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Sample records for damage hormonal status

  1. Hormonal status can modify radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricoul, M.; Sabatier, L.; Dutrillaux, B.

    1997-01-01

    In preliminary experiments, we have demonstrated that pregnancy increases chromosome radiosensitivity in the mouse at the end of gestation. Blood obtained from women at various times of pregnancy was then exposed to ionizing radiations in vitro. By comparison to non pregnant women, an increase in chromosome breakages was observed in metaphases from lymphocytes. Immediately after delivery, this increase of radiosensitivity disappeared. In a prospective study, serial analyses showed a very strong correlation between the amount of pregnancy hormones, progesterone in particular, and the increase of radiosensitivity. Thus, pregnant women may have an increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation during the second half of their pregnancy and the risks of radiation exposure of pregnant women have to be considered not only n relation to the child, but also to their own hypersensitivity. (authors)

  2. Hormone-metabolic status in moderately smoking breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstein, L M; Tsyrlina, E V; Semiglazov, V F; Kovalenko, I G; Gamayunova, V B; Evtushenko, T P; Ivanova, O A

    1997-01-01

    One hundred and eighteen primary breast cancer (BC) patients, 35 of whom were smokers, in clinical stages I-II of the disease were examined. In order to investigate whether smoking changes endocrine function in BC patients, some indices of the hormone-metabolic status of smoking and non-smoking patients of reproductive and menopausal age were compared. It was found that in smokers with BC there was a decline in body weight and body fat content, a lack of lean body mass accumulation along with body mass increase, a tendency to hypotriglyceridemia and hypoinsulinemia, accelerated development of the upper type of body fat distribution with ageing, intensified gonadotropin secretion, shifts in steroidogenesis and SHBG level and elevated catecholamine execretion. It is suggested that a possible relation between hormone-mediated effects inherent to smoking and the mechanisms promoting genotoxic type of hormonal carcinogenesis and the factors of breast cancer prognosis cannot be excluded.

  3. Growth Hormone Overexpression Disrupts Reproductive Status Through Actions on Leptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth and reproduction are closely related. Growth hormone (GH-transgenic common carp exhibit accelerated growth and delayed reproductive development, which provides an amenable model to study hormone cross talk between the growth and reproductive axes. We analyzed the energy status and reproductive development in GH-transgenic common carp by using multi-tissue RNA sequencing, real-time-PCR, Western blotting, ELISA, immunofluorescence, and in vitro incubation. The expression of gys (glycogen synthase and igfbp1 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein as well as blood glucose concentrations are lower in GH-transgenic carp. Agrp1 (agouti-related protein 1 and sla (somatolactin a, which are related to appetite and lipid catabolism, are significantly higher in GH-transgenic carp. Low glucose content and increased appetite indicate disrupted metabolic and energy deprivation status in GH-transgenic carp. Meanwhile, the expression of genes, such as gnrhr2 (gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2, gthα (gonadotropin hormone, alpha polypeptide, fshβ (follicle stimulating hormone, beta polypeptide, lhβ [luteinizing hormone, beta polypeptide] in the pituitary, cyp19a1a (aromatase A in the gonad, and cyp19a1b (aromatase B in the hypothalamus, are decreased in GH-transgenic carp. In contrast, pituitary gnih (gonadotropin inhibitory hormone, drd1 (dopamine receptor D1, drd3 (dopamine receptor D3, and drd4 (dopamine receptor D4 exhibit increased expression, which were associated with the retarded reproductive development. Leptin receptor mRNA was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in the pituitary including the pars intermedia and proximal pars distalis, suggesting a direct effect of leptin on LH. Recombinant carp Leptin protein was shown to stimulate pituitary gthα, fshβ, lhβ expression, and ovarian germinal vesicle breakdown in vitro. In addition to neuroendocrine factors, we suggest that reduced hepatic leptin signaling to the

  4. The thyroid hormone receptor β induces DNA damage and premature senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Alberto; García-Carpizo, Verónica; Gallardo, María Esther; Villamuera, Raquel; Gómez-Ferrería, Maria Ana; Pascual, Angel; Buisine, Nicolas; Sachs, Laurent M; Garesse, Rafael; Aranda, Ana

    2014-01-06

    There is increasing evidence that the thyroid hormone (TH) receptors (THRs) can play a role in aging, cancer and degenerative diseases. In this paper, we demonstrate that binding of TH T3 (triiodothyronine) to THRB induces senescence and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage in cultured cells and in tissues of young hyperthyroid mice. T3 induces a rapid activation of ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated)/PRKAA (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) signal transduction and recruitment of the NRF1 (nuclear respiratory factor 1) and THRB to the promoters of genes with a key role on mitochondrial respiration. Increased respiration leads to production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, which in turn causes oxidative stress and DNA double-strand breaks and triggers a DNA damage response that ultimately leads to premature senescence of susceptible cells. Our findings provide a mechanism for integrating metabolic effects of THs with the tumor suppressor activity of THRB, the effect of thyroidal status on longevity, and the occurrence of tissue damage in hyperthyroidism.

  5. Present status and needs of research on severe core damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    The needs for research on severe core damage accident have been emphasized recently, in particular, since TMI-2 accident. The Severe Core Damage Research Task Force was established by the Divisions of Reactor Safety and Reactor Safety Evaluation to evaluate individual phenomenon, to survey the present status of research and to provide the recommended research subjects on severe accidents. This report describes the accident phenomena involving some analytical results, status of research and recommended research subjects on severe core damage accidents, divided into accident sequence, fuel damage, and molten material behavior, fission product behavior, hydrogen generation and combustion, steam explosion and containment integrity. (author)

  6. Analysis and research status of severe core damage accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    The Severe Core Damage Research and Analysis Task Force was established in Nuclear Safety Research Center, Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI, in May, 1982 to make a quantitative analysis on the issues related with the severe core damage accident and also to survey the present status of the research and provide the required research subjects on the severe core damage accident. This report summarizes the results of the works performed by the Task Force during last one and half years. The main subjects investigated are as follows; (1) Discussion on the purposes and necessities of severe core damage accident research, (2) proposal of phenomenological research subjects required in Japan, (3) analysis of severe core damage accidents and identification of risk dominant accident sequences, (4) investigation of significant physical phenomena in severe core damage accidents, and (5) survey of the research status. (author)

  7. The Status of Radiation Damage Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Sell, Richard L.; Legore, Virginia L.; Schaef, Herbert T.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Buchmiller, William C.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments have been on-going for about two years to determine the effects that radiation damage have on the physical and chemical properties of candidate titanate ceramics for the immobilization of plutonium. We summarize the results of these experiments in this document

  8. Thyroid hormone-induced oxidative damage on lipids, glutathione and DNA in the mouse heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredilla, R; Barja, G; López-Torres, M

    2001-10-01

    Oxygen radicals of mitochondrial origin are involved in oxidative damage. In order to analyze the possible relationship between metabolic rate, oxidative stress and oxidative damage, OF1 female mice were rendered hyper- and hypothyroid by chronic administration of 0.0012% L-thyroxine (T4) and 0.05% 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU), respectively, in their drinking water for 5 weeks. Hyperthyroidism significantly increased the sensitivity to lipid peroxidation in the heart, although the endogenous levels of lipid peroxidation were not altered. Thyroid hormone-induced oxidative stress also resulted in higher levels of GSSG and GSSG/GSH ratio. Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA was greater than that to genomic DNA. Hyperthyroidism decreased oxidative damage to genomic DNA. Hypothyroidism did not modify oxidative damage in the lipid fraction but significantly decreased GSSG and GSSG/GSH ratio and oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA. These results indicate that thyroid hormones modulate oxidative damage to lipids and DNA, and cellular redox potential in the mouse heart. A higher oxidative stress in the hyperthyroid group is presumably neutralized in the case of nuclear DNA by an increase in repair activity, thus protecting this key molecule. Treatment with PTU, a thyroid hormone inhibitor, reduced oxidative damage in the different cell compartments.

  9. Insect juvenile hormone: from "status quo" to high society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hartfelder

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile hormone (JH exerts pleiotropic functions during insect life cycles. The regulation of JH biosynthesis by neuropeptides and biogenic amines, as well as the transport of JH by specific binding proteins is now well understood. In contrast, comprehending its mode of action on target organs is still hampered by the difficulties in isolating specific receptors. In concert with ecdysteroids, JH orchestrates molting and metamorphosis, and its modulatory function in molting processes has gained it the attribute "status quo" hormone. Whereas the metamorphic role of JH appears to have been widely conserved, its role in reproduction has been subject to many modifications. In many species, JH stimulates vitellogenin synthesis and uptake. In mosquitoes, however, this function has been transferred to ecdysteroids, and JH primes the ecdysteroid response of developing follicles. As reproduction includes a variety of specific behaviors, including migration and diapause, JH has come to function as a master regulator in insect reproduction. The peak of pleiotropy was definitely reached in insects exhibiting facultative polymorphisms. In wing-dimorphic crickets, differential activation of JH esterase determines wing length. The evolution of sociality in Isoptera and Hymenoptera has also extensively relied on JH. In primitively social wasps and bumble bees, JH integrates dominance position with reproductive status. In highly social insects, such as the honey bee, JH has lost its gonadotropic role and now regulates division of labor in the worker caste. Its metamorphic role has been extensively explored in the morphological differentiation of queens and workers, and in the generation of worker polymorphism, such as observed in ants.

  10. Thyroid hormones regulate selenoprotein expression and selenium status in mice.

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    Jens Mittag

    Full Text Available Impaired expression of selenium-containing proteins leads to perturbed thyroid hormone (TH levels, indicating the central importance of selenium for TH homeostasis. Moreover, critically ill patients with declining serum selenium develop a syndrome of low circulating TH and a central downregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. This prompted us to test the reciprocal effect, i.e., if TH status would also regulate selenoprotein expression and selenium levels. To investigate the TH dependency of selenium metabolism, we analyzed mice expressing a mutant TH receptor α1 (TRα1+m that confers a receptor-mediated hypothyroidism. Serum selenium was reduced in these animals, which was a direct consequence of the mutant TRα1 and not related to their metabolic alterations. Accordingly, hyperthyroidism, genetically caused by the inactivation of TRβ or by oral TH treatment of adult mice, increased serum selenium levels in TRα1+m and controls, thus demonstrating a novel and specific role for TRα1 in selenium metabolism. Furthermore, TH affected the mRNA levels for several enzymes involved in selenoprotein biosynthesis as well as serum selenoprotein P concentrations and the expression of other antioxidative selenoproteins. Taken together, our results show that TH positively affects the serum selenium status and regulates the expression of several selenoproteins. This demonstrates that selenium and TH metabolism are interconnected through a feed-forward regulation, which can in part explain the rapid parallel downregulation of both systems in critical illness.

  11. Estrogen signalling and the DNA damage response in hormone dependent breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Elizabeth Caldon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen is necessary for the normal growth and development of breast tissue, but high levels of estrogen are a major risk factor for breast cancer. One mechanism by which estrogen could contribute to breast cancer is via the induction of DNA damage. This perspective discusses the mechanisms by which estrogen alters the DNA damage response (DDR and DNA repair through the regulation of key effector proteins including ATM, ATR, CHK1, BRCA1 and p53 and the feedback on estrogen receptor signalling from these proteins. We put forward the hypothesis that estrogen receptor signalling converges to suppress effective DNA repair and apoptosis in favour of proliferation. This is important in hormone-dependent breast cancer as it will affect processing of estrogen-induced DNA damage, as well as other genotoxic insults. DDR and DNA repair proteins are frequently mutated or altered in estrogen responsive breast cancer which will further change the processing of DNA damage. Finally the action of estrogen signalling on DNA damage is also relevant to the therapeutic setting as the suppression of a DNA damage response by estrogen has the potential to alter the response of cancers to anti-hormone treatment or chemotherapy that induces DNA damage.

  12. Physiological Regulation of Gut Peptide Hormone (PYY) Levels by Age, Sex, Hormonal and Nutritional Status in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebashy, M.I.A.; Mazen, G.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Peptide YY hormone (PYY) was recently appreciated as an important gut hormonal regulator of appetite. PYY is produced by the gut and released into the circulation after food intake and is found to decrease appetite. The main form of PYY, both stored and circulated, is PYY(3-36), the N-terminal truncated form of the full length peptide so, peripheral injections of PYY(3-36) in rats inhibit food intake in experimental animals as well as in lean and obese human subjects. Also, this hormone has been suggested to be an attractive therapeutic option for obesity. PYY levels are influenced by age and the highest hormone level is achieved in early postnatal life (day 30) and is decreased thereafter. PYY levels were also dependent on thyroid hormone status and being decreased in hyperthyroid rats. The PYY levels observed in acute and chronic food restricted rats indicated that, in situations of decreased energy intake, the lower PYY levels could serve to regulate central pathways and facilitate food intake. Contrary, in pregnant rats, PYY levels were enhanced at late gestation. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of age, sex, thyroid status, pregnancy and food restriction on PYY levels in rats. The underling mechanisms through which PYY levels alternated as a result of sex, age, pregnancy, thyroidal and nutritional status were discussed in the light of recent research outcomes

  13. Hormonal status of diabetes mellitus patients with microcirculation disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubyatnikova, G.A.; Zhumatova, M.G.; Goryajnova, I.I.

    1984-01-01

    The results of the study of immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and anti-insular hormones show their correlation with homorheological disorders in patients with diabetic angiopathies. The results obtained indicate a possble involvement of the anti-insular hormones in the development of vascular changes in diabetes mellitus

  14. Antioxidant status and hormonal profile reflected by experimental feeding of probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Magdy A; Moselhy, Said S

    2016-04-01

    Excessive production of free radicals can result in tissue damage, which mainly involves generation of hydroxyl radical and other oxidants. Such free radical-induced cell damage appears to play a major role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Probiotics have been used therapeutically to modulate immunity, improve digestive processes, lower cholesterol, treat rheumatoid arthritis, and prevent cancer. The proposed research was designed to evaluate the changes in oxidative and antioxidative profile in addition to metabolic-related hormones of living animal model, which may generally affect the health status. Two groups of rabbits (10 animals each) were allocated in hygienic cages of controlled animal house. Control group received standard diet, and the other group received the same diet containing one probiotic for 30 days. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in leukocytes, blood glucose, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were estimated in different tissues. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and total proteins were also determined in different tissues. Certain hormones related to metabolism and growth were also evaluated. Leukocytic LDH activity was significantly increased along with nonsignificant increase of blood glucose in probiotics-fed animals. Results showed significant decreases in the levels of triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone but showed significant elevations in thyroxine, insulin, growth hormone, and testosterone levels in animals fed with probiotics. Total proteins content was highly significantly elevated in liver, kidneys, and muscles of probiotic-administered animals. Microsomal GSH level was significantly decreased only in skeletal muscles of probiotic-treated animals. MDA was significantly lowered in animal tissues fed with probiotics. GSH-Px activity was elevated in hepatic and muscular microsomes of probiotic-supplemented animals while it was nonsignificantly increased in renal

  15. Are endogenous sex hormones related to DNA damage in paradoxically sleep-deprived female rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Monica L; Ribeiro, Daniel A; Alvarenga, Tathiana A; Silva, Andressa; Araujo, Paula; Zager, Adriano; Tenorio, Neuli M; Tufik, Sergio

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate overall DNA damage induced by experimental paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) in estrous-cycling and ovariectomized female rats to examine possible hormonal involvement during DNA damage. Intact rats in different phases of the estrous cycle (proestrus, estrus, and diestrus) or ovariectomized female Wistar rats were subjected to PSD by the single platform technique for 96 h or were maintained for the equivalent period as controls in home-cages. After this period, peripheral blood and tissues (brain, liver, and heart) were collected to evaluate genetic damage using the single cell gel (comet) assay. The results showed that PSD caused extensive genotoxic effects in brain cells, as evident by increased DNA migration rates in rats exposed to PSD for 96 h when compared to negative control. This was observed for all phases of the estrous cycle indistinctly. In ovariectomized rats, PSD also led to DNA damage in brain cells. No significant statistically differences were detected in peripheral blood, the liver or heart for all groups analyzed. In conclusion, our data are consistent with the notion that genetic damage in the form of DNA breakage in brain cells induced by sleep deprivation overrides the effects related to endogenous female sex hormones. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reproductive toxicity after levetiracetam administration in male rats: Evidence for role of hormonal status and oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Baysal

    Full Text Available Levetiracetam (LEV is an antiepileptic drug commonly used in the treatment of epilepsy because of its excellent safety profile in all age groups. It is remarkable that there are no studies evaluating the toxic effects of this drug on the male reproductive system, as it is commonly used in male patients of reproductive age. From this point of view, our aim was to evaluate the possible toxic effects of LEV on the male reproductive system. Therefore, LEV was administered to male rats orally at 50, 150, and 300 mg/kg for 70 consecutive days. At the end of this period, alterations to body and organ weights were calculated, and sperm concentration, motility, and morphology were investigated by a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. Sperm DNA damage was determined by comet assay and histopathological examination of the testes was carried out. Serum testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, and luteinizing hormone (LH levels were measured by ELISAs to determine the effects of hormonal status, while glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and malondialdehyde levels in the testes were measured by colorimetric assay kits to determine the role of oxidative status in potential toxicity. According to the results, sperm quality was decreased by LEV treatment in a dose-dependent manner. LEV induced significant DNA damage in the 150 and 300 mg/kg LEV-administered groups. Histopathology of the testes showed that LEV resulted in testicular injury in the 300 mg/kg LEV-administered group. Serum testosterone, FSH, and LH levels were significantly decreased in the 300 mg/kg LEV-administered group. Glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase levels were significantly decreased in all experimental groups while malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased in 150 and 300 mg/kg LEV-administered groups. According to these results, it was determined that LEV administration decreased sperm quality and it was alleged that hormonal alteration and

  17. Status of sex steroid hormone receptors in large bowel cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meggouh, F.; Lointier, P.; Pezet, D.; Saez, S.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the potential role of sex steroid hormones in the development of colorectal tumors in humans, specific androgen (AR), estrogen (ER), and progesterone (PGR) receptors were investigated in normal mucosa (NM) and in tumor (T) paired biopsy specimens from 94 patients. Androgen receptors

  18. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  19. No Compelling Evidence that Preferences for Facial Masculinity Track Changes in Women's Hormonal Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benedict C; Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; Wang, Hongyi; Kandrik, Michal; Han, Chengyang; Fasolt, Vanessa; Morrison, Danielle; Lee, Anthony J; Holzleitner, Iris J; O'Shea, Kieran J; Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2018-06-01

    Although widely cited as strong evidence that sexual selection has shaped human facial-attractiveness judgments, findings suggesting that women's preferences for masculine characteristics in men's faces are related to women's hormonal status are equivocal and controversial. Consequently, we conducted the largest-ever longitudinal study of the hormonal correlates of women's preferences for facial masculinity ( N = 584). Analyses showed no compelling evidence that preferences for facial masculinity were related to changes in women's salivary steroid hormone levels. Furthermore, both within-subjects and between-subjects comparisons showed no evidence that oral contraceptive use decreased masculinity preferences. However, women generally preferred masculinized over feminized versions of men's faces, particularly when assessing men's attractiveness for short-term, rather than long-term, relationships. Our results do not support the hypothesized link between women's preferences for facial masculinity and their hormonal status.

  20. Investigations on the hormone-balance of healthy and damaged conifers in the northern Black Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenzel, B.; Christmann, A.; Horsch, F.; Filby, W.G.; Fund, N.; Gross, S.; Hanisch, B.; Kilz, E.; Seidel, A. (comps.)

    1987-04-01

    According to our working hypothesis a virus infection could be responsible for an important part of the forest decline, causing a premature, untypical senescence of the affected trees which is due to a disturbed hormone balance. The previous results show that virus-like particles (VLP) are very widely distributed in coniferous trees of southern Central Europe. Moreover, distinct disturbances occur in the balance of the so far examined hormones - ethylene and abscisic acid (AbA) - in the case of disease or a strong SO/sub 2/-impact on the site. They happen on the background of normal changes in the hormone contents which depend on season, age (age of tree, branch and needle) or exposition and which differ from each other on sites with a strong SO/sub 2/-impact and on those with a low or missing one. They show that SO/sub 2/-damage and forest decline in the examined area are two different things. The occurrence of VLP seems to disturb the ethylene balance considerably.

  1. Study of hormonal status of surgical patients with endometrial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musina, R.Kh.; Kiseleva, N.S.; Modnikov, O.P.

    1987-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay was conducted in the pituitary-ovary and pituitary-adrenals systems in 37 cases of endometrial carcinoma treatment and 1, 3, 5 and 14 days after extirpation of the uterus and appendages. The levels of follicle - stimulating (FSH) and luteinizing (LH) hormones of the pituitary, prolactin, ACTH, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, cortisol and aldosterone were studied. Such disturbances as decreased production of FSH, LH, progesterone and testosterone were observed before operation. Surgery was followed by a considerable rise in prolactin production and basal levels of FSH and LH, a decrease in estradiol, progesterone and testosterone concentrations and was accompanied by a sizeable release of cortisol and aldosterone

  2. Caffeine and blood pressure response: sex, age, and hormonal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Noha H; Whitsett, Thomas L; McKey, Barbara S; Wilson, Michael F; Vincent, Andrea S; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Lovallo, William R

    2010-06-01

    The pressor effect of caffeine has been established in young men and premenopausal women. The effect of caffeine on blood pressure (BP) remains unknown in postmenopausal women and in relation to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use. In a randomized, 2-week cross-over design, we studied 165 healthy men and women in 6 groups: men and premenopausal women (35-49 yrs) vs. men and postmenopausal women (50-64 yrs), with postmenopausal women divided into those taking no hormone replacements (HR), estrogen alone, or estrogen and progesterone. Testing during one week of the study involved 6 days of caffeine maintenance at home (80 mg, 3x/day) followed by testing of responses to a challenge dose of caffeine (250 mg) in the laboratory. The other week involved ingesting placebos on maintenance and lab days. Resting BP responses to caffeine were measured at baseline and at 45 to 60 min following caffeine vs placebo ingestion, using automated monitors. Ingestion of caffeine resulted in a significant increase in systolic BP in all 6 groups (4 +/- .6, p < 0.01). Diastolic BP significantly increased in response to caffeine in all (3 +/- .4, p < 0.04) but the group of older men (2 +/- 1.0, p = 0.1). The observed pressor responses to caffeine did not vary by age. Caffeine resulted in an increase in BP in healthy, normotensive, young and older men and women. This finding warrants the consideration of caffeine in the lifestyle interventions recommended for BP control across the age span.

  3. Biochemical impact of soccer: an analysis of hormonal, muscle damage, and redox markers during the season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, João Renato; Rebelo, António; Marques, Franklim; Pereira, Laura; Seabra, André; Ascensão, António; Magalhães, José

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to analyze changes in performance, muscle function, and stress-related biochemical markers in professional soccer players (n = 14) at 4 timepoints (3 for performance and 4 for stress-related biochemical markers) during the soccer season [Formula: see text] preseason (E1), midseason (E2), end of the season (E3) [Formula: see text] and after the end of the recovery period (E4). Performance in 5- and 30-m sprints, countermovement jump, and agility, and maximal isokinetic knee extension and knee flexion strength were measured (E1 to E3). We observed increased in-season levels of myoglobin (E2 > E1 and E4; p E1 and E4; p player during the competition period), performance, and hormonal and redox parameters (r = 0.456-0.615; p soccer players face significant changes in biomarkers of physiologic strain (muscle damage and oxidative stress-related markers) during the season, but values return to normal during the off-season. Additionally, MAT influences physical, hormonal, and oxidative stress-related parameters in professional soccer players.

  4. Assessing reproductive status in elasmobranch fishes using steroid hormones extracted from skeletal muscle tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohaska, Bianca K.; Tsang, Paul C. W.; Driggers, William B.; Hoffmayer, Eric R.; Wheeler, Carolyn R.; Brown, A. Christine; Sulikowski, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Elasmobranch fishes (sharks, skates, and rays) are particularly susceptible to anthropogenic threats, making a thorough understanding of their life history characteristics essential for proper management. Historically, elasmobranch reproductive data have been collected by lethal sampling, an approach that is problematic for threatened and endangered species. However, recent studies have demonstrated that non-lethal approaches can be as effective as lethal ones for assessment of the reproductive status of an animal. For example, plasma has been used to examine concentrations of steroid hormones. Additionally, skeletal muscle tissue, which can be obtained non-lethally and with minimal stress, can also be used to quantify concentrations of steroid hormones. Skeletal muscle progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol concentrations were determined to be statistically significant indicators of reproductive status in the oviparous Leucoraja erinacea, the yolk-dependent viviparous Squalus acanthias, and the yolk-sac placental viviparous Rhizoprionodon terraenovae. The results of the present study demonstrate that steroid hormones present in non-lethally harvested skeletal muscle tissue can be used as reliable indicators of reproductive status in elasmobranchs. PMID:27293612

  5. Growth hormone reverses excitotoxic damage induced by kainic acid in the green iguana neuroretina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Mendoza, José; Mora, Janeth; Carranza, Martha; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    It is known that growth hormone (GH) is expressed in extrapituitary tissues, including the nervous system and ocular tissues, where it is involved in autocrine/paracrine actions related to cell survival and anti-apoptosis in several vertebrates. Little is known, however, in reptiles, so we analyzed the expression and distribution of GH in the eye of green iguana and its potential neuroprotective role in retinas that were damaged by the intraocular administration of kainic acid (KA). It was found, by Western blotting, that GH-immunoreactivity (GH-IR) was expressed as two isoforms (15 and 26kDa, under reducing conditions) in cornea, vitreous, retina, crystalline, iris and sclera, in varying proportions. Also, two bands for the growth hormone receptor (GHR)-IR were observed (70 and 44kDa, respectively) in the same tissues. By immunofluorescence, GH-IR was found in neurons present in several layers of the neuroretina (inner nuclear [INL], outer nuclear [ONL] and ganglion cell [GCL] layers) as determined by its co-existence with NeuN, but not in glial cells. In addition, GH and GHR co-expression was found in the same cells, suggesting paracrine/autocrine interactions. KA administration induced retinal excitotoxic damage, as determined by a significant reduction of the cell density and an increase in the appearance of apoptotic cells in the INL and GCL. In response to KA injury, both endogenous GH and Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) expression were increased by 70±1.8% and 33.3±16%, respectively. The addition of exogenous GH significantly prevented the retinal damage produced by the loss of cytoarchitecture and cell density in the GCL (from 4.9±0.79 in the control, to 1.45±0.2 with KA, to 6.35±0.49cell/mm(2) with KA+GH) and in the INL (19.12±1.6, 10.05±1.9, 21.0±0.8cell/mm(2), respectively) generated by the long-term effect of 1mM KA intraocular administration. The co-incubation with a specific anti-GH antibody, however, blocked the protective effect of GH

  6. Influence of hormonal status on substrate utilization at rest and during exercise in the female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isacco, Laurie; Duché, Pascale; Boisseau, Nathalie

    2012-04-01

    metabolism, but this depends on how the treatment is administered (orally vs transdermally). To better understand the role of ovarian hormones in substrate oxidation, studies have made use of animal protocols to investigate cellular mechanisms. Estradiol and progesterone seem to have opposite effects, with greater lipid oxidation when estradiol is used alone. However, the concentrations used (physiological levels or pharmacological doses) may considerably modify fuel selection. In cases where conflicting data are observed in studies of substrate utilization and prolonged exercise in women, methodological reasons must be called into question. Too many parameters, which oftentimes are not specified, may modulate substrate utilization and metabolic and hormonal responses to prolonged exercise. Although information is generally provided about the type of exercise, its duration and the subjects' training level, detailed information is not always given about the subjects' nutritional state and, more specifically, the hormonal status of female subjects. The primary purpose of this review was to identify the impact of hormonal status on substrate oxidation among female subjects at rest and during exercise. A second aim was to describe gender differences in substrate utilization during exercise.

  7. Association of High Vitamin D Status with Low Circulating Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Independent of Thyroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged and Elderly Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A recent study has reported that high circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] is associated with low circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels, but only in younger individuals. The goal of the present study was to explore the relationship between vitamin D status and circulating TSH levels with thyroid autoimmunity and thyroid hormone levels taken into consideration in a population-based health survey of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods. A total of 1,424 Chinese adults, aged 41–78 years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum levels of 25(OHD, TSH, thyroid hormones, and thyroid autoantibodies were measured. Results. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 94.29% in males and 97.22% in females, and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 55.61% in males and 69.64% in females. Vitamin D status was not associated with positive thyroid autoantibodies after controlling for age, gender, body mass index, and smoking status. Higher 25(OHD levels were associated with lower TSH levels after controlling for age, FT4 and FT3 levels, thyroid volume, the presence of thyroid nodule(s, and smoking status in males. Conclusion. High vitamin D status in middle-aged and elderly males was associated with low circulating TSH levels independent of thyroid hormone levels.

  8. Machine learning approaches to decipher hormone and HER2 receptor status phenotypes in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adabor, Emmanuel S; Acquaah-Mensah, George K

    2017-10-16

    Breast cancer prognosis and administration of therapies are aided by knowledge of hormonal and HER2 receptor status. Breast cancer lacking estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors and HER2 receptors are difficult to treat. Regarding large data repositories such as The Cancer Genome Atlas, available wet-lab methods for establishing the presence of these receptors do not always conclusively cover all available samples. To this end, we introduce median-supplement methods to identify hormonal and HER2 receptor status phenotypes of breast cancer patients using gene expression profiles. In these approaches, supplementary instances based on median patient gene expression are introduced to balance a training set from which we build simple models to identify the receptor expression status of patients. In addition, for the purpose of benchmarking, we examine major machine learning approaches that are also applicable to the problem of finding receptor status in breast cancer. We show that our methods are robust and have high sensitivity with extremely low false-positive rates compared with the well-established methods. A successful application of these methods will permit the simultaneous study of large collections of samples of breast cancer patients as well as save time and cost while standardizing interpretation of outcomes of such studies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Expression of neuropeptide W in rat stomach mucosa: regulation by nutritional status, glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminos, Jorge E; Bravo, Susana B; García-Rendueles, María E R; Ruth González, C; Garcés, Maria F; Cepeda, Libia A; Lage, Ricardo; Suárez, Miguel A; López, Miguel; Diéguez, Carlos

    2008-02-07

    Neuropeptide W (NPW) is a recently identified neuropeptide that binds to G-protein-coupled receptor 7 (GPR7) and 8 (GPR8). In rodent brain, NPW mRNA is confined to specific nuclei in hypothalamus, midbrain and brainstem. Expression of NPW mRNA has also been confirmed in peripheral organs such as stomach. Several reports suggested that brain NPW is implicated in the regulation of energy and hormonal homeostasis, namely the adrenal and thyroid axes; however the precise physiological role and regulation of peripheral NPW remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of nutritional status on the regulation of NPW in stomach mucosa. Our results show that in this tissue, NPW mRNA and protein expression is negatively regulated by fasting and food restriction, in all the models we studied: males, females and pregnant females. Next, we examined the effect of glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones on NPW mRNA expression in the stomach mucosa. Our data showed that NPW expression is decreased in this tissue after glucocorticoid treatment or hyperthyroidism. Conversely, hypothyroidism induces a marked increase in the expression of NPW in rat stomach. Overall, these data indicate that stomach NPW is regulated by nutritional and hormonal status.

  10. Nutritional status in the neuroendocrine control of growth hormone secretion: the model of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchi, Massimo; Pincelli, Angela Ida; Cavagnini, Francesco

    2003-07-01

    Growth hormone (GH) plays a key role not only in the promotion of linear growth but also in the regulation of intermediary metabolism, body composition, and energy expenditure. On the whole, the hormone appears to direct fuel metabolism towards the preferential oxidation of lipids instead of glucose and proteins, and to convey the energy derived from metabolic processes towards the synthesis of proteins. On the other hand, body energy stores and circulating energetic substrates take an important part in the regulation of somatotropin release. Finally, central and peripheral peptides participating in the control of food intake and energy expenditure (neuropeptide Y, leptin, and ghrelin) are also involved in the regulation of GH secretion. Altogether, nutritional status has to be regarded as a major determinant in the regulation of the somatotropin-somatomedin axis in animals and humans. In these latter, overweight is associated with marked impairment of spontaneous and stimulated GH release, while acute dietary restriction and chronic undernutrition induce an amplification of spontaneous secretion together with a clear-cut decrease in insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) plasma levels. Thus, over- and undernutrition represent two conditions connoted by GH hypersensitivity and GH resistance, respectively. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by peculiar changes of the GH-IGF-I axis. In these patients, low circulating IGF-I levels are associated with enhanced GH production rate, highly disordered mode of somatotropin release, and variability of GH responsiveness to different pharmacological challenges. These abnormalities are likely due not only to the lack of negative IGF-I feedback, but also to a primary hypothalamic alteration with increased frequency of growth hormone releasing hormone discharges and decreased somatostatinergic tone. Given the reversal of the above alterations following weight recovery, these abnormalities can be seen as

  11. Gonadal hormone status in highly trained sprinters and in untrained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandys, Marcin; Majerczak, Joanna; Zapart-Bukowska, Justyna; Kulpa, Jan; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2011-04-01

    It is a common view that strength and sprint trained athletes are characterized by high plasma/serum testosterone (T) concentration, which is believed to be partly responsible for their performance level. This opinion, however, has poor scientific background. The aim of this study was to give evidence-based information on this issue. We examined gonadal hormone status at rest after overnight fasting in high and top-class track and field sprinters (n = 16) and in untrained men (n = 15). It was shown that basal T, free testosterone (fT), bioavailable testosterone (bio-T), and sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations were not significantly different (p > 0.05) in sprinters vs. untrained subjects. Further comparison of the results of the basal serum T concentration in 8 sprinters showed its significant changes during an annual training period. Significantly higher T concentration during a low-intensity training period (beginning of December) than during heavy sprint specific training period (end of March) was observed in these athletes (n = 8) (mean ± SD; 23.37 ± 5.28 vs. 20.99 ± 4.74 nmol · L(-1), respectively, p = 0.04). We have concluded that basal gonadal hormone concentration in high and top-class athletes (sprinters and jumpers) did not appear to be significantly different when compared with untrained subjects. Moreover, basal T concentration in sprinters can differ significantly during an annual training period. This fact should be taken into consideration when interpreting the results of gonadal hormone status in athletes at varied training stages.

  12. Peculiarities of hormonal status of patients with exogenous constitutional obesity before and after nalorphine administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spesivtseva, V.G.; Berestov, L.A.; Shiyan, I.V.; Kokhanenko, Eh.M. (Pervyj Moskovskij Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR))

    1984-11-01

    By means of radioimmunoassay the peculiarities of hormonal status of 24 patients with exogenous constitutional obesity before and after nalorphine intravenous administration are studied. Nalorphine is found to stimulate the ACTH and hydrocortisone synthesis, to suppress the b-endorphine and synthesisprolactin to stimulate the STH secretion. A repeated nalorphine administration revealed latent peculiarities of the endocrine system connected with the pathogenesis of obesity. It is shown that the use of nalorphine is not followed by side-effects neither at a single administration nor in case of a three-days treatment.

  13. Thyroid Hormones and Thyroid Function status in each clinical phase of Korean Hemorrhagic Fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Young Tae; Jeon, Byung Sook; Yoon, Sung Yeul; Lee, Houn Young; Kim, Sam Yong; Ro, Heung Kyu

    1983-01-01

    Fifteen cases of Korean hemorrhagic fever who were admitted Chungnam National University Hospital from October 1981 to December 1981 were analysed on the evaluation of metabolic changes of the thyroid hormones, and thyroid function status in each clinical phase. 1) Serum T 3 , T 4 concentration, FT 4 I and T 4 /TBG ratio were significantly lower (p 4 , TSH and TBG concentration were within normal range in all phase of KHF. Thus in Korean hemorrhagic fever, euthyroidism is probably maintained by normal or elevated serum FT 4 . 2) T 4 /T 3 and rT 3 /T 3 ratio (p 4 to T 3 in oliguric and early diuretic phase.

  14. Thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunii Yasuto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-convulsive status epilepticus is a form of epileptic seizure that occurs without convulsions. Recent reviews suggest that the diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus remains difficult. Here, we report the case of a patient with thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus. Case presentation Our patient was a 68-year-old Japanese woman. The results of endocrine testing after her first episode of non-convulsive status epilepticus suggested latent subclinical hypothyroidism: she had elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone with normal levels of free tri-iodothyronine and free thyroxine. On examination, a diagnosis of thyroid disorder was not supported by other test results and our patient remained untreated. A follow-up examination revealed that her thyroid-stimulating hormone levels had spontaneously normalized. When she consulted another doctor for confusion, the transient increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone levels following non-convulsive status epilepticus was mistaken for subclinical hypothyroidism, and unfortunately treated with levothyroxine. Our patient then experienced levothyroxine-induced non-convulsive status epilepticus. Conclusions In this report, we suggested possible mechanisms for latent hypothyroid-like hormone abnormality following epileptic seizures and the possibility of provoking epileptic seizures by administering levothyroxine for misdiagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism.

  15. Multifaceted Sexual Desire and Hormonal Associations: Accounting for Social Location, Relationship Status, and Desire Target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Sara B; Burke, Shannon M; Goldey, Katherine L; van Anders, Sari M

    2017-11-01

    Sexual desire is typically measured as a unitary erotic phenomenon and is often assumed by biological and biomedical researchers, as well as the lay public, to be directly connected to physiological parameters like testosterone (T). In the present study, we empirically examined how conceptualizing sexual desire as multifaceted might clarify associations with T and contextual variables. To do so, we used the Sexual Desire Questionnaire (DESQ), which assesses multifaceted dyadic sexual desire, to explore how contextual variables such as social location, relationship status, and desire target (e.g., partner vs. stranger) might be meaningful for reports of sexual desire and associated hormonal correlations. We focused on women (N = 198), because sexual desire and testosterone are generally unlinked in healthy men. Participants imagined a partner or stranger while answering the 65 DESQ items and provided a saliva sample for hormone assay. Analyses showed that the DESQ factored differently for the current sample than in previous research, highlighting how sexual desire can be constructed differently across different populations. We also found that, for the Intimacy, Eroticism, and Partner Focus factors, mean scores were higher when the desire target was a partner relative to a stranger for participants in a relationship, but equally high between partner versus stranger target for single participants. DESQ items resolved into meaningful hormonal desire components, such that high endorsement of Fantasy Experience was linked to higher T, and higher cortisol was linked with lower endorsement of the Intimacy factor. We argue that conceptualizing desire as multifaceted and contextualized when assessing hormonal links-or questions in general about desire-can clarify some of its complexities and lead to new research avenues.

  16. Clinical MR mammography. Impact of hormonal status on background enhancement and diagnostic accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltzer, Pascal Andreas Thomas; Dietzel, M.; Burmeister, H.; Pfleiderer, S.O.; Kaiser, W.A.; Vag, T.; Gajda, M.; Camara, O.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Hormonal stimulation can induce background enhancement (BE) in MR mammography (MRM). This fact has been assumed to decrease the accuracy of MRM. Consequently, this report investigates: 1. The prevalence of BE in postmenopausal vs. premenopausal women in correlation to hormonal cycle phase (CP). 2. The impact of hormonal status (HS) and BE on diagnostic accuracy. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients over 22 months with complete HS information (week of CP or postmenopausal) were included in this prospective investigation. Exclusion criteria were any hormonal therapy, hysterectomy as well as cancer proven by biopsy. The standard of reference was histopathology. All MRM scans were acquired using the same protocol (1.5 T, dynamic T 1w GRE after 0.1 mmol/kg bw Gd-DTPA i. v.). Two radiologists rated all examinations in consensus according to BI-RADS. BE was defined as: 0 = missing, 1 = moderate, 2 = distinct. Results: 224 patients (150 postmenopausal, 74 premenopausal, 45 in the second week of CP) were included in this study (83 benign and 141 malignant findings). BE was more frequent in premenopausal women (p = 0.006), but did not differ between CP (p = 0.460). Neither HS nor BE had a significant impact on the diagnostic parameters of MRM (p ≥ 0.375). However, regarding BE, the relative number of false positive (FP) findings was highest (5 / 10; 50 %) in the distinct BE group. Regarding HS, 17 % more FP findings were observed in premenopausal women examined outside the second week of CP. Conclusion: In premenopausal women, HS leads to increased BE of breast tissue, independent of CP. Distinct BE and less pronounced, non-optimal CP may lead to an increased number of false positive findings. (orig.)

  17. Clinical MR mammography. Impact of hormonal status on background enhancement and diagnostic accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltzer, Pascal Andreas Thomas; Dietzel, M.; Burmeister, H.; Pfleiderer, S.O.; Kaiser, W.A. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Vag, T. [Klinikum Rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Gajda, M. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Pathology; Camara, O. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Clinic of Gynaecology

    2011-05-15

    Purpose: Hormonal stimulation can induce background enhancement (BE) in MR mammography (MRM). This fact has been assumed to decrease the accuracy of MRM. Consequently, this report investigates: 1. The prevalence of BE in postmenopausal vs. premenopausal women in correlation to hormonal cycle phase (CP). 2. The impact of hormonal status (HS) and BE on diagnostic accuracy. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients over 22 months with complete HS information (week of CP or postmenopausal) were included in this prospective investigation. Exclusion criteria were any hormonal therapy, hysterectomy as well as cancer proven by biopsy. The standard of reference was histopathology. All MRM scans were acquired using the same protocol (1.5 T, dynamic T 1w GRE after 0.1 mmol/kg bw Gd-DTPA i. v.). Two radiologists rated all examinations in consensus according to BI-RADS. BE was defined as: 0 = missing, 1 = moderate, 2 = distinct. Results: 224 patients (150 postmenopausal, 74 premenopausal, 45 in the second week of CP) were included in this study (83 benign and 141 malignant findings). BE was more frequent in premenopausal women (p = 0.006), but did not differ between CP (p = 0.460). Neither HS nor BE had a significant impact on the diagnostic parameters of MRM (p {>=} 0.375). However, regarding BE, the relative number of false positive (FP) findings was highest (5 / 10; 50 %) in the distinct BE group. Regarding HS, 17 % more FP findings were observed in premenopausal women examined outside the second week of CP. Conclusion: In premenopausal women, HS leads to increased BE of breast tissue, independent of CP. Distinct BE and less pronounced, non-optimal CP may lead to an increased number of false positive findings. (orig.)

  18. Radiation damage status of the ATLAS silicon strip detectors (SCT)

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, Takahiko; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Silicon microstrip detector system (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at LHC has been working well for about 7 years since 2010. The innermost layer has already received a few times of 10**13 1-MeV neutron-equivalent fluences/cm2. The evolutions of the radiation damage effects on strip sensors such as leakage current and full depletion voltages will be presented.

  19. Low subjective socioeconomic status stimulates orexigenic hormone ghrelin - A randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, A Y; Lim, E X; Leow, M K; Cheon, B K

    2018-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that lower perceived socioeconomic status is linked to increased appetite and intake of greater calories. Yet, whether insecurity of socioeconomic resources directly influences regulatory systems of appetite and energy intake is not known. Considering psychological states, mindsets and beliefs have shown to meaningfully affect physiological responses to food, the present study tested the hypothesis that low subjective socioeconomic status (SSS) will have a direct influence on physiological responses, such as appetite-related hormones (ghrelin, pancreatic polypeptide and insulin). Forty-eight healthy males were randomly (crossover, counterbalanced) assigned, to two experimental conditions where participants were either experimentally induced to feel low SSS or not (control; CON). Feelings of low SSS resulted in an increase in active ghrelin (an orexigenic hormone) following the SSS manipulation compared with baseline, while no change in active ghrelin was observed in CON. Furthermore, participants reported lower fullness and satiety following low SSS compared with CON. Our findings demonstrate that SSS may influence hunger regulation and appetite, and suggest that physiological systems regulating energy balance (i.e. caloric resources) may also be sensitive to perceived deprivation or imbalances in critical non-food resources (socioeconomic resources). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Body composition, muscle strength and hormonal status in patients with ataxia telangiectasia: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerening, H; van Dullemen, S; Kieslich, M; Schubert, R; Zielen, S; Voss, S

    2015-12-09

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a devastating human autosomal recessive disorder that causes progressive cerebellar ataxia, immunodeficiency, premature aging, chromosomal instability and increased cancer risk. Affected patients show growth failure, poor weight gain, low body mass index (BMI), myopenia and increased fatigue during adolescence. The prevalence of alterations in body composition, muscle strength and hormonal status has not been well described in classical A-T patients. Additionally, no current guidelines are available for the assessment and management of these changes. We analyzed body composition, manual muscle strength and hormonal status in 25 A-T patients and 26 age-matched, healthy controls. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed to evaluate the body composition, fat-free mass (FFM), body cell mass (BCM), extracellular matrix (ECM), phase angle (PhA), fat mass (FM) and ECM to BCM ratio. Manual muscle strength was measured using a hydraulic hand dynamometer. The BMI, FFM and PhA were significantly lower in A-T patients than in controls (BMI 16.56 ± 3.52 kg/m(2) vs. 19.86 ± 3.54 kg/m(2); Z-Score: -1.24 ± 1.29 vs. 0.05 ± 0.92, p body composition, characterized by depleted BMI, PhA and BCM; by the need to sit in a wheelchair; by altered hormone levels; and by poor muscle strength, is a major factor underlying disease progression and increased fatigue in A-T patients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02345200.

  1. [The effect of a single inhalation of mineral water on the blood hormonal status in healthy volunteers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khinchagov, B P; Polushina, N D; Frolkov, V K

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of ACTH, TTH, STH, LH, PSH, hydrocortisone, insulin, glucagone, triiodthyronine, thyroxine, aldosterone, glucose and unesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were measured in the blood of 23 healthy male volunteers aged 18 to 35 years 15, 30 and 60 min after a single nose inhalation and oral intake of mineral water Essentuki No. 17. Inhalation of Essentuki No. 17 stimulated secretion of the hormones and some parameters of metabolic reactions: the levels of glucose, NEFA, hydrocortisone, aldosterone, TTH, PSH and LH rose while those of insulin and growth hormone decreased. Oral intake of this water brought about the same changes in the hormone status except blood insulin the levels of which went up.

  2. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Regulates Expression of the DNA Damage Repair Gene, Fanconi anemia A, in Pituitary Gonadotroph Cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larder, Rachel; Chang, Lynda; Clinton, Michael; Brown, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    Gonadal function is critically dependant on regulated secretion of the gonadotropin hormones from anterior pituitary gonadotroph cells. Gonadotropin biosynthesis and release is triggered by the binding of hypothalamic GnRH to GnRH receptor expressed on the gonadotroph cell surface. The repertoire of regulatory molecules involved in this process are still being defined. We used the mouse LβT2 gonadotroph cell line, which expresses both gonadotropin hormones, as a model to investigate GnRH regulation of gene expression and differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to identify and isolate hormonally induced changes. This approach identified Fanconi anemia a (Fanca), a gene implicated in DNA damage repair, as a differentially expressed transcript. Mutations in Fanca account for the majority of cases of Fanconi anemia (FA), a recessively inherited disease identified by congenital defects, bone marrow failure, infertility, and cancer susceptibility. We confirmed expression and hormonal regulation of Fanca mRNA by quantitative RT-PCR, which showed that GnRH induced a rapid, transient increase in Fanca mRNA. Fanca protein was also acutely upregulated after GnRH treatment of LβT2 cells. In addition, Fanca gene expression was confined to mature pituitary gonadotrophs and adult mouse pituitary and was not expressed in the immature αT3-1 gonadotroph cell line. Thus, this study extends the expression profile of Fanca into a highly specialized endocrine cell and demonstrates hormonal regulation of expression of the Fanca locus. We suggest that this regulatory mechanism may have a crucial role in the GnRH-response mechanism of mature gonadotrophs and perhaps the etiology of FA. PMID:15128600

  3. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone regulates expression of the DNA damage repair gene, Fanconi anemia A, in pituitary gonadotroph cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larder, Rachel; Chang, Lynda; Clinton, Michael; Brown, Pamela

    2004-09-01

    Gonadal function is critically dependant on regulated secretion of the gonadotropin hormones from anterior pituitary gonadotroph cells. Gonadotropin biosynthesis and release is triggered by the binding of hypothalamic GnRH to GnRH receptor expressed on the gonadotroph cell surface. The repertoire of regulatory molecules involved in this process are still being defined. We used the mouse L beta T2 gonadotroph cell line, which expresses both gonadotropin hormones, as a model to investigate GnRH regulation of gene expression and differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to identify and isolate hormonally induced changes. This approach identified Fanconi anemia a (Fanca), a gene implicated in DNA damage repair, as a differentially expressed transcript. Mutations in Fanca account for the majority of cases of Fanconi anemia (FA), a recessively inherited disease identified by congenital defects, bone marrow failure, infertility, and cancer susceptibility. We confirmed expression and hormonal regulation of Fanca mRNA by quantitative RT-PCR, which showed that GnRH induced a rapid, transient increase in Fanca mRNA. Fanca protein was also acutely upregulated after GnRH treatment of L beta T2 cells. In addition, Fanca gene expression was confined to mature pituitary gonadotrophs and adult mouse pituitary and was not expressed in the immature alpha T3-1 gonadotroph cell line. Thus, this study extends the expression profile of Fanca into a highly specialized endocrine cell and demonstrates hormonal regulation of expression of the Fanca locus. We suggest that this regulatory mechanism may have a crucial role in the GnRH-response mechanism of mature gonadotrophs and perhaps the etiology of FA.

  4. Sevoflurane Induces DNA Damage Whereas Isoflurane Leads to Higher Antioxidative Status in Anesthetized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita L. A. Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account that there are controversial antioxidative effects of inhalational anesthetics isoflurane and sevoflurane and absence of comparison of genotoxicity of both anesthetics in animal model, the aim of this study was to compare DNA damage and antioxidant status in Wistar rats exposed to a single time to isoflurane or sevoflurane. The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay was performed in order to evaluate DNA damage in whole blood cells of control animals (unexposed; n = 6 and those exposed to 2% isoflurane (n = 6 or 4% sevoflurane (n = 6 for 120 min. Plasma antioxidant status was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. There was no statistically significant difference between isoflurane and sevoflurane groups regarding hemodynamic and temperature variables (P > 0.05. Sevoflurane significantly increased DNA damage compared to unexposed animals (P = 0.02. In addition, Wistar rats anesthetized with isoflurane showed higher antioxidative status (MTT than control group (P = 0.019. There were no significant differences in DNA damage or antioxidant status between isoflurane and sevoflurane groups (P > 0.05. In conclusion, our findings suggest that, in contrast to sevoflurane exposure, isoflurane increases systemic antioxidative status, protecting cells from DNA damage in rats.

  5. Basic biochemical, hematological and hormonal parameters for monitoring the health and nutritional status in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritz Urdampilleta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sporting competitions are becoming more demanding in terms of intensity of effort, and this means controlling all aspects that affect athletic performance. Food, hydration and supplementation, before, during and after training or competition directly affect health, body composition, performance and recovery of the athlete. The assessment of nutritional status is required for proper advising of the athlete, through blood tests to control the process of adaptation to training. The aim of this paper is to provide practical tools for dietitiansnutritionists to control the health and nutritional status of athletes, as well as monitoring their adaptation to workloads and competition periods. Performing analytical tests to control of protein metabolism, lipid profile, ions, blood tests and iron metabolism, in addition to review some hormonal parameters, may be of interest in order to observe the potential existence of overtraining states. The correct understanding and interpretation of laboratory tests (under sports doctor’s supervision will be most important and useful for dietitiansnutritionists, performing dietary and nutritional advice to athletes, because it will determine the status of the athlete and propose different individual feeding strategies depending on the training phase and response.

  6. Status of internal quality control for thyroid hormones immunoassays from 2011 to 2016 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shishi; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Haijian; He, Falin; Zhong, Kun; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Zhiguo

    2018-01-01

    Internal quality control (IQC) plays a key role in the evaluation of precision performance in clinical laboratories. This report aims to present precision status of thyroid hormones immunoassays from 2011 to 2016 in China. Through Clinet-EQA reporting system, IQC information of Triiodothyronine and Thyroxine in the form of free and total (FT3, TT3, FT4, TT4), as well as Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) were collected from participant laboratories submitting IQC data in February, 2011-2016. For each analyte, current CVs were compared among different years and measurement systems. Percentages of laboratories meeting five allowable imprecision specifications (pass rates) were also calculated. Analysis of IQC practice was conducted to constitute a complete report. Current CVs were decreasing significantly but pass rates increasing only for FT3 during 6 years. FT3, TT3, FT4, and TT4 had the highest pass rates comparing with 1/3TEa imprecision specification but TSH had this comparing with minimum imprecision specification derived from biological variation. Constituent ratios of four mainstream measurement systems changed insignificantly. In 2016, precision performance of Abbott and Roche systems were better than Beckman and Siemens systems for all analytes except FT3 had Siemens also better than Beckman. Analysis of IQC practice demonstrated wide variation and great progress in aspects of IQC rules and control frequency. With change of IQC practice, only FT3 had precision performance improved in 6 years. However, precision status of five analytes in China was still unsatisfying. Ongoing investigation and improvement of IQC have yet to be achieved. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Studies on processes of damage and the stability of two preparations of human growth hormone labelled with 125I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, M.L.C.Q.

    1978-01-01

    Two HGH preparations were studied to obtain stable 125 I labelled products, with high specific activity, good biding capacity and long shelf life. Alterations affecting unlabelled protein hormone were also considered. Modified polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex were studied. The preparations studied were: HGH (NIH) and HGH always freshly prepared at IEA. The detection, study on nature and elimination of the interference of 'damaged' radioactive components was done by checking their presence and behaviour during labelling, purification or storage and comparing with some 'false labelling' (without HGH). Both hormones were labelled with a high specific activity, with immunoactivity up to three months. Loss in binding happened during storage for radioactive products as well as for unlabelled proteins. The absence of Bovine Serum Albumine (BSA) used as protein carrier and protector, produced a peak of aggregate; when presented, BSA carried a large amount of radioactivity forming most of the 'peak of the damage product' eluting from Sephadex. These two peaks interfere negatively in RIA and can effect calculations on specific activity, yield and absolute amount in term of mass of the labelled product. The best conditions for storage are at-20 0 C in dry lyophilized powder or frozen solution; at 4 0 C in solution the product is inactivated. Both labelled products showed an increased mobility in comparison with the unlabelled done. This can be attributed to a decreased isoelectric point due to the iodination of tyrosine or to alterations in the structure caused by reagents used in the labelling [pt

  8. Hormonal underpinnings of status conflict: Testosterone and cortisol are related to decisions and satisfaction in the hawk-dove game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Pranjal H; Lawless DesJardins, Nicole M; van Vugt, Mark; Josephs, Robert A

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition.Testosterone is theorized to influence status-seeking behaviors such as social dominance and competitive behavior, but supporting evidence is mixed. The present study tested the roles of testosterone and cortisol in the hawk-dove game, a dyadic economic decision-making paradigm in which earnings depend on one's own and the other player's choices. If one person selects the hawk strategy and the other person selects the dove strategy, the player who selected hawk attains a greater financial pay-off (status differentiation). The worst financial outcome occurs when both players choose the hawk strategy (status confrontation). Ninety-eight undergraduate students (42 men) provided saliva samples and played ten rounds of the hawk-dove game with another same-sex participant. In support of the hypothesis that testosterone is related to status concern, individuals higher in basal testosterone made more hawk decisions - decisions that harmed the other player. Acute decreases in cortisol were also associated with more hawk decisions. There was some empirical support for the dual-hormone hypothesis as well: basal testosterone was positively related to satisfaction in the game among low basal-cortisol individuals but not among high basal-cortisol individuals. There were no significant sex differences in these hormonal effects. The present findings align with theories of hormones and status-seeking behavior at the individual level, but they also open up new avenues for research on hormone profiles at the collective level. Our results suggest that the presence of two or more high-testosterone members increases the likelihood of status confrontations over a limited resource that can undermine collective outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Associations of vitamin D status and vitamin D-related polymorphisms with sex hormones in older men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafiq, R.; van Schoor, Natasja M; Sohl, E.; Zillikens, M Carola; Oosterwerff, M.M.; Schaap, L; Lips, P; de Jongh, R.T.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evidence regarding relationships of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with sex hormones and gonadotropin concentrations remains inconsistent. Polymorphisms in vitamin D-related genes may underly these relationships. Our aim was to examine the relationship of vitamin D status and

  10. Hormonal underpinnings of status conflict : Testosterone and cortisol are related to decisions and satisfaction in the hawk-dove game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, Pranjal H.; Lawless DesJardins, Nicole M.; van Vugt, Mark; Josephs, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition.Testosterone is theorized to influence status-seeking behaviors such as social dominance and competitive behavior, but supporting evidence is mixed. The present study tested the roles of testosterone and cortisol in the hawk-dove

  11. Status of neutron dosimetry and damage analysis for the fusion materials program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    The status of neutron flux and spectral measurements is described for fusion material irradiations at reactor, T(d,n), Be(d,n), and spallation neutron sources. Such measurements are required for the characterization of an irradiation in terms of displacement damage, gas and transmutant production. Emphasis is placed on nuclear data deficiencies with specific recommendations for cross section measurements and calculations

  12. Effects of thyroid hormone status on metabolic pathways of arachidonic acid in mice and humans: A targeted metabolomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xuan; Sa, Rina; Ye, Cheng; Zhang, Duo; Zhang, Shengjie; Xia, Hongfeng; Wang, Yu-cheng; Jiang, Jingjing; Yin, Huiyong; Ying, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of cardiovascular diseases are frequently found in patients with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. However, it is unknown whether arachidonic acid metabolites, the potent mediators in cardiovascular system, are involved in cardiovascular disorders caused by hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. To answer this question, serum levels of arachidonic acid metabolites in human subjects with hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism and mice with hypothyroidism or thyroid hormone treatment were determined by a mass spectrometry-based method. Over ten arachidonic acid metabolites belonging to three catalytic pathways: cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and cytochrome P450, were quantified simultaneously and displayed characteristic profiles under different thyroid hormone status. The level of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, a cytochrome P450 metabolite, was positively correlated with thyroid hormone level and possibly contributed to the elevated blood pressured in hyperthyroidism. The increased prostanoid (PG) I2 and decreased PGE2 levels in hypothyroid patients might serve to alleviate atherosclerosis associated with dyslipidemia. The elevated level of thromboxane (TX) A2, as indicated by TXB2, in hyperthyroid patients and mice treated with thyroid hormone might bring about pulmonary hypertension frequently found in hyperthyroid patients. In conclusion, our prospective study revealed that arachidonic acid metabolites were differentially affected by thyroid hormone status. Certain metabolites may be involved in cardiovascular disorders associated with thyroid diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hormone Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hormones quantified from marine mammal and sea turtle tissue provide information about the status of each animal sampled, including its sex, reproductive status and...

  14. Hormones and tumour therapy: current clinical status and future developments in endocrine therapy of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szepesi, T.; Schratter-Sehn, A.U.

    1982-01-01

    Postoperative adjuvant hormone therapy and hormone therapy in disseminated breast cancer will be discussed systematically. The classical ablative and additive endocrine therapeutic measures - with the exception of ovarectomy and gestagen therapy - are increasinlgy being replaced by antagonists. Individual chapters discuss recent experience with combined hormone-radiotherapy or hormone-chemotherapy. In addition, a successful therapy scheme for the treatment of disseminated breast cancer will be presented. (Author)

  15. Socioeconomic status and organ damage in Mexican systemic lupus erythematosus women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Pinto, C; Méndez-Martínez, S; Soto-Santillán, P; Galindo Herrera, J; Pérez-Contreras, I; Macías-Díaz, S; Taboada-Cole, A; García-Carrasco, M

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine relationships between socioeconomic status and organ damage in Mexican systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Demographic and clinical variables were assessed. Socioeconomic status was evaluated using the Graffar method and monthly household income. Lupus activity and organ damage were measured using the SLE disease activity scale, validated for the Mexican population (Mex-SLEDAI), and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR) scale. The 143 Mexican female SLE patients included (mean age 40.1 ± 8.9 years, mean disease duration 8.9 ± 6.3 years) had a mean monthly household income of $ 407.2 ± 326.5. According to the Graffar index, 18.9%, 52.5%, and 28.7% had high/medium-high, medium, and medium-low/low socioeconomic status, respectively. Organ damage was observed in 61 patients (42.7%). Patients with organ damage had lower monthly household incomes ($241.4 ± 152.4 vs. $354.8 ± 288.3) and were more frequently unemployed (57.3% vs. 35.3%; p = 0.01) than those without. Low monthly income was not associated with lupus activity or self-reported health status. In the adjusted multivariate analysis, low monthly income ( < $300) was associated with organ damage. In conclusion, low income may be associated with organ damage in Mexican SLE patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. STATUS SOSIAL-EKONOMI DAN KADAR HORMON TIROTROPIN RUMAH-TANGGA PENGGUNA GARAM BERIDOIUM DI PERKOTAAN INDONESIA : ANALISIS DATA RISKESDAS 2007 (SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS AND THYROTROPIN HORMONE LEVEL OF HOUSEHOLDS USING IODIZED SALT IN INDONESIAN URBAN : ANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Kartono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Iodized salt is the long term and sustainable strategy to improve iodine intakeof the community.Level of thyroid stimulating hormone (thyrotropin hormone can be used as indicator of iodine intake adequacy. To study the socio-economic status of households using iodized salt and thyrotropin hormone level in urban areas. Riskesdas data 2007 that include 280.000 households was used.Thyrotropin hormone data include 9.457 people aged above 1 years. Variables included classification of village, rapid test on salt, education and occupation of households’ head, household expenditure and level of thyrotropin hormone. Around 80 percentof households where households’ head graduated from college/university used salt containing sufficient iodine. Only 18 percent households with households’ headworks as government workers used salt containing sufficient iodine. Around 70 percent households in 5th quintile of household’s expenditure were using salt with sufficient iodine content. Around 70 percent households in urban areas were using salt withsufficient iodine content.Among children 1-4 years, percentage of low category of thyrotropin hormon level was 3.3 percentand among 60 years of age and above was 15.8 percent. The higher the educational levelthe higher the percentage of households used salt with sufficient iodine. Percentage of households using salt with sufficient iodine was higher in urban than in rural areas. The higher the quintiles of household expenditures the higher the percentage of households using salt with sufficient iodine. There was a trend that the higher the age the higher the percentage of low category of thyrotropin hormone level. Keywords: householdsalt, education, occupation, urban, rural, expenditure, thyrotropin hormone   ABSTRAK Garam beriodium merupakan strategi jangka panjang dan berkesinambungan untuk memperbaiki asupan iodium masyarakat. Sementara itu, kadar thyroid stimulating hormone (hormon tirotropin dapat

  17. Damage by the Great East Japan Earthquake and current status of the Sendai cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakui, Takashi; Itoh, Masatoshi; Shimada, Kenzi; Yoshida, Hidetomo; Shinozuka, Tsutomu; Sakemi, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake has inflicted damages on the accelerator facility of the Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University. The K=110 MeV cyclotron was slanted due to the damage of props supporting the cyclotron. The cyclotron building has also been slightly inclined. This situation requires the re-alignment of all the beam transport line and the cyclotron. Some of the shield doors at experimental rooms were broken and blocked the entrance. The earthquake caused also a lot of damages to some components of the cyclotron as well as the beam transport lines, such as beam ducts, magnets, vacuum pumps and power supplies. Fortunately, no one was injured at CYRIC. The restoration work was started on July 2011 and will be completed by July 2012. This report describes the situation of damages and the current status of the restoration work. (author)

  18. Immune and hormonal status of children at respiratory diseases have been born before and after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, I.M.

    1997-01-01

    Immune- and hormonal status of preschool healthy children and of those often falling ill with respiratory diseases born of healthy mothers and of those with endocrine disorders before and after Chernobyl accident has been studied. The study has revealed evident deviation from the norm in the immune system and non-specific resistance indices of children from after 1986 and particularly of those living in the radionuclide contaminated areas as well as of children often falling ill. Breaks of correlation between separate hormonal systems have been found too

  19. Risk of second breast cancers after lobular carcinoma in situ according to hormone receptor status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Mao

    Full Text Available Although subsequent breast cancer risk after primary lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS has been studied intensively, whether the risk of second breast cancer after first LCIS varies with hormone receptor (HR status of primary tumor remains unclear.We identified 10,304 women with primary pure unilateral LCIS between 1998 and 2007 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER 18 Registries. Kaplan-Meier estimates of 5 or 10-year probabilities of second ipsilateral breast cancers (IBCs and contralateral breast cancers (CBCs were calculated. Multivariable Cox proportional model was performed to identify impact of HR status of primary LCIS, and other demographic, clinicopathologic or treatment characteristics on risk of second IBCs or CBCs.Of the 10,304 women with primary LCIS included in this study, 9949 (96.5% patients had HR+ tumors, and 355 (3.5% had HR- tumors. Multivariable-adjusted analyses showed that although there was no difference in risk of total second IBCs between women with HR+ and HR- LCIS (P = 0.152, patients with HR+ LCIS had a statistically lower risk of second invasive IBCs compared to those with HR- LCIS (hazard ratio 0.356, 95% CI 0.141-0.899, P = 0.029. Women with primary HR+ LCIS had lower risks of both second total and invasive CBCs compared to those with HR- LCIS (total CBCs: hazard ratio 0.340, 95% CI 0.228-0.509, P<0.001; invasive CBCs: hazard ratio 0.172, 95% CI 0.108-0.274, P<0.001. Additionally, black women had a 2-fold risk of developing subsequent total IBCs than white women (P = 0.028.This population-based study demonstrated that the risk of second breast cancers was significantly increased in women with HR- first LCIS compared to those with HR+ LCIS. These findings warrant intensive surveillance for second breast cancers in HR- LCIS survivors.

  20. Fertility status of Hodgkin lymphoma patients treated with chemotherapy and adjuvant gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huser, M; Smardova, L; Janku, P; Crha, I; Zakova, J; Stourac, P; Jarkovsky, J; Mayer, J; Ventruba, P

    2015-08-01

    Aim of this prospective observational study was to analyze fertility status of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients treated with different types of chemotherapy while receiving GnRH analogues to preserve ovarian function. Fertility status was assessed among 108 females in reproductive age treated by curative chemotherapy for freshly diagnosed HL between 2005 and 2010 in university-based tertiary fertility and oncology center. All patients received GnRH analogues during chemotherapy to preserve their ovarian function. Their reproductive functions were assessed by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) measurement and pregnancy achievement. Ovarian function was determined separately in three groups with increasing gonadotoxicity of chemotherapy. One year following the treatment, normal ovarian function was found in 89 (82.4%) of patients. Two years after chemotherapy, 98 (90.7%) of patients retained their ovarian function, and 23 (21.3%) achieved clinical pregnancy during the follow-up period. Average FSH after chemotherapy was 11.6 ± 17.9 IU/l 1 year after the treatment resp. 9.0 ± 13.8 at the 2 years interval. There were significantly more patients with chemotherapy induced diminished ovarian reserve (chDOR) among the group receiving escalated BEACOPP chemotherapy in comparison with the other types of treatment (58.1% vs. 87.9% resp. 95.5%). The rate of chDOR is significantly higher after EB poly-chemotherapy and there is no tendency for improvement in time. The 2 + 2 chemotherapy with GnRH-a required for more advanced HL retained ovarian function significantly better after 2 years. Another important advantage of GnRH-a co-treatment is the excellent control of patient's menstrual cycle.

  1. Effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, fitness, hormonal profile and muscle damage indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portal, Shawn; Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan; Halevy, Orna; Zadik, Zvi

    2010-07-01

    There is a huge market for ergogenic supplements for athletes. However, only a few products have been proven to have ergogenic effects and to be effective at improving muscle strength and body composition. One such supplement is beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate (HMB). Derived from the amino acid leucine and its keto acid alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC), HMB has been well documented as an oral ergogenic supplement commonly used by athletes. Several studies have shown that combining exercise training with HMB supplementation leads to increased muscle mass and strength, and there is some anecdotal evidence of aerobic improvement. However, HMB supplementation has been found to be effective mainly for untrained individuals. While previous reviews have emphasized three main pathways for HMB's mode of action: 1) enhancement of sarcolemmal integrity via cytosolic cholesterol, 2) inhibition of protein degradation via proteasomes, and 3) increased protein synthesis via the mTOR pathway, more recent studies have suggested additional possible mechanisms for its physiological effects. These include decreased cell apoptosis and enhanced cell survival, increased proliferation, differentiation and fusion via the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways, and enhanced IGF-I transcription. These are described here, and hormonal interactions are discussed, along with HMB dosage and safety issues.

  2. Findings on sperm alterations and DNA fragmentation, nutritional, hormonal and antioxidant status in an elite triathlete: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Vaamonde, D.; Silva-Grigoletto, M.E. Da; Fernandez, J.M.; Algar-Santacruz, C.; García-Manso, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present case study analyzes semen quality, nutritional patterns, and hormonal and oxidative status of an international high-level triathlete with a low-volume, high-intensity training load. Method: The athlete was 26 years old, having participated in competitions since he was 13 years old, and practiced professional triathlon for the last five years. The qualitative sperm parameters analyzed were volume, sperm count, motility, morphology, and DNA fragmentation (additional testi...

  3. Alpha particle induced DNA damage and repair in normal cultured thyrocytes of different proliferation status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckesvärd, Madeleine Nordén; Delle, Ulla; Kahu, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of developing thyroid cancer later in life and this is suggested to be due to higher proliferation of the young thyroid. The interest of using high-LET alpha particles from Astatine-211 ((211)At), concentrated in the thyroid by the same...... mechanism as (131)I [1], in cancer treatment has increased during recent years because of its high efficiency in inducing biological damage and beneficial dose distribution when compared to low-LET radiation. Most knowledge of the DNA damage response in thyroid is from studies using low-LET irradiation...... and much less is known of high-LET irradiation. In this paper we investigated the DNA damage response and biological consequences to photons from Cobolt-60 ((60)Co) and alpha particles from (211)At in normal primary thyrocytes of different cell cycle status. For both radiation qualities the intensity...

  4. A study of some hormones concentrations in horses: Influences of reproductive status and breed differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niveen M. Daoud

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The knowledge of the normal and abnormal metabolic and sex hormones concentrations will help us to understand the role of these hormones in reproductive physiological and additionally, potential diagnostic and prognostic uses in both human and veterinary medicine, and will provide information for further research on this equine breeds as well as in human diseases.

  5. Protection from radiation-induced damage to spermatogenesis by hormone treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdoglu, B.; Wilson, G.; Parchuri, N.; Ye, W.; Meistrich, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    Infertility caused by killing of the spermatogonial stem cells occurs frequently in men treated for cancer with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We investigated whether pretreatment of rats with testosterone plus estradiol, which reversibly inhibits the completion of spermatogenesis and protects spermatogonial stem cells from procarbazine-induced damage, would also protect these cells from radiation. Adult male LBNF rats were implanted for 6 weeks with capsules containing testosterone and estradiol and then irradiated with doses from 2.5-7.0 Gy. Controls were irradiated with 1.8-3.5 Gy. Implants were removed 1 day after irradiation, and all animals were killed 10 weeks later for assessment of stem cell survival by counting repopulating tubules in histological sections and by sperm head counts. At doses of 2.5 and 3.5 Gy the repopulation indices and sperm head counts were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the rats treated with testosterone and estradiol than in the controls. Protection factors calculated from the dose-response curves were in the range of 1.5-2.2. Elucidation of the mechanism of protection is essential to apply it to clinical situations. The fact that the spermatogonia are protected against radiation as well as procarbazine indicates that the mechanism does not involve drug delivery or metabolism. 32 refs., 3 figs

  6. Alpha particle induced DNA damage and repair in normal cultured thyrocytes of different proliferation status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyckesvärd, Madeleine Nordén, E-mail: madeleine.lyckesvard@oncology.gu.se [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Delle, Ulla; Kahu, Helena [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Lindegren, Sture [Department of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Jensen, Holger [The PET and Cyclotron Unit Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet (Denmark); Bäck, Tom [Department of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Swanpalmer, John [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Elmroth, Kecke [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • We study DNA damage response to low-LET photons and high-LET alpha particles. • Cycling primary thyrocytes are more sensitive to radiation than stationary cells. • Influence of radiation quality varies due to cell cycle status of normal cells. • High-LET radiation gives rise to a sustained DNA damage response. - Abstract: Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of developing thyroid cancer later in life and this is suggested to be due to higher proliferation of the young thyroid. The interest of using high-LET alpha particles from Astatine-211 ({sup 211}At), concentrated in the thyroid by the same mechanism as {sup 131}I [1], in cancer treatment has increased during recent years because of its high efficiency in inducing biological damage and beneficial dose distribution when compared to low-LET radiation. Most knowledge of the DNA damage response in thyroid is from studies using low-LET irradiation and much less is known of high-LET irradiation. In this paper we investigated the DNA damage response and biological consequences to photons from Cobolt-60 ({sup 60}Co) and alpha particles from {sup 211}At in normal primary thyrocytes of different cell cycle status. For both radiation qualities the intensity levels of γH2AX decreased during the first 24 h in both cycling and stationary cultures and complete repair was seen in all cultures but cycling cells exposed to {sup 211}At. Compared to stationary cells alpha particles were more harmful for cycling cultures, an effect also seen at the pChk2 levels. Increasing ratios of micronuclei per cell nuclei were seen up to 1 Gy {sup 211}At. We found that primary thyrocytes were much more sensitive to alpha particle exposure compared with low-LET photons. Calculations of the relative biological effectiveness yielded higher RBE for cycling cells compared with stationary cultures at a modest level of damage, clearly demonstrating that cell cycle status influences the relative

  7. Effects of irradiation and adrenal cortex disfunction on ovarial-hormonal status of mature female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, E.F.; Banetskaya, N.V.; Sechko, L.K.; Pavlenko, V.S.; Popov, E.G.

    2003-01-01

    It was shown that development of glucocorticoid disfunction in mature rats (made by series of 10 mg/kg body wt subcutaneous corticosterone injections, during I month) essentially increased radiosensitivity of female reproductive organs. Additionally in the experimental conditions after external g-irradiation (1.0 Gy) development of atrophic processes in follicular apparatus of ovary caused severe ovarial disorders (polycystosis, fibrosis). Simultaneously degree of hormonal misregulations and upsets for systems of hormone reception in female sex tissues is aggravating. (authors)

  8. Association of plasma hormones, nutritional status, and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmiarowska, Małgorzata; Safranow, Krzysztof; Dziedziejko, Violetta; Bialecka, Monika; Koziołek, Monika; Samochowiec, Jerzy

    2014-02-06

    The aim of the current study was to analyze the relationships between plasma hormones, body weight parameters and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa (AN). 72 females in the active phase of AN were evaluated. 52 healthy women constituted the control group. RIA kits were used to measure plasma hormone levels. The concentrations of leptin, insulin, IGF-1, triiodothyronine, LH, FSH, estradiol, and testosterone were significantly lower and those of cortisol and growth hormone significantly higher in the AN than the control group. No hormonal differences between restrictive and binge-purging AN subtypes were found. Leptin, IGF-1, gonadotropins, and sex steroids correlated significantly negatively and growth hormone positively with total reduction of body weight or the degree of undernutrition. Associations were also found between lower insulin concentration and family violence, lower cortisol and psychiatric diseases in the family, higher testosterone and patient's alcohol or drug abuse. The changed activity of the somatotropin-somatomedin, gonadal, and corticotrophin axes corresponds to the clinical stage of AN. Plasma IGF-1 seems to be the most sensitive and useful independent hormonal marker of cachexia.

  9. Association of plasma hormones, nutritional status, and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Śmiarowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the current study was to analyze the relationships between plasma hormones, body weight parameters and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa (AN. Material and Methods: 72 females in the active phase of AN were evaluated. 52 healthy women constituted the control group. RIA kits were used to measure plasma hormone levels. Results: The concentrations of leptin, insulin, IGF-1, triiodothyronine, LH, FSH, estradiol, and testosterone were significantly lower and those of cortisol and growth hormone significantly higher in the AN than the control group. No hormonal differences between restrictive and binge-purging AN subtypes were found. Leptin, IGF-1, gonadotropins, and sex steroids correlated significantly negatively and growth hormone positively with total reduction of body weight or the degree of undernutrition. Associations were also found between lower insulin concentration and family violence, lower cortisol and psychiatric diseases in the family, higher testosterone and patient’s alcohol or drug abuse. Discussion: The changed activity of the somatotropin-somatomedin, gonadal, and corticotrophin axes corresponds to the clinical stage of AN. Plasma IGF-1 seems to be the most sensitive and useful independent hormonal marker of cachexia.

  10. Nutritional and Hormonal Status of Premature Infants Born with Intrauterine Growth Restriction at the Term Corrected Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaeva, I A; Namazova-Baranova, L S; Bombardirova, E P; Okuneva, M V

    Inadequate nutrition supply during the period of intrauterine growth and the first year of life leads to persistent metabolic changes and provokes development of various diseases. Тo compare physical development, body composition, and hormonal status (insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), somatotropic hormone (STH), C-Peptide, cortisol) indices in premature infants born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) at the term corrected age with the same indices in mature infants with IUGR and premature infants with weight appropriate for their gestational age (GA). А crossover study of anthropometric measures, body composition and growth hormones changes assessment was carried out. It included 140 premature infants with weight appropriate for their GA, 58 premature infants with IUGR and 64 mature infants with IUGR. Anthropometric measures were assessed with Fenton and Anthro growth charts (WHO, 2009); body composition was studied with the air plethysmography method (РЕA POD, LMi, USA). Level of hormones in blood serum was assessed with biochemical methods. It is found that anthropometric measures in premature infants with weight appropriate for their GA and premature infants with IUGR at the term corrected age did not have any significant differences while premature infants with IUGR tended to have lower weight. Studying body composition we found that both groups of premature infants had slightly higher level of fat mass in comparison with mature infants. High concentration of insulin, cortisol, IGF-1, and C-peptide was found in premature and mature infants with IUGR. Instead, lower levels of STH was found in infants with IUGR. Formula fed premature infants (comparing to breastfed ones) had higher levels of fat mass, insulin, IGF-1, and C-peptide. Mature infants with IUGR did not tend to have the correlation between levels of fat mass, insulin, IGF-1, C-peptide, and type of feeding. Not only insufficient intrauterine growth but also nutrition pattern

  11. Vitamin D status and 5-year changes in urine albumin creatinine ratio and parathyroid hormone in a general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2013-01-01

    and negatively correlated with glomerular filtration rate. We investigated the association between vitamin D status and 5-year changes in urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). A random sample of 6,784 individuals aged 30-60 years from a general population participated in the Inter......99 study in 1999-2001. Vitamin D (serum-25-hydroxyvitamin D) was measured at baseline by high-performance liquid chromatography. UACR and PTH were measured at baseline and follow-up. Increased UACR was defined as UACR >4.0 mg/g reflecting the upper quartile at baseline. We included 4,330 individuals...

  12. Influence of Heavy Metal Stress on Antioxidant Status and DNA Damage in Urtica dioica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka Gjorgieva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals have the potential to interact and induce several stress responses in the plants; thus, effects of heavy metal stress on DNA damages and total antioxidants level in Urtica dioica leaves and stems were investigated. The samples are sampled from areas with different metal exposition. Metal content was analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES, for total antioxidants level assessment the Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP assay was used, and genomic DNA isolation from frozen plant samples was performed to obtain DNA fingerprints of investigated plant. It was found that heavy metal contents in stems generally changed synchronously with those in leaves of the plant, and extraneous metals led to imbalance of mineral nutrient elements. DNA damages were investigated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD technique, and the results demonstrated that the samples exposed to metals yielded a large number of new fragments (total 12 in comparison with the control sample. This study showed that DNA stability is highly affected by metal pollution which was identified by RAPD markers. Results suggested that heavy metal stress influences antioxidant status and also induces DNA damages in U. dioica which may help to understand the mechanisms of metals genotoxicity.

  13. Influence of heavy metal stress on antioxidant status and DNA damage in Urtica dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjorgieva, Darinka; Kadifkova Panovska, Tatjana; Ruskovska, Tatjana; Bačeva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajče

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals have the potential to interact and induce several stress responses in the plants; thus, effects of heavy metal stress on DNA damages and total antioxidants level in Urtica dioica leaves and stems were investigated. The samples are sampled from areas with different metal exposition. Metal content was analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES), for total antioxidants level assessment the Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay was used, and genomic DNA isolation from frozen plant samples was performed to obtain DNA fingerprints of investigated plant. It was found that heavy metal contents in stems generally changed synchronously with those in leaves of the plant, and extraneous metals led to imbalance of mineral nutrient elements. DNA damages were investigated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, and the results demonstrated that the samples exposed to metals yielded a large number of new fragments (total 12) in comparison with the control sample. This study showed that DNA stability is highly affected by metal pollution which was identified by RAPD markers. Results suggested that heavy metal stress influences antioxidant status and also induces DNA damages in U. dioica which may help to understand the mechanisms of metals genotoxicity.

  14. Overexpression of the CC-type glutaredoxin, OsGRX6 affects hormone and nitrogen status in rice plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf eEl-Kereamy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Glutaredoxins (GRXs are small glutathione dependent oxidoreductases that belong to the Thioredoxin (TRX superfamily and catalyze the reduction of disulfide bonds of their substrate proteins. Plant GRXs include three different groups based on the motif sequence, namely CPYC, CGFS and CC-type proteins. The rice CC-type proteins, OsGRX6 was identified during the screening for genes whose expression changes depending on the level of available nitrate. Overexpression of OsGRX6 in rice displayed a semi-dwarf phenotype. The OsGRX6 overexpressors contain a higher nitrogen content than the wild type, indicating that OsGRX6 plays a role in homeostatic regulation of nitrogen use. Consistent with this, OsGRX6 overexpressors displayed delayed chlorophyll degradation and senescence compared to the wild type plants. To examine if the growth defect of these transgenic lines attribute to disturbed plant hormone actions, plant hormone levels were measured. The levels of two cytokinins (CKs, 2-isopentenyladenine and trans-zeatin, and gibberellin A1 (GA1 were increased in these lines. We also found that these transgenic lines were less sensitive to exogenously applied GA, suggesting that the increase in GA1 is a result of the feedback regulation. These data suggest that OsGRX6 affects hormone signaling and nitrogen status in rice plants.

  15. Influence Of Feminine Hormones On Some Biochemical Parameters In Early And Late Menopausal Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAMAL, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Forty two healthy Egyptian women were participated in this study to evaluate the effect of early and late menopause on some biochemical and hormonal parameters. The women were divided into three equal groups. The first was the pre-menopausal group with regular menstrual cycle, the second was the late menopausal group comprised the menopausal female less than 5 years and the third group consisted of women that became menopause since 5-9 years. The second and third groups had almost the same age and body weight. After clinical examination, fasting blood samples were collected from all volunteers. Regarding the pre-menopausal women, blood was withdrawn between the 3 rd and the 5 th day post-menstruation (follicular phase). Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leutinizing hormone (LH), progesterone, prolactin (PRL), testosterone, leptin and thyroxine (T4) in addition to hemoglobin (Hb), blood glucose, calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorous (P), magnesium (Mg) and uric acid were determined. Both menopausal groups showed significant increase in FSH and LH and significant decrease in PRL and late menopausal group experienced also multiple significant correlations between FSH, LH and other tested parameters. Prolongation of menopause exhibited decrease in leptin being significant as compared to pre-menopausal women than that experienced menopause at younger age. Due to the relation between leptin hormone and osteoporosis, the results of this investigation denoted that early cessation of annulations (menopause) in Egyptian women may lead to disturbance in bone metabolism causing inhibiting osteoblastogenesis and decreasing bone mass.

  16. Enriched environment influences hormonal status and hippocampal brain derived neurotrophic factor in a sex dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, J; Hlavacova, N; Rajman, M; Ondicova, K; Koros, C; Kitraki, E; Steinbusch, H W M; Jezova, D

    2009-12-01

    The present study is aimed at testing the hypothesis that an enriched environment (EE) induces sex-dependent changes in stress hormone release and in markers of increased brain plasticity. The focus was on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity, plasma levels of stress hormones, gene expression of glutamate receptor subunits and concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in selected brain regions. Rats exposed to EE were housed in groups of 12 in large cages with various objects, which were frequently changed, for 6 weeks. Control animals were housed four per cage under standard conditions. In females the EE-induced rise in hippocampal BDNF, a neurotrophic factor associated with increased neural plasticity, was more pronounced than in males. Similar sex-specific changes were observed in BDNF concentrations in the hypothalamus. EE also significantly attenuated oxytocin and aldosterone levels only in female but not male rats. Plasma testosterone positively correlated with hippocampal BDNF in female but not male rats housed in EE. In male rats housing in EE led to enhanced levels of testosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), this was not seen in females. Hippocampal glucocorticoid but not mineralocorticoid receptor levels decreased in rats housed in EE irrespective of sex. Housing conditions failed to modify mRNA levels of glutamate receptor type 1 (Glur1) and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlur5) subunits of glutamate receptors in the forebrain. Moreover, a negative association between corticosterone and BDNF was observed in both sexes. The results demonstrate that the association between hormones and changes in brain plasticity is sex related. In particular, testosterone seems to be involved in the regulatory processes related to neuroplasticity in females.

  17. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Regulates Expression of the DNA Damage Repair Gene, Fanconi anemia A, in Pituitary Gonadotroph Cells1

    OpenAIRE

    Larder, Rachel; Chang, Lynda; Clinton, Michael; Brown, Pamela

    2004-01-01

    Gonadal function is critically dependant on regulated secretion of the gonadotropin hormones from anterior pituitary gonadotroph cells. Gonadotropin biosynthesis and release is triggered by the binding of hypothalamic GnRH to GnRH receptor expressed on the gonadotroph cell surface. The repertoire of regulatory molecules involved in this process are still being defined. We used the mouse LβT2 gonadotroph cell line, which expresses both gonadotropin hormones, as a model to investigate GnRH regu...

  18. Effects of PBDE-47 on thyroid and steroid hormone status in juvenile turbot (Schophtalamus maximus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenssen, G.; Tyrhaug, I.B.; Sormo, E.G. [Dept. of Biology, Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Andersen, O.K. [Rogaland Research Akvamiljo, Mekjarvik (Norway)

    2004-09-15

    Many of the brominated flame retardant (BFR) chemicals, and particularly polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), has become of increasing concern to scientists over the past decade. Many of the PBDEs are persistent and lipophilic and have been shown to bioaccumulate. The levels of PBDEs in biota seem to be increasing, and several trends, including in humans, indicate that this increase may be rapid1. In general, BFRs have a low acute toxicity, but there is concern about their long-term toxic effects. Exposure studies have revealed a range of subtle biochemical, cellular and physiological effects following low-dose exposure, and many BFRs have been reported to have endocrine disruptive properties. Thus, there is concern about their potential to affect organisms and populations. Thyroid hormones (THs) play an important role in organism's development, metabolism, growth and behavior. Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) including BFRs may affect the thyroid system through several mechanisms. They may directly affect the thyroid gland function, the peripheral metabolism of THs and/or the binding of THs to plasma transport proteins. Effects of PHAHs on TH homeostasis have been documented in a number of species, including fish. Du to its persistence against degradation PBDE-47 is among the most abundant PBDE congener in biota, and there is a great concern about its ecotoxicological effects on organisms and populations. The aim of the present study was to examine if PBDE-47 may affect levels of circulating steroid and thyroid hormones in juvenile turbot (Scophtalamus maximus). The turbot is a benthic living flatfish that can be exposed to PHAHs via the sediment living organisms. Thus, plasma levels of T, E, and the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were determined in juvenile turbot that had been continuously exposed to PBDE-47 via water for 3 weeks.

  19. Hormonal status and the orexin system in obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Viktorovna Strueva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research was to estimate the influence of hormone metabolism and sleep apnea on patients with obesity. 76 patients (37 males and 39 females with obesity were included in this study. After night polysomnography all patients were divided in two groups comparableby age, sex ratio and BMI. The first group consisted of 41 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS, the second (controls – 35 patients without breath disorders during sleep. OSAS is accompanied by the increase in urinary cortisol during the night, high levels ofbasal insulin, disturbances of hepatic production of IGF-1, dysfunction of the pituitary-gonadal axis. Our results show that sleep-related breathing disorders render markedly and negatively affect on hormonal parameters of patients with obesity. As a reliable difference of basalsecretion of orexin A in obese patients with and without OSAS was not revealed (42,0 [14; 99,5] vs. 18,0 [14,5; 124,5] pg/ml; р=0,9, we were not able to show the existence that the existence of OSAS is followed by any special changes of activity of the orexin system.

  20. Fluoride toxicity and status of serum thyroid hormones, brain histopathology, and learning memory in rats: a multigenerational assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Piler Mahaboob; Rai, Puja; Begum, Shabana

    2011-12-01

    High-fluoride (100 and 200 ppm) water was administered to rats orally to study the fluoride-induced changes on the thyroid hormone status, the histopathology of discrete brain regions, the acetylcholine esterase activity, and the learning and memory abilities in multigeneration rats. Significant decrease in the serum-free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) levels and decrease in acetylcholine esterase activity in fluoride-treated group were observed. Presence of eosinophilic Purkinje cells, degenerating neurons, decreased granular cells, and vacuolations were noted in discrete brain regions of the fluoride-treated group. In the T-maze experiments, the fluoride-treated group showed poor acquisition and retention and higher latency when compared with the control. The alterations were more profound in the third generation when compared with the first- and second-generation fluoride-treated group. Changes in the thyroid hormone levels in the present study might have imbalanced the oxidant/antioxidant system, which further led to a reduction in learning memory ability. Hence, presence of generational or cumulative effects of fluoride on the development of the offspring when it is ingested continuously through multiple generations is evident from the present study.

  1. The mast cell stabilizer sodium cromoglycate reduces histamine release and status epilepticus-induced neuronal damage in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Dorado, María Guadalupe; Santana-Gómez, César Emmanuel; Orozco-Suárez, Sandra Adela; Rocha, Luisa

    2015-05-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate changes in the histamine release, mast cell number and neuronal damage in hippocampus induced by status epilepticus. We also evaluated if sodium cromoglycate, a stabilizer of mast cells with a possible stabilizing effect on the membrane of neurons, was able to prevent the release of histamine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate during the status epilepticus. During microdialysis experiments, rats were treated with saline (SS-SE) or sodium cromoglycate (CG-SE) and 30 min later received the administration of pilocarpine to induce status epilepticus. Twenty-four hours after the status epilepticus, the brains were used to determine the neuronal damage and the number of mast cells in hippocampus. During the status epilepticus, SS-SE group showed an enhanced release of histamine (138.5%, p = 0.005), GABA (331 ± 91%, p ≤ 0.001) and glutamate (467%, p ≤ 0.001), even after diazepam administration. One day after the status epilepticus, SS-SE group demonstrated increased number of mast cells in Stratum pyramidale of CA1 (88%, p status epilepticus (p = 0.048), absence of wet-dog shakes, reduced histamine (but not GABA and glutamate) release, lower number of mast cells (p = 0.008) and reduced neuronal damage in hippocampus. Our data revealed that histamine, possibly from mast cells, is released in hippocampus during the status epilepticus. This effect may be involved in the subsequent neuronal damage and is diminished with sodium cromoglycate pretreatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Intake of whole grain products and risk of breast cancer by hormone receptor status and histology among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Rikke; Olsen, Anja; Loft, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    No clear relationship between whole grain products and risk of breast cancer has been established. In a large prospective cohort study, we investigated the association between intake of whole grain products and risk of breast cancer by tumour receptor status [oestrogen receptor (ER......) and progesterone receptor (PR)] and tumour histology (ductal/lobular). It was further investigated whether the association differed by use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The study included 25,278 postmenopausal women participating in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study (1993-1997). During a mean...... follow-up time of 9.6 years, 978 breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Associations between intake of whole grain products and the breast cancer rate were analysed using Cox's regression model. A higher intake of whole grain products was not associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. Per an increment...

  3. Nutrient intake and hormonal status of premenopausal vegetarian Seventh-day Adventists and premenopausal nonvegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, T D; Leklem, J E

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between dietary nutrients and plasma estrone, estradiol-17 beta, estriol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and prolactin levels was investigated in 14 premenopausal Seventh-day Adventist vegetarian (SV) women and 9 premenopausal non-Seventh-day Adventist nonvegetarian (NV) women. The SV subjects consumed less fat, especially saturated fat, and used significantly less fried food than the NV subjects. Plasma levels of estrone and estradiol-17 beta in the SV subjects were significantly lower than in the NV subjects. SV estradiol-17 beta and estriol levels were positively correlated with linoleic acid and protein intake, while NV prolactin levels were significantly correlated with intakes of oleic and linoleic acids and total fat. The data suggest that specific dietary nutrients were related to the hormonal milieu of these SV and NV subjects.

  4. Regulation of steroid hormones and energy status with cysteamine and its effect on spermatogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yandi; Zhao, Yong; Yu, Shuai; Feng, Yanni; Zhang, Hongfu; Kou, Xin; Chu, Meiqiang; Cui, Liantao; Li, Lan; Zhang, Pengfei; Shen, Wei; Min, Lingjiang

    2016-01-01

    Although it is well known that cysteamine is a potent chemical for treating many diseases including cystinosis and it has many adverse effects, the effect of cysteamine on spermatogenesis is as yet unknown. Therefore the objective of this investigation was to explore the effects of cysteamine on spermatogenesis and the underlying mechanisms. Sheep were treated with vehicle control, 10 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg cysteamine for six months. After that, the semen samples were collected to determine the spermatozoa motility by computer-assisted sperm assay method. Blood samples were collected to detect the levels of hormones and the activity of enzymes. Spermatozoa and testis samples were collected to study the mechanism of cysteamine's actions. It was found that the effects of cysteamine on spermatogenesis were dose dependent. A low dose (10 mg/kg) cysteamine treatment increased ovine spermatozoa motility; however, a higher dose (20 mg/kg) decreased both spermatozoa concentration and motility. This decrease might be due to a reduction in steroid hormone production by the testis, a reduction in energy in the testis and spermatozoa, a disruption in the blood-testis barrier, or a breakdown in the vital signaling pathways involved in spermatogenesis. The inhibitory effects of cysteamine on sheep spermatogenesis may be used to model its effects on young male patients with cystinosis or other diseases that are treated with this drug. Further studies on spermatogenesis that focus on patients treated with cysteamine during the peripubertal stage are warranted. - Highlights: • Dose dependent effects of cysteamine on spermatogenesis • A low dose (10 mg/kg) increased spermatozoa motility. • A higher dose (20 mg/kg) decreased both concentration and motility of spermatozoa. • Disruption in the blood-testis barrier caused reduction in concentration and motility.

  5. Regulation of steroid hormones and energy status with cysteamine and its effect on spermatogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yandi [College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Reproduction and Germplasm Enhancement, Universities of Shandong, Qingdao 266109 (China); Zhao, Yong [Key Laboratory of Animal Reproduction and Germplasm Enhancement, Universities of Shandong, Qingdao 266109 (China); College of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Yu, Shuai; Feng, Yanni [College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Reproduction and Germplasm Enhancement, Universities of Shandong, Qingdao 266109 (China); Zhang, Hongfu [State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing (China); Kou, Xin [Shouguang Hongde Farmer Co., Weifang 262700 (China); Chu, Meiqiang; Cui, Liantao; Li, Lan [College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Reproduction and Germplasm Enhancement, Universities of Shandong, Qingdao 266109 (China); Zhang, Pengfei [College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); College of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Shen, Wei [College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Reproduction and Germplasm Enhancement, Universities of Shandong, Qingdao 266109 (China); Min, Lingjiang, E-mail: mlj020963@hotmail.com [College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Reproduction and Germplasm Enhancement, Universities of Shandong, Qingdao 266109 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Although it is well known that cysteamine is a potent chemical for treating many diseases including cystinosis and it has many adverse effects, the effect of cysteamine on spermatogenesis is as yet unknown. Therefore the objective of this investigation was to explore the effects of cysteamine on spermatogenesis and the underlying mechanisms. Sheep were treated with vehicle control, 10 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg cysteamine for six months. After that, the semen samples were collected to determine the spermatozoa motility by computer-assisted sperm assay method. Blood samples were collected to detect the levels of hormones and the activity of enzymes. Spermatozoa and testis samples were collected to study the mechanism of cysteamine's actions. It was found that the effects of cysteamine on spermatogenesis were dose dependent. A low dose (10 mg/kg) cysteamine treatment increased ovine spermatozoa motility; however, a higher dose (20 mg/kg) decreased both spermatozoa concentration and motility. This decrease might be due to a reduction in steroid hormone production by the testis, a reduction in energy in the testis and spermatozoa, a disruption in the blood-testis barrier, or a breakdown in the vital signaling pathways involved in spermatogenesis. The inhibitory effects of cysteamine on sheep spermatogenesis may be used to model its effects on young male patients with cystinosis or other diseases that are treated with this drug. Further studies on spermatogenesis that focus on patients treated with cysteamine during the peripubertal stage are warranted. - Highlights: • Dose dependent effects of cysteamine on spermatogenesis • A low dose (10 mg/kg) increased spermatozoa motility. • A higher dose (20 mg/kg) decreased both concentration and motility of spermatozoa. • Disruption in the blood-testis barrier caused reduction in concentration and motility.

  6. DNA damage in blood cells in relation to chemotherapy and nutritional status in colorectal cancer patients-A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kværner, Ane Sørlie; Minaguchi, Jun; Yamani, Naouale El; Henriksen, Christine; Ræder, Hanna; Paur, Ingvild; Henriksen, Hege Berg; Wiedswang, Gro; Smeland, Sigbjørn; Blomhoff, Rune; Collins, Andrew Richard; Bøhn, Siv Kjølsrud

    2018-03-01

    DNA damage can be considered as a biomarker for toxicity and response to chemotherapy. It is not known whether the chemotherapy-induced genotoxicity is associated with malnutrition. In this pilot study, we assess genotoxicity by means of DNA damage in patients with lymph-node positive colorectal cancer (CRC) and explore associations with chemotherapy treatment and nutritional status. DNA damage was compared between patients receiving chemotherapy (n = 24) and those not receiving chemotherapy (n = 20). DNA damage was measured in frozen whole blood by the comet assay. Associations between DNA damage and various indicators of malnutrition were also explored, including Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometric measurements, using multiple linear regression models. Patients on chemotherapy have higher levels of DNA damage in blood cells than patients not receiving chemotherapy (median of 16.9 and 7.9% tail DNA respectively, p = 0.001). The moderately malnourished patients (PG-SGA category B), representing 41% of the patients, have higher levels of cellular DNA damage than patients with good nutritional status (mean difference of 7.5% tail DNA, p = 0.033). In conclusion, adjuvant chemotherapy and malnutrition are both associated with increased levels of DNA damage in blood cells of CRC patients. Carefully controlled longitudinal studies or randomized controlled trials should be performed to determine whether good nutritional status may protect against chemotherapy-induced genotoxicity and enhance compliance to therapy in CRC patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Etiology of fatty liver in dairy cattle: effects of nutritional and hormonal status on hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremmer, D R; Trower, S L; Bertics, S J; Besong, S A; Bernabucci, U; Grummer, R R

    2000-10-01

    We conducted three experiments to determine the effects of nutritional and hormonal status on microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) activity and mass. In experiment 1, 18 nonlactating Holstein cows, 75 d before expected calving date, in their second gestation or greater were monitored from d 75 to 55 prepartum. Cows were fed a control diet from d 75 to 62 prepartum for covariable measurements. From d 61 to 55 prepartum, six cows continued to receive the control diet, six cows were restricted to 2.3 kg of grass hay/d, and six cows were fed the control diet plus 1.8 kg of concentrate/d and 500 ml of propylene glycol given 2 times/d as an oral drench. Plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations were highest in cows that received propylene glycol and lowest in feed restricted cows. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and liver triglyceride (TG) concentrations were highest in feed restricted cows and not different between cows that received the control diet and cows that received propylene glycol. Hepatic MTP activity and mass were not affected by treatment in experiment 1. In experiment 2, bovine hepatocytes isolated from the caudate process of five preruminating Holstein bull calves were incubated with either 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mM NEFA for 48 h. Intracellular TG increased linearly as NEFA concentration in the media increased. Concentration of NEFA in the incubation media had no effect on MTP activity or mass. There was a quadratic effect of concentration of NEFA in the incubation media on MTP mRNA. In experiment 3, bovine hepatocytes isolated from the caudate process of five preruminating Holstein bull calves were incubated with 2 mM [1-14C]oleate for 24 h to accumulate TG, followed by a 36-h period of TG depletion, during which hepatocytes were incubated with no hormone, 10 nM insulin, or 10 nM glucagon. There was no effect of insulin or glucagon on intracellular TG, MTP activity or mass. Cells incubated with no hormone had higher levels of MTP m

  8. The use of anti-Müllerian hormone as diagnostic for gonadectomy status in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Themmen, Axel P N; Kalra, Bhanu; Visser, Jenny A; Kumar, Ajay; Savjani, Gopal; de Gier, Jeffrey; Jaques, Scott

    2016-01-01

    In the veterinary practice, there is a need for a diagnostic tool to check the gonadal status in female dogs because it may be difficult to determine whether a female animal has been spayed or whether there are ovarian remnants. Although less prevalent, a similar situation pertains to male dogs.

  9. Spirulina does not decrease muscle damage nor oxdidative stress in cycling athletes with adequate nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A.M. Franca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Spirulina maxima on oxidative stress and muscle damage in cycling athletes subjected to high volume and intensity of training. Eighteen male athletes were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=11 with age 27.8±3.5 and placebo (n=7 with age 34.3±2.3 in a double-blind fashion. They carried out a protocol of Spirulina dietary supplementation (7.5 g/day of placebo for four weeks and maintained their trainings during this period. A nutritional anamnesis was performed and blood tests were done to determine pre and post levels of creatine kinase (CK, lactic dehydrogenase (LHD, superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA. The supplemented and placebo groups performed the same volume training, has adequate macronutrients and antioxidant vitamins ingestion before study, as well as initial CK, LDH, SOD and MDA levels. Supplementation did not promote a significant alteration in CK levels on supplemented group (158.4±16.3 for 140.0±16.6 U/l, p>0.05, LDH (420±13.2 for 394.9±27.9 UI/l, p>0.05, MDA (2.8±0.2 for 2.9±0.4 nmol/ml, p>0.05, nor an increase in the SOD (7.3±0.6 for 7.0±0.6 U/mg Hb, p>0.05. We conclude that administration of Spirulina does not interfere in the magnitude of muscle damage nor in antioxidant status of cycling athletes that practice intense training.

  10. Lipase inhibition and hormonal status, body composition and gastrointestinal processing of a liquid high-fat mixed meal in moderately obese subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, M.L.; Popp-Snijders, C.; Adèr, H.J.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; van der Veen, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    DRENT, MADELEINE L, CORRIE POPP‐SNIJDERS, HERMAN J ADER, JAN BMJ JANSEN AND EDUARD A VAN DER VEEN. Lipase inhibition and hormonal status, body composition and gastrointestinal processing of a liquid high‐fat mixed meal in moderately obese subjects. Obes Res. The effect of Orlistat, a lipase

  11. [The effect of potable mineral waters on the hormonal and psychological status (experimental and clinical research)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polushina, N D; Babina, L M; Shvedunova, L N

    1994-01-01

    Experiments on 80 Wistar rats revealed the ability of Essentuki mineral waters to stimulate the reserves and sensitivity of the intestinal serotonin-producing system. A clinical trial on two groups of children (exposed to low-dose ionizing radiation or with posttraumatic astheno-neurotic syndrome) found out pronounced positive changes in the psychological status of the children which progressed in correlation with an increase of the blood serotonin levels.

  12. Curcumin protects neuronal cells against status-epilepticus-induced hippocampal damage through induction of autophagy and inhibition of necroptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Liu, Yuan; Li, Xiao-Hui; Zeng, Xiang-Chang; Li, Jian; Zhou, Jun; Xiao, Bo; Hu, Kai

    2017-05-01

    Status epilepticus, the most severe form of epilepsy, is characterized by progressive functional and structural damage in the hippocampus, ultimately leading to the development and clinical appearance of spontaneous, recurrent seizures. Although the pathogenesis underlying epileptogenesis processes remains unclear, a substantial body of evidence has shown that status epilepticus acts as an important initial factor in triggering epileptogenesis. Notably, besides classical cell death mechanisms such as apoptosis and necrosis, 2 novel regulators of cell fate known as necroptosis and autophagy, are demonstrated to be involved in neuronal damage in various neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. However, whether necroptosis and autophagy play a role in post-status-epilepticus rat hippocampus and other epilepsy mechanisms deserves further research effort. In addition, research is needed to determine whether compounds from traditional Chinese herbs possess antiepileptic effects through the modulation of necroptosis and autophagy. In this study, we found that curcumin, a polyphenolic phytochemical extracted from the Curcuma longa plant, protects neuronal cells against status-epilepticus-induced hippocampal neuronal damage in the lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus rat model through induction of autophagy and inhibition of necroptosis.

  13. The influence of hormonal status and socio-cultural determinants on postmenopausal sexual dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdoğan Aslan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the hormonal and psycho-socio-cultural determinants that effect postmenopausal sexual dysfunction. Design: Case-control study. Setting: University hospital, Menopause clinics. Patients: 50 volunteers fit for inclusion criteria. Intervention: FSFI questionaire was applied to the participants after initial interview that preset questions evaluating psychosocio-cultural determinants were directed. Vaginal pH, total testosterone, and SHBG levels were measured in addition to routine menopause investigations. Results: FSFI scores were accordingly low in women who considered that they had a sexual dysfunction (50% and, in those who felt menopausal transition had a negative impact in their sexual relations (52% (p=0.00. While 6% of participants found sex after menopause as either shameful-unappropriate or unnecessary, other 17% stated that sex after menopause should continue as a duty of woman. 33% of the participants outlined that “motherhood” is the most important goal of their lives. Stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed a correlation between FSFI scores and FAI. Conclusion: FSD is prevalent in our country. Questioning the patient about the presence of sexual dysfunction may be sufficient to disclose the problem. FAI is a more reliable parameter in selecting candidates for androgen therapy.

  14. Women's Hormonal Status and Mate Value Influence Relationship Satisfaction and Perceived Male Attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Hromatko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous findings suggest that female preferences for certain features of male faces vary during the menstrual cycle. Similarly, changes during the cycle have also been found in women's commitment to a current relationship. Furthermore, from the perspective of securing benefits from extra-pair affairs, the differences between women with high vs. low mate value could be expected. In this study we have tried to connect these sets of findings: first, we explored differences between partnered and single women in their ratings of male facial attractiveness in different phases of the menstrual cycle; and second, their satisfaction with the current relationship in relation to the cycle phase and selfperceived mate value. Two groups of women (single vs. partnered rated the attractiveness of two sets of male faces (normal vs. symmetrical. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that women in a relationship gave higher ratings of attractiveness for both normal and symmetrical faces in the luteal phase compared to the early follicular phase of a cycle, while single women showed the opposite pattern. Analyses of satisfaction with their current relationship in relation to cycle phase and self-perceived mate value showed that women with higher mate value are generally more satisfied with their current partners, and show smaller differences in satisfaction in various phases of the cycle. The results are interpreted in terms of content-specificity of hormone mediated adaptive design.

  15. Vitamin D Status and Its Association with Parathyroid Hormone Concentration in Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Sálvio Martins

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are organic compounds that play a vital role in the control of metabolic processes. The D complex is considered a nutrient with a hormonal action and has an important participation in the constant maintenance of serum and extracellular calcium levels. The present study aims to analyze the results of 105.588 vitamin D (25(OHD measurements obtained from a database from a clinical analysis laboratory in Brazil, between the years of 2011 and 2013. The values of 25(OHD were correlated with age, gender, and values of PTH. The results show a high prevalence of values of 25(OHD considered inadequate, characterizing 76% of the studied population. It was observed that 26,5% of the individuals had deficiency and 49,5% had insufficiency of vitamin D. It was also shown that there was a negative correlation between 25(OHD and PTH levels. In conclusion, this study is in accordance with others that show a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in different populations and alerts us for the importance of these measurements and analysis in clinical practice and as a base for diagnosis and treatment of hypovitaminosis.

  16. Status and future prospects of extensive damage mitigation guidelines in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Han; Kim, Han Chul; Kim, Tae Hyeong; Seul, Kwang Won

    2012-01-01

    Previous severe accidents such as TMI 2 and Chernobyl accidents occurred due to combinations of equipment failures and human errors. However, the Fukushima accident is the first severe accident caused by extreme natural hazards. The Fukushima accident indicated need for integration of accident management such as emergency operating procedures (EOPs), severe accident management guidelines (SAMGs), and extensive damage mitigation guidelines (EDMGs). Therefore, in order to mitigate the effect of simultaneous accidents at multiple units of a site due to extreme natural hazards such as earthquake, tsunami, flooding, the EDMGs in Korea are being evaluated in terms of its effectiveness in prevention and mitigation of a severe accident after the Fukushima accident. In the first step, the Generic EDMG will be developed by KHNP for Wolsong, Kori, Yonggwang, Ulchin, Shin Kori, Shin Wolsong sites by 2013 and then the Specific EDMG will be developed for six nuclear power plants that represent each type of reactors by 2015. The aim of this paper is to describe the EDMGs and also introduce the activities to improve effectiveness of EDMGs through efforts for reflecting lessons-learned from the Fukushima accident. Also, this paper provides the status of developing EDMGs in Korea

  17. Stress hormones in relation to breeding status and territory location in colonial king penguin: a role for social density?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viblanc, Vincent A; Gineste, Benoit; Stier, Antoine; Robin, Jean-Patrice; Groscolas, René

    2014-07-01

    Because glucocorticoid (stress) hormones fundamentally affect various aspects of the behaviour, life history and fitness of free-living vertebrates, there is a need to understand the environmental factors shaping their variation in natural populations. Here, we examined whether spatial heterogeneity in breeding territory quality affected the stress of colonial king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We assessed the effects of local climate (wind, sun and ambient temperature) and social conditions (number of neighbours, distance to neighbours) on the baseline levels of plasma total corticosterone (CORT) in 77 incubating and 42 chick-brooding birds, breeding on territories of central or peripheral colony location. We also assessed the oxidative stress status of a sub-sample of central vs. peripheral chick-brooders to determine whether chronic stress arose from breeding on specific territories. On average, we found that brooders had 55% higher CORT levels than incubators. Regardless of breeding status, central birds experienced greater social density (higher number of neighbours, shorter distance between territories) and had higher CORT levels than peripheral birds. Increasing social density positively explained 40% of the variation in CORT levels of both incubators and brooders, but the effect was more pronounced in brooders. In contrast, climate was similar among breeding territories and did not significantly affect the CORT levels of breeding birds. In brooders, oxidative stress status was not affected by local density or weather conditions. These results highlight that local heterogeneity in breeding (including social) conditions may strongly affect the stress levels of breeding seabirds. The fitness consequences of such variation remain to be investigated.

  18. A non-invasive identification of hormone metabolites, gonadal event and reproductive status of captive female tigers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERI DWI PUTRANTO

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Putranto HD (2011 A non-invasive identification of hormone metabolites, gonadal event and reproductive status of captive female tigers. Biodiversitas 12: 131-135. As a non-invasive method, fecal sample provides some advantage for animal and collector. The purpose of the present study were to monitor the reproductive status of female Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica by assessing changes in fecal during natural ovarian activity and pregnancy and to identify whether progesterone (P4 exists and what kinds of P4 metabolites excreted into the feces. Two female tigers were fed a diet consisting of meat. Drinking water was available ad libitum. Feces were collected ones to twice a week. The fecal contents of P4 and estradiol-17β (E2 were determined by EIA and P4 metabolites were separated by a modified HPLC. The EIA results shown that during its natural ovarian activitythe E2 contents showed cyclic changes at the average of 27.0 d interval, however, no distinct cycles were shown in fecal P4 contents of non-pregnant tiger. In contrary, the fecal P4 contents in pregnant tiger increased remarkably after copulation approximately 2- to 6-fold higher than the mean value. The HPLC results indicated that two peaks were primarily detected fraction 63- 64 min (identified metabolites and fraction 85 min (not identified metabolite in feces of pregnant tiger. However, P4 detected only small amount in feces. It is possible to assess non-invasively gonadal events such as luteal or follicular activity or ovulation of Siberian tigers by endocrine monitoring based on fecal P4 and E2 to understand reproductive status.

  19. A robust test for growth hormone doping--present status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Anne E; Ho, Ken K

    2008-05-01

    Although doping with growth hormone (GH) is banned, there is anecdotal evidence that it is widely abused. GH is reportedly used often in combination with anabolic steroids at high doses for several months. Development of a robust test for GH has been challenging because recombinant human 22 kDa (22K) GH used in doping is indistinguishable analytically from endogenous GH and there are wide physiological fluctuations in circulating GH concentrations. One approach to GH testing is based on measurement of different circulating GH isoforms using immunoassays that differentiate between 22K and other GH isoforms. Administration of 22K GH results in a change in its abundance relative to other endogenous pituitary GH isoforms. The differential isoform method has been implemented; however, its utility is limited because of the short window of opportunity of detection. The second approach, which will extend the window of opportunity of detection, is based on the detection of increased levels of circulating GH-responsive proteins, such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis and collagen peptides. Age and gender are the major determinants of variability for IGF-I and the collagen markers; therefore, a test based on these markers must take age into account for men and women. Extensive data is now available that validates the GH-responsive marker approach and implementation is now largely dependent on establishing an assured supply of standardized assays. Future directions will include more widespread implementation of both approaches by the World Anti-Doping Agency, possible use of other platforms for measurement and an athlete's passport to establish individual reference levels for biological parameters such as GH-responsive markers. Novel approaches include gene expression and proteomic profiling. 2008, Asian Journal of Andrology, SIMM and SJTU. All rights reserved.

  20. Status of SiO2/TiO2 HR coating damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowermilk, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    The data, observations, and conclusions from a number of experiments on high-reflector (HR) coating damage which were done in FY 1979 are summarized. Damage threshold measurements for the experiments described are presented

  1. Dental fluorosis, nutritional status, kidney damage, and thyroid function along with bone metabolic indicators in school-going children living in fluoride-affected hilly areas of Doda district, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandare, Arjun L; Gourineni, Shankar Rao; Validandi, Vakdevi

    2017-10-23

    A case-control study was undertaken among the school children aged 8-15 years to know the presence and severity of dental fluorosis, nutrition and kidney status, and thyroid function along with bone metabolic indicators in Doda district situated at high altitude where drinking water was contaminated and heat stress. This study included 824 participants with an age of 8-15 years. The results of the study reviled that dental fluorosis was significantly higher in affected than control area children. Urinary fluoride was significantly higher (p school children. Nutritional status of affected children was lower than control area children. The chronic kidney damage (CKD) was higher in affected than control school children. Thyroid function was affected more in affected than control area schools. Serum creatinine, total alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, 1, 25(OH) 2 vitamin D, and osteocalcin were significantly higher in affected school children (p school children, whereas there was no significant difference in triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and 25-OH vitamin D among the two groups. There was a significant decrease in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the affected area school children compared to control. In conclusion, fluorotic area school children were more affected with dental fluorosis, kidney damage, along and some bone indicators as compared to control school children.

  2. Contribution of intestinal barrier damage, microbial translocation and HIV-1 infection status to an inflammaging signature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda K Steele

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammation is a characteristic of both HIV-1 infection and aging ("inflammaging". Intestinal epithelial barrier damage (IEBD and microbial translocation (MT contribute to HIV-associated inflammation, but their impact on inflammaging remains unclear.Plasma biomarkers for IEBD (iFABP, MT (LPS, sCD14, T-cell activation (sCD27, and inflammation (hsCRP, IL-6 were measured in 88 HIV-1 uninfected (HIV(neg and 83 treated, HIV-1-infected (HIV(pos adults from 20-100 years old.Age positively correlated with iFABP (r = 0.284, p = 0.008, sCD14 (r = 0.646, p = <0.0001 and LPS (r = 0.421, p = 0.0002 levels in HIV(neg but not HIV(pos subjects. Age also correlated with sCD27, hsCRP, and IL-6 levels regardless of HIV status. Middle-aged HIV(pos subjects had elevated plasma biomarker levels similar to or greater than those of elderly HIV(neg subjects with the exception of sCD14. Clustering analysis described an inflammaging phenotype (IP based on iFABP, sCD14, sCD27, and hsCRP levels in HIV(neg subjects over 60 years of age. The IP in HIV(neg subjects was used to develop a classification model that was applied to HIV(pos subjects to determine whether HIV(pos subjects under 60 years of age were IP+. HIV(pos IP+ subjects were similar in age to IP- subjects but had a greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD based on Framingham risk score (p =  0.01.We describe a novel IP that incorporates biomarkers of IEBD, MT, immune activation as well as inflammation. Application of this novel IP in HIV-infected subjects identified a group at higher risk of CVD.

  3. Oxidative stress evoked damages on rat sperm and attenuated antioxidant status on consumption of aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, I; Poornima, P S; Wankhar, D; Ravindran, R; Sheeladevi, R

    2017-07-01

    Although several studies on toxic effect of aspartame metabolite have been studied, controversial reports over the use of aspartame owing to the fact that it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism exist. This present study is proposed to investigate whether aspartame (40 mg kg -1 b.wt) administration for 90 days could induce oxidative stress and alter antioxidant status of epididymal sperm in Wistar strain male albino rats. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the effects of aspartame. Oral intubations of FDA approved 40 mg kg -1 b.wt aspartame were given daily for 90 days to Wistar strain male albino rats and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. Sperm count, viability, morphology, morphometry and motility were assessed. A significant decrease in sperm function of aspartame treated animals was observed when compared with the control and MTX control. The free radical generation were observed in epididymal sperm by assessing the scavenging enzymes, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Result suggest that there was a significant increase glutathione-s-transferase (GST), with a significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), catalase activity (CAT) and glutathione reductase concentration. The increase in free radicals generation could have ultimately caused the lipid peroxidation mediated damages on the testis. Aspartame treated animals also revealed the reduced space in seminiferous tubules, which resulted in reduced Leydig cells when compared with control in histopathology. These findings demonstrate that aspartame metabolites could be a contributing factor for development of oxidative stress in the epididymal sperm.

  4. Risk of Breast Cancer in Relation to Combined Effects of Hormone Therapy, Body Mass Index, and Alcohol Use, by Hormone-receptor Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Tjonneland, Anne; Keiding, Niels

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption, increased body mass index (BMI), and hormone therapy are risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer, but their combined effects are not well understood. Because hormone therapy is effective for the relief of menopausal symptoms, the identification of "high......,789 women ages 50+ years (study period 1981 to 2009). Information on risk factors was obtained in baseline questionnaires. We performed analyses using the Aalen additive hazards model. Serum estradiol and testosterone measurements were obtained in a subsample of approximately 1000 women. RESULTS: During 392...

  5. Interaction between body mass index and hormone-receptor status as a prognostic factor in lymph-node-positive breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il Yong Chung

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the body mass index (BMI at a breast cancer diagnosis and various factors including the hormone-receptor, menopause, and lymph-node status, and identify if there is a specific patient subgroup for which the BMI has an effect on the breast cancer prognosis. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 8,742 patients with non-metastatic invasive breast cancer from the research database of Asan Medical Center. The overall survival (OS and breast-cancer-specific survival (BCSS outcomes were compared among BMI groups using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional-hazards regression models with an interaction term. There was a significant interaction between BMI and hormone-receptor status for the OS (P = 0.029, and BCSS (P = 0.013 in lymph-node-positive breast cancers. Obesity in hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer showed a poorer OS (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.92 to 2.48 and significantly poorer BCSS (HR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.08 to 2.99. In contrast, a high BMI in hormone-receptor-negative breast cancer revealed a better OS (HR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.16 to 1.19 and BCSS (HR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.19 to 1.44. Being underweight (BMI < 18.50 kg/m2 with hormone-receptor-negative breast cancer was associated with a significantly worse OS (HR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.00-3.95 and BCSS (HR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.12-4.47. There was no significant interaction found between the BMI and hormone-receptor status in the lymph-node-negative setting, and BMI did not interact with the menopause status in any subgroup. In conclusion, BMI interacts with the hormone-receptor status in a lymph-node-positive setting, thereby playing a role in the prognosis of breast cancer.

  6. Serum anti-Mullerian hormone assessment of ovarian reserve and polycystic ovary syndrome status over the reproductive lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremellen, Kelton; Zander-Fox, Deidre

    2015-08-01

    To determine normal ranges for serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) using the new automated Elecsys AMH assay platform, with a view to establishing values that signify premature loss of ovarian reserve, increased risk for an excessive response during IVF stimulation and a likely diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Serum AMH was measured by the Elecsys automated electrochemiluminescence assay in 654 women undergoing gynaecological assessment. Serum AMH levels peaked before 25 years of age, with mean AMH levels halving by 36 and falling to a quarter of their peak by 40 years of age. Overall, AMH results of 95% of patients with PCOS exceeded the 50th percentile for their age, with 72.1% having an AMH result in the top quartile for age. ROC analysis suggested that a serum AMH ≥36 pmol L(-1) is the best determinant of PCOS status (sensitivity 83.7% and specificity 82.3%). Serum AMH exhibited an excellent correlation with ultrasound-assessed antral follicle count (AFC) (r = 0.836, P ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) during IVF treatment. Serum AMH is a sensitive marker of age-related decline in ovarian reserve status. A serum AMH result >36 pmol L(-1) , or above the 75th percentile for age, is highly suggestive of a diagnosis of PCOS. A serum AMH result below the 10th percentile for age suggests accelerated loss of ovarian reserve, while an AMH result exceeding 20 pmol L(-1) suggests an increased risk of OHSS during IVF treatment. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. Adjuvant Trastuzumab in HER2-Positive Early Breast Cancer by Age and Hormone Receptor Status: A Cost-Utility Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, William; Kvizhinadze, Giorgi; Nair, Nisha; Blakely, Tony

    2016-08-01

    -effect data by hormone receptor subtype. Heterogeneity was restricted to age and hormone receptor status; tumour size/grade heterogeneity could be explored in future work. This study highlights how cost-effectiveness can vary greatly by heterogeneity in age and hormone receptor subtype. Resource allocation and licensing of subsidised therapies such as trastuzumab should consider demographic and clinical heterogeneity; there is currently a profound disconnect between how funding decisions are made (largely agnostic to heterogeneity) and the principles of personalised medicine.

  8. Adjuvant Trastuzumab in HER2-Positive Early Breast Cancer by Age and Hormone Receptor Status: A Cost-Utility Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Leung

    2016-08-01

    treatment-effect data by hormone receptor subtype. Heterogeneity was restricted to age and hormone receptor status; tumour size/grade heterogeneity could be explored in future work.This study highlights how cost-effectiveness can vary greatly by heterogeneity in age and hormone receptor subtype. Resource allocation and licensing of subsidised therapies such as trastuzumab should consider demographic and clinical heterogeneity; there is currently a profound disconnect between how funding decisions are made (largely agnostic to heterogeneity and the principles of personalised medicine.

  9. Ovarian structure and hormonal status of the UChA and UChB adult rats in response to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A; Padovani, Carlos R; Martinez, Francisco E

    2009-01-20

    In females, chronic alcoholism has a current and dangerous incidence to fertility. This work had the goal of elucidating the alterations on the ovary of UChA and UChB adult rats (ethanol 10% (v/v) voluntary drinkers). After the treatment period, 42 female rats divided into three experimental groups (UChA, UChB and Wistar) suffered decapitation and their ovaries were removed and processed to further analysis on light and electron microscopy. The ovary was entirely sliced and stained by hematoxylin-eosin, toluidine blue, periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and Masson's tricromic. Thereby, the enzymatic reaction to acid and alkaline phosphatase, estral cyclicity, reproductive hormonal status and frequency in oestrous-related ovarian structures were assigned. The UChB rats showed an increase in body mass gain index and the ovaries relative weight was significantly lower comparing to the other groups. UCh rats presented the longest estral cycle durations and also persistent oestrous phasis, with uninterrupted cycles. Advanced follicular atresia was common in UCh animals, and degenerating intracellular fragments could be observed through acid phosphatase and electron microscopy techniques. There were some estral cyclicity irregularities caused by chronic ethanol intake in the UCh groups which were consequently reflected as morphologic injury in the ovary structure.

  10. Present status and prospects of the compensation system for nuclear damage in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Z.; Liu, C.

    1993-01-01

    In handling liability for nuclear damage matters, China currently adheres to the rules stipulated in the administrative legal document regarding liability to third parties for nuclear damage enacted by the State Council, in which it is defined that the principles of absolute liability, limitation of liability and single competent court are applicable in China. The Chinese government shall enact state laws on liability for nuclear damage on the basis of the above-mentioned legal document and with active consideration of the function of the state in the compensation for nuclear damage

  11. Auxin synthesis gene tms1 driven by tuber-specific promoter alters hormonal status of transgenic potato plants and their responses to exogenous phytohormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolachevskaya, Oksana O; Sergeeva, Lidiya I; Floková, Kristyna; Getman, Irina A; Lomin, Sergey N; Alekseeva, Valeriya V; Rukavtsova, Elena B; Buryanov, Yaroslav I; Romanov, Georgy A

    2017-03-01

    Ectopic auxin overproduction in transgenic potato leads to enhanced productivity accompanied with concerted and occasional changes in hormonal status, and causing altered response of transformants to exogenous auxin or cytokinin. Previously, we generated potato transformants expressing Agrobacterium-derived auxin synthesis gene tms1 driven by tuber-specific patatin gene promoter (B33-promoter). Here, we studied the endogenous hormonal status and the response to exogenous phytohormones in tms1 transformants cultured in vitro. Adding indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or kinetin to culture medium affected differently tuberization of tms1-transformed and control plants, depending also on sucrose content in the medium. Exogenous phytohormones ceased to stimulate the tuber initiation in transformants at high (5-8%) sucrose concentration, while in control plants the stimulation was observed in all experimental settings. Furthermore, exogenous auxin partly inhibited the tuber initiation, and exogenous cytokinin reduced the average tuber weight in most transformants at high sucrose content. The elevated auxin level in tubers of the transformants was accompanied with a decrease in content of cytokinin bases and their ribosides in tubers and most shoots. No concerted changes in contents of abscisic, jasmonic, salicylic acids and gibberellins in tubers were detected. The data on hormonal status indicated that the enhanced productivity of tms1 transformants was due to auxin and not mediated by other phytohormones. In addition, exogenous cytokinin was shown to upregulate the expression of genes encoding orthologs of auxin receptors. Overall, the results showed that tms1 expression and local increase in IAA level in transformants affect both the balance of endogenous cytokinins and the dynamics of tuberization in response to exogenous hormones (auxin, cytokinin), the latter reaction depending also on the carbohydrate supply. We introduce a basic model for the hormonal network

  12. Status of the TMI-2 core: a review of damage assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croucher, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Assessments of the damage within the core of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor, performed by reconstructing the transient thermal-hydraulic sequence of events, estimating the amount of hydrogen generation, and evaluating the amount of fission products released, are reviewed and summarized. Minimum and maximum bounds of damage to the core are identified

  13. Hormonal status and age differentially affect tolerance to the disruptive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC on learning in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Winsauer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hormone status and age on the development of tolerance to D9-THC were assessed in sham-operated (intact or ovariectomized (OVX female rats that received either intraperitoneal saline or 5.6 mg/kg of D9-THC daily from postnatal day (PD 75 to 180 (early adulthood onward or PD 35 to 140 (adolescence onward. During this time, the 4 groups for each age (i.e., intact/saline, intact/THC, OVX/saline, and OVX/THC were trained in a learning and performance procedure and dose-effect curves were established for D9-THC (0.56-56 mg/kg and the cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R antagonist rimonabant (0.32-10 mg/kg. Despite the persistence of small rate-decreasing and error-increasing effects in intact and OVX females from both ages during chronic D9-THC, all of the D9-THC groups developed tolerance. However, the magnitude of tolerance, as well as the effect of hormone status, varied with the age at which chronic D9-THC was initiated. There was no evidence of dependence in any of the groups. Hippocampal protein expression of CB1R, AHA1 (a co-chaperone of CB1R and HSP90β (a molecular chaperone modulated by AHA-1 was affected more by OVX than chronic D9-THC; striatal protein expression was not consistently affected by either manipulation. Hippocampal BDNF expression varied with age, hormone status, and chronic treatment. Thus, hormonal status differentially affects the development of tolerance to the disruptive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (D9-THC on learning and performance behavior in adolescent, but not adult, female rats. These factors and their interactions also differentially affect cannabinoid signaling proteins in the hippocampus and striatum, and ultimately, neural plasticity.

  14. The effects of social isolation on steroid hormone levels are modulated by previous social status and context in a cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhardo, L; Oliveira, R F

    2014-01-01

    Social isolation is a major stressor which impacts the physiology, behaviour and health of individuals in gregarious species. However, depending on conditional and contextual factors, such as social status and group composition, social isolation may be perceived differently by different individuals or even by the same individuals at different times. Here we tested the effects of social status (territorial vs. non-territorial) and previous group composition (i.e. type of social group: mixed sex group with two territorial males, TT vs. mixed sex group with one territorial and one non-territorial male, TnT) on the hormonal response (androgens and cortisol) to social isolation in a cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus). The different steroid hormones measured responded differentially to social isolation, and their response was modulated by social factors. Social isolation elicited a decrease of 11-keto formation only in territorial males, whereas non-territorial males present a non-significant trend for increasing KT levels. Testosterone did not respond to social isolation. Cortisol only increased in isolated individuals from TnT groups irrespective of social status (i.e. both in territorials and non-territorials). These results suggest that it is the perception of social isolation and not the objective structure of the situation that triggers the hormonal response to isolation. © 2013.

  15. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1992, A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.F.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.; Cross-Dial, A.E.; Morris, R.H.; Vanden Heuvel, L.N.; Dolan, B.W.; Jansen, J.M.; Minarick, J.W.; Lau, W.; Salyer, W.D.

    1993-12-01

    Twenty-seven operational events with conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage of 1.0 x 10E-06 or higher occurring at commercial light-water reactors during 1992 are considered to be precursors to potential core damage. These are described along with associated significance estimates, categorization, and subsequent analyses. The report discusses (1) the general rationale for this study, (2) the selection and documentation of events as precursors, (3) the estimation and use of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage to rank precursor events, and (4) the plant models used in the analysis process

  16. Parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and vitamin D 1974: Present status of physiological studies and analysis of calcium homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, J. T., Jr.; Swenson, K. G.

    1975-01-01

    The role of parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and vitamin D in the control of calcium and bone metabolism was studied. Particular emphasis was placed on the physiological adaptation to weightlessness and, as a potential model for this purpose, on the immobilization characteristic of space flight or prolonged bed rest. The biosynthesis, control of secretion, and metabolism of these hormonal agents is considered.

  17. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents. A status report, 1982--1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forester, J.A.; Mitchell, D.B.; Whitehead, D.W. [and others

    1997-04-01

    This study is a continuation of earlier work that evaluated 1969-1981 and 1984-1994 events affecting commercial light-water reactors. One-hundred nine operational events that affected 51 reactors during 1982 and 1983 and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage are described. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 x 10{sup {minus}6}. These events were identified by first computer screening the 1982-83 licensee event reports from commercial light-water reactors to select events that could be precursors to core damage. Candidates underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. This report discusses the general rationale for the study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for the events.

  18. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents. A status report, 1982--1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forester, J.A.; Mitchell, D.B.; Whitehead, D.W.

    1997-04-01

    This study is a continuation of earlier work that evaluated 1969-1981 and 1984-1994 events affecting commercial light-water reactors. One-hundred nine operational events that affected 51 reactors during 1982 and 1983 and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage are described. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 x 10 -6 . These events were identified by first computer screening the 1982-83 licensee event reports from commercial light-water reactors to select events that could be precursors to core damage. Candidates underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. This report discusses the general rationale for the study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for the events

  19. Impact of a modified Maze procedure on the atrial hormonal function and level of myocardial damage markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Zheleznev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF in patients with valvular heart disease remains one of the most pressing problems in cardiac surgery. The purpose of the study was to determine the dynamics of proANP and myocardial damage markers depending on a modification of the radiofrequency (RF Maze procedure used. The study involved 86 patients operated over a period from November 2007 to December 2010. A concomitant RF Maze procedure during mitral valve (MV surgery was performed in two groups of the cohort; in group 1 it was the standard Maze IV scheme, in group 2 it was the modified one. In both groups we assessed the levels of proANP and myocardial damage markers. In group 1 a more significant decrease in proANP (by 4 times was seen as compared to group 2 (by half. In group 1, the pleural effusion rate was 46.2%, and thoracocentesis rate reached 25.6%. In group 2, the corresponding rates were lower,14.9% and 27.7%. During the first postoperative day there was an increase in creatine phosphokinase MB fraction and Troponin T in both groups, and the rise was significantly higher in group 1. It should be noted that modified Maze IV RF ablation results in 80% freedom from AF, which is consistent with that of the standard Maze IV scheme. In patients with left atrial ablation the proANP secretion is less prominent early after surgery, and myocardial damage is lower in comparison with biatrial ablation.

  20. Is the technical performance of young soccer players influenced by hormonal status, sexual maturity, anthropometric profile, and physical performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Alexandre; Massa, Marcelo; Thiengo, Carlos R; Rodrigues Lopes, Rafael Alan; Lima, Marcelo R; Vaeyens, Roel; Barbosa, Wesley P; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of hormonal status, anthropometric profile, sexual maturity level, and physical performance on the technical abilities of 40 young male soccer players during small-sided games (SSGs). Anthropometric profiling, saliva sampling, sexual maturity assessment (Tanner scale), and physical performance tests (Yo-Yo and vertical jumps) were conducted two weeks prior to the SSGs. Salivary testosterone was determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Technical performance was determined by the frequency of actions during SSGs. Principal component analyses identified four technical actions of importance: total number of passes, effectiveness, goal attempts, and total tackles. A multivariate canonical correlation analysis was then employed to verify the prediction of a multiple dependent variables set (composed of four technical actions) from an independent set of variables, composed of testosterone concentration, stage of pubic hair and genitalia development, vertical jumps and Yo-Yo performance. A moderate-to-large relationship between the technical performance set and the independent set was observed. The canonical correlation was 0.75 with a canonical R 2 of 0.45. The highest structure coefficient in the technical performance set was observed for tackles (0.77), while testosterone presented the highest structure coefficient (0.75) for the variables of the independent set. The current data suggest that the selected independent set of variables might be useful in predicting SSG performance in young soccer players. Coaches should be aware that physical development plays a key role in technical performance to avoid decision-making mistakes during the selection of young players.

  1. Secretion of anti-Müllerian hormone in the Florida manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris, with implications for assessing conservation status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rhian C.; Reynolds, John E.; Wetzel, Dana L.; Schwierzke-Wade, Leslie; Bonde, Robert K.; Breuel, Kevin F.; Roudebush, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental and anthropogenic stressors can affect wildlife populations in a number of ways. For marine mammals (e.g. the Florida manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris), certain stressors or conservation risk factors have been identified, but sublethal effects have been very difficult to assess using traditional methods. The development of 'biomarkers' allows us to correlate effects, such as impaired reproduction, with possible causes. A recently developed biomarker (anti-Müllerian hormone, AMH) provides an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of gonadal function. The study objective was to determine AMH levels in wild manatees. In total, 28 male and 17 female manatee serum samples were assayed. Animal demographics included collection date, body weight (kg) and total length (cm). In certain cases, age of individuals was also known. AMH levels ranged from 160 to 2451.85 ng ml-1 (mean = 844.65 ng ml-1) in males and 0.00 to 0.38 ng ml-1 (mean = 0.10 ng ml-1) in females. Linear regression analyses revealed a significant relationship between male AMH levels and body weight (R2 = 0.452; p 2 = 0.338; p < 0.001). Due to the small sample size, regression analyses for female AMH and body weight and length were not significant. This represents the first report of AMH detection in a marine mammal. AMH levels in male manatees are the highest of any species observed to date, whereas levels in females are within reported ranges. Further studies will promote improved conservation decision by assessing AMH levels in the manatee as a function of various stressors including, but not limited to, nutritional status, serious injuries (e.g. watercraft collisions), exposure to biotoxins or contaminants, or disease.

  2. External quality-control surveys of peptide hormone radioimmunoassays in the Federal Republic of Germany. The present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, H.; Jungbluth, D.; Roehle, G.; Marschner, I.; Scriba, P.C.; Wood, W.G.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of quality-control survey (QCS) of hormone assays are performed in the Federal Republic of Germany. In the one survey, the participating laboratories are requested to determine seven or eight different hormones in two lyophilized sera that are distributed several times a year. Because of the lack of reference methods for peptide hormones, the statistical evaluation of the results indicates only whether they are ''correct'' or subject to systematic or nonsystematic errors with respect to the findings of the other participants. In the other survey, the participating laboratories are requested to assay only one given hormone in some 20 deep-frozen sera (including standards in hormone-free sera for derivation of a standard curve) that are distributed at relatively long intervals. The statistical analysis of the data derived from these QCSs allows - together with the methodological inquiry form - detection of probable causes for discrepancies in the results. (author)

  3. Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage. Signatures, ratifications, accessions and successions and text of reservations/declarations. Status as of 31 December 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The document refers to the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (IAEA-INFCIRC-500), giving the status of signatures, ratifications, accessions and successions, and the texts of reservations/declarations as of 31 December 1996

  4. Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage. Signatures, ratifications, accessions and successions and text of reservations/declarations. Status as of 31 December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-28

    The document refers to the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (IAEA-INFCIRC-500), giving the status of signatures, ratifications, accessions and successions, and the texts of reservations/declarations as of 31 December 1996.

  5. Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Protects against Cytokine-Induced Barrier Damage in Caco-2 Intestinal Epithelial Monolayers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Váradi

    Full Text Available Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH is a potent anti-inflammatory peptide with cytoprotective effect in various tissues. The present investigation demonstrates the ability of α-MSH to interact with intestinal epithelial cell monolayers and mitigate inflammatory processes of the epithelial barrier. The protective effect of α-MSH was studied on Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial monolayers, which were disrupted by exposure to tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. The barrier integrity was assessed by measuring transepithelial electric resistance (TEER and permeability for marker molecules. Caco-2 monolayers were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for expression of melanocortin-1 receptor and tight junction proteins ZO-1 and claudin-4. The activation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB was detected by fluorescence microscopy and inflammatory cytokine expression was assessed by flow cytometric bead array cytokine assay. Exposure of Caco-2 monolayers to proinflammatory cytokines lowered TEER and increased permeability for fluorescein and albumin, which was accompanied by changes in ZO-1 and claudin-4 immunostaining. α-MSH was able to prevent inflammation-associated decrease of TEER in a dose-dependent manner and reduce the increased permeability for paracellular marker fluorescein. Further immunohistochemistry analysis revealed proinflammatory cytokine induced translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit into Caco-2 cell nuclei, which was inhibited by α-MSH. As a result the IL-6 and IL-8 production of Caco-2 monolayers were also decreased with different patterns by the addition of α-MSH to the culture medium. In conclusion, Caco-2 cells showed a positive immunostaining for melanocortin-1 receptor and α-MSH protected Caco-2 cells against inflammatory barrier dysfunction and inflammatory activation induced by tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β cytokines.

  6. Association between lifetime exposure to passive smoking and risk of breast cancer subtypes defined by hormone receptor status among non-smoking Caucasian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreta Strumylaite

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is inconsistently associated with breast cancer. Although some studies suggest that breast cancer risk is related to passive smoking, little is known about the association with breast cancer by tumor hormone receptor status. We aimed to explore the association between lifetime passive smoking and risk of breast cancer subtypes defined by estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status among non-smoking Caucasian women. A hospital-based case-control study was performed in 585 cases and 1170 controls aged 28-90 years. Information on lifetime passive smoking and other factors was collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression was used for analyses restricted to the 449 cases and 930 controls who had never smoked actively. All statistical tests were two-sided. Adjusted odds ratio of breast cancer was 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.72-1.41 in women who experienced exposure to passive smoking at work, 1.88 (95% CI: 1.38-2.55 in women who had exposure at home, and 2.80 (95% CI: 1.84-4.25 in women who were exposed at home and at work, all compared with never exposed regularly. Increased risk was associated with longer exposure: women exposed ≤ 20 years and > 20 years had 1.27 (95% CI: 0.97-1.66 and 2.64 (95% CI: 1.87-3.74 times higher risk of breast cancer compared with never exposed (Ptrend 0.05. There was evidence of interaction between passive smoking intensity and menopausal status in both overall group (P = 0.02 and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer group (P < 0.05. In Caucasian women, lifetime exposure to passive smoking is associated with the risk of breast cancer independent of tumor hormone receptor status with the strongest association in postmenopausal women.

  7. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1995 A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.

    1997-04-01

    Ten operational events that affected 10 commercial light-water reactors during 1995 and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage are described. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 x 10 -6 . These events were identified by first computer-screening the 1995 licensee event reports from commercial light-water reactors to identify those events that could potentially be precursors. Candidate precursors were selected and evaluated in a process similar to that used in previous assessments. Selected events underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. Other events designated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) also underwent a similar evaluation. Finally, documented precursors were submitted for review by licensees and NRC headquarters and regional offices to ensure the plant design and its response to the precursor were correctly characterized. This study is a continuation of earlier work, which evaluated 1969-1981 and 1984-1994 events. The report discusses the general rationale for this study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for the events

  8. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1996. A status report. Volume 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.; Muhlheim, M.D.; Dolan, B.W.; Minarick, J.W.

    1997-12-01

    This report describes the 14 operational events in 1996 that affected 13 commercial light-water reactors and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage accidents. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 x 10 -6 . These events were identified by first computer-screening the 1996 licensee event reports from commercial light-water reactors to identify those events that could potentially be precursors. Candidate precursors were selected and evaluated in a process similar to that used in previous assessments. Selected events underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. Other events designated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) also underwent a similar evaluation. Finally, documented precursors were submitted for review by licensees and NRC headquarters and regional offices to ensure the plant design and its response to the precursor were correctly characterized. This study is a continuation of earlier work, which evaluated 1969--1995 events. The report discusses the general rationale for this study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for the events

  9. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1994, a status report. Volume 22: Appendix I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.; Vanden Heuvel, L.N.; Dolan, B.W.; Minarick, J.W.

    1995-12-01

    Nine operational events that affected eleven commercial light-water reactors (LWRs) during 1994 and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage are described. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 x 10 -6 . These events were identified by computer-screening the 1994 licensee event reports from commercial LWRs to identify those that could be potential precursors. Candidate precursors were then selected and evaluated in a process similar to that used in previous assessments. Selected events underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. Other events designated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) also underwent a similar evaluation. Finally, documented precursors were submitted for review by licensees and NRC headquarters and regional offices to ensure that the plant design and its response to the precursor were correctly characterized. This study is a continuation of earlier work, which evaluated 1969--1981 and 1984--1993 events. The report discusses the general rationale for this study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for events. This document is bound in two volumes: Vol. 21 contains the main report and Appendices A--H; Vol. 22 contains Appendix 1

  10. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1995 A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Ten operational events that affected 10 commercial light-water reactors during 1995 and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage are described. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 x 10{sup {minus}6}. These events were identified by first computer-screening the 1995 licensee event reports from commercial light-water reactors to identify those events that could potentially be precursors. Candidate precursors were selected and evaluated in a process similar to that used in previous assessments. Selected events underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. Other events designated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) also underwent a similar evaluation. Finally, documented precursors were submitted for review by licensees and NRC headquarters and regional offices to ensure the plant design and its response to the precursor were correctly characterized. This study is a continuation of earlier work, which evaluated 1969-1981 and 1984-1994 events. The report discusses the general rationale for this study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for the events.

  11. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1994, a status report. Volume 22: Appendix I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.; Vanden Heuvel, L.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dolan, B.W.; Minarick, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Nine operational events that affected eleven commercial light-water reactors (LWRs) during 1994 and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage are described. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}. These events were identified by computer-screening the 1994 licensee event reports from commercial LWRs to identify those that could be potential precursors. Candidate precursors were then selected and evaluated in a process similar to that used in previous assessments. Selected events underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. Other events designated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) also underwent a similar evaluation. Finally, documented precursors were submitted for review by licensees and NRC headquarters and regional offices to ensure that the plant design and its response to the precursor were correctly characterized. This study is a continuation of earlier work, which evaluated 1969--1981 and 1984--1993 events. The report discusses the general rationale for this study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for events. This document is bound in two volumes: Vol. 21 contains the main report and Appendices A--H; Vol. 22 contains Appendix 1.

  12. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1997 - A status report. Volume 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.; Muhlheim, M.D.; Dolan, B.W.; Minarick, J.W.

    1998-11-01

    This report describes the five operational events in 1997 that affected five commercial light-water reactors (LWRs) and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage accidents. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 x 10 -6 . These events were identified by first computer-screening the 1997 licensee event reports from commercial LWRs to identify those events that could be precursors. Candidate precursors were selected and evaluated in a process similar to that used in previous assessments. Selected events underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. Other events designated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) also underwent a similar evaluation. Finally, documented precursors were submitted for review by licensees and NRC headquarters to ensure that the plant design and its response to the precursor were correctly characterized. This study is a continuation of earlier work, which evaluated 1969--1996 events. The report discusses the general rationale for this study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for the events

  13. Effects of the combined treatment of bone marrow stromal cells with mild exercise and thyroid hormone on brain damage and apoptosis in a mouse focal cerebral ischemia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoundzadeh, Kobar; Vakili, Abedin; Sameni, Hamid Reza; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Safari, Manouchehr; Mohammadkhani, Razieh

    2017-08-01

    This study examined whether post-stroke bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) therapy combined with exercise (EX) and/or thyroid hormone (TH) could reduce brain damage in an experimental ischemic stroke in mice. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced under Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) guide by 45 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), followed by 7 days of reperfusion in albino mice. BMSCs were injected into the right cerebral ventricle 24 h after MCAO, followed by daily injection of T3 (20 μg/100 g weight S.C) and 6 days of running on a treadmill. Infarct size, neurobehavioral test, TUNEL and BrdU positive cells were evaluated at 7 days after MCAO. Treatment with BMSCs and mild EX alone significantly reduced the infarct volume by 23% and 44%, respectively (both, p cells (a marker of apoptosis) was significantly reduced in the EX, BMSCs, BMSCs + EX, BMSCs + TH, and BMSCs + EX + TH groups (all, p cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) (p cells and the attenuation of apoptosis in ischemia stroke in young mice.

  14. Male Snakes Allocate Time and Energy according to Individual Energetic Status: Body Condition, Steroid Hormones, and Reproductive Behavior in Timber Rattlesnakes, Crotalus horridus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Craig M; Beaupre, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that organisms will hedge current reproductive investment against potential costs in terms of survivorship and future fecundity. However, little is known regarding the endocrine mechanisms underlying bet-hedging strategies in free-ranging male vertebrates. We examined the relationships among individual energetic status, steroid hormones, mate search, and reproductive behavior in free-ranging male timber rattlesnakes. Snakes were monitored over four active seasons in order to test two hypotheses: (1) males adjust the amount of time and energy allocated toward reproduction according to the level of individual energy stores, and (2) observed condition-dependent reproductive allocation is associated with circulating concentrations of steroid hormones (testosterone and corticosterone) thought to regulate reproductive behaviors in vertebrates. A positive relationship between body condition and testosterone was observed in both the field and the laboratory. Male mate search effort was positively correlated with both body condition and testosterone. Body condition and testosterone concentrations were negatively related to time allocated toward foraging during the breeding season. A strong effect of year was observed in the analysis of testosterone and search effort, suggesting that multiple environmental factors impact hormone production and reproductive investment. Corticosterone was not related to any measured variable. Therefore, our results did not indicate a clear role of corticosterone in mediating observed relationships between energetic status and behavior. Observed relationships are consistent with the hypothesis that males allocate time and energy toward reproduction according to individual energetic status and that testosterone plays a role in mediating the trade-off between current reproductive investment and residual reproductive value.

  15. Cross-Sectional Associations of Serum Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Thyroid Hormones in U.S. Adults: Variation According to TPOAb and Iodine Status (NHANES 2007–2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Glenys M.; Rauch, Stephen A.; Marie, Nathalie Ste; Mattman, Andre; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Venners, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFASs) are suspected thyroid toxicants, but results from epidemiological studies are inconsistent. Objectives: We examined associations between serum PFASs and thyroid hormones (THs) in a representative, cross-sectional sample of U.S. adults. We hypothesized that people with high thyroid peroxidase antibodies and low iodine would be more susceptible to PFAS-induced thyroid disruption. Methods: Our sample included 1,525 adults (≥ 18 years) from the 2007–2008 NHANES study with available serum PFASs and THs. We examined associations between four serum PFASs [perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)], and serum THs [free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), fT3/fT4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total T3 (TT3), and total T4 (TT4)] using multivariable linear regression. We stratified subjects into four groups by two indicators of thyroid “stress”: thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb ≥ 9 IU/mL) and iodine status (PFAS–TH associations were not modified by high TPOAb or low iodine alone. However, PFHxS and PFOS were negatively associated (p PFAS-associated thyroid disruption in a subset of U.S. adults with high TPOAb (a marker of autoimmune hypothyroidism) and low iodine status, who may represent a vulnerable subgroup. However, the small sample size, cross-sectional design, and possibility of reverse causation are limitations of this work. Citation: Webster GM, Rauch SA, Ste Marie N, Mattman A, Lanphear BP, Venners SA. 2016. Cross-sectional associations of serum perfluoroalkyl acids and thyroid hormones in U.S. adults: variation according to TPOAb and iodine status (NHANES 2007–2008). Environ Health Perspect 124:935–942; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409589 PMID:26517287

  16. Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and breast cancer risk according to menopause and hormone receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Ferrari, Pietro; González, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence on the association between dietary flavonoids and lignans and breast cancer (BC) risk is inconclusive, with the possible exception of isoflavones in Asian countries. Therefore, we investigated prospectively dietary total and subclasses of flavonoid and lignan intake and BC risk according...... to menopause and hormonal receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 334,850 women, mostly aged between 35 and 70 years from ten European countries. At baseline, country-specific validated dietary questionnaires were used. A flavonoid...

  17. Cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase status modulates oxidative damage to cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Min; Koh, Ho-Jin; Park, Dong-Chan; Song, Byoung J; Huh, Tae-Lin; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2002-06-01

    NADPH is an important cofactor in many biosynthesis pathways and the regeneration of reduced glutathione, critically important in cellular defense against oxidative damage. It is mainly produced by glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), malic enzyme, and the cytosolic form of NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc). Little information is available about the role of IDPc in antioxidant defense. In this study we investigated the role of IDPc against cytotoxicity induced by oxidative stress by comparing the relative degree of cellular responses in three different NIH3T3 cells with stable transfection with the cDNA for mouse IDPc in sense and antisense orientations, where IDPc activities were 3-4-fold higher and 35% lower, respectively, than that in the parental cells carrying the vector alone. Although the activities of other antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and G6PD, were comparable in all transformed cells, the ratio of GSSG to total glutathione was significantly higher in the cells expressing the lower level of IDPc. This finding indicates that IDPc is essential for the efficient glutathione recycling. Upon transient exposure to increasing concentrations of H(2)O(2) or menadione, an intracellular source of free radicals and reactive oxygen species, the cells with low levels of IDPc became more sensitive to oxidative damage by H(2)O(2) or menadione. Lipid peroxidation, oxidative DNA damage, and intracellular peroxide generation were higher in the cell-line expressing the lower level of IDPc. However, the cells with the highly over-expressed IDPc exhibited enhanced resistance against oxidative stress, compared to the control cells. This study provides direct evidence correlating the activities of IDPc and the maintenance of the cellular redox state, suggesting that IDPc plays an important role in cellular defense against oxidative stress.

  18. Natural resource damage assessments for oil spills: Status of rules and application to recent oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robilliard, G.A.; Winfield, T.P.; Lebednik, P.A.; Markarian, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    The natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) process is based on the concept that all natural resources managed by government agencies or Indian tribes (trustees) are available to the public for its use and enjoyment. These resources have an economic value that can be affected by a spill of oil or other chemicals. The spiller or potentially responsible party (PRP) is responsible to the public, through the trustees, for paying damages and for restoration of the resource. The NRDA process should also determine the appropriate means of restoration, provide a cost for doing so and for conducting the NRDA, and should implement the appropriate restoration activities. The legal and regulatory authority behind NRDA in the USA is explained and reasons why PRPs should be concerned about NRDAs in the context of oil spills are presented. US Department of the Interior regulations describe two procedures for implementing a NRDA. A simplified procedure intended for small spills uses a computer model to generate a damage value. A more thorough and complicated procedure involves a number of phases and steps within the phases, and may include field sampling, data collection and analysis, and detailed evaluation of restoration alternatives. The NRDA experience in oil spills to date is reviewed and the future of NRDA is assessed. Examples cited include the 1988 Shell Oil spill from the Martinez Refinery, the Exxon Bayway pipeline leak of 1990, the Mega Borg spill in the Texas offshore, and the Exxon Valdez spill. It is speculated that trustees will focus on the NRDA process as a cooperative one that includes the trustees and PRPs, with the ultimate goal being restoration of the foregone services provided by natural resources. 5 refs., 1 fig

  19. Risk in Nuclear Industry. Liability for Nuclear Damage. Status of the Problem in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalevich, Oleg M.; Gavrilov, Sergey D.; Voronov, Dmitry B.

    2001-01-01

    Russia is one of a few nuclear power states obtaining the whole number of nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) components - from mining of uranium and on-site electricity production, from NPP spent nuclear fuel processing and extracted fissile materials and radionuclides, which are available in industry, in medicine and in other relevant areas, to radioactive waste processing and disposal. For this reason it is very important to solve the problem of nuclear fuel cycle safety as it is a single system task with an adequate approach for all cycle components. The problem is that NFC facilities are technologically various and refer to different industries (mining, machinery engineering, power engineering, chemistry, etc.). Besides, the above facilities need the development of various scientific bases. The most NFC facilities is directly connected with peaceful use of nuclear energy and with military nuclear industry, as the defense orders stimulated the development of NFC. The specific attention to safety problems at the beginning of nuclear complex foundation adversely affected the state attitude towards the risk in nuclear industry, it has left the traces at present. In our paper we touch upon the problems of risk and the liability for nuclear damage for the third persons. The problems of nuclear damage compensation for nuclear facilities personnel and for the owners (operating organizations) are beyond our subject

  20. Thyroid hormone status and health-related quality of life in the LifeLines Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, Elise I; van Loon, Hannah C M; Stienstra, Riejanne; Links, Thera P; Keers, Joost C; Kema, Ido P; Kobold, Anneke C Muller; van der Klauw, Melanie M; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R

    Background: Thyroid disorders are prevalent in Western society, yet many subjects experience limited symptoms at diagnosis, especially in hypothyroidism. We hypothesize that health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) is more severely impaired in subjects with more abnormal thyroid hormone function

  1. Severe acute malnutrition in childhood: hormonal and metabolic status at presentation, response to treatment, and predictors of mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Sarah; Mody, Aaloke; Hornik, Christoph; Bain, James; Muehlbauer, Michael; Kiyimba, Tonny; Kiboneka, Elizabeth; Stevens, Robert; Bartlett, John; St Peter, John V; Newgard, Christopher B; Freemark, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Malnutrition is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. To identify and target those at highest risk, there is a critical need to characterize biomarkers that predict complications prior to and during treatment. We used targeted and nontargeted metabolomic analysis to characterize changes in a broad array of hormones, cytokines, growth factors, and metabolites during treatment of severe childhood malnutrition. Children aged 6 months to 5 years were studied at presentation to Mulago Hospital and during inpatient therapy with milk-based formulas and outpatient supplementation with ready-to-use food. We assessed the relationship between baseline hormone and metabolite levels and subsequent mortality. Seventy-seven patients were enrolled in the study; a subset was followed up from inpatient treatment to the outpatient clinic. Inpatient and outpatient therapies increased weight/height z scores and induced striking changes in the levels of fatty acids, amino acids, acylcarnitines, inflammatory cytokines, and various hormones including leptin, insulin, GH, ghrelin, cortisol, IGF-I, glucagon-like peptide-1, and peptide YY. A total of 12.2% of the patients died during hospitalization; the major biochemical factor predicting mortality was a low level of leptin (P = .0002), a marker of adipose tissue reserve and a critical modulator of immune function. We have used metabolomic analysis to provide a comprehensive hormonal and metabolic profile of severely malnourished children at presentation and during nutritional rehabilitation. Our findings suggest that fatty acid metabolism plays a central role in the adaptation to acute malnutrition and that low levels of the adipose tissue hormone leptin associate with, and may predict, mortality prior to and during treatment.

  2. Interaction of mammographic breast density with menopausal status and postmenopausal hormone use in relation to the risk of aggressive breast cancer subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghjyan, Lusine; Tamimi, Rulla M; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Scott, Christopher G; Jensen, Matthew R; Pankratz, V Shane; Brandt, Kathy; Visscher, Daniel; Norman, Aaron; Couch, Fergus; Shepherd, John; Fan, Bo; Chen, Yunn-Yi; Ma, Lin; Beck, Andrew H; Cummings, Steven R; Kerlikowske, Karla; Vachon, Celine M

    2017-09-01

    We examined the associations of mammographic breast density with breast cancer risk by tumor aggressiveness and by menopausal status and current postmenopausal hormone therapy. This study included 2596 invasive breast cancer cases and 4059 controls selected from participants of four nested case-control studies within four established cohorts: the Mayo Mammography Health Study, the Nurses' Health Study, Nurses' Health Study II, and San Francisco Mammography Registry. Percent breast density (PD), absolute dense (DA), and non-dense areas (NDA) were assessed from digitized film-screen mammograms using a computer-assisted threshold technique and standardized across studies. We used polytomous logistic regression to quantify the associations of breast density with breast cancer risk by tumor aggressiveness (defined as presence of at least two of the following tumor characteristics: size ≥2 cm, grade 2/3, ER-negative status, or positive nodes), stratified by menopausal status and current hormone therapy. Overall, the positive association of PD and borderline inverse association of NDA with breast cancer risk was stronger in aggressive vs. non-aggressive tumors (≥51 vs. 11-25% OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.94-3.22 vs. OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.70-2.43, p-heterogeneity = 0.03; NDA 4th vs. 2nd quartile OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.41-0.70 vs. OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.59-0.85, p-heterogeneity = 0.07). However, there were no differences in the association of DA with breast cancer by aggressive status. In the stratified analysis, there was also evidence of a stronger association of PD and NDA with aggressive tumors among postmenopausal women and, in particular, current estrogen+progesterone users (≥51 vs. 11-25% OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.75-6.00 vs. OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.25-2.98, p-heterogeneity = 0.01; NDA 4th vs. 2nd quartile OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.21-0.85 vs. OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.35-0.89, p-heterogeneity = 0.01), even though the interaction was not significant. Our findings suggest that associations of mammographic

  3. Amifostine reduces the seminiferous epithelium damage in doxorubicin-treated prepubertal rats without improving the fertility status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miraglia Sandra M

    2010-01-01

    amifostine promotes a significant reduction of the doxorubicin long-term side effects on the seminiferous epithelium of prepubertal rats, which is reflected in the epidydimal fluid parameters in the adult phase. However, fertility status results suggest that such protection may not be effective against sperm DNA content damage. Further investigation of sperm DNA integrity must be carried out using amifostine and doxorubicin-treated experimental models.

  4. Oxidative damage in synovial tissue is associated with in vivo hypoxic status in the arthritic joint.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Biniecka, Monika

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess levels of oxidative DNA damage (8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2\\'-deoxyguanine; 8-oxo-dG) and lipid peroxidation (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal; 4-HNE) in serum, synovial fluid and tissue of patients with inflammatory arthritis in relation to in vivo hypoxia levels, disease activity and angiogenic markers. METHODS: Oxygen levels in synovial tissue were assessed using an oxygen\\/temperature probe. Nuclear and cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG and 4-HNE levels were assessed in synovial tissue from 23 patients by immunohistochemistry. 8-Oxo-dG and 4-HNE levels in serum and synovial fluid were determined using 8-oxo-dG and hexanoyl-Lys (HEL) adduct ELISAs, respectively. Serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) levels were also measured by ELISA. RESULTS: The median oxygen tension in synovial tissue was profoundly hypoxic at 19.35 mm Hg (2.5%). Nuclear 8-oxo-dG levels were significantly higher than nuclear 4-HNE levels in the lining and sublining layers (all p<0.001). In contrast, cytoplasmic 4-HNE levels were higher than cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG levels in both cell layers (all p<0.001). Reduced in vivo oxygen tension correlated with high lipid peroxidation in synovial fluid (p=0.027; r=0.54) and tissue (p=0.004; r=0.58). Serum VEGF levels were positively correlated with cytoplasmic 4-HNE expression (p=0.05; r=0.43) and intensity (p=0.006; r=0.59) in the lining layer. Serum Ang2 levels were positively correlated with nuclear 4-HNE expression and intensity in both cell layers (all p < or = 0.05). DAS28-C-reactive protein was correlated with nuclear 4-HNE expression in the sublining layer (p=0.02; r=0.48) and DAS28-erythrocyte sedimentation rate was correlated with nuclear 4-HNE expression in both cell layers (p < or = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Lipid peroxidation is associated with low oxygen tension in vivo, disease activity and angiogenic marker expression in inflammatory arthritis.

  5. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and sulfotransferase polymorphisms, sex hormone concentrations, and tumor receptor status in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, Rachel; Yuan, Xiaopu; Lin, Ming Gang; McVarish, Lynda; Aiello, Erin J; McTiernan, Anne; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Bigler, Jeannette; Tworoger, Shelley S; Yasui, Yutaka; Rajan, Kumar B; Porter, Peggy; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes are involved in removing sex hormones from circulation. Polymorphic variation in five UGT and SULT genes – UGT1A1 ((TA) 6 /(TA) 7 ), UGT2B4 (Asp 458 Glu), UGT2B7 (His 268 Tyr), UGT2B15 (Asp 85 Tyr), and SULT1A1 (Arg 213 His) – may be associated with circulating sex hormone concentrations, or the risk of an estrogen receptor-negative (ER - ) or progesterone receptor-negative (PR - ) tumor. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios of an ER - or PR - tumor associated with polymorphisms in the genes listed above for 163 breast cancer patients from a population-based cohort study of women in western Washington. Adjusted geometric mean estradiol, estrone, and testosterone concentrations were calculated within each UGT and SULT genotype for a subpopulation of postmenopausal breast cancer patients not on hormone therapy 2–3 years after diagnosis (n = 89). The variant allele of UGT1A1 was associated with reduced risk of an ER - tumor (P for trend = 0.03), and variants of UGT2B15 and SULT1A1 were associated with non-statistically significant risk reductions. There was some indication that plasma estradiol and testosterone concentrations varied by UGT2B15 and SULT1A1 genotypes; women with the UGT2B15 Asp/Tyr and Tyr/Tyr genotypes had higher concentrations of estradiol than women with the Asp/Asp genotype (P = 0.004). Compared with women with the SULT1A1 Arg/Arg and Arg/His genotypes, women with the His/His genotype had elevated concentrations of testosterone (P = 0.003). The risk of ER - breast cancer tumors may vary by UGT or SULT genotype. Further, plasma estradiol and testosterone concentrations in breast cancer patients may differ depending on some UGT and SULT genotypes

  6. The effect of endurance training on muscle strength in young, healthy men in relation to hormonal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandys, M; Majerczak, J; Duda, K; Zapart-Bukowska, J; Sztefko, K; Zoladz, J A

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the effect of moderate intensity endurance training on muscle strength in relation to hormonal changes in the body. Fifteen young, healthy men took part in 5 week endurance training performed on a cycloergometer. Before and after training program, exercise testing sessions were performed involving all participants. Training program significantly increased V(O2 max) (P<0.05) and time to fatigue at 50% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (TTF 50% MVC), P<0.03, but it did not affect maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC). This was accompanied by an increase (P<0.001) in total plasma testosterone (T) and free testosterone (fT) concentrations, whereas a decrease in sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) (P<0.02), growth hormone (P<0.05), free triiodothyronine (P<0.001) and free thyroxine (P<0.02) concentrations was observed. No changes were found in plasma cortisol (C) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations. Additionally, MVC was positively correlated to T/C, fT/C and IGF-I/C ratios after the training, whereas time to fatigue at 50% of MVC was closely positively correlated to the SHBG concentration, both before and after endurance training. We have concluded that moderate intensity endurance training resulting in a significant increase in V(O2 max), did not affect the MVC, but it significantly increased time to fatigue at 50% of MVC. This index of local muscular endurance was greater in subjects with higher concentration of SHBG, both before and after the training.

  7. Effect of developmental low dose PBDE 47 exposure on thyroid hormone status and serum concentrations of FSH and inhibin B in male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, A.J.M.; Kuriyama, S.N.; Akkoc, Z.; Talsness, C.E.; Chahoud, I. [Charite Univ. Medical School Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dept. Toxicology, Campus Benjamin Franklin

    2004-09-15

    Several persistent halogenated organic compounds such as PCBs, dioxins and more recently, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis in experimental animals. Particular concern exists regarding exposure to these compounds during critical periods of development when thyroid hormones orchestrate the growth and differentiation of many organs including the brain and the testis. While the contamination levels of PCBs and other persistent organic pollutants have declined in the past years, increasing levels of PBDEs have been detected in environmental and human samples including human breast milk. PBDEs are produced in large quantities and used worldwide as flame retardants in electrical appliances, carpets and furniture upholstery. Similar to other halogenated environmental organic pollutants, PBDEs seem to present a wide range of toxic effects including reproductive, endocrine, neurobehavioral and hepatic toxicity. Recently, it has been demonstrated that in utero and pubertal exposures to DE-71 (a commercial mixture containing mostly tetra- and penta-bromodiphenyl ethers) significantly reduce thyroxine levels (T4) in rats. The present study has focused on the possible effects of the tetra- BDE congener 2,2'4,4'-tetrabromo diphenyl ether (PBDE 47) on thyroid hormone status and associated changes on FSH and inhibin B levels in the developing male rat. We administered a single dose to gravid dams on gestation day 6 of either 140 {mu}g/kg BW or 700 {mu}g/kg BW PBDE 47. These doses are pertinent to human exposure situation because a study by She et al.3 found a mean level of 33.3 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat in human breast adipose tissue with a range from 7.01 to 196 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat.

  8. CELL DAMAGE, ANTIOXIDANT STATUS, AND CORTISOL LEVELS RELATED TO NUTRITION IN SKI MOUNTAINEERING DURING A TWO-DAY RACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Diaz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the effect of nutrition on cell damage, antioxidant enzymes, and cortisol during a two-day ski mountaineering competition. Twenty-one male skiers participated in the study. Creatine kinase (CK, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alkaline phosphatase (AP, cortisol and C-reactive protein (CRP, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and reductase activities (GR and C-reactive protein (CRP levels, total antioxidant status, and cortisol levels were measured in serum the day before and immediately after the race. Their diet was also analysed during the competition. Enzymes and cortisol levels significantly increased after the competition. CK and LDH and cortisol levels were negatively correlated to total energy, protein, and fat intake. Intake of vitamin A, B1, B2, B6 and niacin was negatively correlated to LDH and AP. A negative correlation was also found between CK activity and Na, Fe, and Zn intake. Cortisol levels were negatively correlated to the intake of vitamins C, B1 and B2, and niacin. A positive correlation was found between serum GPx and intake of energy, carbohydrates, proteins, A and B vitamins, and folic acid. Skiers with the lowest nutrient intake during the competition were the ones who showed greater cell damage and lower antioxidant enzyme activity and cortisol levels, which may impair performance and also cause injuries and accidents. Particularly, skiers should have high intakes of total energy, macronutrients, vitamins A and B, Na, Zn, and Fe in order to decrease the deleterious effect of strenuous exercise

  9. Validation of simple and cost-effective stains to assess acrosomal status, DNA damage and mitochondrial activity in rooster spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Bruno R; Angrimani, Daniel S R; Losano, João Diego A; Bicudo, Luana de Cássia; Nichi, Marcílio; Pereira, Ricardo J G

    2017-12-01

    Several methods have been developed to evaluate spermatozoa function in birds but many of these are sometimes complicated, costly and not applicable to field studies (i.e., performed within poultry breeding facilities). The objective was, therefore, to validate efficient, practical and inexpensive procedures to determine DNA fragmentation, acrosomal integrity, and mitochondrial activity in poultry spermatozoa. Initially, ejaculates were individually diluted and divided into control (4°C, 4h) and UV-irradiated aliquots (room temperature, 4h), and then samples containing different percentages of DNA-damaged spermatozoa (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) were subjected to Toluidine Blue (TB) and Sperm Chromatin Dispersion assessments (SCD). Fast Green-Rose Bengal (FG-RB) and FITC-PSA staining protocols were subsequently used to assess acrosome status in aliquots comprising assorted amounts of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa. Furthermore, to validate 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) assay, ejaculates containing different gradients of spermatozoa with great amounts of mitochondrial activity were concurrently evaluated using DAB and JC-1 stains. The proportion of spermatozoa with abnormal DNA integrity when evaluated using the TB assessment correlated significantly with the expected percentages of UV-irradiated spermatozoa and with SCD results. A significant linear regression coefficient was also observed between expected amounts of acrosome-intact spermatozoa and FG-RB readings, and there was a significant correlation of the data when FG-RB and FITC-PSA were used. Likewise, the use of the DAB assay enabled for accurately ascertaining percentages of rooster spermatozoa with greater and lesser mitochondrial function, and results were highly correlated to results with staining with JC-1. Altogether, findings of the present study indicate acrosomal status, DNA integrity and mitochondrial activity in rooster spermatozoa can be easily and reliably determined using FG-RB, TB and DAB stains

  10. Alterations in thyroid hormone status in Greenland sledge dogs exposed to whale blubber contaminated with organohalogen compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Maja; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune

    2011-01-01

    As a model of high trophic level carnivores, sledge dogs were fed from 2 to 18 months of age with minke whale blubber containing organohalogen compounds (OHC) corresponding to 128µg PCB/day. Controls were fed uncontaminated porcine fat. Thyroid hormone levels were assessed in 7 exposed and 7...... control sister bitches (sampled at age 6-18 months) and 4 exposed and 4 control pups, fed the same diet as their mothers (sampled age 3-12 months). Lower free and total T3 and T4 were seen in exposed vs. control bitches beyond 10 months of age, and total T3 was lower through 3-12 months of age in exposed...

  11. Blood Haematology, Serum Thyroid Hormones and Glutathione Peroxidase Status in Kacang Goats Fed Inorganic Iodine and Selenium Supplemented Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Aghwan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary supplementation of selenium (Se, iodine (I, and a combination of both on the blood haematology, serum free thyroxine (FT4 and free triiodothyronine (FT3 hormones and glutathione peroxidase enzyme (GSH-Px activity were examined on twenty four (7 to 8 months old, 22±1.17 kg live weight Kacang crossbred male goats. Animals were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (6 animals in each group. Throughout 100 d of feeding trial, the animals of control group (CON received a basal diet, while the other three groups were offered basal diet supplemented with 0.6 mg/kg diet DM Se (SS, or 0.6 mg/kg diet DM I (PI, or a combination of both Se and I, each at 0.6 mg/kg diet DM (SSPI. The haematological attributes which are haemoglobin (Hb, red blood cell (RBC, packed cell volume (PCV, mean cell volume (MCV, white blood cells (WBC, band neutrophils (B Neut, segmented neutrophils (S Neut, lymphocytes (Lymph, monocytes (Mono, eosinophils (Eosin and basophils (Baso were similar among the four treatment groups, while serum levels of Se and I increased significantly (p<0.05 in the supplemented groups. The combined dietary supplementation of Se and I (SSPI significantly increased serum FT3 in the supplemented animals. Serum GSH-Px activity increased significantly in the animals of SS and SSPI groups. It is concluded that the dietary supplementation of inorganic Se and I at a level of 0.6 mg/kg DM increased serum Se and I concentration, FT3 hormone and GSH-Px activity of Kacang crossbred male goats.

  12. Findings on sperm alterations and DNA fragmentation, nutritional, hormonal and antioxidant status in an elite triathlete. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vaamonde

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: In this high-intensity endurance athlete, sperm parameters, mainly sperm morphology and DNA fragmentation, are altered. Further knowledge is needed with regards nutritional antioxidant intake and other dietetic strategies oriented toward avoiding oxidative damage in semen of high-performance triathletes. Moreover, adequate nutritional strategies must be found and nutritional advice given to athletes so as to palliate or dampen the effects of exercise on semen quality.

  13. Improvement of physical performance, hormonal profile, recovery-stress balance and increase of muscle damage in a specific futsal pre-season planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. de A. Nogueira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to verify the effects of a specific pre-season planning on physical performance, recovery-stress state, hormonal and muscle damage markers in high-level futsal players. Method: Fifteen male futsal players, members of a high level Brazilian futsal team participated in this study. Before and after four weeks of pre-season, blood samples were collected, the Recovery Stress Questionnaire for Athletes was applied, and vertical jump tests and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 2 tests were performed. The Internal Training Load was measured in all training sessions. Repeated measure ANOVA was used to compare the Total Weekly Training Load between different weeks. To compare the differences between pre- and post-training of all other dependent variables (except the Recovery Stress Questionnaire for Athletes scales the Student's t-test and the magnitude based inference were used. Results: The futsal pre-season improved performance in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 2 and Squat Jump tests. The improvement in performance tests was accompanied by an increase in testosterone, creatine kinase, testosterone/creatine kinase ratio and in the majority of the Recovery Stress Questionnaire for Athletes scales. Cortisol and the social recovery and general well-being of Recovery Stress Questionnaire for Athletes scales decreased during the futsal pre-season. Conclusions: In summary, players improved their performance in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 2 and Squat Jump tests in response to a futsal pre-season. Furthermore, the Internal Training Load behavior of the futsal training promoted a favorable hormonal anabolic environment and did not promote a negative disturbance in creatine kinase or stress/recovery balance, suggesting that futsal players did not report fatigue accumulation after this pre-season design. Resumen: Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar los efectos de una planificación espec

  14. Is the efficacy of hormonal therapy affected by lymph node status? data from the bicalutamide (Casodex) Early Prostate Cancer program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter; Wirth, Manfred P; See, William A

    2004-01-01

    To report an exploratory subgroup analysis assessing the extent to which the overall benefit found in the Early Prostate Cancer program is dependent on lymph node status at randomization. The program is ongoing, and the overall survival data are immature. The first combined analysis of the bicalu...

  15. Influence of the Chernobyl accident on the frequency of chromosomal damage and health status of Lithuanian clean-up workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazutka, R. J.; Ridmeika, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Chromosomal damage and health status were analyzed in Chernobyl clean-up workers currently residing in Lithuania. Statistically significantly (P < 0.05) increased frequencies of chromosome-type aberrations (chromosome breaks, dicentric and ring chromosomes) as well as aberrant cells were found in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of clean-up workers when measured 6-8 years after the exposure. Significant health impairment was characteristic of these persons as well. On average, 5.6 diseases per patient were diagnosed in clean-up workers suffering from cardiovascular diseases. This high co-morbidity resulted in quite high rates of metabolic syndrome (16.7%). Among Chernobyl clean-up workers that had experienced post-traumatic stress disorder, 76% suffered from highly expressed sleep disturbances. Analysis of thyroid diseases among 500 clean-up workers has revealed that 27.6% individuals have different pathology of thyroid gland. Thus, even 20 years after the Chernobyl disaster, clean-up workers must be considered as a group of primary interest both for researchers and physicians. (author)

  16. A Study on BRCA1/2 Mutations, Hormone Status and HER-2 Status in Korean Women with Early-onset Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Doo Ho; Jin, So Young; Lee, Dong Wha; Kim, Eun Seog; Kim, Yong Ho

    2008-01-01

    Women with breast cancer diagnosed at an age of 40 years or younger have a greater prevalence of germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations than the prevalence of women with breast cancer diagnosed at older ages. Several immunohistochemical characteristics have been identified in breast cancers from studies of Caucasian women with BRCA1/2 mutations having familial or early-onset breast cancers. The aim of this study is to determine whether early-onset breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, who were not selected from a family history, could be distinguished by the use of immunohistochemical methods and could be distinguished from breast cancer in women of a similar age without a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. We also analyzed the prognostic difference between BRCA1/2 related and BRCA1/2 non-related patients by the use of univariate and multivariate analysis. Breast cancer tissue specimens from Korean women with early-onset breast cancers were studied using a tumor tissue microarray. Immunohistochemical staining of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER-2, as well as the histology and grade of these specimens, were compared. The prognostic impact of immunohistochemical and histological factors as well as the BRCA1/2 mutation status was investigated separately. There were 14 cases and 16 deleterious BRCA1/2 mutations among 101 patients tested. A family history (4/14) and bilateral breast cancers (3/9) were high risk factors for BRCA1/2 mutations. BRCA1/2- associated cancers demonstrated more expression of ER-negative (19.4% versus 5.1%, p=0.038) and HER-2 negative than BRCA1/2 negative tumors, especially for tumors with BRCA1 tumors The BRCA1/2 mutation rate for patients with triple negative tumors (negative expression of ER, PR and HER-2) was 24.2%. Tumor size, nodal status, and HER-2 expression status were significantly associated with disease free survival, as determined by univariate and multivariate analysis, but the BRCA1/2 status was

  17. Insulin use, hormone receptor status and hematopoietic cytokines׳ circulation in women with diabetes mellitus and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary A.P. Wintrob

    2017-04-01

    The data presented here is among the first to show a relationship between pre-existing use of injectable insulin in women diagnosed with breast cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus, hematopoietic cytokine profiles at time of breast cancer diagnosis, and subsequent cancer outcomes. A Pearson correlation analysis evaluating the relationship between G-CSF, GM-CSF, and IL-7 stratified by insulin use, controls, as well as by estrogen and progesterone receptor status is also provided.

  18. Contrast enhancement kinetics of normal breast parenchyma in dynamic MR mammography: effects of menopausal status, oral contraceptives, and postmenopausal hormone therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegenscheid, Katrin; Seipel, Rebecca; Laqua, Rene; Hosten, Norbert; Puls, Ralf; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Ohlinger, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    To investigate effects of menopausal status, oral contraceptives (OC), and postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on normal breast parenchymal contrast enhancement (CE) and non-mass-like enhancing areas in magnetic resonance mammography (MRM). A total of 459 female volunteers (mean age 49.1 ± 12.5 years) underwent T1-weighted 3D MRM 1-5 min after bolus injection of gadobutrol. Quantitative analysis was performed in normal breast parenchyma by manually tracing regions of interest and calculating percentage CE. Semiquantitative analysis was performed in non-mass-like enhancing areas, and signal intensity changes were characterised by five predefined kinetic curve types. The influence of OC (n = 69) and HT (n = 24) on CE was studied using random effects models. Breast parenchymal enhancement was significantly higher in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women (P < 0.001). CE decreased significantly with the use of OC (P = 0.01), while HT had negligible effects (P = 0.52). Prevalence of kinetic curve types of non-mass-like enhancement differed strongly between pre- and postmenopausal women (P < 0.0001), but was similar in OC users and non-OC users (P = 0.61) as well as HT users and non-HT users (P = 0.77). Normal breast parenchymal enhancement and non-mass-like enhancing areas were strongly affected by menopausal status, while they were not affected by HT use and only moderately by OC use. (orig.)

  19. Contrast enhancement kinetics of normal breast parenchyma in dynamic MR mammography: effects of menopausal status, oral contraceptives, and postmenopausal hormone therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegenscheid, Katrin; Seipel, Rebecca; Laqua, Rene; Hosten, Norbert; Puls, Ralf [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Medical Center Greifswald, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany); Schmidt, Carsten O. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Medical Center Greifswald, Institute for Community Medicine, Greifswald (Germany); Ohlinger, Ralf [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Medical Center Greifswald, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Greifswald (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    To investigate effects of menopausal status, oral contraceptives (OC), and postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on normal breast parenchymal contrast enhancement (CE) and non-mass-like enhancing areas in magnetic resonance mammography (MRM). A total of 459 female volunteers (mean age 49.1 {+-} 12.5 years) underwent T1-weighted 3D MRM 1-5 min after bolus injection of gadobutrol. Quantitative analysis was performed in normal breast parenchyma by manually tracing regions of interest and calculating percentage CE. Semiquantitative analysis was performed in non-mass-like enhancing areas, and signal intensity changes were characterised by five predefined kinetic curve types. The influence of OC (n = 69) and HT (n = 24) on CE was studied using random effects models. Breast parenchymal enhancement was significantly higher in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women (P < 0.001). CE decreased significantly with the use of OC (P = 0.01), while HT had negligible effects (P = 0.52). Prevalence of kinetic curve types of non-mass-like enhancement differed strongly between pre- and postmenopausal women (P < 0.0001), but was similar in OC users and non-OC users (P = 0.61) as well as HT users and non-HT users (P = 0.77). Normal breast parenchymal enhancement and non-mass-like enhancing areas were strongly affected by menopausal status, while they were not affected by HT use and only moderately by OC use. (orig.)

  20. Breeding status affects the hormonal and metabolic response to acute stress in a long-lived seabird, the king penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viblanc, Vincent A; Gineste, Benoit; Robin, Jean-Patrice; Groscolas, René

    2016-09-15

    Stress responses are suggested to physiologically underlie parental decisions promoting the redirection of behaviour away from offspring care when survival is jeopardized (e.g., when facing a predator). Besides this classical view, the "brood-value hypothesis" suggests that parents' stress responses may be adaptively attenuated to increase fitness, ensuring continued breeding when the relative value of the brood is high. Here, we test the brood-value hypothesis in breeding king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), long-lived seabirds for which the energy commitment to reproduction is high. We subjected birds at different breeding stages (courtship, incubation and chick brooding) to an acute 30-min capture stress and measured their hormonal (corticosterone, CORT) and metabolic (non-esterified fatty acid, NEFA) responses to stress. We found that CORT responses were markedly attenuated in chick-brooding birds when compared to earlier stages of breeding (courtship and incubation). In addition, NEFA responses appeared to be rapidly attenuated in incubating and brooding birds, but a progressive increase in NEFA plasma levels in courting birds suggested energy mobilization to deal with the threat. Our results support the idea that stress responses may constitute an important life-history mechanism mediating parental reproductive decisions in relation to their expected fitness outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Growth of the conceptus from day 33 to 45 of pregnancy is minimally associated with concurrent hormonal or metabolic status in postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratman, T J; Moore, S G; Lamberson, W R; Keisler, D H; Poock, S E; Lucy, M C

    2016-05-01

    A hypothetical explanation for pregnancy loss in postpartum dairy cows is that the metabolic environment of the cow inhibits the growth of the conceptus and places the pregnancy at risk for loss. The objective of the current study, therefore, was to model the association between cow-level metabolic indicators and conceptus growth during early pregnancy (day 33-45 after AI) and to determine if an association (if present) is large enough to cause pregnancy loss. Metabolic indicators included milk production, changes in body weight and body condition score, parity, and concentrations of circulating hormones and metabolites (glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, growth hormone, IGF1, progesterone, and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins). One-hundred cows were enrolled. Cows that became pregnant with single conceptus pregnancies (n=53) weighed more (Pcows that failed to become pregnant. The embryo and amniotic vesicle were measured by using ultrasound on day 33, 35, 38, 40, 42, and 45 of pregnancy. Most of the cow-level indicators that were included in the model of conceptus growth failed to achieve statistical significance. Day of pregnancy had the largest effect on conceptus growth (size and cross-sectional area of the embryo and amniotic vesicle; Pbody weigh change (positive association) on embryo length and cross-sectional area but these effects were small when compared with the range in conceptus length or area that we observed. The conclusion was that the capacity of the cow to become pregnant was associated with body weight and uterine health but we failed to find a large association with metabolic status on conceptus growth from day 33 to 45 of pregnancy in lactating dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance comparison of machine learning methods for prognosis of hormone receptor status in breast cancer tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinli, Adem; Sarikoc, Fatih; Akgun, Hulya; Ozturk, Figen

    2013-06-01

    We examined the classification and prognostic scoring performances of several computer methods on different feature sets to obtain objective and reproducible analysis of estrogen receptor status in breast cancer tissue samples. Radial basis function network, k-nearest neighborhood search, support vector machines, naive bayes, functional trees, and k-means clustering algorithm were applied to the test datasets. Several features were employed and the classification accuracies of each method for these features were examined. The assessment results of the methods on test images were also experimentally compared with those of two experts. According to the results of our experimental work, a combination of functional trees and the naive bayes classifier gave the best prognostic scores indicating very good kappa agreement values (κ=0.899 and κ=0.949, p<0.001) with the experts. This combination also gave the best dichotomization rate (96.3%) for assessment of estrogen receptor status. Wavelet color features provided better classification accuracy than Laws texture energy and co-occurrence matrix features. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisentraut, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125 I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  4. Iron status and its relations with oxidative damage and bone loss during long-duration space flight on the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Sara R; Morgan, Jennifer L L; Smith, Scott M

    2013-07-01

    Increases in stored iron and dietary intake of iron during space flight have raised concern about the risk of excess iron and oxidative damage, particularly in bone. The objectives of this study were to perform a comprehensive assessment of iron status in men and women before, during, and after long-duration space flight and to quantify the association of iron status with oxidative damage and bone loss. Fasting blood and 24-h urine samples were collected from 23 crew members before, during, and after missions lasting 50 to 247 d to the International Space Station. Serum ferritin and body iron increased early in flight, and transferrin and transferrin receptors decreased later, which indicated that early increases in body iron stores occurred through the mobilization of iron to storage tissues. Acute phase proteins indicated no evidence of an inflammatory response during flight. Serum ferritin was positively correlated with the oxidative damage markers 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (r = 0.53, P < 0.001) and prostaglandin F2α (r = 0.26, P < 0.001), and the greater the area under the curve for ferritin during flight, the greater the decrease in bone mineral density in the total hip (P = 0.031), trochanter (P = 0.006), hip neck (P = 0.044), and pelvis (P = 0.049) after flight. Increased iron stores may be a risk factor for oxidative damage and bone resorption.

  5. Leisure-time physical activity and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor status: effective life periods and exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Reiko; Iwasaki, Motoki; Kasuga, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Shiro; Onuma, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Hideki; Kusama, Ritsu; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2010-11-01

    Physical activity may decrease breast cancer risk. However, it is unclear what intensity of exercise and during which life periods this effect on decreasing risk is efficiently expressed, and whether the associations differ by the estrogen-/progesterone- receptor (ER/PR) status of tumors. We investigated associations between age- and intensity-specific leisure-time physical activity and ER/PR-defined breast cancer risk. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Nagano, Japan. Subjects were 405 cases newly diagnosed (>99% known ER/PR) from 2001 to 2005, who were age-/area-matched with 405 controls. Activity was assessed with a self-reported questionnaire which considered intensity level (moderate and/or strenuous) at different ages (at 12 and 20 years, and in the previous 5 years). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression. Strenuous but not moderate physical activity at age 12 was inversely associated with pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk across ER/PR subtypes [overall OR(≥ 5 days/week vs. none) = 0.24 (0.14-0.43)]. Moderate physical activity in the previous 5 years was significantly associated with a decrease in risk for postmenopausal ER + PR + tumors only [OR(≥ 1 day/week vs. none) = 0.35 (0.18-0.67)]. Strenuous activity in teens and moderate activity after menopause may contribute to a reduction in breast cancer risk.

  6. Effects of perinatal exposure to environmentally persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals on neurobehavioral development in Japanese children: IV. Thyroid hormones and neonatal neurobehavioral status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K.; Nakai, K.; Oka, T.; Kurokawa, N.; Satoh, H. [Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Hosokawa, T. [Dept. of Human Development, Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Okamura, K. [Dept. of Obstetrics, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Sakai, T. [Miyagi Childrens Hospital, Sendai (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    From several epidemiological studies, it has been reported that there are some associations between perinatal exposures to PCBs, dioxins and heavy metals, and neurobehavioral defects such as postnatal growth delay and poorer cognitive function. We have started a prospective cohort study to examine the effects of perinatal exposures to environmentally persistent organic pollutants on neurobehavioral development in Japanese children. Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for normal brain development. A lack of THs in pregnancy can result in congenital hypothyroidism, which causes moderate to severe intellectual defects. It has been reported that perinatal exposure to PCBs adversely affects on children's intellectual functions. The chemical structures of some PCBs resembles thyroxine (T4), and therefore, it is suspected that the action mechanism of PCBs is disruption of TH function. Some PCBs and their metabolites are thought to bind with transthyretine (TTR), which is necessary for the transfer of T4 into the brain, and this may cause a shortage of T4 in the developing brain. To examine the effects of perinatal exposure to PCBs on children's development, it is essential to evaluate the functions of THs at a fundamental level. In this report, we examined the correlations of THs in maternal peripheral blood and cord blood, and the association between THs and neonatal neurobehavioral status.

  7. The usefulness of growth hormone treatment for psychological status in young adult survivors of childhood leukaemia: an open-label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Coeverden Silvia CCM

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the risk of brain damage children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL are nowadays mainly treated with intrathecal chemotherapy (ITC instead of central nervous system (CNS radiation therapy (CRT to prevent CNS relapse. However, chemotherapy may also lead to cognitive deficits. As growth hormone deficiency (GHD or impaired growth hormone secretion are frequently found in ALL patients treated with cranial radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy, we hypothesized that GH therapy may reduce cognitive deficits in these patients. Methods Twenty young adult survivors of childhood ALL with reduced bone mineral density ( IQ and neuropsychological performance were assessed at pre-treatment (T1 and after one (T2 and two (T3 years. ANOVA was performed with assessment at T1, T2 and T3 as repeated measurements factor. Relations between test score changes and changes of IGF-I levels were determined by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results Scores on the cognitive tests were in the normal range. Verbal short- and long-term memory performance decreased between T1 and T2, and increased between T2 and T3. Performance at T3 was not significantly different from that at T1. Performance for sustained attention improved from T1 to T2 and from T1 to T3. Visual-spatial memory was improved after one year of GH treatment. A significant positive correlation was found for Δ IGF-I (T2-T1 with difference scores of visual-spatial memory (T2-T1 and T3-T1, indicating that IGF-I increase after one year of GH treatment is associated with increase in cognitive-perceptual performance at month 12 and 24. Conclusion Since the level of intellectual functioning of our patient cohort was in the normal range the present finding that GH treatment has negative effects on verbal memory and positive on attention and visual-spatial memory warrants similar studies in other groups of ALL survivors. Also, a lower dose of GH should be determined

  8. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1992, A status report. Volume 17, Main report and Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, D.F.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.; Cross-Dial, A.E.; Morris, R.H.; Vanden Heuvel, L.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dolan, B.W.; Jansen, J.M.; Minarick, J.W. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lau, W.; Salyer, W.D. [Reliability and Performance Associates (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Twenty-seven operational events with conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage of 1.0 {times} 10E-06 or higher occurring at commercial light-water reactors during 1992 are considered to be precursors to potential core damage. These are described along with associated significance estimates, categorization, and subsequent analyses. The report discusses (1) the general rationale for this study, (2) the selection and documentation of events as precursors, (3) the estimation and use of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage to rank precursor events, and (4) the plant models used in the analysis process.

  9. Ultraviolet B, melanin and mitochondrial DNA: Photo-damage in human epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes modulated by alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Böhm

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH increases melanogenesis and protects from UV-induced DNA damage. However, its effect on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA damage is unknown. We have addressed this issue in a pilot study using human epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes incubated with alpha-MSH and irradiated with UVB. Real-time touchdown PCR was used to quantify total and deleted mtDNA. The deletion detected encompassed the common deletion but was more sensitive to detection. There were 4.4 times more mtDNA copies in keratinocytes than in melanocytes. Irradiation alone did not affect copy numbers. Alpha-MSH slightly increased copy numbers in both cell types in the absence of UVB and caused a similar small decrease in copy number with dose in both cell types. Deleted copies were nearly twice as frequent in keratinocytes as in melanocytes. Alpha-MSH reduced the frequency of deleted copies by half in keratinocytes but not in melanocytes. UVB dose dependently led to an increase in the deleted copy number in alpha-MSH-treated melanocytes. UVB irradiation had little effect on deleted copy number in alpha-MSH-treated keratinocytes. In summary, alpha-MSH enhances mtDNA damage in melanocytes presumably by increased melanogenesis, while α-MSH is protective in keratinocytes, the more so in the absence of irradiation.

  10. State of the hormonal status at animals, taking place in conditions of long action of irradiation low intensity in zone of alienation Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gun'kova, N.V.; Gorokh, G.A.; Konoplya, E.F.

    2009-01-01

    The study of levels of steroid (corticosterone, testosterone) and thyroid (thyroxine, triiodothyronine) hormones and 5'-deiodinase activity of a liver tissue at white male rats after their stay in zone of alienation Chernobyl NPP is carried out. After staying during four months in zone the animals exhibit rising of levels of hormones and downstroke 5'-deiodinase activity. (authors)

  11. Effects of Serum Albumin, Calcium Levels, Cancer Stage and Performance Status on Weight Loss in Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide Positive or Negative Patients with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yeon Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA recent animal study showed that parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP is associated with cancer cachexia by promoting adipose tissue browning, and we previously demonstrated that PTHrP predicts weight loss (WL in patients with cancer. In this study, we investigated whether prediction of WL by PTHrP is influenced by clinical factors such as serum albumin, corrected calcium levels, cancer stage, and performance status (PS.MethodsA cohort of 219 patients with cancer whose PTHrP level was measured was enrolled and followed for body weight (BW changes. Subjects were divided into two groups by serum albumin (cutoff value, 3.7 g/dL, corrected calcium (cutoff value, 10.5 mg/dL, cancer stage (stage 1 to 3 or 4, or PS (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 0 to 1 or 2 to 4, respectively. Clinically significant WL was defined as either percent of BW change (% BW <−5% or % BW <−2% plus body mass index (BMI <20 kg/m2.ResultsAfter a median follow-up of 327 days, 74 patients (33.8% experienced clinically significant WL. A positive PTHrP level was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of WL after adjusting for age, baseline BMI, serum albumin, corrected calcium level, cancer stage, and PS. The effect of PTHrP on WL remained significant in patients with low serum albumin, stage 4 cancer, and good PS. Regardless of calcium level, the effect of PTHrP on WL was maintained, although there was an additive effect of higher calcium and PTHrP levels.ConclusionEarly recognition of patients with advanced cancer who are PTHrP positive with hypercalcemia or hypoalbuminemia is needed for their clinical management.

  12. Advanced seasonal reproductive development in a male urban bird is reflected in earlier plasma luteinizing hormone rise but not energetic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Scott; Behbahaninia, Hirbod; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Meddle, Simone L; Waites, Kyle; Deviche, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Urban animals inhabit an environment considerably different than do their non-urban conspecifics, and to persist urban animals must adjust to these novel environments. The timing of seasonal reproductive development (i.e., growth of gonads and secondary sex organs) is a fundamental determinant of the breeding period and is frequently advanced in urban bird populations. However, the underlying mechanism(s) by which birds adjust the timing of reproductive development to urban areas remain(s) largely unknown. Here, we compared the timing of vernal reproductive development in free-ranging urban and non-urban male Abert's Towhees, Melozone aberti, in Phoenix, Arizona, USA, and tested the non-mutually exclusive hypotheses that earlier reproductive development is due to improved energetic status and/or earlier increase in endocrine activity of the reproductive system. We found that urban birds initiated testicular development earlier than non-urban birds, but this disparity was not associated with differences in body condition, fat stores, or innate immune performance. These results provide no support for the hypothesis that energetic constraints are responsible for delayed reproductive development of non-urban relative to urban male Abert's Towhees. Urban birds did, however, increase their plasma luteinizing hormone, but not plasma testosterone, earlier than non-urban birds. These findings suggest that adjustment to urban areas by Abert's Towhees involves increases in the endocrine activity of the anterior pituitary gland and/or hypothalamus earlier than non-urban towhees. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The influence of selenium status on body composition, oxidative DNA damage and total antioxidant capacity in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Fatimah Binti; Mohamed, Hamid Jan Bin Jan; Sirajudeen, K N S; Noh, Mohd Fairulnizal B Md; Rajab, Nor Fadilah

    2017-09-01

    Selenium is involved in the complex system of defense against oxidative stress in diabetes through its biological function of selenoproteins and the antioxidant enzyme. A case-control study was carried out to determine the association of plasma selenium with oxidative stress and body composition status presented in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patient and healthy control. This study involved 82 newly diagnosed T2DM patients and 82 healthy controls. Plasma selenium status was determined with Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Body Mass Index, total body fat and visceral fat was assessed for body composition using Body Composition Analyzer (TANITA). Oxidative DNA damage and total antioxidant capacity were determined for oxidative stress biomarker status. In age, gender and BMI adjustment, no significant difference of plasma selenium level between T2DM and healthy controls was observed. There was as a significant difference of Oxidative DNA damage and total antioxidant capacity between T2DM patients and healthy controls with tail DNA% 20.62 [95% CI: 19.71,21.49] (T2DM), 17.67 [95% CI: 16.87,18.56] (control); log tail moment 0.41[95% CI: 0.30,0.52] (T2DM), 0.41[95% CI: 0.30,0.52] (control); total antioxidant capacity 0.56 [95% CI: 0.54,0.58] (T2DM), 0.60 [95% CI: 0.57,0.62] (control). Waist circumference, BMI, visceral fat, body fat and oxidative DNA damage in the T2DM group were significantly lower in the first plasma selenium tertile (38.65-80.90μg/L) compared to the second (80.91-98.20μg/L) and the third selenium tertiles (98.21-158.20μg/L). A similar trend, but not statistically significant, was observed in the control group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Hypothalamic kappa opioid receptor mediates both diet-induced and melanin concentrating hormone-induced liver damage through inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbernon, Monica; Sanchez-Rebordelo, Estrella; Romero-Picó, Amparo; Kalló, Imre; Chee, Melissa J; Porteiro, Begoña; Al-Massadi, Omar; Contreras, Cristina; Fernø, Johan; Senra, Ana; Gallego, Rosalia; Folgueira, Cintia; Seoane, Luisa M; van Gestel, Margriet; Adan, Roger A; Liposits, Zsolt; Dieguez, Carlos; López, Miguel; Nogueiras, Ruben

    2016-10-01

    The opioid system is widely known to modulate the brain reward system and thus affect the behavior of humans and other animals, including feeding. We hypothesized that the hypothalamic opioid system might also control energy metabolism in peripheral tissues. Mice lacking the kappa opioid receptor (κOR) and adenoviral vectors overexpressing or silencing κOR were stereotaxically delivered in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of rats. Vagal denervation was performed to assess its effect on liver metabolism. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was inhibited by pharmacological (tauroursodeoxycholic acid) and genetic (overexpression of the chaperone glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa) approaches. The peripheral effects on lipid metabolism were assessed by histological techniques and western blot. We show that in the LHA κOR directly controls hepatic lipid metabolism through the parasympathetic nervous system, independent of changes in food intake and body weight. κOR colocalizes with melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCH-R1) in the LHA, and genetic disruption of κOR reduced melanin concentrating hormone-induced liver steatosis. The functional relevance of these findings was given by the fact that silencing of κOR in the LHA attenuated both methionine choline-deficient, diet-induced and choline-deficient, high-fat diet-induced ER stress, inflammation, steatohepatitis, and fibrosis, whereas overexpression of κOR in this area promoted liver steatosis. Overexpression of glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa in the liver abolished hypothalamic κOR-induced steatosis by reducing hepatic ER stress. This study reveals a novel hypothalamic-parasympathetic circuit modulating hepatic function through inflammation and ER stress independent of changes in food intake or body weight; these findings might have implications for the clinical use of opioid receptor antagonists. (Hepatology 2016;64:1086-1104). © 2016 The Authors. (Hepatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on

  15. Hormone action. Part I. Peptide hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaumer, L.; O'Malley, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    The major sections of this book on the hormonal action of peptide hormones cover receptor assays, identification of receptor proteins, methods for identification of internalized hormones and hormone receptors, preparation of hormonally responsive cells and cell hybrids, purification of membrane receptors and related techniques, assays of hormonal effects and related functions, and antibodies in hormone action

  16. Stress and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Ranabir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern environment one is exposed to various stressful conditions. Stress can lead to changes in the serum level of many hormones including glucocorticoids, catecholamines, growth hormone and prolactin. Some of these changes are necessary for the fight or flight response to protect oneself. Some of these stressful responses can lead to endocrine disorders like Graves′ disease, gonadal dysfunction, psychosexual dwarfism and obesity. Stress can also alter the clinical status of many preexisting endocrine disorders such as precipitation of adrenal crisis and thyroid storm.

  17. Hormonal status of animals, living in conditions of long-time of irradiation of low intensity in zone of NPP, and their progeny alienation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gun'kova, N.V.; Gorokh, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    The study of levels of steroid (corticosterone, testosterone) and thyroid (thyroxine, triiodothyronine) hormones and 5'-deiodinase activity in a liver tissue of white male rats after their stay in zone of NPP and their progeny is carried out. (authors)

  18. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC IODINE SPECIES ANALYTICS: DETERMINING THYROID HORMONE STATUS IN ADULT DANIO RERIO AND DEVELOPING XENOPUS LAEVIS USING LC/ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disruption of normal thyroid function by xenobiotic chemicals is an important ecological issue. Theoretically, normal thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis and action can be disrupted at several sites in the synthetic and elimination pathways. Indeed, xenobiotic chemicals, which are k...

  19. Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents: 1994, a status report. Volume 21: Main report and appendices A--H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.; Vanden Heuvel, L.N.; Dolan, B.W.; Minarick, J.W.

    1995-12-01

    Nine operational events that affected eleven commercial light-water reactors (LWRs) during 1994 and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage are described. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 x 10 -6 . These events were identified by computer-screening the 1994 licensee event reports from commercial LWRs to identify those that could be potential precursors. Candidate precursors were then selected and evaluated in a process similar to that used in previous assessments. Selected events underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. Other events designated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) also underwent a similar evaluation. Finally, documented precursors were submitted for review by licensees and NRC headquarters and regional offices to ensure that the plant design and its response to the precursor were correctly characterized. This study is a continuation of earlier work, which evaluated 1969--1981 and 1984--1993 events. The report discusses the general rationale for this study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for events. This document is bound in two volumes: Vol. 21 contains the main report and Appendices A--H; Vol. 22 contains Appendix 1

  20. Status of calcium regulating hormonal systems in delayed period in persons exposed to occupational exposure of low doses of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dospolova, Zh.G.; Abylaev, Zh.A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose of study is consideration of endocrine system participation in development of calcium exchange disorders in persons exposed to action of low dose radiation . By radio- immune method in blood serum of 150 liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences the concentration the following hormones were determined: parathormone, T 3 , T 4 , TSH, cortisol, ACTH, testosteron, insulin. Content of these hormones have been studied in according to following radiation factors: value of absorbed doses of external irradiation, degree of radioactive contamination of zone and exposition duration. It was determined, that basically dishormone disorders development have been concerned with parathormone, cortisol, hormones of thyroid axis, and in some cases to ACTH and insulin. Liquidators' frequencies of normal and changed concentration of calcium regulating hormones are sited in tabular form. It was established, that examined persons in result hormone disorders have of decrease functions of pituitary glands (76.78 %), pancreas (55 %), thyroid gland (24.31 %) and sex glands (19.23 %) and simultaneously cases of increase functions of parathyroid gland (58.2 %), adrenal glands (52.32 %) and adeno-pituitary glands (17.39). It is concluded, that inter hormonal correlation disorders are accompanying with morphologic and functional futures of secretory activity changes

  1. Sweat secretion rates in growth hormone disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, S B; Main, K M; Juul, A

    2000-01-01

    While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome.......While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome....

  2. Cognitive functions of regularly cycling women may differ throughout the month, depending on sex hormone status; A possible explanation to conflicting results of studies of ADHD in females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronit eHaimov-Kochman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is considered as a model of neuro-developmental cognitive function. ADHD research previously studied mainly males. A major biological distinction between the genders is the presence of a menstrual cycle, which is associated with variations in sex steroid hormone levels. There is a growing body of literature showing that sex hormones have the ability to regulate intracellular signaling systems that are thought to be abnormal in ADHD. Thus, it is conceivable to believe that this functional interaction between sex hormones and molecules involved with synaptic plasticity and neurotransmitter systems may be associated with some of the clinical characteristics of women with ADHD. In spite of the impact of sex hormones on major neurotransmitter systems of the brain in a variety of clinical settings, the menstrual cycle is usually entered to statistical analyses as a nuisance or controlled for by only testing male samples. Evaluation of brain structure, function and chemistry over the course of the menstrual cycle as well as across the lifespan of women (premenarche, puberty, cycling period, premenopause, postmenopause is critical to understanding sex differences in both normal and aberrant mental function and behavior. The studies of ADHD in females suggest confusing and non-consistent conclusions. None of these studies examined the possible relationship between phase of the menstrual cycle, sex hormones levels and ADHD symptoms. The menstrual cycle should therefore be taken into consideration in future studies in the neurocognitive field since it offers a unique opportunity to understand whether and how subtle fluctuations of sex hormones and specific combinations of sex hormones influence neuronal circuits implicated in the cognitive regulation of emotional processing. The investigation of biological models involving the role of estrogen, progesterone, and other sex steroids has the potential to generate

  3. Effect of Acetyl-L-Carnitine on Antioxidant Status, Lipid Peroxidation, and Oxidative Damage of Arsenic in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepand, Mohammad Reza; Razavi-Azarkhiavi, Kamal; Omidi, Ameneh; Zirak, Mohammad Reza; Sabzevari, Samin; Kazemi, Ali Reza; Sabzevari, Omid

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a widespread environmental contaminant present around the world in both organic and inorganic forms. Oxidative stress is postulated as the main mechanism for As-induced toxicity. This study was planned to examine the protective effect of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) on As-induced oxidative damage in male rats. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of control (saline), sodium arsenite (NaAsO2, 20 mg/kg), ALC (300 mg/kg), and NaAsO2 plus ALC. Animals were dosed orally for 28 successive days. Blood and tissue samples including kidney, brain, liver, heart, and lung were collected on the 28th day and evaluated for oxidative damage and histological changes. NaAsO2 exposure caused a significant lipid peroxidation as evidenced by elevation in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). The activity of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as sulfhydryl group content (SH group) was significantly suppressed in various organs following NaAsO2 treatment (P < 0.05). Furthermore, NaAsO2 administration increased serum values of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and bilirubin. Our findings revealed that co-administration of ALC and NaAsO2 significantly suppressed the oxidative damage induced by NaAsO2. Tissue histological studies have confirmed the biochemical findings and provided evidence for the beneficial role of ALC. The results concluded that ALC attenuated NaAsO2-induced toxicity, and this protective effect may result from the ability of ALC in maintaining oxidant-antioxidant balance.

  4. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis in adulthood: fulfilment of classification criteria for adult rheumatic diseases, long-term outcomes and predictors of inactive disease, functional status and damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Ramos, Filipa; Eusébio, Mónica; M Martins, Fernando; Mourão, Ana Filipa; Furtado, Carolina; Campanilho-Marques, Raquel; Cordeiro, Inês; Ferreira, Joana; Cerqueira, Marcos; Figueira, Ricardo; Brito, Iva; Canhão, Helena; Santos, Maria José; Melo-Gomes, José A; Fonseca, João Eurico

    2016-01-01

    To determine how adult juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients fulfil classification criteria for adult rheumatic diseases, evaluate their outcomes and determine clinical predictors of inactive disease, functional status and damage. Patients with JIA registered on the Rheumatic Diseases Portuguese Register (Reuma.pt) older than 18 years and with more than 5 years of disease duration were included. Data regarding sociodemographic features, fulfilment of adult classification criteria, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Juvenile Arthritis Damage Index-articular (JADI-A) and Juvenile Arthritis Damage Index-extra-articular (JADI-E) damage index and disease activity were analysed. 426 patients were included. Most of patients with systemic JIA fulfilled criteria for Adult Still's disease. 95.6% of the patients with rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive polyarthritis and 57.1% of the patients with RF-negative polyarthritis matched criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 38.9% of the patients with extended oligoarthritis were classified as RA while 34.8% of the patients with persistent oligoarthritis were classified as spondyloarthritis. Patients with enthesitis-related arthritis fulfilled criteria for spondyloarthritis in 94.7%. Patients with psoriatic arthritis maintained this classification. Patients with inactive disease had lower disease duration, lower diagnosis delay and corticosteroids exposure. Longer disease duration was associated with higher HAQ, JADI-A and JADI-E. Higher JADI-A was also associated with biological treatment and retirement due to JIA disability and higher JADI-E with corticosteroids exposure. Younger age at disease onset was predictive of higher HAQ, JADI-A and JADI-E and decreased the chance of inactive disease. Most of the included patients fulfilled classification criteria for adult rheumatic diseases, maintain active disease and have functional impairment. Younger age at disease onset was predictive of higher disability and decreased the

  5. The benefit of a supplement with the antioxidant melatonin on redox status and muscle damage in resistance-trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo-Mendonça, Roberto C; Ocaña-Wilhelmi, Javier; de Haro, Tomás; de Teresa-Galván, Carlos; Guerra-Hernández, Eduardo; Rusanova, Iryna; Fernández-Ortiz, Marisol; Sayed, Ramy K A; Escames, Germaine; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2017-07-01

    Previous data showed that the administration of high doses of melatonin improved the circadian system in athletes. Here, we investigated in the same experimental paradigm whether the antioxidant properties of melatonin has also beneficial effects against exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscle damage in athletes. Twenty-four athletes were treated with 100 mg·day -1 of melatonin or placebo 30 min before bedtime during 4 weeks in a randomized double-blind scheme. Exercise intensity was higher during the study that before starting it. Blood samples were collected before and after treatment, and plasma was used for oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitrite plus nitrate (NOx), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) determinations. Glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulphide (GSSG) levels, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reductase (GRd) activities, were measured in erythrocytes. Melatonin intake increased ORAC, reduced LPO and NOx levels, and prevented the increase of AOPP, compared to placebo group. Melatonin was also more efficient than placebo in reducing GSSG·GSH -1 and GPx·GRd -1 ratios. Melatonin, but not placebo, reduced creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, and total cholesterol levels. Overall, the data reflect a beneficial effect of melatonin treatment in resistance-training athletes, preventing extra- and intracellular oxidative stress induced by exercise, and yielding further skeletal muscle protection against exercise-induced oxidative damage.

  6. Cellular and molecular repair of X-ray-induced damage: dependence on oxygen tension and nutritional status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiro, I.J.; Kennedy, K.A.; Stickler, R.; Ling, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    Cellular and molecular repair was studied at 23 0 C using split-dose recovery and alkaline elution techniques, respectively, as a function of cellular oxygen and nutrient conditions. Hypoxic cells in full medium showed a partial reduction in the level of sublethal damage (SLD) repair relative to aerated cells; the respective repair kinetics were similar with a common repair half-time of 30 min. Similarly, hypoxic cells showed a slight reduction in strand break rejoining capacity compared to aerated cells. Under nutrient deprivation, anoxic cells displayed no SLD repair or strand break repair, while aerated cells exhibited the same level of SLD and strand break repair as for well-fed cells. In addition, nutrient deprived cells at low O 2 levels displayed normal SLD and strand break repair capability. These results indicate that both nutrient and O 2 deprivation are necessary for complete inhibition of cellular and molecular repair, and low levels of O 2 can effectively reverse this inhibition

  7. Orthotopic transplantation of cryopreserved mouse ovaries and gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogues in the restoration of function following chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    Full Text Available Therapy advances are constantly improving survival rates of cancer patients, however the toxic effects of chemotherapy drugs can seriously affect patients' quality of life. In women, fertility and premature ovarian endocrine dysfunction are of particular concern. It is urgently we find methods to preserve or reconstruct ovarian function for these women. This study compares GnRHa treatment with ovarian tissue cryopreservation and orthotopic transplantation in a chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage murine model. 56 inbred Lewis rats were divided into 4 treatment groups: Saline control (group I; cyclophosphamide only (group II; cyclophosphamide plus GnRHa (group III; cyclophosphamide and grafting of thawed cryopreserved ovaries (group IV. Body weight, estrous cycle recovery time, ovarian weight, morphology and follicle count, as well as breeding and fertility were compared among groups. Only group IV was able to restore to normal body weight by the end of the observation period and resumed normal estrous cycles in a shorter time compared to other treatment groups. There was a decrease in primordial follicles in all treatment groups, but group III had the greatest reduction. Although, there was no difference in pregnancy, only one animal littered normal pups in group II, none littered in group III and four littered in group IV. Thus, cryopreservation and orthotopic transplantation of ovarian tissue can restore the fertility of rats subjected to chemotherapy in a manner that is superior to GnRHa treatment. We also observed increased rates of hepatic, splenic and pulmonary haemorrhage in group III, suggesting there may be synergistic toxicity of GnRHa and cyclophosphamide.

  8. Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it also can be a sign of endometrial cancer. All bleeding after menopause should be evaluated. Other side effects reported by women who take hormone therapy include fluid retention and breast soreness. This soreness usually lasts for a short ...

  9. Effects of dietary extra virgin olive oil and its fractions on antioxidant status and DNA damage in the heart of rats co-exposed to aluminum and acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Imen; Khemakhem, Mouna; Boudawara, Ons; Marrekchi, Rim; Jamoussi, Kamel; Ben Amar, Raja; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba; Grati Kamoun, Naziha

    2015-09-01

    Oxidative stress generated by an excessive production of free radicals has been linked to the development of several health problems such as cardiovascular diseases. We investigated the protective efficacy of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) and its lipophilic fraction (OOLF) and hydrophilic fraction (OOHF) against the cardiotoxicity and DNA damage induced by co-exposure to aluminum (AlCl3) and acrylamide (ACR). Rats were divided into eight groups of six each: controls, AlCl3 (50 mg per kg body weight) administered via drinking water and ACR (20 mg per kg body weight) given by gavage, combined group plus EVOO (300 μl); combined group plus the hydrophilic fraction (1 ml); combined group plus the lipophilic fraction (300 μl); extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and its fractions were administered daily by gavage for 21 days. Three other groups, considered as positive controls, received either EVOO, OOLF or OOLH. Exposure of rats to both AlCl3 and ACR provoked oxidative stress objectified by an increase in MDA, AOPP and a decrease in GSH, NPSH and vitamin C levels. The activities of CAT, GPx and SOD were also decreased. EVOO and its OOLF fraction exhibited a pronounced enhancement of antioxidant status while a partial recovery in the antioxidant status was obtained with the OOHF fraction. Plasma LDH and CK activities, TC, LDL-C levels, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios were increased, while HDL-C and TG decreased in rats treated with both AlCl3 and ACR. Co-administration of EVOO, OOLF or OOHF to treated rats restored cardiac biomarkers and lipid profile to near-normal values. Histological studies and DNA damage confirmed the biochemical parameters and the beneficial role of EVOO and its two fractions. Our results suggest that extra virgin olive oil and its two fractions can decrease the frequency of cardiac complications and genotoxicity.

  10. The 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor tepoxalin induces oxidative damage and altered PTEN status prior to apoptosis in canine osteosarcoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, J P; Cavatorta, D; Bushey, J J; Levine, C B; Sevier, C S; Wakshlag, J J

    2016-06-01

    The 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibitor tepoxalin has been shown to slow canine osteosarcoma (OSA) tumour xenografts growth, yet the mechanisms are poorly elucidated. Further examination of tepoxalin in canine OSA cell lines shows that tepoxalin treated cells undergo apoptosis through caspase-3 activation and annexin staining. Interestingly, apoptosis is superseded by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), as measured by activation of dihydrorhodamine 123 and mitosox. This increase in ROS appears to be related to the 5-LOX inhibitor regardless of cellular 5-LOX status, and was not observed after treatment with the tepoxalin metabolite RWJ20142. Additionally, 5-LOX inhibition by tepoxalin appears to increase phosphatase and tensin (PTEN) homolog activity by preventing its alkylation or oxidation. PTEN modification or inhibition allows phosphoinositide-3 (PI3) kinase activity thereby heightening activation of protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation. Our data suggest that off target oxidation and LOX inhibition play roles in the apoptotic response. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effect of endurance training on seizure susceptibility, behavioral changes and neuronal damage after kainate-induced status epilepticus in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchekalarova, J; Shishmanova, M; Atanasova, D; Stefanova, M; Alova, L; Lazarov, N; Georgieva, K

    2015-11-02

    The therapeutic efficacy of regular physical exercises in an animal model of epilepsy and depression comorbidity has been confirmed previously. In the present study, we examined the effects of endurance training on susceptibility to kainate (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE), behavioral changes and neuronal damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Male SHRs were randomly divided into two groups. One group was exercised on a treadmill with submaximal loading for four weeks and the other group was sedentary. Immediately after the training period, SE was evoked in half of the sedentary and trained rats by KA, while the other half of the two groups received saline. Basal systolic (SP), diastolic (DP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) of all rats were measured at the beginning and at the end of the training period. Anxiety, memory and depression-like behaviour were evaluated a month after SE. The release of 5-HT in the hippocampus was measured using a liquid scintillation method and neuronal damage was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. SP and MAP of exercised SHRs decreased in comparison with the initial values. The increased resistance of SHRs to KA-induced SE was accompanied by an elongated latent seizure-free period, improved object recognition memory and antidepressant effect after the training program. While the anticonvulsant and positive behavioral effects of endurance training were accompanied by an increase of 5-HT release in the hippocampus, it did not exert neuroprotective activity. Our results indicate that prior exercise is an effective means to attenuate KA-induced seizures and comorbid behavioral changes in a model of hypertension and epilepsy suggesting a potential influence of hippocampal 5-HT on a comorbid depression. However, this beneficial impact does not prevent the development of epilepsy and concomitant brain damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of florfenicol on the antioxidant status, detoxification system and biomolecule damage in the swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xianyun; Wang, Zhuqing; Gao, Baoquan; Liu, Ping; Li, Jian

    2017-09-01

    Florfenicol (FLR) is the most commonly used antibacterial agent in aquaculture because of its wide spectrum of activity and few side-effects. We characterized the toxicokinetics of FLR in the swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus) after intravenous (IV) dosing (20, 40 and 80mg/kg). The results showed that FLR significantly suppressed the antioxidant system of the hepatopancreas. FLR induced transcriptional expression of phase I and phase II detoxification genes (CYP3 and GST, respectively) in a dose- and clearance time-dependent manner and altered the expression of their corresponding enzymes (erythromycin N-demethylase and glutathione S-transferase, respectively). Moreover, FLR induced the transcription of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter subfamily B (ABCB) and subfamily G (ABCG), although ABCG transcription was not induced by FLR at 20mg/kg. Additionally, higher FLR doses caused significant biomolecule damage during the first 48h after delivery. This study will provide an improved understanding of the exact mechanism underlying toxicity in aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acquisition and retrieval of conditioned taste aversion is impaired by brain damage caused by two hours of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroubek, J; Hort, J; Komárek, V; Langmeier, M; Brozek, G

    2001-01-01

    The effect of Cavalheiro's pilocarpine model of epileptogenesis upon conditioned taste aversion (CTA), an important example of nondeclarative memory, was studied in adult Long Evans rats. Deterioration of CTA was studied during the silent period between pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) and delayed spontaneous recurrent seizures. SE was elicited by i.p. injection of pilocarpine (320 mg/kg ) and interrupted after 2 hours by clonazepame (1 mg/kg i.p.). Peripheral cholinergic symptoms were suppressed by methylscopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.), administered together with pilocarpine. CTA was formed against the salty taste of isotonic LiCl. In the experiment of CTA acquisition, the CTA was formed and tested during the silent period after SE. In the experiment of CTA retrieval, the CTA was acquired before SE and the retrieval itself was tested during the silent period. Retrieval of CTA acquired before SE was impaired more than the retrieval of CTA formed during the silent period. Our findings indicate that epileptic seizures can disrupt even non-declarative memory but that CTA formed by the damaged brain can use its better preserved parts for memory trace formation. Ketamine (50 mg/kg i.p.) applied 2 min after the onset of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus protected memory deterioration.

  14. Orginal Article. Nephritic cell damage and antioxidant status in rats exposed to leachate from battery recycling industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akintunde Jacob K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Limited studies have assessed the toxic effect of sub-acute and sub-chronic exposure of leachate (mixture of metals in mammalian kidney. The sub-acute and sub-chronic exposure of mature male Wistar-strain albino rats (200-220 g were given by oral administration with leachate from Elewi Odo municipal battery recycling industry (EOMABRIL for period of 7 and 60 days respectively, at different concentrations (20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%. This was to evaluate its toxic effects on male renal functions using biomarkers of oxidative stress and nephro-cellular damage. Control groups were treated equally, but given distilled water instead of the leachate. All the groups were fed with the same standard food and had free access to drinking water. Following the exposure, results showed that the treatment induced systemic toxicity at the doses tested by causing a significant (p<0.05 alteration in enzymatic antioxidantscatalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD in the kidneys which resulted into elevated levels of malonaldehyde (MDA. Reduced glutathione (GSH levels were found to be significantly (p<0.05 depleted relative to the control group. Considerable renal cortical congestion and numerous tubules with protein casts were observed in the lumen of EOMABRIL-treated rats. These findings conclude that possible mechanism by which EOMABRIL at the investigated concentrations elicits nephrotoxicity could be linked to the individual, additive, synergistic or antagonistic interactions of this mixture of metals with the renal bio-molecules, alteration of kidney detoxifying enzymes and necrosis of nephritic tubular epithelial cells.

  15. Avocado oil induces long-term alleviation of oxidative damage in kidney mitochondria from type 2 diabetic rats by improving glutathione status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Figueroa-García, María Del Consuelo; García-Berumen, Claudia Isabel; Calderón-Cortés, Elizabeth; Mejía-Barajas, Jorge A; Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain R; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Hyperglycemia and mitochondrial ROS overproduction have been identified as key factors involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy. This has encouraged the search for strategies decreasing glucose levels and long-term improvement of redox status of glutathione, the main antioxidant counteracting mitochondrial damage. Previously, we have shown that avocado oil improves redox status of glutathione in liver and brain mitochondria from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats; however, the long-term effects of avocado oil and its hypoglycemic effect cannot be evaluated because this model displays low survival and insulin depletion. Therefore, we tested during 1 year the effects of avocado oil on glycemia, ROS levels, lipid peroxidation and glutathione status in kidney mitochondria from type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. Diabetic rats exhibited glycemia of 120-186 mg/dL the first 9 months with a further increase to 250-300 mg/dL. Avocado oil decreased hyperglycemia at intermediate levels between diabetic and control rats. Diabetic rats displayed augmented lipid peroxidation and depletion of reduced glutathione throughout the study, while increased ROS generation was observed at the 3rd and 12th months along with diminished content of total glutathione at the 6th and 12th months. Avocado oil ameliorated all these defects and augmented the mitochondrial content of oleic acid. The beneficial effects of avocado oil are discussed in terms of the hypoglycemic effect of oleic acid and the probable dependence of glutathione transport on lipid peroxidation and thiol oxidation of mitochondrial carriers.

  16. P2X7 receptor activation ameliorates CA3 neuronal damage via a tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated pathway in the rat hippocampus following status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryu Hea Jin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α appears depend on the P2X7 receptor, a purinergic receptor. In the present study, we addressed the question of whether P2X7 receptor-mediated TNF-α regulation is involved in pathogenesis and outcome of status epilepticus (SE. Methods SE was induced by pilocarpine in rats that were intracerebroventricularly infused with saline-, 2',3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (BzATP, adenosine 5'-triphosphate-2',3'-dialdehyde (OxATP, A-438079, or A-740003 prior to SE induction. Thereafter, we performed Fluoro-Jade B staining and immunohistochemical studies for TNF-α and NF-κB subunit phosphorylations. Results Following SE, P2X7 receptor agonist (BzATP infusion increased TNF-α immunoreactivity in dentate granule cells as compared with that in saline-infused animals. In addition, TNF-α immunoreactivity was readily apparent in the mossy fibers, while TNF-α immunoreactivity in CA1-3 pyramidal cells was unaltered. However, P2X7 receptor antagonist (OxATP-, A-438079, and A-740003 infusion reduced SE-induced TNF-α expression in dentate granule cells. In the CA3 region, BzATP infusion attenuated SE-induced neuronal damage, accompanied by enhancement of p65-Ser276 and p65-Ser311 NF-κB subunit phosphorylations. In contrast, OxATP-, A-438079, and A-740003 infusions increased SE-induced neuronal death. Soluble TNF p55 receptor (sTNFp55R, and cotreatment with BzATP and sTNFp55R infusion also increased SE-induced neuronal damage in CA3 region. However, OxATP-, sTNFp55R or BzATP+sTNFp55R infusions could not exacerbate SE-induced neuronal damages in the dentate gyrus and the CA1 region, as compared to BzATP infusion. Conclusions These findings suggest that TNF-α induction by P2X7 receptor activation may ameliorate SE-induced CA3 neuronal damage via enhancing NF-κB p65-Ser276 and p65-Ser311 phosphorylations.

  17. Regular Yoga Practice Improves Antioxidant Status, Immune Function, and Stress Hormone Releases in Young Healthy People: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sung-Ah; Cheong, Kwang-Jo

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to highlight the beneficial effects of yoga practice on bio-parameters, such as oxidative stress, antioxidant components, immune functions, and secretion of stress hormones, in healthy young people. This study was conducted on healthy volunteers recruited from among university students, who were divided into two groups: a control (no yoga intervention, n=13) group and a yoga (n=12) group. Yoga practice was with an instructor for 90 minutes once a week spread over 12 weeks, with recommendations to practice daily at home for 40 minutes with the help of a DVD. The yoga program consisted of yoga body poses (asanas), exercises involving awareness, voluntary regulation of breath (pranayama), and meditational practices. Whole blood samples were collected when the volunteers had fasted for 8 hours at 0 and 12 weeks. The oxidative stress/antioxidant components, immune-related cytokines, and stress hormones were evaluated in serum or plasma. Serum levels of nitric oxide, F2-isoprostane, and lipid peroxide were significantly decreased by yoga practice (pstress and improved antioxidant levels of the body. Moreover, yoga beneficially affected stress hormone releases as well as partially improved immune function.

  18. The effect of radio- and chemotherapy on the hormonal status of breast cancer patients taking account of the level of receptors in tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassalyk, L.S.; Koposova, T.L.; Murav'eva, N.I.; Gershtejn, E.S.; Smirnova, K.D.; Kuz'mina, Z.V.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of the content of the steroid and peptide hormones in the blood of 115 patients with Stage 3 a, b, c breast cancer (54 patients at the reproductive age and 61 in the menopause) before treatment and during radio- and chemotherapy. Data on the concentration of the steroid hormones in the patients' blood were compared with the presence of the respective receptors in tumor. Before treatment a significant rise of the estradiol concentration was noted in the blood of the menopause patients, that of prolactin both in the menopause patients and in the patients with preserved menstruation. A raised testosterone concentration was also noted in the patients with preserved menstruation. After radiotherapy the blood prolactin level, particularly in the patients with preserved menstruation, increased more than 2-fold. There was no correlation between the levels of the steroid and peptide hormones during therapy and its efficasy. The prolactin level can be used as a criterion of efficasy of antytumor therapy, its stable rise in operated patients during therapy being an unfavourable prognostic sign

  19. Analysis of High-Intensity Skating in Top-Class Ice Hockey Match-Play in Relation to Training Status and Muscle Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignell, Erik; Fransson, Dan; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2018-05-01

    Lignell, E, Fransson, D, Krustrup, P, and Mohr, M. Analysis of high-intensity skating in top-class ice hockey match-play in relation to training status and muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1303-1310, 2018-We examined high-intensity activities in a top-class ice-hockey game and the effect of training status. Male ice-hockey players (n = 36) from the National Hockey League participated. Match analysis was performed during a game and physical capacity was assessed by a submaximal Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Ice-hockey test, level 1 (YYIR1-IHSUB). Venous blood samples were collected 24-hour post-game to determine markers of muscle damage. Players performed 119 ± 8 and 31 ± 3 m·min of high intensity and sprint skating, respectively, during a game. Total distance covered was 4,606 ± 219 m (2,260-6,749 m), of which high-intensity distance was 2042 ± 97 m (757-3,026 m). Sprint-skating speed was 5-8% higher (p ≤ 0.05) in periods 1 and 2 vs. period 3 and overtime. Defensemen (D) covered 29% more (p ≤ 0.05) skating in total than forwards (F) and were on the ice 47% longer. However, F performed 54% more (p ≤ 0.05) high-intensity skating per minute than defensemen. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) was 338 ± 45 (78-757) U·L 24-hour post-game. Heart rate loading during YYIR1-IHSUB correlated inversely (p ≤ 0.05) to the frequency of high-intensity skating bouts (r = -0.55) and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (r = -0.85) and positively to post-game CK (r = 0.49; p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, ice hockey is a multiple-sprint sport that provokes fatigue in the latter half of a game. Forwards perform more intense skating than defensemen. Moreover, high-intensity game activities during top-class ice hockey are correlated with cardiovascular loading during a submaximal skating test. Taken together, training of elite ice-hockey players should improve the ability for repeated high-intensity skating, and testing should include the YYIR1-IHSUB test as an indicator for ice

  20. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Bioidentical Hormones January 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Howard ... take HT for symptom relief. What are bioidentical hormones? Bioidentical hormones are identical to the hormones that ...

  1. Effects of hormones on platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Antonio López; Modrego, Javier; Zamorano-León, José J

    2014-04-01

    Platelets and their activation/inhibition mechanisms play a central role in haemostasis. It is well known agonists and antagonists of platelet activation; however, during the last years novel evidences of hormone effects on platelet activation have been reported. Platelet functionality may be modulated by the interaction between different hormones and their platelet receptors, contributing to sex differences in platelet function and even in platelet-mediated vascular damage. It has suggested aspects that apparently are well established should be reviewed. Hormones effects on platelet activity are included among them. This article tries to review knowledge about the involvement of hormones in platelet biology and activity.

  2. The usefulness of growth hormone treatment for psychological status in young adult survivors of childhood leukaemia; an open-label study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.; Aukema, E.J.; Deijen, J.B.; van den Coeverden, S.C.C.M.; Kaspers, G.J.L.; van der Pal, H.J.H.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: To reduce the risk of brain damage children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) are nowadays mainly treated with intrathecal chemotherapy (ITC) instead of central nervous system (CNS) radiation therapy (CRT) to prevent CNS relapse. However, chemotherapy may also lead to cognitive

  3. Effect of high-dose growth hormone and glutamine on body composition, urine creatinine excretion, fatty acid absorption, and essential fatty acids status in short bowel patients - A randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, P.B.; Szkudlarek, J.; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2001-01-01

    Background: Positive effects of high dose growth hormone and glutamine (GH+GLN) on body composition in short bowel patients have been described. Lack of effects on intestinal absorption found in some studies has been ascribed to concomitant essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency. This study...... describes changes in body weight (BW) and composition, 24-h urine creatinine excretion, intestinal fatty acid absorption (total, saturated, unsaturated and EFA), and EFA status in relation to treatment with GH+GLN in s short bowel patients. Methods: A double-blind, crossover study between placebo and growth...... with baseline. Twenty-four-hour urine creatinine excretion did not differ between study periods. No changes in intestinal absorption of fatty acids were seen, and no changes in EFAs measured in plasma phospholipids were observed. Only 1 of 8 patients, who did not receive parenteral lipids, had a Holman index...

  4. Damage analysis: damage function development and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, R.L.; Odette, G.R.

    1975-01-01

    The derivation and application of damage functions, including recent developments for the U.S. LMFBR and CTR programs, is reviewed. A primary application of damage functions is in predicting component life expectancies; i.e., the fluence required in a service spectrum to attain a specified design property change. An important part of the analysis is the estimation of the uncertainty in such fluence limit predictions. The status of standardizing the procedures for the derivation and application of damage functions is discussed. Improvements in several areas of damage function development are needed before standardization can be completed. These include increasing the quantity and quality of the data used in the analysis, determining the limitations of the analysis due to the presence of multiple damage mechanisms, and finally, testing of damage function predictions against data obtained from material surveillance programs in operating thermal and fast reactors. 23 references. (auth)

  5. The effect of Fucus vesiculosus, an edible brown seaweed, upon menstrual cycle length and hormonal status in three pre-menopausal women: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skibola Christine F

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of estrogen-dependent cancers are among the highest in Western countries and lower in the East. These variations may be attributable to differences in dietary exposures such as higher seaweed consumption among Asian populations. The edible brown kelp, Fucus vesiculosus (bladderwrack, as well as other brown kelp species, lower plasma cholesterol levels. Since cholesterol is a precursor to sex hormone biosynthesis, kelp consumption may alter circulating sex hormone levels and menstrual cycling patterns. In particular, dietary kelp may be beneficial to women with or at high risk for estrogen-dependent diseases. To test this, bladderwrack was administered to three pre-menopausal women with abnormal menstrual cycling patterns and/or menstrual-related disease histories. Case Presentation Intake of bladderwrack was associated with significant increases in menstrual cycle lengths, ranging from an increase of 5.5 to 14 days. In addition, hormone measurements ascertained for one woman revealed significant anti-estrogenic and progestagenic effects following kelp administration. Mean baseline 17β-estradiol levels were reduced from 626 ± 91 to 164 ± 30 pg/ml (P = 0.04 following 700 mg/d, which decreased further to 92.5.0 ± 3.5pg/ml (P = 0.03 with the1.4 g/d dose. Mean baseline progesterone levels rose from 0.58 ± 0.14 to 8.4 ± 2.6 ng/ml with the 700 mg/d dose (P = 0.1, which increased further to 16.8 ± 0.7 ng/ml with the 1.4 g/d dose (P = 0.002. Conclusions These pilot data suggest that dietary bladderwrack may prolong the length of the menstrual cycle and exert anti-estrogenic effects in pre-menopausal women. Further, these studies also suggest that seaweed may be another important dietary component apart from soy that is responsible for the reduced risk of estrogen-related cancers observed in Japanese populations. However, these studies will need to be performed in well-controlled clinical trials to confirm these

  6. Adiposity in relation to vitamin D status and parathyroid hormone levels : a population-based study in older men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, Marieke B; van Dam, Rob M; Visser, Marjolein; Deeg, Dorly J H; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Bouter, Lex M; Seidell, Jaap C; Lips, Paul

    OBJECTIVE: In small case-control studies, obesity was associated with worse vitamin D status. Our aim was to assess the association of adiposity (anthropometric measures as well as dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) and serum PTH levels in a large

  7. Carotenoids, birdsong and oxidative status: administration of dietary lutein is associated with an increase in song rate and circulating antioxidants (albumin and cholesterol and a decrease in oxidative damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Casagrande

    Full Text Available Despite the appealing hypothesis that carotenoid-based colouration signals oxidative status, evidence supporting the antioxidant function of these pigments is scarce. Recent studies have shown that lutein, the most common carotenoid used by birds, can enhance the expression of non-visual traits, such as birdsong. Nevertheless, the underlying physiological mechanisms remain unclear. In this study we hypothesized that male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris fed extra lutein increase their song rate as a consequence of an improved oxidative status. Although birdsong may be especially sensitive to the redox status, this has, to the best of our knowledge, never been tested. Together with the determination of circulating oxidative damage (ROMs, reactive oxygen metabolites, we quantified uric acid, albumin, total proteins, cholesterol, and testosterone, which are physiological parameters potentially sensitive to oxidation and/or related to both carotenoid functions and birdsong expression. We found that the birds fed extra lutein sang more frequently than control birds and showed an increase of albumin and cholesterol together with a decrease of oxidative damage. Moreover, we could show that song rate was associated with high levels of albumin and cholesterol and low levels of oxidative damage, independently from testosterone levels. Our study shows for the first time that song rate honestly signals the oxidative status of males and that dietary lutein is associated with the circulation of albumin and cholesterol in birds, providing a novel insight to the theoretical framework related to the honest signalling of carotenoid-based traits.

  8. Testicular dose and hormonal changes after radiotherapy of rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Robert M.; Henkel, Karsten; Christiansen, Hans; Vorwerk, Hilke; Hille, Andrea; Hess, Clemens F.; Schmidberger, Heinz

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: To measure the dose received by the testicles during radiotherapy for rectal cancer and to determine the contribution of each field of the pelvic box and the relevance for hormonal status. Materials and methods: In 11 patients (mean age 55.2 years) testicular doses were measured with an ionisation chamber between 7 and 10 times during the course of pelvic radiotherapy (50 Gy) for rectal carcinoma. Before and several months after radiotherapy luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and total testosterone serum levels were determined. Results: The mean cumulative radiation exposure to the testicles was 3.56 Gy (0.7-8.4 Gy; 7.1% of the prescribed dose). Seventy-three percent received more than 2 Gy to the testicles. Fifty-eight percent of the measured dose was contributed by the p.a. field, 30% by the a.p. field and 12% by the lateral fields. Mean LH and FSH levels were significantly increased after therapy (350%/185% of the pre-treatment values), testosterone levels decreased to 78%. No correlation could be found between changes of hormones and doses to the testis, probably due to the low number of evaluated patients. Conclusions: Radiotherapy of rectal carcinoma causes significant damage to the testis, as shown by increased levels of gonadotropins after radiotherapy. Most of the gonadal dose is delivered by the p.a. field, due to the divergence of the p.a. beam towards the testicles. The reduction in testosterone level may be of clinical concern. Patients who will receive radiotherapy for rectal carcinoma must be instructed about a high risk of permanent infertility, and the risk of endocrine failure (hypogonadism). Larger studies are needed to establish the correlation between testicular radiation dose and hormonal changes in this group of patients

  9. Growth Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Filtration Rate (eGFR) Estrogen/Progesterone Receptor Status Estrogens Ethanol Extractable Nuclear Antigen Antibodies (ENA) Panel Factor V ... of strenuous exercise, or after ingesting a glucose (sugar) solution Test Preparation Needed? Follow any instructions you ...

  10. Sintomas climatéricos e estado nutricional de mulheres na pós-menopausa usuárias e não usuárias de terapia hormonal Climacteric symptoms and nutritional status of women in post-menopause users and non-users of hormone therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Andréia França Gravena

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os sintomas climatéricos e estado nutricional em mulheres na pós-menopausa, usuárias e não usuárias de terapia hormonal (TH. MÉTODOS: Estudo analítico, exploratório, tipo inquérito populacional domiciliar, realizado na área urbana do município de Maringá, Paraná, incluindo 456 mulheres com idade entre 45 e 69 anos, no período pós-menopausa. A coleta teve como base de referência os setores censitários urbanizados (368 do município, de acordo com o Censo Demográfico Brasileiro. Foi utilizada amostra aleatória simples proporcional às mulheres residentes em cada setor censitário e, por meio de visita domiciliar, aplicou-se um questionário e verificaram-se as medidas antropométricas e pressão arterial. Para avaliação dos sintomas climatéricos, foi utilizado o Índice Menopausal de Blatt e Kupperman. A variável desfecho foi o uso de TH. RESULTADOS: A média de idade foi de 58,7 anos. O excesso de peso esteve presente em 72,6% das mulheres e a obesidade abdominal em 81,4% delas. Sintomas climatéricos de intensidade leve foram evidenciados em 69,5% das mulheres. Apenas 18,4% das mulheres faziam uso de TH e eram, na sua maioria, brancas, não fumantes, sem comorbidades e sem companheiro. Usuárias de TH apresentaram menor frequência de excesso de peso e obesidade abdominal e tiveram menor prevalência de sintomas climatéricos de intensidade severa. CONCLUSÃO: O excesso de peso e a obesidade abdominal foram prevalentes na amostra estudada. Embora em menor número, as usuárias de TH apresentaram uma frequência menor de excesso de peso e sintomas climatéricos leves e intensos na pós-menopausa.PURPOSE: To analyze the climacteric symptoms, nutritional status and distribution of abdominal fat in postmenopausal women using or not hormone therapy. METHODS: exploratory analytical study of the population survey type in the urban area of Maringa, Parana, conducted on 456 postmenopausal women aged 45 to 69

  11. The role of the expression of bcl-2, p53 gene in tamoxifen-induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells and its relationship with hormone receptor status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Woo Chul; Ham, Yong Ho [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the relationship of bcl-2, p53, ER and tamoxifen-induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells, MCF-7 (ER+/bcl-2+/p53-) and MB MDA 468 (ER-/bcl-2-/p53+) cell line were cultured in estrogen-free condition. E2(10`-`9M) and tamoxifen (10`-`5M) were added to the media. The changes of bcl-2 and mutant p53 protein were checked by Western blot and apoptosis were measured by flowcytometry. In MCF-7 cells, we found that treatment with tamoxifen resulted in a decrease in bcl-2 protein level, but produced no change in mutant p53. In MB MDA 468 cell however, there were no changes of bcl-2 and mutant p53 protein level when E2 or tamoxifen were added. Apoptotic cells increased with time-dependent pattern when tamoxifen was added to MCF-7 cells. According to these result, ER+/blc-2+/mutant p53- cells, when treated with tamoxifen, were converted into bcl-2/mutant p53- cells which were more prone to apoptosis than bcl-2-/mutant p53+ cells. The paradoxical correlation of bcl-2 and ER which had been observed in clinical studies might be explained with this results and bcl-2 protein seems to be one of important factors that can predict the effect of hormone therapy. (author). 26 refs., 5 figs

  12. The role of the expression of bcl-2, p53 gene in tamoxifen-induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells and its relationship with hormone receptor status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Woo Chul; Ham, Yong Ho

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the relationship of bcl-2, p53, ER and tamoxifen-induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells, MCF-7 (ER+/bcl-2+/p53-) and MB MDA 468 (ER-/bcl-2-/p53+) cell line were cultured in estrogen-free condition. E2(10'-'9M) and tamoxifen (10'-'5M) were added to the media. The changes of bcl-2 and mutant p53 protein were checked by Western blot and apoptosis were measured by flowcytometry. In MCF-7 cells, we found that treatment with tamoxifen resulted in a decrease in bcl-2 protein level, but produced no change in mutant p53. In MB MDA 468 cell however, there were no changes of bcl-2 and mutant p53 protein level when E2 or tamoxifen were added. Apoptotic cells increased with time-dependent pattern when tamoxifen was added to MCF-7 cells. According to these result, ER+/blc-2+/mutant p53- cells, when treated with tamoxifen, were converted into bcl-2/mutant p53- cells which were more prone to apoptosis than bcl-2-/mutant p53+ cells. The paradoxical correlation of bcl-2 and ER which had been observed in clinical studies might be explained with this results and bcl-2 protein seems to be one of important factors that can predict the effect of hormone therapy. (author). 26 refs., 5 figs

  13. Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in amenorrheic athletes: effects of endogenous hormone status and nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friday, K E; Drinkwater, B L; Bruemmer, B; Chesnut, C; Chait, A

    1993-12-01

    To determine the interactive effects of hormones, exercise, and diet on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, serum estrogen and progesterone levels, nutrient intake, and plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein concentrations were measured in 24 hypoestrogenic amenorrheic and 44 eumenorrheic female athletes. When compared to eumenorrheic athletes, amenorrheic athletes had higher levels of plasma cholesterol (5.47 +/- 0.17 vs. 4.84 +/- 0.12 mmol/L, P = 0.003), triglyceride (0.75 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.61 +/- 0.03 mmol/L, P = 0.046), low-density lipoprotein (LDL; 3.16 +/- 0.15 vs. 2.81 +/- 0.09 mmol/L, P = 0.037), high-density lipoprotein (HDL; 1.95 +/- 0.07 vs. 1.73 +/- 0.05 mmol/L, P = 0.007), and HDL2 (0.84 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.68 +/- 0.04 mmol/L, P = 0.02) cholesterol. Plasma LDL/HDL cholesterol ratios, very low-density lipoprotein and HDL3 cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A-I and A-II levels were similar in the two groups. Amenorrheic athletes consumed less fat than eumenorrheic subjects (52 +/- 5 vs. 75 +/- 3 g/day, P = 0.02), but similar amounts of calories, cholesterol, protein, carbohydrate, and ethanol. HDL cholesterol levels in amenorrheic subjects correlated positively with the percent of dietary calories from fat (r = 0.42, n = 23, P = 0.045) but negatively with the percent from protein (r = -0.49, n = 23, P = 0.017). Thus, exercise-induced amenorrhea may adversely affect cardiovascular risk by increasing plasma LDL and total cholesterol. However, cardioprotective elevations in plasma HDL and HDL2 cholesterol may neutralize the risk of cardiovascular disease in amenorrheic athletes.

  14. Hormone receptor expression in male breast cancers | Akosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Male breast cancers are rare but have been found in higher proportions in Black Africans. Prognostic factors for breast cancers include tumour size, grade and stage, and hormone receptor status. The hormone receptor status is an invaluable guide in the use of adjuvant endocrine therapy, but none of the reports available ...

  15. Mortality risk of black women and white women with invasive breast cancer by hormone receptors, HER2, and p53 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Huiyan; Folger, Suzanne G; Simon, Michael S; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Press, Michael F; Bernstein, Leslie; Lu, Yani; Malone, Kathleen E; Marchbanks, Polly A; Deapen, Dennis M; Spirtas, Robert; Burkman, Ronald T; Strom, Brian L; McDonald, Jill A

    2013-01-01

    Black women are more likely than white women to have an aggressive subtype of breast cancer that is associated with higher mortality and this may contribute to the observed black-white difference in mortality. However, few studies have investigated the black-white disparity in mortality risk stratified by breast cancer subtype, defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status. Furthermore, it is not known whether additional consideration of p53 protein status influences black-white differences in mortality risk observed when considering subtypes defined by ER, PR and HER2 status. Four biomarkers were assessed by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded breast tumor tissue from 1,204 (523 black, 681 white) women with invasive breast cancer, aged 35–64 years at diagnosis, who accrued a median of 10 years’ follow-up. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were fit to assess subtype-specific black-white differences in mortality risk. No black-white differences in mortality risk were observed for women with triple negative (ER-negative [ER-], PR-, and HER2-) subtype. However, older (50–64 years) black women had greater overall mortality risk than older white women if they had been diagnosed with luminal A (ER-positive [ER+] or PR+ plus HER2-) breast cancer (all-cause hazard ratio, HR, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.18 to 2.99; breast cancer-specific HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.83 to 2.74). This black-white difference among older women was further confined to those with luminal A/p53- tumors (all-cause HR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.30 to 3.79; breast cancer-specific HR, 1.89; 95% CI, 0.93 to 3.86). Tests for homogeneity of race-specific HRs comparing luminal A to triple negative subtype and luminal A/p53- to luminal A/p53+ subtype did not achieve statistical significance, although statistical power was limited. Our findings suggest that the subtype-specific black-white difference in

  16. Hormones in international meat production: biological, sociological and consumer issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Hugh

    2002-12-01

    Beef and its products are an important source of nutrition in many human societies. Methods of production vary and include the use of hormonal compounds ('hormones') to increase growth and lean tissue with reduced fat deposition in cattle. The hormonal compounds are naturally occurring in animals or are synthetically produced xenobiotics and have oestrogenic (oestradiol-17beta and its esters; zeranol), androgenic (testosterone and esters; trenbolone acetate) or progestogenic (progesterone; melengestrol acetate) activity. The use of hormones as production aids is permitted in North American countries but is no longer allowed in the European Union (EU), which also prohibits the importation of beef and its products derived from hormone-treated cattle. These actions have resulted in a trade dispute between the two trading blocs. The major concern for EU authorities is the possibility of adverse effects on human consumers of residues of hormones and metabolites. Methods used to assess possible adverse effects are typical of those used by international agencies to assess acceptability of chemicals in human food. These include analysis of quantities present in the context of known biological activity and digestive, absorptive, post-absorptive and excretory processes. Particular considerations include the low quantities of hormonal compounds consumed in meat products and their relationships to endogenous production particularly in prepubertal children, enterohepatic inactivation, cellular receptor- and non-receptor-mediated effects and potential for interference with growth, development and physiological function in consumers. There is particular concern about the role of oestradiol-17beta as a carcinogen in certain tissues. Now subject to a 'permanent' EU ban, current evidence suggests that certain catechol metabolites may induce free-radical damage of DNA in cell and laboratory animal test systems. Classical oestrogen-receptor mediation is considered to stimulate

  17. Alimentary triggers of hormone dependent breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Y. Lykholat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC consistently holds the leading positions in the structure of morbidity and mortality of the female population. Food containing veterinary hormones is extremely dangerous to human health: estrogens are female sex hormones. Excessive level of estrogen in the body gives rise to diseases of varying severity: in women (especially of older age it may cause breast cancer. The paper investigates the processes of lipid peroxidation and the status of antioxidant protection system in rats of different ages exposed to exogenous estrogens. The purpose of the work is to study lipid peroxidation and antioxidative protection status in rats of different ages exposed to exogenous estrogens for determining the trigger mechanisms for tumor development. Experiments were conducted on female Wistar rats exposed to exogenous estrogen for 45 days. At the beginning of the experiment, age of experimental animals was 3 months in pubertal period and 6 months as mature ones. The control groups consisted of intact animals of appropriate age. To simulate the influence of exogenous estrogen, rats’ food was treated with the Sinestron drug at the rate of 2 mg per kg. The research materials were serum and liver of rats. Objects of the research were indicators of lipid peroxidation activity (content of TBA-active products and antioxidant protection system (reduced glutathione (RG level, glutathione transferase (GT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GP, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, and total antioxidative activity (AOA. Data obtained was treated with standard methods of estimation of variation series. Various degrees of peroxidation intensification depending on the age and organs were determined. Maximum excess of control indexes in the serum was observed and it indicated synthetic estrogen effect of on all major body systems. In prepubertal period females’ liver the reaction of prooxidant system and tension in the antioxidant

  18. Exposure to 3,3',5-triiodothyronine affects histone and RNA polymerase II modifications, but not DNA methylation status, in the regulatory region of the Xenopus laevis thyroid hormone receptor βΑ gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Kentaro; Nishiyama, Norihito; Izumi, Yushi; Otsuka, Shunsuke; Ishihara, Akinori; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi

    2015-11-06

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play a critical role in amphibian metamorphosis, during which the TH receptor (TR) gene, thrb, is upregulated in a tissue-specific manner. The Xenopus laevis thrb gene has 3 TH response elements (TREs) in the 5' flanking regulatory region and 1 TRE in the exon b region, around which CpG sites are highly distributed. To clarify whether exposure to 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) affects histone and RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) modifications and the level of DNA methylation in the 5' regulatory region, we conducted reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay using X. laevis cultured cells and premetamorphic tadpoles treated with or without 2 nM T3. Exposure to T3 increased the amount of the thrb transcript, in parallel with enhanced histone H4 acetylation and RNAPII recruitment, and probably phosphorylation of RNAPII at serine 5, in the 5' regulatory and exon b regions. However, the 5' regulatory region remained hypermethylated even with exposure to T3, and there was no significant difference in the methylation status between DNAs from T3-untreated and -treated cultured cells or tadpole tissues. Our results demonstrate that exposure to T3 induced euchromatin-associated epigenetic marks by enhancing histone acetylation and RNAPII recruitment, but not by decreasing the level of DNA methylation, in the 5' regulatory region of the X. laevis thrb gene. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Thyroid hormone activates rat liver adenosine 5,-monophosphate-activated protein kinase: relation to CaMKKb, TAK1 and LKB1 expression and energy status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, R; Ortega, Y; Bozo, V; Andrade, M; Minuzzi, G; Cornejo, P; Fernandez, V; Videla, L A

    2013-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of energy status supporting cellular energy homeostasis that may represent the metabolic basis for 3,3,,5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) liver preconditioning. Functionally transient hyperthyroid state induced by T3 (single dose of 0.1 mg/kg) in fed rats led to upregulation of mRNA expression (RT-PCR) and protein phosphorylation (Western blot) of hepatic AMPK at 8 to 36 h after treatment. AMPK Thr 172 phosphorylation induced by T3 is associated with enhanced mRNA expression of the upstream kinases Ca2+ -calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta (CaMKKbeta) and transforming growth-factor-beta-activated kinase-1 (TAK1), with increased protein levels of CaMKKbeta and higher TAK1 phosphorylation, without changes in those of the liver kinase B1 (LKB1) signaling pathway. Liver contents of AMP and ADP were augmented by 291 percent and 44 percent by T3 compared to control values (p less than 0.05), respectively, whereas those of ATP decreased by 64% (p less than 0.05), with no significant changes in the total content of adenine nucleotides (AMP + ADP + ATP) at 24 h after T3 administration. Consequently, hepatic ATP/ADP content ratios exhibited 64 percent diminution (p less than 0.05) and those of AMP/ATP increased by 425 percent (p less than 0.05) in T3-treated rats over controls. It is concluded that in vivoT3 administration triggers liver AMPK upregulation in association with significant enhancements in AMPK mRNA expression, AMPK phosphorylation coupled to CaMKKbeta and TAK1 activation, and in AMP/ATP ratios, which may promote enhanced AMPK activity to support T3-induced energy consuming processes such as those of liver preconditioning.

  20. Cytogenetic status and oxidative DNA-damage induced by atorvastatin in human peripheral blood lymphocytes: Standard and Fpg-modified comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajski, Goran; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Orescanin, Visnja

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the genotoxic potential of atorvastatin on human lymphocytes in vitro standard comet assay was used in the evaluation of basal DNA damage and to investigate possible oxidative DNA damage produced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) Fpg-modified version of comet assay was also conducted. In addition to these techniques the new criteria for scoring micronucleus test were applied for more complete detection of baseline damage in binuclear lymphocytes exposed to atorvastatin 80 mg/day in different time periods by virtue of measuring the frequency of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds. All parameters obtained with the standard comet assay and Fpg-modified comet assay were significantly higher in the treated than in control lymphocytes. The Fpg-modified comet assay showed a significantly greater tail length, tail intensity, and tail moment in all treated lymphocytes than did the standard comet assay, which suggests that oxidative stress is likely to be responsible for DNA damage. DNA damage detected by the standard comet assay indicates that some other mechanism is also involved. In addition to the comet assay, a total number of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds were significantly higher in the exposed than in controlled lymphocytes. Regression analyses showed a positive correlation between the results obtained by the comet (Fpg-modified and standard) and micronucleus assay. Overall, the study demonstrated that atorvastatin in its highest dose is capable of producing damage on the level of DNA molecule and cell

  1. Cytogenetic status and oxidative DNA-damage induced by atorvastatin in human peripheral blood lymphocytes: Standard and Fpg-modified comet assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajski, Goran [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Mutagenesis Unit, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Mutagenesis Unit, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Orescanin, Visnja [Ruder Boskovic Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2008-08-15

    To investigate the genotoxic potential of atorvastatin on human lymphocytes in vitro standard comet assay was used in the evaluation of basal DNA damage and to investigate possible oxidative DNA damage produced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) Fpg-modified version of comet assay was also conducted. In addition to these techniques the new criteria for scoring micronucleus test were applied for more complete detection of baseline damage in binuclear lymphocytes exposed to atorvastatin 80 mg/day in different time periods by virtue of measuring the frequency of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds. All parameters obtained with the standard comet assay and Fpg-modified comet assay were significantly higher in the treated than in control lymphocytes. The Fpg-modified comet assay showed a significantly greater tail length, tail intensity, and tail moment in all treated lymphocytes than did the standard comet assay, which suggests that oxidative stress is likely to be responsible for DNA damage. DNA damage detected by the standard comet assay indicates that some other mechanism is also involved. In addition to the comet assay, a total number of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds were significantly higher in the exposed than in controlled lymphocytes. Regression analyses showed a positive correlation between the results obtained by the comet (Fpg-modified and standard) and micronucleus assay. Overall, the study demonstrated that atorvastatin in its highest dose is capable of producing damage on the level of DNA molecule and cell.

  2. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Tolmacheva, E.A.; Budziszewska, B.; Stein, J.

    2017-01-01

    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime,

  3. Insulin-like growth factor I and risk of breast cancer by age and hormone receptor status-A prospective study within the EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaks, Rudolf; Johnson, Theron; Tikk, Kaja; Sookthai, Disorn; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Boeing, Heiner; Schütze, Madlen; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Buckland, Genevieve; Argüelles, Marcial; Sánchez, María-José; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra H; Andersson, Anne; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger Torhild; Lund, Eiliv; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Lukanova, Annekatrin

    2014-06-01

    Experimental evidence shows cross-talk in mammary cells between estrogen, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and their respective receptors and possible synergistic effects of estrogen receptor (ER) activation and increased IGF-I signaling with regard to breast tumor development, and epidemiological evidence suggests that circulating IGF-I levels may be related more to the risk of ER-positive than ER-negative breast cancer. Using a case-control study nested within the prospective European EPIC cohort (938 breast cancer cases and 1,394 matched control subjects), we analyzed the relationships of prediagnostic serum IGF-I levels with the risk of estrogen and progesterone receptor-positive and -negative breast tumors. IGF-I levels were positively associated with the risk of ER+ breast tumors overall (pre- and postmenopausal women combined, odds ratio (OR)Q4-Q1 = 1.41 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.98] for the highest vs. lowest quartile; OR = 1.17 [95% CI 1.04-1.33] per 1-standard deviation (SD) increase in IGF-I, ptrend = 0.01) and among women who were diagnosed with breast cancer at 50 years or older (ORQ3-Q1 = 1.38 [95% CI 1.01-1.89]; OR = 1.19 [95% CI 1.04-1.36] per 1-SD increase in IGF-I, ptrend = 0.01) but not with receptor-positive disease diagnosed at an earlier age. No statistically significant associations were observed for ER- breast tumors overall and by age at diagnosis. Tests for heterogeneity by receptor status of the tumor were not statistically significant, except for women diagnosed with breast cancer at 50 years or older (phet = 0.03 for ER+/PR+ vs. ER-/PR- disease). Our data add to a global body of evidence indicating that higher circulating IGF-I levels may increase risk specifically of receptor-positive, but not receptor-negative, breast cancer diagnosed at 50 years or older. © 2013 UICC.

  4. Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage and optional protocol concerning the compulsory settlement of disputes. Status lists as of 12 September 2000. Signature, ratification, accession, or succession. Declarations/reservations made upon expressing consent to be bound and objections thereto. Declarations/reservations made upon signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document provides the status list to the Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and optional protocol concerning the compulsory settlement of disputes as of 12 September 2000

  5. Assessment of insulin like growth factor-1 and IGF binding protein-3 in healthy Indian girls from Delhi and their correlation with age, pubertal status, obesity and thyroid hormonal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Raman K; Garg, M K; Gupta, Sushil; Khurana, A K; Narang, Archna; Shukla, Manoj; Arora, Preeti; Chadha, Aditi; Nayak, Deb Datta; Manchanda, R K

    2017-07-26

    Population specific data and influence of sub-clinical hypothyroidism on insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in Indian children is lacking. This study was undertaken to evaluate serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and their correlation with age, gender, pubertal status and thyroid functions. A total of 840 apparently healthy school girls aged 6-18 years, were recruited for the study and underwent assessment of height, weight, body mass index, pubertal status and serum T3, T4, TSH, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio. The mean serum levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 levels and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio were 381.8±240.5 ng/mL, 4.19±2.08 μg/mL and 40.5±37.2%, respectively. The serum IGF-1 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio increased significantly (pIGF-1 and molar ratio of IGF-1/IGFBP-3 increased significantly with pubertal maturation from stage 1 to 3 and were higher in overweight girls compared to normal weight and obese girls. The growth factors were no different in girls with or without subclinical hypothyroidism. There was no significant impact of age on IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in pre-pubertal girls. A sudden marked increase at 11 years followed by a gradual rise in growth factors till 16 years is indicative of pubertal initiation and maturation. Subclinical hypothyroidism did not influence growth factors in girls.

  6. Determination of hormone parathyroid by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher-Ferraro, Catalina; Moos de Ephraim, Monica; Mautalen, Carlos; Mitta, A.E.A.

    1978-10-01

    The labelling of bovine parathyroid hormone and its employment for the determination of seric PTH by radioimmunoanalysis is described. The specific activity of 131 I PTH is 200-350mCi/mg and the damage 3-5%. The method used for radioimmunoanalysis was that of C.D. Arnaud and coworkers. (author) [es

  7. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pcognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  8. Tempo de jejum na granja sobre o perfil hormonal e os parâmetros fisiológicos em suínos de abate pesados Fasting time at farm on hormonal status and physiological parameters of heavy-weight slaughter pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Antonio Dalla Costa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o tempo de jejum na granja e a posição dos animais na carroceria do caminhão durante o transporte ao abatedouro sobre o status hormonal e fisiológico de suínos de abate pesados visando obter melhorias no manejo pré-abate e reduzir perdas na qualidade de carne. Foram utilizadas 64 fêmeas com peso médio de 133+11kg, oriundas de duas granjas de terminação. Os tempos de jejum avaliados foram nove, 12, 15 e 18h, enquanto que as posições consideradas na carroceria foram box (frente, meio e atrás, piso (inferior e superior e lado (lateral direita e esquerda. Ao abate, foram medidos os níveis de glicose, lactato e CPK no sangue. A concentração de cortisol na saliva (CCS foi medida nas granjas (24 horas antes e após embarque e no abatedouro (logo após o descarregamento e antes do abate. A freqüência cardíaca foi monitorada durante todo o manejo pré-abate. Foi observado o efeito da interação entre TJG e o local de avaliação sobre a CCS e a freqüência cardíaca. A CCS e a freqüência cardíaca aumentaram significativamente da granja ao desembarque no abatedouro em relação ao descanso pré-abate no abatedouro foi observada uma redução (P0,05 os níveis de glicose, lactato e CPK no abate dos suínos.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fasting time on the farm (TJG and the position of the animals on truck compartment during transport to slaughterhouse in the hormonal and physiological status of heavy-weight swine in order to obtain future management improvements and to reduce meat quality downgrades. Sixty-four females obtained from two farms and averaging 133+11kg body weight were used. Fasting time evaluated on farms were 9, 12, 15 and 18 h while the positions considered in the truck were Box (front, middle, and back, Deck (under and upper level e Side (right and left. Swine blood concentration of glucose, lactate and CPK were evaluated at slaughter. Cortisol concentration

  9. The relationship between biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon DNA adducts, antioxidant status and genetic susceptibility following exposure to environmental air pollution in humans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shing, R.; Šrám, Radim; Binková, Blanka; Kalina, I.; Popov, T. A.; Georgieva, T.; Garte, S.; Taioli, E.; Farmer, P. B.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 620, - (2007), s. 83-92 ISSN 0027-5107 Grant - others:EU(GB) 2000-00091; EU(GB) G0100873 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK ; R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : air pollution * PAHs * oxidative DNA damage Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.159, year: 2007

  10. Menopause and Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones Menopause--Medicines to Help You Links to other ...

  11. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... THYROID HORMONES? Desiccated ( dried and powdered ) animal thyroid ( Armour ®), now mainly obtained from pigs, was the most ... hormone can increase the risk or heart rhythm problems and bone loss making the use of thyroxine ...

  12. Antidiuretic hormone blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003702.htm Antidiuretic hormone blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antidiuretic blood test measures the level of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in ...

  13. Hormonal effects in newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001911.htm Hormonal effects in newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hormonal effects in newborns occur because in the womb, babies ...

  14. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003377.htm Growth hormone stimulation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of ...

  15. Long-term soft drink and aspartame intake induces hepatic damage via dysregulation of adipocytokines and alteration of the lipid profile and antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebda, Mohamed A; Tohamy, Hossam G; El-Sayed, Yasser S

    2017-05-01

    Dietary intake of fructose corn syrup in sweetened beverages is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome and obesity. We hypothesized that inflammatory cytokines play a role in lipid storage and induction of liver injury. Therefore, this study intended to explore the expression of adipocytokines and its link to hepatic damage. Rats were assigned to drink water, cola soft drink (free access) and aspartame (240 mg/kg body weight/day orally) for 2 months. The lipid profiles, liver antioxidants and pathology, and mRNA expression of adipogenic cytokines were evaluated. Subchronic intake of soft drink or aspartame substantially induced hyperglycemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia, as represented by increased serum glucose, triacylglycerol, low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, with obvious visceral fatty deposition. These metabolic syndromes were associated with the up-regulation of leptin and down-regulation of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) expression. Moreover, alterations in serum transaminases accompanied by hepatic oxidative stress involving induction of malondialdehyde and reduction of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and glutathione levels are indicative of oxidative hepatic damage. Several cytoarchitecture alterations were detected in the liver, including degeneration, infiltration, necrosis, and fibrosis, predominantly with aspartame. These data suggest that long-term intake of soft drink or aspartame-induced hepatic damage may be mediated by the induction of hyperglycemia, lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress with the involvement of adipocytokines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of High-Intensity Skating in Top-Class Ice Hockey Match-Play in Relation to Training Status and Muscle Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lignell, Erik; Fransson, Dan; Krustrup, Peter

    2018-01-01

    of training status. Male ice-hockey players (n = 36) from the National Hockey League participated. Match analysis was performed during a game and physical capacity was assessed by a submaximal Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Ice-hockey test, level 1 (YYIR1-IHSUB). Venous blood samples were collected 24-hour post...

  17. Pleiotropic Effects of Thyroid Hormones: Learning from Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Franco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism induces several metabolic changes that allow understanding some physiopathological mechanisms. Under experimental hypothyroid conditions in rats, heart and kidney are protected against oxidative damage induced by ischemia reperfusion. An increased resistance to opening of the permeability transition pore seems to be at the basis of such protection. Moreover, glomerular filtration rate of hypothyroid kidney is low as a result of adenosine receptors-induced renal vasoconstriction. The vascular tone of aorta is also regulated by adenosine in hypothyroid conditions. In other context, thyroid hormones regulate lipoprotein metabolism. High plasma level of LDL cholesterol is a common feature in hypothyroidism, due to a low expression of the hepatic LDL receptor. In contrast, HDL-cholesterol plasma levels are variable in hypothyroidism; several proteins involved in HDL metabolism and structure are expressed at lower levels in experimental hypothyroidism. Based on the positive influence of thyroid hormones on lipoprotein metabolism, thyromimetic drugs are promising for the treatment of dyslipidemias. In summary, hypothyroid status has been useful to understand molecular mechanisms involved in ischemia reperfusion, regulation of vascular function and intravascular metabolism of lipoproteins.

  18. Exaggerated gonadotropin response to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in amenorrheic runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahiro, J; Glass, A R; Fears, W B; Ferguson, E W; Vigersky, R A

    1987-03-01

    Most studies of exercise-induced amenorrhea have compared amenorrheic athletes (usually runners) with sedentary control subjects. Such comparisons will identify hormonal changes that develop as a result of exercise training but cannot determine which of these changes play a role in causing amenorrhea. To obviate this problem, we assessed reproductive hormone status in a group of five amenorrheic runners and compared them to a group of six eumenorrheic runners matched for body fatness, training intensity, and exercise performance. Compared to the eumenorrheic runners, the amenorrheic runners had lower serum estradiol concentrations, similar basal serum luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations, and exaggerated responses of serum gonadotropins after administration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (100 micrograms intravenous bolus). Serum prolactin levels, both basally and after thyrotropin-releasing hormone administration (500 micrograms intravenous bolus) or treadmill exercise, was similar in the two groups, as were serum thyroid function tests (including thyrotropin response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone). Changes in serum cortisol levels after short-term treadmill exercise were similar in both groups, and serum testosterone levels increased after exercise only in the eumenorrheic group. In neither group did such exercise change serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, or thyrotropin levels. We concluded that exercise-induced amenorrhea is not solely related to the development of increased prolactin output after exercise training. The exaggerated gonadotropin response to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone seen in amenorrheic runners in comparison with matched eumenorrheic runners is consistent with a hypothalamic etiology for the menstrual dysfunction, analogous to that previously described in "stress-induced" or "psychogenic" amenorrhea.

  19. Molecular Basis for Certain Neuroprotective Effects of Thyroid Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eDavis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of brain damage that is common to ischemia-reperfusion inury and brain trauma includes disordered neuronal and glial cell energetics, intracellular acidosis, calcium toxicity, extracellular excitotoxic glutamate accumulation and dysfunction of the cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum. Thyroid hormone isoforms, 3, 5, 3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3 and L-thyroxine (T4, have nongenomic and genomic actions that are relevant to repair of certain features of the pathophysiology of brain damage. Thyroid hormone can nongenomically repair intracullar H+ accumulation by stimulation of the Na+/H+ exchanger and can support desirably low [Ca2+]i.c. by activation of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase. Thyroid hormone nongenomically stimulates astrocyte glutamate uptake, an action that protects both glial cells and neurons. The hormone supports the integrity of the cytoskeleton by its effect on actin. Several proteins linked to thyroid hormone action are also neuroprotective. For example, the hormone stimulates expression of the seladin-1 gene whose gene product is anti-apoptotic and is potentially protection in the setting of neurodegeneration. Transthyretin (TTR is a serum transport protein for T4 that is important to blood-brain barrier transfer of the hormone and TTR has also been found to be neuroprotective in the setting of ischemia. Finally, the interesting thyronamine derivatives of T4 have been shown to protect against ischemic brain damage through their ability to induce hypothermia in the intact organism. Thus, thyroid hromone or hormone derivatives have experimental promise as neuroprotective agents.

  20. Sex and Hormonal influences on Seizures and Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velíšková, Jana; DeSantis, Kara A.

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy is the third most common chronic neurological disorder. Clinical and experimental evidence supports the role of sex and influence of sex hormones on seizures and epilepsy as well as alterations of the endocrine system and levels of sex hormones by epileptiform activity. Conversely, seizures are sensitive to changes in sex hormone levels, which in turn may affect the seizure-induced neuronal damage. The effects of reproductive hormones on neuronal excitability and seizure-induced damage are complex to contradictory and depend on different mechanisms, which have to be accounted for in data interpretation. Both estradiol and progesterone/allopregnanolone may have beneficial effects for patients with epilepsy. Individualized hormonal therapy should be considered as adjunctive treatment in patients with epilepsy to improve seizure control as well as quality of life. PMID:22504305

  1. IMA status seminar 'biotic damaging factors/epidemiology'. Summaries. IMA-Statusseminar 'Biotische Schadfaktoren/Epidemiologie'. Kurzberichte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuettgen, E. (ed.)

    1986-07-01

    This workshop is concerned primarily with the effects of biotic factors on forest decline. The possible involvement of viruses, mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO), rickettsia-like bacteria (RLB), fungi, insects and nematodes in diseases and pests of forest trees has to be investigated. Beside abiotic factors these agents are the cause of different die-back symptoms and damage of trees, but it is not yet known to what extent they contribute to the symptoms man associate with the forest decline ''Waldsterben''.

  2. Efficacy of chemotherapy after hormone therapy for hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Ryutaro; Nagao, Yasuko

    2014-01-01

    According to the guidelines for metastatic breast cancer, hormone therapy for hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer without life-threatening metastasis should be received prior to chemotherapy. Previous trials have investigated the sensitivity of chemotherapy for preoperative breast cancer based on the efficacy of neoadjuvant hormone therapy. In this retrospective study, we investigated the efficacy of chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer in hormone therapy-effective and hormone therapy-ineffective cases. Patients who received chemotherapy after hormone therapy for metastatic breast cancer between 2006 and 2013 at our institution were investigated. A total of 32 patients received chemotherapy after hormone therapy for metastatic breast cancer. The median patient age was 59 years, and most of the primary tumors exhibited a T2 status. A total of 26 patients had an N(+) status, while 7 patients had human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive tumors. A total of 13 patients received clinical benefits from hormone therapy, with a rate of clinical benefit of subsequent chemotherapy of 30.8%, which was not significantly different from that observed in the hormone therapy-ineffective patients (52.6%). A total of 13 patients were able to continue the hormone therapy for more than 1 year, with a rate of clinical benefit of chemotherapy of 38.5%, which was not significantly different from that observed in the short-term hormone therapy patients (47.4%). The luminal A patients were able to continue hormone therapy for a significantly longer period than the non-luminal A patients (median survival time: 17.8 months vs 6.35 months, p = 0.0085). However, there were no significant differences in the response to or duration of chemotherapy. The efficacy of chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer cannot be predicted based on the efficacy of prior hormone therapy or tumor subtype, and clinicians should administer chemotherapy in all cases of

  3. Protocols to Amend the Paris, Vienna and Brussels Supplementary Conventions and the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage: Status of their Implementation into National Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decade, a number of very significant developments have taken place in modernising the existing international nuclear liability regimes. The first major advancement was the adoption, in September 1997, of the Protocol to amend the 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (VC Protocol) and of a new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC). This was followed, in February 2004, by the adoption of Protocols to amend both the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (PC Protocol) and the 1963 Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention (BSC Protocol). The principle goal of all these new instruments is to provide a greater amount of compensation to a larger number of victims in respect of a broader scope of nuclear damage suffered as a result of a nuclear accident. The second, but still very important objective is the maintenance of compatibility between the revised Paris and Vienna Conventions to ensure the smooth functioning of the 1988 Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention (VC) and the Paris Convention (PC). In addition, the PC States wish to ensure that their newly revised Convention will not prevent a Contracting Party from joining the more global regime established by the CSC. However, it remains to be seen to what extent these new instruments will attract a sufficient number of adherents to make them truly effective. While the VC Protocol is already in force, it has not drawn wide support from the 1963 VC States or from countries with important nuclear generating capacity which have not yet joined that latter any Convention. In addition, notwithstanding its adoption almost 10 years ago, the CSC has not yet entered into force and it remains questionable whether it will ever attract the necessary number of adherents for that purpose, especially in light of its strict requirements in this regard. As for the PC and BSC Protocols to

  4. Submaximal exercise training, more than dietary selenium supplementation, improves antioxidant status and ameliorates exercise-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle in young equine athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S H; Warren, L K

    2017-02-01

    Exercise is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as metabolism is upregulated to fuel muscle activity. If antioxidant systems become overwhelmed, ROS can negatively affect health and performance. Adaptation to exercise through regular training has been shown to improve defense against oxidative insult. Given selenium's role as an antioxidant, we hypothesized that increased Se intake would further enhance skeletal muscle adaptations to training. Quarter Horse yearlings (18 ± 0.2 mo; 402 ± 10 kg) were randomly assigned to receive either 0.1 or 0.3 mg Se/kg DM and placed in either an untrained or a trained (30 min walk-trot-canter, 4 d/wk) group for 14 wk. Phase 1 (wk 1 to 8) consisted of 4 treatments: trained and fed 0.1 mg Se/kg DM through wk 14 (CON-TR; n = 10), trained and fed 0.3 mg Se/kg DM through wk 14 (HIGH-TR; n = 10), untrained and fed 0.1 mg Se/kg DM through wk 14 (CON-UN; n = 5), or untrained and fed 0.3 mg Se/kg DM through wk 14 (HIGH-UN; n = 5). During Phase 2 (wk 9 to 14), dietary Se level in half of the trained horses was reversed, resulting in 6 treatments: CON-TR (n = 5), trained and fed 0.1 mg/kg Se in Phase 1 and then switched to 0.3 mg/kg Se for Phase 2 (ADD-TR; n = 5), trained and fed 0.3 mg/kg Se in Phase 1 and then switched to 0.1 mg/kg Se for Phase 2 (DROP-TR; n = 5), HIGH-TR (n = 5), CON-UN (n = 5), or HIGH-UN (n = 5). All horses underwent a 120-min submaximal exercise test (SET) at the end of Phase 1 (SET 1) and 2 (SET 2). Blood samples and biopsies from the middle gluteal muscle were collected before and after each phase of the study and in response to each SET and analyzed for markers of oxidative damage and antioxidant enzyme activity. In both phases, serum Se was higher (P creatine kinase (CK) activity was lower in trained horses than in untrained horses (P < 0.0001), indicating less muscle damage, but plasma lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) and muscle GPx and SOD activities were unaffected by training or Se

  5. Accurate radioimmunoassay of human growth hormone with separation on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of free antigen; antigen-anti-body complex and damaged labelled antigen: a study is performed on this last one for the purpose of obtaining long lasting labelled products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolini, P.; Assis, L.M.; Schwarz, I.; Macchione, M.; Pieroni, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    The intent of this work was the obtainement of a radioimmunoassay method, accurate and precise enough, to furnish a suitable way for determining Human Growth Hormone (HGH) in extracts or in physiological fluids, useful more for specific research purposes than for routinized clinical assays, and where the labelled products could be used as long as possible. Only one technique was found that could give an answer to these requirements, though under some aspects more laborious than others: Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE). This was used introducing some modifications to the original method of Davis, and it was possible, using tubes 11 cm long, to separate on the same gel, the free, the antibody bound, and the damaged labelled antigen. The method, being able to detect separately and independently these three components and to give a better control on the analytically dangerous 'damaged', furnished accurate and reproducible curves. An example of determination is the one on KABI-Crescormon, that compares the results obatined with the present technique to those presented by another laboratory. Thanks to this method the labelled antigen could be used up to one month of time. After this period a re-purification on Sephadex was introduced so that the same labelled product was profitable for two more months. Parallel to this work a study has been performed on the various components originating in this so called process of 'damaging', and a particular importance has also been given to a more precise knowledge of the amount of antigen, in terms of mass, present in an assay. (orig.) [de

  6. Thyroid hormones and fetal brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, H N; Franklyn, J A; Kilby, M D

    2005-08-01

    Thyroid hormones are intricately involved in the developing fetal brain. The fetal central nervous system is sensitive to the maternal thyroid status. Critical amounts of maternal T3 and T4 must be transported across the placenta to the fetus to ensure the correct development of the brain throughout ontogeny. Severe mental retardation of the child can occur due to compromised iodine intake or thyroid disease. This has been reported in areas of the world with iodine insufficiency, New Guinea, and also in mother with thyroid complications such as hypothyroxinaemia and hyperthyroidism. The molecular control of thyroid hormones by deiodinases for the activation of thyroid hormones is critical to ensure the correct amount of active thyroid hormones are temporally supplied to the fetus. These hormones provide timing signals for the induction of programmes for differentiation and maturation at specific stages of development. Understanding these molecular mechanisms further will have profound implications in the clinical management of individuals affected by abnormal maternal of fetal thyroid status.

  7. Apple Polyphenol Suppresses Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Damage in Experimental Animals by Lowering Oxidative Stress Status and Modulating the MAPK Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Chen; Cheng, Chun-Wen; Lee, Huei-Jane; Chu, Huei-Chuien

    2017-11-01

    Indomethacin is a nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is used to alleviate pain and inflammation in clinical medicine. Previous studies indicated that NSAIDs can cause gastrointestinal mucosal complications, and it is associated with mucosal lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage. Based on the evidences, decreasing oxidative stress may be an ideal therapeutic strategy for preventing gastrointestinal ulcer. Apple (Rosaceae Malus sp.) is one of the most commonly consumed fruits worldwide. The abundant polyphenolic constituents have received increasing attention for decades. In both in vivo and in vitro studies, the reports showed that apple polyphenol (AP) seems to provide an indirect antioxidant protection by activating cellular antioxidant enzymes to defend against oxidative stress. To address this issue and develop AP into a healthy improvement supplement, we studied the effect and potential mechanisms of AP in indomethacin-treated animal. The results showed AP can decelerate the gastric lesion, significantly suppress lipid peroxidation, increase the level of glutathione and the activity of catalase, and regulate the MAPK signaling proteins. These findings imply that AP protects the gastric mucosa from indomethacin-caused lesions and the protection is at least partially attributable to its antioxidative properties. This alternative medical function of AP may be a safe and effective intervention for preventing indomethacin-induced gastric complications.

  8. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, plevels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  9. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  10. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO 016E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Heer, M.; Ericson, K.; Coburn, S. P.; Booth, S. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lupton, J.

    2009-01-01

    Until 2006, it was not been possible to assess nutritional status of crewmembers on the ISS during flight because blood and urine could not be collected during ISS missions. Postflight observations of alterations in status of several nutrients are troubling, and we require the ability to monitor the status of these nutrients during flight to determine if there is a specific impetus or timeframe for these changes. In addition to the monitoring of crew nutritional status during flight, in-flight sample collection would allow better assessment of countermeasure effectiveness. Collecting samples during flight is one of the objectives of SMO 016E, and it is also designed to expand the current medical requirement for nutritional assessment (MR016L) to include additional normative markers for assessing crew health and countermeasure effectiveness. Additional markers of bone metabolism will be measured to better monitor bone health and the effectiveness of countermeasures to prevent bone resorption. New markers of oxidative damage will be measured to better assess the type of oxidative insults that occur during space flight. The array of nutritional assessment variables will be expanded to include ones that will allow us to better understand changes in folate, vitamin K, and vitamin B6 status, as well as risk factors for cardiovascular and oxidative damage during and after flight. Stress hormones and hormones that affect bone and muscle metabolism will also be measured. Measuring these additional variables will allow us to better monitor the health of crewmembers and make more accurate recommendations for their rehabilitation. Several nutritional assessment variables are altered at landing, but it is not known how long these changes persist. We extended the original protocol to include an additional postflight blood and urine sample collection 30 days after landing. Data are being collected before, during, and after flight. These data will provide a complete survey of how

  11. Radioimmunological determination of plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone, folliculostimulating hormone and prolactin levels in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milkov, V.; Maleeva, A.; Tsvetkov, M.; Visheva, N.

    1986-01-01

    The hormone levels were measured before and after hormonal therapy. Statistically significant changes in the levels of the hormones in this study were recognized (p<0,001) as a result of treatment with estrogen preparations. Plasma prolactin was raised before estrogen therapy (statistically significant rise, p<0,001), as compared to the levels in a control group of normal subjects. A mild tendency was observed toward its increase, depending on the duration of treatment. The results of this study show that control of the hormonal status of patients with prostate cancer may serve as reliable criterion in evaluating the effectiveness of hormonal therapy. The changes in prolactin levels are evidence of hormonal disbalance, which may be observed in these patients

  12. Long-term consumption of isoflavone-enriched foods does not affect bone mineral density, bone metabolism, or hormonal status in early postmenopausal women: A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, E.; Coxam, V.; Robins, S.; Wahala, K.; Cassidy, A.; Branca, F.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is a major health problem. It was hypothesized that isoflavone-containing products may be a potential alternative to hormone replacement therapy for preventing bone loss during the menopausal transition. Objective: The objective was to investigate whether the consumption of

  13. Variations in Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 status and DNA damage-induced S-phase arrest in the cell lines of the NCI60 panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eastman Alan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN complex is a regulator of cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair. Defects in MRN can lead to defective S-phase arrest when cells are damaged. Such defects may elicit sensitivity to selected drugs providing a chemical synthetic lethal interaction that could be used to target therapy to tumors with these defects. The goal of this study was to identify these defects in the NCI60 panel of cell lines and identify compounds that might elicit selective cytotoxicity. Methods We screened the NCI60 panel in search of cell lines that express low levels of MRN proteins, or that fail to arrest in S-phase in response to the topisomerase I inhibitor SN38. The NCI COMPARE program was used to discover compounds that preferentially target cells with these phenotypes. Results HCT116 cells were initially identified as defective in MRN and S phase arrest. Transfection with Mre11 also elevated Rad50 and Nbs1, and rescued the defective S-phase arrest. Cells of the NCI60 panel exhibited a large range of protein expression but a strong correlation existed between Mre11, Rad50 and Nbs1 consistent with complex formation determining protein stability. Mre11 mRNA correlated best with protein level suggesting it was the primary determinant of the overall level of the complex. Three other cell lines failed to arrest in response to SN38, two of which also had low MRN. However, other cell lines with low MRN still arrested suggesting low MRN does not predict an inability to arrest. Many compounds, including a family of benzothiazoles, correlated with the failure to arrest in S phase. The activity of benzothiazoles has been attributed to metabolic activation and DNA alkylation, but we note several cell lines in which sensitivity does not correlate with metabolism. We propose that the checkpoint defect imposes an additional mechanism of sensitivity on cells. Conclusions We have identified cells with possible defects in the MRN complex

  14. Variations in Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 status and DNA damage-induced S-phase arrest in the cell lines of the NCI60 panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, Kristen M; Eastman, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex is a regulator of cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair. Defects in MRN can lead to defective S-phase arrest when cells are damaged. Such defects may elicit sensitivity to selected drugs providing a chemical synthetic lethal interaction that could be used to target therapy to tumors with these defects. The goal of this study was to identify these defects in the NCI60 panel of cell lines and identify compounds that might elicit selective cytotoxicity. We screened the NCI60 panel in search of cell lines that express low levels of MRN proteins, or that fail to arrest in S-phase in response to the topisomerase I inhibitor SN38. The NCI COMPARE program was used to discover compounds that preferentially target cells with these phenotypes. HCT116 cells were initially identified as defective in MRN and S phase arrest. Transfection with Mre11 also elevated Rad50 and Nbs1, and rescued the defective S-phase arrest. Cells of the NCI60 panel exhibited a large range of protein expression but a strong correlation existed between Mre11, Rad50 and Nbs1 consistent with complex formation determining protein stability. Mre11 mRNA correlated best with protein level suggesting it was the primary determinant of the overall level of the complex. Three other cell lines failed to arrest in response to SN38, two of which also had low MRN. However, other cell lines with low MRN still arrested suggesting low MRN does not predict an inability to arrest. Many compounds, including a family of benzothiazoles, correlated with the failure to arrest in S phase. The activity of benzothiazoles has been attributed to metabolic activation and DNA alkylation, but we note several cell lines in which sensitivity does not correlate with metabolism. We propose that the checkpoint defect imposes an additional mechanism of sensitivity on cells. We have identified cells with possible defects in the MRN complex and S phase arrest, and a series of compounds that may

  15. Radioimmunoassay of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartalena, L.; Mariotti, S.; Pinchera, A.

    1987-01-01

    For many years, methods based on iodine content determination have represented the only techniques available for the estimation of total thyroid hormone concentrations in serum. Subsequently, simple, sensitive, and specific radioligand assays for thyroid hormones have replaced these chemical methods. For the purpose of this chapter, iodometric techniques are only briefly summarized for their historical importance, whereas attention is focused on radioligand assays

  16. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...... cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences (mild iodine deficiency in East Denmark and moderate iodine deficiency in West Denmark), and also pregnant and breastfeeding...... women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...

  17. Interactive Effects of Culture and Sex Hormones on Sex Role Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda ePletzer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sex role orientation, i.e. a person’s masculinity or femininity, influences cognitive and emotional performance, like biological sex. While it is now widely accepted that sex differences are modulated by the hormonal status of female participants (menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptive use, the question, whether hormonal status and sex hormones also modulate participants sex role orientation has hardly been addressed previously. The present study assessed sex role orientation and hormonal status as well as sex hormone levels in three samples of participants from two different cultures (Northern American, Middle European. Menstrual cycle phase did not affect participant’s masculinity or femininity, but had a significant impact on reference group. While women in their follicular phase (low levels of female sex hormones determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to men, women in their luteal phase (high levels of female sex hormones determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to women. Hormonal contraceptive users rated themselves as significantly more feminine and less masculine than naturally cycling women. Furthermore, the impact of biological sex on the factorial structure of sex role orientation as well as the relationship of estrogen to masculinity/femininity was modulated by culture. We conclude that culture and sex hormones interactively affect sex role orientation and hormonal status of participants should be controlled for when assessing masculinity and/or femininity.

  18. Adult growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD is being recognized increasingly and has been thought to be associated with premature mortality. Pituitary tumors are the commonest cause for AGHD. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD has been associated with neuropsychiatric-cognitive, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, metabolic, and skeletal abnormalities. Most of these can be reversed with growth hormone therapy. The insulin tolerance test still remains the gold standard dynamic test to diagnose AGHD. Growth hormone is administered subcutaneously once a day, titrated to clinical symptoms, signs and IGF-1 (insulin like growth factor-1. It is generally well tolerated at the low-doses used in adults. Pegylated human growth hormone therapy is on the horizon, with a convenient once a week dosing.

  19. Heart, lipids and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in general population. Besides well-known risk factors such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, growing evidence suggests that hormonal changes in various endocrine diseases also impact the cardiac morphology and function. Recent studies highlight the importance of ectopic intracellular myocardial and pericardial lipid deposition, since even slight changes of these fat depots are associated with alterations in cardiac performance. In this review, we overview the effects of hormones, including insulin, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and cortisol, on heart function, focusing on their impact on myocardial lipid metabolism, cardiac substrate utilization and ectopic lipid deposition, in order to highlight the important role of even subtle hormonal changes for heart function in various endocrine and metabolic diseases.

  20. Aging changes in hormone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004000.htm Aging changes in hormone production To use the sharing ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ...

  1. Variation of left heart function and thyroid hormone in cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Junchi; Du Sujun; Mao Shaorong; Lu Jun; Tang Xiaoling

    1996-01-01

    The observation of 52 cases of cirrhosis left heart function indices traced with 113 In m in quiet and motion, and the combining determination of thyroid hormone serum levels with RIA are described. The cirrhosis to the function of liver damage increased, the indices of left heart function has great change. Moreover, the serum levels of T 3 , FT 3 in thyroid hormone are decreased obviously and the serum level of rT 3 is also increased significantly

  2. Hormonal changes in secondary impotence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, F.M.; El-Shabrawy, N.O.; Nosseir, S.A.; Abo El-Azayem, Naglaa.

    1985-01-01

    Impotence is one of the problems which is still obscure both in its aetiology and treatment. The present study deals with the possible hormonal changes in cases of secondary infertility. The study involved 25 patients diagnosed as secondary impotence. Hormonal assay was performed for the following hormones: 1. Prolaction hormone. 2. Luteinising hormone (L.H.). 3. Testosterone. 4. Follicle stimulating hormone (F.S.H.). The assay was carried out by radioimmunoassay using double antibody technique. Results are discussed

  3. Effect of smoking on acute phase reactants, stress hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    smoking, vitamin C status, and the acute phase and stress hormone responses in ... the longest symptom for the groups of non-smokers and smokers were 6.8 and ..... N, Nestorovic V (2013) Changes in vitamin C and oxi- dative stress status ...

  4. The Gut Hormones in Appetite Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Suzuki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has received much attention worldwide in association with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. At present, bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for obesity in which long-term weight loss is achieved in patients. By contrast, pharmacological interventions for obesity are usually followed by weight regain. Although the exact mechanisms of long-term weight loss following bariatric surgery are yet to be fully elucidated, several gut hormones have been implicated. Gut hormones play a critical role in relaying signals of nutritional and energy status from the gut to the central nervous system, in order to regulate food intake. Cholecystokinin, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1, and oxyntomodulin act through distinct yet synergistic mechanisms to suppress appetite, whereas ghrelin stimulates food intake. Here, we discuss the role of gut hormones in the regulation of food intake and body weight.

  5. HORMONAL REGULATION OF SELENIUM ACCUMULATION BY PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Golubkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal regulation is considered to be a unique mechanism controlling growth and development of living organism. The review discusses the correlations between pant hormonal status of non-accumulators and hyper-accumulators of Se with the accumulation levels of this microelement. The phenomenon of stimulation and redistribution of selenium as a result of phytohormone treatment, the peculiarities of phytohormones effect among different species and cultivars, and influence of plant sexualization on selenium accumulation are described in article. Data of hormonal regulation of selenium level for spinach, garlic, perennial onion, Brassica chinenesis and Valeriana officialis are presented in the review.

  6. Progressive pituitary hormone deficiency following radiation therapy in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, Rafaela A.; Vaisman, Mario

    2004-01-01

    Hypopituitarism can be caused by radiation therapy, even when it is not directly applied on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and can lead to anterior pituitary deficiency mainly due to hypothalamic damage. The progressive loss of the anterior pituitary hormones usually occurs in the following order: growth hormone, gonadotropin hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Although there are several different tests available to confirm anterior pituitary deficiency, this paper will focus on the gold standard tests for patients submitted to radiation therapy. We emphasize that the decline of anterior pituitary function is time- and dose-dependent with some variability among the different axes. Therefore, awareness of the need of a joint management by endocrinologists and oncologists is essential to improve treatment and quality of life of the patients. (author)

  7. Radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M; CERN. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    a) Radiation damage in organic materials. This series of lectures will give an overview of radiation effects on materials and components frequently used in accelerator engineering and experiments. Basic degradation phenomena will be presented for organic materials with comprehensive damage threshold doses for commonly used rubbers, thermoplastics, thermosets and composite materials. Some indications will be given for glass, scintillators and optical fibres. b) Radiation effects in semiconductor materials and devices. The major part of the time will be devoted to treat radiation effects in semiconductor sensors and the associated electronics, in particular displacement damage, interface and single event phenomena. Evaluation methods and practical aspects will be shown. Strategies will be developed for the survival of the materials under the expected environmental conditions of the LHC machine and detectors. I will describe profound revolution in our understanding of black holes and their relation to quantum me...

  8. Effects of dietary antioxidants and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoline (IQ) on preneoplastic lesions and on oxidative damage, hormonal status, and detoxification capacity in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Vibeke M.; Mølck, Anne-Marie; Svendsen, Gitte Winkel

    2003-01-01

    mechanisms were assayed in blood, liver and colon and the impact of the antioxidant administrations on putative preneoplastic changes in liver and colon was assessed. The dietary carcinogen, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) (200 mg/kg diet) served as a pro-oxidant, genotoxicity and general...

  9. Relação entre os níveis séricos do hormônio anti-Mulleriano, inibina B, estradiol e hormônio folículo estimulante no terceiro dia e o status folicular ovariano Relationship of serum anti-Müllerian hormone, inhibin B, estradiol and FSH on day 3 with ovarian follicular status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Brum Scheffer

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: examinar a hipótese de que o nível sérico do hormônio anti-Mülleriano (HAM reflete o status folicular ovariano. MÉTODOS: Desenho: estudo prospectivo. Pacientes: foram incluídas 101 candidatas à FIV-TE submetidas à estimulação ovariana controlada com agonista de GnRH e FSH. Depois de atingir a supressão da hipófise e antes da administração de FSH (dia basal, os níveis séricos de HAM, inibina B e FSH foram avaliados. O número de folículos antrais foi determinado pela ultra-sonografia (dia basal (folículo antral precoce; 3-10 mm. RESULTADOS: as médias do nível sérico de HAM, inhibina B, E2, P4 e FSH (dia basal foram 3,4±0,14 ng/mL, 89±4,8 pg/mL, 34±2,7 pg/mL, 0,22±0,23 ng/mL e 6,6±0,1 mUI/mL, respectivamente, e a média do número de folículos antrais precoces foi 17±0,39. O nível sérico do HAM foi negativamente correlacionado com a idade (r= -0,19, pPURPOSE: to examine the hypothesis that serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH levels reflect the ovarian follicular status. METHODS: Design: prospective study. Patients: we studied 101 IVF-ET candidates undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with GnRH agonist and FSH. After the achievement of pituitary suppression and before FSH administration (baseline, serum AMH, inhibin B, and FSH levels were measured. The number of antral follicles was determined by ultrasound at baseline (early antral follicles; 3-10 mm. RESULTS: at baseline, median serum levels of AMH, inhibin B, E2, P4 and FSH were 3.42±0.14 ng/mL, 89±4.8 pg/mL, 34±2.7 pg/mL, 0.22±0.23 ng/mL and 6.6±0.1 mIU/mL, respectively, and the mean number of early antral follicles was 17±0.39. Serum levels of AMH were negatively correlated with age (r=-0.19, p<0.04, and positively correlated with number of antral follicles (r=0.65, p<0.0001, but this did not apply to serum levels of either inhibin B, E2 or FSH. CONCLUSION: the data demonstrate an association between AMH and antral follicular counts

  10. Bulimia from a gynecological view: hormonal changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, M; Szendei, G; Haász, P

    2004-11-01

    Gynecological problems are one of the most frequent somatic complications of eating disorders. The purpose of the present study was to assess the role of improper eating habits in the aetiology of menstrual disturbances, anovulation and hormonal related changes. Bulimia nervosa is the focus of attention since amenorrhea is considered a diagnostic criterium in anorexia nervosa. Subjects of the BITE (Bulimia Investigation Test, Edinburgh) test who were infertile were studied (n = 58) In the studied population there were 6 cases of clinical and 8 cases of subclinical bulimia nervosa. Symptoms and severity subscales of the BITE test significantly correlated with body mass index (p = 0.003). All 14 patients suffering from clinical and subclinical bulimia nervosa had pathologically low FSH and LH hormone levels. In those with clinical bulimia nervosa (n = 6) we diagnosed 4 cases of multicystic ovary (MCO) and in the eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) group (n = 22) there were 2 cases of MCO and 5 cases of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The results suggest that unsatisfactory nutrition (binges and "crash diet") in bulimia nervosa results in hormonal dysfunction, menstrual disturbances and infertility. The authors question the necessity for immediately estrogen replacement: they consider the reversibility of the hormonal status by early treatment of eating disorders is more appropriate. Excessive use of hormonal contraceptives in therapy has to be questioned.

  11. Tort Damages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In this Chapter, I provide an overview of Law and Economics literature regarding tort damages. Where necessary, attention is also spent to rules of tort liability. Both types of rules provide behavioral incentives to both injurers and victims, with respect to their level of

  12. Hormones and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role in the start and continuation of primary hypertension. Secondary hypertension is due to other diseases such as kidney ... the body can greatly improve or even cure secondary hypertension. Resources • Find-an-Endocrinologist: www.hormone.org or ...

  13. Growth hormone test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is called acromegaly . In children it is called gigantism . Too little growth hormone can cause a slow ... growth due to excess GH during childhood, called gigantism. (A special test is done to confirm this ...

  14. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Evsey Fridlyand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates growth hormone synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition GHRH is an important regulator of cellular functions in many cells and organs. Expression of GHRH G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GHRHR has been demonstrated in different peripheral tissues and cell types including pancreatic islets. Among the peripheral activities, recent studies demonstrate a novel ability of GHRH analogs to increase and preserve insulin secretion by beta-cells in isolated pancreatic islets, which makes them potentially useful for diabetes treatment. This review considers the role of GHRHR in the beta-cell and addresses the unique engineered GHRH agonists and antagonists for treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We discuss the similarity of signaling pathways activated by GHRHR in pituitary somatotrophs and in pancreatic beta-cells and possible ways as to how the GHRHR pathway can interact with glucose and other secretagogues to stimulate insulin secretion. We also consider the hypothesis that novel GHRHR agonists can improve glucose metabolism in Type 2 diabetes by preserving the function and survival of pancreatic beta-cells. Wound healing and cardioprotective action with new GHRH agonists suggesting that they may prove useful in ameliorating certain diabetic complications. These findings highlight the future potential therapeutic effectiveness of modulators of GHRHR activity for the development of new therapeutic approaches in diabetes and its complications.

  15. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tuncel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases.

  16. Heterogeneity of protein hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosselin, G; Bataille, D; Laburthe, M; Duran-Garcia, S [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    1975-12-01

    Radioimmunoassay measures antigenic determinants of hormonal molecules in the plasmas and tissues. These estimations carried out after fractionation in biological fluids, have revealed several immunological forms of the same hormone. The main problem is in the relationship of the various immunoreactive forms to the same hormonal sequence. The similar immunoreactive forms of high molecular weight usually have low biological activity and suggest the presence of prohormone; the suggestion of prohormonal nature depends on the chronology of the incorporation of labelled leucine and enzymatic transformation of prohormone with low biological into active hormone. The forms with high molecular weight and similar immunological activity may be of another nature. Thus, it has been shown that the biosynthetic nature of a compound such as big big insulin in the rat is doubtful owing to the absence of specific incorporation of labelled leucine into the immunoprecipitate of this fraction. The significance of low molecular weight form is still little known. An example of these forms is supplied by the existence of an alpha sub-unit of gonadotrophin present in the plasma of menopausal women. The interest of analytical methods by radio-receptor, simulation of cyclase activity in the identification of biological activity of immunoreactive forms, is discussed in relation to immunological forms ofenteroglucagon. An unusual aspect of the evolutive and adaptative character of hormonal heterogeneity is given by the gastro-intestinal hormones.

  17. Kinetics of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Mitsuo; Nishikawa, Mitsushige; Naito, Kimikazu; Ishii, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    1980-01-01

    Kinetics of thyroid hormones were outlined, and recent progress in metabolism of these hormones was also described. Recently, not only T 4 and T 3 but also rT 3 , 3,3'-T 2 , 3',5'-T 2 , and 3,5-T 2 can be measured by RIA. To clarify metabolic pathways of these hormones, metabolic clearance rate and production rate of these hormones were calculated. As single-compartment analysis was insufficient to clarify disappearance curves of thyroid hormones in blood such as T 3 and T 2 of which metabolic speed was so fast, multi-compartment analysis or non-compartment analysis were also performed. Thyroid hormones seemed to be measured more precisely by constant infusion method. At the first step of T 4 metabolism, T 3 was formed by 5'-monodeiodination of T 4 , and rT 3 was formed by 5-monodeiodination of T 4 . As metabolic pathways of T 3 and rT 3 , conversion of them to 3,3'-T 2 or to 3',5'-T 2 and 3,5-T 2 was supposed. This subject will be an interesting research theme in future. (Tsunoda, M.)

  18. Growth Hormone Therapy in Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S. Vogt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS is characterized by hyperphagia, obesity if food intake is not strictly controlled, abnormal body composition with decreased lean body mass and increased fat mass, decreased basal metabolic rate, short stature, low muscle tone, cognitive disability, and hypogonadism. In addition to improvements in linear growth, the benefits of growth hormone therapy on body composition and motor function in children with PWS are well established. Evidence is now emerging on the benefits of growth hormone therapy in adults with PWS. This review summarizes the current literature on growth hormone status and the use of growth hormone therapy in adults with PWS. The benefits of growth hormone therapy on body composition, muscle strength, exercise capacity, certain measures of sleep-disordered breathing, metabolic parameters, quality of life, and cognition are covered in detail along with potential adverse effects and guidelines for initiating and monitoring therapy.

  19. Hormones and endocrine disruptors in human seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, R; Kubatova, J; Heracek, J; Sobotka, V; Starka, L

    2013-07-01

    Seminal plasma represents a unique environment for maturation, nutrition, and protection of male germ cells from damaging agents. It contains an array of organic as well as inorganic chemicals, encompassing a number of biologically and immunologically active compounds, including hormones. Seminal plasma contains also various pollutants transferred from outer environment known as endocrine disruptors. They interfere with hormones at the receptor level, act as inhibitors of their biosynthesis, and affect hormone regulation.In this minireview, the main groups of hormones detected in seminal plasma are summarized. Seminal gonadal steroids were investigated mostly with aim to use them as biomarkers of impaired spermatogenesis (sperm count, motility, morphology). Concentrations of hormones in the seminal plasma often differ considerably from the blood plasma levels in dependence on their origin. In some instances (dihydrotestosterone, estradiol), their informative value is higher than determination in blood.Out of peptide hormones detected in seminal plasma, peptides of transforming growth factor beta family, especially antimullerian hormone, and oligopeptides related to thyrotropin releasing hormone have the high informative value, while assessment of seminal gonadotropins and prolactin does not bring advantage over determination in blood.Though there is a large body of information about the endocrine disruptors' impact on male reproduction, especially with their potential role in decline of male reproductive functions within the last decades, there are only scarce reports on their presence in seminal plasma. Herein, the main groups of endocrine disruptors found in seminal plasma are reviewed, and the use of their determination for investigation of fertility disorders is discussed.

  20. Mobilidade do Colo Vesical e Avaliação Funcional do Assoalho Pélvico em Mulheres Continentes e com Incontinência Urinária de Esforço, Consoante o Estado Hormonal Bladder Neck Mobility and Functional Pelvic Floor Evaluation in Women with and without Stress Urinary Incontinence, According to Hormonal Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Fátima da Silva Moreira

    2002-07-01

    ultra-sonografia, é maior nas mulheres incontinentes, independente do estado menopausal. A avaliação do assoalho pélvico pela palpação digital e pelos cones vaginais mostrou que a função muscular é menos eficiente nas mulheres incontinentes.Purpose: to study the relationship between pelvic floor function and bladder neck mobility in women with and without stress urinary incontinence (SUI, in menacme and postmenopausal. Methods: sixty-one SUI patients were evaluated; 31 of them were in menacme and of these 17 had SUI and 14 did not have any complaint; 30 were postmenopausal and of these, 15 with SUI and 15 without SUI. Simple cystometry and empty supine stress test were performed in those who had urinary incontinence complaint. Bladder neck mobility was studied by ultrasound and by the Q-tip test. To study pelvic floor function, vaginal cones and digital palpation were used. Results: the bladder neck position in the incontinent women (Groups A and C, determined by ultrasound or the Q tip-test, was --11.8 cm in Group A and --12.5 cm in Group C, lower than the continent women, in whom the bladder neck was at +4.4 cm in Group B and +2.3 cm in Group D. There were no differences in bladder neck mobility among the continent menacme (9.1 cm and postmenopausal (9.5 cm groups. Also there were no differences among the incontinent groups (17.1 cm for Group A and 16.6 cm for Group C. The bladder neck mobility was greater in the incontinent women (A and C. Continent women had better results on evaluation of pelvic floor muscles than the incontinent ones, even using vaginal cones or digital palpation, and these results were not dependent on the hormonal status. Conclusion: a positive correlation was found between the Q-tip tests and ultrasound, and between test with vaginal cones and digital palpation. No significant correlation was found between pelvic floor function and bladder neck mobility.

  1. Concordance of self-reported hormonal contraceptive use and presence of exogenous hormones in serum among African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyra, Maria; Lingappa, Jairam R; Heffron, Renee; Erikson, David W; Blue, Steven W; Patel, Rena C; Nanda, Kavita; Rees, Helen; Mugo, Nelly R; Davis, Nicole L; Kourtis, Athena P; Baeten, Jared M

    2018-04-01

    Studies that rely on self-report to investigate the relationship between hormonal contraceptive use and HIV acquisition and transmission, as well as other health outcomes, could have compromised results due to misreporting. We determined the frequency of misreported hormonal contraceptive use among African women with and at risk for HIV. We tested 1102 archived serum samples from 664 African women who had participated in prospective HIV prevention studies. Using a novel high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assay, we quantified exogenous hormones for injectables (medroxyprogesterone acetate or norethisterone), oral contraceptives (OC) (levonorgestrel or ethinyl estradiol) and implants (levonorgestrel or etonogestrel) and compared them to self-reported use. Among women reporting hormonal contraceptive use, 258/358 (72%) of samples were fully concordant with self-report, as were 642/744 (86%) of samples from women reporting no hormonal contraceptive use. However, 42/253 (17%) of samples from women reporting injectable use, 41/66 (62%) of samples from self-reported OC users and 3/39 (8%) of samples from self-reported implant users had no quantifiable hormones. Among self-reported nonusers, 102/744 (14%) had ≥1 hormone present. Concordance between self-reported method and exogenous hormones did not differ by HIV status. Among African women with and at risk for HIV, testing of exogenous hormones revealed agreement with self-reported contraceptive use for most women. However, unexpected exogenous hormones were identified among self-reported hormonal contraceptive users and nonusers, and an important fraction of women reporting hormonal contraceptive use had no hormones detected; absence of oral contraceptive hormones could be due, at least in part, to samples taken during the hormone-free interval. Misreporting of hormonal contraceptive use could lead to biased results in observational studies of the relationship between contraceptive use and health

  2. Hormonal control of euryhalinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yoshio; McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  3. Headache And Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Rakesh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons to suggest a link between headache and hormones. Migraine is three times common in women as compared to men after puberty, cyclic as well as non-cyclic fluctuations in sex hormone levels during the entire reproductive life span of a women are associated with changes in frequency or severity of migraine attack, abnormalities in the hypothalamus and pineal gland have been observed in cluster headache, oestrogens are useful in the treatment of menstrual migraine and the use of melatonin has been reported in various types of primary headaches. Headache associated with various endocrinological disorders may help us in a better understanding of the nociceptive mechanisms involved in headache disorders. Prospective studies using headache diaries to record the attacks of headache and menstrual cycle have clarified some of the myths associated with menstrual migraine. Although no change in the absolute levels of sex hormones have been reported, oestrogen withdrawal is the most likely trigger of the attacks. Prostaglandins, melatonin, opioid and serotonergic mechanisms may also have a role in the pathogenesis of menstrual migraine. Guidelines have been published by the IHS recently regarding the use of oral contraceptives by women with migraine and the risk of ischaemic strokes in migraineurs on hormone replacement therapy. The present review includes menstrual migraine, pregnancy and migraine, oral contraceptives and migraine, menopause and migraine as well as the hormonal changes in chronic migraine.

  4. [Hormones and hair growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  5. Effects of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on rat growth hormone release induced by thyrotropin-releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, K; Kato, Y; Ohgo, S; Iwasaki, Y; Maeda, K

    1976-06-01

    The effect of synthetic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on the release of growth hormone (GH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was investigated in euthyroid, hypothyroid, and hyperthyroid rats under urethane anesthesia. In euthyroid control rats, intravenous injection of TRH (200 ng/100 g BW) resulted in a significant increase in both plasma GH and TSH. In rats made hypothyroid by treatment with propylthiouracil or by thyroidectomy, basal GH and TSH levels were significantly elevated with exaggerated responses to TRH. In contrast, plasma GH and TSH responses to TRH were both significantly inhibited in rats made hyperthyroid by L-thyroxine (T4) treatment. These results suggest that altered thyroid status influences GH release as well as TSH secretion induced by TRH in rats.

  6. Analysis of Ricefield Land Damage in Denpasar City, Bali, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyarto, R.; Wiyanti; Dibia, I. N.

    2018-02-01

    Soil as a natural resource, living area, environmental media, and factors of production including biomass production that supports human life and other living beings must be preserved, on the other hand, uncontrolled biomass production activities can cause soil damage, ultimately can threaten the survival of humans and other living things. Therefore, in order to control soil damage, first must inventories the soil condition data and its damage which then visualised in soil damage potential and soil damage status. The activities of the study are the preparation of a map of the initial soil conditions and the delineation of potentially land degradation distribution. Mapping results are used as work maps for verification on the field to take soil samples and create soil damage status. In general, Denpasar City have soil damage potential at very low, low until medium rate. Soil damage status in Denpasar City generally is low damage of bulk volume, total porosity, soil permeability and electrolyte conductivity which beyond limitation thresholds.

  7. [Influence of nutrition on hormone secretion. I. Study in Agua Preta (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, N; Guimarães, E D; Aguiar, F; Viana, T; Matos, E; Basto de Medeiros, R; Martins, G C; Bazante, M O; Pimenta, P P

    1975-01-01

    A positive correlation between the circulating growth hormone levels and the nutritional status was reported in 9 children of both sexes, aged 1 to 6 years, suffering from 2nd degree malnutrition. The mean serum insulin levels, the mean urinary 17-KS and 17-OHCS levels were low before the dietary therapy. No significant correlation between the levels of these hormones and the nutritional status was found. The hormone levels gradually returned to normal after the dietary therapy and the nutritional status of the children improved, according to the observed biochemical, clinical and anthropometric data.

  8. Stress hormones, sleep deprivation and cognition in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Marcello; Colizzi, Elena; Fisichella, Alberto; Valenti, Giorgio; Ceresini, Graziano; Dall'Aglio, Elisabetta; Ruffini, Livia; Lauretani, Fulvio; Parrino, Liborio; Ceda, Gian Paolo

    2013-09-01

    Cognition can be deteriorated in older persons because of several potential mechanisms including the hormonal changes occurring with age. Stress events cause modification in hormonal balance with acute and chronic changes such as increase in cortisol and thyroid hormones, and simultaneous alterations in dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, testosterone and insulin like growth factor-1 levels. The ability to cope with stress and regain previous healthy status, also called resiliency, is particularly impaired in older persons Thus, stressful conditions and hormonal dysregulation might concur to the onset of cognitive impairment in this population. In this review we address the relationship between stress hormones and cognitive function in older persons focusing on the role of one of the main stress factors, such as sleep deprivation (SD). We extracted and cross-checked data from 2000 to 2013 March and selected 112 full-text articles assessed for eligibility. In particular we considered 68 studies regarding the contribution of hormonal pathway to cognition in older adults, and 44 regarding hormones and SD both in rats and humans. We investigated how the activation of a stress-pattern response, like the one evoked from SD, can influence cognitive development and worsen cognitive status in the elderly. We will show the limited number of studies targeting the effects of SD and the consequent changes in stress hormones on cognitive function in this age group. We conclude that the current literature is not strong enough to give definitive answers on the role of stress hormonal pathway to the development of cognitive impairment in older individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ovarian hormones and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeners, Brigitte; Geary, Nori; Tobler, Philippe N; Asarian, Lori

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE. Articles in English indexed in PubMed through January 2016 were searched using keywords related to: (i) reproductive hormones, (ii) weight regulation and (iii) central nervous system. We sought to identify emerging research foci with clinical translational potential rather than to provide a comprehensive review. We find that estrogens play a leading role in the causes and consequences of female obesity. With respect to adiposity, estrogens synergize with AT genes to increase gluteofemoral subcutaneous AT mass and decrease central AT mass in reproductive-age women, which leads to protective cardiometabolic effects. Loss of estrogens after menopause, independent of aging, increases total AT mass and decreases lean body mass, so that there is little net effect on body weight. Menopause also partially reverses women's protective AT distribution. These effects can be counteracted by estrogen treatment. With respect to eating, increasing estrogen levels progressively decrease eating during the follicular and peri-ovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle. Progestin levels are associated with eating during the luteal phase, but there does not appear to be a causal relationship. Progestins may increase binge eating and eating stimulated by negative emotional states during the luteal phase. Pre-clinical research indicates that one mechanism for the pre-ovulatory decrease in eating is a

  10. Recent Developments in Ruined Holiday Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Campione

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this brief presentation is to evaluate the status of ruined holiday damage (i.e. the loss of enjoyment suffered by a tourist who experiences a holiday of inferior quality in Italian law since the recent case law on moral damages.

  11. BDS thin film damage competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Christopher J.; Thomas, Michael D.; Griffin, Andrew J.

    2008-10-01

    A laser damage competition was held at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium in order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state-of-the-art of high laser resistance coatings since they are all tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. A normal incidence high reflector multilayer coating was selected at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The substrates were provided by the submitters. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials, and layer count will also be shared.

  12. Temporal aspects of copper homeostasis and its crosstalk with hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola ePeñarrubia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To cope with the dual nature of copper as being essential and toxic for cells, plants temporarily adapt the expression of copper homeostasis components to assure its delivery to cuproproteins while avoiding the interference of potential oxidative damage derived from both copper uptake and photosynthetic reactions during light hours. The circadian clock participates in the temporal organization of coordination of plant nutrition adapting metabolic responses to the daily oscillations. This timely control improves plant fitness and reproduction and holds biotechnological potential to drive increased crop yields. Hormonal pathways, including those of abscisic acid, gibberellins, ethylene, auxins, and jasmonates are also under direct clock and light control, both in mono and dicotyledons. In this review, we focus on copper transport in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa and the presumable role of hormones in metal homeostasis matching nutrient availability to growth requirements and preventing metal toxicity. The presence of putative hormone-dependent regulatory elements in the promoters of copper transporters genes suggests hormonal regulation to match special copper requirements during plant development. Spatial and temporal processes that can be affected by hormones include the regulation of copper uptake into roots, intracellular trafficking and compartmentalisation, and long-distance transport to developing vegetative and reproductive tissues. In turn, hormone biosynthesis and signalling are also influenced by copper availability, which suggests reciprocal regulation subjected to temporal control by the central oscillator of the circadian clock. This transcriptional regulatory network, coordinates environmental and hormonal signalling with developmental pathways to allow enhanced micronutrient acquisition efficiency.

  13. Thyroid hormones states and brain development interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Osama M; El-Gareib, A W; El-Bakry, A M; Abd El-Tawab, S M; Ahmed, R G

    2008-04-01

    The action of thyroid hormones (THs) in the brain is strictly regulated, since these hormones play a crucial role in the development and physiological functioning of the central nervous system (CNS). Disorders of the thyroid gland are among the most common endocrine maladies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify in broad terms the interactions between thyroid hormone states or actions and brain development. THs regulate the neuronal cytoarchitecture, neuronal growth and synaptogenesis, and their receptors are widely distributed in the CNS. Any deficiency or increase of them (hypo- or hyperthyroidism) during these periods may result in an irreversible impairment, morphological and cytoarchitecture abnormalities, disorganization, maldevelopment and physical retardation. This includes abnormal neuronal proliferation, migration, decreased dendritic densities and dendritic arborizations. This drastic effect may be responsible for the loss of neurons vital functions and may lead, in turn, to the biochemical dysfunctions. This could explain the physiological and behavioral changes observed in the animals or human during thyroid dysfunction. It can be hypothesized that the sensitive to the thyroid hormones is not only remarked in the neonatal period but also prior to birth, and THs change during the development may lead to the brain damage if not corrected shortly after the birth. Thus, the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental abnormalities might be related to the thyroid hormones is plausible. Taken together, the alterations of neurotransmitters and disturbance in the GABA, adenosine and pro/antioxidant systems in CNS due to the thyroid dysfunction may retard the neurogenesis and CNS growth and the reverse is true. In general, THs disorder during early life may lead to distortions rather than synchronized shifts in the relative development of several central transmitter systems that leads to a multitude of irreversible morphological and biochemical

  14. Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tadashi

    1975-01-01

    Low acid pepsin treated gamma-globulin was applied to ammonium sulfate salting out method, which was a method to separate bound fraction from free one in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone, and the effect of the separation and the standard curve were examined. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin was prepared in pH 1.5 to 5.5 and then the pepsin was completely removed. It had an effect to accelerate the precipitation in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone labelled with 3 H. The effect of pepsin treated gamma-globulin to adhere free steroid hormone and to slat out bound one was compared with that of human gamma-globulin. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin, which was water soluble, could easier reach its optimal concentration, and the separation effect was better than human gamma-globulin. The standard curve of it was steeper, particularly in a small dose, and the reproducibility was also better. It could be applied not only to aldosterone and DOC, but also to the steroid hormones, such as progesterone and DHEA, and it seemed suitable for routine measurement method. (Kanao, N.)

  15. Hormones and social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether social preferences are determined by hormones. We do this by investigating whether markers for the strength of prenatal testosterone exposure (finger length ratios) and current exposure to progesterone and oxytocin (the menstrual cycle) are correlated with choices in social

  16. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than 100 years in the treatment of hypothyroidism, and there is no doubt about its overall efficacy. Desiccated thyroid contains both thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)); serum T(3) frequently rises to supranormal values in the absorption

  17. Hormones and postpartum cardiomyopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clapp, C.; Thebault, S.C.; Martinez de la Escalera, G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Prolactin, a hormone fundamental for lactation, was recently shown to mediate postpartum cardiomyopathy, a life-threatening disease in late-term and lactating mothers. The detrimental effect of prolactin results from myocardial upregulation of cathepsin-D, which in turn cleaves prolactin to a 16 kDa

  18. Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-08

    Jun 8, 1974 ... with Addison's disease, diarrhoea or salt-losing nephritis. (asymptomatic hyponatraemia).~ Schwartz et al.3 stud;ed two patients with anaplastic bronchus carcinoma and hyponatraemia in 1957, and they suggested that there was an inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). It is now well ...

  19. Radioimmunoassay of protein hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talas, M.; Fingerova, H.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is presented of the history of RIA methods for FSH, LH, HCG, HPL and prolactin determinations with special regard to the double antibody method in a kinetic system. Problems are shown in 125 I-labelling protein hormones in preparing own antisera. (L.O.)

  20. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Send Us Your Feedback ... As Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin TeBG Formal Name Sex Hormone Binding Globulin This article was last reviewed ...

  1. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization......, or differentiated maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed in cells outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and neurons but others also in other...

  2. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  3. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... sensitive breast cancer cells contain proteins called hormone receptors that become activated when hormones bind to them. ...

  4. Irradiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, L.M

    2000-07-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization.

  5. Irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization

  6. Activational effects of sex hormones on cognition in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulubaev, A; Lee, D M; Purandare, N; Pendleton, N; Wu, F C W

    2009-11-01

    Changing world demographic patterns, such as the increasing number of older people and the growing prevalence of cognitive impairment, present serious obstacles to preserving the quality of life and productivity of individuals. The severity of dementia varies from subclinical, mild cognitive impairment to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. In normally ageing men, these age-related cognitive declines are accompanied by gradual but marked decreases in androgen levels and changes in other hormone profiles. While developmental effects of sex hormones on cognition in the pre- and early postnatal period have been demonstrated, their activational effects in later life are still a focus of contemporary research. Although there is a plethora of published research on the topic, results have been inconsistent with different studies reporting positive, negative or no effects of sex hormones on various aspects of mental agility. This review summarizes the evidence supporting the biological plausibility of the activational effects of sex hormones upon cognition and describes the mechanisms of their actions. It offers a comprehensive summary of the studies of the effects of sex hormones on fluid intelligence in men utilizing elements from the Cochrane Collaboration Guidelines for Reviews. The results of both observational (cross-sectional and longitudinal) and interventional studies published to date are collated in table form and further discussed in the text. Factors contributing to the difficulties in understanding the effects of sex hormones on cognition are also examined. Although there is convincing evidence that steroid sex hormones play an organizational role in brain development in men, the evidence for activational effects of sex hormones affecting cognition in healthy men throughout adult life remains inconsistent. To address this issue, a new multifactorial approach is proposed which takes into account the status of other elements of the sex hormones axis

  7. Radioimmunoassay of polypeptide hormones and enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felber, J.P.

    1974-01-01

    General principles of radioimmunoassay are reviewed. Detailed procedures are reviewed for the following hormones: insulin, pituitary hormones, gonadotropins, parathyroid hormone, ACTH, glucagon, gastrin, and peptide hormones. Radioimmunoassay of enzymes is also discussed. (U.S.)

  8. Depression related to (neo)adjuvant hormonal therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tol-Geerdink, Julia J. van; Leer, Jan Willem; Lin, Emile N.J.T. van; Schimmel, Erik C.; Stalmeier, Peep F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: We studied whether hormonal therapy, (neo)adjuvant to radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer, is related to an increase in depression and whether this is caused by the hormonal therapy itself or by the relatively poor prognosis of patients who get (neo)adjuvant hormonal therapy. Methods: Between 2002 and 2005, 288 patients, irradiated for prostate cancer (T1-3N0M0), were studied prospectively in two clinics. In one clinic almost all patients received (neo)adjuvant androgen deprivation (Bicalutamide + Gosereline). In a second clinic hormonal therapy was prescribed mainly for high risk patients. This allowed us to separate the effects of hormonal therapy and the patient's prognosis. Results: During the course of hormonal therapy, depression was significantly heightened by both hormone use (p < 0.001) and poor prognosis (p < 0.01). After completion of hormonal therapy, poor prognosis continued to affect the depression score (p < 0.01). The increase was, however, small. Conclusions: Depression was mildly increased in patients receiving hormonal therapy. The increase appeared to be related to both the hormone therapy itself and the high risk status of patients. High risk status, with the associated poor prognosis, had a more sustained effect on depression. The rise was statistically significant, but was too small, however, to bear clinical significance.

  9. Damaged Skylab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Saturn V vehicle, carrying the unmarned orbital workshop for the Skylab-1 mission, lifted off successfully and all systems performed normally. Sixty-three seconds into the flight, engineers in the operation support and control center saw an unexpected telemetry indication that signalled that damages occurred on one solar array and the micrometeoroid shield during the launch. The micrometeoroid shield, a thin protective cylinder surrounding the workshop protecting it from tiny space particles and the sun's scorching heat, ripped loose from its position around the workshop. This caused the loss of one solar wing and jammed the other. Still unoccupied, the Skylab was stricken with the loss of the heat shield and sunlight beat mercilessly on the lab's sensitive skin. Internal temperatures soared, rendering the station uninhabitable, threatening foods, medicines, films, and experiments. This image, taken during a fly-around inspection by the Skylab-2 crew, shows a crippled Skylab in orbit. The crew found their home in space to be in serious shape; the heat shield gone, one solar wing gone, and the other jammed. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed, tested, rehearsed, and approved three repair options. These options included a parasol sunshade and a twin-pole sunshade to restore the temperature inside the workshop, and a set of metal cutting tools to free the jammed solar panel.

  10. Structural damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.E.; Bruhn, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Virtually all structures show some signs of distress due to deterioration of the building components, to changed loads, or to changed support conditions. Changed support conditions result from ground movements. In mining regions many cases of structural distress are attributed to mining without considering alternative causes. This is particularly true of coal mining since it occurs under extensive areas. Coal mining is estimated to have already undermined more than eight million acres and may eventually undermine 40 million acres in the United States. Other nonmetal and metal underground mines impact much smaller areas. Although it is sometimes difficult, even with careful study, to identify the actual cause of damage, persons responsible for underground coal mining should at least be aware of possible causes of building stress other than mine subsidence. This paper presents information on distress to structures and briefly reviews a number of causes of ground movements other than subsidence: Mass movements, dissolution, erosion, frost action, shrinking and swelling, yield into excavations and compressibility

  11. Radiation damage prediction system using damage function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Mori, Seiji

    1979-01-01

    The irradiation damage analysis system using a damage function was investigated. This irradiation damage analysis system consists of the following three processes, the unfolding of a damage function, the calculation of the neutron flux spectrum of the object of damage analysis and the estimation of irradiation effect of the object of damage analysis. The damage function is calculated by applying the SAND-2 code. The ANISN and DOT3, 5 codes are used to calculate neutron flux. The neutron radiation and the allowable time of reactor operation can be estimated based on these calculations of the damage function and neutron flux. The flow diagram of the process of analyzing irradiation damage by a damage function and the flow diagram of SAND-2 code are presented, and the analytical code for estimating damage, which is determined with a damage function and a neutron spectrum, is explained. The application of the irradiation damage analysis system using a damage function was carried out to the core support structure of a fast breeder reactor for the damage estimation and the uncertainty evaluation. The fundamental analytical conditions and the analytical model for this work are presented, then the irradiation data for SUS304, the initial estimated values of a damage function, the error analysis for a damage function and the analytical results are explained concerning the computation of a damage function for 10% total elongation. Concerning the damage estimation of FBR core support structure, the standard and lower limiting values of damage, the permissible neutron flux and the allowable years of reactor operation are presented and were evaluated. (Nakai, Y.)

  12. Developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency and brain development: A role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for normal brain development. Even subclinical hypothyroidism experienced in utero can result in neuropsychological deficits in children despite normal thyroid status at birth. Neurotrophins have been implicated in a host of brain cellular func...

  13. Sex Hormones and Tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The risk of overuse and traumatic tendon and ligament injuries differ between women and men. Part of this gender difference in injury risk is probably explained by sex hormonal differences which are specifically distinct during the sexual maturation in the teenage years and during young adulthood....... The effects of the separate sex hormones are not fully elucidated. However, in women, the presence of estrogen in contrast to very low estrogen levels may be beneficial during regular loading of the tissue or during recovering after an injury, as estrogen can enhance tendon collagen synthesis rate. Yet...... has also been linked to a reduced responsiveness to relaxin. The present chapter will focus on sex difference in tendon injury risk, tendon morphology and tendon collagen turnover, but also on the specific effects of estrogen and androgens....

  14. Gut hormones and gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens J.

    2016-01-01

    Gut hormone secretion in response to nutrient ingestion appears to depend on membrane proteins expressed by the enteroendocrine cells. These include transporters (glucose and amino acid transporters), and, in this case, hormone secretion depends on metabolic and electrophysiological events elicited...... that determines hormone responses. It follows that operations that change intestinal exposure to and absorption of nutrients, such as gastric bypass operations, also change hormone secretion. This results in exaggerated increases in the secretion of particularly the distal small intestinal hormones, GLP-1, GLP-2......, oxyntomodulin, neurotensin and peptide YY (PYY). However, some proximal hormones also show changes probably reflecting that the distribution of these hormones is not restricted to the bypassed segments of the gut. Thus, cholecystokinin responses are increased, whereas gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses...

  15. Thyroid hormone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, S.; Richmond, M.; Quesada, S.; Lahaman, S.; Ramirez, A.; Herrera, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (AIEA) is carrying out the ARCAL VIII Program 'Thiroid Hormone Readioimmunoassay'. The Immunoassay Laboratory of INCIENSA is in charge of this program, with the participation of four National Hospital System laboratories, which carried out Thyroxine (T4). Triodothyroxine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) assays with NETRIA Reagents (North East Thames Region Immunoassay Unit). The variability was shown to be between 9-20 per cent for T4, 12-22 per cent for TSH and 22-36 per cent for T3. The study also evaluated the quality of a tracer (T3-l125 and T4 l125) produced at INCIENSA. In this case the intrassay variability was 8,4 per cent for T3 and 6,8 per cent for T4 in 32 determinations evaluated during 6 months. It was concluded that the T4 and TSH tests but not the T3 test are valid and reproducible when NETRIA Ragents are used. The tracer made at INCIENSA can be used up to 6 weeks after the radioiodination with l125. A successful thyroid-related hormones quality control was defined in Costa Rica by taking advantage of the support of a prestigious international agency, the IAEA. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs

  16. Night work and breast cancer risk defined by human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) and hormone receptor status: A population-based case-control study in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Koudou, Yves; Truong, Thérèse; Arveux, Patrick; Kerbrat, Pierre; Menegaux, Florence; Guénel, Pascal

    Night work has been associated with risk of breast cancer but this association needs to be confirmed. Because breast cancer is an etiologically heterogeneous disease, we explored the association of night work with breast cancer subtypes defined by tumor status (positive of negative) for estrogen-receptor (ER), progesterone-receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor-receptor 2 (HER2). Using the data from a case-control study in France including 975 cases and 1317 controls, we found that the odds ratios for ER+, PR+ or HER2+ breast cancers subtypes were significantly elevated, while no association with night shift work was observed for ER, PR or HER2-negative tumors. After stratification by menopausal status, the associations of night work with receptor-positive breast tumor subtypes were clearly seen in premenopausal women (odds ratios 2.04, 1.98 and 2.80, respectively) but did not appear in postmenopausal women. This study provides evidence that working at night may increase risk of ER, PR and HER2-positive subtypes of breast cancer particularly among premenopausal women.

  17. Radioimmunoassay for determination of the hormonal and immune states in patients aczema; psoriasis and neurodermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltabaev, T.S.

    1989-01-01

    The hormonal and immune status was investigated by a radioimmunoassay in 105 patiets with dermatosis (55 female and 50 male patients aged 15 to 80): 51 suffered frm ecsema, 41 -from psoriasis, and 13 - from neurodermatitis. Serum concentrations of T 3 , T 4 , TSH, insulin, trypsin, C-peptide, cortisol, and IgE were investigated. Disorders of the hormonal and immune status were noted in the examinees with relation to sez, type of disease, season, time-period and extent of disease

  18. A nonpeptidyl growth hormone secretagogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R G; Cheng, K; Schoen, W R; Pong, S S; Hickey, G; Jacks, T; Butler, B; Chan, W W; Chaung, L Y; Judith, F

    1993-06-11

    A nonpeptidyl secretagogue for growth hormone of the structure 3-amino-3-methyl-N-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-oxo-1-([2'-(1H-tetrazol-5 -yl) (1,1'-biphenyl)-4-yl]methyl)-1H-1-benzazepin-3(R)-yl)-butanamid e (L-692,429) has been identified. L-692,429 synergizes with the natural growth hormone secretagogue growth hormone-releasing hormone and acts through an alternative signal transduction pathway. The mechanism of action of L-692,429 and studies with peptidyl and nonpeptidyl antagonists suggest that this molecule is a mimic of the growth hormone-releasing hexapeptide His-D-Trp-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2 (GHRP-6). L-692,429 is an example of a nonpeptidyl specific secretagogue for growth hormone.

  19. The influence of partial renal function impairment on thyroid hormones level in acute renal failure-ARF patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, S.; Vlajkovic, M.; Rajic, M.; Bogicevic, M.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of thyroid hormone levels with glomerular and tubular renal function in ARF. In thirty one patients with different underlying diseases, glomerular filtration (GFR) was estimated by measuring 99mTc-DTPA clearance and tubular function by 131I-OIH clearance. The thyroid status was evaluated by radioimmunoassays of T4, FT4, T3, FT3, rT3 and TSH, while the cortisol level was used to indicate the stress role. All the measurements were performed within 7 days as well after 1,3,6 and 12 months from the ARF onset. The results obtained were compared with those of 30 healthy subjects. At the ARF beginning, the impairment of renal function was manifested by the fall of 99mTc-DTPA clearance to 21∫7ml/min and 131I-OIH clearance to 172±34ml/min, while end values were 77±19ml/min and 395±70ml/min, respectively. The hormone analysis within 7 days, showed T3 decrease to 1.21±0.16nmol/l and the increase rT3 to 38±7ng/1ooml, as well as cortisol to 350±71ng/ml, but at the end of the study these hormone levels were normalized. Other hormone levels didn't differ significantly from control values. Regression analysis established significant correlation of 99mTc-DTPA clearance with T3 (r=0.693, p 100, OIH>500), partial recovery (DTPA 51-100, OIH 250-500) and without any recovery (DTPA<50,OIH<250), showed hormone disturbances proportional to the degree of renal function damage. The most severe disorders were found in the third group, where both total and free T4 and T3 were lowered, while rT3 and cortisol elevated at 7th day from ARF onset. After 12 months all these values associated with that of TSH were observed as declined.This study suggests thyroid hormone levels to be dependent on the renal function in ARF. Greater impairment of glomerular related to tubular function appears to be more responsible for thyroid dysfunction, due to uremic toxins retention as well as stress induced by the extreme function failure

  20. Thyroid Hormone, Cancer, and Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Yun; Chin, Yu-Tan; Yang, Yu-Chen S H; Lai, Husan-Yu; Wang-Peng, Jacqueline; Liu, Leory F; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Davis, Paul J

    2016-06-13

    Thyroid hormones play important roles in regulating normal metabolism, development, and growth. They also stimulate cancer cell proliferation. Their metabolic and developmental effects and growth effects in normal tissues are mediated primarily by nuclear hormone receptors. A cell surface receptor for the hormone on integrin [alpha]vβ3 is the initiation site for effects on tumor cells. Clinical hypothyroidism may retard cancer growth, and hyperthyroidism was recently linked to the prevalence of certain cancers. Local levels of thyroid hormones are controlled through activation and deactivation of iodothyronine deiodinases in different organs. The relative activities of different deiodinases that exist in tissues or organs also affect the progression and development of specific types of cancers. In this review, the effects of thyroid hormone on signaling pathways in breast, brain, liver, thyroid, and colon cancers are discussed. The importance of nuclear thyroid hormone receptor isoforms and of the hormone receptor on the extracellular domain of integrin [alpha]vβ3 as potential cancer risk factors and therapeutic targets are addressed. We analyze the intracellular signaling pathways activated by thyroid hormones in cancer progression in hyperthyroidism or at physiological concentrations in the euthyroid state. Determining how to utilize the deaminated thyroid hormone analog (tetrac), and its nanoparticulate derivative to reduce risks of cancer progression, enhance therapeutic outcomes, and prevent cancer recurrence is also deliberated. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1221-1237, 2016. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Missed hormonal contraceptives: new recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Edith; Black, Amanda; Dunn, Sheila; Senikas, Vyta

    2008-11-01

    To provide evidence-based guidance for women and their health care providers on the management of missed or delayed hormonal contraceptive doses in order to prevent unintended pregnancy. Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database were searched for articles published in English, from 1974 to 2007, about hormonal contraceptive methods that are available in Canada and that may be missed or delayed. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate reproductive health and family planning organizations were also reviewed. The quality of evidence is rated using the criteria developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. This committee opinion will help health care providers offer clear information to women who have not been adherent in using hormonal contraception with the purpose of preventing unintended pregnancy. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. SUMMARY STATEMENTS: 1. Instructions for what women should do when they miss hormonal contraception have been complex and women do not understand them correctly. (I) 2. The highest risk of ovulation occurs when the hormone-free interval is prolonged for more than seven days, either by delaying the start of combined hormonal contraceptives or by missing active hormone doses during the first or third weeks of combined oral contraceptives. (II) Ovulation rarely occurs after seven consecutive days of combined oral contraceptive use. (II) RECOMMENDATIONS: 1. Health care providers should give clear, simple instructions, both written and oral, on missed hormonal contraceptive pills as part of contraceptive counselling. (III-A) 2. Health care providers should provide women with telephone/electronic resources for reference in the event of missed or delayed hormonal contraceptives. (III-A) 3. In order to avoid an increased risk of unintended pregnancy, the hormone-free interval should not exceed seven days in combined hormonal contraceptive users. (II-A) 4. Back-up contraception should

  2. Challenges in interpretation of thyroid hormone test results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Tijana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In interpreting thyroid hormones results it is preferable to think of interference and changes in concentration of their carrier proteins. Outline of Cases. We present two patients with discrepancy between the results of thyroid function tests and clinical status. The first case presents a 62-year-old patient with a nodular goiter and Hashimoto thyroiditis. Thyroid function test showed low thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and normal to low fT4. By determining thyroid status (ТSH, T4, fT4, T3, fT3 in two laboratories, basal and after dilution, as well as thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG, it was concluded that the thyroid hormone levels were normal. The results were influenced by heterophile antibodies leading to a false lower TSH level and suspected secondary hypothyroidism. The second case, a 40-year-old patient, was examined and followed because of the variable size thyroid nodule and initially borderline elevated TSH, after which thyroid status showed low level of total thyroid hormones and normal TSH. Based on additional analysis it was concluded that low T4 and T3 were a result of low TBG. It is a hereditary genetic disorder with no clinical significance. Conclusion. Erroneous diagnosis of thyroid disorders and potentially harmful treatment could be avoided by proving the interference or TBG deficiency whenever there is a discrepancy between the thyroid function results and the clinical picture.

  3. A robust test for growth hormone doping-present status and future prospects%一种稳定的生长激素兴奋剂的检测方法:现状和前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anne E. Nelson; Ken K. Ho

    2008-01-01

    Although doping with growth hormone (GH) is banned, there is anecdotal evidence that it is widely abused. GH is reportedly used often in combination with anabolic steroids at high doses for several months. Development of a robust test for GH has been challenging because recombinant human 22 kDa (22K) GH used in doping is indistinguishable analytically from endogenous GH and there are wide physiological fluctuations in circulating GH concentrations. One approach to GH testing is based on measurement of different circulating GH isoforms using immunoassays that differentiate between 22K and other GH isoforms. Administration of 22K GH results in a change in its abundance relative to other endogenous pituitary GH isoforms. The differential isoform method has been implemented; however, its utility is limited because of the short window of opportunity of detection.The second approach, which will extend the window of opportunity of detection, is based on the detection of increased levels of circulating GH-responsive proteins, such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis and collagen peptides. Age and gender are the major determinants of variability for IGF-Ⅰ and the collagen markers; therefore, a test based on these markers must take age into account for men and women. Extensive data is now available that validates the GH-responsive marker approach and implementation is now largely dependent on establishing an assured supply of standardized assays. Future directions will include more widespread implementation of both approaches by the World Anti-Doping Agency, possible use of other platforms for measurement and an athlete's passport to establish individual reference levels for biological parameters such as GH-responsive markers. Novel approaches include gene expression and proteomic profiling.%虽然在运动中已经禁止服用含有生长激素(GH)的药物,但有很多证据表明这些药物仍然被广泛滥用.据报道高剂量的GH常常与代谢类胆固醇

  4. Pharmacology of post-irradiation damage of blood capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, J.; Pouckova, P.

    1979-01-01

    Available literature data are summed up on the effect of a number of substances on irradiation damage to blood capillaries. The substances include vitamins, bioflavonoids, serotonine, histamine, bradykinin, ACTH, adrenal hormones, vasopressin, estrogens, prostaglandins, escin 1-butanol, diisopropylfluorophosphate, phenoxybenzamine, 1,4-dihydroxybenzenesulphonic acid derivatives, and xi-aminohexanoic acid. The data include the effects of the substances administered before and after irradiation on blood capillary damage and on mortality. (Ha)

  5. Hormones and β-Agonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van L.A.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Blokland, M.H.; Sterk, S.S.; Smits, N.G.E.; Pleadin, Jelka; Vulić, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides some updated information on contemporary methods for hormone and β-agonist analyses. It deals with the classical approaches for the effective detection and identification of exogenous hormones. The chapter examines specific problems related to control strategies for natural

  6. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormone replacement therapy and your heart Are you taking — or considering — hormone therapy to treat bothersome menopausal symptoms? Understand ... you. By Mayo Clinic Staff Long-term hormone replacement therapy used to be routinely prescribed for postmenopausal ...

  7. Efeitos da suplementação do 17beta-estradiol no dano oxidativo cardíaco de ratas submetidas à privação dos hormônios ovarianos Effects of 17beta-estradiol replacement on cardiac oxidative damage in rats submitted to ovarian hormone deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Rolim Rosa Lima

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o estresse oxidativo em tecido cardíaco de ratas ooforectomizadas, com ou sem terapia hormonal. MÉTODOS: ratas Wistar foram divididas em três grupos: grupo controle (GC, grupo ooforectomizada (GO e grupo ooforectomizada + suplementação hormonal (GOS. A privação estrogênica foi obtida pela ooforectomia bilateral. Uma semana após a ooforectomia, um pellet de 1,5 mg de 17beta-estradiol foi implantado nos animais do grupo GOS. Nove semanas após a ooforectomia, o tecido cardíaco foi obtido para a análise do estresse oxidativo por meio da medida da quimiluminescência e da atividade das enzimas antioxidantes catalase (CAT, superóxido dismutase (SOD e glutationa peroxidase (GPx. RESULTADOS: a quimiluminescência estava aumentada no GO (7348±312 cps/mg proteína quando comparado ao GC (6250±41 cps/mg proteína, pPURPOSE: to evaluate oxidative stress in cardiac tissue of ovariectomized rats, with and without hormonal therapy. METHODS: female Wistar rats were divided in three groups: control group (CG; ovariectomized group (OG; ovariectomized group with estrogen supplementation (ESG. The estrogen deprivation was done through bilateral ovariectomy. After one week from the ovariectomy, a pellet of 1.5 mg of 17beta-estradiol was implanted in the ESG animals. Nine weeks after the ovariectomy, cardiac tissue was obtained for the analysis of the oxidative stress through CL (chemiluminescence, and measurement of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and gluthatione peroxidase (GPx. RESULTS: CL was increased in the OG (7348±312 cps/mg protein when compared with the CG (6250±41 cps/mg protein, p<0.01, but there was no significant difference between the CG and the ESG (6170±237 cps/mg protein. Ovariectomy reduced SOD (35%, p<0.05 and CAT (22%, p<0.001 activities in the OG as compared with the CG. Hormonal therapy normalized antioxidant enzymes activities in the ESG. There was no statistically significant

  8. Egg hormones in a highly fecund vertebrate : do they influence offspring social structure in competitive conditions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burton, Tim; Hoogenboom, M. O.; Armstrong, J. D.; Groothuis, T. G. G.; Metcalfe, N. B.; Williams, Tony

    2011-01-01

    1. Social status can vary considerably among individuals and has significant implications for performance. In addition to a genetic component, social status may be influenced by environmental factors including maternal effects such as prenatal hormone exposure. Maternal effects on traits determining

  9. Growth Hormone (GH) and Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Oscar; Devesa, Pablo

    2018-01-01

    This review describes the positive effects of growth hormone (GH) on the cardiovascular system. We analyze why the vascular endothelium is a real internal secretion gland, whose inflammation is the first step for developing atherosclerosis, as well as the mechanisms by which GH acts on vessels improving oxidative stress imbalance and endothelial dysfunction. We also report how GH acts on coronary arterial disease and heart failure, and on peripheral arterial disease, inducing a neovascularization process that finally increases flow in ischemic tissues. We include some preliminary data from a trial in which GH or placebo is given to elderly people suffering from critical limb ischemia, showing some of the benefits of the hormone on plasma markers of inflammation, and the safety of GH administration during short periods of time, even in diabetic patients. We also analyze how Klotho is strongly related to GH, inducing, after being released from the damaged vascular endothelium, the pituitary secretion of GH, most likely to repair the injury in the ischemic tissues. We also show how GH can help during wound healing by increasing the blood flow and some neurotrophic and growth factors. In summary, we postulate that short-term GH administration could be useful to treat cardiovascular diseases. PMID:29346331

  10. Interactions between hormones and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubøll, Erik; Sveberg, Line; Svalheim, Sigrid

    2015-05-01

    There is a complex, bidirectional interdependence between sex steroid hormones and epilepsy; hormones affect seizures, while seizures affect hormones thereby disturbing reproductive endocrine function. Both female and male sex steroid hormones influence brain excitability. For the female sex steroid hormones, progesterone and its metabolites are anticonvulsant, while estrogens are mainly proconvulsant. The monthly fluctuations in hormone levels of estrogen and progesterone are the basis for catamenial epilepsy described elsewhere in this issue. Androgens are mainly anticonvulsant, but the effects are more varied, probably because of its metabolism to, among others, estradiol. The mechanisms for the effects of sex steroid hormones on brain excitability are related to both classical, intracellularly mediated effects, and non-classical membrane effects due to binding to membrane receptors. The latter are considered the most important in relation to epilepsy. The different sex steroids can also be further metabolized within the brain to different neurosteroids, which are even more potent with regard to their effect on excitability. Estrogens potentiate glutamate responses, primarily by potentiating NMDA receptor activity, but also by affecting GABA-ergic mechanisms and altering brain morphology by increasing dendritic spine density. Progesterone and its main metabolite 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (3α-5α-THP) act mainly to enhance postsynaptic GABA-ergic activity, while androgens enhance GABA-activated currents. Seizures and epileptic discharges also affect sex steroid hormones. There are close anatomical connections between the temporolimbic system and the hypothalamus controlling the endocrine system. Several studies have shown that epileptic activity, especially mediated through the amygdala, alters reproductive function, including reduced ovarian cyclicity in females and altered sex steroid hormone levels in both genders. Furthermore, there is an asymmetric

  11. contribution of growth hormone-releasing hormone and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strategy used was to stimulate GH secretion in 8 young ... treatment with two oral doses of 50 mg atenolol (to inhibit .... had normal baseline thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) ..... production rate of 14% per decade has been documented.'".

  12. Sex Hormones and Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegard, Haya N; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Whether endogenous sex hormones are associated with ischemic stroke (IS) is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of endogenous sex hormones are associated with risk of IS in the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Adult men (n...... = 4615) and women (n = 4724) with measurements of endogenous sex hormones during the 1981-1983 examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark, were followed for up to 29 years for incident IS, with no loss to follow-up. Mediation analyses assessed whether risk of IS was mediated through...

  13. The Role of the Multiple Hormonal Dysregulation in the Onset of “Anemia of Aging”: Focus on Testosterone, IGF-1, and Thyroid Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Maggio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is a multifactorial condition whose prevalence increases in both sexes after the fifth decade of life. It is a highly represented phenomenon in older adults and in one-third of cases is “unexplained.” Ageing process is also characterized by a “multiple hormonal dysregulation” with disruption in gonadal, adrenal, and somatotropic axes. Experimental studies suggest that anabolic hormones such as testosterone, IGF-1, and thyroid hormones are able to increase erythroid mass, erythropoietin synthesis, and iron bioavailability, underlining a potential role of multiple hormonal changes in the anemia of aging. Epidemiological data more consistently support an association between lower testosterone and anemia in adult-older individuals. Low IGF-1 has been especially associated with anemia in the pediatric population and in a wide range of disorders. There is also evidence of an association between thyroid hormones and abnormalities in hematological parameters under overt thyroid and euthyroid conditions, with limited data on subclinical statuses. Although RCTs have shown beneficial effects, stronger for testosterone and the GH-IGF-1 axis and less evident for thyroid hormones, in improving different hematological parameters, there is no clear evidence for the usefulness of hormonal treatment in improving anemia in older subjects. Thus, more clinical and research efforts are needed to investigate the hormonal contribution to anemia in the older individuals.

  14. Association of Hormonal Contraception with depression in the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Timothy A; Hansen, Shana

    2017-12-01

    Studies have demonstrated an association between hormonal contraception use with subsequent depression and antidepressant use. This association has not been assessed among postpartum women. This study is a secondary analysis of insurance records from 75,528 postpartum women enrolled in the US military medical system, who delivered between October 2012 and September 2014. Our analyses excluded women who used antidepressants or had a diagnosis of depression in the 24months prior to delivery. We assessed the relationship of hormonal contraception use with subsequent antidepressant use or diagnosis with depression in the first 12months postpartum using Cox proportional hazards regression, with a time dependent covariate measuring exposure to hormonal contraception. Antidepressants were prescribed to 7.8% of women and 5.0% were diagnosed with depression. In multivariable analysis adjusting for demographics, both antidepressant use and diagnosis with depression were associated with: younger age, lower socioeconomic status, and a history of military service. Compared to women with no hormonal contraceptive use, use of etonogestrel containing contraception was associated with a higher risk of antidepressant use (Implant: adjHR:1.22(95%CI:1.06-1.41), pdepression diagnosis (0.56(0.49-0.64), pdepression diagnoses (0.65(0.52-0.82), pdepression diagnosis and antidepressant use in the postpartum period varies with the type of hormonal contraception used. Further research is required to describe the mechanisms of these relationships. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Contribution of stress and sex hormones to memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Christian J

    2017-08-01

    Distinct stages of the menstrual cycle and the intake of oral contraceptives (OC) affect sex hormone levels, stress responses, and memory processes critically involved in the pathogenesis of mental disorders. To characterize the interaction of sex and stress hormones on memory encoding, 30 men, 30 women in the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (FO), 30 women in the luteal phase (LU), and 30 OC women were exposed to either a stress (socially evaluated cold-pressor test) or a control condition prior to memory encoding and immediate recall of neutral, positive, and negative words. On the next day, delayed free and cued recall was tested. Sex hormone levels verified distinct estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone levels between groups. Stress increased blood pressure, cortisol concentrations, and ratings of stress appraisal in all four groups as well as cued recall performance of negative words in men. Stress exposure in OC women led to a blunted cortisol response and rather enhanced cued recall of neutral words. Thus, pre-encoding stress facilitated emotional cued recall performance in men only, but not women with different sex hormone statuses pointing to the pivotal role of circulating sex hormones in modulation of learning and memory processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sex hormones in the modulation of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette; Larauche, Muriel

    2014-03-14

    Compelling evidence indicates sex and gender differences in epidemiology, symptomatology, pathophysiology, and treatment outcome in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Based on the female predominance as well as the correlation between IBS symptoms and hormonal status, several models have been proposed to examine the role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal (GI) function including differences in GI symptoms expression in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle, in pre- and post-menopausal women, during pregnancy, hormonal treatment or after oophorectomy. Sex hormones may influence peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of the brain-gut axis involved in the pathophysiology of IBS contributing to the alterations in visceral sensitivity, motility, intestinal barrier function, and immune activation of intestinal mucosa. Sex differences in stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system, neuroimmune interactions triggered by stress, as well as estrogen interactions with serotonin and corticotropin-releasing factor signaling systems are being increasingly recognized. A concept of "microgenderome" related to the potential role of sex hormone modulation of the gut microbiota is also emerging. Significant differences between IBS female and male patients regarding symptomatology and comorbidity with other chronic pain syndromes and psychiatric disorders, together with differences in efficacy of serotonergic medications in IBS patients confirm the necessity for more sex-tailored therapeutic approach in this disorder.

  17. HORMONAL TREATMENT IN UROGYNECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolf Lukanović

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hormonal treatment in urogynecology is based on the knowledge, that urinary and reproductive tracts have common embriologic origin and are also linked anatomically and functionally. Both systems are functioning and changing due to sex steroids influence. Decreased estrogen concentrations are connected to metabolic and trophic changes in all organs with estrogen receptors, i.e. also in urogenital tract. Atrophy of urogenital system in postmenopause is a common causative factor for stress urinary incontinence (SUI and urge incontinence (UUI. In both estrogen replacement treatment have been introduced, but meta-analyses of the available literature indicate that estrogen therapy is effective only if given vaginaly. Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI occur in postmenopause often as a consequence of structural changes in urinary and reproductive tract to lowered immune protection and colonization with eneterobacteria. In RUTI too, estrogen replacement treatment have been used with the results similar to those with SUI and UUI. Effectiveness of estrogen treatment was evident only in topically applied vaginaly, while oral administration has the same effectiveness as placebo. Conclusions. Structural changes in urogenital tract in postmenopause are the results of estrogen depletion. Estrogen replacement is effective in cases of SUI, UUI and RUTI if it is applied topicaly, the efffect being influenced by the type of estrogen used and duration of treatment.

  18. Radiation damage of nonmetallic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goland, A.N.

    1975-01-01

    A review of data and information on radiation damage in nonmetallic solids is presented. Discussions are included on defects in nonmetals, radiation damage processes in nonmetals, electronic damage processes, physical damage processes, atomic displacement, photochemical damage processes, and ion implantation

  19. Study of gonadal hormones in Egyptian female children with sickle cell anemia in correlation with iron overload: Single center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagag, Adel A; El-Farargy, Mohamed S; Elrefaey, Shaymaa; Abo El-enein, Amany M

    2016-03-01

    Sickle cell disease is a hereditary hemoglobinopathy characterized by abnormal hemoglobin production, hemolytic anemia, and intermittent occlusion of small blood vessels, leading to tissue ischemia, chronic organ damage, and organ dysfunction including endocrine organs. The aim of this work was to evaluate some gonadal hormones in female children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) in correlation with iron overload. This study was conducted on 40 female children with SCA with a serum ferritin of > 1000ng/mL, who were attendants at the Hematology Unit, Pediatric Department, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt in the period from May 2012 to April 2014. Their ages ranged from 11 years to 15years and the mean age value was 12.63±1.36 years (Group I). Forty female children with SCA of matched age with no iron overload served as a control Group (Group II). For all patients in Groups I and II the following were performed/assessed: complete blood count, hemoglobin electrophoresis, serum iron status, serum estrogen, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). There were significantly higher serum ferritin and serum iron levels and significantly lower total iron binding capacity, FSH, LH, and estrogen levels in Group I compared with Group II (mean serum ferritin was 2635.1±918.9 in Group I vs. 292.55±107.2 in Group II with a p value of .001; mean serum iron was 196.3±55.6 in Group I vs. 120±16.57 in Group II with a p value of .001 and mean serum total iron binding capacity was 247.3±28.6 in Group I vs. 327.8.7±21.96 in Group II with a p value of .001; mean FSH level was 1.36±0.22mIU/mL in Group I vs. 2.64±0.81mIU/mL in Group II with a p value of .021; mean LH level was 0.11±0.006mIU/mL in Group I vs. 1.78±1.12mIU/mL in Group II with a p value of .003; mean estrogen level was 21.45±10.23pg/mL in Group I vs. 42.36±15.44pg/mL in Group II with a p value of 0.001) with significant negative correlation between serum gonadal hormones and serum ferritin (r

  20. Measurement of the incretin hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma concentrat......The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma...... concentrations of GLP-1 and GIP is often an important endpoint in both clinical and preclinical studies and, therefore, accurate measurement of these hormones is important. Here, we provide an overview of current approaches for the measurement of the incretin hormones, with particular focus on immunological...

  1. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baziad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  2. Network identification of hormonal regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Vis

    Full Text Available Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for detecting regulatory relations between hormones. This is demonstrated with a cohort of obese women, who underwent blood sampling at 10 minute intervals for 24-hours. The cohort was treated with bromocriptine in an attempt to clarify how hormone relations change by treatment. The detected regulatory relations are summarized in a network graph and treatment-induced changes in the relations are determined. The proposed method identifies many relations, including well-known ones. Ultimately, the method provides ways to improve the description and understanding of normal hormonal relations and deviations caused by disease or treatment.

  3. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your child if you see signs of poor self-esteem or sadness that could be related to being ... December 2011 The Hormone Health Network offers free, online resources based on the most advanced clinical and ...

  4. Changes in Creatine Kinase and Hormones over the Course of an American Football Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J D; Kreutzer, A; Mata, J D; Nystrom, M G; Jagim, A R; Jones, M T; Oliver, J M

    2017-04-04

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in creatine kinase and hormones over the course of an entire season of American football. A secondary purpose was to determine differences between starters and non-starters. Fasting blood samples were obtained from nineteen National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I (n = 19; 20 ± 1 years) football athletes over the course of a season beginning prior to the start of summer off-season conditioning (T1), before (T2) and after pre-season (T3) football camp, with remaining samples taken throughout the competitive season (T4-T8). A magnitude-based inference approach was used to define outcomes. Testosterone was higher in starters prior to the start of the season (T1, Effect Size [ES] = 0.8) and during pre-conference (T4; ES = 0.7). Post-Camp (T3) testosterone was lower in all players, though greater in starters (starters, 0.0%/0.3%/99.7%; non-starters, 0.2%/2.9%/96.9%). An increase cortisol relative to baseline (T1) was observed in starters early in season (T4, ES = 0.7; T5, ES = 0.5). Creatine kinase was elevated at all time-points in all athletes, with starters having higher circulating levels throughout season. These data demonstrate that changes in hormonal markers may be experienced over a season of football and differ by playing status. Differences between starters and non-starters may be indicative of greater damage and stress experienced by starters, which may result from a greater number of repetitions.

  5. Ghrelin: much more than a hunger hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is a multifaceted gut hormone that activates its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin's hallmark functions are its stimulatory effects on growth hormone release, food intake and fat deposition. Ghrelin is famously known as the 'hunger hormone'. However, ample recen...

  6. Hormone therapy and ovarian borderline tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk.......Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk....

  7. Damage analysis and fundamental studies program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.; Farrar, H. IV; Goland, A.N.

    1978-01-01

    The Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies (DAFS) Task Group has been formed by the Office of Fusion Energy to develop procedures for applying data obtained in various irradiation test facilities to projected fusion environments. A long-range program plan has been prepared and implementation has begun. The plan and technical status are briefly described

  8. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K W; Choe, K O; Park, C Y; Lee, H; Son, H Y; Huh, K B; Ryu, K J [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  9. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. W.; Choe, K. O.; Park, C. Y.; Lee, H.; Son, H. Y.; Huh, K. B.; Ryu, K. J. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  10. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. W.; Choe, K. O.; Park, C. Y.; Lee, H.; Son, H. Y.; Huh, K. B.; Ryu, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  11. Femoral nerve damage (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The femoral nerve is located in the leg and supplies the muscles that assist help straighten the leg. It supplies sensation ... leg. One risk of damage to the femoral nerve is pelvic fracture. Symptoms of femoral nerve damage ...

  12. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones...... as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor or a fertility factor. The targets of gastrointestinal hormones are specific G-protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in the cell membranes also outside the digestive tract. Thus, gut hormones not only regulate digestive functions...

  13. Metastatic Breast Cancer and Hormonal Receptor Status among a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ANNALS of AFRICAN SURGERY | www.sskenya.org. The ANNALS of ... metastatic lesions and survival among breast cancer patients. ... year survival rate (2). Breast ... Three core ... ER negative and 35 (49.3%) had PR positive tumours.

  14. Importance of secondary damage in downer cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, P J; Vizard, A L; Anderson, G A; Pyman, M F

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the relative importance in downer cows of the primary cause of recumbency in comparison with secondary complications. Downer dairy cows were monitored during their recumbency under field conditions in South Gippsland, Victoria, Australia. The cause of the original recumbency of the 218 cows was determined and secondary damage, status on day 7 and final outcome were recorded. Some type of secondary damage was found in 183/218 (84%) cows, of which 173/218 (79%) had damage deemed to be clinically important. By day 7, 52 (24%) had recovered and 69 (32%) eventually recovered. Of the 149 (68%) cows that were euthanased or died, 23 (15%) were deemed to have been lost solely from the primary cause, 107 (72%) from secondary damage and 19 (13%) from a combination of both. There was no difference in recovery among the five broad groups of causes of primary recumbency. Secondary damage was very common and presented in a large variety of ways, with many cows having multiple types of secondary damage concurrently. For most cows the secondary damage was more important than the initial primary damage in determining their fate. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  15. Natural Variation in Stress Hormones, Comparisons Across Matrices, and Impacts Resulting from Induced Stress in the Bottlenose Dolphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Dorian S; Champagne, Cory D; Crocker, Daniel E; Kellar, Nicholas M; Cockrem, John; Romano, Tracy; Booth, Rebecca K; Wasser, Samuel K

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge regarding stress hormones and how they vary in response to seasonality, gender, age, and reproductive status for any marine mammal is limited. Furthermore, stress hormones may be measured in more than one matrix (e.g., feces, blood, blubber), but the relationships between levels of a given hormone across these matrices are unknown, further complicating the interpretations of hormones measured in samples collected from wild animals. A study is underway to address these issues in a population of bottlenose dolphins trained for voluntary participation in sample collections from different matrices and across season and time of day.

  16. A Case With Short Stature, Growth Hormone Deficiency and 46, XX, Xq27-qter Deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Şule; Topaloğlu, Naci; Tekin, Mustafa; Sılan, Fatma

    2017-10-01

    We report a case of 11-year-old girl with growth retardation and 46, XX, Xq27-qter deletion. The endocrinologic evaluation revealed growth hormone deficiency. In karyotype analysis  46, XX, Xq27-qter deletion was determined. The deletion of terminal region of chromosome 27 is most commonly being detected during the evaluation of infertility, premature ovarian insufficiency or in screening for fragile X carrier status. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case with 46, XX, Xq27-qter deletion and growth hormone deficiency. Furthermore, this case might facilitate future search for candidate genes involved in growth hormone deficiency.

  17. Thin film femtosecond laser damage competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Christopher J.; Ristau, Detlev; Turowski, Marcus; Blaschke, Holger

    2009-10-01

    In order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors, a damage competition was started at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state of the art of high laser resistance coatings since they are tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. In 2009 a high reflector coating was selected at a wavelength of 786 nm at normal incidence at a pulse length of 180 femtoseconds. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials and layer count, and spectral results will also be shared.

  18. Hormonal Approaches to Male contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Condoms and vasectomy are male controlled family planning methods but suffer from limitations in compliance (condoms) and limited reversibility (vasectomy); thus many couples desire other options. Hormonal male contraceptive methods have undergone extensive clinical trials in healthy men and shown to be efficacious, reversible and appear to be safe. Recent Findings The success rate of male hormonal contraception using injectable testosterone alone is high and comparable to methods for women. Addition of progestins to androgens improved the rate of suppression of spermatogenesis. Supported by government or non-government organizations, current studies aim to find the best combination of testosterone and progestins for effective spermatogenesis suppression and to explore other delivery methods for these hormones. Translation of these advances to widespread use in the developed world will need the manufacturing and marketing skills of the pharmaceutical industry. Availability of male contraceptives to the developing world may require commitments of governmental and non-governmental agencies. In a time when imbalance of basic resources and population needs are obvious, this may prove to be a very wise investment. Summary Male hormonal contraception is efficacious, reversible and safe for the target population of younger men in stable relationships. Suppression of spermatogenesis is achieved with a combination of an androgen and a progestin. Partnership with industry will accelerate the marketing of a male hormonal contraceptive. Research is ongoing on selective androgen and progesterone receptor modulators that suppress spermatogenesis, minimize potential adverse events while retaining the androgenic actions. PMID:20808223

  19. Hormone therapy and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal and postmenopau......CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal...... and postmenopausal women receiving different hormone therapies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Nationwide prospective cohort study including all Danish women aged 50 through 79 years from 1995 through 2005 through individual linkage to Danish national registers. Redeemed prescription data from the National Register...... bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 909,946 women without hormone-sensitive cancer or bilateral oophorectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ovarian cancer. RESULTS: In an average of 8.0 years of follow-up (7.3 million women-years), 3068 incident ovarian...

  20. Radioimmunological and clinical studies with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LRH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlen, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay for Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone (LRH) has been established, tested and applied. Optimal conditions for the performance with regards to incubation time, incubation temperature, concentration of antiserum and radiolabelled LRH have been established. The specificity of the LRH immunoassay was investigated. Problems with direct measurement of LRH in plasmas of radioimmunoassay are encountered. The LRH distribution in various tissues of the rat are investigated. By means of a system for continuous monitoring of LH and FSH in women the lowest effective dose of LRH causing a significant release of LH and FSH could be established. (Auth.)

  1. Electrochemical biosensors for hormone analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadır, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-06-15

    Electrochemical biosensors have a unique place in determination of hormones due to simplicity, sensitivity, portability and ease of operation. Unlike chromatographic techniques, electrochemical techniques used do not require pre-treatment. Electrochemical biosensors are based on amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric, and conductometric principle. Amperometric technique is a commonly used one. Although electrochemical biosensors offer a great selectivity and sensitivity for early clinical analysis, the poor reproducible results, difficult regeneration steps remain primary challenges to the commercialization of these biosensors. This review summarizes electrochemical (amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric and conductometric) biosensors for hormone detection for the first time in the literature. After a brief description of the hormones, the immobilization steps and analytical performance of these biosensors are summarized. Linear ranges, LODs, reproducibilities, regenerations of developed biosensors are compared. Future outlooks in this area are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Acetylcholine Modulates the Hormones of the Growth Hormone/Insulinlike Growth Factor-1 Axis During Development in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Marie-José; Bertolus, Chloé; Ramanantsoa, Nélina; Saurini, Françoise; Callebert, Jacques; Sénamaud-Beaufort, Catherine; Ringot, Maud; Bourgeois, Thomas; Matrot, Boris; Collet, Corinne; Nardelli, Jeannette; Mallet, Jacques; Vodjdani, Guilan; Gallego, Jorge; Launay, Jean-Marie; Berrard, Sylvie

    2018-04-01

    Pituitary growth hormone (GH) and insulinlike growth factor (IGF)-1 are anabolic hormones whose physiological roles are particularly important during development. The activity of the GH/IGF-1 axis is controlled by complex neuroendocrine systems including two hypothalamic neuropeptides, GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SRIF), and a gastrointestinal hormone, ghrelin. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) is involved in tuning GH secretion, and its GH-stimulatory action has mainly been shown in adults but is not clearly documented during development. ACh, together with these hormones and their receptors, is expressed before birth, and somatotroph cells are already responsive to GHRH, SRIF, and ghrelin. We thus hypothesized that ACh could contribute to the modulation of the main components of the somatotropic axis during development. In this study, we generated a choline acetyltransferase knockout mouse line and showed that heterozygous mice display a transient deficit in ACh from embryonic day 18.5 to postnatal day 10, and they recover normal ACh levels from the second postnatal week. This developmental ACh deficiency had no major impact on weight gain and cardiorespiratory status of newborn mice. Using this mouse model, we found that endogenous ACh levels determined the concentrations of circulating GH and IGF-1 at embryonic and postnatal stages. In particular, serum GH level was correlated with brain ACh content. ACh also modulated the levels of GHRH and SRIF in the hypothalamus and ghrelin in the stomach, and it affected the levels of these hormones in the circulation. This study identifies ACh as a potential regulator of the somatotropic axis during the developmental period.

  3. Some theoretical aspects of hormone receptor determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sluiter, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Suitable antisera for determination of hormone receptors are not available for the majority of hormone receptors. Therefore, the determination of hormone receptors is mostly performed in terms of binding capacity for the appropriate hormone, using radioactive hormone labels. Some theoretical aspects of such a receptor determination are discussed including the length of incubation (total or unoccupied receptor concentration), single point or multiple point (Scatchard) analysis (regarding the influence of other specific binders), the correction procedure for non-specific binding and the influence of the circulating hormone level. (Auth.)

  4. Advances in male hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Antonietta; Gava, Giulia; Berra, Marta; Meriggiola Maria, Cristina

    2014-11-01

    Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials.

  5. Advances in male hormonal contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantino Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials.

  6. Hormonal interaction in diabetic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiez, A.R.A.; Abdel-Hafez, M.A.; Osman, E.A.; Ibrahim, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Serum glucose, human placental lactogen (HPL), prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E 2 ), progesterone (P), cortisol and human growth hormone (HGH) were determined in nondiabetic (19 cases) and diabetic (19 cases) pregnant women during the 32nd and 36th week of gestation. Significant elevation of HPL, PRL, HGH and cortisol was found in the diabetic pregnant women during the 32nd week while E 2 and P were not significantly changed from the corresponding levels in the nondiabetic group. One can conclude that the changes in the hormonal pattern during gestation may induce carbohydrate intolerance observed in diabetic pregnancies. (author)

  7. Hormonal contraception, thrombosis and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2014-01-01

    : First choice in women below 35 years should be a combined low-risk pill, that is, with a second-generation progestin, with the lowest compliable dose of estrogen. Young women with risk factors of thrombosis such as age above 35 years, genetic predispositions, adiposity, polycystic ovary syndrome......INTRODUCTION: This paper reviews the risk of thrombosis with use of different types of hormonal contraception in women of different ages. AREAS COVERED: Combined hormonal contraceptives with desogestrel, gestodene, drospirenone or cyproterone acetate (high-risk products) confer a sixfold increased...

  8. Hormonal Changes and Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Eric S; Frederick, Natasha N; Bober, Sharon L

    2017-11-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common concern for many patients with cancer after treatment. Hormonal changes as a result of cancer-directed therapy can affect both male and female sexual health. This has the potential to significantly impact patients' quality of life, but is underreported and undertreated in the oncology setting. This review discusses commonly reported sexual issues and the role that hormonal changes play in this dysfunction. Although medical and psychosocial intervention strategies exist, there is a clear need for further research to formally develop programming that can assist people whose sexual health has been impacted by cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Luteinizing hormone in testicular descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Kaleva, Marko M; Virtanen, Helena E

    2007-01-01

    alone is not sufficient for normal testicular descent. The regulation of androgen production is influenced both by placental human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH). There is evidence that the longer pregnancy continues, the more important role pituitary LH may have....... Insulin-like hormone-3 (INSL3) is suggested to be the main regulator of gubernacular development and therefore an apparent regulator of testicular descent. INSL3 production is also related to LH, and reduced INSL3 action is a possible cause for cryptorchidism. Cryptorchid boys have normal testosterone...

  10. Role of Thyroid Hormones in Skeletal Development and Bone Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, J H Duncan; Williams, Graham R

    2016-04-01

    The skeleton is an exquisitely sensitive and archetypal T3-target tissue that demonstrates the critical role for thyroid hormones during development, linear growth, and adult bone turnover and maintenance. Thyrotoxicosis is an established cause of secondary osteoporosis, and abnormal thyroid hormone signaling has recently been identified as a novel risk factor for osteoarthritis. Skeletal phenotypes in genetically modified mice have faithfully reproduced genetic disorders in humans, revealing the complex physiological relationship between centrally regulated thyroid status and the peripheral actions of thyroid hormones. Studies in mutant mice also established the paradigm that T3 exerts anabolic actions during growth and catabolic effects on adult bone. Thus, the skeleton represents an ideal physiological system in which to characterize thyroid hormone transport, metabolism, and action during development and adulthood and in response to injury. Future analysis of T3 action in individual skeletal cell lineages will provide new insights into cell-specific molecular mechanisms and may ultimately identify novel therapeutic targets for chronic degenerative diseases such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the current state of the art.

  11. Interactions between the thyroid hormones and the hormones of the growth hormone axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Zvi

    2003-12-01

    The normal secretion and action of the thyroid hormones and the hormones of the GH/IGF-I (growth hormone/ insulin-like growth factor I) axis are interdependent. Their interactions often differ in man from animal studies in rodents and sheep. Thus neonates with congenital hypothyroidism are of normal length in humans but IUGR (intrauterine growth retardation) in sheep. Postnatally normal GH/IGF-I secretion and action depends on an euthyroid state. Present knowledge on the interactions between the two axes is reviewed in states of hypo- and hyperthyroidism, states of GH/IGF-I deprivation and hypersecretion, as well as the relationship between IGF-I and thyroid cancer. Emphasis is given to data in children and aspects of linear growth and skeletal maturation.

  12. Radioreceptor assays: plasma membrane receptors and assays for polypeptide and glycoprotein hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulster, D.

    1977-01-01

    Receptors for peptide, protein and glycoprotein hormones, and the catecholamines are located on the plasma membranes of their target cells. Preparations of the receptors may be used as specific, high-affinity binding agents for these hormones in assay methodology akin to that for radioimmunoassay. A particular advantage of the radioreceptor assay is that it has a specificity directed towards the biologically active region of the hormone, rather than to some immunologically active region that may have little (or no) involvement in the expression of hormonal activity. Methods for hormone receptor preparation vary greatly, and range from the use of intact cells (as the source of hormone receptor) to the use of purified or solubilized membrane receptors. Receptors isolated from plasma membranes have proved to be of variable stability, and may be damaged during preparation and/or storage. Moreover, since they are present in relatively low concentration in the cell, their preparation in sufficient quantity for use in a radioreceptor assay may present technical problems. In general, there is good correlation between radioreceptor assays and in-vitro bioassays; differences between results from radioreceptor assays and radioimmunoassays are similar to those noted between in-vitro bioassays and radioimmunoassays. The sensitivity of the method is such that normal plasma concentrations of various hormones have been assayed by this technique. (author)

  13. The net return from animal activity in agro-ecosystems: trading off benefits from ecosystem services against costs from crop damage [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3c4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary W Luck

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Animals provide benefits to agriculture through the provision of ecosystem services, but also inflict costs such as damaging crops. These benefits and costs are mostly examined independently, rather than comparing the trade-offs of animal activity in the same system and quantifying the net return from beneficial minus detrimental activities. Here, I examine the net return associated with the activity of seed-eating birds in almond orchards by quantifying the economic costs and benefits of bird consumption of almonds. Pre-harvest, the consumption of harvestable almonds by birds cost growers AUD$57.50 ha-1 when averaged across the entire plantation. Post-harvest, the same bird species provide an ecosystem service by removing mummified nuts from trees that growers otherwise need to remove to reduce threats from fungal infection or insect pest infestations. The value of this ecosystem service ranged from AUD$82.50 ha-1–$332.50 ha-1 based on the replacement costs of mechanical or manual removal of mummified nuts, respectively. Hence, bird consumption of almonds yielded a positive net return of AUD$25–$275 ha-1 averaged across the entire plantation. However, bird activity varied spatially resulting in positive net returns occurring primarily at the edges of crops where activity was higher, compared to negative net returns in crop interiors. Moreover, partial mummy nut removal by birds meant that bird activity may only reduce costs to growers rather than replace these costs completely. Similar cost-benefit trade-offs exist across nature, and quantifying net returns can better inform land management decisions such as when to control pests or promote ecosystem service provision.

  14. Effects of ionizing radiation and pretreatment with [D-Leu6,des-Gly10] luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ethylamide on developing rat ovarian follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrell, J.; YoungLai, E.V.; McMahon, A.; Barr, R.; O'Connell, G.; Belbeck, L.

    1987-01-01

    To assess the effects of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, [D-Leu6,des-Gly10] luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ethylamide, in ameliorating the damage caused by ionizing radiation, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist was administered to rats from day 22 to 37 of age in doses of 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 microgram/day or vehicle and the rats were sacrificed on day 44 of age. There were no effects on estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing, or follicle-stimulating hormone, nor an effect on ovarian follicle numbers or development. In separate experiments, rats treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in doses of 0.04, 0.1, 0.4, or 1.0 microgram/day were either irradiated or sham irradiated on day 30 and all groups sacrificed on day 44 of age. Irradiation produced a reduction in ovarian weight and an increase in ovarian follicular atresia. Pretreatment with the agonist prevented the reduction in ovarian weight and numbers of primordial and preantral follicles but not healthy or atretic antral follicles. Such putative radioprotection should be tested on actual reproductive performance

  15. Network identification of hormonal regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, D.J.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Roelfsema, F.; Greef, J. van der; Hendriks, M.M.W.B.; Smilde, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for

  16. Hormonal signaling in plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, L.

    2016-01-01

    Insect hervivores and pathogens are a major problem in agriculture and therefore, control of these pests and diseases is essential. For this, understanding the plant immune response can be instrumental. The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) play an essential role in defense

  17. Incretin hormones--an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Orskov, C

    2001-01-01

    important incretin hormones are glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP, previously known as gastric inhibitory polypeptide) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from the upper and lower small intestinal mucosa, respectively. It has been shown that interference with the incretin function causes...

  18. Transdermal Spray in Hormone Delivery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    market for the delivery system and ongoing development of transdermal sprays for hormone ... (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts ... patches and gels have been very popular owing ... This product was developed for ... In a safety announcement, the US Food and.

  19. Quo vadis plant hormone analysis?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarkowská, Danuše; Novák, Ondřej; Floková, Kristýna; Tarkowski, P.; Turečková, Veronika; Grúz, Jiří; Rolčík, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 240, č. 1 (2014), s. 55-76 ISSN 0032-0935 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Plant hormones * Extraction * Mass spectrometr Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.263, year: 2014

  20. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, M; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P

    2010-01-01

    , no pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial...

  1. Hormones and growth factors in breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herman-Giddens M. Condylomata acuminata in children and sexual abuse. Genitourin ..... accommodated reasonably easily in the outline of hormone action referred to ... tumours may still respond to hormone manipulation with another type of ...

  2. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003710.htm Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test measures the level of FSH in blood. FSH ...

  3. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2009-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading

  4. Growth hormone stimulation test - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland under the control of the hypothalamus. In children, GH has growth-promoting effects on the body. It stimulates the ...

  5. Treatment of TBI with Hormonal and Pharmacological Support, Preclinical Validation Using Diffuse and Mechanical TBI Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Award Number: PT075653 (grant) W81XWH-08-2-0153 (contract) TITLE: Treatment of TBI with Hormonal and Pharmacological Support, Preclinical...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-08-2-0153 Treatment of TBI with Hormonal and Pharmacological Support, Preclinical Validation Using...rats. Our in vivo tests also included MRI imaging, focusing on edema resolution and reduction of diffuse axonal damage (fractional anisotropy

  6. Thyroid Hormone Effects on Whole-Body Energy Homeostasis and Tissue-Specific Fatty Acid Uptake in Vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klieverik, Lars P.; Coomans, Claudia P.; Endert, Erik; Sauerwein, Hans P.; Havekes, Louis M.; Voshol, Peter J.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Kalsbeek, Andries; Fliers, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The effects of thyroid hormone (TH) status on energy metabolism and tissue-specific substrate supply in vivo are incompletely understood. To study the effects of TH status on energy metabolism and tissue-specific fatty acid (FA) fluxes, we used metabolic cages as well as C-14-labeled FA and

  7. Quality of life in children and adolescents with growth hormone deficiency: association with growth hormone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Alexandra; Lass, Nina; Reinsch, Nicole; Uysal, Yvonne; Singer, Viola; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Reinehr, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) as it is related with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a matter of controversy. We analyzed QoL in 95 children aged 8-18 years with isolated GHD (72% male) treated with growth hormone (GH). These children were compared to 190 age- and gender-matched healthy children with similar height [height children of normal stature (control group 2: CG2). QoL was measured by the KINDL® questionnaire referring to six domains (physical well-being, emotional well-being, self-esteem, family, friends, and school). QoL was significantly reduced in CG1 (effect-size 0.21) compared to CG2, while QoL was not significantly altered in children with GHD. In multiple linear regression analyses adjusted to age, gender, BMI, migration background, and socioeconomic status, decreasing height-SDS was associated with poorer QoL (especially emotional well-being), and treatment with GH was related significantly to better self-esteem. Increase of height-SDS in children treated with GH was associated positively with QoL and all its subscales except family and school. These findings suggest psychological consequences of short stature in children and an improvement of QoL in children treated with GH with the focus on self-esteem and emotional well-being. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Gene expression and hormone autonomy in radiation-induced tumors of Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persinger, S.M.; Town, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    In order to study the molecular genetics of factor controlling plant cell growth, we have isolated a group of radiation-induced tumors from Arabidopsis thaliana. Tumors appeared on plants derived from 60 Co gamma-irradiated seed or seedlings, and are capable of hormone-autonomous growth in culture. We have used vertebrate oncogene probes to explore the hypothesis that the tumors arose by the radiation-induced activation of growth-regulating plant oncogenes. One probe, int-2, was used to isolate cDNA clones representing an mRNA differentially expressed between tumors and hormone-dependent callus tissue. The genomic organization and function of this and other differentially expressed Arabidopsis sequences are being further characterized. A second area of study concerns the hormonal status of individual tumors. Tumor tissue varies in color, texture, and degree of differentiation: while some tumors appear undifferentiated, one consistently produces roots, and others occasionally develop shoots or leaflets. The tumors have characteristic growth rates on hormone-free medium, and growth in response to exogenous hormones differs among the tumors themselves and from wild-type. Characterization of the relationships between hormonal status, morphogenesis, and gene expression should yield valuable insights into the mechanisms regulating plant growth and development

  9. Radiation damage to mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    This document contains newspaper cuttings and correspondence with various ministries in Hessen on the subject of radiation damage to mushrooms from the Odenwald area. The reader is given, amongst other things, detailed information on radiation damage to different types of mushroom in 1986. (MG) [de

  10. Animal damage to birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; Francis M. Rushmore

    1969-01-01

    A relatively few animal species are responsible for most of the reported damage to the birches. White-tailed deer, yellow-bellied sapsuckers, porcupines, moose, and hares are the major animals involved. We will review reports of damage, discuss the underlying causes, and describe possible methods of control. For example, heavy deer browsing that eliminates birch...

  11. Animal damage management handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh C. Black

    1994-01-01

    This handbook treats animal damage management (ADM) in the West in relation to forest, range, and recreation resources; predator management is not addressed. It provides a comprehensive reference of safe, effective, and practical methods for managing animal damage on National Forest System lands. Supporting information is included in references after each chapter and...

  12. Nuclear damage - civil liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is made of the civil liability for nuclear damage since there is a need to adjust the existing rules to the new situations created. The conventions that set up the new disciplining rules not considered in the common law for the liability of nuclear damage are also mentioned. (A.L.) [pt

  13. DNA damage and autophagy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Garcia-Garcia, Aracely; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I.; Franco, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Both exogenous and endogenous agents are a threat to DNA integrity. Exogenous environmental agents such as ultraviolet (UV) and ionizing radiation, genotoxic chemicals and endogenous byproducts of metabolism including reactive oxygen species can cause alterations in DNA structure (DNA damage). Unrepaired DNA damage has been linked to a variety of human disorders including cancer and neurodegenerative disease. Thus, efficient mechanisms to detect DNA lesions, signal their presence and promote their repair have been evolved in cells. If DNA is effectively repaired, DNA damage response is inactivated and normal cell functioning resumes. In contrast, when DNA lesions cannot be removed, chronic DNA damage triggers specific cell responses such as cell death and senescence. Recently, DNA damage has been shown to induce autophagy, a cellular catabolic process that maintains a balance between synthesis, degradation, and recycling of cellular components. But the exact mechanisms by which DNA damage triggers autophagy are unclear. More importantly, the role of autophagy in the DNA damage response and cellular fate is unknown. In this review we analyze evidence that supports a role for autophagy as an integral part of the DNA damage response.

  14. Steroid hormone profile in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Lisa; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Bytingsvik, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    The polar bear is an iconic Arctic species, threatened by anthropogenic impacts such as pollution and climate change. Successful reproduction of polar bears depends on a functioning steroid hormone system, which is susceptible to effects of persistent organic pollutants. The present study...... is the first study to report circulating concentrations of nine steroid hormones (i.e., estrogens, androgens and progestagens) in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus). The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age, condition, location and reproductive status on steroid profile in female polar...... bears. Levels of pregnenolone (PRE), progesterone, androstenedione (AN), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2) and 17β-estradiol (βE2) were quantified in blood (serum) of free-living female polar bears (n = 15) from Svalbard, Norway, by gas...

  15. Hormonal shifts and intensity of free radical oxidation in the blood of patients with facial nerve neuropathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Govorova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathochemical characteristic features of facial nerve neuropathy (FNN have been more accurately defined. Heterogeneous patochemical pattern of facial nerve neuropathy has been shown to be dependent on the severity of the disease, intensity of free radical oxidation processes, and hormonal status of the patient. We have found reliable distinctions in dynamics of free radical oxidation processes, and hormo-nal status in the blood of the patients with moderately severe and severe forms of facial nerve neuropathies. In facial nerve neuropathies we observed regulatory effects of cortisol and somatotropic hormone; in facial nerve neuropathywith moderate severity the hormones of thyroid group were seen to be switching off, falling out the processes regulating metabolism. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH were found to have regulating effects, especially in the acute phase of the disease. Different dynamics of the hormones in patients with high and low free radical oxidation levels suggests that the oxidative stress intensity could be associated with regulatory effects of the hormones . The results of correlation analysis confirm the reliable distinctions in free radical oxidation characteristics andand cortisole levels, STH, FSH and LH levels.

  16. Headaches and Hormones: What's the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headaches and hormones: What's the connection? Being female has some real health advantages, but not when it comes to headaches — particularly ... a relationship between headaches and hormonal changes. The hormones estrogen (ES-truh-jen) and progesterone (pro-JES- ...

  17. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasi...

  18. Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003691.htm Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measures the level of a hormone in the blood, called parathyroid hormone-related protein. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  19. Thyroid hormone signaling in the hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, Anneke; Visser, Theo J.; Fliers, Eric

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Proper thyroid hormone signaling is essential for brain development and adult brain function. Signaling can be disrupted at many levels due to altered thyroid hormone secretion, conversion or thyroid hormone receptor binding. RECENT FINDINGS: Mutated genes involved in thyroid

  20. Obesity, growth hormone and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby

    2009-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is the most important hormonal regulator of postnatal longitudinal growth in man. In adults GH is no longer needed for longitudinal growth. Adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) are characterised by perturbations in body composition, lipid metabolism, cardiovascular risk...

  1. Correlations Between Seminal Plasma Hormones and Sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: There is a complex relationship between seminal plasma hormone levels and infertility in men. Previous studies had shown no specific pattern in the serum or seminal plasma hormone profiles of men with infertility and it is debatable whether there is a need to perform routine seminal hormone assays in the ...

  2. Progressive pituitary hormone deficiency following radiation therapy in adults; Deficiencia progressiva dos hormonios adeno-hipofisarios apos radioterapia em adultos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Rafaela A.; Vaisman, Mario [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Endocrinologia]. E-mail: rafaela_loureiro@hotmail.com

    2004-10-01

    Hypopituitarism can be caused by radiation therapy, even when it is not directly applied on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and can lead to anterior pituitary deficiency mainly due to hypothalamic damage. The progressive loss of the anterior pituitary hormones usually occurs in the following order: growth hormone, gonadotropin hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Although there are several different tests available to confirm anterior pituitary deficiency, this paper will focus on the gold standard tests for patients submitted to radiation therapy. We emphasize that the decline of anterior pituitary function is time- and dose-dependent with some variability among the different axes. Therefore, awareness of the need of a joint management by endocrinologists and oncologists is essential to improve treatment and quality of life of the patients. (author)

  3. Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajusz, S.; Janaky, T.; Csernus, V.J.; Bokser, L.; Fekete, M.; Srkalovic, G.; Redding, T.W.; Schally, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. Most metallopeptide analogues of LH-RH showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary and human breast cancer cells. Some of these metallopeptides had cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Such cytostatic metallopeptides could be envisioned as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in cancers that contain receptors for LH-RH-like peptides

  4. Status epilepticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensiek, AE; Absalom, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Status epilepticus is defined as epileptic activity that continues for more than 30 minutes as a single seizure or as recurrent seizures without inter-ictal return of consciousness. The seizure activity is usually classified as partial or generalized. Although status epilepticus is an uncommon

  5. The interrelationships of thyroid and growth hormones: effect of growth hormone releasing hormone in hypo- and hyperthyroid male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, A W; Shulman, D; Root, J; Diamond, F

    1986-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and the thyroid hormones interact in the hypothalamus, pituitary and peripheral tissues. Thyroid hormone exerts a permissive effect upon the anabolic and metabolic effects of GH, and increases pituitary synthesis of this protein hormone. GH depresses the secretion of thyrotropin and the thyroid hormones and increases the peripheral conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine. In the adult male rat experimental hypothyroidism produced by ingestion of propylthiouracil depresses the GH secretory response to GH-releasing hormone in vivo and in vitro, reflecting the lowered pituitary stores of GH in the hypothyroid state. Short term administration of large amounts of thyroxine with induction of the hyperthyroid state does not affect the in vivo GH secretory response to GH-releasing hormone in this animal.

  6. Metabolite Damage and Metabolite Damage Control in Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Andrew D. [Horticultural Sciences Department and; Henry, Christopher S. [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, email:; Computation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637; Fiehn, Oliver [Genome Center, University of California, Davis, California 95616, email:; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie [Microbiology and Cell Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, email: ,

    2016-04-29

    It is increasingly clear that (a) many metabolites undergo spontaneous or enzyme-catalyzed side reactions in vivo, (b) the damaged metabolites formed by these reactions can be harmful, and (c) organisms have biochemical systems that limit the buildup of damaged metabolites. These damage-control systems either return a damaged molecule to its pristine state (metabolite repair) or convert harmful molecules to harmless ones (damage preemption). Because all organisms share a core set of metabolites that suffer the same chemical and enzymatic damage reactions, certain damage-control systems are widely conserved across the kingdoms of life. Relatively few damage reactions and damage-control systems are well known. Uncovering new damage reactions and identifying the corresponding damaged metabolites, damage-control genes, and enzymes demands a coordinated mix of chemistry, metabolomics, cheminformatics, biochemistry, and comparative genomics. This review illustrates the above points using examples from plants, which are at least as prone to metabolite damage as other organisms.

  7. Evidence-based practice in women's health: hormone therapy for women at menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, M E

    2001-01-01

    Women's health providers, especially midwives, must take into account the known benefits and risks, as well as the "unknown," when recommending the use of hormone therapy for menopausal women, especially as it relates to heart disease, breast cancer, impaired cognition, and osteoporosis. The most recent evidence available from various studies about the benefits and risks of estrogen and hormone therapy at menopause suggests that, although hormone therapy may be protective in some women against heart disease and osteoporosis, evidence is less certain about the benefits of hormone protection against impaired cognition and the risks of breast cancer with use. The clinical approach used by midwives in which individualizing care based on each woman's health status history as well as preferences is highly appropriate for women in the perimenopausal and menopausal period.

  8. Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post

  9. Descriptive review: hormonal influences on risk for eating disorder symptoms during puberty and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, K Paige; Kretsch, Natalie; Moore, Sarah R; Mendle, Jane

    2014-11-01

    Puberty is an important period of risk for the onset of eating pathology in adolescent females. This review focuses on changes in reproductive hormones during puberty as one specific psychopathogenic mechanism. Studies of puberty and eating disorder-related phenotypes were identified using search databases and the reference sections of previous literature. Correlational studies of adult women and experimental studies of animals provide evidence for the effects of reproductive hormones on eating disorder symptoms. Very few studies of puberty, however, have directly measured or tested the effects of hormonal change in samples of human adolescents. Commonly used measures of pubertal development, such as menarche or self-reported pubertal status, are relatively poor indicators of individual differences in hormones. The extent to which puberty-related hormonal change accounts for elevated risk for disordered eating remains unclear. Future research is necessary to elucidate the specific relations between hormonal change during puberty and risk for disordered eating. In particular, there is a need for longitudinal studies with multivariate measurement of pubertal development, including direct measures of change in reproductive hormones. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Maternal hormonal interventions as a risk factor for Autism Spectrum Disorder: an epidemiological assessment from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamidala, Madhu Poornima; Polinedi, Anupama; Kumar, P T V Praveen; Rajesh, N; Vallamkonda, Omsai Ramesh; Udani, Vrajesh; Singhal, Nidhi; Rajesh, Vidya

    2013-12-01

    Globalization and women empowerment have led to stressful life among Indian women. This stress impairs women's hormonal makeup and menstrual cycle, leading to infertility. National Family Health Survey-3 (NFHS-3) reports a decline in fertility status in India, indicating a rise in various infertility treatments involving hormonal interventions. No studies are available from India on the risk association link between maternal hormonal treatments and ASD. Hence, this study explores the association of maternal hormonal interventions with risk for ASD. Parents of 942 children (471 ASD and 471 controls) across 9 cities in India participated in the questionnaire-based study. The questionnaire was pilot tested and validated for its content and reliability as a psychometric instrument. Data collection was done at 70 centres through direct interaction with parents and with the help of trained staff. Statistical analysis of data was carried out using SAS 9.1.3. Out of the 471 ASD cases analysed, 58 mothers had undergone hormonal interventions (12.3 percent) while there were only 22 mothers among controls who underwent hormonal interventions (4.6 percent). According to logistic regression analysis maternal hormonal intervention (OR=2.24) was a significant risk factor for ASD.

  11. There is a Positive Correlation Between Socioeconomic Status and Ovarian Reserve in Women of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Mert Ulas; Agacayak, Elif; Bozkurt, Murat; Aksu, Tarık; Gul, Talip

    2016-11-16

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential association between socioeconomic status and ovarian reserve, anti-Mullerian hormone level, antral follicle count, and follicle stimulating hormone level in women of reproductive age. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 101 married women between 20-35 years of age who presented to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Health Research System In Vitro Fertilization (HRS IVF) Center between October 2014 and November 2015 and met the inclusion criteria were included in this study. The participants were divided into three socioeconomic groups using Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic status scale. Thirty-one participants were assigned to the low socioeconomic status group, 37 to the middle socioeconomic status group, and 33 to the high socioeconomic status group. On days 3-6 of the menstrual cycle, 10 mL of blood was collected from the participants for follicle stimulating hormone and anti-Mullerian hormone measurements. Transvaginal ultrasonography was performed for both ovaries for the purpose of counting antral follicles measuring 2-10 mm in diameter. RESULTS Both ovarian reserve parameters, namely anti-Mullerian hormone level and antral follicle count, exhibited a significant association with socioeconomic status (p=0.000 and p=0.000, respectively). The association between follicle stimulating hormone level and socioeconomic status was also significant (p=0.000). CONCLUSIONS A low socioeconomic status aggravated by sources of stress such as undernutrition and financial hardships affects ovarian reserve, which should be remembered in approaching infertile patients.

  12. THE ROLE OF HORMONES ON Toxoplasma gondii INFECTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María De La Luz Galván-Ramírez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is the causal agent of toxoplasmosis in which one third of the world’s population has been infected. In pregnant women, it may cause abortion and severe damage to the fetal central nervous system. During pregnancy, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis increases throughout the second and third quarter of gestation, simultaneously progesterone and 17β-estradiol also increase. Thus, it has been suggested that these hormones can aggravate or reduce parasite reproduction. The aim of this study was reviewing the relationship between hormones and infection caused by T. gondii in several experimental animal models and humans, focused mainly on: a congenital transmission, b parasite reproduction, c strain virulence, d levels of hormone in host induced by T. gondii infection and e participation of hormone receptors in Toxoplasma gondii infection.Are the hormones specific modulators of T. gondii infection?A systematic review methodology was used to consult several databases (Pub Med, Lilacs, Medline, Science direct, Scielo, Ebsco, Sprinker, Wiley and Google Scholar dated from September, 2013 to March, 2014. Results: 30 studies were included; eight studies in humans and 22 in animals and cell cultures. In the human studies, the most studied hormones were testosterone, progesterone, prolactin and 17-ß estradiol. Type I (RH and BK and Type II (Prugniaud, SC, ME49,T45, P78 and T38 were the most frequent experimental strains. Conclusions: Thirty-five years have passed since the first studies regarding Toxoplasma gondii infection and its relationship with hormones. This systematic review suggests that hormones modulate Toxoplasma gondii infection in different animal models. However, given that data were not comparable, further studies are required to determine the mechanism of hormone action in the Toxoplasma gondii infectious process.

  13. DNA damage and polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jeremy; Poon, Randy Y C

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that polyploidization triggers chromosomal instability and contributes to tumorigenesis. DNA damage is increasingly being recognized for its roles in promoting polyploidization. Although elegant mechanisms known as the DNA damage checkpoints are responsible for halting the cell cycle after DNA damage, agents that uncouple the checkpoints can induce unscheduled entry into mitosis. Likewise, defects of the checkpoints in several disorders permit mitotic entry even in the presence of DNA damage. Forcing cells with damaged DNA into mitosis causes severe chromosome segregation defects, including lagging chromosomes, chromosomal fragments and chromosomal bridges. The presence of these lesions in the cleavage plane is believed to abort cytokinesis. It is postulated that if cytokinesis failure is coupled with defects of the p53-dependent postmitotic checkpoint pathway, cells can enter S phase and become polyploids. Progress in the past several years has unraveled some of the underlying principles of these pathways and underscored the important role of DNA damage in polyploidization. Furthermore, polyploidization per se may also be an important determinant of sensitivity to DNA damage, thereby may offer an opportunity for novel therapies.

  14. Requirement for specific gravity and creatinine adjustments for urinary steroids and luteinizing hormone concentrations in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet K S; Balzer, Ben W R; Desai, Reena; Jimenez, Mark; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Handelsman, David J

    2015-11-01

    Urinary hormone concentrations are often adjusted to correct for hydration status. We aimed to determine whether first morning void urine hormones in growing adolescents require adjustments and, if so, whether urinary creatinine or specific gravity are better adjustments. The study population was adolescents aged 10.1 to 14.3 years initially who provided fasting morning blood samples at 0 and 12 months (n = 343) and first morning urine every three months (n = 644). Unadjusted, creatinine and specific gravity-adjusted hormonal concentrations were compared by Deming regression and Bland-Altman analysis and grouped according to self-rated Tanner stage or chronological age. F-ratios for self-rated Tanner stages and age groups were used to compare unadjusted and adjusted hormonal changes in growing young adolescents. Correlations of paired serum and urinary hormonal concentration of unadjusted and creatinine and specific gravity-adjusted were also compared. Fasting first morning void hormone concentrations correlated well and were unbiased between unadjusted or adjusted by either creatinine or specific gravity. Urine creatinine concentration increases with Tanner stages, age and male gender whereas urine specific gravity was not influenced by Tanner stage, age or gender. Adjustment by creatinine or specific gravity of urinary luteinizing hormone, estradiol, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations did not improve correlation with paired serum concentrations. Urine steroid and luteinizing hormone concentrations in first morning void samples of adolescents are not significantly influenced by hydration status and may not require adjustments; however, if desired, both creatinine and specific gravity adjustments are equally suitable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy.

  16. Progress of measurement of hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsawa, Nakaaki

    1977-01-01

    Description was made as to an outline of the theory of radioreceptor assay (RRA) in which hormone receptor was used as specific binding protein, as same as the theory of RIA, and as to its practical use. Meaning of RRA for measurement of hormones in consideration of the site of immunological and biological activation and meaning of difference in measurement values between this method and in RIA in the same materials, were mentioned, and effectiveness of use of this method together with RIA was described. Detection of receptor site, analysis of binding specificity, and numerical calculation were mentioned as receptor analysis by this method. As practical use of these functions, arrangement mechanism of receptor, and analysis of abnormality were mentioned. Especially, analysis of testicular feminization syndrome, insulinresistenter diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and myasthenia gravis, and relationship between these diseases and autoimmune diseases were described, and clinical meaning of this method in internal medicine and surgery was mentioned. (Kanao, N.)

  17. Patient communication in hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnare, S M

    2001-01-01

    Common regimens of HRT therapy are reviewed, including common routes of hormone administration. Inconsistent patterns of HRT use are discussed, including the reasons women most often give for discontinuing hormone therapies. Specific issues related to misperceptions and fears regarding HRT are clarified, and specific, focused patient education formats are discussed to address women's common concerns about HRT. Obstacles to HRT use are elucidated, with suggestions for clinicians about how to communicate more effectively with women: clinicians must focus on emotional and physical aspects of HRT choices and tailor therapies to the individual patient. Discussing frankly the very serious concerns of women regarding the association between lobular breast cancer and endometrial cancer is important; discussing and preparing women for possible side effects helps patients cope better if and when side effects occur. Finally, offering a wide variety of HRT therapies provides women with a broader choice if an initial regimen is unsuccessful.

  18. Radioactive labelling of peptidic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromageot, P.; Pradelles, P.; Morgat, J.L.; Levine, H.

    1976-01-01

    The labelling of peptidic hormones requires stability, specificity and sensitivity of the label. Introduction of a radioactive atome is one way to satisfy these criteria. Several processes have been described to prepare radioactive TRF: synthesis of the peptide with labelled aminoacids or introduction of the label into the hormone. In that approach, tritium can be substituted in the imidazole ring, via precursors activating the proper carbon. Monoiodo TRF leads essentially to tritium labelling of the 5 positions whereas monoazo TRF allows the preparation of 3 H TRF labelled in the 2 positions. Di-substituted TRF leads to labelling into the 2 and 5 carbons. Labelled analogs of TRF can be prepared with labelled iodine; further developments of peptide labelling, will be presented. In particular, the homolytic scission of the C-iodine, bond by photochemical activation. The nascent carbon radical can be stabilized by a tritiated scavenger. This approach eliminates the use of heavy metal catalysts

  19. Would male hormonal contraceptives affect cardiovascular risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zitzmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of hormonal male contraception is to prevent unintended pregnancies by suppressing spermatogenesis. Hormonal male contraception is based on the principle that exogenous administration of androgens and other hormones such as progestins suppress circulating gonadotropin concentrations, decreasing testicular Leydig cell and Sertoli cell activity and spermatogenesis. In order to achieve more complete suppression of circulating gonadotropins and spermatogenesis, a progestin has been added testosterone to the most recent efficacy trials of hormonal male contraceptives. This review focusses on the potential effects of male hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk factors, lipids and body composition, mainly in the target group of younger to middle-aged men. Present data suggest that hormonal male contraception can be reasonably regarded as safe in terms of cardiovascular risk. However, as all trials have been relatively short (< 3 years, a final statement regarding the cardiovascular safety of hormonal male contraception, especially in long-term use, cannot be made. Older men with at high risk of cardiovascular event might not be good candidates for hormonal male contraception. The potential adverse effects of hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk appear to depend greatly on the choice of the progestin in regimens for hormonal male contraceptives. In the development of prospective hormonal male contraception, data on longer-term cardiovascular safety will be essential.

  20. In vitro radioassay techniques in the study of reproductive hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivarola, M.

    1980-01-01

    Testosterone (T) levels in the testicular tissue in varicocele were studied in relation to alterations of testicular function. Testicular T levels were measured by a modified radioimmunoassay procedure in which 3 H-testosterone was used as a tracer to monitor losses during extraction of the hormone. Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and T levels were measured by conventional radioimmunoassay. Testicular function was evaluated from patient histories and physical examinations, and from the results of sperm counts and histological examinations of biopsy specimens. In 4 control patients mean testicular T was 520 +- 127 ng/g tissue and the mean ratio testicular T/serum T 104 +- 47. In the majority of 17 patients with unilateral varicocele, testicular T was within normal limits, but in 3 patients with severe testicular damage values of 2700, 2373 and 1437 ng/g were recorded. Serum T levels were normal in the majority of patients and decreased in 2. Serum FSH levels were normal in the majority of patients and increased in 3. Serum LH levels were increased in approximately one half of patients. The results are considered indicative of impaired Leydig cell function in varicocele. It appears, however, that decreased T production is compensated by increased LH production and that the germinal cells are not deprived of T

  1. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF RECOMBINANT HORMONES IN DOPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Vitošević

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant DNA technology has allowed rapid progress in creating biosynthetic gene products for the treatment of many diseases. In this way it can produce large amounts of hormone, which is intended for the treatment of many pathological conditions. Recombinant hormones that are commonly used are insulin, growth hormone and erythropoietin. Precisely because of the availability of these recombinant hormones, it started their abuse by athletes. Experiments in animal models confirmed the potential effects of some of these hormones in increasing physical abilities, which attracted the attention of athletes who push the limits of their competitive capability by such manipulation. The risks of the use of recombinant hormones in doping include serious consequences for the health of athletes. Methods of detection of endogenous hormones from recombined based on the use of a monoclonal antibodies, capillary zone electrophoresis and protein biomarkers

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyl-induced alterations of thyroid hormone homeostasis and brain development in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morse, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Introduction

    The work described in this thesis was undertaken to gain insight in the processes involved in the developmental neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls. It has been previously hypothesized that the alteration of thyroid hormone status by PCBs may

  3. Preeclampsia-Associated Hormonal Profiles and Reduced Breast Cancer Risk Among Older Mothers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laudenslager, Mark

    2003-01-01

    ... to cases on race/ethnicity, current age, age at delivery, and breast-feeding status. A fasting blood and saliva sample was collected from each subject during the luteal phase (day 19-22) of the menstrual cycle and assayed for specific steroid and peptide hormones thought to be linked to breast cancer.

  4. Influence of disease activity on steroid hormone levels in peripheral blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, H. R.; Blankenstein, M. A.; Koppeschaar, H. P.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    The steroid hormone status of 27 female patients (15 premenopausal and 12 postmenopausal) and 11 male patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was investigated before and after a clinically significant deterioration in disease activity. In postmenopausal patients the serum level of cortisol decreased

  5. Interleukin 8 in progression of hormone-dependent early breast cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-04-18

    Apr 18, 2017 ... significance of IL8 in hormone-dependent breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic ... types characterized by a particularly poor prognosis (Aceto et al. ... Progesterone receptor status. PRlow. 70. 76.9. PRhigh. 21. 23.1. NA .... (M<88.82 pg/mg) had lower percentage of relapses and.

  6. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus disguising as hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yong Min; Lee, Sung Wook; Han, Sang Young; Baek, Yang Hyun; Ahn, Ji Hye; Choi, Won Jong; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Sang Ho; Yoon, Byeol A

    2015-04-28

    Nonconvulsive status epilepticus has become an important issue in modern neurology and epileptology. This is based on difficulty in definitively elucidating the condition and its various clinical phenomena and on our inadequate insight into the intrinsic pathophysiological processes. Despite nonconvulsive status epilepticus being a situation that requires immediate treatment, this disorder may not be appreciated as the cause of mental status impairment. Although the pathophysiology of nonconvulsive status epilepticus remains unknown, this disorder is thought to lead to neuronal damage, so its identification and treatment are important. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with liver cirrhosis presenting an altered mental status. We report a case of a 52-year-old male with liver cirrhosis presenting an altered mental status. He was initially diagnosed with hepatic encephalopathy but ultimately diagnosed with nonconvulsive status epilepticus by electroencephalogram.

  7. LSD and Genetic Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishotsky, Norman I.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Reviews studies of the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on man and other organisms. Concludes that pure LSD injected in moderate doses does not cause chromosome or detectable genetic damage and is not a teratogen or carcinogen. (JM)

  8. Diabetes and nerve damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic neuropathy; Diabetes - neuropathy; Diabetes - peripheral neuropathy ... In people with diabetes, the body's nerves can be damaged by decreased blood flow and a high blood sugar level. This condition is ...

  9. The preliminary evaluation on sclerodermas of newborn baby with thyroid hormone and β2-MG ria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Junchi; Du Sujun

    1995-01-01

    The combined determination of thyroid hormone and β 2 -MG may be used as the sensitive indication of the early degeneration of liver and kidney function. It is probably due to the damage of liver and kidney by scleroderma in newborn baby. The observation of 68 cases show that the serum levels of T 3 ,FT 3 in the concentration of thyroid hormone decreased significantly, and syndrome of the low serum T 3 , high serum rT 3 are taken place. Whereas, the serum level of β 2 -MG is increased significantly

  10. Stock Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data inform the public of the most recent stock status for all stocks (FSSI and non-FSSI) in the fishery management unit contained in a fishery managment plan....

  11. [Characteristics of polyamine biosynthesis regulation and tumor growth rate in hormone-dependant grafted breast tumors of mice and rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlovskiĭ, A A

    2007-01-01

    Effect of the inhibitors of polyamines biosynthesis on completely or partially hormone-dependant breast tumors (mouse Ca755 carcinoma and Walker W-256 carcinosarcoma) is essentially special: in contrary to hormone-dependant tumors, this effect may be not only breaking but stimulating as well. Change-over from one to another mode of reaction is conditioned, most probable, by hormonal status, which is determined by one or another estral cycle phase. Biochemical mechanisms of this change-over are closely connected with polyamines metabolism, namely the degree of polyamines (especially spermine) interconvertion and physiological reactivity level of the system controlling expression of ornithin-decarboxilase. At that, the first of these pathways is predominant for completely hormone-dependant Ca755 and the second one -for partially hormone-dependant W-256.

  12. Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajusz, S; Janaky, T; Csernus, V J; Bokser, L; Fekete, M; Srkalovic, G; Redding, T W; Schally, A V

    1989-08-01

    Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. For instance, SB-40, a PtCl2-containing metallopeptide in which platinum is coordinated to an N epsilon-(DL-2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-lysine residue [D-Lys(DL-A2pr] at position 6, showed 50 times higher LH-releasing potency than the native hormone. SB-95, [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(pCl)2, D-Pal(3)2, Arg5,D-Lys[DL-A2pr(Sal2Cu)]6,D-Ala10]LH-RH, where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine, Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine, and copper(II) is coordinated to the salicylideneimino moieties resulting from condensation of salicylaldehyde with D-Lys(DL-A2pr)6, caused 100% inhibition of ovulation at a dose of 3 micrograms in rats. Most metallopeptide analogues of LH-RH showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary and human breast cancer cells. Some of these metallopeptides had cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro (this will be the subject of a separate paper on cytotoxicity evaluation). Such cytostatic metallopeptides could be envisioned as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in cancers that contain receptors for LH-RH-like peptides.

  13. Plants altering hormonal milieu: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review article is to investigate the herbs which can alter the levels of hormones like Follicle stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Thyroxine, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Relaxin etc. Hormones are chemical signal agents produced by different endocrine glands for regulating our biological functions. The glands like pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries in women and testes in men all secrete a number of hormones with different actions. However, when these hormones are perfectly balanced then people become healthy and fit. But several factors like pathophysiological as well as biochemical changes, disease conditions, changes in the atmosphere, changes in the body, diet changes etc. may result in imbalance of various hormones that produce undesirable symptoms and disorders. As medicinal plants have their importance since ancient time, people have been using it in various ways as a source of medicine for regulation of hormonal imbalance. Moreover, it is observed that certain herbs have a balancing effect on hormones and have great impact on well-being of the people. So, considering these facts we expect that the article provides an overview on medicinal plants with potential of altering hormone level.

  14. Plants altering hormonal milieu: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review article is to investigate the herbs which can alter the levels of hormones like Follicle stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Thyroxine, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Relaxin etc. Hormones are chemical signal agents produced by different endocrine glands for regulating our biological functions. The glands like pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries in women and testes in men all secrete a number of hormones with different actions. However, when these hormones are perfectly balanced then people become healthy and fit. But several factors like pathophysiological as well as biochemical changes, disease conditions, changes in the atmosphere, changes in the body, diet changes etc. may result in imbalance of various hormones that produce undesirable symptoms and disorders. As medicinal plants have their importance since ancient time, people have been using it in various ways as a source of medicine for regulation of hormonal imbalance. Moreover, it is observed that certain herbs have a balancing effect on hormones and have great impact on well-being of the people. So, considering these facts we expect that the article provides an overview on medicinal plants with potential of altering hormone level.

  15. Migraine: is it related to hormonal disturbances or stress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parashar R

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rachna Parashar,1 Payal Bhalla,2 Nirendra K Rai,3 Abhijit Pakhare,4 Rashmi Babbar5 1Department of Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, 2Department of Physiology, Vardhaman Mahavir Medical College, New Delhi, 3Department of Neurology, 4Department of Community and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, 5Department of Physiology, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India Background: Common neurological syndrome (migraine without aura is more common among women than men. Migraine is among the top 20 causes of disability. Menstruation is known to be a powerful trigger for migraine, and so is stress, but the presentation of headache is similar in both. Also, women are more vulnerable to stress as well as migraine, and this makes a complex relationship of menstruation, stress, and migraine. Objective: This study was done to understand the association of hormonal fluctuation in menstruation and stress with common migraine. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in 40 young adult females, of whom 20 participants were cases of migraine without aura (18–35 years old, and the remaining 20 participants were age-matched controls. The study was done in Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi. Study participants were selected on the basis of International Headache Society (ICHD-IIA1.1 (2004 classification. Study participants with neurological disorders, chronic diseases, and disease suggestive of any hormonal disturbances were excluded. Clinically diagnosed migraine cases were asked to maintain a headache diary and to fill in the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales questionnaire. Biochemical assessment of hormonal status for thyroid-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, estrogen, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin was also done on the second day of their menstrual cycle. We used the Mann–Whitney U test to compare hormonal levels

  16. Do the emotional side-effects of hormonal contraceptives come from pharmacologic or psychological mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Stephen A; Dowell, Matt; Pedulla, Dominic; McCauley, Larry

    2004-01-01

    reveal no significant differences. Women who were given an OCP placebo experienced a similar side effect profile of OCP users. Different hormonal concentrations and combinations made no significant difference in the side effect profile. A study of women who were given either "weak female hormones" or a placebo failed to duplicate the side effect profile found in all of the other studies where the hormones were labeled as contraceptives. The evidence suggests that most of the side effects of hormonal contraception are a result of a psychological response to the practice of contraception. More study is warranted to further understand this psychological phenomenon, especially now that an effective non-contraceptive method of fertility regulation and more reliable psychological instruments are available. Furthermore, it is reasonable to hypothesize, given the present data, that contraceptive activity itself is inherently damaging to women.

  17. Circulating sex hormones in relation to anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors in an international dataset of 12,300 men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Eleanor L; Appleby, Paul N; Albanes, Demetrius; Black, Amanda; Chan, June M; Chen, Chu; Cirillo, Piera M; Cohn, Barbara A; Cook, Michael B; Donovan, Jenny L; Ferrucci, Luigi; Garland, Cedric F; Giles, Graham G; Goodman, Phyllis J; Habel, Laurel A; Haiman, Christopher A; Holly, Jeff M P; Hoover, Robert N; Kaaks, Rudolf; Knekt, Paul; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Le Marchand, Loïc; Luostarinen, Tapio; MacInnis, Robert J; Mäenpää, Hanna O; Männistö, Satu; Metter, E Jeffrey; Milne, Roger L; Nomura, Abraham M Y; Oliver, Steven E; Parsons, J Kellogg; Peeters, Petra H; Platz, Elizabeth A; Riboli, Elio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Rinaldi, Sabina; Rissanen, Harri; Sawada, Norie; Schaefer, Catherine A; Schenk, Jeannette M; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Stampfer, Meir; Stattin, Pär; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Thompson, Ian M; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Vatten, Lars; Whittemore, Alice S; Ziegler, Regina G; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C

    2017-01-01

    Sex hormones have been implicated in the etiology of a number of diseases. To better understand disease etiology and the mechanisms of disease-risk factor associations, this analysis aimed to investigate the associations of anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors with a range of circulating sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin. Statistical analyses of individual participant data from 12,330 male controls aged 25-85 years from 25 studies involved in the Endogenous Hormones Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group. Analysis of variance was used to estimate geometric means adjusted for study and relevant covariates. Older age was associated with higher concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin and dihydrotestosterone and lower concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, free testosterone, androstenedione, androstanediol glucuronide and free estradiol. Higher body mass index was associated with higher concentrations of free estradiol, androstanediol glucuronide, estradiol and estrone and lower concentrations of dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, free testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Taller height was associated with lower concentrations of androstenedione, testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin and higher concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide. Current smoking was associated with higher concentrations of androstenedione, sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone. Alcohol consumption was associated with higher concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenedione and androstanediol glucuronide. East Asians had lower concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide and African Americans had higher concentrations of estrogens. Education and marital status were modestly associated with a small number of hormones. Circulating sex hormones in men are strongly associated with age and body mass index, and to a

  18. Circulating sex hormones in relation to anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors in an international dataset of 12,300 men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor L Watts

    Full Text Available Sex hormones have been implicated in the etiology of a number of diseases. To better understand disease etiology and the mechanisms of disease-risk factor associations, this analysis aimed to investigate the associations of anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors with a range of circulating sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin.Statistical analyses of individual participant data from 12,330 male controls aged 25-85 years from 25 studies involved in the Endogenous Hormones Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group. Analysis of variance was used to estimate geometric means adjusted for study and relevant covariates.Older age was associated with higher concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin and dihydrotestosterone and lower concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, free testosterone, androstenedione, androstanediol glucuronide and free estradiol. Higher body mass index was associated with higher concentrations of free estradiol, androstanediol glucuronide, estradiol and estrone and lower concentrations of dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, free testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Taller height was associated with lower concentrations of androstenedione, testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin and higher concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide. Current smoking was associated with higher concentrations of androstenedione, sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone. Alcohol consumption was associated with higher concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenedione and androstanediol glucuronide. East Asians had lower concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide and African Americans had higher concentrations of estrogens. Education and marital status were modestly associated with a small number of hormones.Circulating sex hormones in men are strongly associated with age and body mass

  19. Thyroid Hormone Role and Economy in the Developing Testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Arturo

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) exhibit pleiotropic regulatory effects on growth, development, and metabolism, and it is becoming increasingly apparent that the developing testis is an important target for them. Testicular development is highly dependent on TH status. Both hypo- and hyperthyroidism affect testis size and the proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli, Leydig, and germ cells, with consequences for steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis, and male fertility. These observations suggest that an appropriate content of TH and by implication TH action in the testis, whether the result of systemic hormonal levels or regulatory mechanisms at the local level, is critical for normal testicular and reproductive function. The available evidence indicates the presence in the developing testis of a number of transporters, deiodinases and receptors that could play a role in the timely delivery of TH action on testicular cells. These include the thyroid hormone receptor alpha (THRA), the MCT8 transporter, the TH-activating deiodinase DIO2, and the TH-inactivating deiodinase DIO3, all of which appear to modulate testicular TH economy and testis outcomes. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on pituitary hormone secretion and hormone replacement therapies in GHD adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubina, Erika; Mersebach, Henriette; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh

    2004-01-01

    We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes.......We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes....

  1. The thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D associated hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chopra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid disorders and primary hyperparathyroidism have been known to be associated with increases in blood pressure. The hypertension related to hypothyroidism is a result of increased peripheral resistance, changes in renal hemodynamics, hormonal changes and obesity. Treatment of hypothyroidism with levo-thyroxine replacement causes a decrease in blood pressure and an overall decline in cardiovascular risk. High blood pressure has also been noted in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, is associated with systolic hypertension resulting from an expansion of the circulating blood volume and increase in stroke volume. Increased serum calcium levels associated with a primary increase in parathyroid hormone levels have been also associated with high blood pressure recordings. The mechanism for this is not clear but the theories include an increase in the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vasoconstriction. Treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism by surgery results in a decline in blood pressure and a decrease in the plasma renin activity. Finally, this review also looks at more recent evidence linking hypovitaminosis D with cardiovascular risk factors, particularly hypertension, and the postulated mechanisms linking the two.

  2. Thyroid hormone metabolism in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darras V.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH receptors preferentially bind 3.5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3. Therefore the metabolism of thyroxine (T4 secreted by the thyroid gland in peripheral tissues, resulting in the production and degradation of receptor-active T3, plays a major role in thyroid function. The most important metabolic pathway for THs is deiodination. Another important pathway is sulfation, which is a reversible pathway that has been shown to interact with TH deiodination efficiency. The enzymes catalysing TH deiodination consist of three types. Type 1 deiodinase (D1 catalyses both outer ring (ORD and inner ring deiodinalion (IRD. Type II deiodinase (D2 only catalyses ORD while type III (D3 only catalyses IRD. The three chicken deiodinase cDNAs have been cloned recently. These enzymes all belong to the family of selenoproteins. Ontogenetic studies show that the availability of deiodinases is regulated in a tissue specific and developmental stage dependent way. Characteristic for the chicken is the presence of very high levels off, inactivating D3 enzyme in the embryonic liver. Hepatic D3 is subject to acute regulation in a number of situations. Both growth hormone and glucocorticoid injection rapidly decrease hepatic D3 levels, hereby increasing plasma T3 without affecting hepatic D1 levels. The inhibition of D3 seems to be regulated mainly at the level of D3 gene transcription. The effect of growth hormone on D3 expression persists throughout life, while glucocorticoids start to inhibit hepatic D1 expression in posthatch chickens. Food restriction in growing chickens increases hepatic D3 levels. This contributes to the decrease in plasma T3 necessary to reduce energy loss. Refeeding restores hepatic D3 and plasma T3 to control levels within a few hours. It can be concluded that the tissue and time dependent regulation of the balance between TH activating and inactivating enzymes plays an essential role in the control of local T3 availability and hence in

  3. Association of Hormonal Contraception With Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2016-01-01

    to those who never used hormonal contraception, the RR estimates for users of combined oral contraceptives increased to 1.7 (95% CI, 1.66-1.71). Conclusions and Relevance: Use of hormonal contraception, especially among adolescents, was associated with subsequent use of antidepressants and a first......Importance: Millions of women worldwide use hormonal contraception. Despite the clinical evidence of an influence of hormonal contraception on some women's mood, associations between the use of hormonal contraception and mood disturbances remain inadequately addressed. Objective: To investigate...... whether the use of hormonal contraception is positively associated with subsequent use of antidepressants and a diagnosis of depression at a psychiatric hospital. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide prospective cohort study combined data from the National Prescription Register...

  4. Free thyroid hormones in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueber, V.

    1984-01-01

    Several groups of patients with normal and abnormal thyroid function as well as patients with goitre on hormone substitution are discussed with respect to the diagnostic value of the free thyroid hormone methods. The free T 3 technique under investigation separates clearly between euthyroidism and hyperthyroidism, however, during application of contraceptive pills and during pregnancy free T 3 is slightly enhanced. Free T 4 can be found in the normal range even in hypothyroidism, during T 4 substitution free T 4 is useful for control of adequate hormone substitution. Free thyroid hormones are advantageous to be performed with respect to practicability compared to the estimation of total hormone concentrations by enzyme as well as radioimmunoassay. Normally there is no additional demand for measurement of thyroid hormone binding proteins, another rather economical argument for using these parameters in thyroid diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  5. Structural damage monitoring of harbor caissons with interlocking condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, Thanh Canh; Lee, So Young; Nauyen, Khac Duy; Kim, Jeong Tae [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    The objective of this study is to monitor the health status of harbor caissons which have potential foundation damage. To obtain the objective, the following approaches are performed. Firstly, a structural damage monitoring(SDM) method is designed for interlocked multiple caisson structures. The SDM method utilizes the change in modal strain energy to monitor the foundation damage in a target caisson unit. Secondly, a finite element model of a caisson system which consists of three caisson units is established to verify the feasibility of the proposed method. In the finite element simulation, the caisson units are constrained each other by shear key connections. The health status of the caisson system against various levels of foundation damage is monitored by measuring relative modal displacements between the adjacent caissons.

  6. Structural damage monitoring of harbor caissons with interlocking condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, Thanh Canh; Lee, So Young; Nauyen, Khac Duy; Kim, Jeong Tae

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to monitor the health status of harbor caissons which have potential foundation damage. To obtain the objective, the following approaches are performed. Firstly, a structural damage monitoring(SDM) method is designed for interlocked multiple caisson structures. The SDM method utilizes the change in modal strain energy to monitor the foundation damage in a target caisson unit. Secondly, a finite element model of a caisson system which consists of three caisson units is established to verify the feasibility of the proposed method. In the finite element simulation, the caisson units are constrained each other by shear key connections. The health status of the caisson system against various levels of foundation damage is monitored by measuring relative modal displacements between the adjacent caissons

  7. Exercise-induced changes in blood minerals, associated proteins and hormones in women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuster, P A; Kyle, S B; Singh, A; Moser, P B; Bernier, L L; Yu-Yahiro, J A; Schoomaker, E B

    1991-12-01

    The acute effects of prolonged exercise on the body's distribution of trace minerals in women athletes has not been examined. To this end, plasma concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron; erythrocyte zinc (EZn) and copper (ECu); and the associated proteins, ceruloplasmin and transferrin were measured in 38 highly trained women runners under resting conditions and again after running a competitive 26.2 mile marathon. The hormones, cortisol (C), estradiol (E2), prolactin (Prl), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were also measured because of reported effects of hormones on trace mineral distribution. Menstrual status was assessed by questionnaire: 8 women were in the follicular phase, 13 in mid-cycle, 8 in the luteal phase and 9 were amenorrheic (AM). Significant post-race increases were noted for all plasma minerals, associated proteins, and the hormones C and Prl, whereas EZn decreased. No significant changes in ECu, E2, FSH or LH were noted. Menstrual status in terms of cycle phase or amenorrhea did not appear to modify the response. Exercise-induced changes in minerals may reflect release from other tissues and/or changes in the concentration of associated proteins. Whether these changes serve adaptive and/or specific functions during exercise is unknown.

  8. Damaged-self recognition as a general strategy for injury detection

    OpenAIRE

    Heil, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Plants perceive endogenous molecules or their fragments as signals of danger when these appear at increased concentrations in the extracellular space, and they respond with increased endogenous levels of jasmonic acid. The wound hormone jasmonic acid represents a central player in the induced resistance of plants to herbivore feeding and infection by necrotrophic pathogens. This ‘damaged self recognition’ mechanism of plants exhibits astonishing similarities to the perception of ‘damage-assoc...

  9. Anticoncepción hormonal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lugones Botell

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión de los anticonceptivos hormonales con énfasis en aspectos que van desde su descubrimiento, el mecanismo de acción, los diferentes tipos y formas de utilización, así como el esquema de administración terapéutica en algunas entidades, sus indicaciones, ventajas y contraindicaciones: A review of the hormonal contraceptives was carried out, emphasizing on features from their discovery, trigger mechanism, different kinds, and ways to use them, as well as the scheme of the therapeutical administration in some entities, its indications, advantages, and contraindications.

  10. Inhibitors of plant hormone transport

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klíma, Petr; Laňková, Martina; Zažímalová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 253, č. 6 (2016), s. 1391-1404 ISSN 0033-183X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15088 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : polar auxin transport * acid-binding protein * gnom arf-gef * equilibrative nucleoside transporter * efflux carrier polarity * plasma-membrane-protein * cultured tobacco cells * arabidopsis-thaliana * gravitropic response * brefeldin-a * Plant hormones * Transport * Inhibitors * Auxin * Cytokinins * Strigolactones * Abscisic acid * Cell biology Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.870, year: 2016

  11. Thyroid hormones and cardiac arrhythmias

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tribulová, N.; Knezl, V.; Shainberg, A.; Seki, S.; Soukup, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 52, 3-4 (2010), s. 102-112 ISSN 1537-1891 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/0049/09; APVV(SK) 51-059505; APVV(SK) 51-017905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : thyroid hormone * arrhythmias * ion channels * connexin-43 Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Disease s incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2010

  12. Growth hormone insensitivity syndrome: A sensitive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumik Goswami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Growth Hormone Insensitivity have characteristic phenotypic features and severe short stature. The underlying basis are mutations in the growth hormone receptor gene which gives rise to a characteristic hormonal profile. Although a scoring system has been devised for the diagnosis of this disorder, it has not been indisputably validated. The massive expense incurred in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition with suboptimal therapeutic response necessitates a judicious approach in this regard in our country.

  13. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2008-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading to acromegaly or disturbed sexual functions beyond thyrotropin (TSH)-induced hyperthyroidism. Regulation of non-TSH pituitary hormones in this context is not well understood. We there therefore ev...

  14. Simultaneous radioimmunoassay for luteinizing hormone and prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, M.K.; Deschepper, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    A combined radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the measurement of the anterior pituitary proteins luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) is described and compared with individual RIAs for these hormones. The standard curves and the sample values for LH and PRL were identical when determined in a combined or in an individual RIA. This technique may prove useful to a number of laboratories where it is desirable to determine levels of more than one hormone in limited sample volumes

  15. Growth Hormone and Craniofacial Tissues. An update

    OpenAIRE

    Litsas, George

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone is an important regulator of bone homeostasis. In childhood, it determines the longitudinal bone growth, skeletal maturation, and acquisition of bone mass. In adulthood, it is necessary to maintain bone mass throughout life. Although an association between craniofacial and somatic development has been clearly established, craniofacial growth involves complex interactions of genes, hormones and environment. Moreover, as an anabolic hormone seems to have an important role in the ...

  16. Coal transportation road damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, D.; Harrison, K.; Pawlowski, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy trucks are primarily responsible for pavement damage to the nation's highways. In this paper we evaluate the pavement damage caused by coal trucks. We analyze the chief source of pavement damage (vehicle weight per axle, not total vehicle weight) and the chief cost involved (the periodic overlay that is required when a road's surface becomes worn). This analysis is presented in two stages. In the first section we present a synopsis of current economic theory including simple versions of the formulas that can be: used to calculate costs of pavement wear. In the second section we apply this theory to a specific example proximate to the reference environment for the Fuel Cycle Study in New Mexico in order to provide a numerical measure of the magnitude of the costs

  17. Natural resource damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddelmeyer, J.

    1991-01-01

    The assessment and collection of natural resource damages from petroleum and chemical companies unfortunate enough to have injured publicly owned natural resources is perhaps the most rapidly expanding area of environmental liability. The idea of recovering for injury to publicly owned natural resources is an extension of traditional common law tort concepts under which a person who negligently injures another or his property is called upon to compensate the injured party. Normally, once liability has been established, it is a fairly straightforward matter to calculate the various elements of loss, such as the cost to repair or replace damaged property, or medical expenses, and lost income. More difficult questions, such as the amount to be awarded for pain and suffering or emotional distress, are left to the jury, although courts limit the circumstances in which the jury is permitted to award such damages

  18. Antimüllerian hormone in gonadotropin releasing-hormone antagonist cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arce, Joan-Carles; La Marca, Antonio; Mirner Klein, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationships between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response and treatment outcomes in good-prognosis patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol....

  19. Hormones and the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, Richard; Bičíková, Marie; Sosvorová, Lucie

    2015-03-01

    Hormones exert many actions in the brain, and brain cells are also hormonally active. To reach their targets in brain structures, hormones must overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is a unique device selecting desired/undesired molecules to reach or leave the brain, and it is composed of endothelial cells forming the brain vasculature. These cells differ from other endothelial cells in their almost impermeable tight junctions and in possessing several membrane structures such as receptors, transporters, and metabolically active molecules, ensuring their selection function. The main ways how compounds pass through the BBB are briefly outlined in this review. The main part concerns the transport of major classes of hormones: steroids, including neurosteroids, thyroid hormones, insulin, and other peptide hormones regulating energy homeostasis, growth hormone, and also various cytokines. Peptide transporters mediating the saturable transport of individual classes of hormones are reviewed. The last paragraph provides examples of how hormones affect the permeability and function of the BBB either at the level of tight junctions or by various transporters.

  20. Gastrointestinal Hormones Induced the Birth of Endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabitsch, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The physiological studies by British physiologists William Maddock Bayliss and Ernest Henry Starling, at the beginning of the last century, demonstrated the existence of specific messenger molecules (hormones) circulating in the blood that regulate the organ function and physiological mechanisms. These findings led to the concept of endocrinology. The first 2 hormones were secretin, discovered in 1902, and gastrin, discovered in 1905. Both hormones that have been described are produced in the gut. This chapter summarizes the history around the discovery of these 2 hormones, which is perceived as the birth of endocrinology. It is noteworthy that after the discovery of these 2 gastrointestinal hormones, many other hormones were detected outside the gut, and thereafter gut hormones faded from both the clinical and scientific spotlight. Only recently, the clinical importance of the gut as the body's largest endocrine organ producing a large variety of hormones has been realized. Gastrointestinal hormones are essential regulators of metabolism, growth, development and behavior and are therefore the focus of a modern pediatric endocrinologist. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Determinants of Growth Hormone Resistance in Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    States of under-nutrition are characterized by growth hormone resistance. Decreased total energy intake, as well as isolated protein-calorie malnutrition and isolated nutrient deficiencies result in elevated growth hormone levels and low levels of IGF-I. We review various states of malnutrition and a disease state characterized by chronic under-nutrition -- anorexia nervosa -- and discuss possible mechanisms contributing to the state of growth hormone resistance, including FGF-21 and SIRT1. We conclude by examining the hypothesis that growth hormone resistance is an adaptive response to states of under-nutrition, in order to maintain euglycemia and preserve energy. PMID:24363451

  2. Empty sella syndrome associated with hormone deficiency in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleaga, L.; Paja, M.; Goni, F.; Grande, J.; Grande, D.; Merino, M.; Delgado, A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate the magnetic resonance (MR) images in patients with hormone deficiencies with the clinical data and the hormonal status. We studied 11 cases ef empty sella with different peripheral pituitary deficiencies. Hormone levels were determined according to standard laboratory methods. All the patients underwent MR imaging. The studies were carried out with a 1 Tesla superconducting magnet, using the cranial cavity for transmission and reception. Segittal and coronal T1-weighted spin-echo sequences (TR/TE: 600/15 ms), axial T2-weighted spin-echo sequences (TR/TE: 3,500/19/93 ms) and gadolinium-enhanced (=.2 cc/kg body weight) sagital and coronal T1-weighted spin-echo sequences (TR/TE: 600/15 ms) were employed. Six of the patients presented partial or total hypopituitarism associated with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH); there was one case of panhypopituitarism without SIADH and four cases of primary hypothyroidism, there of which were associated with pituitary deficiency, MR imaging revealed five cases of partially empty sella with residual pituitary gland on the sella floor and six cases in which the sella was completely empty. This study also identified six cases of normally situated neurohypophysis, another four in which the neurohypophysis could not be identified and one case of ectopic neurohypophysis. MR imaging is the technique of choice in the study of abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary activity. Empty and partially empty sella should be included among the frequent causes of hypopituitarism, although there is no clear relationship between the degree of adenohypophyseal insufficiency and the degree of atrophy of this system as viewed in MR images. In some cases, this entity may be the radiological sign of a phase in the development of an autoimmune inflammatory process involving the pituitary gland. (Author) 16 refs

  3. Hedgehog signaling activation induces stem cell proliferation and hormone release in the adult pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyczek, Joanna; Buslei, Rolf; Schult, David; Hölsken, Annett; Buchfelder, Michael; Heß, Ina; Hahn, Heidi; Uhmann, Anja

    2016-04-25

    Hedgehog (HH) signaling is known to be essential during the embryonal development of the pituitary gland but the knowledge about its role in the adult pituitary and in associated tumors is sparse. In this report we investigated the effect of excess Hh signaling activation in murine pituitary explants and analyzed the HH signaling status of human adenopituitary lobes and a large cohort of pituitary adenomas. Our data show that excess Hh signaling led to increased proliferation of Sox2(+) and Sox9(+) adult pituitary stem cells and to elevated expression levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (Acth), growth hormone (Gh) and prolactin (Prl) in the adult gland. Inhibition of the pathway by cyclopamine reversed these effects indicating that active Hh signaling positively regulates proliferative processes of adult pituitary stem cells and hormone production in the anterior pituitary. Since hormone producing cells of the adenohypophysis as well as ACTH-, GH- and PRL-immunopositive adenomas express SHH and its target GLI1, we furthermore propose that excess HH signaling is involved in the development/maintenance of hormone-producing pituitary adenomas. These findings advance the understanding of physiological hormone regulation and may open new treatment options for pituitary tumors.

  4. Metabolic and hormonal alterations in cats with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B; Mauldin, G E; Armstrong, J; Moroff, S D; Mauldin, G N

    2000-01-01

    Hepatic lipidosis in cats is a commonly diagnosed hepatobiliary disease of unknown cause. The purpose of this prospective study was to characterize the blood hormone and lipid status of cats with hepatic lipidosis, and to compare this status to that of cats with other types of liver disease and to control cats. Twenty-three cats with hepatic disease were assigned to 1 of 2 groups on the basis of cytopathologic or histopathologic examination of the liver: group 1, hepatic lipidosis (n = 18); or group 2, cholangiohepatitis (n = 5). Ten healthy young adult cats were used as controls. Food was withheld from control animals for 24 hours before blood collection. Concentrations of plasma glucagon and serum insulin, cortisol, thyroxine, triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) were determined in all cats, in addition to routine hematologic and serum biochemical testing. Cats with hepatic lipidosis had higher serum NEFA concentrations than cats with cholangiohepatitis or control cats (P lipidosis or control cats (P hepatic lipidosis. Serum insulin concentrations were significantly higher in control cats than in diseased cats (P hepatic disease. The high concentration of NEFAs in cats with hepatic lipidosis suggests that at least 1 factor in the pathogenesis of this syndrome may involve the regulation of hormone-sensitive lipase.

  5. Hormones as doping in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duntas, Leonidas H; Popovic, Vera

    2013-04-01

    Though we may still sing today, as did Pindar in his eighth Olympian Victory Ode, "… of no contest greater than Olympia, Mother of Games, gold-wreathed Olympia…", we must sadly admit that today, besides blatant over-commercialization, there is no more ominous threat to the Olympic games than doping. Drug-use methods are steadily becoming more sophisticated and ever harder to detect, increasingly demanding the use of complex analytical procedures of biotechnology and molecular medicine. Special emphasis is thus given to anabolic androgenic steroids, recombinant growth hormone and erythropoietin as well as to gene doping, the newly developed mode of hormones abuse which, for its detection, necessitates high-tech methodology but also multidisciplinary individual measures incorporating educational and psychological methods. In this Olympic year, the present review offers an update on the current technologically advanced endocrine methods of doping while outlining the latest procedures applied-including both the successes and pitfalls of proteomics and metabolomics-to detect doping while contributing to combating this scourge.

  6. Selective thyroid hormone receptor modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Raparti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH is known to have many beneficial effects on vital organs, but its extrapolation to be used therapeutically has been restricted by the fact that it does have concurrent adverse effects. Recent finding of various thyroid hormone receptors (TR isoforms and their differential pattern of tissue distribution has regained interest in possible use of TH analogues in therapeutics. These findings were followed by search of compounds with isoform-specific or tissue-specific action on TR. Studying the structure-activity relationship of TR led to the development of compounds like GC1 and KB141, which preferentially act on the β1 isoform of TR. More recently, eprotirome was developed and has been studied in humans. It has shown to be effective in dyslipidemia by the lipid-lowering action of TH in the liver and also in obesity. Another compound, 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid (DITPA, binds to both α- and β-type TRs with relatively low affinity and has been shown to be effective in heart failure (HF. In postinfarction models of HF and in a pilot clinical study, DITPA increased cardiac performance without affecting the heart rate. TR antagonists like NH3 can be used in thyrotoxicosis and cardiac arrhythmias. However, further larger clinical trials on some of these promising compounds and development of newer compounds with increased selectivity is required to achieve higher precision of action and avoid adverse effects seen with TH.

  7. Hormonal mechanisms of cooperative behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta C.; Bshary, Redouan; Fusani, Leonida; Goymann, Wolfgang; Hau, Michaela; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the diversity, evolution and stability of cooperative behaviour has generated a considerable body of work. As concepts simplify the real world, theoretical solutions are typically also simple. Real behaviour, in contrast, is often much more diverse. Such diversity, which is increasingly acknowledged to help in stabilizing cooperative outcomes, warrants detailed research about the proximate mechanisms underlying decision-making. Our aim here is to focus on the potential role of neuroendocrine mechanisms on the regulation of the expression of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates. We first provide a brief introduction into the neuroendocrine basis of social behaviour. We then evaluate how hormones may influence known cognitive modules that are involved in decision-making processes that may lead to cooperative behaviour. Based on this evaluation, we will discuss specific examples of how hormones may contribute to the variability of cooperative behaviour at three different levels: (i) within an individual; (ii) between individuals and (iii) between species. We hope that these ideas spur increased research on the behavioural endocrinology of cooperation. PMID:20679116

  8. Hormesis and Female Sex Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvar Theodorsson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hormone replacement after menopause has in recent years been the subject of intense scientific debate and public interest and has sparked intense research efforts into the biological effects of estrogens and progestagens. However, there are reasons to believe that the doses used and plasma concentrations produced in a large number of studies casts doubt on important aspects of their validity. The concept of hormesis states that a substance can have diametrically different effects depending on the concentration. Even though estrogens and progestagens have proven prone to this kind of dose-response relation in a multitude of studies, the phenomenon remains clearly underappreciated as exemplified by the fact that it is common practice to only use one hormone dose in animal experiments. If care is not taken to adjust the concentrations of estrogens and progestagens to relevant biological conditions, the significance of the results may be questionable. Our aim is to review examples of female sexual steroids demonstrating bidirectional dose-response relations and to discuss this in the perspective of hormesis. Some examples are highlighted in detail, including the effects on cerebral ischemia, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and anxiety. Hopefully, better understanding of the hormesis phenomenon may result in improved future designs of studies of female sexual steroids.

  9. Long acting injectable hormonal contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, I S

    1982-03-01

    Injectable hormonal preparations can be highly effective and satisfactory contraceptives. The two main preparations available today are depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethisterone oenanthate (NET-OEN), but several other approaches are currently under clinical trial. Injectable contraceptives have some unique advantages which give them justifiably wide appeal amongst many groups of women. However, they do have a number of disadvantages including invariable menstrual disturbance and a delay in the return of fertility. One formulation of DMPA, Depo-Provera, is probably the most extensively investigated single hormonal contraceptive ever made. These studies indicate that it is remarkably safe and does not face any more unresolved issues than the combined pill, intrauterine device or tubal sterilization. However, for a number of disparate emotional and political reasons it has attracted the attention of several consumer and feminist groups, who have waged a prolonged and quite unjustified campaign against it. It is to be hoped that future debate will be conducted on a more informed, rational and less emotional basis. Injectable contraceptives should have an important place in the family planning armamentarium of all countries, and current developments should lead to a decrease in concerns about presently available agents. This should further increase the widespread acceptability of this approach to contraception.

  10. Title: Status of coffee berry damaging insects in the afromontane

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    populations, which is relatively low incidences in less disturbed ecosystem. ..... Insect pests associated with forest coffee berries in south western Ethiopia. .... parasitoid was introduced to Latin American countries, .... indicators of ecological diversity, so more detailed studies .... western Ethiopia: Impacts of human use and.

  11. Action of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in rat ovarian cells: Hormone production and signal transduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian.

    1989-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the hypothesis that the breakdown of membrane phosphoinositides may participate in the actions of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) on hormone production in rat granulosa cells. In cells prelabeled with ({sup 3}H)inositol or ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid (AA), treatment with LHRH increased the formation of radiolabeled inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) and diacylglycerol (DG), and the release of radiolabeled AA. Since IP{sub 3} induces intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, changes in the cytosolic free calcium ion concentrations ((Ca{sup 2+})i) induced by LHRH were studied in individual cells using fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry. Alterations in (Ca{sup 2+})i induced by LHRH were rapid and transient, and could be completely blocked by a LHRH antagonist. Sustained perifusion of LHRH resulted in a desensitization of the (Ca{sup 2+})i response to LHRH. LHRH treatment accelerated (Ca{sup 2+})i depletion in the cells perifused with Ca{sup 2+} free medium, indicating the involvement of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} pool(s) in (Ca{sup 2+})i changes. The actions of LHRH on the regulation of progesterone (P{sub 4}) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) production were also examined. LHRH increased basal P{sub 4} production and attenuated FSH induced P{sub 4} production. Both basal and FSH stimulated PGE{sub 2} formation were increased by LHRH. Since LHRH also increased the formation of DG that stimulates the activity of protein kinase C, an activator of protein kinase C (12-0-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate: TPA) was used with the Ca{sup 2+} ionophore A23187 and melittin (an activator of phospholipase A{sub 2}) to examine the roles of protein kinase C, Ca{sup 2+} and free AA, respectively, in LHRH action.

  12. Pituitary mammosomatotroph adenomas develop in old mice transgenic for growth hormone-releasing hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asa, S L; Kovacs, K; Stefaneanu, L

    1990-01-01

    It has been shown that mice transgenic for human growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) develop hyperplasia of pituitary somatotrophs and mammosomatotrophs, cells capable of producing both growth hormone and prolactin, by 8 months of age. We now report for the first time that old GRH-transgenic...

  13. Empty sella syndrome associated with hormone deficiency in adults; Silla turca vacia asociada a disfuncion hormonal en adultos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleaga, L.; Paja, M.; Goni, F.; Grande, J.; Grande, D. [Hospital de Basurto. Bilbao (Spain); Merino, M. [Hospital General Yague (Spain); Delgado, A. [Hospital Marques de Valdecilla. Santander (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate the magnetic resonance (MR) images in patients with hormone deficiencies with the clinical data and the hormonal status. We studied 11 cases ef empty sella with different peripheral pituitary deficiencies. Hormone levels were determined according to standard laboratory methods. All the patients underwent MR imaging. The studies were carried out with a 1 Tesla superconducting magnet, using the cranial cavity for transmission and reception. Segittal and coronal T1-weighted spin-echo sequences (TR/TE: 600/15 ms), axial T2-weighted spin-echo sequences (TR/TE: 3,500/19/93 ms) and gadolinium-enhanced (=.2 cc/kg body weight) sagital and coronal T1-weighted spin-echo sequences (TR/TE: 600/15 ms) were employed. Six of the patients presented partial or total hypopituitarism associated with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH); there was one case of panhypopituitarism without SIADH and four cases of primary hypothyroidism, there of which were associated with pituitary deficiency, MR imaging revealed five cases of partially empty sella with residual pituitary gland on the sella floor and six cases in which the sella was completely empty. This study also identified six cases of normally situated neurohypophysis, another four in which the neurohypophysis could not be identified and one case of ectopic neurohypophysis. MR imaging is the technique of choice in the study of abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary activity. Empty and partially empty sella should be included among the frequent causes of hypopituitarism, although there is no clear relationship between the degree of adenohypophyseal insufficiency and the degree of atrophy of this system as viewed in MR images. In some cases, this entity may be the radiological sign of a phase in the development of an autoimmune inflammatory process involving the pituitary gland. (Author) 16 refs.

  14. Compliance status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the activities conducted to ensure that the Hanford Site is in compliance with federal environmental protection statutes and related Washington State and local environmental protection regulations and the status of Hanford's compliance with these requirements. Environmental permits required under the environmental protection regulations are discussed under the applicable statute

  15. Compliance status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the activities conducted to ensure that the Hanford Site is in compliance with federal environmental protection statutes and related Washington State and local environmental protection regulations and the status of Hanford`s compliance with these requirements. Environmental permits required under the environmental protection regulations are discussed under the applicable statute.

  16. STATUS REPORT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. STATUS REPORT. Raman scattering observed – 90, 135, 180 degrees and back scattering. Traditionally specific angle dependence to learn about polarization response. Learn molecular information from the surface or materials just below the surface (upto 12 mm depth) ...

  17. The thyroid hormone triiodothyronine controls macrophage maturation and functions: protective role during inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotta, Cristiana; Buldorini, Marcella; Assi, Emma; Cazzato, Denise; De Palma, Clara; Clementi, Emilio; Cervia, Davide

    2014-01-01

    The endocrine system participates in regulating macrophage maturation, although little is known about the modulating role of the thyroid hormones. In vitro results demonstrate a negative role of one such hormone, triiodothyronine (T3), in triggering the differentiation of bone marrow-derived monocytes into unpolarized macrophages. T3-induced macrophages displayed a classically activated (M1) signature. A T3-induced M1-priming effect was also observed on polarized macrophages because T3 reverses alternatively activated (M2) activation, whereas it enhances that of M1 cells. In vivo, circulating T3 increased the content of the resident macrophages in the peritoneal cavity, whereas it reduced the content of the recruited monocyte-derived cells. Of interest, T3 significantly protected mice against endotoxemia induced by lipopolysaccharide i.p. injection; in these damaged animals, decreased T3 levels increased the recruited (potentially damaging) cells, whereas restoring T3 levels decreased recruited and increased resident (potentially beneficial) cells. These data suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of T3 is coupled to the modulation of peritoneal macrophage content, in a context not fully explained by the M1/M2 framework. Thyroid hormone receptor expression analysis and the use of different thyroid hormone receptor antagonists suggest thyroid hormone receptor β1 as the major player mediating T3 effects on macrophages. The novel homeostatic link between thyroid hormones and the pathophysiological role of macrophages opens new perspectives on the interactions between the endocrine and immune systems. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. mapDamage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ginolhac, Aurélien; Rasmussen, Morten; Gilbert, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Ancient DNA extracts consist of a mixture of contaminant DNA molecules, most often originating from environmental microbes, and endogenous fragments exhibiting substantial levels of DNA damage. The latter introduce specific nucleotide misincorporations and DNA fragmentation signatures in sequenci...... of the SAMtools suite and R environment and has been validated on both GNU/Linux and MacOSX operating systems....

  19. Core damage risk indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to show a method for the fast recalculation of the PSA. To avoid the information loose, it is necessary to simplify the PSA models, or at least reorganize them. The method, introduced in this document, require that preparation, so we try to show, how to do that. This document is an introduction. This is the starting point of the work related to the development of the risk indicators. In the future, with the application of this method, we are going to show an everyday use of the PSA results to produce the indicators of the core damage risk. There are two different indicators of the plant safety performance, related to the core damage risk. The first is the core damage frequency indicator (CDFI), and the second is the core damage probability indicator (CDPI). Of course, we cannot describe all of the possible ways to use these indicators, rather we will try to introduce the requirements to establish such an indicator system and the calculation process

  20. Glucoregulatory function of thyroid hormones: role of pancreatic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M.J.B.; Burger, A.G.; Ferrannini, E.; Jequier, E.; Acheson, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Glucose metabolism was investigated in humans before and 14 days after 300 micrograms L-thyroxine (T4)/day using a sequential clamp protocol during short-term somatostatin infusion (500 micrograms/h, 0-6 h) at euglycemia (0-2.5 h), at 165 mg/dl (2.5-6 h), and during insulin infusion (1.0 mU.kg-1.min-1, 4.5-6 h). T4 treatment increased plasma T4 (+96%) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3, +50%), energy expenditure (+8%), glucose turnover (+32%), and glucose oxidation (Glucox +87%) but decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone (-96%) and nonoxidative glucose metabolism (Glucnonox, -30%) at unchanged lipid oxidation (Lipox). During somatostatin and euglycemia glucose production (Ra, -67%) and disposal (Rd, -28%) both decreased in euthyroid subjects but remained at -22% and -5%, respectively, after T4 treatment. Glucox (control, -20%; +T4, -25%) fell and Lipox increased (control, +42%; +T4, +45%) in both groups, whereas Glucnonox decreased before (-36%) but increased after T4 (+57%). During somatostatin infusion and hyperglycemia Rd (control, +144%; +T4, +84%) and Glucnonox (control, +326%; +T4, +233%) increased, whereas Glucox and Lipox remained unchanged. Insulin further increased Rd (+76%), Glucox (+155%), and Glucnonox (+50%) but decreased Ra (-43%) and Lipox (-43%). All these effects were enhanced by T4 (Rd, +38%; Glucox, +45%; Glucnonox, +35%; Ra, +40%; Lipox, +11%). Our data provide evidence that, in humans, T3 stimulates Ra and Rd, which is in part independent of pancreatic hormones

  1. Endocrine intervention during irradiation does not prevent damage to the thyroid gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, H. M.; van Dijk, J. E.; Rodermond, H.; Vansenne, F.; Endert, E.; de Vijlder, J. J. M.; Haveman, J.; Vulsma, T.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation to the head-neck region may damage the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism or thyroid carcinoma. Outcomes of radiation protection by lowering plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) have thus far been ambiguous. Our aim was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of inhibiting the

  2. Periovulatory follicular fluid levels of estradiol trigger inflammatory and DNA damage responses in oviduct epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio E Palma-Vera

    Full Text Available Ovarian steroid hormones (mainly E2 and P4 regulate oviduct physiology. Serum-E2 acts on the oviduct epithelium from the basolateral cell compartment. Upon ovulation, the apical compartment of the oviduct epithelium is temporarily exposed to follicular fluid, which contains much higher levels of E2 than serum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of human periovulatory follicular fluid levels of E2 on oviduct epithelial cells using two porcine in vitro models.A cell line derived from the porcine oviductal epithelium (CCLV-RIE270 was characterized (lineage markers, proliferation characteristics and transformation status. Primary porcine oviduct epithelial cells (POEC were cultured in air-liquid interface and differentiation was assessed histologically. Both cultures were exposed to E2 (10 ng/ml and 200 ng/ml. Proliferation of CCLV-RIE270 and POEC was determined by real-time impedance monitoring and immunohistochemical detection of Ki67. Furthermore, marker gene expression for DNA damage response (DDR and inflammation was quantified.CCLV-RIE270 was not transformed and exhibited properties of secretory oviduct epithelial cells. Periovulatory follicular fluid levels of E2 (200 ng/ml upregulated the expression of inflammatory genes in CCLV-RIE270 but not in POEC (except for IL8. Expression of DDR genes was elevated in both models. A significant increase in cell proliferation could not be detected in response to E2.CCLV-RIE270 and POEC are complementary models to evaluate the consequences of oviduct exposure to follicular fluid components. Single administration of periovulatory follicular fluid E2 levels trigger inflammatory and DNA damage responses, but not proliferation in oviduct epithelial cells.

  3. Risk of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienzl, K.

    1997-01-01

    Following the opening and words of welcome by Mr. Fritz Unterpertinger (unit director at the Austrian Federal Ministry for the Environment, Youth and Family; BMUJF) Mrs Helga Kromp-Kolb (professor at the Institute for Meteorology and Physics of the University of Natural Resources Science Vienna) illustrated the risks of nuclear damage in Europe by means of a nuclear risk map. She explained that even from a scientific or technical point of view the assessment of risks arising from nuclear power stations was fraught with great uncertainties. Estimates about in how far MCAs (maximum credible accident) could still be controlled by safety systems vary widely and so do assessments of the probability of a core melt. But there is wide agreement in all risk assessments conducted so far that MCAs might occur within a - from a human point of view - conceivable number of years. In this connection one has to bear in mind that the occurrence of such a major accident - whatever its probability may be - could entail immense damage and the question arises whether or not it is at all justifiable to expose the general public to such a risk. Klaus Rennings (Centre for European Economic Research, Mannheim, Germany) dealt with the economic aspects of nuclear risk assessment. He explained that there are already a number of studies available aiming to assess the risk of damage resulting from a core melt accident in economic terms. As to the probability of occurrence estimates vary widely between one incident in 3,333 and 250,000 year of reactor operation. It is assumed, however, that a nuclear accident involving a core melt in Germany would probably exceed the damage caused by the Chernobyl accident. The following speakers addressed the legal aspects of risks associated with nuclear installations. Mrs Monika Gimpel-Hinteregger (professor at the Institute for Civil Law in Graz) gave an overview on the applicable Austrian law concerning third party liability in the field of nuclear energy

  4. The barrier within: endothelial transport of hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolka, Cathryn M; Bergman, Richard N

    2012-08-01

    Hormones are involved in a plethora of processes including development and growth, metabolism, mood, and immune responses. These essential functions are dependent on the ability of the hormone to access its target tissue. In the case of endocrine hormones that are transported through the blood, this often means that the endothelium must be crossed. Many studies have shown that the concentrations of hormones and nutrients in blood can be very different from those surrounding the cells on the tissue side of the blood vessel endothelium, suggesting that transport across this barrier can be rate limiting for hormone action. This transport can be regulated by altering the surface area of the blood vessel available for diffusion through to the underlying tissue or by the permeability of the endothelium. Many hormones are known to directly or indirectly affect the endothelial barrier, thus affecting their own distribution to their target tissues. Dysfunction of the endothelial barrier is found in many diseases, particularly those associated with the metabolic syndrome. The interrelatedness of hormones may help to explain why the cluster of diseases in the metabolic syndrome occur together so frequently and suggests that treating the endothelium may ameliorate defects in more than one disease. Here, we review the structure and function of the endothelium, its contribution to the function of hormones, and its involvement in disease.

  5. Measuring steroid hormones in avian eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  6. Incretin hormones and the satiation signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that appetite-regulating hormones from the gut may have therapeutic potential. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), appears to be involved in both peripheral and central pathways mediating satiation. Several studies have also indicated that GLP-1...

  7. Therapy for obesity based on gastrointestinal hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K

    2011-01-01

    It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities...

  8. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  9. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  10. Incretin hormones as a target for therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2016-01-01

    Incretin hormones are responsible for the incretin effect, which is the amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are taken in orally, as opposed to intravenously.......Incretin hormones are responsible for the incretin effect, which is the amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are taken in orally, as opposed to intravenously....

  11. Floral induction, floral hormones and flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van de P.A.

    1972-01-01

    The factors, influencing the synthesis and action of floral hormones, and possible differences between floral hormones in different plants were studied. The experimental results are summarized in the conclusions 1-20, on pages 35-36 (Crassulaceae'); 21-39 on pages

  12. Maintaining euthyroidism: fundamentals of thyroid hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thyroid-related pathologies, especially subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism, are commonly described in clinical practice. While illnesses related to aberrant thyroid hormone homeostasis are the most prevalent endocrinological conditions diagnosed, important aspects related to thyroid hormone physiology are often ...

  13. Thyroid stimulating hormone and subclinical thyroid dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yongtie

    2008-01-01

    Subclinical thyroid dysfunction has mild clinical symptoms. It is nonspecific and not so noticeable. It performs only for thyroid stimulating hormone rise and decline. The value of early diagnosis and treatment of thyroid stimulating hormone in subclinical thyroid dysfunction were reviewed. (authors)

  14. An alternative look at insects hormones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sláma, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2015), s. 188-204 ISSN 2325-081X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : juvenile hormone * ecdysteroidal vitamin D6 * corpus allatum hormone Subject RIV: ED - Physiology http://blaypublishers.com/2015/10/31/leb-33-2015/

  15. Mortality and reduced growth hormone secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Christiansen, Jens; Laursen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data regarding the mortality rates of patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), whether or not treated with growth hormone (GH), are limited, but an increased mortality rate among hypopituitary patients compared with the general population has been documented. Cardiovascular dise...

  16. Sex hormone binding globulin phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelisse, M M; Bennett, Patrick; Christiansen, M

    1994-01-01

    Human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is encoded by a normal and a variant allele. The resulting SHBG phenotypes (the homozygous normal SHBG, the heterozygous SHBG and the homozygous variant SHBG phenotype) can be distinguished by their electrophoretic patterns. We developed a novel detection....... This method of detection was used to determine the distribution of SHBG phenotypes in healthy controls of both sexes and in five different pathological conditions characterized by changes in the SHBG level or endocrine disturbances (malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms, hirsutism, liver cirrhosis...... on the experimental values. Differences in SHBG phenotypes do not appear to have any clinical significance and no sex difference was found in the SHBG phenotype distribution....

  17. Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramburo, C.; Montiel, J.L.; Donoghue, D.; Scanes, C.G.; Berghman, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and γ- 32 P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of 32 P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of 32 P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer

  18. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco; Kjaer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia...... and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women is shown to diminish age-associated muscle loss, loss...... properties. HRT influences gene expression in e.g. cytoskeletal and cell-matrix proteins, has a stimulating effect upon IGF-I, and a role in IL-6 and adipokine regulation. Despite low circulating steroid-hormone level, postmenopausal women have a high local concentration of steroidogenic enzymes in skeletal...

  19. Thyroid hormones and lipid phosphorus in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakare, U R; Ganatra, R D; Shah, D H [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiation Medicine Centre

    1978-04-01

    In vivo studies in mice injected intravenously with /sup 125/I-triiodothyronine (T-3) showed a linear relationship between the uptake of the labelled hormone by the tissue and the lipid phosphorous content of the same tissue. However, studies with /sup 125/I-thyroxine failed to show a similar relationship between the lipid phosphorous content of the organ and the uptake of radioactive hormone by the same organ. In vitro studies using equilibrium dialysis technique with isolated lipid extracts of various organs and radioactive thyroid hormones (T-3 and T-4) did not show any relation between the lipid P and the uptake of labelled hormone. On the basis of the observed discrepancy between in vivo and in vitro studies, it is postulated that an organized lipoprotein structure at the cell membrane may be responsible for the entry of the thyroid hormones.

  20. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy--clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, S H; Rosenberg, J; Bostofte, E

    1994-01-01

    The menopause is defined as cessation of menstruation, ending the fertile period. The hormonal changes are a decrease in progesterone level, followed by a marked decrease in estrogen production. Symptoms associated with these hormonal changes may advocate for hormonal replacement therapy....... This review is based on the English-language literature on the effect of estrogen therapy and estrogen plus progestin therapy on postmenopausal women. The advantages of hormone replacement therapy are regulation of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, relief of hot flushes, and prevention of atrophic changes...... in the urogenital tract. Women at risk of osteoporosis will benefit from hormone replacement therapy. The treatment should start as soon after menopause as possible and it is possible that it should be maintained for life. The treatment may be supplemented with extra calcium intake, vitamin D, and maybe calcitonin...