-sections caused by neutrons and charged particles. Neutron spectra, over a wide energy range, can be measured by the combination of CR-39 and a transformation screen. The successful applications of CR-39 in alpha particle dosimetry, environmental science (especially in the measurement of radon) and in biomedicine, such as the analysis of alpha radioactivity in sections of organic tissues, are described

  4. Nuclear Fragmentation Induced by Relativistic Projectiles Studied in the 4$\\pi$ Configuration of Plastic Track Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % EMU19 \\\\ \\\\ The collisions of heavy ions at relativistic energies have been studied to explore a number of questions related with hot and dense nuclear matter in order to extend our knowledge of nuclear equation-of-state. There are other aspects of these interactions which are studied to expound the process of projectile and/or target disintegrations. The disintegrations in question could be simply binary fissions or more complex processes leading to spallation or complete fragmentation. These important aspects of nuclear reactions are prone to investigations with nuclear track detectors. \\\\ \\\\One of the comparatively new track detector materials, CR-39, is sensitive enough to record particles of Z~$\\geq$~6 with almost 100\\% efficiency up to highly relativistic energies. The wide angle acceptance and exclusive measurements possible with plastic track detectors offer an opportunity to use them in a variety of situations in which high energy charged fragments are produced. The off-line nature of measuring tra...

  5. Performance and track-based alignment of the Phase-1 upgraded CMS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Botta, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector is a multi-purpose detector constructed in order to study high-energy particle collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The all-silicon design of the tracking system of the CMS experiment provided excellent resolution for charged tracks and an efficient tagging of jets during Run 1 and Run 2 of the LHC. After the pixel detector of the CMS experiment was upgraded and installed during the shutdown in the beginning of 2017, the positions and orientations of the tracker modules needed to be determined with a precision of several micrometers. The alignment also needs to be quickly recalculated each time the state of the CMS magnet is changed between 0 T and 3.8 T. The latest results of the CMS tracker performance in the 2017 run are presented, with a special focus on alignment and resolution performance using several million reconstructed tracks from cosmic rays and collision data.

  6. Incident-angle dependency found in track formation sensitivity of a plastic nuclear track detector (TD-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    The present study was done since data are hardly available on the incident-angle dependency of track formation sensitivity (S) of the plastic nuclear track detector. Chips of a TD-1 plate, an antioxidant-doped CR-39 (diethyleglycol-bis-allylcarbonate, HARZLAS, Fukuvi Chem. Ind.), were used as a high-LET radiation detector and were exposed to heavy ion beams of C, Ne, and Si under different incident angles in Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba of National Institute of Radiological Sciences. After exposed and etched, the chips were observed with an optical microscope and a program for image analysis to calculate S. The S values calculated were found smaller for the beams having lower incident angles. Thus the estimated LET values from the S-LET relationship for vertical incident beams showed large reduction for low-angle particles. Those potential errors should be quantified and corrected in determination of LET spectra in space. (K.H.)

  7. The bipolar silicon microstrip detector: A proposal for a novel precision tracking device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horisberger, R.

    1990-01-01

    It is proposed to combine the technology of fully depleted microstrip detectors fabricated on n doped high resistivity silicon with the concept of the bipolar transistor. This is done by adding a n ++ doped region inside the normal p + implanted region of the reverse biased p + n diode. The resulting structure has amplifying properties and is referred to as bipaolar pixel transistor. The simplest readout scheme of a bipolar pixel array by an aluminium strip bus leads to the bipolar microstrip detector. The bipolar pixel structure is expected to give a better signal-to-noise performance for the detection of minimum ionizing charged particle tracks than the normal silicon diode strip detector and therefore should allow in future the fabrication of thinner silicon detectors for precision tracking. (orig.)

  8. Development of a reader for track etch detectors based on a commercially available slide scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Steele, J D; Tanner, R J; Bartlett, D T

    1999-01-01

    NRPB has operated a routine neutron personal dosimetry service based on the electrochemical etch of PADC elements since 1986. Since its inception it has used an automated reader based on a video camera and real time analysis. A new and more powerful replacement system has been developed using a commercially available photographic slide scanner. This permits a complete image of the dosemeter to be grabbed in a single scan, generating a 2592x3888 pixel file which is saved for subsequent analysis. This gives an effective pixel size of 10x10 mu m with an image of the entire dosemeter in one field of view. Custom written software subsequently analyses the image to assess the number of etched pits on the dosemeter and read the detector identification number (code). Batch scanning of up to 40 detectors is also possible using an autofeed attachment. The system can be used for electrochemically etched tracks for neutron detectors and chemically etched tracks for radon detectors.

  9. Counting radon tracks in Makrofol detectors with the 'image reduction and analysis facility' (IRAF) software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, F.; Gonzalez-Manrique, S.; Karlsson, L.; Hernandez-Armas, J.; Aparicio, A.

    2007-01-01

    Makrofol detectors are commonly used for long-term radon ( 222 Rn) measurements in houses, schools and workplaces. The use of this type of passive detectors for the determination of radon concentrations requires the counting of the nuclear tracks produced by alpha particles on the detecting material. The 'image reduction and analysis facility' (IRAF) software package is a piece of software commonly used in astronomical applications. It allows detailed counting and mapping of sky sections where stars are grouped very closely, even forming clusters. In order to count the nuclear tracks in our Makrofol radon detectors, we have developed an inter-disciplinary application that takes advantage of the similitude that exist between counting stars in a dark sky and tracks in a track-etch detector. Thus, a low cost semi-automatic system has been set up in our laboratory which utilises a commercially available desktop scanner and the IRAF software package. A detailed description of the proposed semi-automatic method and its performance, in comparison to ocular counting, is described in detail here. In addition, the calibration factor for this procedure, 2.97+/-0.07kBqm -3 htrack -1 cm 2 , has been calculated based on the results obtained from exposing 46 detectors to certified radon concentrations. Furthermore, the results of a preliminary radon survey carried out in 62 schools in Tenerife island (Spain), using Makrofol detectors, counted with the mentioned procedure, are briefly presented. The results reported here indicate that the developed procedure permits a fast, accurate and unbiased determination of the radon tracks in a large number of detectors. The measurements carried out in the schools showed that the radon concentrations in at least 12 schools were above 200Bqm -3 and, in two of them, above 400Bqm -3 . Further studies should be performed at those schools following the European Union recommendations about radon concentrations in buildings

  10. Registration of alpha particles in Makrofol-E nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rammah, Y.S. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Koom (Egypt); Abdalla, Ayman M., E-mail: aymanabdalla62@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Najran University, P. O. Box. 11001, Najran (Saudi Arabia); Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Najran University (Saudi Arabia); Ashraf, O., E-mail: osama.ashraf@edu.asu.edu.eg [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11575 (Egypt); Ashry, A.H. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11575 (Egypt)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Makrofol-E detectors have been irradiated with alpha particles and fission fragments. • Fast detection of alpha particles in Makrofol-E detectors. • Bulk etching rate was calculated from fission track diameters. - Abstract: Fast detection of alpha particles in the range from 1 to 5 MeV in Makrofol-E polycarbonate nuclear track detectors (PCTDs) using a new chemical etchant was investigated. {sup 252}Cf and {sup 241}Am-thin open sources were used for irradiating Makrofol-E detectors with fission fragments and alpha particles in air at normal pressure and temperature (NPT). A chain of experimental work has been carried out using new etchants to register alpha particle in short time in Makrofol-E polycarbonate detectors. The etching efficiency were exhibited a clear dependence on the amount of methanol in the etching solution and etching time. The optimized chemical condition obtained at this stage of development for 200 μm Makrofol-E detectors are (8 ml of 10 N NaOH + 2 ml CH{sub 3}OH) etching solutions at 60 °C for 3 h. In this study; it is possible to observe energy detection windows for Makrofol-E detectors according to applied etching duration. Makrofol-E introduced the characteristic Bragg peak, which indicates the advantages of this detector as alpha spectrometer. Consequently, the suggested new etchant can be developed for heavy ions detection and monitoring radon levels and its daughters.

  11. Electron Beam Induced Radiation Damage of the Semiconductor Radiation Detector based on Silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han Soo; Kim, Yong Kyun; Park, Se Hwan; Haa, Jang Ho; Kang, Sang Mook; Chung, Chong Eun; Cho, Seung Yeon; Park, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Tae Hyung

    2005-01-01

    A Silicon Surface Barrier (SSB) semiconductor detector which is generally used to detect a charged particle such as an alpha particle was developed. The performance of the developed SSB semiconductor detector was measured with an I-V curve and an alpha spectrum. The response for an alpha particle was measured by Pu-238 sources. A SSB semiconductor detector was irradiated firstly at 30sec, at 30μA and secondly 40sec, 40μA with a 2MeV pulsed electron beam generator in KAERI. And the electron beam induced radiation damage of a homemade SSB detector and the commercially available PIN photodiode were investigated. An annealing effect of the damaged SSB and PIN diode detector were also investigated using a Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA). This data may assist in designing the silicon based semiconductor radiation detector when it is operated in a high radiation field such as space or a nuclear power plant

  12. A passive radon dosimeter based on the combination of a track etch detector and activated charcoal

    CERN Document Server

    Deynse, A V; Poffijn, A

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to test a combination of a Makrofol track detector with a new type of charcoal (Carboxen-564) to design a personal radon dosimeter. The intention is to use this dosimeter as a personal radon dosimeter to measure the monthly radon exposure in workplaces, especially when the occupancy is not exactly known. The proposed combination was exposed to low and high concentrations of radon in a large range of relative humidity (RH). For the optimal layer thickness, a charcoal bed of 2.2 mm, a specific track density of 5.1 tracks cm sup - sup 2 /kBq h m sup - sup 3 was obtained. For a monthly working exposure (170 h) at an average radon concentration of 100 Bq/m sup 3 , this means 87 tracks/cm sup 2 or 10 times the background of the Makrofol detector, with a statistical uncertainty of 15%.

  13. Study of the characteristics of ionizing particles record of CR-39 track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao, Luis Eduardo Barreira

    1983-01-01

    The bulk and track etching proprieties of a new Solid State Nuclear Track Detector CR-39 were investigated under different etching conditions. The discussion is based on results obtained using aqueous solutions of KOH with addition of alcoholic solvent to aqueous solutions. It was found that track registration sensitivity can be dramatically changed by using the proper chemical treatment. A method to enlarge and dye etch tracks to be viewed by simple projection on a screen is discussed. The applications of CR-39 in neutron fluence measurements are shown. Graphs are presented of the densities of the registered traces by the detector as a function of etch time both for samples with and without a polycarbonate radiator. (author)

  14. The calibration of the solid state nuclear track detector LR 115 for radon measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Gericke, C; Jönsson, G; Freyer, K; Treutler, H C; Enge, W

    1999-01-01

    An experimental calibration of indoor room and outdoor soil detector devices which are based on LR 115 as sensitive element has taken place at the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute in Stockholm (Sweden) in 1994 and 1996, at the Physikalisch-Technischen Bundesanstalt in Braunschweig (Germany) in 1997 and at the Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany) in 1997. Special properties of the used solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) material LR 115 have been measured to define the application of the experimental calibration.

  15. DAPHNE: A large-acceptance tracking detector for the study of photoreactions at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audit, G.; Bloch, A.; Hose, N. d' ; Isbert, V.; Martin, J.; Powers, R.; Sundermann, D.; Tamas, G.; Wallace, P.A.; Bechade, J.; Carton, P.H.; Conat, S.; Foucaud, D.; Goldsticker, M. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Physique Nucleaire); Altieri, S.; Pedroni, P. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pavia (Italy)); Braghieri, A.; Fossati, F.; Pinelli, T. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pavia (Italy) Pavia Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica)

    1991-03-15

    A large-acceptance (94% of 4{pi} sr) hadron detector capable of handling multiparticle final states is described. The track reconstruction capability, energy resolution, particle identification capability and neutral-particle detection efficiency of the detector are discussed and the results of tests shown. Tests have been performed both with cosmic rays and in a realistic experimental situation using a 500 MeV photon beam impinging on hydrogen and deuteron targets. (orig.).

  16. Mathematical framework for fast and rigorous track fit for the ZEUS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiridonov, Alexander

    2008-12-15

    In this note we present a mathematical framework for a rigorous approach to a common track fit for trackers located in the inner region of the ZEUS detector. The approach makes use of the Kalman filter and offers a rigorous treatment of magnetic field inhomogeneity, multiple scattering and energy loss. We describe mathematical details of the implementation of the Kalman filter technique with a reduced amount of computations for a cylindrical drift chamber, barrel and forward silicon strip detectors and a forward straw drift chamber. Options with homogeneous and inhomogeneous field are discussed. The fitting of tracks in one ZEUS event takes about of 20ms on standard PC. (orig.)

  17. A compact solid-state detector for small angle particle tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altieri, S.; Barnaba, O.; Braghieri, A. E-mail: alessandro.braghieri@pv.infn.it; Cambiaghi, M.; Lanza, A.; Locatelli, T.; Panzeri, A.; Pedroni, P.; Pinelli, T.; Jennewein, P.; Lang, M.; Preobrazhensky, I.; Annand, J.R.M.; Sadiq, F

    2000-09-21

    MIcrostrip Detector Array System (MIDAS) is a compact silicon-tracking telescope for charged particles emitted at small angles in intermediate energy photonuclear reactions. It was realized to increase the angular acceptance of the DAPHNE detector and used in an experimental program to check the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule at the Mainz electron microtron (MAMI). MIDAS provides a trigger for charged hadrons, p/{pi}{sup {+-}} identification and particle tracking in the region 7 deg. <{theta}<16 deg.. In this paper we present the main characteristics of MIDAS and its measured performances.

  18. A compact solid-state detector for small angle particle tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altieri, S.; Barnaba, O.; Braghieri, A.; Cambiaghi, M.; Lanza, A.; Locatelli, T.; Panzeri, A.; Pedroni, P.; Pinelli, T.; Jennewein, P.; Lang, M.; Preobrazhensky, I.; Annand, J.R.M.; Sadiq, F.

    2000-01-01

    MIcrostrip Detector Array System (MIDAS) is a compact silicon-tracking telescope for charged particles emitted at small angles in intermediate energy photonuclear reactions. It was realized to increase the angular acceptance of the DAPHNE detector and used in an experimental program to check the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule at the Mainz electron microtron (MAMI). MIDAS provides a trigger for charged hadrons, p/π ± identification and particle tracking in the region 7 deg. <θ<16 deg.. In this paper we present the main characteristics of MIDAS and its measured performances

  19. Properties of polymer foils used as solid-state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.

    1973-05-01

    Polymer foils were studied with a view to their application as solid-state alpha track detectors. The detection efficiency was determined as was its alpha energy dependence and the quality of the surface and the natural background of the foils were evaluated. The kinetics of etching was studied in three selected type of foils. Characteristic constants for the selected foils and methods of etching were calculated. The possible applications of the foils as track detectors are discussed and the effect is dealt with of the selected foil and of the method of chemical etching on the foil applicability in nuclear sciences, especially in fast neutron dosimetry and in alpha spectrometry. (author)

  20. Status of development in the field of Cr-39 track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.

    1982-01-01

    The present situation concerning the manufacture and etching characteristics of the CR-39 nuclear track detector is surveyed. Especial attention is paid to the trends in research and to the outstanding questions related to the subject. The requirements and procedures in connection with the manufacture of high-quality, thick and thin detector foils are discussed. The main bulk and track etching characteristics are presented, involving the effects of various environmental parameters as well. A statistical account of the typical directions in application is given. (author)

  1. Characterization of CR 39 nuclear track detector for use as a radon/thoron dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandaiya, S.

    1988-02-01

    For the estimation of radon, thoron and their short-lived daughter products in air radon diffusion chambers with passive α-track etch detectors have been used. The report describes the properties of CR 39 track etch detectors in particular with respect to the spectrometric detection of α-particles in the energy range up to 8.77 MeV using chemical and a combination of chemical-electrochemical etching technique. In order to optimize the etching conditions for an α-energy discrimination in the energy range up to 8.77 MeV, the ECE track size diameter and the track density have been investigated as a function of the chemical pre-etching time using three electrical field strengths. In a mixed α-spectrum the contributions of various α-particles with energies between 4.6 to 8.77 MeV have been determined experimentally in CR 39 and compared with the spectral measurement using a surface barrier detector and the same irradiation geometry. Beside CR 39 detectors etched chemically and electrochemically, in addition surface barrier detectors and a Monte Carlo calculation have been used to evaluate the α-energy spectrum for thoron and its daughter products emitted by α-decays in the air volume and the plate-out of daughters at the inner surface on the diffusion chamber. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Detection of boron in metal alloys with solid state nuclear track detector by neutron induced autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali Nabipour; Hosseini, A.; Afarideh, H.

    2002-01-01

    Neutron induced autoradiography is very useful technique for detection as well as measurement of Boron densities in metal alloys. The method is relatively simple and quite sensitive in comparison with other techniques with resolution in the range of PPM. Using this technique with it is also possible to investigate microscopic scattering of Boron in metal alloys. In comparison with most techniques neutron induced autoradiography has its own difficulties and limitations. In this research measurement of Boron densities and investigation of that diffusion in metal alloys has been carried out. A flat nicely polished Boron doped metal samples is covered with a track detecting plastic (CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector) and exposed to thermal neutron dose. After irradiation the plastic detector have been removed and put in an etching solution. Since the diffusion rate of corrosive solution in those area, which heavy ions have been, produces as the result of nuclear reaction with thermal neutron are more than the other areas, some cavities are formed. The diameter of cavities or tracks cross section are increased with increasing the etching time, to some extent that it is possible to observe the cavities with optical microscopes. The density of tracks on the detector surface is directly related to the Boron concentration in the sample and thermal neutron dose. So by measuring the number of tracks on surface of the detector it would possible to calculate the concentration of Boron in metal samples. (Author)

  3. WE-D-BRF-01: FEATURED PRESENTATION - Investigating Particle Track Structures Using Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detectors and Monte Carlo Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdell, S; Paganetti, H; Schuemann, J; Greilich, S; Zimmerman, F; Evans, C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To report on the efforts funded by the AAPM seed funding grant to develop the basis for fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD) based radiobiological experiments in combination with dedicated Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) on the nanometer scale. Methods: Two confocal microscopes were utilized in this study. Two FNTD samples were used to find the optimal microscope settings, one FNTD irradiated with 11.1 MeV/u Gold ions and one irradiated with 428.77 MeV/u Carbon ions. The first sample provided a brightly luminescent central track while the latter is used to test the capabilities to observe secondary electrons. MCS were performed using TOPAS beta9 version, layered on top of Geant4.9.6p02. Two sets of simulations were performed, one with the Geant4-DNA physics list and approximating the FNTDs by water, a second set using the Penelope physics list in a water-approximated FNTD and a aluminum-oxide FNTD. Results: Within the first half of the funding period, we have successfully established readout capabilities of FNTDs at our institute. Due to technical limitations, our microscope setup is significantly different from the approach implemented at the DKFZ, Germany. However, we can clearly reconstruct Carbon tracks in 3D with electron track resolution of 200 nm. A second microscope with superior readout capabilities will be tested in the second half of the funding period, we expect an improvement in signal to background ratio with the same the resolution.We have successfully simulated tracks in FNTDs. The more accurate Geant4-DNA track simulations can be used to reconstruct the track energy from the size and brightness of the observed tracks. Conclusion: We have achieved the goals set in the seed funding proposal: the setup of FNTD readout and simulation capabilities. We will work on improving the readout resolution to validate our MCS track structures down to the nanometer scales

  4. Track etch parameters and annealing kinetics assessment of protons of low energy in CR-39 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, R.K.; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, B.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We calibrate CR-39 detector with very low energy protons. ► We establish linear relationship between track diameter and time/energy up to 200 keV. ► We determine activation energy of annealing using different models. ► We justify concept of single annealing activation energy in CR-39. - Abstract: In this paper threshold of the registration sensitivity of very low energy proton in CR-39 is investigated. Irradiation of CR-39 (poly-allyl-diglycol carbonate) was carried out with very low energy mono energetic protons of 20–60 keV from a mini proton accelerator. Nearly 10 4 /cm 2 fluence of protons was used. The variation of track diameter with etching time as well as proton energy response curve was carefully calibrated. The bulk and track etch rates were measured by using proton track diameters. Bulk etch rate was also measured by the thickness of removed surface layer. The thermal annealing of proton track at temperatures ranging from 100 to 200 °C in CR-39 was studied by several models. Activation energy of annealed CR-39 detectors was calculated by slope of track etch rate and temperature plot. The data of proton tracks of 200, 250 and 300 keV from 400 kV Van-de-Graaff accelerator was also used and compared with the track diameters of different energies of proton.

  5. Development of hybrid track detector using CR39 and photographic plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuge, K.; Endo, Y.; Hayashi, K.; Iwakiri, S.; Hasegawa, A.; Yasuda, N.; Kumagai, H.

    2005-01-01

    To improve the hybrid track detector using both CR39 and silver halide photography the gold deposition development technique was applied to this. Nuclear tracks composed of gold clusters were obtained. This method has several advantages; 1. no filament formation, 2. easy control of the cluster size owing to the independence of the size of silver halide grain, 3. easy treatment of the waste solution of developer. (author)

  6. Development of hybrid track detector using CR39 and photographic plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuge, Kenichi; Endo, Yusuke; Hayashi, Kentaro; Hasegawa, Akira; Kumagai, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid track detector using CR39 and color photography was prepared by coating multi-layered color photographic emulsions on one side of CR39. Etch pits and color tracks were observed at the same time. Photographic plate with different sensitivity emulsions and couplers were exposed to light, α-, β- and γ-rays. We observed sensitivity difference to the radiation by color changes on one plate. (authors)

  7. Interaction of 80 MeV PI+ with different targets: Track detector studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabassum, L; Chohan, A S [Government Coll., Lahore. (Pakistan) Deptt. of Physics Khan, H.A. (Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Nuclear Engineering Div.)

    1990-04-01

    CR-39 and mica track detectors have been used in the study of the interactions of 80 MeV PI+ with thin targets of Bi, Pb, Ho, Sb. The binary fission cross sections, the length and angular distributions of etched tracks have been obtained. The cross-section values obtained by using CR-39 are higher as compared to those obtained with mica. (author).

  8. Interaction of 80 MeV PI+ with different targets: Track detector studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabassum, L.; Chohan, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    CR-39 and mica track detectors have been used in the study of the interactions of 80 MeV PI+ with thin targets of Bi, Pb, Ho, Sb. The binary fission cross sections, the length and angular distributions of etched tracks have been obtained. The cross-section values obtained by using CR-39 are higher as compared to those obtained with mica. (author)

  9. Homogeneity and fissure determination in uranium bars with solid state nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, F. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Facultad de Ciencias); Gamboa, I.; Espinosa, G.; Tapia, A. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Fisica); Somogyi, G. (Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Debrecen. Atommag Kutato Intezete)

    1984-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for determining fissure and concentration inhomogeneity in uranium bars is the alpha-radiographic technique. In our present work uranium bars made by ININ (Mexico) were studied by using CR-39 track detectors. The space inhomogeneity in track density was measured by an optical densitometer. The presence of fissure is determined by a microfiche reader. Such a study takes only few hours and does not require sophisticated instrumentation.

  10. Solid track detectors used for the dating by thermoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miallier, D.

    1982-10-01

    A new α counting technic is presented in the field of the thermoluminescent dating method. It is based upon α particles registration in plastic detectors LR-115 Kodak in close contact with archeological or geological samples. The control of etching and counting conditions allowed to improve the usual precision of the detector. The following data are collected: α and β dose rates deposited by Uranium and Thorium series; an approximative value for the Uranium-Thorium ratio; spatial distribution of α emittors within samples and the radon escape rated. This method was used simultaneously with the ''quartz inclusion technic'' to date several samples: volcanic lava flows from the ''Chaine des Puys'' (Center France); the Butte de Clermont basaltic maar; a neolithic ''cardial'' pot-sherd and bricks from a minoaan palace (Mallia, Crete) [fr

  11. Photon radiation damage simulations in CZT semiconducting detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva, A.; Pinnera, I.; Cruz, C.; Abreu, Y.; Dona, O.; Diaz, A.

    2009-01-01

    The use of semiconducting devices based on CZT as X and gamma rays detectors has been extended notably in the last decade thanks to their numerous advantages. The medical imagenology is one of the fields where these detectors have been successfully introduced, for example in positron emission tomography (PET). A typical CZT detector employed PET application was studied applying the Monte Carlo statistical method. All structural and geometric characteristics of the detector as well as the different photon energies usually used in the mentioned applications were considered in the simulations. Taking into account the Oen-Cahn-Holmes classical approach, the effective atomic displacement cross-sections and the number of displacements per atoms were calculated for all atom species and considered photon energies

  12. Air alpha monitoring device and system for the calibration of the track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danis, A; Oncescu, M.; Ciubotariu, M.

    2001-01-01

    The radon measurement plays a critical role: - in monitoring the human health and safety, due to radon destructive health effects. Sustained exposures of humans to high concentration of radon, in fact to high concentrations of its decay products, can produce lung cancer; - in a variety of geophysical, geochemical, hydrological and atmospheric investigations, such as exploring resources of uranium or hydrocarbons. The transport of radon within the earth, waters and atmosphere makes it a useful tracer in these purposes. in both cases, the reliable long-term measurements are required because usual short-term variations in concentration need to be averaged. These variations are caused by factors such as relative humidity, temperature, atmospheric pressure and their seasonal variations, moisture content in the air, or ventilation in the dwelling or working places. The integrating measurement methods meet these requirements. Among them, the alpha track method is one of the adequate and useful method and it is used by authors in radon measurements in dwelling and working places including mines and house cellars. The best etched track alpha detector for radon measurements proved to be the detector CR-39 due to: - its sensitivity to alpha particles emitted by radon decay products; - its stability against various environmental factors; - its high degree of optical clarity, was used in a proper device for alpha monitoring in air. Its calibration for radon measurements was performed in the proper calibration system. The general descriptions and specifications were given previously. Only some characteristics of these devices are given here. For air alpha monitoring device: i) equipped with filter, during alpha exposure, the alpha particles of radon are registered in the etched track detector mounted inside (ρ Rn - track density); ii) without filter, the alpha particles emitted by radon + its alpha decay products/their aerosols are registered in the detector (ρ tot - track

  13. On the application of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasi, G.

    1983-01-01

    The thesis presented deals with theoretical and technical aspects of the use of SSNTDs for the registration of charged particles. For thin SSNTD relations between the geometrical parameters of the etch tracks, the etch rate ratio and the etched-off thickness are given which together with calculations on the particle range versus energy make an identification of the particles with respect to their energy as well as their nature possible. For the purpose of the measurement of Radon and α-emitting Radon daughters in living rooms the geometry of the cups has been optimized. The calibration factors have been calculated and verified experimentally. For the evaluation of the track density of thin SSNTD a conductance cell has been set up. Radon concentrations and equilibrium factors were measured over a period of half a year in rooms made of concrete, wood and bricks having identical geometrical dimensions and ventilation rates. The results obtained are discussed briefly. In a long series of experiments which showed the important role of the electroforetic forces involved the 'sequential electrical and chemical etching' technique proposed first by Tommasino and coworkers in 1979 was modified. By means of an optimized choice of the electrolytic solutions the development time could be reduced from about two weeks to two to three hours. Therefore this technique seems to be a useful method to obtain enlarged etch tracks without background interference. (Author)

  14. Beam profile measurement with CR-39 track detector for low-energy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, F; Tanaka, T; Iida, T; Yamauchi, T; Oda, K

    1999-01-01

    A CR-39 track detector was successfully used to measure the outline of thin low-energy ion beams. After the etching, the surface of the detector was examined with an observation system composed of a Normarski microscope, a CCD camera and a digital image processing computer. Beam images obtained with the system were in good agreement on the outline of the beam formed with a beam aperture. Also, the resolving power in the beam outline measurement was roughly explained from the consideration of the ion range and the etch-pit growth in the chemical etching for the CR-39 detector.

  15. A Large Tracking Detector In Vacuum Consisting Of Self-Supporting Straw Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintz, P.

    2004-02-01

    A novel technique to stretch the anode wire simply by the gas over-pressure inside straw drift tubes reduces the necessary straw weight to an absolute minimum. Our detector will consist of more than 3000 straws filling up a cylindrical tracking volume of 1m diameter and 30cm length. The projected spatial resolution is 200μm. The detector with a total mass of less than 15kg will be operated in vacuum, but will have an added wall thickness of 3mm mylar, only. The detector design, production experience and first results will be discussed.

  16. A Large Tracking Detector In Vacuum Consisting Of Self-Supporting Straw Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintz, P.

    2004-01-01

    A novel technique to stretch the anode wire simply by the gas over-pressure inside straw drift tubes reduces the necessary straw weight to an absolute minimum. Our detector will consist of more than 3000 straws filling up a cylindrical tracking volume of 1m diameter and 30cm length. The projected spatial resolution is 200μm. The detector with a total mass of less than 15kg will be operated in vacuum, but will have an added wall thickness of 3mm mylar, only. The detector design, production experience and first results will be discussed

  17. Neutron-damaged GaAs detectors for use in a Compton spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammeraad, J.E.; Sale, K.E.; Wang, C.L.; Baltrusaitis, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Detectors made of GaAs are being studies for use on the focal plane of a Compton spectrometer which measures 1-MeV to 25-MeV gamma rays with high energy resolution (1% or 100 keV, whichever is greater) and 200-ps time resolution. The detectors are GaAs chips that have been neutron-damaged to improve the time response. The detectors will be used to measure fast transient signals in the current mode. The properties of various GaAs detector configurations are being studied by bombarding sample detectors with short pulses of 4-MeV to 16-MeV electrons at the Linac Facility at EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc., Santa Barbara Operations. Measurements of detector sensitivity and impulse response versus detector bias, thickness, and electron beam energy and intensity have been performed and are presented. 5 refs

  18. Pulse shape analysis for the gamma-ray tracking detector Agata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olariu, A.

    2007-10-01

    Agata is the European project for a 4π gamma-ray tracking array of 180 Ge detectors and is expected to have a detection sensitivity higher by 3 orders of magnitude than that of the present generation of gamma spectrometers. The trajectories of the photons inside a Ge crystal are reconstituted, which allows the determination of the initial energy of the incident photons as the total energy deposited along the track. The sequence of a γ-ray scattering process is too fast compared with the time resolution of the detector to be measured electronically, so tracking algorithms are necessary. Gamma-ray tracking detectors are operating in position sensitive mode it means that Ge crystal are segmented in order to facilitate the localization of the gamma interactions. It is possible to improve the position resolution by using the information conveyed by the shape of the detector signal. The task of the PSA (Pulse Shape Analysis) algorithm is to analyze this signal and extract the number of interactions, the position and the energy of each interaction. PSA algorithms rely on a basis of reference signals given by single interactions and that are obtained through an experimental characterization of the detector with scanning systems. The matrix method is a new PSA algorithm that consists in fitting linearly the detector signal with a set of calculated signals. We have tested this method with both simulated and measured signals. In the case of simulated single interactions the position resolution is 1.4 mm which is within Agata's specifications. For measured signals we have obtained mean positional errors of 3.2 mm at the front end of the detector an 4.8 mm at the back end

  19. Application of solid state nuclear track detectors in measurement of natural alpha- radioactivity in environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maged, A F; El-Behay, A Z; Borham, E [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    The use of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) is one of the most convenient techniques to assess the average radiation levels of alpha activities in the environment. This technique has been used to assess radon gas and its daughters in buildings. Exposed SSNTD films are chemically etched in an alkali solution and alpha tracks are evaluated by using the image analyzer system. The detailed procedure for this study and the etched films for conversion of alpha track density to radon concentration in Bq m{sup -}3 are given and discussed in the text.1 fig., 3 tabs.

  20. Experimental studies of radiation damage of silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelescu, T.; Ghete, V.M.; Ghiordanescu, N.; Lazanu, I.; Mihul, A.; Golutvin, I.; Lazanu, S.; Savin, I.; Vasilescu, A.; Biggeri, U.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Li, Z.; Kraner, H.W.

    1994-02-01

    New particle physics experiments are correlated with high luminosity and/or high energy. The new generation of colliding beam machines which will be constructed will make an extrapolation of a factor of 100 in the center of mass energy and of 1000 in luminosity beyond present accelerators. The scientific community hopes that very exciting physics results could be achieved this way, from the solution to the problem of electroweak symmetry breaking to the possible discovery of new, unpredicted phenomena. The particles which compose the radiation field are: electrons, pions, neutrons, protons and photons. It has become evident that the problem of the radiation resistance of detectors in this severe environment is a crucial one. This situation is complicated more by the fact that detectors must work all the run time of the machine, and better all the time of the experiment, without replacement (part or whole). So, studies related to the investigation of the radiation hardness of all detector parts, are developing. The studies are in part material and device characterization after irradiation, and in part technological developments, made in order to find harder, cheaper technologies, for larger surfaces. Semiconductor detectors have proven to be a good choice for vertex and calorimeter. Both fixed target machines and colliders had utilized in the past silicon junction detectors as the whole or part of the detection system. Precision beam hodoscopes and sophisticated trigger devices with silicon are equally used. The associated electronics in located near the detectors, and is subjected to the same radiation fields. Studies of material and device radiation hardness are developing in parallel. Here the authors present results on the radiation hardness of silicon, both as a bulk material and as detectors, to neutron irradiation at high fluences

  1. The development of diamond tracking detectors for the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Boer, W. de; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fischer, P.; Fizzotti, F.; Furetta, C.; Gan, K.K.; Ghodbane, N.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Keil, M.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Menichelli, D.; Meuser, S.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Perera, L.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Polesello, P.; Potenza, R.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Tuve, C.; Vincenzo, B.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2003-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition diamond has been discussed extensively as an alternate sensor material for use very close to the interaction region of the LHC where extreme radiation conditions exist. During the last few years diamond devices have been manufactured and tested with LHC electronics with the goal of creating a detector usable by all LHC experiment. Extensive progress on diamond quality, on the development of diamond trackers and on radiation hardness studies has been made. Transforming the technology to the LHC specific requirements is now underway. In this paper we present the recent progress achieved

  2. The development of diamond tracking detectors for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; de Boer, Wim; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, M; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Doroshenko, J; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fischer, P; Fizzotti, F; Furetta, C; Gan, K K; Ghodbane, N; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Keil, M; Knöpfle, K T; Koeth, T W; Krammer, M; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Menichelli, D; Meuser, S; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Noomen, J; Oh, A; Perera, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, M; Polesello, P; Potenza, R; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rudge, A; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Sutera, C; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Tuvé, C; Vincenzo, B; Weilhammer, P; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M

    2003-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition diamond has been discussed extensively as an alternate sensor material for use very close to the interaction region of the LHC where extreme radiation conditions exist. During the last few years diamond devices have been manufactured and tested with LHC electronics with the goal of creating a detector usable by all LHC experiment. Extensive progress on diamond quality, on the development of diamond trackers and on radiation hardness studies has been made. Transforming the technology to the LHC specific requirements is now underway. In this paper we present the recent progress achieved.

  3. The development of diamond tracking detectors for the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Boer, W. de; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fischer, P.; Fizzotti, F.; Furetta, C.; Gan, K.K.; Ghodbane, N.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H. E-mail: harris.kagan@cern.ch; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Keil, M.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Menichelli, D.; Meuser, S.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Perera, L.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Polesello, P.; Potenza, R.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Tuve, C.; Vincenzo, B.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2003-11-21

    Chemical vapor deposition diamond has been discussed extensively as an alternate sensor material for use very close to the interaction region of the LHC where extreme radiation conditions exist. During the last few years diamond devices have been manufactured and tested with LHC electronics with the goal of creating a detector usable by all LHC experiment. Extensive progress on diamond quality, on the development of diamond trackers and on radiation hardness studies has been made. Transforming the technology to the LHC specific requirements is now underway. In this paper we present the recent progress achieved.

  4. The development of diamond tracking detectors for the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; de Boer, W.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fischer, P.; Fizzotti, F.; Furetta, C.; Gan, K. K.; Ghodbane, N.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Keil, M.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R. D.; Meier, D.; Menichelli, D.; Meuser, S.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Perera, L.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Polesello, P.; Potenza, R.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Tuve, C.; Vincenzo, B.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.; RD42 Collaboration

    2003-11-01

    Chemical vapor deposition diamond has been discussed extensively as an alternate sensor material for use very close to the interaction region of the LHC where extreme radiation conditions exist. During the last few years diamond devices have been manufactured and tested with LHC electronics with the goal of creating a detector usable by all LHC experiment. Extensive progress on diamond quality, on the development of diamond trackers and on radiation hardness studies has been made. Transforming the technology to the LHC specific requirements is now underway. In this paper we present the recent progress achieved.

  5. Experiments on muon radiography with emulsion track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, Andrey; Bagulya, Alexander; Baklagin, Sergei; Chernyavsky, Mikhail; Galkin, Vladimir; Grachev, Victor; Konovalova, Nina; Managadze, Alexander; Polukhina, Natalya; Roganova, Tatiana; Starkov, Nikolai; Shchedrina, Tatiana; Tioukov, Valeri; Vladymirov, Mykhailo; Zemskova, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Muon radiography is a method of study the internal structure of large natural and industrial objects based on sensing an object with a flux of cosmic muons with their subsequent registration and analysis of the pattern of their dispersion, or conplete (or partial) absorption. The Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Moscow State University have started a series of muon radiography experiments with nuclear emulsion detectors. As a result, the optimal conditions for experiment arrangement have been determined, algorithms of data processing have been worked out, and peculiarities of the method have been ultimately investigated

  6. Radiation Damage Monitoring in the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Seidel, S

    2013-01-01

    We describe the implementation of radiation damage monitoring using measurement of leakage current in the ATLAS silicon pixel sensors. The dependence of the leakage current upon the integrated luminosity is presented. The measurement of the radiation damage corresponding to integrated luminosity 5.6 fb$^{-1}$ is presented along with a comparison to the theoretical model.

  7. Measurement of radon and thoron present in the environment using nuclear track etch detector technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, T.V.; Lalit, B.Y.; Mishra, U.C.

    1986-01-01

    The use of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) is one of the most convenient techniques to assess the average radiation levels of alpha activities in the environment. This technique has been used to assess the radon and thoron concentrations in some high background areas of South India and underground non-uranium mines in Bihar State. Exposed SSNTD films are chemically etched in an alkali solution and the alpha tracks are evaluated under an optical microscope. The detailed procedure for this study and the calibration of the etched films for conversion of alpha track density to radon and thoron concentrations in pCi l -1 are given in this paper. It was found that 1.9 tracks cm -2 day -1 and 6.2 tracks cm -2 day -1 were produced by exposing the LR-115 foils to 1 pCi l -1 of thoron and radon respectively. (author)

  8. Calibration of track detectors and measurement of radon exhalation rate from solid samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ajay Kumar; Jojo, P.J.; Prasad, Rajendra; Khan, A.J.; Ramachandran, T.V.

    1997-01-01

    CR-39 and LR-115 type II track detectors to be used for radon exhalation measurements have been calibrated. The configurations fitted with detectors in Can technique in the open cup mode are cylindrical plastic cup (PC) and conical plastic cup (CPC). The experiment was performed in radon exposure chamber having monodisperse aerosols of 0.2 μm size, to find the relationship between track density and the radon concentration. The calibration factors for PC and CPC type dosimeters with LR-115 type II detector were found to be 0.056 and 0.083 tracks cm -2 d -1 (Bqm -3 ) -1 respectively, while with CR-39 detector the values were 0.149 and 0.150 tracks cm -2 d -1 (Bq m -3 ) -1 . Employing the Can technique, measurements of exhalation rates from solid samples used as construction materials, are undertaken. Radon exhalation rate is found to be minimum in cement samples while in fly ash it is not enhanced as compared to coal samples. (author)

  9. High-accuracy fluence determination in ion beams using fluorescent nuclear track detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osinga, J.-M.; Akselrod, M.S.; Herrmann, Rochus

    2013-01-01

    We present an approach to use Al2O3:C,Mg-based fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs) and confocal laser scanning microscopy as a semiautomatic tool for fluence measurements in clinical ion beams. The method was found to cover a linear energy transfer (LET) range from at least L∞(Al2O3) = 0...

  10. Refinement of a thoron insensitive alpha track detector for environmental radon monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Olympic Dam Operations, a Copper/Uranium mine in the north of South Australia, currently monitors environmental radon (Rn 222) concentrations at a total of 17 sites in the area surrounding the mining lease and Roxby Downs township. During 1990 a commercial alpha track radon detector service was replaced with an on-site system resulting in lower costs, greater confidence in detector calibration, and reduction in processing time. Alpha track detectors (ATD's) are placed in triplicate at each of the 17 sites. Flow-through scintillation cell continuous radon monitors are also operated at two of these sites. Comparison of results from the two different types of monitor has raised the question of a possible thoron (Rn 220) contribution in the alpha track detectors. Laboratory experiments revealed that the diffusion membranes used in the ATD's were in fact 'transparent' to thoron. A new membrane was tested which effectively excluded thoron from the detector cup without affecting the sensitivity to radon. Field comparisons of the different membranes revealed that the thoron component was significant. Since there is only a very minor Rn220 emission from the mining operation, it is important that the monitoring be specific only to Rn222, the primary source term. The use of the new membrane will result in more accurate measurements of Rn222. 4 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  11. CONTRIBUTION OF DIFFERENT PARTICLES MEASURED WITH TRACK ETCHED DETECTORS ONBOARD ISS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrožová, I; Davídková, M; Brabcová, K Pachnerová; Tolochek, R V; Shurshakov, V A

    2017-09-29

    Cosmic radiation consists of primary high-energy galactic and solar particles. When passing through spacecraft walls and astronauts' bodies, the spectrum becomes even more complex due to generating of secondary particles through fragmentation and nuclear interactions. Total radiation exposure is contributed by both these components. With an advantage, space research uses track etched detectors from the group of passive detectors visualizing the tracks of particles, in this case by etching. The detectors can discriminate between various components of cosmic radiation. A method is introduced for the separation of the different types of particles according to their range using track etched detectors. The method is demonstrated using detectors placed in Russian segment of the International Space Station in 2009. It is shown that the primary high-energy heavy ions with long range contribute up to 56% of the absorbed dose and up to 50% to the dose equivalent. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Radon Measurements in Egypt using passive etched track detectors. A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomaa, M A [National Network of Radiation Physics. Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt); Hussein, A S [Radiation Protection Department, Nuclear Power Plants Authority, (Egypt); El-Arabi, A M [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Qena, (Egypt)

    2005-04-01

    Radon and its progeny may cause serious radiation harm to human health such as lung cancer and other types. Radon measurements based on alpha particles etched track detectors (LR-115, CR-39) are very attractive for assessment of radon exposure. This is due to their high sensitivity, low cost, easy to handle and retain a permanent record of data. Also these detectors can incorporate the effects of seasonal and diurnal fluctuation of radon activity concentrations due to physical, geological and meteorological factors. The present review is based mainly on the topic of passive etched track detectors for the measurements of radon in Egypt in the recent years. Published papers includes the measurements of radon in dwellings, working places, Cairo Metro stations, ancient Pharaonic places and uranium exploration galleries as well as assessment of radon in drinking water.

  13. Gamma-ray tracking - A new detector concept for nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gast, W.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of an European collaboration the nest generation of large efficiency, high resolution spectrometers for nuclear spectroscopy is under development. The new spectrometers are large volume, segmented Ge-detectors featuring 3D position sensitivity in order to allow Gamma-Ray Tracking. That is, knowing the interaction positions and the energies released at each interaction, the track each gamma-ray follows during its scattering process inside the detector volume can be reconstructed on basis of the Compton-scattering formula. The resulting high add-back efficiency an effective granularity significantly improves peak-to-total ratio, efficiency, and Doppler-broadening of the spectrometer. In this contribution the states of the project concerning detector design and development of digital signal processing techniques to achieve an optimal 3D position sensitivity is presented. (authors)

  14. Development of Advanced Gaseous Detectors for Muon Tracking and Triggering in Collider Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Guan, Liang; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhu, Junjie

    High luminosity and high energy collider experiments impose big challenges to conventional gaseous detectors used for muon tracking and triggering. Stringent requirements, in terms of time and spatial resolutions, rate capabilities etc. are expected. In the context of ATLAS muon upgrade project, we present extensive researches and developments of advanced gas detectors for precision muon tracking and triggering in high rate environments. Particularly, this dissertation focuses on the studies of Micro-mesh Gaseous structure (Micromegas), thin gap Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) and small strip Thin Gap multi-wire Chambers (sTGC). In this dissertation, we first present a novel method, based on thermally bonding micro-meshes to anodes, to construct Micromegas detectors. Without employing the traditional photo-lithography process, it is a convenient alternative to build Micromegas. Both experimental and simulation studies of basic performance parameters of thermo-bonded Micromegas will be reported. Development...

  15. Status of vertex and tracking detector R&D at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)754272

    2015-01-01

    The physics aims at the future CLIC high-energy linear e+e- collider set very high precision requirements on the performance of the vertex and tracking detectors. Moreover, these detectors have to be well adapted to the experimental conditions, such as the bunch train structure of the beam and the presence of beam-induced backgrounds. The principal challenges are: a point resolution of a few micron, ultra-low mass (~0.2% X0 per layer for the inner vertex region), very low power dissipation (compatible with air-flow cooling in the inner vertex region) and pulsed power operation, complemented with ~10 ns time stamping capabilities. An overview of the R&D program for pixel and tracking detectors at CLIC will be presented, including recent results on an innovative hybridisation concept based on capacitive coupling between active sensors (HV-CMOS) and readout ASICs (CLICpix).

  16. A transition radiation detector for RHIC featuring accurate tracking and dE/dx particle identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, E.; Lissauer, D.; McCorkle, S.; Polychronakos, V.; Takai, H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Chi, C.Y.; Nagamiya, S.; Sippach, W.; Toy, M.; Wang, D.; Wang, Y.F.; Wiggins, C.; Willis, W. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Cherniatin, V.; Dolgoshein, B. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Engineering, (Russian Federation); Bennett, M.; Chikanian, A.; Kumar, S.; Mitchell, J.T.; Pope, K. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1991-12-31

    We describe the results of a test ran involving a Transition Radiation Detector that can both distinguish electrons from pions which momenta greater titan 0.7 GeV/c and simultaneously track particles passing through the detector. The particle identification is accomplished through a combination of the detection of Transition Radiation from the electron and the differences in electron and pion energy loss (dE/dx) in the detector. The dE/dx particle separation is most, efficient below 2 GeV/c while particle ID utilizing Transition Radiation effective above 1.5 GeV/c. Combined, the electron-pion separation is-better than 5 {times} 10{sup 2}. The single-wire, track-position resolution for the TRD is {approximately}230 {mu}m.

  17. A transition radiation detector which features accurate tracking and dE/dx particle identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, E.; Lissauer, D.; McCorkle, S.; Polychronakos, V.; Takai, H.; Chi, C.Y.; Nagamiya, S.; Sippach, W.; Toy, M.; Wang, D.; Wang, Y.F.; Wiggins, C.; Willis, W.; Cherniatin, V.; Dolgoshein, B.; Bennett, M.; Chikanian, A.; Kumar, S.; Mitchell, J.T.; Pope, K.

    1991-01-01

    We describe the results of a test run involving a Transition Radiation Detector that can both distinguish electrons from pions with momenta greater than 0.7 GeV/c and simultaneously track particles passing through the detector. The particle identification is accomplished through a combination of the detection of Transition Radiation from the electron and the differences in electron and pion energy loss (dE/dx) in the detector. The dE/dx particle separation is most efficient below 2 GeV/c while particle ID utilizing Transition Radiation is effective above 1.5 GeV/c. Combined, the electron-pion separation is better than 5 x l0 2 . The single-wire, track-position resolution for the TRD is ∼230μm

  18. Fast neutron detection by means of an organic solid state track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerschel, B.; Streubel, G.

    1980-01-01

    Solid state track detectors consisting of cellulose triacetate foils are appropriate for measuring the fast neutron fluence without applying external radiators. Detector sensitivity has been determined as a function of neutron energy by performing irradiations with various neutron sources and monoenergetic neutrons of different energies. A comparison with theoretical results given in the literature for a simple model of track recording has shown sufficient agreement. The measuring errors and the influence of spectral changes in the neutron field on detector response are discussed for the studied method of fluence measurement. By means of these errors the measuring range has been determined for well defined irradiation conditions, taking into account spectral changes in the neutron field. (author)

  19. Radon Measurements in Egypt using passive etched track detectors. A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.; Hussein, A.S.; El-Arabi, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Radon and its progeny may cause serious radiation harm to human health such as lung cancer and other types. Radon measurements based on alpha particles etched track detectors (LR-115, CR-39) are very attractive for assessment of radon exposure. This is due to their high sensitivity, low cost, easy to handle and retain a permanent record of data. Also these detectors can incorporate the effects of seasonal and diurnal fluctuation of radon activity concentrations due to physical, geological and meteorological factors. The present review is based mainly on the topic of passive etched track detectors for the measurements of radon in Egypt in the recent years. Published papers includes the measurements of radon in dwellings, working places, Cairo Metro stations, ancient Pharaonic places and uranium exploration galleries as well as assessment of radon in drinking water

  20. Development of pixel detectors for SSC vertex tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.; Shapiro, S.L.; Arens, J.F.; Jernigan, J.G.; Skubic, P.

    1991-04-01

    A description of hybrid PIN diode arrays and a readout architecture for their use as a vertex detector in the SSC environment is presented. Test results obtained with arrays having 256 x 256 pixels, each 30 μm square, are also presented. The development of a custom readout for the SSC will be discussed, which supports a mechanism for time stamping hit pixels, storing their xy coordinates, and storing the analog information within the pixel. The peripheral logic located on the array, permits the selection of those pixels containing interesting data and their coordinates to be selectively read out. This same logic also resolves ambiguous pixel ghost locations and controls the pixel neighbor read out necessary to achieve high spatial resolution. The thermal design of the vertex tracker and the proposed signal processing architecture will also be discussed. 5 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Investigation of Nuclear Fragmentation in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions Using Plastic - Nuclear - Track Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In this experiment CR39 plastic nuclear track detectors will be used which are sensitive to detect relativistic nuclear fragments with charges Z@$>$5. They will be analyzed using an automatic track measuring system which was developed at the University of Siegen.\\\\ \\\\ This allows to measure large quantities of tracks in these passive detectors and to perform high statistics experiments. We intend to measure cross sections for the production of nuclear fragments from heavy ion beams at the SPS. \\\\ \\\\ The energy independence of the cross sections predicted by the idea of limiting fragmentation will be tested at high energies. In exposures with different targets we plan to analyze the factorization of the fragmentation cross sections into a target depending factor and a factor depending on the beam particle and the fragment. The cross sections for one proton remov Coulomb dissociation. \\\\ \\\\ We plan to investigate Coulomb dissociation for different targets and different energies. Fragment and projectile charges ...

  2. LET spectrometry with track etch detectors-Use in high-energy radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadrnickova, I.; Spurny, F.

    2008-01-01

    For assessing the risk from ionizing radiation it is necessary to know not only the absorbed dose but also the quality of the radiation; radiation quality is connected with the physical quantity linear energy transfer (LET). One of the methods of determination of LET is based on chemically etched track detectors. This contribution concerns with a spectrometer of LET based on the track detectors and discusses some results obtained at: ·high-energy radiation reference field created at the SPS accelerator at CERN; and ·onboard of International Space Station where track-etch based LET spectrometer has been exposed 273 days during 'Matrjoshka - R' experiment. Results obtained are compared with the results of studies at some lower-energy neutron sources; some conclusions on the registrability of neutrons and the ability of this spectrometer to determine dose equivalent in high-energy radiation fields are formulated

  3. Energy spectrum of iron nuclei measured inside the MIR space craft using CR-39 track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, W.; Leugner, D.; Becker, E.; Flesch, F.; Heinrich, W.; Huentrup, G.; Reitz, G.; Roecher, H.; Streibel, T.

    1999-01-01

    We have exposed stacks of CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors inside the MIR space craft during the EUROMIR95 space mission for almost 6 months. Over this long period a large number of tracks of high LET events was accumulated in the detector foils. The etching and measuring conditions for this experiment were optimized to detect tracks of stopping iron nuclei. We found 185 stopping iron nuclei inside the stack and identified their trajectories through the material of the experiment. Based on the energy-range relation the energy at the surface of the stack was determined. These particles allow the determination of the low energy part of the spectrum of iron nuclei behind shielding material inside the MIR station

  4. Measurement of accelerator-based neutron distributions using nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Abu-Jarad, F.; Rehman, Fazal-ur-; Khiari, F.Z.; Aksoy, A.; Nassar, R.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear track detectors were used to measure the longitudinal and transverse distributions of slow neutrons in a moderated neutron field as well as the longitudinal and transverse distributions of fast neutrons produced on the 0 deg. beam line of the KFUPM 350 keV ion accelerator. The neutrons were first produced from the T(d,n) 4 He reaction with a neutron energy of approximately 14 MeV and were then moderated in a cylindrical polyethylene moderator placed at the end of the 0 deg. beam line. The optimal transverse slow neutron distribution was found to be uniform within ±4.5% at a 3 cm depth inside the moderator. The fast neutron distribution component along the moderator central axis exhibited an exponential-like drop in intensity with depth. Linearity checks of alpha and proton recoil track density with irradiation time for the nuclear track detectors were verified for both slow and fast neutrons

  5. Measurement of accelerator-based neutron distributions using nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jarallah, M.I. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Abu-Jarad, F.; Rehman, Fazal-ur-; Khiari, F.Z.; Aksoy, A.; Nassar, R

    2000-12-01

    Nuclear track detectors were used to measure the longitudinal and transverse distributions of slow neutrons in a moderated neutron field as well as the longitudinal and transverse distributions of fast neutrons produced on the 0 deg. beam line of the KFUPM 350 keV ion accelerator. The neutrons were first produced from the T(d,n){sup 4}He reaction with a neutron energy of approximately 14 MeV and were then moderated in a cylindrical polyethylene moderator placed at the end of the 0 deg. beam line. The optimal transverse slow neutron distribution was found to be uniform within {+-}4.5% at a 3 cm depth inside the moderator. The fast neutron distribution component along the moderator central axis exhibited an exponential-like drop in intensity with depth. Linearity checks of alpha and proton recoil track density with irradiation time for the nuclear track detectors were verified for both slow and fast neutrons.

  6. CR-39 nuclear track detector application for the diagnostics of low energy high power ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opekounov, M S; Pechenkin, S A; Remnev, G E [Nuclear Physics Institute, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Ivonin, I V [Siberian Physical-Technical Institute, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The results of investigation of the spectral composition of ion beams generated by the magneto-insulated ion diode of the MUK-M and TEMP accelerators. The energy and mass characteristics of the accelerated ion beam were determined by a Thomson spectrometer with a CR-39 plate detector (MOM - Atomki Nuclear Track Detector, Type MA-ND/p). The accelerated ion energy was from 40 to 240 keV. The ion current density range was from 1 to 10 A/cm{sup 2}. The mass composition contained hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon and aluminum ions. The individual track analysis showed the track form, depth and diameter in dependence on the ion mass and energy. (author). 2 figs., 5 refs.

  7. Determination of uranium and thorium contents inside different materials using track detectors and mean critical angles

    CERN Document Server

    Misdaq, M A; Ktata, A; Merzouki, A; Youbi, N

    1999-01-01

    The critical angles of the CR-39 (theta sub c) and LR-115 type II (theta sub c ') solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) for detecting alpha-particles emitted by the uranium and thorium series have been evaluated by calculating the corresponding ranges of the emitted alpha-particles in different material samples and in the SSNTD studied. The influence of the emitted alpha-particles initial and residual energies on the critical angles of the SSNTD studied has been investigated. The uranium and thorium contents of different geological samples have been evaluated by exploiting data obtained for the critical angles of the CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors and measuring the corresponding densities of tracks.

  8. Study of capillary tracking detectors with position-sensitive photomultiplier readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardini, A.; Cavasinni, V.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dolinsky, S.I.; Flaminio, V.; Golovkin, S.V.; Gorin, A.M.; Medvedkov, A.M.; Pyshev, A.I.; Tyukov, V.E.; Vasilchenko, V.G.; Zymin, K.V.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements have been carried out on light yield and attenuation length in glass capillaries filled with new liquid scintillators (LS) and compared with analogous measurements made on 0.5 mm diameter plastic fibres Kuraray SCSF-38 and 3HF. It is found that, at a distance of 1 m, the light output in the capillary filled with green LS based on 1-methylnaphthalene doped with a new dye 3M15 is greater by a factor of 2 to 3 than for plastic fibres. A tracking detector consisting of a capillary bundle read out by a 100 channel position-sensitive microchannel plate photomultiplier (2MCP-100) has been built and tested in the laboratory using a cosmic ray trigger. A comparison has been made between the performance of such a detector and that of a similar one, read out by a 96 channel Philips XP1724/A photomultiplier. It was found that a bundle made of 20μm diameter capillaries with a tapered end giving a magnification of 2.56, filled with the new IPN+3M15 liquid scintillator, read out by the 2MCP-100, provides a space resolution of σ=170μm, a two-track resolution of the same value and a hit density of n=1.9/mm for tracks crossing the detector at a distance of 20 cm from the photocathode. If the same detector is read out by the Philips XP1724/A, the space resolution becomes 200μm, the two-track resolution 600μm and the hit density n=1.7/mm. The worse performance in the latter case is caused by the larger crosstalk compared with that of the 2MCP-100 PSPM. The results indicate that a LS-filled capillary detector is a very promising device for fast fibre tracking. (orig.)

  9. Characteristics of diallyl phthalate resin as a fission track detector

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuruta, T

    1999-01-01

    Diallyl phthalate (DAP) resin plates were irradiated with fission fragments, and then etched in aqueous solution of KOH. Etched tracks were observed and counted by using an optical microscope. The detection efficiency of fission fragments was about 100% for both perpendicular and random incidence. DAP plates were insensitive to alpha particles and fast neutrons. These characteristics are suitable for detecting selected fission fragments, which coexist with alpha particles or fast neutrons. DAP plates are valuable for quantitative analysis of fissionable materials and neutron dosimetry. DAP and allyl diglycol carbonate (CR-39) were formed into copolymers in various ratios. The copolymers showed intermediate characteristics between DAP and CR-39. The fabrication of the copolymers made it possible to control the discrimination level for detection of heavy charged particles.

  10. Novel powering schemes for pixel and tracking detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Feld, Lutz Werner

    2013-01-01

    Future pixel and tracking systems like the ones foreseen in the upgrade programs of the LHC experiments are very demanding on the power supply systems. An increased amount of power has to be supplied to the front-end electronics at a reduced voltage, through existing cable plants. Novel powering schemes are needed to avoid excessive cable losses. The two schemes under consideration, serial powering and DC-DC conversion, are reviewed. Particular emphasis is put on system integration aspects. As an example, the new CMS pixel system, which will be powered via DC-DC conversion, is presented in more detail. This allows to discuss challenges and solutions for a concrete application while the conclusions should be relevant for other applications as well.

  11. Environmental radon studies using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Surinder; Sharma, Dinesh Kumar; Kumar, Ajay

    2004-01-01

    The results of radon activity recorded in 70 dwellings of Nurpur area, Kangra district, Himachal Pradesh, India are reported. LR-115 Type 2 films in the bare mode were exposed for four seasons of three months each covering a period of one year for the measurement of indoor radon levels. The calibration constant of 0.020 tracks cm -2 d -1 per Bq m -3 has been used to express radon activity in Bq m -3 . The annual average indoor radon concentrations in 17 different villages of the area are found to vary from 168±46 to 429±71 Bq m -3 . Most of the indoor radon values lie in the range of action levels (200-600 Bq m -3 ) recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection

  12. Track-Based Alignment of the Inner Detector of ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovcharova Ana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ATLAS is a multipurpose experiment at the LHC. The tracking system of ATLAS, embedded in a 2 T solenoidal field, is composed of different technologies: silicon planar sensors (pixel and microstrips and drift-tubes. The procedure used to align the ATLAS tracker and the results of the alignment using data recorded during 2010 and 2011 using LHC proton-proton collision runs at 7 TeV are presented. Validation of the alignment is performed by measuring the alignment observables as well as many other physics observables, notably resonance invariant masses in a wide mass range (KS, J/Ψ and Z. The E/p distributions for electrons from Z → ee and W → ev are also extensively used. The results indicate that, after the alignment with real data, the attained precision of the alignment constants is approximately 5 μm. The systematic errors due to the alignment that may affect physics results are under study.

  13. Measurement uncertainties of long-term 222Rn averages at environmental levels using alpha track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    More than 250 replicate measurements of outdoor Rn concentration integrated over quarterly periods were made to estimate the random component of the measurement uncertainty of Track Etch detectors (type F) under outdoor conditions. The measurements were performed around three U mill tailings piles to provide a range of environmental concentrations. The measurement uncertainty was typically greater than could be accounted for by Poisson counting statistics. Average coefficients of variation of the order of 20% for all measured concentrations were found. It is concluded that alpha track detectors can be successfully used to determine annual average outdoor Rn concentrations through the use of careful quality control procedures. These include rapid deployment and collection of detectors to minimize unintended Rn exposure, careful packaging and shipping to and from the manufacturer, use of direct sunlight shields for all detectors and careful and secure mounting of all detectors in as similar a manner as possible. The use of multiple (at least duplicate) detectors at each monitoring location and an exposure period of no less than one quarter are suggested

  14. The ATLAS Inner Detector operation,data quality and tracking performance.

    CERN Document Server

    Stanecka, E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector comprises silicon and gas based detectors. The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) and the Pixel Detector are the key precision tracking silicon devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. And the the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT), the outermost of the three subsystems of the ATLAS Inner Detector is made of thin-walled proportional-mode drift tubes (straws). The Pixel Detector consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. The SCT is a silicon strip detector and is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. The TRT is made...

  15. Performance of silicon pixel detectors at small track incidence angles for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viel, Simon; Banerjee, Swagato; Brandt, Gerhard; Carney, Rebecca; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Hard, Andrew Straiton; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kashif, Lashkar; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Rieger, Julia; Wolf, Julian; Wu, Sau Lan; Yang, Hongtao

    2016-01-01

    In order to enable the ATLAS experiment to successfully track charged particles produced in high-energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by the Inner Tracker (ITk), entirely composed of silicon pixel and strip detectors. An extension of the tracking coverage of the ITk to very forward pseudorapidity values is proposed, using pixel modules placed in a long cylindrical layer around the beam pipe. The measurement of long pixel clusters, detected when charged particles cross the silicon sensor at small incidence angles, has potential to significantly improve the tracking efficiency, fake track rejection, and resolution of the ITk in the very forward region. The performance of state-of-the-art pixel modules at small track incidence angles is studied using test beam data collected at SLAC and CERN. - Highlights: • Extended inner pixel barrel layers are proposed for the ATLAS ITk upgrade. • Test beam results at small track incidence angles validate this ATLAS ITk design. • Long pixel clusters are reconstructed with high efficiency at low threshold values. • Excellent angular resolution is achieved using pixel cluster length information.

  16. Performance of silicon pixel detectors at small track incidence angles for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viel, Simon, E-mail: sviel@lbl.gov [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Banerjee, Swagato [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America (United States); Brandt, Gerhard; Carney, Rebecca; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Hard, Andrew Straiton; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kashif, Lashkar [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America (United States); Pranko, Aliaksandr [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Rieger, Julia [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); II Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen (Germany); Wolf, Julian [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Wu, Sau Lan; Yang, Hongtao [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America (United States)

    2016-09-21

    In order to enable the ATLAS experiment to successfully track charged particles produced in high-energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by the Inner Tracker (ITk), entirely composed of silicon pixel and strip detectors. An extension of the tracking coverage of the ITk to very forward pseudorapidity values is proposed, using pixel modules placed in a long cylindrical layer around the beam pipe. The measurement of long pixel clusters, detected when charged particles cross the silicon sensor at small incidence angles, has potential to significantly improve the tracking efficiency, fake track rejection, and resolution of the ITk in the very forward region. The performance of state-of-the-art pixel modules at small track incidence angles is studied using test beam data collected at SLAC and CERN. - Highlights: • Extended inner pixel barrel layers are proposed for the ATLAS ITk upgrade. • Test beam results at small track incidence angles validate this ATLAS ITk design. • Long pixel clusters are reconstructed with high efficiency at low threshold values. • Excellent angular resolution is achieved using pixel cluster length information.

  17. A study of commercially-available polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polycarbonate as nuclear track detector materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J. I.; Vazquez-Lopez, C.; Trejo, R.; Lopez, K.; Rickards, J.

    2014-07-01

    In the study of the sensitivity of materials to be used as nuclear track detectors, it was found that commercial polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from Ciel® water bottles, commercial roof cover polycarbonate, and recycled packaging strips (recycled PET), can be used as nuclear track detectors. These three commercial materials present nuclear tracks when bombarded by 2.27 MeV nitrogen ions produced in a Pelletron particle accelerator, and by fission fragments from a 252Cf source (79.4 and 103.8 MeV), after a chemical etching with a 6.25M KOH solution, or with a 6.25M KOH solution with 20% methanol, both solutions at 60±1°C. As an example, the nitrogen ions deposit approximately 1 keV/nm in the form of ionization and excitation at the surface of PET, as calculated using the SRIM code. The fission fragments deposit up to 9 keV/nm at the surface, in both cases generating sufficient free radicals to initiate the track formation process. However, 5 MeV alpha particles, typical of radon (222Rn) emissions, deposit only 0.12 keV/nm, do not present tracks after the chemical etching process. This valuable information could be very useful for further studies of new materials in nuclear track methodology.

  18. Alpha particle radiography and the track plastic detector CR-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Bismarck Amilar de.

    1991-05-01

    This work develops the radiographic technique using charged particle beams. This technique complements the X-ray conventional radiography, and presents some advantages in certain cases. The material used as nuclear plastic detector was CR-39, manufactured by Pershre Mould. England, of 250 and 1000 μm nominal thicknesses. The irradiations were made with 7 MeV/Nucleon alpha particles beams, accelerated in the CV-28 Cyclotron of Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear/CNEN - Rio de Janeiro. The etch conditions used were a Na OH 6,25 N solution at 70 0 C, varying the etch time, so that the best etch time was found to be six hours. The calibration curve is presented, which permits images interpretation, showed in terms of light transmittance (obtained using a micro densitometer), and in terms of energy losses suffered by alpha particles in several aluminum degradating thicknesses. This curve was checked by the use of other degradating materials: Mylar, Makrofol, and CR-39 itself. The influence of alpha particle beam FWHM widening on images quality, when it crosses several degradating materials, is also presented. Radiographs of some specimen are presented, including some images obtained varying some irradiation and etch parameters. (author). 62 refs., 22 figs., 19 tabs

  19. A new gaseous detector for tracking: The blade chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, G.; Battiston, R.; Levi, G.; Barillari, T.; Susinno, G.; Bergsma, F.; Contin, A.; Labbe, J.C.; Laurenti, G.; Mattern, D.; Simonet, G.; Williams, M.C.S.; Zichichi, A.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, G.; De Pasquale, S.; Giusti, P.; Maccarrone, G.; Nania, R.; O'Shea, V.; Castro, H.; Galvez, J.; Rivera, F.; Schioppa, M.; Sharma, A.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the LAA project at CERN a prototype of a streamer-chamber in which a blade, instead of a wire, is used as the amplification electrode has been built. A big advantage is that the blade can be bent to follow a curve so that a chamber can be built with cells ideally matched to the geometry of the experiment. Moreover, a blade is very rugged, it can withstand severe mechanical shocks and it is also resistant to damage by sparks. The drift time has been measured and a spatial resolution of 250μm has been achieved. Left-right ambiguity can be solved by measuring the charge asymmetry on the walls. The coordinate along the blade is read by external pickup strips. (orig.)

  20. Quality assurance for environmental radon measurements by LR115 nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomaa, M A [National Network of Radiation Physics, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Hafez, A F [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria Univercity, Alexandria (Egypt); Hussein, A S [Radiation Protection Department, Nuclear Power Plants Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-06-15

    Passive radon dosimeters based on LR115 nuclear track detectors are very attractive for assessment of radon exposure. For developing countries wishing to undertake national radon survey the most appropriate techniques are those making use of LR115 detectors. These detectors are small, cheap, simple, and non-hazardous and provide an entirely adequate tool for large scale use in assessing levels of radon over several months because of the short - term fluctuations in radon concentrations. In this paper, the principles and philosophy in order to improve the quality and reliability of radon exposure under a quality assurance (QA) program are presented . Also examples of how a QA program of radon measurements by LR115 detectors using the can-techniques are well defined and applied.

  1. Quality assurance for environmental radon measurements by LR115 nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.; Hafez, A.F.; Hussein, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Passive radon dosimeters based on LR115 nuclear track detectors are very attractive for assessment of radon exposure. For developing countries wishing to undertake national radon survey the most appropriate techniques are those making use of LR115 detectors. These detectors are small, cheap, simple, and non-hazardous and provide an entirely adequate tool for large scale use in assessing levels of radon over several months because of the short - term fluctuations in radon concentrations. In this paper, the principles and philosophy in order to improve the quality and reliability of radon exposure under a quality assurance (QA) program are presented . Also examples of how a QA program of radon measurements by LR115 detectors using the can-techniques are well defined and applied

  2. Applications of CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector to ion beam diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanasaki, Masato; Hattori, Atsuto; Oda, Keiji; Yamauchi, Tomoya; Fukuda, Yuji; Sakaki, Hironao; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Kondo, Kiminori; Kurashima, Satoshi; Kamiya, Tomihiro

    2012-01-01

    CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector, which was developed for optical lens, has been applied for various field such as radon surveys, measurement of galactic cosmic ray, cell irradiation experiment and so on. The CR-39 detectors have the great advantages of being insensitive to high energy photons and electrons and capable of detecting only ions in the mixed fields such as laser driven relativistic plasmas. Though there are some analytical methods of CR-39 to diagnose ion beam, unfortunately, only few researchers in the field of plasma know the methods. This article looks at how to use CR-39 detectors and introduce the accomplishment of the joint study JAEA and Kobe Univ. for application of CR-39 detectors to ion beam diagnosis. (author)

  3. Development of Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors for 4D tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, A.; Arcidiacono, R.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G. F.; Cartiglia, N.; Cenna, F.; Ferrero, M.; Ficorella, F.; Mandurrino, M.; Obertino, M.; Pancheri, L.; Paternoster, G.; Sola, V.

    2017-12-01

    In this contribution we review the progress towards the development of a novel type of silicon detectors suited for tracking with a picosecond timing resolution, the so called Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors. The goal is to create a new family of particle detectors merging excellent position and timing resolution with GHz counting capabilities, very low material budget, radiation resistance, fine granularity, low power, insensitivity to magnetic field, and affordability. We aim to achieve concurrent precisions of ~ 10 ps and ~ 10 μm with a 50 μm thick sensor. Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors are based on the concept of Low-Gain Avalanche Detectors, which are silicon detectors with an internal multiplication mechanism so that they generate a signal which is factor ~10 larger than standard silicon detectors. The basic design of UFSD consists of a thin silicon sensor with moderate internal gain and pixelated electrodes coupled to full custom VLSI chip. An overview of test beam data on time resolution and the impact on this measurement of radiation doses at the level of those expected at HL-LHC is presented. First I-V and C-V measurements on a new FBK sensor production of UFSD, 50 μm thick, with B and Ga, activated at two diffusion temperatures, with and without C co-implantation (in Low and High concentrations), and with different effective doping concentrations in the Gain layer, are shown. Perspectives on current use of UFSD in HEP experiments (UFSD detectors have been installed in the CMS-TOTEM Precision Protons Spectrometer for the forward physics tracking, and are currently taking data) and proposed applications for a MIP timing layer in the HL-LHC upgrade are briefly discussed.

  4. Modifications in track registration response of PADC detector by energetic protons

    CERN Document Server

    Dwivedi, K K; Fink, D; Mishra, R; Tripathy, S P; Kulshreshtha, A; Khathing, D T

    1999-01-01

    It has been well established that different ionising radiations modify the track registration properties of dielectric solids. In an effort to study the response of Polyallyl diglycol carbonate (PADC Homalite) detector towards fission fragment, PADC detectors were exposed to 10 sup 4 Gy dose of 62 MeV protons and then one set of samples were exposed to fission fragments from a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf source. Two of these detectors were containing a thin layer of Buckminsterfullerene (C sub 6 sub 0). The study of the etched tracks by Leitz Optical Microscope reveals that the track diameters are enhanced by more than 70% in the proton irradiated zone as compared to that in the unirradiated zone. Scanning Electron Microscopy was performed after etching the sample in 6 N NaOH at 55 deg. C for different etching times, to study the details of the surface modifications due to proton irradiation of PADC detectors with and without C sub 6 sub 0 layer. Our observations revealed that the diameters and density of proton tra...

  5. Performance studies of the P barANDA planar GEM-tracking detector in physics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divani Veis, Nazila; Firoozabadi, Mohammad M.; Karabowicz, Radoslaw; Maas, Frank; Saito, Takehiko R.; Voss, Bernd; ̅PANDA Gem-Tracker Subgroup

    2018-03-01

    The P barANDA experiment will be installed at the future facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, to study events from the annihilation of protons and antiprotons. The P barANDA detectors can cover a wide physics program about baryon spectroscopy and nucleon structure as well as the study of hadrons and hypernuclear physics including the study of excited hyperon states. One very specific feature of most hyperon ground states is the long decay length of several centimeters in the forward direction. The central tracking detectors of the P barANDA setup are not sufficiently optimized for these long decay lengths. Therefore, using a set of the planar GEM-tracking detectors in the forward region of interest can improve the results in the hyperon physics-benchmark channel. The current conceptual designed P barANDA GEM-tracking stations contribute the measurement of the particles emitted in the polar angles between about 2 to 22 degrees. For this designed detector performance and acceptance, studies have been performed using one of the important hyperonic decay channel p bar p → Λ bar Λ → p bar pπ+π- in physics simulations. The simulations were carried out using the PandaRoot software packages based on the FairRoot framework.

  6. Calibration of a solid state nuclear track detector for the measurements of volumic activity of Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAKAM, O.K.; LFERDE, M.; BERRADA, M.

    1994-01-01

    Time - integrated measurements of environmental radiation activity are commonly carried out using solid state nuclear track detectors ( SSNTD ). These detectors should be calibrated of volumic activity of radon. This paper reports the results of experiments conducted to calibrate cellulose nitrate films LR - 115 type II used for measurements of volumic activity of radon in indoor air in dwellings and enclosed work areas in Morocco. Calibration measurements were made in laboratory using a calibration chamber and a radon source. The calibration chamber is a cylindric box ( 2613,6 cm sup 3)which we have manufactured of aluminium. The radon source is a natural sample rich of aluminium (17,29 + 0 ,12) Bq/g. The films are placed in detector holder with membrane and exposed inside the calibration chamber to varying concentrations of radon. Following the exposure, the films were chemically etched in sodium hydroxide (2,5 N) at 60 C for 120 minutes. The number of registered alpha particle tracks were counted with an optical microscope. In the used etching conditions, the removed mean thickness is in the order of 6 micro m. Therefore, we have normalized the track density to this value . We obtained a calibration factor of 0, 58 tracks . cm sup -2/ K Bq . h . m sup -3 . 1 tab.; 1 fig.; 2 refs. (author)

  7. Technical aspects in the obtention of tissue autoradiography using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint Martin, Gisela; Bernaola, Omar A.; Pozzi, Emiliano; Thorp, Silvia; Cabrini, Romulo L.; Tomasi, V.H.

    2007-01-01

    The autoradiography images produced in solid state nuclear track detectors by heavy ions originated in tissue provide relevant information about the spatial biodistribution of heavy particle emitters. Some preliminary aspects of the autoradiography technique are evaluated by two experiments which are in progress, using Lexan and CR 39 foils as solid state nuclear track detectors. In the first case, a tissue sample from rat kidney intoxicated with UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 was embedded in paraffin and put in contact with a 1 mm thick CR 39 foil. After a two months exposure the foil was chemically developed resulting in scarce tracks. A satisfactory image cannot be obtained in these conditions. More prolonged exposure time is needed to obtain better images of such samples. The second experience consisted in the irradiation of fresh kidney tissue slices from healthy rats in contact with 250 μm thick Lexan foils, in a thermal neutrons flux. The irradiation was performed at the RA-3 facility of the Ezeiza Atomic Center (CAE). The contribution to image produced by tracks of particles due to reactions between neutrons and tissue elements (i.e. 14 N) was evaluated. The etching conditions should be modified in order to desensitize the detector material. (author) [es

  8. Proton induced target fragmentation studies on solid state nuclear track detectors using Carbon radiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, J.; Pálfalvi, J. K.; Strádi, A.; Bilski, P.; Swakoń, J.; Stolarczyk, L.

    2018-04-01

    One of the limiting factors of an astronaut's career is the dose received from space radiation. High energy protons, being the main components of the complex radiation field present on a spacecraft, give a significant contribution to the dose. To investigate the behavior of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) if they are irradiated by such particles, SSNTD stacks containing carbon blocks were exposed to high energy proton beams (70, 100, 150 and 230 MeV) at the Proteus cyclotron, IFJ PAN -Krakow. The incident protons cannot be detected directly; however, tracks of secondary particles, recoils and fragments of the constituent atoms of the detector material and of the carbon radiator are formed. It was found that as the proton energy increases, the number of tracks induced in the PADC material by secondary particles decreases. From the measured geometrical parameters of the tracks the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum and the dosimetric quantities were determined, applying appropriate calibration. In the LET spectra the LET range of the most important secondary particles could be identified and their abundance showed differences in the spectra if the detectors were short or long etched. The LET spectra obtained on the SSNTDs irradiated by protons were compared to LET spectra of detectors flown on the International Space Station (ISS): they were quite similar, resulting in a quality factor difference of only 5%. Thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) were applied in each case to measure the dose from primary protons and other lower LET particles present in space. Comparing and analyzing the results of the TLD and SSNTD measurements, it was obtained that proton induced target fragments contributed to the total absorbed dose in 3.2% and to the dose equivalent in 14.2% in this particular space experiment.

  9. Calibration factor determination for solid nuclear track detectors CR-39 type exposed to Rn-222

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazula, Camila Dias; Campos, Marcia Pires de; Mazzilli, Barbara Paci

    2014-01-01

    In the detection method with solid nuclear track detector, when a heavy particle rests on the detector surface, causes a breakdown in their molecular structure forming a trace. One of the typical applications of these detectors is the measurement of the concentration of Rn -222 in air, a noble radioactive gas, part of the U-238 series, emitting alpha particles and important in epidemiological studies to protect individuals from natural radiation. To determine the concentration of Rn -222 in the air in a room is necessary to know the density of lines (traces / cm 2 ) on the detector surface, the exposure time and the calibration factor. The determination of the calibration factor for CR-39 detectors was taken from the exposure of these to a known concentration of Rn-222. Therefore, the detectors were placed inside a cell of Lucas adapted and subsequently exposed to a concentration of Rn-222 15 kBq / m 3 , by means of the apparatus RN-150 Pylon Electronics Incorporation, which has a source of Ra-226 and releases known concentrations of Rn-222. Six calibration factor determinations were performed, the average value obtained was 0.0534 ±0.0021 (traces / cm 2 per Bq / m 3 day). The results are consistent with literature values for the same type of detector and showed good reproducibility

  10. Automatic neutron dosimetry system based on fluorescent nuclear track detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akselrod, M.S.; Fomenko, V.V.; Bartz, J.A.; Haslett, T.L.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, the authors are describing an automatic fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD) reader for neutron dosimetry. FNTD is a luminescent integrating type of detector made of aluminium oxide crystals that does not require electronics or batteries during irradiation. Non-destructive optical readout of the detector is performed using a confocal laser scanning fluorescence imaging with near-diffraction limited resolution. The fully automatic table-top reader allows one to load up to 216 detectors on a tray, read their engraved IDs using a CCD camera and optical character recognition, scan and process simultaneously two types of images in fluorescent and reflected laser light contrast to eliminate false-positive tracks related to surface and volume crystal imperfections. The FNTD dosimetry system allows one to measure neutron doses from 0.1 mSv to 20 Sv and covers neutron energies from thermal to 20 MeV. The reader is characterised by a robust, compact optical design, fast data processing electronics and user-friendly software. The first table-top automatic FNTD neutron dosimetry system was successfully tested for LLD, linearity and ability to measure neutrons in mixed neutron-photon fields satisfying US and ISO standards. This new neutron dosimetry system provides advantages over other technologies including environmental stability of the detector material, wide range of detectable neutron energies and doses, detector re-readability and re-usability and all-optical readout. A new adaptive image processing algorithm reliably removes false-positive tracks associated with surface and bulk crystal imperfections. (authors)

  11. Radiation effects in electronics for the CMS tracking detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulcher, Jonathan Richard

    2001-01-01

    This thesis presents a study into the CMS tracker analogue front-end amplifier readout chip (APV), which during the period of the study was fabricated in three different VLSI technologies. The early versions were fabricated in a total dose radiation hardened Harris 1.2μm process. Later it was transferred to a DMILL 0.8μm process and the latest version is in a 0.25μm technology. Part of this thesis describes a test system which was designed to thoroughly test APV chips on the silicon wafer and produce a comprehensive data set for each chip to enable confident selection of good chips. The main study is on the effects that large dose radiation environments can cause in the individual parts of the chip. With the chips fabricated in different technologies it was possible to make some comparisons of the magnitude of the effects between the Harris and the 0.25μm technologies, but most of the work was aimed towards understanding the effects within the 0.25μm technology. Single Event Upset (SEU) was the main consideration behind the experimental and simulation work. The study had two main goals: the first was to investigate how SEU would affect the operation of the CMS detector in the expected high radiation environment of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The second goal was to look at SEU from a more academic viewpoint, enabling a full understanding of how it is caused and what factors affect its magnitude. Simulations were performed in order to reconstruct the conditions brought about by highly ionising particles striking certain parts of the sensitive circuits, along with careful consideration of the mechanisms behind the effect such as: ionised charge collection within the semiconductor parts of the chip, how this charge deposition affects the circuit and how the effects manifest themselves within larger devices. A good set of results was collected from specially designed experiments, from which a confirmation of the theoretical effect was produced. (author)

  12. Track etch detectors with air gap for measurements of radon in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turek, K; Bednar, J [Czech Academy of Sciences, 18086 Prague (Czech Republic). Nuclear Research Inst., Dept. of Radiation Dosimetry; Neznal, M [Radon Corp., 28922 Lysa nad Labem (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    The main aim of this study was to develop a method of radon concentration measurements in soil using track etch detectors without cups. Our approach enables to minimize the detector dimensions resulting into smaller diameter of drilled holes, more rigid construction, easier handling and mailing, lower consumption of material and consequently in lower costs. The parallel arrangement of two track etch detectors in the open metallic holder seems to be promising as the complementary method to the commonly used cup-technique for radon measurement. The firmness, simple and compact construction, small size as well as low costs could be successfully utilized mainly in field measurement. The possibility of a variable sensitivity by the distance between the detectors makes the system versatile for many applications, 2 detectors with different h can practically exclude of under- or overexposure. The more precise calibrations including exposures in radon-chamber and study of an eventual influence of humidity are supposed to be done in the nearest future. (J.K) 2 tabs.

  13. Fast Track Finding in the ILC's Silicon Detector, SiD01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, David E.

    2007-01-01

    A fast track finder is presented which, unlike its more efficient, more computationally costly O(n3) time counterparts, tracks particles in O(n) time (for n being the number of hits). Developed as a tool for processing data from the ILC's proposed SiD detector, development of this fast track finder began with that proposed by Pablo Yepes in 1996 and adjusted to accommodate the changes in geometry of the SiD detector. First, space within the detector is voxellated, with hits assigned to voxels according to their r, φ, and η coordinates. A hit on the outermost layer is selected, and a 'sample space' is built from the hits in the selected hit's surrounding voxels. The hit in the sample space with the smallest distance to the first is then selected, and the sample space recalculated for this hit. This process continues until the list of hits becomes large enough, at which point the helical circle in the x, y plane is conformally mapped to a line in the x', y' plane, and hits are chosen from the sample spaces of the previous fit by selecting the hits which fit a line to the previously selected points with the smallest χ 2 . Track finding terminates when the innermost layer has been reached or no hit in the sample space fits those previously selected to an acceptable χ 2 . Again, a hit on the outermost layer is selected and the process repeats until no assignable hits remain. The algorithm proved to be very efficient on artificial diagnostic events, such as one hundred muons scattered at momenta of 1 GeV/c to 10 GeV/c. Unfortunately, when tracking simulated events corresponding to actual physics, the track finder's efficiency decreased drastically (mostly due to signal noise), though future data cleaning programs could noticeably increase its efficiency on these events

  14. Etching characteristics of a CR-39 track detector at room temperature in different etching solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dajko, G.

    1991-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to discover how the etching characteristics of CR-39 detectors change with varying conditions of the etching process. Measurements were made at room temperature in pure NaOH and KOH solutions; in different alcoholic KOH solutions (PEW solution, i.e. potassium hydroxide, ethyl alcohol, water); and in NaOH and KOH solutions containing different additives. The bulk etching rate of the detector (V B ) and the V (= V T /V B ) function, i.e. track to bulk etch rates ratio, for 6.1 MeV α-particles, were measured systematically. (author)

  15. Radon measurements by etched track detectors applications in radiation protection, earth sciences and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Durrani, Saeed A

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to radon gas, which is present in the environment naturally, constitutes over half the radiation dose received by the general public annually. At present, the most widely used method of measuring radon concentration levels throughout the world, both in dwellings and in the field, is by etched track detectors - also known as Solid State Nuclear Detectors (SSNTDs). Although this is not only the most widely used method but is also the simplest and the cheapest, yet there is at present no book available on the market globally, devoted exclusively or largely to the methodology of, and deal

  16. Acceptance analysis for a large area monopole experiment using nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegan, Monica; Popa, V.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the acceptance of a horizontal plane of 1000 m 2 nuclear track detector for an anisotropic flux of GUT magnetic monopoles (MM) with m MM ∼ 10 16 GeV and g = g D , 2g D , 3g D , considering the monopole energy loss in Earth. It is estimated that a large area experiment for the search of GUT monopoles that uses such detectors and would operate a reasonable number of years could reach a sensitivity of the order of few 10 -17 cm -2 s -1 sr -1 . (authors)

  17. Track etch and thermo luminescent detectors response to high energy charged particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spurný, František; Jadrníčková, Iva

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 43, Supp. 1 (2008), S169-S173 ISSN 1350-4487. [International Conference on Solids /23./. Beijing, 11.09.2006-15.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/04/0795 Grant - others:Evropské společenství(XE) ILSRA - 2004 - 248 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : track etch detector * thermoluminescent detectors * LET spectrometry Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.267, year: 2008

  18. Autoradiographic measurement of low concentrations of alpha-active nuclides using CR-39 track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyer, K.; Dietze, K.; Weisse, S.; Kummer, G.

    1991-01-01

    An autoradiographic method for the determination of alpha emission rates from plastic packaging materials for VLSI silicon memory devices based on long-time exposure of the samples on CR-39 detectors has been tested. The lower limit of detection will be strongly influenced by the background of the detector material and amounts at times to 0.002 alpha particles cm -2 h -1 after 200 days exposure. A mathematical method for the interpretation of very low track densities is discussed. The first results of its application are presented. (author)

  19. Radiation damages in chemical components of organic scintillator detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Neto, Jose Maria

    2003-01-01

    Samples containing PPO (1%, g/ml), diluted in toluene, they were irradiated in a 60 Co irradiator (6.46 kGy/h) at different doses. The PPO concentration decay bi-exponentially with the dose, generating the degradation products: benzoic acid, benzamide and benzilic alcohol. The liquid scintillator system was not sensitive to the radiation damage until 20 kGy. Otherwise, the pulse height analysis showed that dose among 30 to 40 kGy generate significant loss of quality of the sensor (liquid scintillating) and the light yield was reduced in half with the dose of (34.04 ± 0.80) kGy. This value practically was confirmed by the photo peak position analysis that resulted D 1/2 = (31.7 ± 1,4) kGy, The transmittance, at 360 nm, of the irradiated solution decreased exponentially. The compartmental model using five compartments (fast decay PPO, slow decay PPO, benzamide, benzoic acid and benzilic alcohol) it was satisfactory to explain the decay of the PPO in its degradation products in function of the dose. The explanation coefficient r 2 = 0.985636 assures that the model was capable to explain 98.6% of the experimental variations. The Target Theory together with the Compartmental Analysis showed that PPO irradiated in toluene solution presents two sensitive molecular diameters both of them larger than the true PPO diameter. >From this analysis it showed that the radiolytic are generated, comparatively, at four toluene molecules diameter far from PPO molecules. For each one PPO-target it was calculated the G parameter (damage/100 eV). For the target expressed by the fast decay the G value was (418.4 ± 54.1) damages/100 eV, and for the slow decay target the G value was (54.5 ± 8.9) damages/100 eV. The energies involved in the chemical reactions were w (0.239 ± 0.031) eV/damage (fast decay) and w = (1 834 ± 0.301) eV/damage (slow decay). (author)

  20. Tracking and Vertexing with the ATLAS Inner Detector in the LHC Run2 and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Swift, Stewart Patrick; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Run-2 of the LHC has provided new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher centre-of-mass energies and luminosity leading to increasingly high-multiplicity environments, boosted, and highly-collimated physics objects. To achieve this goal, ATLAS is equipped with the Inner Detector tracking system built using different technologies, silicon planar sensors (pixel and micro-strip) and gaseous drift- tubes, all embedded in a 2T solenoidal magnetic field. In addition, the Insertable B-layer (IBL) is a fourth pixel layer, which was inserted at the centre of ATLAS during the first long shutdown of the LHC. An overview of the use of each of these subdetectors in track and vertex reconstruction, as well as the algorithmic approaches taken to the specific tasks of pattern recognition and track fitting, is given. The performance of the Inner Detector tracking and vertexing will be summarised. These include a factor of three reduction in the reconstruction time, optimisation for the expected conditions, ...

  1. TRACKING AND VERTEXING WITH THE ATLAS INNER DETECTOR IN THE LHC RUN2 AND BEYOND

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Kyungeon; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Run-2 of the LHC has provided new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher centre-of-mass energies and luminosity leading to increasingly high-multiplicity environments, boosted, and highly-collimated physics objects. To achieve this goal, ATLAS is equipped with the Inner Detector tracking system built using different technologies, silicon planar sensors (pixel and micro-strip) and gaseous drift- tubes, all embedded in a 2T solenoidal magnetic field. In addition, the Insertable B-layer (IBL) is a fourth pixel layer, which was inserted at the centre of ATLAS during the first long shutdown of the LHC. An overview of the use of each of these subdetectors in track and vertex reconstruction, as well as the algorithmic approaches taken to the specific tasks of pattern recognition and track fitting, is given. The performance of the Inner Detector tracking and vertexing will be summarised. These include a factor of three reduction in the reconstruction time, optimisation for the expected conditions, ...

  2. Study on some characteristics of the polycarbonate Durolon used as a solid state nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciani, V.; Pugliesi, R.; Moraes, M.A.P.V. de; Menezes, M.O. de; Miranda, A.

    1994-01-01

    Some characteristics of the polycarbonate Durolon as a solid state nuclear track detector were investigated. These were determined by means of irradiations performed at the IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor of the IPEN-CNEN/SP. The results were compared with those obtained for Makrofol-E at the same conditions. Although Durolon is grooved, it presents a track registration efficiency and a light transmission of about 30% and 2,4 greater than the former, respectively. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  3. In-core gamma dosimetry by solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.A.

    1980-02-01

    Results are reported of a study undertaken to develop Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD) for the measurement of gamma doses in the megarad region such as those existing in and around a nuclear reactor core. The changes brought about in the track etching parameters and in the ultraviolet and infrared transmittances, have been studied for possible use as gamma dose measuring indices. Effects of various parameters in the core such as neutron flux, beta particles, water, temperature, and gamma ray spectrum have been investigated and found to have only small influence on the proposed gamma dose measuring indices

  4. Neutron radiographic characteristics of MA-ND type (allyl-diglycol-carbonate) nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilic, R.; Rant, J.; Humar, M.; Somogyi, G.; Hunyadi, I.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron radiographic properties of recently developed new nuclear track detectors (MA-ND/..cap alpha.., MA-ND/p and MA-ND/p1), manufactured from allyl diglycol carbonate, were studied. It was found that the quality of radiographic image has an optimum at a removed layer thickness of about 0.8 ..mu..m. The image obtained under this condition is characterized by high detection sensitivity to neutrons (approx. 8.10/sup -3/ tracks/nsub(th) when using B converter) and by excellent inherent unsharpness (approx. 5 ..mu..m) as well as high image contrast (maximum value of net optical density is approx. 1.4).

  5. Characterization and calibration of radiation-damaged double-sided silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, L. [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Vogt, A., E-mail: andreas.vogt@ikp.uni-koeln.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Reiter, P.; Birkenbach, B.; Hirsch, R.; Arnswald, K.; Hess, H.; Seidlitz, M.; Steinbach, T.; Warr, N.; Wolf, K. [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Stahl, C.; Pietralla, N. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Limböck, T.; Meerholz, K. [Physikalische Chemie, Universität zu Köln, D-50939 Köln (Germany); Lutter, R. [Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratorium, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-05-21

    Double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSSD) are commonly used for event-by-event identification of charged particles as well as the reconstruction of particle trajectories in nuclear physics experiments with stable and radioactive beams. Intersecting areas of both p- and n-doped front- and back-side segments form individual virtual pixel segments allowing for a high detector granularity. DSSSDs are employed in demanding experimental environments and have to withstand high count rates of impinging nuclei. The illumination of the detector is often not homogeneous. Consequently, radiation damage of the detector is distributed non-uniformly. Position-dependent incomplete charge collection due to radiation damage limits the performance and lifetime of the detectors, the response of different channels may vary drastically. Position-resolved charge-collection losses between front- and back-side segments are investigated in an in-beam experiment and by performing radioactive source measurements. A novel position-resolved calibration method based on mutual consistency of p-side and n-side charges yields a significant enhancement of the energy resolution and the performance of radiation-damaged parts of the detector.

  6. Jagiellonian University Radiation Damage in Silicon Particle Detectors in High Luminosity Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Oblakowska-Mucha, A

    2017-01-01

    Radiation damage is nowadays the most serious problem in silicon particle detectors placed in the very harsh radiation environment. This problem will be even more pronounced after the LHC Upgrade because of extremely strong particle fluences never encountered before. In this review, a few aspects of radiation damage in silicon trackers are presented. Among them, the change in the silicon lattice and its influence on the detector performance are discussed. Currently applied solutions and the new ideas for future experiments will be also shown. Most of the results presented in this summary were obtained within the RD50 Collaboration

  7. Gamma-ray escape peak characteristics of radiation-damaged reverse-electrode germanium coaxial detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pehl, R.H.; Hull, E.L.; Madden, N.W.; Xing Jingshu; Friesel, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    A comparison of the characteristics of full-energy gamma-ray peaks and their corresponding escape peaks when high energy photons interact in radiation damaged reverse-electrode (n-type) germanium coaxial detectors is presented. Coaxial detector geometry is the dominant factor, causing charge collection to be dramatically better for interactions occurring near the outer periphery of the detector as well as increasing of the probability of escape events occurring in this region. It follows that the resolution of escape peaks is better than that of ordinary gamma-ray peaks. This is experimentally verified. A nearly identical but undamaged detector exhibited significant Doppler broadening of single escape peaks. Because double escape events preferentially occur at outer radii, energy shifts of double escape reflect extremely small amounts of charge trapping in undamaged detectors. (orig.)

  8. A novel design of a personal nuclear track detector for ambient Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margaliot, M.; Even, O.; Herman, R.

    1997-01-01

    In some occupations, workers spend a part of their time underground, in closed and unventilated spaces, while most of their time is spent in the open air. The case in hand is a group of the 'Bezek' telephone technicians, whose work includes spending a few hours daily in small, coarsely finished and unventilated tunnels in which telephone branching boxes are located. The rest of their time they work outdoors, and a small part of it is spent in offices. The Rn levels in a few telephone branching tunnels were measured and were found to be rather high (levels of 3000 - 5000 Bq/m 3 are common). The average exposure of the workers is however much lower, due to short time spent in the tunnels, versus the longer time spent outdoors, and the low Rn level there. To obtain a well founded estimation of their actual commutative Rn exposure, a new integrative Rn detector was designed, which is attached to the workers clothing during the whole working day, and serves as a personal Rn detector, rather than as the a conventional area monitor. The detector element itself consists of a Nuclear Track Detector made of dosimetry grade CR-39. The function of the detector is how ever dependent mainly on the geometrical design of the housing of the detector. The properties of these detectors are, however, highly dependent on the design of the detectors housing.The design itself, it's theoretical efficiency, it's actual calibration process and it's calibration factor are presented. Mechanical reliability has been established in some 3 years of operation both as a fixed area monitor and as a personal portable detector. (authors)

  9. Fragmentation cross section measurements of iron projectiles using CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Flesch, F; Huentrup, G; Roecher, H; Streibel, T; Winkel, E; Heinrich, W

    1999-01-01

    For long term space missions in which larger radiation doses are accumulated it is necessary to improve the precision of models predicting the space radiation environment. Different models are available to determine the flux of cosmic ray heavy ions behind shielding material. The accuracy of these predictions depends on the knowledge of the fragmentation cross sections, especially at energies of several hundred MeV/nucleon, where the particle flux is at a maximum and especially for those particles with high LET, i.e. iron nuclei. We have measured fragmentation cross sections of sup 5 sup 6 Fe projectiles at beam energies of 700 and 1700 A MeV using experimental set-ups with plastic nuclear track detectors. In this paper we describe the experimental technique to study the fragmentation reactions of sup 5 sup 6 Fe projectiles using CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors. Results for different targets are presented.

  10. Application of fission track detectors to californium-252 neutron dosimetry in tissue near the radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswald, R.A.; Lanzl, L.H.; Rozenfeld, M.

    1981-01-01

    Fission track detectors were applied to a unique problem in neutron dosimetry. Measurements of neutron doses were required at locations within a tumor of 1 cm diameter implanted on the back of a mouse and surrounded by a square array of four 252 Cf medical sources. Measurements made in a tissue-equivalent mouse phantom showed that the neutron dose rate to the center of the tumor was 2.18 rads mg -1 h -1 +- 8.4%. The spatial variation of neutron dose to the tumor ranged from 1.88 to 2.55 rads mg -1 h -1 . These measurements agree with calculated values of neutron dose to those locations in the phantom. Fission track detectors have been found to be a reliable tool for neutron dosimetry for geometries in which one wishes to know neutron dose values which may vary considerably over distances of 1 cm or less

  11. Application of fission track detectors to californium-252 neutron dosimetry in tissue near the radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswald, R.A.; Lanzl, L.H.; Rozenfeld, M.

    1981-01-01

    Fission track detectors were applied to a unique problem in neutron dosimetry. Measurements of neutron doses were required at locations within a tumor of 1 cm diameter implanted on the back of a mouse and surrounded by a square array of four 252 Cf medical sources. Measurements made in a tissue-equivalent mouse phantom showed that the neutron dose rate to the center of the tumor was 2.18 rads micrograms-1 h-1 +/- 8.4%. The spatial variation of neutron dose to the tumor ranged from 1.88 to 2.55 rads micrograms-1 h-1. These measurements agree with calculated values of neutron dose to those locations in the phantom. Fission track detectors have been found to be a reliable tool for neutron dosimetry for geometries in which one wishes to know neutron dose values which may vary considerably over distances of 1 cm or less

  12. A many particle-tracking detector with drift planes and segmented cathode readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Lissauer, D.; Ludlam, T.; Makowiecki, D.; O'Brien, E.; Radeka, V.; Rescia, S.; Rogers, L.; Smith, G.C.; Stephani, D.; Yu, B.; Greene, S.V.; Hemmick, T.K.; Mitchell, J.T.; Shivakumar, B.

    1990-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of a detector system for tracking charged particles in an environment of high track density and rates up to 1 MHz. The system operates in the forward spectrometer of the BNL Heavy Ion experiment E814 and uses principles of general interest in high rate, high multiplicity applications such as at RHIC or SSC. We require our system to perform over a large dynamic range, detecting singly charged particles as well as fully ionized relativistic 28 Si. Results on gas gain saturation, δ-ray suppression, and overall detector performance in the presence of a 14.6 GeV/nucleon 28 Si beam and a 14 GeV proton beam are presented. 6 refs., 9 figs

  13. Expected performance of tracking and vertexing with the HL-LHC ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Calace, Noemi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) aims to increase the LHC data-set by an order of magnitude in order to increase its potential for discoveries. Starting from the middle of 2026, the HL-LHC is expected to reach the peak instantaneous luminosity of $7.5 \\cdot 10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ which corresponds to about 200 inelastic proton-proton collisions per beam crossing. To cope with the large radiation doses and high pileup, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced with a new all-silicon Inner Tracker. In this talk the expected performance of tracking and vertexing with the HL-LHC tracker is presented. Comparison is made to the performance with the Run2 detector. Ongoing developments of the track reconstruction for the HL-LHC are also discussed.

  14. Personal neutron monitoring using TLD albedo combined with etched tracks detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, N.; Momose, T. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Ibarakiken (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The albedo dosimetry has been carried out in personal neutron monitoring in the MOX fuel plant of JNC Tokai Works, however, it has shortcomings mainly due to the inherently poor energy response. This paper describes our efforts to overcome these difficulties in practical use of albedo dosemeters. The following four subjects are presented: (1) the neutron energy response functions of albedo TLD obtained from the mono-energetic neutron irradiation experiments and the Monte-Carlo calculations, (2) the location- dependent correction factors calculated from the response functions and neutron energy spectra measured in the workplaces, (3) the results of the international personal neutron dosimetry intercomparison program, and (4) the operational comparison program of TLD albedo and etched tracks detector worn by workers engaged in the fabrication process of the MOX fuel plant. Finally, the characteristics of the combination neutron dosemeter using TLD albedo and solid state etched track detector are summarized.

  15. Uranium analysis by neutron induced fissionography method using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akyuez, T.; Tretyakova, S. P.; Guezel, T.; Akyuz, S.

    1999-01-01

    In this study total twenty samples (eight reference materials and twelve sediment samples) were analysed for their uranium content which is in the range of 1-17 μg/g, by neutron induced fissionography (NIF) method using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) in comparison with the results of neutron activation analysis (NAA), delayed neutron counting (DNC) technique or fluorometric method. It is found that NIF method using SSNTDs is very sensitive for analysis of uranium

  16. Uranium analysis by neutron induced fissionography method using solid state nuclear track detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Akyuez, T; Guezel, T; Akyuz, S

    1999-01-01

    In this study total twenty samples (eight reference materials and twelve sediment samples) were analysed for their uranium content which is in the range of 1-17 mu g/g, by neutron induced fissionography (NIF) method using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) in comparison with the results of neutron activation analysis (NAA), delayed neutron counting (DNC) technique or fluorometric method. It is found that NIF method using SSNTDs is very sensitive for analysis of uranium.

  17. Track-etched detectors for the dosimetry of the radiation of cosmic origin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spurný, František; Turek, Karel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 4 (2004), s. 375-381 ISSN 0144-8420 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Grant - others:EC project(XE) FIGM-CT2000-00068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : track-etched detectors * cosmic rays * aircraft Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2003

  18. Radiation damage in proton-irradiated epitaxial silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Joern

    2009-07-01

    In this work radiation hardness of 75 μm, 100 μm and 150 μm thick epitaxial silicon pad diodes of both standard and oxygenated material was investigated. Damage after 24 GeV/c proton irradiation in a 1MeV neutron equivalent fluence range between 10 14 cm -2 and 10 16 cm -2 was studied and isothermal annealing experiments at 80 C were carried out. Standard CV/IV measurements could be performed up to 4 x 10 15 cm -2 . The volume-normalised reverse current was found to increase linearly with fluence with a slope independent of the thickness and impurity concentration. However, due to large fluctuations the fluences had to be renormalised using the current-related damage parameter. Concerning the depletion voltage, nearly all materials remained at a moderate level up to 4 x 10 15 cm -2 . During short-term annealing acceptors annealed out, whereas others were introduced during the long-term annealing. The stable damage was characterised by donor removal at low fluences and fluence-proportional predominant donor introduction for highly irradiated diodes, depending on the oxygen level. No type inversion was observed. Time-resolved measurements with a new 670 nm laser-TCT setup made the determination of the trapping time constant with the charge correction method possible. The results agreed with expectations and showed a linear increase of trapping probability with fluence. The electric field exhibited a double peak structure in highly irradiated diodes. Charge collection efficiency measurements with α-particles were independent of oxygen concentration, but showed an improved efficiency for thinner diodes. A comparison to simulation revealed systematic discrepancies. A non-constant trapping time parameter was proposed as possible solution. (orig.)

  19. Radiation damage in proton-irradiated epitaxial silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Joern

    2009-07-15

    In this work radiation hardness of 75 {mu}m, 100 {mu}m and 150 {mu}m thick epitaxial silicon pad diodes of both standard and oxygenated material was investigated. Damage after 24 GeV/c proton irradiation in a 1MeV neutron equivalent fluence range between 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} and 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} was studied and isothermal annealing experiments at 80 C were carried out. Standard CV/IV measurements could be performed up to 4 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The volume-normalised reverse current was found to increase linearly with fluence with a slope independent of the thickness and impurity concentration. However, due to large fluctuations the fluences had to be renormalised using the current-related damage parameter. Concerning the depletion voltage, nearly all materials remained at a moderate level up to 4 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. During short-term annealing acceptors annealed out, whereas others were introduced during the long-term annealing. The stable damage was characterised by donor removal at low fluences and fluence-proportional predominant donor introduction for highly irradiated diodes, depending on the oxygen level. No type inversion was observed. Time-resolved measurements with a new 670 nm laser-TCT setup made the determination of the trapping time constant with the charge correction method possible. The results agreed with expectations and showed a linear increase of trapping probability with fluence. The electric field exhibited a double peak structure in highly irradiated diodes. Charge collection efficiency measurements with {alpha}-particles were independent of oxygen concentration, but showed an improved efficiency for thinner diodes. A comparison to simulation revealed systematic discrepancies. A non-constant trapping time parameter was proposed as possible solution. (orig.)

  20. Correlation of DT and DD fusion neutron damage in silicon surface barrier detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Toshiyuki; Sueyoshi, Yasuhiro; Sunarno; Takahashi, Akito

    1994-01-01

    In order to examine the correlation of DT and DD fusion neutron damage in Si, a silicon surface barrier detector (Si-SBD) was irradiation with neutrons from a deuteron accelerator. The leakage current increased proportionally with neutron fluence, which determined the neutron damage constant for the Si-SBD. The correlation factor of the DT and DD neutron damage in the Si-SBD was determined from the ratio of the DT and DD neutron damage constants and was found to be 2.3. We also calculated the rate of DT and DD neutron displacement damage for Si by using the TRIM-90 computer program and actual data on neutron reactions in the Si-SBD. The correlation factor of DT and DD neutron damage from the calculation agreed with that from the Si-SBD irradiation experiment. (author)

  1. Recent technological developments on LGAD and iLGAD detectors for tracking and timing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, G.; Baselga, M.; Carulla, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Fernández-Martínez, P.; García, M. Fernández; Flores, D.; Galloway, Z.; Gallrapp, C.; Hidalgo, S.; Liang, Z.; Merlos, A.; Moll, M.; Quirion, D.; Sadrozinski, H.; Stricker, M.; Vila, I.

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports the latest technological development on the Low Gain Avalanche Detector (LGAD) and introduces a new architecture of these detectors called inverse-LGAD (iLGAD). Both approaches are based on the standard Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD) concept, commonly used in optical and X-ray detection applications, including an internal multiplication of the charge generated by radiation. The multiplication is inherent to the basic n++-p+-p structure, where the doping profile of the p+ layer is optimized to achieve high field and high impact ionization at the junction. The LGAD structures are optimized for applications such as tracking or timing detectors for high energy physics experiments or medical applications where time resolution lower than 30 ps is required. Detailed TCAD device simulations together with the electrical and charge collection measurements are presented through this work.

  2. Recent technological developments on LGAD and iLGAD detectors for tracking and timing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, G.; Baselga, M.; Carulla, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Fernández-Martínez, P.; García, M. Fernández; Flores, D.; Galloway, Z.; Gallrapp, C.; Hidalgo, S.; Liang, Z.; Merlos, A.; Moll, M.; Quirion, D.; Sadrozinski, H.; Stricker, M.; Vila, I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the latest technological development on the Low Gain Avalanche Detector (LGAD) and introduces a new architecture of these detectors called inverse-LGAD (iLGAD). Both approaches are based on the standard Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD) concept, commonly used in optical and X-ray detection applications, including an internal multiplication of the charge generated by radiation. The multiplication is inherent to the basic n"+"+–p"+–p structure, where the doping profile of the p"+ layer is optimized to achieve high field and high impact ionization at the junction. The LGAD structures are optimized for applications such as tracking or timing detectors for high energy physics experiments or medical applications where time resolution lower than 30 ps is required. Detailed TCAD device simulations together with the electrical and charge collection measurements are presented through this work.

  3. A novel laser alignment system for tracking detectors using transparent silicon strip sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, W.; Kroha, H.; Widmann, P.

    1995-02-01

    Modern large-area precision tracking detectors require increasing accuracy of the geometrical alignment over large distances. A novel optical multi-point alignment system has been developed for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The system uses collimated laser beams as alignment references which are monitored by semi-transparent optical position sensors. The custom designed sensors provide very precise and uniform position information on the order of 1 μm over a wide measurement range. At suitable laser wavelengths, produced by laser diodes, transmission rates above 90% have been achieved which allow to align more than 30 sensors along one laser beam. With this capability and equipped with integrated readout electronics, the alignment system offers high flexibility for precision applications in a wide range of detector systems. (orig.)

  4. Recent technological developments on LGAD and iLGAD detectors for tracking and timing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, G.; Baselga, M.; Carulla, M. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Fadeyev, V. [Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics SCIPP, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Fernández-Martínez, P. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); García, M. Fernández [Instituto de Física de Cantabria IFCA-CSIC-UC, Santander (Spain); Flores, D. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Galloway, Z. [Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics SCIPP, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Gallrapp, C. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Hidalgo, S. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Liang, Z. [Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics SCIPP, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Merlos, A. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Moll, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Quirion, D. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Sadrozinski, H. [Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics SCIPP, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Stricker, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Vila, I. [Instituto de Física de Cantabria IFCA-CSIC-UC, Santander (Spain)

    2016-09-21

    This paper reports the latest technological development on the Low Gain Avalanche Detector (LGAD) and introduces a new architecture of these detectors called inverse-LGAD (iLGAD). Both approaches are based on the standard Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD) concept, commonly used in optical and X-ray detection applications, including an internal multiplication of the charge generated by radiation. The multiplication is inherent to the basic n{sup ++}–p{sup +}–p structure, where the doping profile of the p{sup +} layer is optimized to achieve high field and high impact ionization at the junction. The LGAD structures are optimized for applications such as tracking or timing detectors for high energy physics experiments or medical applications where time resolution lower than 30 ps is required. Detailed TCAD device simulations together with the electrical and charge collection measurements are presented through this work.

  5. A Search for the Higgs Boson Using Very Forward Tracking Detectors with CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrow, M. G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Atac, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Booth, P. [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Crosby, P. [Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Dunietz, I. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Finley, D. A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Heinemann, B. [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Lancaster, M. [Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Lauhakangas, R. [Helsinki Inst. of Physics (Finland); Litvintsev, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Liu, T. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Marti-Garcia, S. [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom); McGivern, D. [Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Moore, C. D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Orava, R. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki Inst. of Physics (Finland); Rostovtsev, A. [Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow (Russian Federation); Snihur, R. [Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Tapprogge, S. [Helsinki Inst. of Physics (Finland); Wester, W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wyatt, A. [Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Oesterberg, K. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)

    2001-03-01

    The authors propose to add high precision track detectors 55 m downstream on both (E and W) sides of CDF, to measure high Feynman-x protons and antiprotons in association with central states. A primary motivation is to search for the Higgs boson, and if it is seen to measure its mass precisely. The track detectors will be silicon strip telescopes backed up by high resolution time-of-flight counters. They will have four spectrometer arms, for both sides of the p and {bar p} beams. The addition of these small detectors effectively converts the Tevatron into a gluon-gluon collider with {radical}s from 0 to {approx} 200 GeV. This experiment also measures millions/year clean high- |t| elastic p{bar p} scattering events and produce millions of pure gluon jets. Besides a wealth of other unique QCD studies they will search for signs of exotic physics such as SUSY and Large Extra Dimensions. They ask the Director to ask the PAC to take note of this Letter of Intent at its April meeting, to consider a proposal at the June meeting and to make a decision at the November 2001 meeting. They request that the Directorage ask the Beams Division to evaluate the consequences and cost of the proposed Tevatron modifications, and CDF to evaluate any effect on its baseline program and to review the technical aspects of the detectors, DAQ and trigger integration.

  6. Mapping of uranium and thorium in radioactive rocks using nuclear track solid detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouch, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    α-Autoradiography and studies of induced fission in a research nuclear reactor (IEA-R1, IPEN, Sao Paulo) were done, employing Solid-State Nuclear Track detectors, in order to study the distribution of α-emitters, U and Th in rocks. Polished sections of rocks were prepared and photographed. Etching conditions were studied in order to adapt the detectors to the studies of microdistribution and macrodistribution of tracks. Polycarbonate foils (Bayer, Makrofol) were chosen as fission-fragments detectors and the technique of fission induced with reactor neutrons to obtain the distribution of U and Th were studied. Uranium and thorium standards evaporated on the surface of the detectors, as well as thorite and uraninite grains, were irradiated in order to measure the integrated flux of neutrons, the effective cross sections for fission with reactor neutrons for 232 Th(0,05b) and 238 U(0,30b) and to study the contribution of 238 U fission in thorium mapping. A technique for determination of uranium and thorium in minerals was studied and applied to Mica, for which were determined the contents of 4,2 ppb U e 58 ppb Th. (Author) [pt

  7. Fission distribution measurements of Atucha's fuel pellets with solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricabarra, M.D. Bovisio de; Waisman, Dina.

    1979-08-01

    Distribution of fissions in a UO 2 rod has been measured by means of solid state detectors. Mica muscovite and Makrofol-N detectors were used in the experiment. The merits of mica muscovite relative to the Makrofol-N for the detection of fission fragments have been verified. However both fission track detectors closely agree (0,5%) in the final fission distribution of the UO 2 rod. Sensitivity of the detectors shows to be linear in the range between 50.000and 360.000 fission tracks per square centimeter. Due to the high spatial resolution this method is better than any other technique. Determination were made in UO 2 pellets similar to the fuel element of the Atucha reactor. The average fission rate in the rod has been measured within 0,8% error, and provides an accurate determination for the distribution of fissions in the rod wich is needed for the determination of energy liberated per fission in the natural uranium rod.(author) [es

  8. A performance evaluation study of three types of alpha-track detector radon monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeager, W.M.; Lucas, R.M.; Daum, K.A.; Sensintaffar, E.; Poppell, S.; Feldt, L.; Clarkin, M.

    1991-01-01

    Three models of alpha-track detector (ATD) Rn monitors were exposed in Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Rn chambers to obtain estimates of precision and bias for the National Residential Radon Survey (NRRS). Exposures in this study ranged from 37 to 740 Bq y m-3 (1 to 20 pCi y L-1), plus blanks. These exposures correspond to the range expected in most U.S. residences. All detectors were purchased through a Rn mitigation firm to assure that the vendors did not give special attention to the ATDs used in this study. Ten ATDs of each model were studied at 12 exposures. The mean and standard deviation of the reported values for each model were calculated and compared with the continuously monitored chamber concentrations to determine the bias and precision at each exposure. Results of this analysis were discussed with the vendors, who took corrective actions. Changes in track counting procedures and calibrations improved detector performance. Readings of one detector were adjusted based on a regression of the monitored values on the reported values

  9. Triton, deuteron and proton responses of the CR-39 track detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Hiroyoshi; Oda, Keiji [Kobe Univ. of Mercantile Marine (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    In the present study, we assessed the response of the CR-39 detector to proton, deuteron and triton from their etch-pit growth curves obtained by multi-step etching technique and the difference among their track registration properties was discussed. In order to avoid incorrect evaluation due to the missing track effect, particle irradiation was performed at various incident energies. The response function, S(R), etch rate ratio, S, as a function of the residual range, R, was experimentally evaluated for all hydrogen isotopes by this method. In the next, we obtained another form of response functions of S(E), S({beta}) and S(LET{sub 200}), which were presented as functions of the particle energy, E, the particle velocity, {beta}(=v/c), and the linear energy transfer in the case where the cut-off energy is 200 eV, LET{sub 200}, respectively. These information will be useful also in understanding the fundamentals of the latent track formation mechanism in the plastic track detectors. (J.P.N.)

  10. The response of CR-39 nuclear track detector to 1-9 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinenian, N.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Manuel, M.; McDuffee, S. C.; Casey, D. T.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2011-01-01

    The response of CR-39 nuclear track detector (TasTrak) to protons in the energy range of 0.92-9.28 MeV has been studied. Previous studies of the CR-39 response to protons have been extended by examining the piece-to-piece variability in addition to the effects of etch time and etchant temperature; it is shown that the shape of the CR-39 response curve to protons can vary from piece-to-piece. Effects due to the age of CR-39 have also been studied using 5.5 MeV alpha particles over a 5-year period. Track diameters were found to degrade with the age of the CR-39 itself rather than the age of the tracks, consistent with previous studies utilizing different CR-39 over shorter time periods.

  11. An automatic analyzer of solid state nuclear track detectors using an optic RAM as image sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staderini, E.M.; Castellano, A.

    1986-01-01

    An optic RAM is a conventional digital random access read/write dynamic memory device featuring a quartz windowed package and memory cells regularly ordered on the chip. Such a device is used as an image sensor because each cell retains data stored in it for a time depending on the intensity of the light incident on the cell itself. The authors have developed a system which uses an optic RAM to acquire and digitize images from electrochemically etched CR39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) in the track count rate up to 5000 cm -2 . On the digital image so obtained, a microprocessor, with appropriate software, performs image analysis, filtering, tracks counting and evaluation. (orig.)

  12. Calibration of PM-355 nuclear track detectors for low-energy deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, K.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Sadowski, M.J.; Czaus, K.

    2008-01-01

    A dependence of track diameters on deuteron energy was investigated for PM-355 nuclear track detectors. Deuteron streams were obtained from RPI-IBIS facility at the pulsed injection of deuterium. Mass and energy analysis was performed with a Thomson-type spectrometer and PM-355 samples. An etched deuteron parabola extended from about 20 keV to about 500 keV. The energy resolution of measurements on the parabola at 20 keV was ±0.2keV, and at 500 keV amounted to ±50keV. Accuracy of the determination of deuteron energies decreased for higher energy values. Results are presented in diagrams showing the track diameters as a function of deuteron energy for chosen etching times (1-8 h)

  13. Cellular track model of biological damage to mammalian cell cultures from galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Katz, Robert; Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Nealy, John E.; Shinn, Judy L.

    1991-01-01

    The assessment of biological damage from the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a current interest for exploratory class space missions where the highly ionizing, high-energy, high-charge ions (HZE) particles are the major concern. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values determined by ground-based experiments with HZE particles are well described by a parametric track theory of cell inactivation. Using the track model and a deterministic GCR transport code, the biological damage to mammalian cell cultures is considered for 1 year in free space at solar minimum for typical spacecraft shielding. Included are the effects of projectile and target fragmentation. The RBE values for the GCR spectrum which are fluence-dependent in the track model are found to be more severe than the quality factors identified by the International Commission on Radiological Protection publication 26 and seem to obey a simple scaling law with the duration period in free space.

  14. Cellular track model of biological damage to mammalian cell cultures from galactic cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucinotta, F.A.; Katz, R.; Wilson, J.W.; Townsend, L.W.; Nealy, J.E.; Shinn, J.L.

    1991-02-01

    The assessment of biological damage from the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a current interest for exploratory class space missions where the highly ionizing, high-energy, high-charge ions (HZE) particles are the major concern. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values determined by ground-based experiments with HZE particles are well described by a parametric track theory of cell inactivation. Using the track model and a deterministic GCR transport code, the biological damage to mammalian cell cultures is considered for 1 year in free space at solar minimum for typical spacecraft shielding. Included are the effects of projectile and target fragmentation. The RBE values for the GCR spectrum which are fluence-dependent in the track model are found to be more severe than the quality factors identified by the International Commission on Radiological Protection publication 26 and seem to obey a simple scaling law with the duration period in free space

  15. Overview of radiation damage in silicon detectors - models and defect engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews recent work in the area of radiation damage in silicon detectors. It is not intended as a comprehensive review, but provides a snapshot guide to current ideas and indicates how the subject is expected to develop in the immediate future. (orig.)

  16. Evidence of Dopant Type-Inversion and Other Radiation Damage Effects of the CDF Silicon Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Ballarin, Roberto [Univ. of the Basque Country, Leioa (Spain)

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this document is to study the effect of radiation damage on the silicon sensors. The reflection of the effect of radiation can be observed in two fundamental parameters of the detector: the bias current and the bias voltage. The leakage current directly affects the noise, while the bias voltage is required to collect the maximum signal deposited by the charged particle.

  17. Measuring depths of sub-micron tracks in a CR-39 detector from replicas using Atomic Force Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.N.; Ng, F.M.F.; Nikezic, D.

    2005-01-01

    One of the challenging tasks in the application of solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) is the measurement of the depth of the tracks, in particular, the shallow ones resulting from short etching periods. In the present work, a method is proposed to prepare replicas of tracks from α particles in the CR-39 SSNTDs and to measure their heights using atomic force microscopy (AFM). After irradiation, the detectors were etched in a 6.25N aqueous solution of NaOH maintained at 70 deg. C. The etched detectors were immersed into a beaker of the replicating fluid, which was placed in a water bath under ultrasonic vibration and maintained at room temperature to facilitate the filling of the etched tracks with the replicating fluid. As an example of application, these results have been used to derive a V function for the CR-39 detectors used in the present study (for the specified etching conditions)

  18. tkLayout: a design tool for innovative silicon tracking detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, G.

    2014-03-01

    A new CMS tracker is scheduled to become operational for the LHC Phase 2 upgrade in the early 2020's. tkLayout is a software package developed to create 3d models for the design of the CMS tracker and to evaluate its fundamental performance figures. The new tracker will have to cope with much higher luminosity conditions, resulting in increased track density, harsher radiation exposure and, especially, much higher data acquisition bandwidth, such that equipping the tracker with triggering capabilities is envisaged. The design of an innovative detector involves deciding on an architecture offering the best trade-off among many figures of merit, such as tracking resolution, power dissipation, bandwidth, cost and so on. Quantitatively evaluating these figures of merit as early as possible in the design phase is of capital importance and it is best done with the aid of software models. tkLayout is a flexible modeling tool: new performance estimates and support for different detector geometries can be quickly added, thanks to its modular structure. Besides, the software executes very quickly (about two minutes), so that many possible architectural variations can be rapidly modeled and compared, to help in the choice of a viable detector layout and then to optimize it. A tracker geometry is generated from simple configuration files, defining the module types, layout and materials. Support structures are automatically added and services routed to provide a realistic tracker description. The tracker geometries thus generated can be exported to the standard CMS simulation framework (CMSSW) for full Monte Carlo studies. tkLayout has proven essential in giving guidance to CMS in studying different detector layouts and exploring the feasibility of innovative solutions for tracking detectors, in terms of design, performance and projected costs. This tool has been one of the keys to making important design decisions for over five years now and has also enabled project engineers

  19. Damage flux analysis. Solid state detector and Monte-Carlo calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genthon, J.P.; Nimal, J.C.; Vergnaud, T.

    1975-09-01

    The change of resistivity induced by radiation in materials is particularly suitable for the measurement of equivalent damage fluxes, when it is used at low fluence for calibration of more classical activation reactions used at high fluences. A graphite and a tungsten detector are briefly described and results obtained in a good number of European reactors are given. The polykinetic three dimensional Monte-Carlo code Tripoli is used for calculation of damage fluxes. Comparison with above measurements shows a good agreement and confirms the use of the EURATOM damaging function for graphite [fr

  20. Present status of fast neutron personnel dosimetry system based on CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Rupali; Sathian, Deepa; Jayalakshmi, V.; Bakshi, A.K.; Chougaonkar, M.P.; Mayya, Y.S.; Kumar, Valli; Babu, Rajesh; Kar, S.; Joshi, V.M.

    2011-08-01

    Neutron sources are of different types depending upon the method of production such as nuclear reactors, particle accelerators and laboratory sources. Neutron sources depending upon their energy, flux, size etc. are used for variety of applications in basic and applied sciences, neutron scattering experiments and in industry such as oil well - digging, coal mining and processing, ore processing etc. Personnel working in nuclear installations such as reactors, accelerators, spent fuel processing plants, nuclear fuel cycle operations and those working in various industries such as oil refining, oil well-digging, coal mining and processing, ore processing, etc. need to be monitored for neutron exposures, if any. Neutron monitoring is especially necessary in view of the fact that the radiation weighting factor for neutron is much higher than gamma rays and also it varies with energy. Radiological Physics and Advisory Division is involved in monitoring of personnel working in neutron fields. Around 2100 workers from 70 institutions (DAE and Non-DAE) are monitored on a quarterly basis. Neutron personnel monitoring, carried out in the country is based on Solid State Nuclear Track Detection (SSNTD) technique. In this technique, neutrons interact with hydrogen in CR-39 polymer to produce recoil protons. These protons create damages in the polymer, which are enlarged and appear as tracks when subjected to electrochemical etching (ECE). These tracks are counted in an optical system to evaluate the neutron dose. The neutron dosimetry system based on SSNTD has undergone a significant development, since it was started in 1990. The development includes upgradation of image analysis system for counting tracks, introduction of chemical etching (CE) at elevated temperatures for evaluation of dose equivalents above 10 mSv and use of carbon laser for cutting of CR-39 detectors. The entire dose evaluation process has been standardized, which includes calibration and performance tests

  1. Modeling of displacement damage in silicon carbide detectors resulting from neutron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorsandi, Behrooz

    There is considerable interest in developing a power monitor system for Generation IV reactors (for instance GT-MHR). A new type of semiconductor radiation detector is under development based on silicon carbide (SiC) technology for these reactors. SiC has been selected as the semiconductor material due to its superior thermal-electrical-neutronic properties. Compared to Si, SiC is a radiation hard material; however, like Si, the properties of SiC are changed by irradiation by a large fluence of energetic neutrons, as a consequence of displacement damage, and that irradiation decreases the life-time of detectors. Predictions of displacement damage and the concomitant radiation effects are important for deciding where the SiC detectors should be placed. The purpose of this dissertation is to develop computer simulation methods to estimate the number of various defects created in SiC detectors, because of neutron irradiation, and predict at what positions of a reactor, SiC detectors could monitor the neutron flux with high reliability. The simulation modeling includes several well-known---and commercial---codes (MCNP5, TRIM, MARLOWE and VASP), and two kinetic Monte Carlo codes written by the author (MCASIC and DCRSIC). My dissertation will highlight the displacement damage that may happen in SiC detectors located in available positions in the OSURR, GT-MHR and IRIS. As extra modeling output data, the count rates of SiC for the specified locations are calculated. A conclusion of this thesis is SiC detectors that are placed in the thermal neutron region of a graphite moderator-reflector reactor have a chance to survive at least one reactor refueling cycle, while their count rates are acceptably high.

  2. Tracking performance of a single-crystal and a polycrystalline diamond pixel-detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menasce, D.; et al.

    2013-06-01

    We present a comparative characterization of the performance of a single-crystal and a polycrystalline diamond pixel-detector employing the standard CMS pixel readout chips. Measurements were carried out at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility, FTBF, using protons of momentum 120 GeV/c tracked by a high-resolution pixel telescope. Particular attention was directed to the study of the charge-collection, the charge-sharing among adjacent pixels and the achievable position resolution. The performance of the single-crystal detector was excellent and comparable to the best available silicon pixel-detectors. The measured average detection-efficiency was near unity, ε = 0.99860±0.00006, and the position-resolution for shared hits was about 6 μm. On the other hand, the performance of the polycrystalline detector was hampered by its lower charge collection distance and the readout chip threshold. A new readout chip, capable of operating at much lower threshold (around 1 ke$-$), would be required to fully exploit the potential performance of the polycrystalline diamond pixel-detector.

  3. 3D track reconstruction capability of a silicon hybrid active pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Benedikt; Pichotka, Martin; Pospisil, Stanislav; Vycpalek, Jiri [Czech Technical University in Prague, Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Praha (Czech Republic); Burian, Petr; Broulim, Pavel [Czech Technical University in Prague, Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Praha (Czech Republic); University of West Bohemia, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Pilsen (Czech Republic); Jakubek, Jan [Advacam s.r.o., Praha (Czech Republic)

    2017-06-15

    Timepix3 detectors are the latest generation of hybrid active pixel detectors of the Medipix/Timepix family. Such detectors consist of an active sensor layer which is connected to the readout ASIC (application specific integrated circuit), segmenting the detector into a square matrix of 256 x 256 pixels (pixel pitch 55 μm). Particles interacting in the active sensor material create charge carriers, which drift towards the pixelated electrode, where they are collected. In each pixel, the time of the interaction (time resolution 1.56 ns) and the amount of created charge carriers are measured. Such a device was employed in an experiment in a 120 GeV/c pion beam. It is demonstrated, how the drift time information can be used for ''4D'' particle tracking, with the three spatial dimensions and the energy losses along the particle trajectory (dE/dx). Since the coordinates in the detector plane are given by the pixelation (x,y), the x- and y-resolution is determined by the pixel pitch (55 μm). A z-resolution of 50.4 μm could be achieved (for a 500 μm thick silicon sensor at 130 V bias), whereby the drift time model independent z-resolution was found to be 28.5 μm. (orig.)

  4. 3D track reconstruction capability of a silicon hybrid active pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Benedikt; Pichotka, Martin; Pospisil, Stanislav; Vycpalek, Jiri; Burian, Petr; Broulim, Pavel; Jakubek, Jan

    2017-06-01

    Timepix3 detectors are the latest generation of hybrid active pixel detectors of the Medipix/Timepix family. Such detectors consist of an active sensor layer which is connected to the readout ASIC (application specific integrated circuit), segmenting the detector into a square matrix of 256 × 256 pixels (pixel pitch 55 μm). Particles interacting in the active sensor material create charge carriers, which drift towards the pixelated electrode, where they are collected. In each pixel, the time of the interaction (time resolution 1.56 ns) and the amount of created charge carriers are measured. Such a device was employed in an experiment in a 120 GeV/c pion beam. It is demonstrated, how the drift time information can be used for "4D" particle tracking, with the three spatial dimensions and the energy losses along the particle trajectory (dE/dx). Since the coordinates in the detector plane are given by the pixelation ( x, y), the x- and y-resolution is determined by the pixel pitch (55 μm). A z-resolution of 50.4 μm could be achieved (for a 500 μm thick silicon sensor at 130 V bias), whereby the drift time model independent z-resolution was found to be 28.5 μm.

  5. Wireless data transfer with mm-waves for future tracking detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelikan, D.; Bingefors, N.; Brenner, R.; Gustafsson, L.; Dancila, D.

    2014-01-01

    Wireless data transfer has revolutionized the consumer market for the last decade generating many products equipped with transmitters and receivers for wireless data transfer. Wireless technology opens attractive possibilities for data transfer in future tracking detectors. The reduction of wires and connectors for data links is certainly beneficial both for the material budget and the reliability of the system. An advantage of wireless data transfer is the freedom of routing signals which today is particularly complicated when bringing the data the first 50 cm out of the tracker. With wireless links intelligence can be built into a tracker by introducing communication between tracking layers within a region of interest which would allow the construction of track primitives in real time. The wireless technology used in consumer products is however not suitable for tracker readouts. The low data transfer capacity of current 5 GHz transceivers and the relatively large feature sizes of the components is a disadvantage.Due to the requirement of high data rates in tracking detectors high bandwidth is required. The frequency band around 60 GHz turns out to be a very promising candidate for data transfer in a detector system. The high baseband frequency allows for data transfer in the order of several Gbit/s. Due to the small wavelength in the mm range only small structures are needed for the transmitting and receiving electronics. The 60 GHz frequency band is a strong candidate for future WLAN applications hence components are already starting to be available on the market.Patch antennas produced on flexible Printed Circuit Board substrate that can be used for wireless communication in future trackers are presented in this article. The antennas can be connected to transceivers for data transmission/reception or be connected by wave-guides to structures capable of bringing the 60 GHz signal behind boundaries. Results on simulation and fabrication of these antennas are

  6. Wireless data transfer with mm-waves for future tracking detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelikan, D.; Bingefors, N.; Brenner, R.; Dancila, D.; Gustafsson, L.

    2014-11-01

    Wireless data transfer has revolutionized the consumer market for the last decade generating many products equipped with transmitters and receivers for wireless data transfer. Wireless technology opens attractive possibilities for data transfer in future tracking detectors. The reduction of wires and connectors for data links is certainly beneficial both for the material budget and the reliability of the system. An advantage of wireless data transfer is the freedom of routing signals which today is particularly complicated when bringing the data the first 50 cm out of the tracker. With wireless links intelligence can be built into a tracker by introducing communication between tracking layers within a region of interest which would allow the construction of track primitives in real time. The wireless technology used in consumer products is however not suitable for tracker readouts. The low data transfer capacity of current 5 GHz transceivers and the relatively large feature sizes of the components is a disadvantage.Due to the requirement of high data rates in tracking detectors high bandwidth is required. The frequency band around 60 GHz turns out to be a very promising candidate for data transfer in a detector system. The high baseband frequency allows for data transfer in the order of several Gbit/s. Due to the small wavelength in the mm range only small structures are needed for the transmitting and receiving electronics. The 60 GHz frequency band is a strong candidate for future WLAN applications hence components are already starting to be available on the market.Patch antennas produced on flexible Printed Circuit Board substrate that can be used for wireless communication in future trackers are presented in this article. The antennas can be connected to transceivers for data transmission/reception or be connected by wave-guides to structures capable of bringing the 60 GHz signal behind boundaries. Results on simulation and fabrication of these antennas are

  7. Study of the spatial resolution of low-material GEM tracking detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudryavtsev V.N.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial resolution of GEM based tracking detectors has been simulated and measured. The simulation includes the GEANT4 based transport of high energy electrons with careful accounting for atomic relaxation processes including emission of fluorescent photons and Auger electrons and custom post-processing, including accounting for diffusion, gas amplification fluctuations, the distribution of signals on readout electrodes, electronics noise and a particular algorithm of the final coordinate calculation (center of gravity. The simulation demonstrates that a minimum of the spatial resolution of about 10 μm can be achieved with strip pitches from 250 μm to 300 μm. For larger pitches the resolution is quickly degrading reaching 80-100 μm at a pitch of 500 μm. The spatial resolution of low-material triple-GEM detectors for the DEUTRON facility at the VEPP-3 storage ring is measured at the extracted beam facility of the VEPP-4M collider. The amount of material in these detectors is reduced by etching the copper of the GEMs electrodes and using a readout structure on a thin kapton foil rather than on a glass fibre plate. The exact amount of material in one DEUTRON detector is measured by studying multiple scattering of 100 MeV electrons in it. The result of these measurements is X/X0 = 2.4×10−3 corresponding to a thickness of the copper layers of the GEM foils of 3 μm. The spatial resolution of one DEUTRON detector is measured with 500 MeV electrons and the measured value is equal to 35 ± 1 μm for orthogonal tracks.

  8. Study of the spatial resolution of low-material GEM tracking detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, V. N.; Maltsev, T. V.; Shekhtman, L. I.

    2018-02-01

    The spatial resolution of GEM based tracking detectors has been simulated and measured. The simulation includes the GEANT4 based transport of high energy electrons with careful accounting for atomic relaxation processes including emission of fluorescent photons and Auger electrons and custom post-processing, including accounting for diffusion, gas amplification fluctuations, the distribution of signals on readout electrodes, electronics noise and a particular algorithm of the final coordinate calculation (center of gravity). The simulation demonstrates that a minimum of the spatial resolution of about 10 μm can be achieved with strip pitches from 250 μm to 300 μm. For larger pitches the resolution is quickly degrading reaching 80-100 μm at a pitch of 500 μm. The spatial resolution of low-material triple-GEM detectors for the DEUTRON facility at the VEPP-3 storage ring is measured at the extracted beam facility of the VEPP-4M collider. The amount of material in these detectors is reduced by etching the copper of the GEMs electrodes and using a readout structure on a thin kapton foil rather than on a glass fibre plate. The exact amount of material in one DEUTRON detector is measured by studying multiple scattering of 100 MeV electrons in it. The result of these measurements is X/X0 = 2.4×10-3 corresponding to a thickness of the copper layers of the GEM foils of 3 μm. The spatial resolution of one DEUTRON detector is measured with 500 MeV electrons and the measured value is equal to 35 ± 1 μm for orthogonal tracks.

  9. Front-end Intelligence for triggering and local track recognition in Gas Pixel Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hessey, NP; The ATLAS collaboration; van der Graaf, H; Vermeulen, J; Jansweijer, P; Romaniouk, A

    2012-01-01

    The combination of gaseous detectors with pixel readout chips gives unprecedented hit resolution (improving from O(100 um) for wire chambers to 10 um), as well as high-rate capability, low radiation length and giving in addition angular information on the local track. These devices measure individually every electron liberated by the passage of a charged particle, leading to a large quantity of data to be read out. Typically an external trigger is used to start the read-out. We are investigating the addition of local intelligence to the pixel read-out chip. A first level of processing detects the passage of a particle through the gas volume, and accurately determines the time of passage. A second level measures in an approximate but fast way the tilt-angle of the track. This can be used to trigger a third stage in which all hits associated to the track are processed locally to give a least-squares-fit to the track. The chip can then send out just the fitted track parameters instead of the individual electron ...

  10. New approach of modeling charged particles track development in CR-39 detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azooz, A.A.; Hermsdorf, D.; Al-Jubbori, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, previous modeling of protons and alpha particles track length development in CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors SSNTD is modified and further extended. The extension involved the accommodation of heavier ions into the model. These ions include deuteron, lithium, boron, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen ions. The new modeling does not contain any case sensitive free fitting parameters. Model calculation results are found to be in good agreement with both experimental data and SRIM software range energy dependence predictions. The access to a single unified and differentiable track length development equation results in the ability to obtain direct results for track etching rates. - Highlights: • New modeling of ions track length evolution measured by different authors. • Ions considered are p, d, α, Li, B, C, N, O. • Equations obtained to describe L(t) and etch rate for all ions at wide energy range. • Equations obtained do not involve any free fitting parameters. • Ions range values obtained compare well with results of SRIM software

  11. Radiation dosimetry for microbial experiments in the International Space Station using different etched track and luminescent detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goossens, O.; Vanhavere, F.; Leys, N.; De Boever, P.; O'Sullivan, D.; Zhou, D.; Spurný, František; Yukihara, E.; Gaza, R.; McKeever, S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 120, 1- 4 (2006), s. 433-437 ISSN 0144-8420 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : bacteria l experiments * space flight * etched track detectors * thermoluminescent detectors Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.446, year: 2006

  12. Identification of characteristic frequencies of damaged railway tracks using field hammer test measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregui, M.; Li, Z.; Dollevoet, R.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of the Frequency Response Function (FRF)-based statistical method to identify the characteristic frequencies of railway track defects is studied. The method compares a damaged track state to a healthy state based on non-destructive field hammer test measurements. First, a study is carried out to investigate the repeatability of hammer tests in railway tracks. By changing the excitation and measurement locations it is shown that the variability introduced by the test process is negligible. Second, following the concepts of control charts employed in process monitoring, a method to define an approximate healthy state is introduced by using hammer test measurements at locations without visual damage. Then, the feasibility study includes an investigation into squats (i.e. a major type of rail surface defect) of varying severity. The identified frequency ranges related to squats agree with those found in an extensively validated vehicle-borne detection system. Therefore, the FRF-based statistical method in combination with the non-destructive hammer test measurements has the potential to be employed to identify the characteristic frequencies of damaged conditions in railway tracks in the frequency range of 300-3000 Hz.

  13. Cosmic radiation monitoring at low-Earth orbit by means of thermoluminescence and plastic nuclear track detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ambrožová, Iva; Pachnerová Brabcová, Kateřina; Kubančák, Ján; Šlegl, Jakub; Tolochek, R. V.; Ivanova, O. A.; Shurshakov, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 12 (2017), s. 262-266 ISSN 1350-4487 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-16622Y Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : BION-M1 * cosmic radiation * low earth orbit * passive detector * thermoluminescent detector * plastic nuclear track detector Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.442, year: 2016

  14. 3D monolithically stacked CMOS active pixel sensor detectors for particle tracking applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passeri, D; Placidi, P; Servoli, L; Meroli, S; Magalotti, D; Marras, A

    2012-01-01

    In this work we propose an innovative approach to particle tracking based on CMOS Active Pixel Sensors layers, monolithically integrated in an all-in-one chip featuring multiple, stacked, fully functional detector layers capable to provide momentum measurement (particle impact point and direction) within a single detector. This will results in a very low material detector, thus dramatically reducing multiple scattering issues. To this purpose, we rely on the capabilities of the CMOS vertical scale integration (3D IC) technology. A first chip prototype has been fabricated within a multi-project run using a 130 nm CMOS Chartered/Tezzaron technology, featuring two layers bonded face-to-face. Tests have been carried out on full 3D structures, providing the functionalities of both tiers. To this purpose, laser scans have been carried out using highly focussed spot size obtaining coincidence responses of the two layers. Tests have been made as well with X-ray sources in order to calibrate the response of the sensor. Encouraging results have been found, fostering the suitability of both the adopted 3D-IC vertical scale fabrication technology and the proposed approach for particle tracking applications.

  15. Mechanical integration of the detector components for the CBM silicon tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasylyev, Oleg; Niebur, Wolfgang [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment (CBM) at FAIR is designed to explore the QCD phase diagram in the region of high net-baryon densities. The central detector component, the Silicon Tracking System (STS) is based on double-sided micro-strip sensors. In order to achieve the physics performance, the detector mechanical structures should be developed taking into account the requirements of the CBM experiments: low material budget, high radiation environment, interaction rates, aperture for the silicon tracking, detector segmentation and mounting precision. A functional plan of the STS and its surrounding structural components is being worked out from which the STS system shape is derived and the power and cooling needs, the connector space requirements, life span of components and installation/repair aspects are determined. The mechanical integration is at the point of finalizing the design stage and moving towards production readiness. This contribution shows the current processing state of the following engineering tasks: construction space definition, carbon ladder shape and manufacturability, beam-pipe feedthrough structure, prototype construction, cable routing and modeling of the electronic components.

  16. Measurements of fast deuterons from plasma accelerator by means of PM-355 track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skladnik-Sadowska, E. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Malinowski, K., E-mail: k.malinowski@ipj.gov.p [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Sadowski, M.J.; Czaus, K. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2009-10-15

    This paper reports on studies of fast ions (mostly deuterons) emitted from an RPI (Rod-Plasma-Injector) plasma accelerator. The first aim was the verification of applicability of PM-355 track detectors for dosimetry of lower-energy (<200 KeV) deuterons. The second aim was information about energy spectra of deuterons from RPI-IBIS device in different operational modes. Mass- and energy spectra of ions were investigated with a Thomson-analyzer and PM-355 detectors. On the recorded deuteron-parabolas we chose points, and from numbers of tracks we determined the deuteron energy distribution. In the slow-mode the energy distribution peak was observed at about 40 keV, while the maximum energy amounted to about 150 keV. Those measurements confirmed an influence of the initial gas-conditions on energy distributions of the deuteron streams. The results are of importance for plasma-physics and applications. Another result was the confirmation that PM-355 detectors might be used for accurate measurements of low-energy (<200 keV) deuterons.

  17. Radiation damage studies of mineral apatite, using fission tracks and thermoluminescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Khalifa, I.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    In a uranium (/thorium)-rich mineral sample which has not suffered a recent geological high-temperature excursion, the fossil fission track density (FFTD) will give a good indication of its natural radiation damage, provided that its U/Th ratio is known. From our studies of FFTD and thermoluminescence (TL) properties of several samples of apatite from different locations, and containing varying degrees of natural-radiation damage, an anti-correlation is observed between FFTD and TL sensitivity. It is also found that an anti-correlation exists between TL sensitivity and the amount of damage produced artificially by bombarding apatite crystals with different fluences of ∼30 MeV α-particles from a cyclotron. These results indicate that the presence of radiation damage in this mineral (viz., fluorapatite) can severely affect its TL sensitivity (i.e. TL output per unit test dose). The effect of crystal composition on the thermoluminescence and fission track annealing properties of mineral apatite is also reported. We have found that fission track annealing sensitivity and TL sensitivity are both significantly lower in samples of chlorapatite than in samples consisting predominantly of fluorapatite. (author)

  18. Fast neutron irradiation effects on CR-39 nuclear track detector for dosimetric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kader, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of neutron irradiation on the dosimetric properties of CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detector have been investigated. CR-39 samples were irradiated with neutrons of energies follow a Maxwellian distribution centered about 2 MeV. These samples were irradiated with different doses in the range 0.1-1 Sv. The background and track density were measured as a function of etching time. In addition, the dependence of sensitivity of CR-39 detector on the neutrons dose has been investigated. The results show that the Sensitivity started to increase at 0.4 Sv neutrons dose, so this sample were chosen to be a subject for further study to investigate the effect of gamma dose on its properties. The sample irradiated with 0.4 Sv were exposed to different doses of gamma rays at levels between 10 and 80 kGy. The effect of gamma doses on the bulk etching rate VB, the track diameter and the sensitivity of the CR-39 samples was investigated. The results show that the dosimetric properties of CR-39 SSNTD are greatly affected by both neutron and gamma irradiation

  19. Online data reduction with FPGA-based track reconstruction for the Belle II DEPFET pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschamps, Bruno; Wessel, Christian; Marinas, Carlos; Dingfelder, Jochen [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The innermost two layers of the Belle II vertex detector at the KEK facility in Tsukuba, Japan, will be covered by high-granularity DEPFET pixel sensors (PXD). The large number of pixels leads to a maximum data rate of 256 Gbps, which has to be significantly reduced by the Data Acquisition System (DATCON). For the data reduction the hit information of the surrounding Silicon strip Vertex Detector (SVD) is utilized to define so-called Regions of Interest (ROI). Only hit information of the pixels located inside these ROIs are saved. The ROIs for the PXD are computed by reconstructing track segments from SVD data and extrapolation to the PXD. The goal is to achieve a data reduction of at least a factor of 10 with this ROI selection. All the necessary processing stages, the receiving, decoding and multiplexing of SVD data on 48 optical fibers, the track reconstruction and the definition of the ROIs, will be performed by the presented system. The planned hardware design is based on a distributed set of Advanced Mezzanine Cards (AMC) each equipped with a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and 4 optical transceivers. In this talk, the status and plans for the DATCON prototype and the FPGA-based tracking algorithm are introduced as well as the plans for their test in the upcoming test beam at DESY.

  20. Fast neutron dosimetry using CR-39 track detectors with polyethylene as radiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, F.; Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J.I.; Osorio, D.; Rangel, J.; Reyes, P.G.; Herrera, J.J.E.

    2013-01-01

    The chemical etching parameters (etching time, temperature, normality of etchant, etc.) for the use of CR-39 (allyl diglycol carbonate – Lantrack ® ) as a fast neutron dosimeter have been optimized. The CR-39 chips, placed under a 1.5 mm polyethylene radiator, were exposed for calibration to an 241 Am-Be source at different time intervals for a given neutron fluence. After several chemical etching processes of the detectors with different conditions, the optimum characteristics for the chemical etching were found at 6N KOH solution, 60 ± 1 °C, for 12 h. An accurate relationship between the dose and fluence calculations was obtained as a function of the track density. - Highlights: ► Optimum etching time for fast neutron irradiated CR-39 track detectors is found. ► Relationship between dose and fluence obtained as a function of the track density. ► Results are consistent with those reported elsewhere, and extend the dose range

  1. Precise 3D track reconstruction algorithm for the ICARUS T600 liquid argon time projection chamber detector

    CERN Document Server

    Antonello, M

    2013-01-01

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC) detectors offer charged particle imaging capability with remarkable spatial resolution. Precise event reconstruction procedures are critical in order to fully exploit the potential of this technology. In this paper we present a new, general approach of three-dimensional reconstruction for the LAr TPC with a practical application to track reconstruction. The efficiency of the method is evaluated on a sample of simulated tracks. We present also the application of the method to the analysis of real data tracks collected during the ICARUS T600 detector operation with the CNGS neutrino beam.

  2. Precise 3D Track Reconstruction Algorithm for the ICARUS T600 Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Antonello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC detectors offer charged particle imaging capability with remarkable spatial resolution. Precise event reconstruction procedures are critical in order to fully exploit the potential of this technology. In this paper we present a new, general approach to 3D reconstruction for the LAr TPC with a practical application to the track reconstruction. The efficiency of the method is evaluated on a sample of simulated tracks. We present also the application of the method to the analysis of stopping particle tracks collected during the ICARUS T600 detector operation with the CNGS neutrino beam.

  3. Determination of boron in aqueous solutions by solid state nuclear track detectors technique, using a filtered neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.A.P.V. de; Pugliesi, R.; Khouri, M.T.F.C.

    1985-11-01

    The solid state nuclear track detectors technique has been used for determination of boron in aqueous solutions, using a filtered neutron beam. The particles tracks from the 10 B(n,α)Li 7 reaction were registered in the CR-39 film, chemically etched in a (30%) KOH solution 70 0 C during 90 minutes. The obtained results showed the usefulness of this technique for boron determination in the ppm range. The inferior detectable limit was 9 ppm. The combined track registration efficiency factor K has been evaluated in the solutions, for the CR-39 detector and its values is K= (4,60 - + 0,06). 10 -4 cm. (Author) [pt

  4. Theoretical determination of the neutron detection efficiency of plastic track detectors. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretzsch, G.

    1982-01-01

    A theoretical model to determine the neutron detection efficiency of organic solid state nuclear track detectors without external radiator is described. The model involves the following calculation steps: production of heavy charged particles within the detector volume, characterization of the charged particles by appropriate physical quantities, application of suitable registration criteria, formation of etch pits. The etch pits formed are described by means of a distribution function which is doubly differential in both diameter and depth of the etch pits. The distribution function serves as the input value for the calculation of the detection efficiency. The detection efficiency is defined as the measured effect per neutron fluence. Hence it depends on the evaluation technique considered. The calculation of the distribution function is carried out for cellulose triacetate. The determination of the concrete detection efficiency using the light microscope and light transmission measurements as the evaluation technique will be described in further publications. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation study between the chemical and electrochemical etching for solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, S.; Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    Since there are several methods of etching in the solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) it is necessary to know which gives the best results for a specific problem. The purpose of this work is to analyze and compare both the chemical etching and the electrochemical etching. The SSNTD has a preferential response to certain kinds of particles and energies, according to the material used as detector. On the other hand the efficiency is a function of the incidence angle of the radiation and some other parameters such as temperature, concentration and type of solvent used in the etching process, and the method used for the etching. Therefore, it is necessary to extend as much as possible our knowledge of such parameters in order to choose the more efficient one for a specific problem

  6. Some aspects of the etching behavior of cellulose nitrate as track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, D.; Reitz, G.; Buecker, H.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental results are presented to support the hypothesis that the etching velocity in cellulose nitrate detectors is dependent on the local water content of the foil. The consequence is drawn that high concentrations (> 4.7 n) of the etching solution should not be used for high precision track etching. The possibility to vary the Vsub(t)/Vsub(b) ratio is reported to have a useful application in biological experiments. Further more an influence of etch products at low NaOH concentrations was found. The cellulose nitrate detectors used in this investigation are 250 μ sheets made by Daicel, Nippon (plasticized) and 100 μ sheets made by Kodak, France (Type CA 80-15, plasticized). No qualitative differences in the etching behaviour of these two materials were obtained regarding the reported investigations, although the differences are partly large regarding other features. (orig.) [de

  7. Test experiments on muon radiography with emulsion track detectors in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, A.B.; Bagulya, A.V.; Vladimirov, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    The Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FIAN) and the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Lomonosov Moscow State University (SINP MSU) opened in Russia a series of pilot muon radiography experiments with nuclear emulsion detectors for study of interior structure of large-scale natural and industrial objects. As a result the optimal conditions of experiment organization were determined, algorithms of data processing were worked out and peculiarities of the method were ultimately investigated. The experiment data, including field observations (in the mine of the Geophysical Department of the Russian Academy of Sciences), were also presented which confirm that the method with track detectors on the base of nuclear emulsions with uniquely high spatial resolution holds much promise in case of their high-tech automated processing

  8. Instrumentation of a Level-1 Track Trigger in the ATLAS detector for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Boisvert, V; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider will be upgraded in order to reach an instantaneous luminosity of $L=5 \\times 10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. A challenge for the detectors will be to cope with the excessive rate of events coming into the trigger system. In order to maintain the capability of triggering on single lepton objects with momentum thresholds of $p_T 25$ GeV, the ATLAS detector is planning to use tracking information at the Level-1 (hardware) stage of the trigger system. Two options are currently being studied: a L0/L1 trigger design using a double buffer front-end architecture and a single hardware trigger level which uses trigger layers in the new tracker system. Both options are presented as well as results from simulation studies.

  9. International comparison of radon measurement using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Dan; Yang Weigen; Song Jianfeng

    2011-01-01

    It introduces the radon measurements international comparison using solid state track detectors among Zhejiang Environmental Radiation Monitoring Center (RMTC), Japan Chemical Analysis Center (JCAC) and National Institute for Radiological Protection of China CDC (NIRP). The results of the international comparison show that: Compared to the reference values, the measurements' relative deviations of detectors from 3 labs were 2%∼22%, which were exposed in radon chambers with different radon concentration, while the measurements' relative deviations were 0.5%∼13% when exposed in the environment. The measurement's relative deviations of RMTC were 5%∼3% in radon chambers and 0.5%∼9% in the environment, the results met requirements of the relative standards both at home and abroad. (authors)

  10. Change of Cr-39(DOP) track detector response as a result of space exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, J.S.; Singh, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    The response functions for CR-39(DOP) plastic track detectors are calculated, using the simplex method for nonlinear least squares fit, from experimental data obtained from accelerator beams as well as space exposure. The average detector sensitivity is reduced by over 30% in the case of space exposure. The average charge shift for the oxygen group is one charge unit, and it increases with particle charge. The effect decreases with restricted energy loss, which is contrary to that observed in the registration temperature effect. We have discussed various environmental parameters which may produce the observed effect. The registration temperature effect may account for the observed effect (within the errors) for the worst case (temperature) analysis. However, a more reasonable estimate suggests that both the registration temperature as well as pressure during exposure contribute to the observed effect. To discriminate between the separate contributions, further experimental data is needed. (author)

  11. The upgraded Pixel detector and the commissioning of the Inner Detector tracking of the ATLAS experiment for Run-2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00019188; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run-2 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will provide new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with the high radiation and expected occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D detectors and CMOS 130~nm technology. In addition, the Pixel detector was refurbished with a new service quarter panel to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during Run-1 and a new optical readout system to readout the data at higher speed while reducing the occupancy when running with increased luminosity. Complementing detector improvements, many improvements to Inner Detector track and vertex reconstr...

  12. Light scattering by microstructures in plastic nuclear track detector plane surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wipasuramonton, O.

    1985-01-01

    The angular distributions of light elastically scattered by finite dielectric conical and cylindrical microstructures in plastic nuclear track detector plane surfaces have been measured. These microstructures are the chemically etched tracks of various nuclei, viz., protons, neutrons, 3 He, alphas, and 56 Fe. The base diameters of the structures are larger than twice the wavelength of the incident light. The results show the dependence of the scattering patterns on shape, size, orientation, and refractive index of the structures as well as the polarization of the incident light. It is also observed that in the single and independent scattering regime, the intensity at the intermediate angular region exhibits linear proportionality to the number of the microstructures per unit area. 84 refs., 96 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Development of neutron personnel monitoring system based on CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massand, O.P.; Kundu, H.K.; Marathe, P.K.; Supe, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Personnel neutron monitoring aims at providing a method to evaluate the magnitude of the detrimental effects on the personnel exposed to neutrons. Neutron monitoring is done for a small though growing number of personnel working with neutrons in a wide range of situations. Over the years, many solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) have been tried for neutron personnel monitoring. CR-39 SSNTD is a proton sensitive polymer and offers a lot of promise for neutron personnel monitoring due to its high sensitivity and lower energy threshold for neutron detection. This report presents the mechanism of track formation in this polymer, the development of this neutron personnel monitoring system in our laboratory, its various characteristics and its promise as a routine personnel neutron monitor. (author). 1 tab., 7 figs

  14. Detection of heavy nuclei in the plastic track detector CR-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumuro, F.; Ihara, R.; Ohta, I.; Sato, Y.; Tezuka, I.; Tasaka, S.; Sugimoto, H.

    1982-01-01

    Relativistic cosmic ray nuclei were detected in an emulsion chamber composed of a pile of solid state track detectors (CR-39) and the emulsion plates. The 460 heavy nuclei were observed by scanning of emulsion and CR-39 plastic plates. The normalized track etch rate (Vsub(t)/Vsub(b))-1 for relativistic iron group was measured as 1.3+-0.05 and bulk etch rate Vsub(b) as 1.63+-0.08 μm/hour after 32 hours etch in 6.8 N NaOH at 70 0 C. The charge detection threshold was obtained to be Z=6 for β=1 with the dip angle larger than 75 degrees. The charge resolution was estimated to be Δ Z=0.7 for iron, and Δ Z=0.4 for magnesium and silicon nuclei

  15. A high precision video-electronic measuring system for use with solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schott, J.U.; Schopper, E.; Staudte, R.

    1976-01-01

    A video-electronic image analyzing system Quantimet 720 has been modified to meet the requirements of the measurement of tracks of nuclear particles in solid state track detectors with resulting improvement of precision, speed, and the elimination of subjective influences. A microscope equipped with an automatic XY stage projects the image onto the cathode of a vidicon-amplifier. Within the TV-picture generated, characterized by the coordinate XY in the specimen, we determine coordinates xy of events by setting cross lines on the screen which correspond to a digital accuracy of 0.1 μm at the position of the object. Automatic movement in Z-direction can be performed by stepping motor and measured electronically, or continously by setting electric voltage on a piezostrictive support of the objective. (orig.) [de

  16. Ventilation rate in equilibrium factor measurements with solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, L.R.; Leitao, R.M.S.; Marques, A.; Rivera, A.

    1994-08-01

    Ventilation rate values are calculated from track density measurements in solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD), both when ventilation is the main cause of radioactive disequilibrium in radon progeny and when it shares importance with other agents. The method consists in exposing a SSNTD of high intrinsic efficiency (CR-39) in filtered and unfiltered conditions and, in addition, covered with a thin Aluminium foil, to stop alpha particles from 218 Po and 222 Rn. No calibrations are required but, when necessary, independent measurements of the loss rates of radioactivity to aerosol and to walls have to perform. Ventilation rates depend upon geometry detection efficiencies for alpha particles, here obtained by Monte Carlo simulation, taking into account the space distribution of emission positions. This may lead to sizeable corrections in ventilation and equilibrium factor values. Since geometric detection efficiencies depend upon alpha-particle ranges in air, the influences of barometric variables are also discussed. (author). 7 refs

  17. A time to voltage converter and analog memory unit for straw tracking detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callewaert, L.; Eyckmans, W.; Sansen, W.; Stevens, A.; Van der Spiegel, J.; Van Berg, R.; Williams, H.H.; Yau, T.Y.

    1990-01-01

    In a high precision drift tube or straw tracking system, one measures the time of arrival of the first electron at the anode. While many possible schemes exist, the authors initial judgment was that an analog time measurement would offer both lower power and greater resolution than an equally complex digital system. In addition, they believe that it will be necessary to incorporate all of the system features such as connection to the trigger and DAQ systems in any usable design in order to keep the power, mass and complexity of the final system under control. A low power, sub-nanosecond accuracy, quick recovery, data-driven, multiple sample Time to Voltage Converter suitable for use on high rate straw tracking detectors is described. The described TVC includes virtual storage of analog data in both Level 1 and Level 2 queues and an on board ADC with first order correction for capacitance variations and non-linearities

  18. In-beam experiment with the γ-ray tracking detector MARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroell, Th.; Bazzacco, D.; Venturelli, R.; Nespolo, M.; Quintana Arnes, B.; Ur, C.A.; Bellato, M.; Isocrate, R.; Manea, Ch.; Menegazzo, R.; Pavan, P.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Farnea, E.; Gadea, A.; Rosso, D.; Spolaore, P.; Camera, F.; Million, B.; Pullia, A.; Wieland, O.

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of the entire process of γ-ray tracking is demonstrated experimentally for the first time. The accuracy of the results is verified by the capability to carry out a Doppler correction of γ-rays emitted in flight. The resolution of the 846.8 keV transition detected with the MARS detector after Coulomb excitation of a 56 Fe beam could be improved from approximately 16 up to 4.6 keV (FWHM). This result corresponds to an obtained position resolution of about 6 mm (FWHM)

  19. Track counting and thickness measurement of LR115 radon detectors using a commercial image scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cicco, F.; Pugliese, M.; Roca, V.; Sabbarese, C.

    2014-01-01

    An original optical method for track counting and film thickness determination of etched LR115 radon detectors was developed. The method offers several advantages compared with standard techniques. In particular, it is non-destructive, very simple and rather inexpensive, since it uses a commercial scanner and a free software. The complete analysis and the calibration procedure carried out for the determination of radon specific activity are reported. A comparison with the results of spark counting defines the accuracy and the precision of the new technique. (authors)

  20. History of the bubble chamber and related active- and internal-target nuclear tracking detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becchetti, F.D.

    2015-01-01

    Donald Glaser, 1960 Nobel laureate in Physics, recently passed away (2013), as have many of his colleagues who were involved with the early development of bubble chambers at the University of Michigan. In this paper I will review those early years and the subsequent wide-spread application of active-target (AT) bubble chambers that dominated high-energy physics (HEP) research for over thirty years. Some of the related, but more modern nuclear tracking detectors being used in HEP, neutrino astrophysics and dark-matter searches also will be discussed

  1. Interaction mean free path measurements for relativistic heavy ion fragments using CR39 plastic track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drechsel, H.; Brechtmann, C.; Dreute, J.; Sonntag, S.; Trakowski, W.; Beer, J.; Heinrich, W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment measuring the interaction mean free paths for charge changing nuclear collisions of relativistic heavy ion fragments. We use a stack of CR39 plastic nuclear track detectors that was irradiated with 1.8 GeV/nucleon 40 Ar ions at the Berkeley Bevalac. About 1.5 x 10 7 etch cones were measured in this experiment using an automatic measuring system. By tracing the etch cones over successive plastic foils the particle trajectories in the stack were reconstructed. For 14185 trajectories with 6444 nuclear collisions of fragments with charge 9-15 the interaction mean free path in the plastic was determined. (orig.)

  2. CR-39 nuclear track detector used for neutron dosimetry: system calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint Martin, G.; Lopez, F.; Bernaola, Omar A.

    2009-01-01

    Stacks composed by 1 mm thickness CR-39 foils and polyethylene and PVC films were evaluated to be used as neutron dosemeters. Irradiations were made with a calibrated 241 Am-Be source in a dose range from 0 to 3.1 mSv and the etching conditions were optimized. The measurements of number of tracks per surface unit in the CR-39 detectors showed a good linear behaviour as a function of the dose. The minimum detectable dose equivalent (MDDE) was calculated. (author)

  3. A large streamer chamber muon tracking detector in a high-flux fixed-target application

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D; Adeva, B; Arik, E; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Ballintijn, M K; Bardin, G; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; Bird, I G; Birsa, R; Björkholm, P; Bonner, B E; De Botton, N R; Boutemeur, M; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Cavata, C; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dalla Torre, S; Van Dantzig, R; Derro, B R; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Dulya, C M; Dyring, A; Eichblatt, S; Faivre, Jean-Claude; Fasching, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Forthmann, S; Frois, Bernard; Gallas, A; Garabatos, C; Garzón, J A; Gaussiran, T; Gilly, H; Giorgi, M A; von Goeler, E; Görtz, S; Golutvin, I A; Gómez-Tato, A; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Gülmez, E; Haft, K; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kabuss, E M; Kageya, T; Karev, A G; Kessler, H J; Ketel, T; Kiryluk, J; Kiryushin, Yu T; Kishi, A; Kiselev, Yu F; Klostermann, L; Krämer, Dietrich; Kröger, W; Kurek, K; Kyynäräinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Lau, K; Layda, T; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Lindqvist, T; Litmaath, M; Loewe, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B W; McCarthy, J S; Medved, K S; Meyer, W T; Van Middelkoop, G; Miller, D; Miyachi, Y; Mori, K; Moromisato, J H; Nassalski, J P; Naumann, Lutz; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J; Ogawa, A; Ozben, C; Parks, D P; Pereira, H; Penzo, Aldo L; Perrot-Kunne, F; Peshekhonov, V D; Piegaia, R; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S K; Pló, M; Pose, D; Postma, H; Pretz, J; Pussieux, T; Pyrlik, J; Rädel, G; Reyhancan, I; Reicherz, G; Rijllart, A; Roberts, J B; Rock, S E; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, Ewa; Rosado, A; Roscherr, B; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Sandacz, A; Sanders, D; Savin, I A; Schiavon, R P; Schiller, A; Schüler, K P; Segel, R E; Seitz, R; Semertzidis, Y K; Sergeev, S; Sever, F; Shanahan, P; Sichtermann, E P; Simeoni, F; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stiegler, U; Stuhrmann, H B; Szleper, M; Teichert, K M; Tessarotto, F; Thers, D; Tlaczala, W; Trentalange, S; Tripet, A; Tzamouranis, Yu; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, Rüdiger; Weinstein, R; Whitten, C; Windmolders, R; Willumeit, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Zamiatin, N I; Zanetti, A M; Zaremba, K; Zhao, J

    1999-01-01

    Arrays of limited streamer tubes of the Iarocci type were deployed in our experiment at CERN as part of a forward muon detector system with provisions for the beam to pass through the center of each panel in the array. A total of sixteen 4 m x 4 m panels were assembled with inductive readout strips on both sides of each panel. An active feedback system was deployed to regulate the high voltage to the streamer tubes to insure a constant efficiency for minimum ionizing particles. The arrays were operated in this environment for over five years of data taking. Streamer tube track-reconstruction efficiencies and tube replacement rates are reported.

  4. Radon diffusion in polymer vessels using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Andre Cavalcanti; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Rocha, Zildete; Pereira, Marcio Tadeu, E-mail: andreccarneiro@gmail.com, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: zildete@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Santos, Talita de Oliveira; Lara, Evelise Gomes; Braga, Mario Roberto Martins S.S., E-mail: mariomartins@gmail.com, E-mail: evelise.lara@gmail.com, E-mail: talitaolsantos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    At CDTN/CNEN, the method to determine {sup 226}Ra in several matrices by gamma spectrometry is already established; however, the method should be improved. This paper is about the first step of this improvement. Several polymer vessels were studied verifying the effect of radiolysis on the walls of the vessel. A test about the diffusion of {sup 222}Rn through the walls was carried out using the CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector. The results pointed out that the vessel made up by acrylic material is the best candidate to replace the vessel actually used. (author)

  5. LET spectrometry with track etch detectors-Use in high-energy radiation fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jadrníčková, Iva; Spurný, František

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 43, 2-6 (2008), s. 683-687 ISSN 1350-4487. [International Conference on Dosimetry /15./. Delft, 08.07.-13.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/04/0795; GA ČR(CZ) GD202/05/H031; GA MŠk 1P05OC032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : track detector * linear energy transfer * CERF Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.267, year: 2008

  6. Alpha activity of 190 Pt isotope measured with CR-39 track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, O.A.P.; Terranova, M.L.

    1996-11-01

    A new method to measure alpha activity of long-lived radioisotopes is reported. The method consists basically in using CR-39 track detectors in close contact with thick samples of the radioelement to be investigated. Accordingly, a long-term exposure experiment has been performed using metallic sheets of natural platinum to measure alpha activity of platinum 190 isotope. The half-life of platinum 190 has been obtained in good agreement with two recent theoretical half-life predictions. (author). 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Track structure model for damage to mammalian cell cultures during solar proton events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Katz, R.

    1992-01-01

    Solar proton events (SPEs) occur infrequently and unpredictably, thus representing a potential hazard to interplanetary space missions. Biological damage from SPEs will be produced principally through secondary electron production in tissue, including important contributions due to delta rays from nuclear reaction products. We review methods for estimating the biological effectiveness of SPEs using a high energy proton model and the parametric cellular track model. Results of the model are presented for several of the historically largest flares using typical levels and body shielding.

  8. Radiation Damage Observations in the ATLAS Pixel Detector Using the High Voltage Delivery System

    CERN Document Server

    Toms, K

    2011-01-01

    We describe the implementation of radiation damage monitoring using leakage current measurement of the silicon pixel sensors provided by the circuits of the ATLAS Pixel Detector high voltage delivery (HVPP4) system. The dependence of the leakage current upon the integrated luminosity for several temperature scenarios is presented. Based on the analysis we have determined the sensitivity specifications for a Current Measurement System. The status of the system and the first measurement of the radiation damage corresponding to 2--4 fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity are presented, as well as the comparison with the theoretical model.

  9. Micro-fabricated silicon devices for advanced thermal management and integration of particle tracking detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Romagnoli, Giulia; Gambaro, Carla

    Since their first studies targeting the cooling of high-power computing chips, micro-channel devices are proven to provide a very efficient cooling system. In the last years micro-channel cooling has been successfully applied to the cooling of particle detectors at CERN. Thanks to their high thermal efficiency, they can guarantee a good heat sink for the cooling of silicon trackers, fundamental for the reduction of the radiation damage caused by the beam interactions. The radiation damage on the silicon detector is increasing with temperature and furthermore the detectors are producing heat that should be dissipated in the supporting structure. Micro-channels guarantee a distributed and uniform thermal exchange, thanks to the high flexibility of the micro-fabrication process that allows a large variety of channel designs. The thin nature of the micro-channels etched inside silicon wafers, is fulfilling the physics requirement of minimization of the material crossed by the particle beam. Furthermore micro-chan...

  10. Developments, characterization and proton irradiation damage tests of AlN detectors for VUV solar observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BenMoussa, A., E-mail: ali.benmoussa@stce.be [Solar Terrestrial Center of Excellence (STCE), Royal Observatory of Belgium, Circular Avenue 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Soltani, A.; Gerbedoen, J.-C [Institut d’Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), F-59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Saito, T. [Department of Environment and Energy, Tohoku Institute of Technology, 35-1, Yagiyama-Kasumi-cho, Taihaku-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 982-8577 (Japan); Averin, S. [Fryazino Branch of the Kotel’nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of Russian Academy of Sciences, 141190 Square Vvedenski 1, Fryazino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Gissot, S.; Giordanengo, B. [Solar Terrestrial Center of Excellence (STCE), Royal Observatory of Belgium, Circular Avenue 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Berger, G. [Catholic University of Louvain-la-Neuve, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain la Neuve (Belgium); Kroth, U. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, D-10587 Berlin (Germany); De Jaeger, J.-C. [Institut d’Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), F-59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Gottwald, A. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, D-10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    For next generation spaceborne solar ultraviolet radiometers, innovative metal–semiconductor–metal detectors based on wurtzite aluminum nitride are being developed and characterized. A set of measurement campaigns and proton irradiation damage tests was carried out to obtain their ultraviolet-to-visible characterization and degradation mechanisms. First results on large area prototypes up to 4.3 mm diameter are presented here. In the wavelength range of interest, this detector is reasonably sensitive and stable under brief irradiation with a negligible low dark current (3–6 pA/cm{sup 2}). No significant degradation of the detector performance was observed after exposure to protons of 14.4 MeV energy, showing a good radiation tolerance up to fluences of 1 × 10{sup 11} protons/cm{sup 2}.

  11. Results of solid state nuclear track detector technique application in radon detection, by alpha particles tracks, for uranium prospecting in Caetite (BA-Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.A.P.V. de; Khouri, M.T.F.C.

    1988-11-01

    The solid state nuclear track detector technique has been used in radon detection, by alpha particles tracks for uranium prospecting on the ground in Caetite city (Bahia-Brazil). The sensitive film to alpha particles used were CA 8015 exposed during 15 days and the results of three anomalies of this region are showed in a form of maps, made with the density of tracks obtained, and were compared with scintillation counter measurements. The technique showed to be simple and an effective auxiliary for the prospection of uranium ore bodies. The initial uranium exploration costs can be reduced by using this technique. (author) [pt

  12. Fast front-end electronics for semiconductor tracking detectors: Trends and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivetti, Angelo

    2014-11-21

    In the past few years, extensive research efforts pursued by both the industry and the academia have lead to major improvements in the performance of Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) and Time to Digital Converters (TDCs). ADCs achieving 8–10 bit resolution, 50–100 MHz conversion frequency and less than 1 mW power consumption are the today's standard, while TDCs have reached sub-picosecond time resolution. These results have been made possible by architectural upgrades combined with the use of ultra deep submicron CMOS technologies with minimum feature size of 130 nm or smaller. Front-end ASICs in which a prompt digitization is followed by signal conditioning in the digital domain can now be envisaged also within the tight power budget typically available in high density tracking systems. Furthermore, tracking detectors embedding high resolution timing capabilities are gaining interest. In the paper, ADC's and TDC's developments which are of particular relevance for the design front-end electronics for semiconductor trackers are discussed along with the benefits and challenges of exploiting such high performance building blocks in implementing the next generation of ASICs for high granularity particle detectors.

  13. Radon-film-badges by solid radiators to complement track detector-based radon monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tommasino, L.; Tommasino, M.C.; Viola, P.

    2009-01-01

    Existing passive radon monitors, based on track detectors, present many shortcomings, such as a limited response sensitivity for one-week-indoor measurements and a limited response linearity for the assessment of large radon exposures indoors, in thermal spa, in caves, and in soil. Moreover, for in-soil measurements these monitors are too bulky and are often conducive to wrong results. For what concerns the radon-in-water measurements, they are just not suitable. A new generation of passive radon monitors is introduced in this paper, which are very similar to the compact badges used in neutron- and gamma-dosimetry and will be referred to as radon-film-badges. These film-badges are formed by thin-film radiators with suitable radon-sorption characteristics, facing track detectors. The key strategy adopted for these radiators is to exploit an equilibrium type of radon sorption in solids. Even though this new generation of passive monitors is at its infancy, it appears already clear that said monitors make it finally possible to overcome most of the shortcomings of existing passive radon monitors. These devices are uniquely simple and can be easily acquired by any existing radon service to complement their presently used passive radon monitors with little or no effort.

  14. tkLayout: a Design Tool for Innovative Silicon Tracking Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    A new CMS tracker is scheduled to become operational for the LHC Phase 2 upgrade in the early 2020's. tkLayout is a software package developed to create 3d models for the design of the CMS tracker and to evaluate its fundamental performance figures. The new tracker will have to cope with much higher luminosity conditions, resulting in increased track density, harsher radiation exposure and, especially, much higher data acquisition bandwidth, such that equipping the tracker with triggering capabilities is envisaged. The design of an innovative detector involves deciding on an architecture offering the best trade-off among many figures of merit, such as tracking resolution, power dissipation, bandwidth, cost and so on. Quantitatively evaluating these figures of merit as early as possible in the design phase is of capital importance and it is best done with the aid of software models. tkLayout is a flexible modeling tool: new performance estimates and support for different detector geometries can be quickly ad...

  15. Tracking brachytherapy sources using emission imaging with one flat panel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Haijun; Bowsher, James; Das, Shiva; Yin Fangfang

    2009-01-01

    This work proposes to use the radiation from brachytherapy sources to track their dwell positions in three-dimensional (3D) space. The prototype device uses a single flat panel detector and a BB tray. The BBs are arranged in a defined pattern. The shadow of the BBs on the flat panel is analyzed to derive the 3D coordinates of the illumination source, i.e., the dwell position of the brachytherapy source. A kilovoltage x-ray source located 3.3 m away was used to align the center BB with the center pixel on the flat panel detector. For a test plan of 11 dwell positions, with an Ir-192 high dose rate unit, one projection was taken for each dwell point, and locations of the BB shadows were manually identified on the projection images. The 3D coordinates for the 11 dwell positions were reconstructed based on two BBs. The distances between dwell points were compared with the expected values. The average difference was 0.07 cm with a standard deviation of 0.15 cm. With automated BB shadow recognition in the future, this technique possesses the potential of tracking the 3D trajectory and the dwell times of a brachytherapy source in real time, enabling real time source position verification.

  16. Automatic methods of the processing of data from track detectors on the basis of the PAVICOM facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, A. B.; Goncharova, L. A.; Davydov, D. A.; Publichenko, P. A.; Roganova, T. M.; Polukhina, N. G.; Feinberg, E. L.

    2007-02-01

    New automatic methods essentially simplify and increase the rate of the processing of data from track detectors. This provides a possibility of processing large data arrays and considerably improves their statistical significance. This fact predetermines the development of new experiments which plan to use large-volume targets, large-area emulsion, and solid-state track detectors [1]. In this regard, the problem of training qualified physicists who are capable of operating modern automatic equipment is very important. Annually, about ten Moscow students master the new methods, working at the Lebedev Physical Institute at the PAVICOM facility [2 4]. Most students specializing in high-energy physics are only given an idea of archaic manual methods of the processing of data from track detectors. In 2005, on the basis of the PAVICOM facility and the physicstraining course of Moscow State University, a new training work was prepared. This work is devoted to the determination of the energy of neutrons passing through a nuclear emulsion. It provides the possibility of acquiring basic practical skills of the processing of data from track detectors using automatic equipment and can be included in the educational process of students of any physical faculty. Those who have mastered the methods of automatic data processing in a simple and pictorial example of track detectors will be able to apply their knowledge in various fields of science and technique. Formulation of training works for pregraduate and graduate students is a new additional aspect of application of the PAVICOM facility described earlier in [4].

  17. Study of α-energy discrimination in CR-39 track etch detectors for use as a radon/thoron dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandaiya, S.; Al-Najjar, S.A.R.; Piesch, E.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of CR 39 nuclear track detectors were evaluated for their α-energy discrimination up to 8.77 MeV using a combination of chemical-electrochemical track revealing techniques. Using three field strengths, α-energy discrimination by ECE track diameter and track density as a function of chemical pre-etching time were studied. α-energy spectra using different irradiation geometries were then evaluated using the optimum conditions and then compared with those obtained form other techniques. (author)

  18. Artificial ion tracks in volcanic dark mica simulating natural radiation damage: A scanning force microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, M.; Glasmacher, U.A.; Moine, B.; Mueller, C.; Neumann, R.; Wagner, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    A new dating technique uses alpha-recoil tracks (ART), formed by the natural α-decay of U, Th and their daughter products, to determine the formation age of Quaternary volcanic rocks ( 6 a). Visualization of etched ART by scanning force microscopy (SFM) enables to access track densities beyond 10 8 cm -2 and thus extend the new ART-dating technique to an age range >10 6 a. In order to simulate natural radiation damage, samples of phlogopite, originating from Quaternary and Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Eifel (Germany) and Kerguelen Islands (Indian Ocean) were irradiated with U, Ni (11.4 MeV/u), Xe, Cr, Ne (1.4 MeV/u) and Bi (200 keV) ions. After irradiation and etching with HF at various etching times, phlogopite surfaces were visualized by SFM. Hexagonal etch pits are typical of U, Xe and Cr ion tracks, but the etch pits of Ni, Ne and Bi ion tracks are triangular. Surfaces irradiated with U, Xe, Cr and Ni ions do not show any significant difference between etch pit density and irradiation fluence, whereas the Ne-irradiated surface show ∼14 times less etch pit density. The etching rate v H (parallel to cleavage) depends on the chemical composition of the phlogopite. The etching rate v T ' (along the track) increases with energy loss

  19. Real-Time Tracking of Parental Histones Reveals Their Contribution to Chromatin Integrity Following DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Salomé; Dabin, Juliette; Chevallier, Odile; Leroy, Olivier; Baldeyron, Céline; Corpet, Armelle; Lomonte, Patrick; Renaud, Olivier; Almouzni, Geneviève; Polo, Sophie E

    2016-10-06

    Chromatin integrity is critical for cell function and identity but is challenged by DNA damage. To understand how chromatin architecture and the information that it conveys are preserved or altered following genotoxic stress, we established a system for real-time tracking of parental histones, which characterize the pre-damage chromatin state. Focusing on histone H3 dynamics after local UVC irradiation in human cells, we demonstrate that parental histones rapidly redistribute around damaged regions by a dual mechanism combining chromatin opening and histone mobilization on chromatin. Importantly, parental histones almost entirely recover and mix with new histones in repairing chromatin. Our data further define a close coordination of parental histone dynamics with DNA repair progression through the damage sensor DDB2 (DNA damage-binding protein 2). We speculate that this mechanism may contribute to maintaining a memory of the original chromatin landscape and may help preserve epigenome stability in response to DNA damage. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An improved detector response simulation for the CBM silicon tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malygina, Hanna [Goethe University, Frankfurt (Germany); Friese, Volker [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment(CBM) at FAIR is designed to explore the QCD phase diagram in the region of high net-baryon densities. The central detector component the Silicon Tracking System (STS) is build from double-sided micro-strip sensors. To achieve realistic simulations the response of the silicon strip sensors should be precisely included in the digitizer which simulates a complete chain of physical processes caused by charged particles traversing the detector, from charge creation in silicon to a digital output signal. The new version of the STS digitizer comprises in addition non-uniform energy loss distributions (according to the Urban theory), thermal diffusion and charge redistribution over the read-out channels due to interstrip capacitances. The improved response simulation was tested with parameters reproducing the anticipated running conditions of the CBM experiment. Two different method for cluster finding were used. The results for hit position residuals, cluster size distribution, as well as for some other parameters of reconstruction quality are presented. The achieved advance is assessed by a comparison with the previous, simpler version of the STS detector response simulation.

  1. Modifications of the optical properties for DAM-ADC nuclear track detector exposed to alpha particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammah, Y. S.; Awad, E. M.

    2018-05-01

    Modifications of the optical properties of diallyl maleate-allyl diglycol carbonate (DAM-ADC) nuclear detector induced by alpha particles are described. DAM-ADC samples were irradiated perpendicularly by thin 241Am disk source that emits alpha particles with 5.48 MeV. The optical absorption has been measured using the ultraviolet-visible (UV-1100) spectroscopy. It was found that DAM-ADC polymer shows substantial modifications in its optical characteristics upon irradiated with alpha particles with different energies. The optical energy band gap (Egap) for the detector was calculated for the direct and the indirect allowed transitions in K-space using two approaches (Tauc's model and absorption spectrum fitting (ASF) method). Urbach's energy (Ea), number of carbon atoms per conjugated length (N), number of carbon atoms per cluster (M), and refractive index (n) for the present samples were determined. Results reveal that the values of energy gap in direct transition are greater than those of indirect, before and after irradiation. (Egap), (Ea), (N), (M), and (n) of the present samples are changed significantly with irradiation time and value of alpha energy. Results reflect the possibility of using DAM-ADC polymer track detectors to estimate alpha particle energies using the variation of the absorbance.

  2. Recent Developments on the Silicon Drift Detector readout scheme for the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Mazza, G; Bonazzola, G C; Bonvicini, V; Cavagnino, D; Cerello, P G; De Remigis, P; Falchieri, D; Gabrielli, A; Gandolfi, E; Giubellino, P; Hernández, R; Masetti, M; Montaño-Zetina, L M; Nouais, D; Rashevsky, A; Rivetti, A; Tosello, F

    1999-01-01

    Proposal of abstract for LEB99, Snowmass, Colorado, 20-24 September 1999Recent developments of the Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) readout system for the ALICE Experiment are presented. The foreseen readout system is based on 2 main units. The first unit consists of a low noise preamplifier, an analog memory which continuously samples the amplifier output, an A/D converter and a digital memory. When the trigger signal validates the analog data, the ADCs convert the samples into a digital form and store them into the digital memory. The second unit performs the zero suppression/data compression operations. In this paper the status of the design is presented, together with the test results of the A/D converter, the multi-event buffer and the compression unit prototype.Summary:In the Inner Tracker System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment the third and the fourth layer of the detectors are SDDs. These detectors provide the measurement of both the energy deposition and the bi-dimensional position of the track. In terms o...

  3. The dielectric track and thermoluminescent detectors applied to neutron dosimetry in personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mebhah, D.

    1984-03-01

    The personnal dosimeter for neutron based on the detection of fission fragments from 237 Np and 232 Th by a polycarbonate 10 gm, and lithium fluorite 6 LIF/ 7 LIF, allow to cover an energy spectrum from 0.05 eV to 14 MeV with a easy neutron gamma discrimination. In criticality dosimetry, the energy spectrum of the incident neutrons can be defined by two components: the fast component by E b exp(-ae) with E between 0.1 and 14 MeV, a and b determined by a combination of 237 Np and 232 Th track detector responses, and the epithermal component in 1/E, the thermal component having a minor contribution to the total equivalent dose. We took into account the body influence on the detectors response by introducing effective cross section. The equivalent dose obtained by this dosimeter is 20% overestimated in low doses dosimetry. The interpretation of the detectors responses is based on the definition of a factor and a calibration parameter for each zone in which the spectrum is constant. The knowledge of this parameter for individual dosimeters allows to account for the variations of the conditions of calibration

  4. P wave detector with PP rhythm tracking: evaluation in different arrhythmia contexts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portet, François

    2008-01-01

    Automatic detection of atrial activity (P waves) in an electrocardiogram (ECG) is a crucial task to diagnose the presence of arrhythmias. The P wave is difficult to detect and most of the approaches in the literature have been evaluated on normal sinus rhythms and rarely considered arrhythmia contexts other than atrial flutter and fibrillation. A novel knowledge-based P wave detector algorithm is presented. It is self-adaptive to the patient and able to deal with certain arrhythmias by tracking the PP rhythm. The detector has been tested on 12 records of the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database containing several ventricular and supra-ventricular arrhythmias. On the overall records, the detector demonstrates Se = 96.60% and Pr = 95.46%; for the normal sinus rhythm, it reaches Se = 97.76% and Pr = 96.80% and, in the case of Mobitz type II, it demonstrates Se = 72.79% and Pr = 99.51%. It also shows good performance for trigeminy and bigeminy, and outperforms some more sophisticated techniques. Although the results emphasize the difficulty of P wave detection in difficult arrhythmias (supra and ventricular tachycardias), it shows that domain knowledge can efficiently support signal processing techniques

  5. Study etching characteristics of a track detector CR-39 with ultraviolet laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwaikat, Nidal; Iida, Toshiyuki; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi; Ishikawa, Ippei; Kada, Wataru; Kishi, Atsuya; Sakai, Makoto; Ihara, Yohei

    2007-01-01

    The effect of pulsed ultraviolet Indium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (UV-In:YAG) laser of λ=266 nm, pulse energy 42 mJ/pulse at repetition rate10 Hz on the etching characteristics of Japanese CR-39 was studied at various energy intensities. Fifteen detectors were divided into two sets, each of seven samples and one sample was kept as a reference.The first set (post-exposed) was first exposed to alpha radiation with close contact to 241 Am and then treated in air with laser in the energy intensity range from 40 to160 J/cm 2 , 20 J/cm 2 in step. The second set (pre-exposed) was irradiated in reverse process (laser+alpha) with the same sources as the first set and under the same condition. The laser energy intensities ranged between 20 and 140 J/cm 2 , 20 J/cm 2 in step. For post-exposed samples (alpha+laser) bulk etch rate decreases up to 60 J/cm 2 and increases thereafter, while for pre-exposed samples (laser+alpha) the bulk etch rate oscillates without showing any precise periodicity. The bulk etch rate for both sets was found to be the same at 60≤energy intensity≤80 J/cm 2 and this may indicate that the same structural changes have happened. The track etch rate was found to be equal to the bulk etch rate for both sets, so the sensitivity is constant. In both sets several changes on the detector surfaces: tracks of different sizes and shapes and high density within the laser spot were observed. Out of the laser spot, the tracks become larger and lower density, indicating cross-linking and scission have happened, simultaneously, on the same surface as a result of UV-laser irradiation

  6. Uranium concentration in blood samples of Southern Iraqi leukemia patients using CR-39 track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamzawi, A.A.; Al-Qadisiyah University, Qadisiyah; Jaafar, M.S.; Tawfiq, N.F.

    2014-01-01

    The simple and effective technique of fission track etch has been applied to determine trace concentration of uranium in human blood samples taken from two groups of male and female participants: leukemia patients and healthy subjects group. The blood samples of leukemia patients and healthy subjects were collected from three key southern governorates namely, Basrah, Muthanna and Dhi-Qar. These governorates were the centers of intensive military activities during the 1991 and 2003 Gulf wars, and the discarded weapons are still lying around in these regions. CR-39 track detector was used for registration of induced fission tracks. The results show that the highest recorded uranium concentration in the blood samples of leukemia patients was 4.71 ppb (female, 45 years old, from Basrah) and the minimum concentration was 1.91 ppb (male, 3 years old, from Muthanna). For healthy group, the maximum uranium concentration was 2.15 ppb (female, 55 years old, from Basrah) and the minimum concentration was 0.86 ppb (male, 5 years old, from Dhi-Qar). It has been found that the uranium concentrations in human blood samples of leukemia patients are higher than those of the healthy group. These uranium concentrations in the leukemia patients group were significantly different (P < 0.001) from those in the healthy group. (author)

  7. Uranium concentration measurements in human blood for some governorates in Iraq using CR-39 track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfiq, N.F.; Ali, L.T.; Al-Jobouri, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    The sensitive and simple technique of fission track etch has been applied to determine trace concentration of uranium in blood samples for occupational and non-occupational workers, male and female, using CR-39 track detector that is employed for registration of induced fission tracks. The results show that the highest recorded uranium concentration in human blood of workers in the ministry of Science and Technology were 1.90 ppb (male, 36 years old, 12 years' work experience, and living in Basrah governorate) and minimum concentration 0.26 ppb (female, 40 years old, 10 years' work experience, and living in Baghdad), while for non-occupational worker, the maximum uranium concentration was 1.76 ppb (female, 63 years old, and living in Al-Muthana) and minimum concentration was 0.28 ppb (female, 20 years old, and living in Baghdad). It has also been found that the uranium concentration in human blood samples of workers in the ministry of Science and Technology are higher than those of non-occupational workers, and the uranium concentrations for female workers and for non-occupational workers were higher than those for male workers and non-occupational workers. (author)

  8. Alpha-particle dosimetry using solid state nuclear track detectors. Application to 222Rn and its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barillon, R.; Chambaudet, A.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology for the determination of the detection efficiency of a solid state nuclear track detector for radon and its short-lived daughters was presented. First, particular attention is paid to the α-particles having energies and angles of incidence that lead to observable tracks after an adapted chemical etching. The results are then incorporated in a mathematical model to determine the theoretical radon detection efficiency of a polymeric detector placed in a cylindrical cell. When applied to LR115 and CR39 detectors, the model reveals the influence of the position of the radon daughters inside the cell. Radon daughters tend to link up with natural atmospheric aerosols and then settle on the cell's inside wall. This model allows to determine, among other things, the cell size for which the detector response is independent of the fraction daughters plated out. (author)

  9. Counting radon tracks in Makrofol detectors with the 'image reduction and analysis facility' (IRAF) software package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, F. [Laboratorio de Fisica Medica y Radioactividad Ambiental, Departamento de Medicina Fisica y Farmacologia, Universidad de La Laguna, 38320 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)]. E-mail: fimerall@ull.es; Gonzalez-Manrique, S. [Laboratorio de Fisica Medica y Radioactividad Ambiental, Departamento de Medicina Fisica y Farmacologia, Universidad de La Laguna, 38320 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Karlsson, L. [Laboratorio de Fisica Medica y Radioactividad Ambiental, Departamento de Medicina Fisica y Farmacologia, Universidad de La Laguna, 38320 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Hernandez-Armas, J. [Laboratorio de Fisica Medica y Radioactividad Ambiental, Departamento de Medicina Fisica y Farmacologia, Universidad de La Laguna, 38320 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Aparicio, A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna. Avenida. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez s/n, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    Makrofol detectors are commonly used for long-term radon ({sup 222}Rn) measurements in houses, schools and workplaces. The use of this type of passive detectors for the determination of radon concentrations requires the counting of the nuclear tracks produced by alpha particles on the detecting material. The 'image reduction and analysis facility' (IRAF) software package is a piece of software commonly used in astronomical applications. It allows detailed counting and mapping of sky sections where stars are grouped very closely, even forming clusters. In order to count the nuclear tracks in our Makrofol radon detectors, we have developed an inter-disciplinary application that takes advantage of the similitude that exist between counting stars in a dark sky and tracks in a track-etch detector. Thus, a low cost semi-automatic system has been set up in our laboratory which utilises a commercially available desktop scanner and the IRAF software package. A detailed description of the proposed semi-automatic method and its performance, in comparison to ocular counting, is described in detail here. In addition, the calibration factor for this procedure, 2.97+/-0.07kBqm{sup -3}htrack{sup -1}cm{sup 2}, has been calculated based on the results obtained from exposing 46 detectors to certified radon concentrations. Furthermore, the results of a preliminary radon survey carried out in 62 schools in Tenerife island (Spain), using Makrofol detectors, counted with the mentioned procedure, are briefly presented. The results reported here indicate that the developed procedure permits a fast, accurate and unbiased determination of the radon tracks in a large number of detectors. The measurements carried out in the schools showed that the radon concentrations in at least 12 schools were above 200Bqm{sup -3} and, in two of them, above 400Bqm{sup -3}. Further studies should be performed at those schools following the European Union recommendations about radon concentrations in

  10. Comparison of various structural damage tracking techniques with unknown excitations based on experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongwei; Yang, Jann N.; Zhou, Li

    2009-03-01

    An early detection of structural damages is critical for the decision making of repair and replacement maintenance in order to guarantee a specified structural reliability. Consequently, the structural damage detection, based on vibration data measured from the structural health monitoring (SHM) system, has received considerable attention recently. The traditional time-domain analysis techniques, such as the least square estimation (LSE) method and the extended Kalman filter (EKF) approach, require that all the external excitations (inputs) be available, which may not be the case for some SHM systems. Recently, these two approaches have been extended to cover the general case where some of the external excitations (inputs) are not measured, referred to as the LSE with unknown inputs (LSE-UI) and the EKF with unknown inputs (EKF-UI). Also, new analysis methods, referred to as the sequential non-linear least-square estimation with unknown inputs and unknown outputs (SNLSE-UI-UO) and the quadratic sum-square error with unknown inputs (QSSE-UI), have been proposed for the damage tracking of structures when some of the acceleration responses are not measured and the external excitations are not available. In this paper, these newly proposed analysis methods will be compared in terms of accuracy, convergence and efficiency, for damage identification of structures based on experimental data obtained through a series of experimental tests using a small-scale 3-story building model with white noise excitation. The capability of the LSE-UI, EKF-UI, SNLSE-UI-UO and QSSE-UI approaches in tracking the structural damages will be demonstrated.

  11. Effect of various etching conditions on the response of Cr-39 plastic track detector applied for radon dosimetry in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maged, A.F.; Ashraf, F.A.

    1997-01-01

    A solid state nuclear track detector Cr-39 has been used for measuring the radon concentration in the soil air and indoor concentration. The bulk etch rate, C B of Cr-39 has been measured in various concentrations of NaOH in the range (6-8 mole) at temperature 70 degree C. In addition, the track etch rate, V T , and the ratio V = V T /V B , of alpha particles emitted from radon gas exists in nature have been measured in a similar range of etching conditions. This study shows that 8 M NaOH at 70 degree C represent the optimum etching conditions for Cr-39, with the range of the present study. The equilibrium factor and gamma-dose equivalent were calculated by using the track densities of open and filtered solid state nuclear track detectors

  12. Measurement of the energy spectrum of {sup 252}Cf fission fragments using nuclear track detectors and digital image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J. I. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Castano, V. M. [UNAM, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Santiago de Queretaro, 76230 Queretaro (Mexico); Gaso, I. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Mena, M.; Segovia, N. [UNAM, Instituto de Geofisica, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-02-15

    The energy spectrum of {sup 252}Cf fission fragments was measured using nuclear track detectors and digital image analysis system. The detection material was fused silica glass. The detectors were chemically etched in an 8% HF solution. After experimenting with various etching time, it was found that the best resolution of the track diameter distribution was obtained after 30 minutes of etching. Both Gaussian and Lorentzian curves were fit to the track diameter distribution histograms and used to determine the basic parameters of the distribution of the light (N{sub L}) and heavy (N{sub H}) formed peaks and the minimum of the central valley (N{sub V}). Advantages of the method presented here include the fully-automated analysis process, the low cost of the nuclear track detectors and the simplicity of the nuclear track method. The distribution resolution obtained by this method is comparable with the resolution obtained by electronic analysis devices. The descriptive variables calculated were very close to those obtained by other methods based on the use of semiconductor detectors. (Author)

  13. A search for a heavy Majorana neutrino and a radiation damage simulation for the HF detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, James William

    A search for heavy Majorana neutrinos is performed using an event signature defined by two same-sign muons accompanied by two jets. This search is an extension of previous searches, (L3, DELPHI, CMS, ATLAS), using 19.7 fb -1 of data from the 2012 Large Hadron Collider experimental run collected by the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment. A mass window of 40-500 GeV/ c2 is explored. No excess events above Standard Model backgrounds is observed, and limits are set on the mixing element squared, |VmuN|2, as a function of Majorana neutFnrino mass. The Hadronic Forward (HF) Detector's performance will degrade as a function of the number of particles delivered to the detector over time, a quantity referred to as integrated luminosity and measured in inverse femtobarns (fb-1). In order to better plan detector upgrades, the CMS Forward Calorimetry Task Force (FCAL) group and the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter (HCAL) group have requested that radiation damage be simulated and the subsequent performance of the HF subdetector be studied. The simulation was implemented into both the CMS FastSim and CMS FullSim simulation packages. Standard calorimetry performance metrics were computed and are reported. The HF detector can expect to perform well through the planned delivery of 3000 fb-1.

  14. Modeling Radiation Damage Effects in 3D Pixel Digitization for the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Giugliarelli, Gilberto; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Silicon Pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS experiment. They constitute the part of ATLAS closest to the interaction point and for this reason they will be exposed – over their lifetime – to a significant amount of radiation: prior to the HL-LHC, the innermost layers will receive a fluence of 10^15 neq/cm2 and their HL–LHC upgrades will have to cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. This poster presents the details of a new digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the 3D Pixel sensors for the ATLAS Detector.

  15. Neutron angular distribution in a plasma focus obtained using nuclear track detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Mejía, F; Herrera, J J E; Rangel, J; Golzarri, J I; Espinosa, G

    2002-01-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF) is a coaxial plasma gun in which a high-density, high-temperature plasma is obtained in a focused column for a few nanoseconds. When the filling gas is deuterium, neutrons can be obtained from fusion reactions. These are partially due to a beam of deuterons which are accelerated against the background hot plasma by large electric fields originating from plasma instabilities. Due to a beam-target effect, the angular distribution of the neutron emission is anisotropic, peaked in the forward direction along the axis of the gun. The purpose of this work is to illustrate the use of CR-39 nuclear track detectors as a diagnostic tool in the determination of the time-integrated neutron angular distribution. For the case studied in this work, neutron emission is found to have a 70% contribution from isotropic radiation and a 30% contribution from anisotropic radiation.

  16. The design, status and performance of the ZEUS central tracking detector electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, B.; Cussans, D.G.; Fawcett, H.F.; Gilmore, R.S.; Heath, G.P.; Llewellyn, T.J.; Malos, J.; Morgado, C.J.S.; Tapper, R.J.; Gingrich, D.M.; Harnew, N.; Hallam-Baker, P.; Nash, J.; Khatri, T.; Shield, P.D.; McArthur, I.; Topp-Jorgensen, S.; Wilson, F.F.; Allen, D.; Baird, S.A.; Carter, R.; Galagadera, S.; Gibson, M.D.; Hatley, R.S.; Jeffs, M.; Milborrow, R.; Morissey, M.; Quinton, S.P.H.; White, D.J.; Lane, J.; Nixon, G.; Postranecky, M.; Jamdagni, A.K.; Marcou, C.; Miller, D.B.; Toudup, L.

    1992-01-01

    The readout system developed for the ZEUS central tracking detector (CTD) is described. The CTD is required to provide an accurate measurement of the sagitta and energy loss of charged particles as well as provide fast trigger information. This must be carried out in the HERA environment in which beams cross every 96 ns. The first two aims are achieved by digitizing chamber pulses using a pipelined 104 MHz FADC system. The trigger uses a fast determination of the difference in the arrival times of a pulse at each end of the CTD. It processes this data and gives information to the ZEUS global first level trigger. The modules are housed in custom-built racks and crates and read out using a DAQ system based on Transputer readout controllers. These also monitor data quality and produce data for the ZEUS second level Trigger. (orig.)

  17. Bulk etching characteristics of CR-39 track detectors in hydroxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, E.S. da; Knoefel, T.M.J.; Tavares, O.A.P.

    1983-01-01

    A systematic study of the bulk etch rate of CR-39 track detectors in KOH and NaOH aqueous solutions is presented. A number of unirradiated and non-thermally treated CR-39 samples were chemically attacked in KOH and NaOH solutions of concentration and temperature in the range 2-10 N and 50-90 0 C, respectively. From measurements of the thickness of layers removed as a function of the etching time, the bulk etch rate υ β and the induction time T ο for surface removal were obtained for each etching condition. For both NaOH and KOH solution the activation energy of the process was derived as E = 0.76 ± 0.05 eV. It was observed that the induction time decreases both with increasing normality and temperature of the solution. (author) [pt

  18. Track detectors in particle accelerator environment: an overview on existing and new methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, S.P.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    The advent of high energy, high intensity particle accelerators, with increasing applications in various fields has lead to the involvement of more users and operators. The complex (secondary) radiation field in an accelerator environment, generated by the primary beam hitting a target, is highly directional, dynamic, pulsed and mixed in nature, which poses a unique challenge for the radiological safety aspects, specially the neutrons contributing to a significant dose even beyond the shields. Solid polymeric track detectors (SPTDs), due to their insensitivity to low LET radiations and integrating nature of signal registration, are found to be effective and convenient for neutron measurements. This paper reviews some of the existing and frequently used methods of neutron spectrometry and dosimetry using SPTDs and explores new approaches as well. The paper elaborates on the extended energy response and rapid etching techniques of SPTDs along with some new results. An overview on the recently introduced microwave-induced chemical etching (MICE) technique is also presented. (author)

  19. Measurement of indoor radon levels in Erbil capital by using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, H.H.; Khdar, S. per; Abdulla, H.Y.; Muhamad, N.Q.; Othman, M.M.; Qader, S.

    2005-01-01

    Radon alpha activity concentration has been measured in 28 homes in the Erbil Capital-Iraqi Kurdistan region during the autumn season by using time-integrated passive radon dosimeters containing CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors 'SSNTDs'. The radon activity concentrations in these homes range from (10.33-90.34) Bqm -3 with an average of 44+/-23Bqm -3 . The average absorption effective dose equivalent for a person living in homes for which the investigation were done was found to be 1.3+/-0.65mSvy -1 , obtained by using an equilibrium factor of 0.5 and an occupancy factor of 0.8. The average lung cancer cases per year per 10 6 person was found to be 23+/-12

  20. Detection of fission fragments using thick samples in contact with solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, D.A. de; Martins, J.B.; Tavares, O.A.P.

    1987-01-01

    Whenever use is made of thick samples in contact with solid state nuclear track detectors for determining fission yields, one of the fundamental problems is the evaluation of the effective number of target nuclei which contributes to the fraction of the number of fission events that will be recorded. The evaluation of the effective number of target nuclei which contributes to recorded events is based on the effective thickness of the sample. A method for evaluating effective thickness of thick samples for binary fission modes, is presented. A cross section equation which takes into account all the necessary corrections due to fragment attenuation effects by a thick target for calculation induced fission yields, was obtained. (Author) [pt