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Sample records for damage effects induced

  1. Protective Effect of HSP25 on Radiation Induced Tissue Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hae-June; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kwon, Hee-Choong; Bae, Sang-Woo; Lee, Yun-Sil; Kim, Sung Ho

    2007-01-01

    Control of cancer by irradiation therapy alone or in conjunction with combination chemotherapy is often limited by organ specific toxicity. Ionizing irradiation toxicity is initiated by damage to normal tissue near the tumor target and within the transit volume of radiotherapy beams. Irradiation-induced cellular, tissue, and organ damage is mediated by acute effects, which can be dose limiting. A latent period follows recovery from the acute reaction, then chronic irradiation fibrosis (late effects) pose a second cause of organ failure. HSP25/27 has been suggested to protect cells against apoptotic cell death triggered by hyperthermia, ionizing radiation, oxidative stress, Fas ligand, and cytotoxic drugs. And several mechanisms have been proposed to account for HSP27-mediated apoptotic protection. However radioprotective effect of HSP25/27 in vivo system has not yet been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of exogenous HSP25 expression, as delivered by adenoviral vectors, to protect animal from radiation induced tissue damage

  2. Protective effects of vitamin C against gamma-ray induced wholly damage and genetic damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Chunling; Jiang Weiwei; Zhang Ping; Chen Xiang; Zhu Shengtao

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Protective effects of supplemental vitamin C against 60 Co-gamma-ray induced wholly damage and genetic damage was investigated in mice. Method: Mice were divided into normal control group, irradiation control group and vitamin C experimental group 1,2,3 (which were orally given vitamin C 15, 30, 45 mg/kg.bw for 10 successive days respectively prior to gamma-ray irradiation). Micronuclei in the bone marrow polychromatophilic erythrocytes in each group of mice were examined and the 30 day survival rate of mice following whole-body 5.0 Gy γ irradiation were also determined. Results: Supplemental vitamin C prior to gamma-rays irradiation can significantly decrease bone marrow PECMN rate of mice and increase 30 day survival rate and prolong average survival time. The protection factor is 2.09. Conclusion: Vitamin C has potent protective effects against gamma irradiation induced damage in mice. In certain dose range, vitamin C can absolutely suppress the gamma-rays induced genetic damage in vivo

  3. Reductive effects of poria cocos on radiation-induced damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Heon; Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2002-01-01

    In order to screen a radioprotective material from nontoxic natural products, the effects of Poria cocos (PC), known as a blood tonic of traditional Oriental herbs, were investigated in HL-60 cells and ICR mice. The water extract of PC was administrated to mice and then the mice were irradiated with - rays. The jejunal crypt survival, endogenous spleen colony formation and apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells were investigated in mice irradiated with 12 Gy, 6.5 Gy, 2 Gy of -rays, respectively. The administration of the PC extract protected the jejunal crypts (p<0.005) and decreased the apoptosis frequency (p<0.05). The formation of endogenous spleen colony was increased but not significantly. The micronuclei (MN) formation and the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE; comet assay) were investigated in HL- 60 cells irradiated 2 Gy of -rays. The frequency of MN was decreased (p<0.001) and the tail movement, which was a marker of DNA strand breaks in the SCGE, was decreased in groups treated with PC extract (p<0.01) before exposure to-irradiation. These results indicated that PC protects stem cells and reduces DNA damage induced by -rays. Therefore, Poria cocos might be a useful radioprotector, especially since it is a relatively nontoxic product

  4. Differential effects of experimental and cold-induced hyperthyroidism on factors inducing rat liver oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, P; Pamplona, R; Ayala, V; De Rosa, R; Caldarone, G; Di Meo, S

    2006-03-01

    Thyroid hormone-induced increase in metabolic rates is often associated with increased oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of iodothyronines to liver oxidative stress in the functional hyperthyroidism elicited by cold, using as models cold-exposed and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3)- or thyroxine (T4)-treated rats. The hyperthyroid state was always associated with increases in both oxidative capacity and oxidative damage of the tissue. The most extensive damage to lipids and proteins was found in T3-treated and cold-exposed rats, respectively. Increase in oxygen reactive species released by mitochondria and microsomes was found to contribute to tissue oxidative damage, whereas the determination of single antioxidants did not provide information about the possible contribution of a reduced effectiveness of the antioxidant defence system. Indeed, liver oxidative damage in hyperthyroid rats was scarcely related to levels of the liposoluble antioxidants and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Conversely, other biochemical changes, such as the degree of fatty acid unsaturation and hemoprotein content, appeared to predispose hepatic tissue to oxidative damage associated with oxidative challenge elicited by hyperthyroid state. As a whole, our results confirm the idea that T3 plays a key role in metabolic changes and oxidative damage found in cold liver. However, only data concerning changes in glutathione peroxidase activity and mitochondrial protein content favour the idea that dissimilarities in effects of cold exposure and T3 treatment could depend on differences in serum levels of T4.

  5. CEREBRAL CORTEX DAMAGE INDUCED BY ACUTE ORAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... This study examines alcohol-induced cerebral cortex damage and the association with oxidative ... alcohol has profound effects on the function ... Chronic use of ..... Alcohol induced brain damage and liver damage in young.

  6. Radioprotective effects of sodium arginate on radiation induced intestinal damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsugawa, Shigekazu; Yukawa, Yutaka; Abe, Mitsuyuki.

    1988-05-01

    Effects of sodium arginate were examined on radiation-induced intestinal death of mice and on the pathological changes of the ileum after whole or partial abdominal X-irradiation. BALB/c male mice (SPF, 7 approx. 8 week old, 21 approx. 28 g body weight) were irradiated with various doses of 10 MV of X-rays under general anesthesia (dose rate : 4 Gy/min). A radiation field covers either 2.5 or 5.0 cm width of abdomen from the anus. Sterilized water or 5 % sodium arginate solution (0.2 ml/body) was daily given per os through a stomach tube until the death of mice or 15 approx. 21 days after X-ray exposure. Intestinal death was examined daily. In another experiment, mice were daily sacrificed and pathological specimens were made. In order to study the effects of sodium arginate on peripheral blood circulation in the ileum after X-ray exposure, the microangiograms with Ba contrast media were also taken. Sodium arginate showed statistically significant radioprotective effects on intestinal death after 14.5 approx. 15.0 Gy of X-ray irradiation to the abdomen through a radiation field of 5.0 cm width or after 18.0 Gy of X-irradiation to the abdomen through a field of 2.5 cm width. The pathological studies suggest that the drug may protect the surface of the intestine against infection and potentiate the recovery processes of the mucosal membrane. This may elucidate the possible mechanisms of radioprotective effects of sodium arginate on esophagitis or on rectal ulcer induced by radiotherapy.

  7. Effect of Mercuric Nitrate on Repair of Radiation-induced DNA Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paneka, Agnieszka; Antonina, Cebulska Wasilewska [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Han, Min; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    High concentrations of mercury can cause serious damage to the nervous system, immune system, kidneys and liver in humans. And mercury is toxic to developing embryos because mercury ions can penetrate the blood.placenta barrier to reach the embryo. Studies from human monitoring of occupational exposure to mercury vapours have shown that mercury can alter the ability of lymphocytes to repair radiation-induced DNA damage. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate, on the molecular and cytogenetic levels, the effect of exposure to mercury ions on the kinetics of the repair process of DNA damage induced by ionising radiation.

  8. The contribution of endogenous and exogenous effects to radiation-induced damage in the bacterial spore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, G.P.; Samuni, A.; Czapski, G.

    1985-01-01

    Radical scavengers such as polyethylene glycol 400 and 4000 and bovine albumin have been used to define the contribution of exogenous and endogenous effects to the gamma-radiation-induced damage in aqueous buffered suspensions of Bacillus pumilus spores. The results indicate that this damage in the bacterial spore is predominantly endogenous both in the presence of 1 atmosphere of oxygen, and in anoxia. (author)

  9. Investigation on the effect of developed product and new food for radiation-induced skin damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Kim, Jong Chun; Bae, Chun Sik; Kim, Se Ra; Lee, Hae Jun; Bang, Dae Won; Lee, Jin Hee; Kim, Joong Sun; Ki, Sun Ah; Song, Myung Seop [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    In vivo evaluation of the developed pilot product on the skin protection against UV irradiation and screening of new candidate materials. Project Results are Establishment of experimental methods for 3 morphological indices of UV-induced skin damages -Establishment of experimental methods for whitening effect evaluation -Evaluation of HemoHIM administration on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoHIM skin application on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoTonic administration on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoTonic skin application on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 1 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 2 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 3 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the TNBS-induced colitis -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the anti-wrinkle effects in the skin -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the protective effects on the skin tissue (epidermal thickening, dermal cellularity, dermal cyst) -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the protective effects on the skin tumor development

  10. Investigation on the effect of developed product and new food for radiation-induced skin damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Kim, Jong Chun; Bae, Chun Sik; Kim, Se Ra; Lee, Hae Jun; Bang, Dae Won; Lee, Jin Hee; Kim, Joong Sun; Ki, Sun Ah; Song, Myung Seop

    2007-07-01

    In vivo evaluation of the developed pilot product on the skin protection against UV irradiation and screening of new candidate materials. Project Results are Establishment of experimental methods for 3 morphological indices of UV-induced skin damages -Establishment of experimental methods for whitening effect evaluation -Evaluation of HemoHIM administration on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoHIM skin application on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoTonic administration on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoTonic skin application on the skin damage indices -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 1 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 2 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the inflammation stage 3 -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the antiinflamatory effects in the TNBS-induced colitis -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the anti-wrinkle effects in the skin -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the protective effects on the skin tissue (epidermal thickening, dermal cellularity, dermal cyst) -Evaluation of HemoHIM on the protective effects on the skin tumor development

  11. The protective effect of hypoxia and dithiothreitol on X-ray-induced genetic damage in Arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sree Ramulu, K.; Veen, J.H. van der

    1987-01-01

    A study was made on the protective effect of hypoxia and dithiothreitol (DTT) on X-ray-induced ovule sterility and embryonic lethality in Arabidopsis. Both hypoxia and DTT gave a pronounced and additive reduction of radiation-induced genetic damage. The reduction was significantly higher for ovule sterility than for embryonic lethals. It is suggested that non-fertilized ovules contain a higher ratio of strand breaks/other damage than embryonic lethals do, for hypoxia and DTT are known specifically to give a reduction of strand breaks. (Auth.)

  12. Antagonist Effects of Veratric Acid against UVB-Induced Cell Damages

    OpenAIRE

    Deokhoon Park; Jong-Kyung Youm; Kyung-Eun Lee; Seungbeom Kim; Eunsun Jung; Seoung Woo Shin

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammatory processes in human epidermis, resulting in inflammation, photoaging, and photocarcinogenesis. Adequate protection of skin against the harmful effect of UV irradiation is essential. In recent years naturally occurring herbal compounds such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, and high molecular weight polyphenols have gained considerable attention as beneficial protective agents. The simple phenolic veratric acid (VA, ...

  13. Differential effects of experimental and cold-induced hyperthyroidism on factors inducing rat liver oxidative damage

    OpenAIRE

    Venditti, Paola; Pamplona Gras, Reinald; Ayala, Victoria; Rosa, R. de; Caldarone, G.; Di Meo, S.

    2006-01-01

    Thyroid hormone-induced increase in metabolic rates is often associated with increased oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of iodothyronines to liver oxidative stress in the functional hyperthyroidism elicited by cold, using as models cold-exposed and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T-3)- or thyroxine (T-4)-treated rats. The hyperthyroid state was always associated with increases in both oxidative capacity and oxidative damage of the tissue. The most ex...

  14. Effects of ionizing radiation on laser-induced damage in SiO/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soileau, M J; Mansour, N; Canto, E; Griscom, D L

    1988-05-01

    The effects of radiation damage on bulk laser-induced damage in SiO/sub 2/ were investigated. Samples studied included Spectrasil A, B, and WF (water free). Measurements of laser-induced breakdown were conducted with 532 and 1064 nm laser pulses of approximately 20 ns duration. Reductions of up to 40% in the laser-induced breakdown threshold were observed at 532 nm for samples exposed to 10/sup 8/ rad of ..gamma..-radiation. The decrease in breakdown threshold for irradiated SiO/sub 2/ samples at 532 nm was found to be proportional to the linear absorption of the specimen at 266 nm. These results are in good agreement with a proposed model which suggests that two-photon absorption initiated avalanche process is responsible for laser-induced breakdown for these materials.

  15. The effect of dithiothreitol on radiation-induced genetic damage in Arabidopsis thaliana (L) Heynh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellaert, L.M.W.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made on the effect of dithiothreitol (DTT; present during irradiation) on M 1 ovule sterility, M 2 embryonic lethals, M 2 chlorophyll mutants and M 2 viable mutants induced with fast neutrons or X-rays in Arabidopsis thaliana. DTT provides considerable protection against both fast-neutron and X-ray induced genetic damage. However, a higher protection was observed against M 1 ovule sterility, than against embryonic lethals, chlorophylls and viable mutants. This implies a significant DTT-induced spectral shift (0.01 < p < 0.05), i.e. a shift in the relative frequencies of the different genetic parameters. This spectral shift is explained on the basis of a specific DTT protection against radiation-induced strand breaks, and by differences in the ratio strand breaks/base damage for the genetic parameters concerned, i.e. a higher ratio for ovule sterility than for the other parameters. The induction of the genetic damage by ionizing radiation, either with or without DTT, is described by a mathematical model, which includes both strand breaks and base damage. The model shows that the resolving power of a test for a 'mutation'spectral shift depends on the relative values of the strandbreak reduction factor of -SH compounds and on the ratio strand breaks/base damage of the genetic parameters. For each genetic parameter the DTT damage reduction factor (DRF) is calculated per irradiation dose, and in addition the average (over-all doses) ratio strand breaks/base damage. (orig.)

  16. Cytoprotective effect of phloroglucinol on oxidative stress induced cell damage via catalase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Kyoung Hwa; Chae, Sungwook; Zhang, Rui; Jung, Myung Sun; Ham, Young Min; Baik, Jong Seok; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Jin Won

    2006-02-15

    We investigated the cytoprotective effect of phloroglucinol, which was isolated from Ecklonia cava (brown alga), against oxidative stress induced cell damage in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells. Phloroglucinol was found to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), hydroxy radical, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thus prevented lipid peroxidation. As a result, phloroglucinol reduced H(2)O(2) induced apoptotic cells formation in V79-4 cells. In addition, phloroglucinol inhibited cell damage induced by serum starvation and radiation through scavenging ROS. Phloroglucinol increased the catalase activity and its protein expression. In addition, catalase inhibitor abolished the protective effect of phloroglucinol from H(2)O(2) induced cell damage. Furthermore, phloroglucinol increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK). Taken together, the results suggest that phloroglucinol protects V79-4 cells against oxidative damage by enhancing the cellular catalase activity and modulating ERK signal pathway. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Endomorphin 1 effectively protects cadmium chloride-induced hepatic damage in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Pin; Chen Fuxin; Ma Guofen; Feng Yun; Zhao Qianyu; Wang Rui

    2008-01-01

    The antioxidative capacity of endomorphin 1 (EM1), an endogenous μ-opioid receptor agonist, has been demonstrated by in vivo assays. The present study reports the effect of EM1 on hepatic damage induced by cadmium chloride (Cd(II)) in adult male mouse. Mouse were given intraperitoneally (i.p.) a single dose of Cd(II) (1 mg/kg body weight per day) and the animals were co-administrated with a dose of EM1 (50 μM/kg body weight per day) for 6 days. Since hepatic damage induced by Cd(II) is related to oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl (PCO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were evaluated. The parameter indicating tissue damage such as liver histopathology was also determined. In addition, the concentrations of Cd and zinc (Zn) in the liver were analyzed. The intoxication of Cd(II) lead to the enhanced production of LPO and PCO, treatment with EM1 can effectively ameliorate the increase of LPO and PCO compared to the Cd(II) group. The increased activities of CAT, SOD and the elevated GSH induced by Cd(II) may relate to an adaptive-response to the oxidative damage, the effect of EM1 can restore the elevated antioxidant defense. Our results suggested that the structure features and the ability of chelating metal of EM1 may play a major role in the antioxidant effect of EM1 in vivo and opioid receptors may be involved in the protection of hepatic damage induced by Cd(II)

  18. Effects of focused ion beam induced damage on the plasticity of micropillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Awady, Jaafar A.; Woodward, Christopher; Dimiduk, Dennis M.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    2009-01-01

    The hardening effects of focused ion beam (FIB) induced damage produced during the fabrication of micropillars are examined by introducing a surface layer of nanosized obstacles into a dislocation dynamics simulation. The influence of the depth and strength of the obstacles as a function of pillar diameter is assessed parametrically. We show that for a selected set of sample sizes between 0.5 and 1.0 μm, the flow strength can increase by 10-20 %, for an obstacle strength of 750 MPa, and damage depth of 100 nm. On the other hand, for sizes larger and smaller than this range, the effect of damage is negligible. Results show that the obstacles formed during the FIB milling may be expected to alter the microstructure of micropillars, however, they have a negligible effect on the observed size-strength scaling laws.

  19. Muscle damage and repeated bout effect induced by enhanced eccentric squats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratella, Giuseppe; Chemello, Alessandro; Schena, Federico

    2016-12-01

    Muscle damage and repeated bout effect have been studied after pure eccentric-only exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle damage and repeated bout effect induced by enhanced eccentric squat exercise using flywheel device. Thirteen healthy males volunteered for this study. Creatine kinase blood activity (CK), quadriceps isometric peak torque and muscle soreness were used as markers of muscle damage. The dependent parameters were measured at baseline, immediately after and each day up to 96 hours after the exercise session. The intervention consisted of 100 repetitions of enhanced eccentric squat exercise using flywheel device. The same protocol was repeated after 4 weeks. After the first bout, CK and muscle soreness were significantly greater (P0.05), while isometric peak torque and muscle soreness returned to values similar to baseline after respectively 48 and 72 hours. All muscle damage markers were significantly lower after second compared to first bout. The enhanced eccentric exercise induced symptoms of muscle damage up to 96 hours. However, it provided muscle protection after the second bout, performed four weeks later. Although it was not eccentric-only exercise, the enhancement of eccentric phase provided muscle protection.

  20. The neuroprotective effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on laser-induced retinal damage in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskia-Dai, Victoria; Belokopytov, Mark; Dubinsky, Galina; Nachum, Gal; Avni, Isaac; Belkin, Michael; Rosner, Mordechai

    2005-04-01

    Retinal damage induced by mechanical trauma, ischemia or laser photocoagulation increases considerably by secondary degeneration processes. The spread of damage may be ameliorated by neuroprotection that is aimed at reducing the extent of the secondary degeneration and promote healing processes. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment consists of inspiration of oxygen at higher than one absolute atmospheric pressure. Improved neural function was observed in patients with acute brain trauma or ischemia treated with HBO. This study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on laser induced retinal damage in a rat model. Standard argon laser lesions were created in 25 pigmented rats divided into three groups: Ten rats were treated immediately after the irradiation with HBO three times during the first 24 hr followed by 12 consecutive daily treatments. Five rats received a shorter treatment regimen of 10 consecutive HBO treatments. The control group (10 rats) underwent the laser damage with no additional treatment. The retinal lesions were evaluated 20 days after the injury. All outcome measures were improved by the longer HBO treatment (Ptreatment was less effective, showing an increase only in nuclei density at the central area of lesion (Pretinal damage in a rat model. In the range of HBO exposures studied, longer exposure provides more neuroprotection. These results encourage further evaluation of the potential therapeutic use of hyperbaric oxygen in diseases and injuries of the retina.

  1. Effects of propofol on damage of rat intestinal epithelial cells induced by heat stress and lipopolysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.; Jiang, Y. [Southern Medical University, Nanfang Hospital, Department of Anesthesia, Guangzhou, China, Department of Anesthesia, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Tang, Y.; Chen, B. [Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Department of Intensive Care Unit, Guangzhou, China, Department of Intensive Care Unit, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Guangzhou (China); Sun, X. [Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome, School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Su, L.; Liu, Z. [Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Department of Intensive Care Unit, Guangzhou, China, Department of Intensive Care Unit, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Guangzhou (China)

    2013-06-25

    Gut-derived endotoxin and pathogenic bacteria have been proposed as important causative factors of morbidity and death during heat stroke. However, it is still unclear what kind of damage is induced by heat stress. In this study, the rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6) was treated with heat stress or a combination of heat stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, propofol, which plays an important role in anti-inflammation and organ protection, was applied to study its effects on cellular viability and apoptosis. Heat stress, LPS, or heat stress combined with LPS stimulation can all cause intestinal epithelial cell damage, including early apoptosis and subsequent necrosis. However, propofol can alleviate injuries caused by heat stress, LPS, or the combination of heat stress and LPS. Interestingly, propofol can only mitigate LPS-induced intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, and has no protective role in heat-stress-induced apoptosis. This study developed a model that can mimic the intestinal heat stress environment. It demonstrates the effects on intestinal epithelial cell damage, and indicated that propofol could be used as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of heat-stress-induced intestinal injuries.

  2. Effects of propofol on damage of rat intestinal epithelial cells induced by heat stress and lipopolysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J.; Jiang, Y.; Tang, Y.; Chen, B.; Sun, X.; Su, L.; Liu, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Gut-derived endotoxin and pathogenic bacteria have been proposed as important causative factors of morbidity and death during heat stroke. However, it is still unclear what kind of damage is induced by heat stress. In this study, the rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6) was treated with heat stress or a combination of heat stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, propofol, which plays an important role in anti-inflammation and organ protection, was applied to study its effects on cellular viability and apoptosis. Heat stress, LPS, or heat stress combined with LPS stimulation can all cause intestinal epithelial cell damage, including early apoptosis and subsequent necrosis. However, propofol can alleviate injuries caused by heat stress, LPS, or the combination of heat stress and LPS. Interestingly, propofol can only mitigate LPS-induced intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, and has no protective role in heat-stress-induced apoptosis. This study developed a model that can mimic the intestinal heat stress environment. It demonstrates the effects on intestinal epithelial cell damage, and indicated that propofol could be used as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of heat-stress-induced intestinal injuries

  3. The effect of phytosterol protects rats against 4-nitrophenol-induced liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiaqin; Song, Meiyan; Li, Yansen; Zhang, Yonghui; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Li, ChunMei

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of phytosterol (PS) in regard to liver damage induced by 4-nitrophenol (PNP). Twenty rats were randomly divided into four groups (Control, PS, PNP, and PNP+PS). The PS and PNP+PS groups were pretreated with PS for one week. The PNP and PNP+PS groups were injected subcutaneously with PNP for 28 days. The control group received a basal diet and was injected with vehicle alone. Treatment with PS prevented the elevation of the total bilirubin levels, as well as an increase in serum alkaline transaminase and aspartate transaminase, which are typically caused by PNP-induced liver damage. Histopathologically showed that liver damage was significantly mitigated by PS treatment. However, there was no significant change in antioxidant enzyme activities, and the Nrf2-antioxidant system was not activated after treatment with PS. These results suggest that PS could mitigate liver damage induced by PNP, but does not enhance antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Protective effect of hemin against cadmium-induced testicular damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, Amr A.; Qureshi, Habib A.; Al-Sultan, Ali Ibrahim; Yacoubi, Mohamed T.; Ali, Abdellah Abusrie

    2009-01-01

    The protective effect of hemin, the heme oxygenase-1 inducer, was investigated in rats with cadmium induced-testicular injury, in which oxidative stress and inflammation play a major role. Testicular damage was induced by a single i.p. injection of cadmium chloride (2 mg/kg). Hemin was given for three consecutive days (40 μmol/kg/day, s.c.), starting 1 day before cadmium administration. Hemin treatment significantly increased serum testosterone level that was reduced by cadmium. Hemin compensated deficits in the antioxidant defense mechanisms (reduced glutathione, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities), and suppressed lipid peroxidation in testicular tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Also, hemin attenuated the cadmium-induced elevations in testicular tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide levels, and caspase-3 activity. Additionally, hemin ameliorated cadmium-induced testicular tissue damage observed by light and electron microscopic examinations. The protective effect afforded by hemin was abolished by prior administration of zinc protoporphyrin-IX, the heme oxygenase-1 inhibitor. It was concluded that hemin, through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects, represents a potential therapeutic option to protect the testicular tissue from the detrimental effects of cadmium

  5. Plasma induced DNA damage: Comparison with the effects of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazović, S.; Maletić, D.; Puač, N.; Malović, G.; Petrović, Z. Lj. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Leskovac, A.; Filipović, J.; Joksić, G. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-09-22

    We use human primary fibroblasts for comparing plasma and gamma rays induced DNA damage. In both cases, DNA strand breaks occur, but of fundamentally different nature. Unlike gamma exposure, contact with plasma predominantly leads to single strand breaks and base-damages, while double strand breaks are mainly consequence of the cell repair mechanisms. Different cell signaling mechanisms are detected confirming this (ataxia telangiectasia mutated - ATM and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related - ATR, respectively). The effective plasma doses can be tuned to match the typical therapeutic doses of 2 Gy. Tailoring the effective dose through plasma power and duration of the treatment enables safety precautions mainly by inducing apoptosis and consequently reduced frequency of micronuclei.

  6. Nephroprotective Effect of Bauhinia tomentosa Linn against Cisplatin-Induced Renal Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Narayanan; Sakthivel, Kunnathur Murugesan; Guruvayoorappan, Chandrasekaran

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin (CP) is an important chemotherapeutic drug used for the treatment of a wide variety of solid tumors. However, clinical use of CP has been limited due to its adverse effect of nephrotoxicity. In the present study, we evaluate the nephroprotective effect of Bauhinia tomentosa against CP-induced renal damage in rats. Administration of methonolic extract of B. tomentosa (250 mg/kg b.w.) results in a significant increase in antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and catalase (CAT). Furthermore, treatment with B. tomentosa increased body weight and relative organ weight when compared with that of the CP-induced control group. Moreover, treatment with B. tomentosa extract significantly decreased lipid peroxidation(LPO), serum urea, and creatinine when compared with the CP-induced control group. Thus, the present study highlights the potential role of B. tomentosa and its use as a new protective strategy against CP-induced nephrotoxicity.

  7. Antagonist effects of veratric acid against UVB-induced cell damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seoung Woo; Jung, Eunsun; Kim, Seungbeom; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Youm, Jong-Kyung; Park, Deokhoon

    2013-05-10

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammatory processes in human epidermis, resulting in inflammation, photoaging, and photocarcinogenesis. Adequate protection of skin against the harmful effect of UV irradiation is essential. In recent years naturally occurring herbal compounds such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, and high molecular weight polyphenols have gained considerable attention as beneficial protective agents. The simple phenolic veratric acid (VA, 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid) is one of the major benzoic acid derivatives from vegetables and fruits and it also occurs naturally in medicinal mushrooms which have been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. However, it has rarely been applied in skin care. This study, therefore, aimed to explore the possible roles of veratric acid in protection against UVB-induced damage in HaCaT cells. Results showed that veratric acid can attenuate cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) formation, glutathione (GSH) depletion and apoptosis induced by UVB. Furthermore, veratric acid had inhibitory effects on the UVB-induced release of the inflammatory mediators such as IL-6 and prostaglandin-E2. We also confirmed the safety and clinical efficacy of veratric acid on human skin. Overall, results demonstrated significant benefits of veratric acid on the protection of keratinocyte against UVB-induced injuries and suggested its potential use in skin photoprotection.

  8. Antagonist Effects of Veratric Acid against UVB-Induced Cell Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deokhoon Park

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV radiation induces DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammatory processes in human epidermis, resulting in inflammation, photoaging, and photocarcinogenesis. Adequate protection of skin against the harmful effect of UV irradiation is essential. In recent years naturally occurring herbal compounds such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, and high molecular weight polyphenols have gained considerable attention as beneficial protective agents. The simple phenolic veratric acid (VA, 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid is one of the major benzoic acid derivatives from vegetables and fruits and it also occurs naturally in medicinal mushrooms which have been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. However, it has rarely been applied in skin care. This study, therefore, aimed to explore the possible roles of veratric acid in protection against UVB-induced damage in HaCaT cells. Results showed that veratric acid can attenuate cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs formation, glutathione (GSH depletion and apoptosis induced by UVB. Furthermore, veratric acid had inhibitory effects on the UVB-induced release of the inflammatory mediators such as IL-6 and prostaglandin-E2. We also confirmed the safety and clinical efficacy of veratric acid on human skin. Overall, results demonstrated significant benefits of veratric acid on the protection of keratinocyte against UVB-induced injuries and suggested its potential use in skin photoprotection.

  9. Effects of melatonin on spinal cord injury-induced oxidative damage in mice testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X-C; Wang, P; Li, H-W; Wu, Q-B; Zhang, X-Y; Li, B-W; Xiu, R-J

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the effects of melatonin on spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced oxidative damage in testes. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into sham-, SCI- or melatonin (10 mg/kg, i.p.)-treated SCI groups. To induce SCI, a standard weight-drop method that induced a contusion injury at T10 was used. After 1 week, testicular blood flow velocity was measured using the Laser Doppler Line Scanner. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), oxidised glutathione (GSSG) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in testis homogenates. Microvascular permeability of the testes to Evan's Blue was examined by spectrophotometric and fluorescence microscopic quantitation. The tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin in testes were assessed by immunoblot analysis. Melatonin increased the reduced blood flow and decreased SCI-induced permeability of capillaries. MDA levels and MPO activity were elevated in the SCI group compared with shams, which was reversed by melatonin. In contrast, SCI-induced reductions in GSH/GSSG ratio were restored by melatonin. Decreased expression of ZO-1 and occludin was observed, which was attenuated by melatonin. Overall, melatonin treatment protects the testes against oxidative stress damage caused by SCI. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Effect of SOS-induced levels of imuABC on spontaneous and damage-induced mutagenesis in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ingrid R; Lima-Noronha, Marco A; Silva, Larissa G; Fernández-Silva, Frank S; Freitas, Aline Luiza D; Marques, Marilis V; Galhardo, Rodrigo S

    2017-11-01

    imuABC (imuAB dnaE2) genes are responsible for SOS-mutagenesis in Caulobacter crescentus and other bacterial species devoid of umuDC. In this work, we have constructed operator-constitutive mutants of the imuABC operon. We used this genetic tool to investigate the effect of SOS-induced levels of these genes upon both spontaneous and damage-induced mutagenesis. We showed that constitutive expression of imuABC does not increase spontaneous or damage-induced mutagenesis, nor increases cellular resistance to DNA-damaging agents. Nevertheless, the presence of the operator-constitutive mutation rescues mutagenesis in a recA background, indicating that imuABC are the only genes required at SOS-induced levels for translesion synthesis (TLS) in C. crescentus. Furthermore, these data also show that TLS mediated by ImuABC does not require RecA, unlike umuDC-dependent mutagenesis in E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa on carbon tetrachloride- and acetaminophen-induced liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S C; Chung, T C; Lin, C C; Ueng, T H; Lin, Y H; Lin, S Y; Wang, L Y

    2000-01-01

    The root of Arctium lappa Linne (A. lappa) (Compositae), a perennial herb, has been cultivated for a long time as a popular vegetable. In order to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of A. lappa, male ICR mice were injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 32 microl/kg, i.p.) or acetaminophen (600 mg/kg, i.p.). A. lappa suppressed the SGOT and SGPT elevations induced by CCl4 or acetaminophen in a dose-dependent manner and alleviated the severity of liver damage based on histopathological observations. In an attempt to elucidate the possible mechanism(s) of this hepatoprotective effect, glutathione (GSH), cytochrome P-450 (P-450) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were studied. A. lappa reversed the decrease in GSH and P-450 induced by CCl4 and acetaminophen. It was also found that A. lappa decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in CCl4 or acetaminophen-intoxicated mice. From these results, it was suggested that A. lappa could protect the liver cells from CCl4 or acetaminophen-induced liver damages, perhaps by its antioxidative effect on hepatocytes, hence eliminating the deleterious effects of toxic metabolites from CCl4 or acetaminophen.

  12. Multi-scale approach to radiation damage induced by ion beams: complex DNA damage and effects of thermal spikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surdutovich, E.; Yakubovich, A.V.; Solov'yov, A.V.; Surdutovich, E.; Yakubovich, A.V.; Solov'yov, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    We present the latest advances of the multi-scale approach to radiation damage caused by irradiation of a tissue with energetic ions and report the calculations of complex DNA damage and the effects of thermal spikes on biomolecules. The multi-scale approach aims to quantify the most important physical, chemical, and biological phenomena taking place during and following irradiation with ions and provide a better means for clinically-necessary calculations with adequate accuracy. We suggest a way of quantifying the complex clustered damage, one of the most important features of the radiation damage caused by ions. This quantification allows the studying of how the clusterization of DNA lesions affects the lethality of damage. We discuss the first results of molecular dynamics simulations of ubiquitin in the environment of thermal spikes, predicted to occur in tissue for a short time after an ion's passage in the vicinity of the ions' tracks. (authors)

  13. Effects of chemical-induced DNA damage on male germ cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holme, J.A.; Bjoerge, C.; Trbojevic, M.; Olsen, A.K.; Brunborg, G.; Soederlund, E.J. [National Inst. of Public Health, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Environmental Medicine; Bjoeras, M.; Seeberg, E. [National Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Microbiology; Scholz, T.; Dybing, E.; Wiger, R. [National Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Inst. for Surgical Research and Surgical Dept. B

    1998-12-31

    Several recent studies indicate declines in sperm production, as well as increases in the incidence of genitourinary abnormalities such as testicular cancer, cryptorchidism and hypospadias. It is not known if these effects are due to exposure to chemical pollutants or if other ethiological factors are involved. Animal studies indicate that chemicals will induce such effects by various genetic, epigenetic or non-genetic mechanisms. Recently, much attention has been focused on embryonic/fetal exposure to oestrogen-mimicking chemicals (Toppari et al., 1996). However, the possibility that chemicals may cause reproductive toxicity by other mechanisms such as interactions with DNA, should not be ignored. DNA damage in germ cells may lead to the production of mutated spermatozoa, which in turn may result in spontaneous abortions, malformations and/or genetic defects in the offspring. Regarding the consequences of DNA alterations for carcinogenesis it is possible that genetic damage may occur germ cells, but the consequences are not expressed until certain genetic events occur in postnatal life. Transmission of genetic risk is best demonstrated by cancer-prone disorders such as hereditary retinoblastoma and the Li-Fraumeni syndrome. A number of experiments indicate that germ cells and proliferating cells may be particularly sensitive to DNA damaging agents compared to other cells. Furthermore, several lines of evidence have indicated that one of the best documented male reproductive toxicants, 1,2-dibrome-3-chloropropane (DBCP), causes testicular toxicity through DNA damage. It is possible that testicular cells at certain maturational stages are more subject to DNA damage, have less efficient DNA repair, or have different thresholds for initiating apoptosis following DNA damage than other cell types. (orig.)

  14. Gastroprotective, cytoprotective and antioxidant effects of Oleum cinnamomi on ethanol induced damage

    OpenAIRE

    Ozbayer, Cansu; Kurt, Hulyam; Ozdemir, Zeynep; Tuncel, Tunc; Moheb Saadat, Selva; Burukoglu, Dilek; Senturk, Hakan; Degirmenci, Irfan; Gunes, Hasan Veysi

    2013-01-01

    Peptic ulcer disease is a gastrointestinal disorder defined by mucosal damage and free oxygen radicals associated with peptic ulcer and gastritis. Cinnamon is a traditional herb used for many diseases and it has also effects as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic and anti-ulcerative. Our research is based on oxidative stress and effects of Oleum cinnamomi on stomach, liver and kidney disorders induced by ethanol. In our experiment, 2–3 month old male Sprague–Dawley rats were used...

  15. Experimental Protoporphyria: Effect of Bile Acids on Liver Damage Induced by Griseofulvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Martinez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bile acids administration to an experimental mice model of Protoporphyria produced by griseofulvin (Gris was investigated. The aim was to assess whether porphyrin excretion could be accelerated by bile acids treatment in an attempt to diminish liver damage induced by Gris. Liver damage markers, heme metabolism, and oxidative stress parameters were analyzed in mice treated with Gris and deoxycholic (DXA, dehydrocholic (DHA, chenodeoxycholic, or ursodeoxycholic (URSO. The administration of Gris alone increased the activities of glutathione reductase (GRed, superoxide dismutase (SOD, alkaline phosphatase (AP, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, and glutathione-S-transferase (GST, as well as total porphyrins, glutathione (GSH, and cytochrome P450 (CYP levels in liver. Among the bile acids studied, DXA and DHA increased PROTO IX excretion, DXA also abolished the action of Gris, reducing lipid peroxidation and hepatic GSH and CYP levels, and the activities of GGT, AP, SOD, and GST returned to control values. However, porphyrin accumulation was not prevented by URSO; instead this bile acid reduced ALA-S and the antioxidant defense enzymes system activities. In conclusion, we postulate that DXA acid would be more effective to prevent liver damage induced by Gris.

  16. The Effect of a Grape Seed Extract on Radiation-Induced DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicu, Tiberius; Postescu, Ion D.; Foriş, Vasile; Brie, Ioana; Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Cernea, Valentin; Moldovan, Mircea; Cosma, Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Plant-derived antioxidants due to their phenolic compounds content are reported as potential candidates for reducing the levels of oxidative stress in living organisms. Grape seed extracts are very potent antioxidants and exhibit numerous interesting pharmacologic activities. Hydroethanolic (50/50, v/v) standardized extract was obtained from red grape seed (Vitis vinifera, variety Burgund Mare—BM). The total polyphenols content was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and expressed as μEq Gallic Acid/ml. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antioxidant effects of different concentrations of BM extract against 60Co γ-rays induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Samples of human lymphocytes were incubated with BM extract (12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 μEq GA/ml, respectively) administered at 30 minutes before in vitro irradiation with γ-rays (2 Gy). The DNA damage and repair in lymphocytes were evaluated using alkaline comet assay. Using the lesion score, the radiation-induced DNA damage was found to be significantly different (pextract (except the lymphocytes treated with 37.5 μEq GA/ml BM extract). DNA repair analyzed by incubating the irradiated cells at 37° C and 5% CO2 atmosphere for 2 h, indicated a significant difference (pextract, immediately and two hours after irradiation. These results suggest radioprotective effects after treatment with BM extract in human lymphocytes.

  17. Effects of Resveratrol on Methotrexate-Induced Testicular Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Yuluğ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the probable protective effects of resveratrol (RES, an antioxidant, against methotrexate- (MTX- induced testis damage. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, RES, MTX, and MTX + RES groups. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the experiment. Plasma and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activity in tissue, testicular histopathological damage scores, and testicular and epididymal epithelial apoptotic index (AI were evaluated. The MTX group had significantly higher plasma and tissue MDA levels and significantly lower SOD and CAT activity than those of the control group. In the MTX + RES group, plasma and tissue MDA levels decreased significantly and SOD activity rose significantly compared to the MTX group. The MTX group had significantly lower Johnsen’s testicular biopsy score (JTBS values than those of the control group. JTBS was significantly higher in the MTX + RES group than in the MTX group. AI increased in the testis and epididymis in the MTX group and significantly decreased in the MTX + RES group. Our results indicate that RES has protective effects against MTX-induced testis damage at the biochemical, histopathological, and apoptotic levels.

  18. The Effect of Taurine on the Recovery from Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanita McLeay

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Eccentric exercise is known to bring about microstructural damage to muscle, initiating an inflammatory cascade involving various reactive oxygen species. This, in turn, can significantly impair physical performance over subsequent days. Taurine, a powerful endogenous antioxidant, has previously been shown to have a beneficial effect on muscle damage markers and recovery when taken for a few days to several weeks prior to eccentric exercise. However, to date no studies have looked at the effects of supplementing over the days following eccentric exercise on performance recovery. Thus, this study aimed to determine whether supplementing with taurine over three days following eccentric exercise attenuated the rise in serum creatine kinase and improved performance recovery in males. In a blinded, randomized, crossover design, ten recreationally-fit male participants completed 60 eccentric contractions of the biceps brachii muscle at maximal effort. Following this, participants were supplemented with 0.1 g∙kg−1 body weight∙day−1 of either taurine or rice flour in capsules. Over the next three mornings participants underwent blood tests for the analysis of the muscle damage marker creatine kinase and carried out performance measures on the isokinetic dynamometer. They also continued to consume the capsules in the morning and evening. The entire protocol was repeated two weeks later on the alternate arm and supplement. Significant decreases were seen in all performance measures from pre- to 24-h post-eccentric exercise (p < 0.001 for both taurine and placebo, indicating the attainment of muscle damage. Significant treatment effects were observed only for peak eccentric torque (p < 0.05. No significant time × treatment effects were observed (all p > 0.05. Serum creatine kinase levels did not significantly differ over time for either treatments, nor between treatments (p > 0.05. These findings suggest that taurine supplementation taken twice

  19. Radiation-induced lung damage in rats: The influence of fraction spacing on effect per fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haston, C.K.; Hill, R.P.; Newcomb, C.H.; Van Dyk, J.

    1994-01-01

    When the linear-quadratic model is used to predict fractionated treatments which are isoeffective, it is usually assumed that each (equal size) treatment fraction has an equal effect, independent of the time at which it was delivered during a course of treatment. Previous work has indicated that this assumption may not be valid in the context of radiation-induced lung damage in rats. Consequently the authors tested directly the validity of the assumption that each fraction has an equal effect, independent of the time it is delivered. An experiment was completed in which fractionated irradiation was given to whole thoraces of Sprague-Dawley rats. All treatment schedules consisted of eleven equal dose fractions in 36 days given as a split course, with some groups receiving the bulk of the doses early in the treatment schedule, before a 27-day gap, and others receiving most of the dose toward the end of the treatment schedule, after the time gap. To monitor the incidence of radiation-induced damage, breathing rate and lethality assays were used. The maximum differences in the LD 50 s and breathing rate ED 50 s for the different fractionation schedules were 4.0% and 7.7% respectively. The lethality data and breathing rate data were consistent with results expected from modelling using the linear-quadratic model with the inclusion of an overall time factor, but not the generalized linear-quadratic model which accounted for fraction spacing. For conventional daily fractionation, and within the range of experimental uncertainties, the results indicate that the effect of a treatment fraction does not depend on the time at which it is given (its position) in the treatment. The results indicate no need to extend isoeffect formulae to consider the effect of each fraction separately for radiation-induced lung damage. 21 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Protective Effects of Resveratrol against UVA-Induced Damage in ARPE19 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ming Chan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet radiation, especially UVA, can penetrate the lens, reach the retina, and induce oxidative stress to retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells. Even though it is weakly absorbed by protein and DNA, it may trigger the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and generate oxidative injury; oxidative injury to the retinal pigment epithelium has been implicated to play a contributory role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Studies showed that resveratrol, an abundant and active component of red grapes, can protect several cell types from oxidative stress. In this study, adult RPE cells being treated with different concentrations of resveratrol were used to evaluate the protective effect of resveratrol on RPE cells against UVA-induced damage. Cell viability assay showed that resveratrol reduced the UVA-induced decrease in RPE cell viability. Through flow cytometry analysis, we found that the generation of intracellular H2O2 induced by UVA irradiation in RPE cells could be suppressed by resveratrol in a concentration-dependent manner. Results of Western blot analysis demonstrated that resveratrol lowered the activation of UVA-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-jun-NH2 terminal kinase and p38 kinase in RPE cells. In addition, there was also a reduction in UVA-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression in RPE cells pretreated with resveratrol. Our observations suggest that resveratrol is effective in preventing RPE cells from being damaged by UVA radiation, and is worth considering for further development as a chemoprotective agent for the prevention of early AMD.

  1. Protective Effects of Resveratrol against UVA-Induced Damage in ARPE19 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chi-Ming; Huang, Cheng-Hua; Li, Hsin-Ju; Hsiao, Chien-Yu; Su, Ching-Chieh; Lee, Pei-Lan; Hung, Chi-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation, especially UVA, can penetrate the lens, reach the retina, and induce oxidative stress to retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Even though it is weakly absorbed by protein and DNA, it may trigger the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and generate oxidative injury; oxidative injury to the retinal pigment epithelium has been implicated to play a contributory role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Studies showed that resveratrol, an abundant and active component of red grapes, can protect several cell types from oxidative stress. In this study, adult RPE cells being treated with different concentrations of resveratrol were used to evaluate the protective effect of resveratrol on RPE cells against UVA-induced damage. Cell viability assay showed that resveratrol reduced the UVA-induced decrease in RPE cell viability. Through flow cytometry analysis, we found that the generation of intracellular H2O2 induced by UVA irradiation in RPE cells could be suppressed by resveratrol in a concentration-dependent manner. Results of Western blot analysis demonstrated that resveratrol lowered the activation of UVA-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-jun-NH2 terminal kinase and p38 kinase in RPE cells. In addition, there was also a reduction in UVA-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in RPE cells pretreated with resveratrol. Our observations suggest that resveratrol is effective in preventing RPE cells from being damaged by UVA radiation, and is worth considering for further development as a chemoprotective agent for the prevention of early AMD. PMID:25775159

  2. Effects of ozone oxidative preconditioning on radiation-induced organ damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gultekin, Fatma Ayca; Bakkal, Bekir Hakan; Guven, Berrak; Tasdoven, Ilhan; Bektas, Sibel; Can, Murat; Comert, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Because radiation-induced cellular damage is attributed primarily to harmful effects of free radicals, molecules with direct free radical scavenging properties are particularly promising as radioprotectors. It has been demonstrated that controlled ozone administration may promote an adaptation to oxidative stress, preventing the damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Thus, we hypothesized that ozone would ameliorate oxidative damage caused by total body irradiation (TBI) with a single dose of 6 Gy in rat liver and ileum tissues. Rats were randomly divided into groups as follows: control group; saline-treated and irradiated (IR) groups; and ozone oxidative preconditioning (OOP) and IR groups. Animals were exposed to TBI after a 5-day intraperitoneal pretreatment with either saline or ozone (1 mg/kg/day). They were decapitated at either 6 h or 72 h after TBI. Plasma, liver and ileum samples were obtained. Serum AST, ALT and TNF-α levels were elevated in the IR groups compared with the control group and were decreased after treatment with OOP. TBI resulted in a significant increase in the levels of MDA in the liver and ileal tissues and a decrease of SOD activities. The results demonstrated that the levels of MDA liver and ileal tissues in irradiated rats that were pretreated with ozone were significantly decreased, while SOD activities were significantly increased. OOP reversed all histopathological alterations induced by irradiation. In conclusion, data obtained from this study indicated that ozone could increase the endogenous antioxidant defense mechanism in rats and there by protect the animals from radiation-induced organ toxicity. (author)

  3. [Effect of germacrone in alleviating HUVECs damaged by H2O2-induced oxidative stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiong-Fang; Wang, Gang; Tang, Li-Qing; Yu, Xian-Wen; Li, Zhao-Fei; Yang, Xiu-Fen

    2017-09-01

    This study focuses on the protective effect of germacrone on human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVECs) damaged by H2O2-induced oxidative stress and its possible mechanisms. The oxidative damage model was established by using 500 μmol•L⁻¹ H2O2 to treat HUVECs for 3 hours, and then protected with different concentrations of germacrone for 24 hours. The effect of germacrone on cell viability of HUVECs damaged by H2O2 was detected by MTT. The contents of PGI2, TXB2, ET-1, t-PA, PAI-1, TNF-α and IL-6 were detected by ELISA. The content of NO was detected by using nitrate reductase method. Colorimetry was used to detect NOS and GSH-Px. The contents of MDA, SOD and LDH were detected by TBA, WST-1 and microplate respectively. Apoptosis was observed by Hoechst 33258 fluorescent staining. The mRNA expressions of Bax, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 in cells were detected by RT-PCR. The results showed that the cell damage rate was 52% after treated with 500 μmol•L⁻¹ H2O2 for 3 hours. The cell activity was increasing with the rise of germacrone concentration within the range of 20-200 mol•L⁻¹. Compared with normal group, the contents of PGI2, NO, T-NOS, t-PA, SOD, GSH-Px and Bcl-2 mRNA expressions were lower after damaged with H2O2. The contents of PAI-1, ET-1, IL-6, TNF-α, TXB2, LDH, MDA, Bax mRNA and Caspase-3 mRNA expressions were increased. Compared with model group, the contents of PGI2, NO, T-NOS, t-PA, SOD, GSH-Px and Bcl-2 mRNA expressions were increased after treated with germacrone. The contents of PAI-1, ET-1, IL-6, TNF-α, TXB2, LDH, MDA, Bax mRNA and Caspase-3 mRNA expressions were lower after treated with germacrone. According to Hoechst 33258 fluorescence staining, compared with normal group, the cell membrane and the nucleus showed strong dense blue fluorescence, and the number of cells significantly decreased in model group. Compared with model group, blue fluorescence intensity decreased in drug group. The above findings demonstrate that

  4. Study of the effect of dose-rate on radiation-induced damage to human erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krokosz, Anita [Department of Molecular Biophysics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, Lodz (Poland)]. E-mail: krokosz@biol.uni.lodz.pl; Koziczak, Renata [Department of Molecular Biophysics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, Lodz (Poland); Gonciarz, Marta [Department of Molecular Biophysics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, Lodz (Poland); Szweda-Lewandowska, Zofia [Department of Molecular Biophysics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, Lodz (Poland)

    2006-01-15

    Human erythrocytes suspended in an isotonic Na-phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 (hematocrit of 2%) were irradiated with {gamma}-rays at three dose-rates of 66.7, 36.7, 25 Gy min{sup -1} in order to investigate the influence of the dose-rate on radiation-induced membrane damage, hemoglobin oxidation and loss of reduced glutathione. The obtained results showed that such processes as erythrocyte hemolysis, lipid and protein destruction depend on the radiation dose-rate. The parameter values describing these processes showed an inverse dose-rate effect.

  5. Study of the effect of dose-rate on radiation-induced damage to human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krokosz, Anita; Koziczak, Renata; Gonciarz, Marta; Szweda-Lewandowska, Zofia

    2006-01-01

    Human erythrocytes suspended in an isotonic Na-phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 (hematocrit of 2%) were irradiated with γ-rays at three dose-rates of 66.7, 36.7, 25 Gy min -1 in order to investigate the influence of the dose-rate on radiation-induced membrane damage, hemoglobin oxidation and loss of reduced glutathione. The obtained results showed that such processes as erythrocyte hemolysis, lipid and protein destruction depend on the radiation dose-rate. The parameter values describing these processes showed an inverse dose-rate effect

  6. Beneficial effect of honokiol on lipopolysaccharide induced anxiety-like behavior and liver damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulakhiya, Kunjbihari; Kumar, Parveen; Gurjar, Satendra S; Barua, Chandana C; Hazarika, Naba K

    2015-02-26

    Anxiety disorders are commonly occurring co-morbid neuropsychiatric disorders with chronic inflammatory conditions such as live damage. Numerous studies revealed that peripheral inflammation, oxidative stress and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) play important roles in the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders. Honokiol (HNK) is a polyphenol, possessing multiple biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, antidepressant and hepatoprotection. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of HNK, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety-like behavior and liver damage in mice. Mice (n=6-10/group) were pre-treated with different doses of HNK (2.5 and 5mg/kg; i.p.) for two days, and challenged with saline or LPS (0.83mg/kg; i.p.) on third day. Anxiety-like behavior was monitored using elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT). Animals were sacrificed to evaluate various biochemical parameters in plasma and liver. HNK pre-treatment provided significant (P<0.01) protection against LPS-induced reduction in body weight, food and water intake in mice. HNK at higher dose significantly (P<0.05) attenuated LPS-induced anxiety-like behavior by increasing the number of entries and time spent in open arm in EPM test, and by increasing the frequency in central zone in OFT. HNK pre-treatment ameliorated LPS-induced peripheral inflammation by reducing plasma IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α level, and also improved the plasma BDNF level, prevented liver damage via attenuating transaminases (AST, ALT), liver oxidative stress and TNF-α activity in LPS challenged mice. In conclusion, the current investigation suggests that HNK provided beneficial effect against LPS-induced anxiety-like behavior and liver damage which may be governed by inhibition of cytokines production, oxidative stress and depletion of plasma BDNF level. Our result suggests that HNK could be a therapeutic approach for the treatment of anxiety and other

  7. Protective effects of acemannan against radiation induced damage in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sumit; Tiku, Ashu Bhan

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera is one of the well known medicinal plant and posses a large no. of beneficial bioactive components like Anthraquinone, C-glycosides, anthrones, emodin, acemannan etc. Acemannan (poly-acetylated mannose) is one of the active component present in aloe vera gel and has anticancerous and antimicrobial properties. It has also been reported to have wound healing properties and has role as immunomodulator. The objective of the present study was to evaluate protective efficacy of acemannan against radiation induced damage in in-vitro and in in-vivo using murine splenocytes and Swiss albino mice as a model system. In vitro studies were done using primary mouse splenocytes cultures and effect of radiation on cell proliferation, viability, ROS, DNA damage and apoptosis were studies using MTT, trypan blue, DCFDA, single cell gel electrophoresis and ladder assay respectively. For in-vivo studies mice were pretreated with different doses of drug for 7 days followed by irradiation (5 Gy). Twenty four hours post-irradiation mice was sacrificed to observe the activity of antioxidant enzymes and level of protein expression. Acemannan showed a significant induction of proliferation of splenocytes in radiation treated groups both in in-vitro and in in-vivo. Beside a decrease in radiation induced ROS and DNA damage was observed in in-vitro system. Acemannan treatment was able to reduce the radiation induced apoptosis by about 50% both in in-vitro and in in-vivo. In in-vivo acemannan helps in the restoration of the antioxidant enzyme level (catalase, SOD, DTD and GST) besides maintaining the proper redox status via GSH, in irradiated mice. In our studies a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt of acemannan showed the best protective effects. On the basis of the above results it could be concluded that acemannan may have radioprotective potential. (author)

  8. Effects of Various Factors on the Viv-Induced Fatigue Damage In The Cable Of Submerged Floating Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luoa Gang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the modal superposition method, the vortex vibration procedure of submerged floating tunnel cable was compiled using Matlab, based on the calculated results, the fatigue damage was predicted. The effects of various factors, such as cable density, cable length, and pretension and velocity distribution on vortex induced fatigue damage in the cable were studied. The results show that velocity distribution has more effect on the cable fatigue damage than cable length, cable density and pre-tension. Secondly, cable length has also relatively effect on the cable damage fatigue, cable density and pretension has limited in a certain range.

  9. [Oxidative damage effects induced by CdTe quantum dots in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, G Y; Chen, W; Wang, Q K; Cheng, X R; Xu, J N; Huang, P L

    2017-07-20

    Objective: To investigate Oxidative damage effects induced by CdTe Quantum Dots (QDs) in mice. Methods: 40 ICR mice were randomly divided into 5 groups: one control group (normal saline) ; four CdTe QDs (exposed by intravenous injection of 0.2 ml of CdTe QDs at the concentration of 0、0.5、5.0、50.0 and 500.0 nmol/ml respectively) . After 24 h, the mice were decapitated and the blood was collected for serum biochemically indexes、hematology indexes, the activities of SOD、GSH-Px and the concentration of MDA were all detected. Results: The results showed in the four CdTe QDs exposure groups, the level of CRE、PLT and the concentration of MDA were all significantly lower than those of the control group ( P control group ( P <0.01) . Conclusion: It was suggested that CdTe QDs at 0.5 nmol/ml could induce Oxidative damage effects in mice.

  10. Antioxidant effects of betaine against Indomethacin-induced gastric damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Alirezaei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Betaine (trimethyl glycine is known as methyl group donor and antioxidant in previous reports. The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant effects of betaine in Indomethacin-induced gastric damages. Methods: Thirty-two adult male Sprague–Dawley rats in an experimental study were divided into four equal groups as follow: Control, Indomethacin, Betaine-indomethacin and Ascorbic acid-indomethacin. Control and indomethacin groups received normal saline and betaine and ascorbic acid-pretreated rats were administrated betaine (1.5% of the total diet and ascorbic acid (50 mg/kg body weight for 15 consecutive days, respectively. After 24 h fasting, all of the groups received indomethacin (48 mg/kg body weight and control group received distilled water. Results: Indomethacin administration increased gastric ulcer occurrence (% in comparison with control group and betaine pretreatment significantly decreased ulcer occurrence (% when compared to the other groups (P=0.0017. Gastric wall glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity was significantly lower in indomethacin group in comparison with the other groups (P=0.0012 while, betaine and ascorbic acid pretreatment increased GPx activity in comparison with indomethacin group (P=0.0012. Catalase activity was significantly higher in betaine-pretreated rats in comparison with indomethacin and ascorbic acid-indomethacin groups (P=0.0015. Lipid peroxidation significantly decreased in betaine and ascorbic acid pretreated groups (P=0.0013. Conclusion: These results showed beneficial antioxidant effects of betaine against gastric damages induced by indomethacin in rats.

  11. Protective effects of melatonin on damage of thymocytes in mice induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuan; Wang Zhenqi; Liu Yang; Gong Shouliang; Zhang Ming; Liu Shuzheng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of melatonin (MLT) on the damage of mouse thymocytes in vivo induced by ionizing radiation and its mechanism. Methods: The exogenous MLT was given to Kunming mice to establish the animal models of single and successive administration of MLT through intraperitoneal injection before whole-body irradiation with 1 Gy X-rays. For single administration of MLT, the apoptotic body percentage (ABP) and DNA lytic rate (DLR) in the thymocytes were determined with flow cytometry and fluorospectrophotometry, respectively, 12 h after irradiation. For successive administration of MLT, 3 H-TdR incorporative rate (HTIR ) was determined 24 h after irradiation. Results: The number of thymocytes in single administration group was significantly lower than that in the sham-irradiation group 12 h after irradiation with 1 Gy X-rays (P -1 MLT group was significantly higher, while the ABP and DLR were significantly lower than those in 0 mg·kg -1 MLT group (simple irradiation, P -1 MLT were significantly higher than that in 0 mg·kg -1 MLT group (P -1 MLT group was also significantly higher (P<0.05). Conclusion: The administration of exogenous MLT before irradiation can decrease the damage of mouse thymocytes induced by ionizing radiation, and has the protective effect on immune functions in mice. (authors)

  12. Protective effects of edaravone against cisplatin-induced hair cell damage in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seok Jin; Im, Gi Jung; Chang, Jiwon; Chae, Sung Won; Lee, Seung Hoon; Kwon, Soon Young; Jung, Hak Hyun; Chung, Ah Young; Park, Hae Chul; Choi, June

    2013-06-01

    Edaravone is known to have a potent free radical scavenging effect. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of edaravone on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in transgenic zebrafish (Brn3C: EGFP). Five day post-fertilization zebrafish larvae were exposed to 1000 μM cisplatin and 50 μM, 100 μM, 250 μM, 500 μM, 750 μM, and 1000 μM concentrations of edaravone for 4h. Hair cells within neuromasts of the supraorbital (SO1 and SO2), otic (O1), and occipital (OC1) lateral lines were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and confocal microscopy (n=10). Hair cell survival was calculated as a percentage of the hair cells in the control group that were not exposed to cisplatin. Ultrastructural changes were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Edaravone protected cisplatin-induced hair cell loss of neuromasts (edaravone 750 μM: 8.7 ± 1.5 cells, cisplatin 1000 μM only: 3.7 ± 0.9 cells; n=10, pedaravone for 4h. Edaravone attenuated cisplatin-induced hair cell damage in zebrafish. The results of the current study suggest that cisplatin induces apoptosis, and the apoptotic cell death can be prevented by treatment with edaravone in zebrafish. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Displacement damage effects on CMOS APS image sensors induced by neutron irradiation from a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zujun; Huang, Shaoyan; Liu, Minbo; Xiao, Zhigang; He, Baoping; Yao, Zhibin; Sheng, Jiangkun

    2014-01-01

    The experiments of displacement damage effects on CMOS APS image sensors induced by neutron irradiation from a nuclear reactor are presented. The CMOS APS image sensors are manufactured in the standard 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The flux of neutron beams was about 1.33 × 10 8 n/cm 2 s. The three samples were exposed by 1 MeV neutron equivalent-fluence of 1 × 10 11 , 5 × 10 11 , and 1 × 10 12 n/cm 2 , respectively. The mean dark signal (K D ), dark signal spike, dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU), noise (V N ), saturation output signal voltage (V S ), and dynamic range (DR) versus neutron fluence are investigated. The degradation mechanisms of CMOS APS image sensors are analyzed. The mean dark signal increase due to neutron displacement damage appears to be proportional to displacement damage dose. The dark images from CMOS APS image sensors irradiated by neutrons are presented to investigate the generation of dark signal spike

  14. Effect of histidine on sorafenib-induced vascular damage: Analysis using novel medaka fish model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinagawa-Kobayashi, Yoko; Kamimura, Kenya; Goto, Ryo; Ogawa, Kohei; Inoue, Ryosuke; Yokoo, Takeshi; Sakai, Norihiro; Nagoya, Takuro; Sakamaki, Akira; Abe, Satoshi; Sugitani, Soichi; Yanagi, Masahiko; Fujisawa, Koichi; Nozawa, Yoshizu; Koyama, Naoto; Nishina, Hiroshi; Furutani-Seiki, Makoto; Sakaida, Isao; Terai, Shuji

    2018-02-05

    Sorafenib (SFN) is an anti-angiogenic chemotherapeutic that prolongs survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); its side effects, including vascular damages such as hand-foot syndrome (HFS), are a major cause of therapy discontinuation. We previously reported that maintenance of peripheral blood flow by intake of dried bonito broth (DBB) significantly prevented HFS and prolonged the administration period. The amino acids contained in DBB probably contribute to its effects, but the mechanism has not been clarified. We hypothesized that histidine, the largest component among the amino acids contained in DBB, has effects on SFN-induced vascular damage, and evaluated this possibility using a novel medaka fish model. The fli::GFP transgenic medaka fish model has a fluorescently visible systemic vasculature. We fed the fish with SFN with and without histidine to compare blood flow and vascular structure among the differently fed models. The vascular cross-sectional area of each fish was measured to determine vascular diameter changes. Our results demonstrated that SFN-fed medaka developed a narrower vascular diameter. In addition, this narrowing was counteracted by addition of histidine to the medaka diet. We observed no positive effect of histidine on regeneration of cut vessels or on cell growth of endothelial cells and HCC cell lines. We proved the efficacy of the medaka model to assess vascular changes after administration of specific chemicals. And our results suggest that SFN causes vascular damage by narrowing peripheral vessel diameter, and that histidine effectively counteracts these changes to maintain blood flow. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of vitamin D prophylaxis on radiation induced pulmonary damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazici, G.; Yildiz, F.; Iskit, A.; Surucu, S.; Firat, P.; Hayran, M.; Ozyigit, G.; Cengiz, M.; Erdemli, E.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D has a selective radio and chemosensitizing effect on tumor cells. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that vitamin D inhibits collagen gel construction, induces type II pneumocyte proliferation and surfactant synthesis in the lungs, and decreases vascular permeability caused by radiation. The aim of this experimental study was to determine if vitamin D has a protective effect against radiation-induced pulmonary damage. Adult Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 was comprised of control animals. Group 2, which was administered 0.25 μg/kg/day of vitamin D3 for 8 weeks, was the vitamin D control group. Rats in groups 3 and 4 were given 20 Gy right hemithorax radiotherapy, and in addition group 4 was given vitamin D3 treatment, which began the day before the radiotherapy and continued for 8 weeks. At the 8 th and the 12 th weeks of the study 4 rats from each group were sacrificed. Right lungs were dissected for light and electron microscopic study. The electron microscopy examinations revealed statistically significant differences between group 3 and 4, and in group 4 there was less interstitial inflammation and collagen deposition, and the alveolar structure and the cells lining the alveolar walls were protected. These results confirm that vitamin D has a protective effect against radiation-induced pulmonary toxicity. These findings should be evaluated with further clinical studies. (author)

  16. Effects of melatonin on DNA damage induced by cyclophosphamide in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, S.G.; Peliciari-Garcia, R.A.; Takahashi-Hyodo, S.A.; Rodrigues, A.C.; Amaral, F.G.; Berra, C.M.; Bordin, S.; Curi, R.; Cipolla-Neto, J.

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant and free radical scavenger properties of melatonin have been well described in the literature. In this study, our objective was to determine the protective effect of the pineal gland hormone against the DNA damage induced by cyclophosphamide (CP), an anti-tumor agent that is widely applied in clinical practice. DNA damage was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of CP (20 or 50 mg/kg). Animals received melatonin during the dark period for 15 days (1 mg/kg in the drinking water). Rat bone marrow cells were used for the determination of chromosomal aberrations and of formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase enzyme (Fpg)-sensitive sites by the comet technique and of Xpf mRNA expression by qRT-PCR. The number (mean ± SE) of chromosomal aberrations in pinealectomized (PINX) animals treated with melatonin and CP (2.50 ± 0.50/100 cells) was lower than that obtained for PINX animals injected with CP (12 ± 1.8/100 cells), thus showing a reduction of 85.8% in the number of chromosomal aberrations. This melatonin-mediated protection was also observed when oxidative lesions were analyzed by the Fpg-sensitive assay, both 24 and 48 h after CP administration. The expression of Xpf mRNA, which is involved in the DNA nucleotide excision repair machinery, was up-regulated by melatonin. The results indicate that melatonin is able to protect bone marrow cells by completely blocking CP-induced chromosome aberrations. Therefore, melatonin administration could be an alternative and effective treatment during chemotherapy

  17. Effects of melatonin on DNA damage induced by cyclophosphamide in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, S.G.; Peliciari-Garcia, R.A. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas I, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Takahashi-Hyodo, S.A. [Área de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Braz Cubas, Mogi das Cruzes, SP (Brazil); Rodrigues, A.C. [Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Amaral, F.G. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas I, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Berra, C.M. [Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas II, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bordin, S.; Curi, R.; Cipolla-Neto, J. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas I, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-08

    The antioxidant and free radical scavenger properties of melatonin have been well described in the literature. In this study, our objective was to determine the protective effect of the pineal gland hormone against the DNA damage induced by cyclophosphamide (CP), an anti-tumor agent that is widely applied in clinical practice. DNA damage was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of CP (20 or 50 mg/kg). Animals received melatonin during the dark period for 15 days (1 mg/kg in the drinking water). Rat bone marrow cells were used for the determination of chromosomal aberrations and of formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase enzyme (Fpg)-sensitive sites by the comet technique and of Xpf mRNA expression by qRT-PCR. The number (mean ± SE) of chromosomal aberrations in pinealectomized (PINX) animals treated with melatonin and CP (2.50 ± 0.50/100 cells) was lower than that obtained for PINX animals injected with CP (12 ± 1.8/100 cells), thus showing a reduction of 85.8% in the number of chromosomal aberrations. This melatonin-mediated protection was also observed when oxidative lesions were analyzed by the Fpg-sensitive assay, both 24 and 48 h after CP administration. The expression of Xpf mRNA, which is involved in the DNA nucleotide excision repair machinery, was up-regulated by melatonin. The results indicate that melatonin is able to protect bone marrow cells by completely blocking CP-induced chromosome aberrations. Therefore, melatonin administration could be an alternative and effective treatment during chemotherapy.

  18. Effects of fatigue induced damage on the longitudinal fracture resistance of cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Lloyd; Codrington, John; Parkinson, Ian

    2014-07-01

    As a composite material, cortical bone accumulates fatigue microdamage through the repetitive loading of everyday activity (e.g. walking). The accumulation of fatigue microdamage is thought to contribute to the occurrence of fragility fractures in older people. Therefore it is beneficial to understand the relationship between microcrack accumulation and the fracture resistance of cortical bone. Twenty longitudinally orientated compact tension fracture specimens were machined from a single bovine femur, ten specimens were assigned to both the control and fatigue damaged groups. The damaged group underwent a fatigue loading protocol to induce microdamage which was assessed via fluorescent microscopy. Following fatigue loading, non-linear fracture resistance tests were undertaken on both the control and damaged groups using the J-integral method. The interaction of the crack path with the fatigue induced damage and inherent toughening mechanisms were then observed using fluorescent microscopy. The results of this study show that fatigue induced damage reduces the initiation toughness of cortical bone and the growth toughness within the damage zone by three distinct mechanisms of fatigue-fracture interaction. Further analysis of the J-integral fracture resistance showed both the elastic and plastic component were reduced in the damaged group. For the elastic component this was attributed to a decreased number of ligament bridges in the crack wake while for the plastic component this was attributed to the presence of pre-existing fatigue microcracks preventing energy absorption by the formation of new microcracks.

  19. Antiarrhythmic effect of tamoxifen on the vulnerability induced by hyperthyroidism to heart ischemia/reperfusion damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavón, Natalia; Hernández-Esquivel, Luz; Buelna-Chontal, Mabel; Chávez, Edmundo

    2014-09-01

    Hyperthyroidism, known to have deleterious effects on heart function, and is associated with an enhanced metabolic state, implying an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Tamoxifen is a selective antagonist of estrogen receptors. These receptors make the hyperthyroid heart more susceptible to ischemia/reperfusion. Tamoxifen is also well-known as an antioxidant. The aim of the present study was to explore the possible protective effect of tamoxifen on heart function in hyperthyroid rats. Rats were injected daily with 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine at 2mg/kg body weight during 5 days to induce hyperthyroidism. One group was treated with 10mg/kg tamoxifen and another was not. The protective effect of the drug on heart rhythm was analyzed after 5 min of coronary occlusion followed by 5 min reperfusion. In hyperthyroid rats not treated with tamoxifen, ECG tracings showed post-reperfusion arrhythmias, and heart mitochondria isolated from the ventricular free wall lost the ability to accumulate and retain matrix Ca(2+) and to form a high electric gradient. Both of these adverse effects were avoided with tamoxifen treatment. Hyperthyroidism-induced oxidative stress caused inhibition of cis-aconitase and disruption of mitochondrial DNA, effects which were also avoided by tamoxifen treatment. The current results support the idea that tamoxifen inhibits the hypersensitivity of hyperthyroid rat myocardium to reperfusion damage, probably because its antioxidant activity inhibits the mitochondrial permeability transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Petroselinum Crispum is Effective in Reducing Stress-Induced Gastric Oxidative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşin Akıncı

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress has been shown to play a principal role in the pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric injury. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum contains many antioxidants such as flavanoids, carotenoids and ascorbic acid. Aims: In this study, the histopathological and biochemical results of nutrition with a parsley-rich diet in terms of eliminating stress-induced oxidative gastric injury were evaluated. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Forty male Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups: control, stress, stress + standard diet, stress + parsley-added diet and stress + lansoprazole (LPZ groups. Subjects were exposed to 72 hours of fasting and later immobilized and exposed to the cold at +4 degrees for 8 hours to create a severe stress condition. Samples from the animals’ stomachs were arranged for microscopic and biochemical examinations. Results: Gastric mucosal injury was obvious in rats exposed to stress. The histopathologic damage score of the stress group (7.00±0.57 was higher than that of the control group (1.50±0.22 (p<0.05. Significant differences in histopathologic damage score were found between the stress and stress + parsley-added diet groups (p<0.05, the stress and stress + standard diet groups (p<0.05, and the stress and stress + LPZ groups (p<0.05. The mean tissue malondialdehyde levels of the stress + parsley-added group and the stress + LPZ group were lower than that of the stress group (p<0.05. Parsley supported the cellular antioxidant system by increasing the mean tissue glutathione level (53.31±9.50 and superoxide dismutase (15.18±1.05 and catalase (16.68±2.29 activities. Conclusion: Oral administration of parsley is effective in reducing stress-induced gastric injury by supporting the cellular antioxidant defence system

  1. Fipronil-induced genotoxicity and DNA damage in vivo: Protective effect of vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgujar, P C; Selkar, N A; Chandratre, G A; Pawar, N N; Dighe, V D; Bhagat, S T; Telang, A G; Vanage, G R

    2017-05-01

    Fipronil, an insecticide of the phenylpyrazole class has been classified as a carcinogen by United States Environmental Protection Agency, yet very limited information is available about its genotoxic effects. Adult male and female animals were gavaged with various doses of fipronil (2.5, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg body weight (bw)) to evaluate micronucleus test (mice), chromosome aberration (CA), and comet assay (rats), respectively. Cyclophosphamide (40 mg/kg bw; intraperitoneal) was used as positive control. Another group of animals were pretreated with vitamin E orally (400 mg/kg bw) for 5 days prior to administration of fipronil (12.5 mg/kg). Fipronil exposure in both male and female mice caused significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in polychromatic erythrocytes. Similarly, structural CAs in bone marrow cells and DNA damage in the lymphocytes was found to be significantly higher in the male and female rats exposed to fipronil as compared to their respective controls. The average degree of protection (male and female animals combined together) shown by pretreatment of vitamin E against fipronil-induced genotoxicity was 63.28%: CAs; 47.91%: MN formation; and 74.70%: DNA damage. Findings of this study demonstrate genotoxic nature of fipronil regardless of gender effect and documents protective role of vitamin E.

  2. Effects Of Whole Body Vibration On Vertical Jump Performance Following Exercise Induced Muscle Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole C. Dabbs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing vertical jump performance is critical for many sports. Following high intensity training, individuals often experience exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD. Many recovery modalities have been tested with conflicting results. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration (WBV on vertical jump performance following EIMD. 27 females volunteered for 7 sessions and were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group and administered each testing day. Vertical jump performance was assessed via vertical jump height (VJH, peak power output (PPO, rate of force development (RFD, relative ground reaction force (GRFz, and peak activation ratio of the vastus medialis (VM via electromyography (EMG before and after 3 days of EIMD via split squats. Two testing sets were collected each day, consisting of pre measures followed by WBV or control, and then post second measures. A 2x8 (group x time mixed factor analysis of variance (ANOVA was conducted for each variable. No significant interactions or group differences were found in any variable. Significant main effects for time were found in any variable, indicating performance declined following muscle damage. These results indicate that WBV does not aid in muscle recovery or vertical jump performance following EIMD.

  3. Effect of milk on team sport performance after exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Emma; Bell, Phillip G; Stevenson, Emma

    2013-08-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) leads to increases in intramuscular proteins observed in the blood stream and delayed onset of muscle soreness, but crucial for athletes are the decrements in muscle performance observed. Previous research has demonstrated that carbohydrate-protein supplements limit these decrements; however, they have primarily used isokinetic dynamometry, which has limited applicability to dynamic sport settings. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a carbohydrate-protein milk supplement consumed after muscle-damaging exercise on performance tests specific to field-based team sports. Two independent groups of seven males consumed either 500 mL of milk or a control immediately after muscle-damaging exercise. Passive and active delayed onset of muscle soreness, creatine kinase, myoglobin, countermovement jump height, reactive strength index, 15-m sprint, and agility time were assessed before and 24, 48, and 72 h after EIMD. The Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test was also performed before and 48 h after EIMD. At 48 h, milk had a possible benefit for limiting increases in 10-m sprint time and a likely benefit of attenuating increases in mean 15-m sprint time during the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test. At 72 h, milk had a possible benefit for limiting increases in 15-m sprint time and a likely benefit for the attenuation of increases in agility time. All other effects for measured variables were unclear. The consumption of milk limits decrements in one-off sprinting and agility performance and the ability to perform repeated sprints during the physiological simulation of field-based team sports.

  4. The protective effect of DNA on the rat cell membrane damage induced by ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Shouxiang; Zhong Jinyan

    1988-01-01

    The protective effect of DNA on the cell membrane damage induced by ultra-violet radiation was studied. Rat erythrocytes were used as experimental materials. Blood samples were taken from the rat, and centrifuged to separate the plasma. The cells were washed twice with isotonic saline, resuspended in normal saline solution and then irradiated by ultra-violet radiation. The DNA was added before or after irradiation. THe cell suspensions were kept at 5 deg C for 20 hours after irradiation, and then centrifuged. The supernatants were used for hemoglobin determination. The main results obtained may summarized as follows: the cell suspension of erythrocytes were irradiated for 5, 10 and 20 min. The amount of hemolysis induced by irradiation dosage revealed a direct proportional relationship. If DNA (20-40μg/ml) was applied before irradiation, the amount of hemolysis induced apparently decreased. The differences between the control and DNA treated were statistically significant, P<0.01, but insignificant for DNA added after irradiation

  5. Hepatoprotective effects of pecan nut shells on ethanol-induced liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Liz Girardi; Pase, Camila Simonetti; Reckziegel, Patrícia; Barcelos, Raquel C S; Boufleur, Nardeli; Prado, Ana Cristina P; Fett, Roseane; Block, Jane Mara; Pavanato, Maria Amália; Bauermann, Liliane F; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Burger, Marilise Escobar

    2013-01-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of the aqueous extract of the shells of pecan nut was investigated against ethanol-induced liver damage. This by-product of the food industry is popularly used to treat toxicological diseases. We evaluated the phytochemical properties of pecan shell aqueous extract (AE) and its in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant activity. The AE was found to have a high content of total polyphenols (192.4±1.9 mg GAE/g), condensed tannins (58.4±2.2 mg CE/g), and antioxidant capacity, and it inhibited Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation (LP) in vitro. Rats chronically treated with ethanol (Et) had increased plasmatic transaminases (ALT, AST) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) levels (96%, 59.13% and 465.9%, respectively), which were effectively prevented (87; 41 and 383%) by the extract (1:40, w/v). In liver, ethanol consumption increased the LP (121%) and decreased such antioxidant defenses as glutathione (GSH) (33%) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (47%) levels, causing genotoxicity in erythrocytes. Treatment with pecan shell AE prevented the development of LP (43%), GSH and SOD depletion (33% and 109%, respectively) and ethanol-induced erythrocyte genotoxicity. Catalase activity in the liver was unchanged by ethanol but was increased by the extract (47% and 73% in AE and AE+Et, respectively). Therefore, pecan shells may be an economic agent to treat liver diseases related to ethanol consumption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Protective effect of lycopene for oxidative damage in human lens epithelial cells induced by UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Wen Sun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the protective effect and possible mechanisms of lycopene for oxidative damage induced by ultraviolet in cultured human lens epithelial cells(HLEC. METHODS:HLEC was subcultured and divided into negative control group, oxidative injury group, lycopene low dose group and lycopene high dose group. Cell viability was assayed by MTT colorimetric. Cell morphological changes were detected by electron microscope. Reactive oxygen species(ROSlevels were detected with DCFH-DA fluorescent probe. Content of superoxide dismutase(SOD, glutathione peroxidase(GSHand malondialdehyde(MDAin supernatants were detected by spectrophotometer. RESULTS:Lycopene could obviously inhibited UV-induced decline in cell activity, reduce UV-induced ROS generation within HLEC, cause SOD, GSH-Px levels increased and MDA levels decreased.CONCLUSION:Lycopene plays its strong antioxidant role in increasing the intracellular SOD and GSH-Px content levels and decreasing MDA levels, which provide reliable experimental basis for prevent and treatment of cataracts.

  7. Protective Effect of Royal Jelly against Renal Damage in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Ghanbari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Royal jelly has been shown to have antioxidant and antidiabetic effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of RJ against kidney damage in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty two male Wistar rats were divided randomly into four groups (n=8 per group. Normal control and diabetic control groups received 1cc/day distilled water, normal RJ-treated and diabetic RJ-treated groups received 100mg RJ/kg body weight daily. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. At the end of the experiment, urine and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis. Results: The results showed that diabetes could increase levels of urine urea, total protein and albumin significantly, and could decrease the levels of creatinine and uric acid in urine. In the kidney tissue homogenates, catalase activity and antioxidant power were significantly lower, whereas malondialdehyde levels were significantly higher in diabetic group when compared with control group. Diabetic rats showed severe histological changes in kidney tissues. Treatment of diabetic rats with RJ improved significantly all of these parameters. Conclusion: The present study revealed that treatment with RJ resulted in significant improvement in histopathological alterations in kidney tissue and urine parameters of diabetic rats. This could be due to its antioxidant activity and the ability of RJ for scavenging the free radicals released in diabetes. These findings suggest that RJ has protective effects on kidneys affected by diabetes mellitus.

  8. Protective Effects of Vitamin E on Methotrexate-Induced Jejunal Mucosal Damage in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcu, Busra; Kanter, Mehmet; Orhon, Zeynep Nur; Yarali, Oguzhan; Karabacak, Rukiye

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the possible protective effects of Vitamin E (Vit E) on oxidative stress and jejunal damage in the rat intestinal mucosa after methotrexate (MTX)-induced enterotoxicity. Rats were divided into 3 groups: control, MTX, and MTX+ Vit E; each group contained 8 animals. The control group was given physiological serum in addition to sunflower oil for 3 days. The second group was given sunflower oil with intragastric tube daily, followed by MTX injection (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally). To the third group, starting 3 days before injection, Vit E was given dissolved in sunflower oil (600 mg/kg orally) in addition to MTX injection. Four days after MTX injection the anesthetized rats were sacrificed, and the tissue samples obtained from their jejunums were investigated for histological and biochemical analysis. Vit E treatment significantly decreased the elevated tissue malondialdehyde levels and increased the reduced glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in comparison to the MTX-treated group. MTX treatment caused severe histopathological injury including mucosal erosions, inflammatory cell infiltration, necrosis, hemorrhage, and villous congestion. Vit E treatment significantly attenuated the severity of intestinal injury caused by MTX via inhibiting induced nitric oxide synthase levels and NF-κB p65 activation. Because of its reconstructing and antioxidant effects, Vit E pretreatment may have protective effects in the intestinal tissue of MTX-treated rats.

  9. Hepatoprotective effects of Portulaca oleracea extract against CCl4-induced damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidi, Akram; Mortazavi, Pejman; Moghadam, Jalal Zarringhalam; Mardani, Parisa Mousavi

    2015-07-01

    Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L., Portulacaceae) has been traditionally used in folk medicine to afford protection against liver injury, although its actual efficacy remains uncertain. To evaluate purslane as a hepatoprotective agent, we investigated the protective effect of its ethanol extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic toxicity in rats. A total of 108 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 12 groups. The first group was maintained as normal control, whereas CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg bw, 50% CCl4 in olive oil, i.p.), purslane extract (0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 g/kg bw, intragastrically), and purslane extract (five doses as above) along with CCl4 were administered to the Groups II, III-VII, and VIII-XII, respectively. The rats were sacrificed on the 30th day, and blood was withdrawn by cardiac puncture. Liver damage was assessed by measuring hepatic marker enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, and SOD) and histopathological observation. Treatment with CCl4 resulted in increased serum activities of marker enzymes with a concomitant decrease in SOD. Histological alterations were also observed in the liver tissue upon CCl4 treatment. Administration of purslane extract (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 g/kg b.w.) significantly showed a marked tendency towards normalization of all measured biochemical parameters in CCl4-treated rats. Histopathological changes also paralleled the detected alteration in markers of liver function. These results demonstrate that purslane exerts protective effects against CCl4-induced damage in rat liver and supports a potential therapeutic use of purslane as an alternative for patients with liver diseases.

  10. Effects of air-pulsed cryotherapy on neuromuscular recovery subsequent to exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhem, Gaël; Hug, François; Couturier, Antoine; Regnault, Stéphanie; Bournat, Laure; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Dorel, Sylvain

    2013-08-01

    Localized cooling has been proposed as an effective strategy to limit the deleterious effects of exercise-induced muscle damage on neuromuscular function. However, the literature reports conflicting results. This randomized controlled trial aimed to determine the effects of a new treatment, localized air-pulsed cryotherapy (-30°C), on the recovery time-course of neuromuscular function following a strenuous eccentric exercise. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 24 participants were included in either a control group (CONT) or a cryotherapy group (CRYO). Immediately after 3 sets of 20 maximal isokinetic eccentric contractions of elbow flexors, and then 1, 2, and 3 days after exercise, the CRYO group received a cryotherapy treatment (3 × 4 minutes at -30°C separated by 1 minute). The day before and 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14 days after exercise, several parameters were quantified: maximal isometric torque and its associated maximal electromyographic activity recorded by a 64-channel electrode, delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), biceps brachii transverse relaxation time (T2) measured using magnetic resonance imaging, creatine kinase activity, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein. Maximal isometric torque decreased similarly for the CONT (-33% ± 4%) and CRYO groups (-31% ± 6%). No intergroup differences were found for DOMS, electromyographic activity, creatine kinase activity, and T2 level averaged across the whole biceps brachii. C-reactive protein significantly increased for CONT (+93% at 72 hours, P cryotherapy delayed the significant increase of T2 and the decrease of electromyographic activity level for CRYO compared with CONT (between day 1 and day 3) in the medio-distal part of the biceps brachii. Although some indicators of muscle damage after severe eccentric exercise were delayed (ie, local formation of edema and decrease of muscle activity) by repeated air-pulsed cryotherapy, we provide evidence that this cooling procedure failed to improve long

  11. Protective Effect of Pyruvate Against Radiation-Induced Damage in Collagenized Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griko, Y. V.; Yan, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation produces both acute and late effects on the collagenized tissues and have profound effects on wound healing. Because of the crucial practical importance for new radioprotective agents, our study has been focused on evaluation of the efficacy of non-toxic naturally occurring compounds to protect tissue integrity against high-dose gamma radiation. Here, we demonstrate that molecular integrity of collagen may serve as a sensitive biological marker for quantitative evaluation of molecular damage to collagenized tissue and efficacy of radioprotective agents. Increasing doses of gamma radiation (0-50kGy) result in progressive destruction of the native collagen fibrils, which provide a structural framework, strength, and proper milieu for the regenerating tissue. The strategy used in this study involved the thermodynamic specification of all structural changes in collagenized matrix of skin, aortic heart valve, and bone tissue induced by different doses and conditions of g-irradiation. This study describes a simple biophysical approach utilizing the Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) to characterize the structural resistance of the aortic valve matrix exposed to different doses of g-irradiation. It allows us to identify the specific response of each constituent as well as to determine the influence of the different treatments on the characteristic parameters of protein structure. We found that pyruvate, a substance that naturally occurs in the body, provide significant protection (up to 80%) from biochemical and biomechanical damage to the collagenized tissue through the effective targeting of reactive oxygen species. The recently discovered role of pyruvate in the cell antioxidant defense to O2 oxidation, and its essential constituency in the daily human diet, indicate that the administration of pyruvate-based radioprotective formulations may provide safe and effective protection from deleterious effects of ionizing

  12. The protective effect of magnesium lithospermate B against glucose-induced intracellular oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jian [Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Central South University, Xiangya School of Medicine, Changsha 410078 (China); Ren, Xian [Shanghai Green Valley Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Shanghai 201304 (China); Hou, Rui-ying; Dai, Xing-ping [Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Central South University, Xiangya School of Medicine, Changsha 410078 (China); Zhao, Ying-chun [Laboratories of Functional Genomics and Proteomics, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Xu, Xiao-jing; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Gan; Zhou, Hong-hao [Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Central South University, Xiangya School of Medicine, Changsha 410078 (China); Liu, Zhao-qian, E-mail: liuzhaoqian63@126.com [Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Central South University, Xiangya School of Medicine, Changsha 410078 (China)

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} LAB reduced the ROS production in HEK293T cells cultured under oxidative stress. High dose of glucose enhanced the expression of HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein in a time-dependent manner. {yields} LAB enhanced the expression of HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein in a dose-dependent manner treated with high dose of glucose. {yields} LAB plays an important role against glucose-induced intracellular oxidative damage. {yields} The enhanced expression of HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein caused by LAB is regulated via Nrf2 signal pathway. -- Abstract: Objectives: To investigate the effects of magnesium lithospermate B (LAB) on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by high dose of glucose or H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, we explored the influences of LAB on the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in HEK293T cells after treatment with high dose of glucose. Materials and methods: The total nuclear proteins in HEK293T cells were extracted with Cytoplasmic Protein Extraction Kit. The ROS level was determined by flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein expression of HO-1 and Nrf2 were determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. Results: LAB reduced the ROS production in HEK293T cells cultured under oxidative stress. High dose of glucose enhanced the expression of HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein in a time-dependent manner. LAB enhanced the expression of HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein in a dose-dependent manner treated with high dose of glucose. The amount of Nrf2 translocation was enhanced after cells were pretreated with 50 {mu}mol/L or 100 {mu}mol/L LAB. Silencing of Nrf2 gene eliminated the enhanced expression of HO-1 protein induced by high dose of glucose plus LAB. Conclusions: LAB plays an important role against glucose-induced intracellular oxidative damage. The enhanced expression of HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein caused by LAB is regulated via Nrf2 signal pathway.

  13. Protective effect of zingerone, a dietary compound against radiation induced damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satish Rao, B.S.; Rao, Nageshwar

    2012-01-01

    The radioprotective potential of phenolic alkanone, Zingerone (ZO) was investigated using human peripheral blood lymphocytes as well as Chinese hamster fibroblast (V79) cells growing in vitro and in vivo by using Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation. In the in vivo studies, mice were administered with ZO (10-100 mg/kg b.wt), once daily for five consecutive days. One hour after the last administration of ZO on the fifth day, animals were whole body exposed to 10 Gy gamma radiations. The radioprotective potential was assessed using animal survival, haemopoietic stem cell survival (CFU) assay, mouse bone marrow micronucleus test, histological observations of intestinal and bone marrow damage. Effect of ZO pretreatment on radiation-induced changes in glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and lipid peroxidation (LPx) levels was also analyzed. ZO treatment resulted increase in the LD50/30 by 1.8 Gy (dose reduction factor = 1.2). The number of spleen colonies after whole body irradiation of mice (4.5 or 7.5 Gy) was increased when ZO was administered 1 h prior to irradiation. The histological observations indicated a decline in the villus height and crypt number with an increase in goblet and dead cell population in the irradiated group, which was normalized by pretreatment with ZO. A significant (p < 0.001) reduction in micronucleated polychromatic, normochromatic erythrocytes, increased PCE/NCE ratio, increase in the GSH, GST, SOD, CAT and decreased LPx levels were observed in ZO by pretreated group when compared to the irradiated animals. Our in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate the potential of ZO in mitigating radiation-induced cytotoxic, genotoxicity, apoptosis in cell culture and animal mortality, cytogenetic damage, intestinal and bone marrow protection in vivo. Radioprotective potential of ZO may be attributed to the inhibition radiation-induced decline in the endogenous antioxidant levels

  14. Low levels of methylmercury induce DNA damage in rats: protective effects of selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotto, Denise; Barcelos, Gustavo R.M.; Antunes, Lusania M.G.; Barbosa, Fernando [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Valentini, Juliana [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Departamento de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Angeli, Jose Pedro F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Quimica, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Garcia, Solange C. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Departamento de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    In this study we examined the possible antigenotoxic effect of selenium (Se) in rats chronically exposed to low levels of methylmercury (MeHg) and the association between glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and DNA lesions (via comet assay) in the same exposed animals. Rats were divided into six groups as follows: (Group I) received water; (Group II) received MeHg (100 {mu}g/day); (Group III) received Se (2 mg/L drinking water); (Group IV) received Se (6 mg/L drinking water); (Group V) received MeHg (100 {mu}g/day) and Se (2 mg/L drinking water); (Group VI) received MeHg (100 {mu}g/day) and Se (6 mg/L drinking water). Total treatment time was 100 days. GSH-Px activity was determined spectrophotometrically and DNA damage was determined by comet assay. Mean GSH-Px activity in groups I, II, III, IV, V and VI were, respectively: 40.19{+-}17.21; 23.63{+-}6.04; 42.64{+-}5.70; 38.50{+-}7.15; 34.54{+-}6.18 and 41.39{+-}11.67 nmolNADPH/min/gHb. DNA damage was represented by a mean score from 0 to 300; the results for groups I, II, III, IV, V and VI were, respectively: 6.87{+-}3.27; 124.12{+-}13.74; 10.62{+-}3.81; 13.25{+-}1.76; 86.87{+-}11.95 and 76.25{+-}7.48. There was a significant inhibition of GSH-Px activity in group II compared with group I (P<0.05). Groups V and VI did not show a difference in enzyme activity compared with groups III and IV, showing the possible protective action of Se. Comet assay presented a significant difference in DNA migration between group II and group I (P<0.0001). Groups V and VI showed a significant reduction in MeHg-induced genotoxicity (P < 0.001) when compared with group II. A negative correlation (r = -0.559, P<0.05) was found between GSH-Px activity and DNA lesion, showing that the greater the DNA damage, the lower the GSH-Px activity. Our findings demonstrated the oxidative and genotoxic properties of MeHg, even at low doses. Moreover, Se co-administration reestablished GSH-Px activity and reduced DNA damage. (orig.)

  15. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of single clove garlic against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Khalid Mohammed; Al-Shaibani, Elham Shukri; Alhadi, Fatima A; Al-Soudi, Safa'a Abdulrzaq; D'souza, Myrene R

    2017-08-17

    The increase in demand and consumption of single clove garlic or 'Solo garlic' (Allium sativum) has resulted in an increase in research on its therapeutic properties. The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activities, oxidant-scavenging efficiency and preventive effects of SCG (single clove garlic) and MCG (multi clove garlic) on CCl 4 -induced acute hepatotoxicity in male rabbits. For this purpose, rabbits were orally administered with 3 ml of CCl 4 /kg of body weight, followed by 0.8 g of MCG or SCG/kg twice a week for three successive weeks. Oxidative hepatotoxicity was then assessed. SCG extracts exhibited higher antioxidant capacity than the MCG extract. Scavenging ability of SCG showed significant (p garlic storage constituents varies with the number of cloves present. CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity demonstrated histological changes including severe damage in the structure of liver tissues which correlated well to oxidative stress levels. Simultaneously, administration of SCG resulted in a significant reduction of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and total bilirubin (TB) levels in addition to improvement in some histological parameters. Low levels of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) (p < 0.001), along with a huge reduction in peroxidase (POx) (p < 0.001) revealed protection against oxidative toxicity in the liver homogenate. Higher levels of catalase (CAT) (p < 0.001) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p < 0.05) when compared to the MCG test (TM) group indicates that removal of H 2 O 2 is based on CAT activity in SCG test (TS) group rather than the POx activity demonstrated in the former group. The present study indicates that SCG possesses more protective ability than MCG against CCl 4 -induced liver injury and might be an effective alternative medicine against acute oxidative liver toxicity.

  16. Gastroprotective effect of small centaury (Centaurium erythraea L) on aspirin-induced gastric damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuluce, Yasin; Ozkol, Halil; Koyuncu, Ismail; Ine, Hatice

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antiulcer and antioxidant activities of Centaurium erythraea L (small centaury) in aspirin (ASA) induced acute gastric ulcer model. The gastroprotective effect of the 50% aqueous-ethanolic small centaury (SC) extract was investigated in rats at a dose of ASA 200 mg/kg body weight. Twenty-one Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into three groups of seven rats each as follows: (1) control group; (2) acute ASA-treated group and (3) ASA plus SC group. At the end of the 4-h drug administration, ulcer index, oxidant and antioxidant levels were measured and compared between the groups. The percentage of lesion area to total gastric surface area (ulcer index) was significantly reduced (77%) in ASA plus SC group as compared with acute ASA-treated group. The oral administration of ASA decreased catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), and increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels. Although myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was increased by ASA, it was found to be lower in the ASA plus SC group. GSH and Vitamin A levels were determined higher in the ASA plus SC group compared with ASA group. These results suggest that SC extract protects against ASA-induced damage due to its antioxidizing activity.

  17. Effect of melatonin and time of administration on irradiation-induced damage to rat testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Take

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ionizing irradiation on testes and the protective effects of melatonin were investigated by immunohistochemical and electron microscopic methods. Eighty-two adult male Wistar rats were divided into 10 groups. The rats in the irradiated groups were exposed to a sublethal irradiation dose of 8 Gy, either to the total body or abdominopelvic region using a 60Co source at a focus of 80 cm away from the skin in the morning or evening together with vehicle (20% ethanol or melatonin administered 24 h before (10 mg/kg, immediately before (20 mg/kg and 24 h after irradiation (10 mg/kg, all ip. Caspace-3 immunoreactivity was increased in the irradiated group compared to control (P < 0.05. Melatonin-treated groups showed less apoptosis as indicated by a considerable decrease in caspace-3 immunoreactivity (P < 0.05. Electron microscopic examination showed that all spermatogenic cells, especially primary spermatocytes, displayed prominent degeneration in the groups submitted to total body and abdominopelvic irradiation. However, melatonin administration considerably inhibited these degenerative changes, especially in rats who received abdominopelvic irradiation. Total body and abdominopelvic irradiation induced identical apoptosis and testicular damage. Chronobiological assessment revealed that biologic rhythm does not alter the inductive effect of irradiation. These data indicate that melatonin protects against total body and abdominopelvic irradiation. Melatonin was more effective in the evening abdominopelvic irradiation and melatonin-treated group than in the total body irradiation and melatonin-treated group.

  18. The Beneficial Effect of Cape Gooseberry Juice on Carbon Tetrachloride- Induced Neuronal Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M; El-Khadragy, Manal F; Omer, Sawsan A; Shata, Mohamed T M; Kassab, Rami B; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2016-01-01

    Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) belongs to the Solanaceae family. Physalis has many medicinal properties however, the beneficial effect of physalis in protecting against neurotoxins has not yet been evaluated. This experimental study investigated the protective effect of physalis juice against the oxidative damage induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in the rat brain. The degrees of protection by physalis in brain tissues were evaluated by determining the brain levels of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, glutathione content and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase), after CCl4) induction in the presence or absence of physalis. Adult male albino Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, Group I served as the control group, Group II was intraperitoneally treated with 2 ml CCl4)/kg bwt for 12 weeks, Group III was supplemented with physalis juice via the drinking water for 12 weeks, Group IV was supplemented with physalis juice and was intraperitoneally injected weekly with CCl4). Treatment with CCl4) was significantly associated with a disturbance in the oxidative status in the brain tissues; this was marked by a significant (pphysalis along with CCl4) juice significantly (pphysalis juice supplemention inhibited apoptosis, as indicated by the increase of Bcl-2 immunoreactivity in brain tissue. Our results suggest that physalis juice could be effective in preventing neurotoxicity and the neuroprotective effect of physalis might be mediated via antioxidant and anti-apoptosis activities.

  19. Neutron induced radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.

    1977-01-01

    We derive a general expression for the number of displaced atoms of type j caused by a primary knock-on of type i. The Kinchin-Pease model is used, but considerably generalised to allow for realistic atomic potentials. Two cases are considered in detail: the single particle problem causing a cascade and the neutron initiated problem which leads to multiple subcascades. Numerical results have been obtained for a variety of scattering laws. An important conclusion is that neutron initiated damage is much more severe than atom-initiated damage and leads to the number of displaced atoms being a factor of (A+1) 2 /4A larger than the single primary knock-on theory predicts. A is the ratio of the atomic mass to the neutron mass. The importance of this result to the theory of neutron sputtering is explained. (orig.) [de

  20. Effect of Hydroalcholic Extract of Curcuma longa on Adriamycin-Induced Renal Damage in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    R. Mohebbati; A.A. Abbasnezhad; A. Khajavi Rad; M. Haghshenas; M.R. Khazdeir

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Adriamycin is one of the anti-cancer medications. Nevertheless, the medication causes renal damage. Curcuma longa has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Curcuma longa on renal damage due to Adriamycin in the rat. Materials & Methods: In the experimental study, 32 male Wistar rats were studied. Via simple random method, the rats were divided into four groups including control, Adriamycin (5mg/Kg)...

  1. Protective effects of E838 on hematopoietic damage induced by radiaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yueying; Liu, Qiang; Li, Deguan; Meng, Aimin; Wu, Hongying; Lu, Lu; Wang, Yong; Wang, Ruqin; Zhang, Liangan

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Purpose E838 was a new Ethinyl estradiol derivative with radioprotective property which could significantly elevate the irradiated mice survival rate of 30d. E838 also showed prevention and therapeutical effect in the leucopenia caused by radio-chemotherapy, but exhibit little estrogenic-like effects. In this study, we examined the protective effects of E838 on DNA damage and hematopoietic injury induced by irradiation in IRM-2 mice. Methods: IRM-2 mice were randomized into six groups: control, E838 5 mg/kg, E838 7.5 mg/kg, E838 10 mg/kg, ethinyl estradiol and nilestriol. After intraperitoneal injection 3 consecutive days, mice were exposed 1 Gy whole body γ-irradiation. Then the peripheral blood lymphocyte was collected to observe DNA double-strand breaks by neutral single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). Comet images were analyzed by CASP software. Two indexes were choiced, i.e. amount of DNA in the comet tail (tDNA %), Olive Tail Moment (OTM ). In the another experiment, treatment regimen same to the above experiment but the mice were exposed to 7.5 Gy whole body γ-irradiation. Bone marrow nucleated cell (BMC) per femur and endogenous spleen colony (CFU-S) were determined to evaluate the hematopoietic function at 9 days after irradiation. Results: tDNA % in different dose E838 (5, 7.5, 10 mg/kg) treated mice were decreased 67.6 %, 82.7 %, 74.9 % compared to the radiation control, respectively(P<0.001). The tDNA % reduction in 7.5mg/kg group were greater than those in ethinyl' estradiol (66.7 %) and nilestriol (66.7 %) treated mice significantly(P<0.01). OTM in E838 (5, 7.5, 10 mg/kg) treated irradiated mice were decreased 88.1 %, 95.3 %, 92.5 %(P<0.01), the OTM reduction in 5, 7.5mg/kg group were greater than those in ethinyl estradiol (86.3 %) and nilestriol(87.5 %) treated irradiated mice (P<0.01). BMC and CFU-S in E838 treated irradiated mice were 40 %∼60% higher than those in irradiated control mice (P<0.05∼0.01). Conclusion: The results

  2. Effect of sucralfate and its components on taurocholate-induced damage to rat gastric mucosal cells in tissue culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, M.; Razandi, M.; Ivey, K.J. (Long Beach VA Medical Center, CA (USA))

    1990-04-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of sucralfate and its components, sucrose octasulfate and aluminum hydroxide, on: (1) damage to rat cultured gastric mucosal cells induced by sodium taurocholate in a neutral environment and in conditions independent of systemic factors, (2) prostaglandin E2 and on 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha release by cultured cells, and (3) sulfhydryl content of cultured cells. Cell damage was quantitated by chromium-51 release assay. Prostaglandin E2 and 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha were measured by radioimmunoassay. Total sulfhydryl content of cultured cells was determined calorimetrically. Microscopically, sucralfate was found to adhere tightly to epithelial cell surfaces despite frequent washings. Sucralfate 2 mg/ml and 5 mg/ml significantly decreased taurocholate-induced damage, reducing taurocholate-induced specific 51Cr release by 11.8 points (equal to 29% decrease in cell damage, P less than 0.01) and 22.9 points (equal to 56% decrease in cell damage, P less than 0.001), respectively. Sucrose octasulfate and aluminum hydroxide did not exert significant protection against damage induced by sodium taurocholate. The protective effect of sucralfate was not prevented by indomethacin, nor was it counteracted by the sulfhydryl blocker, iodoacetamide. Sucralfate, but not its components, significantly and dose-dependently stimulated prostaglandin E2 (r = 0.94, P less than 0.05) and 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha (r = 0.89, P less than 0.05) production by cultured cells. Neither sucralfate nor its components affected sulfhydryl content of cultured cells. In conclusion, sucralfate, but not its components, (1) protects rat gastric mucosal cells against taurocholate-induced damage in conditions independent of systemic factors and in a neutral environment and (2) significantly stimulates prostaglandin production by cultured cells.

  3. Effect of sucralfate and its components on taurocholate-induced damage to rat gastric mucosal cells in tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, M.; Razandi, M.; Ivey, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of sucralfate and its components, sucrose octasulfate and aluminum hydroxide, on: (1) damage to rat cultured gastric mucosal cells induced by sodium taurocholate in a neutral environment and in conditions independent of systemic factors, (2) prostaglandin E2 and on 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha release by cultured cells, and (3) sulfhydryl content of cultured cells. Cell damage was quantitated by chromium-51 release assay. Prostaglandin E2 and 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha were measured by radioimmunoassay. Total sulfhydryl content of cultured cells was determined calorimetrically. Microscopically, sucralfate was found to adhere tightly to epithelial cell surfaces despite frequent washings. Sucralfate 2 mg/ml and 5 mg/ml significantly decreased taurocholate-induced damage, reducing taurocholate-induced specific 51Cr release by 11.8 points (equal to 29% decrease in cell damage, P less than 0.01) and 22.9 points (equal to 56% decrease in cell damage, P less than 0.001), respectively. Sucrose octasulfate and aluminum hydroxide did not exert significant protection against damage induced by sodium taurocholate. The protective effect of sucralfate was not prevented by indomethacin, nor was it counteracted by the sulfhydryl blocker, iodoacetamide. Sucralfate, but not its components, significantly and dose-dependently stimulated prostaglandin E2 (r = 0.94, P less than 0.05) and 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha (r = 0.89, P less than 0.05) production by cultured cells. Neither sucralfate nor its components affected sulfhydryl content of cultured cells. In conclusion, sucralfate, but not its components, (1) protects rat gastric mucosal cells against taurocholate-induced damage in conditions independent of systemic factors and in a neutral environment and (2) significantly stimulates prostaglandin production by cultured cells

  4. UV-induced skin damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihashi, M.; Ueda, M.; Budiyanto, A.; Bito, T.; Oka, M.; Fukunaga, M.; Tsuru, K.; Horikawa, T.

    2003-01-01

    Solar radiation induces acute and chronic reactions in human and animal skin. Chronic repeated exposures are the primary cause of benign and malignant skin tumors, including malignant melanoma. Among types of solar radiation, ultraviolet B (290-320 nm) radiation is highly mutagenic and carcinogenic in animal experiments compared to ultraviolet A (320-400 nm) radiation. Epidemiological studies suggest that solar UV radiation is responsible for skin tumor development via gene mutations and immunosuppression, and possibly for photoaging. In this review, recent understanding of DNA damage caused by direct UV radiation and by indirect stress via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA repair mechanisms, particularly nucleotide excision repair of human cells, are discussed. In addition, mutations induced by solar UV radiation in p53, ras and patched genes of non-melanoma skin cancer cells, and the role of ROS as both a promoter in UV-carcinogenesis and an inducer of UV-apoptosis, are described based primarily on the findings reported during the last decade. Furthermore, the effect of UV on immunological reaction in the skin is discussed. Finally, possible prevention of UV-induced skin cancer by feeding or topical use of antioxidants, such as polyphenols, vitamin C, and vitamin E, is discussed

  5. The effect of short-term vitamin E against radioiodine-induced early lacrimal gland damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acar, Ugur; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Acar, Damla Erginturk; Yalniz-Akkaya, Zuleyha; Korkmaz, Meliha; Koca, Goekhan; Yumusak, Nihat

    2013-01-01

    Radioiodine (RAI) is a well-known radionuclide which is used in vivo both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, particularly for the treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Vitamin E is a well-known antioxidant vitamin. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there was a protective effect of short-term vitamin E on RAI-induced lacrimal gland early damage in experimental animal models. Twentyfour rats were randomly divided into two groups. The first group (RAI group) was administreted 3 mCi 131 I by gastric gavage and 1 mL physiological saline intraperitoneally. The second group (RAI+Vitamin E) was administrated 3 mCi 131 I by gastric gavage and 1 mL vitamin E intraperitoneally. After 24 h of the last dose being administered on the 7th day, the animals were decapitated. The lacrimal glands [Intraorbital (IG), extraorbital (EG) and harderian glands (HG)] of the rats were removed for histopathological examination. Periductal and/or periacinar fibrosis in all lacrimal glands were observed to be statistically significantly less frequent in the RAI + Vitamin E group compared to the RAI group. The existence of the abnormal lobular pattern and peripheral basophilia and irregular nucleus shape in IG and in EG, the poorly defined acidophilic cell outline and periductal infiltration in IG and in HG were observed to be statistically significantly less frequent in the RAI + Vitamin E group than in the RAI group. According to study results, histopathological examinations revealed that vitamin E protects rat lacrimal glands against RAI-related early damage. (author)

  6. Protective Effects of Polysaccharides from Soybean Meal Against X-ray Radiation Induced Damage in Mouse Spleen Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate radioprotective effect of the polysaccharides from soybean meal (SMP against X-ray radiation-induced damage in mouse spleen lymphocytes. MTT and comet assay were performed to evaluate SMP’s ability to prevent cell death and DNA damage induced by radiation. The results show that, X-ray radiation (30 KV, 10 mA, 8 min (4 Gy can significantly increase cell death and DNA fragmentation of mouse spleen lymphocytes. Pretreatment with SMP for 2 h before radiation could increase cell viability, moreover, the SMP can reduce X-ray radiation-induced DNA damage. The percentage of tail DNA and the tail moment of the SMP groups were significantly lower than those of the radiation alone group (p < 0.05. These results suggest SMP may be a good candidate as a radioprotective agent.

  7. Hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius in protein energy malnutrition induced liver and kidney damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyagbemi, Ademola A; Odetola, Adebimpe A

    2013-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative and hypocholesterolemic effects of dietary supplementation of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf meal (CALM) on hepatic injury and kidney injury associated with protein energy malnutrition (PEM). In this study, PEM was induced in weaning male Wistar albino rats by feeding them with low protein diet for 2 weeks. The effects of several recovery diets containing 20% soya protein or 20% C. aconitifolius in place of soya protein or 10% soya proteins with 10% C. aconitifolius or commercial rat feed were assessed in PEM rats. Plasma biochemical parameters were assessed as well. After the induction of PEM, results obtained showed significant increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total proteins (T.P), total bilirubin (T.Bil), triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine with significant reduction in plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL), albumin, sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), chloride (Cl(-)), bicarbonate (HC03(-)), and phosphate (P04(2-)) in PEM rats. Upon introduction of recovery diets containing 20% soya protein or 20% C. aconitifolius in place of soya protein or 10% soya proteins with 10% C. aconitifolius or commercial rat feed for 4 weeks caused significant (P protein deficient diets has a protective role against hepatic injury and renal damage associated with PEM.

  8. Bowthruster-induced damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokking, L.A.; Janssen, P.C.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    The stability of stones in propeller-induced jet wash is still difficult to predict. Especially the trend of bowthrusters increasing in size and power in sea going ships (especially ferries) over the last years may be a reason for concern when dealing with the protection of slopes and beds. But also

  9. Pion-induced damage in silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, S; Glaser, M; Lemeilleur, F; León-Florián, E; Gössling, C; Kaiser, B; Rolf, A; Wunstorf, R; Feick, H; Fretwurst, E; Lindström, G; Moll, Michael; Taylor, G; Chilingarov, A G

    1995-01-01

    The damage induced by pions in silicon detectors is studied for positive and negative pions for fluence up to 10(14)cm-2 and 10(13) cm-2 respectively. Results on the energy dependence of the damage in the region of 65-330 MeV near to the  resonance are presented. The change in detector characteristics such as leakage current, charge collection efficiency and effective impurity concentration including long-term annealing effects have been studied. Comparisons to neutron and proton-induced damage are presented and discussed.

  10. The Effects of Brazilian Green Propolis against Excessive Light-Induced Cell Damage in Retina and Fibroblast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Murase

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated the effects of Brazilian green propolis and its constituents against white light- or UVA-induced cell damage in mouse retinal cone-cell line 661W or human skin-derived fibroblast cells (NB1-RGB. Methods. Cell damage was induced by 3,000lx white light for 24 h or 4/10 J/cm2 UVA exposure. Cell viability was assessed by Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide staining or by tetrazolium salt (WST-8 cell viability assay. The radical scavenging activity of propolis induced by UVA irradiation in NB1-RGB cells was measured using a reactive-oxygen-species- (ROS- sensitive probe CM-H2DCFDA. Moreover, the effects of propolis on the UVA-induced activation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK were examined by immunoblotting. Results. Treatment with propolis and two dicaffeoylquinic acids significantly inhibited the decrease in cell viability induced by white light in 661W. Propolis and its constituents inhibited the decrease in cell viability induced by UVA in NB1-RGB. Moreover, propolis suppressed the intracellular ROS production by UVA irradiation. Propolis also inhibited the levels of phosphorylated-p38 and ERK by UVA irradiation. Conclusion. Brazilian green propolis may become a major therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AMD and skin damage induced by UV irradiation.

  11. Preventive Effect of the Korean Traditional Health Drink (Taemyeongcheong) on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatic Damage in ICR Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Ruo-Kun; Song, Jia-Le; Lim, Yaung-Iee; Kim, Yong-Kyu; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study was to investigate the preventive effect of taemyeongcheong (TMC, a Korean traditional health drink) on acetaminophen (APAP, 800 mg/kg BW)-induced hepatic damage in ICR mice. TMC is prepared from Saururus chinensis, Taraxacum officinale, Zingiber officinale, Cirsium setidens, Salicornia herbacea, and Glycyrrhizae. A high dose of TMC (500 mg/kg BW) was found to decrease APAP-induced increases in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphata...

  12. Protective effect of an aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris Linn on cadmium-induced testicular damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendar, B.; Bharavi, K.; Rao, G. S.; Kishore, P.V.S; Kumar, P. Ravi; Kumar, C.S.V Satish; Patel, T. Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    tissue. Co-treatment with eTT and α-tocopherol significantly reduced the Cd burden in the testes along with reversal of the Cd-induced changes. Conclusions: eTT exhibited protective effect against Cd-induced testicular damage. The protective effect appears to be mediated through inhibition of testicular tissue peroxidation by antioxidant and metal chelator activity and also, may be indirectly by stimulating the testosterone production from Leydig cells. PMID:22022002

  13. Protective Effect of Psidium guajava in Arsenic-induced Oxidative Stress and Cytological Damage in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Neeraj; Roy, Manju; Roy, Sushovan; Gupta, Neelu

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaves against sodium arsenite-induced toxicity in experimental rats. Animals were divided into four groups. Control group received arsenic free distilled water and three treatment groups (II, III, and IV) exposed to the arsenic (NaAsO2) (20 mg/kg b.wt) through drinking water. Group III and IV were administered a daily oral dose of P. guajava leaf extract 50 and 100 mg/kg b.wt. (AEPG50 and AEPG100) for the period of 6 weeks. Blood samples and organs were collected at the end of the experiment. Arsenic exposure resulted in significant rise in lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels in erythrocyte, liver, kidney, and brain. In addition toxin decreased (Pguajava) @100 mg/kg body weight) significantly restored activities of oxidative stress markers like LPO levels, GSH levels, SOD, and CAT activities but having the limited protective activity of the herbal extract was observed on tissues architecture. It is therefore concluded that prophylactic co-administration of AEPG could provide specific protection from oxidative injury and to some extent on tissue damage. PMID:23293461

  14. Antigenotoxic Effect Against Ultraviolet Radiation-induced DNA Damage of the Essential Oils from Lippia Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero Ruiz, Nathalia; Córdoba Campo, Yuri; Stashenko, Elena E; Fuentes, Jorge Luis

    2017-07-01

    The antigenotoxicity against ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced DNA damage of essential oils (EO) from Lippia species was studied using SOS Chromotest. Based on the minimum concentration that significantly inhibits genotoxicity, the genoprotective potential of EO from highest to lowest was Lippia graveolens, thymol-RC ≈ Lippia origanoides, carvacrol-RC ≈ L. origanoides, thymol-RC > Lippia alba, citral-RC ≈ Lippia citriodora, citral-RC ≈ Lippia micromera, thymol-RC > L. alba, myrcenone-RC. EO from L. alba, carvone/limonene-RC, L. origanoides, α-phellandrene-RC and L. dulcis, trans-β-caryophyllene-RC did not reduce the UV genotoxicity at any of the doses tested. A gas chromatography with flame ionization detection analysis (GC-FID) was conducted to evaluate the solubility of the major EO constituents under our experimental conditions. GC-FID analysis showed that, at least partially, major EO constituents were water-soluble and therefore, they were related with the antigenotoxicity detected for EO. Constituents such as p-cymene, geraniol, carvacrol, thymol, citral and 1,8-cineole showed antigenotoxicity. The antioxidant activity of EO constituents was also determined using the oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC) assay. The results showed that the antigenotoxicity of the EO constituents was unconnected with their antioxidant activity. The antigenotoxicity to different constituent binary mixtures suggests that synergistic effects can occur in some of the studied EO. © 2017 The American Society of Photobiology.

  15. Protective effect of Urtica dioica on liver damage induced by biliary obstruction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Serhat; Kanter, Mehmet; Erboga, Mustafa; Ibis, Cem

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Urtica dioica (UD) against liver damage in the common bile duct-ligated rats. A total of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups, namely, control, bile duct ligation (BDL) and BDL + received UD groups, containing eight animals in each group. The rats in UD-treated groups were given UD oils (2 ml/kg) once a day intraperitoneally for 2 weeks starting 3 days prior to BDL operation. The change demonstrating the bile duct proliferation and fibrosis in expanded portal tracts includes the extension of proliferated bile ducts into the lobules; inflammatory cell infiltration into the widened portal areas were observed in BDL group. Treatment of BDL with UD attenuated alterations in liver histology. The α-smooth muscle actin, cytokeratin-positive ductular proliferation and the activity of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling in the BDL were observed to be reduced with the UD treatment. The data indicate that UD attenuates BDL-induced cholestatic liver injury, bile duct proliferation and fibrosis.

  16. Effect of Nigella sativa on ischemia-reperfusion induced rat kidney damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Havakhah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:There are a few previously reported studies about the effect of Nigella sativa oil on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis whether pre- or post-treatment with N. sativa hydroalcoholic extract (NSE would reduce tissue injury and oxidative damages in a clinically relevant rat model of renal IRI.    Materials and Methods: IRI was induced by clamping of bilateral renal arteries for 40 min fallowed by reperfusion for 180 min. NSE was prepared in a Soxhlet extractor and administrated with doses of 150 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg at 1 hr before ischemia induction (P-150 and 300 or at the beginning of reperfusion phase (T-150 and 300, via jugular catheter intravenously. The kidneys were then removed and subjected to biochemical analysis, comet assay or histopathological examination. Results: The kidneys of untreated IRI rats had a higher histopathological score (P

  17. Effect of the aqueous extract of Psidium guajava on erythromycin-induced liver damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambo, N; Garba, S H; Timothy, H

    2009-12-01

    The effect of Psidium guajava extract on erythromycin-induced liver damage in albino rats was investigated using 30 normal rats grouped into six. Group I and II served as the normal and treatment controls that were administered with normal saline and 100 mg/kg body weight of erythromycin stearate daily for 14 days respectively. Rats in group III were administered 450 mg/kg body weight of Psidium guajava only for 7 days while rats in groups IV, V and VI were administered Psidium guajava extract for 7 days and 100mg/kg body weight of erythromycin for 14 days. Histopathological investigation of the liver tissues revealed striking oedema and mild periportal mononuclear cell infiltration of hepatic cords in the liver of rats administered 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate and 300/450 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract. Pretreatment with 150 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract showed a slight degree of protection against the induced hepatic injury caused by 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate. Biochemical analysis of the serum obtained revealed a significant increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes measured in the groups administered with 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate and 300/450 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract compared to the control groups and those pretreated with 150 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract. This study has shown that the aqueous extract of psidium guajava leaf possesses hepatoprotective property at lower dose and a hepatotoxic property at higher dose but further studies with prolonged duration is recommended.

  18. Hepatoprotective effect of methanolic Tanacetum parthenium extract on CCl4-induced liver damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavar Mahmoodzadeh

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Tanacetum Parthenium Extract (TPE on Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes, biochemical factors, and liver enzymes in the rats damaged by Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4.54 male Wistar rats were divided into 9 groups each consisting of 6 rats. Two of the groups were control groups (normal and damage control groups, 4 of them were exposure groups which were respectively administered with 40, 80, and 120 mg/kg of TPE and silymarin for 14 days before being damaged by CCl4, and the other 3 groups were post-treatment groups which received 80 and 120 mg/kg of TPE and silymarin 2, 6, 24, and 48 h after being injected with CCl4. At the end of the study, biochemical factors, serum liver enzymes, malondialdehyde level, antioxidant enzymes, and liver morphology were assayed.Pre- and post-treatment with TPE could significantly decrease ALT, AST, ALP, TG, LDL, TC, and glucose levels and increase HDL, and albumin levels and catalase, SOD, and GPx activities compared to the CCl4-damaged control group.The results of this study are indicative of the antioxidant activity of TPE, its potential hepatoprotective effects, and its probable therapeutic properties for laboratory animals damaged by CCl4. Keywords: Tanacetum parthenium, Carbon tetrachloride, Oxidative stress, Antioxidant enzymes, Liver damage

  19. Effects of carotenoids on damage of biological lipids induced by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takeshi; Fujii, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are considered to be involved in the radioresistant mechanisms of radioresistant bacteria. In these bacterial cells, carotenoids are present in biological lipids, and therefore may be related to the radiation-induced damage of lipids. However, only limited data are available for the role of carotenoids in such damage. In this study, we irradiated an α-linolenic acid–benzene solution with gamma rays and analyzed the resulting oxidative degradation and peroxidation damage in the presence or absence of two typical carotenoids: β-carotene and astaxanthin. The analyses revealed that oxidative degradation and peroxidation of α-linolenic acid, as evaluated by the amount of malondialdehyde and conjugated diene formed, respectively, increased in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, 8.5×10 −3 M β-carotene inhibited gamma radiation-induced oxidative degradation of α-linolenic acid, whereas 5.0×10 −5 and 5.0×10 −6 M β-carotene, and 5.0×10 −7 and 5.0×10 −8 M astaxanthin promoted degradation. In contrast, neither β-carotene nor astaxanthin affected peroxidation of α-linolenic acid. These results suggest that an optimum concentration of carotenoids in radioresistant bacteria protects biological lipid structures from radiation-induced damage. - Highlights: • Gamma radiation dose-dependently increases degradation levels of α-linolenic acid. • Gamma radiation dose-dependently increases peroxidation levels of α-linolenic acid. • An optimum concentration of carotenoids inhibits degradation of α-linolenic acid. • Relatively low concentrations of carotenoids promote degradation of α-linolenic acid. • Carotenoids do not affect the peroxidation level of α-linolenic acid

  20. Risperidone-Induced Renal Damage and Metabolic Side Effects: The Protective Effect of Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Bilgiç

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible protective qualities of resveratrol (RSV against the side effects of risperidone (RIS in an experimental model in rat kidneys with histologic and biochemical assessments. Materials and Methods. Experimental procedures were performed on 35 female Sprague Dawley rats. Rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, untreated rats (n=7 were in group 1; group 2 was given 2 mg/kg/day RIS (n=7; group 3 was treated with 2 mg/kg/day RIS and 20 mg/kg/day RSV (n=7; group 4 was treated with 2 mg/kg/day RIS and 40 mg/kg/day RSV (n=7; and group 5 was treated with 2 mg/kg/day RIS and 80 mg/kg/day RSV (n=7. All treatments were administered for two weeks by gavage. On treatment day 15, kidney tissues were removed for analysis. Results. The results showed that RSV treatment reduced weight gain induced by RIS. In addition, RSV increased the total antioxidant status (TAS and decreased serum creatinine (Cr, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, oxidative stress index (OSI, and total oxidant status (TOS levels significantly (p<0.05. Conclusion. This study revealed that treatment with RSV might protect kidney tissues against the side effects of RIS. RSV could be an effective course of therapy to enhance therapeutic efficacy.

  1. Protective effect of lycopene on whole body irradiation induced liver damage of Swiss albino mice: pathological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Menon, Venugopal Padmanabhan

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of lycopene, a naturally occurring dietary carotenoid on whole body radiation-induced liver damage of Swiss albino mice. The first phase of the study was carried out to fix the effective concentration of Iycopene by performing a 30 days survival studies using different graded doses (10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg body weight) of lycopene administered orally to mice via intragastric intubations for seven consecutive days prior to exposure of whole body radiation (10 Gy). Based on the results of survival studies, the effective dose of Iycopene was fixed which was then administered to mice orally via intragastric intubations for seven consecutive days prior to exposure of whole body radiation (4 Gy) to evaluate its radioprotective efficacy by performing various biochemical assays in the liver of Swiss albino mice. The results indicated that radiation-induced decrease in the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and increase in lipid peroxidative index, DNA damage and comet assays were altered by pre-administration with the effective dose of Iycopene (20 mg/kg body weight) which restored the antioxidant status to near normal and decreased the levels of lipid peroxidative index, DNA damage and comet assays.These results were further confirmed by histopathological examinations which indicated that pre-administration with the effective dose of Iycopene reduced the hepatic damage induced by radiation. (author)

  2. A protective effect of anthocyanins and xanthophylls on UVB-induced damage in retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silván, Jose Manuel; Reguero, Marina; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia

    2016-02-01

    Increased exposure to solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes oxidative damage that may promote age related macular degeneration (AMD) and other ocular pathologies. This study is aimed to demonstrate the protective effects of some anthocyanins and xanthophylls against the UVB-induced oxidative damage to retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. ARPE-19 cells were treated with 5 μM cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, lutein, zeaxanthin or a mixture of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside:zeaxanthin prior to UVB exposure (500 J m(-2)). Cell viability and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation were determined by MTT assay and western blot analysis, respectively. Oxidative damage was evaluated by measuring the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The data showed that UVB irradiation reduces the cell viability to 46% with increasing of intracellular ROS levels and phosphorylation of MAPKs. However, pre-treatment (60 min) with 5 μM cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, lutein or zeaxanthin significantly reduced cellular ROS levels and phosphorylation of MAPKs (JNK1/2 and p38) mediated by UVB irradiation and subsequently increased cell viability. Thus, results show that UVB irradiation is able to induce apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells through oxidative stress; however anthocyanins and xanthophylls pre-treatment can attenuate this damage. This suggests that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, lutein and zeaxanthin are effective in preventing UVB-induced damage in RPE cells and may be suitable as chemoprotective factors for the prevention of ocular damage. The use of natural dietary antioxidants might reduce ocular oxidative damage caused by UVB radiation.

  3. Protective Effect of Nicotine on Sepsis-Induced Oxidative Multiorgan Damage: Role of Neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir-Kumral, Zarife N; Özbeyli, Dilek; Özdemir, Ahmet F; Karaaslan, Bugra M; Kaytaz, Kübra; Kara, Mustafa F; Tok, Olgu E; Ercan, Feriha; Yegen, Berrak Ç

    2017-07-01

    Despite its adverse health consequences, tobacco smoking is associated with lower incidence of several neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases. The present study is aimed to show the effects of nicotine, major tobacco constituent, on five organs targeted by sepsis. Male Wistar albino rats received tap water with (5mg/kg) or without nicotine for 14 days. Under ketamine anesthesia, sepsis (n = 50) was induced by ligation and puncture of the cecum, while sham group (n = 8) had only laparotomy. In other rats, nicotine drink was withdrawn for 5 days before sepsis induction, while in acute nicotine group, rats were injected with nicotine (30mg/kg, i.p.) before sepsis, but had no oral intake. Rats were decapitated 24 hours after surgery to obtain lung, liver, ileum, heart, and kidney tissues to determine malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparison tests or Student's t test. Chronic nicotine administration or its withdrawal reduced lipid peroxidation and MPO activity and prevented GSH depletion with some varying results in different target tissues. Nicotine injection prior to sepsis depressed MPO activity in all tissues and reduced MDA levels except for the lung, while GSH levels were elevated only in the hepatic and ileal tissues. Histologically observed injury was ameliorated by all nicotine treatments at varying degrees. The findings of the present study indicate that long-term nicotine administration reduces sepsis-induced oxidative damage in several tissues, which appears to involve inhibition of neutrophil activity in the inflamed tissues. Nicotine administration or its withdrawal reduced lipid peroxidation and neutrophil content and prevented GSH depletion with some varying results in different target tissues. A single injection prior to sepsis induction depressed MPO activity in all the tissues and reduced all tissue MDA levels except

  4. Bean grain hysteresis with induced mechanical damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata C. Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of mechanical damage on the hysteresis of beans with induced mechanical damage under different conditions of temperature and relative humidity. Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. harvested manually with 35% water content (w.b. were used. Part of this product was subjected to induced mechanical damage by Stein Breakage Tester and controlled drying (damaged and control sample, for sorption processes. The sorption isotherms of water were analyzed for different temperature conditions: 20, 30, 40 and 50 oC; and relative humidity: 0.3; 0.4; 0.5; 0.7 and 0.9 (decimal. Equilibrium moisture content data were correlated with six mathematical models, and the Modified Oswin model was the one that best fitted to the experimental data. According to the above mentioned isotherms, it was possible to observe the phenomenon of hysteresis of damaged and control samples, and this phenomenon was more pronounced in control ones.

  5. The effect of 2-[(aminopropyl)amino] ethanethiol on fission-neutron-induced DNA damage and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grdina, D. J.; Sigdestad, C. P.; Dale, P. J.; Perrin, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    The effect(s) of the radioprotector 2-[(aminopropyl)amino] ethanethiol (WR 1065) on fission-neutron-induced DNA damage and repair in V79 Chinese hamster cells was determined by using a neutral filter elution procedure (pH 7.2). When required, WR1065, at a final working concentration of 4 mM, was added to the culture medium, either 30 min before and during irradiation with fission spectrum neutrons (beam energy of 0.85 MeV) from the JANUS research reactor, or for selected intervals of time following exposure. The frequency of neutron-induced DNA strand breaks as measured by neutral elution as a function of dose equalled that observed for 60Co gamma-ray-induced damage (relative biological effectiveness of one). In contrast to the protective effect exhibited by WR1065 in reducing 60Co-induced DNA damage, WR1065 was ineffective in reducing or protecting against induction of DNA strand breaks by JANUS neutrons. The kinetics of DNA double-strand rejoining were measured following neutron irradiation. In the absence of WR1065, considerable DNA degradation by cellular enzymes was observed. This process was inhibited when WR1065 was present. These results indicate that, under the conditions used, the quality (i.e. nature), rather than quantity, of DNA lesions (measured by neutral elution) formed by neutrons was significantly different from that formed by gamma-rays. PMID:2667608

  6. Protective effects of fennel oil extract against sodium valproate-induced hepatorenal damage in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael M. Al-Amoudi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae is commonly known as fennel. This herb is well-known worldwide and traditionally used as curative herbal therapy for the treatment of epileptic disease, seizurescarminative, digestive, lactogogue, diuretic, treating respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of present study is to investigate the possible effect of fennel oil against the toxicity of Sodium-Valproic (SVP in albino rats. In order to assess the protection of fennel oil on SVP induced hepato- and nephro-toxicity, male albino rats were treated with 1 ml/kg b.w fennel oil 3 days/week for 6 weeks. The biochemical analyses of hepatic enzymes were evaluated by estimating blood biomarkers of liver and renal damage along with histological examination. The results obtained from this work showed that treating animals with SVP lead to many histopathological alterations in the liver and kidney tissues. The effect appeared in the liver tissue include leukocyte infiltrations, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, fatty degeneration and congestion of blood vessels. This commonly used chemical (SVP caused some unwanted effects on the kidney cortex which histologically observed as degeneration in renal tubules, atrophy of the glomeruli and edema. Biochemical results also revealed an abnormal increase in the enzyme level of AST, SAT, ALP, bilirubin, creatinine and urea-nitrogen, with a noticed decrease in total protein content. However, the results of treated rats with SVP plus fennel oil showed some positive histopathological changes in both the liver and kidney tissues. These results have confirmed that fennel oil has positive effects on the histological structure of the liver and kidney and the biochemical levels of AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin, total proteins, creatinine and urea. It is concluded that fennel oil has various pharmacological properties including antioxidant, anti-cancer activity, anti-inflammatory. These valuable effects might be due to

  7. Exercise-induced muscle damage and the repeated bout effect: evidence for cross transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, Chelsea; Eston, Roger G

    2012-03-01

    We examined whether a prior bout of eccentric exercise in the elbow flexors provided protection against exercise-induced muscle damage in the contralateral arm. Fifteen males (age 22.7 ± 2.1 years; height 178.6 ± 6.8 cm, mass 75.8 ± 9.3 kg) were randomly assigned to two groups who performed two bouts of 60 eccentric contractions (30°/s) separated by 2 weeks: ipsilateral (n = 7, both bouts performed in the same arm), contralateral (n = 8, one bout performed in each arm). Strength, muscle soreness and resting arm angle (RAA) were measured at baseline and at 1, 24 and 48 h post exercise. Surface electromyography was recorded during both bouts of exercise. The degree of strength loss was attenuated (p < 0.05) in the ipsilateral group after the second bout of eccentric exercise (-22 cf. -3% for bout 1 and 2 at 24 h, respectively). Strength loss following eccentric exercise was also attenuated (p < 0.05) at 24 h in the contralateral group (-30 cf. 13% for bout 1 and 2, respectively). Muscle soreness (≈34 cf 19 mm) and change in RAA (≈5 cf. 3%) were also lower following the second bout of eccentric exercise (p < 0.05), although there was no difference in the overall change in these values between groups. Median frequency (MF) was decreased by 31% between bouts, with no difference between groups. Data support observations that the repeated bout effect transfers to the opposite (untrained) limb. The similar reduction in MF between bouts for the two groups provides evidence for a centrally mediated, neural adaptation.

  8. Protective effects of rosmarinic acid on sepsis-induced DNA damage in the liver of Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Gul Goktas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is an imbalance between pro and anti-inflammatory responses. Sepsis induced multiple organ failure that is associated with mortality is characterized by liver, renal, cardiovascular and pulmonary dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS are believed to be involved in the development of sepsis. Plant polyphenols may act as antioxidants by different mechanisms such as free radical scavenging, metal chelation and protein binding. Data indicates possible beneficial effects of plant derived phenolic compounds against sepsis. Rosmarinic acid (RA (α-O-caffeoyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid is a phenolic compound commonly found in various plants such as Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary, Origanum vulgare (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Mentha spicata (spearmint, Perilla frutescens (perilla, Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil and several other medicinal plants. It has been shown that RA has many biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, anticancer and actimicrobial and is widely used in cosmetic and food industry. In the present study, we aimed to determine the protective effects of RA against the oxidative DNA damage induced by sepsis in Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into four groups; sham, sepsis induced, RA-treated, RA treated and sepsis induced groups. Wistar rats were subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation puncture. The liver tissues were carefully dissected from their attachments and totally excised. The concentrations of the hepatic tissue cells were adjusted to approximately 2 x 106 cells/ml. Standard and formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg modified comet assay described by Singh et al were used. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of tail length, tail intensity and tail moment between the sham group and the RA-treated groups (p>0.05. The DNA damage was found significantly higher in the sepsis-induced group compared to the sham group (p0.05, and the DNA damage

  9. Hepatoprotective Effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha Fruits against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Ponce, Herson Antonio; Consolacion Martinez-Saldana, Maria; Rosa Rincon-Sanchez, Ana; Teresa Sumaya-Martinez, Maria; Buist-Homan, Manon; Faber, Klaas Nico; Moshage, Han; Jaramillo-Juarez, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) is a serious health problem in developed countries. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), the current therapy for APAP-induced ALF, is not always effective, and liver transplantation is often needed. Opuntia spp. fruits are an important source of nutrients

  10. Effect of Shock-Induced Cavitation Bubble Collapse on the damage in the Simulated Perineuronal Net of the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuan-Ting; Adnan, Ashfaq

    2017-07-13

    The purpose of this study is to conduct modeling and simulation to understand the effect of shock-induced mechanical loading, in the form of cavitation bubble collapse, on damage to the brain's perineuronal nets (PNNs). It is known that high-energy implosion due to cavitation collapse is responsible for corrosion or surface damage in many mechanical devices. In this case, cavitation refers to the bubble created by pressure drop. The presence of a similar damage mechanism in biophysical systems has long being suspected but not well-explored. In this paper, we use reactive molecular dynamics (MD) to simulate the scenario of a shock wave induced cavitation collapse within the perineuronal net (PNN), which is the near-neuron domain of a brain's extracellular matrix (ECM). Our model is focused on the damage in hyaluronan (HA), which is the main structural component of PNN. We have investigated the roles of cavitation bubble location, shockwave intensity and the size of a cavitation bubble on the structural evolution of PNN. Simulation results show that the localized supersonic water hammer created by an asymmetrical bubble collapse may break the hyaluronan. As such, the current study advances current knowledge and understanding of the connection between PNN damage and neurodegenerative disorders.

  11. A Comparison of the Effects of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition on Cartilage Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Selim Gokay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selective inducible nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on cartilage regeneration. The study involved 27 Wistar rats that were divided into five groups. On Day 1, both knees of 3 rats were resected and placed in a formalin solution as a control group. The remaining 24 rats were separated into 4 groups, and their right knees were surgically damaged. Depending on the groups, the rats were injected with intra-articular normal saline solution, neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (50 mg/kg, inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor amino-guanidine (30 mg/kg, or nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (200 mg/kg. After 21 days, the right and left knees of the rats were resected and placed in formalin solution. The samples were histopathologically examined by a blinded evaluator and scored on 8 parameters. Although selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition exhibited significant (P=0.044 positive effects on cartilage regeneration following cartilage damage, it was determined that inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition had no statistically significant effect on cartilage regeneration. It was observed that the nitric oxide synthase activation triggered advanced arthrosis symptoms, such as osteophyte formation. The fact that selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors were observed to have mitigating effects on the severity of the damage may, in the future, influence the development of new agents to be used in the treatment of cartilage disorders.

  12. Protective effect of Kombucha tea on brain damage induced by transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Najmeh Kabiri; Mahbubeh Setorki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of Kombucha on cerebral damage induced by ischemia in rats (n=99). Cerebral infarct volume in the ischemic rats received Kombucha solution showed no significance alteration. However, the permeability of blood-brain barrier significantly decreased in both ischemic rats received 15 mg/kg Kombucha tea and Sham group. In addition, brain water content in the ischemic groups treated with Kombucha solution was significantly hi...

  13. Evaluation of radio-protective effect of melatonin on whole body irradiation induced liver tissue damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Alireza; Mihandoost, Ehsan; Ghobadi, Ghazale; Mohseni, Mehran; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation interacts with biological systems to induce excessive fluxes of free radicals that attack various cellular components. Melatonin has been shown to be a direct free radical scavenger and indirect antioxidant via its stimulatory actions on the antioxidant system.The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant role of melatonin against radiation-induced oxidative injury to the rat liver after whole body irradiation. In this experimental study,thirty-two rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was the control group, group 2 only received melatonin (30 mg/kg on the first day and 30 mg/kg on the following days), group 3 only received whole body gamma irradiation of 10 Gy, and group 4 received 30 mg/kg melatonin 30 minutes prior to radiation plus whole body irradiation of 10 Gy plus 30 mg/kg melatonin daily through intraperitoneal (IP) injection for three days after irradiation. Three days after irradiation, all rats were sacrificed and their livers were excised to measure the biochemical parameters malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH). Each data point represents mean ± standard error on the mean (SEM) of at least eight animals per group. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare different groups, followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests (p<0.05). The results demonstrated that whole body irradiation induced liver tissue damage by increasing MDA levels and decreasing GSH levels. Hepatic MDA levels in irradiated rats that were treated with melatonin (30 mg/kg) were significantly decreased, while GSH levels were significantly increased, when compared to either of the control groups or the melatonin only group. The data suggest that administration of melatonin before and after irradiation may reduce liver damage caused by gamma irradiation.

  14. Improvement effect of corn silk, perilla leaf and grape stem extract mixture against UVB-induced skin damage and compound 48/80-induced pruritus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byoung Ok; Shin, Jae Young; Che, Denis Nchang; Hwang, Young Min; Lee, Hyun Seo; Choi, Ji Won; Jang, Seon Il; Ryu, Cheol

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the synergistic protective effects of mixtures of corn silk, perilla leaf and grape stem extract (CPG mixture) against UVB-induced skin damage and compound 48/80-induced pruritus in mice. The results showed that treatment with CPG mixture exhibited much stronger suppressive effect on erythema and melanin index as well as melanin formation than treatment with ascorbic acid (AA) in UVB-irradiated mice. Moreover, the treatment with CPG mixture showed ameliorative effect on immune cell infiltration and collagen fiber destruction in UV-irradiated mice. The treatment with CPG mixture inhibited glutathione (GSH) depletion, lipid peroxidation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in UVB-irradiated mice. Furthermore, the treatment with CPG mixture inhibited compound 48/80-induced scratching behavior and histological changes in mice. Taken together, these results indicated that CPG mixture has potentials as functional and therapeutic materials against skin damage and itch-related skin diseases

  15. Improvement effect of corn silk, perilla leaf and grape stem extract mixture against UVB-induced skin damage and compound 48/80-induced pruritus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Byoung Ok; Shin, Jae Young; Che, Denis Nchang; Hwang, Young Min; Lee, Hyun Seo; Choi, Ji Won; Jang, Seon Il [Jeonju University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Cheol [Hyangmiwon Corporation, Gimje (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the synergistic protective effects of mixtures of corn silk, perilla leaf and grape stem extract (CPG mixture) against UVB-induced skin damage and compound 48/80-induced pruritus in mice. The results showed that treatment with CPG mixture exhibited much stronger suppressive effect on erythema and melanin index as well as melanin formation than treatment with ascorbic acid (AA) in UVB-irradiated mice. Moreover, the treatment with CPG mixture showed ameliorative effect on immune cell infiltration and collagen fiber destruction in UV-irradiated mice. The treatment with CPG mixture inhibited glutathione (GSH) depletion, lipid peroxidation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in UVB-irradiated mice. Furthermore, the treatment with CPG mixture inhibited compound 48/80-induced scratching behavior and histological changes in mice. Taken together, these results indicated that CPG mixture has potentials as functional and therapeutic materials against skin damage and itch-related skin diseases.

  16. Neuroprotective effects of α-iso-cubebene against glutamate-induced damage in the HT22 hippocampal neuronal cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Young; Jung, Won Jung; Kang, Jum Soon; Kim, Cheol-Min; Park, Geuntae; Choi, Young-Whan

    2015-02-01

    Since oxidative stress is critically involved in excitotoxic damage, we sought to determine whether the activation of the transcription factors, cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2, also known as NFE2L2), by α-iso-cubebene is involved in its protective effects against glutamate-induced neuronal cell death. Pre-treatment with α-iso-cubebene significantly attenuated glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in mouse hippocampus-derived neuronal cells. α-iso-cubebene also reduced the glutamate-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and calcium influx, thus preventing apoptotic cell death. α-iso-cubebene inhibited glutamate-induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization and, consequently, inhibited the release of the apoptosis-inducing factor from the mitochondria. Immunoblot anlaysis revealed that the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by glutamate was reduced in the presence of α-iso-cubebene. α-iso-cubebene activated protein kinase A (PKA), CREB and Nrf2, which mediate the expression of the antioxidant enzymes, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1 (NQO1), involved in neuroprotection. In addition, α-iso-cubebene induced the expression of antioxidant responsive element and CRE transcriptional activity, thus conferring neuroprotection against glutamate-induced oxidative injury. α-iso-cubebene also induced the expression of Nrf2-dependent genes encoding HO-1 and NQO1. Furthermore, the knockdown of CREB and Nrf2 by small interfering RNA attenuated the neuroprotective effects of α-iso-cubebene. Taken together, our results indicate that α-iso-cubebene protects HT22 cells from glutamate-induced oxidative damage through the activation of Nrf2/HO-1/NQO-1, as well as through the PKA and CREB signaling pathways.

  17. Preventive Effect of the Korean Traditional Health Drink (Taemyeongcheong) on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatic Damage in ICR Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ruo-Kun; Song, Jia-Le; Lim, Yaung-Iee; Kim, Yong-Kyu; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-03-01

    This study was to investigate the preventive effect of taemyeongcheong (TMC, a Korean traditional health drink) on acetaminophen (APAP, 800 mg/kg BW)-induced hepatic damage in ICR mice. TMC is prepared from Saururus chinensis, Taraxacum officinale, Zingiber officinale, Cirsium setidens, Salicornia herbacea, and Glycyrrhizae. A high dose of TMC (500 mg/kg BW) was found to decrease APAP-induced increases in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase. TMC pretreatment also increased the hepatic levels of hepatic catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione, and reduced serum levels of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 in mice administered APAP (Phepatic mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2, and iNOS by 87%, 84%, 89%, 85%, and 88%, respectively, in mice treated with APAP (Phepatic damage.

  18. Effects of tissue mechanical properties on susceptibility to histotripsy-induced tissue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaisavljevich, Eli; Kim, Yohan; Owens, Gabe; Roberts, William; Cain, Charles; Xu, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Histotripsy is a non-invasive tissue ablation method capable of fractionating tissue by controlling acoustic cavitation. To determine the fractionation susceptibility of various tissues, we investigated histotripsy-induced damage on tissue phantoms and ex vivo tissues with different mechanical strengths. A histotripsy bubble cloud was formed at tissue phantom surfaces using 5-cycle long ultrasound pulses with peak negative pressure of 18 MPa and PRFs of 10, 100, and 1000 Hz. Results showed significantly smaller lesions were generated in tissue phantoms of higher mechanical strength. Histotripsy was also applied to 43 different ex vivo porcine tissues with a wide range of mechanical properties. Gross morphology demonstrated stronger tissues with higher ultimate stress, higher density, and lower water content were more resistant to histotripsy damage in comparison to weaker tissues. Based on these results, a self-limiting vessel-sparing treatment strategy was developed in an attempt to preserve major vessels while fractionating the surrounding target tissue. This strategy was tested in porcine liver in vivo. After treatment, major hepatic blood vessels and bile ducts remained intact within a completely fractionated liver volume. These results identify varying susceptibilities of tissues to histotripsy therapy and provide a rational basis to optimize histotripsy parameters for treatment of specific tissues.

  19. Modulatory effect of Mangifera indica against carbon tetrachloride induced kidney damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Adeneye, Adejuwon Adewale; Aiyeola, Sheriff Aboyade; Benebo, Adokiye Senibo

    2015-12-01

    There is little scientific evidence on the local use of Mangifera indica in kidney diseases. This study investigated the reno-modulatory roles of the aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica (MIASE) against CCl4-induced renal damage. Rats were treated intragastrically with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day MIASE for 7 days before and after the administration of CCl4 (3 ml/kg of 30% CCl4, i.p.). Serum levels of electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl(-), HCO3(-)), urea and creatinine were determined. Renal tissue reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide (SOD) activities were also assessed. The histopathological changes in kidneys were determined using standard methods. In CCl4 treated rats the results showed significant (pMangifera indica may present a great prospect for drug development in the management of kidney disease with lipid peroxidation as its etiology.

  20. Radioprotective effect of methanolic root extract of Loeseneriella arnottiana on radiation induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prajna, P.S.

    2012-01-01

    Intense exposure to ionization radiation by accidental, occupational or therapeutical purpose causes cellular damage mainly by formation of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) or by free radicals. Humans are intentionally exposed to ionising radiation for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. The use of ionising radiation in cancer therapy may lead to transient and/or permanent injury to normal tissues within the treatment field. To increase the therapeutic index of radiation therapy, various modes of radioprotection have been developed that selectively reduce cytotoxic effects to normal tissues. Because radiation-induced cellular damage is attributed primarily to the harmful effects of free radicals, molecules with radical scavenging properties are particularly promising as radioprotectors. Loeseneriella arnottiana, a member of family Hippocrateaceae, is a climbing shrub used by traditional medicine practitioners. To study the antioxidant activity and radioprotective effect of methanolic root extract of Loeseneriella arnottiana against electron beam radiation induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Loeseneriella arnottiana roots were dried and extracted using methanol by solvent extraction method. Antioxidant activity was measured by DPPH method. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay parameters. The lymphocytes were incubated for one hour with two different concentrations 10 μg and 50 μg of root extract before exposure to 2 Gy electron beam radiation. 30 μg of methanolic root extract of Loeseneriella arnottiana exhibited 96% radical scavenging activity comparable to 15 μg of ascorbic acid. In reducing power assay it showed dose dependent increase in absorbance indicating that extract is capable of donating hydrogen atoms. Pretreatment of lymphocytes with 10 μg and 50 μg of root extract before irradiation resulted in reduction in the Comet length, Olive tail moment, percentage of DNA in tail when compared to the radiation control group. Results of this

  1. Radioprotective effect of sesamol on γ-radiation induced DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants levels in cultured human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, N. Rajendra; Menon, Venugopal P.; Vasudev, V.; Pugalendi, K.V.

    2005-01-01

    Sesamol pretreated (1, 5 and 10 μg/ml) lymphocytes were exposed to different doses of γ-radiation, i.e., 1, 2 and 4 Gray (Gy) and the cellular changes were estimated by using cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay (MN), dicentric aberration (DC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Radiation significantly increased MN, DC frequencies, TBARS levels and decreased GSH and antioxidant enzyme levels in a dose dependent manner. The highest damage to lymphocytes was observed at 4 Gy irradiation. On the other hand, sesamol pretreatment significantly decreased MN, DC frequencies, TBARS levels and increased GSH levels and SOD, CAT and GPx activities in a concentration dependent manner. At 1 Gy irradiation all concentrations of sesamol (1, 5 and 10 μg/ml) significantly protects the lymphocytes from radiation damage. At 2 Gy irradiation 5 and 10 μg/ml of sesamol shows significant radioprotection. Since the highest damage was observed at 4 Gy irradiation both 1 and 5 μg/ml of sesamol pretreatment were not sufficient to protect the lymphocytes from radiation damage but 10 μg/ml of sesamol significantly (p < 0.05) protects the lymphocytes from radiation effect. Thus, sesamol pretreatment gives significant protection to cultured human lymphocytes against γ-radiation induced cellular damage. The possible mechanism involved in the radioprotective influence of sesamol is discussed

  2. A comparison of atom and ion induced SSIMS - evidence for a charge induced damage effect in insulator materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.; Berg, J.A. van den; Vickerman, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    A static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SSIMS) study of two very low conductivity materials, polystyrene and niobium pentoxide, using on the one hand a primary ion beam with electron neutralisation, and on the other, atom bombardment, shows that whilst the initial spectra obtained were quite similar, subsequent damage effects were much greater under ion impact conditions. For an equivalent flux density the half-life of the polystyrene surface structure was four times longer under atom bombardment. Significant reduction of the niobium surface was observed under ion bombardment whereas an equivalent atom flux had little apparent effect on the surface oxidation state. These data suggest that the requirement to dissipate the charge delivered to the sample by the primary ion beam contributes significantly to the damage mechanisms in electrically insulating materials. (author)

  3. Effect of aspirin on chromosome aberration and DNA damage induced by X-rays in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niikawa, M.; Chuuriki, K.; Shibuya, K.; Seo, M.; Nagase, H.

    In order to reveal the anticlastogenic potency of aspirin, we evaluated the suppressive ability of aspirin on chromosome aberrations induced by X-ray. Aspirin at doses of 0.5, 5 and 50 mg/kg was administrated intraperitoneally or orally at 0.5 h after or before the X-ray irradiation. The anticlastogenic activity of aspirin on chromosome aberrations induced by X-ray was determined in the mouse micronucleus test and alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCG) assay in vivo. The frequency by polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei (MNPCEs) was decreased by about 19-61% at 0.5 h after and about 23-62% at 0.5 h before the X-ray irradiation. DNA damage by X-ray was significantly decreased by oral administration of aspirin at 0.5 h after or before the X-ray irradiation for the SCG assay. We consider aspirin can be used as preventive agents against exposure of X-ray.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and ameliorative effects of gallic acid on fluoxetine-induced oxidative stress and liver damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Khouzani, Omid; Heidarian, Esfandiar; Amini, Sayed Asadollah

    2017-08-01

    Fluoxetine-induced liver damage is a cause of chronic liver disease. In the present study the hepatoprotective effects of gallic acid against fluoxetine-induced liver damage were examined. Forty-eight male rats were divided into six groups as follow: group 1, the control group; group 2, rats receiving fluoxetine (24mg/kg bw daily, po) without treatment; group 3, rats receiving 24mg/kg bw fluoxetine, treated with 50mg/kg bw silymarin and groups 4, 5, and 6 in which gallic acid (50, 100, and 200mg/kg bw, po, respectively) was prescribed after the consumption of fluoxetine. The histopathological changes of hepatic tissues were checked out. Fluoxetine caused a significant increase in the levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), lipid profiles, urea, fasting blood sugar (FBS), creatinine (Cr), protein carbonyl (PC) content, malondialdehyde (MDA), and liver TNF-α as an inflammatory element. Also, the obtained results of group 2 revealed a significant decline in ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), liver catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and vitamin C levels. The treatment with gallic acid showed significant ameliorations in abnormalities of fluoxetine-induced liver injury as represented by the improvement of hepatic CAT, SOD activities, vitamin C levels, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathological changes, in addition to the recovery of antioxidant defense system status. Gallic acid has inhibitory effects on fluoxetine-induced liver damage. The effect of gallic acid is derived from free radical scavenging properties and the anti-inflammatory effect related to TNF-α. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  5. Protective effects of ursodeoxycholic acid against 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced testicular damage in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Young-Il; Yeon, Je-Deuk; Oh, Seung-Min; Chung, Kyu-Hyuck

    2004-01-01

    The protective effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a biliary component found in bears, on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced testicular damage in mice was investigated. Fifty C57BL/6J mice were equally divided into five groups. The mice in the control group received the vehicle and standard chow. The single TCDD treatment group received 27.5 μg/kg of TCDD subcutaneously. The UDCA-included treatment group received pulverized chow containing 0.125%, 0.25% and 0.5% UDCA, respectively, for 70 days starting 10 days before TCDD injections. The body and testicular weights were shown to be decreased in the single TCDD treatment group, while the decrease was prevented by UDCA added to the chow. In addition, the decrease in the serum-luteinizing hormone (LH) or the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secondary to a TCDD injection was not observed in the UDCA-included treatment group. Contrary to the single TCDD treatment group, the germinal epithelium and intercellular space were relatively well preserved in the UDCA-included treatment group. Adding UDCA also normalized TCDD-induced irregular ultrastructural changes such as development of phagolysosomes, inflated smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), dilated and altered mitochondria, necrosis and completely damaged seminiferous tubules. Moreover, in the experiment for Arnt expression, UDCA added to the chow suppressed the TCDD-induced relocation of Arnt from the cytoplasm to the nuclei. In conclusion, TCDD-induced testicular toxicity was effectively protected by UDCA. There was almost complete recovery of the testes in the UDCA-included treatment group. Thus, UDCA may be useful for the prevention and treatment of TCDD-induced testicular damage

  6. Hepatoprotective Effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha Fruits against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herson Antonio González-Ponce

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen (APAP-induced acute liver failure (ALF is a serious health problem in developed countries. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, the current therapy for APAP-induced ALF, is not always effective, and liver transplantation is often needed. Opuntia spp. fruits are an important source of nutrients and contain high levels of bioactive compounds, including antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha extracts against APAP-induced ALF. In addition, we analyzed the antioxidant activities of these extracts. Fruit extracts (800mg/kg/day, orally were given prophylactically to male Wistar rats before intoxication with APAP (500 mg/kg, intraperitoneally. Rat hepatocyte cultures were exposed to 20mmol/LAPAP, and necrosis was assessed by LDH leakage. Opuntia robusta had significantly higher levels of antioxidants than Opuntia streptacantha. Both extracts significantly attenuated APAP-induced injury markers AST, ALT and ALP and improved liver histology. The Opuntia extracts reversed APAP-induced depletion of liver GSH and glycogen stores. In cultured hepatocytes, Opuntia extracts significantly reduced leakage of LDH and cell necrosis, both prophylactically and therapeutically. Both extracts appeared to be superior to NAC when used therapeutically. We conclude that Opuntia extracts are hepatoprotective and can be used as a nutraceutical to prevent ALF.

  7. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and histological damage in the myocardium. Effects of a soy-based diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferramola, Mariana L.; Pérez Díaz, Matías F.F. [Department of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences, Faculty of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Pharmacy, National University of San Luis, IMIBIO-SL, CONICET, San Luis (Argentina); Honoré, Stella M.; Sánchez, Sara S. [Department of Development Biology, INSIBIO, National University of Tucumán, CONICET-UNT, Tucumán (Argentina); Antón, Rosa I. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Pharmacy, National University of San Luis, INQUISAL, CONICET, San Luis (Argentina); Anzulovich, Ana C. [Department of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences, Faculty of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Pharmacy, National University of San Luis, IMIBIO-SL, CONICET, San Luis (Argentina); Giménez, María S., E-mail: mgimenez@unsl.edu.ar [Department of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences, Faculty of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Pharmacy, National University of San Luis, IMIBIO-SL, CONICET, San Luis (Argentina)

    2012-12-15

    Cd exposure has been associated to an augmented risk for cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of 15 and 100 ppm of Cd on redox status as well as histological changes in the rat heart and the putative protective effect of a soy-based diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into 6 groups and treated during 60 days as follows: groups (1), (2) and (3) were fed a casein-based diet; groups (4), (5) and (6), a soy-based diet; (1) and (4) were given tap water; (2) and (5) tap water containing 15 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}; and (3) and (6) tap water containing 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}. Serum lipid peroxides increased and PON-1 activity decreased in group (3). Lipoperoxidation also increased in the heart of all intoxicated groups; however protein oxidation only augmented in (3) and reduced glutathione levels diminished in (2) and (3). Catalase activity increased in groups (3) and (6) while superoxide dismutase activity increased only in (6). Glutathione peroxidase activity decreased in groups (3) and (6). Nrf2 expression was higher in groups (3) and (6), and MTI expression augmented in (3). Histological examination of the heart tissue showed the development of hypertrophic and fusion of cardiomyocytes along with foci of myocardial fiber necrosis. The transmission electron microscopy analysis showed profound ultra-structural damages. No protection against tissue degeneration was observed in animals fed the soy-based diet. Our findings indicate that even though the intake of a soy-based diet is capable of ameliorating Cd induced oxidative stress, it failed in preventing cardiac damage. -- Highlights: ► Cd intoxication produces extracellular and ultrastructural damage in the myocardium. ► The intake of a soy-based diet ameliorated Cd-induced oxidative stress. ► Cd-induced myocardial damage wasn't prevented by the intake of a soy-based diet. ► Cd-induced myocardial degeneration may not be caused by oxidative stress generation. ► Histology evaluation is needed to

  8. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and histological damage in the myocardium. Effects of a soy-based diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferramola, Mariana L.; Pérez Díaz, Matías F.F.; Honoré, Stella M.; Sánchez, Sara S.; Antón, Rosa I.; Anzulovich, Ana C.; Giménez, María S.

    2012-01-01

    Cd exposure has been associated to an augmented risk for cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of 15 and 100 ppm of Cd on redox status as well as histological changes in the rat heart and the putative protective effect of a soy-based diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into 6 groups and treated during 60 days as follows: groups (1), (2) and (3) were fed a casein-based diet; groups (4), (5) and (6), a soy-based diet; (1) and (4) were given tap water; (2) and (5) tap water containing 15 ppm of Cd 2+ ; and (3) and (6) tap water containing 100 ppm of Cd 2+ . Serum lipid peroxides increased and PON-1 activity decreased in group (3). Lipoperoxidation also increased in the heart of all intoxicated groups; however protein oxidation only augmented in (3) and reduced glutathione levels diminished in (2) and (3). Catalase activity increased in groups (3) and (6) while superoxide dismutase activity increased only in (6). Glutathione peroxidase activity decreased in groups (3) and (6). Nrf2 expression was higher in groups (3) and (6), and MTI expression augmented in (3). Histological examination of the heart tissue showed the development of hypertrophic and fusion of cardiomyocytes along with foci of myocardial fiber necrosis. The transmission electron microscopy analysis showed profound ultra-structural damages. No protection against tissue degeneration was observed in animals fed the soy-based diet. Our findings indicate that even though the intake of a soy-based diet is capable of ameliorating Cd induced oxidative stress, it failed in preventing cardiac damage. -- Highlights: ► Cd intoxication produces extracellular and ultrastructural damage in the myocardium. ► The intake of a soy-based diet ameliorated Cd-induced oxidative stress. ► Cd-induced myocardial damage wasn't prevented by the intake of a soy-based diet. ► Cd-induced myocardial degeneration may not be caused by oxidative stress generation. ► Histology evaluation is needed to establish the

  9. Photoprotection beyond ultraviolet radiation--effective sun protection has to include protection against infrared A radiation-induced skin damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, P; Calles, C; Benesova, T; Macaluso, F; Krutmann, J

    2010-01-01

    Solar radiation is well known to damage human skin, for example by causing premature skin ageing (i.e. photoageing). We have recently learned that this damage does not result from ultraviolet (UV) radiation alone, but also from longer wavelengths, in particular near-infrared radiation (IRA radiation, 760-1,440 nm). IRA radiation accounts for more than one third of the solar energy that reaches human skin. While infrared radiation of longer wavelengths (IRB and IRC) does not penetrate deeply into the skin, more than 65% of the shorter wavelength (IRA) reaches the dermis. IRA radiation has been demonstrated to alter the collagen equilibrium of the dermal extracellular matrix in at least two ways: (a) by leading to an increased expression of the collagen-degrading enzyme matrix metalloproteinase 1, and (b) by decreasing the de novo synthesis of the collagen itself. IRA radiation exposure therefore induces similar biological effects to UV radiation, but the underlying mechanisms are substantially different, specifically, the cellular response to IRA irradiation involves the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Effective sun protection requires specific strategies to prevent IRA radiation-induced skin damage. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Protective effects of the compounds isolated from the seed of Psoralea corylifolia on oxidative stress-induced retinal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung-A; Shim, Sang Hee; Ahn, Hong Ryul; Jung, Sang Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism underlying glaucoma remains controversial, but apoptosis caused by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to play a role in its pathogenesis. We investigated the effects of compounds isolated from Psoralea corylifolia on oxidative stress-induced cell death in vitro and in vivo. Transformed retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5) were treated with L-buthione-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) and glutamate in the presence or with pre-treatment with compound 6, bakuchiol isolated from P. corylifolia. We observed reduced cell death in cells pre-treated with bakuchiol. Moreover, bakuchiol inhibited the oxidative stress-induced decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm). Furthermore, while intracellular Ca 2+ was high in RGC-5 cells after exposure to oxidative stress, bakuchiol reduced these levels. In an in vivo study, in which rat retinal damage was induced by intravitreal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), bakuchiol markedly reduced translocation of AIF and release of cytochrome c, and inhibited up-regulation of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved PARP. The survival rate of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) 7 days after optic nerve crush (ONC) in mice was significantly decreased; however, bakuchiol attenuated the loss of RGCs. Moreover, bakuchiol attenuated ONC-induced up-regulation of apoptotic proteins, including cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-9. Bakuchiol also significantly inhibited translocation of mitochondrial AIF into the nuclear fraction and release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytosol. These results demonstrate that bakuchiol isolated from P. corylifolia has protective effects against oxidative stress-induced retinal damage, and may be considered as an agent for treating or preventing retinal degeneration. - Highlights: • Psoralea corylifolia have neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. • Bakuchiol attenuated the increase of apoptotic proteins induced by oxidative

  11. Protective effects of the compounds isolated from the seed of Psoralea corylifolia on oxidative stress-induced retinal damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung-A [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Sang Hee [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hong Ryul [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sang Hoon, E-mail: shjung507@gmail.com [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-01

    The mechanism underlying glaucoma remains controversial, but apoptosis caused by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to play a role in its pathogenesis. We investigated the effects of compounds isolated from Psoralea corylifolia on oxidative stress-induced cell death in vitro and in vivo. Transformed retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5) were treated with L-buthione-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) and glutamate in the presence or with pre-treatment with compound 6, bakuchiol isolated from P. corylifolia. We observed reduced cell death in cells pre-treated with bakuchiol. Moreover, bakuchiol inhibited the oxidative stress-induced decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm). Furthermore, while intracellular Ca{sup 2+} was high in RGC-5 cells after exposure to oxidative stress, bakuchiol reduced these levels. In an in vivo study, in which rat retinal damage was induced by intravitreal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), bakuchiol markedly reduced translocation of AIF and release of cytochrome c, and inhibited up-regulation of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved PARP. The survival rate of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) 7 days after optic nerve crush (ONC) in mice was significantly decreased; however, bakuchiol attenuated the loss of RGCs. Moreover, bakuchiol attenuated ONC-induced up-regulation of apoptotic proteins, including cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-9. Bakuchiol also significantly inhibited translocation of mitochondrial AIF into the nuclear fraction and release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytosol. These results demonstrate that bakuchiol isolated from P. corylifolia has protective effects against oxidative stress-induced retinal damage, and may be considered as an agent for treating or preventing retinal degeneration. - Highlights: • Psoralea corylifolia have neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. • Bakuchiol attenuated the increase of apoptotic proteins induced by oxidative

  12. Protective Effect of Thymoquinone against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Hemorrhagic Cystitis through Inhibiting DNA Damage and Upregulation of Nrf2 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Prashant R.; Prajapati, Chaitali P.; Mahajan, Umesh B.; Goyal, Sameer N.; Belemkar, Sateesh; Ojha, Shreesh; Patil, Chandragouda R.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CYP) induced hemorrhagic cystitis is a dose-limiting side effect involving increased oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines and suppressed activity of nuclear factor related erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2). Thymoquinone (TQ), an active constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, is reported to increase the expression of Nrf2, exert antioxidant action, and anti-inflammatory effects in the experimental animals. The present study was designed to explore the effects of TQ on CYP-induced hemorrhagic cystitis in Balb/c mice. Cystitis was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of CYP (200 mg/kg). TQ was administered intraperitoneally at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg doses twice a day, for three days before and three days after the CYP administration. The efficacy of TQ was determined in terms of the protection against the CYP-induced histological perturbations in the bladder tissue, reduction in the oxidative stress, and inhibition of the DNA fragmentation. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine the expression of Nrf2. TQ protected against CYP-induced oxidative stress was evident from significant reduction in the lipid peroxidation, restoration of the levels of reduced glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. TQ treatment significantly reduced the DNA damage evident as reduced DNA fragmentation. A significant decrease in the cellular infiltration, edema, epithelial denudation and hemorrhage were observed in the histological observations. There was restoration and rise in the Nrf2 expression in the bladder tissues of mice treated with TQ. These results confirm that, TQ ameliorates the CYP-induced hemorrhagic cystitis in mice through reduction in the oxidative stress, inhibition of the DNA damage and through increased expression of Nrf2 in the bladder tissues. PMID:27489498

  13. Effect of Mucuna pruriens (Linn.) on mitochondrial dysfunction and DNA damage in epididymal sperm of streptozotocin induced diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sekar; Prithiviraj, Elumalai; Lakshmi, Nagella Venkata; Ganesh, Mohanraj Karthik; Ganesh, Lakshmanan; Prakash, Seppan

    2013-01-09

    Mucuna pruriens Linn. (M. pruriens) is a leguminous plant that has been recognized as an herbal medicine for improving fertility and related disorders in the Indian traditional system of medicine, however without proper scientific validations. To study the effect of ethanolic seed extract of M. pruriens on mitochondrial dysfunction and the DNA damage in hyperglycemic rat epididymal spermatozoa. Male Wistar albino rats were divided as control (Sham), diabetes induced [streptozotocin 60 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.) in 0.1M citrate buffer] (STZ), diabetic rats administered with 200mg/kg b.w. of extract (STZ+MP) and normal rats administered with 200mg/kg b.w. of extract (Sham+MP). M. pruriens was administered (gavage) once daily for a period of 60 days. On 60th day animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation sperm were collected from epididymis and subjected various analysis like antioxidants, ROS, lipid peroxidation (LPO), DNA damage, chromosomal integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Significant reduction in the sperm count, motility, viability and significant increase in the number of abnormal sperm in STZ compared to sham was noticed. STZ rat sperm showed significant increase in LPO and DNA damage. Both the enzymic and non-enzymic were decreased; MMP and the mitochondrial functions were severely affected in STZ group. The diabetic rats supplemented with M. pruriens showed a remarkable recovery in antioxidant levels and reduced LPO with well preserved sperm DNA. MMP and mitochondrial function test were also preserved in STZ+MP rat sperm. The present study has clearly demonstrated the potency of M. pruriens to reduce the diabetic induced sperm damage induced by oxidative stress (OS). These observations are encouraging to perform similar studies in human. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of juice and fermented vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles on chronically alcohol-induced liver damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jinle; Zhu, Wenxue; Li, Zhixi; Ling, Shengbao

    2012-06-01

    The protective effects of juice and fermented vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles on chronically ethanol-induced biochemical changes in male mice were investigated. Administration of ethanol (50%, v/v, 10 mL kg⁻¹) to mice for 6 weeks induced liver damage with a significant increase (P vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles (10 mL kg⁻¹ bw) along with alcohol significantly (P vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles showed better profiles of the antioxidant systems with relatively higher glutathione (GSH) content, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. All these results were accompanied by histological observations in liver. The results demonstrate that both of the juice and fermented vinegar from Hovenia dulcis peduncles have beneficial effects in reducing the adverse effect of alcohol.

  15. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone administration on recovery from mix-type exercise training-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi-Hung; Liao, Kun-Fu; Kao, Chung-Lan; Chen, Chung-Yu; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chang, Wei-Hsiang; Ivy, John L; Bernard, Jeffrey R; Lee, Shin-Da; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the role of DHEA-S in coping against the exercise training mixing aerobic and resistance components. During 5-day successive exercise training, 16 young male participants (19.2 ± 1.2 years) received either a placebo (flour capsule) or DHEA (100 mg/day) in a double-blinded and placebo-controlled design. Oral DHEA supplementation significantly increased circulating DHEA-S by 2.5-fold, but a protracted drop (~35 %) was observed from Day 3 during training. In the Placebo group, only a minimal DHEA-S reduction (~17 %) was observed. Changes in testosterone followed a similar pattern as DHEA-S. Muscle soreness was elevated significantly on Day 2 for both groups to a similar extent. Lower muscle soreness was observed in the DHEA-supplemented group on Day 3 and Day 6. In the Placebo group, training increased circulating creatine kinase (CK) levels by approximately ninefold, while only a threefold increase was observed in the DHEA-supplemented group. This mix-type exercise training improved glucose tolerance in both groups, while lowering the insulin response to the glucose challenge, but no difference between treatments was observed. Our results suggest that DHEA-S may play a role in protecting skeletal muscle from exercise training-induced muscle damage.

  16. Effects of motexafin gadolinium on DNA damage and X-ray-induced DNA damage repair, as assessed by the Comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, Erling T.; Liu Yanfeng; Paul, Tracy K.; Rockwell, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of motexafin gadolinium (MGd) on the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH), and DNA damage in EMT6 mouse mammary carcinoma cells. The ability of MGd to alter radiosensitivity and to inhibit DNA damage repair after X-ray irradiation was also evaluated. Methods and Materials: Reactive oxygen species and GSH levels were assessed by 2,7-dichlorofluorescein fluorescence flow cytometry and the Tietze method, respectively. Cellular radiosensitivity was assessed by clonogenic assays. Deoxyribonucleic acid damage and DNA damage repair were assessed in plateau-phase EMT6 cells by the Comet assay and clonogenic assays. Results: Cells treated with 100 μmol/L MGd plus equimolar ascorbic acid (AA) had significantly increased levels of ROS and a 58.9% ± 3.4% decrease in GSH levels, relative to controls. Motexafin gadolinium plus AA treatment increased the hypoxic, but not the aerobic, radiosensitivity of EMT6 cells. There were increased levels of single-strand breaks in cells treated with 100 μmol/L MGd plus equimolar AA, as evidenced by changes in the alkaline tail moment (MGd + AA, 6 h: 14.7 ± 1.8; control: 2.8 ± 0.9). The level of single-strand breaks was dependent on the length of treatment. Motexafin gadolinium plus AA did not increase double-strand breaks. The repair of single-strand breaks at 2 h, but not at 4 h and 6 h, after irradiation was altered significantly in cells treated with MGd plus AA (MGd + AA, 2 h: 15.8 ± 3.4; control: 5.8 ± 0.6). Motexafin gadolinium did not alter the repair of double-strand breaks at any time after irradiation with 10 Gy. Conclusions: Motexafin gadolinium plus AA generated ROS, which in turn altered GSH homeostasis and induced DNA strand breaks. The MGd plus AA-mediated alteration of GSH levels increased the hypoxic, but not aerobic, radiosensitivity of EMT6 cells. Motexafin gadolinium altered the kinetics of single-strand break repair soon after irradiation but did not

  17. Protective effect of infrared-A radiation against damage induced by UVB radiation in the melan-a cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portantiolo Lettnin, Aline; Teixeira Santos Figueiredo Salgado, Mariana; Gonsalez Cruz, Camila; Manoel Rodrigues da Silva-Júnior, Flávio; Cunha Gonzalez, Vinícius; de Souza Votto, Ana Paula; Santos Trindade, Gilma; de Moraes Vaz Batista Filgueira, Daza

    2016-10-01

    The present work evaluated the infrared-A (IR-A) protective effect using a light-emitting diode (LED) lamp against the cytotoxic effects of ultraviolet B radiation (UVB). Effects on cell viability (Trypan blue assay), DNA damage (comet assay), lipid peroxidation (FOX method), reactive oxygen species production and antioxidant capacity were analyzed in melan-a, a non-tumoral murine melanocytic cell line. To define the doses used in the interaction experiments between IR-A+UVB, dose/response curves were made after exposure to IR-A or UVB. The IR-A dose chosen was 0.8J/cm(2) because this dose caused no significant inhibition of proliferation effects and viability decreased. For UVB exposure, a dose of 0.015J/cm(2), which showed a decrease in viable cell number by approximately 50% in relation to control until 72h, was selected. For IR-A+UVB, cell proliferation recovery was showed, decreasing DNA damage and lipid peroxide content when compared to UVB alone. Besides, the results obtained for ROS and antioxidant capacity showed that the protection observed was probably not related to decreased oxidative stress. In conclusion, non-thermal IR-A was capable of protecting the melan-a cells from UVB induced damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nucleobase-Based Barbiturates: Their Protective Effect against DNA Damage Induced by Bleomycin-Iron, Antioxidant, and Lymphocyte Transformation Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaveshkumar D. Dhorajiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of nucleobase-based barbiturates have been synthesized by combination of nucleic acid bases and heterocyclic amines and barbituric acid derivatives through green and efficient multicomponent route and one pot reaction. This approach was accomplished efficiently using aqueous medium to give the corresponding products in high yield. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral analysis (FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMBC, and UV spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Representative of all synthesized compounds was tested and evaluated for antioxidant, bleomycin-dependent DNA damage, and Lymphocyte Transformation studies. Compounds TBC > TBA > TBG showed highest lymphocyte transformation assay, TBC > TBA > BG showed inhibitory antioxidant activity using ABTS methods, and TBC > BPA > BAMT > TBA > 1, 3-TBA manifested the best protective effect against DNA damage induced by bleomycin.

  19. Protective effect of Kombucha tea on brain damage induced by transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Kabiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of Kombucha on cerebral damage induced by ischemia in rats (n=99. Cerebral infarct volume in the ischemic rats received Kombucha solution showed no significance alteration. However, the permeability of blood-brain barrier significantly decreased in both ischemic rats received 15 mg/kg Kombucha tea and Sham group. In addition, brain water content in the ischemic groups treated with Kombucha solution was significantly higher than the Sham group, although right hemispheres in all of the treated groups illustrated higher brain water content than the left ones. Brain anti-oxidant capacity elevated in the ischemic rats treated with Kombucha and in the Sham group. Brain and plasma malondialdehyde concentrations significantly decreased in both of the ischemic groups injected with Kombucha. The findings suggest that Kombucha tea could be useful for the prevention of cerebral damage.

  20. A study on the Regenerative Effect of Platelets Rich Plasma on Experimentally Induced Hepatic Damage In Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeib, Heba Mamdoh; Keshk, Walaa Arafa; Foda, Abdallah Mahmoud; Abo El Noeman, Saad El-Deen Abd Elfatah

    2018-02-14

    Hepatic fibrosis is a worldwide health problem with significant morbidity and mortality. Currently, there is no effective therapy for hepatic fibrosis. So that the present study was aimed to evaluate the possible regenerative effect of Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) against thioacetamide (TAA) induced hepatic damage. Eighty albino rats were included; 40 were used for PRP preparation and 40 were randomly divided into four groups. Group I (control group); group II (PRP control); group III (TAA- intoxicated in a dose of 200 mg ∕ kg body weight/twice weekly for 7 weeks, intra-peritoneal and group IV (TAA-intoxicated+ PRP treated). Macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) were immunoassayed in addition to peroxinitrite level, NADPH-quinine oxido-reductase-1 (NQO1) enzyme activity and liver function. PRP treatment showed significant improvement in hepatic function, decreased MIP-1α and peroxinitrite level. Meanwhile, significant increase in NQO1 enzyme activity and cAMP level were observed. The histopathological results confirmed the laboratory results with improvement of hepatic architecture except for some inflammatory cellular infiltrates. PRP has the ability to protect against TAA-induced liver damage possibly by improving redox status, liver histopathological architecture, disruption of the inflammatory and fibrotic response induced by TAA.

  1. UV light induced DNA damages and the radiation protection effects of Lingzi mushroom extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Thi Thuong Lan; Dinh Ba Tuan; Ta Bich Thuan; Tran Bang Diep; Tran Minh Quynh

    2016-01-01

    UV light has strongly influenced on the growth of E. coli as well as caused DNA damages. Configurations of both genomic DNA and pUC 19 plasmids extracted from E. coli were significantly changed by the exposure to UV light of 254 nm and DLT, an extract of Ganoderma lucidum Lingzi mushroom. The results also revealed the radio-protective effects of DLT to UV radiation. By adding 2% DLT to its culturing suspension, the growth of E. coli was significantly decreased, whereas a low DLT amount of about 0.5% slightly improved its growth, indicated that the DLT extract can be used as a promising protective substance against UV radiation. At the molecular level, the radio-protective effects of DLT were observed for both UV treated DNA and protein. Thus, DLT can protect DNA in vivo, but not in vitro. This effect was also observed for Taq polymerase, suggested that the radioprotection effect of DLT may due to it accelerated the degradation of radicals or species that produced in the suspensions during UV exposure. (author)

  2. Radiation-induced damage of membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonei, Shuji

    1977-01-01

    An outline of membranous structure was stated, and radiation-induced damage of membranes were surveyed. By irradiation, permeability of membranes, especially passive transportation mechanism, was damaged, and glycoprotein in the surface layers of cells and the surface layer structures were changed. The intramembranous damage was induced by decrease of electrophoresis of nuclear mambranes and a quantitative change of cytochrome P450 of microsomal membranes of the liver, and peroxidation of membranous lipid and SH substitute damage of membranous protein were mentioned as the mechanism of membranous damage. Recovery of membranous damage depends on radiation dose and temperature, and membranous damage participates largely in proliferation death. (tsunoda, M.)

  3. The effects of lycopene on DNA damage and oxidative stress on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyacioglu, Murat; Kum, Cavit; Sekkin, Selim; Yalinkilinc, Hande Sultan; Avci, Hamdi; Epikmen, Erkmen Tugrul; Karademir, Umit

    2016-04-01

    Lycopene, the main antioxidant compound present in tomatoes, has high singlet oxygen- and peroxyl radicals-quenching ability, resulting in protection against oxidative damage in aerobic cell. Indomethacin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and can promote oxidative damage in gastric tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of lycopene on an indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer model. A total of 42 adult male Wistar rats were divided into six groups of seven animals as follows: control, indomethacin, lansoprazole, lycopene 10 mg/kg, lycopene 50 mg/kg and lycopene 100 mg/kg. Gastric ulcers were induced by oral administration of indomethacin, after which the differing doses of lycopene were administered by oral gavage. The efficacy of lycopene was compared with lansoprazole. DNA damage of lymphocytes was measured by comet assay. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and myeloperoxidase, as well as malondialdehyde and glutathione levels were determined in stomach tissue. This tissue was also taken for pathological investigations. The TUNEL method was used to detect apoptotic cells in paraffin sections. The results showed that 100 mg/kg lycopene administration significantly decreased % Tail DNA and Mean Tail Moment in the gastric ulcer group, compared with the other treatment groups. This same dose of lycopene also significantly decreased high malondialdehyde level and myeloperoxidase activity, and increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes (with the exception of catalase) in tissue. Apoptosis rates in the stomachs of the rats correlated with the biochemical and histopathological findings. These results indicated that lycopene might have a protective effect against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer and oxidative stress in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Protective effects of carnosol against oxidative stress induced brain damage by chronic stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Borji, Abasalt; Samini, Mohammad; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2017-05-04

    Oxidative stress through chronic stress destroys the brain function. There are many documents have shown that carnosol may have a therapeutic effect versus free radical induced diseases. The current research focused the protective effect of carnosol against the brain injury induced by the restraint stress. The restraint stress induced by keeping animals in restrainers for 21 consecutive days. Thereafter, the rats were injected carnosol or vehicle for 21 consecutive days. At the end of experiment, all the rats were subjected to his open field test and forced swimming test. Afterwards, the rats were sacrificed for measuring their oxidative stress parameters. To measure the modifications in the biochemical aspects after the experiment, the activities of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) were evaluated in the whole brain. Our data showed that the animals received chronic stress had a raised immobility time versus the non-stressed animals (p < 0.01). Furthermore, chronic stress diminished the number of crossing in the animals that were subjected to the chronic stress versus the non-stressed rats (p < 0.01). Carnosol ameliorated this alteration versus the non-treated rats (p < 0.05). In the vehicle treated rats that submitted to the stress, the level of MDA levels was significantly increased (P < 0.001), and the levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased versus the non-stressed animals (P < 0.001). Carnosol treatment reduced the modifications in the stressed animals as compared with the control groups (P < 0.001). All of these carnosol effects were nearly similar to those observed with fluoxetine. The current research shows that the protective effects of carnosol may be accompanied with enhanced antioxidant defenses and decreased oxidative injury.

  5. Synergestic effect of aqueous purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) extract and fish oil on radiation-induced damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Azime, Afrag S H; Hussein, Elham M; Ashry, Omaima M

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of oral administration of purslane (Portulaca oleracea) extract or fish oil and their co-treatments in the modulation of radiation-induced damage. Purslane (P) (400 mg/kg body weight) or fish oil (Fo) (60 mg/kg body weight) was administrated to male albino rats via gastric intubation for 15 days after whole body exposure to a single dose of 6 Gy gamma rays. The animals were sacrificed after the elapse of 15 days. The results revealed that irradiation induced a significant elevation of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and atherogenic index: TC/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in addition to aspartate and alanine transaminase (AST, ALT), alkaline phophatase (ALP), bilirubin, as well as urea, creatinine and uric acid. Moreover, liver, kidney and heart malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly elevated, whereas nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and HDL-c were depressed. Purslane and/or fish oil treatment significantly attenuated lipids alteration, liver and kidney functions as well as oxidative stress in irradiated rats. The results pointed out that dietary fish oil supplementation, at adequate doses, may provide a cushion for a prolonged therapeutic option against radiation-induced damage without harmful side-effects. It could be concluded that purslane extract and fish oil may have therapeutic potential to improve hepatic and renal functions as well as oxidative stress in irradiated rats. Moreover, their co-administration showed a better improved liver function.

  6. Protective effect of propolis on radiation-induced chromosomal damage on Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spigoti, Geyza; Bartolini, Paolo; Okazaki, Kayo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: kokazaki@ipen.br; Tsutsumi, Shiguetoshi [Amazon Food Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)], e-mail: fwip5138@mb.infoweb.ne.jp

    2009-07-01

    In the last years, particular interest has been given to investigations concerning natural, effective and nontoxic compounds with radioprotective capacity in concert with increasing utilization of different types of ionizing radiation for various applications. Among them, propolis, a resinous mixture of substances collected by honey bees (Apis mellifera) has been considered promising since it presents several advantageous characteristics, i.e., antiinflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial and free radical scavenging action. It is, therefore, a direct antioxidant that protects cells and organisms from the adverse effects of ionizing radiation. These relevant biological activities are mainly mediated by the flavonoids, present at relatively high concentrations in the propolis. Considering that the chemical composition and, consequently, the biological activity of propolis is variable according to the environmental plant ecology, the present study was conducted in order to evaluate the radioprotective capacity of Brazilian propolis, collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, against genotoxic damages induced by {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). for this purpose, micronucleus induction was analyzed concerning irreparable damage, specifically related to DNA double-strand breaks, that are potentially carcinogenic. CHO-K1 cells were submitted to different concentrations of propolis (3 - 33 {mu}g/ml), 1 h before irradiation, with 1 Gy of {gamma} radiation (0.722 Gy/min). The data obtained showed a decreasing tendency in the quantity of radioinduced damage on cells previously treated with propolis. The radioprotective effect was more prominent at higher propolis concentration. The treatment with propolis alone did not induce genotoxic effects on CHO-K1 cells. Beside that, the treatment with propolis, associated or not with radiation, did not influence the kinetics of cellular proliferation. (author)

  7. Protective effect of propolis on radiation-induced chromosomal damage on Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spigoti, Geyza; Bartolini, Paolo; Okazaki, Kayo; Tsutsumi, Shiguetoshi

    2009-01-01

    In the last years, particular interest has been given to investigations concerning natural, effective and nontoxic compounds with radioprotective capacity in concert with increasing utilization of different types of ionizing radiation for various applications. Among them, propolis, a resinous mixture of substances collected by honey bees (Apis mellifera) has been considered promising since it presents several advantageous characteristics, i.e., antiinflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial and free radical scavenging action. It is, therefore, a direct antioxidant that protects cells and organisms from the adverse effects of ionizing radiation. These relevant biological activities are mainly mediated by the flavonoids, present at relatively high concentrations in the propolis. Considering that the chemical composition and, consequently, the biological activity of propolis is variable according to the environmental plant ecology, the present study was conducted in order to evaluate the radioprotective capacity of Brazilian propolis, collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, against genotoxic damages induced by 60 Co γ-radiation in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). for this purpose, micronucleus induction was analyzed concerning irreparable damage, specifically related to DNA double-strand breaks, that are potentially carcinogenic. CHO-K1 cells were submitted to different concentrations of propolis (3 - 33 μg/ml), 1 h before irradiation, with 1 Gy of γ radiation (0.722 Gy/min). The data obtained showed a decreasing tendency in the quantity of radioinduced damage on cells previously treated with propolis. The radioprotective effect was more prominent at higher propolis concentration. The treatment with propolis alone did not induce genotoxic effects on CHO-K1 cells. Beside that, the treatment with propolis, associated or not with radiation, did not influence the kinetics of cellular proliferation. (author)

  8. Protective Effect of Melatonin Against Mitomycin C-Induced Genotoxic Damage in Peripheral Blood of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ortega-Gutiérrez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitomycin C (MMC generates free radicals when metabolized. We investigated the effect of melatonin against MMC-induced genotoxicity in polychromatic erythrocytes and MMC-induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver homogenates. Rats (N = 36 were classified into 4 groups: control, melatonin, MMC, and MMC + melatonin. Melatonin and MMC doses of 10 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg, respectively, were injected intraperitoneally. Peripheral blood samples were collected at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours posttreatment and homogenates were obtained at 96 hours posttreatment. The number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCE per 1000 PCE was used as a genotoxic marker. Malondialdehyde (MDA plus 4-hydroxyalkenal (4-HDA levels were used as an index of lipid peroxidation. The MMC group showed a significant increase in MN-PCE at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours that was significantly reduced with melatonin begin coadministrated. No significant differences were found in lipid peroxidation. Our results indicate that MMC-induced genotoxicity can be reduced by melatonin.

  9. Effect of electric field distribution on the morphologies of laser-induced damage in hafnia-silica multilayer polarizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genin, F.Y.; Stolz, C.J.; Reitter, T.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Bevis, R.P.; vonGunten, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    Hafnia-silica multilayer polarizers were deposited by e-beam evaporation onto BK7 glass substrates. The polarizers were designed to operate at 1064 nm at Brewster's angle (56 degree). They were tested with a 3-ns laser pulse at 45, 56, and 65 degree incidence angle in order to vary the electric field distribution in the multilayer, study their effects on damage morphology, and investigate possible advantages of off-use angle laser conditioning. Morphology of the laser-induced damage was characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Four distinct damage morphologies (pit, flat bottom pit, scald, outer layer delamination) were observed; they depend strongly on incident angle of the laser beam. Massive delamination observed at 45 and 56 degree incidence, did not occur at 65 degree; instead, large and deep pits were found at 65 degree. Electric field distribution, temperature rise, and change in stress in the multilayer were calculated to attempt to better understand the relation between damage morphology, electric field peak locations, and maximum thermal stress gradients. The calculations showed a twofold increase in stress change in the hafnia top layers depending on incident angle. Stress gradient in the first hafnia-silica interface was found to be highest for 45, 56, and 65 degree, respectively. Finally, the maximum stress was deeper in the multilayer at 65 degree. Although the limitations of such simple thermal mechanical model are obvious, the results can explain that outer layer delamination is more likely at 45 and 56 degree than 65 degree and that damage sites are expected to be deeper at 65 degree

  10. Protective Effect of Edaravone Against Aβ25-35-Induced Mitochondrial Oxidative Damage in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G-L; Zhang, L; Guo, Y-Y; Ma, Z-L; Wang, H-Y; Li, T; Liu, J; Du, Y; Yao, L; Li, T-T; Du, J-M

    2017-05-20

    Amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies show that Aβ accumulation may lead to mitochondrial oxidative damage. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of edaravone on mitochondrial damage in SH-SY5Y cells treated with Aβ25-35. SH-SY5Y cells were pre-treated with 20, 40 or 80 μM edaravone before treatment with 25 μM Aβ25-35. After 24h cell culture, cellular apoptosis, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), ATP levels and mitochondrial morphology were evaluated. SH-SY5Y cells exposed to Aβ25-35 had high levels of apoptosis and ROS; loss of ΔΨm, decreased ATP levels and presence of mitochondrial swelling. However, these effects were significantly inhibited by edaravone pre-treatment. These results indicate that edaravone prevents mitochondria oxidative damage caused by Aβ in SH-SY5Y cells, which suggests that it may have potential clinical application in AD therapy.

  11. Induced Jasmonate Signaling Leads to Contrasting Effects on Root Damage and Herbivore Performance1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Robert, Christelle Aurélie Maud; Riemann, Michael; Cosme, Marco; Mène-Saffrané, Laurent; Massana, Josep; Stout, Michael Joseph; Lou, Yonggen; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Induced defenses play a key role in plant resistance against leaf feeders. However, very little is known about the signals that are involved in defending plants against root feeders and how they are influenced by abiotic factors. We investigated these aspects for the interaction between rice (Oryza sativa) and two root-feeding insects: the generalist cucumber beetle (Diabrotica balteata) and the more specialized rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus). Rice plants responded to root attack by increasing the production of jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid, whereas in contrast to in herbivore-attacked leaves, salicylic acid and ethylene levels remained unchanged. The JA response was decoupled from flooding and remained constant over different soil moisture levels. Exogenous application of methyl JA to the roots markedly decreased the performance of both root herbivores, whereas abscisic acid and the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid did not have any effect. JA-deficient antisense 13-lipoxygenase (asLOX) and mutant allene oxide cyclase hebiba plants lost more root biomass under attack from both root herbivores. Surprisingly, herbivore weight gain was decreased markedly in asLOX but not hebiba mutant plants, despite the higher root biomass removal. This effect was correlated with a herbivore-induced reduction of sucrose pools in asLOX roots. Taken together, our experiments show that jasmonates are induced signals that protect rice roots from herbivores under varying abiotic conditions and that boosting jasmonate responses can strongly enhance rice resistance against root pests. Furthermore, we show that a rice 13-lipoxygenase regulates root primary metabolites and specifically improves root herbivore growth. PMID:25627217

  12. Identification of the protective effects of traditional medicinal plants against SDS-induced Drosophila gut damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Liu, Zonglin; Chen, Yuchen; Jin, Li Hua

    2016-10-01

    Traditional medicinal plants are widely used as immunomodulatory medicines that help improve health. A total of 50 different plants used for the treatment of toxicity were screened for their in vivo protective effects. Flies were fed a standard cornmeal-yeast medium (control group) or the standard medium containing medicinal plant extracts (experimental groups). Assessment of the survival rate was performed by feeding flies with toxic compounds. Gut epithelial cells were analyzed for cell proliferation and death by green fluorescent protein antibodies and 7-aminoactinomycin D staining under the microscope. The expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) was evaluated by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the results revealed that after feeding the flies with toxic compounds, aqueous extracts from Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf ( C. pilosula ), Saussurea lappa (Decne.) C.B.Clarke ( S. lappa ), Imperata cylindrica Beauv.var. major (Nees) C.E. Hubb. ( I. cylindrical var. major ) and Melia toosendan Sied. Et Zucc. ( M.toosendan ) increased the fly survival rate, reduced epithelial cell death and improved gut morphology. In addition, C. pilosula extracts induced the antimicrobial peptide levels (Dpt and Mtk) following treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). However, these extracts were not observed to increase SDS-induced cell proliferation in vivo . These results indicate that there are strong protective effects in extracts of C. pilosula , S. lappa , I. cylindrical var. major and M. toosendan on Drosophila intestinal cells among 50 medicinal plants.

  13. Possible Protective Effect of Kombucha Tea Ferment on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Liver Damage in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, O.A.; Fahim, Th.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study has shown that administration of kombucha ferment tea (KT) to rats improved the damage caused in livers of animals treated with toxic chemicals such as carbon tetrachloride (CCL 4 ) and/ or exposed to y-irradiation. This work was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of treatment with KT ferment in rat liver after a long-term treatment with CCL 4 alone and with subsequent y-irradiation. Hepatic pathological changes observed in the CCL 4 -treated rats included increased serum alanine transaminase (ALT) , aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities as well as concentration of bilirubin in addition to a decrease in the concentration of serum albumin and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Consistent with these changes, the increase in oxidative stress markers expressed as malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and depletion in glutathione (GSH) contents in liver was observed. 24 h after the last dose of KT administration in a group of animals treated with CCL 4 and/ or radiation exposure cessation, the pathological changes were recovered. These results demonstrate that most of the pathological alterations in the liver in response to CCL 4 and/ or radiation exposure intoxication are recoverable upon treatment with KT ferments

  14. Prophylactic effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice on sodium fluoride induced oxidative damage in liver and erythrocytes of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouasla, Asma; Bouasla, Ihcène; Boumendjel, Amel; Abdennour, Cherif; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Messarah, Mahfoud

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice (PGJ) on oxidative damages in liver tissue and erythrocytes of rats intoxicated by sodium fluoride (NaF). Rats were randomly divided into two groups: group I received standard diet and group II received orally 1 mL of PGJ. After 5 weeks of pretreatment, each group was divided again into two subgroups and treated for another 3 weeks as follows: group I was subdivided into a control group and a group that was treated with 100 ppm of NaF (in drinking water); group II was subdivided into one group that was treated daily with both 100 ppm NaF and PGJ (1 mL orally) and one that received daily 1 mL of pomegranate juice. Exposure to NaF decreased hematological parameters, changed the total protein, albumin, bilirubin levels, and increased the activities of hepatic marker enzymes. We also noted an increase in lipid peroxidation contents, accompanied by a decrease of reduced glutathione levels. Antioxidant enzyme activities in both tissues were modified in the NaF group compared with the control group. However, the administration of PGJ juice caused an amelioration of the previous parameters. Our results indicated the potential effects of NaF to induce oxidative damage in tissues and the ability of PGJ to attenuate NaF-induced oxidative injury.

  15. Radiological protection effect on vanillin derivative VND3207 radiation-induced cytogenetic damage in mouse bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuangao; Wang Li; Zhou Pingkun; Wang Zhongwen; Hu Yongzhe; Jin Haiming; Zhang Xueqing; Chen Ying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the protection of vanillin derivative VND3207 on the cytogenetic damage of mouse bone marrow cell induced by ionizing radiation. Methods: BALB/c mice were randomly divided into five groups: normal control group, 2 Gy dose irradiation group, and three groups of 2 Gy irradiation with VND3207 protection at doses of 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively. VND3207 was given by intragastric administration once a day for five days. Two hours after the last drug administration, the mice were irradiated with 2 Gy γ-rays. The changes of polychromatophilic erythroblasts micronuclei (MN), chromosome aberration (CA) and mitosis index (MI) of mouse bone marrow cells were observed at 24 and 48 h after irradiation. Results: Under the protection of VND3207 at the dosages 10, 50, 100 μmg/kg, the yields of poly-chromatophilic erythroblasts MN and CA of bone marrow cells were significantly decreased (t=2.36-4.26, P<0.05), and the marrow cells MI remained much higher level compared with the irradiated mice without drug protection (t=2.58, 2.01, P<0.05). The radiological protection effect was drug dose-dependent, and the administration of VND3207 at the dosage of 100 mg/kg resulted in reduction by 50 % and 65% in the yields of MN and CA, respectively. Conclusions: VND3207 had a good protection effect of on γ-ray induced cytogentic damage of mouse bone marrow cells. (authors)

  16. Radioprotective effects of histamine H2 receptor antagonists famotidine and ranitidine on gamma ray induced chromosome damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, N.K.

    2013-01-01

    Histamine H2 receptor antagonist such as Cimetidine, Famotidine and Ranitidine are used in the clinical treatment of peptic ulcer. In vitro metaphase analysis and micronucleus assay were used to test the effects of famotidine and ranitidine on Cobalt 60 γ-ray induced clastogenic effects. Heparinised whole blood was obtained from healthy non-smoker volunteers. Blood samples were irradiated at a dose of 3Gy and incubated at 37 deg C for 1h. Lymphocyte cultures were initiated for metaphase chromosomes and cytochalasin B blocked micronucleus analysis. Aqueous solution of Famotidine (150 g/ml) and Ranitidine (500 g/ml) was added to the whole blood cultures at 0h and 24h. Cultures were harvested and processed at 48h and 72h for chromosome aberrations and micronucleus analysis respectively. Cultures treated with Famotidine at 0h and 24h after 3Gy γ-ray irradiation induce 60.90% and 56.52% inhibition in dicentrics, 48.70% and 43.61% inhibition in total aberrations. Ranitidine at 0h and 24h after 3Gy γ-ray irradiation induce 52.17% and 43.47% inhibition in dicentrics, 33.60% and 46.15% inhibition in total aberrations, when compared with 3Gy γ-ray irradiation alone. 43-54% inhibition in Binucleated cells with micronuclei and 47.72% inhibition in micronuclei at 0h treatment respectively. In conclusion radioprotective effects of Histamine H2 receptor antagonists famotidine and ranitidine on γ-ray induced chromosome damage is observed and the drugs effectively reduced the frequency of radiation induced chromosome aberrations and micronucleus. Famotidine was found to be more effective. The mechanism in which these drugs reduce clastogenic effect of γ-radiation is not fully understood. It might be due to their antioxidant and free radical-scavenging properties. (author)

  17. Effect of Benfotiamine in Podocyte Damage Induced by Peritoneal Dialysis Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    M?ller-Krebs, Sandra; Nissle, Katharina; Tsobaneli, Julia; Zeier, Martin; Kihm, Lars Philipp; Kender, Zoltan; Fleming, Thomas; Nawroth, Peter Paul; Reiser, Jochen; Schwenger, Vedat

    2015-01-01

    Background: In peritoneal dialysis (PD), residual renal function (RRF) fundamentally contributes to improved quality of life and patient survival. High glucose and advanced glycation end-products (AGE) contribute locally to peritoneal and systemically to renal damage. Integrity of podocyte structure and function is of special importance to preserve RRF. Benfotiamine could counteract the glucose and AGE-mediated toxicity by blocking hyperglycemia-associated podocyte damage via the pentose-phos...

  18. Protective effect of polysaccharides of lentinus edodes on damage in mice induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xiuling; Wang Hongfang; Qi Yanfei; Wang Xuerui; Chen Tian; Wang Quan; Li Juan; Li Jing

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the protective effect of polysaccharides of lentinus edodes (PLE) on immune and anti-oxidative and hematopoietic function of ionizing irradiated mice, and provide theoretical basis for its clinical application. Methods: Fifty ICR mice were randomly divided into normal control group (NC), irradiating control group (IC), low dose of PLE irradiating group (800 mg · kg -1 ), middle dose of PLE irradiating group (1600 mg · kg -1 ), and high dose of PLE irradiating group (2400 mg · kg -1 ) (n=10). The mice in PLE groups were gaster-poured by PLE for 7 d, the mice in NC group and IC group were gaster-poured by 0.9% sodium chloride solution. The mice in all groups except NC group were irradiated with 2 Gy X-ray on the eighth day. The spleen index, thymus index, the activity of SOD and content of MDA, the number of WBC, the micronucleus rate of bone marrow polychromalic erythrocytes (PCE)were detected at the 24th hour after radiation. Results: Compared with IC group,the spleen index, thymus index and activity of SOD in high dose of PLE irradiating group were increased markedly (P<0.05); the contents of MDA in middle and high dose of PLE irradiating groups were increased significantly (P<0.05). The number of WBC in PLE groups was increased significantly (P<0.05); the micronucleus rates of bone marrow PCE in middle and high dose of PLE irradiating groups were decreased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: PLE has an obvious protective effect on damage in X-ray irradiated mice. (authors)

  19. Common effects of lithium and valproate on mitochondrial functions: protection against methamphetamine-induced mitochondrial damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Rosilla F; Wang, Yun; Yuan, Peixiong; Zhou, Rulun; Li, Xiaoxia; Alesci, Salvatore; Du, Jing; Manji, Husseini K

    2009-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the progression of a variety of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Thus, enhancing mitochondrial function could potentially help ameliorate the impairments of neural plasticity and cellular resilience associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. A series of studies was undertaken to investigate the effects of mood stabilizers on mitochondrial function, and against mitochondrially mediated neurotoxicity. We found that long-term treatment with lithium and valproate (VPA) enhanced cell respiration rate. Furthermore, chronic treatment with lithium or VPA enhanced mitochondrial function as determined by mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial oxidation in SH-SY5Y cells. In-vivo studies showed that long-term treatment with lithium or VPA protected against methamphetamine (Meth)-induced toxicity at the mitochondrial level. Furthermore, these agents prevented the Meth-induced reduction of mitochondrial cytochrome c, the mitochondrial anti-apoptotic Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX) activity. Oligoarray analysis demonstrated that the gene expression of several proteins related to the apoptotic pathway and mitochondrial functions were altered by Meth, and these changes were attenuated by treatment with lithium or VPA. One of the genes, Bcl-2, is a common target for lithium and VPA. Knock-down of Bcl-2 with specific Bcl-2 siRNA reduced the lithium- and VPA-induced increases in mitochondrial oxidation. These findings illustrate that lithium and VPA enhance mitochondrial function and protect against mitochondrially mediated toxicity. These agents may have potential clinical utility in the treatment of other diseases associated with impaired mitochondrial function, such as neurodegenerative diseases and schizophrenia.

  20. Neuroprotective Effects of Erucin against 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Oxidative Damage in a Dopaminergic-like Neuroblastoma Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Cantelli-Forti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS contributes to the cascade leading to the dysfunction or death of dopaminergic neurons during Parkinson’s disease (PD. A strategy to prevent the OS of dopaminergic neurons may be the use of phytochemicals as inducers of endogenous antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes. In this study, we demonstrated that treatment of the dopaminergic-like neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line with isothiocyanate erucin (ER, a compound of cruciferous vegetables, resulted in significant increases of both total glutathione (GSH levels and total antioxidant capacity at the cytosolic level. The increase of GSH levels was associated with an increase in the resistance of SH-SY5Y cells to neuronal death, in terms of apoptosis, induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA. The pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with ER was also shown to prevent the redox status impairment, in terms of intracellular ROS and O2•− formation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, early events that are initiators of the apoptotic process, induced by 6-OHDA. Last, the antiapoptotic and antioxidant effects of ER were abolished by buthionine sulfoximine, supporting the main role of GSH in the neuroprotective effects recorded by ER. These results suggest that ER may prevent the oxidative damage induced by 6-OHDA.

  1. Evaluation on effects of chloride-induced deterioration on mechanical properties of RC beams with cracking damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Toyofumi; Matsumura, Takuro; Otsuka, Taku

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of chloride-induced deterioration on mechanical properties of aging reinforced concrete (RC) structures and the applicability of the material degradation model that takes reinforcing steel corrosion into consideration for finite element analysis. We conducted the corrosion tests under the simulated tidal environment and the flexural loading tests for the RC beams with cracking damage and initial defects. Then, the experimental results were numerically correlated to validate the devised modeling. The obtained results were summarized as follows: (a) The cracking damage in specimens caused a minor effect on the reinforcing steel corrosion in the case where the thickness of cover concrete was 40 mm and main rebars did not yield before chloride attack. On the other hand the maximum corrosion ratio of the deteriorated part became considerably larger than that of the non-cracking part in the specimens where the cover concrete were removed partially to simulate spalling by the severe corrosion. (b) Based on the test results, we derived the corrosion velocity of reinforcing steel corresponding to cracking damage degrees. (c) In FEM analyses, we showed that the above modeling can estimate the flexural strength of RC beams in consideration of the degradation in elongation performance of reinforcing steel due to corrosion. (author)

  2. Targeting the Renin–Angiotensin System Combined With an Antioxidant Is Highly Effective in Mitigating Radiation-Induced Lung Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, Javed [Ontario Cancer Institute and the Campbell Family Institute for Cancer Research, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Radiation Medicine Program, STTARR Innovation Centre, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Jelveh, Salomeh [Radiation Medicine Program, STTARR Innovation Centre, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Zaidi, Asif [Ontario Cancer Institute and the Campbell Family Institute for Cancer Research, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Doctrow, Susan R. [Pulmonary Center, Department of Medicine, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Medhora, Meetha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Hill, Richard P., E-mail: hill@uhnres.utoronto.ca [Ontario Cancer Institute and the Campbell Family Institute for Cancer Research, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Departments of Medical Biophysics and Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the outcome of suppression of the renin angiotensin system using captopril combined with an antioxidant (Eukarion [EUK]-207) for mitigation of radiation-induced lung damage in rats. Methods and Materials: The thoracic cavity of female Sprague-Dawley rats was irradiated with a single dose of 11 Gy. Treatment with captopril at a dose of 40 mg/kg/d in drinking water and EUK-207 given by subcutaneous injection (8 mg/kg daily) was started 1 week after irradiation (PI) and continuing until 14 weeks PI. Breathing rate was monitored until the rats were killed at 32 weeks PI, when lung fibrosis was assessed by lung hydroxyproline content. Lung levels of the cytokine transforming growth factor-β1 and macrophage activation were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Oxidative DNA damage was assessed by 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels, and lipid peroxidation was measured by a T-BARS assay. Results: The increase in breathing rate in the irradiated rats was significantly reduced by the drug treatments. The drug treatment also significantly decreased the hydroxyproline content, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and malondialdehyde levels, and levels of activated macrophages and the cytokine transforming growth factor-β1 at 32 weeks. Almost complete mitigation of these radiation effects was observed by combining captopril and EUK-207. Conclusion: Captopril and EUK-207 can provide mitigation of radiation-induced lung damage out to at least 32 weeks PI after treatment given 1-14 weeks PI. Overall the combination of captopril and EUK-207 was more effective than the individual drugs used alone.

  3. Ciliary derived neurotrophic factor protects oligodendrocytes against radiation induced damage in vitro by a mechanism independent of a proliferative effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Andrew J.; Mabie, Peter C.; Kessler, Jack A.; Vikram, Bhadrasain

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Radiation-induced damage to the central nervous system in the from of myelopathy is a dose-limiting complication in the treatment of tumors situated in or close to the spinal cord. The target cell for this damage is not definitively identified, but demyelination due to oligodendrocyte damage is strongly implicated. Multiple neurotrophic factors have recently been identified which demonstrate a survival effect on oligodendrocytes. We investigated the effect of Ciliary Derived Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF), Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) on the radiosensitivity of oligodendrocytes in vitro to determine if this may ameliorate radiation damage, as a model for reducing myelopathy in vivo. Materials and Methods: Mature oligodendrocytes were cultured from the cortex of newborn Sprague-Dawley white rats and maintained on poly-d-lysine plates. The experimental arm was exposed to CNTF (0.01-100ng/ml), NGF (100ng/ml) or NT-3 (20ng/ml) for 24 hours prior to radiation, and control and experimental arms radiated using a cobalt 60 irradiator at a dose rate of .87 Gy/min with doses from 2 Gy to 10 Gy. Oligodendrocytes were identified using an O4 antibody, assessed for viability at 5 days using an MTT assay and counted using a phase contrast microscope. Combination studies of CNTF and NT-3 were also performed. BrdU studies were performed to determine if the various neurotrophins induced proliferation, with BrdU added for the 24 hour period prior to radiation only, for the 5 day period following radiation only, or for both periods combined. Results: The proportion of mature oligodendrocytes surviving 5 days after irradiation was not significantly increased by NGF, and was only modestly increased by NT-3. However, CNTF significantly increased the surviving proportion at all doses The addition of NT-3 to CNTF did not further increase the proportion of oligodendrocytes surviving. CNTF dose escalation studies confirmed 20ng/ml as an optimal dose. Brd

  4. Studying the synergistic damage effects induced by 1.8 GHz radiofrequency field radiation (RFR) with four chemical mutagens on human lymphocyte DNA using comet assay in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baohong; He Jiliang; Jin Lifen; Lu Deqiang; Zheng Wei; Lou Jianlin; Deng Hongping

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the synergistic DNA damage effects in human lymphocytes induced by 1.8 GHz radiofrequency field radiation (RFR, SAR of 3 W/kg) with four chemical mutagens, i.e. mitomycin C (MMC, DNA crosslinker), bleomycin (BLM, radiomimetic agent), methyl methanesulfonate (MMS, alkylating agent), and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO, UV-mimetic agent). The DNA damage of lymphocytes exposed to RFR and/or with chemical mutagens was detected at two incubation time (0 or 21 h) after treatment with comet assay in vitro. Three combinative exposure ways were used. Cells were exposed to RFR and chemical mutagens for 2 and 3 h, respectively. Tail length (TL) and tail moment (TM) were utilized as DNA damage indexes. The results showed no difference of DNA damage indexes between RFR group and control group at 0 and 21 h incubation after exposure (P > 0.05). There were significant difference of DNA damage indexes between MMC group and RFR + MMC co-exposure group at 0 and 21 h incubation after treatment (P 0.05). The experimental results indicated 1.8 GHz RFR (SAR, 3 W/kg) for 2 h did not induce the human lymphocyte DNA damage effects in vitro, but could enhance the human lymphocyte DNA damage effects induced by MMC and 4NQO. The synergistic DNA damage effects of 1.8 GHz RFR with BLM or MMS were not obvious

  5. Effect of benfotiamine in podocyte damage induced by peritoneal dialysis fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eMüller-Krebs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:In peritoneal dialysis (PD residual renal function (RRF fundamentally contributes to improved quality of life and patient survival. High glucose and advanced glycation end-products (AGE contribute locally to peritoneal and systemically to renal damage. Integrity of podocyte structure and function is of special importance to preserve RRF. Benfotiamine could counteract the glucose and AGE mediated toxicity by blocking hyperglycemia associated podocyte damage via the pentose phosphate pathway.Methods: A human differentiated podocyte cell line was incubated with control solution (Control, 2.5% glucose solution (Glucose and 2.5% PD fluid (PDF for 48 h either ± 50 μM benfotiamine.Podocyte damage and potential benefit of benfotiamine were analyzed using immunofluorescence, western blot analysis, and a functional migration assay. For quantitation, a semiquantitative score was used. Results:When incubating podocytes with benfotiamine, Glucose and PDF mediated damage was reduced resulting in lower expression of AGE and intact podocin and ZO-1 localization. The reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton was restored in the presence of benfotiamine as functional podocyte motility reached Control level. Decreased level of inflammation could be shown as well as reduced podocyte apoptosis.Conclusions:These data suggest that benfotiamine protects podocytes from Glucose and PDF mediated dysfunction and damage, in particular with regard to cytoskeletal reorganization, motility, inflammation and podocyte survival.

  6. Effect of benfotiamine in podocyte damage induced by peritoneal dialysis fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Krebs, Sandra; Nissle, Katharina; Tsobaneli, Julia; Zeier, Martin; Kihm, Lars Philipp; Kender, Zoltan; Fleming, Thomas; Nawroth, Peter Paul; Reiser, Jochen; Schwenger, Vedat

    2015-01-01

    In peritoneal dialysis (PD), residual renal function (RRF) fundamentally contributes to improved quality of life and patient survival. High glucose and advanced glycation end-products (AGE) contribute locally to peritoneal and systemically to renal damage. Integrity of podocyte structure and function is of special importance to preserve RRF. Benfotiamine could counteract the glucose and AGE-mediated toxicity by blocking hyperglycemia-associated podocyte damage via the pentose-phosphate pathway. A human differentiated podocyte cell line was incubated with control solution (control), 2.5% glucose solution (glucose), and 2.5% peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF) for 48 h either ±50 μM benfotiamine. Podocyte damage and potential benefit of benfotiamine were analyzed using immunofluorescence, western blot analysis, and a functional migration assay. For quantitation, a semiquantitative score was used. When incubating podocytes with benfotiamine, glucose, and PDF-mediated damage was reduced, resulting in lower expression of AGE and intact podocin and ZO-1 localization. The reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton was restored in the presence of benfotiamine as functional podocyte motility reached control level. Decreased level of inflammation could be shown as well as reduced podocyte apoptosis. These data suggest that benfotiamine protects podocytes from glucose and PDF-mediated dysfunction and damage, in particular, with regard to cytoskeletal reorganization, motility, inflammation, and podocyte survival.

  7. Protective Effect of Anthocyanins from Lingonberry on Radiation-induced Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-Qi Tian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern about the serious harm of radioactive materials, which are widely used in energy production, scientific research, medicine, industry and other areas. In recent years, owing to the great side effects of anti-radiation drugs, research on the radiation protectants has gradually expanded from the previous chemicals to the use of natural anti-radiation drugs and functional foods. Some reports have confirmed that anthocyanins are good antioxidants, which can effectively eliminate free radicals, but studies on the immunoregulatory and anti-radiation effects of anthocyanins from lingonberry (ALB are less reported. In this experiment, mice were given orally once daily for 14 consecutive days before exposure to 6 Gy of gamma-radiation and were sacrificed on the 7th day post-irradiation. The results showed that the selected dose of extract did not lead to acute toxicity in mice; while groups given anthocyanins orally were significantly better than radiation control group according to blood analysis; pretreatment of anthocyanins significantly (p < 0.05 enhanced the thymus and spleen indices and spleen cell survival compared to the irradiation control group. Pretreatment with anthocyanins before irradiation significantly reduced the numbers of micronuclei (MN in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs. These findings indicate that anthocyanins have immunostimulatory potential against immunosuppression induced by the radiation.

  8. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Shungite against Ultraviolet B Irradiation-Induced Skin Damage in Hairless Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Easter Joy Sajo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As fullerene-based compound applications have been rapidly increasing in the health industry, the need of biomedical research is urgently in demand. While shungite is regarded as a natural source of fullerene, it remains poorly documented. Here, we explored the in vivo effects of shungite against ultraviolet B- (UVB- induced skin damage by investigating the physiological skin parameters, immune-redox profiling, and oxidative stress molecular signaling. Toward this, mice were UVB-irradiated with 0.75 mW/cm2 for two consecutive days. Consecutively, shungite was topically applied on the dorsal side of the mice for 7 days. First, we found significant improvements in the skin parameters of the shungite-treated groups revealed by the reduction in roughness, pigmentation, and wrinkle measurement. Second, the immunokine profiling in mouse serum and skin lysates showed a reduction in the proinflammatory response in the shungite-treated groups. Accordingly, the redox profile of shungite-treated groups showed counterbalance of ROS/RNS and superoxide levels in serum and skin lysates. Last, we have confirmed the involvement of Nrf2- and MAPK-mediated oxidative stress pathways in the antioxidant mechanism of shungite. Collectively, the results clearly show that shungite has an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action against UVB-induced skin damage in hairless mice.

  9. Protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of tribulus terrestris on cisplatin induced renal tissue damage in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Raoofi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According beneficial effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT extract on tissue damage, the present study investigated the influence of hydroalcoholic extract of TT plant on cisplatin (CIS (EBEWE Pharma, Unterach, Austria induced renal tissue damage in male mice. Methods: Thirty mice were divided into five groups (n = 6. The first group (control was treated with normal saline (0.9% NaCl and experimental groups with CIS (E1, CIS + 100 mg/kg extract of TT (E2, CIS + 300 mg/kg extract of TT (E3, CIS + 500 mg/kg extract of TT (E4 intraperitoneally. The kidneys were removed after 4 days of injections, and histological evaluations were performed. Results: The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey′s post-hoc test, paired-sample t-test, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. In the CIS treated group, the whole kidney tissue showed an increased dilatation of Bowman′s capsule, medullar congestion, and dilatation of collecting tubules and a decreased in the body weight and kidney weight. These parameters reached to the normal range after administration of fruit extracts of TT for 4 days. Conclusions: The results suggested that the oral administration of TT fruit extract at dose 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight provided protection against the CIS induced toxicity in the mice.

  10. Protective Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Tribulus Terrestris on Cisplatin Induced Renal Tissue Damage in Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoofi, Amir; Khazaei, Mozafar; Ghanbari, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: According beneficial effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) extract on tissue damage, the present study investigated the influence of hydroalcoholic extract of TT plant on cisplatin (CIS) (EBEWE Pharma, Unterach, Austria) induced renal tissue damage in male mice. Methods: Thirty mice were divided into five groups (n = 6). The first group (control) was treated with normal saline (0.9% NaCl) and experimental groups with CIS (E1), CIS + 100 mg/kg extract of TT (E2), CIS + 300 mg/kg extract of TT (E3), CIS + 500 mg/kg extract of TT (E4) intraperitoneally. The kidneys were removed after 4 days of injections, and histological evaluations were performed. Results: The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's post-hoc test, paired-sample t-test, Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests. In the CIS treated group, the whole kidney tissue showed an increased dilatation of Bowman's capsule, medullar congestion, and dilatation of collecting tubules and a decreased in the body weight and kidney weight. These parameters reached to the normal range after administration of fruit extracts of TT for 4 days. Conclusions: The results suggested that the oral administration of TT fruit extract at dose 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight provided protection against the CIS induced toxicity in the mice. PMID:25789143

  11. Protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of tribulus terrestris on Cisplatin induced renal tissue damage in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoofi, Amir; Khazaei, Mozafar; Ghanbari, Ali

    2015-01-01

    According beneficial effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) extract on tissue damage, the present study investigated the influence of hydroalcoholic extract of TT plant on cisplatin (CIS) (EBEWE Pharma, Unterach, Austria) induced renal tissue damage in male mice. Thirty mice were divided into five groups (n = 6). The first group (control) was treated with normal saline (0.9% NaCl) and experimental groups with CIS (E1), CIS + 100 mg/kg extract of TT (E2), CIS + 300 mg/kg extract of TT (E3), CIS + 500 mg/kg extract of TT (E4) intraperitoneally. The kidneys were removed after 4 days of injections, and histological evaluations were performed. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's post-hoc test, paired-sample t-test, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. In the CIS treated group, the whole kidney tissue showed an increased dilatation of Bowman's capsule, medullar congestion, and dilatation of collecting tubules and a decreased in the body weight and kidney weight. These parameters reached to the normal range after administration of fruit extracts of TT for 4 days. The results suggested that the oral administration of TT fruit extract at dose 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight provided protection against the CIS induced toxicity in the mice.

  12. Damage saturation effects on volume and resistivity changes induced by fission-fragment irradiation of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtcher, R.C.; Blewitt, T.H.

    1981-01-01

    Damage production and saturation has been monitored in copper by simultaneous electrical resistivity- and length-change measurements. Damage was introduced by 235 U fission fragments at either 7 or 85 K. At both temperatures, the resistivity and length changes were linearly related to each other for resistivity changes less than 80% saturation resistivity. The linear relationship was the same for both irradiation temperatures and was the same as that observed previously for 10 B fission fragment irrations at 4 K. These results are interpreted to show that the resistivity change per defect is unaffected by irradiation under conditions which lead to interstitial clustering. (orig.)

  13. Effect of a Traditional Herbal Prescription, Kyung-Ok-Ko, on Male Mouse Spermatogenic Ability after Heat-Induced Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deok-Sang Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kyung-Ok-Ko (KOK, a well-known traditional Korean medicinal formula, has long been used to invigorate the essential qi. This use of KOK may be associated with reproductive ability as a more modern concept. The protective effect of KOK was evaluated against deterioration of testicular function induced by heat exposure in male mice. Male fertility was disrupted by scrotal heat stress at 43°C for 5 weeks. KOK (0.25, 0.50, and 2.00 g/kg/day was administered orally at 3 h after the stress. To evaluate the protective effect of KOK, body weight, testicular weight, sperm count, sperm motility, and histopathological changes in the testes were evaluated. KOK-treated mice significantly recovered their general health, as evidenced by body weight. KOK-treated mice also showed significantly higher testes weights, sperm counts, and sperm motility than did the heat stress group. KOK-treated mice significantly recovered the morphological appearance of the seminiferous tubules and seminiferous epithelium. Furthermore, KOK-treated mice significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activities and reduced the protein expressions of apoptosis in the testes. KOK significantly protects against heat-induced damage to testicular function in male mice by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis, indicating that KOK may be an effective agent for treatment of heat-induced male infertility.

  14. Effect of corn silk extract on acetaminophen induced renal damage in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehboob, F.; Tahir, M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the protective role of Corn Silk extract on Acetaminophen induced nephrotoxicity in albino mice. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized controlled trials. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in experimental research laboratory University of Health Sciences and Anatomy department, Lahore. The study duration was one year from February 2012 to February 2013. Material and Methods: Twenty seven male albino mice, 6-8 weeks old weighing 30 + 5 gm, were used; these animals were randomly divided into three groups having nine mice in each group. Group A served as control and was given 16.6ml/kg normal saline intraperitoneally on first day of experiment and was sacrificed on 10th day of the experiment. Group B was treated with acetaminophen 600 mg/kg dissolved in 16.6 ml of normal saline intraperitoneally on 1st day of experiment and was sacrificed after 48 hours. Group C was given acetaminophen at a dose of 600 mg/kg intraperitoneally on first day of experiment and then corn silk extract was given by oral route at a dose of 400 mg/kg for next 8 days. The animals were sacrificed on 10th day of the experiment, the kidneys were removed; 3mm three tissue pieces were fixed in 10% formaline; processed and stained with H and E for histological study. Results: It was observed on microscopic examination that Corn silk extract reduced deleterious effects of acetaminophen on tubules of kidney as evidenced by reduction of tubular vacuolation and necrosis, absence of protein casts, vascular congestion and inflammation. Conclusion: It is concluded from current results that corn silk extract protects acetaminophen induced nephrotoxicity. (author)

  15. Protective effects of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents against manganese-induced oxidative damage and neuronal injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milatovic, Dejan, E-mail: dejan.milatovic@vanderbilt.edu [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Gupta, Ramesh C. [Murray State University, Breathitt Veterinary Center, Hopkinsville, KY (United States); Yu, Yingchun; Zaja-Milatovic, Snjezana [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Aschner, Michael [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Pharmacology and the Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Exposure to excessive manganese (Mn) levels leads to neurotoxicity, referred to as manganism, which resembles Parkinson's disease (PD). Manganism is caused by neuronal injury in both cortical and subcortical regions, particularly in the basal ganglia. The basis for the selective neurotoxicity of Mn is not yet fully understood. However, several studies suggest that oxidative damage and inflammatory processes play prominent roles in the degeneration of dopamine-containing neurons. In the present study, we assessed the effects of Mn on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, changes in high-energy phosphates and associated neuronal dysfunctions both in vitro and in vivo. Results from our in vitro study showed a significant (p < 0.01) increase in biomarkers of oxidative damage, F{sub 2}-isoprostanes (F{sub 2}-IsoPs), as well as the depletion of ATP in primary rat cortical neurons following exposure to Mn (500 {mu}M) for 2 h. These effects were protected when neurons were pretreated for 30 min with 100 of an antioxidant, the hydrophilic vitamin E analog, trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid), or an anti-inflammatory agent, indomethacin. Results from our in vivo study confirmed a significant increase in F{sub 2}-IsoPs levels in conjunction with the progressive spine degeneration and dendritic damage of the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of mice exposed to Mn (100 mg/kg, s.c.) 24 h. Additionally, pretreatment with vitamin E (100 mg/kg, i.p.) or ibuprofen (140 {mu}g/ml in the drinking water for two weeks) attenuated the Mn-induced increase in cerebral F{sub 2}-IsoPs? and protected the MSNs from dendritic atrophy and dendritic spine loss. Our findings suggest that the mediation of oxidative stress/mitochondrial dysfunction and the control of alterations in biomarkers of oxidative injury, neuroinflammation and synaptodendritic degeneration may provide an effective, multi-pronged therapeutic strategy for protecting dysfunctional

  16. Investigation of pUC19 DNA damage induced by direct and indirect effect of 7Li ions radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui Li; Zhao Kui; Guo Jiyu; Ni Meinan; Kong Fuquan; Cai Minghui; Yang Mingjian

    2006-01-01

    The effect of direct and indirect action on DNA damage in 7 Li ions radiation is investigated. Using 7 Li ions generated by HI-13 tandem accelerator, three conditions of pUC19 plasmid DNA samples including dry, with or without mannitol are irradiated at different doses in air. These irradiated DNA samples are analyzed with atomic force microscopy (AFM) in nanometer-scale. The changes of DNA forms as the dose increases are observed. The results show that free radical is the main factor in DNA strand breaks induced by 7 Li ions radiation under condition of aqueous solution. The mannitol can effectively scavenge free radical and reduce the yields of DNA strand breaks. The experimental results of this report can offered valuable basal data for cancer therapy by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) or heavy ion radiation method, etc. (author)

  17. Possible GABAergic modulation in the protective effect of zolpidem in acute hypoxic stress-induced behavior alterations and oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Goyal, Richa

    2008-03-01

    Hypoxia is an environmental stressor that is known to elicit alterations in both the autonomic nervous system and endocrine functions. The free radical or oxidative stress theory holds that oxidative reactions are mainly underlying neurodegenerative disorders. In fact among complex metabolic reactions occurring during hypoxia, many could be related to the formation of oxygen derived free radicals, causing a wide spectrum of cell damage. In present study, we investigated possible involvement of GABAergic mechanism in the protective effect of zolpidem against acute hypoxia-induced behavioral modification and biochemical alterations in mice. Mice were subjected to acute hypoxic stress for a period of 2 h. Acute hypoxic stress for 2 h caused significant impairment in locomotor activity, anxiety-like behavior, and antinocioceptive effect in mice. Biochemical analysis revealed a significant increased malondialdehyde, nitrite concentrations and depleted reduced glutathione and catalase levels. Pretreatment with zolpidem (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly improved locomotor activity, anti-anxiety effect, reduced tail flick latency and attenuated oxidative damage (reduced malondialdehyde, nitrite concentration, and restoration of reduced glutathione and catalase levels) as compared to stressed control (hypoxia) (P zolpidem (5 mg/kg) was blocked significantly by picrotoxin (1.0 mg/kg) or flumazenil (2 mg/kg) and potentiated by muscimol (0.05 mg/kg) in hypoxic animals (P zolpidem (5 mg/kg) per se (P zolpidem against hypoxic stress.

  18. Effect of inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase on MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuronal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveros-Paredes, J M; Gonzalez-Castañeda, R E; Escalante-Castañeda, A; Tejeda-Martínez, A R; Castañeda-Achutiguí, F; Flores-Soto, M E

    2017-01-16

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by balance problems, muscle rigidity, and slow movement due to low dopamine levels and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The endocannabinoid system is known to modulate the nigrostriatal pathway through endogenous ligands such as anandamide (AEA), which is hydrolysed by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The purpose of this study was to increase AEA levels using FAAH inhibitor URB597 to evaluate the modulatory effect of AEA on dopaminergic neuronal death induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Our study included 4 experimental groups (n = 6 mice per group): a control group receiving no treatment, a group receiving URB597 (0.2mg/kg) every 3 days for 30 days, a group treated with MPTP (30mg/kg) for 5 days, and a group receiving URB597 and subsequently MPTP injections. Three days after the last dose, we conducted a series of behavioural tests (beam test, pole test, and stride length test) to compare motor coordination between groups. We subsequently analysed immunoreactivity of dopaminergic cells and microglia in the SNpc and striatum. Mice treated with URB597 plus MPTP were found to perform better on behavioural tests than mice receiving MPTP only. According to the immunohistochemistry study, mice receiving MPTP showed fewer dopaminergic cells and fibres in the SNpc and striatum. Animals treated with URB597 plus MPTP displayed increased tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity compared to those treated with MPTP only. Regarding microglial immunoreactivity, the group receiving MPTP showed higher Iba1 immunoreactivity in the striatum and SNpc than did the group treated with URB597 plus MPTP. Our results show that URB597 exerts a protective effect since it inhibits dopaminergic neuronal death, decreases microglial immunoreactivity, and improves MPTP-induced motor alterations. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado

  19. Effect of complex polyphenols and tannins from red wine (WCPT) on chemically induced oxidative DNA damage in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalini, C; Lodovici, M; Briani, C; Paganelli, G; Remy, S; Cheynier, V; Dolara, P

    1999-08-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic antioxidants occurring in vegetables and fruits as well as beverages such as tea and wine which have been thought to influence oxidative damage. We wanted to verify whether a complex mixture of wine tannins (wine complex polyphenols and tannins, WCPT) prevent chemically-induced oxidative DNA damage in vivo. Oxidative DNA damage was evaluated by measuring the ratio of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (80HdG)/ 2-deoxyguanosine (2dG) x 10(-6) in hydrolyzed DNA using HPLC coupled with electrochemical and UV detectors. We treated rats with WCPT (57 mg/kg p.o.) for 14 d, a dose 10-fold higher than what a moderate wine drinker would be exposed to. WCPT administration significantly reduced the ratio of 80HdG/2dG x 10(-6) in liver DNA obtained from rats treated with 2-nitropropane (2NP) relative to controls administered 2NP only (33. 3 +/- 2.5 vs. 44.9 +/- 3.2 x 10(-6) 2dG; micro +/- SE; p<0.05). On the contrary, pretreatment with WCPT for 10 d did not protect the colon mucosa from oxidative DNA damage induced by 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). 2NP and DMH are hepatic and colon carcinogens, respectively, capable of inducing oxidative DNA damage. WCPT have protective action against some types of chemically-induced oxidative DNA damage in vivo.

  20. Evaluation of the Protective Effect of Olive Leaf Extract on Cisplatin-Induced Testicular Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafa S. Almeer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, the effect of olive leaf extract (OLE on testicular damage induced in rats by an intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (CDDP at a dose of 5 mg/kg was tested. Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control, CDDP, OLE, and OLE + CDDP. After 5 days of CDDP treatment, body and testicular weights, histopathological alteration, and serum male sex hormone levels were determined. In addition to the biochemical and immunohistochemical changes in the testes, CDDP caused the disorganization of germinal epithelium and apoptosis by inducing Bax and inhibiting Bcl-2 protein expression. Testicular weights, catalase, serum testosterone, testicular enzymatic (including glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase along with nonenzymatic (glutathione antioxidants, and levels of luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones were significantly reduced in addition to a significant increase in testicular malondialdehyde and nitrite/nitrate levels when compared with the control group. OLE treatment markedly attenuated both biochemical and histopathological changes. The reproductive beneficial effects of OLE were mediated, at least partly, by inducing the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2/heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 pathway.

  1. Structural Stability of Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 Is Essential for Protective Effects Against Radiation-Induced Intestinal Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Fumiaki, E-mail: f_naka@nirs.go.jp [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Umeda, Sachiko [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Yasuda, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Asada, Masahiro; Motomura, Kaori; Suzuki, Masashi [Signaling Molecules Research Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Zakrzewska, Malgorzata [Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw (Poland); Imamura, Toru [Signaling Molecules Research Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Imai, Takashi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Human fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1) has radioprotective effects on the intestine, although its structural instability limits its potential for practical use. Several stable FGF1 mutants were created increasing stability in the order, wild-type FGF1, single mutants (Q40P, S47I, and H93G), Q40P/S47I, and Q40P/S47I/H93G. This study evaluated the contribution of the structural stability of FGF1 to its radioprotective effect. Methods and Materials: Each FGF1 mutant was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 h before or after total body irradiation (TBI) with {gamma}-rays at 8-12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. Results: Q40P/S47I/H93G could activate all subtypes of FGF receptors in vitro much more strongly than the wild-type without endogenous or exogenous heparin. Preirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G significantly increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1 after TBI at 10 or 12 Gy, and postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G was effective in promoting crypt survival after TBI at 10, 11, or 12 Gy. In addition, crypt cell proliferation, crypt depth, and epithelial differentiation were significantly promoted by postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G. The level of stability of FGF1 mutants correlated with their mitogenic activities in vitro in the absence of heparin; however, preirradiation treatment with the mutants increased the crypt number to almost the same level as Q40P/S47I/H93G. When given 24 h after TBI at 10 Gy, all FGF1 mutants increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1, and Q40P/S47I/H93G had the strongest mitogenic effects in intestinal epithelial cells after radiation damage. Moreover, Q40P/S47I/H93G prolonged mouse survival after TBI because of the repair of intestinal damage. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the structural stability of FGF1 can contribute to the enhancement of protective effects against radiation-induced intestinal

  2. Protective Effect of Selected Medicinal Plants against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Damage on Biological Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namratha Pai Kotebagilu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is developed due to susceptibility of biological substrates to oxidation by generation of free radicals. In degenerative diseases, oxidative stress level can be reduced by antioxidants which neutralize free radicals. Primary objective of this work was to screen four medicinal plants, namely, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, for their antioxidant property using two biological substrates—RBC and microsomes. The antioxidative ability of three solvent extracts, methanol (100% and 80% and aqueous leaf extracts, was studied at different concentrations by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method using Fenton’s reagent to induce oxidation in the substrates. The polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed to relate with the observed antioxidant effect of the extracts. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, and β-carotene in the samples. In microsomes, 80% methanol extract of Canthium and Costus and, in RBC, 80% methanol extract of Costus showed highest inhibition of oxidation and correlated well with the polyphenol and flavonoid content. From the results it can be concluded that antioxidants from medicinal plants are capable of inhibiting oxidation in biological systems, suggesting scope for their use as nutraceuticals.

  3. Effects of benfotiamine and coenzyme Q10 on kidney damage induced gentamicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustuner, Mehmet Alperen; Kaman, Dilara; Colakoglu, Neriman

    2017-12-01

    Gentamicin (GM) is an effective antibiotic against severe infection but has limitations related to nephrotoxicity. In this study, we investigated whether benfotiamine (BFT) and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), could ameliorate the nephrotoxic effect of GM in rats. Rats were divided into five groups. Group 1 and 2 served as control and sham respectively, Group 3 as GM group, Group 4 as GM+CoQ10 and Group 5 as GM+BFT for 8days. At the end of the study, all rats were euthanized by cervical decapitation and then blood samples and kidneys were collected for further analysis. Serum urea, creatinine, cytokine TNF-a, oxidant and antioxidant parameters, as well as histopathological examination of kidney tissues were assessed. Gentamicin administration caused a severe nephrotoxicity which was evidenced by an elevated serum creatinine, urea and KIM-1 level as compared with the controls. Moreover, a significant increase in serum malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione. Histopathological examination of renal tissue in gentamisin administered group, there were extremly pronounced necrotic tubules in the renal cortex and hyalen cast accumulation in the medullar tubuli. BFT given to GM rats reduced these nephrotoxicity parameters. Serum creatinine, urea, and KIM-1 were almost normalized in the GM+BFT group. Benfotiamin treatment was significantly decreased necrotic tubuli and hyalen deposition in gentamisin plus benfotiamin group. CoQ10 given to GM rats did not cause any statistically significant alterations in these nephrotoxicity parameters when compared with GM group but histopathological examination of renal tissue in GM+CoQ10 administered group, CoQ10 treatment was decreased necrotic tubuli rate and hyalen accumulation in tubuli. The results from our study indicate that BFT supplement attenuates gentamicin-induced renal injury via the amelioration of oxidative stress and inflammation of renal tubular cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Protective effects of Lactuca sativa ethanolic extract on carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hefnawy Taha M. Hefnawy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia leaves against the toxicity caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in reproductive system of rats. Methods: Lettuce leaves were dried and extracted with ethanol (plant: solvent, 1:10, w/v. The extract was filtered and evaporated to yield dried lettuce extract. Animals were divided into seven groups and treated with CCl4 and different concentrations of lettuce extract. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected and centrifuged for serum separation. Body weights, testis size, histopathology of testis and liver, catalase (CAT activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, peroxidase (POD activity, reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, nitrite level, and serum hormones were determined. Results: Oxidative stress induced by CCl4 (2 mL/kg body weight in rat decreases the increase in body weight and relative testis weight. It also markedly increases the level of TBARS and nitrites along with corresponding decrease in reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in testis (i.e., CAT, POD, SOD and GSH-Px. Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone was decreased while estradiol and prolactin were increased during CCl 4 treatment. Histopathology of CCl4-treated rats indicated the partial degeneration of germ and leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis. Supplementation of lettuce extract (100, 150, 200 mg/kg body weight orally once a week for 10 weeks results in decrease of TBARS and nitrite, while increase in antioxidant enzymes; CAT, POD, SOD, GSH-Px and GSH contents. Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, prolactin, histology, body weight and relative testis weight was also concomitantly restored to near normal

  5. Protective effects of Lactuca sativa ethanolic extract on carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative damage in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefnawy, Hefnawy Taha M.; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) leaves against the toxicity caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in reproductive system of rats. Methods Lettuce leaves were dried and extracted with ethanol (plant: solvent, 1:10, w/v). The extract was filtered and evaporated to yield dried lettuce extract. Animals were divided into seven groups and treated with CCl4 and different concentrations of lettuce extract. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected and centrifuged for serum separation. Body weights, testis size, histopathology of testis and liver, catalase (CAT) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite level, and serum hormones were determined. Results Oxidative stress induced by CCl4 (2 mL/kg body weight) in rat decreases the increase in body weight and relative testis weight. It also markedly increases the level of TBARS and nitrites along with corresponding decrease in reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in testis (i.e., CAT, POD, SOD and GSH-Px). Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone was decreased while estradiol and prolactin were increased during CCl4 treatment. Histopathology of CCl4-treated rats indicated the partial degeneration of germ and leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis. Supplementation of lettuce extract (100, 150, 200 mg/kg body weight orally) once a week for 10 weeks results in decrease of TBARS and nitrite, while increase in antioxidant enzymes; CAT, POD, SOD, GSH-Px and GSH contents. Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, prolactin, histology, body weight and relative testis weight was also concomitantly restored to near normal level by

  6. Ameliorative Effect of Camel's Milk and Nigella Sativa Oil against Thioacetamide-induced Hepatorenal Damage in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aftab; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A; Sadath, Saida; Ali, Soad Shaker; Abuzinadah, Mohammed F; Alhadrami, Hani A; Mohammad Alghamdi, Anwar Ali; Aseeri, Ali H; Khan, Shah Alam; Husain, Asif

    2018-01-01

    Camel milk (CM) and Nigella sativa (NS) have been traditionally claimed to cure wide range of diseases and used as medicine in different part of world, particularly in Saudi Arabia. Several research studies have been published that proved beneficial effects of CM and NS. This study was undertaken to investigate the antihepatotxic potential of CM and NS oil (NSO) against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepato and nephrotoxicity in rats. Thirty female Albino Wistar rats were randomly divided in to six groups having five rats in each group. A single subcutaneous injection of TAA (100 mg/kg b. w.) was administered to all the rats in Group-II to VI on 1 st day to induce hepatorenal damage. Group I served as a normal control while Group II served as toxic control for comparison purpose. Experimental animals in Group III, IV, and V were supplemented with fresh CM, (250 mL/24 h/cage), NSO (2 mL/kg/day p. o.), and NSO + fresh CM, respectively. Group VI was treated with a polyherbal hepatoprotective Unani medicine Jigreen (2 mL/kg/day p. o.) for 21 days. TAA-induced hepatorenal damage and protective effects of CM and NSO were assessed by analyzing liver and kidney function tests in the serum. Histopathology of liver and kidney tissues was also carried out to corroborate the findings of biochemical investigation. The results indicated that the TAA intoxicated rats showed significant increase in the alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, lipid profile, urea, creatinine, uric acid, sodium, and potassium levels in serum. Treatment of rats with CM, NSO, and CM plus NSO combination and Jigreen significantly reversed the damage and brought down the serum biochemical parameters and lipid profile toward the normal levels. The histopathological studies also support the hepato and nephroprotective effects of CM and NSO. This study demonstrated the ameliorative effects of CM, NSO, and CM plus NSO combination against TAA-induced

  7. Laser-induced damage in optical materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ristau, Detlev

    2014-01-01

    Dedicated to users and developers of high-powered systems, Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials focuses on the research field of laser-induced damage and explores the significant and steady growth of applications for high-power lasers in the academic, industrial, and military arenas. Written by renowned experts in the field, this book concentrates on the major topics of laser-induced damage in optical materials and most specifically addresses research in laser damage that occurs in the bulk and on the surface or the coating of optical components. It considers key issues in the field of hi

  8. Petroselinum Crispum is Effective in Reducing Stress-Induced Gastric Oxidative Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşin Akıncı; Mukaddes Eşrefoğlu; Elif Taşlıdere; Burhan Ateş

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress has been shown to play a principal role in the pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric injury. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) contains many antioxidants such as flavanoids, carotenoids and ascorbic acid. Aims: In this study, the histopathological and biochemical results of nutrition with a parsley-rich diet in terms of eliminating stress-induced oxidative gastric injury were evaluated. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Forty male Wistar albino...

  9. Petroselinum Crispum is Effective in Reducing Stress-Induced Gastric Oxidative Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Ak?nc?, Ay?in; E?refo?lu, Mukaddes; Ta?l?dere, Elif; Ate?, Burhan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress has been shown to play a principal role in the pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric injury. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) contains many antioxidants such as flavanoids, carotenoids and ascorbic acid. Aims: In this study, the histopathological and biochemical results of nutrition with a parsley-rich diet in terms of eliminating stress-induced oxidative gastric injury were evaluated. Study Design: Animal experimentation Methods: Forty male Wistar albino rats were...

  10. Radioprotective effects saffron and its combination with green tea against γ-radiation-induced DNA damage in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, Apurva; Abraham, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Protective effects of aqueous extract of saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L.) alone and its combination with green tea against γ-radiation-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress were investigated in Swiss albino mice. Saffron (40 mg/kg bw) alone and in combination with green tea (40 mg/kg bw) were orally administered to mice for six consecutive days, followed by exposure to γ-radiation (2.25 Gy) on 6 th day after final feeding. Antigenotoxic effect of saffron was assayed using micronucleus test in bone marrow cells which showed a significant decrease in the number of micronucleated PCEs in saffron alone and its combination with green tea pre-treated animals when compared with the radiation alone treated animals. Saffron alone and its combination with green tea pre-treated animals showed a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation levels with a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant defense system enzymes, viz. acetylcholine esterase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and non-enzymatic antioxidant (GSH), when compared with the radiation alone treated animals. Our results suggested that saffron in combination with green tea exhibits radioprotective effects against γ-radiation induced DNA damage and oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice. (author)

  11. Protective effects of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents against manganese-induced oxidative damage and neuronal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milatovic, Dejan; Gupta, Ramesh C; Yu, Yingchun; Zaja-Milatovic, Snjezana; Aschner, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Exposure to excessive manganese (Mn) levels leads to neurotoxicity, referred to as manganism, which resembles Parkinson's disease (PD). Manganism is caused by neuronal injury in both cortical and subcortical regions, particularly in the basal ganglia. The basis for the selective neurotoxicity of Mn is not yet fully understood. However, several studies suggest that oxidative damage and inflammatory processes play prominent roles in the degeneration of dopamine-containing neurons. In the present study, we assessed the effects of Mn on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, changes in high-energy phosphates and associated neuronal dysfunctions both in vitro and in vivo. Results from our in vitro study showed a significant (pprotected when neurons were pretreated for 30 min with 100 of an antioxidant, the hydrophilic vitamin E analog, trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid), or an anti-inflammatory agent, indomethacin. Results from our in vivo study confirmed a significant increase in F(2)-IsoPs levels in conjunction with the progressive spine degeneration and dendritic damage of the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of mice exposed to Mn (100mg/kg, s.c.) 24h. Additionally, pretreatment with vitamin E (100mg/kg, i.p.) or ibuprofen (140 μg/ml in the drinking water for two weeks) attenuated the Mn-induced increase in cerebral F(2)-IsoPs? and protected the MSNs from dendritic atrophy and dendritic spine loss. Our findings suggest that the mediation of oxidative stress/mitochondrial dysfunction and the control of alterations in biomarkers of oxidative injury, neuroinflammation and synaptodendritic degeneration may provide an effective, multi-pronged therapeutic strategy for protecting dysfunctional dopaminergic transmission and slowing of the progression of Mn-induced neurodegenerative processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Protective effect of polysaccharides extracts from corn silk against cyclophosphamide induced host damages in mice bearing H22 tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian-chuang; Du, Gang-jun; Song, Xiao-yong; Zhang, Yong-zhou; Liu, Yu-xin

    2014-10-01

    To study the protective effect of polysaccharides from corn silk (PCS) against cyclophosphamide (CTX) induced host damages in mice bearing H22 tumors. The ascitic and solid tumor bearing mice model were established to investigate the anti-tumor effects of different dose of PCS (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg). The effects of PCS alone and with combination of CTX on tumor weight, survival time, thymus and spleen index, white blood cell, nucleated cell of marrow, serum ALT and AST level were tested. The high-dose PCS (300 mg/kg) had significant inhibitory effects on tumor. After combination with CTX, the tumor inhibitory ratio was enhanced to 68.71%, the survival time of tumor-burdened ascites tumor mice was significantly prolonged to 72.07% compared with CTX group. The Q value of combination group was 0.997. Thymus and spleen index, white blood cell, nucleated cell of marrow decreased by CTX were ameliorated significantly. The level of ALT and AST increased by CTX were reduced by combination with PCS. PCS has a potent inhibitory effect on the growth of implanted H22 tumors in mice and has a synergetic effect and an attenuated toxic effect in combination with CTX.

  13. Effects of wearing bio-active material coated fabric against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damaged in Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jung Ae; Kim, Hye Rim; Yoon, Sun Hye; Nam, Sang Hyun; Park, Sang Hyun; Jang, Beom Su; Go, Kyung Chan; Yang, Gwang Wung; Rho, Young Hwan; Park, Hyo Suk

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation causes cellular damage and death through the direct damage and/or indirectly the production of ROS, which induces oxidative stress. This study was designed to evaluate the in vivo radioprotective effects of a bio-active material coated fabric (BMCF) against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Healthy male SD rats wore bio-active material coated (concentrations in 10% and 30%) fabric for 7 days after 3 Gy of γ-irradiation. Radioprotective effects were evaluated by performing various biochemical assays including spleen and thymus index, WBC count, hepatic damage marker enzymes [aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT)] in plasma, liver antioxidant enzymes, and mitochondrial activity in muscle. Exposure to γ-irradiation resulted in hepatocellular and immune systemic damage. Gamma-irradiation induced decreases in antioxidant enzymes. However, wearing the BMCF-30% decreased significantly AST and ALT activities in plasma. Furthermore, wearing the BMCF-30% increased SOD (superoxide dismutase) and mitochondrial activity. These results suggest that wearing BMCF offers effective radioprotection against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage in SD rats

  14. Effects of wearing bio-active material coated fabric against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damaged in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jung Ae; Kim, Hye Rim; Yoon, Sun Hye; Nam, Sang Hyun; Park, Sang Hyun; Jang, Beom Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Go, Kyung Chan; Yang, Gwang Wung; Rho, Young Hwan; Park, Hyo Suk [Research and Development Center, VENTEX Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Ionizing radiation causes cellular damage and death through the direct damage and/or indirectly the production of ROS, which induces oxidative stress. This study was designed to evaluate the in vivo radioprotective effects of a bio-active material coated fabric (BMCF) against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Healthy male SD rats wore bio-active material coated (concentrations in 10% and 30%) fabric for 7 days after 3 Gy of γ-irradiation. Radioprotective effects were evaluated by performing various biochemical assays including spleen and thymus index, WBC count, hepatic damage marker enzymes [aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT)] in plasma, liver antioxidant enzymes, and mitochondrial activity in muscle. Exposure to γ-irradiation resulted in hepatocellular and immune systemic damage. Gamma-irradiation induced decreases in antioxidant enzymes. However, wearing the BMCF-30% decreased significantly AST and ALT activities in plasma. Furthermore, wearing the BMCF-30% increased SOD (superoxide dismutase) and mitochondrial activity. These results suggest that wearing BMCF offers effective radioprotection against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage in SD rats.

  15. Synergetic Effects of Runaway and Disruption Induced by VDE on the First Wall Damage in HL-2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xianying; Yang Jinwei; Li Xu; Yuan Guoliang; Zhang Yipo

    2012-01-01

    The plasma facing component in HL-2A has been damaged seriously after disruption, and for this reason its operation is suspended for maintenance. The experimental phenomena and plasma configurations, calculated by the current filament code (CF-code) using the plasma parameters measured by diagnostics and the signals of the magnetic probes, confirm that the first wall is damaged by the synergetic effects of runaway electrons and disruption induced by a vertical displacement event (VDE). When the plasma column is displaced upward/downward, the strong runaway electrons normally hit the baffle plate of the MP 3 or MP 1 coil in the upper and lower divertor during the disruption, causing the baffle plates to be holed and wrinkled by the energetic runaway current, and water (for cooling or heating the baffle plates) to leak into the vacuum vessel. Another disastrous consequence is that bellows underlying the baffle plate and outside the coil of MP 3 for connecting two segments of the jacket casing pipe are punctured by arcing. The arc may be part of the halo current that forms a complete circuit. The experimental phenomena are indirect but compelling evidence for the existence of a halo current during the disruption and VDE, though the halo current has not been measured by the diagnostics in the HL-2A tokamak.

  16. Synergetic Effects of Runaway and Disruption Induced by VDE on the First Wall Damage in HL-2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xianying; Yang, Jinwei; Li, Xu; Yuan, Guoliang; Zhang, Yipo

    2012-03-01

    The plasma facing component in HL-2A has been damaged seriously after disruption, and for this reason its operation is suspended for maintenance. The experimental phenomena and plasma configurations, calculated by the current filament code (CF-code) using the plasma parameters measured by diagnostics and the signals of the magnetic probes, confirm that the first wall is damaged by the synergetic effects of runaway electrons and disruption induced by a vertical displacement event (VDE). When the plasma column is displaced upward/downward, the strong runaway electrons normally hit the baffle plate of the MP3 or MP1 coil in the upper and lower divertor during the disruption, causing the baffle plates to be holed and wrinkled by the energetic runaway current, and water (for cooling or heating the baffle plates) to leak into the vacuum vessel. Another disastrous consequence is that bellows underlying the baffle plate and outside the coil of MP3 for connecting two segments of the jacket casing pipe are punctured by arcing. The arc may be part of the halo current that forms a complete circuit. The experimental phenomena are indirect but compelling evidence for the existence of a halo current during the disruption and VDE, though the halo current has not been measured by the diagnostics in the HL-2A tokamak.

  17. Protective effect of pumpkin powder (Cucurbita pepo L. on fetal testicular tissue damage in alloxan- induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of abnormalities in different organs of the fetus and newborn of diabetic mothers has been proven today. Considering the irreversible damages of the disease in newborns’ reproductive system any action to reduce the abnormalities has an especial importance and necessity. In this experimental study, the protective effects of pumpkin powder on reducing testicular tissue damages of rats born from diabetic mothers has been studied. The pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups of 10 rats, as follows: 1 treatment group with pumpkin powder, 2 diabetic control group, 3 treatment group (diabetic animals treated with pumpkin powder and 4 healthy control group. Experimental diabetes was induced in pregnant rats by intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg b.w. alloxan monohydrate. The first and third groups received 2 g/kg b.w. pumpkin powder for 4 weeks via gavage. The histological and morphometric changes such as weight, seminiferous tubules diameter, spermatogonia, leydig and sertoli cell numbers were compared. Data was analyzed using the ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparisons test and p

  18. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on high fat diet–induced obesity and liver damage in hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    To-Wei Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with an increase in adipogenesis and often accompanied with fatty liver disease. Objective: In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa water extract (HSE in vivo. Method: Eight-weeks-old male mice were divided into six groups (n=8 per group and were fed either normal feed, a high fat diet (HFD, HFD supplemented with different concentrations of HSE, or HFD supplemented with anthocyanin. After 10 weeks of feeding, all the blood and livers were collected for further analysis. Results: Mesocricetus auratus hamster fed with a high-fat diet developed symptoms of obesity, as determined from their body weight change and from their plasma lipid levels. Meanwhile, HSE treatment reduced fat accumulation in the livers of hamsters fed with HFD in a concentration-dependent manner. Administration of HSE reduced the levels of liver cholesterol and triglycerides, which were elevated by HFD. Analysis of the effect of HSE on paraoxonase 1, an antioxidant liver enzyme, revealed that HSE potentially regulates lipid peroxides and protects organs from oxidation-associated damage. The markers of liver damage such as serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels that were elevated by HFD were also reduced on HSE treatment. The effects of HSE were as effective as treatment with anthocyanin; therefore the anthocyanins present in the HSE may play a crucial role in the protection established against HFD-induced obesity. Conclusions: In conclusion HSE administration constitutes an effective and viable treatment strategy against the development and consequences of obesity.

  19. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on high fat diet–induced obesity and liver damage in hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, To-Wei; Chang, Chia-Ling; Kao, Erl-Shyh; Lin, Jenq-Horng

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with an increase in adipogenesis and often accompanied with fatty liver disease. Objective In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa water extract (HSE) in vivo. Method Eight-weeks-old male mice were divided into six groups (n=8 per group) and were fed either normal feed, a high fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with different concentrations of HSE, or HFD supplemented with anthocyanin. After 10 weeks of feeding, all the blood and livers were collected for further analysis. Results Mesocricetus auratus hamster fed with a high-fat diet developed symptoms of obesity, as determined from their body weight change and from their plasma lipid levels. Meanwhile, HSE treatment reduced fat accumulation in the livers of hamsters fed with HFD in a concentration-dependent manner. Administration of HSE reduced the levels of liver cholesterol and triglycerides, which were elevated by HFD. Analysis of the effect of HSE on paraoxonase 1, an antioxidant liver enzyme, revealed that HSE potentially regulates lipid peroxides and protects organs from oxidation-associated damage. The markers of liver damage such as serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels that were elevated by HFD were also reduced on HSE treatment. The effects of HSE were as effective as treatment with anthocyanin; therefore the anthocyanins present in the HSE may play a crucial role in the protection established against HFD-induced obesity. Conclusions In conclusion HSE administration constitutes an effective and viable treatment strategy against the development and consequences of obesity. PMID:26475512

  20. An effective method for detection and analysis of DNA damage induced by heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazama, Y.; Saito, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Matsuyama, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Ryuto, H.; Fukunishi, N.; Abe, T.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed an efficient system to detect and analyze DNA mutations induced by heavy-ion beams in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this system, a stable transgenic Arabidopsis line that constitutively expresses a yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) by a single-copy gene at a genomic locus was constructed and irradiated with heavy-ion beams. The YFP gene is a target of mutagenesis, and its loss of function or expression can easily be detected by the disappearance of YFP signals in planta under microscopy. With this system, a sup(12)Csup(6+)- induced mutant with single deletion and multiple base changes was isolated

  1. Protective effects of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents against manganese-induced oxidative damage and neuronal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milatovic, Dejan; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Yu, Yingchun; Zaja-Milatovic, Snjezana; Aschner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to excessive manganese (Mn) levels leads to neurotoxicity, referred to as manganism, which resembles Parkinson's disease (PD). Manganism is caused by neuronal injury in both cortical and subcortical regions, particularly in the basal ganglia. The basis for the selective neurotoxicity of Mn is not yet fully understood. However, several studies suggest that oxidative damage and inflammatory processes play prominent roles in the degeneration of dopamine-containing neurons. In the present study, we assessed the effects of Mn on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, changes in high-energy phosphates and associated neuronal dysfunctions both in vitro and in vivo. Results from our in vitro study showed a significant (p 2 -isoprostanes (F 2 -IsoPs), as well as the depletion of ATP in primary rat cortical neurons following exposure to Mn (500 μM) for 2 h. These effects were protected when neurons were pretreated for 30 min with 100 of an antioxidant, the hydrophilic vitamin E analog, trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid), or an anti-inflammatory agent, indomethacin. Results from our in vivo study confirmed a significant increase in F 2 -IsoPs levels in conjunction with the progressive spine degeneration and dendritic damage of the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of mice exposed to Mn (100 mg/kg, s.c.) 24 h. Additionally, pretreatment with vitamin E (100 mg/kg, i.p.) or ibuprofen (140 μg/ml in the drinking water for two weeks) attenuated the Mn-induced increase in cerebral F 2 -IsoPs? and protected the MSNs from dendritic atrophy and dendritic spine loss. Our findings suggest that the mediation of oxidative stress/mitochondrial dysfunction and the control of alterations in biomarkers of oxidative injury, neuroinflammation and synaptodendritic degeneration may provide an effective, multi-pronged therapeutic strategy for protecting dysfunctional dopaminergic transmission and slowing of the progression of Mn-induced neurodegenerative

  2. Evaluation of Radio-Protective Effect of Melatonin on Whole Body Irradiation Induced Liver Tissue Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shirazi, Alireza; Mihandoost, Ehsan; Ghobadi, Ghazaleh; Mohseni, Mehran; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Ionizing radiation interacts with biological systems to induce excessive fluxes of free radicals that attack various cellular components. Melatonin has been shown to be a direct free radical scavenger and indirect antioxidant via its stimulatory actions on the antioxidant system. The aim

  3. Effect of D-ribose-L-cysteine on aluminum induced testicular damage in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falana, Benedict; Adeleke, Opeyemi; Orenolu, Mulikat; Osinubi, Abraham; Oyewopo, Adeoye

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of D-ribose and L-cysteine on aluminum-induced testicular damage in male Sprague-Dawley rats. A total number of thirty-five (35) adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (AD). Group A (comprised five (5) rats) was designated the Control Group that received Physiological Saline; while groups B, C, and D (comprised ten (10) rats) were given 75 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg of body weight of aluminum chloride respectively for 39 days. At day 40, the aluminum-treated groups were subdivided into sub-groups (B1, C1, D1) comprising of five (5) rats each, and 30 mg/kg body weight of Riboceine were administered for twenty (20) days. Groups B, C and D remained on the normal dosage of aluminum chloride for three more weeks (59 days). Andrological parameters (Sperm count, motility, morphology and testosterone) in the aluminum-treated Groups B and C showed no significant difference in their mean values when compared with their control counterparts, whereas there was a significant reduction in the andrological parameters in Group D rats when compared with the Control animals. Histoarchitecture of the testes "stain with H&E" of Group A, B and C rats appeared normal while Group D rats showed testicular damages with several abnormal seminiferous tubules with incomplete maturation of germinal cell layers and absence of spermatozoa in their lumen; Leydig cells appear hyperplastic. Group B1, C1 and D1 andrological and histological parameters appeared normal. Riboceine treatment significantly attenuates aluminum-induced testicular toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley in rats.

  4. DNA damage induced by the direct effect of He ion particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urushibara, A.; Shikazono, N.; Watanabe, R.; Fujii, K.; O'Neill, P.; Yokoya, A.

    2006-01-01

    We present here evidence showing that the yields of DNA lesions induced by He 2+ ions strongly depend on Linear energy transfer (LET). In this study, hydrated plasmid DNA was irradiated with He 2+ ions with LET values of 19, 63 and 95 keVμm -1 . The yields of prompt single-strand breaks (SSBs) are very similar at the varying LET values, whereas the yields of prompt double-strand breaks (DSBs) increase with increasing LET. Further, base lesions were revealed as additional strand breaks by post-irradiation treatment of the DNA with endonuclease III (Nth) and formamido-pyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg). The reduction in the yield of these enzymatically induced SSBs and DSBs becomes significant as the LET increases. These results suggest that the clustering of DNA lesions becomes more probable in regions of high LET. (authors)

  5. Effects of a Mangifera indica L. stem bark extract and mangiferin on radiation-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes and lymphoblastoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeiro, I; Delgado, R; Garrido, G

    2014-02-01

    Mangifera indica L. (mango) stem bark aqueous extract (MSBE) that has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, can be obtained in Cuba. It is rich in polyphenols, where mangiferin is the main component. In this study, we have tested DNA damage and protection effects of MSBE and mangiferin on primary human lymphocytes and lymphoblastoid cells. Cell suspensions were incubated with the products (50-1000 μg/ml) for experiments on damage induction, and evaluation of any potential protective effects (5-100 μg/ml) for 60 min at 37 °C. Irradiation was performed using a γ-ray source, absorbed dose 5 Gy. At the end of exposure, DNA damage, protection and repair processes were evaluated using the comet assay. MSBE (100-1000 μg/ml) induced DNA damage in a concentration dependent manner in both cell types tested, primary cells being more sensitive. Mangiferin (200 μg/ml) only induced light DNA damage at higher concentrations. DNA repair capacity was not affected after MSBE or mangiferin exposure. On the other hand, MSBE (25 and 50 μg/ml) and mangiferin (5-25 ug/ml) protected against gamma radiation-induced DNA damage. These results show MSBE has protector or harmful effects on DNA in vitro depending on the experimental conditions, which suggest that the extract could be acting as an antioxidant or pro-oxidant product. Mangiferin was involved in protective effects of the extract. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Cell damage from radiation-induced bystander effects for different cell densities simulated by a mathematical model via cellular automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meireles, Sincler P. de; Santos, Adriano M.; Grynberg, Suely Epsztein, E-mail: spm@cdtn.b, E-mail: amsantos@cdtn.b, E-mail: seg@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nunes, Maria Eugenia S., E-mail: mariaeugenia@iceb.ufop.b [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    During recent years, there has been a shift from an approach focused entirely on DNA as the main target of ionizing radiation to a vision that considers complex signaling pathways in cells and among cells within tissues. Several newly recognized responses were classified as the so-called non-target responses in which the biological effects are not directly related to the amount of energy deposited in the DNA of cells that were traversed by radiation. In 1992 the bystander effect was described referring to a series of responses such as death, chromosomal instability or other abnormalities that occur in non-irradiated cells that came into contact with irradiated cells or medium from irradiated cells. In this work, we have developed a mathematical model via cellular automata, to quantify cell death induced by the bystander effect. The model is based on experiments with irradiated cells conditioned medium which suggests that irradiated cells secrete molecules in the medium that are capable of damaging other cells. The computational model consists of two-dimensional cellular automata which is able to simulate the transmission of bystander signals via extrinsic route and via Gap junctions. The model has been validated by experimental results in the literature. The time evolution of the effect and the dose-response curves were obtained in good accordance to them. Simulations were conducted for different values of bystander and irradiated cell densities with constant dose. From this work, we have obtained a relationship between cell density and effect. (author)

  7. Cell damage from radiation-induced bystander effects for different cell densities simulated by a mathematical model via cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meireles, Sincler P. de; Santos, Adriano M.; Grynberg, Suely Epsztein; Nunes, Maria Eugenia S.

    2011-01-01

    During recent years, there has been a shift from an approach focused entirely on DNA as the main target of ionizing radiation to a vision that considers complex signaling pathways in cells and among cells within tissues. Several newly recognized responses were classified as the so-called non-target responses in which the biological effects are not directly related to the amount of energy deposited in the DNA of cells that were traversed by radiation. In 1992 the bystander effect was described referring to a series of responses such as death, chromosomal instability or other abnormalities that occur in non-irradiated cells that came into contact with irradiated cells or medium from irradiated cells. In this work, we have developed a mathematical model via cellular automata, to quantify cell death induced by the bystander effect. The model is based on experiments with irradiated cells conditioned medium which suggests that irradiated cells secrete molecules in the medium that are capable of damaging other cells. The computational model consists of two-dimensional cellular automata which is able to simulate the transmission of bystander signals via extrinsic route and via Gap junctions. The model has been validated by experimental results in the literature. The time evolution of the effect and the dose-response curves were obtained in good accordance to them. Simulations were conducted for different values of bystander and irradiated cell densities with constant dose. From this work, we have obtained a relationship between cell density and effect. (author)

  8. Potential Effect of Bacopa monnieri on Nitrobenzene Induced Liver Damage in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, B. Rajalakshmy; Rathi, M. A.; Thirumoorthi, L.; Gopalakrishnan, V. K.

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri in acute experimental liver injury induced by Nitrobenzene in rats. The extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight was administered orally once every day for 10 days. The increased serum marker enzymes, Aspartate transaminase, Alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were restored towards normalization significantly by the extract. Significant increase in SOD, CAT and GPx was observ...

  9. In vitro studies on chemoprotective effect of Purnark against benzo(a)pyrene-induced chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaisas, S D; Bhide, S V

    1994-01-01

    Human lymphocytes were used as an assay system to test chemopreventive activity of natural products. Purnark, a mixture of extracts of turmeric, betel leaf and catechu, was tested for its chemoprotective activity against BP induced DNA damage. Sister chromatid exchange and micronuclei were used as markers to assess the protective activity of Purnark. Purnark gave 50-60% protection against BP induced SCEs and micronuclei. Purnark at 100 micrograms dose did not show any genotoxicity.

  10. Potential Effect of Bacopa monnieri on Nitrobenzene Induced Liver Damage in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, B Rajalakshmy; Rathi, M A; Thirumoorthi, L; Gopalakrishnan, V K

    2010-10-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri in acute experimental liver injury induced by Nitrobenzene in rats. The extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight was administered orally once every day for 10 days. The increased serum marker enzymes, Aspartate transaminase, Alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were restored towards normalization significantly by the extract. Significant increase in SOD, CAT and GPx was observed in extract treated liver injured experimental rats. Histopathological examination of the liver tissues supported the hepatoprotection. It is concluded that the ethanolic extract of Bacopa monieri plant possess good hepatoprotective activity.

  11. New concept of damage evaluation method for core internal materials considering radiation induced stress relaxation (1). Experiments and modeling of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, Yukio; Kondo, Keietsu; Okubo, Nariaki; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Tsukada, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    In order to build the new concept of material damage evaluation method, synergistic effect of radiation and residual stress on material degradation was estimated experimentally, and the effect of radiation induced stress relaxation on retardation of material degradation was observed. (author)

  12. Protective effect of topically applied polypeptide from Chlamys farreri against ultraviolet radiation-induced chronic skin damage in guinea pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Mingliang; Cao, Pengli; Yu, Guoying; Zhu, Li; Wang, Yuejun; Wang, Chunbo

    2003-12-01

    Polypeptide from Chlamys farreri (PCF), a topical polypeptide isolated from Chlamys farreri, was used in this experiment aimed to investigate the photoprotective effect of PCF against chronic skin damage induced by ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. The chronic ultraviolet-irradiated guinea pig model was established, and visible changes in the skin including wrinkling, sagging and erythema were observed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) in the dorsal skin were determined using biochemical methods. The results showed: (1) PCF (5 % and 20%) could greatly protect the dorsal skin of guinea pig against wrinkling, sagging and erythema induced by UV radiation in a concentration-dependent manner. (2) PCF could reduce MDA formation in the dorsal skin caused by UV irradiation, while increasing the activities of SOD and GSH-px. (3) The differences among the PCF groups and UV model group were significant ( Psolar UV spectrum photoprotection; and that the antioxidant property of PCF might play a role in photoprotection.

  13. Radiation-induced damage and recovery effects in GG17 glass irradiated by 1 MeV electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingyan; Zhang Zhonghua; Geng Hongbin; Sun Chengyue; Yang Dezhuang; He Shiyu; Hu Zhaochu

    2012-01-01

    The optical properties and microstructural damage of GG17 glasses, as well as their recovery during annealing at room temperature, are investigated after exposure to 1 MeV electrons with various fluences. Experimental results show that the electrons lead to severe optical degradation in the GG17 glass, and induce the formation of paramagnetic defects which can be mainly attributed to the boron–oxygen hole centers. With increasing annealing time at room temperature their decay serves as long-lived defects following first order kinetics. Except for the strong absorption bands located at 334–352 nm and 480 nm that corresponds to the boron–oxygen hole centers, weaker absorption bands appear at 780 nm or 794.6 nm after irradiation, inducing a decrease in transmittance by approximately 17% for a fluence of 1 × 10 16 cm −2 . It is shown that electron irradiation could cause a harmful effect on rubidium lamps when GG17 glass is used as the lamp envelope material.

  14. Differential biologic effects of CPD and 6-4PP UV-induced DNA damage on the induction of apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Hsin-Lung; Nakajima, Satoshi; Ma, Lisa; Walter, Barbara; Yasui, Akira; Ethell, Douglas W; Owen, Laurie B

    2005-01-01

    UV-induced damage can induce apoptosis or trigger DNA repair mechanisms. Minor DNA damage is thought to halt the cell cycle to allow effective repair, while more severe damage can induce an apoptotic program. Of the two major types of UV-induced DNA lesions, it has been reported that repair of CPD, but not 6-4PP, abrogates mutation. To address whether the two major forms of UV-induced DNA damage, can induce differential biological effects, NER-deficient cells containing either CPD photolyase or 6-4 PP photolyase were exposed to UV and examined for alterations in cell cycle and apoptosis. In addition, pTpT, a molecular mimic of CPD was tested in vitro and in vivo for the ability to induce cell death and cell cycle alterations. NER-deficient XPA cells were stably transfected with CPD-photolyase or 6-4PP photolyase to specifically repair only CPD or only 6-4PP. After 300 J/m 2 UVB exposure photoreactivation light (PR, UVA 60 kJ/m 2 ) was provided for photolyase activation and DNA repair. Apoptosis was monitored 24 hours later by flow cytometric analysis of DNA content, using sub-G1 staining to indicate apoptotic cells. To confirm the effects observed with CPD lesions, the molecular mimic of CPD, pTpT, was also tested in vitro and in vivo for its effect on cell cycle and apoptosis. The specific repair of 6-4PP lesions after UVB exposure resulted in a dramatic reduction in apoptosis. These findings suggested that 6-4PP lesions may be the primary inducer of UVB-induced apoptosis. Repair of CPD lesions (despite their relative abundance in the UV-damaged cell) had little effect on the induction of apoptosis. Supporting these findings, the molecular mimic of CPD, (dinucleotide pTpT) could mimic the effects of UVB on cell cycle arrest, but were ineffective to induce apoptosis. The primary response of the cell to UV-induced 6-4PP lesions is to trigger an apoptotic program whereas the response of the cell to CPD lesions appears to principally involve cell cycle arrest. These

  15. Effect of aqueous extract of saffron (crocus sativus L.) against gamma radiation-induced skeletal muscles damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tahawy, N.A; Said, U.Z

    2010-01-01

    Muscular strength is important in sport as well as in daily activities. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative damage are the most important factors in radiation-induced acute damage to muscle tissue. Saffron, obtained from dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae), is a highly valued spice, commonly used in flavouring and food colouring in different parts of the world and is known to possess the richest source of carotenoids. The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of an aqueous extract of saffron to protect against radiation-induced oxidative damage in rat's skeletal muscle. Saffron was supplemented orally, via gavages to rats at a dose of 80 mg/ kg body wt/ day for 2 week pre- and 1 week post-exposure to 5 Gy (one shot dose) of whole body gamma-irradiation. Animals were sacrificed 1, 2 and 3 weeks post radiation exposure. The results revealed that whole body gamma-irradiation of rats induce oxidative stress in skeletal muscles obvious by significant elevation in the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances associated with significant decreases in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Also, radiation-induces skeletal muscles damage evidenced by significant decreases in the level of pyruvic acid, creatine phosphokinase, glutamate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities as well as significant increases in lactic acid, total iron, and copper and calcium levels. Saffron treated-irradiated rats showed significantly less severe damage and remarkable improvement in all the measured parameters, compared to irradiated rats. It could be concluded that saffron by attenuating radiation-induced oxidative stress might play a role in maintaining skeletal muscle integrity.

  16. The beneficial effects of zinc on diabetes-induced kidney damage in murine rodent model of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Li, Bing; Dong, Xiaoming; Cui, Wenpeng; Luo, Ping

    2017-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic multi-factorial metabolic disorder resulting from impaired glucose homeostasis. Zinc is a key co-factor for the correct functioning of anti-oxidant enzymes. Zinc deficiency therefore, impairs their synthesis, leading to increased oxidative stress within cells. Zinc deficiency occurs commonly in diabetic patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of varying concentrations of zinc on diabetic nephropathy (DN) and the underlying mechanisms involved. FVB male mice aged 8 weeks were injected intraperitoneally with multiple low-dose streptozotocin at a concentration of 50mg/kg body weight daily for 5 days. Diabetic and age-matched control mice were treated with special diets supplemented with zinc at varying concentrations (0.85mg/kg, 30mg/kg, 150mg/kg) for 3 months. The mice were fed with zinc diets to mimic the process of oral administration of zinc in human. Zinc deficiency to some extent aggravated the damage of diabetic kidney. Feeding with normal (30mg/kg zinc/kg diet) and especially high (150mg/kg zinc/kg diet) concentration zinc could protect the kidney against diabetes-induced damage. The beneficial effects of zinc on DN are achieved most likely due to the upregulation of Nrf2 and its downstream factors NQO1, SOD1, SOD2. Zinc upregulated the expression of Akt phosphorylation and GSK-3β phosphorylation, resulting in a reduction in Fyn nuclear translocation and export of Nrf2 to the cytosol. Thus, regular monitoring and maintaining of adequate levels of zinc are recommended in diabetic individuals in order to delay the development of DN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuroprotective effect of peroxiredoxin 6 against hypoxia-induced retinal ganglion cell damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Anil

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to respond to changes in the extra-intracellular environment is prerequisite for cell survival. Cellular responses to the environment include elevating defense systems, such as the antioxidant defense system. Hypoxia-evoked reactive oxygen species (ROS-driven oxidative stress is an underlying mechanism of retinal ganglion cell (RGC death that leads to blinding disorders. The protein peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6 plays a pleiotropic role in negatively regulating death signaling in response to stressors, and thereby stabilizes cellular homeostasis. Results We have shown that RGCs exposed to hypoxia (1% or hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride display reduced expression of PRDX6 with higher ROS expression and activation of NF-κB. These cells undergo apoptosis, while cells with over-expression of PRDX6 demonstrate resistance against hypoxia-driven RGC death. The RGCs exposed to hypoxia either with 1% oxygen or cobalt chloride (0-400 μM, revealed ~30%-70% apoptotic cell death after 48 and 72 h of exposure. Western analysis and real-time PCR showed elevated expression of PRDX6 during hypoxia at 24 h, while PRDX6 protein and mRNA expression declined from 48 h onwards following hypoxia exposure. Concomitant with this, RGCs showed increased ROS expression and activation of NF-κB with IkB phosphorylation/degradation, as examined with H2DCF-DA and transactivation assays. These hypoxia-induced adverse reactions could be reversed by over-expression of PRDX6. Conclusion Because an abundance of PRDX6 in cells was able to attenuate hypoxia-induced RGC death, the protein could possibly be developed as a novel therapeutic agent acting to postpone RGC injury and delay the progression of glaucoma and other disorders caused by the increased-ROS-generated death signaling related to hypoxia.

  18. The effects of different fractions of Coriandrum sativum on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures and brain tissues oxidative damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Anaeigoudari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present work, the effects of different fractions of Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum, on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizures and brain tissues oxidative damage were investigated in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into the following groups: (1 vehicle, (2 PTZ (90 mg/kg, (3 water fraction (WF of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg, (4 n-butanol fraction (NBF of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg, and (5 ethyl acetate fraction (EAF of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg. Results: The first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS latency in groups treated with 100 mg /kg of WF or EAF was significantly higher than that of PTZ group (p< 0.01. In contrast to WF, the EAF and NBF were not effective in increasing the first minimal clonic seizure (MCS latency. Malondialdehyde (MDA levels in both cortical and hippocampal tissues of PTZ group were significantly higher than those of control animals (p< 0.001. Pretreatment with WF, NBF, or EAF resulted in a significant reduction in the MDA levels of hippocampi (pConclusion: The present study showed that different fractions of C. sativum possess antioxidant activity in the brain and WF and EAF of this plant have anticonvulsant effects.

  19. Protective effect of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis prickly pear juice upon ethanol-induced damages in rat erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaeidh, Najla; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Ben Rhouma, Khémais

    2012-05-01

    Juice from the fruit of the cactus Opuntia ficus indica is claimed to possess several health-beneficial properties. The present study was carried out to determine whether O. ficus indica f. inermis fruit extract might have a protective effect upon physiological and morphological damages inflicted to erythrocytes membrane by chronic ethanol poisoning, per os, in rat. Chemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and betalains. Ethanol administration (3 g/kg b.w, per day for 90 days) induced an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonylated proteins levels and a decrease of glutathione (GSH) level in erythrocyte. Ethanol administration also reduced the scavenging activity in plasma and enhanced erythrocytes hemolysis, as compared to control rats. In addition, ethanol intake increased the erythrocyte shape index by +895.5% and decreased the erythrocyte diameter by -61.53% as compared to controls. In animals also given prickly pear juice during the same experimental period, the studied parameters were much less shifted. This protective effect was found to be dose-dependent. It is likely that the beneficial effect of the extract is due to the high content of antioxidant compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra var. henenis Strapf) leaf extract on ultraviolet B-induced skin damages in mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Se Lim; Lee, Hae June; Moon, Chang Jong; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Kang, Seong Soo; Kim, Sung Ho; Jang, Jong Sik; Jo, Sung Kee

    2007-01-01

    The effects of bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra var. henenis Strapf) Leaf Extract (BLE) on the changes of UltraViolet (UV) light B radiation-induced apoptotic SunBurn Cell (SBC) and epidermal ATPase-positive Dendritic Cell (DC) in SKHI-hr or ICR mouse were investigated. The mice were treated with UVB (200 mJ/cm 2 ) and were sacrificed 24 hours later. BLE (50 mg/kg of body weight) or vehicle (saline) was given i.p. at 36 and 12 hours before irradiation, and 30 minutes after irradiation. BLE cream (0.2%) or cream base (vehicle) was also topically treated at 24 hours and 15 minutes before irradiation, and immediately after irradiation. The skin of SKH1-hr mouse prepared from the back of untreated mice exhibited about 0.3 SBC/cm length of epidermis, and 24 hours after UV irradiation, the applied areas show an increased number of SBCs. But the frequency of UVB-induced SBC formation was significantly reduced by intraperitoneal injection (59.0%) and topical application (31.8%) of BLE extract. The numbers of DC in normal ICR mouse were 628.00±51.56 or 663.20±62.58 per mm 2 of ear epidermis. By 1 day after UVB treatment, the number of ATPase-positive cells/mm 2 were decreased by 39.0% or 27.1% in i.p. or topical application group with vehicle. The frequency of UVB(200 mJ/cm 2 )-induced DC decrease was reduced by treatment of BLE as 25.7% in i.p. group and 3.2% in topical application group compared with the irradiation control group. The results presented herein that BLE administration could reduce the extent of skin damages produced by UVB

  1. The effect of bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra var. henenis Strapf) leaf extract on ultraviolet B-induced skin damages in mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Se Lim; Lee, Hae June; Moon, Chang Jong; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Kang, Seong Soo; Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jong Sik [Sangju National Univ., Sangju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Sung Kee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    The effects of bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra var. henenis Strapf) Leaf Extract (BLE) on the changes of UltraViolet (UV) light B radiation-induced apoptotic SunBurn Cell (SBC) and epidermal ATPase-positive Dendritic Cell (DC) in SKHI-hr or ICR mouse were investigated. The mice were treated with UVB (200 mJ/cm{sup 2}) and were sacrificed 24 hours later. BLE (50 mg/kg of body weight) or vehicle (saline) was given i.p. at 36 and 12 hours before irradiation, and 30 minutes after irradiation. BLE cream (0.2%) or cream base (vehicle) was also topically treated at 24 hours and 15 minutes before irradiation, and immediately after irradiation. The skin of SKH1-hr mouse prepared from the back of untreated mice exhibited about 0.3 SBC/cm length of epidermis, and 24 hours after UV irradiation, the applied areas show an increased number of SBCs. But the frequency of UVB-induced SBC formation was significantly reduced by intraperitoneal injection (59.0%) and topical application (31.8%) of BLE extract. The numbers of DC in normal ICR mouse were 628.00{+-}51.56 or 663.20{+-}62.58 per mm{sup 2} of ear epidermis. By 1 day after UVB treatment, the number of ATPase-positive cells/mm{sup 2} were decreased by 39.0% or 27.1% in i.p. or topical application group with vehicle. The frequency of UVB(200 mJ/cm{sup 2})-induced DC decrease was reduced by treatment of BLE as 25.7% in i.p. group and 3.2% in topical application group compared with the irradiation control group. The results presented herein that BLE administration could reduce the extent of skin damages produced by UVB.

  2. Space Radiation Induced Cytogenetic Damage in the Blood Lymphocytes of Astronauts: Persistence of Damage After Flight and the Effects of Repeat Long Duration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Kerry; Rhone, Jordan; Chappell, L. J.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2010-01-01

    Cytogenetic damage was assessed in blood lymphocytes from astronauts before and after they participated in long-duration space missions of three months or more. The frequency of chromosome damage was measured by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting before flight and at various intervals from a few days to many months after return from the mission. For all individuals, the frequency of chromosome exchanges measured within a month of return from space was higher than their prefight yield. However, some individuals showed a temporal decline in chromosome damage with time after flight. Statistical analysis using combined data for all astronauts indicated a significant overall decreasing trend in total chromosome exchanges with time after flight, although this trend was not seen for all astronauts and the yield of chromosome damage in some individuals actually increased with time after flight. The decreasing trend in total exchanges was slightly more significant when statistical analysis was restricted to data collected more than 220 days after return from flight. In addition, limited data on multiple flights show a lack of correlation between time in space and translocation yields. Data from three crewmembers who has participated in two separate long-duration space missions provide limited information on the effect of repeat flights and show a possible adaptive response to space radiation exposure.

  3. Radiation-induced liver damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcial, V.A.; Santiago-Delpin, E.A.; Lanaro, A.E.; Castro-Vita, H.; Arroyo, G.; Moscol, J.A.; Gomez, C.; Velazquez, J.; Prado, K.

    1977-01-01

    Due to the recent increase in the use of radiation therapy in the treatment of cancer with or without chemotherapy, the risk of liver radiation damage has become a significant concern for the radiotherapist when the treated tumour is located in the upper abdomen or lower thorax. Clinically evident radiation liver damage may result in significant mortality, but at times patients recover without sequelae. The dose of 3000 rads in 3 weeks to the entire liver with 5 fractions per week of 200 rads each, seems to be tolerated well clinically by adult humans. Lower doses may lead to damage when used in children, when chemotherapy is added, as in recent hepatectomy cases, and in the presence of pre-existent liver damage. Reduced fractionation may lead to increased damage. Increased fractionation, limitation of the dose delivered to the entire liver, and restriction of the high dose irradiation volume may afford protection. With the aim of studying the problems of hepatic radiation injury in humans, a project of liver irradiation in the dog is being conducted. Mongrel dogs are being conditioned, submitted to pre-irradiation studies (haemogram, blood chemistry, liver scan and biopsy), irradiated under conditions resembling human cancer therapy, and submitted to post-irradiation evaluation of the liver. Twenty-two dogs have been entered in the study but only four qualify for the evaluation of all the study parameters. It has been found that dogs are susceptible to liver irradiation damage similar to humans. The initial mortality has been high mainly due to non-radiation factors which are being kept under control at the present phase of the study. After the initial experiences, the study will involve variations in total dose and fractionation, and the addition of anticoagulant therapy for possible prevention of radiation liver injury. (author)

  4. Effect of Abrasion-Induced Contact Damage on the Optical Properties and Strength of Float Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-07

    in glass. J Am Ceram Soc. 1969;52(6):338–339. 2. Mecholsky JJ Jr, Freiman SW, Rice RW. Effect of grinding on flaw geometry and fracture of glass. J...Am Ceram Soc. 1977;60(3–4):114–117. 3. Rice RW, Mecholsky JJ Jr. The nature of strength controlling machining flaws in ceramics. In: Hockey BJ, Rice...National Bureau of Standards; 1979. p. 351–378. 4. Rice RW, Mecholsky JJ Jr, Becher PF. The effect of grinding direction on flaw character and

  5. Common effects of lithium and valproate on mitochondrial functions: protection against methamphetamine-induced mitochondrial damage

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Rosilla F.; Wang, Yun; Yuan, Peixiong; Zhou, Rulun; Li, Xiaoxia; Alesci, Salvatore; Du, Jing; Manji, Husseini K.

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the progression of a variety of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Thus, enhancing mitochondrial function could potentially help ameliorate the impairments of neural plasticity and cellular resilience associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. A series of studies was undertaken to investigate the effects of mood stabilizers on mitochondrial function, and against mitochondrially media...

  6. Effects of Chinese Propolis in Protecting Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells against Mastitis Pathogens-Induced Cell Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Jin, Xiao-Lu; Shen, Xiao-Ge; Sun, Li-Ping; Wu, Li-Ming; Wei, Jiang-Qin; Marcucci, Maria Cristina; Hu, Fu-Liang; Liu, Jian-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Chinese propolis (CP), an important hive product, can alleviate inflammatory responses. However, little is known regarding the potential of propolis treatment for mastitis control. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of CP on bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T), we used a range of pathogens to induce cellular inflammatory damage. Cell viability was determined and expressions of inflammatory/antioxidant genes were measured. Using a cell-based reporter assay system, we evaluated CP and its primary constituents on the NF-κB and Nrf2-ARE transcription activation. MAC-T cells treated with bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS), heat-inactivated Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus exhibited significant decreases in cell viability while TNF-α and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) did not. Pretreatment with CP prevented losses in cell viability associated with the addition of killed bacteria or bacterial endotoxins. There were also corresponding decreases in expressions of proinflammatory IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA. Compared with the mastitis challenged cells, enhanced expressions of antioxidant genes HO-1, Txnrd-1, and GCLM were observed in CP-treated cells. CP and its polyphenolic active components (primarily caffeic acid phenethyl ester and quercetin) had strong inhibitive effects against NF-κB activation and increased the transcriptional activity of Nrf2-ARE. These findings suggest that propolis may be valuable in the control of bovine mastitis.

  7. Effects of Chinese Propolis in Protecting Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells against Mastitis Pathogens-Induced Cell Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese propolis (CP, an important hive product, can alleviate inflammatory responses. However, little is known regarding the potential of propolis treatment for mastitis control. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of CP on bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T, we used a range of pathogens to induce cellular inflammatory damage. Cell viability was determined and expressions of inflammatory/antioxidant genes were measured. Using a cell-based reporter assay system, we evaluated CP and its primary constituents on the NF-κB and Nrf2-ARE transcription activation. MAC-T cells treated with bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS, heat-inactivated Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus exhibited significant decreases in cell viability while TNF-α and lipoteichoic acid (LTA did not. Pretreatment with CP prevented losses in cell viability associated with the addition of killed bacteria or bacterial endotoxins. There were also corresponding decreases in expressions of proinflammatory IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA. Compared with the mastitis challenged cells, enhanced expressions of antioxidant genes HO-1, Txnrd-1, and GCLM were observed in CP-treated cells. CP and its polyphenolic active components (primarily caffeic acid phenethyl ester and quercetin had strong inhibitive effects against NF-κB activation and increased the transcriptional activity of Nrf2-ARE. These findings suggest that propolis may be valuable in the control of bovine mastitis.

  8. Prevention Effect of Poly-Gamma-Glutamic Acid on Tissue Damage Induced by Gamma Irradiation as a Natural Cross-Linker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaehun; Sung, Nakyun; Kim, Jeongsoo; Jo, Euri; Choi, Jongil; Park, Jongheum; Lee, Juwoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwangwon [Eulji Univ. Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jungkee [Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Taewoon [Jeonbuk Technopark, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    This study was to determine the prevention effect of poly-gamma-glutamic acid (PGA) on tissue damage induced by gamma irradiation for development of xenograft. PGA (MW 2000 kDa) extracted from permeated soy bean (natto) was used in this study as natural compound, and glutaraldehyde (GA) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) were used as a control, chemical based cross-linking agents. GA, EDC and PGA treated porcine tendons were gamma-irradiated at the dose of 30 kGy. Prevention effects against tissue damage were measured as the result of tensile strength, hydroxyproline contents and tissue morphological analysis. Tensile of porcine tendon was remarkably decreased by gamma irradiation, but increased in PGA treated group. Morphological analysis showed that collagen structure was broken by gamma irradiation, but attenuated by PGA treatment. Base on the results, it demonstrated that gamma irradiation can induce severe alteration of porcine tendon, but PGA can effectively improve the tissue damage.

  9. Prevention Effect of Poly-Gamma-Glutamic Acid on Tissue Damage Induced by Gamma Irradiation as a Natural Cross-Linker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jaehun; Sung, Nakyun; Kim, Jeongsoo; Jo, Euri; Choi, Jongil; Park, Jongheum; Lee, Juwoon; Lee, Kwangwon; Kwon, Jungkee; Kim, Taewoon

    2012-01-01

    This study was to determine the prevention effect of poly-gamma-glutamic acid (PGA) on tissue damage induced by gamma irradiation for development of xenograft. PGA (MW 2000 kDa) extracted from permeated soy bean (natto) was used in this study as natural compound, and glutaraldehyde (GA) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) were used as a control, chemical based cross-linking agents. GA, EDC and PGA treated porcine tendons were gamma-irradiated at the dose of 30 kGy. Prevention effects against tissue damage were measured as the result of tensile strength, hydroxyproline contents and tissue morphological analysis. Tensile of porcine tendon was remarkably decreased by gamma irradiation, but increased in PGA treated group. Morphological analysis showed that collagen structure was broken by gamma irradiation, but attenuated by PGA treatment. Base on the results, it demonstrated that gamma irradiation can induce severe alteration of porcine tendon, but PGA can effectively improve the tissue damage

  10. Protective effects of vitamins C and E against γ-ray-induced chromosomal damage in mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, L.; Kesavan, P.C.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of vitamins C and E on bone marrow chromosomes of the mouse exposed to 1 Gy of whole-body γ-irradiation were studied. These vitamins, dissolved in water/peanut oil, were administered orally as acute doses, either 2 h before, immediately after, or 2 h after irradiation. Both vitamins significantly reduced the frequencies of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells; radioprotection by vitamin E was, however, appreciably greater than that afforded by vitamin C. Administration of the vitamins to mice immediately after irradiation was as effective as that 2 h before irradiation. A sequential treatment consisting of both the vitamins did not result in additional radioprotection over that afforded by vitamin E alone. The probable mechanisms of radioprotection are discussed. (author)

  11. Protective Effects of Dihydromyricetin against •OH-Induced Mesenchymal Stem Cells Damage and Mechanistic Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xican Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As a natural flavonoid in Ampelopsis grossedentata, dihydromyricetin (DHM, 2R,3R-3,5,7,3′,4′,5′-hexahydroxy-2,3-dihydroflavonol was observed to increase the viability of •OH-treated mesenchymal stem cells using a MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl] assay and flow cytometry analysis. This protective effect indicates DHM may be a beneficial agent for cell transplantation therapy. Mechanistic chemistry studies indicated that compared with myricetin, DHM was less effective at ABTS+• (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging and reducing Cu2+, and had higher •O2− and DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities. Additionally, DHM could also chelate Fe2+ to give an absorption maximum at 589 nm. Hence, such protective effect of DHM may arise from its antioxidant activities which are thought to occur via direct radical-scavenging and Fe2+-chelation. Direct radical-scavenging involves an electron transfer (ET pathway. The hydrogenation of the 2,3-double bond is hypothesized to reduce the ET process by blocking the formation of a larger π-π conjugative system. The glycosidation of the 3–OH in myricitrin is assumed to sterically hinder atom transfer in the •O2− and DPPH• radical-scavenging processes. In DHM, the Fe2+-chelating effect can actually be attributed to the 5,3′,4′,5′–OH and 4–C=O groups, and the 3–OH group itself can neither scavenge radicals nor chelate metal.

  12. Cellular Responses to Cisplatin-Induced DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alakananda Basu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin is one of the most effective anticancer agents widely used in the treatment of solid tumors. It is generally considered as a cytotoxic drug which kills cancer cells by damaging DNA and inhibiting DNA synthesis. How cells respond to cisplatin-induced DNA damage plays a critical role in deciding cisplatin sensitivity. Cisplatin-induced DNA damage activates various signaling pathways to prevent or promote cell death. This paper summarizes our current understandings regarding the mechanisms by which cisplatin induces cell death and the bases of cisplatin resistance. We have discussed various steps, including the entry of cisplatin inside cells, DNA repair, drug detoxification, DNA damage response, and regulation of cisplatin-induced apoptosis by protein kinases. An understanding of how various signaling pathways regulate cisplatin-induced cell death should aid in the development of more effective therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer.

  13. Protective effect of apple (Ralls) polyphenol extract against aluminum-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative damage in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dai; Xi, Yu; Cao, Jiankang; Cao, Dongdong; Ma, Yuxia; Jiang, Weibo

    2014-12-01

    Aluminum (Al) has long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Dietary polyphenols have been strongly associated with reduced risk of AD and the other nervous diseases. We aimed to evaluate the preventive effect of the apple polyphenol extract (APE) on Al-induced biotoxicity, in order to provide a new focus on the design of strategies to prevent AD and the other human diseases related to Al overload. Control, Al-treated (171.8 mg Al kg(-1)day(-1) 10 weeks), APE+Al (Al-treatment as previously plus 200 mg kg(-1)day(-1) 10 weeks), and group of APE per se were used. Al intake caused memory impairment, significant decrease of acetylcholinesterase, CK, SOD, CAT activity and the rate of ATP synthesis, increase the Al content, the level of malondialdehyde and β-amyloid 42. Administration of APE significantly improved memory retention, attenuated oxidative damage, acetylcholinesterase activity and Al level in Al treated rats. Furthermore, chlorogenic acid (ChA) was used for analyzing stability of polyphenols-Al(3+) complex. Log K1 was 10.51, and the mole ratio of Al(3+) to ligand was 1:1. We further found that the amounts of Al increased significantly in feces of the rats gavaged with AlCl3 plus ChA compared with AlCl3. Our finding has shown APE has neuroprotective effects against Al-induced biotoxicity. Chelating with Al and disturbing its absorption could account for the neuroprotective roles of dietary polyphenols against Al toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L against nicotine-induced damage on sperm parameters, testosterone and testis tissue in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Cyrus; Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza; Naseri, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Nicotine consumption can decrease fertility drive in males by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urtica dioica L (U.dioica) is a multipurpose herb in traditional medicine for which some anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties have been identified. The main goal is to investigate whether the U.dioica could inhibit nicotine adverse effects on sperm cells viability, count, motility, and testis histology and testosterone hormone. In this study, hydro-alcoholic extract of U.dioica was prepared and various doses of U.dioica (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) and U.dioica plus nicotine (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally to 56 male mice for 28 consequent days. These mice were randomly assigned to 8 groups (n=7) and sperm parameters (sperm cells viability, count, motility, and morphology), testis and prostate weight, testis histology and testosterone hormone were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that nicotine administration (0.5 mg/kg) significantly decreased testosterone level, count and motility of sperm cells, and testis weight compared to control group (p=0.00). However, increasing the dose of U.dioica significantly boosted motility, count, normal morphology of sperm cells, seminiferous tubules diameter, and testosterone in all groups compared to control (p=0.00) and testis weight in 20 and 50 mg/kg doses in comparison with control group (p=0.00). It seems that U.dioica hydro-alcoholic extract administration could increase the quality of spermatozoa and inhibits nicotine-induced adverse effects on sperm parameters.

  15. Hepatoprotective effect of Opuntia dillenii seed oil on CCl4 induced acute liver damage in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Bouhrim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of Opuntia dillenii seed oil (ODSO on CCl4 provoked liver injury in rat. Methods: Animals were treated orally with ODSO at a concentration of 2 mL/kg, once daily for one week before the first intraperitoneal injection of CCl4, and thereafter the administration of the oil was continued for 7 days until the introduction of the second injection of CCl4. Fourteen hours after the last dose of CCl4, rats were sacrificed, and the relative liver weight, weight gain, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate amino transferase, alanine aminotransferase, direct bilirubin, total bilirubin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, plasmatic glucose, urea, creatinine, acid uric and malondialdehyde were determined. Results: The significant increase was found in relative liver weight and plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein, urea, uric acid and malondialdehyde. Likewise, the significant decrease was indicated in the weight gain and the level of glucose plasmatic, and high-density lipoprotein levels in CCl4 produced liver injury in rats were re-established to normal levels when treated with ODSO. While, no change was observed in the total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein and creatinine in all animals. Conclusions: We conclude that the ODSO has a protective effect on CCl4-mediated liver injury. Hence, we suggest its inclusion as a preventive control of liver disorders.

  16. Effect of proton and electron-irradiation intensity on radiation-induced damages in silicon bioolar transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikov, Yu.A.; Gorin, B.M.; Kozhevnikov, V.P.; Mikhnovich, V.V.; Gusev, L.I.

    1981-01-01

    The increase of radiation-induced damages of bipolar n-p-n transistors 8-12 times with the irradiation intensity decrease by protons from 4.07x1010 to 2.5x107 cm-2 x c-1 has been found experimentally. damages of p-n-p transistors vary in the opposite way - they are decreased 2-3 times with the irradiation intensity decrease within the same limits. the dependence of damages on intansity of proton irradiation occurs at the dose rate by three orders less than it has been observed for electron irradiation. the results obtained are explained by the dependence of radiation defectoformation reactions on charge state of defects with account for the role of formation of disordering regions upon proton irradiation [ru

  17. Effect of extracts from araticum (Annona crassiflora on CCl4-induced liver damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Roesler

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of ethanolic extracts of Annona crassiflora on the activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes was examined. Extracts of A. crassiflora seeds and peel were administered orally (50 mg of galic acid equivalents.kg-1 to Wistar rats for 14 consecutive days followed by a single oral dose of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 2 g.kg-1. Lipid peroxidation and the activities of hepatic catalase (CAT, cytochromes P450 (CP450 and b5, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GRed, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and the content of glutathione equivalents (GSH were evaluated. The treatment with CCl4 increased lipid peroxidation, the level of GSH equivalents and the content of cytochrome b5 by 44, 140 and 32%, respectively, with concomitant reductions of 23, 34 and 39% in the activities of CAT, SOD, and CP450, respectively. The treatment with A. crassiflora seeds and peel extracts alone inhibited lipid peroxidation by 27 and 22%, respectively without affecting the CP450 content. The pretreatment with the A. crassiflora extracts prevented the lipid peroxidation, the increase in GSH equivalents and the decrease in CAT activity caused by CCl4, but it had no effect on the CCl4-mediated changes in CP450 and b5 and SOD. These results show that A. crassiflora seeds and peel contain antioxidant activity in vivo that could be of potential therapeutic use.

  18. Genetic Damage Induced by Accidental Environmental Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Pérez-Cadahía

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum is one of the main energy sources worldwide. Its transport is performed by big tankers following some established marine routes. In the last 50 years a total amount of 37 oil tankers have given rise to great spills in different parts of the world, Prestige being the last one. After the accident, a big human mobilisation took place in order to clean beaches, rocks and fauna, trying to reduce the environmental consequences of this serious catastrophe. These people were exposed to the complex mixture of compounds contained in the oil. This study aimed at determine the level of environmental exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOC, and the possible damage induced on the population involved in the different cleaning tasks by applying the genotoxicity tests sister chromatid exchanges (SCE, micronucleus (MN test, and comet assay. Four groups of individuals were included: volunteers (V, hired manual workers (MW, hired high-pressure cleaner workers (HPW and controls. The higher VOC levels were associated with V environment, followed by MW and lastly by HPW, probably due to the use of high-pressure cleaners. Oil exposure during the cleaning tasks has caused an increase in the genotoxic damage in individuals, the comet assay being the most sensitive biomarker to detect it. Sex, age and tobacco consumption have shown to influence the level of genetic damage, while the effect of using protective devices was less noticeable than expected, perhaps because the kind used was not the most adequate.

  19. Effect of exercise-induced dehydration on circulatory markers of oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Vincent P; de Souza Junior, Tacito P; Behrens, Christian; Barros, Marcelo P; Bueno, Carlos Alves; Utter, Alan C; McAnulty, Lisa S; McAnulty, Steven R

    2017-07-01

    Dehydration is a common event associated with exercise. However, few studies have examined the effects of dehydration on plasma redox status in humans. Eighty-two athletes were recruited and baseline anthropometrics and blood samples were obtained. Athletes then engaged in a dehydration protocol, training until 3% of preweight body mass was lost. Athletes returned to the lab and had postdehydration blood collected. Athletes then consumed an isotonic drink until pre-exercise body weight was reestablished. Blood was then recollected (1 h post full rehydration (PFR)). Samples were centrifuged and the plasma snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C. Lipid and protein oxidative stress was determined by measuring F 2 -isoprostanes and protein carbonyls (PC), respectively. Antioxidant capacity was determined by the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Plasma osmolality was determined using an osmometer. Statistical analysis utilized a 1-way ANOVA with posthoc testing. Values are reported as mean ± SD. Plasma osmolality was significantly elevated immediately postdehydration (p ≤ 0.001) but decreased to baseline at PFR. Plasma TEAC increased immediately postdehydration and at PFR (p ≤ 0.001). FRAP increased immediately postdehydration (p ≤ 0.001) and decreased to below baseline at PFR (p ≤ 0.05). Conversely, F 2 -isoprostanes declined significantly from baseline to immediately postdehydration and then significantly rose at PFR (p ≤ 0.001), whereas PC declined at PFR (p ≤ 0.01). This study indicates that dehydration and exercise cause a significant increase in plasma osmolality and antioxidant potential immediately postexercise. We propose dehydration significantly elevates antioxidant concentration which suppresses F 2 -isoprostanes and PC.

  20. Damage-induced tensile instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hult, J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper presents a unified description of ductile and brittle rupture phenomena in structural components under tensile loading with particular emphasis on creep rupture. Two structural elements are analyzed in detail: 1) the uniform tensile bar subject to a Heaviside history of tensile force and superimposed such loadings, i.e. staircase histories, and 2) the thinwalled spherical pressure vessel subject to a Heaviside history of internal pressure. For both these structures the conditions for instantaneous as well as delayed rupture are analysed. It is shown that a state of mechanical instability will be reached at a certain load or after a certain time. The cases of purely ductile rupture and purely brittle fracture are identified as two limiting cases of this general instability phenomenon. The Kachanov-Rabotnov damage law implies that a structural component will fail in tension only when it has reached a state of complete damage, i.e. zero load carrying capacity. The extended law predicts failure at an earlier stage of the deterioration process and is therefore more compatible with experimental observation. Further experimental support is offered by predictions for staircase loading histories, both step-up and step-down type. The presented damage theory here predicts strain histories which are in closer agreement with test data than predictions based on other phenomenological theories

  1. Impact-Induced Muscle Damage and Contact-Sport: Aetiology, Effects on Neuromuscular Function and Recovery, and the Modulating Effects of Adaptation and Recovery Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Mitchell; Miller, Joanna; Slater, Gary J

    2017-11-28

    Athletes involved in contact-sports are habitually exposed to skeletal muscle damage as part of their training and performance environments. This often leads to exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) resulting from repeated eccentric and/or high-intensity exercise, and impact-induced muscle damage (IIMD) resulting from collisions with opponents and the playing surface. Whilst EIMD has been an area of extensive investigation, IIMD has received comparatively little research, with the magnitude and timeframe of alterations following IIMD not presently well understood. It is currently thought that EIMD occurs through an overload of mechanical stress causing ultrastructural damage to the cellular membrane constituents. Damage leads to compromised ability to produce force which manifest immediately and persist for up to 14 days following exercise exposure. IIMD has been implicated in attenuated neuromuscular performance and recovery with inflammatory process implicated, although the underlying time course remains unclear. Exposure to EIMD leads to an adaptation to subsequent exposures, a phenomenon known as the repeated-bout effect. An analogous adaptation has been suggested to occur following IIMD, however, to date this contention remains equivocal. Whilst a considerable body of research has explored the efficacy of recovery strategies following EIMD, strategies promoting recovery from IIMD are limited to investigations using animal contusion models. Strategies such as cryotherapy and antioxidant supplementation, which focus on attenuating the secondary inflammatory response may provide additional benefit in IIMD and are explored herein. Further research is required to firstly establish a model of generating IIMD and then explore broader areas around IIMD in athletic populations.

  2. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effect of Hibiscus Polyphenol Rich Extract (HPE) Against Carbon Tetrachloride (CCL4) - Induced Damage in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Adetutu, Adewale; Owoade, Abiodun O.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Hibiscus sabdariffa is a medicinal plant that is consumed for its health benefits in Africa. The study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective potentials of Hibiscus polyphenolic rich extract (HPE), (a group of phenolic compounds occurring in the dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa) against CCl4-induced damaged in rats. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho, Nigeria, between January 2011 and June 2012. Method...

  3. Protective effect of enzymatic hydrolysates from highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senevirathne, Mahinda; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Jeon, You-Jin

    2010-06-01

    Blueberry was enzymatically hydrolyzed using selected commercial food grade carbohydrases (AMG, Celluclast, Termamyl, Ultraflo and Viscozyme) and proteases (Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Kojizyme, Neutrase and Protamex) to obtain water soluble compounds, and their protective effect was investigated against H(2)O(2)-induced damage in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line (V79-4) via various published methods. Both AMG and Alcalase hydrolysates showed higher total phenolic content as well as higher cell viability and ROS scavenging activities, and hence, selected for further antioxidant assays. Both AMG and Alcalase hydrolysates also showed higher protective effects against lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptotic body formation in a dose-dependent fashion. Thus, the results indicated that water soluble compounds obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of blueberry possess good antioxidant activity against H(2)O(2)-induced cell damage in vitro.

  4. The prospective protective effect of selenium nanoparticles against chromium-induced oxidative and cellular damage in rat thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassanin KMA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Kamel MA Hassanin,1 Samraa H Abd El-Kawi,2 Khalid S Hashem1 1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 2Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt Background: Nanotechnology has enabled researchers to synthesize nanosize particles that possess increased surface areas. Compared to conventional microparticles, it has resulted in increased interactions with biological targets. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the protective ability of selenium nanoparticles against hexavalent chromium-induced thyrotoxicity. Design: Twenty male rats were used in the study, and arbitrarily assigned to four groups. Group 1 was the control group, and was given phosphate-buffered saline. Group 2 was the chromium-treated group and was given K2Cr2O7 60 µg/kg body weight intraperitoneally as a single dose on the third day of administration. Group 3 was the nano-selenium-treated group and was given selenium nanoparticles (size 3–20 nm 0.5 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally daily for 5 consecutive days. Group 4 was the nano-selenium chromium-treated group, which received selenium nanoparticles for 5 days and a single dose of K2Cr2O7 on the third day of administration. Materials and methods: Blood samples were collected from rats for measuring thyroid hormones (free triiodothyronine [T3] and free thyroxine [T4] and oxidative and antioxidant parameters (malondialdehyde [MDA], reduced glutathione [GSH], catalase, and superoxide dismutase [SOD]. Upon dissection, thyroid glands were taken for histopathological examination by using paraffin preparations stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and Masson’s trichrome. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for detecting cellular proliferation using Ki67 antibodies. Results: The present study shows that K2Cr2O7 has a toxic effect on the thyroid gland as a result of inducing a marked oxidative damage and release of reactive oxygen species

  5. Effects of Spirulina platensis on DNA damage and chromosomal aberration against cadmium chloride-induced genotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Fayza M; Kotb, Ahmed M; Hammad, Seddik

    2018-04-01

    Todays, bioactive compounds extracted from Spirulina platensis have been intensively studied for their therapeutical values. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of S. platensis extract on DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations induced by cadmium in rats. Four groups of male albino rats (n = 7 rats) were used. The first group served as a control group and received distilled water. The second group was exposed intraperitoneally to cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) (3.5 mg/kg body weight dissolved in 2 ml distilled water). The third group included the rats that were orally treated with S. platensis extract (1 g/kg dissolved in 5 ml distilled water, every other day for 30 days). The fourth group included the rats that were intraperitoneally and orally exposed to cadmium chloride and S. platensis, respectively. The experiment in all groups was extended for 60 days. The results of cadmium-mediated toxicity revealed significant genetic effects (DNA fragmentation, deletion or disappearance of some base pairs of DNA, and appearance of few base pairs according to ISSR-PCR analysis). Moreover, chromosomes showed structural aberrations such as reduction of chromosomal number, chromosomal ring, chromatid deletions, chromosomal fragmentations, and dicentric chromosomes. Surprisingly, S. platensis extract plus CdCl 2 -treated group showed less genetic effects compared with CdCl 2 alone. Further, S. platensis extract upon CdCl 2 toxicity was associated with less chromosomal aberration number and nearly normal appearance of DNA fragments as indicated by the bone marrow and ISSR-PCR analysis, respectively. In conclusion, the present novel study showed that co-treatment with S. platensis extract could reduce the genotoxic effects of CdCl 2 in rats.

  6. Cytoprotective effect against UV-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress: role of new biological UV filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, T; Dutot, M; Martin, C; Beaudeux, J-L; Boucher, C; Enee, E; Baudouin, C; Warnet, J-M; Rat, P

    2007-03-01

    The majority of chemical solar filters are cytotoxic, particularly on sensitive ocular cells (corneal and conjunctival cells). Consequently, a non-cytotoxic UV filter would be interesting in dermatology, but more especially in ophthalmology. In fact, light damage to the eye can be avoided thanks to a very efficient ocular antioxidant system; indeed, the chromophores absorb light and dissipate its energy. After middle age, a decrease in the production of antioxidants and antioxidative enzymes appears with accumulation of endogenous molecules that are phototoxic. UV radiations can induce reactive oxygen species formation, leading to various ocular diseases. Because most UV filters are cytotoxic for the eye, we investigated the anti-UV properties of Calophyllum inophyllum oil in order to propose it as a potential vehicle, free of toxicity, with a natural UV filter action in ophthalmic formulation. Calophyllum inophyllum oil, even at low concentration (1/10,000, v/v), exhibited significant UV absorption properties (maximum at 300nm) and was associated with an important sun protection factor (18-22). Oil concentrations up to 1% were not cytotoxic on human conjunctival epithelial cells, and Calophyllum inophyllum oil appeared to act as a cytoprotective agent against oxidative stress and DNA damage (85% of the DNA damage induced by UV radiations were inhibited with 1% Calophyllum oil) and did not induce in vivo ocular irritation (Draize test on New Zealand rabbits). Calophyllum inophyllum oil thus exhibited antioxidant and cytoprotective properties, and therefore might serve, for the first time, as a natural UV filter in ophthalmic preparations.

  7. Antioxidative effects of fermented sesame sauce against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in LLC-PK1 porcine renal tubule cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jia-Le; Choi, Jung-Ho; Seo, Jae-Hoon; Kil, Jeung-Ha

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study was performed to investigate the in vitro antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of fermented sesame sauce (FSeS) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage in renal proximal tubule LLC-PK1 cells. MATERIALS/METHODS 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical (•OH), and H2O2 scavenging assay was used to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of FSeS. To investigate the cytoprotective effect of FSeS against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in LLC-PK1 cells, the cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and endogenous antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) were measured. RESULTS The ability of FSeS to scavenge DPPH, •OH and H2O2 was greater than that of FSS and AHSS. FSeS also significantly inhibited H2O2-induced (500 µM) oxidative damage in the LLC-PK1 cells compared to FSS and AHSS (P sauces, FSeS also significantly increased cellular CAT, SOD, and GSH-px activities and mRNA expression (P < 0.05). CONCULUSIONS These results from the present study suggest that FSeS is an effective radical scavenger and protects against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in LLC-PK1 cells by reducing ROS levels, inhibiting lipid peroxidation, and stimulating antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:24741396

  8. Protective Effects of an Ancient Chinese Kidney-Tonifying Formula against H2O2-Induced Oxidative Damage to MES23.5 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yihui; Lin, Wei; Ye, Shuifen; Wang, Huajin; Wang, Tingting; Su, Youyan; Wu, Liangning; Wang, Yuanwang; Xu, Qian; Xu, Chuanshan; Cai, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative damage plays a critical role in the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). In our study, an ancient Chinese kidney-tonifying formula, which consists of Cistanche , Epimedii, and Polygonatum cirrhifolium , was investigated to protect MES23.5 dopaminergic neurons against hydrogen peroxide- (H 2 O 2 -) induced oxidative damage. The damage effects of H 2 O 2 on MES23.5 cells and the protective effects of KTF against oxidative stress were evaluated using MTT assay, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunocytochemistry (ICC), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunoblotting. The results showed that cell viability was dramatically decreased after a 12 h exposure to 150  μ M H 2 O 2 . TEM observation found that the H 2 O 2 -treated MES23.5 cells presented cellular organelle damage. However, when cells were incubated with KTF (3.125, 6.25, and 12.5  μ g/ml) for 24 h after H 2 O 2 exposure, a significant protective effect against H 2 O 2 -induced damage was observed in MES23.5 cells. Using ICC, we found that KTF inhibited the reduction of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) induced by H 2 O 2 , upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of HO-1, CAT, and GPx-1, and downregulated the expression of caspase 3. These results indicated that KTF may provide neuron protection against H 2 O 2 -induced cell damage through ameliorating oxidative stress, and our findings provide a new potential strategy for the prevention and treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  9. protective effect of combined administration of isoflavones genistein and daidzein against irradiation -induced damage in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, O.M.

    2009-01-01

    The renewed interests in the search for plant-derived drugs in the field of alternative medicine necessitate further studies. the present work aimed to evaluate the efficacy of diet phyto estrogens such as diadzein and genistein on repairing oxidative damage and protecting calcium homeostatic system against radiation induced disorders in female rats. soybean isoflavones were orally administered in a dose of 9 mg/kg body wt/day for 21 and 26 days. irradiated animals received diadzein and genistein for 11 consecutive days before exposing female rats to 6 Gy gamma irradiation and continued to receive soybean isoflavones until sacrificed 10 and 15 days post irradiation . Irradiation induced significant decrease in white blood cells(WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (HB), haematocrit (Ht %), glutathione (GSH), calcium (CA) and estradiol, while it induced significant elevation in serum malondialdehyde(MDA), inorganic phosphorus, thyroxine 3 (T 3 ) and thyroxine 4 (T 4 ), 10 and 15 days post -irradiation . diadzein and genistein treatment before and through irradiation accelerated the recovery of circulating WBCs and RBCs, elevated HB, Hct % GSH meanwhile hindered the depression in CA. Soy isoflavones depressed MDA and ameliorated the increase in T 3 , T 4 and elevated estradiol and phosphorus levels 10 and 15 days post irradiation. the results recommend combined treatment with genistein and daidzein to mitigate irradiation-induced damage and bon loss and suggest clinical application of these isoflavones in radiotherapy

  10. DNA damages induced by Ar F laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapel, C.; Rose, S.; Chevrier, L.; Cordier, E.; Courant, D. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Radiobiologie et de Radiopathologie

    2006-07-01

    The photo ablation process used in corneal refractive surgery by the Argon Fluoride (Ar F) laser emitting in ultraviolet C at 193 nm, exposes viable cells round the irradiated zone to sub ablative doses (< 400 joules.m -2). Despite that DNA absorption is higher at 193 nm than 254 nm, cytotoxicity of 193 nm laser radiation is lower than radiation emitted by 254 nm UV-C lamps. In situ, DNA could be protected of laser radiation by cellular components. Consequently, some authors consider that this radiation does not induce genotoxic effect whereas others suspect it to be mutagenic. These lasers are used for fifteen years but many questions remain concerning the long term effects on adjacent cells to irradiated area. The purpose of this study is to describe the effect of 193 nm laser radiation on DNA of stromal keratocytes which are responsible of the corneal structure. The 193 nm laser irradiation induces directly DNA breakage in keratocytes as it has been shown by the comet assay under alkaline conditions. Two hours post irradiation, damages caused by the highest exposure (150 J.m-2) are not repaired as it has been measured with the Olive Tail Moment (product of tail length and tail DNA content). They give partly evidence of induction of an apoptotic process in cells where DNA could be too damaged. In order to characterize specifically double strand breaks, a comparative analysis by immunofluorescence of the H2 Ax histone phosphorylation (H2 Ax) has been performed on irradiated keratocytes and unirradiated keratocytes. Results show a dose dependent increase of the number of H2 Ax positive cells. Consequences of unrepaired DNA lesions could be observed by the generation of micronuclei in cells. Results show again an increase of micronuclei in laser irradiated cells. Chromosomal aberrations have been pointed out by cytogenetic methods 30 mn after irradiation. These aberrations are dose dependent (from 10 to 150 J.m-2). The number of breakage decreases in the long run

  11. Protective effects of the exopolysaccharide Lasiodiplodan against DNA damage and inflammation induced by doxorubicin in rats: Cytogenetic and gene expression assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, M.B.; Machado, C.S.; Ribeiro, D.L.; Aissa, A.F.; Burim, R.V.; Alves da Cunha, M.A.; Barcelos, G.R.M.

    2017-01-01

    The lasiodiplodan (LS) is a β-(1 → 6)-D-glucan produced by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae and some of the biological activities of LS were reported as hypoglycemic, anticoagulant, anti-proliferative and anticancer action; however, its effects on DNA instability and modulation of gene expression are still unclear. Aims of study were investigate the genotoxic effects of lasiodiplodan, and its protective activity against DNA damage induced by doxorubicin (DXR) and its impact on the expression of genes associated with DNA damage and inflammatory response pathways. Therefore, Wistar rats were treated (15 days) orally with LS (5.0; 10 and 20 mg/kg bw) alone and in combination with DXR (15 mg/kg bw; administrated intraperitoneally on 14th day) as well as their respective controls: distilled water and DXR. Monitoring of DNA damage was assessed by comet and micronucleus (MN) assays and gene expression was evaluated by PCR-Arrays. Treatments with LS alone did not induce disturbances on DNA; when LS was given in combination with DXR, comet and MN formations were reduced to those found in the respective controls. Moreover, LS was able to reduce the disturbances on gene expressions induced by DXR treatment, since the animals that receive LS associated with DXR showed no alteration in the expression of genes related to DNA damage response. Also, DXR induced several up- and down-regulation of several genes associated to inflammatory process, while the animals that received LS + DXR had their gene expression patterns similar to those found in the control group. In conclusion, our results showed that LS did not induce disturbances on DNA stability and significantly reduce the DNA damage and inflammation caused by DXR exposure. In addition, we give further information concerning the molecular mechanisms associated to LS protective effects which seems to be a promising nutraceutical with chemopreventive potential.

  12. Nutritional Manipulation of Primate Retinas, V: Effects of Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and n–3 Fatty Acids on Retinal Sensitivity to Blue-Light–Induced Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Felix M.; Snodderly, D. Max; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Schalch, Wolfgang; Koepcke, Wolfgang; Gerss, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Blue-light photooxidative damage has been implicated in the etiology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The macular pigment xanthophylls lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) and n–3 fatty acids may reduce this damage and lower the risk of AMD. This study investigated the effects of the lifelong absence of xanthophylls followed by L or Z supplementation, combined with the effects of n–3 fatty acid deficiency, on acute blue-light photochemical damage. Methods. Subjects included eight rhesus monkeys with no lifelong intake of xanthophylls and no detectable macular pigment. Of these, four had low n–3 fatty acid intake and four had adequate intakes. Control subjects had typical L, Z, and n–3 fatty acid intake. Retinas received 150-μm-diameter exposures of low-power 476-nm laser light at 0.5 mm (∼2°) eccentricity, which is adjacent to the macular pigment peak, and parafoveally at 1.5 mm (∼6°). Exposures of xanthophyll-free animals were repeated after supplementation with pure L or Z for 22 to 28 weeks. Ophthalmoscopically visible lesion areas were plotted as a function of exposure energy, with greater slopes of the regression lines indicating greater sensitivity to damage. Results. In control animals, the fovea was less sensitive to blue-light–induced damage than the parafovea. Foveal protection was absent in xanthophyll-free animals but was evident after supplementation. In the parafovea, animals low in n–3 fatty acids showed greater sensitivity to damage than animals with adequate levels. Conclusions. After long-term xanthophyll deficiency, L or Z supplementation protected the fovea from blue light–induced damage, whereas adequate n–3 fatty acid levels reduced the damage in the parafovea. PMID:21245404

  13. Effects of UV-B radiation on tetraspores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm (Rhodophyta), and effects of red and blue light on repair of UV-B-induced damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Qing; Xiao, Hui; Wang, You; Tang, Xuexi

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of red and blue light on the repair of UV-B radiation-induced damage in tetraspores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm. Tetraspores of C. ocellatus were treated with different UV-B radiation levels (0, 36, 72, 108, 144 and 180 J/m2), and thereafter subjected to PAR, darkness, or red or blue light during a 2-h repair stage, each day for 48 days. The diameters and cellular contents of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimmers (CPDs), chlorophyll a (Chl a), phycoerythrin, and UV-B-absorbing mycosporinelike amino acids (MAAs) contents of the tetraspores were determined. Our results show that low doses of UV-B radiation (36 and 72 J/m2) promoted the growth of C. ocellatus; however, increased UV-B radiation gradually reduced the C. ocellatus growth (greater than 72 J/m2). The MAAs (palythine and asterina-330) in C. ocellatus were detected and analyzed by LC/MS. Our results suggest that moderate red light could induce the growth of this alga in aquaculture. In addition, photorepair was inhibited by red light, so there may be some other DNA repair mechanism activated by red light. Blue light promoted the activity of DNA photolyase, greatly improving remediation efficiency. Red and blue lights were found to reduce the capacity of C. ocellatus to form MAAs. Therefore, PAR, red light, and blue light play different roles during the repair processes for damage induced by UV-B radiation.

  14. Synthesis of PLGA nanoparticles of tea polyphenols and their strong in vivo protective effect against chemically induced DNA damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava AK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Amit Kumar Srivastava,1 Priyanka Bhatnagar,2 Madhulika Singh,1 Sanjay Mishra,1 Pradeep Kumar,2 Yogeshwer Shukla,1 Kailash Chand Gupta1,2 1Proteomics Laboratory, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR, Lucknow, India; 2Nucleic Acid Research Laboratory, Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (CSIR, Delhi University Campus, India Abstract: In spite of proficient results of several phytochemicals in preclinical settings, the conversion rate from bench to bedside is not very encouraging. Many reasons are attributed to this limited success, including inefficient systemic delivery and bioavailability under in vivo conditions. To achieve improved efficacy, polyphenolic constituents of black (theaflavin [TF] and green (epigallocatechin-3-gallate [EGCG] tea in poly(lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles (PLGA-NPs were entrapped with entrapment efficacy of ~18% and 26%, respectively. Further, their preventive potential against 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA-induced DNA damage in mouse skin using DNA alkaline unwinding assay was evaluated. Pretreatment (topically of mouse skin with either TF or EGCG (100 µg/mouse doses exhibits protection of 45.34% and 28.32%, respectively, against DMBA-induced DNA damage. However, pretreatment with TF-loaded PLGA-NPs protects against DNA damage 64.41% by 1/20th dose of bulk, 71.79% by 1/10th dose of bulk, and 72.46% by 1/5th dose of bulk. Similarly, 51.28% (1/20th of bulk, 57.63% (1/10th of bulk, and 63.14% (1/5th of bulk prevention was noted using EGCG-loaded PLGA-NP doses. These results showed that tea polyphenol-loaded PLGA-NPs have ~30-fold dose-advantage than bulk TF or EGCG doses. Additionally, TF- or EGCG-loaded PLGA-NPs showed significant potential for induction of DNA repair genes (XRCC1, XRCC3, and ERCC3 and suppression of DNA damage responsive genes (p53, p21, MDM2, GADD45α, and COX-2 as compared with respective bulk TF or EGCG doses. Taken together, TF- or EGCG-loaded PLGA-NPs showed a superior

  15. Damage effect and mechanism of the GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor induced by the electromagnetic pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Wen, Xi; Chang-Chun, Chai; Gang, Zhao; Yin-Tang, Yang; Xin-Hai, Yu; Yang, Liu

    2016-04-01

    The damage effect and mechanism of the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on the GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (PHEMT) are investigated in this paper. By using the device simulation software, the distributions and variations of the electric field, the current density and the temperature are analyzed. The simulation results show that there are three physical effects, i.e., the forward-biased effect of the gate Schottky junction, the avalanche breakdown, and the thermal breakdown of the barrier layer, which influence the device current in the damage process. It is found that the damage position of the device changes with the amplitude of the step voltage pulse. The damage appears under the gate near the drain when the amplitude of the pulse is low, and it also occurs under the gate near the source when the amplitude is sufficiently high, which is consistent with the experimental results. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB339900), and the Open Fund of Key Laboratory of Complex Electromagnetic Environment Science and Technology, China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP) (Grant No. 2015-0214.XY.K).

  16. Effect of aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa on biochemical and histological changes in paracetamol–induced liver damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. M. Alnuaimy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study showed that paracetamol administration to male rats at 1 g /kg of body weight for 21 days resulted in significant increase in activities of serum alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase. There was an increase in the total bilirubin and creatinine levels. Paracetamol caused hepatic damage in appearance characterized with degeneration, necrosis and fatty changes in liver, as well as central vein congestion. Treatment of the damaged liver rats with 25, 50, 100, 200 mg/kg of body weight with aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa for 7, 14, 21 days led to a decrease in alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase activity, total bilirubin and creatinine levels, as well as an improve in the damaged liver tissues with increasing extract concentration. The results showed that treatment of the damaged liver rats with 100, 200 mg/kg of body weight of aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa for 14, 21 days gave protection against harmful effects of paracetamol.The protective effects of this extract determined by the rebound of the enzymes and biochemical variable levels to the pretreatment levels. High doses of this extract gave a decrease in harmful effects which resulted from the paracetamol in hepatic tissues.

  17. Chemoprotective Effect of Taurine on Potassium Bromate-Induced DNA Damage, DNA-Protein Cross-Linking and Oxidative Stress in Rat Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mir Kaisar; Khan, Aijaz Ahmed; Ali, Shaikh Nisar; Mahmood, Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is widely used as a food additive and is a major water disinfection by-product. It induces multiple organ toxicity in humans and experimental animals and is a probable human carcinogen. The present study reports the protective effect of dietary antioxidant taurine on KBrO3-induced damage to the rat intestine. Animals were randomly divided into four groups: control, KBrO3 alone, taurine alone and taurine+ KBrO3. Administration of KBrO3 alone led to decrease in the activities of intestinal brush border membrane enzymes while those of antioxidant defence and carbohydrate metabolism were also severely altered. There was increase in DNA damage and DNA-protein cross-linking. Treatment with taurine, prior to administration of KBrO3, resulted in significant attenuation in all these parameters but the administration of taurine alone had no effect. Histological studies supported these biochemical results showing extensive intestinal damage in KBrO3-treated animals and greatly reduced tissue injury in the taurine+ KBrO3 group. These results show that taurine ameliorates bromate induced tissue toxicity and oxidative damage by improving the antioxidant defence, tissue integrity and energy metabolism. Taurine can, therefore, be potentially used as a therapeutic/protective agent against toxicity of KBrO3 and related compounds. PMID:25748174

  18. Elastoplastic simulation coupled to the induced anisotropic damage for argilites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarelli, A.S.; Shao, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    A constitutive model coupling plastic deformation and induced damage is proposed to describe the mechanical behaviour of a shale rock, the argilites of East. The plastic behaviour is produced by a typical cohesive-frictional model. The material damage is represented by a second rank symmetric tensor. The damage criterion and evolution rate is related to tensile strains. The damage effect on plastic flow is also considered by an anisotropic transformation. The model formulation and a simple procedure for the determination of model parameters from standards tests is proposed. The validity of the model is checked against experimental data in various loading conditions. (author)

  19. Photoexcited riboflavin induces oxidative damage to human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Kazutaka; Yoshioka, Takuto

    2015-08-01

    Photoexcited riboflavin induced damage of human serum albumin (HSA), a water soluble protein, resulting in the diminishment of fluorescence from the tryptophan residue. Because riboflavin hardly photosensitized singlet oxygen generation and sodium azide, a singlet oxygen quencher, did not inhibit protein damage, electron transfer-mediated oxidation of HSA was speculated. Fluorescence lifetime of riboflavin was not affected by HSA, suggesting that the excited triplet state of riboflavin is responsible for protein damage through electron transfer. In addition, the preventive effect of xanthone derivatives, triplet quenchers, on photosensitized protein damage could be evaluated using this photosensitized reaction system of riboflavin and HSA.

  20. Effect of cadmium on genetic toxicity and protection of cortex acanthopanasia radicis against genetic damage induced by cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bing; Pang Huimin; Chen Minyi

    1999-01-01

    Objective and Methods: The test of sperm aberration and micronucleus of bone marrow cells in mice were used to detect the mutagenicity of cadmium and anti-mutagenicity of Cortex Acanthopanasia Radicis (CAR) on germ cell and somatic cell. Kunming mice were divided randomly into four groups: normal saline control group (NS): MMC control group (MMC 1.0 mg/kg); Cd-mutate group (1/5 LD 50 ), 17.6 mg/kg); CAR anti-mutate group (CAR 1,2,4 g/kg + Cd). Ridit test and x 2 were used to evaluate the statistical significance of the date. Results: The experiment demonstrated that Chinese medicine CAR can significantly decrease sperm aberration and micronuclei frequencies induced by Cd (P<0.01). Conclusion: As an anti-mutagen CAR has practical value in occupational protection against genetic damage induced by Cd

  1. Effects of light emitting diode (LED) therapy and cold water immersion therapy on exercise-induced muscle damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Mariana Zingari; Siqueira, Cláudia Patrícia Cardoso Martins; Preti, Maria Carla Perozim; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; de Lima, Franciele Mendes; Dias, Ivan Frederico Lupiano; Toginho Filho, Dari de Oliveira; Ramos, Solange de Paula

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the effects of LED therapy at 940 nm or cold water immersion therapy (CWI) after an acute bout of exercise on markers of muscle damage and inflammation. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were allocated into four groups: animals kept at rest (control), exercised animals (E), exercised + CWI (CWI), and exercised + LED therapy (LED). The animals swam for 100 min, after which blood samples were collected for lactate analysis. Animals in the E group were returned to their cages without treatment, the CWI group was placed in cold water (10°C) for 10 min and the LED group received LED irradiation on both gastrocnemius muscles (4 J/cm(2) each). After 24 h, the animals were killed and the soleus muscles were submitted to histological analysis. Blood samples were used for hematological and CK analyses. The results demonstrated that the LED group presented fewer areas of muscle damage and inflammatory cell infiltration and lower levels of CK activity than the E group. Fewer areas of damaged muscle fiber were observed in the LED group than in CWI. CWI and LED did not reduce edema areas. Hematological analysis showed no significant effect of either treatment on leukocyte counts. The results suggest that LED therapy is more efficient than CWI in preventing muscle damage and local inflammation after exercise.

  2. Effects of Trans-Resveratrol on hyperglycemia-induced abnormal spermatogenesis, DNA damage and alterations in poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase signaling in rat testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelali, Ala [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University (Kuwait); Al-Bader, Maie [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University (Kuwait); Kilarkaje, Narayana, E-mail: knarayana@hsc.edu.kw [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University (Kuwait)

    2016-11-15

    Diabetes induces oxidative stress, DNA damage and alters several intracellular signaling pathways in organ systems. This study investigated modulatory effects of Trans-Resveratrol on type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)-induced abnormal spermatogenesis, DNA damage and alterations in poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) signaling in rat testis. Trans-Resveratrol administration (5mg/kg/day, ip) to Streptozotocin-induced T1DM adult male Wistar rats from day 22–42 resulted in recovery of induced oxidative stress, abnormal spermatogenesis and inhibited DNA synthesis, and led to mitigation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine formation in the testis and spermatozoa, and DNA double-strand breaks in the testis. Trans-Resveratrol aggravated T1DM-induced up-regulation of aminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex-interacting multifunctional protein 2 expression; however, it did not modify the up-regulated total PARP and down-regulated PARP1 expressions, but recovered the decreased SirT1 (Sirtuin 1) levels in T1DM rat testis. Trans-Resveratrol, when given alone, reduced the poly (ADP-ribosyl)ation (pADPr) process in the testis due to an increase in PAR glycohydrolase activity, but when given to T1DM rats it did not affect the pADPr levels. T1DM with or without Trans-Resveratrol did not induce nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor and the formation of 50 kb DNA breaks, suggesting to the lack of caspase-3-independent cell death called parthanatos. T1DM with or without Trans-Resveratrol did not increase necrotic cell death in the testis. Primary spermatocytes, Sertoli cells, Leydig cells and intra-testicular vessels showed the expression of PARP pathway related proteins. In conclusion, Trans-Resveratrol mitigates T1DM-induced sperm abnormality and DNA damage, but does not significantly modulate PARP signaling pathway, except the SirT1 expression, in the rat testis. - Highlights: • Resveratrol inhibits diabetes-induced abnormal sperm morphogenesis • Resveratrol recovers

  3. Effects of Trans-Resveratrol on hyperglycemia-induced abnormal spermatogenesis, DNA damage and alterations in poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase signaling in rat testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelali, Ala; Al-Bader, Maie; Kilarkaje, Narayana

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes induces oxidative stress, DNA damage and alters several intracellular signaling pathways in organ systems. This study investigated modulatory effects of Trans-Resveratrol on type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)-induced abnormal spermatogenesis, DNA damage and alterations in poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) signaling in rat testis. Trans-Resveratrol administration (5mg/kg/day, ip) to Streptozotocin-induced T1DM adult male Wistar rats from day 22–42 resulted in recovery of induced oxidative stress, abnormal spermatogenesis and inhibited DNA synthesis, and led to mitigation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine formation in the testis and spermatozoa, and DNA double-strand breaks in the testis. Trans-Resveratrol aggravated T1DM-induced up-regulation of aminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex-interacting multifunctional protein 2 expression; however, it did not modify the up-regulated total PARP and down-regulated PARP1 expressions, but recovered the decreased SirT1 (Sirtuin 1) levels in T1DM rat testis. Trans-Resveratrol, when given alone, reduced the poly (ADP-ribosyl)ation (pADPr) process in the testis due to an increase in PAR glycohydrolase activity, but when given to T1DM rats it did not affect the pADPr levels. T1DM with or without Trans-Resveratrol did not induce nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor and the formation of 50 kb DNA breaks, suggesting to the lack of caspase-3-independent cell death called parthanatos. T1DM with or without Trans-Resveratrol did not increase necrotic cell death in the testis. Primary spermatocytes, Sertoli cells, Leydig cells and intra-testicular vessels showed the expression of PARP pathway related proteins. In conclusion, Trans-Resveratrol mitigates T1DM-induced sperm abnormality and DNA damage, but does not significantly modulate PARP signaling pathway, except the SirT1 expression, in the rat testis. - Highlights: • Resveratrol inhibits diabetes-induced abnormal sperm morphogenesis • Resveratrol recovers

  4. (UVB)-induced DNA damage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-17

    dependent cytogenetic lesions were assessed by the micronucleus test (MNT). It was found that POE effectively reduced the extent of DNA breakages and cytogenetic lesions upon exposure to UVB (erythemal ultraviolet (EUV);.

  5. Quercitrin protects skin from UVB-induced oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Yuanqin [Cancer Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Li, Wenqi; Son, Young-Ok; Sun, Lijuan; Lu, Jian; Kim, Donghern; Wang, Xin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Yao, Hua [Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Hitron, Andrew J. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Luo, Jia [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY (United States); Gao, Ning [Department of Pharmacognos, College of Pharmacy, 3rd Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Shi, Xianglin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Zhang, Zhuo, E-mail: zhuo.zhang@uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes oxidative damage to skin, resulting in sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancer. It is generally believed that the skin damage induced by UV irradiation is a consequence of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there is an increased interest in the use of natural products as chemopreventive agents for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to their antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. Quercitrin, glycosylated form of quercetin, is the most common flavonoid in nature with antioxidant properties. The present study investigated the possible beneficial effects of quercitrin to inhibit UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that quercitrin decreased ROS generation induced by UVB irradiation in JB6 cells. Quercitrin restored catalase expression and GSH/GSSG ratio reduced by UVB exposure, two major antioxidant enzymes, leading to reductions of oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis and protection of the skin from inflammation caused by UVB exposure. The present study demonstrated that quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage to skin. - Highlights: • Oxidative stress plays a key role in UV-induced cell and tissue injuries. • Quercitrin decreases ROS generation and restores antioxidants irradiated by UVB. • Quercitrin reduces UVB-irradiated oxidative DNA damage, apoptosis, and inflammation. • Quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB-induced skin injuries.

  6. Quercitrin protects skin from UVB-induced oxidative damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Yuanqin; Li, Wenqi; Son, Young-Ok; Sun, Lijuan; Lu, Jian; Kim, Donghern; Wang, Xin; Yao, Hua; Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Hitron, Andrew J.; Luo, Jia; Gao, Ning; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes oxidative damage to skin, resulting in sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancer. It is generally believed that the skin damage induced by UV irradiation is a consequence of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there is an increased interest in the use of natural products as chemopreventive agents for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to their antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. Quercitrin, glycosylated form of quercetin, is the most common flavonoid in nature with antioxidant properties. The present study investigated the possible beneficial effects of quercitrin to inhibit UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that quercitrin decreased ROS generation induced by UVB irradiation in JB6 cells. Quercitrin restored catalase expression and GSH/GSSG ratio reduced by UVB exposure, two major antioxidant enzymes, leading to reductions of oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis and protection of the skin from inflammation caused by UVB exposure. The present study demonstrated that quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage to skin. - Highlights: • Oxidative stress plays a key role in UV-induced cell and tissue injuries. • Quercitrin decreases ROS generation and restores antioxidants irradiated by UVB. • Quercitrin reduces UVB-irradiated oxidative DNA damage, apoptosis, and inflammation. • Quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB-induced skin injuries

  7. Effect of hardening induced by cold expansion on damage fatigue accumulation and life assessment of Aluminum alloy 6082 T6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendouba Mostefa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hole cold expansion (HCE is an effective method to extend the fatigue life of mechanical structures. During cold expansion process compressive residual stresses around the expanded hole are generated. The enhancement of fatigue life and the crack initiation and growth behavior of a holed specimen were investigated by using the 6082 Aluminum alloy. The present study suggests a simple technical method for enhancement of fatigue life by a cold expansion hole of pre-cracked specimen. Fatigue damage accumulation of cold expanded hole in aluminum alloy which is widely used in transportation and in aeronautics was analyzed. Experimental tests were carried out using pre-cracked SENT specimens. Tests were performed in two and four block loading under constant amplitude. These tests were performed by using two and four blocks under uniaxial constant amplitude loading. The increasing and decreasing loading were carried. The experimental results were compared to the damage calculated by the Miner's rule and a new simple fatigue damage indicator. This comparison shows that the 'damaged stress model', which takes into account the loading history, yields a good estimation according to the experimental results. Moreover, the error is minimized in comparison to the Miner's model.

  8. Modelling of settlement induced building damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giardina, G.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the modelling of settlement induced damage to masonry buildings. In densely populated areas, the need for new space is nowadays producing a rapid increment of underground excavations. Due to the construction of new metro lines, tunnelling activity in urban areas is growing.

  9. The Effect of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage After a Bout of Accentuated Eccentric Load Drop Jumps and the Repeated Bout Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, Lee A; Gill, Nicholas D; Dulson, Deborah K; McGuigan, Michael R

    2017-02-01

    Bridgeman, LA, Gill, ND, Dulson, DK, and McGuigan, MR. The effect of exercise induced muscle damage after a bout of accentuated eccentric load drop jumps and the repeated bout effect. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 386-394, 2017-Although previous studies have investigated exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) after a bout of unloaded drop jumps (DJs), none have investigated the effects of accentuated eccentric load (AEL) DJs on EIMD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 30 and 50 AEL DJs on strength, jump performance, muscle soreness, and blood markers. Eight resistance trained athletes participated in this study. In week 1, baseline countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), concentric and eccentric peak force (PF), creatine kinase, and muscle soreness were assessed. Subjects then completed 30 AEL DJs and baseline measures were retested immediately postintervention, 1, 24, and 48 hours later. Two weeks later, the subjects completed the same protocol with an increase in AEL DJ volume (50). Subjects' SJ height was reduced in week 1 compared with week 3, postintervention, 1, 24, and 48 hours later (ES = -0.34, -0.44, -0.38, and -0.40). Subjects' CMJ height was reduced in week 1 compared with week 3, postintervention, 1, and 24 hours later (ES = -0.37, -0.29, and -0.39). Concentric PF was reduced in week 1 compared with week 3, postintervention and 24 and 48 hours later (ES = -0.02, -0.23, and -0.32). Eccentric PF was reduced in week 1 compared with week 3, postintervention, 24, and 48 hours later (ES = -0.24, -0.16, and -0.50). In this sample, 30 AEL DJs attenuated the effects of EIMD following which 50 AEL DJs completed 2 weeks later.

  10. Protective effects against H2O2-induced damage by enzymatic hydrolysates of an edible brown seaweed, sea tangle (Laminaria japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Pyo-Jam; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Seung-Jae; Park, Sun-Young; Kang, Dong-Soo; Jung, Bok-Mi; Kim, Kui-Shik; Je, Jae-Young; Ahn, Chang-Bum

    2009-02-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysates of Laminaria japonica were evaluated for antioxidative activities using hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and protective effects against H(2)O(2)-induced DNA and cell damage. In addition, activities of antioxidative enzymes, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase, of the enzymatic hydrolysates from L. japonica were also estimated. L. japonica was first enzymatically hydrolyzed by seven carbohydrases (Dextrozyme, AMG, Promozyme, Maltogenase, Termamyl, Viscozyme, and Celluclast [all from Novo Co., Novozyme Nordisk, Bagsvaerd, Denmark]) and five proteinases (Flavourzyme, Neutrase, Protamex, Alcalase [all from Novo Co.], and pancreatic trypsin). The hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of Promozyme and pancreatic trypsin hydrolysates from L. japonica were the highest as compared to those of the other carbohydrases and proteinases, and their 50% inhibitory concentration values were 1.67 and 317.49 mug/mL, respectively. The pancreatic trypsin hydrolysates of L. japonica exerted a protective effect on H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage. We also evaluated the protective effect on hydroxyl radical-induced oxidative damage in PC12 cells via propidium iodide staining using a flow cytometer. The AMG and pancreatic trypsin hydrolysates of L. japonica dose-dependently protected PC12 cells against cell death caused by hydroxyl radical-induced oxidative damage. Additionally, we analyzed the activity of antioxidative enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and the phase II biotransformation enzyme glutathione S-transferase in L. japonica-treated cells. The activity of all antioxidative enzymes was higher in L. japonica-treated cells compared with the nontreated cells. These results indicate that enzymatic hydrolysates of L. japonica possess antioxidative activity.

  11. Protective Effect of the Persian Gulf brittle star Ophiocoma Erinaceus extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced liver damage in adult male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Soheili

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim:  Brittle star possess  bioactive compounds which confer the wound healing capacity and regenerative potency of damaged  arms and organisms to this creature. The aim of the current study was to assess the   protective  effect  of  the  star extract on liver damages induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 32 adult male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: control, Sham exposed, experimental 1 (treated with %25 extract and experimental 2 (treated with %50 extract of star Ophiocoma Erinaceus. The control group received no treatment. The sham exposed groups received carbon tetrachloride .(50% in olive oil .0.5 ml/kg for 7 days. The experimental groups firstly received carbon tetrachloride, then received %25, %50 brittle star extract as intragastric for 7 days. Finally, the animals were sacrificed, and their bodies and livers were weighed. Then, the livers sections were prepared and were examined by means of light microscope. Finally, the obtained  quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS (V; 20, Mini Tab software, ANOVA, and Tukey. at the significant level of P<0.001. Results: Carbon tetrachloride significantly decreased the rats’ body weight, but it increased their livers weight (P<0.001. Histopathological evaluations showed .extensive liver damage. On the other hand, treatment with brittle star extract .ncreased liver weight, reduced. body weight and significantly altered other induced changes by carbon tetrachloride on liver structure such as hepatocytes number, Kupffer cells, and arteritis, which indicated  the improvement of damaged liver tissue (P<0.001. Conclusion: It was found that brittle star extract can exert protective effects on  liver damages induced by carbon tetrachloride on male Wistar rat.

  12. Inhibitory effects of myricitrin on oxidative stress-induced endothelial damage and early atherosclerosis in ApoE −/− mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Gui-bo; Qin, Meng [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 100193, Beijing (China); Ye, Jing-xue [Jilin Agricultural University, No. 2888, Xincheng Street, Changchun, 130118 Jilin (China); Pan, Rui-le; Meng, Xiang-bao; Wang, Min; Luo, Yun; Li, Zong-yang [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 100193, Beijing (China); Wang, Hong-wei, E-mail: hwang@nju.edu.cn [Center for Translational Medicine and Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093 (China); Sun, Xiao-bo, E-mail: sunsubmit@163.com [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 100193, Beijing (China)

    2013-08-15

    Atherosclerosis (AS) is a state of heightened oxidative stress characterized by lipid and protein oxidation in vascular walls. Oxidative stress-induced vascular endothelial cell (VEC) injury is a major factor in the pathogenesis of AS. Myricitrin, a natural flavonoid isolated from the root bark of Myrica cerifera, was recently found to have a strong antioxidative effect. However, its use for treating cardiovascular diseases, especially AS is still unreported. Consequently, we evaluated the cytoprotective effect of myricitrin on AS by assessing oxidative stress-induced VEC damage. The in vivo study using an ApoE −/− mouse model of AS demonstrated that myricitrin treatment protects against VEC damage and inhibits early AS plaque formation. This effect is associated with the antioxidative effect of myricitrin, as observed in a hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-induced rat model of artery endothelial injury and primary cultured human VECs. Myricitrin treatment also prevents and attenuates H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced endothelial injury. Further investigation of the cytoprotective effects of myricitrin demonstrated that myricitrin exerts its function by scavenging for reactive oxygen species, as well as reducing lipid peroxidation, blocking NO release, and maintaining mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Myricitrin treatment also significantly decreased H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptosis in VECs, which was associated with significant inhibition of p53 gene expression, activation of caspase-3 and the MAPK signaling pathway, and alteration of the patterns of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic gene expression. The resulting significantly increased bcl-2/bax ratio indicates that myricitrin may prevent the apoptosis induced by oxidative stress injury. - Highlights: • Myricitrin prevents early atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− mice. • Myricitrin protects endothelial cell from H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induced injury in rat and HUVECs. • Myricitrin enhanced NO release and up

  13. Inhibitory effects of myricitrin on oxidative stress-induced endothelial damage and early atherosclerosis in ApoE −/− mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Gui-bo; Qin, Meng; Ye, Jing-xue; Pan, Rui-le; Meng, Xiang-bao; Wang, Min; Luo, Yun; Li, Zong-yang; Wang, Hong-wei; Sun, Xiao-bo

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis (AS) is a state of heightened oxidative stress characterized by lipid and protein oxidation in vascular walls. Oxidative stress-induced vascular endothelial cell (VEC) injury is a major factor in the pathogenesis of AS. Myricitrin, a natural flavonoid isolated from the root bark of Myrica cerifera, was recently found to have a strong antioxidative effect. However, its use for treating cardiovascular diseases, especially AS is still unreported. Consequently, we evaluated the cytoprotective effect of myricitrin on AS by assessing oxidative stress-induced VEC damage. The in vivo study using an ApoE −/− mouse model of AS demonstrated that myricitrin treatment protects against VEC damage and inhibits early AS plaque formation. This effect is associated with the antioxidative effect of myricitrin, as observed in a hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced rat model of artery endothelial injury and primary cultured human VECs. Myricitrin treatment also prevents and attenuates H 2 O 2 -induced endothelial injury. Further investigation of the cytoprotective effects of myricitrin demonstrated that myricitrin exerts its function by scavenging for reactive oxygen species, as well as reducing lipid peroxidation, blocking NO release, and maintaining mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Myricitrin treatment also significantly decreased H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis in VECs, which was associated with significant inhibition of p53 gene expression, activation of caspase-3 and the MAPK signaling pathway, and alteration of the patterns of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic gene expression. The resulting significantly increased bcl-2/bax ratio indicates that myricitrin may prevent the apoptosis induced by oxidative stress injury. - Highlights: • Myricitrin prevents early atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− mice. • Myricitrin protects endothelial cell from H 2 O 2 induced injury in rat and HUVECs. • Myricitrin enhanced NO release and up regulates eNOS activity in HUVECs.

  14. Thrombosis, systemic and cardiac oxidative stress and DNA damage induced by pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles, and the effect of nootkatone thereon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemmar, Abderrahim; Al-Salam, Suhail; Beegam, Sumaya; Yuvaraju, Priya; Ali, Badreldin H

    2018-01-05

    Adverse cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution persist even at lower concentrations than those of the current air quality limit. Therefore, identification of safe and effective measures against particles-induced cardiovascular toxicity is needed. Nootkatone is a sesquiterpenoid in grapefruit with diverse bioactivities including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. However, its protective effect on the cardiovascular injury induced by diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has not been studied before. We assessed the possible protective effect of nootkatone (90 mg/kg) administered by gavage 1h before intratracheal (i.t.) instillation of DEP (30 μg/mouse). Twenty-four h following the i.t. administration of DEP various thrombotic and cardiac parameters were assessed. Nootkatone inhibited the prothrombotic effect induced by DEP in pial arterioles and venules in vivo and platelet aggregation in whole blood in vitro. Also, nootkatone prevented the shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time induced by DEP. Nootkatone inhibited the increase of plasma concentration of fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, interleukin-6 and lipid peroxidation induced by DEP. Immunohistochemically, hearts showed an analogous increase in glutathione and nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) expression by cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells following DEP exposure, and these effects were enhanced in mice treated with nootkatone+DEP. Likewise, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was increased in mice treated with nootkatone+DEP compared with those treated with DEP or nootkatone+saline. The DNA damage caused by DEP was prevented by nootkatoone pretreatment. In conclusion, nootkatoone alleviates DEP-induced thrombogenicity and systemic and cardiac oxidative stress and DNA damage, at least partly, through Nrf2 and HO-1 activation.

  15. Laser-Induced Damage with Femtosecond Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Kyle R. P.

    The strong electric fields of focused femtosecond laser pulses lead to non-equilibrium dynamics in materials, which, beyond a threshold intensity, causes laser-induced damage (LID). Such a strongly non-linear and non-perturbative process renders important LID observables like fluence and intensity thresholds and damage morphology (crater) extremely difficult to predict quantitatively. However, femtosecond LID carries a high degree of precision, which has been exploited in various micro/nano-machining and surface engineering applications, such as human eye surgery and super-hydrophobic surfaces. This dissertation presents an array of experimental studies which have measured the damage behavior of various materials under femtosecond irradiation. Precision experiments were performed to produce extreme spatio-temporal confinement of the femtosecond laser-solid damage interaction on monocrystalline Cu, which made possible the first successful direct-benchmarking of LID simulation with realistic damage craters. A technique was developed to produce laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) in a single pulse (typically a multi-pulse phenomenon), and was used to perform a pump-probe study which revealed asynchronous LIPSS formation on copper. Combined with 1-D calculations, this new experimental result suggests more drastic electron heating than expected. Few-cycle pulses were used to study the LID performance and morphology of commercial ultra-broadband optics, which had not been systematically studied before. With extensive surface analysis, various morphologies were observed, including LIPSS, swelling (blisters), simple craters, and even ring-shaped structures, which varied depending on the coating design, number of pulses, and air/vacuum test environment. Mechanisms leading to these morphologies are discussed, many of which are ultrafast in nature. The applied damage behavior of multi-layer dielectric mirrors was measured and compared between long pulse (150 ps

  16. The Protective Effect of Non-fluoroquinolones against Chemo- and Radiation Therapy-Induced Damage in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.F.; Abd-El-Rahman, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Cancers of head and neck has increased in the last years with increased use of chemo-radiotherapy. So, the trials to achieve newly developed agents that combat the hazards of cancer therapy have been urgent. This study was carried out to investigate the possible protective effect of new quinolone derivative against the oxidative damage of chemo-radiotherapy. Twenty four male mice were divided into four groups; group C, mice were served as control, group SR, mice were injected with cisplatin for 5 days and then irradiated with 2 Gy at the last day, group QSR, mice were injected with non-fluoro quinolone; 2-(1-Ethyl-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinolin-3-yl)-2-oxoacetic acid (EHQA) for 14 days in addition to injection with cisplatin in the last 5 days then irradiated, group Q, mice were injected with EHQA for 14 days. Tongue specimen was subjected to histological and immune-histochemical evaluation for proliferative and apoptotic activity. Histologically, EHQA administration prior to cisplatin and radiation exposure ameliorated the damaging effects of both on tongue. Morphometric studies of the treated group represented marked increase in proliferative and anti-apoptotic capacity of the epithelial cells especially the basal cells. Administration of EHQA before chemo-radiotherapy can to great extent, reduce the hazardous effects and the mechanism by which exerted its effect can be related to regulation of cell cycle and cell death processes

  17. Protective effects of extracts of Vernonia amygdalina, Hibiscus sabdariffa and vitamin C against radiation-induced liver damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin; Ogungbenro, Bayo; Anyaegbu, Oluchi; Fafunso, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The radioprotective efficacy of methanolic extracts of leaves of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS), and vitamin C (VIT C) against gamma radiation (4 Gy) induced liver damage was studied in male Wistar albino rats. VIT C was administered at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight, while VA and HS were administered at doses; 200, 400 and 800-mg/kg body weight, orally for 4 weeks prior to radiation and 5 weeks after irradiation. The rats were sacrificed at 24 hours and 5 weeks after irradiation. Treatment with VIT C and VA (800 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.05) decreased the gamma radiation-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities at 24 hours after irradiation, whereas, HS (400 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.05) decreased the serum ALT activity only. Similarly, treatment with VIT C and VA (800 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.05) decreased the serum conjugated bilirubin levels by 56% and 29%, respectively at 24 hours. Furthermore, VIT C, VA and HS significantly (p<0.05) decreased the levels of serum lipid peroxidation (LPO) and increased the hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities at 24 hours. Treatment for 5 weeks after irradiation with VIT C, VA and HS significantly (p<0.05) decreased the levels of unconjugated bilirubin, while VIT C and VA alone decreased the levels of conjugated bilirubin. Furthermore, treatment with VA (400 and 800 mg/kg) decreased the serum ALT activities by 25% and 34%, respectively, at 5 weeks after irradiation. Similarly, alkaline phosphatase and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were significantly (p<0.05) attenuated following treatment with VIT C and VA (400 and 800 mg/kg) at 5 weeks after irradiation. In addition, treatment with VIT C, VA (800 mg/kg) and HS (400 and 800 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.05) elevated the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) by 61%, 56%, 41% and 44%, respectively, at 5 weeks. Similar elevation of antioxidant enzymes; SOD, glutathione-s-transferase and

  18. Parvovirus infection-induced DNA damage response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yong; Qiu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    Parvoviruses are a group of small DNA viruses with ssDNA genomes flanked by two inverted terminal structures. Due to a limited genetic resource they require host cellular factors and sometimes a helper virus for efficient viral replication. Recent studies have shown that parvoviruses interact with the DNA damage machinery, which has a significant impact on the life cycle of the virus as well as the fate of infected cells. In addition, due to special DNA structures of the viral genomes, parvoviruses are useful tools for the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying viral infection-induced DNA damage response (DDR). This review aims to summarize recent advances in parvovirus-induced DDR, with a focus on the diverse DDR pathways triggered by different parvoviruses and the consequences of DDR on the viral life cycle as well as the fate of infected cells. PMID:25429305

  19. Neutron induced permanent damage in Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, G.P.; Rosen, M.

    1982-01-01

    14 MeV neutron induced permanent changes in the critical current density of Josephson junctions due to displacement damage in the junction barrier are estimated using a worst case model and the binary collision simulation code MARLOWE. No likelihood of single event hard upsets is found in this model. It is estimated that a fluence of 10 18 -10 19 neutrons/cm 2 are required to change the critical current density by 5%

  20. Effects of Arctium lappa on Cadmium-Induced Damage to the Testis and Epididymis of Adult Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predes, Fabricia de Souza; Diamante, M A S; Foglio, M A; Dolder, H

    2016-10-01

    The protective role of Arctium lappa (AL) on the testes of rats acutely exposed to cadmium (Cd) was tested. The rats were randomly divided into a control group (C-group) and three major experimental groups, which were further subdivided into minor groups (n = 6) according to the experimental period (7 or 56 days). The C-group was subdivided into C-7 and C-56 [receiving a single saline solution, intraperitoneal (i.p.), on the first day]; the AL-group, AL-7, and AL-56, received AL extract (300 mg/kg/daily); the Cd group, Cd-7 and Cd-56, received a single i.p. dose of CdCl2 (1.2 mg/kg body weight (BW)) on the first day; the CdAL group, CdAL-7 and CdAL-56, received the same Cd dose, followed by AL extract. Water or AL extract was administered daily by gavage. After either 7 or 56 days, the testis and accessory glands were removed after whole-body perfusion. Exposure to Cd and CdAL decreased the weight of the testis and epididymis, the gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubular (ST) diameter, and ST volumetric proportion, and increased the volumetric proportion of interstitium after 56 days. In the epididymis caput, the tubular volumetric proportion decreased along with an increase of interstitial volumetric proportion and epithelium height after 56 days. The alterations observed were less severe only after 7 days. A progressive testicular damage resulted mainly in tubules lined only by Sertoli cells. The sperm number and cell debris decreased in the epididymis. We demonstrated that the testicular damage induced by single acute i.p. exposure to Cd occurred despite the daily oral intake of AL extract.

  1. Protective effect of curcumin and its analog on γ-radiation induced DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in cultured human lymphocytes and isolated rat hepatocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, Venugopal P.

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to induce oxidative stress through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in an imbalance of the pro-oxidant and antioxidant status in the cells, which is suggested to culminate in cell death. The present work was aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of curcumin and its analog on γ-radiation induced toxicity in cultured human lymphocytes and rat hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated from the liver of rats by collagenase perfusion. The cellular changes were estimated using lipid peroxidative indices like thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH). The DNA damage was analyzed by comet assay, cytokinesis blocked micro nucleus assay, dicentric aberrations and translocation frequency. Cell cycle distribution and measurement of the percentage of apoptotic cells were performed by flow cytometry analysis. To investigate whether the dietary agents like curcumin and its analog have a role on cell cycle regulation, we analyzed the changes in cell cycle profiles by using fluorescence activated cell sorter. The increase in the severity of DNA damage was observed with the increase dose (1, 2 and 4 Gy) of γ-radiation in cultured lymphocytes and hepatocytes. TBARS were increased significantly, whereas the levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased in γ-irradiated hepatocytes and lymphocytes. On pretreatment with curcumin and its analog (1, 5 and 10 μg/ml) showed a significant decrease in the levels of TBARS and DNA damage. The antioxidant enzymes were increased significantly along with the levels of GSH. The maximum protection of hepatocytes and lymphocytes was observed at 10 μg/ml curcumin and 5 μg/ml curcumin analog pretreatment. Thus, pretreatment with curcumin and its analog helps in protecting the normal hepatocytes and lymphocytes against γ-radiation induced cellular

  2. Protective Effect of Lavandula stoechas and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils against reproductive damage and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebai, Hichem; Selmi, Slimen; Rtibi, Kais; Gharbi, Najoua; Sakly, Mohsen

    2015-02-01

    The authors aimed in the present study to assess the protective effect of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils (ROEO) and Lavandula stoechas essential oils (LSEO) against reproductive damage and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male rats. Essential oil samples were obtained from the aerial parts of the plants by hydrodistillation and analyzed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Rats were divided into four groups: healthy control (HC); diabetic control (DC); healthy+ROEO (H+ROEO), healthy+LSEO (H+LSEO), diabetic+ROEO (D+ROEO), and diabetic+LSEO (D+LSEO). The use of GC-MS allowed to the identification of 15 and 22 compounds in ROEO and LSEO, respectively. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test showed that ROEO and LSEO had an important antioxidant capacity. In vivo, we initially found that ROEO and LSEO treatment protected against the decrease in alloxan-induced body weight gain, relative reproductive organ weights, testosterone level, as well as sperm quality decline. On the other hand, we showed that alloxan administration was accompanied by an oxidative stress status assessed by an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels, as well as a depletion of sulfhydril group content (-SH) and antioxidant enzyme activities as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in testis, epididymis, and sperm. More importantly, ROEO and LSEO treatment significantly protected against oxidative damage of the male reproductive organ systems in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. These findings suggested that ROEO and LSEO exerted a potential protective effect against alloxan-induced reproductive function damage and oxidative stress in male rat. The beneficial effect of ROEO and LSEO might be related, in part, to their antioxidant properties.

  3. Protective Effect of Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol against Ultraviolet B Radiation-Induced DNA Damage by Inducing the Nucleotide Excision Repair System in HaCaT Human Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Jing Piao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective properties of diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC, a phlorotannin, against ultraviolet B (UVB radiation-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs in HaCaT human keratinocytes. The nucleotide excision repair (NER system is the pathway by which cells identify and repair bulky, helix-distorting DNA lesions such as ultraviolet (UV radiation-induced CPDs and 6-4 photoproducts. CPDs levels were elevated in UVB-exposed cells; however, this increase was reduced by DPHC. Expression levels of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC and excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1, which are essential components of the NER pathway, were induced in DPHC-treated cells. Expression of XPC and ERCC1 were reduced following UVB exposure, whereas DPHC treatment partially restored the levels of both proteins. DPHC also increased expression of transcription factor specificity protein 1 (SP1 and sirtuin 1, an up-regulator of XPC, in UVB-exposed cells. DPHC restored binding of the SP1 to the XPC promoter, which is reduced in UVB-exposed cells. These results indicate that DPHC can protect cells against UVB-induced DNA damage by inducing the NER system.

  4. Protective effects of several plant polyphenols against chromosomal damage induced in vivo by X-rays. Comparative study versus diosmin and rutin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, M; Rosa, B [Radiology and Physical Medicine Department of Furfural Espanol S.A., Murcia (Spain); Castillo, J; Benavente-Garcia, O; Lorente, J [Research and Development Department of Furfural Espanol S.A., Murcia (Spain); Vicente, V [Pathology Department of Furfural Espanol S.A., Murcia (Spain); Canteras, M [Biostatistical Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Murcia, Murcia (Spain)

    2001-03-01

    Protective effects of grape (Vitis vinifera) seed (GSE), Citrus spp. fruits (CE) and olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf (OL) extracts, the flavonoids diosmin and rutin, widely used as pharmaceuticals, and dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) against chromosomal damage induced by X-rays were determined by using the micronucleus test for anticlastogenic activity. The reduction of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) in bone marrow of mouse exposed to X-rays was examined. The most effective compounds were, in order: GSE {approx} CE > rutin {approx} DMSO {approx} OL > diosmin. These results suggest a correlation between the antioxidant and anticlastogenic activity of these polyphenolic extracts. (author)

  5. Protective effects of several plant polyphenols against chromosomal damage induced in vivo by X-rays. Comparative study versus diosmin and rutin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, M.; Rosa, B.; Castillo, J.; Benavente-Garcia, O.; Lorente, J.; Vicente, V.; Canteras, M.

    2001-01-01

    Protective effects of grape (Vitis vinifera) seed (GSE), Citrus spp. fruits (CE) and olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf (OL) extracts, the flavonoids diosmin and rutin, widely used as pharmaceuticals, and dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) against chromosomal damage induced by X-rays were determined by using the micronucleus test for anticlastogenic activity. The reduction of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) in bone marrow of mouse exposed to X-rays was examined. The most effective compounds were, in order: GSE ∼ CE > rutin ∼ DMSO ∼ OL > diosmin. These results suggest a correlation between the antioxidant and anticlastogenic activity of these polyphenolic extracts. (author)

  6. The protective effect of Murraya koenigii leaves against carbon tetra chloride-induced hepatic damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahma Naidu Parimi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of methanolic extract of Murraya koenigii (MMK leaves in attenuating the hepatic damage inflicted by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, a potent oxidative stress inducer and a model hepatotoxicant. Methods: Rats were divided into six groups of five each: normal control group, CCl4 group, CCl 4+silymarin group, CCl4+MMK group (200 mg/kg body weight, CCl4+MMK group (300 mg/kg body weight and CCl4+MMK group (500 mg/kg body weight. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with 20% CCl4 in corn oil (1 mL/kg body weight and MMK was orally administered for 3 weeks. Levels of hepatic markers such as alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin were measured. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were assayed and malondialdehyde content was measured. For histopathological examination, liver microtome sections were prepared and observed under light microscope. Results: Oral administration of MMK had significantly reduced the activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin content in a dosedependent manner, which were elevated by CCl 4. However, CCl 4-induced rise in lipid peroxidation and drop in superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reversed by MMK administration. Further, the hepatoprotective activity of MMK was supported by histopathological examination of liver microtome sections. Conclusions: Our biochemical and histological studies demonstrate the potential antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of MMK and our results scientifically validate the often use of MMK leaves in food preparation and in Ayurvedic medicine in India and neighboring countries.

  7. Improvement effect of gamma-irradiated complex leaf extract of date plum, persimmon and mulberry on UVB-induced skin damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Won; Cho, Byoung Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Shin, Jae Young; Fang, Chong Zhou; Jang, Seon Il [Jeonju University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the improvement effect of gamma-irradiated complex leaf extract of Date Plum, Persimmon and Mulberry (γ-DPME) on UVB induced skin damage. The samples were gamma irradiated at doses of 10 kGy. γ-DPME treatment tended to decrease UVB-induced immune cell infiltration and erthyderma index than the groups treated with non-gamma-irradiated DPME (n-DPME) and L-ascobic acid (AA). In addition, γ-DPME treatment significantly decreased skin thickness, melanin index and mast cell infiltration in UVB-irradiated skin. Moreover, γ-DPME treatment significantly decreased the compound 48/80-induced scratching behavior and immune cell infiltration than n-DPME group. These results show that gamma irradiation can be used to increase the physiological activities of DPME.

  8. Protective Effects of Pinus halepensis L. Essential Oil on Aspirin-induced Acute Liver and Kidney Damage in Female Wistar Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Samout, Noura; Amani, Etaya; Mbarki, Sakhria; Tlili, Zied; Rjeibi, Ilhem; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Talarmin, Hélène; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-08-01

    Aromatic and medicinal plants are sources of natural antioxidants thanks to their secondary metabolites. Administration of Pinus halepensis L. (Pinaceae family) in previous studies was found to alleviate deleterious effects of aspirin-induced damage on liver and kidney. The present study, carried out on female rats, evaluates the effects of P. halepensis L. essential oil (EOP) on aspirin (A)-induced damage to liver and kidney. The animals used in this study were rats (n=28) divided into 4 groups of 7 each: (1) a control group (C); (2) a group given NaCl for 56 days then treated with (A) (600 mg/kg) for 4 days (A); (3) a group fed with (EOP) for 56 days then (A) for 4 days; and a group fed with only (EOP) for 56 days and given NaCl for 4 days. Estimations of biochemical parameters in blood were determined using kit methods (Spinreact). Lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were determined. Histopathological study was done by immersing pieces of both organs in a fixative solution followed by paraffin embeddeding and hematoxylin-eosin staining. Under our experimental conditions, Aspirin at dose 600 mg/kg body weight induced an increase of serum biochemical parameters as well as an oxidative stress in both organs. An increase occurred in TBARS by 108% and 55%, a decrease in SOD by 78% and 53%, CAT by 53% and 78%, and GPx by 78% and 51% in liver and kidney, respectively, compared to control. Administration of EOP given to rats enabled correction in these parameters. It could be concluded that the treatment with P. halepensis L. essential oil inhibited aspirin-induced liver and kidney damage.

  9. Effect of endurance training on seizure susceptibility, behavioral changes and neuronal damage after kainate-induced status epilepticus in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchekalarova, J; Shishmanova, M; Atanasova, D; Stefanova, M; Alova, L; Lazarov, N; Georgieva, K

    2015-11-02

    The therapeutic efficacy of regular physical exercises in an animal model of epilepsy and depression comorbidity has been confirmed previously. In the present study, we examined the effects of endurance training on susceptibility to kainate (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE), behavioral changes and neuronal damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Male SHRs were randomly divided into two groups. One group was exercised on a treadmill with submaximal loading for four weeks and the other group was sedentary. Immediately after the training period, SE was evoked in half of the sedentary and trained rats by KA, while the other half of the two groups received saline. Basal systolic (SP), diastolic (DP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) of all rats were measured at the beginning and at the end of the training period. Anxiety, memory and depression-like behaviour were evaluated a month after SE. The release of 5-HT in the hippocampus was measured using a liquid scintillation method and neuronal damage was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. SP and MAP of exercised SHRs decreased in comparison with the initial values. The increased resistance of SHRs to KA-induced SE was accompanied by an elongated latent seizure-free period, improved object recognition memory and antidepressant effect after the training program. While the anticonvulsant and positive behavioral effects of endurance training were accompanied by an increase of 5-HT release in the hippocampus, it did not exert neuroprotective activity. Our results indicate that prior exercise is an effective means to attenuate KA-induced seizures and comorbid behavioral changes in a model of hypertension and epilepsy suggesting a potential influence of hippocampal 5-HT on a comorbid depression. However, this beneficial impact does not prevent the development of epilepsy and concomitant brain damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Clustered DNA damage induced by proton and heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidkova, M.; Pachnerova Brabcova, K; Stepan, V.; Vysin, L.; Sihver, L.; Incerti, S.

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces in DNA strand breaks, damaged bases and modified sugars, which accumulate with increasing density of ionizations in charged particle tracks. Compared to isolated DNA damage sites, the biological toxicity of damage clusters can be for living cells more severe. We investigated the clustered DNA damage induced by protons (30 MeV) and high LET radiation (C 290 MeV/u and Fe 500 MeV/u) in pBR322 plasmid DNA. To distinguish between direct and indirect pathways of radiation damage, the plasmid was irradiated in pure water or in aqueous solution of one of the three scavengers (coumarin-3-carboxylic acid, dimethylsulfoxide, and glycylglycine). The goal of the contribution is the analysis of determined types of DNA damage in dependence on radiation quality and related contribution of direct and indirect radiation effects. The yield of double strand breaks (DSB) induced in the DNA plasmid-scavenger system by heavy ion radiation was found to decrease with increasing scavenging capacity due to reaction with hydroxyl radical, linearly with high correlation coefficients. The yield of non-DSB clusters was found to occur twice as much as the DSB. Their decrease with increasing scavenging capacity had lower linear correlation coefficients. This indicates that the yield of non-DSB clusters depends on more factors, which are likely connected to the chemical properties of individual scavengers. (authors)

  11. Radiation induced genetic damage in Aspergillus nidulans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiou, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanism by which ionizing radiation induces genetic damage in haploid and diploid conidia of Aspergillus nidulans was investigated. Although the linear dose-response curves obtained following low LET irradiation implied a 'single-hit' action of radiation, high LET radiations were much more efficient than low LET radiations, which suggests the involvement of a multiple target system. It was found that the RBE values for non-disjunction and mitotic crossing-over were very different. Unlike mitotic crossing-over, the RBE values for non-disjunction were much greater than for cell killing. This suggests that non-disjunction is a particularly sensitive genetical endpoint that is brought about by damage to a small, probably non-DNA target. Radiosensitisers were used to study whether radiation acts at the level of the DNA or some other cellular component. The sensitisation to electrons and/or X-rays by oxygen, and two nitroimidazoles (metronidazole and misonidazole) was examined for radiation induced non-disjunction, mitotic crossing-over, gene conversion, point mutation and cell killing. It was found that these compounds sensitised the cells considerably more to genetic damage than to cell killing. (author)

  12. A novel perspective on neuron study: damaging and promoting effects in different neurons induced by mechanical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yazhou; Wang, Wei; Li, Zong; Hao, Shilei; Wang, Bochu

    2016-10-01

    A growing volume of experimental evidence demonstrates that mechanical stress plays a significant role in growth, proliferation, apoptosis, gene expression, electrophysiological properties and many other aspects of neurons. In this review, first, the mechanical microenvironment and properties of neurons under in vivo conditions are introduced and analyzed. Second, research works in recent decades on the effects of different mechanical forces, especially compression and tension, on various neurons, including dorsal root ganglion neurons, retinal ganglion cells, cerebral cortex neurons, hippocampus neurons, neural stem cells, and other neurons, are summarized. Previous research results demonstrate that mechanical stress can not only injure neurons by damaging their morphology, impacting their electrophysiological characteristics and gene expression, but also promote neuron self-repair. Finally, some future perspectives in neuron research are discussed.

  13. Effect of the Toll-Like Receptor 4 Antagonist Eritoran on Retinochoroidal Inflammatory Damage in a Rat Model of Endotoxin-Induced Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyzahan Ekici

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We investigated the effect of eritoran, a Toll-like receptor 4 antagonist, on retinochoroidal inflammatory damage in an endotoxin-induced inflammatory rat model. Methods. Endotoxin-induced inflammatory model was obtained by intraperitoneal injection of 1.5 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Group 1 had control rats; in groups 2-3 LPS and 0.5 mg/kg sterile saline were injected; and in groups 4-5 LPS and 0.5 mg/kg eritoran were injected. Blood samples were taken and eyes were enucleated after 12 hours (h (groups 2 and 4 or 24 hours (Groups 3 and 5. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in the serum and retinochoroidal tissue and nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB levels in retinochoroidal tissue were determined. Histopathological examination was performed and retinochoroidal changes were scored. Results. Eritoran treatment resulted in lower levels of TNF-α, MDA, and NFκB after 12 h which became significant after 24 h. Serum TNF-α and retinochoroidal tissue NFκB levels were similar to control animals at the 24th h of the study. Eritoran significantly reversed histopathological damage after 24 h. Conclusions. Eritoran treatment resulted in less inflammatory damage in terms of serum and retinochoroidal tissue parameters.

  14. Beneficial effect of an omega-6 PUFA-rich diet in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced mucosal damage in the murine small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Toshihide; Hokari, Ryota; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Yasutake, Yuichi; Maruta, Koji; Kurihara, Chie; Tomita, Kengo; Komoto, Shunsuke; Okada, Yoshikiyo; Watanabe, Chikako; Usui, Shingo; Nagao, Shigeaki; Miura, Soichiro

    2015-01-07

    To investigate the effect of a fat rich diet on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced mucosal damage in the murine small intestine. C57BL6 mice were fed 4 types of diets with or without indomethacin. One group was fed standard laboratory chow. The other groups were fed a fat diet consisting of 8% w/w fat, beef tallow (rich in SFA), fish oil, (rich in omega-3 PUFA), or safflower oil (rich in omega-6 PUFA). Indomethacin (3 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally from day 8 to day 10. On day 11, intestines and adhesions to submucosal microvessels were examined. In the indomethacin-treated groups, mucosal damage was exacerbated by diets containing beef tallow and fish oil, and was accompanied by leukocyte infiltration (P safflower oil diet than in mice fed the beef tallow or fish oil diet (P safflower oil significantly decreased monocyte and platelet recruitment (P < 0.05). A diet rich in SFA and omega-3 PUFA exacerbated NSAID-induced small intestinal damage via increased leukocyte infiltration. Importantly, a diet rich in omega-6-PUFA did not aggravate inflammation as monocyte migration was blocked.

  15. Protective effects of folic acid on DNA damage and DNA methylation levels induced by N-methyl- N'-nitro- N-nitrosoguanidine in Kazakh esophageal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Feng, H; Chen, D; Abuduwaili, K; Li, X; Zhang, H

    2018-01-01

    The protective effects of folic acid on DNA damage and DNA methylation induced by N-methyl- N'-nitro- N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in Kazakh esophageal epithelial cells were investigated using a 3 × 3 factorial design trial. The cells were cultured in vitro and exposed to media containing different concentrations of folic acid and MNNG, after which growth indices were detected. DNA damage levels were measured using comet assays, and genome-wide DNA methylation levels (MLs) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. The DNA methylation of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and folate receptor- α (FR α) genes was detected by bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results showed significant increases in tail DNA concentration, tail length, and Olive tail moment ( p methylation frequencies of MTHFR and FR α genes. In particular, significant differences were observed in the promoter regions of both genes ( p methylation in Kazakh esophageal epithelial cells upon MNNG exposure. Thus, sufficient folic acid levels could play a protective role against the damage induced by this compound.

  16. Radiation damage to DNA: the effect of LET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, J F; Milligan, J R [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). School of Medicine

    1997-03-01

    Mechanisms whereby ionizing radiation induced damage are introduced into cellular DNA are discussed. The types of lesions induced are summarized and the rationale is presented which supports the statement that radiation induced singly damaged sites are biologically unimportant. The conclusion that multiply damaged sites are critical is discussed and the mechanisms whereby such lesions are formed are presented. Structures of multiply damaged sites are summarized and problems which they present to cellular repair systems are discussed. Lastly the effects of linear energy transfer on the complexity of multiply damaged sites are surveyed and the consequences of this increased complexity are considered in terms of cell survival and mutation. (author)

  17. Protective Effect of D-Limonene against Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Damage in Human Lens Epithelial Cells via the p38 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jie; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Gang; Liu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress, as mediated by ROS, is a significant factor in initiating the development of age-associated cataracts; D-limonene is a common natural terpene with powerful antioxidative properties which occurs naturally in a wide variety of living organisms. It has been shown to have antioxidant effect; we found that D-limonene can effectively prevent the oxidative damage caused by H2O2 and propose that the main mechanism underlying the inhibitory effects of D-limonene is the inhibition of HLECs apoptosis. In the present study, we used confocal-fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry analysis, Hoechst staining, H2DCFDA staining, transmission electron microscopy, and immunoblot analysis; the results revealed that slightly higher concentrations of D-limonene (125-1800 μM) reduced the H2O2-induced ROS generation and inhibited the H2O2-induced caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation and decreased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Furthermore, it inhibited H2O2-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Thus, we conclude that D-limonene could effectively protect HLECs from H2O2-induced oxidative stress and that its antioxidative effect is significant, thereby increasing the cell survival rate.

  18. The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) against iron-induced functional and histological damages in rat liver and kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Firouzeh Gholampour; Fatemeh Behzadi Ghiasabadi; Seyed Mohammad Owji; Jaafar Vatanparast

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Iron overload in the body is related with toxic effects and threatens the health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal functional disorders and histological damages in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into four groups (n=7): Sham, Sham + G.E (ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS+G...

  19. Impact of mechanical stress induced in silica vacuum windows on laser-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingreau, Clémence; Lanternier, Thomas; Lamaignère, Laurent; Donval, Thierry; Courchinoux, Roger; Leymarie, Christophe; Néauport, Jérôme

    2018-04-15

    At the interface between vacuum and air, optical windows must keep their optical properties, despite being subjected to mechanical stress. In this Letter, we investigate the impact of such stress on the laser-induced damage of fused silica windows at the wavelength of 351 nm in the nanosecond regime. Different stress values, from 1 to 30 MPa, both tensile and compressive, were applied. No effect of the stress on the laser-induced damage was evidenced.

  20. Radioprotective effects of hesperidin on oxidative damages and histopathological changes induced by X-irradiation in rats heart tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolhasan Rezaeyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate radioprotective effects of hesperidin (HES administration before the irradiation on the cardiac oxidative stress and histopathological changes in an experimental rat model. The cardiovascular complications of radiation exposure cause morbidity and mortality in patients who received radiotherapy. HES, an antioxidant flavonoid found in citrus fruits, suggests the protection against the tissue damage. Fifty-eight rats were divided into four groups: Group 1 received phosphate buffered saline (PBS and sham radiation; Group 2, HES and sham radiation; Group 3, PBS and radiation; and Group 4, HES and radiation. The rats were exposed to single dose of 18 Gy of 6 MV X-ray. One hundred milligrams per kilogram doses of HES was administered for 7 days before irradiation. The estimation of superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, and histopathological analyses was performed at 24 h and 8 weeks after radiation exposure. The irradiation of chest area resulted in an elevated MDA level and decreased SOD activity. Moreover, long-term pathological lesions of radiation were inflammation, fibrosis, the increased number of mast cells and macrophages, and development of plaque, vascular leakage, myocardial degeneration, and myocyte necrosis. Although the administration of HES decreases inflammation, fibrosis, mast cell and macrophage numbers, and myocyte necrosis, it did not result in reduced thrombus, myocardium degeneration, and vascular leakage. In conclusion, these results suggest that HES can perform a radioprotection action. The protective effect of HES may be attributable to its immunomodulatory effects and free radical-scavenging properties.

  1. Protective effect of Asparagus racemosus root extract against lethal total - body electron beam radiation induced damage in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharmila, K.P.; Bhandary, B. Satheesh Kumar; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Bhat, Vadish S.; Shetty, Jayaram; Peter, Alex John; Jose, Jerish M.; Fernandes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the protective effect of Asparagus Racemosus Root ethanolic extract (ARE) in Swiss albino mice against acute lethal total - body Electron beam irradiation. Swiss Albino mice were used for the assessment of radiation induced sickness and 30 day survival analysis. Survival studies were determined using the Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The maximum survival was observed in the experimental mice pretreated with 200 mg/kg.b.wt. of ARE which also reduced the radiation sickness characteristics. This dose was considered as an optimal dose for radioprotection. Treatment of mice with ARE before irradiation delayed the onset of mortality as compared with the untreated irradiated controls. Present findings demonstrate the potential of ARE in mitigating radiation-induced mortality, which may be attributed to its free radical scavenging and increased antioxidant potential

  2. UV and ionizing radiations induced DNA damage, differences and similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Douki, Thierry

    2016-11-01

    Both UV and ionizing radiations damage DNA. Two main mechanisms, so-called direct and indirect pathways, are involved in the degradation of DNA induced by ionizing radiations. The direct effect of radiation corresponds to direct ionization of DNA (one electron ejection) whereas indirect effects are produced by reactive oxygen species generated through water radiolysis, including the highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, which damage DNA. UV (and visible) light damages DNA by again two distinct mechanisms. UVC and to a lesser extend UVB photons are directly absorbed by DNA bases, generating their excited states that are at the origin of the formation of pyrimidine dimers. UVA (and visible) light by interaction with endogenous or exogenous photosensitizers induce the formation of DNA damage through photosensitization reactions. The excited photosensitizer is able to induce either a one-electron oxidation of DNA (type I) or to produce singlet oxygen (type II) that reacts with DNA. In addition, through an energy transfer from the excited photosensitizer to DNA bases (sometime called type III mechanism) formation of pyrimidine dimers could be produced. Interestingly it has been shown recently that pyrimidine dimers are also produced by direct absorption of UVA light by DNA, even if absorption of DNA bases at these wavelengths is very low. It should be stressed that some excited photosensitizers (such as psoralens) could add directly to DNA bases to generate adducts. The review will described the differences and similarities in terms of damage formation (structure and mechanisms) between these two physical genotoxic agents.

  3. New therapeutic aspect for carvedilol: Antifibrotic effects of carvedilol in chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdy, Nadia; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal

    2012-01-01

    Portal hypertension is a common complication of chronic liver diseases associated with liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. At present, beta-blockers such as carvedilol remain the medical treatment of choice for protection against variceal bleeding and other complications. Since carvedilol has powerful antioxidant properties we assessed the potential antifibrotic effects of carvedilol and the underlying mechanisms that may add further benefits for its clinical usefulness using a chronic model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity. Two weeks after CCl4 induction of chronic hepatotoxicity, rats were co-treated with carvedilol (10 mg/kg, orally) daily for 6 weeks. It was found that treatment of animals with carvedilol significantly counteracted the changes in liver function and histopathological lesions induced by CCl4. Also, carvedilol significantly counteracted lipid peroxidation, GSH depletion, and reduction in antioxidant enzyme activities; glutathione-S-transferase and catalase that was induced by CCl4. In addition, carvedilol ameliorated the inflammation induced by CCl4 as indicated by reducing the serum level of acute phase protein marker; alpha-2-macroglobulin and the liver expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Finally, carvedilol significantly reduced liver fibrosis markers including hydroxyproline, collagen accumulation, and the expression of the hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation marker; alpha smooth muscle actin. In conclusion, the present study provides evidences for the promising antifibrotic effects of carvedilol that can be explained by amelioration of oxidative stress through mainly, replenishment of GSH, restoration of antioxidant enzyme activities and reduction of lipid peroxides as well as amelioration of inflammation and fibrosis by decreasing collagen accumulation, acute phase protein level, NF-κB expression and finally HSC activation. -- Highlights: ► Carvedilol is a beta blocker with antioxidant and antifibrotic

  4. New therapeutic aspect for carvedilol: Antifibrotic effects of carvedilol in chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdy, Nadia [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Demerdash, Ebtehal, E-mail: ebtehal_dm@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-06-15

    Portal hypertension is a common complication of chronic liver diseases associated with liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. At present, beta-blockers such as carvedilol remain the medical treatment of choice for protection against variceal bleeding and other complications. Since carvedilol has powerful antioxidant properties we assessed the potential antifibrotic effects of carvedilol and the underlying mechanisms that may add further benefits for its clinical usefulness using a chronic model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity. Two weeks after CCl4 induction of chronic hepatotoxicity, rats were co-treated with carvedilol (10 mg/kg, orally) daily for 6 weeks. It was found that treatment of animals with carvedilol significantly counteracted the changes in liver function and histopathological lesions induced by CCl4. Also, carvedilol significantly counteracted lipid peroxidation, GSH depletion, and reduction in antioxidant enzyme activities; glutathione-S-transferase and catalase that was induced by CCl4. In addition, carvedilol ameliorated the inflammation induced by CCl4 as indicated by reducing the serum level of acute phase protein marker; alpha-2-macroglobulin and the liver expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Finally, carvedilol significantly reduced liver fibrosis markers including hydroxyproline, collagen accumulation, and the expression of the hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation marker; alpha smooth muscle actin. In conclusion, the present study provides evidences for the promising antifibrotic effects of carvedilol that can be explained by amelioration of oxidative stress through mainly, replenishment of GSH, restoration of antioxidant enzyme activities and reduction of lipid peroxides as well as amelioration of inflammation and fibrosis by decreasing collagen accumulation, acute phase protein level, NF-κB expression and finally HSC activation. -- Highlights: ► Carvedilol is a beta blocker with antioxidant and antifibrotic

  5. Effects and mechanisms of total glucosides of paeony on joint damage in rat collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L; Wei, W; Zheng, Y-Q; Jia, X-Y

    2005-05-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of total glucosides of paeony (TGP), an effective compound of Chinese traditional herbal medicine (CTM), on collagen -induced arthritis (CIA) in rats. CIA was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats immunized with chicken type II collagen in Freund's complete adjuvant. TGP (25, 50, 100 mg/kg/d) was orally administered to rats from day 14 to 28 after immunization. Arthritis was evaluated by hind paw swelling, polyarthritis index, and histological examination. Activities of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) were determined and the ultrastructure of synoviocytes was observed. The proliferation and the production of vascular epidermal growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) and MMP-3 in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) were detected. The administration of TGP (25, 50, 100 mg/kg, ig x 14 days) suppressed secondary inflammatory reactions and histological changes in CIA model. The ultrastructure of synoviocytes from CIA rats was changed, and the level of IL-1 and TNF alpha produced by macrophage-like synoviocytes (MLS) from CIA rats was elevated. TGP (50, 100 mg/kg, ig x 14 days) inhibited above changes significantly. The MLS supernatants of CIA rats induced more cell proliferation and more production of VEGF, bFGF, MMP-1 and MMP-3 in FLS of CIA than those supernatants from CIA rats treated with TGP (50, 100 mg/kg, ig x 14 days). These results indicate that TGP exerts a suppressive effect on joint destruction in rat CIA. The therapeutic effect of TGP could be associated with its ability to ameliorate the secretion and metabolism of synoviocytes and to inhibit the abnormal proliferation and VEGF, bFGF, MMP-1 and MMP-3 production by FLS.

  6. The effect of modulators of radiation-induced G2 arrest on the repair of radiation-induced DNA damage detectable by neutral filter elution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, R.; Kort, L.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of cycloheximide (50 μg/ml), caffeine (5 mM) and cordycepin (0.15 mM) on the repair of the damage detectable in DNA by neutral filter elution was determined. Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) were irradiated with X-ray doses of 20, 60 and 100 Gy then allowed to repair without drug treatment or in the presence of each drug for intervals up to 6 h. DNA damage repair proceeded in two phases. The fast component of the repair process (t 1/2 approx. 7 min) was not modified by drug treatment; the slow component (t 1/2 170 min) was unaffected by cycloheximide or cordycepin, but appeared to be inhibited by caffeine. It was concluded that: (a) the lesion which results in radiation-induced G 2 arrest is not the lesion which is detectable by neutral filter elution, and (b) the influence of caffeine on dsb repair is specific to caffeine and is not mediated by a reduction in the duration of G 2 arrest. (author)

  7. The effect of 2-[(aminopropyl)amino] ethanethiol (WR 1065) on radiation-induced DNA damage and repair and cell progression in V79 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grdina, D.J.; Nagy, B.

    1986-01-01

    The radioprotector 2-[(aminopropyl)amino] ethanethiol (WR 1065) was investigated with respect to its ability to affect radiation-induced DNA damage and repair in V79 cells. At a concentration of 4mM, WR 1065 protected against the formation of single strand breaks (SSB), when present during irradiation. The protector appeared, however, to inhibit the subsequent postirradiation repair or rejoining of SSB. While repair was complete within 24h, the protector reduced the rate of repair by a factor of 3. This inhibitory effect on the rate of repair did not correlate with either measured differences in cell survival or mutagenesis. WR 1065 present in the growth medium inhibited the progression of cells through S-phase, and cell-doubling time following a 3h exposure to the protector was increased from 11 to 18h. These data are consistent with the property of thiols to inhibit DNA polymerase activity. It was concluded that, while the presence of WR 1065 during irradiation reduced SSB-DNA damage, its effect on the subsequent rejoining of these breaks could not be correlated with its observed effect on protecting against radiation-induced mutagenesis. (author)

  8. Exiguobacterium mediated arsenic removal and its protective effect against arsenic induced toxicity and oxidative damage in freshwater fish, Channa striata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a toxic metalloid existing widely in the environment, and its removal from contaminated water has become a global challenge. The use of bacteria in this regard finds a promising solution. In the present study, Exiguobacterium sp. As-9, which is an arsenic resistant bacterium, was selected with respect to its arsenic removal efficiency. Quantification of arsenic in the water treated with bacterium showed that Exiguobacterium efficiently removed up to 99% of arsenic in less than 20 h. In order to reveal the possible effect of this bacterium in removal of arsenic from water and protecting fishes from the detrimental effects of arsenic, we initiated a range of studies on fresh water fish, Channa striata. It was observed that the fishes introduced into bacteria treated water displayed no symptoms of arsenic toxicity which was marked by a decreased oxidative damage, whereas the fishes exposed to arsenic revealed a significant (p < 0.05 increase in the oxidative stress together with the elevated levels of malondialdehyde. Determination of the bioaccumulation of arsenic in the liver tissues of C. striata using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry (HG-AAS revealed an increased As(III accumulation in the fishes exposed to arsenic whereas the arsenic level in the control and bacteria treated fishes were found below the detectable limit. In conclusion, this study presents the strategies of bacterial arsenic removal with possible directions for future research.

  9. Investigation of the antioxidant effects of pheniramine maleate and nebivolol on testicular damage in rats with experimentally induced testis torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvanc, Ercan; Tuglu, Devrim; Ozan, Tunc; Kisa, Ucler; Balci, Mahi; Batislam, Ertan; Yilmaz, Erdal

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the biochemical, histopathologic, and spermatogenetic changes in the detorsionated testicle after experimental torsion and to study the antioxidant effects of pheniramine maleate and nebivolol. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into 4 groups: Group 1: Sham; Group 2: Torsion/Detorsion (T/D); Group 3: T/D + Pheniramine maleate (PM); Group 4: T/D + Nebivolol (NB) group. Paroxanase (PON), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stres index (OSI) were measured, and spermatogenetic and histopathologic evaluation was performed in tissue and blood samples. The evaluation of tissue TAS indicated no statistically significant difference in Group 3 compared to Group 2. A statistically significant increase was detected in Group 4 compared to Group 2. Serum PON levels revealed a statistically significant increase in Groups 3 and 4 compared to Groups 1 and 2. The Johnsen testicular biopsy score decreased in Groups 3 and 4, but the decrease was not statistically significant. Pheniramine maleate and nebivolol have antioxidant effects against ischemia-reperfusion damage. They also support tissue recovery, which is more significantly observed by nebivolol.

  10. Protective effect of embelin from Embelia ribes Burm. against transient global ischemia-induced brain damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thippeswamy, B S; Nagakannan, P; Shivasharan, B D; Mahendran, S; Veerapur, V P; Badami, S

    2011-11-01

    Embelia ribes is being used in Indian traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of mental disorders and as brain tonic. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of embelin from E. ribes on global ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury in rats. Transient global ischemia was induced by occluding bilateral common carotid arteries for 30 min followed by 24-h reperfusion. Neurological functions were measured using sensorimotor tests. Ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury was assessed by cerebral infarct area, biochemical and histopathological examination. Pretreatment of embelin (25 and 50 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased locomotor activity and hanging latency time and decreased beam walking latency when compared with ischemic control. The treatment also reduced significantly the lipid peroxidation and increased the total thiol content and glutathione-S-transferase activity in brain homogenates. The decreased cerebral infarction area in embelin-treated groups and histopathological observations confirmed the above findings. These observations suggested that embelin is a neuroprotective agent and may prove to be useful adjunct in the treatment of stroke.

  11. Evaluation of hepatoprotective effect of methanolic extract of Clitoria ternatea (Linn. flower against acetaminophen-induced liver damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuppan Nithianantham

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Clitoria ternatea (C. ternatea flower extract against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity. Methods: The antioxidant property of C. ternatea flower extract was investigated by employing established in vitro antioxidant assay. The C. ternatea flower extract was studied in this work for its hepatoprotective effect against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity in mice. Activity was measured by monitoring the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, billirubin and glutathione with histopathological analysis. Results: The amount of total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated to be 105.40依2.47 mg/g gallic acid equivalent and 72.21依0.05 mg/g catechin equivalent respectively. The antioxidant activity of C. ternatea flower extract was 68.9% at a concentration of 1 mg/mL and was also concentration dependant, with an IC 50 value of 327.00 µg/mL. The results of acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity experiment showed that mice treated with the extract (200 mg/kg showed a significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and bilirubin levels, which were all elevated in the paracetamol group (P<0.05. Meanwhile, the level of glutathione was found to be restored in extract treated animals compared to the groups treated with acetaminophen alone (P<0.05. Therapy of extract also showed its protective effect on histopathological alterations and supported the biochemical finding. Conclusion: The present work confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of C. ternatea flower against model hepatotoxicant acetaminophen.

  12. Effect of Kombucha, a fermented black tea in attenuating oxidative stress mediated tissue damage in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee; Gachhui, Ratan; Sil, Parames C

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic complications associated with increased oxidative stress can be suppressed by antioxidants. In the present study we investigated the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Kombucha (KT), a fermented black tea, in comparison to that of unfermented black tea (BT), in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure lowered the body weight and plasma insulin by about 28.12% and 61.34% respectively and elevated blood glucose level and glycated Hb by about 3.79 and 3.73 folds respectively. The oxidative stress related parameters like lipid peroxidation end products (increased by 3.38, 1.7, 1.65, 1.94 folds respectively), protein carbonyl content (increased by 2.5, 2.35, 1.8, 3.26 folds respectively), glutathione content (decreased by 59.8%, 47.27%, 53.69%, 74.03% respectively), antioxidant enzyme activities were also altered in the pancreatic, hepatic, renal and cardiac tissues of diabetic animals. Results showed significant antidiabetic potential of the fermented beverage (150 mg lyophilized extract/kg bw for 14 days) as it effectively restored ALX-induced pathophysiological changes. Moreover, it could ameliorate DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation in the pancreatic tissue of diabetic rats. Although unfermented black tea is effective in the above pathophysiology, KT was found to be more efficient. This might be due to the formation of some antioxidant molecules during fermentation period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Additional effects of taurine on the benefits of BCAA intake for the delayed-onset muscle soreness and muscle damage induced by high-intensity eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Song-Gyu; Miyazaki, Teruo; Ishikura, Keisuke; Nagayama, Hisashi; Suzuki, Takafumi; Maeda, Seiji; Ito, Masaharu; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Ohmori, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Taurine (TAU) has a lot of the biological, physiological, and pharmocological functions including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress. Although previous studies have appreciated the effectiveness of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on the delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), consistent finding has not still convinced. The aim of this study was to examine the additional effect of TAU with BCAA on the DOMS and muscle damages after eccentric exercise. Thirty-six untrained male volunteers were equally divided into four groups, and ingested a combination with 2.0 g TAU (or placebo) and 3.2 g BCAA (or placebo), thrice a day, 2 weeks prior to and 4 days after elbow flexion eccentric exercise. Following the period after eccentric exercise, the physiological and blood biochemical markers for DOMS and muscle damage showed improvement in the combination of TAU and BCAA supplementation rather than in the single or placebo supplementations. In conclusion, additional supplement of TAU with BCAA would be a useful way to attenuate DOMS and muscle damages induced by high-intensity exercise.

  14. Mechanisms of subsidence for induced damage and techniques for analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drumm, E.C.; Bennett, R.M.; Kane, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    Structural damage due to mining induced subsidence is a function of the nature of the structure and its position on the subsidence profile. A point on the profile may be in the tensile zone, the compressive zone, or the no-deformation zone at the bottom of the profile. Damage to structures in the tension zone is primarily due to a reduction of support during vertical displacement of the ground surface, and to shear stresses between the soil and structure resulting from horizontal displacements. The damage mechanisms due to tension can be investigated effectively using a two-dimensional plane stress analysis. Structures in the compression zone are subjected to positive moments in the footing and large compressive horizontal stresses in the foundation walls. A plane strain analysis of the foundation wall is utilized to examine compression zone damage mechanisms. The structural aspects affecting each mechanism are identified and potential mitigation techniques are summarized

  15. Pathology of radiation induced lung damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Yoshinori; Murata, Yoshihiko; Ogata, Hideo; Katagiri, Shiro; Sugita, Hironobu; Iwai, Kazuo; Sakurai, Isamu.

    1985-01-01

    We examined pathological findings of radiation induced lung damage. Twenty-three cases are chosen from our hospital autopsy cases for 9 years, which fulfil strict criteria of radiation lung damage. Lung damage could be classified into 3 groups : 1) interstitial pneumonia type (9 cases), 2) intermediate pneumonia type (8 cases), and 3) alveolar pneumonia type (6 cases), according to the degree of intra-luminal exudation. These classification is well correlated with clinical findings. Pathological alveolar pneumonia type corresponds to symptomatic, radiologic ground glass pneumonic shadow. And pathologic interstitial type corresponds to clinical asymptomatic, radiologic reticulo-nodular shadow. From the clinico-pathological view point these classification is reasonable one. Radiation affects many lung structures and showed characteristic feature of repair. Elastofibrosis of the alveolar wall is observed in every cases, obstructive bronchiolitis are observed in 5 cases, and obstructive bronchiolitis in 9 cases. They are remarkable additional findings. Thickening of the interlobular septum, broncho-vascular connective tissue, and pleural layer are observed in every cases together with vascular lesions. (author)

  16. Laser-induced damage study of polymer PMMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, N.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the results of bulk laser-induced damage measurements in polymer PMMA at 532 nm and 1064 nm for nanosecond laser pulses. The damage thresholds were measured for focused spot sizes ranging over two orders of magnitude. In this work, self-focusing effects were verified to be absent by measurements of breakdown thresholds using both linearly and circularly polarized light. At both 1064 nm and 532 nm, the dependence of the breakdown field, E B , on the spot size, ω, was empirically determined to be E B = C/√ω, where C depends on the wavelength. The extracted value for C(λ) at 1064 nm is larger by a factor of 5 than at 532 nm. Possible reasons for this strong dispersion and mechanism for laser-induced damage in polymer materials will be discussed

  17. Myostatin as a Marker for Doxorubicin Induced Cardiac Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesik, Vural; Honca, Tevfik; Gulgun, Mustafa; Uysal, Bulent; Kurt, Yasemin Gulcan; Cayci, Tuncer; Babacan, Oguzhan; Gocgeldi, Ercan; Korkmazer, Nadir

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DXR) is an effective chemotherapeutic agent but causes severe cardiac failure over known doses. Thus, early detection and prevention of cardiac damage is important. Various markers have been tested for early detection of cardiac damage. Myostatin is a protein produced in skeletal muscle cells inhibits muscle differentiation and growth during myogenesis. We evaluated the role of myostatin as a marker for showing DXR induced cardiac damage and compared with well known cardiac markers like NT-proBNP, hs-TnT and CK in a rat model of chronic DXR cardiotoxicity. Myostatin, NT-proBNP, and hs-TnT but not CK rose significantly during DXR treatment. Myostatin can be used as an early marker of DXR induced cardiotoxicity. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  18. Activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 Antioxidant Pathway Contributes to the Protective Effects of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides in the Rodent Retina after Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; So, Kwok-Fai; Brecha, Nicholas C.; Pu, Mingliang

    2014-01-01

    Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP), extracts from the wolfberries, are protective to retina after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). The antioxidant response element (ARE)–mediated antioxidant pathway plays an important role in maintaining the redox status of the retina. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), combined with potent AREs in its promoter, is a highly effective therapeutic target for the protection against neurodegenerative diseases, including I/R-induced retinal damage. The aim of our present study was to investigate whether the protective effect of LBP after I/R damage was mediated via activation of the Nrf2/HO-1-antioxidant pathway in the retina. Retinal I/R was induced by an increase in intraocular pressure to 130 mm Hg for 60 minutes. Prior to the induction of ischemia, rats were orally treated with either vehicle (PBS) or LBP (1 mg/kg) once a day for 1 week. For specific experiments, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP, 20 mg/kg), an HO-1 inhibitor, was intraperitoneally administered at 24 h prior to ischemia. The protective effects of LBP were evaluated by quantifying ganglion cell and amacrine cell survival, and by measuring cell apoptosis in the retinal layers. In addition, HO-1 expression was examined using Western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses. Cytosolic and nuclear Nrf2 was measured using immunofluorescent staining. LBP treatment significantly increased Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and HO-1 expression in the retina after I/R injury. Increased apoptosis and a decrease in the number of viable cells were observed in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) and inner nuclear layer (INL) in the I/R retina, which were reversed by LBP treatment. The HO-1 inhibitor, ZnPP, diminished the LBP treatment-induced protective effects in the retina after I/R. Taken together, these results suggested that LBP partially exerted its beneficial neuroprotective effects via the activation of Nrf2 and an increase in HO-1 protein expression. PMID:24400114

  19. A comparative study of the potentiating effect of caffeine and poly-D-lysine on chromosome damage induced by X-rays in plant cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos, S.; Panneerselvam, N.; Cortes, F. (Sevilla University, Faculty of Biology (Spain). Department of Cell Biology); Mateos, J.C. (Centro Regional de Oncologia ' Duque del Infantado' , Sevilla (Spain))

    1992-04-01

    X-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations (CA) were potentiated by post-treatments in G{sub 2} with either caffeine (caff) or poly-D-lysine (PDL) in root-tip cells of Allium cepa. The enhancement of the yield of CA was concomittant with an increase in the frequency of mitosis. The results seem to support the idea of a direct relationship between radiation-induced G{sub 2} delay and repair of chromosome damage. Similarities between caff and PDL are reported in both decreasing G{sub 2} delay and enhancing chromatid aberration yield. The possible molecular mechanism(s) of action responsible for the cytogenetic effects observed are discussed. (author). 20 refs.; 2 tabs.

  20. Evaluation of the Hepatoprotective Effects of Lantadene A, a Pentacyclic Triterpenoid of Lantana Plants against Acetaminophen-induced Liver Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of lantadene A against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity in mice was studied. Activity was measured by monitoring the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and bilirubin, along with histo-pathological analysis. Silymarin was used as positive control. A bimodal pattern of behavioural toxicity was exhibited by the lantadene A-treated group at the beginning of the treatment. However, treatment with lantadene A and silymarin resulted in an increase in the liver weight compared with the acetaminophen treated group. The results of the acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity experiments showed that mice treated with lantadene A (500 mg/kg showed a significant decrease in the activity of ALT, AST and ALP and the level of bilirubin, which were all elevated in the acetaminophen treated group (p < 0.05. Histological studies supported the biochemical findings and a maximum improvement in the histoarchitecture was seen. The lantadene A-treated group showed remarkable protective effects against histopathological alterations, with comparable results to the silymarin treated group. The current study confirmed the hepatoprotective effects of lantadene A against the model hepatotoxicant acetaminophen, which is likely related to its potent antioxidative activity.

  1. Modeling of Corrosion-induced Concrete Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Anna Emilie A.; Michel, Alexander; Stang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper a finite element model is introduced to simulate corrosion-induced damage in concrete. The model takes into account the penetration of corrosion products into the concrete as well as non-uniform formation of corrosion products around the reinforcement. To ac-count for the non...... of corrosion products affects both the time-to cover cracking and the crack width at the concrete surface.......In the present paper a finite element model is introduced to simulate corrosion-induced damage in concrete. The model takes into account the penetration of corrosion products into the concrete as well as non-uniform formation of corrosion products around the reinforcement. To ac-count for the non......-uniform formation of corrosion products at the concrete/reinforcement interface, a deterministic approach is used. The model gives good estimates of both deformations in the con-crete/reinforcement interface and crack width when compared to experimental data. Further, it is shown that non-uniform deposition...

  2. Effect of caffeine on peroxidase activity and gamma-ray-induced oxic and anoxic damage in Hordeum vulgare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, R.; Kesavan, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of caffeine during and after gamma radiation of barley seeds was studied using seedling injury and peroxidase activity as parameters. The radiation-induced stimulation of peroxidase activity is evident in eight-day only seedlings but not in embryos (i.e. immediately after irradiation). Caffeine present during irradiation of seeds soaked in oxygenated water diminishes seedling injury and also reduces the peroxidase activity to the level observed in eight-day old seedlings of unirradiated seeds. Caffeine, however, produces just the opposite effect (i.e. enhances the seedling injury and peroxidase activity of eight-day old seedlings) when applied during irradiation of seeds soaked in oxygen-free water. There is no evidence that caffeine effects enzyme activity under in vitro conditions. (author)

  3. Effects of a turmeric extract (Curcuma longa) on chronic ultraviolet B irradiation-induced skin damage in melanin-possessing hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Maho; Kimura, Yoshiyuki

    2009-12-01

    Turmeric (the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L., Zingiberacease) is widely used as a dietary pigment and spice, and has been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation, skin wounds and hepatic disorders in Ayurvedic, Unani and Chinese medicine. Although the topical application or oral administration of turmeric is used to improve skin trouble, there is no evidence to support this effect. The aim of this study was to clarify whether turmeric prevents chronic ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated skin damage. We examined the effects of a turmeric extract on skin damage including changes in skin thickness and elasticity, pigmentation and wrinkling caused by long-term, low-dose ultraviolet B irradiation in melanin-possessing hairless mice. The extract (at 300 or 1000 mg/kg, twice daily) prevented an increase in skin thickness and a reduction in skin elasticity induced by chronic UVB exposure. It also prevented the formation of wrinkles and melanin (at 1000 mg/kg, twice daily) as well as increases in the diameter and length of skin blood vessels and in the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Prevention of UVB-induced skin aging by turmeric may be due to the inhibition of increases in MMP-2 expression caused by chronic irradiation.

  4. The effects of diet-induced obesity on hepatocyte insulin signaling pathways and induction of non-alcoholic liver damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Fatani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sameer Fatani1, Imose Itua2, Paul Clark3, Christopher Wong3, Ebrahim K Naderali21Obesity Biology Unit, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK; 2Department of Health and Applied Social Sciences, Liverpool Hope University, Hope Park, Liverpool UK; 3Aintree University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Longmoor Lane, Liverpool, UKAbstract: The prevalence of diet-induced obesity is increasing amongst adults and children worldwide, predisposing millions of people to an array of health problems that include metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In this study we used experimental animals to investigate the effects of dietary obesity on markers of hepatic insulin signaling as well as structural changes in hepatocytes. Adult male Wistar rats were randomized and assigned to either a control group or a test group. Controls were fed standard laboratory pelleted diet (chow-fed, while the test group had free access to a highly-palatable diet (HPD. After eight weeks, the HPD-fed animals were subdivided into three subgroups and their diets altered as follows: HPD-to-chow, HPD with the addition of fenofibrate given by oral gavage for a further seven weeks, or HPD with vehicle (1% carboxymethylcellulose at 1 mL/kg body weight given by oral gavage for a further seven weeks, respectively. Untreated diet-fed animals had significantly higher body weight, liver weight, and all measured metabolic profiles compared with chow-fed and treated diet-fed groups. Expression of kinases IRβ, IRS-1, AKt, eNOS, Shc and ERK1/2 were unaffected by obesity, while IRS-2 and P I3 kinase levels were significantly reduced in untreated HPD animals. Compared with chow-fed animals, steatosis and steatohepatitis were almost doubled in animals from untreated HPD, while removal of HPD and fenofibrate-treatment reduced steatosis by 40% and 80% respectively. These data suggest that diet-induced obesity affects

  5. Investigation of protective effects of Erythrina velutina extract against MMS induced damages in the root meristem cells of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah S. B. S. Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae, is a medicinal plant that can be found in the tropics and subtropics, including in the semi-arid northeastern Brazil. It is commonly used in folk medicine to treat anxiety, agitation and insomnia. E. velutina has been known to present analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities, however, it is unknown if this plant present a protective effect on DNA. We assessed the antigenotoxic effect of E. velutina against the genotoxic effects induced by MMS in the root meristem cells of Allium cepa. Three concentrations of the aqueous extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/L of this medicinal plant were used in three different types of treatment (pre-, post- and simultaneous. The effects of the extracts on the root meristem cells of A. cepa were analyzed at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. Protective effects were observed at higher concentrations in pre-treatment and in simultaneous treatment. The results suggest that E. velutina may present antigenotoxic properties and demonstrate its chemopreventive potential.

  6. Protective effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in precision-cut carp liver slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjuan; Zhang, Chunyun; Du, Jinliang; Jia, Rui; Cao, Liping; Jeney, Galina; Teraoka, Hiroki; Xu, Pao; Yin, Guojun

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLPS) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced hepatotoxicity in vitro in common carp. Precision-cut liver slices (PCLSs), which closely resemble the organ from which they are derived, were employed as an in vitro model system. GLPS (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/ml) was added to PCLS culture system before the exposure to 12 mM CCl 4 . The supernatants and slices were collected to detect molecular and biochemical responses to CCl 4 and PCLS treatments. The levels of CYP1A, CYP3A, and CYP2E1 were measured by ELISA; the mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and iNOS were determined by RT-PCR; and the relative protein expressions of c-Rel and p65 were analyzed by western blotting. Results showed that GLPS inhibited the elevations of the marker enzymes (GOT, GPT, LDH) and MDA induced by CCl 4 ; it also enhanced the suppressed activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, T-AOC). The treatment with GLPS resulted in significant downregulation of NF-κB and inflammatory cytokine mRNA levels and significant decreases in the hepatic protein levels of CYP1A, CYP3A, and CYP2E1. These results suggest that GLPS can protect CCl 4 -induced PCLS injury through inhibiting lipid peroxidation, elevating antioxidant enzyme activity, and suppressing immune inflammatory response.

  7. Acetylcholinesterase-independent protective effects of huperzine A against iron overload-induced oxidative damage and aberrant iron metabolism signaling in rat cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ling-Xue; Huang, Xiao-Tian; Chen, Yu-Ting; Tang, Xi-Can; Zhang, Hai-Yan

    2016-11-01

    Iron dyshomeostasis is one of the primary causes of neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Huperzine A (HupA), a natural inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), is a licensed anti-AD drug in China and a nutraceutical in the United Sates. Here, we investigated the protective effects of HupA against iron overload-induced injury in neurons. Rat cortical neurons were treated with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC), and cell viability was assessed with MTT assays. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assays were performed to assess mitochondrial function. The labile iron pool (LIP) level, cytosolic-aconitase (c-aconitase) activity and iron uptake protein expression were measured to determine iron metabolism changes. The modified Ellman's method was used to evaluate AChE activity. HupA significantly attenuated the iron overload-induced decrease in neuronal cell viability. This neuroprotective effect of HupA occurred concurrently with a decrease in ROS and an increase in ATP. Moreover, HupA treatment significantly blocked the upregulation of the LIP level and other aberrant iron metabolism changes induced by iron overload. Additionally, another specific AChE inhibitor, donepezil (Don), at a concentration that caused AChE inhibition equivalent to that of HupA negatively, influenced the aberrant changes in ROS, ATP or LIP that were induced by excessive iron. We provide the first demonstration of the protective effects of HupA against iron overload-induced neuronal damage. This beneficial role of HupA may be attributed to its attenuation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction and elevation of LIP, and these effects are not associated with its AChE-inhibiting effect.

  8. Possible involvement of GABAergic mechanism in protective effect of melatonin against sleep deprivation-induced behaviour modification and oxidative damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Singh, Anant

    2009-08-01

    Sleep is an important physiological process responsible for the maintenance of physical, mental and emotional health of a living being. Sleep deprivation is considered risky for several pathological diseases such as anxiety and motor and cognitive dysfunctions. Sleep deprivation has recently been reported to cause oxidative damage. This study has been designed to explore the possible involvement of the GABAergic mechanism in protective effects of melatonin against 72-h sleep deprivation-induced behaviour modification and oxidative damage in mice. Mice were sleep-deprived for a period of 72 h using the grid over water suspended method. Animals were divided into groups of 6-8 animals each. Melatonin (5 and 10 mg/kg), flumazenil (0.5 mg/kg), picrotoxin (0.5 mg/kg) and muscimol (0.05 mg/kg) were administered for 5 days starting 2 days before 72-h sleep deprivation. Various behavioural tests (plus maze, zero maze, mirror chamber, actophotometer) and body weight assessment followed by oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde level, glutathione, catalase, nitrite and protein) were carried out. The 72-h sleep deprivation caused significant anxiety-like behaviour, weight loss, impaired locomotor activity and oxidative damage as compared with naïve (without sleep deprivation). Treatment with melatonin (5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, ip) significantly improved locomotor activity, weight loss and antianxiety effect as compared with control (sleep-deprived). Biochemically, melatonin treatment significantly restored reduced glutathione, catalase activity, attenuated lipid peroxidation and nitrite level as compared with control animals (72-h sleep-deprived). Flumazenil (0.5 mg/kg) and picrotoxin (0.5 mg/kg) pretreatments with a lower dose of melatonin (5 mg/kg) significantly antagonized the protective effect of melatonin. However, muscimol (0.05 mg/kg) pretreatment with melatonin (5 mg/kg, ip) potentiated the protective effect of melatonin which was significant as compared with their

  9. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of cinnamaldehyde on protecting high glucose-induced damage in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan; Liang, Xiao-Chun; Shi, Yue; Sun, Qing; Liu, Di; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    To examine the mechanism underlying the beneficial role of cinnamaldehyde on oxidative damage and apoptosis in high glucose (HG)-induced dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in vitro. HG-treated DRG neurons were developed as an in vitro model of diabetic neuropathy. The neurons were randomly divided into five groups: the control group, the HG group and the HG groups treated with 25, 50 and 100 nmol/L cinnamaldehyde, respectively. Cell viability was examined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis rate was evaluated by the in situ TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured with flow cytometry. Expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), inhibitor of κB (IκB), phosphorylated IκB (p-IκB), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and caspase-3 were determined by western blotting and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) were also measured by western blotting. Cinnamaldehyde reduced HG-induced loss of viability, apoptosis and intracellular generation of ROS in the DRG neurons via inhibiting NF-κB activity. The western blot assay results showed that the HG-induced elevated expressions of NF-κB, IκB and p-IκB were remarkably reduced by cinnamaldehyde treatment in a dose-dependent manner (P neurons, but also lowered the elevated IL-6, TNF-α, cyclo-oxygenase and inducible nitric oxide synthase levels, indicating a reduction in inflammatory damage. Cinnamaldehyde protected DRG neurons from the deleterious effects of HG through inactivation of NF-κB pathway but not through activation of Nrf2/HO-1. And thus cinnamaldehyde may have potential application as a treatment for DPN.

  10. Lack of effect of inhibitors of DNA synthesis/repair on the ionizing radiation-induced chromosomal damage in G[sub 2] stage of ataxia telangiectasia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoccia, A. (Univ. ' La Sapienza' , Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Genetica e Biologia Molecolare); Palitti, F.; Raggi, T. (Univ. del Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy). Dipt. di Agrobiologia ed Agrochimica); Catena, C. (ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia); Tanzarella, C. (Rome Univ. 3 (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia)

    1994-09-01

    The relationship between the repair processes occurring at the G[sub 2] phase of the cell cycle and cytogenetic damage in ataxia telangiectasia (AT) cells was studied. Lymphoblastoid cells derived from normal, heterozygote AT (HzAT) and three AT patients were exposed to X-rays or fission neutrons and post-treated with inhibitors of DNA synthesis/repair, such as inhibitors of DNA polymerases [alpha], [sigma] and [epsilon] (cytosine arabinoside, ara-C; aphidicolin, APC; buthylphenyl-guanine, BuPdG) or ribonucleotide reductase (hydroxyurea HU). A strong increase of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations was observed in normal and HzAT cells post-treated with ara-C, APC and HU, but not in the presence of BuPdG. No enhancing effect was observed in cells derived from AT patients, except for HU post-irradiation treatment. These results suggest that the enzymes that can be inhibited by these agents are not directly involved in the repair of radiation damage induced in G[sub 2] cells from AT patients, indicating that probably the AT cells that we used lack the capability to transform the primary DNA lesions into reparable products, or that AT cells might contain a mutated form of DNA polymerase resistant to the inhibitors. (author).

  11. Ameliorating effects of traditional Chinese medicine preparation, Chinese materia medica and active compounds on ischemia/reperfusion-induced cerebral microcirculatory disturbances and neuron damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Fan, Jingyu; Han, Jingyan

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic stroke and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury induced by thrombolytic therapy are conditions with high mortality and serious long-term physical and cognitive disabilities. They have a major impact on global public health. These disorders are associated with multiple insults to the cerebral microcirculation, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, leukocyte adhesion and infiltration, brain blood barrier (BBB) disruption, and capillary hypoperfusion, ultimately resulting in tissue edema, hemorrhage, brain injury and delayed neuron damage. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in China, Korea, Japan and other Asian countries for treatment of a wide range of diseases. In China, the usage of compound TCM preparation to treat cerebrovascular diseases dates back to the Han Dynasty. Even thousands of years earlier, the medical formulary recorded many classical prescriptions for treating cerebral I/R-related diseases. This review summarizes current information and underlying mechanisms regarding the ameliorating effects of compound TCM preparation, Chinese materia medica, and active components on I/R-induced cerebral microcirculatory disturbances, brain injury and neuron damage. PMID:26579420

  12. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Capparis spinosa L. fractions and Quercetin on tert-butyl hydroperoxide- induced acute liver damage in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heibatullah Kalantari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Capparis spinosa L. and Quercetin in tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP induced acute liver damage. Different fractions of C. spinosa were examined for total phenolic content and antioxidant property. Among these fractions, hydroalcoholic extract was used to assess the hepatoprotective effect in tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP induced hepatotoxicity model by determining serum biochemical markers, sleeping time and antioxidant assay such as reduced glutathione (GSH as well as histopathological examination of liver tissues. The total phenolic and Quercetin contents of hydroalcoholic fraction were significantly higher than other fractions. It also showed high antioxidant activity. Pretreatment with hydroalcoholic fraction at the dose of 400 mg/kg and Quercetin at the dose of 20 mg/kg showed liver protection against t-BHP induced hepatic injury, as it was evident by a significant decrease in serum enzymes marker, sleeping time and MDA and an increase in the GSH, SOD and CAT activities confirmed by pathology tests. The final results ascertained the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of C. spinosa and Quercetin in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, this study suggests that possible mechanism of this protection may be associated with its property of scavenging free radicals which may be due to the presence of phenolic compounds.

  13. Protective Effect of Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Extract against Benzo[a]pyrene Induced Skin Damage through Inhibition of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyunju; Lee, JungA; Park, Deokhoon; Jung, Eunsun

    2017-12-20

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a type of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is present in the atmosphere surrounding our environment. Although B[a]P is a procarcinogen, enzymatically metabolized benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) could intercalate into DNA to form bulky BPDE-DNA adducts as an ultimate carcinogenic product in human keratinocytes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of mulberry extract, purified from the fruit of Morus Alba L., on B[a]P-induced cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes and its mechanisms of action. In this study, we confirmed that B[a]P induced nuclear translocation and the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) were decreased by pretreatment of mulberry extract. Mulberry extract could decrease DNA damage through the suppression of B[a]P derived DNA adduct formation and restoration of cell cycle retardation at S phase in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), a major active compound of mulberry extract, showed biological activities to protect the cells from B[a]P exposure, similar to the effectivity of the mulberry extract. These results indicated that the inhibitory effect of C3G against B[a]P inducing skin cancer is attributable to repress the AhR signaling pathway.

  14. Carcinogen-induced damage to DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, B.; Altamirano, M.; Bose, K.; Sklar, R.; Tatsumi, K.

    1979-01-01

    Human cells respond to carcinogen-induced damage in their DNA in at least two ways. The first response, excision repair, proceeds by at least three variations, depending on the nature of the damage. Nucleotide excision results in relatively large repair patches but few free DNA breaks, since the endonuclease step is limiting. Apurinic repair is characterized by the appearance of numerous breaks in the DNA and by short repair patches. The pathways behave as though they function independently. Lymphoic cells derived from a xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C patient are deficient in their ability to perform nucleotide excision and also to excise 6 methoxyguanine adducts, but they are apurinic repair competent. Organisms may bypass damage in their DNA. Lymphoblastoid cells, including those derived from xeroderma pigmentosum treated with 3 H-anti-BPDE, can replicate their DNA at low doses of carcinogen. Unexcised 3 H is found in the light or parental strand of the resulting hybrid DNA when replication occurs in medium with BrdUrd. This observation indicates a bypass reaction occurring by a mechanism involving branch migration at DNA growing points. Branch migration in DNA preparations have been observed, but the evidence is that most occurs in BrdUrd-containing DNA during cell lysis. The measurement of the bifilarly substituted DNA resulting from branch migration is a convenient method of estimating the proportion of new synthesis remaining in the vicinity of the DNA growing point. Treatment with carcinogens or caffeine results in accumulation of DNA growing points accompanied by the synthesis of shortened pieces of daughter DNA

  15. Possible Ameliorative Effect of Chicory Extract (Cichorium Intybus) on Radiation-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rats Heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, N. N; Farag, M. F. S.; Darwish, M. M

    2011-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of aqueous leaf extract of Chicorium intybus (Chicory) against radiation induced-oxidative stress and changes in the levels of 150-180 g were divided into four groups. Group 1: control animals, group 2: animals orally administrated with chicory extract at a daily dose of 250 mg/kg b.wt/day for four weeks, group 3: animals exposed to whole body gamma irradiation (6.5 Gy), group 4: animals orally administrated with chicory extract two weeks before and two weeks after irradiation. Serum level of creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lipid profile was measured.also concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), Catalase (CAT) and TBARS level was estimated in the cardiac tissue. The results showed decreased body weight and heart weight in irradiated animals. Compared to the control normal rats, irradiated rats had higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), serum creatinine phosphokinase(CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Moreover, cardiac tissue TBARS was markedly increased while SOD, GSH and CAT were significantly decreased. Oral and heart weights, serum cardiac enzymes and lipid profile. Cardiac GSH, SOD and CAT were significantly increased while TBARS was markedly reduced, membrane bound enzymes in rats' heart was investigated. Rats weighing about administration of chicory extract at doses of 250 mg/kg b.wt. improved the body compared to irradiated rats. These results may suggest a strong antioxidant effect of chicory, which was effective in mitigating adverse effect of γ irradiation on animals

  16. Polydatin attenuates d-galactose-induced liver and brain damage through its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lie-Qiang; Xie, You-Liang; Gui, Shu-Hua; Zhang, Xie; Mo, Zhi-Zhun; Sun, Chao-Yue; Li, Cai-Lan; Luo, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Zhen-Biao; Su, Zi-Ren; Xie, Jian-Hui

    2016-11-09

    Accumulating evidence has shown that chronic injection of d-galactose (d-gal) can mimic natural aging, with accompanying liver and brain injury. Oxidative stress and apoptosis play a vital role in the aging process. In this study, the antioxidant ability of polydatin (PD) was investigated using four established in vitro systems. An in vivo study was also conducted to investigate the possible protective effect of PD on d-gal-induced liver and brain damage. The results showed that PD had remarkable in vitro free radical scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH˙), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS + ˙) radical ions, and hydroxyl and superoxide anions. Results in vivo indicated that, in a group treated with d-gal plus PD, PD remarkably decreased the depression of body weight and organ indexes, reduced the levels of the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alleviated alterations in liver and brain histopathology. PD also significantly decreased the level of MDA and elevated SOD, GSH-Px, CAT activity and T-AOC levels in the liver and brain. In addition, the levels of inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in serum were markedly reduced after PD treatment. Western blotting results revealed that PD treatment noticeably attenuated the d-gal-induced elevation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio and caspase-3 protein expression in liver and brain. Overall, our findings indicate that PD treatment could effectively attenuate d-gal-induced liver and brain damage, and the mechanism might be associated with decreasing the oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis caused by d-gal. PD holds good potential for further development into a promising pharmaceutical candidate for the treatment of age-associated diseases.

  17. MDM2 Antagonists Counteract Drug-Induced DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Vilgelm

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Antagonists of MDM2-p53 interaction are emerging anti-cancer drugs utilized in clinical trials for malignancies that rarely mutate p53, including melanoma. We discovered that MDM2-p53 antagonists protect DNA from drug-induced damage in melanoma cells and patient-derived xenografts. Among the tested DNA damaging drugs were various inhibitors of Aurora and Polo-like mitotic kinases, as well as traditional chemotherapy. Mitotic kinase inhibition causes mitotic slippage, DNA re-replication, and polyploidy. Here we show that re-replication of the polyploid genome generates replicative stress which leads to DNA damage. MDM2-p53 antagonists relieve replicative stress via the p53-dependent activation of p21 which inhibits DNA replication. Loss of p21 promoted drug-induced DNA damage in melanoma cells and enhanced anti-tumor activity of therapy combining MDM2 antagonist with mitotic kinase inhibitor in mice. In summary, MDM2 antagonists may reduce DNA damaging effects of anti-cancer drugs if they are administered together, while targeting p21 can improve the efficacy of such combinations.

  18. Erythrocytes Membrane Alterations Reflecting Liver Damage in CCl₄-Induced Cirrhotic Rats: The Ameliorative Effect of Naltrexone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sarhadi Kholari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cirrhosis is the consequence of chronic liver disease. Deleterious effects of oxidative stress on hepatocytes may be reflected in the erythrocyte membrane. Naltrexone (NTX has been shown to attenuate hepatocellular injury in fibrotic animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate the progressive effect of CCl4 on the liver and whether the improvement of liver cirrhosis can be monitored through alterations in the erythrocyte membrane. In this study, 84 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups and received reagents (i.p. as follows: 1- CCl₄, 2- NTX + CCl₄, 3- Mineral Oil (M, and 4- NTX + M. After 2, 6 and 8 weeks, the blood and liver tissue samples were collected. Plasma enzyme activities, the content of erythrocyte GSH and some membrane compositions, including protein carbonyl, protein sulfhydryl, and malondialdehyde were assessed. After 6 and 8 weeks, plasma enzyme activities and the content of protein carbonyl were higher in CCl4 group significantly, as compared to other groups (P<0.001. NTX significantly diminished protein carbonyl and plasma enzyme activities (P<0.001. GSH did not change until the 6th week. However, CCl4+NTX increased it significantly as compared to CCl₄ group (P<0.05. Protein sulfhydryl showed changes in NTX+CCl₄ group which indicated a significant increase in protein sulfhydryl content in a 6th week compared to CCl4 group (P<0.05. MDA did not show any significant alteration. CCl₄-induced cirrhosis is accompanied by increased content of oxidative stress markers, especially protein carbonyl of RBC membrane and plasma enzyme activities. This study shows that the progression of liver cirrhosis and the ameliorative effect of NTX can be followed through alterations of these markers.

  19. Protective effects of the fermented milk Kefir on X-ray irradiation-induced intestinal damage in B6C3F1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruya, Kiichiro; Nakamichi, Noboru; Shirahata, Sanetaka; Myojin-Maekawa, Yuki; Shimamoto, Fumio; Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Tokumaru, Koichiro; Tokumaru, Sennosuke

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal damage associated with radiation therapy is currently an inevitable outcome. The protective effect of Kefir was assessed for its usefulness against radiation-induced gastrointestinal damage. A Kefir supernatant was diluted by 2- or 10-fold and administered for 1 week prior to 8 Gray (Gy) X-ray irradiation at a dose rate of 2 Gy/min, with an additional 15d of administration post-irradiation. The survival rate of control mice with normal drinking water dropped to 70% on days 4 through 9 post-irradiation. On the other hand, 100% of mice in the 10- and 2-fold-diluted Kefir groups survived up to day 9 post-irradiation (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). Examinations for crypt regeneration against 8, 10 and 12 Gy irradiation at a dose rate of 4 Gy/min revealed that the crypt number was significantly increased in the mice administered both diluted Kefir solutions (p<0.01 for each). Histological and immunohistochemical examinations revealed that the diluted Kefir solutions protected the crypts from radiation, and promoted crypt regeneration. In addition, lyophilized Kefir powder was found to significantly recover the testis weights (p<0.05), but had no effects on the body and spleen weights, after 8 Gy irradiation. These findings suggest that Kefir could be a promising candidate as a radiation-protective agent. (author)

  20. An experimental investigation of the effect of shear-induced diffuse damage on transverse cracking in carbon-fiber reinforced laminates

    KAUST Repository

    Nouri, Hedi

    2013-12-01

    When subjected to in-plane loading, carbon-fiber laminates experience diffuse damage and transverse cracking, two major mechanisms of degradation. Here, we investigate the effect of pre-existing diffuse damage on the evolution of transverse cracking. We shear-loaded carbon fiber-epoxy pre-preg samples at various load levels to generate controlled configurations of diffuse damage. We then transversely loaded these samples while monitoring the multiplication of cracking by X-ray radiography. We found that diffuse damage has a great effect on the transverse cracking process. We derived a modified effective transverse cracking toughness measure, which enabled a better definition of coupled transverse cracking/diffuse damage in advanced computational models for damage prediction. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Preconditioning by light-load eccentric exercise is equally effective as low-level laser therapy in attenuating exercise-induced muscle damage in collegiate men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nausheen S

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Samar Nausheen,1 Jamal Ali Moiz,1 Shahid Raza,1 Mohammad Yakub Shareef,2 Shahnawaz Anwer,3,4 Ahmad H Alghadir3 1Centre for Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India; 2Faculty of Dentistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India; 3Rehabilitation Research Chair, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Physiotherapy, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India Background/objective: Previous studies have already reported an independent effect of light-load eccentric exercise (10% eccentric exercise contraction [EEC] and low-level laser therapy (LLLT as a protective measure against more strenuous eccentric exercise. However, the difference between these two interventions is largely unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare the preconditioning effect of 10% EEC vs. LLLT on subjective, physiological, and biochemical markers of muscle damage in elbow flexors in collegiate men.Methods: All 36 enrolled subjects were randomly assigned to either 10% EEC or LLLT group. Subjects in 10% EEC group performed 30 repetitions of an eccentric exercise with 10% maximal voluntary contraction strength 2 days prior to maximal eccentric exercise bout, whereas subjects in LLLT group were given LLLT. All the indirect markers of muscle damage were measured pre-exercise and at 24, 48, and 72 hours after the exercise-induced muscle damage protocol.Results: The muscle soreness was reduced in both groups (p = 0.024; however, soreness was attenuated more in LLLT group at 48 hours (33.5 vs. 42.7, p = 0.004. There was no significant difference between the effect of 10% EEC and LLLT groups on other markers of muscle damage like a maximum voluntary isometric contraction (p = 0.47, range of motion (p = 0.16, upper arm circumference (p = 0.70, creatine kinase (p = 0.42, and lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0.08. Within-group analysis showed both interventions provided

  2. Effects of curcumin on antioxidative activities and cytokine production in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) with CCl4-induced liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liping; Ding, Weidong; Du, Jingliang; Jia, Rui; Liu, Yingjuan; Zhao, Caiyuan; Shen, Yujin; Yin, Guojun

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the protective effects of curcumin on liver-damaged Cyprinus carpio var. Jian (Jian carp). The carp were fed 0.1%, 0.5%, or 1.0% curcumin for 60 days, then injected intraperitoneally with 30% carbon tetrachloride solution. Liver and blood samples were collected to measure the liver index, serum- and liver-associated enzymes, liver histology, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)/c-Rel, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and IL-12 mRNA expression, and the level of NF-κB/c-Rel protein in the liver, and for a comet assay. We found that 0.5% and 1.0% curcumin significantly reduced the CCl(4)-induced increase in the liver index. The comet assay showed that the tail moment, olive tail moment, tail length, and tail DNA% improved in fish pretreated with 0.5 or 1.0% curcumin. CCl(4)-induced histological changes, including extensive hepatocyte degeneration, indistinct cell borders, nuclear condensation, and karyolysis were clearly reduced after treatment with 0.5% and 1.0% curcumin. Moreover, 0.5% and 1.0% curcumin significantly inhibited the CCl(4)-induced increase in serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and promoted the restoration of superoxide dismutase in the liver; 1.0% curcumin significantly reduced serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase and hepatic malondialdehyde, but significantly increased the total antioxidant capacity and glutathione levels in the liver. The CCl(4)-induced upregulation of NF-κB/c-Rel, IL-1β, and TNF-α mRNAs and NF-κB/c-Rel protein levels was inhibited by 0.5% and 1.0% curcumin, and IL-12 mRNA was reduced by all three doses of curcumin. The effects of curcumin on the liver index, enzymes, histological changes, and cytokines were dose-dependent. Our results indicate that curcumin reduces CCl(4)-induced liver damage in Jian carp by upregulating antioxidative activities and inhibiting NF-κB, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-12 expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) on exercise-induced oxidative stress, muscle damage, and pain following a half-marathon: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withee, Eric D; Tippens, Kimberly M; Dehen, Regina; Tibbitts, Deanne; Hanes, Douglas; Zwickey, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress and muscle damage occur during exhaustive bouts of exercise, and many runners report pain and soreness as major influences on changes or breaks in training regimens, creating a barrier to training persistence. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a sulfur-based nutritional supplement that is purported to have pain and inflammation-reducing effects. To investigate the effects of MSM in attenuating damage associated with physical exertion, this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of MSM supplementation on exercise-induced pain, oxidative stress and muscle damage. Twenty-two healthy females ( n  = 17) and males ( n  = 5) (age 33.7 ± 6.9 yrs.) were recruited from the 2014 Portland Half-Marathon registrant pool. Participants were randomized to take either MSM (OptiMSM®) ( n  = 11), or a placebo ( n  = 11) at 3 g/day for 21 days prior to the race and for two days after (23 total). Participants provided blood samples for measurement of markers of oxidative stress, and completed VAS surveys for pain approximately one month prior to the race (T 0 ), and at 15 min (T 1 ), 90 min (T 2 ), 1 Day (T 3 ), and 2 days (T 4 ) after race finish. The primary outcome measure 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanine (8-OHdG) measured oxidative stress. Secondary outcomes included malondialdehyde (MDA) for oxidative stress, creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as measures of muscle damage, and muscle (MP) and joint pain (JP) recorded using a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Data were analyzed using repeated and multivariate ANOVAs, and simple contrasts compared post-race time points to baseline, presented as mean (SD) or mean change (95% CI) where appropriate. Running a half-marathon induced significant increases in all outcome measures ( p   0.05) and T 4 by -0.57 ng/mL (-1.27-0.13 CI, p  > 0.05). MDA increased significantly at T 1 by 7.3 μM (3.9-10.7 CI, p   10 mm) reductions in both muscle and joint pain

  4. Curcumin Attenuates Methotrexate-Induced Hepatic Oxidative Damage in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEMEIDA, R.A.M.; MOHAFEZ, O.M.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we have addressed the ability of curcumin to suppress MTX-induced liver damage. Hepatotoxicity was induced by injection of a single dose of MTX (20 mg/kg I.P.). MTX challenge induced liver damage that was well characterized histopathologically and biochemically. MTX increased relative liver/body weight ratio. Histologically, MTX produced fatty changes in hepatocytes and sinusoidal lining cells, mild necrosis and inflammation. Biochemically, the test battery entailed elevated activities of serum ALT and AST. Liver activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and level of reduced glutathione (GSH), were notably reduced, while lipid peroxidation, expressed as malondialdhyde (MDA) level was significantly increased. Administration of curcumin (100mg/kg, I.P.) once daily for 5 consecutive days after MTX challenge mitigated the injurious effects of MTX and ameliorated all the altered biochemical parameters. These results showed that administration of curcumin decreases MTX-induced liver damage probably via regulation of oxidant/anti-oxidant balance. In conclusion, the present study indicates that curcumin may be of therapeutic benefit against MTX-cytotoxicity.

  5. Protective effect of dry olive leaf extract in adrenaline induced DNA damage evaluated using in vitro comet assay with human peripheral leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabarkapa, Andrea; Zivković, Lada; Zukovec, Dijana; Djelić, Ninoslav; Bajić, Vladan; Dekanski, Dragana; Spremo-Potparević, Biljana

    2014-04-01

    Excessive release of stress hormone adrenaline is accompanied by generation of reactive oxygen species which may cause disruption of DNA integrity leading to cancer and age-related disorders. Phenolic-rich plant product dry olive leaf extract (DOLE) is known to modulate effects of various oxidants in human cells. The aim was to evaluate the effect of commercial DOLE against adrenaline induced DNA damage in human leukocytes by using comet assay. Peripheral blood leukocytes from 6 healthy subjects were treated in vitro with three final concentrations of DOLE (0.125, 0.5, and 1mg/mL) for 30 min at 37°C under two different protocols, pretreatment and post-treatment. Protective effect of DOLE was assessed from its ability to attenuate formation of DNA lesions induced by adrenaline. Compared to cells exposed only to adrenaline, DOLE displayed significant reduction (Padrenaline genotoxicity. Results indicate genoprotective and antioxidant properties in dry olive leaf extract, strongly supporting further explorations of its underlying mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) against iron-induced functional and histological damages in rat liver and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholampour, Firouzeh; Behzadi Ghiasabadi, Fatemeh; Owji, Seyed Mohammad; Vatanparast, Jaafar

    2017-01-01

    Iron overload in the body is related with toxic effects and threatens the health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal functional disorders and histological damages in rats. The rats were divided into four groups (n=7): Sham, Sham + G.E (ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS+G.E (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days; ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 11 days from the fourth day of ferrous sulfate injection). After 24 hr, blood, urine and tissue samples were collected. Compared with Sham and Sham + G.E groups, administration of ferrous sulfate resulted in liver and kidney dysfunction as evidenced by significantly higher levels of serum hepatic markers and bilirubin, and lower levels of serum albumin, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose, as well as lower creatinine clearance and higher fractional excretion of sodium (p<0.001). This was accompanied by increased malondialdehyde levels and histological damages (p<0.001). In the FS + G.E, ginger extract significantly (p<0.01) reversed the levels of serum hepatic markers, renal functional markers and lipid peroxidation marker. Furthermore, it restored the levels of serum total protein, albumin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol and decreased bilirubin concentration in the blood. All these changes were corroborated by histological observations of liver and kidney. In conclusion, ginger extract appears to exert protective effects against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal toxicity by reducing lipid peroxidation and chelating iron.

  7. Comparison of the Hepatoprotective Effects of Four Endemic Cirsium Species Extracts from Taiwan on CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Damage in C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Wei Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Species of Cirsium (Asteraceae family have been used in folk hepatoprotective medicine in Taiwan. We collected four Cirsium species—including the aerial part of Cirsium arisanense (CAH, the aerial part of Cirsium kawakamii (CKH, the flower part of Cirsium japonicum DC. var. australe (CJF, and Cirsii Herba (CH—and then made extractions from them with 70% methanol. We compared the antioxidant contents and activities of these four Cirsium species extracts by a spectrophotometric method and high-performance liquid chromatography–photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD. We further evaluated the hepatoprotective effects of these extracts on CCl4-induced acute liver damage in C57BL/6 mice. The present study found CAH possesses the highest antioxidant activity among the four Cirsium species, and these antioxidant activities are closely related to phenylpropanoid glycoside (PPG contents. The extracts decreased serum ALT and AST levels elevated by injection with 0.2% CCl4. However, only CJF and CH decreased hepatic necrosis. Silibinin decreased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels and hepatic necrosis caused by CCl4. CJF and CH restored the activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes and decreased hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA levels. CJF further restored the expression of hepatic antioxidant enzymes including Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD, and glutathione S-transferase (GST proteins. HPLC chromatogram indicated that CKH, CJF, and CH contained silibinin diastereomers (α and β. Only CJF contained diosmetin. Hence, the hepatoprotective mechanism of CJF against CCl4-induced acute liver damage might be involved in restoring the activities and protein expression of the hepatic antioxidant defense system and inhibiting hepatic inflammation, and these hepatoprotective effects are related to the contents of silibinin diastereomers and diosmetin.

  8. Role of endothelium in radiation-induced normal tissue damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milliat, F.

    2007-05-01

    More than half of cancers are treated with radiation therapy alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy. The goal of radiation therapy is to deliver enough ionising radiation to destroy cancer cells without exceeding the level that the surrounding healthy cells can tolerate. Unfortunately, radiation-induced normal tissue injury is still a dose limiting factor in the treatment of cancer with radiotherapy. The knowledge of normal tissue radiobiology is needed to determine molecular mechanisms involved in normal tissue pathogenic pathways in order to identify therapeutic targets and develop strategies to prevent and /or reduce side effects of radiation therapy. The endothelium is known to play a critical role in radiation-induced injury. Our work shows that endothelial cells promote vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration and fibro-genic phenotype after irradiation. Moreover, we demonstrate for the first time the importance of PAI-1 in radiation-induced normal tissue damage suggesting that PAI-1 may represent a molecular target to limit injury following radiotherapy. We describe a new role for the TGF-b/Smad pathway in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced damages. TGF-b/Smad pathway is involved in the fibro-genic phenotype of VSMC induced by irradiated EC as well as in the radiation-induced PAI-1 expression in endothelial cells. (author)

  9. Iron-Mediated Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization in Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Oxidative Damage and Apoptosis: Protective Effects of Quercetin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron, in its free ferrous states, can catalyze Fenton reaction to produce OH∙, which is recognized as a crucial role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD. As a result of continuous decomposition of iron-containing compounds, lysosomes contain a pool of redox-active iron. To investigate the important role of intralysosomal iron in alcoholic liver injury and the potential protection of quercetin, male C57BL/6J mice fed by Lieber De Carli diets containing ethanol (30% of total calories were cotreated by quercetin or deferoxamine (DFO for 15 weeks and ethanol-incubated mice primary hepatocytes were pretreated with FeCl3, DFO, and bafilomycin A1 at their optimal concentrations and exposure times. Chronic ethanol consumption caused an evident increase in lysosomal redox-active iron accompanying sustained oxidative damage. Iron-mediated ROS could trigger lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP and subsequent mitochondria apoptosis. The hepatotoxicity was attenuated by reducing lysosomal iron while being exacerbated by escalating lysosomal iron. Quercetin substantially alleviated the alcoholic liver oxidative damage and apoptosis by decreasing lysosome iron and ameliorating iron-mediated LMP, which provided a new prospective of the use of quercetin against ALD.

  10. Study on DNA damages induced by UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan Hong Van; Dinh Ba Tuan; Tran Tuan Anh; Nguyen Thuy Ngan; Ta Bich Thuan; Vo Thi Thuong Lan; Tran Minh Quynh; Nguyen Thi Thom

    2015-01-01

    DNA damages in Escherichia coli (E. coli) exposed to UV radiation have been investigated. After 30 min of exposure to UV radiation of 5 mJ/cm"2, the growth of E. coli in LB broth medium was about only 10% in compared with non-irradiated one. This results suggested that the UV radiation caused the damages for E. coli genome resulted in reduction in its growth and survival, and those lesions can be somewhat recovered. For both solutions of plasmid DNAs and E. coli cells containing plasmid DNA, this dose also caused the breakage on single and double strands of DNA, shifted the morphology of DNA plasmid from supercoiled to circular and linear forms. The formation of pyrimidine dimers upon UV radiation significantly reduced when the DNA was irradiated in the presence of Ganoderma lucidum extract. Thus, studies on UV-induced DNA damage at molecular level are very essential to determine the UV radiation doses corresponding to the DNA damages, especially for creation and selection of useful radiation-induced mutants, as well as elucidation the protective effects of the specific compounds against UV light. (author)

  11. Ground water pollution by arsenic and its effects on health. Involvement of metabolic methylation in arsenic-induced genetic damage and tumorigenesis; Muki hiso no mechiru ka taisha to idenshi shogaisei narabini shuyo yuhatsusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, K. [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan)] Okada, S. [Shizuoka Prefecture (Japan)

    1997-07-10

    Drinking water contamination has become a worldwide problem. It is pointed out that re-evaluation of genetic damage with carcinogen is considered as an important problem particularly arsenic`s effects on health. To explain the genetic damage development mechanism of arsenic compound, results of the research conducted on the action of arsenic compound which develops during metabolic methylation process and inorganic arsenic are explained in this paper. The results of the study are summarized as follows. Arsenic genetic damage mutation is caused by dimethyl arsenic in main metabolism than inorganic arsenic. Lung DNA damage is induced by the interaction of O2 and arsenic peroxide radical. Dimethyl arsenic shows very important effect on lung cancer formation process which is induced based on 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). It not only promotes lung cancer but it also plays an important role in malignant tumor`s mutation. 25 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Damage detection in high-rise buildings using damage-induced rotations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Seung Hun; Jung, Ho Youn; Lee, Jung Hoon; Jung, Hyung Jo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new damage-detection method based on structural vibration is proposed. The essence of the proposed method is the detection of abrupt changes in rotation. Damage-induced rotation (DIR), which is determined from the modal flexibility of the structure, initially occurs only at a specific damaged location. Therefore, damage can be localized by evaluating abrupt changes in rotation. We conducted numerical simulations of two damage scenarios using a 10-story cantilever-type building model. Measurement noise was also considered in the simulation. We compared the sensitivity of the proposed method to localize damage to that of two conventional modal-flexibility-based damage-detection methods, i.e., uniform load surface (ULS) and ULS curvature. The proposed method was able to localize damage in both damage scenarios for cantilever structures, but the conventional methods could not

  13. Damage detection in high-rise buildings using damage-induced rotations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Seung Hoon; Jung, Ho Youn; Lee, Jung Hoon; Jung, Hyung Jo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new damage-detection method based on structural vibration is proposed. The essence of the proposed method is the detection of abrupt changes in rotation. Damage-induced rotation (DIR), which is determined from the modal flexibility of the structure, initially occurs only at a specific damaged location. Therefore, damage can be localized by evaluating abrupt changes in rotation. We conducted numerical simulations of two damage scenarios using a 10-story cantilever-type building model. Measurement noise was also considered in the simulation. We compared the sensitivity of the proposed method to localize damage to that of two conventional modal-flexibility-based damage-detection methods, i.e., uniform load surface (ULS) and ULS curvature. The proposed method was able to localize damage in both damage scenarios for cantilever structures, but the conventional methods could not.

  14. In vitro studies on chemoprotective effect of borax against aflatoxin B1-induced genetic damage in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkez, Hasan; Geyikoğlu, Fatime; Dirican, Ebubekir; Tatar, Abdulgani

    2012-12-01

    A common dietary contaminant, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), has been shown to be a potent mutagen and carcinogen in humans and many animal species. Since the eradication of AFB1 contamination in agricultural products has been rare, the use of natural or synthetic free radical scavengers could be a potential chemopreventive strategy. Boron compounds like borax (BX) and boric acid are the major components of industry and their antioxidant role has recently been reported. In the present report, we evaluated the capability of BX to inhibit the rate of micronucleus (MN) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) formations induced by AFB1. There were significant increases (P Borax gave 30-50 % protection against AFB1 induced SCEs and MNs. In conclusion, the support of borax was especially useful in aflatoxin-toxicated blood tissue. Thus, the risk on target tissues of AFB1 could be reduced and ensured early recovery from its toxicity.

  15. Oxidative damage and neurodegeneration in manganese-induced neurotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milatovic, Dejan; Zaja-Milatovic, Snjezana; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Yu, Yingchun; Aschner, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to excessive manganese (Mn) levels results in neurotoxicity to the extrapyramidal system and the development of Parkinson's disease (PD)-like movement disorder, referred to as manganism. Although the mechanisms by which Mn induces neuronal damage are not well defined, its neurotoxicity appears to be regulated by a number of factors, including oxidative injury, mitochondrial dysfunction and neuroinflammation. To investigate the mechanisms underlying Mn neurotoxicity, we studied the effects of Mn on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, changes in high-energy phosphates (HEP), neuroinflammation mediators and associated neuronal dysfunctions both in vitro and in vivo. Primary cortical neuronal cultures showed concentration-dependent alterations in biomarkers of oxidative damage, F 2 -isoprostanes (F 2 -IsoPs) and mitochondrial dysfunction (ATP), as early as 2 h following Mn exposure. Treatment of neurons with 500 μM Mn also resulted in time-dependent increases in the levels of the inflammatory biomarker, prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ). In vivo analyses corroborated these findings, establishing that either a single or three (100 mg/kg, s.c.) Mn injections (days 1, 4 and 7) induced significant increases in F 2 -IsoPs and PGE 2 in adult mouse brain 24 h following the last injection. Quantitative morphometric analyses of Golgi-impregnated striatal sections from mice exposed to single or three Mn injections revealed progressive spine degeneration and dendritic damage of medium spiny neurons (MSNs). These findings suggest that oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and neuroinflammation are underlying mechanisms in Mn-induced neurodegeneration.

  16. Blood-induced joint damage: novel targets for therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meegeren, M.E.R.

    2012-01-01

    -induced joint damage can occur due to a trauma but also during surgery when blood leaks into the joint cavity. Besides that, it is one of the major causes of morbidity amongst haemophilia patients. The aims of this thesis were to further unravel the pathogenesis of blood-induced joint damage and to

  17. Radiation-induced effects on the mechanical properties of natural ZrSiO4: double cascade-overlap damage accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirau, Tobias; Nix, William D.; Pöllmann, Herbert; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2017-11-01

    Several different models are known to describe the structure-dependent radiation-induced damage accumulation process in materials (e.g. Gibbons Proc IEEE 60:1062-1096, 1972; Weber Nuc Instr Met Phys Res B 166-167:98-106, 2000). In the literature, two different models of damage accumulation due to α-decay events in natural ZrSiO4 (zircon) have been described. The direct impact damage accumulation model is based on amorphization occurring directly within the collision cascade. However, the double cascade-overlap damage accumulation model predicts that amorphization will only occur due to the overlap of disordered domains within the cascade. By analyzing the dose-dependent evolution of mechanical properties (i.e., Poisson's ratios, compliance constants, elastic modulus, and hardness) as a measure of the increasing amorphization, we provide support for the double cascade-overlap damage accumulation model. We found no evidence to support the direct impact damage accumulation model. Additionally, the amount of radiation damage could be related to an anisotropic-to-isotropic transition of the Poisson's ratio for stress along and perpendicular to the four-fold c-axis and of the related compliance constants of natural U- and Th-bearing zircon. The isotropification occurs in the dose range between 3.1 × and 6.3 × 1018 α-decays/g.

  18. Radiation-induced effects on the mechanical properties of natural ZrSiO4: double cascade-overlap damage accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirau, Tobias; Nix, William D.; Pöllmann, Herbert; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2018-05-01

    Several different models are known to describe the structure-dependent radiation-induced damage accumulation process in materials (e.g. Gibbons Proc IEEE 60:1062-1096, 1972; Weber Nuc Instr Met Phys Res B 166-167:98-106, 2000). In the literature, two different models of damage accumulation due to α-decay events in natural ZrSiO4 (zircon) have been described. The direct impact damage accumulation model is based on amorphization occurring directly within the collision cascade. However, the double cascade-overlap damage accumulation model predicts that amorphization will only occur due to the overlap of disordered domains within the cascade. By analyzing the dose-dependent evolution of mechanical properties (i.e., Poisson's ratios, compliance constants, elastic modulus, and hardness) as a measure of the increasing amorphization, we provide support for the double cascade-overlap damage accumulation model. We found no evidence to support the direct impact damage accumulation model. Additionally, the amount of radiation damage could be related to an anisotropic-to-isotropic transition of the Poisson's ratio for stress along and perpendicular to the four-fold c-axis and of the related compliance constants of natural U- and Th-bearing zircon. The isotropification occurs in the dose range between 3.1 × and 6.3 × 1018 α-decays/g.

  19. Radioprotective effect of Haberlea rhodopensis (Friv.) leaf extract on gamma-radiation-induced DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant levels in rabbit blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Svetlana; Popov, Borislav; Bonev, Georgi

    2013-01-01

    Different concentrations of H. rhodopensis total extract (HRE; 0.03, 0.06 and 0.12 g/kg body weight) were injected im, into rabbits 2 h before collecting the blood samples. The whole blood samples were exposed in vitro to 2.0 Gy 60Co gamma-radiation. The radiation-induced changes were estimated by using the chromosome aberration test (CA) and cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay (CBMN) in peripheral lymphocytes, and by determining the malondialdehyde levels (MDA) in blood plasma and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in erythrocytes. Radiation significantly increased the chromosome aberration and micronuclei frequencies as well as MDA levels and decreased the antioxidant enzyme activity. On the other hand, the HRE pretreatment significantly decreased the CA, MN frequencies and MDA levels and increased the SOD and CAT activity in a concentration dependent manner. The most effective was the highest concentration of HRE (0.12 g/kg body weight). The results suggest that HRE as a natural product with a nantioxidant capacity could play a modulatory role against the cellular damage induced by gamma-irradiation. The possible mechanism involved in the radioprotective potential of HRE is discussed.

  20. Radioprotective effect of Haberlea rhodopensis (Friv.) leaf extract on γ-radiation-induced DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant levels in rabbit blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, Svetlana; Bonev, Georgi; Popov, Borislav

    2013-01-01

    Different concentrations of H. rhodopensis total extract (HRE; 0.03, 0.06 and 0.12 g/kg body weight) were injected im, into rabbits 2 h before collecting the blood samples. The whole blood samples were exposed in vitro to 2.0 Gy 60 Co γ-radiation. The radiation-induced changes were estimated by using the chromosome aberration test (CA) and cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay (CBMN) in peripheral lymphocytes, and by determining the malondialdehyde levels (MDA) in blood plasma and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in erythrocytes. Radiation significantly increased the chromosome aberration and micronuclei frequencies as well as MDA levels and decreased the antioxidant enzyme activity. On the other hand, the HRE pretreatment significantly decreased the CA, MN frequencies and MDA levels and increased the SOD and CAT activity in a concentration dependent manner. The most effective was the highest concentration of HRE (0.12 g/kg body weight). The results suggest that HRE as a natural product with an antioxidant capacity could play a modulatory role against the cellular damage induced by γ-irradiation. The possible mechanism involved in the radioprotective potential of HRE is discussed. (author)

  1. Protective Effects of Hydrogen against Low-Dose Long-Term Radiation-Induced Damage to the Behavioral Performances, Hematopoietic System, Genital System, and Splenic Lymphocytes in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaming Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular hydrogen (H2 has been previously reported playing an important role in ameliorating damage caused by acute radiation. In this study, we investigated the effects of H2 on the alterations induced by low-dose long-term radiation (LDLTR. All the mice in hydrogen-treated or radiation-only groups received 0.1 Gy, 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, and 2.0 Gy whole-body gamma radiation, respectively. After the last time of radiation exposure, all the mice were employed for the determination of the body mass (BM observation, forced swim test (FST, the open field test (OFT, the chromosome aberration (CA, the peripheral blood cells parameters analysis, the sperm abnormality (SA, the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT, and the histopathological studies. And significant differences between the treatment group and the radiation-only groups were observed, showing that H2 could diminish the detriment induced by LDLTR and suggesting the protective efficacy of H2 in multiple systems in mice against LDLTR.

  2. Effects of GST Polymorphism on Ameliorative Effect of Curcumin and Carvacrol against DNA Damage Induced by Combined Treatment of Malathion and Parathion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus pesticides has been widely used in agriculture fields to control various crop insects and their extensive use pose human life at threat because of their adverse effects on human health. In this study, we checked the effects of GST polymorphism on ameliorative effect of curcumin and carvacrol against DNA damages. Methods: Comet assay was used to assess the DNA damage and results were expressed as Tail moment. Heparinised fresh blood from healthy individuals was treated with combined concentration of malathion and parathion (i.e. 30 µg/ml of malathion and 2.5 µg/ml of parathion in presence of combination of curcumin and carvacrol (25 µg/ml curcumin + 2.5 µg/ml carvacrol and 50 µg/ml curcumin + 5.0 µg/ml carvacrol in order to observe the ameliorative role of curcumin and carvacrol. Multiplex PCR was performed for GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotyping. Results: Curcumin in combination with carvacrol (i.e. 25 µg/ml curcumin + 2.5 µg/ml carvacrol and 50 µg/ml curcumin + 5.0 µg/ml carvacrol significantly reduced the DNA damage caused by combined action of malathion and parathion which supports their antigenotoxic property. No significant relationship of GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphism with genotoxicity of both the pesticides and antigenotoxic potential of curcumin and carvacrol was observed. Conclusion: Malathion and parathion were genotoxic in human PBL. Curcumin and carvacrol had an antigenotoxic effect against the malathion and parathion while there was not any significant effect of GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphism on genotoxicity of these pesticides and antigenotoxicity of curcumin and carvacrol.

  3. Effective elastic properties of damaged isotropic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, U Sik

    1998-01-01

    In continuum damage mechanics, damaged solids have been represented by the effective elastic stiffness into which local damage is smoothly smeared. Similarly, damaged solids may be represented in terms of effective elastic compliances. By virtue of the effective elastic compliance representation, it may become easier to derive the effective engineering constants of damaged solids from the effective elastic compliances, all in closed form. Thus, in this paper, by using a continuum modeling approach based on both the principle of strain energy equivalence and the equivalent elliptical micro-crack representation of local damage, the effective elastic compliance and effective engineering constants are derived in terms of the undamaged (virgin) elastic properties and a scalar damage variable for both damaged two-and three-dimensional isotropic solids

  4. Studies on the protective effect of the artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaf extract against cadmium toxicity-induced oxidative stress, hepatorenal damage, and immunosuppressive and hematological disorders in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Boshy, Mohamed; Ashshi, Ahmad; Gaith, Mazen; Qusty, Naeem; Bokhary, Thalat; AlTaweel, Nagwa; Abdelhady, Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    Our objective was to explore the protective effect of artichoke leaf extract (ALE) against cadmium (Cd) toxicity-induced oxidative organ damage in rats. Male albino Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups of eight animals each. The first group was assigned as a control. Groups 2-4 were orally administered with ALE (300 mg/kg bw), Cd (CdCl 2 , 100 mg/L drinking water), and ALE plus Cd, respectively, daily for 4 weeks. After treatment with Cd, the liver and kidney malondialdehyde (MDA) increased significantly compared with the control rats. The sera interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and IL-10, liver transaminase, urea, creatinine, and peripheral neutrophil count were significantly increased in Cd-exposed rats compared to the control group. The reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) decreased in the liver and kidney in Cd-exposed group. In combination treatment, Cd and ALE significantly improved immune response, an antioxidant system, and hepatorenal function with a significant decline in MDA. In conclusion, ALE ameliorates the immunosuppressive and hepatorenal oxidative injury stimulated by Cd in rats. These results suggest that artichoke has shown promising effects against adverse effects of Cd toxicity.

  5. Effect of BCAA supplement timing on exercise-induced muscle soreness and damage: a pilot placebo-controlled double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Song-Gyu; Miyazaki, Teruo; Kojima, Ryo; Komine, Shoichi; Ishikura, Keisuke; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Honda, Akira; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Ohmori, Hajime

    2017-09-22

    The aim of present study was to compare the effects of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation taken before or after exercise on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Fifteen young men (aged 21.5 ± 0.4 years) were given either BCAA (9.6 g·day-1) or placebo before and after exercise (and for 3 days prior to and following the exercise day) in three independent groups: the Control group (placebo before and after exercise), the PRE group (BCAA before exercise and placebo after exercise), and the POST group (placebo before exercise and BCAA after exercise). Participants performed 30 repetitions of eccentric exercise with the non-dominant arm. DOMS, upper arm circumference (CIR), elbow range of motion (ROM), serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and aldolase, BCAA, and Beta-hydroxy-Beta-methylbutyrate (3HMB) were measured immediately before and after the exercise and on the following 4 days. Serum BCAA and 3HMB concentrations increased significantly in the PRE group immediately after the exercise, recovering to baseline over the following days. In the days following the exercise day, DOMS, CIR, and ROM were significantly improved in the PRE group compared to the Control group, with weaker effects in the POST group. Serum activities of CK, LDH, and aldolase in the days following the exercise day were significantly suppressed in the PRE group compared to Control group. Present study confirmed that repeated BCAA supplementation before exercise had a more beneficial effect in attenuating DOMS and EIMD induced by eccentric exercise than repeated supplementation after exercise.

  6. Gender differences in alcohol-induced neurotoxicity and brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Loeches, Silvia; Pascual, María; Guerri, Consuelo

    2013-09-06

    Considerable evidence has demonstrated that women are more vulnerable than men to the toxic effects of alcohol, although the results as to whether gender differences exist in ethanol-induced brain damage are contradictory. We have reported that ethanol, by activating the neuroimmune system and Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4), can cause neuroinflammation and brain injury. However, whether there are gender differences in alcohol-induced neuroinflammation and brain injury are currently controversial. Using the brains of TLR4(+/+) and TLR4(-/-) (TLR4-KO) mice, we report that chronic ethanol treatment induces inflammatory mediators (iNOS and COX-2), cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α), gliosis processes, caspase-3 activation and neuronal loss in the cerebral cortex of both female and male mice. Conversely, the levels of these parameters tend to be higher in female than in male mice. Using an in vivo imaging technique, our results further evidence that ethanol treatment triggers higher GFAP levels and lower MAP-2 levels in female than in male mice, suggesting a greater effect of ethanol-induced astrogliosis and less MAP-2(+) neurons in female than in male mice. Our results further confirm the pivotal role of TLR4 in alcohol-induced neuroinflammation and brain damage since the elimination of TLR4 protects the brain of males and females against the deleterious effects of ethanol. In short, the present findings demonstrate that, during the same period of ethanol treatment, females are more vulnerable than males to the neurotoxic/neuroinflammatory effects of ethanol, thus supporting the view that women are more susceptible than men to the medical consequences of alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Health effects of radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasimova, K; Azizova, F; Mehdieva, K.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : A summary of the nature of radiactive contamination would be incomplete without some mention of the human health effects relatied to radioactivity and radioactive materials. Several excellent reviews at the variety of levels of detail have been written and should be consulted by the reader. Internal exposures of alpha and beta particles are important for ingested and inhaled radionuclides. Dosimetry models are used to estimate the dose from internally deposited radioactive particles. As mentioned above weighting parameters that take into account the radiation type, the biological half-life and the tissue or organ at risk are used to convert the physically absorbed dose in units of gray (or red) to the biologically significant committed equivalent dose and effective dose, measured in units of Sv (or rem). There is considerable controversy over the shape of the dose-response curve at the chronic low dose levels important for enviromental contamination. Proposed models include linear models, non-linear models and threshold models. Because risks at low dose must be extrapolated from available date at high doses, the shape of the dose-response curve has important implications for the environmental regulations used to protect the general public. The health effect of radiation damage depends on a combination of events of on the cellular, tissue and systemic levels. These lead to mutations and cellular of the irradiated parent cell. The dose level at which significant damage occurs depends on the cell type. Cells that reproduce rapidily, such as those found in bone marrow or the gastrointestinal tract, will be more sensitive to radiation than those that are longer lived, such as striated muscle or nerve cells. The effects of high radiation doses on an organ depends on the various cell types it contains

  8. Effects of β-arabinofuranosyladenine on potentially lethal damage induced in plateau phase mammalian cells exposed to U.V.-light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliakis, G.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of β-arabinofuranosyladenine (β-araA), a specific inhibitor of DNA polymerases α and β, on the survival of plateau phase Ehrlich ascites tumour cells after U.V.-exposure has been studied. β-araA inhibited repair of U.V.-induced potentially lethal damage (PLD), when given to the cells after irradiation. An exponential survival curve (D 0 = 1 J/m 2 ) was obtained when irradiated cells were treated with β-araA at 120 μM. β-araA mainly affected the shoulder width of the survival curve but also changed the slope of the resistant 'tail' of the survival curve. The effect was irreversible at 80 μM and partly reversible at 20 μM. When β-araA was added to cultures in fresh or conditioned medium at 80 μM at various times after irradiation, there was a gradual decrease in PLD. Survival reached levels corresponding to those of untreated cells plated immediately after irradiation. If cells were incubated for additional times in fresh medium, survival increased to levels corresponding to those obtained with plateau phase cells after delayed plating, but did not occur in cells incubated in conditioned medium. The repair time constant for PLD was about 3 hours for cells incubated in fresh medium and about 6 hours incubated in conditioned medium. (author)

  9. Study on dose-effect relationship of radiation-induced DNA damage using single cell gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qiang; Jiang Enhai; Li Jin; Tang Weisheng; Wang Zhiquan; Zhao Yongcheng; Fan Feiyue

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore a new, simple and quick radiation biodosimeter, which can be applied to estimate biological dose in case of radiation accident. Methods: DNA double-strand break were detected using neutral single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE), and all the indexes of comet assay including HDNA%, TDNA%, CL, TL, TM, and OTM were analyzed by CASP (Comet Assay Software Project). The curve of dose-effect was fitted using SPSS 12.0 software. Results: Statistically significant dose-effect relationships were observed in all the indexes of comet assay, OTM was superior to other indexes. Conclusions: Application of neutral comet assay combined with CASP analysis could serve as a new radiation biodosimeter. (authors)

  10. Damage-induced ectopic recombination in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupiec, M; Steinlauf, R

    1997-06-09

    Mitotic recombination in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is induced when cells are irradiated with UV or X-rays, reflecting the efficient repair of damage by recombinational repair mechanisms. We have used multiply marked haploid strains that allow the simultaneous detection of several types of ectopic recombination events. We show that inter-chromosomal ectopic conversion of lys2 heteroalleles and, to a lesser extent, direct repeat recombination (DRR) between non-tandem repeats, are increased by DNA-damaging agents; in contrast, ectopic recombination of the naturally occurring Ty element is not induced. We have tested several hypotheses that could explain the preferential lack of induction of Ty recombination by DNA-damaging agents. We have found that the lack of induction cannot be explained by a cell cycle control or by an effect of the mating-type genes. We also found no role for the flanking long terminal repeats (LTRs) of the Ty in preventing the induction. Ectopic conversion, DRR, and forward mutation of artificial repeats show different kinetics of induction at various positions of the cell cycle, reflecting different mechanisms of recombination. We discuss the mechanistic and evolutionary aspects of these results.

  11. The anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt on high-glucose-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetic renal damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lan; Li, Linlin; Li, Xinxia; Li, Hui; Zhang, Yujie; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Jian; Mao, Xinmin

    2015-09-07

    Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication of diabetes whose development process is associated with inflammation, renal hypertrophy, and fibrosis. Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt, traditionally used as a healthcare tea, has anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemia, and glycemic regulation activities. The aim of our study was to investigate the renal protective effect of ethyl acetate extract of C. tinctoria Nutt (AC) on high-glucose-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. A diabetic rat model was induced by high-glucose-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of 35 mg/kg STZ. After treatment with AC at a daily dose of 150, 300 or, 600 mg/kg for 4 weeks, metabolic and renal function parameters of serum and urine were examined. Degree of renal damage, renal proinflammatory cytokines, and fibrotic protein expression were analyzed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Renal AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/Smad signaling pathway were determined by western blotting. Diabetic rats showed obvious renal dysfunction, inflammation and fibrosis. However, AC significantly reduced levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and urinary albumin, as well as expression of kidney proinflammatory cytokines of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. AC also ameliorated renal hypertrophy and fibrosis by reducing fibronectin and collagen IV and suppressing the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway. Meanwhile, AMPKα as a protective cytokine was markedly stimulated by AC. In summary, AC controls blood glucose, inhibits inflammatory and fibrotic processes, suppresses the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway, and activates phosphorylation of AMPKα in the kidneys, which confirms the protective effects of AC in the early stage of diabetic kidney disease.

  12. Effective hydrogenation and surface damage induced by MW-ECR plasma of fine-grained polycrystalline silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madi, D. [Institut d' Electronique du Solide et des Systemes (InESS)-CNRS/UdS, Strasbourg (France); Universite de Jijel, Laboratoire d' Etudes et de Modelisation en Electrotechnique (LAMEL), Faculte des Sciences de l' Ingenieur, Jijel (Algeria); Prathap, P.; Focsa, A.; Slaoui, A. [Institut d' Electronique du Solide et des Systemes (InESS)-CNRS/UdS, Strasbourg (France); Birouk, B. [Universite de Jijel, Laboratoire d' Etudes et de Modelisation en Electrotechnique (LAMEL), Faculte des Sciences de l' Ingenieur, Jijel (Algeria)

    2010-06-15

    This work reports the investigations on the effects of the hydrogenation process of thin film polycrystalline n{sup +}pp{sup +} mesa silicon cells using MW-ECR plasma in a conventional PECVD system. Different operating parameters such as MW-ECR power, annealing temperature and the doping level of the emitter region were varied. The n{sup +}-type emitter regions were obtained by phosphorus diffusion in a conventional furnace using an oxide doping source containing phosphorus (P507 or P509 solutions, from Filmtronics Inc.). The MW hydrogenation was carried out at a sample temperature of 400 C for 60 min. Both types of emitters formed from P507 and P509 showed V{sub oc} of 155 mV and 206 mV, which increased linearly to 305 mV and 331 mV, respectively, after hydrogenation when the MW power varied from 200 to 650 W. However, the sheet resistances of the n{sup +} emitter region showed a slight increase depending upon hydrogenation power because of its etching. In a further study, hydrogenated samples were annealed in neutral or forming gas (FG) and we observed interesting results on V{sub oc} in the presence of FG. The FG annealing temperature study revealed a strong dependence of V{sub oc} on MW power, which affected the etching level of emitter and emitter dopant concentration, which controls the diffusion of hydrogen ions during post-hydrogenation step. The results were explained in detail by combining the effects of MW power and dopant level of the emitter. (orig.)

  13. Protective effects of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) peel phenolics on H2O2-induced oxidative damages in HepG2 cells and d-galactose-induced aging mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yongliang; Ma, Qingyu; Guo, Yan; Sun, Liping

    2017-10-01

    Rambutan peel phenolic (RPP) extracts were prepared via dynamic separation with macroporous resin. The total phenolic content and individual phenolics in RPP were determined. Results showed that the total phenolic content of RPP was 877.11 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g extract. The content of geranin (122.18 mg/g extract) was the highest among those of the 39 identified phenolic compounds. RPP protected against oxidative stress in H 2 O 2 -induced HepG2 cells in a dose-response manner. The inhibitory effects of RPP on cell apoptosis might be related to its inhibitory effects on the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and increased effects on superoxide dismutase activity. The in vivo anti-aging activity of RPP was evaluated using an aging mice model that was induced by d-galactose (d-gal). The results showed that RPP enhanced the antioxidative status of experimental mice. Moreover, histological analysis indicated that RPP effectively reduced d-gal-induced liver and kidney tissue damage in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, RPP can be used as a natural antioxidant and anti-aging agent in the pharmaceutical and food industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy vs. far-infrared vs. passive modalities on recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage in highly-trained runners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Hausswirth

    Full Text Available Enhanced recovery following physical activity and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD has become a priority for athletes. Consequently, a number of post-exercise recovery strategies are used, often without scientific evidence of their benefits. Within this framework, the purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of whole body cryotherapy (WBC, far infrared (FIR or passive (PAS modalities in hastening muscular recovery within the 48 hours after a simulated trail running race. In 3 non-adjoining weeks, 9 well-trained runners performed 3 repetitions of a simulated trail run on a motorized treadmill, designed to induce muscle damage. Immediately (post, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise, all participants tested three different recovery modalities (WBC, FIR, PAS in a random order over the three separate weeks. Markers of muscle damage (maximal isometric muscle strength, plasma creatine kinase [CK] activity and perceived sensations [i.e. pain, tiredness, well-being] were recorded before, immediately after (post, post 1 h, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise. In all testing sessions, the simulated 48 min trail run induced a similar, significant amount of muscle damage. Maximal muscle strength and perceived sensations were recovered after the first WBC session (post 1 h, while recovery took 24 h with FIR, and was not attained through the PAS recovery modality. No differences in plasma CK activity were recorded between conditions. Three WBC sessions performed within the 48 hours after a damaging running exercise accelerate recovery from EIMD to a greater extent than FIR or PAS modalities.

  15. Effects of Whole-Body Cryotherapy vs. Far-Infrared vs. Passive Modalities on Recovery from Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Highly-Trained Runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausswirth, Christophe; Louis, Julien; Bieuzen, François; Pournot, Hervé; Fournier, Jean; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced recovery following physical activity and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has become a priority for athletes. Consequently, a number of post-exercise recovery strategies are used, often without scientific evidence of their benefits. Within this framework, the purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of whole body cryotherapy (WBC), far infrared (FIR) or passive (PAS) modalities in hastening muscular recovery within the 48 hours after a simulated trail running race. In 3 non-adjoining weeks, 9 well-trained runners performed 3 repetitions of a simulated trail run on a motorized treadmill, designed to induce muscle damage. Immediately (post), post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise, all participants tested three different recovery modalities (WBC, FIR, PAS) in a random order over the three separate weeks. Markers of muscle damage (maximal isometric muscle strength, plasma creatine kinase [CK] activity and perceived sensations [i.e. pain, tiredness, well-being]) were recorded before, immediately after (post), post 1 h, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise. In all testing sessions, the simulated 48 min trail run induced a similar, significant amount of muscle damage. Maximal muscle strength and perceived sensations were recovered after the first WBC session (post 1 h), while recovery took 24 h with FIR, and was not attained through the PAS recovery modality. No differences in plasma CK activity were recorded between conditions. Three WBC sessions performed within the 48 hours after a damaging running exercise accelerate recovery from EIMD to a greater extent than FIR or PAS modalities. PMID:22163272

  16. Protective effects of Brussels sprouts towards B[a]P-induced DNA damage: a model study with the single-cell gel electrophpresis (SCGE)/Hep G2 assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laky, B.; Knasmuller, S.; Gminski, R.; Mersch-Sundermann, V.; Scharf, G.; Verkerk, R.; Freywald, C.; Uhl, M.; Kassie, F.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemoprotective effects of Brussels sprouts juice towards benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P)-induced DNA damage in the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)/Hep G2 test system. This assay combines the advantages of the SCGE assay with that of the use of

  17. Damage induced in semiconductors by swift heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levalois, M.; Marie, P.

    1999-01-01

    The behaviour of semiconductors under swift heavy ion irradiation is different from that of metals or insulators: no spectacular effect induced by the inelastic energy loss has been reported in these materials. We present here a review of irradiation effects in the usual semiconductors (silicon, germanium and gallium arsenide). The damage is investigated by means of electrical measurements. The usual mechanisms of point defect creation can account for the experimental results. Besides, some results obtained on the wide gap semiconductor silicon carbide are reported. Concerning the irradiation effects induced by heavy ions in particle detectors, based on silicon substrate, we show that the deterioration of the detector performances can be explained from the knowledge of the substrate properties which are strongly perturbed after high doses of irradiation. Finally, some future ways of investigation are proposed. The silicon substrate is a good example to compare the irradiation effects with different particles such as electrons, neutrons and heavy ions. It is then necessary to use parameters which account for the local energy deposition, in order to describe the damage in the material

  18. Protective effect of diallyl disulfide against the irradiation damage in mice induced by "1"2C"6"+ ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shuai; Ma Xiaofei; Zhang Hong; Liu Yang

    2013-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of Diallyl disulfide (DADS) on "1"2C"6"+ ion irradiation was studied. Pretreated with DADS of different concentration, male Kung-Ming mice were exposed to whole body irradiation with dosage of 4 Gy "1"2C"6"+ ion. The animals were sacrificed after irradiation. Then the bone marrow cells micronucleus rate, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, content of protein carbonylation, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity were measured. As compared with those in irradiated group, the ratio of micronucleus cells in marrow and the hepatic ALT activity in the pretreatment group with low dose DADS decreased significantly (p < O.OOl). Similarly, the content of protein carbonylation and the levels of MDA dropped dramatically in the group with middle dose DADS treatment (p < 0.05). On the contrary, the hepatic T-AOC increased markedly in the group of pretreatment with low dose DADS (p < 0.05). The results showed that DADS protect lipoid, protein and genetic material from "1"2C"6"+ ion irradiation by right of resisting oxidative stress. (authors)

  19. Bee products prevent agrichemical-induced oxidative damage in fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Ferreira

    Full Text Available In southern South America and other parts of the world, aquaculture is an activity that complements agriculture. Small amounts of agrichemicals can reach aquaculture ponds, which results in numerous problems caused by oxidative stress in non-target organisms. Substances that can prevent or reverse agrichemical-induced oxidative damage may be used to combat these effects. This study includes four experiments. In each experiment, 96 mixed-sex, 6-month-old Rhamdia quelen (118±15 g were distributed into eight experimental groups: a control group that was not exposed to contaminated water, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products plus tebuconazole (TEB; Folicur 200 CE™ and a group that was exposed to 0.88 mg L(-1 of TEB alone (corresponding to 16.6% of the 96-h LC50. We show that waterborne bee products, including royal jelly (RJ, honey (H, bee pollen (BP and propolis (P, reversed the oxidative damage caused by exposure to TEB. These effects were likely caused by the high polyphenol contents of these bee-derived compounds. The most likely mechanism of action for the protective effects of bee products against tissue oxidation and the resultant damage is that the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione-S-transferase (GST are increased.

  20. Bee products prevent agrichemical-induced oxidative damage in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Daiane; Rocha, Helio Carlos; Kreutz, Luiz Carlos; Loro, Vania Lucia; Marqueze, Alessandra; Koakoski, Gessi; da Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; Gusso, Darlan; Oliveira, Thiago Acosta; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2013-01-01

    In southern South America and other parts of the world, aquaculture is an activity that complements agriculture. Small amounts of agrichemicals can reach aquaculture ponds, which results in numerous problems caused by oxidative stress in non-target organisms. Substances that can prevent or reverse agrichemical-induced oxidative damage may be used to combat these effects. This study includes four experiments. In each experiment, 96 mixed-sex, 6-month-old Rhamdia quelen (118±15 g) were distributed into eight experimental groups: a control group that was not exposed to contaminated water, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products plus tebuconazole (TEB; Folicur 200 CE™) and a group that was exposed to 0.88 mg L(-1) of TEB alone (corresponding to 16.6% of the 96-h LC50). We show that waterborne bee products, including royal jelly (RJ), honey (H), bee pollen (BP) and propolis (P), reversed the oxidative damage caused by exposure to TEB. These effects were likely caused by the high polyphenol contents of these bee-derived compounds. The most likely mechanism of action for the protective effects of bee products against tissue oxidation and the resultant damage is that the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) are increased.

  1. Radiation-induced brain damage in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, Shizuo; Kokunai, Takashi; Ijichi, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Raimondi, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    The nature and sequence of the radiation-induced changes in the brain were studied postmortem in 34 children with glioma, 22 of whom underwent central nervous system radiation therapy. Twenty received whole-brain or whole-neuroaxis radiation at a total mean dosage of 4063 cGy. Brain tissue alternations were analyzed histologically by means of various staining methods, including immunohistochemical techniques. The histological features of irradiated brains were compared with those of non-irradiated brains. Microscopic findings included demyelination (seven cases), focal necrosis (six cases), cortical atrophy (four cases), endothelial proliferation (four cases), and telangiectatic vascular proliferation with vascular thickening and oozing of a thick fluid (one case). Such findings were rare in non-irradiated patients. Demyelination was observed earliest in a patient who died 5 months after radiation therapy and was more common after 9 months. Focal necrosis was first observed 9 months post-irradiation but was more advanced and extensive after 1 year. Calcified foci were found only after 60 months. Various vascular changes such as vascular thickening and thrombosis suggested ischemic insult to the brain as a late effect of radiation injury. The results of this study suggest that the immature brain may be more sensitive to radiation than is the adult brain, and that the manifestations of radiation-induced injury depend on the time elapsed after irradiation. (author)

  2. Effect of fire-induced damage on the uniaxial strength characteristics of solid timber: A numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkin, D J; El-Rimawi, J; Lennon, T; Silberschmidt, V V

    2011-01-01

    with plane-strain elements assuming two-dimensional heat flow. The resulting predictions of failure time for given levels of load are discussed and compared with the simplified 'effective cross section' method presented in EN 1995-1-2.

  3. Damage-induced nonassociated inelastic flow in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R.; Brodsky, N.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    The multi-mechanism deformation coupled fracture model recently developed by CHAN, et al. (1992), for describing time-dependent, pressure-sensitive inelastic flow and damage evolution in crystalline solids was evaluated against triaxial creep experiments on rock salt. Guided by experimental observations, the kinetic equation and the flow law for damage-induced inelastic flow in the model were modified to account for the development of damage and inelastic dilatation in the transient creep regime. The revised model was then utilized to obtain the creep response and damage evolution in rock salt as a function of confining pressure and stress difference. Comparison between model calculation and experiment revealed that damage-induced inelastic flow is nonassociated, dilatational, and contributes significantly to the macroscopic strain rate observed in rock salt deformed at low confining pressures. The inelastic strain rate and volumetric strain due to damage decrease with increasing confining pressures, and all are suppressed at sufficiently high confining pressures

  4. The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. against iron-induced functional and histological damages in rat liver and kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzeh Gholampour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Iron overload in the body is related with toxic effects and threatens the health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal functional disorders and histological damages in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into four groups (n=7: Sham, Sham + G.E (ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 14 days, FS (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days, FS+G.E (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days; ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 11 days from the fourth day of ferrous sulfate injection. After 24 hr, blood, urine and tissue samples were collected. Results: Compared with Sham and Sham + G.E groups, administration of ferrous sulfate resulted in liver and kidney dysfunction as evidenced by significantly higher levels of serum hepatic markers and bilirubin, and lower levels of serum albumin, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose, as well as lower creatinine clearance and higher fractional excretion of sodium (p

  5. Excision of x-ray-induced thymine damage in chromatin from heated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warters, R.L.; Roti Roti, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments were performed to distinguish between two possible modes of hyperthermia-induced inhibition of thymine base damage excision from the DNA of CHO cells: (1) heat denaturation of excision enzyme(s) or (2) heat-induced alteration of the substrate for damage excision (chromatin). While hyperthermia (45 0 C, 15 min) had no apparent effect on the capacity of the excision enzymes to excise damage from DNA it had a dramatic effect (ca. 80% inhibition) on the ability of chromatin to serve as a substrate for unheated enzymes. These results suggest that hyperthermia-induced radiosensitization of CHO cells may be due primarily to lesions in the cellular chromatin

  6. Delayed chromosomal instability induced by DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, W.F.; Marder, B.A.; Day, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Cellular exposure to DNA damaging agents rapidly results in a dose dependent increase in chromosomal breakage and gross structural chromosomal rearrangements. Over recent years, evidence has been accumulating indicating genomic instability can manifest multiple generations after cellular exposure to physical and chemical DNA damaging agents. Genomic instability manifests in the progeny of surviving cells, and has been implicated in mutation, gene application, cellular transformation, and cell killing. To investigate chromosome instability following DNA damage, we have used fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect chromosomal rearrangements in a human/hamster somatic hybrid cell line following exposure to ionizing radiation. Delayed chromosomal instability was detected when multiple populations of uniquely arranged metaphases were observed in clonal isolates raised from single cells surviving X-irradiation many generations after exposure. At higher radiation doses, chromosomal instability was observed in a relatively high frequency of surviving clones and, in general, those clones showed delayed chromosome instability also showed reduced survival as measured by colony forming ability

  7. DNA damage induced by radionuclide internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Fengmei; Zhao Jingyong; Hong Chengjiao; Lao Qinhua; Wang Liuyi; Yang Shuqin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the DNA damage of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) in rats exposed to radionuclide internal irradiation. Methods: The radionuclides were injected into the rats and single cell get electrophoresis (SCGE) was performed to detect the length of DNA migration in the rat PBMC. Results: DNA migration in the rat PBMC increased with accumulative dose or dose-rate. It showed good relationship of dose vs. response and of dose-rate vs. response, both relationship could be described as linear models. Conclusion: Radionuclide internal irradiation could cause DNA damage in rat PBMC. (authors)

  8. Photodynamic therapy induced vascular damage: an overview of experimental PDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W; Moriyama, L T; Bagnato, V S

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been developed as one of the most important therapeutic options in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. By resorting to the photosensitizer and light, which convert oxygen into cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), PDT will induce vascular damage and direct tumor cell killing. Another consequence of PDT is the microvascular stasis, which results in hypoxia and further produces tumor regression. To improve the treatment with PDT, three promising strategies are currently attracting much interest: (1) the combination of PDT and anti-angiogenesis agents, which more effectively prevent the proliferation of endothelial cells and the formation of new blood vessels; (2) the nanoparticle-assisted delivery of photosensitizer, which makes the photosensitizer more localized in tumor sites and thus renders minimal damage to the normal tissues; (3) the application of intravascular PDT, which can avoid the loss of energy during the transmission and expose the target area directly. Here we aim to review the important findings on vascular damage by PDT on mice. The combination of PDT with other approaches as well as its effect on cancer photomedicine are also reviewed. (review)

  9. Preventing Ultraviolet Light-Induced Damage: The Benefits of Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Cheng-Wai

    2007-01-01

    Extracts of fruit peels contain antioxidants that protect the bacterium "Escherichia coli" against damage induced by ultraviolet light. Antioxidants neutralise free radicals, thus preventing oxidative damage to cells and deoxyribonucleic acid. A high survival rate of UV-exposed cells was observed when grapefruit or grape peel extract was…

  10. Laser induced damage threshold on metallic surfaces during laser cleaning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, K

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available laser paint removal. Laser induced damage on 316L stainless steel was studied, with the target subjected to single and multiple pulse irradiations using a Q-switched Nd:YAG, with fluences between 0.15 and 11.8 J/cm2. Several different damage morphologies...

  11. Simulation study of radiation damage induced by energetic helium nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Dac Luc; Vo Tuong Hanh; Hoang Dac Dat

    2003-01-01

    High energy alpha particles produced by neutron-induced nuclear reactions can damage severely reactor materials. Simulation of this process is described using theoretical calculation and ion irradiation experiments at different displacement doses and Helium doses. (author)

  12. Density of oxidation-induced stacking faults in damaged silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, F.G.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Verwey, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    A model for the relation between density and length of oxidation-induced stacking faults on damaged silicon surfaces is proposed, based on interactions of stacking faults with dislocations and neighboring stacking faults. The model agrees with experiments.

  13. Simulation study of radiation damage induced by energetic helium nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Hoang Dac Luc; Hoang Dac Dat

    2003-01-01

    High energy alpha particles produced by neutron-induced nuclear reactions can damage severely reactor materials. Simulation of this process is described using theoretical calculation and ion irradiation experiments at different displacement doses and Helium doses.

  14. Visualization of DNA clustered damage induced by heavy ion exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, M.; Yatagai, F.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most lethal damage induced by ionizing radiations. Accelerated heavy-ions have been shown to induce DNA clustered damage, which is two or more DNA lesions induced within a few helical turns. Higher biological effectiveness of heavy-ions could be provided predominantly by induction of complex DNA clustered damage, which leads to non-repairable DSBs. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is composed of catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and DNA-binding heterodimer (Ku70 and Ku86). DNA-PK acts as a sensor of DSB during non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), since DNA-PK is activated to bind to the ends of double-stranded DNA. On the other hand, NBS1 and histone H2AX are essential for DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR) in higher vertebrate cells. Here we report that phosphorylated H2AX at Ser139 (named γ-H2AX) and NBS1 form large undissolvable foci after exposure to accelerated Fe ions, while DNA-PKcs does not recognize DNA clustered damage. NBS1 and γ-H2AX colocalized with forming discrete foci after exposure to X-rays. At 0.5 h after Fe ion irradiation, NBS1 and γ-H2AX also formed discrete foci. However, at 3-8 h after Fe ion irradiation, highly localized large foci turned up, while small discrete foci disappeared. Large NBS1 and γ-H2AX foci were remained even 16 h after irradiation. DNA-PKcs recognized Ku-binding DSB and formed foci shortly after exposure to X-rays. DNA-PKcs foci were observed 0.5 h after 5 Gy of Fe ion irradiation and were almost completely disappeared up to 8 h. These results suggest that NBS1 and γ-H2AX can be utilized as molecular marker of DNA clustered damage, while DNA-PK selectively recognizes repairable DSBs by NHEJ

  15. Cadmium-induced oxidative damage and protective effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine against cadmium toxicity in Solanum nigrum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xiaopeng; Xia Yan; Hu Wei; Zhang Hongxiao; Shen Zhenguo

    2010-01-01

    The effects of cadmium (Cd) on the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and antioxidant enzyme activities in roots of Solanum nigrum L. and the role of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) as a cysteine (Cys) donor against Cd toxicity were investigated. Cd at 50 and 200 μM significantly increased the contents of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), the production of H 2 O 2 and superoxide anion (O 2 · - ), and the activities of catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase. Experiments with diphenylene iodonium as an inhibitor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and NaN 3 as an inhibitor of peroxidase showed that the major source of Cd-induced reactive oxygen species in the roots may include plasma membrane-bound NADPH oxidase and peroxidase. In addition, the effects of NAC on plant growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, and non-protein thiol content were analyzed. Under Cd stress, the addition of 500 μM NAC decreased the contents of TBARS and production of H 2 O 2 and O 2 · - , but increased levels of Cys and reduced glutathione (GSH), phytochelatins, and activity of GSH-Px in roots. These results suggest that NAC could protect plants from oxidative stress damage, and this protection seems to be performed via increased GSH biosynthesis. Furthermore, NAC treatment also increased the contents of protein thiols in S. nigrum roots. By using size-exclusion chromatography, we found involvement of NAC in the Cd tolerance mechanism through increased biosynthesis of Cd-binding proteins.

  16. Cadmium-induced oxidative damage and protective effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine against cadmium toxicity in Solanum nigrum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Xiaopeng; Xia Yan; Hu Wei [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Weigang 1, Nanjing 210095 (China); Zhang Hongxiao, E-mail: hxzhang@njau.edu.cn [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Weigang 1, Nanjing 210095 (China); Shen Zhenguo, E-mail: zgshen@njau.edu.cn [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Weigang 1, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2010-08-15

    The effects of cadmium (Cd) on the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and antioxidant enzyme activities in roots of Solanum nigrum L. and the role of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) as a cysteine (Cys) donor against Cd toxicity were investigated. Cd at 50 and 200 {mu}M significantly increased the contents of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), the production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}), and the activities of catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase. Experiments with diphenylene iodonium as an inhibitor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and NaN{sub 3} as an inhibitor of peroxidase showed that the major source of Cd-induced reactive oxygen species in the roots may include plasma membrane-bound NADPH oxidase and peroxidase. In addition, the effects of NAC on plant growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, and non-protein thiol content were analyzed. Under Cd stress, the addition of 500 {mu}M NAC decreased the contents of TBARS and production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}, but increased levels of Cys and reduced glutathione (GSH), phytochelatins, and activity of GSH-Px in roots. These results suggest that NAC could protect plants from oxidative stress damage, and this protection seems to be performed via increased GSH biosynthesis. Furthermore, NAC treatment also increased the contents of protein thiols in S. nigrum roots. By using size-exclusion chromatography, we found involvement of NAC in the Cd tolerance mechanism through increased biosynthesis of Cd-binding proteins.

  17. Zinc protects HepG2 cells against the oxidative damage and DNA damage induced by ochratoxin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Juanjuan; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Wentao; Luo, YunBo; Hao, Junran; Shen, Xiao Li; Yang, Xuan; Li, Xiaohong; Huang, Kunlun

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress and DNA damage are the most studied mechanisms by which ochratoxin A (OTA) induces its toxic effects, which include nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity and genotoxicity. Zinc, which is an essential trace element, is considered a potential antioxidant. The aim of this paper was to investigate whether zinc supplement could inhibit OTA-induced oxidative damage and DNA damage in HepG2 cells and the mechanism of inhibition. The results indicated that that exposure of OTA decreased the intracellular zinc concentration; zinc supplement significantly reduced the OTA-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity but did not affect the OTA-induced decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ m ). Meanwhile, the addition of the zinc chelator N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) strongly aggravated the OTA-induced oxidative damage. This study also demonstrated that zinc helped to maintain the integrity of DNA through the reduction of OTA-induced DNA strand breaks, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formation and DNA hypomethylation. OTA increased the mRNA expression of metallothionein1-A (MT1A), metallothionein2-A (MT2A) and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Zinc supplement further enhanced the mRNA expression of MT1A and MT2A, but it had no effect on the mRNA expression of SOD1 and catalase (CAT). Zinc was for the first time proven to reduce the cytotoxicity of OTA through inhibiting the oxidative damage and DNA damage, and regulating the expression of zinc-associated genes. Thus, the addition of zinc can potentially be used to reduce the OTA toxicity of contaminated feeds. - Highlights: ► OTA decreased the intracellular zinc concentration. ► OTA induced the formation of 8-OHdG in HepG2 cells. ► It was testified for the first time that OTA induced DNA hypomethylation. ► Zinc protects against the oxidative damage and DNA damage induced by OTA in

  18. Zinc protects HepG2 cells against the oxidative damage and DNA damage induced by ochratoxin A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Juanjuan; Zhang, Yu [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Xu, Wentao, E-mail: xuwentaoboy@sina.com [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China); Luo, YunBo [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China); Hao, Junran [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Shen, Xiao Li [The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang, Xuan [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Xiaohong [The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China); Huang, Kunlun, E-mail: hkl009@163.com [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Oxidative stress and DNA damage are the most studied mechanisms by which ochratoxin A (OTA) induces its toxic effects, which include nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity and genotoxicity. Zinc, which is an essential trace element, is considered a potential antioxidant. The aim of this paper was to investigate whether zinc supplement could inhibit OTA-induced oxidative damage and DNA damage in HepG2 cells and the mechanism of inhibition. The results indicated that that exposure of OTA decreased the intracellular zinc concentration; zinc supplement significantly reduced the OTA-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity but did not affect the OTA-induced decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ{sub m}). Meanwhile, the addition of the zinc chelator N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) strongly aggravated the OTA-induced oxidative damage. This study also demonstrated that zinc helped to maintain the integrity of DNA through the reduction of OTA-induced DNA strand breaks, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formation and DNA hypomethylation. OTA increased the mRNA expression of metallothionein1-A (MT1A), metallothionein2-A (MT2A) and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Zinc supplement further enhanced the mRNA expression of MT1A and MT2A, but it had no effect on the mRNA expression of SOD1 and catalase (CAT). Zinc was for the first time proven to reduce the cytotoxicity of OTA through inhibiting the oxidative damage and DNA damage, and regulating the expression of zinc-associated genes. Thus, the addition of zinc can potentially be used to reduce the OTA toxicity of contaminated feeds. - Highlights: ► OTA decreased the intracellular zinc concentration. ► OTA induced the formation of 8-OHdG in HepG2 cells. ► It was testified for the first time that OTA induced DNA hypomethylation. ► Zinc protects against the oxidative damage and DNA damage induced by

  19. Rosiglitazone attenuates pulmonary fibrosis and radiation-induced intestinal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangoni, M.; Gerini, C.; Sottili, M.; Cassani, S.; Stefania, G.; Biti, G.; Castiglione, F.; Vanzi, E.; Bottoncetti, A.; Pupi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Purpose.-The aim of the study was to evaluate radioprotective effect of rosiglitazone (RGZ) on a murine model of late pulmonary damage and of acute intestinal damage. Methods.- Lung fibrosis: C57 mice were treated with the radiomimetic agent bleomycin, with or without rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg/day). To obtain an independent qualitative and quantitative measure for lung fibrosis we used high resolution CT, performed twice a week during the entire observation period. Hounsfield Units (HU) of section slides from the upper and lower lung region were determined. On day 31 lungs were collected for histological analysis. Acute intestinal damage: mice underwent 12 Gy total body irradiation with or without rosiglitazone. Mice were sacrificed 24 or 72 h after total body irradiation and ileum and colon were collected. Results.- Lung fibrosis: after bleomycin treatment, mice showed typical CT features of lung fibrosis, including irregular septal thickening and patchy peripheral reticular abnormalities. Accordingly, HU lung density was dramatically increased. Rosiglitazone markedly attenuated the radiological signs of fibrosis and strongly inhibited HU lung density increase (60% inhibition at the end of the observation period). Histological analysis revealed that in bleomycin-treated mice, fibrosis involved 50-55% of pulmonary parenchyma and caused an alteration of the alveolar structures in 10% of parenchyma, while in rosiglitazone-treated mice, fibrosis involved only 20-25% of pulmonary parenchyma, without alterations of the alveolar structures. Acute intestinal damage: 24 h after 12 Gy of total body irradiation intestinal mucosa showed villi shortening, mucosal thickness and crypt necrotic changes. Rosiglitazone showed a histological improvement of tissue structure, with villi and crypts normalization and oedema reduction. Conclusion.- These results demonstrate that rosiglitazone displays a protective effect on pulmonary fibrosis and radiation-induced

  20. Rosiglitazone attenuates pulmonary fibrosis and radiation-induced intestinal damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangoni, M.; Gerini, C.; Sottili, M.; Cassani, S.; Stefania, G.; Biti, G. [Radiotherapy Unit, Clinical Physiopathology Department, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy); Castiglione, F. [Department of Human Pathology and Oncology, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy); Vanzi, E.; Bottoncetti, A.; Pupi, A. [Nuclear Medicine Unit, Clinical Physiopathology Department, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Full text of publication follows: Purpose.-The aim of the study was to evaluate radioprotective effect of rosiglitazone (RGZ) on a murine model of late pulmonary damage and of acute intestinal damage. Methods.- Lung fibrosis: C57 mice were treated with the radiomimetic agent bleomycin, with or without rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg/day). To obtain an independent qualitative and quantitative measure for lung fibrosis we used high resolution CT, performed twice a week during the entire observation period. Hounsfield Units (HU) of section slides from the upper and lower lung region were determined. On day 31 lungs were collected for histological analysis. Acute intestinal damage: mice underwent 12 Gy total body irradiation with or without rosiglitazone. Mice were sacrificed 24 or 72 h after total body irradiation and ileum and colon were collected. Results.- Lung fibrosis: after bleomycin treatment, mice showed typical CT features of lung fibrosis, including irregular septal thickening and patchy peripheral reticular abnormalities. Accordingly, HU lung density was dramatically increased. Rosiglitazone markedly attenuated the radiological signs of fibrosis and strongly inhibited HU lung density increase (60% inhibition at the end of the observation period). Histological analysis revealed that in bleomycin-treated mice, fibrosis involved 50-55% of pulmonary parenchyma and caused an alteration of the alveolar structures in 10% of parenchyma, while in rosiglitazone-treated mice, fibrosis involved only 20-25% of pulmonary parenchyma, without alterations of the alveolar structures. Acute intestinal damage: 24 h after 12 Gy of total body irradiation intestinal mucosa showed villi shortening, mucosal thickness and crypt necrotic changes. Rosiglitazone showed a histological improvement of tissue structure, with villi and crypts normalization and oedema reduction. Conclusion.- These results demonstrate that rosiglitazone displays a protective effect on pulmonary fibrosis and radiation-induced

  1. Renal tissue damage induced by focused shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioritani, N.; Kuwahara, M.; Kambe, K.; Taguchi, K.; Saitoh, T.; Shirai, S.; Orikasa, S.; Takayama, K.; Lush, P. A.

    1990-07-01

    Biological evidence of renal arterial wall damage induced by the microjet due to shock wave-cavitation bubble interaction was demonstrated in living dog kidneys. We also intended to clarify the mechanism of renal tissue damage and the effects of different conditions of shock wave exposure (peak pressure of focused area, number of shots, exposure rate) on the renal tissue damage in comparison to stone disintegration. Disruption of arterial wall was the most remarkable histological change in the focused area of the kidneys. This lesion appeared as if the wall had been punctured by a needle. Large hematoma formation in the renal parenchym, and interstitial hemorrhage seemed to be the results of the arterial lesion. This arterial disorder also led to ischemic necrosis of the tubules surrounding the hematoma. Micro-angiographic examination of extracted kidneys also proved such arterial puncture lesions and ischemic lesions. The number of shots required for model stone disintegration was not inversely proportional to peak pressure. It decreased markedly when peak pressure was above 700 bar. Similarly thenumber of shots for hematoma formation was not inversely proportional to peak pressure, however, this decreased markedly above 500 bar. These results suggested that a hematoma could be formed under a lower peak pressure than that required for stone disintegration.

  2. Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    conference organization. As many of you have experienced, the printed proceedings of these Laser Damage Symposia in our personal libraries are...responsible person or agency. I look forward to our continued relationship. Finally, let me thank the organizers of this Symposium. They have done a...the professional operation of the Symposium and Ms. Susie Rivera and Ms. Sheila Aaker for their part in the preparation and publication of the

  3. Modelling low velocity impact induced damage in composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Soutis, Constantinos

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents recent progress on modelling low velocity impact induced damage in fibre reinforced composite laminates. It is important to understand the mechanisms of barely visible impact damage (BVID) and how it affects structural performance. To reduce labour intensive testing, the development of finite element (FE) techniques for simulating impact damage becomes essential and recent effort by the composites research community is reviewed in this work. The FE predicted damage initiation and propagation can be validated by Non Destructive Techniques (NDT) that gives confidence to the developed numerical damage models. A reliable damage simulation can assist the design process to optimise laminate configurations, reduce weight and improve performance of components and structures used in aircraft construction.

  4. Protective effect of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid isolated from Cladophora wrightiana Harvey against ultraviolet B radiation-induced cell damage in human HaCaT keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Ji Won; Piao, Mei Jing; Kim, Ki Cheon; Zheng, Jian; Yao, Cheng Wen; Hyun, Chang Lim; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Yoo, Eun Sook; Koh, Young Sang; Lee, Nam Ho; Ko, Mi Hee; Hyun, Jin Won

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the protective properties of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DBA) isolated from Cladophora wrightiana Harvey (a green alga) against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced damage to human HaCaT keratinocytes. DBA exhibited scavenging actions against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, the superoxide anion, and the hydroxyl radical. Furthermore, DBA decreased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species generated by hydrogen peroxide or UVB treatment of the cells. DBA also decreased the UVB-augmented levels of phospho-histone H2A.X and the extent of comet tail formation, which are both indications of DNA damage. In addition, the compound safeguarded keratinocytes from UVB-induced injury by reversing the production of apoptotic bodies, overturning the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, B-cell lymphoma 2, and decreasing the expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2-associated X and cleaved caspase-3. Taken together, these results demonstrate that DBA isolated from a green alga protects human keratinocytes against UVB-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  5. Radiation and transposon-induced genetic damage in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, H.; Griffith, C.S.; American Museum of Natural History, New York; Margulies, L.

    1992-01-01

    The interaction of X-ray-induced and transposon-induced damage was investigated in P-M hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. X-ray dose-response of 330-1320 rad was monitored for sterility, fecundicity and partial X/Y chromosome loss among F 2 progeny derived from dysgenic cross of M strain females xP strain males (cross A) and its reciprocal (cross B), using a weaker and the standard Harwich P strain subline. The synergistic effect of P element activity and X-rays on sterility was observed only in cross A hybrids and the dose-response was nonlinear in hybrids derived from the strong standard reference Harwich subline, H W . This finding suggests that lesions induced by both mutator systems which produce the synergistic effects are 2-break events. Effect of increasing dose on the decline of fecundicity was synergistic, but linear, in hybrids of either subline. There was no interaction evident and thus no synergism in X/Y nondisjunction and partial Y chromosome loss measured by the loss of the B s marker alone or together with the y + marker. Interaction was detected in the loss of the y + marker alone from the X and Y chromosomes. The possible three-way interaction of X-rays (660 rad), post-replication repair deficiency and P elements mobility was assessed by measuring transmission distortion in dysgenic males derived from the Π 2 P strain. (author). 38 refs.; 5 tabs

  6. Hypochlorite-induced damage to nucleosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawkins, C L; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    HOCl damage to DNA bases. We show that reaction of HOCl with the exocyclic -NH(2) groups of cytidine, adenosine, and guanosine, and the ring NH groups of all bases, yields chloramines (RNHCl/RR'NCl). These are the major initial products. Chloramine decay can be accelerated by UV light and metal ions...... for radical formation is cytidine > adenosine = guanosine > uridine = thymidine. These data are inconsistent with the selectivity of HOCl attack and the stability of the resulting chloramines, but can be rationalized if chlorine transfer between bases is rapid and yields the most stable chloramine...

  7. Can ebselen prevent cisplatin-induced ovarian damage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyman, Zeynep; Uzun, Hafize; Bayindir, Nihan; Esrefoglu, Mukaddes; Boran, Birtan

    2018-06-01

    The occurrence of ovarian damage is a major shortcoming in treating tumors with cisplatin (CP). The present study investigates the beneficial effects of ebselen-a seleno-organic compound with antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties-vis-à-vis CP-induced ovarian damage. Twenty-eight adult female rats were divided into four study groups. Group 1 received no treatment. The rats in Groups 2, 3, and 4 were intraperitoneally administered CP (2 mg/kg/day) twice per week, for 5 weeks. Those in Group 2 received 0.3 ml saline (0.9% NaCl) intraperitoneally 60 min before each CP treatment, while those in Group 3 received 0.2 ml dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and 0.3 ml saline intraperitoneally 60 min before each CP treatment. The rats in Group 4 were pretreated with an intraperitoneal injection of 15 mg/kg/day ebselen 60 min before each CP treatment. Ovarian tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), total nitric oxide (NOx), glutathione (GSH), Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), and catalase levels, as well as histopathological damage scores (HDSs) and serum antimullerian hormone (AMH) levels, were assessed. Cu/Zn-SOD and GSH levels were significantly higher, and MDA and NOx levels significantly lower, in Group 4 than in Groups 2 and 3. Pretreatment with ebselen significantly improved serum AMH levels, relative to Groups 2 and 3. Additionally, HDS values were significantly lower in Group 4 than in Groups 2 and 3. Our results from using an experimental rat model of CP chemotherapy suggest that ebselen use may ameliorate ovarian damage by preventing oxidative injury.

  8. Ion-induced damage and amorphization in Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, O.W.; White, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Ion-induced damage growth in high-energy, self-ion irradiated Si was studied using electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. The results show that there is a marked variation in the rate of damage growth, as well as the damage morphology, along the path of the ion. Near the ion end-of-range (eor), damage increases monotonically with ion fluence until a buried amorphous layer is formed, while damage growth saturates at a low level in the region ahead. The morphology of the damage in the saturated region is shown to consist predominantly of simple defect clusters such as the divacancy. Damage growth remains saturated ahead of the eor until expansion of the buried amorphous layer encroaches into the region. A homogeneous growth model is presented which accounts for damage saturation, and accurately predicts the dose-rate dependence of the saturation level. Modifications of the model are discussed which are needed to account for the rapid growth in the eor region and near the interface of the buried amorphous layer. Two important factors contributing to rapid damage growth are identified. Spatial separation of the Frenkel defect pairs (i.e. interstitials and vacancies) due to the momentum of the interstitials is shown to greatly impact damage growth near the eor, while uniaxial strain in the interfacial region of the amorphous layer is identified as an important factor contributing to growth at that location. 20 refs., 10 figs

  9. Laser-induced damage to thin film dielectric coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    The laser-induced damage thresholds of dielectric thin film coatings have been found to be more than an order of magnitude lower than the bulk material damage thresholds. Prior damage studies have been inconclusive in determining the damage mechanism which is operative in thin films. A program was conducted in which thin film damage thresholds were measured as a function of laser wavelength (1.06 μm, 0.53 μm, 0.35 μm and 0.26 μm), laser pulse length (5 and 15 nanoseconds), film materials and film thickness. The large matrix of data was compared to predictions given by avalanche ionization, multiphoton ionization and impurity theories of laser damage. When Mie absorption cross-sections and the exact thermal equations were included into the impurity theory excellent agreement with the data was found. The avalanche and multiphoton damage theories could not account for most parametric variations in the data. For example, the damage thresholds for most films increased as the film thickness decreased and only the impurity theory could account for this behavior. Other observed changes in damage threshold with changes in laser wavelength, pulse length and film material could only be adequately explained by the impurity theory. The conclusion which results from this study is that laser damage in thin film coatings results from absorbing impurities included during the deposition process

  10. Reversal of aflatoxin induced liver damage by turmeric and curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, K B; Rajan, A; Kuttan, R

    1992-09-30

    The effect of certain food additives on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus has been studied in vitro. Extracts of turmeric (Curcuma longa), garlic (Allium sativum) and asafoetida (Ferula asafoetida) inhibited the aflatoxin production considerably (more than 90%) at concentrations of 5-10 mg/ml. Similar results were also seen using butylated hydroxytoluene, butylated hydroxyanisole and ellagic acid at concentration 0.1 mM. Curcumin, the antioxidant principle from Curcuma longa did not have any effect on aflatoxin production. Turmeric and curcumin were also found to reverse the aflatoxin induced liver damage produced by feeding aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (5 micrograms/day per 14 days) to ducklings. Fatty changes, necrosis and biliary hyperplasia produced by AFB1 were considerably reversed by these food additives.

  11. Protective effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. aerial parts on H2O2-induced DNA damage in lymphocytes by comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behravan, Javad; Mosafa, Fatemeh; Soudmand, Negar; Taghiabadi, Elahe; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2011-09-01

    The comet assay is a standard method for measuring DNA damage. In this study, the protective effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. (P. oleracea) on human lymphocyte DNA lesions were evaluated with the comet assay. Lymphocytes were isolated from blood samples taken from healthy volunteers. Human lymphocytes were incubated in H(2)O(2) (50,100, and 200 μM), aqueous extract (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2.5mg/ml), and ethanolic extracts (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2.5mg/ml) of P. oleraceae aerial parts alone with a combination of H(2)O(2) (100 μM) with either 1 or 2.5mg/ml of both extracts at 4°C for 30 minutes. The extent of DNA migration was measured using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis approach assay, and DNA damage was expressed as percentage tail DNA. We found that the aqueous extract of P. oleracea significantly inhibited DNA damage, while there was no effect of the ethanolic extract. These data suggest that the aqueous extract of P. oleracea can prevent oxidative DNA damage to human lymphocytes, which is likely due to antioxidant constituents in the extract. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Persistence of Space Radiation-Induced Cytogenetic Damage in the Blood Lymphocytes of Astronauts and the Effects of Repeat Long Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Kerry A.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    The yield of chromosome damage in astronauts blood lymphocytes has been shown to increase after long duration space missions of a few months or more. This provides a useful in vivo measurement of space radiation induced damage that takes into account individual radiosensitivity and considers the influence of microgravity and other stress conditions. We present our latest follow-up analyses of chromosome damage in astronauts blood lymphocytes assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting and collected at various times, from directly after return from space to several years after flight. For most individuals the analysis of individual time-courses for translocations revealed a temporal decline of yields with different half-lives. Dose was derived from frequencies of chromosome exchanges using preflight calibration curves, and estimates derived from samples collected a few days after return to earth lie within the range expected from physical dosimetry. However, a temporal decline in yields may indicate complications with the use of stable aberrations for retrospective dose reconstruction, and the differences in the decay time may reflect individual variability in risk from space radiation exposure. Limited data on three individuals who have participated in repeat long duration space flights indicates a lack of correlation between time in space and translocation yields, and show a possible adaptive response to space radiation exposure.

  13. Modeling DNA?damage-induced pneumopathy in mice: insight from danger signaling cascades

    OpenAIRE

    Wirsd?rfer, Florian; Jendrossek, Verena

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced pneumonitis and fibrosis represent severe and dose-limiting side effects in the radiotherapy of thorax-associated neoplasms leading to decreased quality of life or - as a consequence of treatment with suboptimal radiation doses - to fatal outcomes by local recurrence or metastatic disease. It is assumed that the initial radiation-induced damage to the resident cells triggers a multifaceted damage-signalling cascade in irradiated normal tissues including a multifactorial secr...

  14. Protective effect of indole-3-pyruvate against ultraviolet b-induced damage to cultured HaCaT keratinocytes and the skin of hairless mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiji Aoki

    Full Text Available Previous investigations demonstrated that pyruvate protects human keratinocytes against cell damage stemming from exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB radiation. This study endeavoured to elucidate the protective capacity of aromatic pyruvates (e.g., phenylpyruvate (PPyr, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (HPPyr, and indole-3-pyruvate (IPyr against UVB-induced injury to skin cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Cultured human HaCaT keratinocytes were irradiated with UVB light (60 mJ/cm2 and maintained with or without test compounds (1-25 mM.In addition, the dorsal skin of hairless mice (HR-1 was treated with test compounds (10 μmol and exposed to UVB light (1 J/cm2 twice [corrected]. The ability of the test compounds to ameliorate UVB-induced cytotoxicity and inflammation was then assessed. Aromatic pyruvates reduced cytotoxicity in UVB-irradiated HaCaT keratinocytes, and also diminished the expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β and interleukin 6 (IL-6. IPyr was more efficacious than either PPyr or HPPyr. Furthermore, only IPyr inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2 expression at both the mRNA and the protein level in UVB-treated keratinocytes. Topical application of IPyr to the dorsal skin of hairless mice reduced the severity of UVB-induced skin lesions, the augmentation of dermal thickness, and transepithelial water loss. Overproduction of IL-1β and IL-6 in response to UVB radiation was also suppressed in vivo by the topical administration of IPyr. These data strongly suggest that IPyr might find utility as a UVB-blocking reagent in therapeutic strategies to lessen UVB-induced inflammatory skin damage.

  15. Hypochlorite-induced damage to proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawkins, C L; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Stimulated monocytes and neutrophils generate hypochlorite (HOCl) via the release of the enzyme myeloperoxidase and hydrogen peroxide. HOCl damages proteins by reaction with amino acid side-chains or backbone cleavage. Little information is available about the mechanisms and intermediates involved...... in these reactions. EPR spin trapping has been employed to identify radicals on proteins, peptides and amino acids after treatment with HOCl. Reaction with HOCl gives both high- and low-molecular-mass nitrogen-centred, protein-derived radicals; the yield of the latter increases with both higher HOCl:protein ratios...... and enzymic digestion. These radicals, which arise from lysine side-chain amino groups, react with ascorbate, glutathione and Trolox. Reaction of HOCl-treated proteins with excess methionine eliminates radical formation, which is consistent with lysine-derived chloramines (via homolysis of N-Cl bonds) being...

  16. Radiation-induced DNA damage as a function of DNA hydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swarts, S.G.; Miao, L.; Wheeler, K.T.; Sevilla, M.D.; Becker, D.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation-induced DNA damage is produced from the sum of the radicals generated by the direct ionization of the DNA (direct effect) and by the reactions of the DNA with free radicals formed in the surrounding environment (indirect effect). The indirect effect has been believed to be the predominant contributor to radiation-induced intracellular DNA damage, mainly as the result of reactions of bulk water radicals (e.g., OH·) with DNA. However, recent evidence suggests that DNA damage, derived from the irradiation of water molecules that are tightly bound in the hydration layer, may occur as the result of the transfer of electron-loss centers (e.g. holes) and electrons from these water molecules to the DNA. Since this mechanism for damaging DNA more closely parallels that of the direct effect, the irradiation of these tightly bound water molecules may contribute to a quasi-direct effect. These water molecules comprise a large fraction of the water surrounding intracellular DNA and could account for a significant proportion of intracellular radiation-induced DNA damage. Consequently, the authors have attempted to characterize this quasi-direct effect to determine: (1) the extent of the DNA hydration layer that is involved with this effect, and (2) what influence this effect has on the types and quantities of radiation-induced DNA damage

  17. Effects of formic acid hydrolysis on the quantitative analysis of radiation-induced DNA base damage products assayed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swarts, S.G.; Smith, G.S.; Miao, L.; Wheeler, K.T.

    1996-01-01

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/ MS-SIM) is an excellent technique for performing both qualitative and quantitative analysis of DNA base damage products that are formed by exposure to ionizing radiation or by the interaction of intracellular DNA with activated oxygen species. This technique commonly uses a hot formic acid hydrolysis step to degrade the DNA to individual free bases. However, due to the harsh nature of this degradation procedure, the quantitation of DNA base damage products may be adversely affected. Consequently, we examined the effects of various formic acid hydrolysis procedures on the quantitation of a number of DNA base damage products and identified several factors that can influence this quantitation. These factors included (1) the inherent acid stabilities of both the lesions and the internal standards; (2) the hydrolysis temperature; (3) the source and grade of the formic acid; and (4) the sample mass during hydrolysis. Our data also suggested that the N, O-bis (trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) derivatization efficiency can be adversely affected, presumably by trace contaminants either in the formic acid or from the acid-activated surface of the glass derivatization vials. Where adverse effects were noted, modifications were explored in an attempt to improve the quantitation of these DNA lesions. Although experimental steps could be taken to minimize the influence of these factors on the quantitation of some base damage products, no single procedure solved the quantitation problem for all base lesions. However, a significant improvement in the quantitation was achieved if the relative molecular response factor (RMRF) values for these lesions were generated with authentic DNA base damage products that had been treated exactly like the experimental samples. (orig.)

  18. DNA damage-inducible transcripts in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornace, A.J. Jr.; Alamo, I. Jr.; Hollander, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    Hybridization subtraction at low ratios of RNA to cDNA was used to enrich for the cDNA of transcripts increased in Chinese hamster cells after UV irradiation. Forty-nine different cDNA clones were isolated. Most coded for nonabundant transcripts rapidly induced 2- to 10-fold after UV irradiation. Only 2 of the 20 cDNA clones sequenced matched known sequences (metallothionein I and II). The predicted amino acid sequence of one cDNA had two localized areas of homology with the rat helix-destabilizing protein. These areas of homology were at the two DNA-binding sites of this nucleic acid single-strand-binding protein. The induced transcripts were separated into two general classes. Class I transcripts were induced by UV radiation and not by the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate. Class II transcripts were induced by UV radiation and by methyl methanesulfonate. Many class II transcripts were induced also by H2O2 and various alkylating agents but not by heat shock, phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate, or DNA-damaging agents which do not produce high levels of base damage. Since many of the cDNA clones coded for transcripts which were induced rapidly and only by certain types of DNA-damaging agents, their induction is likely a specific response to such damage rather than a general response to cell injury

  19. DNA damage-induced inflammation and nuclear architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratigi, Kalliopi; Chatzidoukaki, Ourania; Garinis, George A

    2017-07-01

    Nuclear architecture and the chromatin state affect most-if not all- DNA-dependent transactions, including the ability of cells to sense DNA lesions and restore damaged DNA back to its native form. Recent evidence points to functional links between DNA damage sensors, DNA repair mechanisms and the innate immune responses. The latter raises the question of how such seemingly disparate processes operate within the intrinsically complex nuclear landscape and the chromatin environment. Here, we discuss how DNA damage-induced immune responses operate within chromatin and the distinct sub-nuclear compartments highlighting their relevance to chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Theoretical research of multi-pulses laser induced damage in dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Jin; Liu Zhichao; Chen Songlin; Ma Ping

    2013-01-01

    The pulse width is different, the mechanism of the laser-matter interaction is different. Damage results from plasma formation and ablation forτ≤10 ps and from heat depositing and conventional melting for τ>100 ps. Two theoretical models of transparent dielectrics irradiated by multi-pulses laser are respectively developed based on the above-mentioned different mechanism. One is the dielectric breakdown model based on electron density evolution equation for femtosecond multi-pluses laser, the other is the dielectric heat-damage model based on Fourier's heat exchange equation for nanosecond multi-pluses laser. Using these models, the effects of laser parameters and material parameters on the laser-induced damage threshold of dielectrics are analyzed. The analysis results show that different parameters have different influence on the damage threshold. The effect of parameters on the multi -pulses damage threshold is not entirely the same to the single-pulse damage threshold. The multi-pulses damage mechanism of dielectrics is discussed in detail, considering the effect of different parameters. The discussion provides more information for understanding its damage process and more knowledge to improve its damage thresholds. And the relationship between damage threshold and pulse number is illustrated, it is in good agreement with experimental results. The illustration can help us to predict the multi-pulses damage threshold and the lifetime of optical components. (authors)

  1. Metoprolol induces oxidative damage in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Héctor; Donkor, Kingsley; Brewer, Sharon; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; SanJuan-Reyes, Nely; Islas-Flores, Hariz; Sánchez-Aceves, Livier; Elizalde-Velázquez, Armando; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel

    2018-04-01

    During the last decade, β-blockers such as metoprolol (MTP) have been frequently detected in surface water, aquatic systems and municipal water at concentrations of ng/L to μg/L. Only a small number of studies exist on the toxic effects induced by this group of pharmaceuticals on aquatic organisms. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the oxidative damage induced by MTP in the common carp Cyprinus carpio, using oxidative stress biomarkers. To this end, indicators of cellular oxidation such as hydroperoxide content (HPC), lipid peroxidation (LPX) and protein carbonyl content (PCC) were determined, as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Also, concentrations of MTP and its metabolite O-desmethyl metoprolol were determined in water as well as carp gill, liver, kidney, brain and blood, along with the partial uptake pattern of these compounds. Results show that carp takes up MTP and its metabolite in the different organs evaluated, particularly liver and gill. The oxidative stress biomarkers, HPC, LPX, and PCC, as well as SOD and CAT activity all increased significantly at most exposure times in all organs evaluated. Results indicate that MTP and its metabolite induce oxidative stress on the teleost C. carpio and that the presence of these compounds may constitute a risk in water bodies for aquatic species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation-induced damage in E. coli B: The effect of superoxide radicals and molecular oxygen. Progress report, December 1, 1978--November 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuni, A.; Czapski, G.

    The roles of superoxide radicals and of molecular oxygen in the radiodamage of E. coli B suspended in dilute phosphate buffer were studied. The presence of high concentrations of polyethylene glycol in the γ-irradiated cell suspensions, had no effect on bacterial radiosensitivity. This indicates that the damage was primarily endogenous, i.e. originated intracellularly. Saturation of the cell suspensions with N 2 O doubled the radiosensitivity, thus indicating that OH radicals are responsible for the majority of the damage (indirect radiation effect). The presence of oxygen either in the absence or presence of N 2 O brought about roughly a three-fold increase in the radiosensitivity. Since in the presence of N 2 O all e - /sub aq/ are scavenged by the nitrous oxide rather than by oxygen, this shows that superoxide radicals play no role in the bacterial radiodamage. Our results substantiate the attribution of the oxygen effect to a direct interaction of O 2 with the hydroxyl-radical-damaged sites on vital biomolecules, and exclude any significant contribution of e - /sub aq/ and superoxide radicals to the cellular radiodamage

  3. Ultrasound-induced cavitation damage to external epithelia of fish skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, V; Kimmel, E; Iger, Y

    1999-10-01

    Transmission electron microscopy was used to show the effects of therapeutic ultrasound (fish skin. Exposures of up to 90 s produced damage to 5 to 6 of the outermost layers. Negligible temperature elevations and lack of damage observed when using degassed water indicated that the effects were due to cavitation. The minimal intensity was determined for inducing cellular damage, where the extent and depth of damage to the tissues was correlated to the exposure duration. The results may be interpreted as a damage front, advancing slowly from the outer cells inward, presumably in association with the slow replacement of the perforated cell contents with the surrounding water. This study illustrates that a controlled level of microdamage may be induced to the outer layers of the tissues.

  4. DNA-damage response during mitosis induces whole-chromosome missegregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhoum, Samuel F; Kabeche, Lilian; Murnane, John P; Zaki, Bassem I; Compton, Duane A

    2014-11-01

    Many cancers display both structural (s-CIN) and numerical (w-CIN) chromosomal instabilities. Defective chromosome segregation during mitosis has been shown to cause DNA damage that induces structural rearrangements of chromosomes (s-CIN). In contrast, whether DNA damage can disrupt mitotic processes to generate whole chromosomal instability (w-CIN) is unknown. Here, we show that activation of the DNA-damage response (DDR) during mitosis selectively stabilizes kinetochore-microtubule (k-MT) attachments to chromosomes through Aurora-A and PLK1 kinases, thereby increasing the frequency of lagging chromosomes during anaphase. Inhibition of DDR proteins, ATM or CHK2, abolishes the effect of DNA damage on k-MTs and chromosome segregation, whereas activation of the DDR in the absence of DNA damage is sufficient to induce chromosome segregation errors. Finally, inhibiting the DDR during mitosis in cancer cells with persistent DNA damage suppresses inherent chromosome segregation defects. Thus, the DDR during mitosis inappropriately stabilizes k-MTs, creating a link between s-CIN and w-CIN. The genome-protective role of the DDR depends on its ability to delay cell division until damaged DNA can be fully repaired. Here, we show that when DNA damage is induced during mitosis, the DDR unexpectedly induces errors in the segregation of entire chromosomes, thus linking structural and numerical chromosomal instabilities. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. X-Ray induced DNA damage – why use plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John William Einset

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The comet assay was used to monitor DNA repair after X-ray exposures caused by 0.2-15 Gy. A clear distinction in the time course of DNA repair after 2 Gy was observed with an early ‘rapid phase’, lasting 20-40 minutes, being followed by a ‘slow phase’ which actually consists of a period of negligible repair and then rapid repair during 140-160 minutes. The fact that homozygous mutants for both ATM and BRCA1 fail to repair DNA completely during 3 hours after 2 Gy exposures indicates that repair processes occurring during the ‘slow phase’ involve ds breaks in DNA. Both BRCA1 and Rad51 expression are strongly upregulated by X-rays in Arabidopsis. Rye grass, Norway spruce and Sawara cypress also have ‘slow phase’ repair similar to Arabidopsis, suggesting that the requisite enzymes have to be induced in these plants as well. To look at the effect of genome size in relation to sensitivity to DNA damage, we exposed isolated nuclei from Norway spruce (19.2 Gbp genome, celery (14.1 Gbp, spinach (12.6 Gbp Sawara cypress (8.9 Gbp, lettuce (2.6 Gbp and Arabidopsis (0.135 Gbp to X-rays. After a 1 Gy exposure, a linear relationship was seen between % tails and genome size, confirming the idea that larger genomes are more sensitive to X-ray damage.

  6. Liposomal Antioxidants for Protection against Oxidant-Induced Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharias E. Suntres

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS, including superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical, can be formed as normal products of aerobic metabolism and can be produced at elevated rates under pathophysiological conditions. Overproduction and/or insufficient removal of ROS result in significant damage to cell structure and functions. In vitro studies showed that antioxidants, when applied directly and at relatively high concentrations to cellular systems, are effective in conferring protection against the damaging actions of ROS, but results from animal and human studies showed that several antioxidants provide only modest benefit and even possible harm. Antioxidants have yet to be rendered into reliable and safe therapies because of their poor solubility, inability to cross membrane barriers, extensive first-pass metabolism, and rapid clearance from cells. There is considerable interest towards the development of drug-delivery systems that would result in the selective delivery of antioxidants to tissues in sufficient concentrations to ameliorate oxidant-induced tissue injuries. Liposomes are biocompatible, biodegradable, and nontoxic artificial phospholipid vesicles that offer the possibility of carrying hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and amphiphilic molecules. This paper focus on the use of liposomes for the delivery of antioxidants in the prevention or treatment of pathological conditions related to oxidative stress.

  7. Studies of cellular damage induced by X-rays and visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, T.; Kinn, G.; Reitan, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    DNA-damage in cells has been studied by use of spectrophotometry and fluorometry. The method is based on the differential fluorescence quantum yield of the fluorochrome Hoechst 33258 when bound to single and double stranded DNA, respectively. DNA-damage by doses of X-rays below 2 Gy was clearly detectable. Blue light from phototherapy lamps induced DNA-damage in human TMG-1 glioblastoma, but no significant effect could be observed after irradiation with green lamps. In the presence of bilirubin the amount of DNA-damage was increased, notably at high bilirubin concentration and by blue light. 9 refs; 12 figs

  8. Functional analysis of molecular mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis, that are not mediated by DNA damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angermeier, Marita; Moertl, Simone

    2012-01-01

    The effects of low-dose irradiation pose new challenges on the radiation protection efforts. Enhanced cellular radiation sensitivity is displayed by disturbed cellular reactions and resulting damage like cell cycle arrest, DNA repair and apoptosis. Apoptosis serves as genetically determinate parameter for the individual radiation sensitivity. In the frame of the project the radiation-induced apoptosis was mechanistically investigated. Since ionizing radiation induced direct DNA damage and generates a reactive oxygen species, the main focus of the research was the differentiation and weighting of DNA damage mediated apoptosis and apoptosis caused by the reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  9. Radiation-induced damage in T4 bacteriophage: the effect of superoxid radicals and molecular oxygen. Progress report, December 1, 1977--November 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuni, A.; Chevion, M.; Halpern, Y.S.; Ilan, Y.A.; Czapski, G.

    1978-01-01

    The sensitivity of T4 bacteriophage towards γ irradiation has been studied in phosphate buffer suspensions. The spectrum of the water radicals was controlled by a careful choice of the appropriate saturating gas and the addition of radical scavengers. Thus, it was possible to distinguish between the effects of molecular oxygen and the superoxide radicals formed through its reactions. About 90 percent of the damage was caused by the water radicals formed in the bulk suspensions. These probably affected the phage proteins; only the remainder of the damage involved the viral DNA. The oxygen enhancement ratio observed was not connected in any way with the formation of the superoxide radicals. The results confirmed that the OH radicals are the reactive species, while e - /sub aq/ as well as the superoxide radical do not contribute to the radiodamage

  10. Antigenotoxic Effect of Curcumin and Carvacrol against Parathion Induced DNA Damage in Cultured Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes and Its Relation to GSTM1 and GSTT1 Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of organophosphorus pesticides has been extensively increased and these compounds signify a major class of agricultural pesticides today. We studied antigenotoxic potential of curcumin and carvacrol against the parathion induced DNA damage in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes using sister chromatid exchanges as a biomarker of genotoxicity. Heparinised fresh blood from healthy individuals was treated with 2.5 μg/mL concentration of parathion in presence of curcumin and carvacrol in order to observe the antigenotoxic potential of both curcumin and carvacrol. Significant reduction (P0.05 of GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphism on genotoxicity of parathion and antigenotoxic potential of curcumin and carvacrol.

  11. Smeared crack modelling approach for corrosion-induced concrete damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Anna Emilie Anusha; Michel, Alexander; Stang, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a smeared crack modelling approach is used to simulate corrosion-induced damage in reinforced concrete. The presented modelling approach utilizes a thermal analogy to mimic the expansive nature of solid corrosion products, while taking into account the penetration of corrosion...... products into the surrounding concrete, non-uniform precipitation of corrosion products, and creep. To demonstrate the applicability of the presented modelling approach, numerical predictions in terms of corrosion-induced deformations as well as formation and propagation of micro- and macrocracks were......-induced damage phenomena in reinforced concrete. Moreover, good agreements were also found between experimental and numerical data for corrosion-induced deformations along the circumference of the reinforcement....

  12. An extended sequence specificity for UV-induced DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Long H; Murray, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    The sequence specificity of UV-induced DNA damage was determined with a higher precision and accuracy than previously reported. UV light induces two major damage adducts: cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs). Employing capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence and taking advantages of the distinct properties of the CPDs and 6-4PPs, we studied the sequence specificity of UV-induced DNA damage in a purified DNA sequence using two approaches: end-labelling and a polymerase stop/linear amplification assay. A mitochondrial DNA sequence that contained a random nucleotide composition was employed as the target DNA sequence. With previous methodology, the UV sequence specificity was determined at a dinucleotide or trinucleotide level; however, in this paper, we have extended the UV sequence specificity to a hexanucleotide level. With the end-labelling technique (for 6-4PPs), the consensus sequence was found to be 5'-GCTC*AC (where C* is the breakage site); while with the linear amplification procedure, it was 5'-TCTT*AC. With end-labelling, the dinucleotide frequency of occurrence was highest for 5'-TC*, 5'-TT* and 5'-CC*; whereas it was 5'-TT* for linear amplification. The influence of neighbouring nucleotides on the degree of UV-induced DNA damage was also examined. The core sequences consisted of pyrimidine nucleotides 5'-CTC* and 5'-CTT* while an A at position "1" and C at position "2" enhanced UV-induced DNA damage. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Plasmid DNA damage induced by helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Cantrell, William A.; Escobar, Erika E.; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2014-03-01

    A helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is applied to induce damage to aqueous plasmid DNA. The resulting fractions of the DNA conformers, which indicate intact molecules or DNA with single- or double-strand breaks, are determined using agarose gel electrophoresis. The DNA strand breaks increase with a decrease in the distance between the APPJ and DNA samples under two working conditions of the plasma source with different parameters of applied electric pulses. The damage level induced in the plasmid DNA is also enhanced with increased plasma irradiation time. The reactive species generated in the APPJ are characterized by optical emission spectra, and their roles in possible DNA damage processes occurring in an aqueous environment are also discussed.

  14. Chemical determination of free radical-induced damage to DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizdaroglu, M

    1991-01-01

    Free radical-induced damage to DNA in vivo can result in deleterious biological consequences such as the initiation and promotion of cancer. Chemical characterization and quantitation of such DNA damage is essential for an understanding of its biological consequences and cellular repair. Methodologies incorporating the technique of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) have been developed in recent years for measurement of free radical-induced DNA damage. The use of GC/MS with selected-ion monitoring (SIM) facilitates unequivocal identification and quantitation of a large number of products of all four DNA bases produced in DNA by reactions with hydroxyl radical, hydrated electron, and H atom. Hydroxyl radical-induced DNA-protein cross-links in mammalian chromatin, and products of the sugar moiety in DNA are also unequivocally identified and quantitated. The sensitivity and selectivity of the GC/MS-SIM technique enables the measurement of DNA base products even in isolated mammalian chromatin without the necessity of first isolating DNA, and despite the presence of histones. Recent results reviewed in this article demonstrate the usefulness of the GC/MS technique for chemical determination of free radical-induced DNA damage in DNA as well as in mammalian chromatin under a vast variety of conditions of free radical production.

  15. Current study on ionizing radiation-induced mitochondial DNA damage and mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xin; Wang Zhenhua; Zhang Hong

    2012-01-01

    Current advance in ionizing radiation-induced mitochondrial DNA damage and mutations is reviewed, in addition with the essential differences between mtDNA and nDNA damage and mutations. To extent the knowledge about radiation induced mitochondrial alterations, the researchers in Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences developed some technics such as real-time PCR, long-PCR for accurate quantification of radiation induced damage and mutations, and in-depth investigation about the functional changes of mitochondria based on mtDNA damage and mutations were also carried out. In conclusion, the important role of mitochondrial study in radiation biology is underlined, and further study on mitochondrial study associated with late effect and metabolism changes in radiation biology is pointed out. (authors)

  16. Caryocar brasiliense camb protects against genomic and oxidative damage in urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B.R. Colombo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant effects of Caryocar brasiliense Camb, commonly known as the pequi fruit, have not been evaluated to determine their protective effects against oxidative damage in lung carcinogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated the role of pequi fruit against urethane-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress in forty 8-12 week old male BALB/C mice. An in vivo comet assay was performed to assess DNA damage in lung tissues and changes in lipid peroxidation and redox cycle antioxidants were monitored for oxidative stress. Prior supplementation with pequi oil or its extract (15 µL, 60 days significantly reduced urethane-induced oxidative stress. A protective effect against DNA damage was associated with the modulation of lipid peroxidation and low protein and gene expression of nitric oxide synthase. These findings suggest that the intake of pequi fruit might protect against in vivo genotoxicity and oxidative stress.

  17. Organic honey supplementation reverses pesticide-induced genotoxicity by modulating DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleva, Renata; Manzella, Nicola; Gaetani, Simona; Ciarapica, Veronica; Bracci, Massimo; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Pasini, Federica; Monaco, Federica; Amati, Monica; Borghi, Battista; Tomasetti, Marco

    2016-10-01

    Glyphosate (GLY) and organophosphorus insecticides such as chlorpyrifos (CPF) may cause DNA damage and cancer in exposed individuals through mitochondrial dysfunction. Polyphenols ubiquitously present in fruits and vegetables, have been viewed as antioxidant molecules, but also influence mitochondrial homeostasis. Here, honey containing polyphenol compounds was evaluated for its potential protective effect on pesticide-induced genotoxicity. Honey extracts from four floral organic sources were evaluated for their polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, and potential protective effects on pesticide-related mitochondrial destabilization, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species formation, and DNA damage response in human bronchial epithelial and neuronal cells. The protective effect of honey was, then evaluated in a residential population chronically exposed to pesticides. The four honey types showed a different polyphenol profile associated with a different antioxidant power. The pesticide-induced mitochondrial dysfunction parallels ROS formation from mitochondria (mtROS) and consequent DNA damage. Honey extracts efficiently inhibited pesticide-induced mtROS formation, and reduced DNA damage by upregulation of DNA repair through NFR2. Honey supplementation enhanced DNA repair activity in a residential population chronically exposed to pesticides, which resulted in a marked reduction of pesticide-induced DNA lesions. These results provide new insight regarding the effect of honey containing polyphenols on pesticide-induced DNA damage response. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Involvement of inducible nitric oxide synthase in radiation-induced vascular endothelial damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Chang-Won; Lee, Joon-Ho; Kim, Suwan; Noh, Jae Myoung; Kim, Young-Mee; Pyo, Hongryull; Lee, Sunyoung

    2013-01-01

    The use of radiation therapy has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. To understand the mechanisms underlying radiation-induced vascular dysfunction, we employed two models. First, we examined the effect of X-ray irradiation on vasodilation in rabbit carotid arteries. Carotid arterial rings were irradiated with 8 or 16 Gy using in vivo and ex vivo methods. We measured the effect of acetylcholine-induced relaxation after phenylephrine-induced contraction on the rings. In irradiated carotid arteries, vasodilation was significantly attenuated by both irradiation methods. The relaxation response was completely blocked by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, a potent inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase. Residual relaxation persisted after treatment with L-N ω -nitroarginine (L-NA), a non-specific inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), but disappeared following the addition of aminoguanidine (AG), a selective inhibitor of inducible NOS (iNOS). The relaxation response was also affected by tetraethylammonium, an inhibitor of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor activity. In the second model, we investigated the biochemical events of nitrosative stress in human umbilical-vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We measured iNOS and nitrotyrosine expression in HUVECs exposed to a dose of 4 Gy. The expression of iNOS and nitrotyrosine was greater in irradiated HUVECs than in untreated controls. Pretreatment with AG, L-N 6 -(1-iminoethyl) lysine hydrochloride (a selective inhibitor of iNOS), and L-NA attenuated nitrosative stress. While a selective target of radiation-induced vascular endothelial damage was not definitely determined, these results suggest that NO generated from iNOS could contribute to vasorelaxation. These studies highlight a potential role of iNOS inhibitors in ameliorating radiation-induced vascular endothelial damage. (author)

  19. Reduction of arsenite-enhanced ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage by supplemental zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Karen L.; King, Brenee S.; Sandoval, Monica M.; Liu, Ke Jian; Hudson, Laurie G., E-mail: lhudson@salud.unm.edu

    2013-06-01

    Arsenic is a recognized human carcinogen and there is evidence that arsenic augments the carcinogenicity of DNA damaging agents such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR) thereby acting as a co-carcinogen. Inhibition of DNA repair is one proposed mechanism to account for the co-carcinogenic action