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Sample records for dairy sheep performance

  1. Environmental performances of Sardinian dairy sheep production systems at different input levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagnoni, E; Franca, A; Breedveld, L; Porqueddu, C; Ferrara, R; Duce, P

    2015-01-01

    Although sheep milk production is a significant sector for the European Mediterranean countries, it shows serious competitiveness gaps. Minimizing the ecological impacts of dairy sheep farming systems could represent a key factor for farmers to bridging the gaps in competitiveness of such systems and also obtaining public incentives. However, scarce is the knowledge about the environmental performance of Mediterranean dairy sheep farms. The main objectives of this paper were (i) to compare the environmental impacts of sheep milk production from three dairy farms in Sardinia (Italy), characterized by different input levels, and (ii) to identify the hotspots for improving the environmental performances of each farm, by using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The LCA was conducted using two different assessment methods: Carbon Footprint-IPCC and ReCiPe end-point. The analysis, conducted "from cradle to gate", was based on the functional unit 1 kg of Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM). The observed trends of the environmental performances of the studied farming systems were similar for both evaluation methods. The GHG emissions revealed a little range of variation (from 2.0 to 2.3 kg CO2-eq per kg of FPCM) with differences between farming systems being not significant. The ReCiPe end-point analysis showed a larger range of values and environmental performances of the low-input farm were significantly different compared to the medium- and high-input farms. In general, enteric methane emissions, field operations, electricity and production of agricultural machineries were the most relevant processes in determining the overall environmental performances of farms. Future research will be dedicated to (i) explore and better define the environmental implications of the land use impact category in the Mediterranean sheep farming systems, and (ii) contribute to revising and improving the existing LCA dataset for Mediterranean farming systems. Copyright © 2014

  2. Vitamin and water requirements of dairy sheep

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    Fulvia Bovera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors review the physiological role and the daily requirement of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K, vitamin C  and water in dairy sheep. Regarding the vitamins, classical clinical symptoms and/or non-specific parameters, such as  lowered production and reproduction rates are associated with their deficiencies or excesses. Until the last decade,  these compounds were considered important only for the prevention of such alterations; currently, there is more  emphasis on their function as the vitamins can play a key role in optimising animal health. In this respect, of particu-  lar interest is the action of the antioxidant vitamins (especially vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene in improving  the efficiency of the immune system. 

  3. An approach to defining the energy requirements of dairy sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susmel, P.; Cuzzit, R.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of the interaction between nutrition and reproduction in Mediterranean sheep requires knowledge of the energy requirements of animals in different productive and reproductive stages. The available energy systems developed for temperate climates and genotypes are not directly applicable to Mediterranean breeds of dairy sheep. Using already available data, metabolizable energy requirements for these types of animals are proposed. (author). 59 refs, 9 tabs

  4. Factors of welfare reduction in dairy sheep and goats

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    Antonio Pazzona

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research on factors causing the reduction of well-being in sheep and goats is rather recent, as are studies of strategies to minimize the adverse effects of environmental challenges and improper management practices on flock welfare. Sheep and goats, considered very rustic animals, are reared prevalently under extensive production systems and are widespread mainly in marginal areas. For these reasons, only few studies on the welfare of these species have been carried out in the past. More recently, the scenario has changed, due to a gradual diffusion of intensive and semi-intensive production systems, especially in dairy sheep and goat breeds, to the growing concern of consumers about the life conditions of farmed animals, and to the issuing of a number of rules and laws on the safety of animal products and well-being of farmed livestock. As a consequence, several research groups have turned their attention to the welfare of sheep and goats. Nevertheless, information on this topic is still scarce. This paper reviews major critical points regarding the endangerment of welfare in farmed sheep and goats. Climatic extremes and seasonal fluctuations in herbage amount and quality are discussed as important causes of the reduction of well-being in extensive production systems, which can impair production efficiency of grazing animals and dramatically affect the welfare and health status of sheep and goats. Space allowance and structures of sheep and goat houses are described as the main potential sources of discomfort for housed flocks, together with inadequate control of micro-environment, and inappropriate milking procedures and human-animal interactions. Recent studies on the impact of high ambient temperature, different ventilation regimes, high stocking densities, reduced airspace and poor litter management on behaviour, immune and endocrine response, and on performance of sheep and goats are discussed. The effects of inadequate milking

  5. Prevalence of paratuberculosis in the dairy goat and dairy sheep industries in Ontario, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Cathy A.; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula

    2016-01-01

    ). Using 3-test latent class Bayesian models, true farm-level prevalence was estimated to be 83.0% [95% probability interval (PI): 62.6% to 98.1%] for dairy goats and 66.8% (95% PI: 41.6% to 91.4%) for dairy sheep. The within-farm true prevalence for dairy goats was 35.2% (95% PI: 23.0% to 49......A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to estimate the prevalence of paratuberculosis in the small ruminant dairy industries in Ontario, Canada. Blood and feces were sampled from 580 goats and 397 sheep (lactating and 2 y of age or older) that were randomly selected...... from 29 randomly selected dairy goat herds and 21 convenience -selected dairy sheep flocks. Fecal samples were analyzed using bacterial culture (BD BACTEC MGIT 960) and polymerase chain reaction (Tetracore); serum samples were tested with the Prionics Parachek enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA...

  6. Acute coenurosis of dairy sheep from 11 flocks in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giadinis, N D; Psychas, V; Polizopoulou, Z; Papadopoulos, E; Papaioannou, N; Komnenou, A Th; Thomas, A-L; Petridou, E J; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, M; Lafi, S Q; Brellou, G D

    2012-07-01

    A syndrome of acute neurological dysfunction with increased mortality was observed in lambs of 10 dairy sheep flocks and adult animals in one flock in Central and Northern Greece. Each farmer completed a questionnaire regarding the management and feeding of their flocks. In seven of the 11 flocks the affected animals were grazing pasture, while in the remaining four flocks (5, 8, 9, 10) the animals were fed alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa) and concentrates indoors. A follow-up study of the affected flocks was conducted during the next 12 months. Of 42 sheep with acute coenurosis that were examined, the most prominent neurological abnormalities were ataxia, depression, blindness, scoliosis, coma and dysmetria. Except for the four sheep that were comatose, all other animals had normal body temperatures and their appetites remained normal or were slightly decreased. Haematological findings of 15 examined sheep were within normal limits. The affected sheep were subject to euthanasia. A histopathological examination was performed in 13 cases. Faecal samples from dogs associated with these flocks were negative for taeniid infections. During the following 12 months cases of chronic coenurosis in these flocks were observed. In the 42 animals that were necropsied, the main gross findings were cystic formations between 0.5-1 cm in diameter with translucent walls that were seen lying free on the leptomeninges or partly penetrating the brain tissue, sterile microabscecess and brain necrosis. Histopathological evaluation of tissue sections of 13 brains showed multifocal purulent or pyogranulomatous meningoencephalitis, accompanied by eosinophilic infiltrations. No bacteria were isolated following bacterial culture of brain tissue Parasitological examination of the cysts from five cases revealed whitish specks on the transparent cyst wall and germination membrane representing the scolices. Acute coenurosis was diagnosed in all cases studied. Acute coenurosis can be one of the

  7. The genomic architecture of mastitis resistance in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banos, G; Bramis, G; Bush, S J; Clark, E L; McCulloch, M E B; Smith, J; Schulze, G; Arsenos, G; Hume, D A; Psifidi, A

    2017-08-16

    Mastitis is the most prevalent disease in dairy sheep with major economic, hygienic and welfare implications. The disease persists in all dairy sheep production systems despite the implementation of improved management practises. Selective breeding for enhanced mastitis resistance may provide the means to further control the disease. In the present study, we investigated the genetic architecture of four mastitis traits in dairy sheep. Individual animal records for clinical mastitis occurrence and three mastitis indicator traits (milk somatic cell count, total viable bacterial count in milk and the California mastitis test) were collected monthly throughout lactation for 609 ewes of the Greek Chios breed. All animals were genotyped with a custom-made 960-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA array based on markers located in quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions for mastitis resistance previously detected in three other distinct dairy sheep populations. Heritable variation and strong positive genetic correlations were estimated for clinical mastitis occurrence and the three mastitis indicator traits. SNP markers significantly associated with these mastitis traits were confirmed on chromosomes 2, 3, 5, 16 and 19. We identified pathways, molecular interaction networks and functional gene clusters for mastitis resistance. Candidate genes within the detected regions were identified based upon analysis of an ovine transcriptional atlas and transcriptome data derived from milk somatic cells. Relevant candidate genes implicated in innate immunity included SOCS2, CTLA4, C6, C7, C9, PTGER4, DAB2, CARD6, OSMR, PLXNC1, IDH1, ICOS, FYB, and LYFR. The results confirmed the presence of animal genetic variability in mastitis resistance and identified genomic regions associated with specific mastitis traits in the Chios sheep. The conserved genetic architecture of mastitis resistance between distinct dairy sheep breeds suggests that across-breed selection programmes would be

  8. Re-visiting the nutrition of dairy sheep grazing Mediterranean pastures

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    M. Decandia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the light of recent findings in sheep nutrition and behaviour, the diets of grazing dairy sheep should be based on forages encompassing a variety of complementary nutritional values and containing moderate levels of complementary plant secondary metabolites, until recently regarded as "anti-nutritional". In lactating sheep, pastures of tannin-containing legumes like sulla (Hedysarum coronarium and chicory (Cichorium intybus can be integrated with annual grasses for establishing sustainable artificial pastures under rainfed conditions. Diets based on these forages, while ensuring high milking performance, can mitigate the unbalance of CP to energy ratio of grazing sheep. By grazing sulla and annual or Italian ryegrass (50:50 by area as spatially conterminal monocultures or in timely sequence (complementary grazing sheep eat more and perform better than by grazing the ryegrass pasture only. Concentrate supplementation of lactating sheep should be preferably based on fibrous sources (soyhulls or beet pulps, particularly from mid-lactation onwards and when supplementation levels are high. Milk urea concentration is confirmedly a useful monitoring tool to balance protein nutrition and curb the waste of N at animal and system level.

  9. Circulation of Coxiella burnetii in a Naturally Infected Flock of Dairy Sheep: Shedding Dynamics, Environmental Contamination, and Genotype Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Joulié, A.; Laroucau, K.; Bailly, X.; Prigent, M.; Gasqui, P.; Lepetitcolin, E.; Blanchard, B.; Rousset, E.; Sidi-Boumedine, K.; Jourdain, E.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Domestic ruminants are considered to be the main reservoir. Sheep, in particular, may frequently cause outbreaks in humans. Because within-flock circulation data are essential to implementing optimal management strategies, we performed a follow-up study of a naturally infected flock of dairy sheep. We aimed to (i) describe C. burnetii shedding dynamics by sampling vaginal mucus, feces, and milk, (ii) assess circulating strain divers...

  10. Milk composition and feeding in the Italian dairy sheep

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    Anna Nudda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk production represents a relevant quota of the energy consumption of the dairy ewe. Studies on relationships among  level of production, milk composition and metabolic aspects are the first fundamental step in the development of a feed-  ing system aimed at satisfying nutritive requirements of the animals. This paper reviews the knowledge about the milk  composition of main Italian dairy sheep breeds, the relationship among secretion kinetics of milk and protein and pro-  ductive level of animals, the algorithms used for estimating fat (6.5% and protein (5.8% corrected milk yield, the  evolution over time of milk production during lactation and the relationships between feeding and milk composition. 

  11. Anthelmintic residues in goat and sheep dairy products

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    Jedziniak Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A multiresidue method (LC-MS/MS for determination of wide range of anthelmintics was developed. The method covered benzimidazoles: albendazole (and metabolites, cambendazole, fenbendazol (and metabolites, flubendazole (and metabolites, mebendazole (and metabolites, oxibendazole, thiabendazole (and metabolites, triclabendazole (and metabolites; macrocyclic lactones: abamectin, doramectin, emamectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin, moxidectin; salicylanilides: closantel, ioxynil, nitroxynil, oxyclosamide, niclosamide, rafoxanid and others: clorsulon, derquantel, imidocarb, monepantel (and metabolites, morantel, praziquantel, and pyrantel. The method was used to examine the potential presence of anthelmintics in goat and sheep milk and dairy products from the Polish market. A total of 120 samples of milk, yoghurt, cottage cheese, cream cheese, and curd were analysed. None of the samples were found positive above CCα (1-10 μg/kg except for one cottage cheese in which traces of albendazole sulfone were detected (5.2 ug/kg and confirmed. The results of the study showed negligible anthelmintic residues in the goat and sheep milk and dairy products and confirm their good quality.

  12. Invited review: Current production trends, farm structures, and economics of the dairy sheep and goat sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulina, G; Milán, M J; Lavín, M P; Theodoridis, A; Morin, E; Capote, J; Thomas, D L; Francesconi, A H D; Caja, G

    2018-05-30

    Dairy small ruminants account for approximately 21% of all sheep and goats in the world, produce around 3.5% of the world's milk, and are mainly located in subtropical-temperate areas of Asia, Europe, and Africa. Dairy sheep are concentrated around the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions, where their dairy products are typical ingredients of the human diet. Dairy goats are concentrated in low-income, food-deficit countries of the Indian subcontinent, where their products are a key food source, but are also present in high-income, technologically developed countries. This review evaluates the status of the dairy sheep and goat sectors in the world, with special focus on the commercially and technically developed industries in France, Greece, Italy, and Spain (FGIS). Dairy small ruminants account for a minor part of the total agricultural output in France, Italy, and Spain (0.9 to 1.8%) and a larger part in Greece (8.8%). In FGIS, the dairy sheep industry is based on local breeds and crossbreeds raised under semi-intensive and intensive systems and is concentrated in a few regions in these countries. Average flock size varies from small to medium (140 to 333 ewes/farm), and milk yield from low to medium (85 to 216 L/ewe), showing substantial room for improvement. Most sheep milk is sold to industries and processed into traditional cheese types, many of which are Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) cheeses for gourmet and export markets (e.g., Pecorino, Manchego, and Roquefort). By comparing break-even milk price among FGIS countries, we observed the following: (1) most Greek and French dairy sheep farms were unprofitable, with the exception of the intensive Chios farms of Greece; (2) milk price was aligned with cost of production in Italy; and (3) profitable farms coexisted with unprofitable farms in Spain. In FGIS, dairy goat production is based on local breeds raised under more extensive systems than sheep. Compared with sheep, average dairy goat herds are

  13. Diversity in the dry land mixed system and viability of dairy sheep farming

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    Jose Rivas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Castilla La Mancha is a Spanish region where sheep farming system is traditionally pasture-based. Recently, this territory has undergone a recession of dairy sheep activity, which changed the type and intensity of land utilization and led to environmental and landscape degradation. The present study analyzed the diversity and viability of dairy sheep of mixed systems. Multivariate analysis was conducted on 157 dairy sheep farms, factor analysis selected 3 productivity factors (level of intensification, land use, size and family labour, and cluster analysis classified farms into three groups. Group 1, smallholders – with the smallest size (405.5 ewes and 564.7 ha, lowest area in ownership (1.5%, and agriculture activity (6.5% crops area: family farms (90.8% highly dependent on external inputs. Group 2, large-scale farms (1058.7 ewes and 1755.1 ha – with the lowest stocking rate (0.14 livestock unit/ha and productivity: nonfamily farms (39.1% with low area in ownership (4.1% and agriculture activity (7.6%. Group 3, mixed-technified – with the highest levels of technology and least use of family labour (27.0%: large-scale farms (1387.4 ewes and 955.8 ha, combining milk production with agricultural activities (55.7% crops area, with the highest area in ownership (63.1% and the best productivity performance. In conclusion, the dry land mixed system of Castilla La Mancha showed diversity of farms. Improving viability requires a systemic approach where the key tool is grazing, allowing the mixed system to be consolidated as a model that enhances the positive impact of livestock on the environment in the Mediterranean basin.

  14. Prediction of feed intake in the Italian dairy sheep

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    Marcella Avondo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations on feed intake for sheep are based on assessments of genetic types, feeding systems and environ-  mental conditions that are very different from Italian ones. These considerations underline the need for intake data or  models that derive from local trials. For this reason intake data of lactating and dry ewes, pregnant ewes, rams and  growing lambs have been collected from selected literature based on sheep feeding trials mainly conducted on dairy  breeds in Italy or in other Mediterranean countries. Equations and intake tables differentiated according to the physio-  logical and productive categories, as well as feeding typology are reported. Particular consideration is given to pasture  intake with supplementation, reporting three equations developed for three qualitative levels of the pasture, recogniz-  able from the CP content of herbage: 16% DM. The equations include animal and  pasture variables and supplementation, expressed as grams of CP given with feeds other than pasture. Only when pas-  ture CP content is lower than 10% DM, supplement is not included in the equation, as no or negative substitution effect  is expected. 

  15. Evaluation of fecal culture and fecal RT-PCR to detect Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis fecal shedding in dairy goats and dairy sheep using latent class Bayesian modeling.

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    Bauman, Cathy A; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David; Menzies, Paula

    2016-09-20

    The study's objective was to evaluate the ability of fecal culture (FCUL) and fecal PCR (FPCR) to identify dairy goat and dairy sheep shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. A cross-sectional study of the small ruminant populations was performed in Ontario, Canada between October 2010 and August 2011. Twenty-nine dairy goat herds and 21 dairy sheep flocks were visited, and 20 lactating females > two years of age were randomly selected from each farm resulting in 580 goats and 397 sheep participating in the study. Feces were collected per rectum and cultured using the BD BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 system using a standard (49 days) and an extended (240 days) incubation time, and underwent RT-PCR based on the hsp-X gene (Tetracore®). Statistical analysis was performed using a 2-test latent class Bayesian hierarchical model for each species fitted in WinBUGS. Extending the fecal culture incubation time statistically improved FCUL sensitivity from 23.1 % (95 % PI: 15.9-34.1) to 42.7 % (95 % PI: 33.0-54.5) in dairy goats and from 5.8 % (95 % PI: 2.3-12.4) to 19.0 % (95 % PI: 11.9-28.9) in dairy sheep. FPCR demonstrated statistically higher sensitivity than FCUL (49 day incubation) with a sensitivity of 31.9 % (95 % PI: 22.4-43.1) in goats and 42.6 % (95 % PI: 28.8-63.3) in sheep. Fecal culture demonstrates such low sensitivity at the standard incubation time it cannot be recommended as a screening test to detect shedding of MAP in either goats or sheep. Extending the incubation time resulted in improved sensitivity; however, it is still disappointingly low for screening purposes. Fecal PCR should be the screening test of choice in both species; however, it is important to recognize that control programs should not be based on testing alone when they demonstrate such low sensitivity.

  16. Evaluation of milk cathelicidin for detection of dairy sheep mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, M F; Tedde, V; Dore, S; Pisanu, S; Puggioni, G M G; Roggio, A M; Pagnozzi, D; Lollai, S; Cannas, E A; Uzzau, S

    2016-08-01

    Mastitis due to intramammary infections is one of the most detrimental diseases in dairy sheep farming, representing a major cause of reduced milk productions and quality losses. In particular, subclinical mastitis presents significant detection and control problems, and the availability of tools enabling its timely, sensitive, and specific detection is therefore crucial. We have previously demonstrated that cathelicidins, small proteins implicated in the innate immune defense of the host, are specifically released in milk of mastitic animals by both epithelial cells and neutrophils. Here, we describe the development of an ELISA for milk cathelicidin and assess its value against somatic cell counts (SCC) and bacteriological culture for detection of ewe mastitis. Evaluation of the cathelicidin ELISA was carried out on 705 half-udder milk samples from 3 sheep flocks enrolled in a project for improvement of mammary health. Cathelicidin was detected in 35.3% of milk samples (249/705), and its amount increased with rising SCC values. The cathelicidin-negative (n=456) and cathelicidin-positive (n=249) sample groups showed a clear separation in relation to SCC, with median values of 149,500 and 3,300,000 cells/mL, respectively. Upon bacteriological culture, 20.6% (145/705) of the milk samples showed microbial growth, with coagulase-negative staphylococci being by far the most frequent finding. A significant proportion of all bacteriologically positive milk samples were positive for cathelicidin (110/145, 75.9%). Given the lack of a reliable gold standard for defining the true disease status, sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the cathelicidin ELISA were assessed by latent class analysis against 2 SCC thresholds and against bacteriological culture results. At an SCC threshold of 500,000 cells/mL, Se and Sp were 92.3 and 92.3% for cathelicidin ELISA, 89.0 and 94.9% for SCC, and 39.4 and 93.6% for bacteriological culture, respectively. At an SCC threshold of 1

  17. Detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins in sheep cheese and dairy desserts by multiplex PCR technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertas, Nurhan; Gonulalan, Zafer; Yildirim, Yeliz; Kum, Erhan

    2010-08-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) genes in sheep cheese and dairy dessert samples by multiplex PCR (mPCR) technique. A total of 150 samples were analyzed consisting of 50 dairy dessert samples and 100 sheep cheese. Coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS) were found in 86 (57.3%) out of 150 analyzed samples. S. aureus were isolated from 60 (60%), 26 (52%) of sheep cheese and from of dairy desserts, respectively. Five suspected colonies were tested from each sheep cheese and dairy dessert samples for phenotypic and genotypic characterizations. A total of 430 isolates from the 86 positive samples were investigated in this study. Eighty (18.6%) isolates were characterized as S. aureus. The enterotoxin genes (sea, seb, sec, sed) were found in 13 (3.02%) out of 80 isolates. From cheese isolates, sea, seb and sed were detected in 5 (1.6%), 2 (0.6%), 1 (0.3%), respectively. From dairy dessert isolates, sea, sec and sed were detected in 3 (2.3%), 1 (0.76%), 1 (0.76%), respectively. The presence of SEs was identified in 12 (2.8%) out of 80 isolates by using ELISA technique. It was determined that these SEs had a distribution of 7 (1.6%) SEA, 2 (0.46%) SEB, 1 (0.23%) SEC, and 2 (0.46%) SED. SEs were found in 7 (2.3%) cheese and 5 (3.8%) dairy dessert isolates. In conclusion, S.aureus and their SEs were found to be present in sheep cheese and dairy desserts in this study. It is emphasized that the presence of S. aureus and their SEs genes in sheep cheese and dairy desserts may be regarded as a potential risk for human health. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Occurrence of aflatoxins in feedstuff, sheep milk and dairy products in Western Sicily

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    Carlo Finoli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of feedstuffs (15, milk (40, and cheese (30 coming from sheep and dairy farms (23 or market in WesternSicily were analyzed for their respective content of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 and M1 (AFM1 to evidence any possible indirectmycotoxin contamination risk to the consumer. Analyses using HPLC and fluorescence detection were performed afterimmunoaffinity column sample extraction and cleanup; AFM1 was detected in 30% of the milk samples at levels rangingfrom 4 to 23 ng/l and in 13% of the cheeses from 21 to 101 ng/kg; in the feed the AFB1 ranged from None of the contaminated samples exceeded the legal limits set down by the European Union for milk (50 ng/l and feed(5 μg/kg , or that in force in the Netherlands for cheese (200 ng/kg.

  19. Preliminary Results to Identifying the Opportunities of the Organic Sheep Dairy Sector in Romania

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    Elena Ilisiu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The organic sheep number raised in Romania is currently relatively low, namely 0.85% of the total sheep number at national level. The development of sheep breeding sector in organic system is very heavily influenced by economical factors, but also consumers’ demand for organic products. The goal of the research was to analyze consumer behavior vis-à-vis of organic dairy products derived from sheep, in order to support the decisions that may be taken to develop the sector. Data were collected through telephone interviews using a questionnaire. Interviews were conducted between September-December 2016. 180 respondents were surveyed in total, who answered a questionnaire which included 23 questions. This study revealed that approximately one quarter of respondents have never consumed organic dairy products, while 60% of respondents say they did. Organic cheese is considered to be more expensive when compared to conventionally produced cheese, about 97% of the respondents, while 82% of respondents believe that higher prices are justified. Willingness to pay a higher price for organic products from sheep's milk is very different. Around 13% of respondents are not willing to pay an additional fee for cheese produced in organic system. However, about 2% were willing to pay an additional fee up to 60% more, comparing to conventional cheese products. 38% of respondents are willing to pay the additional price of up to 10%, and 23% of  interviewed people are ready to pay an additional charge of 20% of the dairy products obtained by conventional methods.

  20. Dairy sheep production research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David L; Berger, Yves M; McKusick, Brett C; Mikolayunas, Claire M

    2014-01-01

    Commercial milking of sheep is a new agricultural industry in the United States starting approximately 30 yr ago. The industry is still small, but it is growing. The majority of the sheep milk is used in the production of specialty cheeses. The United States is the major importer of sheep milk cheeses with 50 to 60% of annual world exports coming to the United States during the past 20 yr. Therefore, there is considerable growth potential for the industry in the United States. The only dairy sheep research flock in North America is located at the Spooner Agricultural Research Station of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The research program started in 1993 and has been multifaceted; dealing with several areas important to commercial dairy sheep farmers. The East Friesian and Lacaune dairy breeds were compared and introduced to the industry through the research program. Both dairy breeds produced significantly more milk than traditional meat-wool breeds found in the U.S., but the two breeds differed in their production traits. East Friesian-cross ewes produced more lambs and slightly more milk than Lacaune-cross ewes whereas Lacaune-cross ewes produced milk with a higher percentage of fat and protein than East Friesian-cross ewes. Lactation physiology studies have shown that ewes with active corpora lutea have increased milk yields, oxytocin release during milking is required to obtain normal fat percentages in the milk, large udder cisterns of dairy ewes can allow for increased milking intervals, and short daylengths during late pregnancy results in increased milk yield. In the nutrition area, legume-grass pastures and forages with a higher percentage of legume will result in increased milk production. Grazing ewes respond to additional supplementation with increased milk yield, but it is important to match the supplement to the quality of the grazing. Ewes on high quality legume-grass pastures that are high in rumen degradable protein respond with increased

  1. Dairy sheep production research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA – a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Commercial milking of sheep is a new agricultural industry in the United States starting approximately 30 yr ago. The industry is still small, but it is growing. The majority of the sheep milk is used in the production of specialty cheeses. The United States is the major importer of sheep milk cheeses with 50 to 60% of annual world exports coming to the United States during the past 20 yr. Therefore, there is considerable growth potential for the industry in the United States. The only dairy sheep research flock in North America is located at the Spooner Agricultural Research Station of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The research program started in 1993 and has been multifaceted; dealing with several areas important to commercial dairy sheep farmers. The East Friesian and Lacaune dairy breeds were compared and introduced to the industry through the research program. Both dairy breeds produced significantly more milk than traditional meat-wool breeds found in the U.S., but the two breeds differed in their production traits. East Friesian-cross ewes produced more lambs and slightly more milk than Lacaune-cross ewes whereas Lacaune-cross ewes produced milk with a higher percentage of fat and protein than East Friesian-cross ewes. Lactation physiology studies have shown that ewes with active corpora lutea have increased milk yields, oxytocin release during milking is required to obtain normal fat percentages in the milk, large udder cisterns of dairy ewes can allow for increased milking intervals, and short daylengths during late pregnancy results in increased milk yield. In the nutrition area, legume-grass pastures and forages with a higher percentage of legume will result in increased milk production. Grazing ewes respond to additional supplementation with increased milk yield, but it is important to match the supplement to the quality of the grazing. Ewes on high quality legume-grass pastures that are high in rumen degradable protein respond with increased

  2. Cost structure and profitability of Assaf dairy sheep farms in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milán, M J; Frendi, F; González-González, R; Caja, G

    2014-01-01

    Twenty dairy sheep farms of Assaf breed, located in the Spanish autonomous community of Castilla y León and included in a group receiving technical support, were used to study their production cost structure and to assess their economic profitability during 2009. On average, farms had 89.2±38.0 ha (own, 38%), 592±63 ewes, yielded 185.9±21.1×10(3) L/yr (i.e., 316±15 L/ewe), and were attended by 2.3±0.2 annual working units (family, 72%). Total annual income was €194.4±23.0×10(3)/yr (€1.0=$1.3) from milk (78.6%), lamb (13.2%), culled ewes (0.5%), and other sales (0.8%, wool and manure), and completed with the European Union sheep subsidy (6.9%). Total costs were €185.9±19.0×10(3)/yr to attend to feeding (61.6%), labor (18.2%), equipment maintenance and depreciation (7.6%), finances (3.0%), animal health (2.5%), energy, water and milking supplies (2.2%), milk recording (0.5%), and other costs (4.4%; assurances, shearing, association fees, and so on). Mean dairy sheep farm profit was €8.5±5.8×10(3)/yr (€7.4±8.3/ewe) on average, and varied between -€40.6 and €81.1/ewe among farms. Only 60% of farms were able to pay all costs, the rest had negative balances. Nevertheless, net margin was €31.0±6.5×10(3)/yr on average, varying between €0.6 and €108.4×10(3)/yr among farms. In this case, without including the opportunity costs, all farms had positive balances. Total annual cost (TAC; €/ewe) and total annual income (TAI; €/ewe) depended on milk yield (MY; L/ewe) and were TAC=161.6 + 0.502 MY (R(2)=0.50), and TAI=78.13 + 0.790 MY (R(2)=0.88), respectively, with the break-even point being 291 L/ewe. Conversely, farm TAC (€/yr) and farm TAI (€/yr) were also predicted as a function of the number of ewes (NOE) per flock, as TAC=18,401 + 282.8 NOE (R(2)=0.89) and TAI=330.9 NOE (R(2)=0.98), with the break-even point being 383 ewes/flock. Finally, according to the increasing trend expected for agricultural commodity prices, it was

  3. Smallholder dairy sheep production and market channel development: an institutional perspective of rural Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voors, M J; D'Haese, M

    2010-08-01

    The rural economy of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has been adapting to new economic and political realities. Especially important for rural areas has been the breakdown of the socialist market structure in agriculture, which meant the demise of cooperative structures and farmers gaining access to new market outlets. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of dairy sheep farmers to enter into new contracts with buyers and to analyze why some farmers continue selling to traditional market outlets. Using survey data of dairy sheep farmers we studied the choice they make between 3 market outlets: (1) selling milk to a recently established large dairy processor, (2) selling milk to traditional small local processors, or (3) transforming milk on-farm into cheese and selling it at the farm gate or at local markets. The significance of determinants of choice for these markets were tested in a multinomial logit model, which showed that distance to the collection point of the large dairy processor was the most important determinant of whether farmers sold milk or made cheese, with those at a greater distance selling cheese. Furthermore, we analyzed the main sources of transaction costs in developing new market channels. Overcoming transport and transaction costs may contribute to higher income for the farmers and hence to improving their livelihoods. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Profitability of a dairy sheep genetic improvement program using artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valergakis, G E; Gelasakis, A I; Oikonomou, G; Arsenos, G; Fortomaris, P; Banos, G

    2010-10-01

    This simulation study investigated the farm-level economic benefits of a genetic improvement scheme using artificial insemination (AI) with fresh ram semen in dairy sheep of the Chios breed in Greece. Data were collected from 67 farms associated with the Chios Sheep Breeders' Cooperative 'Macedonia', describing the percentage of ewes that would be artificially inseminated in the flock, pregnancy rate, annual ram costs that could be saved using AI rather than natural mating, expected improvement in milk production, annual costs of semen and feed, milk price and number of years of AI usage. The study considered 77 760 possible scenarios in a 3 × 4 × 4 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 4 × 15 factorial arrangement. Analysis of variance was used to investigate the effect of each factor on farm profitability. All factors considered were statistically significant (P profitability and farmers should become aware that using AI is a long-term investment. Semen price, pregnancy rate and improvement in milk production also had substantial effects. The price of milk and feed had a considerably lower effect on profitability, as did the annual cost of maintaining rams that would be replaced by AI. A positive annual and cumulative return was achieved in the model within the first 6 years. The cost of semen was estimated at 8€ to 10€ per dose for the first 5 years. Where the annual improvement in milk production was 1% of annual phenotypic mean (e.g. 3.0 kg) profitability of the scheme was improved greatly.

  5. Modelling the Effect of Diet Composition on Enteric Methane Emissions across Sheep, Beef Cattle and Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Bell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Enteric methane (CH 4 is a by-product from fermentation of feed consumed by ruminants, which represents a nutritional loss and is also considered a contributor to climate change. The aim of this research was to use individual animal data from 17 published experiments that included sheep ( n = 288, beef cattle ( n = 71 and dairy cows ( n = 284 to develop an empirical model to describe enteric CH 4 emissions from both cattle and sheep, and then evaluate the model alongside equations from the literature. Data were obtained from studies in the United Kingdom (UK and Australia, which measured enteric CH 4 emissions from individual animals in calorimeters. Animals were either fed solely forage or a mixed ration of forage with a compound feed. The feed intake of sheep was restricted to a maintenance amount of 875 g of DM per day (maintenance level, whereas beef cattle and dairy cows were fed to meet their metabolizable energy (ME requirement (i.e., production level. A linear mixed model approach was used to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict an individual animal’s CH 4 yield (g CH 4 /kg dry matter intake from the composition of its diet. The diet components that had significant effects on CH 4 yield were digestible organic matter (DOMD, ether extract (EE (both g/kg DM and feeding level above maintenance intake: CH 4 (g/kg DM intake = 0.046 (±0.001 × DOMD − 0.113 (±0.023 × EE − 2.47 (±0.29 × (feeding level − 1, with concordance correlation coefficient ( CCC = 0.655 and RMSPE = 14.0%. The predictive ability of the model developed was as reliable as other models assessed from the literature. These components can be used to predict effects of diet composition on enteric CH 4 yield from sheep, beef and dairy cattle from feed analysis information.

  6. Short communication: study of immune parameters in three Greek dairy sheep breeds during the periparturient period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, G; Fragou, S; Chronopoulou, R; Kominakis, A; Rogdakis, E; Politis, I

    2007-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether immunosuppression occurs in 3 different Greek dairy sheep breeds during the periparturient period. A total of 33 ewes from 3 breeds [i.e., the low-producing Boutsiko breed (n = 11), which is highly adaptable to harsh environments; the high-producing but environmentally fragile Chios breed (n = 11); and an intermediate synthetic breed (50% Boutsiko, 25% Arta, and 25% Chios, n = 11)] were used. Blood samples were collected at 18 and 2 d before parturition and at 15 d after parturition. Total cell-associated and membrane-bound urokinase plasminogen activator (U-PA) activity, free U-PA binding sites on cellular membranes, and superoxide anion (SA) production by activated phagocytes were determined. Results indicated that all immune parameters measured remained constant during the periparturient period for the Boutsiko breed. In contrast, there were reductions in total cell-associated and membrane-bound U-PA activity by both monocytes-macrophages and neutrophils and in SA production by monocytes-macrophages at d 2 before parturition for the Chios breed. In the synthetic breed, there were reductions in total cell-associated and membrane-bound U-PA activity by monocytes-macrophages and in SA production by both monocytes-macrophages and neutrophils at d 15 after parturition. Thus, mild immunosuppression during the periparturient period was observed in the 2 breeds with the highest milk production.

  7. Reproductive and Lactation Performance of Crossbreed Dairy Cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For several years, Ethiopia ranked first in cattle population in Africa. However, the dairy industry is not as developed as that of East African countries including Ethiopia. This study was conducted to assess the reproductive and lactation performance and factors affecting crossbreed dairy cattle in intensive dairy farm in ...

  8. Performance of Improved Dairy Cattle Technologies Among Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    This study evaluated the performance of different dairy cattle technologies ... common phenomenon in Nigeria, especially among the poor segment of the society ... considerable amounts (over 70%) of milk today (Olaloku and Debre, 1992). ..... cross-bred dairy cattle was reported to be 30 percent of total dairy animals in.

  9. Growth performance and economics of sheep production with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A twelve-week feeding trial was conducted using sixteen (16) growing Uda lambs to determine the growth performance of sheep fed varying levels of rice milling waste. Diets containing graded levels of rice milling waste replacing wheat offal at 15, 30 and 45% inclusion levels were formulated. Diet without rice milling waste ...

  10. Performance and Grazing Pattern of West African Dwarf Sheep to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty (60) West African Dwarf sheep managed semi intensively and grazing on natural pastures were used in a study to determine the performance and grazing pattern to seasonal forage supply and quality. The animals were allowed to graze for about 6 hours daily for four months each in the dry and wet seasons, ...

  11. Factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D A; Thayne, W V; Dailey, R A

    1985-07-01

    We conducted two studies to determine how herd management practices and traits of individual cows affect performance of the herd and of the cow within a herd. Management practices, reproductive performance of the herd, and relationships between management and reproductive performance were characterized on 83 dairy farms with 7596 cows. Data included 21 management variables (e.g., facilities, herd health program, estrous detection program) and 8 performance variables obtained from Dairy Herd Improvement or unofficial records (e.g., size of herd, production, days open). Although varying among herds, annual average herd incidences of reproductive disorders and reproductive performance were similar to those reported. Managerial practices influenced incidences of retained placenta and uterine infection, days open of cows not bred and of all cows, services per conception, and percentages of herd open more than 100 days and culled for low production. Veterinarian was the most consistent variable influencing herd reproductive performance. Data also were collected from production and lifetime records of 2532 cows in 19 herds. Reproductive performance was affected by season of calving, production, maturity, and reproductive disorders. Several cows with extremely poor reproductive records were maintained.

  12. Studies on Dairy Cattle Reproduction Performances in Morocco Based on Analysis of Artificial Insemination Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sraïri, MT.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to assess dairy cattle reproduction performances from artificial insemination (Al database, using inseminators' records from 1992 to 1998, in three Al circuits established in Settat province in Morocco. Simultaneously a field survey was conducted in the same region, from January to April 1999, to determine main structural parameters of dairy farms which influence Al. Data set analysis has shown an increase in total number of Al performed from an average of 160 to 640 per circuit. Average conception rate was 48.1 %, with a continuous increase from 44.3 to 58.6 %, despite growing number of performed Al. Statistical analysis reveal a significant variation of conception rate between years, in agreement with previous works on cattle reproduction performances in harsh conditions. Mean calving interval was 404.8 days. It was significantly different between circuits (P <0.05. This resuit was explained by Al history in the three circuits (date of implementation and by their structural characteristics (number of cows and length in km. The overall improvement of Al activity (more Al performed and better conception rate could be explained by a greater inseminators' adaptation to their working environment, combined to the progressive elimination of farms with poor dairy cattle reproduction management. This trend was confirmed by discriminant analysis of field survey results, as cattle breeders with real specialisation in milk production (more than 65 % of total land devoted to forages and few sheep have been found to be fervent Al demanders, whereas farms with more interest in cereals and sheep often stop Al. Those observations show that a continuous Al programs evaluation is urgent, in order to select dairy breeders which are really interested in that technique and to avoid the dissipation of the inseminators limited time and resources.

  13. Influence of Strategy Selection of Dairy Enterprises on Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoqun REN; Yucheng HE; Lisha HU

    2016-01-01

    Dairy enterprises have to cope with intense market pressure and survival pressure.In such complex and competitive market environment,it is of great realistic significance for studying the influence of strategy selection of dairy enterprises on their performance.Through selecting 115 dairy enterprises,empirical analysis was made,and multiple linear regression model and structural equation model were established with the aid of SPSS and Amos software.Comparative analysis was carried out for performance of different strategy selection.Results indicate that dairy enterprises selecting vertical strategies obtain the best performance,followed by horizontal strategy,and the worst is multiple strategy,and the strategy selection exerts positive and direct influence on performance of dairy enterprises.

  14. The performance of probiotic fermented sheep milk and ice cream sheep milk in inhibiting enamel mineral loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadelman, P; Frazão, J V; Vieira, T I; Balthazar, C F; Andrade, M M; Alexandria, A K; Cruz, A G; Fonseca-Gonçalves, A; Maia, L C

    2017-07-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effects of two different sheep milk-based food matrices - fermented sheep milk and ice cream - with added probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei 431) on dental enamel subjected to an in vitro highly cariogenic challenge. Sixty enamel blocks were selected and randomly allocated into five treatment groups (n=12): conventional fermented sheep milk (CFSM), probiotic fermented sheep milk (PFSM), conventional sheep milk ice cream (CSMIC), probiotic sheep milk ice cream (PSMIC) and control using deionized water. The blocks were subjected to highly cariogenic pH cycling and the products were applied (5min), in a blinded way, once a day to simulate a daily use for 8 consecutive days. A microhardness test was performed before and after the treatment to estimate the percentage of microhardness surface loss (% SML). Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) was performed to confirm the mineral loss. All groups had lost microhardness after the experiment. However, CFSM and PFSM exhibited the most positive findings when compared to the control in both ice creams. Scanning electron microscopy showed less mineral loss in CFSM and PFSM compared with CSMIC, PSMIC and control after the cariogenic challenge. Overall, fermented milk decreased mineral loss from enamel subjected to a highly cariogenic challenge, regardless of the presence of probiotics in their composition, which had a higher efficacy compared to ice cream. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum seroprevalence in dairy sheep and goats mixed stock farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakoua, Anastasia; Anastasia, Diakou; Papadopoulos, Elias; Elias, Papadopoulos; Panousis, Nikolaos; Nikolaos, Panousis; Karatzias, Charilaos; Charilaos, Karatzias; Giadinis, Nektarios; Nektarios, Giadinis

    2013-12-06

    Toxoplasma and Neospora infections are important causes of abortions and economic losses in animal production. Mixed stock farming of sheep and goats is a common practice in Mediterranean countries and could serve as a suitable model for the evaluation of differences between the two animal species regarding parasitic infections. In order to investigate the seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum among flocks of small ruminants in Greece and to evaluate any prevalence difference between sheep and goats kept in mixed flocks, 833 sera samples (458 sheep and 375 goats) from 50 mixed flocks in different areas of the country were examined by ELISA for the detection of specific antibodies. Specific IgG against T. gondii were detected in 53.71% and 61.3% and against N. caninum in 16.8% and 6.9% of the sheep and goats, respectively. Goats had higher Toxoplasma seroprevalence than sheep (pgoats (pgoats that are kept together in mixed flocks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Forage selection and performance of sheep grazing dry annual range.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de N.; Benjamin, R.W.; Keulen, van H.

    1986-01-01

    During 114 days of grazing, sheep grazing a dry annual pasture in Israel selected the fine fraction available with a higher nutritive value. As this fraction became depleted and feed quality dropped, organic matter intake dropped from 1.73 to 0.75 kg/sheep/d. Sheep lost weight, body condition and

  17. GWA Analysis for Milk Production Traits in Dairy Sheep and Genetic Support for a QTN Influencing Milk Protein Percentage in the LALBA Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Gámez, Elsa; Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Sahana, Goutam

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used the Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip to conduct a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis for milk production traits in dairy sheep by analyzing a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep. The studied population consisted of a total of 1,681 Churra ewes belonging to 16 half...... identified was located within the coding gene sequence (LALBA_g.242T.C) and was predicted to cause an amino acid change in the protein (Val27Ala). Different approaches, including GWA analysis, a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium study and a concordance test with the QTL segregating status...

  18. Important vectors for Listeria monocytogenes transmission at farm dairies manufacturing fresh sheep and goat cheese from raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoder, Dagmar; Melzner, Daniela; Schmalwieser, Alois; Zangana, Abdoulla; Winter, Petra; Wagner, Martin

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the transmission routs of Listeria spp. in dairy farms manufacturing fresh cheese made from ovine and caprine raw milk and to evaluate the impact of Listeria monocytogenes mastitis on raw milk contamination. Overall, 5,799 samples, including 835 environmental samples, 230 milk and milk product samples, and 4,734 aseptic half-udder foremilk samples were collected from 53 dairy farms in the dairy intensive area of Lower Austria. Farms were selected for the study because raw milk was processed to cheese that was sold directly to consumers. A total of 153 samples were positive for Listeria spp., yielding an overall prevalence of 2.6%; L. monocytogenes was found in 0.9% of the samples. Bulk tank milk, cheese, and half-udder samples were negative for Listeria spp. Because none of the sheep and goats tested positive from udder samples, L. monocytogenes mastitis was excluded as a significant source of raw milk contamination. L. monocytogenes was detected at 30.2% of all inspected farms. Swab samples from working boots and fecal samples had a significantly higher overall prevalence (P < 0.001) of L. monocytogenes (15.7 and 13.0%, respectively) than did swab samples from the milk processing environment (7.9%). A significant correlation was found between the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the animal and in the milk processing environment and the silage feeding practices. Isolation of L. monocytogenes was three to seven times more likely from farms where silage was fed to animals throughout the year than from farms where silage was not fed to the animals.

  19. Estimates of genetic parameters, genetic trends, and inbreeding in a crossbred dairy sheep research flock in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, T W; Berger, Y M; Holman, P W; Baldin, M; Burgett, R L; Thomas, D L

    2017-10-01

    For the past 2 decades, the Spooner Agriculture Research Station (ARS) of the University of Wisconsin-Madison operated the only dairy sheep research flock in North America. The objectives of the present study were to 1) obtain estimates of genetic parameters for lactation and reproductive traits in dairy ewes, 2) estimate the amount of genetic change in these traits over time, and 3) quantify the level of inbreeding in this flock over the last 20 yr. Multiple-trait repeatability models (MTRM) were used to analyze ewe traits through their first 6 parities. The first MTRM jointly analyzed milk (180-d-adjusted milk yield [180d MY]), fat (180-d-adjusted fat yield [180d FY]), and protein (180-d-adjusted protein yield [180d PY]) yields adjusted to 180 d of lactation; number of lambs born per ewe lambing (NLB); and lactation average test-day somatic cell score (LSCS). A second MTRM analyzed 180d MY, NLB, LSCS, and percentage milk fat (%F) and percentage milk protein (%P). The 3 yield traits were moderately heritable (0.26 to 0.32) and strongly genetically correlated (0.91 to 0.96). Percentage milk fat and %P were highly heritable (0.53 and 0.61, respectively) and moderately genetically correlated (0.61). Milk yield adjusted to 180 d was negatively genetically correlated with %F and %P (-0.31 and -0.34, respectively). Ewe prolificacy was not significantly ( > 0.67) genetically correlated with yield traits, %P, or LSCS but lowly negatively correlated with %F (-0.26). Lactation somatic cell score was unfavorably genetically correlated with yield traits (0.28 to 0.39) but not significantly ( > 0.09) correlated with %F, %P, and NLB. Within-trait multiple-trait models through the first 4 parities revealed that 180d MY, 180d FY, 180d PY, %F, and %P were strongly genetically correlated across parity (0.67 to 1.00). However, the genetic correlations across parity for NLB and LSCS were somewhat lower (0.51 to 0.96). Regressing predicted breeding values for 180d MY, without and with

  20. The effects of first gestation and lactation on bone metabolism in dairy goats and milk sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesegang, A; Risteli, J; Wanner, M

    2006-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to compare mobilization rate of calcium (Ca) from bone in pregnant and lactating goats and sheep. Blood samples were collected from goats and sheep monthly during pregnancy and at 1, 2, and 4 weeks postpartum (pp) and monthly during lactation until 6 months after parturition. Total bone mineral content (BMC) and total bone mineral density (BMD) were quantified using peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the same intervals as the blood was taken. Bone resorption was assessed by immunoassays quantitating two epitopes of the carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP, CTX). Bone formation was estimated by quantifying serum osteocalcin (OC) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bAP). In addition, Ca and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25-VITD) concentrations were determined in serum. Mean ICTP and CTX concentrations of both animal species increased the first week after parturition. By the second week pp, the concentrations of both markers had decreased toward early gestation levels. In contrast, mean OC concentrations continually decreased until the 1st week pp. By the 2nd week pp, the mean concentrations of OC started to increase again. Mean bAP activities decreased during gestation and reached a nadir in the first week pp in goats and 4 weeks pp in sheep. Afterwards, mean bAP activities increased again in goats and sheep. 1,25-VITD concentrations peaked the first week pp and returned to early gestation values thereafter. Total BMC and BMD decreased from the 4th month of pregnancy until the 1st week pp in both species. Afterwards, BMC increased throughout the first month pp in goats and the first 3 months pp in sheep. BMD levels of sheep and goats returned to prepartum levels during lactation. The resorptive phase of bone remodeling is accelerated at parturition and in early lactation and is uncoupled from the process of bone formation. This allows the animal to achieve Ca homeostasis at the expense of bone. Increased

  1. Evaluation of dairy sheep lambs supplemented with crude glycerin conveyed in water during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemilly Cristina Menezes Sá

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of crude glycerin (CG suplementation in sheep diets during pregnancy and transition period. Twenty-four Lacaune x East Friesian genotypes sheep were randomly assigned to four treatments. Diet was composed of roughage: tifton hay, and standard concentrate for the categories, being these similar among the treatments, whereas the CG differed for the supplements in (zero, 1,5, 3,0 and 4,5% of dry matter being It added to the animals’ drinking water. The sheep received supplementation during all pregnancy and lactation. Dry matter intake during gestation was reduced with the higher supplementation of CG in the animals’ drinking water, presenting a linear decreasing response and remaining until delivery. Throughout lactation, the variable presented a linear behavior with the supplementation of CG on the eighteenth day of this phase, after a quadratic behavior was observed until the end of the evaluated period. The beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids levels were not influenced by CG supplementation throughout the gestation period. CG suplementation conveyed in water did not affect negatively milk production and composition.

  2. Nitrogen performance indicators for dairy production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, De Cecile A.M.; Monaghan, Ross M.; Alfaro, Marta A.; Gourley, Cameron J.P.; Oenema, Oene; Mark Powell, J.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is invaluable for maintaining agricultural production, but its use, and particularly inefficient use, can lead to environmental losses. This paper reviews N use efficiency (NUE) and N surplus indicators for dairy production systems to assess their utility for optimising N use outcomes

  3. Rumen bacterial community evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses in dairy sheep fed marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Carrera, T; Toral, P G; Frutos, P; McEwan, N R; Hervás, G; Abecia, L; Pinloche, E; Girdwood, S E; Belenguer, A

    2014-03-01

    Developing novel strategies to increase the content of bioactive unsaturated fatty acids (FA) in ruminant-derived products requires a deeper understanding of rumen biohydrogenation and bacteria involved in this process. Although high-throughput pyrosequencing may allow for a great coverage of bacterial diversity, it has hardly been used to investigate the microbiology of ruminal FA metabolism. In this experiment, 454 pyrosequencing and a molecular fingerprinting technique (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism; T-RFLP) were used concurrently to assess the effect of diet supplementation with marine algae (MA) on the rumen bacterial community of dairy sheep. Eleven lactating ewes were divided in 2 lots and offered a total mixed ration based on alfalfa hay and concentrate (40:60), supplemented with 0 (control) or 8 (MA) g of MA/kg of dry matter. After 54 d on treatments, animals were slaughtered and samples of rumen content and fluid were collected separately for microbial analysis. Pyrosequencing yielded a greater coverage of bacterial diversity than T-RFLP and allowed the identification of low abundant populations. Conversely, both molecular approaches pointed to similar conclusions and showed that relevant changes due to MA addition were observed within the major ruminal phyla, namely Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Decreases in the abundance of unclassified Bacteroidales, Porphyromonadaceae, and Ruminococcaceae and increases in as-yet uncultured species of the family Succinivibrionaceae, might be related to a potential role of these groups in different pathways of rumen FA metabolism. Diet supplementation with MA, however, had no effect on the relative abundance of Butyrivibrio and Pseudobutyrivibrio genera. In addition, results from both 454 pyrosequencing and T-RFLP indicate that the effect of MA was rather consistent in rumen content or fluid samples, despite inherent differences between these fractions in their bacterial composition

  4. Performance Of West African Dwarf Sheep Fed Diets Supplemented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment to investigate the possible growth promoting effect of rare earth elements (REE) in growing West African dwarf sheep as well as their influence on the haematological and blood serum biochemical changes was conducted for 12 weeks. Forty West African dwarf sheep were allotted to four dietary treatments: a ...

  5. Risks of antibiotic residues in milk following intramammary and intramuscular treatments in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengov, A; Kirbis, A

    2009-04-01

    Very few drugs on the market are approved for use in lactating ewes. Veterinarians in the European Union are allowed to prescribe drugs in an off-label manner but are then obligated to assure that residues do not enter the food chain. In case of mastitis treatment in dairy ewes antibiotic preparations designed and authorized for the bovine mammary gland are usually used. Due to inter-species differences, available bovine data cannot be accurately extrapolated for use in the dairy ewe. The objective of the study was therefore to determine appropriate withdrawal periods for ewe's milk following mastitis treatment with two commercial lactating cow products. For the detection of all components standard agar plate diffusion techniques were used. Regardless of the therapy regime and the product used, residues of antibiotics in milk were detected up to 192h after the last infusion. These results indicate that the required withholding periods for ewe's milk are considerably longer than recommended on the label for bovine milk.

  6. Impact of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis on profit efficiency in semi-extensive dairy sheep and goat farms of Apulia, southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardaro, Ruggiero; Pieragostini, Elisa; Rubino, Giuseppe; Petazzi, Ferruccio

    2017-01-01

    A recent study on paratubercolosis in semi-extensive dairy sheep and goat farms in Apulia revealed a flock positivity of 60.5% and a seroprevalence of 3.0% for sheep and 14.5% for goat, with peaks of 50%. In such a context, providing detailed economic information is crucial for the implementation of a suitable control plan. In this paper we investigated the impact of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) on profit efficiency of the Apulian dairy sheep and goat farms. Empirical results through a stochastic frontier model showed that the uninfected farms had a mean level of profit efficiency of 84%, which dropped to 64% in the presence of paratubercolosis as it negatively affected the productivity of feeding, veterinary and labour factors. Structural, managerial and production aspects were involved in the greater inefficiency of the infected farms compared to the uninfected ones: lower experience and schooling of farmers, no access to credit, fewer family members (women in particular) participating in the farming activities, high density of animals per hectare, small flocks, high number of goats in mixed flocks, no confinement practices for young and purchased animals and no pasture rotation. Hence, targeted interventions on these factors by decision makers can ensure effectiveness and efficiency to veterinary and economic action plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Economic consequences of reproductive performance in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Jorritsma, R.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Hogeveen, H.

    2010-01-01

    The net economic value of reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle was estimated using a stochastic dynamic simulation model. The objective was to compare the economic consequences of reproductive performance scenarios (“average” and “poor”) of a cow having a good reproductive performance and to

  8. Reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.T.; Barnabe, R.C.; Morales, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The review describes the commonly practised systems of milk production in sample countries within the five major topographical/climatological subregions of Latin America, viz. Central America, the Caribbean, the South American subtropics, the Andes and the Temperate Zone. The state of development and importance of the dairy industry to the economy of each country are discussed. Production and reproduction indices are quoted, as are the genetic make-up of the dairy herds, husbandry practices and the quality of livestock management. It is clear that there is an enormous capacity for improvement in the efficiency of milk production systems in the Latin American region as a whole; to achieve this improvement, there is an urgent need to pursue on-farm based research aimed at identifying constraints to the performance of dairy cattle and the implementation of low cost management/nutritional/health control measures. (author)

  9. Factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cow in Algeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2017-01-11

    Jan 11, 2017 ... Article Number: 8C8D1B562380. ISSN 1684-5315. Copyright ... lactation on reproductive performance of dairy cows in Algeria. Calving to first .... sniffing the vulva of other cows, mucus presence in the vulva, nervousness, pink ...

  10. Prospects of performing multiple-country comparison of dairy sires ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International trade with genetic material has lead to the foundation of Interbull, an international organization that performs international evaluations of dairy bulls, enabling countries to obtain breeding values of foreign bulls on their on scale. Not all countries have the possibility to participate in the evaluations with their own ...

  11. Prospects of performing multiple-country comparison of dairy sires ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anne Torsell

    Abstract. International trade with genetic material has lead to the foundation of Interbull, an international organization that performs international evaluations of dairy bulls, enabling countries to obtain breeding values of foreign bulls on their on scale. Not all countries have the possibility to participate in the evaluations.

  12. Feeding Dairy Cows to Increase Performance on Rhodes Grass Ley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irungu, K.R.G.; Mbugua, P.N.

    1999-01-01

    Majority of dairy farmers in Kenya produce milk from cows fed on roughage. The cow performance follows seasonal variability in quality and quantity of roughage. The objective of the current study was to increase cow performance and maintain productivity of a rhodes grass (chloris gayana) ley. Twenty-four Freisian cows in their second to third lactation were strip grazed on fertilized irrigated Rhodes grass at a stocking rate of 0.034 ha per cow. Four dietary groups of six cows were allocated to one of our diets. one group got no dairy meal while the other three groups were supplemented at a 1kg of dairy meal per 10, 5 and 2.5 kg of 4% fat corrected milk dairy. this amount to 0, 386, 750 and 1542 kg dairy meal (89.4%, DM, 93.7 OM, 16.8, CP and CF) during the lactation. during the 43 - week lactation, records on pasture nutrient yield, nutrient intake, milk yield, liveweight, reproduction and subsequent calf birth weight were collected. The Rhodes grass ley produced 20.7 (ranging from 16.7 to 28.7) t of dry matter (DM) per hectare and cows harvested 16.0 (12.0 to 24.0) t during the 43 weeks.The Rhodes grass contained 32.1, 87.7, 10.8, and 32.3% DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) respectively. Mean stubble of 4.7 (3.9 to 6.0) t DM per hectare was left at pasture. Feeding dairy meals significantly increased (P 0.05) affect batter fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintained (P > 0.05) cow liveweight and increased (P < 0.05) calf birth weight from 32.7 to 37.2 kg. Feeding dairy meal did not affect oestrus cycling. Extreme supplementation, 1542 kg dairy meal, decreased (P < 0.05) fertility. Insemination per conception and calving interval increased (P < 0.05) from 1.5 to 3.5 and 522 days. The findings in the current study show that pasture yield can be increased by over 590% dry matter from 3.5 t obtained from natural pasture containing Kikuyu and Star grasses. The Rhodes grass yield can be increased to 232% of national average yield of 1300

  13. The Reproductive Performance of the Nigerian Dwarf Sheep | Orji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three of the most important parameters of reproduction in sheep, the age at first lambing, the lambing interval and the number of lambs born per ewe at each lambing, were analysed from the herdbook of the breeding flock of the University of Ibadan for the period-1968 to 1974. The means were as follows: 1. age at first ...

  14. Effect of dietary seaweed (Ulva lactuca) supplementation on growth performance of sheep and on in vitro gas production kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    EL-WAZIRY, Ahmed; AL-HAIDARY, Ahmed; OKAB, Aly; SAMARA, Emad; ABDOUN, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of dietary seaweed (Ulva lactuca) supplementation on growth performance of sheep, in vitro gas production, estimated energy, and microbial protein synthesis. A total of 18 Naimey male sheep with average live weight of 22.78 ± 0.24 kg were randomly allocated to 3 groups. Sheep in group 1 were fed a diet containing commercial feed without seaweed as a control diet, sheep in group 2 were fed the control diet with 3% seaweed, and sheep in group 3...

  15. [Fertility after treatment with Eazi-breedTM CIDR G for 6 or 12 days outside the breeding season in Lacaune dairy sheep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, A; Piechotta, M; Bollwein, H; Janett, F

    2013-07-01

    This study compares the fertility after short- and long-term synchronization using a progesterone intravaginal device in Lacaune dairy sheep outside the breeding season. For the experiment 108 Lacaune sheep were treated with Eazi-breed™ CIDR® G intravaginal devices (Pfizer Animal Health, Zürich) for 12 days (Group L, n = 60) or 6 days (Group K, n = 48) in combination with eCG (Group L) or with eCG and 125 μg Cloprostenol (Group K) at device removal. Thereafter the ewes were kept together with rams for 60 days, ewes in estrus were recorded and the fertility was assessed after lambing. Blood progesterone concentration was measured at device application, withdrawal and 14 days later. Results show that neither treatment nor parity had an influence on estrus rate (Group L 91.7 %, Group K 93.8 %, nulli- and pluriparous animals 96.9 % and 90.8 %, respectively). Group L showed a tendency towards a better first cycle lambing rate and a significantly (P sheep of Group K (71.7 % vs. 60.4 % and 83.3 % vs. 72.9 %). Pluriparous ewes had higher (P synchronized ewe than nulliparous sheep for the first cycle (75.0 % vs. 46.9 % and 1.4 ± 1.0 vs. 0.9 ± 1.1) as well as for the overall service period (92.1 % vs. 46.9 % and 1.7 ± 0.8 vs. 0.9 ± 1.1). Fourteen days after insert withdrawal progesterone concentrations were higher (P progesterone treatment and nulliparous ewes were less suitable for estrus induction outside the breeding season.

  16. Impacts of dairy diagnostic teams on herd performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinand, D; Conlin, B J

    2003-05-01

    This study evaluated impacts of educational diagnostic teams of consultants used to transfer technology to dairy farms. Herd management performance changes were measured by comparing Dairy Herd Improvement data from 38 project farms to data from herds that were geographical contemporaries. The value of focused goals for effecting change was also assessed. Interviews provided producers' perception of project outcomes and insight on organization and conduct of dairy diagnostic teams. Changes observed in project herds were small compared with controls with tendencies for increased herd size and improved milk production per cow. Focused goals had greater impacts on increasing herd size, milk per cow, first lactation peak milk, reducing age at first calving, and percentages of cows with subclinical mastitis. Time, money, facility limitations, labor, and alternative priorities were the most cited constraints to implementing changes. Satisfaction scores of producers were significantly related to the degree that team recommendations were followed. Improved attitudes, quality of life, and financial well-being were benefits listed by a majority of producers from participation in the project. If similar projects were to be offered, 83% said they would participate again, and 69% indicated they would pay at least some of the costs. Project farms served as demonstration farms for 1930 other producers in their respective locales, resulting in a multiplier effect of original advice given by consultant teams. Suggestions by farmer participants for improvements in dairy diagnostic teams included needs for at least some unbiased team members, more frequent meetings, more follow-up on recommendations, and consistency of recommendations with family goals.

  17. Technical indicators of financial performance in the dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Erling Lundager; Østergaard, Søren; Krogh, Mogens Agerbo

    2008-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation was used to predict the long-term financial performance related to the technical performance of dairy herds. The indicators addressed were derived from data collected routinely in the herd. They indicated technical performance that can be affected by the farmer...... or the consultant, and they were derived from expected cause-effect relations between technical performance and financial performance at the herd level. The study included the indicators shape of lactation curve, reproduction efficiency, heifer management, variation between cows in lactation curve persistency...... cow was analyzed as the measure of financial performance. The potential effects of the selected indicators on the gross margin were estimated by means of an ANOVA. The final model allowed estimation of the financial value of specific changes within the key performance indicators. This study indicated...

  18. The high-producing dairy cow and its reproductive performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobson, H; Smith, Rf; Royal, Md

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that the reproductive performance of dairy cows has declined as milk yields have increased over the last 40 years. Identifying the precise cause(s) of this problem may provide focused solutions. Intensive genetic selection for very high yields has reduced fertility, due mainly...... to an increase in postpartum clinical problems, poor expression of oestrus, defective oocytes/embryos and uterine infections. It is a challenge to solve the problem by getting enough food into these cows to meet the high demands of peak milk yields in early lactation, as well as providing the considerable...

  19. Lactation performance and serum biochemistry of dairy cows fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... supplementation in multiparous dairy cows diet may improve their milk yield in transition period. Key words: Dairy cow, ... 20 multiparous Holsteins (parity 3) housed in free stalls at the. Esfahan-Kesht farm .... Corn gluten meal.

  20. Reproductive performance in a select sample of dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, James D; Skidmore, Andrew

    2013-02-01

    Sixteen herds were selected from a pool of 64 herds nominated by consultants for participation in a national survey to demonstrate excellence in reproductive performance. For inclusion in the survey, herds had to have comprehensive records in a farm computer database or participate in a Dairy Herd Improvement Association record system and have superior reproductive performance as judged by the herd advisor. Herd managers were asked to fill out a questionnaire to describe their reproductive management practices and provide herd records for data analysis. Reproductive analysis was based on individual cow records for active and cull dairy cows that calved during the calendar year 2010. Breeding records by cow were used to calculate indices for insemination rate (IR), conception rate (CR), pregnancy rate (PR), and culling. Herds ranged in size from 262 to 6,126 lactating and dry cows, with a mean of 1,654 [standard deviation (SD) 1,494] cows. Mean days to first insemination (DFS) was 71.2d (SD 4.7d), and IR for first insemination was 86.9%. Mean days between inseminations were 33.4d (SD 3.1d), and 15.4% of insemination intervals were greater than 48 d (range: 7.2 to 21.5%). First-service conception rate was 44.4% (SD 4.8%) across all herds and ranged from 37.5 to 51.8%. Mean PR was 32.0% (SD 3.9%) with a range of 26.5 to 39.4%. Lactation cull rate was 32.2% (SD 12.4%) with a range from 13.6 to 58.1%. Compared with mean data and SD for herds in the Raleigh Dairy Herd Improvement Association system, mean indices for these herds ranked them in the 99 th percentile for IR (using heat detection rate as comparison), 99 th percentile for PR, the bottom 18.6 percentile for DFS, and around the 50th percentile for CR. This suggests that excellent herd reproductive performance was associated with reproductive management that resulted in high insemination rates combined with average CR. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. Effect of supplementation of Sesbania sesban on reproductive performance of sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekoya, A.; Oosting, S.J.; Fernandez-Rivera, S.; Tamminga, S.; Tegegne, A.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Two successive experiments were conducted to investigate the long-term effects of supplementation of Sesbania sesban on reproductive performance of Ethiopian Menz sheep. Forty ewes and 40 rams ranging in weight and age between 16¿20 kg and 14¿15 months respectively were fed a teff straw basal diet

  2. Reproductive performance and mortality rate in Menz and Horro sheep following controlled breeding in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhan, A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The reproductive and lamb mortality data (n = 4890) of Horro and Menz ewes following controlled breeding in Ethiopia were analyzed. Sheep were treated with flugestone acetate (FGA) intravaginal sponges during the wet and dry seasons to compare the reproductive performance of the two indigenous

  3. Rumen Fermentation, Blood Metabolites, and Performance of Sheep Fed Tropical Browse Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Astuti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro study was designed to evaluate total gas production, dry matter degradability (DMD, and VFA profile; while in vivo study was designed to evaluate nutrient intakes, blood metabolites, and performance of sheep fed native grass mixed with Calliandra calothyrrus (CC, Leucaena leucochepala (LL, Moringa oleifera (MO, Gliricidea sepium (GS, and Artocarpus heterophyllus (AH. The best three from the in vitro results were used to formulate diets in in vivo study. Sixteen male growing sheep (average BW 20 kg were fed 100% native grass (NG as control; 70% NG + 30% GS; 70% NG + 30% MO; and 70% NG + 30% AH. Nutrient consumptions, DMD, blood metabolites, and sheep performances were analyzed by using Completely Randomized Design. The in vitro results showed that the total gas production and DMD of CC and LL were the lowest (P<0.05 while the highest was found in GS, MO, and AH treatments (P<0.05. Meanwhile, the in vivo results showed that nutrient intakes (DM, CP, and CF of GS and AH rations were the highest. The ADG, concentration of albumin, and globulin in all treatments were similar, while total serum protein, triglycerides, and glucose concentration in MO and AH rations were higher than others. Serum cholesterol concentration in MO ration was the lowest, meanwhile the concentration of IgG was the highest (P<0.05. Supplementation of 30% MO was the best choice for optimum rumen fermentation and maintaining health status of local sheep.

  4. Receiver-operating characteristic curves for somatic cell scores and California mastitis test in Valle del Be lice dairy sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riggio, V.; Pesce, L.L.; Morreale, S.; Portolano, B.

    2013-01-01

    Using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methodology this study was designed to assess the diagnostic effectiveness of somatic cell count (SCC) and the California mastitis test (CMT) in Valle del Belice sheep, and to propose and evaluate threshold values for those tests that would

  5. Performance of dairy calves raised under two breeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Henrique Borger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concern about some animal production systems has placed considerable value on humanitarian breeding systems, aimed at ensuring animal welfare and comfort. Raising calves is one of the most important stages in a milk production system. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the performance of Holstein dairy calves raised by two farming systems: conventional individual (CI and collective with automatic calf feeder (CACF. Fourteen, 15-day-old Holstein dairy calves having an average initial body weight of 40 kg, were used. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with seven animals per treatment. The variables evaluated were the milk and feed intake, body weight, hip height, thoracic circumference and daily weight gain. The average milk intake was lower in the CACF (3.5 L animal-1 day-1 than CI (5.1 L animal-1 day-1 system. However, the feed intake was higher in the CACF (1.205 kg animal-1 day-1 compared to CI (0.910 kg animal-1 day-1 system. Body weight, thoracic circumference, hip height and daily weight gain were similar between the two systems. The CACF raised calves had a higher concentrate intake and lower milk intake than the calves raised under the CI system.

  6. Performance and financial consequences of stillbirth in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnani, A; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Keshavarzi, H

    2018-03-01

    Stillbirth is an economically important trait on dairy farms. Knowledge of the consequences of, and the economic losses associated with stillbirth can help the producer when making management decisions. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of stillbirth on productive and reproductive performance as well as financial losses due to stillbirth incidence in Iranian Holstein dairy farms. Economic and performance data were collected from nine Holstein dairy farms in Isfahan and Khorasan provinces of Iran from March 2008 to December 2013. The final data set included 160 410 calving records from 53 265 cows. A linear mixed model was developed to evaluate the effects of stillbirth on performance of primiparous and multiparous cows separately and overall. An economic model was used to estimate the economic losses due to stillbirth. The incidence of stillbirth cases per cow per year was 4.2% on average (3.4% to 6.8% at herd level). The least square means results showed that a case of stillbirth significantly (P0.05). Overall, a case of stillbirth reduced 305-day milk yield by 544.0±76.5 kg/cow per lactation. Stillbirth had no significant effects on 305-day fat and protein percentages in either primiparous or multiparous cows. Overall, cows that gave birth to stillborn calves had significantly increased days open by 14.6±2.6 days and the number of inseminations per conception by 0.2 compared with cows that gave birth to live calves (Pfinancial losses associated with stillbirth incidence averaged US$ 938 per case (range from $US 767 to $US 1189 in the nine investigated farms). The loss of a calf was not the only cost associated with stillbirth, as it accounted for 71.0% of the total cost. The costs of dystocia (7.6%) and culling and replacement expenses (6.3%) were the next most important costs associated with stillbirth. These results can be used to assess the potential return from management strategies to reduce the occurrence of stillbirths.

  7. Voluntary intake and digestibility by sheep of alfalfa ensiled at different moisture concentrations following fertilization with dairy slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy slurry is used commonly as an animal-sourced fertilizer in agronomic production. However, residual effects of slurry application on intake and digestibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage from subsequent harvests are not well known. The objective of this study was to determine if mois...

  8. Influence of Parity on Reproductive Performance in Postpartum Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eiri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was the study of reproductive performance in postpartum dairy cows with different parities. Twenty Holstein dairy cows were assigned into two equal primiparous and multiparous groups. Body weight and body condition score (based on 1-5 scoring were measured every other week, starting from two weeks before calving till pregnancy confirmation. Daily milk yield was also recorded. Reproductive parameters including days from calving to the uterus returning time, to the initiation time of clinical oestrus signs, to the first time of insemination and number of insemination per pregnancy were recorded. Meanwhile, blood serum concentrations of estrogen and progesterone were measured. Results indicated that, the mean (±SE of body weight and milk production was significantly higher for multiparous cows. Blood serum concentration of estrogen (mean ±SE was significantly lower for primiparous cows (61.86±17.91 vs. 71.39±17.02 pg/ml. The number of insemination per pregnancy and estrus frequency did not differ between both groups. However, the intervals (mean ±SE of calving to the uterus returning time (40.0±5.41 vs. 24.0±5.41 days, to the first insemination (119.62±14.17 vs. 67.5±14.17 days and the initiation of clinical oestrus signs (28.5±4.5 vs. 19.67±8.5 days was significantly higher for primiparous than multiparous cows. In general, this study demonstrated that the effect of parity on postpartum reproductive performance is modulated through its effect of blood serum estrogen level, uterus returning time and estrus initiation time.

  9. Paratuberculosis on small ruminant dairy farms in Ontario, Canada: A survey of management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Cathy A; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to determine the risk factors for dairy goat herds and dairy sheep flocks testing positive for paratuberculosis (PTB) in Ontario, Canada. A questionnaire was administered to 50 producers during a farm visit in which concurrently, 20 randomly selected, lactating animals over the age of 2 years underwent sampling for paratuberculosis testing. Only 1 of 50 farms (2.0%) was closed to animal movement, whereas 96.6% of dairy goat farms and 94.1% of sheep farms purchased livestock from other producers. Only 10.3% of dairy goat, and no dairy sheep farms used artificial insemination. Manure was spread on grazing pastures by 65.5% and 70.6% of dairy goat and dairy sheep farms, respectively. Because of the high true-prevalence of paratuberculosis infection detected, no risk factor analysis could be performed. This study demonstrates that biosecurity practices conducive to transmission of PTB are highly prevalent in Ontario small ruminant dairy farms.

  10. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in sheep and goats reared under dairy husbandry systems in Greece☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanidakis, Nikolaos; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Claerebout, Edwin; Ehsan, Amimul; Voutzourakis, Nikolaos; Kostopoulou, Despoina; Stijn, Casaert; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geurden, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are gastro-intestinal protozoa known to infect small ruminants. Both protozoa are also considered as a potential public health concern. The objective of this study was to determine their prevalence in lambs and goat kids kept under common Mediterranean dairy husbandry systems and to identify the species and genotypes infecting these small ruminants. In total, 684 faecal samples (429 from lambs and 255 from goat kids) were collected on 21 farms in Greece and examined using a quantitative immunofluorescence assay. G. duodenalis was detected in 37.3% of the lambs and 40.4% of the goat kids. On all but one of the farms G. duodenalis was detected. Most samples were typed as a mono-infection with G. duodenalis assemblage E, both on the β-giardin gene and the triose phosphate isomerase gene. Only 10% of samples were typed as mixed assemblage A and E infections. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 5.1% in lambs and 7.1% in goat kids. In total, 8 out of the 14 farms with a sheep flock and 7 out of the 14 farms with a goat flock were positive. Cryptosporidium parvum (subtype IId), C. ubiquitum and C. xiaoi were identified, the latter especially in goat kids. In conclusion, the results of the present study illustrate that G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. occur frequently on both sheep and goats farms. The prevalence of zoonotic genotypes or species was low, indicating a limited but existing risk for zoonotic infections. PMID:25187088

  11. Post-partum reproductive performance of the Icelandic dairy cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldon, J.; Olafsson, T.; Thorsteinsson, T.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the studies was to monitor the reproductive performance of Icelandic dairy cow herds with and without histories of fertility problems under normal farming conditions. Artificial inseminations and calvings were recorded, pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal palpation, and progesterone concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay in sequential samples of milk. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals and the concentrations of glucose, urea, calcium and magnesium were determined. Clinical ketosis and low glucose were found in one third of the cows on problem farms. The mean time of first post-partum ovulation was 49 days for cows with ketosis, compared with 34 days for cows free of ketosis. Cows in the normal herds ovulated considerably later than is reported for many other breeds of dairy cows; however, the time of first post-partum AI, the time of conception and the conception rate were similar to those reported for other breeds. The effects of season and herd were statistically significant for the time of first post-partum ovulation, AI and conception; the effect of area was highly significant for the time of ovulation. Progesterone profiles showed that over 50% of the first post-partum ovarian cycles were short and had low progesterone concentrations. Season had significant effects on the length of the interval from calving to first post-partum ovulation, AI and conception, on the conception rate to first AI and consequently on the number of AIs per conception, and on the blood levels of glucose, urea and calcium. (author). 28 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  12. Dry matter intake, performance and carcass characteristics of hair sheep reared under different grazing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Rodrigues Ventolin dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different grazing systems: isolated, alternate and simultaneous, on feed intake, performance and carcass characteristics of sheep. About 5.2 ha area of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximun Jacq cultivate Tanzania was divided into 13 paddocks. This area was used as a stocking rate of two animal units (AU per ha for 7 days’ occupation and 21 days rest. A total number of 58 animals were used consisting of 12 heifers and 30 Santa Ines lambs with the addition of 16 adult ewes that were used to stabilize grazing pressure in the isolated system. The sheep were fed on 200 g per head per day of concentrate and cattle 2 kg per head per day. The parameters determined were the following: weekly weight (WW, total live weight gain (LWG and mean daily weight gain (MDW. Also dry matter intake was estimated 84 days after the start of the experiment using external indicators (Purified and Enriched Lignin in addition to carcass traits and composition which were also estimated. The result obtained for carcass composition revealed that the muscle:bone ratio and bone percentage were better in the alternate system. Moreover, the simultaneous and isolated systems showed higher lamb performance than the alternate system, while there was no effect on dry matter intake. Furthermore, there was no difference of the different systems on carcass traits and feed intake of sheep. Nevertheless, the simultaneous grazing system showed better sheep performance than the alternate grazing system.

  13. Changes in the rumen bacterial community in response to sunflower oil and fish oil supplements in the diet of dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenguer, A; Toral, P G; Frutos, P; Hervás, G

    2010-07-01

    Rumen microbial biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids has a major effect on the process of developing healthier dairy products. This study aimed to investigate in vivo the effect of diet supplementation with sunflower (SO) and fish (FO) oils on the rumen bacterial community in dairy sheep. First, 32 lactating ewes, divided in 8 lots of 4 animals each (2 lots per treatment), were fed a high-concentrate total mixed ration supplemented with 0, 2% SO, 1% FO, or 2% SO plus 1% FO. After 21 d, rumen fluid samples were taken from each lot for DNA extraction and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. In a second experiment, 5 cannulated ewes were first fed the same TMR, with the exception of a higher forage level, and then changed to the same diet supplemented with 2% SO plus 1% FO. After 0, 3, and 10 d, rumen content samples were taken for DNA extraction and FISH analysis (fluid). Total bacteria and the Butyrivibrio group were studied in microbial DNA by terminal RFLP analysis (T-RFLP), and real-time PCR was used to quantify Butyrivibrio bacteria that produce vaccenic acid or stearic acid. In rumen fluid samples, total bacteria and clostridial clusters IX and XIV were analyzed by FISH. Dietary supplementation with SO plus FO seemed to induce important changes in the total bacteria and Butyrivibrio populations, and a high interindividual variation was observed, and the speed of the effect of the lipid supplementation depended on the individual microbial composition. Analysis by T-RFLP and FISH showed increases in cluster IX bacteria with SO plus FO supplementation, presumably Quinella-like microorganisms. The abundances of vaccenic acid- and stearic acid-producing Butyrivibrio relative to total bacteria, estimated by real time PCR, were low (0.28 and 0.18%, respectively, in rumen fluid, and 0.86 and 0.81% in rumen contents) and only that of SA-producing bacteria seemed to be reduced by diets containing FO, although differences were only

  14. Reproductive Performance Of West African Dwarf Sheep And Goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive performance or 20 pregnant ewes and 20 pregnant does of West African Dwarf breed at village level in Ogun State, Nigeria were compared in a study which lasted for 8 months. Litter size in ewes was 1.50 while that of does was 1.85. The number of males produced by the two species out-numbered that of ...

  15. Metritis in dairy cows: risk factors and reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, M J; Magnasco, R P; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M; Risco, C A; de la Sota, R L

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the risk factors for metritis, its effects on milk yield and on reproductive performance, and the efficacy of ceftiofur therapy in Holstein dairy cows. Cows (n=303) from a commercial dairy herd in Argentina were studied. Cows were scored for body condition, and blood samples were collected on d -14, 7, 21, 31, 41, and 50 relative to parturition. Cows having a watery, purulent, or brown, and fetid vaginal discharge (VD) and rectal temperature ≤ 39.2°C were diagnosed as having clinical metritis, and those having a similar VD and rectal temperature >39.2°C were diagnosed as having puerperal metritis. Both clinical and puerperal metritis cows were randomly assigned to control (no treatment) or ceftiofur group (2.2mg/kg×3 consecutive days). Cure was declared if clear VD was observed at 21 d in milk (DIM). Blood samples were analyzed for nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, and blood urea nitrogen using commercial kits, and for insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin, and leptin by RIA. Data were analyzed with PROC MIXED, GENMOD, PHREG, and LIFETEST from SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The risk for metritis increased with dystocia, retained fetal membranes, and dead calf [AOR (adjusted odds ratio)=2.58, 95% CI: 1.189-5.559], and as prepartum nonesterified fatty acids levels increased (AOR=1.001, 95% CI: 0.999-1.002). Conversely, risk decreased as prepartum insulin-like growth factor-1 increased (AOR=0.65, 95% CI: 0.349-1.219). Cows having either clinical or puerperal metritis produced less milk by 90 DIM than did healthy cows (2,236 ± 172 vs. 2,367 ± 77 vs. 2,647 ± 82 kg, respectively). Cows with puerperal metritis had lower risk for pregnancy by 100 DIM (AOR=0.189, 95% CI: 0.070-0.479) and a lower hazard rate for pregnancy by 150 DIM (hazard rate: 0.753, 95% CI: 0.621-0.911), and took longer to get pregnant (129 vs. 111 vs. 109 d, for puerperal metritis, clinical metritis, and healthy cows, respectively

  16. Receiver-operating characteristic curves for somatic cell scores and California mastitis test in Valle del Belice dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggio, Valentina; Pesce, Lorenzo L; Morreale, Salvatore; Portolano, Baldassare

    2013-06-01

    Using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methodology this study was designed to assess the diagnostic effectiveness of somatic cell count (SCC) and the California mastitis test (CMT) in Valle del Belice sheep, and to propose and evaluate threshold values for those tests that would optimally discriminate between healthy and infected udders. Milk samples (n=1357) were collected from 684 sheep in four flocks. The prevalence of infection, as determined by positive bacterial culture was 0.36, 87.7% of which were minor and 12.3% major pathogens. Of the culture negative samples, 83.7% had an SCCculture negative vs. infected), minor pathogen status (culture negative vs. infected with minor pathogens), major pathogen status (culture negative vs. infected with major pathogens), and CMT results were evaluated, the estimated area under the ROC curve was greater for glands infected with major compared to minor pathogens (0.88 vs. 0.73), whereas the area under the curve considering all pathogens was similar to the one for minor pathogens (0.75). The estimated optimal thresholds were 3.00 (CMT), 2.81 (SCS for the whole sample), 2.81 (SCS for minor pathogens), and 3.33 (SCS for major pathogens). These correctly classified, respectively, 69.0%, 73.5%, 72.6% and 91.0% of infected udders in the samples. The CMT appeared only to discriminate udders infected with major pathogens. In this population, SCS appeared to be the best indirect test of the bacteriological status of the udder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reduction of Coxiella burnetii prevalence by vaccination of goats and sheep, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogerweg, R.; Brom, Van den R.; Roest, H.I.J.; Bouma, A.; Vellema, P.; Pieterse, M.; Dercksen, D.; Nielen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the number of human Q fever cases in the Netherlands increased dramatically. In response to this increase, dairy goats and dairy sheep were vaccinated against Coxiella burnetii. All pregnant dairy goats and dairy sheep in herds positive for Q fever were culled. We identified the effect of

  18. Performance analysis of photovoltaic plants installed in dairy cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remo Alessio Malagnino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric production from renewable resources, such as solar photovoltaic (PV, is playing an increasingly essential role in the agricultural industry because of the progressive increase in the energy price from fossil fuels and the simultaneous decrease in the income deriving from farming activities. A central issue in the sustainable diffusion of PV technologies is represented by the actual energy efficiency of a PV system. For these reasons, a performance analysis has been carried out in order to assess the potentials offered by different PV plants within a defined geographical context with the aim of investigating the impact of each component has on the PV generator global efficiency and defining the main technical parameters that allow to maximise the annual specific electric energy yield of an architectonically integrated plant, installed in a dairy house, compared to a ground-mounted plant. The annual performances of three grid connected PV plants installed in the same dairy cattle farm have been analysed: two are architectonically integrated plants - i.e., a rooftop unidirectional and a multi-field systems (both 99 kWp - and the other is a ground-mounted plant (480 kWp. Furthermore, the electrical performances, estimated by the photovoltaic geographical information system (PVGIS, developed by the EU Joint Research Centre, and by an analytical estimation procedure (AEP, developed on the basis of a meteo-climatic database related to the records of the nearest weather station and integrated by the components’ technical specifications, have been compared with the actual yields. The best annual performance has been given by the ground-mounted PV system, with an actual increase of 26% and in the range of 6÷12% according to different estimations, compared to the integrated systems, which were globally less efficient (average total loss of 26÷27% compared to 24% of the ground-mounted system. The AEP and PVGIS software estimates showed a good

  19. EFFECTS OF EXOGENOUS ENZYMES ON NUTRIENTS DIGESTIBILITY AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE IN SHEEP AND GOATS

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    Abdel-Fattah Z.M. Salem

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Six crossbred sheep (32.00±0.603 kg BW and 6 Baladi goats (18.00±0.703 kg BW were used in 2×2 factorial design to evaluate the effect of exogenous enzymes of ZADO® (i.e., ENZ and on digestibility and growth performance. Animals were fed on wheat straw ad libitum and restricted amount of commercial concentrate with (+ENZ or without (-ENZ 10 g/animal/day of ZADO to cover 120% of their maintenance requirements. Nutrients digestibilities were increased (P

  20. Effects of Grazing Abandoned Grassland on Herbage Production and Utilization, and Sheep Preference and Performance

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    Håvard Steinshamn

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Large areas of farmland are abandoned in Norway, which for various reasons are regarded as undesirable. Loss of farmland may have negative implications for biodiversity and ecosystem function and food production potential. The objectives of this study were to assess forage mass production and utilization, botanical composition, lamb performance, and grazing distribution pattern when reintroducing livestock grazing to an abandoned grassland. The study area was located in Central Norway, unmanaged for 12 years. Sheep grazed the area for 10 weeks in 2013 and 4 weeks in spring and autumn, respectively, in 2014 and 2015. During the summer of 2014 and 2015, the area was subjected to the following replicated treatments: (1 No grazing, (2 grazing with heifers, and (3 grazing with ewes and their offspring. The stocking rate was similar in the grazed treatments. Forage biomass production and animal intake were estimated using grazing exclosure cages and botanical composition by visual assessment. Effect on lamb performance was evaluated by live weight gain and slaughter traits in sheep subjected to three treatments: (1 Common farm procedure with summer range pasturing, (2 spring grazing period extended by 1 month on the abandoned grassland before summer range pasturing, and (3 spring and summer grazing on the abandoned grassland. Grazing distribution patterns were studied using GPS position collars on ewes. Total annual biomass production was on average 72% higher with summer grazing than without. Annual consumption and utilization was on average 218 g DM/m2 and 70% when summer grazed, and 25 g DM/m2 and 18% without grazing, respectively. Botanical composition did not differ between treatments. Live weight gain was higher in lambs subjected to an extended spring grazing period (255 g/d compared to common farm practice (228 g/d and spring and summer grazing on the abandoned grassland (203 g/d, and carcass value was 14% higher in lambs on extended spring

  1. Reproduction and Production Performances of Boujaâd Breed of Sheep in Morocco

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    A. Chikhi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study concerned the analysis of 1264 reproduction performances, 1698 fleece weights, 1588 growth and viability performances and 184 fattening and carcass performances of Boujaâd breed of sheep. Data were collected during seven periods, between 1993-94 and 1999-2000, at the Deroua Experimental Station of INRA. The ewes’ fertility rate and gestation length were 98% and 151 days, respectively, litter size at birth and weaning (90 days 1.29 and 1.24, respectively, and litter weights at birth and weaning 5.03 and 26.8 kg, respectively. Fleece weight averaged 3.47 kg. Lambs weighed 3.89 kg at birth, 10.3 kg at 30 days and 21.8 kg at 90 days of age. Their average daily gain was 213 g from birth to 30 days and 190 g between 30 and 90 days. The mortality rate from birth to 90 days averaged 8%. After a fattening period of 66.4 days, male lambs born single exhibited an average daily gain of 280 g and a feed efficiency of 4.70 kg of feed per kilogram of weight gained. Slaughtered at 171 days of age, their slaughtering weight averaged 44.8 kg, hot carcass weight 22.4 kg, and dressing yield 50%. It was concluded that the Boujaâd sheep breed has promising potentialities that could be developed to increase meat production in Morocco.

  2. Effect of temperament on milk production, somatic cell count, chemical composition and physical properties in Lacaune dairy sheep breed

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    Gábor Tóth

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of temperament on milk yield, lactation length, physico-chemical properties and somatic cell count of Lacaune ewes were evaluated. The investigation was carried out at a sheep farm in the county of Győr-Moson-Sopron. The temperament of 106 Lacaune ewes was measured by the temperament 5-point-scale test (1=very nervous, 5=very quiet during milking. Furthermore, 42 ewes were randomly selected from a herd of 106 animals for the analysis of milk composition (fat, protein and lactose, pH, electrical conductivity as well as somatic cell count. It was found that the temperament had a significant effect on lactation length and lactation milk production, lactose, electrical conductivity and somatic cell count. Calm ewes had significantly longer lactation (4 score: 220.7 day; 5 score: 201.4 day as well as higher milk production (4 score: 207.9 kg; 5 score: 193.3 kg compared to more temperamental animals (2+3 scores: 166.5 day and 135.5 kg; P<0.05. The content of lactose was significantly lower (4.32 in the more temperamental group, while electrical conductivity was higher (4.81 mS cm-1 compared to calmer animals (4.69 % and 4.16 mS cm-1. Additionally, significant differences were found in milk somatic cell count among the temperament categories. Calmer ewes had a lower somatic cell count in milk (5.17 log cm-3 than more temperamental ones (5.67 log cm-3; P<0.05.

  3. Do traditional sheep breeders perform conscious selection? An example from a participatory breeding program of Morada Nova sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arandas, Janaina Kelli Gomes; Alves, Ângelo Giuseppe Chaves; Facó, Olivardo; Belchior, Ernandes Barboza; Shiotsuki, Luciana; de Arruda Leite, Paulo Márcio Barbosa; Ribeiro, Maria Norma

    2017-10-01

    The implementation of sustainable breeding programs requires genetic breeding strategies that are appropriate for the reality production systems. It is also essential that the choice of animal selection criteria be based on breeders' knowledge and objectives. This work is an ethno-zootechnical study of the Morada Nova sheep breed and its crossbreeds. The goals of this study were to register and analyze indigenous breeders' knowledge and practices regarding animal selection criteria and to generate technical information to support a participatory breeding program of the breed. This study was conducted in the Morada Nova municipality in the state of Ceará, Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were evaluated using two groups of individuals, purebred Morada Nova sheep breeders (RMN, n = 13) and breeders of Morada Nova crossbreeds (MMN, n = 48). Interview questions were used to identify local selection criteria adopted by each group in the choice of animals for breeding. Data from the interviews were submitted to frequency distribution analysis and the Shapiro-Wilk test to verify their distribution. Later, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the two groups of farmers based on that information, in addition to multivariate statistical analysis and evaluation of Smith salience index. Breeders in the RMN group used selection criteria related to breed standards, such as pelage color. In contrast, breeders of the MMN group used criteria related to productivity, such as body conformation and milk production. Breeders should be engaged in the development of breeding programs, and it is important to consider their preferences and objectives when evaluating breeding animals.

  4. Investigations on dairy welfare and performance on German organic farms

    OpenAIRE

    Hoerning, Bernhard; Simantke, Christel; Aubel, Erhard

    2005-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on 74 organic dairy farms in Germany. Results were an average milk production of 5.960 kg, 223.000 somatic cell counts (SCC), 387 days calving interval, 23.5 % culling rate, 46 Euro annual veterinary costs per cow. Farmers were asked for disease incidences. Cows were scored for injuries and body condition. The results were combined with possible influencing factors (herd size, breed, region, farming association, housing system, housing factors, amounts of conc...

  5. How Respiratory Pathogens Contribute to Lamb Mortality in a Poorly Performing Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) Herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Mary E; Fox, Karen A; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica; Killion, Halcyon J; Amundson, Sierra; Miller, Michael W; Edwards, William H

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) ewes and their lambs in captivity to examine the sources and roles of respiratory pathogens causing lamb mortality in a poorly performing herd. After seven consecutive years of observed December recruitments of sheep from the remnant Gribbles Park herd in Colorado, US were captured and transported to the Thorne-Williams Wildlife Research Center in Wyoming in March 2013. Ewes were sampled repeatedly over 16 mo. In April 2014, ewes were separated into individual pens prior to lambing. Upon death, lambs were necropsied and tested for respiratory pathogens. Six lambs developed clinical respiratory disease and one lamb was abandoned. Pathology from an additional six lambs born in 2013 was also evaluated. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae , leukotoxigenic Mannheimia spp., leukotoxigenic Bibersteinia trehalosi , and Pasteurella multocida all contributed to lamb pneumonia. Histopathology suggested a continuum of disease, with lesions typical of pasteurellosis predominating in younger lambs and lesions typical of mycoplasmosis predominating in older lambs. Mixed pathology was observed in lambs dying between these timeframes. We suspected that all the ewes in our study were persistently infected and chronically shedding the bacteria that contributed to summer lamb mortality.

  6. Correlations between hematological, parasitological patterns and animal performance of sheep supplemented with protected fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Alves Costa Afonso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of populations of gastrointestinal parasites resistant to antihelmintics has led to seeks new alternatives its control. Stimulation of natural immunity by means of animal nutrition has shown promising results in controlling nematodes in sheep. The addition of protected fat sources, containing essential fatty acids, may be an alternative due to many effects, among them, regulation of immunity expression and regulation of the inflammatory response by immune effectors. The aim of this study was to estimate correlations between haematological and parasitological patterns, animal performance through weight and body condition, under the influence of protected fat in ewes. Fifty Santa Ines sheep, in the final third of pregnancy or postpartum, in paddocks of Panicum maximum, received, individually, 200 g per day of concentrate, isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets, with or without the addition of protected fat. In general, except for total leukocytes and eosinophils, almost all of Pearson correlation coefficients of other variables were significant. However, the protected fat, in the amount offered, had no antihelmintic effect.

  7. Performance and morphology of decellularized pulmonary valves implanted in juvenile sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Rachael W; Hilbert, Stephen L; Bert, Arthur A; Drake, Bill W; Bustamante, Julie A; Fenton, Jason E; Moriarty, Sara J; Neighbors, Stacy L; Lofland, Gary K; Hopkins, Richard A

    2011-07-01

    Because of cryopreserved heart valve-mediated immune responses, decellularized allograft valves are an attractive option in children and young adults. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance and morphologic features of decellularized pulmonary valves implanted in the right ventricular outflow tract of juvenile sheep. Right ventricular outflow tract reconstructions in juvenile sheep (160±9 days) using cryopreserved pulmonary allografts (n=6), porcine aortic root bioprostheses (n=4), or detergent/enzyme-decellularized pulmonary allografts (n=8) were performed. Valve performance (echocardiography) and morphologic features (gross, radiographic, and histologic examination) were evaluated 20 weeks after implantation. Decellularization reduced DNA in valve cusps by 99.3%. Bioprosthetic valves had the largest peak and mean gradients versus decellularized valves (p=0.03; p<0.001) and cryopreserved valves (p=0.01; p=0.001), which were similar (p=0.45; p=0.40). Regurgitation was minimal and similar for all groups (p=0.16). No cusp calcification was observed in any valve type. Arterial wall calcification was present in cryopreserved and bioprosthetic grafts but not in decellularized valves. No autologous recellularization or inflammation occurred in bioprostheses, whereas cellularity progressively decreased in cryopreserved grafts. Autologous recellularization was present in decellularized arterial walls and variably extending into the cusps. Cryopreserved and decellularized graft hemodynamic performance was comparable. Autologous recellularization of the decellularized pulmonary arterial wall was consistently observed, with variable cusp recellularization. As demonstrated in this study, decellularized allograft valves have the potential for autologous recellularization. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Uterine inflammation affects the reproductive performance of dairy cows: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Eduardo Molina-Coto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of post- partum uterine disease is an important concern in dairy cattle, because it affects its reproduction. Therefore, the objective of this review of literature was to generate a multifactorial overview about uterine diseases, and the reproductive performance of dairy cows, from a zootechnical approach. Dairy cows face multiple challenges around parturition. Immune suppression around calving, exposition to trauma and uterine bacterial contamination, metabolic diseases, lactation, and changes in management make dairy cows susceptible to uterine diseases. Most cows are able to eliminate uterine infection after calving, however, some cows keep uterine disease. Uterine disease may show clinical signs, but also silent signs that affect fertility as well. Poor reproductive performance is not caused by those signs by themselves, but due to alterations in ovarian and uterine function. Also, the problem of this silent signs is that farmers become aware of the disease when it has already caused negative effects on the reproductiveperformance. Sometimes, uterine disease is still present at the moment of the first service after calving. Uterine diseasemake it harder for cows to get pregnant because it affects the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, being another cause for infertility, increasing the cull rate and decreasing incomes from the dairy industry.

  9. Effect of silage maize hybrid (dry down vs. stay green) on dairy cow performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.L.G.; Schooten, van H.A.; Laar, van H.

    2008-01-01

    A randomized block design experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two contrasting silage maize hybrids (DD: dry down vs. SG: stay green) harvested at 33% dry matter (DM) on in situ degradation and dairy cow performance. Thirty-eight Red-HF cows were assigned to two silage treatments and

  10. Metabolic changes in early lactation and impaired reproductive performance in dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorritsma, R.; Wensing, T.; Kruip, T.A.M.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    This review addresses the suggestion that the decline in dairy reproductive performance, as increasingly observed these days, may be due to a hampered process of metabolic adaptation in early lactating cows. In our opinion, adaptation to the negative energy balance is a gradual process. Because

  11. Relating the carbon footprint of milk from Irish dairy farms to economic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, D; Hennessy, T; Moran, B; Shalloo, L

    2015-10-01

    Mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of milk or the carbon footprint (CF) of milk is a key issue for the European dairy sector given rising concerns over the potential adverse effects of climate change. Several strategies are available to mitigate GHG emissions, but producing milk with a low CF does not necessarily imply that a dairy farm is economically viable. Therefore, to understand the relationship between the CF of milk and dairy farm economic performance, the farm accountancy network database of a European Union nation (Ireland) was applied to a GHG emission model. The method used to quantify GHG emissions was life cycle assessment (LCA), which was independently certified to comply with the British standard for LCA. The model calculated annual on- and off-farm GHG emissions from imported inputs (e.g., electricity) up to the point milk was sold from the farm in CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq). Annual GHG emissions computed using LCA were allocated to milk based on the economic value of dairy farm products and expressed per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The results showed for a nationally representative sample of 221 grass-based Irish dairy farms in 2012 that gross profit averaged € 0.18/L of milk and € 1,758/ha and gross income was € 40,899/labor unit. Net profit averaged € 0.08/L of milk and € 750/ha and net income averaged € 18,125/labor unit. However, significant variability was noted in farm performance across each financial output measure. For instance, net margin per hectare of the top one-third of farms was 6.5 times higher than the bottom third. Financial performance measures were inversely correlated with the CF of milk, which averaged 1.20 kg of CO2-eq/kg of FPCM but ranged from 0.60 to 2.13 kg of CO2-eq/kg of FPCM. Partial least squares regression analysis of correlations between financial and environmental performance indicated that extending the length of the grazing season and increasing milk production

  12. Effect of heat stress on reproductive performances of dairy cattle and buffaloes: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Dash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress has adverse effects on the reproductive performances of dairy cattle and buffaloes. The dairy sector is a more vulnerable to global warming and climate change. The temperature humidity index (THI is the widely used index to measure the magnitude of heat stress in animals. The bjective of this paper was to assess the decline in performances of reproductive traits such as service period, conception rate and pregnancy rate of dairy cattle and buffaloes with respect to increase in THI. The review stated that service period in cattle is affected by season of calving for which cows calved in summer had the longest service period. The conception rate and pregnancy rate in dairy cattle were found decreased above THI 72 while a significant decline in reproductive performances of buffaloes was observed above threshold THI 75. The non-heat stress zone (HSZ (October to March is favorable for optimum reproductive performance, while fertility is depressed in HSZ (April to September and critical HSZ (CHSZ (May and June. Heat stress in animals has been associated with reduced fertility through its deleterious impact on oocyte maturation and early embryo development. The management strategies viz., nutrition modification, environment modification and timed artificial insemination protocol are to be strictly operated to ameliorate the adverse effects of heat stress in cattle and buffaloes during CHSZ to improve their fertility. The identification of genes associated with heat tolerance, its incorporation into breeding program and the inclusion of THI covariate effects in selection index should be targeted for genetic evaluation of dairy animals in the hot climate.

  13. Effect of heat stress on reproductive performances of dairy cattle and buffaloes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Soumya; Chakravarty, A K; Singh, Avtar; Upadhyay, Arpan; Singh, Manvendra; Yousuf, Saleem

    2016-03-01

    Heat stress has adverse effects on the reproductive performances of dairy cattle and buffaloes. The dairy sector is a more vulnerable to global warming and climate change. The temperature humidity index (THI) is the widely used index to measure the magnitude of heat stress in animals. The objective of this paper was to assess the decline in performances of reproductive traits such as service period, conception rate and pregnancy rate of dairy cattle and buffaloes with respect to increase in THI. The review stated that service period in cattle is affected by season of calving for which cows calved in summer had the longest service period. The conception rate and pregnancy rate in dairy cattle were found decreased above THI 72 while a significant decline in reproductive performances of buffaloes was observed above threshold THI 75. The non-heat stress zone (HSZ) (October to March) is favorable for optimum reproductive performance, while fertility is depressed in HSZ (April to September) and critical HSZ (CHSZ) (May and June). Heat stress in animals has been associated with reduced fertility through its deleterious impact on oocyte maturation and early embryo development. The management strategies viz., nutrition modification, environment modification and timed artificial insemination protocol are to be strictly operated to ameliorate the adverse effects of heat stress in cattle and buffaloes during CHSZ to improve their fertility. The identification of genes associated with heat tolerance, its incorporation into breeding program and the inclusion of THI covariate effects in selection index should be targeted for genetic evaluation of dairy animals in the hot climate.

  14. Exclusion performance in dwarf goats (Capra aegagrus hircus and sheep (Ovis orientalis aries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Nawroth

    Full Text Available Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information or non-baited cup (indirect information. Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep.

  15. Exclusion Performance in Dwarf Goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) and Sheep (Ovis orientalis aries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information) or non-baited cup (indirect information). Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food) in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food) to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep. PMID:24695781

  16. Prevalence and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying mecA or mecC and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in dairy sheep farms in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacinti, G; Carfora, V; Caprioli, A; Sagrafoli, D; Marri, N; Giangolini, G; Amoruso, R; Iurescia, M; Stravino, F; Dottarelli, S; Feltrin, F; Franco, A; Amatiste, S; Battisti, A

    2017-10-01

    Between January and May 2012, a total of 286 bulk tank milk samples from dairy sheep farms located in central Italy were tested for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. One hundred fifty-three samples were positive for S. aureus (53.5%), with an average count of 2.53 log cfu/mL. A total of 679 S. aureus colonies were screened for methicillin resistance by the cefoxitin disk diffusion test, and 104 selected cefoxitin-susceptible isolates were also tested for their susceptibility to other antimicrobials representative of the most relevant classes active against Staphylococcus spp. by using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates, carrying respectively the mecA and the mecC genes, were detected in 2 samples from 2 different farms (prevalence 0.7%). The mecA-positive MRSA isolate was blaZ positive, belonged to spa type t127, sequence type (ST)1, clonal complex (CC)1, carried a staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IVa, and was phenotypically resistant to all the β-lactams tested and to erythromycin, streptomycin, kanamycin, and tetracycline. The mecC-positive MRSA isolate was negative for the chromosomally or plasmid-associated blaZ gene but positive for the blaZ allotype associated with SCCmec XI (blaZ-SCCmecXI), belonged to spa type 843, ST(CC)130, carried a SCCmec type XI, and was resistant only to β-lactams. Both MRSA were negative for the presence of specific immune-evasion and virulence genes such as those coding for the Panton-Valentine leucocidin, the toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, and the immune evasion cluster genes. Regarding the presence of the major S. aureus enterotoxin genes, the mecC-positive MRSA tested negative, whereas the ST (CC)1 mecA-positive MRSA harbored the seh gene. Among the 104 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates examined for antimicrobial susceptibility, 63 (60.58%) were susceptible to all the antimicrobials tested, and 41 (39.42%) were resistant to at

  17. A case study of the carbon footprint of milk from high-performing confinement and grass-based dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, D; Capper, J L; Garnsworthy, P C; Grainger, C; Shalloo, L

    2014-03-01

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is the preferred methodology to assess carbon footprint per unit of milk. The objective of this case study was to apply an LCA method to compare carbon footprints of high-performance confinement and grass-based dairy farms. Physical performance data from research herds were used to quantify carbon footprints of a high-performance Irish grass-based dairy system and a top-performing United Kingdom (UK) confinement dairy system. For the US confinement dairy system, data from the top 5% of herds of a national database were used. Life-cycle assessment was applied using the same dairy farm greenhouse gas (GHG) model for all dairy systems. The model estimated all on- and off-farm GHG sources associated with dairy production until milk is sold from the farm in kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2-eq) and allocated emissions between milk and meat. The carbon footprint of milk was calculated by expressing GHG emissions attributed to milk per tonne of energy-corrected milk (ECM). The comparison showed that when GHG emissions were only attributed to milk, the carbon footprint of milk from the Irish grass-based system (837 kg of CO2-eq/t of ECM) was 5% lower than the UK confinement system (884 kg of CO2-eq/t of ECM) and 7% lower than the US confinement system (898 kg of CO2-eq/t of ECM). However, without grassland carbon sequestration, the grass-based and confinement dairy systems had similar carbon footprints per tonne of ECM. Emission algorithms and allocation of GHG emissions between milk and meat also affected the relative difference and order of dairy system carbon footprints. For instance, depending on the method chosen to allocate emissions between milk and meat, the relative difference between the carbon footprints of grass-based and confinement dairy systems varied by 3 to 22%. This indicates that further harmonization of several aspects of the LCA methodology is required to compare carbon footprints of contrasting dairy systems. In

  18. Milk protein concentration, estimated breeding value for fertility, and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, John M; Auldist, Martin J; Douglas, Meaghan L; Macmillan, Keith L

    2017-07-01

    Milk protein concentration in dairy cows has been positively associated with a range of measures of reproductive performance, and genetic factors affecting both milk protein concentration and reproductive performance may contribute to the observed phenotypic associations. It was of interest to assess whether these beneficial phenotypic associations are accounted for or interact with the effects of estimated breeding values for fertility. The effects of a multitrait estimated breeding value for fertility [the Australian breeding value for daughter fertility (ABV fertility)] on reproductive performance were also of interest. Interactions of milk protein concentration and ABV fertility with the interval from calving date to the start of the herd's seasonally concentrated breeding period were also assessed. A retrospective single cohort study was conducted using data collected from 74 Australian seasonally and split calving dairy herds. Associations between milk protein concentration, ABV fertility, and reproductive performance in Holstein cows were assessed using random effects logistic regression. Between 52,438 and 61,939 lactations were used for analyses of 4 reproductive performance measures. Milk protein concentration was strongly and positively associated with reproductive performance in dairy cows, and this effect was not accounted for by the effects of ABV fertility. Increases in ABV fertility had important additional beneficial effects on the probability of pregnancy by wk 6 and 21 of the herd's breeding period. For cows calved before the start of the breeding period, the effects of increases in both milk protein concentration and ABV fertility were beneficial regardless of their interval from calving to the start of the breeding period. These findings demonstrate the potential for increasing reproductive performance through identifying the causes of the association between milk protein concentration and reproductive performance and then devising management

  19. Effects of alfalfa flavonoids on the production performance, immune system, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jinshun; Liu, Mingmei; Su, Xiaoshuang; Zhan, Kang; Zhang, Chungang; Zhao, Guoqi

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of alfalfa flavonoids on the production performance, immunity, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows. The experiments employed four primiparous Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas, and used a 4×4 Latin square design. Cattle were fed total mixed ration supplemented with 0 (control group, Con), 20, 60, or 100 mg of alfalfa flavonoids extract (AFE) per kg of dairy cow body weight (BW). The feed intake of the group receiving 60 mg/kg BW of AFE were significantly higher (pcontent of milk reduced (p = 0.05) linearly as AFE supplementation was increased. The somatic cell count of milk in group receiving 60 mg/kg BW of AFE was significantly lower (pruminal fermentation parameters were not affected by AFE supplementation. Relative levels of the rumen microbe Ruminococcus flavefaciens tended to decrease (p = 0.09) quadratically, whereas those of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens showed a tendency to increase (p = 0.07) quadratically in response to AFE supplementation. The results of this study demonstrate that AFE supplementation can alter composition of milk, and may also have an increase tendency of nutrient digestion by regulating populations of microbes in the rumen, improve antioxidant properties by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities, and affect immunity by altering the proportions of lymphocyte and neutrophil granulocytes in dairy cows. The addition of 60 mg/kg BW of AFE to the diet of dairy cows was shown to be beneficial in this study.

  20. Association between AA-NAT gene polymorphism and reproductive performance in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Ding-ping,Bai; Cheng-jiang,Yu; Yu-lin,Chen

    2012-01-01

    Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) is critical enzyme in Melatonin (MLT) biosynthesis for MLT regulating the animal seasonal breeding. In this study, DNA sequencing methods were applied to detect the polymorphisms of the AA-NAT gene in 179 Chinese sheep belonging to two non-seasonal reproduction breeds and two seasonal reproduction breeds. One mutation at exon 3 (NM_001009461:c.486A > G) was firstly described at the sheep AA-NAT locus. Hence, we described the SmaI PCR-RFLP m...

  1. Performance of Crossbred Dairy Cows Suitable for Smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    to put maximum efforts to improve routine management activities to maintain performance evaluated animals .... Cows with repeated heat may be served up to four times. Cows not ..... sire selection and to maximize production and productivity.

  2. Initial insights on the performances and management of dairy cattle herds combining two breeds with contrasting features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magne, M A; Thénard, V; Mihout, S

    2016-05-01

    Finding ways of increasing animal production with low external inputs and without compromising reproductive performances is a key issue of livestock systems sustainability. One way is to take advantage of the diversity and interactions among components within livestock systems. Among studies that investigate the influence of differences in animals' individual abilities in a herd, few focus on combinations of cow breeds with contrasting features in dairy cattle herds. This study aimed to analyse the performances and management of such multi-breed dairy cattle herds. These herds were composed of two types of dairy breeds: 'specialist' (Holstein) and 'generalist' (e.g. Montbeliarde, Simmental, etc.). Based on recorded milk data in southern French region, we performed (i) to compare the performances of dairy herds according to breed-type composition: multi-breed, single specialist breed or single generalist breed and (ii) to test the difference of milk performances of specialist and generalist breed cows (n = 10 682) per multi-breed dairy herd within a sample of 22 farms. The sampled farmers were also interviewed to characterise herd management through multivariate analysis. Multi-breed dairy herds had a better trade-off among milk yield, milk fat and protein contents, herd reproduction and concentrate-conversion efficiency than single-breed herds. Conversely, they did not offer advantages in terms of milk prices and udder health. Compared to specialist dairy herds, they produce less milk with the same concentrate-conversion efficiency but have better reproductive performances. Compared to generalist dairy herds, they produce more milk with better concentrate-conversion efficiency but have worse reproductive performances. Within herds, specialist and generalist breed cows significantly differed in milk performances, showing their complementarity. The former produced more milk for a longer lactation length while the latter produced milk with higher protein and fat

  3. Impact of heat stress on health and performance of dairy animals: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramendra Das

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability in livestock production system is largely affected by climate change. An imbalance between metabolic heat production inside the animal body and its dissipation to the surroundings results to heat stress (HS under high air temperature and humid climates. The foremost reaction of animals under thermal weather is increases in respiration rate, rectal temperature and heart rate. It directly affect feed intake thereby, reduces growth rate, milk yield, reproductive performance, and even death in extreme cases. Dairy breeds are typically more sensitive to HS than meat breeds, and higher producing animals are, furthermore, susceptible since they generates more metabolic heat. HS suppresses the immune and endocrine system thereby enhances susceptibility of an animal to various diseases. Hence, sustainable dairy farming remains a vast challenge in these changing climatic conditions globally.

  4. Reproductive and productive performance of crossbred dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crossbred cows are the main type of cattle used for milk production on smallholder and medium farms in urban and peri-urban areas of Morogoro Municipality. A study was undertaken on four medium-scale and forty five smallholder farms to investigate the reproductive and productive performance of crossbred maintained ...

  5. Associations among body condition score, body weight, and reproductive performance in seasonal-calving dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J R; Macdonald, K A; Burke, C R; Lee, J M; Berry, D P

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify and quantify relationships between body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in dairy cows with reproduction variables in pasture-based, seasonal-calving dairy herds. Over 2,500 lactation records from 897 spring-calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in the analyses. Eleven BCS- and 11 BW-related variables were generated, including observations at calving, nadir, planned start of mating (PSM), and first service, as well as days to nadir and the amount and rate of change between periods. The binary reproductive variables were cycling by PSM, mated in the first 21 d from PSM, pregnant to first service, and pregnant in the first 21, 42, and 84 d of the seasonal mating period. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify BCS and BW variables that significantly affected the probability of a successful reproductive outcome. After adjusting for the fixed effect of year of calving, parity (for cycling by PSM only), and the interval from calving to either first service or PSM, reproductive performance was found to be significantly affected by BW or BCS at key points, and by BCS and BW change during lactation. All reproductive response measures were negatively affected when BCS and BW measures indicated an increased severity and duration of the postpartum negative energy balance. In particular, cycling by PSM was positively associated with calving BCS, whereas pregnancy at 21, 42, and 84 d post-PSM were positively associated with nadir BCS and BW gain post-PSM, and negatively associated with BCS loss between calving and nadir. The results highlight the important role that BCS and BW loss has on reproductive performance, especially in seasonal-calving dairy systems because of the short period between calving and PSM.

  6. Temporal trends in reproductive performance in Irish dairy herds and associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee John F

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Irish dairy herd fertility has been declining since the 1980s. The extent, nature and causes of this decline in fertility and the current status of Irish dairy herd fertility were described. An increase in calving interval of approximately one day per year has been recorded. The principal components of this trend have been an increased incidence of postpartum endocrinopathies, reduced expression of oestrus and a fall in conception rate. Both submission rate and calving-to-service interval have increased slightly over time. Significant risk factors associated with these trends have been strain substitution within the Holstein-Friesian breed and single trait selection for milk production. Critically, these changes have been reflected in loss of body condition. Contributory factors included increased herd size and possibly increased use of DIYAI. The most recent Irish study showed that 48% of cows conceived to first service and 14% of cows were not pregnant at the end of the industry-average 15-week spring breeding season. However, the top quartile of herds achieved a first-service conception rate of 59%, illustrating the wide variation between herds. These phenotypic trends were attributed to both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. Recent Irish dairy herd fertility performance falls short of the targets set for seasonal compact calving.

  7. Production performance of lactating dairy cows at pasture fed concentrate supplemented with licuri oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano dos Santos Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimal level of licuri oil to use in the concentrate of lactating dairy cows on pasture, through growth performance, feed conversion and cost of the supplementation. A total of 16 dairy cows, Holstein × Zebu crossbreed, were kept on Tanzania grass pasture. Cows were divided into four Latin squares, 4 × 4, formed by four experimental periods of 21 days, divided into 17 days for adaptation and four days for data collection. Cows received three kg of concentrate per day at the time of milking, and the treatments consisted of four diets containing licuri oil at levels of 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% of the concentrated dry matter. There was a linear increase in the daily milk yield, corrected to 3.5% fat, and an improvement in the feed conversion of the dry matter and neutral detergent fiber with the inclusion of the licuri oil. The optimal level of licuri oil was 1.5% of the concentrated DM for dairy cows on pasture, whose level has the best profit sale of milk, with positive results in the corrected daily milk production and conversion of the feed nutrients.

  8. Listeria monocytogenes contamination in dairy plants: evaluation of Listeria monocytogenes environmental contamination in two cheese-making plants using sheeps milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Ibba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes harbouring niches established in the processing plant support post-process contamination of dairy products made from pasteurised or thermised milk. The present study investigated L. monocytogenes environmental contamination in two sheep’s milk cheese-making plants. Persistence of contamination in the area at higher risk was also investigated. During a one-year survey 7 samplings were carried out in each dairy plant, along the production lines of Pecorino Romano and ricotta salata cheese. A total of 613 environmental samples collected from food contact and non-food contact surfaces were analysed according to ISO 11290-1:2005 standard method. Identification of the isolated strains was carried out by polymerase chain reaction. L. monocytogenes prevalence was 23.2% in dairy A and 13.1% in dairy B, respectively. The higher prevalence rate was found in the following areas: salting, products washing, packaging, ricotta salata storage and Pecorino Romano ripening rooms. L. monocytogenes was never found in the cheese-making area. The probability of observing samples positive for the presence of L. monocytogenes was asso- ciated with dairy plant, sampling area and the period of cheese-making (P<0.001. The greater persistence of contamination over time was observed in the washing, salting, and Pecorino Romano ripening areas. The control of persistent environmental contamination relies on the identification of L. monocytogenes niches within the processing environment and the prevention of harborage sites formation. The importance of strict cleaning and sanitising procedure in controlling L. monocytogenes environmental contamination is confirmed by the lower level of contamination observed after these procedures were correctly implemented.

  9. Effects of chestnut tannins on performance and antioxidative status of transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H W; Zhou, D W; Li, K

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chestnut tannins (CT) on performance and antioxidative status of transition dairy cows. Twenty multiparous Chinese Holstein cows in late gestation were paired according to expected calving date and randomly assigned either to a diet supplemented with CT (CNT, 10 g of CT/kg of diet, dry matter basis) or to an unsupplemented control (CON) diet from 3 wk prepartum to 3 wk postpartum. Blood samples were taken on d -21, 1, 7, and 21 relative to calving for analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and malondialdehyde (MDA). Liver samples were taken by puncture biopsy on d 1 and 21 relative to calving for analysis of SOD, GSH-Px, and MDA. Data were analyzed for a completely randomized block design with repeated measures. The addition of CT had no significant effects on dry matter intake, body weight, body condition score, milk yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, and milk composition but did decrease milk MDA and somatic cell score in transition dairy cows. Dry matter intake decreased from d -21 to 0 and increased from d 1 to 21 relative to calving across treatments. During the experimental period, body weight and body condition score decreased, whereas milk MDA and somatic cell score increased across treatments. A time effect was also observed for plasma MDA, which peaked on d 1 relative to calving and remained higher than that on d -21 relative to calving across treatments. Addition of CT decreased MDA concentrations in plasma and liver. Neither time nor CT × time effects were observed for SOD and T-AOC in plasma and SOD and GSH-Px in liver; a time effect was observed for plasma GSH-Px, which peaked on d 1 relative to calving and remained higher than those on d -21 relative to calving across treatments. Addition of CT increased SOD, GSH-Px, and T-AOC activities in plasma and SOD and GSH-Px activities in liver. In conclusion, addition of CT might

  10. Influence of Non-fibrous Carbohydrate and Degradable Intake protein and Ruminal Fermentation ,Nutrien Digestion and performance of Local Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efka AR

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of current study was to evaluate the impact dietary non-fibrous carbohydrate ( NFC and ruminally degradable intake protein (DIP concentration have on ruminal fermentation , nutrient digestion and performance of local sheep. The animal had a mean of  liveweight 19.80 ±1.55 kg. four diets ,arranged in a 2x2 factorial ,were formulated to contain either 40 or 50 % NFC and 50 or 60 % of dietary crude protein as DIP .dietary DM contained 25 % Indonesian field grass and 75 % concentrate. Solvent –extracted or formaldehyd  2 % -treated soybean meal were used to alter DIP and corn or soybean hulls to alter NFC level. Percentage of  energy and NDF digestion was similar ( p<0,01 as DIP level decreased in the diets. The soybean hulls was fermentable and total VFA concentration in the rumen increased ( p<0.01, but N-NH3 concentration was decreased ( p<0.01 as DIP level decreased in the diets. Daily live weight gain ( 146.29±25.84 g and body composition ( fat, water , protein and mineral was similar ( p<0.05 among diets. The preponderance ruminal fermentation ,nutrient digestion and performance of local sheeps did not be improved by sincronization of energy and nitrogen release but may more likely be limited by either energy or nitrogen alone. (Animal Production 3(2: 53-61 (2001 Key Word : Carbohydrate, protein, rumen fermentation, nutrients digestion and performance

  11. Diagnostic performance of cytology for assessment of hepatic lipid content in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, M M; Yao, B; Ríos, C; Wong, C; Mann, S; McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Leal Yepes, F A; Viesselmann, L; Geick, A; Goldin, K; Jordan, A; Behling-Kelly, E

    2018-02-01

    The objective of our study was to characterize the diagnostic performance of cytology for assessing hepatic lipid content (HLC) in dairy cows by comparing microscopic evaluation of lipid vacuolation in touch imprint slide preparations of liver biopsies with quantitative measurement of triglyceride concentration ([TG]; mg/mg of wet weight) in paired biopsy samples. Our study also sought to compare the diagnostic performance of liver cytology, plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration ([NEFA]), and plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration ([BHB]) derived from a measurement performed on whole blood, for assessing HLC. Chemical extraction of TG from liver tissue remains the gold standard for quantifying HLC, largely because available blood tests, although useful for detecting some types of pathology, such as increased lipid mobilization, ketosis, or hepatocellular injury, are nonspecific as to etiology. Veterinary practitioners can sample bovine liver for cytological evaluation in a fast, minimally invasive, and inexpensive manner. Thus, if highly predictive of HLC, cytology would be a practical diagnostic tool for dairy veterinarians. In our study, liver biopsy samples from Holstein cows (219 samples from 105 cows: 52 from cows 2 to 20 d prepartum, 105 from cows 0 to 10 d in milk, 62 from cows 18 to 25 d in milk) were used to prepare cytology slides and to quantify [TG] using the Folch extraction method followed by the Hantzch condensation reaction and spectrophotometric measurement. An ordinal scale (0-4) based on amount of hepatocellular cytoplasm occupied by discrete clear vacuoles was used by 3 blinded, independent observers to rank HLC in Wright-Giemsa-stained slides. Interobserver agreement in cytology scoring was good. Corresponding plasma [NEFA] and [BHB] measurements were available for 187 and 195 of the 219 samples, respectively. Liver [TG] correlated more strongly with cytology score than with NEFA or BHB, and receiver operating characteristic curve

  12. Factors affecting the reproductive performance of Awassi sheep flocks in north-east of Jordan: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafi, S Q; Talafha, A Q; Giadinis, N; Kalaitzakis, E; Pourliotis, K; Panousis, N

    2009-12-01

    A prospective cohort study was conducted using 32 randomly selected Awassi sheep flocks to identify factors hypothesized to be associated with the occurrence of pregnancy, twinning and fetal loss between August 2005 and May 2006 in the region of Al-Safawi (northeast of Jordan). Vitamins A and E and selenium concentrations were determined on 448 blood samples. Using the forward selection procedure of the logistic regression module, models with statistically significant risk factors (P loss. Serum vitamin A concentration levels were associated with pregnancy (OR = 2.26, 2.48), twinning (OR = 6.49, 17.74) and fetal loss (OR = 0.13, 0.19). Primiparous ewes were 48% less likely to become pregnant than fourth or higher parity ewes. The likelihood of twinning increased significantly in ewes up to the third parity. Ewes that were fed 700-900 g barley, 250-300 g wheat-bran per head per day and grazed on vegetables residues were 4.15 times more likely to have twins than ewes that were fed 600 g barley and 200 g wheat-bran per head per day. Fetal loss in first and second parity ewes was about 3 times more likely than that in third or higher-parity ewes. Ewes pregnant with twins were about 14 times more likely to have fetal loss than ewes carrying single fetus. Pregnant ewes of the stationary flocks were 37% less likely to have fetal loss than ewes of the semi-nomadic flocks. These results demonstrate that stationary Awassi sheep flocks had higher pregnancy and twinning rates and less pregnancy loss. Supplementation of vitamin A, providing sufficient quantity of dry feed and increasing ram: ewe ratio for primiparous ewes of semi-nomadic flocks is essential to improve Awassi sheep reproductive performance.

  13. Performance and carcass characteristics of dairy steers fed diets containing crude glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raylon Pereira Maciel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of the study was to assess the effects of including 0, 79.8, 159.8, and 240.0 g kg-1 crude glycerin in the total diet dry matter on the 84 days feedlot performance, nutrient digestibility, blood parameters, and carcass characteristics of crossbred dairy steers. Experimental diets were composed of 98.5 g kg-1 of sorghum silage and 901.5 g kg-1 of concentrate. Twenty-four crossbred dairy steers (337.3±39.8 kg body weight and 15 months of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and six replicates. The intake and digestibility of the dry matter and nutrients were not altered by including crude glycerin in the diet. Crude glycerol levels did not affect the final weight (430.2 kg, daily weight gain (1.38 kg day-1, total weight gain (97.2 kg, hot carcass weight (218.9 kg, cold carcass weight (215.2 kg, hot carcass yield (0.50 kg 100 kg-1 BW, longissimus dorsi area (62.86 cm², subcutaneous fat thickness (4.05 mm, and carcass physical composition. Concentrations of serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and creatinine were not altered by including crude glycerin in the diet. Crude glycerin can be added to high concentrate diet up to 240 g kg-1 without changing the animal performance, apparent digestibility of nutrients, the main carcass characteristics, and blood parameters of finishing crossbred dairy steers.

  14. Records of performance and sanitary status from a dairy cattle herd in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio E. F. Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the emphasis on the health of dairy cows has changed from an individual to a herd level. In this scenario, the role played by the recording system and its interpretation by veterinarians has gained primordial importance. The records of productive and reproductive performance and of sanitary status from a southern Brazilian dairy cattle herd have been presented and discussed. The period of study was 2000-2009. Mean values per lactation period were 349D 8436M 290F 275P 201SCS (D: days in lactation, M: kg of milk yield, F: kg of fat, P: kg of protein and SCS: somatic cell score in 1000 cells/ml of milk. Major indexes of reproductive efficiency included age at first calving (31 months, services per conception (2.1, intercalving interval (428 days, calving to conception interval (146 days, mean annual rates of parturitions (76.2%, fetal losses (9.8-19.0%, and stillbirths (3.6%, apart of voluntary waiting period (94 days. Main information on sanitary status of the herd was associated with the mean prevalence of common disorders of dairy cattle such as anaplasmosis (29.8%, mastitis (27.8%, digital diseases (26.3%, ovarian cysts (21.3%, placental retention (19.7%, postpartum uterine infections (10.6%, and calf diarrhea (23.7% and pneumonia (16.8%, among others. In addition, culling reasons (low reproductive performance [56.3%] and udder/mastitis problems [33.6%], causes of cattle deaths (anaplasmosis [16.4%] and leukosis [11.4], and the impact of cattle diseases such as tuberculosis, leukosis, and neosporosis on the herd have also been presented and succinctly discussed. Numbers between brackets represent rates accumulated in the 10-year period.

  15. Effect of Borax and cysteamine compound on finishing sheep growth performance, nitrogen retention, serum biochemical indices and body protein motabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Xinyao' Xie Hongbing; Wei Gangcai; Wang Hong

    2009-01-01

    Experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of borax, cysteamine and the mixture of two compounds on growth performance, serum biochemical indices, protein turn-over and nitrogen aggradation of sheep by using isotope ( 15 N-Gly) technique, nitrogen balance trial and serum testing. The results showed that both borax and cysteamine could increase the growth performance of sheep, especially the cysteamine and its mixture with borax, which increased average daily feed intake (P 3 ) and levothyroxine (T 4 ) of mixture were higher than that of control group (P<0.05), and the concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1) were also significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.01). There was no significant difference of insulin (INS) between experiment groups and control group (P<0.05). Both mixture and borax contributed to increasing nitrogen retention, net nitrogen utilization, digestibility and biological value. Both borax and cysteamine accelerated protein degradation rate, apparent amino acid utilization rate and net amino acid utilization rate as well as biological value, body protein and oxidation rate, but the former was greater than the later. (authors)

  16. Influence of subclinical endometritis on the reproductive performance of dairy cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, M.; Vigo, M.; Quintela, L.A.; Becerra, J.J.; García-Herradón, P.J.; Martínez-Bello, D.; Fernandez-Sanchez, F.I.; Prieto, A.; Cainzos, J.; Peña, A.I.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of subclinical endometritis (SE) on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Ninety-four dairy cows of parity 1 to 8, distributed in 25 herds, were examined once between 30 and 45 days in milk using transrectal palpation, vaginoscopy and ultrasonography. A cytological sample of the endometrium was taken only from cows with an apparent healthy uterus (n=65). Serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, total proteins, albumin, urea and hepatic enzymes were analyzed. Reproductive indexes were recorded during the next 11 months. Endometrial cytology was considered indicative of SE if percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils was superior to 5% of all cells present in the smear, except erythrocytes. Results indicated that 14.9% of the cows sampled for uterine cytology had SE, and that healthy cows become pregnant significantly before than those with SE (hazard ratio=2.35; 95% confidece interval: 1.05-5.3). From all the metabolic and productive variables analyzed, only triglycerides affected negatively to reproduction; serum albumin concentration, body condition score and milk production had positive effects on the reproductive performance. In conclusion, our results indicate that SE has a negative impact on reproductive performance and uterine cytology is necessary to diagnose it since almost 15% of the affected animals were not detected by other diagnosis methods. (Author)

  17. The Effect of Kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus) on the Performance of Dairy Cattle fed on Kenaf and Napier grass (Pennisetum Purpereum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang'ara, J.N.N.; Kariuki, I.W.; KIruiro, E.M.; Ngugi, F.K.; Mwangi, J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Studies at PRC-Embu in 1996, indicated Kenaf to be a fast growing crop under low moisture condition. As a forage, it yielded between 2300-11300 kg ha -1 DM in AEZ LM3 and LM4, respectively. It could thus, supplement the Napier grass as a fodder for dairy cattle in the marginal and low potential areas which have perennial shortage of quality forage for dairy cattle. Trials were thus conducted to evaluate the effect supplementing Kenaf silage to Napier grass on growth and milk production of dairy cattle. First atrial using dairy calves was set to determine the effect of Kenaf silage fed at three different levels namely 0%, 50% and 100%. A second was also set using lactating dairy cattle fed with Napier at three levels of Kenaf silage viz. 50%, 25% and 0%. Results indicated that, the dry matter intake of Kenaf silage alone (3.28 kg day -1 ) was lower than a combination of Kenaf silage and Napier (3.93 kg day -1 ) and that of Napier alone (4.08 kg day -1 ). also a combination of 50:50 Napier and Kenaf silage gave a better animal performance than either Napier or Kenaf silage alone. It was concluded that, Kenaf silage is a good supplement for Napier in Marginal and low potential dairy zones of Kenaf silage

  18. e-Dairy: a dynamic and stochastic whole-farm model that predicts biophysical and economic performance of grazing dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudracco, J; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Holmes, C W; Comeron, E A; Macdonald, K A; Barry, T N

    2013-05-01

    A whole-farm, stochastic and dynamic simulation model was developed to predict biophysical and economic performance of grazing dairy systems. Several whole-farm models simulate grazing dairy systems, but most of them work at a herd level. This model, named e-Dairy, differs from the few models that work at an animal level, because it allows stochastic behaviour of the genetic merit of individual cows for several traits, namely, yields of milk, fat and protein, live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS) within a whole-farm model. This model accounts for genetic differences between cows, is sensitive to genotype × environment interactions at an animal level and allows pasture growth, milk and supplements price to behave stochastically. The model includes an energy-based animal module that predicts intake at grazing, mammary gland functioning and body lipid change. This whole-farm model simulates a 365-day period for individual cows within a herd, with cow parameters randomly generated on the basis of the mean parameter values, defined as input and variance and co-variances from experimental data sets. The main inputs of e-Dairy are farm area, use of land, type of pasture, type of crops, monthly pasture growth rate, supplements offered, nutritional quality of feeds, herd description including herd size, age structure, calving pattern, BCS and LW at calving, probabilities of pregnancy, average genetic merit and economic values for items of income and costs. The model allows to set management policies to define: dry-off cows (ceasing of lactation), target pre- and post-grazing herbage mass and feed supplementation. The main outputs are herbage dry matter intake, annual pasture utilisation, milk yield, changes in BCS and LW, economic farm profit and return on assets. The model showed satisfactory accuracy of prediction when validated against two data sets from farmlet system experiments. Relative prediction errors were <10% for all variables, and concordance

  19. ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF SHEEP MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Ángeles Hernández

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic production systems are based on natural processes, leveraging local resources and decreasing in soil degradation. Effectiveness of milk production of organic systems vs. conventional production systems is a subject open to debate. There are various studies in which there is a positive effect of organic systems in relation to the welfare and animal health, product quality and environmental impact. However, some authors report lower milk yields production and increased susceptibility to environmental conditions compared with those obtained in conventional systems. The lower milk yields in organic systems in Dairy sheep's production, are related to the limited nutritional value, low genetic potential, and the changing environmental conditions. These systems are mainly a production method for a specific market with premium quality products and high standards in their production processes. Thus, a company organic Dairy sheep production should be considered viable when present a positive global sustainability level, that is socially beneficial, economically viable and environmentally responsible.

  20. Standardinng initial cooling of sheep semen before freezing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sheep semen before freezing. C. Kemp. Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute, Private Bag X2,. Irene, 1675 Republic of South Africa. Received 6 June 1985. A practical and repeatable method for the cooling, during the processing phase, of sheep semen, with the aim of minimizing inter-experiment variation is ...

  1. Local versus Global Environmental Performance of Dairying and Their Link to Economic Performance: A Case Study of Swiss Mountain Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Repar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Complying with the carrying capacity of local and global ecosystems is a prerequisite to ensure environmental sustainability. Based on the example of Swiss mountain dairy farms, the goal of our research was firstly to investigate the relationship between farm global and local environmental performance. Secondly, we aimed to analyse the relationship between farm environmental and economic performance. The analysis relied on a sample of 56 Swiss alpine dairy farms. For each farm, the cradle-to-farm-gate life cycle assessment was calculated, and the quantified environmental impacts were decomposed into their on- and off-farm parts. We measured global environmental performance as the digestible energy produced by the farm per unit of global environmental impact generated from cradle-to-farm-gate. We assessed local environmental performance by dividing farm-usable agricultural area by on-farm environmental impact generation. Farm economic performance was measured by work income per family work unit, return on equity and output/input ratio. Spearman’s correlation analysis revealed no significant relationship, trade-offs or synergies between global and local environmental performance indicators. Interestingly, trade-offs were observed far more frequently than synergies. Furthermore, we found synergies between global environmental and economic performance and mostly no significant relationship between local environmental and economic performance. The observed trade-offs between global and local environmental performance mean that, for several environmental issues, any improvement in global environmental performance will result in deterioration of local environmental performance and vice versa. This finding calls for systematic consideration of both dimensions when carrying out farm environmental performance assessments.

  2. Direct and carryover effect of post-grazing sward height on total lactation dairy cow performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganche, E; Delaby, L; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Kennedy, E

    2013-08-01

    Grazing pastures to low post-grazing sward heights (PGSH) is a strategy to maximise the quantity of grazed grass in the diet of dairy cows within temperate grass-based systems. Within Irish spring-calving systems, it was hypothesised that grazing swards to very low PGSH would increase herbage availability during early lactation but would reduce dairy cow performance, the effect of which would persist in subsequent lactation performance when compared with cows grazing to a higher PGSH. Seventy-two Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (mean calving date, 12 February) were randomly assigned post-calving across two PGSH treatments (n = 36): 2.7 cm (severe; S1) and 3.5 cm (moderate; M1), which were applied from 10 February to 18 April (period 1; P1). This was followed by a carryover period (period 2; P2) during which cows were randomly reassigned within their P1 treatment across two further PGSH (n = 18): 3.5 cm (severe, SS and MS) and 4.5 cm (moderate, SM and MM) until 30 October. Decreasing PGSH from 3.5 to 2.7 cm significantly decreased milk (-2.3 kg/cow per day), protein (-95 g/day), fat (-143 g/day) and lactose (-109 g/day) yields, milk protein (-1.2 g/kg) and fat (-2.2 g/kg) concentrations and grass dry matter intake (GDMI; -1.7 kg dry matter/cow per day). The severe PGSH was associated with a lower bodyweight (BW) at the end of P1. There was no carryover effect of P1 PGSH on subsequent milk or milk solids yields in P2, but PGSH had a significant carryover effect on milk fat and lactose concentrations. Animals severely restricted at pasture in early spring had a higher BW and slightly higher body condition score in later lactation when compared with M1 animals. During P2, increasing PGSH from 3.5 to 4.5 cm increased milk and milk solids yield as a result of greater GDMI and resulted in higher mean BW and end BW. This study indicates that following a 10-week period of feed restriction, subsequent dairy cow cumulative milk production is unaffected. However, the substantial

  3. Effects of Supplemental Levels of Fermentation Product on Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of different supplemental levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Original XP; Diamond V on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows under heat stress. Eighty-one multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided into 27 blocks of 3 cows each based on milk yield (23.6±0.20 kg/d, parity (2.88±0.91 and day in milk (204±46 d. The cows were randomly assigned within blocks to one of three treatments: 0 (control, 120, or 240 g/d of SCFP mixed with 240, 120, or 0 g of corn meal, respectively. The experiment was carried out during the summer season of 2014, starting from 14 July 2014 and lasting for 9 weeks with the first week as adaption period. During the experimental period, average daily temperature-humidity index (measured at 08:00, 14:00, and 20:00 was above 68, indicating that cows were exposed to heat stress throughout the study. Rectal temperatures tended to decrease linearly (p = 0.07 for cows supplemented with SCFP compared to the control cows at 14:30, but were not different at 06:30 (p>0.10. Dry matter intake was not affected by SCFP supplementation (p>0.10. Milk yield increased linearly (p0.10 was observed among the treatments in conversion of dietary crude protein to milk protein yield. In summary, supplementation of SCFP alleviated the negative effect of heat stress in lactating Holstein dairy cows and allowed cows to maintain higher milk production, feed efficiency and net energy balance. Effects of SCFP were dose-dependent and greater effects were observed from higher doses.

  4. Production performance and plasma metabolites of dairy ewes in early lactation as affected by chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Rodriguez, A.; Arranz, J.; Mandaluniz, N.; Beltrán-de-Heredia, I.; Ruiz, R.; Goiri, I.

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of chitosan (CHI) supplementation on production performance and blood parameters in dairy ewes. Twenty-four multiparous Latxa dairy ewes at d 16 of lactation were divided into two groups of 12 ewes each. Ewes were fed one of two experimental concentrates (0.840 kg dry matter/d), control or supplemented with 1.2% CHI, on a dry matter basis. Ewes also had free access to tall fescue hay, water, and mineral salts. The experimental period lasted for 25 d, of which the first 14 d were for treatment adaptation and the last 11 d for measurements and samplings. Supplementation with CHI decreased total (p=0.043) and fescue (p=0.035) dry matter intake (DMI), but did not affect concentrate DMI. Supplementation with CHI, moreover, increased plasma glucose (p=0.013) and BUN concentrations (p=0.035), but did not affect those of non-esterified fatty acids. Dietary supplementation with CHI, however, did not affect milk yield, 6.5% FCM, milk composition, or BW, but it improved dietary apparent efficiency by increasing the milk yield-to-DMI (p=0.055) and 6.5% FCM-to-DMI (p=0.045) ratios. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of chitosan maintained ewe performance while reducing feed intake and improving dietary apparent efficiency. (Author)

  5. Nutraceutic effect of free condensed tannins of Lysiloma acapulcensis (Kunth) benth on parasite infection and performance of Pelibuey sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, Cesar; Arece-García, Javier; Rojo-Rubio, Rolando; Mendoza-Martínez, German David; Albarrán-Portillo, Benito; Vázquez-Armijo, José Fernando; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Olmedo-Juárez, Agustín; Marie-Magdeleine, Carine; López-Leyva, Yoel

    2017-01-01

    Forty-five Pelibuey sheep were experimentally infested with nematodes to evaluate the effect of three free condensed tannin (FCT) levels of Lysiloma acapulcensis on fecal egg counts (FECs), packed cell volumes (PCV), ocular mucosa colors (OMC), average daily gain (ADG), and adult nematode count. Five treatments were used: 12.5, 25.0, and 37.5 mg of FCT kg -1 of body weight (BW); sterile water (control); and ivermectine (0.22 mg kg -1 of BW) as chemical group. The data were processed through repeated measurement analysis. Even though the three FCT doses decreased (P < 0.05) the FEC, the highest reduction was obtained with 37.5 mg kg -1 of BW. No differences were observed in PCV and OMC. Higher ADG (P < 0.05) was observed with 37.5 mg kg -1 of BW of FCT. The count of adult nematodes (females and males) in the higher dose of FCT was similar to chemical treatment. Dose of 37.5 mg kg -1 of BW decreased the parasite infection and improved the lamb performance. Therefore, this dose could be used as a nutraceutic product in sheep production.

  6. Effects of alfalfa flavonoids on the production performance, immune system, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshun Zhan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to examine the effects of alfalfa flavonoids on the production performance, immunity, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows. Methods The experiments employed four primiparous Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas, and used a 4×4 Latin square design. Cattle were fed total mixed ration supplemented with 0 (control group, Con, 20, 60, or 100 mg of alfalfa flavonoids extract (AFE per kg of dairy cow body weight (BW. Results The feed intake of the group receiving 60 mg/kg BW of AFE were significantly higher (p<0.05 than that of the group receiving 100 mg/kg BW. Milk yields and the fat, protein and lactose of milk were unaffected by AFE, while the total solids content of milk reduced (p = 0.05 linearly as AFE supplementation was increased. The somatic cell count of milk in group receiving 60 mg/kg BW of AFE was significantly lower (p<0.05 than that of the control group. Apparent total-tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and crude protein showed a tendency to increase (0.05

  7. Effect of drinking water temperature on water intake and performance of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huuskonen, A; Tuomisto, L; Kauppinen, R

    2011-05-01

    Very limited information is available on the effects of drinking water temperature on dairy calves. Therefore, the present experiment was designed to study the effects on performance, health, and water consumption of dairy calves offered drinking water either warm (16 to 18 °C) or cold (6 to 8 °C). The calves (60 calves/treatment) were housed in an insulated barn in pens (3.0 × 3.5m; 5 calves in each) providing 2.1m(2)/calf. During the experimental period (20 to 195 d of age), the calves had free access to water from an open water bowl (depth 80 mm, diameter 220 mm, 2-L capacity, 1 bowl/pen). During the preweaning period (20 to 75 d of age), all calves received milk replacer (7.5L/calf daily) and had free access to commercial starter, grass silage, and hay. During the postweaning period (75 to 195 d), the weaned calves had free access to grass silage and hay and were given 3 kg/d (air-dry basis) of a commercial concentrate mixture. During the preweaning period, the water intake of the calves offered warm water was 47% higher than that of the calves offered cold water. Water intake in both treatments increased rapidly during weaning and for a few days following weaning. At 180 to 195 d of age, the calves consumed approximately 18 to 20 L of water daily. Calves offered warm water drank 7 and 8% more water during the postweaning period and overall during the experimental period, respectively, compared with those offered cold water. No treatment differences were observed in dry matter or energy intakes, body weight gains, or feed conversion rates. Furthermore, total serum IgG concentrations of the calves did not differ during the preweaning or postweaning periods. Dairy calves consumed more warm than cold water, but the increase in water intake did not influence feed intake, body weight gain, or health parameters. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of feeding rumen-protected methionine on productive and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Mateus Z; Baez, Giovanni M; Garcia-Guerra, Alvaro; Lobos, Nelson E; Guenther, Jerry N; Trevisol, Eduardo; Luchini, Daniel; Shaver, Randy D; Wiltbank, Milo C

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of daily top-dressing (individually feeding on the top of the total mixed ration) with rumen-protected methionine (RPM) from 30 ± 3 until 126 ± 3 Days in milk on productive and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cows. A total of 309 lactating dairy Holstein cows (138 primiparous and 171 multiparous) were randomly assigned to treatment diets containing either RPM (21.2 g of RPM + 38.8 g of dried distillers grain; 2.34% Methionine [Met] of metabolizable protein [MP]) or Control (CON; 60 g of dried distillers grain; 1.87% Met of MP). Plasma amino acids were evaluated at the time of artificial insemination (AI) and near pregnancy diagnosis. Milk production and milk composition were evaluated monthly. Pregnancy was diagnosed on Day 28 (by Pregnancy-specific protein B [PSPB]), 32, 47, and 61 (by ultrasound) and sizes of embryonic and amniotic vesicle were determined by ultrasound on Day 33 after AI. Feeding RPM increased plasma Met at 6, 9, 12, and 18 hours after top-dressing with a peak at 12 hours (52.4 vs 26.0 μM; P maintenance in multiparous cows. Further studies are needed to confirm these responses and understand the biological mechanisms that underlie these responses as well as the timing and concentrations of circulating Met that are needed to produce this effect.

  9. Monitoring reproductive performance of cross-bred dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahab, S.; Jainudeen, M.R.; Azizuddin, K.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reports on the reproductive performance of smallholder dairy cross-bred cattle in Malaysia, as monitored by milk progesterone radioimmunoassay and rectal palpation. Infertility was identified as the major problem faced by the smallholder farmers. The results show that there is a strong and significant association between suckling and delayed post-partum ovarian activity. The longer calving intervals in smallholder dairy herds compared with those in institutional herds are due to inactive ovaries rather than failure to detect oestrus. The use of a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) for treatment of anoestrus resulted in 93% of cows cycling, with a conception rate of 46% to insemination at the induced oestrus. Cows that suckled their calves had significantly longer calving intervals. The mean body score for cattle on smallholder herds was 3.8 -+ 1.1, and fertile cows had significantly higher scores than infertile cows. There was strong evidence to suggest that increased body scores corresponded to shorter intervals between calving and resumption of sexual activity, calving and conception, and successive calvings. (author). 12 refs, 4 tabs

  10. Performance of crossbred calves raised on different dietary treatments under smallholder dairy farm conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyimo, H L N; Laswai, G H; Mtenga, L A

    2010-01-01

    and was formulated using locally available feed resources. Twenty-seven (27) male calves, with birth weight 32 ± 1.5 kg were randomly allocated to three treatments, whereby Treatment 1 (DC) calves were fed the developed concentrate, Treatment 2 (FC) calves were fed a common home made dairy cow concentrate (CP 130 g......An on-farm study was carried out in Tanzania to assess the performance of crossbred (Frisian/Ayrshire x Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu) dairy calves fed on a concentrate, previously developed and tested on-station. The developed concentrate contained 189 g crude protein (CP) and 13 ME MJ per kg DM...... and ME 13 MJ per kg DM) used by farmers in the study area. Treatment 3 (FP) was a control, where farmers followed their normal calf rearing practice with no interference. Restricted suckling, ad libitum feeding of forages and up to 1 kg concentrate were used for the calves on DC and FC. Weaning was at 12...

  11. Performance of dairy goats fed diets with dry yeast from sugar cane as protein source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Soares de Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of inactive dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae from sugar cane were studied in 18 primiparus Saanen dairy goats (51.07±1.43 on dry matter intake and digestibility, milk production and quality. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design during 90 days (from day 60 of milking. Diets were composed of soybean meal; soybean meal + dry yeast; or dry yeast, as protein sources, and ground corn, mineral supplement and corn silage (40%. Animals fed the dry yeast diet showed lower intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein, ether extract and neutral detergent fiber. Diets did not influence milk yield; however the milk production efficiency (kg of milk produced/kg of crude protein ingested was better in goats fed the dry yeast diet. Acidity, somatic cell counts and milk urea nitrogen values were not affected by treatments. Animals fed the soybean + dry yeast diet had higher fat and total solids than those fed the dry yeast diet. The digestibility of DM, OM and total carbohydrate was lower for soybean only and soybean + dry yeast diets. Total digestible nutrients were higher for dry yeast and soy bean diets than soybean + dry yeast diet. Dry yeast from sugar cane is a good alternative protein source for feeding lactating dairy goats and can be recommended because it maintains the production performance.

  12. Effects of biotin supplementation on performance and claw lesions on a commercial dairy farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsten, C; Greenough, P R; Gay, J M; Seymour, W M; Gay, C C

    2003-12-01

    A controlled 14-mo field trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of biotin supplementation on hoof lesions, milk production, and reproductive performance in a commercial dairy herd. One hundred seventy cows were studied and supplemented with either 0 or 20 mg/d of biotin by computer feeder. All were housed in the same free-stall facility with the same environment, base diet, and management. The feet of 99 cows were trimmed three times at 6-mo intervals, and hoof health was evaluated. Milk production and fertility data were captured monthly by the Dairy Herd Improvement Association. At the final hoof trimming, sole hemorrhages were significantly higher in control (50%) vs. biotin-supplemented animals (24%). The incidents of cows affected with double soles, hoof wall grooves, and heel horn erosion did not differ between control and biotin-supplemented animals. Biotin supplementation of trimmed cows resulted in 878 kg more milk than control cows when compared with previous lactation yield (n = 46 biotin supplemented, n = 48 control cows). At the end of the study, for both trimmed and untrimmed animals, biotin supplemented cows (n = 81) produced 481 kg more milk and 25 kg more fat than the controls (n = 81). There was no interaction between biotin supplementation and hoof trimming on milk production. There were variations in the response of fertility to biotin between age groups. First lactation heifers fed supplemental biotin had significantly fewer days from calving to conception and required fewer inseminations per pregnancy than controls of the same parity.

  13. Relationship of hepatic lipidosis to health and performance in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloff, B J; Herdt, T H; Emery, R S

    1986-04-15

    In a field study of 80 cows in 9 dairy herds, serial liver biopsies were performed over the peripartum period to determine degree of hepatic lipidosis. Cattle were separated into categories of mild, moderate, and severe hepatic lipidosis on the basis of maximal amounts of hepatic triglyceride that accumulated during this period. Number of cattle with mild, moderate, and severe hepatic lipidosis were 52, 16, and 12, respectively. Cattle with severe hepatic lipidosis had greater concentrations of hepatic triglyceride before calving and after parturition, and greater serum nonesterified fatty acid concentrations and body condition loss after parturition than cattle with mild hepatic lipidosis. Rate of disease and culling and death rate because of disease were greater in cattle with severe hepatic lipidosis. Cattle with severe hepatic lipidosis had reproductive performance equal to clinically normal cattle; however, cattle with moderate hepatic lipidosis had increased days to conception, possibly related to greater milk production.

  14. Control of the reproductive performance of Chios sheep and Damascus goats: Studies using hormone radioimmuoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrogenis, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of environment on conception rate and litter size, and of the goat status and age in the preceding season on the time of oestrus appearance were studied. Furthermore, the effect of season of kidding and daily milk production at the occurrence of oestrus on 'days open' was examined. Environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, age of goat or management and feeding could not account for the variation in reproductive behaviour. Ovarian activity monitored for 53 weeks showed that: there was a short period of anoestrus from late March to early July; conventional methods of heat detection are inadequate; there was an irregular heat wave in July which was not followed by repeated cycles; and the regular breeding season for the Damascus goat is in autumn (September to December) and the average length of the cycle is 21 days. The duration of oestrus was studied in parous and non-parous goats following oestrus synchronization with progesterone analogue and PMSG. Overt oestrus appeared 31.1 h (range 24-48 h) after the removal of sponges, and continued for 36-44 h. Its duration was somewhat longer in parous compared to non-parous goats. Serum progesterone levels correlated with oestrus detection by vasectomized males. Milk and blood samples were collected at regular intervals starting three days post-partum to study post-partum anoestrus in Chios sheep. Progesterone assays, carried out using skimmed milk and blood serum, showed that first ovulation occurred approximately within 30 days post-partum. Progesterone levels were much higher in serum than in skimmed milk. It is suggested that Chios sheep have ovulations during the suckling period although overt oestrus could not always be detected by vasectomized males. 50 refs, 8 figs, 7 tabs

  15. Innovative look at dairy heifer rearing: Effect of prenatal and post-natal environment on later performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eetvelde, M; Opsomer, G

    2017-08-01

    As heifer rearing is a costly investment, dairy farmers have been stimulated to maximize early growth of their calves, mainly by enhanced liquid feeding. However, the long-term effects of this "accelerated growth" are largely unknown. Studies recently performed at Ghent University indicate that in dairy cattle, certain maternal factors (such as young age and high milk yield) and environmental factors (such as high ambient temperatures) create a suboptimal environment for the developing foetus, altering the phenotype of the newborn calf. According to the "thrifty phenotype hypothesis," these metabolic alterations prepare the newborn for similar ("matching") conditions after birth, enhancing its survival during periods of limited feeding. Yet, when an abundance of nutrients is available in post-natal life (e.g., during periods of enhanced feeding), the "mismatch" between pre- and post-natal environment results in an early catch-up growth, with potential negative consequences. The aim of the article was to discuss this mismatch between pre- and post-natal environment in dairy calves. Previous studies, especially in human medicine, have shown catch-up growth to be associated with obesity, fertility problems, metabolic diseases and a reduced lifespan. Hence, we hypothesize that, by applying programs of accelerated growth, our current management system accentuates the mismatch between the pre- and post-natal environment in dairy calves. We can conclude that, although more research is necessary, the current findings point towards a more individual approach when rearing dairy heifers. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Effect of feeding of different sources of NPN on production performance of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Karcol

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of feeding of different sources of NPN on nutrient utilization and production performance of dairy cows under field conditions. Balancing diets for crude protein without consideration of protein quality or rumen degradability often led to overfeeding of nitrogen and less than optimum production. High yielding dairy cows separated in two groups with 85 resp. 80 cows in each were set up for the trial. Groups were consistent according the stage of production and reproduction cycle as well as age structure. Both groups were fed concentrate mixture with the same composition with only difference in NPN/ microbial protein source, with same dosage of 100 g per cow and day. Field trial was performed for period of 3 subsequent months. Performance data were collected in accordance with official milk recording. In both groups majority of cows were on first lactation. Significant differences in daily milk production were observed 2.87 kg (P<0.01 for group 2, in fat content 0.07 % for group 2 non-significant, whereas in protein content 0.18% for group 1 significant (P<0.01 in case of first lactations. If considering first tree lactations, group 2 produced 1.7 kg milk per day more (P<0.08, with 0.05% fat more and 0.002 % protein less than group 1. The space created in dry matter intake by a concentrated slow-release NPN can be filled with high quality forage that could reduce the cost of feeding while maintaining levels of production.

  17. The impact of controlled nutrition during the dry period on dairy cow health, fertility and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, David E

    2006-12-01

    problems which can affect peri-parturient cows. A new feeding strategy based on a low energy: high fibre ration (9 MJ metabolisable energy and 130 g crude protein/kg ration dry matter) containing high levels of chopped straw and offered ad libitum as a total mixed ration throughout the whole dry period is proposed. The performance of 32 dairy farms in France where this strategy has been adopted for at least 3 years is provided, with positive outcomes now being obtained by UK and Irish dairy farmers. Independent US research evidence has confirmed some of these benefits whilst limited data on cow fertility is presented. It is hypothesised that luxury feeding during the dry period can cause cows to become insulin resistant leading to an increased risk of type II diabetes. Such cows are likely to have poorer fertility whilst possible mechanisms which increase the risk of peri-parturient health problems are discussed. Further research to understand the mechanisms of these effects is required and is currently ongoing. However the magnitude of the effects noted on an increasing number of dairy farms suggests this approach to feeding the dry cow is capable of bringing real benefits to many dairy herds in terms of fewer health problems, reduced body condition loss and improved fertility.

  18. Effect of concentrate feeding method on the performance of dairy cows in early to mid lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, P J; Law, R A; Gordon, A W; McGettrick, S A; Ferris, C P

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of concentrate feeding method on milk yield and composition, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), body weight and body condition score, reproductive performance, energy balance, and blood metabolites of housed (i.e., accommodated indoors) dairy cows in early to mid lactation. Eighty-eight multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were managed on 1 of 4 concentrate feeding methods (CFM; 22 cows per CFM) for the first 21 wk postpartum. Cows on all 4 CFM were offered grass silage plus maize silage (in a 70:30 ratio on a DM basis) ad libitum throughout the study. In addition, cows had a target concentrate allocation of 11 kg/cow per day (from d 13 postpartum) via 1 of 4 CFM, consisting of (1) offered on a flat-rate basis via an out-of-parlor feeding system, (2) offered based on individual cow's milk yields in early lactation via an out-of-parlor feeding system, (3) offered as part of a partial mixed ration (target intake of 5 kg/cow per day) with additional concentrate offered based on individual cow's milk yields in early lactation via an out-of-parlor feeding system, and (4) offered as part of a partial mixed ration containing a fixed quantity of concentrate for each cow in the group. In addition, all cows were offered 1 kg/cow per day of concentrate pellets via an in-parlor feeding system. We detected no effect of CFM on concentrate or total DMI, mean daily milk yield, concentrations and yields of milk fat and protein, or metabolizable energy intakes, requirements, or balances throughout the study. We also found no effects of CFM on mean or final body weight, mean or final body condition score, conception rates to first service, or any of the blood metabolites examined. The results of this study suggest that CFM has little effect on the overall performance of higher-yielding dairy cows in early to mid lactation when offered diets based on conserved forages. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association

  19. Invited review: Carryover effects of early lactation feeding on total lactation performance in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carina; Spörndly, R; Bertilsson, J

    2016-01-01

    In comparison with the intensive research on the direct effects of energy supply on dairy cow lactation performance, little attention has been paid to the effect of early lactation feeding on subsequent production. The present paper reviews 9 studies carried out with the aim of quantifying...... the immediate and subsequent responses in milk production and body weight to early lactation feeding. Most results showed that a more generous feeding in early lactation caused a positive carryover effect on subsequent production, whereas an inadequate level of feed in early lactation has been shown to reduce...... to be determined by several factors including duration of the treatment and post-treatment feeding level. The most important factor though appears to be the magnitude of over- or underfeeding (i.e., a strong relationship between the treatment period feeding level and the subsequent response in production)....

  20. Effects of bovine leukemia virus infection on crossbred and purebred dairy cattle productive performance in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Souza Rajão

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV infection on productive performance of dairy cattle in Brazil. A total of 158 blood samples from lactating adult cows, purebred Holstein and crossbred Holstein X Zebu, were analyzed by Agar Gel Immunodifusion Test (AGID and leukogram. According to AGID and leukogram results, animals were grouped into three categories: seronegative, seropositive without persistent lymphocytosis, and seropositive with persistent lymphocytosis. Milk production data were compared between groups, according to breed. BLV infected females showed lower milk yield than uninfected ones, both purebred and crossbred ones. There was no difference between milk yield of seropositive cows with or without persistent lymphocytosis. These results indicate an association between BLV infection and reduction of milk production, and this study is the first one to show these effects in crossbred Holstein X Zebu cows.

  1. Correlation between the Insertion/Deletion Mutations of Prion Protein Gene and BSE Susceptibility and Milk Performance in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Shen-rong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the 23 bp and 12 bp insertion/deletion (indel mutations within the bovine prion protein (PRNP gene in Chinese dairy cows, and to detect the associations of two indel mutations with BSE susceptibility and milk performance.

  2. Evaluation of norgestomet Crestar® on oestrus synchronization and reproductive performance of dairy cows in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhanine Ayad

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: The norgestomet Crestar® treatment carried out during 9–10 days did not improve reproductive performance in dairy cattle. However, these data demonstrate that this hormonal protocol can be used to obtain high oestrus cow rates to initiate correct timing of insemination.

  3. Effect of feeding a reduced-starch diet with or without amylase addition on lactation performance in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gencoglu, H.; Shaver, R.D.; Steinberg, W.; Ensink, J.; Ferraretto, L.F.; Bertics, S.J.; Lopes, J.C.; Akins, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine lactation performance responses of high-producing dairy cows to a reduced-starch diet compared with a normal-starch diet and to the addition of exogenous amylase to the reduced-starch diet. Thirty-six multiparous Holstein cows (51 +/- 22 DIM and 643 +/-

  4. Effects of a combination of feed additives on methane production, diet digestibility, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.; Fonken, B.C.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Perdok, H.B.; Fokkink, W.B.; Newbold, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of a mixture of dietary additives on enteric methane production, rumen fermentation, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows. Identical diets were fed in both experiments. The mixture of feed additives

  5. The effect of subclinical ketosis on activity at estrus and reproductive performance in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Andrew J; Oikonomou, Georgios; Smith, Robert F

    2016-06-01

    Our aims were to investigate the influence of subclinical ketosis (SCK) on physical activity at estrus using a neck accelerometer device and on future reproductive performance. Two hundred three Holstein-Friesian cows were studied on 3dairy farms in Northwest England between September 2013 and March 2014. Seventeen percent (35 of 203) of the enrolled cows were affected with SCK between 7 and 21d in milk, defined as a blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration of 1.2 to 2.9mmol/L. Time to event analyses and multivariable regression analyses were used to assess the effect of SCK on reproductive performance and activity at estrus. The SCK cows exhibited a lower peak activity (measured as the number of standard deviations above mean activity) and shorter duration in activity clusters associated with first estrus and first insemination postpartum, compared with non-SCK cows. Peak activity and cluster duration associated with the insemination that led to a pregnancy were not different between SCK and non-SCK cows. Calving to first estrus, calving to first insemination, and calving to pregnancy intervals were prolonged in SCK cows. First insemination was 4.3 times (95% confidence interval=1.6 to 15.0) less likely to be successful in SCK cows compared with non-SCK cows. Adjusted mean number of inseminations per pregnancy was 2.8 for SCK cows and 2.0 for non-SCK cows. The current study confirms the long-lasting effects of SCK on reproductive efficiency. Furthermore, it is indicated that physical activity around estrus is reduced by SCK in early lactation, but this negative effect appears to diminish as cows progress through lactation. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of rumen-protected methionine, lysine, and histidine on lactation performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallongo, F; Harper, M T; Oh, J; Lopes, J C; Lapierre, H; Patton, R A; Parys, C; Shinzato, I; Hristov, A N

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing a metabolizable protein (MP)-deficient diet with rumen-protected (RP) Met, Lys, and His, individually or combined, on the performance of lactating dairy cows. The experiment was a 9-wk randomized complete block design with 72 Holstein cows. Following a 2-wk covariate period, cows were blocked by days in milk, milk yield, and parity, and randomly assigned to 1 of the following 6 treatments: (1) MP-adequate diet [MPA; +243g/d MP balance, according to the National Research Council (2001) requirements]; (2) MP-deficient diet (MPD; -54g/d MP balance); (3) MPD supplemented with RPMet (MPDM); (4) MPD supplemented with RPLys (MPDL); (5) MPD supplemented with RPHis (MPDH); and (6) MPD supplemented with RPMet, RPLys, and RPHis (MPDMLH). Dry matter intake (DMI), yields of milk and milk components (fat, protein, lactose) and energy-corrected milk (ECM), feed and ECM feed efficiencies, and milk and plasma urea N were decreased by MPD, compared with MPA. Supplementation of the MPD diet with RPLys increased milk protein content and plasma glucose concentration and tended to increase milk urea N. Addition of RPHis tended to increase DMI, increased milk protein concentration, and numerically increased yields of milk fat, protein, and ECM. In addition to the trends for increased DMI and milk fat content, and higher milk protein concentration, supplementation of the 3 RP AA also increased yields of milk fat, protein, and ECM and ECM feed efficiency. Relative to MPA, milk N efficiency tended to be increased by MPD. Concentrations of plasma essential AA (except Met and Thr) were decreased by MPD compared with MPA. Supplementation of RPMet, RPLys, and RPHis increased plasma Met (except for MPDM), Lys, and His concentrations, respectively. Cows fed MPD had lower blood hemoglobin concentration and numerically higher plasma ghrelin than cows fed MPA. Concentration of total saturated fatty acids in milk fat were or

  7. Green leaf allowance and dairy ewe performance grazing on tropical pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, J; Batistel, F; Ticiani, E; Sandri, E C; Pedreira, C G S; Oliveira, D E

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explain the influence of green leaf allowance levels on the performance of dairy ewes grazing a tropical grass. Seventy-two lactating ewes grazed Aruana guineagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Aruana) for 80 d. The treatments were 4 daily levels of green leaf allowance (GLA) on a DM basis corresponding to 4, 7, 10, and 13 kg DM/100 kg BW, which were named low, medium-low, medium-high, and high level, respectively. The experimental design was completely randomized with 3 replications. During the experimental period, 4 grazing cycles were evaluated in a rotational stocking grazing method (4 d of grazing and 16 d of rest). There was a linear effect of GLA on forage mass, and increasing GLA resulted in increased total leaf mass, reaching an asymptotic plateau around the medium-high GLA level. The stem mass increased with increased GLA, and a pronounced increase was observed between medium-high and high GLAs. Increasing GLA increased both forage disappearance rate and postgrazing forage mass. Leaf proportion increased with GLA, peaking at the medium-high level, and the opposite occurred for stem proportions, which reduced until medium-high GLA level, followed by an increase on high GLA. Forage CP decreased linearly with GLA, and increasing GLA from low to high reduced CP content by 31%. On the other hand, NDF increased 14% and ADF increased 26%, both linearly in response to greater GLA levels. Total digestible nutrients decreased linearly by 8% when GLA increased from low to high level. Milk yield increased, peaking at medium-high GLA (1.75 kg ewe(-1) d(-1)) and decreased at high GLA level (1.40 kg ewe(-1) d(-1)). Milk composition was not affected by the GLA levels. There was a reduction in stocking rate from 72 to 43 ewes/ha when GLA increased from low to high level. Productivity (milk yield kg ha(-1) d(-1)) increased as GLA increased, peaking at medium-low level (115 kg ha(-1) d(-1)). Although this tropical grass showed the same

  8. Genetic parameters of performance traits in Sul-Mato-Grossenses naturalized sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Portela de Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of genetic parameters are important to study characteristics that are to be included in a breeding program of a genetic group. The information of 594 weights from 211 lambs of a genetic group of naturalized Sul-mato-grossenses sheep belonging to Manoel de Barros Foundation and breeding at Centro Tecnologico de Ovinos from Anhanguera-Uniderp University was used. The estimation of variance components in unicaracter and bicaracter analysis were carried out through Bayesian inference. Estimates of heritability ranged from unicaracter analyses (0.22 to 0.47 and the bicaracter analyses (0.13 to 0.78. The maternal environmental permanent effect was higher in birth weight and average daily gain from birth to 50 days in 24.2% and 19.5%, respectively, in the observed variation. Estimates of heritability, maternal environmental permanent effect participation, phenotypic and genetic correlations indicate that selection for average daily gain from birth to 90 days would imply increases in weight at 50 days, weight at 90 days and average daily gain from 50 to 90 days of lambs with no significant increase in birth weight and average daily gain birth at 50 days.

  9. Factors determining the reproductive potential of Pelibuey sheep: Effects of season and parturition on reproductive performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Reyna, A.; Ortega Rivas, E.; Murphy, B.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Pelibuey sheep in Mexico are known for their hardiness and reproductive capacity: as a result they represent a reliable source of animal protein especially at the village level. Although their reproductive parameters have been studied, little endocrinological information is available. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the annual reproductive cycle in the Pelibuey ram and ewe, and to study methods of shortening the interval from parturition to first oestrus in lactating post-partum ewes. Under conditions of nutrition and management prevailing in this study, season affected levels of testosterone and LH in the male and LH in the female. Season also influenced oestrous activity, the proportion of ewes ovulating per month and the mean ovulation rate per month. The results indicated that the majority of Pelibuey ewes cycle throughout the year but exhibit reduced gonadal activity during late winter. Pelibuey rams appear to have longer periods of reduced activity (during late autumn and winter), although testosterone levels suggest that rams return to their full reproductive activity earlier (late winter) than ewes. (author). 30 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  10. Growth and Performance of the Ugandan Dairy Sector: Elites, Conflict and Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Mwebaze, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Abstract – The dairy sector is one of the only agricultural sectors in Uganda that has enjoyed sustained high growth since the late 1980s. Milk and the cold dairy chain developed especially in the South-Western part of the country. Some farmers have since adopted improved breeds and better...

  11. Effect of neosporosis on productive and reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, J.J.; Breda, van S.; Vargas, B.; Dolz, G.; Frankena, K.

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the effect of neosporosis on productive and reproductive parameters in dairy cows. Cows (n = 2743) from 94 farms located in the most important dairy areas in Costa Rica were used in the study. The size of the herds ranged from 32 to 379 females (mean =

  12. Evaluation of two dairy herd reproductive performance indicators that are adjusted for voluntary waiting period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löf Emma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall reproductive performance of dairy herds is monitored by various indicators. Most of them do not consider all eligible animals and do not consider different management strategies at farm level. This problem can be alleviated by measuring the proportion of pregnant cows by specific intervals after their calving date or after a fixed time period, such as the voluntary waiting period. The aim of this study was to evaluate two reproductive performance indicators that consider the voluntary waiting period at the herd. The two indicators were: percentage of pregnant cows in the herd after the voluntary waiting period plus 30 days (PV30 and percentage of inseminated cows in the herd after the voluntary waiting period plus 30 days (IV30. We wanted to assess how PV30 and IV30 perform in a simulation of herds with different reproductive management and physiology and to compare them to indicators of reproductive performance that do not consider the herd voluntary waiting period. Methods To evaluate the reproductive indicators we used the SimHerd-program, a stochastic simulation model, and 18 scenarios were simulated. The scenarios were designed by altering the reproductive management efficiency and the status of reproductive physiology of the herd. Logistic regression models, together with receiver operating characteristics (ROC, were used to examine how well the reproductive performance indicators could discriminate between herds of different levels of reproductive management efficiency or reproductive physiology. Results The logistic regression models with the ROC analysis showed that IV30 was the indicator that best discriminated between different levels of management efficiency followed by PV30, calving interval, 200-days not-in calf-rate (NotIC200, in calf rate at100-days (IC100 and a fertility index. For reproductive physiology the ROC analysis showed that the fertility index was the indicator that best discriminated

  13. Genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits and performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthy, T R; Ryan, D P; Fitzgerald, A M; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits derived from ultrasound examination of the reproductive tract and a range of performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The performance traits investigated included calving performance, milk production, somatic cell score (i.e., logarithm transformation of somatic cell count), carcass traits, and body-related linear type traits. Detailed reproductive traits included (1) resumed cyclicity at the time of examination, (2) multiple ovulations, (3) early ovulation, (4) heat detection, (5) ovarian cystic structures, (6) embryo loss, and (7) uterine score, measured on a 1 (little or no fluid with normal tone) to 4 (large quantity of fluid with a flaccid tone) scale, based on the tone of the uterine wall and the quantity of fluid present in the uterus. (Co)variance components were estimated using a repeatability animal linear mixed model. Genetic merit for greater milk, fat, and protein yield was associated with a reduced ability to resume cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlations ranged from -0.25 to -0.15). Higher genetic merit for milk yield was also associated with a greater genetic susceptibility to multiple ovulations. Genetic predisposition to elevated somatic cell score was associated with a decreased likelihood of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of -0.32) and a greater risk of both multiple ovulations (genetic correlation of 0.25) and embryo loss (genetic correlation of 0.32). Greater body condition score was genetically associated with an increased likelihood of resumption of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of 0.52). Genetically heavier, fatter carcasses with better conformation were also associated with an increased likelihood of resumed cyclicity by the time of examination (genetic correlations ranged from 0.24 to 0.41). Genetically heavier carcasses were associated with an inferior uterine score as well as a greater

  14. Prebiotic Low Sugar Chocolate Dairy Desserts: Physical and Optical Characteristics and Performance of PARAFAC and PCA Preference Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, E C; Esmerino, E A; Monteiro, R A; Pinheiro, C M; Nunes, C A; Cruz, A G; Bolini, Helena M A

    2016-01-01

    The addition of prebiotic and sweeteners in chocolate dairy desserts opens up new opportunities to develop dairy desserts that besides having a lower calorie intake still has functional properties. In this study, prebiotic low sugar dairy desserts were evaluated by 120 consumers using a 9-point hedonic scale, in relation to the attributes of appearance, aroma, flavor, texture, and overall liking. Internal preference map using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using the consumer data. In addition, physical (texture profile) and optical (instrumental color) analyses were also performed. Prebiotic dairy desserts containing sucrose and sucralose were equally liked by the consumers. These samples were characterized by firmness and gumminess, which can be considered drivers of liking by the consumers. Optimization of the prebiotic low sugar dessert formulation should take in account the choice of ingredients that contribute in a positive manner for these parameters. PARAFAC allowed the extraction of more relevant information in relation to PCA, demonstrating that consumer acceptance analysis can be evaluated by simultaneously considering several attributes. Multiple factor analysis reported Rv value of 0.964, suggesting excellent concordance for both methods. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Factors associated with the financial performance of spring-calving, pasture-based dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsbottom, G; Horan, B; Berry, D P; Roche, J R

    2015-05-01

    As land becomes a limiting resource for pasture-based dairy farming, the inclusion of purchased supplementary feeds to increase milk production per cow (through greater dry matter intake) and per hectare (through increased stocking rate) is often proposed as a strategy to increase profitability. Although a plausible proposition, virtually no analysis has been done on the effect of such intensification on the profitability of commercial pasture-based dairy farm businesses. The objective of this study was to characterize the average physical and financial performance of dairy systems differing in the proportion of the cow's diet coming from grazed pasture versus purchased supplementary feeds over 4 yr, while accounting for any interaction with geographic region. Physical, genetic, and financial performance data from 1,561 seasonal-calving, pasture-based dairy farms in Ireland were available between the years 2008 and 2011; data from some herds were available for more than 1 yr of the 4-yr study period, providing data from 2,759 dairy farm-years. The data set was divided into geographic regions, based on latitude, rainfall, and soil characteristics that relate to drainage; these factors influence the length of the pasture growth season and the timing of turnout to pasture in spring and rehousing in autumn. Farms were also categorized by the quantity of feed purchased; farms in which cows received 30% of their annual feed requirements from purchased feed were considered to be categories representative of increasing levels of system intensification. Geographic region was associated with differences in grazing days, pasture harvested per hectare, milk production per cow and per hectare, and farm profitability. Farms in regions with longer grazing seasons harvested a greater amount of pasture [an additional 19kg of dry matter (DM)/ha per grazing day per hectare], and greater pasture harvested was associated with increased milk component yield per hectare (58.4kg of fat

  16. Replacing soybean meal for cottonseed meal on performance of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Hugo; De Souza, Jonas; Batistel, Fernanda; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed meal (CSM) is an alternative source of protein, and previous studies have been shown that it can replace soybean meal (SBM) without decrease animal performance. However, Brazilian CSM has a different chemical composition compared with the usual CSM reported in the literature. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of replacing SBM for Brazilian CSM on performance and energy balance of mid-lactating dairy cows. Forty-two Holstein cows were used in a replicate 3 × 3 Latin square design. Increasing contents of CSM (0, 15, and 30% of dry matter (DM)) were fed in diets to replace SBM. Milk yield and feed efficiency were linearly reduced with the replacement of CSM for SBM (P = 0.001). Milk fat content tended to increase quadratically (P = 0.07) with CSM addition. Replacing SBM for CSM affected milk protein content quadratically (P = 0.05). Milk urea nitrogen and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) tended to respond quadratically (P = 0.06 and 0.10) when CSM replaced SBM to the diets. Variation in body weight (BW) also responded quadratically as CSM replaced SBM (P = 0.05). Altogether, the findings suggest better performance when cows receive SBM diet compared with the Brazilian CSM diet.

  17. Recent developments in cattle, pig, sheep and horse breeding - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Svitáková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to summarize new genetic approaches and techniques in the breeding of cattle, pigs, sheep and horses. Often production and reproductive traits are treated separately in genetic evaluations, but advantages may accrue to their joint evaluation. A good example is the system in pig breeding. Simplified breeding objectives are generally no longer appropriate and consequently becoming increasingly complex. The goal of selection for improved animal performance is to increase the profit of the production system; therefore, economic selection indices are now used in most livestock breeding programmes. Recent developments in dairy cattle breeding have focused on the incorporation of molecular information into genetic evaluations and on increasing the importance of longevity and health in breeding objectives to maximize the change in profit. For a genetic evaluation of meat yield (beef, pig, sheep, several types of information can be used, including data from performance test stations, records from progeny tests and measurements taken at slaughter. The standard genetic evaluation method of evaluation of growth or milk production has been the multi-trait animal model, but a test-day model with random regression is becoming the new standard, in sheep as well. Reviews of molecular genetics and pedigree analyses for performance traits in horses are described. Genome – wide selection is becoming a world standard for dairy cattle, and for other farm animals it is under development.

  18. Use of herd management programmes to improve the reproductive performance of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, S; Heuer, C; Morton, J; Brownlie, T

    2014-05-01

    There has been a long history of herd health and production management programmes in many dairy industries around the world, but evidence for the efficacy of such programmes is limited. In response to a perceived decline in fertility of dairy cows, a herd reproductive management programme (InCalf) was introduced in New Zealand in 2007. This programme uses a management cycle approach that includes an assessment of the current herd status, identification of areas for improvement, development of a plan, implementation of this plan and finally a review process. The programme uses facilitators who work with farmers either in a one-to-one manner or in a formalised group setting that involves a series of meetings over a 12-month period (the farmer action group). The hypothesis that involvement in a reproductive management programme would improve herd reproductive performance was tested using a herd-level controlled randomised study (the National Herd Fertility Study) involving herds in four geographic regions of New Zealand over 2 years. Within each region, herds were ranked on the basis of the 6-week in-calf rate (i.e. the proportion of the herd pregnant in the first 6 weeks of the seasonal breeding programme) in the year preceding commencement of the study and then randomly assigned to be involved in a farmer action group or left as untreated controls. The key outcome variable of the study was the 6-week in-calf rate. Pregnancy diagnosis was undertaken at 12 weeks after the start of the seasonal breeding programme, which allowed determination of conception dates and hence calculation of the 6-week in-calf rate. Additional measurements including heifer live weight and body condition score (pre-calving and pre-mating) were undertaken to test whether treatment resulted in measurable changes in some of the key determinants of herd reproductive performance. Involvement in the farmer action group of InCalf resulted in a 2 percentage point increase in the 6-week in-calf rate

  19. Performance and carcass yield of crossbred dairy steers fed diets with different levels of concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Gabriel Santana; Chaves Véras, Antônia Sherlanea; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; Moreira Dutra, Wilson; Menezes Wanderley Neves, Maria Luciana; Oliveira Souza, Evaristo Jorge; Ramos de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando; de Lima, Dorgival Morais

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of diets with increasing concentrate levels (170, 340, 510 and 680 g/kg of total dry matter) on dry matter intake, digestibility, performance and carcass characteristics of 25 Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers in a feedlot. A completely randomized design was used, and data were submitted to analysis of variance and regression. The dry matter intake and digestibility coefficients of all nutrients increased linearly. The total weight gain and average daily gain added 1.16 kg and 9.90 g, respectively, for each 10 g/kg increase in concentrate. The empty body weight, hot carcass weight and cold carcass weight responded linearly to increasing concentrate. The hot carcass yield and cold carcass yield, gains in empty body weight and carcass gain were also influenced, as were the efficiencies of carcass deposition and carcass deposition rate. It is concluded that increasing concentrate levels in feedlot diets increase the intake and digestibility of dry matter and other nutrients, improving the feed efficiency, performance and physical characteristics of the carcass. Furthermore and of importance concerning the climate change debate, evidence from the literature indicates that enteric methane production would be reduced with increasing concentrate levels such as those used.

  20. Novel high-performance metagenome β-galactosidases for lactose hydrolysis in the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erich, Sarah; Kuschel, Beatrice; Schwarz, Thilo; Ewert, Jacob; Böhmer, Nico; Niehaus, Frank; Eck, Jürgen; Lutz-Wahl, Sabine; Stressler, Timo; Fischer, Lutz

    2015-09-20

    The industrially utilised β-galactosidases from Kluyveromyces spp. and Aspergillus spp. feature undesirable kinetic properties in praxis, such as an unsatisfactory lactose affinity (KM) and product inhibition (KI) by galactose. In this study, a metagenome library of about 1.3 million clones was investigated with a three-step activity-based screening strategy in order to find new β-galactosidases with more favourable kinetic properties. Six novel metagenome β-galactosidases (M1-M6) were found with an improved lactose hydrolysis performance in original milk when directly compared to the commercial β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis (GODO-YNL2). The best metagenome candidate, called "M1", was recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) in a bioreactor (volume 35 L), resulting in a total β-galactosidase M1 activity of about 1100 μkatoNPGal,37 °C L(-1). Since milk is a sensitive and complex medium, it has to be processed at 5-10 °C in the dairy industry. Therefore, the β-galactosidase M1 was tested at 8 °C in milk and possessed a good stability (t1/2=21.8 d), a desirably low apparent KM,lactose,8 °C value of 3.8±0.7 mM and a high apparent KI,galactose,8 °C value of 196.6±55.5 mM. A lactose hydrolysis process (milk, 40 nkatlactose mLmilk,8 °C(-1)) was conducted at a scale of 0.5L to compare the performance of M1 with the commercial β-galactosidase from K. lactis (GODO-YNL2). Lactose was completely (>99.99%) hydrolysed by M1 and to 99.6% (w/v) by K. lactis β-galactosidase after 25 h process time. Thus, M1 was able to achieve the limit of lactose per litre milk, which is recommended for dairy products labelled as "lactose-free". Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Late-gestation heat stress abatement on performance and behavior of Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, M T; Ghorbani, G R; Kargar, S; Drackley, J K

    2015-10-01

    performance of dairy cows in subsequent lactation. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Econometric analysis of the performance of cooperatives and investor owned firms in the European dairy industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soboh, R.A.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Cooperatives, IOFs, European dairy industry, logistic regression, stochastic frontier analysis, inter- and intra-firm efficiency, catch-up component, data envelopment analysis, hyperbolic technical efficiency, overall efficiency, scale efficiency, bootstrapping.

    In this study

  3. Improving the performance of dairy cattle with a xylanase-rich exogenous enzyme preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, J J; Macias, E G; Ma, Z X; Martins, R M; Staples, C R; Beauchemin, K A; Adesogan, A T

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine effects of adding 2 exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) to the total mixed ration (TMR) on the performance of lactating dairy cows (experiment 1) and the kinetics of ruminal degradation of the diet (experiment 2). Twelve EFE had been screened in a series of in vitro assays that identified the most potent EFE and their optimal doses for increasing the digestibility of bermudagrass. In experiment 1, 66 Holstein cows (21±5 d in milk) were grouped by previous milk production and parity (45 multiparous and 21 primiparous) and assigned randomly to 1 of the following 3 treatments: (1) control (CON, untreated), (2) Xylanase Plus [2A, 1mL/kg of TMR dry matter (DM); Dyadic International, Jupiter, FL], and (3) a 75:25 (vol/vol) mixture of Cellulase Plus and Xylanase Plus EFE (3A, 3.4mL/kg of TMR DM; Dyadic International). The EFE were sprayed twice daily onto a TMR (10% bermudagrass silage, 35% corn silage, 5% alfalfa-orchardgrass hay mixture, and 50% concentrates; DM basis) and fed for a 14-d training and covariate period and a 70-d measurement period. Experiment 2 aimed to examine the in situ DM ruminal degradability and ruminal fermentation measurements of the diets fed in experiment 1. Three ruminally fistulated lactating Holstein cows were assigned to the diets. The experiment had a 3×3 Latin square design with 23-d periods. In experiment 1, application of 2A increased intakes (kg/d) of DM (23.5 vs. 22.6), organic matter (21.9 vs. 20.9), and crude protein (3.9 vs. 3.7) and tended to increase yields (kg/d) of fat-corrected milk (41.8 vs. 40.7) and milk fat (1.48 vs. 1.44). In particular, 2A increased milk yield (kg/d) during wk 3 (41.2 vs. 39.8, tendency), 6 (41.9 vs. 40.1), and 7 (42.1 vs. 40.4), whereas 3A increased milk yield (kg/d) during wk 6 (41.5 vs. 40.1, tendency), 8 (41.8 vs. 40.0), and 9 (40.9 vs. 39.5, tendency). In experiment 2, EFE treatment did not affect ruminal DM degradation kinetics or ruminal pH, ammonia

  4. Effects of rumen-protected γ-aminobutyric acid on performance and nutrient digestibility in heat-stressed dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J B; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q; Sun, X Z; Pan, L; Zhou, L Y; Liu, W

    2014-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of rumen-protected γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on performance and nutrient digestibility in heat-stressed dairy cows. Sixty Holstein dairy cows (141±15 d in milk, 35.9±4.3kg of milk/d, and parity 2.0±1.1) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments according to a completely randomized block design. Treatments consisted of 0 (control), 40, 80, or 120mg of true GABA/kg of dry matter (DM). The trial lasted 10wk. The average temperature-humidity indices at 0700, 1400, and 2200h were 78.4, 80.2, and 78.7, respectively. Rectal temperatures decreased linearly at 0700, 1400, and 2200h with increasing GABA concentration. Supplementation of GABA had no effect on respiration rates at any time point. Dry matter intake, energy-corrected milk, 4% fat-corrected milk, and milk fat yield tended to increase linearly with increasing GABA concentration. Supplementation of GABA affected, in a quadratic manner, milk protein and lactose concentrations, and milk protein yield, and the peak values were reached at a dose of 40mg of GABA/kg. Milk urea nitrogen concentration responded quadratically. Total solids content increased linearly with increasing GABA concentration. Supplementation of GABA had no effect on milk yield, lactose production, total solids, milk fat concentration, somatic cell score, or feed efficiency. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were similar among treatments. These results indicate that rumen-protected GABA supplementation to dairy cows can alleviate heat stress by reducing rectal temperature, increase DM intake and milk production, and improve milk composition. The appropriate supplemental GABA level for heat-stressed dairy cows is 40mg/kg of DM. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimizing productivity, herd structure, environmental performance, and profitability of dairy cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, D; Cabrera, V E

    2015-04-01

    This study used the Integrated Farm System Model to simulate the whole farm performance of a representative Wisconsin dairy farm and predict its economic and environmental outputs based on 25 yr of daily local weather data (1986 to 2010). The studied farm, located in southern Wisconsin, had 100 milking cows and 100 ha of cropland with no replacement heifers kept on the farm. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the effect of management strategies on energy-corrected milk production (ECM; 4.0% fat and 3.5% protein), net return to management, and greenhouse gas (GHG; including biogenic CO2) emission. The management strategies included (1) target milk production, for which the model optimized available resources to attain, and (2) herd structure, represented by the percentage of first-lactation cows. Weather conditions affected the outputs by changing the farm quantity and the quality of produced feed resources. As expected, when target milk production increased, the ECM increased positively and linearly to a certain level, and then it increased nonlinearly at a decreasing rate, constrained by available feed nutrients. Thereafter, the ECM reached the maximum potential milk production and remained flat regardless of higher target milk production input. Greenhouse gas emissions decreased between 3.4 and 7.3% at different first-lactation cow percentages. As the first-lactation cow percent increased from 15 to 45% in 5% intervals, GHG increased between 9.4 and 11.3% at different levels of target milk production. A high percentage of first-lactation cows reduced the maximum potential milk production. Net return to management had a similar changing trend as ECM. As the target milk production increased from 9,979 to 11,793 kg, the net return to management increased between 31 and 46% at different first-lactation cow percentages. Results revealed a win-win situation when increasing milk production or improving herd structure, which concurrently increased farm net

  6. Nitrogen efficiency of eastern Canadian dairy herds: Effect on production performance and farm profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadul-Pacheco, L; Pellerin, D; Chouinard, P Y; Wattiaux, M A; Duplessis, M; Charbonneau, É

    2017-08-01

    486.9 g/d, respectively, with increasing NE among clusters. Income over feed cost increased from $14.3 to $17.3/cow per day (Can$) as NE among clusters augmented. Results from this study showed that some farms were able to achieve high NE by using lower levels of dietary N and having cows with lower DMI while maintaining milk performance. These farms had a potentially lower environmental impact, and they were more profitable. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of body condition score at mating on the reproductive performance of Kivircik sheep under an extensive production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Murat; Altin, Tufan; Karaca, Orhan; Cemal, Ibrahim; Bardakcioglu, Husnu Erbay; Yilmaz, Onur; Taskin, Turgay

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the body condition score (BCS) of ewes before and during the mating season on their reproductive performance under an extensive production system. In this study, 240 Kivircik sheep from the flocks of two breeders were used for over a 2-year period. The flocks were fed under extensive conditions on natural pastures throughout the year. The ewes were synchronized in two different periods, one of which was 45 days before the other. Before the introduction of rams to the ewes, the ewes were weighed after measuring their BCS. Detailed records were kept for every flock in each year. We found significant effects of BCS on pregnancy rate, lambing rate (P < 0.05) and fecundity (P < 0.05). The BCS for the highest pregnancy, lambing rate, and fecundity was determined between 2.01 and 3.00, while the lowest rates for these traits were ≤ 1.50. The highest rates of the pregnancy rate, lambing rate, and fecundity and gestation productivity were 75.9%, 70.9%, 1.11 and 3.34 kg, respectively.

  8. Performance evaluation and adaptability of lactating dairy cows fed soybean and its by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria de Vasconcelos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to evaluate the lactation performance and adaptability of confined dairy cows fed diets containing soybean and its by-products, this study used 12 Holsteincows with initial production of 30 kg milk-1 day-1 day-1 in feedlot system distributed in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The experimental period lasted 84 days. The dry matter intake (DMI and meteorological variables were recorded daily. Milk production was measured from the 15th to the 21st day, with milk analysis twice in each period, and physiological variables collected on the 15, 17th and 21st days of each experimental period. The thermal comfort indices and rectal temperature were considered normal, however the respiratory frequency and heart rate were different between the periods. Total milk production and percentage of crude protein were not affected. The thermal environment had influence on the CMS and on the percentage of milk fat in warmer periods, but the mechanism of heat dissipation was efficient for the animals to maintain homeothermy without affecting milk production.

  9. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL in sheep. IV. Analysis of lactation persistency and extended lactation traits in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Mary K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sheep dairy production, total lactation performance, and length of lactation of lactation are of economic significance. A more persistent lactation has been associated with improved udder health. An extended lactation is defined by a longer period of milkability. This study is the first investigation to examine the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTL for extended lactation and lactation persistency in sheep. Methods An (Awassi × Merino × Merino single-sire backcross family with 172 ewes was used to map QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation traits on a framework map of 189 loci across all autosomes. The Wood model was fitted to data from multiple lactations to estimate parameters of ovine lactation curves, and these estimates were used to derive measures of lactation persistency and extended lactation traits of milk, protein, fat, lactose, useful yield, and somatic cell score. These derived traits were subjected to QTL analyses using maximum likelihood estimation and regression analysis. Results Overall, one highly significant (LOD > 3.0, four significant (2.0 Conclusion This study identified ten novel QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation in sheep, but results suggest that lactation persistency and extended lactation do not have a major gene in common. These results provide a basis for further validation in extended families and other breeds as well as targeting regions for genome-wide association mapping using high-density SNP arrays.

  10. Effects of forage offering method on performance, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility and nutritional behaviour in Holstein dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EbnAli, A; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Mahdavi, A H; Malekkhahi, M; Mirzaei, M; Pezeshki, A; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-10-01

    The potential effect of dietary forage supplementation on the performance and rumen development in dairy calves is well established. However, limited research has been directed to the comparative effects of forage offering methods on calf performance. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of forage provision methods (total mixed ration or free choice) on the performance, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and nutritional behaviour in newborn calves. Forty-five Holstein dairy calves (3 days of age and 41 ± 2 kg of body weight) were assigned to the following three groups (n = 15): (i) starter without forage provision (CON), (ii) starter supplemented with 10% alfalfa hay (AH) as a total mixed ration (AH-TMR) and (iii) starter and AH as a free-choice provision (AH-FC) for a period of 70 days. All the calves were offered 5 l of milk/day from day 3 to 50, and 2.5 l/day from day 50 until weaning on day 56. Dry matter intake (DMI) was greater (p forage tended (p = 0.08) to increase crude protein digestibility and overall volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations in the rumen. No differences were observed among the treatments at the time spent on standing, lying, eating and performing non-nutritive oral behaviours. Compared to CON calves, animals in the AH-TMR treatment spent more time (p forage supplementation in both forage offering methods increased total DMI, ruminal pH and ruminating time in dairy calves. Hence, there is no benefit in the free-choice provision of AH in dairy calves. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Epidemiological characteristics and clinicopathological features of bluetongue in sheep and cattle, during the 2014 BTV serotype 4 incursion in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoulos, Panagiotis-Dimitrios; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Chaintoutis, Serafeim C; Dovas, Chrysostomos I; Kiossis, Evangelos; Tsousis, Georgios; Psychas, Vassilios; Vlemmas, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Theologos; Papadopoulos, Orestis; Zientara, Stéphan; Karatzias, Harilaos; Boscos, Constantinos

    2016-03-01

    During 2014, an outbreak of Bluetongue virus (BTV) infections attributed to serotype 4 occurred in Greece and spread to south-eastern Europe. In the present article, the clinical and epidemiological data of 15 sheep flocks and 5 dairy cattle herds affected in Greece are described. In sheep, the most frequent clinical signs observed were fever, hyporexia, and edema of the face. A number of clinically affected sheep had chronic laminitis resulting in chronic lameness. Confirmation of suspect clinical cases was performed using BTV-specific real-time RT-PCR, and serotype 4-specific RT-PCR. The average morbidity of bluetongue in the sheep flocks was estimated to be 15.3 % (95 % C.I. 6.8-23.8 %) and the average mortality and case fatality were 4.5 % (95 % C.I. 1.5-7.6 %) and 32.0 % (95 % C.I. 18.1-42.9 %), respectively. The BTV seroprevalence and the ratio of clinical manifestations-to-infections determined in seven of these flocks, were on average 36.5 % (95 % C.I. 15.7-57.3 %) and 24.6 % (95 % C.I. 12.8-36.3 %). BTV ratio of clinical manifestations-to-infections was higher in the imported western European sheep breeds examined compared to the local ones. In dairy cattle, the average herd prevalence of viremia was 48.8 % (95 % C.I. 15.3-82.4 %) and none had signs associated with bluetongue. The results of this study indicate that the 2014 Greek BTV-4 has significant impact on the health status and the viability of sheep in affected flocks but does not cause clinical signs in cattle, despite the high prevalence of viremia.

  12. Melatonin treatment at dry-off improves reproductive performance postpartum in high-producing dairy cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ispierto, I; Abdelfatah, A; López-Gatius, F

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of melatonin treatment during the early dry-off period on subsequent reproductive performance and milk production in high-producing dairy cows under heat stress conditions. In experiment I, addressing the pharmacokinetics of melatonin treatment in lactating dairy cows, doses of untreated, 3, 6, 9 or 12 implants/animal (18-mg melatonin each implant) were given as subcutaneous implants on gestation day 120-20 multiparous lactating dairy cows (four cows/dose group). Experiment II was performed during the warm season on 25 heifers and 114 high milk-producing Holstein-Friesian cows. Animals were randomly assigned to a control (C) or melatonin group (M). Animals in the M group received nine implants (heifers) or 12 (cows) of melatonin on day 220 of gestation. In experiment I, cows in the 12 implants group showed a higher maximum melatonin concentration (Cmax ) and area under the concentration curve from treatment day 0 to day 49 (AUC0-49d ) than those in the remaining groups, among which there were no significant differences in this variable. In experiment II, the likelihood of repeat breeding syndrome (pregnancy loss (first trimester) were 0.36 and 0.19 times lower in treated than control animals, respectively. Plasma prolactin levels decreased significantly (p = 0.01) after melatonin treatment and recovered during the postpartum compared to control cows. No significant effects on milk production were observed in the subsequent lactation. Significant differences in days open between groups (means 123 ± 71.9 and 103 ± 43, respectively, for C and M; p = 0.02) were registered. In conclusion, melatonin treatment in the early dry-off period improves the reproductive performance of dairy cattle, reducing the number of days open, repeat breeding syndrome and pregnancy loss. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Microbiological performance of dairy processing plants is influenced by scale of production and the implemented food safety management system: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opiyo, Beatrice Atieno; Wangoh, John; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau

    2013-06-01

    The effects of existing food safety management systems and size of the production facility on microbiological quality in the dairy industry in Kenya were studied. A microbial assessment scheme was used to evaluate 14 dairies in Nairobi and its environs, and their performance was compared based on their size and on whether they were implementing hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) systems and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 22000 recommendations. Environmental samples from critical sampling locations, i.e., workers' hands and food contact surfaces, and from end products were analyzed for microbial quality, including hygiene indicators and pathogens. Microbial safety level profiles (MSLPs) were constructed from the microbiological data to obtain an overview of contamination. The maximum MSLP score for environmental samples was 18 (six microbiological parameters, each with a maximum MSLP score of 3) and that for end products was 15 (five microbiological parameters). Three dairies (two large scale and one medium scale; 21% of total) achieved the maximum MSLP scores of 18 for environmental samples and 15 for the end product. Escherichia coli was detected on food contact surfaces in three dairies, all of which were small scale dairies, and the microorganism was also present in end product samples from two of these dairies, an indication of cross-contamination. Microbial quality was poorest in small scale dairies. Most operations in these dairies were manual, with minimal system documentation. Noncompliance with hygienic practices such as hand washing and cleaning and disinfection procedures, which is common in small dairies, directly affects the microbial quality of the end products. Dairies implementing HACCP systems or ISO 22000 recommendations achieved maximum MSLP scores and hence produced safer products.

  14. Aspects Regarding the Coprological Pollution Level in Some Sheep Helminthiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Negrea

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigations on the incidence and intensity of parasitism in some endoparasytes in sheep  performed on 376 animals (260 sheep and 116 young adult sheep Turcana breed, Gilău area, Cluj County, indicated an increased incidence in trihostrongilidys  of 72.7% in young  sheep and 65.0% in adult sheep. The incidence of monesya had different values ​​depending on age group, 45.5% at young sheep and 10.0% in  adult sheep. The data obtained regarding the prevalence of hepatobiliary trematodsys of sheep in the study, indicates similar values ​​for the two categories, 27.2% young sheep and 30.0% for adult sheep. Instead the extensivity of  lung strongilatosys showed notable differences between the two groups of animals, 18.1% at young sheep and 35.0% in adult sheep. The cop microscopic pollution degree with trihostrongily eggs in correlation with age group, indicated a dominance of low infestation (50% young sheep and 61.5% adult sheep. In exchange, the data obtained on parasitism intensity with cestode oncospheres expresses a dominance of medium infestation (60.0% in young sheep and the low (10.0% in adult sheep. The intensity level of Hepatobiliary trematodosys parasitism in the young sheep showed a dominance of small and medium infestations (37.5% and in adult sheep are dominant only at low infestations (45.4%. The larvae strongilatosys  parasitism intensity in the lung detected similar values ​​in the two age groups (50.0% in young sheep and 17.2% in adult sheep.

  15. Growth performance of indigenous sheep fed Sporobolus virginicus grass hay grown in saline desert lands and irrigated with high salt content ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadrami, G A; Al-Shorepy, S A; Yousef, A M

    2010-12-01

    Twenty-eight indigenous ewe lambs (6 months of age and 14.4 kg body weight (BW)) were used to evaluate the effect of feeding Sporobolus grass hay (SGH) as the only source of forage on growth, and feed and water intakes. The ewe lambs were randomly and equally allocated to two treatment groups (14 lambs/group). The ewe lambs in group 1 (treatment 1) received SGH, while lambs in group 2 (treatment 2) received Rhodes grass hay (RGH) as the only source of forage. Water was available at all times for both treatment groups. Sporobolus grass was irrigated with brackish water of high salt content (20,000 ppm) and grown in saline desert lands (sabkha) in the United Arab Emirates. The average daily dry matter intake was significantly (P  .05) between the two groups at all stages. From these data, we conclude that SGH can replace Rhodes hay in sheep diet without significant effect on sheep performance.

  16. Women are fattening their sheep — and their income — with tree ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-02-12

    Feb 12, 2018 ... The results of the work were mainly targeted at female farmers, because sheep ... Based on a survey of farmers from Zan Coulibaly, a rural community in Mali, followed .... Bridging gender gaps with dairy goats and root crops.

  17. Effect of Milking Frequency in Early Lactation on Milk Production, some Blood Metabolites and Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Kiani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different milking frequencies in the first 6 weeks of lactation on milk production and milk constituents, blood metabolic profiles and reproductive performance of fresh dairy cows. The milking frequencies imposed were three times daily milking for 42 days (3X, six times daily milking for the first 21 days of lactation and three times daily subsequently (6X-3X and six times daily milking for 42 days. For this purpose 21 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were allocated to three groups based on BCS, parity, and body weight. Results showed that the mean of milk and FCM production was significantly higher for 6X than 3X cows in first and second 21 days and in the entire period. Among milk constituent only fat production was affected by milking frequencies. The milking frequency had no effect on mean DMI. Weight loss of the cows was higher for 6X cows (-32 kg than those the 6X-3X (-29 kg and 3X (-29.1 kg. Blood concentration of NEFA was affected by milking frequencies and it was significantly higher for 6X compared to 3X. The mean concentration of blood progesterone and reproductive parameters was not affected by milking frequencies. It was concluded that 6 time milking per day in a short term period may inrease Holstein dairy cows’ performance without any adverse effect on their reproductive parameters.

  18. Risk factors for postpartum endometritis and the effect of endometritis on reproductive performance in dairy cows in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ill-Hwa; Kang, Hyun-Gu

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the risk factors for postpartum endometritis by evaluating several reproductive factors in individual cows, and to determine the effect of endometritis on the subsequent reproductive performance in dairy herds in Korea. The data, including health status, parity and body condition score (BCS) of cows, and calving date, were collected from 320 cows in eight dairy herds calving from January 2001 to October 2002. We used logistic regression to evaluate the effects of these factors on endometritis. A stepwise procedure, used to obtain the appropriate model with alpha=0.05, revealed that retained placenta, metabolic disorders and parity are the important risk factors for endometritis. The mean intervals from calving to first service and conception were prolonged (Pconception rate was lower (Pconception was higher (P<0.05) in the endometritis group (1.9) than in the non-endometritis group (1.6). We conclude that retained placenta, metabolic disorders and cow parity are strongly correlated with the development of postpartum endometritis, which decreases reproductive performance in dairy herds in Korea.

  19. Santa Inês sheep supplementation on urochloa grass pasture during the dry season: intake, nutrient digestibility and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Presídio Almeida

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effect of concentrate supplementation, formulated with different ingredients (Mesquite pod meal, sorghum meal or wheat meal and mineral supplementation on performance, intake and digestibility of nutrients in Santa Inês lambs grazing on urochloa grass during the dry season. Twenty-four uncastrated weaned Santa Inês sheep, with average body weight (BW 20±2 kg with an average of 120 days of age were used in the assay. The experiment lasted 75 days. The animals grazing deferred Urochloa grass (Urochloa mosambicensis (Hack Daudy were distributed into four treatments consisting of mineral supplementation provided ad libitum and concentrated supplements containing mesquite pod meal, sorghum meal or wheat meal, supplied 10 g /kg BW on dry matter basis. The intakes of dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP were affected by the intake of concentrate supplement, regardless of the ingredients used in the supplements, compared with the mineral supplementation treatment, since the consumption of forage was reduced in 30% with mesquite pod meal supplement, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake was not affected in relation to treatments. The digestibility of DM and CP were higher for treatments with supplements, and NDF digestibility did not differ between treatments. A significant difference was observed in the values of average daily gain for the treatments with concentrate supplementation compared with the one of mineral supplementation. The supplementation with concentrate in grazing enables improvement of performance, intake and digestibility of nutrients regardless of the ingredient used in the supplement.

  20. Health management practices and disease prevalence in dairy sheep systems in Argentina Práticas de manejo sanitário e frequência de doenças em ovinos leiteiros na Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H. Suárez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey of 19 dairy sheep farms in Argentina was carried out with the purpose to know farm management, health practices, and occurrence and mortality of diseases. The survey comprised 40% of all sheep milking farms in Argentina. A questionnaire was conducted by way of personal interviews with sheep owners during farm visits. The proportions of farms reporting routine vaccination for clostridial diseases, contagious ecthyma, pneumonia and mineral and vitamin parenteral administration were 63%, 47.3%, 16.6% and 42.1% respectively. Regular treatment against lice was used in 37.5% of the farms, and 89.5% o the farmers treated against gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN. The mean number of GIN drenches per farm was 2.26±1.78 annually. In 68.4% of the milking flocks the California Mastitis Test was regularly done and 55.6% of the farmer managers had sampled their flocks once a year for Brucella ovis antibodies. During the pre-mating period respectively 68.4% and 50% of farmers clinically examined their rams and ewe for general health and teeth condition. The udders of ewes were frequently inspected at the start of each milking period. The most important parasite problems noticed were GIN (reported by 57.9% of farmers, lice (57.9% and scabies (10.5% and the most frequent infectious diseases were ecthyma (73.7%, pneumonia and other respiratory problems (57.9%, clinical mastitis (55.6%, clostridial diseases (36.9% and foot lameness (35.2%. Photosensitivity (47.4% and ruminal acidosis (42.1% were reported as other frequent toxic or metabolic disorders. Owners mentioned that the mean lifespan or milk productive time per ewe was 4.5±1.4 years. Perinatal lamb mortality was 8.5% and the total flock mortality rates, above the first 24 h of life was 6.9%. The high rates of lamb mortality during the pre-weaning (10.3% and post-weaning (5.9% periods indicate that this problem, as well as the most prevalent diseases, should be the subject of further

  1. FACTORS AFFECTING VARIABILITY OF UDDER MORPHOLOGY TRAITS OF SHEEP

    OpenAIRE

    Prpić, Zoran; Mioč, Boro; Vnučec, Ivan; Pavić, Vesna; Konjačić, Miljenko

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, selection of dairy sheep breeds was focused almost exclusively on increasing the amount of milk produced and so today they produce several times more milk than breeds selected for meat and wool. However, due to the permanent striving for increasing sheep milk production udder weight becomes too great, and suspensory system can not withstand this overweight so it ruptures more often. That significantly shortens the duration of animal’s production life and adversely affects udde...

  2. Radioimmunoassay of milk progesterone to monitor reproductive performance in smallholder dairy herds in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaputra, L.; Hariadi, M.; Hardjopranjoto, S.

    1990-01-01

    Studies involving 260 Friesian cows from three different locations were conducted to monitor the reproductive performance in small dairy herds in Indonesia by using milk progesterone RIA. In the first study 90 post-partum cows at three locations (Surabaya, Grati and Puspo) were used to investigate post-partum ovarian function. The highest incidence of cows not showing oestrus up to 80 days post-partum, with progesterone profiles less than 0.75 ng/mL, was found in Puspo (63.3%), compared with 10% in Surabaya and 20% in Grati. The incidence of cows with silent heat and oestrus without ovulation was 13.3 and 3.3% in Surabaya, 16.7 and 6.7% in Grati, and 23.3 and 0% in Puspo. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the lengths of oestrous cycles at the three different locations. In the second study, using 120 cows for investigating confirmation of oestrus at AI, 69.7% of cows inseminated during the follicular phase had become pregnant, compared with 16.1% of cows inseminated during the luteal phase. The incidence of long luteal phases which included embryonic death was 13.4%. The accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis based on progesterone concentrations at day 22 was 77% and was lower than that at day 29 (88%). In the third study, cows in Subgroups 3A and 3B had cystic ovaries and were treated with prostaglandin F 2α by either intramuscular (3A) or intrauterine (3B) routes. Pregnancy rates were 50 and 40%, respectively. Cows in Subgroups 3C, 3D and 3E had inactive ovaries and were treated with intravaginal application of MPA sponges (3C), PRID (3D) or PRID followed by LH injection (3E). The pregnancy rates were 30, 40 and 60%, respectively. (author). 10 refs, 6 tabs

  3. Performance, body fat reserves and plasma metabolites in Brown Swiss dairy cows: Indoor feeding versus pasture-based feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H-J; Gross, J J; Petermann, R; Probst, S; Bruckmaier, R M; Hofstetter, P

    2018-04-01

    Feeding dairy cows indoors or on pasture affects not only labour, machinery and housing costs, but also animals' performance and metabolism. This study investigates the effects of indoor feeding (IF) with a partial-mixed ration (PMR) versus pasture-based feeding (PF) on milk production, fertility, backfat thickness (BFT), body weight (BW) loss and energy metabolism of Brown Swiss (BS) dairy cows with similar genetic production potential. The IF herd consisted of 13 cows fed a PMR composed of maize and grass silage plus protein concentrate according to each cow's requirements. The PF herd consisted of 14 cows offered barn-ventilated hay ad libitum after calving from January until March and grazed on semi-continuous pastures during the vegetation period. The IF cows produced more energy-corrected milk (ECM) per standard lactation (9,407 vs. 5,960 kg; p dairy cows in our trial seem to have a high capacity for metabolic adaptation to different production systems. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Evaluation of vaginal discharge with the Metricheck device and the relationship to reproductive performance in postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertz, Christian; Völker, Denise; Janowitz, Ulrich; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-09-01

    Vaginal mucus during estrus was examined with the Metricheck device and the relationship to the reproduction of high-yielding dairy cows was studied. The study was conducted in 99 dairy herds located in Western Germany and 1348 Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows showing spontaneous estrus were examined. Independent of the Metricheck result, the animals were inspected by professional insemination technicians and those suitable for insemination (n = 989) were bred by artificial insemination (AI). Reproductive performance was characterized by non-return rate at 90 days (NRR90). The discharge of the animals predominantly had a clear appearance (70%) and a stringy consistency (80%). Animals with clear vaginal discharge had higher NRR90 (56%; n = 697) than animals with abnormal (turbid, mucopurulent, purulent, sanguineous) vaginal secretion (48%, n = 292; P  130 days; 62%) intervals (P  45 kg) milk yield class. In conclusion, the use of the Metricheck device integrated into the insemination procedure is recommended to identify dairy cows suffering severely from uterine disease. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. The association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with productivity or reproductive performance in dairy herds in Fukuoka, Southern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Akira; Nakada, Ken; Katamoto, Hiromu

    2016-05-03

    The incidence of peripartum disorders in dairy herds negatively influences productivity and reproductive performance. Concrete data from local areas are helpful for explaining the importance of peripartum management to dairy farmers. This study was conducted to clarify the association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with productivity or reproductive performance in 179 dairy herds in Fukuoka, Southern Japan. A database was compiled from the records of the Livestock Improvement Association of Japan, the Dairy Cooperative Association and the Federation of Agricultural Mutual Relief Association. In this study, we created a comprehensive database of dairy farm production data for epidemiological analysis and used a general linear mixed model to analyze the association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with milk production or reproductive performance. The database can be used to describe, analyze and predict the risk of production. A cross-sectional analysis with contrasts was applied to investigate the association of cows served by AI/all cows, pregnant cows/cows served by AI, days open, milk yield and somatic cell counts with culling and death rate within 30 days after calving. The days open value significantly increased with increasing rate of culling and death within 30 days after calving (P for trend <0.001). No significant differences were found for the other comparisons. Our data suggest that proper feeding and management in the dry period may lead to improved postpartum reproductive performance in this dairy cow cohort.

  6. Relationship between udder morphology traits, alveolar and cisternal milk compartments and machine milking performances of dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ayadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 dairy dromedary camels under intensive conditions in late lactation (275±24 days were used to study the relationship between external and internal udder morphology and machine milking performances. Measurements of udder and teat morphology were obtained immediately before milking and in duplicate. Individual milk yield, lag time and total milking time were recorded during milking, and milk samples were collected and analyzed for milk composition thereafter. Cisternal and alveolar milk volumes and composition were evaluated at 9 h milking interval. Results revealed that dairy camels had well developed udders and milk veins, with medium sized teats. On average, milk yield as well as milk fat and protein contents were 4.80±0.50 L d-1, 2.61±0.16% and 3.08±0.05%, respectively. The low fat values observed indicated incomplete milk letdown during machine milking. Lag time, and total milking time were 3.0±0.3, and 120.0±8.9s, on average, respectively. Positive correlations (p<0.05 were observed between milk yield and udder depth (r=0.37, distance between teats (r=0.57 and milk vein diameter (r=0.28, while a negative correlation was found with udder height (r=-0.25, p<0.05. Cisternal milk accounted for 11% of the total udder milk. Positive correlations were observed between total milk yield and volume of alveolar milk (r=0.98; p<0.001 as well as with volume of cisternal milk (r=0.63, p<0.05. Despite the low udder milk storage capacity observed in dairy camels, our study concluded that the evaluated dromedary sample had adequate udder morphology for machine milking. Finally, positive relationships were detected between milk yield and udder morphology traits of dairy camels.

  7. Short communication: Effects of processing methods of barley grain in starter diets on feed intake and performance of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrah, A; Ghorbani, G R; Rezamand, P; Khorvash, M

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different processing methods of barley grain in starter rations on feed intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, skeletal growth, fecal score, and rumen pH of dairy calves. Thirty-two Holstein dairy calves (16 female and 16 male) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatments consisting of coarse ground, whole, steam-rolled, or roasted barley from d 4 to 56 of birth in a completely randomized design. Starter diets were formulated to have similar ingredients and composition. All calves had free access to water and feed throughout the study period and received 4 L of milk/d from a bottle from d 4 to 41, 2L/d from d 41 to 45, and weaning occurred on d 45. Feed intake and fecal score were recorded daily. Body weight and skeletal growth measures were recorded on d 4 (beginning of the study), 45, and 56. Rumen fluid and blood samples were collected on d 35, 45, and 56. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The results indicate that different methods of processing barley had no detectable effect on dry matter intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency and that skeletal growth, health, and rumen pH were not affected by dietary treatments. In conclusion, the results show that different processing methods of barley included in starter diets had no detectable effect on the performance of dairy calves under our experimental conditions. Therefore, feeding whole or coarsely ground barley would be a more economical method compared with steam rolled or roasted barley. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolution of farm management, nitrogen efficiency and economic performance on Dutch dairy farms reducing external inputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.C.J.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Lantinga, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    The implementation of the statutory Mineral Accounting System (MINAS) in the Netherlands in the period 1998¿2003 required large reductions in nutrient inputs of dairy farms. Patterns in farm management adjustments throughout 6 years and their effectiveness in terms of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE)

  9. Influence of green grass-based diets on growth and reproductive performance in dairy heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, M. R.; Rashid, M. H.; Islam, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the changes in growth, dry matter intake, and blood profiles (nutrition and reproductive hormones) of dairy heifers in response to green grass-based diets. Twelve crossbred heifers were equally divided into group 1: rice straw and concentrate; group 2: r...

  10. The impact of cooling ponds in North Central Texas on dairy farm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomaszewski, M.A.; Haan, de M.H.A.; Thompson, J.A.; Jordan, E.R.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether measurable differences existed between farms with and without cooling ponds. Data from Dairy Herd Improvement records for 1999 through 2002 were obtained on 42 herds located in North Central Texas. Nineteen herds had installed cooling ponds,

  11. Effect of biotin on milk performance of dairy cattle: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B; Wang, C; Wang, Y M; Liu, J X

    2011-07-01

    A meta-analysis of the effect of biotin on production outcomes of dairy cattle was conducted following a literature review. A total of 11 studies from 9 papers, with information on the milk production and composition data from a total number of 238 cows were extracted and analyzed using meta-analysis software in Stata. Estimated size of effect of biotin was calculated for dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and composition. Heterogeneity was not significant for all of the parameters (the highest I(2)=12%). Therefore, fixed effects models were used for analysis. With the addition of biotin to lactating dairy cattle, DMI and milk production increased by 0.87 and 1.66 kg/d. No significant effect on percentage of milk fat and milk protein was observed. Additionally, Begg's test indicated no evidence of substantial publication bias for all variables. The influence analysis shows that the removal of any study did not change the direction or significance of the point estimates. It can be concluded that the use of biotin supplements increases DMI and milk yield in lactating dairy cows. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of feeding rumen-protected methionine on productive and reproductive performance of dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Mateus Z.; Baez, Giovanni M.; Garcia-Guerra, Alvaro; Lobos, Nelson E.; Guenther, Jerry N.; Trevisol, Eduardo; Luchini, Daniel; Shaver, Randy D.

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of daily top-dressing (individually feeding on the top of the total mixed ration) with rumen-protected methionine (RPM) from 30 ± 3 until 126 ± 3 Days in milk on productive and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cows. A total of 309 lactating dairy Holstein cows (138 primiparous and 171 multiparous) were randomly assigned to treatment diets containing either RPM (21.2 g of RPM + 38.8 g of dried distillers grain; 2.34% Methionine [Met] of metabolizable protein [MP]) or Control (CON; 60 g of dried distillers grain; 1.87% Met of MP). Plasma amino acids were evaluated at the time of artificial insemination (AI) and near pregnancy diagnosis. Milk production and milk composition were evaluated monthly. Pregnancy was diagnosed on Day 28 (by Pregnancy-specific protein B [PSPB]), 32, 47, and 61 (by ultrasound) and sizes of embryonic and amniotic vesicle were determined by ultrasound on Day 33 after AI. Feeding RPM increased plasma Met at 6, 9, 12, and 18 hours after top-dressing with a peak at 12 hours (52.4 vs 26.0 μM; P Cows fed RPM had a small increase in milk protein percentage (3.08 vs 3.00%; P = 0.04) with no differences on milk yield and milk protein yield. Additionally, in multiparous cows, RPM feeding increased milk protein (3.03 vs 2.95%; P = 0.05) and fat (3.45 vs 3.14%; P = 0.01) percentages, although no effects were observed in primiparous cows. In multiparous cows fed RPM, pregnancy loss was lower between Days 28 to 61 (19.6 [10/51] vs. 6.1% [3/49]; P = 0.03) or between Days 32 to 61 (8.9 [4/45] vs. 0 [0/0] %; P = 0.03), although, there was no effect of treatment on pregnancy loss in primiparous cows. Consistent with data on pregnancy loss, RPM feeding increased embryonic abdominal diameter (P = 0.01) and volume (P = 0.009) and amniotic vesicle volume (P = 0.04) on Day 33 of pregnancy in multiparous cows but had no effect on embryonic size in primiparous cows. Thus, the increase in plasma

  13. Effect of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance and digestion of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, A B; Freitas Júnior, J E; Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Takiya, C S; Vendramini, T H A; Mingoti, R D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Differing soya bean particle sizes may affect productive performance and ruminal fermentation due to the level of fatty acid (FA) exposure of the cotyledon in soya bean grain and because the protein in small particles is more rapidly degraded than the protein in large particles, which influence ruminal fibre digestion and the amounts of ruminally undegradable nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance, digestion and milk FA profile of dairy cows. Twelve Holstein cows were assigned to three 4 × 4 Latin squares with 21-day periods. At the start of the experiment, cows were 121 days in milk (DIM) and yielded 30.2 kg/day of milk. Cows were fed 4 diets: (i) control diet (CO), without raw soya bean; (ii) whole raw soya bean (WRS); (iii) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 4-mm screen (CS4); and (iv) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 2-mm screen (CS2). The inclusion of soya beans (whole or cracked) was 200 g/kg on dry matter (DM) basis and partially replaced ground corn and soya bean meal. Uncorrected milk yield and composition were not influenced by experimental diets; however, fat-corrected milk (FCM) decreased when cows were fed soya bean treatments. Soya bean diets increased the intake of ether extract (EE) and net energy of lactation (NEL ), and decreased the intake of DM and non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC). Ruminal propionate concentration was lower in cows fed WRS than cows fed CS2 or CS4. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented lower nitrogen in faeces than cows fed WRS. The milk of cows fed WRS, CS2 and CS4 presented higher unsaturated FA than cows fed CO. The addition of raw soya bean in cow diets, regardless of the particle size, did not impair uncorrected milk yield and nutrient digestion, and increased the concentration of unsaturated FA in milk. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented similar productive performance to cows fed whole raw soya bean. Journal of

  14. Interactions of alfalfa hay and sodium propionate on dairy calf performance and rumen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Nabipour, A; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Homayouni, A; Kargar, S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of different levels of alfalfa hay (AH) and sodium propionate (Pro) added to starter diets of Holstein calves on growth performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and rumen development. Forty-two male Holstein calves (40±2kg of birth weight) were used in a complete randomized design with a 3×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Dietary treatments were as follows: (1) control = concentrate only; (2) Pro = concentrate with 5% sodium propionate [dry matter (DM) basis]; (3) 5% AH = concentrate + 5% alfalfa hay (DM basis); (4) 5% AH + Pro = concentrate + 5% alfalfa hay + 5% sodium propionate (DM basis); (5) 10% AH = concentrate + 10% alfalfa hay (DM basis); and (6) 10% AH + Pro = concentrate + 10% alfalfa hay + 5% sodium propionate (DM basis). All calves were housed in individual pens bedded with sawdust until 10wk of age. They were given ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the experiment and were fed 2L of milk twice daily. Dry matter intake was recorded daily and body weight weekly. Calves from the control, 10% AH, and 10% AH + Pro treatments were euthanized after wk 10, and rumen wall samples were collected. Feeding of forage was found to increase overall dry matter intake, average daily gain, and final weight; supplementing sodium propionate had no effect on these parameters. Calves consuming forage had lower feed efficiency than those on the Pro diet. Rumen fluid in calves consuming forage had higher pH and greater concentrations of total volatile fatty acids and molar acetate. Morphometric parameters of the rumen wall substantiated the effect of AH supplementation, as plaque formation decreased macroscopically. Overall, the interaction between forage and sodium propionate did not affect calf performance parameters measured at the end of the experiment. Furthermore, inclusion of AH in starter diets positively enhanced the growth performance of male Holstein calves and influenced

  15. High levels of whole raw soya beans in dairy cow diets: digestibility and animal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Freitas Junior, J E; Verdurico, L C; Mingoti, R D; Bettero, V P; Benevento, B C; Vilela, F G; Rennó, F P

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high levels of whole raw soya beans in the diets of lactating cows. Twelve Holstein dairy cows were used, randomized in three 4 ×  4 balanced and contemporary Latin squares and fed the following diets: (i) control (C), without including whole raw soya beans; (ii) 80 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G80); (iii) 160 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G160); and (iv) 240 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G240). There was significant reduction (p beans in dairy cow diets improves the unsaturated fatty acid profile in milk, and the diets (G80 and G160) led to minor alterations in the digestive processes and animal metabolism. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Body condition score and milk fatty acids as indicators of dairy cattle reproductive performances

    OpenAIRE

    Bastin, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Improving cow fertility by means of genetic selection has become increasingly important over the last years in order to overcome the decline in dairy cow fertility that has taken place over the past decades. However, fertility traits are difficult to measure and have low heritabilities. Consequently, indicator traits are of interest for breeding value estimation for fertility especially if these traits are easier to measure, have higher heritabilities and are well correlated with fertility. T...

  17. Performance and Meat Quality of Thin Tailed Sheep in Supplementary Feeding Lemuru Fish Oil Protected By Saponification with Different NaOH Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustinah Setyaningrum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to obtain oil and the exact saponification with different NaOH concentration to protect unsaturated fats, which does can result in good production performance and lamb meat quality with low saturated fatty acid. Stage one studied the performance of sheep production on supplementing lemuru fish oil (LFO protected with different saponification optimization. Twenty lambs aged 5-6 months early weighing 8-14 kg were divided into 4 treatments, namely P0 basal feed (50% elephant grass + 50% concentrate, P1 (basal feed + soap LFO NaOH 10%, P2 (basal feed + soap LFO NaOH 20% and P3 (basal feed + soap LFO NaOH 30% with completely randomized design and 5 replication for performance and 3 replication for meat quality. The results showed that the treatment effect was not significant (P>0.05 on the consumption of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, total digestible nutrien (TDN, daily gain and blood cholesterol. P2 yield the highest daily gain 130.95 ± 19.29 g/head/day of cholesterol at the same time low of 58.67 mg/dl. Stage two studied the criteria of lamb carcass and meat quality in supplementary feeding LFO protected with different saponification optimization. Twelve sheeps were slaughtered for P0, P1, P2 and P3. The results showed that the treatment effect was not significant (P> 0.05 to slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass percentage, the physical quality of meat (pH, water holding capacity, cooking losses and tenderness, and chemical quality of the meat (DM levels, CP , EE, saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids except in EPA and DHA increased very significantly (P<0.01. Conclusively, giving soap LFO with different optimization did not significantly affect the appearance and quality of sheep meat production, except in EPA and DHA which were significantly increased

  18. Effects of Prepartum Monensin Feeding on Energy Metabolism and Reproductive Performance of Postpartum High-Producing Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Changizi Mohammadi, Abbas Rowshan Ghasrodashti1, Amin Tamadon2,3 and Mohammad Amin Behzadi4*

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effects of monensin in preparturient diet on postpartum milk production, energy metabolism, and reproductive performance of Holstein dairy cows. Forty Holstein dairy cows on close-up period were randomly divided into monensin treated (300 mg/day in close-up ration, top dress and control groups. Body condition score (BCS was estimated three weeks before and three weeks after calving. Milk production and milk fat percentage were recorded in both groups within 3 weeks postpartum. Blood samples were collected from five randomly selected cows of each group three weeks after calving. Serum concentrations of insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I, insulin, glucose, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA were measured. Calving to the first observed estrus interval and calving to conception interval were compared between two groups. The results of the experiment showed that loss of BCS (P=0.3, increase of milk production (P=0.9, and milk fat percentage (P>0.05 were not significantly different between two groups during the period of study. In addition, mean serum glucose concentration (P=0.001 and serum insulin concentration (P=0.01 in monensin group were significantly higher than control cows in the first week postpartum. Moreover, serum BHBA concentration did not significantly change in monensin group. Serum IGF-I concentration in monensin group was significantly higher than control group in three weeks postpartum (P<0.01. The present study indicated that monensin treatment decreased calving to the first observed estrus interval (P=0.05 and calving to conception interval (P=0.002. In conclusion, supplementing the close-up ration can increase postpartum serum IGF-I concentration and prevent the increase of serum BHBA concentration. These may result in enhancement reproductive performance of high-producing dairy cows.

  19. Risk factors and the economic impact of ovarian cysts on reproductive performance of dairy cows in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Doek; Ki, Kwang-Sook; Kang, Hyun-Gu; Kim, Ill-Hwa

    2005-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the risk factors for development of postpartum ovarian cysts by evaluating several reproductive factors in individual cows, and to determine the economic impact of ovarian cysts on subsequent reproductive performance in dairy herds in Korea. The data, including cow parity, abnormal puerperium, endometritis, body condition score (BCS), and breeding status were collected from 634 cows in 9 dairy herds. We used logistic regression to evaluate the effects of these factors on ovarian cysts. A stepwise procedure, used to obtain the appropriate model with alpha=0.05, revealed that cow parity was the most important risk factor for ovarian cyst development within 8 weeks postpartum, while development of endometritis and BCS loss>or=1 from the dry period to 8 weeks postpartum were the most important risk factors for ovarian cyst development beyond 8 weeks postpartum. The occurrence of ovarian cysts beyond 8 weeks postpartum prolonged (Pconception (77 days), and increased (Prate (7.8%), while ovarian cyst development within 8 weeks postpartum did not affect (P>0.05) the mean intervals from calving to first service and conception or the culling rate. The economic loss resulting from the occurrence of ovarian cysts was estimated at approximately 823,996 won ($687) due to effects on the cost of nutrition, average growth of calves, labor and medical costs, and culling. These results suggest that cow parity is correlated with the development of ovarian cysts within 8 weeks postpartum, and endometritis and BCS loss>or=1 from the dry period to 8 weeks postpartum are correlated with the development of ovarian cysts after 8 weeks postpartum, which decreases reproductive performance and results in economic loss in dairy herds in Korea.

  20. Performance of Dairy Goats Fed Rhodes Grass Hay and Supplemented with Leucaena or Gliricidia-Based Concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondiek, J.O.; Tuitoek, J.K.; Abdulrazak, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of dairy goats supplemented with fodder based diets. Six lactating does of Saanen, Toggenburg and Saanen X Toggenburg breed types weighing 46 + or - 7.1 at late stage of lactation were allocated to three dietary treatments in a double 3*3 Latin square design to examine the value of leucaena and gliricidia forages as nitrogen sources in supplementing Rhodes grass hay. Three supplements: Leucaena-based (L), gliricidia-based (G) or commercial concentrate (C) were used. Voluntary feed intake, milk yield, milk composition and live weight changes were measured. Total dry matter intake (DMI) was significantly higher in group G than C (1385 vs 1331 g day -1 ). Hay DMI was higher in G (835 g d -1 than L or C (789, 782 g day -1 , respectively). Diets had no effect on milk yield, crude protein or butterfat content. Total solid was higher in L than C while that of G was intermediate (15.7, 14.7, 13.7%). Weight changes were least affected although resulted in positive gain (11 g day -1 ) while the others lost (-13,-19 g day -, for L and C respectively). In the digestibility trial 6 female goats weighing 22.3 kg (sd 1.1), were allocated to the three treatments in a completely randomised block design where each goat received a different supplement in each of two periods. Thee were no differences in nutrient digestibility except for DM, which was in C compared to the other treatments (615, 622, 720 g-kg for L, G and C, respectively). It si concluded that fodder based supplement compared well with the commercial concentrate in supporting milk yield and body weight gain of dairy goats. Therefore, locally available tree fodders can be incorporated in supplement diets and utilized without any detrimental effects to substitute the expensive concentrates to improve the performance of dairy goats

  1. Effects of phosalone consumption via feeding with or without sodium bentonite on performance, blood metabolites and its transition to milk of Iranian Baluchi sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Kazemi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transfer of pesticides from environment to animal products is inevitable, so the purpose of the present work was to evaluate phosalone consumption via feeding with or without sodium bentonite (SB on performance, blood metabolites and its transition to milk of Iranian Baluchi sheep. Methods Twenty Baluchi ewes were divided into four treatments (P1 as control, P2, P3, and P4 of five animals in which phosalone, an organophosphate pesticide, was given via diet (only for P2 and P3 at a dose of 280 mg/sheep/day for 63 consecutive days. The SB (32 g/sheep/day; for P3 and P4 was also evaluated for its ability to reduce deleterious effects of phosalone in the sheep diets. The control group (P1 did not receive any phosalone and SB during the experiment. Sampling was conducted in two periods of time including weeks 5 and 9. Results Phosalone residues were observed in the milk samples of P2 and P3 groups during two sampling periods. During period 1, the transfer rate of phosalone from feed to milk was 0.23 and 0.02%, respectively for the contaminated diets (P2 and P3, which is relatively similar to period 2 (0.22 and 0.02%. Only 0.34 (period 1 and 0.36% (period 2 of phosalone residue are excreted in the feces of P2 group following its daily consumption. Transfer of phosalone from feed to milk was affected (P  0.05 on the dry matter intake (DMI and body weight (BW gain, but feed efficiency, milk production, milk fat, dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility, acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitory activity, hemoglobin (Hb, red blood cell (RBC, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT, albumin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC affected by the treatments in period 1 or 2 (P < 0.05. The Hb, RBC, and MCHC were significantly decreased (P < 0.05 by about 9.72, 20.77, and 9.71%, respectively in the group P2 as compared to those of the control group during period 1

  2. Random within-herd variation in financial performance and time to financial steady-state following management changes in the dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Erling Lundager; Østergaard, Søren; Krogh, Mogens Agerbo

    2008-01-01

    The manager of a dairy herd and the affiliated consultants constantly need to judge whether financial performance of the production system is satisfactory and whether financial performance relates to real (systematic) effects of changes in management. This is no easy task because the dairy herd...... is a very complex system. Thus, it is difficult to obtain empirical data that allows a valid estimation of the random (within-herd) variation in financial performance corrected for management changes. Thus, simulation seems to be the only option. This study suggests that much caution must be recommended...

  3. A stochastic dynamic model of a dairy farm to evaluate the technical and economic performance under different scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsamiglia, S; Astiz, S; Baucells, J; Castillejos, L

    2018-05-23

    Dairy farms need to improve their competitiveness through decisions that are often difficult to evaluate because they are highly dependent on many economic and technical factors. The objective of this project was to develop a stochastic and dynamic mathematical model to simulate the functioning of a dairy farm to evaluate the effect of changes in technical or economic factors on performance and profitability. Submodels were developed for reproduction, feeding, diseases, heifers, environmental factors, facilities, management, and economics. All these submodels were simulated on an animal-by-animal and day-by-day basis. Default values for all variables are provided, but the user can change them. The outcome provides a list of technical and economic indicators essential for the decision-making process. Performance of the program was verified by evaluating the effects and sensitivity analysis of different scenarios in 20 different dairy farms. As an example, a case study of a dairy farm with 300 cows producing 40 L/d and a 12% pregnancy rate (PR) was used. The effect of using a time-fixed artificial insemination (TFAI) protocol in the first insemination at 77 d in milk, with 45 and 40% conception rates for first-lactation and older cows, respectively, and a cost of €13 was explored. During the 5-yr simulation, the TFAI increased PR (12 to 17%) and milk yield per milking cow (39.8 to 41.2 L/d) and reduced days to first AI (93 to 74), days open (143 to 116), and the proportion of problem cows (24.3 to 15.9%). In the TFAI, cows were dried 30 d earlier, resulting in more dry cows, and a smaller difference in milk yield by present cows (35.5 vs 36.0 L/d for control and TFAI, respectively). A longer productive life (2.56 vs. 2.79 yr) with shorter lactations in TFIA resulted in less first-lactation cows (42 vs 36%), 32 more calvings per year, and, therefore, more cases of postpartum diseases. Total (32.5 to 29.9%) and reproductive (10.5 vs 6.8%) culling rates decreased in

  4. Effects of Lactation Stage and Individual Performance on Milk -9, -11 Conjugated Linoleic Acids Content in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of lactation stage and individual performance on milk cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA content in dairy cows. In experiment 1, the milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA content from dairy cows in early (0.33±0.014%, middle (0.37±0.010%, and late stages (0.44±0.020% showed significant differences (p<0.05; and the individual contents of the major fatty acids, especially cis-9, trans-11 CLA in cows of the same lactation were also variable. In the second experiment design as a validation test, our results once again showed that the individual contents of cis-9, trans-11 CLA were various, and a difference of about 2-fold (0.55% vs 0.95% was observed, although the animals were offered same diet. These data demonstrated that lactation stage and individual performance have considerable effects on milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA contents.

  5. Performance in nondairy drinks of probiotic L. casei strains usually employed in dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes, Mario; Cárdenas, Pamela; Staffolani, Martín; Ciappini, María C; Vinderola, Gabriel

    2013-05-01

    The increase in vegetarianism as dietary habit and the increased allergy episodes against dairy proteins fuel the demand for probiotics in nondairy products. Lactose intolerance and the cholesterol content of dairy products can also be considered two additional reasons why some consumers are looking for probiotics in other foods. We aimed at determining cell viability in nondairy drinks and resistance to simulated gastric digestion of commercial probiotic lactobacilli commonly used in dairy products. Lactobacillus casei LC-01 and L. casei BGP 93 were added to different commercial nondairy drinks and viability and resistance to simulated gastric digestion (pH 2.5, 90 min, 37 °C) were monitored along storage (5 and 20 °C). For both strains, at least one nondairy drink was found to offer cell counts around 7 log orders until the end of the storage period. Changes in resistance to simulated gastric digestion were observed as well. Commercial probiotic cultures of L. casei can be added to commercial fruit juices after a carefull selection of the product that warrants cell viability. The resistance to simulated gastric digestion is an easy-to-apply in vitro tool that may contribute to product characterization and may help in the choice of the food matrix when no changes in cell viability are observed along storage. Sensorial evaluation is mandatory before marketing since the product type and storage conditions might influence the sensorial properties of the product due to the possibility of growth and lactic acid production by probiotic bacteria. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Milk yield and reproductive performance of dairy heifers and cows supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine productive and fertility responses of Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows to supplementation with extruded linseed and soybean as sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Supplementation had a positive effect on profitability, with significant increases in milk yield in supplemented cows, but not in heifers. Treatments had no effect on milk fat content, but higher milk protein contents were observed with supplementation. A higher conception rate was found for supplemented heifers, but not for cows. Fat sources containing PUFAs are recommended for dairy cattle supplementation, since they improve fertility in heifers and milk yield in cows.

  7. Detection and control of lentiviral infections in sheep and goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, J.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Infections caused by the small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) of sheep (maedi visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus) are a serious economical threat to small ruminant farming particularly in the more intensive settings like dairy farms. Revenue is ultimately negatively

  8. Effects of milk replacer feeding strategies on performance, ruminal development, and metabolism of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silper, B F; Lana, A M Q; Carvalho, A U; Ferreira, C S; Franzoni, A P S; Lima, J A M; Saturnino, H M; Reis, R B; Coelho, S G

    2014-02-01

    Performance, rumen development, and metabolism of male Holstein calves (n=54) were evaluated according to 1 of 3 liquid feeding strategies: 4 L of milk replacer (MR)/d until 60 d old (4 L-60 d), 6L of MR/d until 29 d old and 4 L/d from 30 to 60 d (6L-29 d/4 L-60 d), or 6L of MR/day until 60 d old (60 d-6L). Water and starter were provided ad libitum. Intakes of MR and starter were monitored daily and body weight (BW) weekly. Blood samples for glucose and insulin concentrations and ruminal content samples for volatile fatty acids and ruminal ammonia concentrations were collected at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 d of age. Six calves on each treatment were euthanized at 30, 60, and 90 d of age. Empty weights of forestomach and abomasum, papillae length, and mitotic index were measured. Average MR intake/d (expressed as a percent of BW) was greater for calves receiving 6L/d than for those receiving 4 L/d until 30 d of age. Calves on the 6 L-29 d/4 L-60 d had the smallest MR intake from 30 to 60 d old, followed by the 4 L-60 d and 6L-60 d treatments. Starter intake (kg of dry matter/day) did not differ between groups. It increased from 0.065 kg/d in the first month to 0.386 kg/d in the second month, and to 2.065 kg/d after weaning. Weight gain was greater for calves fed more MR in the first month, but no difference was observed during the second month. After weaning, 6L-60 d calves had greater rate of weight gain than others and were heavier at 30, 60, and 90 d of age. Weight of empty forestomachs, ruminal pH, and ammoniac nitrogen concentration were not different among groups. Propionate concentration was lower for 6 L-60 d calves, but acetate and butyrate concentrations were not influenced by MR feeding strategy. Calves fed more MR until d 30 had greater ruminal epithelium mitotic index. The different MR feeding strategies did not influence papillae length or ruminal epithelium thickness. Lesions such as ruminal parakeratosis or hyperkeratosis were not observed. The MR

  9. Performance and health responses of dairy calves offered different milk replacer allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, A; Terré, M; Pinto, A

    2013-01-01

    , LMR grow more than HMR calves, overcoming the difference in BW at preweaning. As a result, with the weaning scheme followed herein, providing more milk does not ensure greater performance; no differences are obtained in BW at weaning and at 228 d of life. Also, based on solid feed consumption patterns seen in this study, we determined that the optimum age to reduce MR allowances and foster solid feed intake is around 45 d of age. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reactor performance and energy analysis of solid state anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure with corn stover and tomato residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangyang; Xu, Fuqing; Li, Yu; Lu, Jiaxin; Li, Shuyan; Shah, Ajay; Zhang, Xuehua; Zhang, Hongyu; Gong, Xiaoyan; Li, Guoxue

    2018-03-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion is commonly believed to be benefical for biogas production. However, additional of co-substrates may require additional energy inputs and thus affect the overall energy efficiency of the system. In this study, reactor performance and energy analysis of solid state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of tomato residues with dairy manure and corn stover were investigated. Different fractions of tomato residues (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%, based on volatile solid weight (VS)) were co-digested with dairy manure and corn stover at 15% total solids. Energy analysis based on experimental data was conducted for three scenarios: SS-AD of 100% dairy manure, SS-AD of binary mixture (60% dairy manure and 40% corn stover, VS based), and SS-AD of ternary mixture (36% dairy manure, 24% corn stover, and 40% tomato residues, VS based). For each scenario, the energy requirements for individual process components, including feedstock collection and transportation, feedstock pretreatment, biogas plant operation, digestate processing and handling, and the energy production were examined. Results showed that the addition of 20 and 40% tomato residues increased methane yield compared to that of the dairy manure and corn stover mixture, indicating that the co-digestion could balance nutrients and improve the performance of solid-state anaerobic digestion. The energy required for heating substrates had the dominant effect on the total energy consumption. The highest volatile solids (VS) reduction (57.0%), methane yield (379.1 L/kg VS feed ), and net energy production were achieved with the mixture of 24% corn stover, 36% dairy manure, and 40% tomato residues. Thus, the extra energy input for adding tomato residues for co-digestion could be compensated by the increase of methane yield. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of continuous feeding of gliricidia on reproduction and production performances of Javanese Fat-Tailed sheep: Impact on the second breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of continuous feeding of gliricidia on reproduction and production performances in second breeding of Javanese Fat-Tailed (JFT sheep through the second breeding period was studied. Twenty six ewes post lactation at first lambing (body weight 22.5-26.5 kg were divided into four treatment groups. Each group consisted of 6 animals except Group D had 8 animals. They were given King grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides and gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium Jacq. leaf with ratio of 100:0 (Group A = control, 75:25 (Group B, 50:50 (Group C and 0:100 (Group D. Forages were given 2.5-3% (dry matter of liveweight. All groups were supplemented with 100g/head/day concentrate (crude protein = 16%, but during late pregnancy and lactation they were supplemented at 200 g/head/day. Results showed that feeding gliricidia 25-100% of total forages improved body weight due to the increasing protein intake. The maximum concentration of progesteron increased from 0.81 to 2.78 ng/ml. The ovulation rate and prolification also increased significantly (P<0.05 from 1.6 to 3.0 and 1.33 to 2.38, respectively. Individual birth and weaning weights of the lambs were not affected. It is concluded that feeding gliricidia continuously up to 100% as forages and supplemented with concentrate gives positive effect on bodyweight gain, reproduction and production performances in second breeding of JFT sheep.

  12. Microsatellite based genetic structure of regional transboundary Istrian sheep breed populations in Croatia and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Gutierrez-Gil

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Istrian dairy sheep is a local breed essential for the identity and development of the Northern- Adriatic karstic region through high-quality products, primarily the hard sheep artisanal cheese. Border changes fragmented the initial Istrian dairy sheep population in three genetically isolated sub-populations in Italy (1000 animals, Slovenia (1150 animals and Croatia (2500 animals. Due to the drastic reduction of their population sizes and fragmentation, the populations in Croatia and Slovenia are included in governmentally supported conservation programs. The initial subpopulation in Italy was restored after near extinction with stock from Slovenia, and is used today in meat production. The aim of this study was to provide an initial understanding of the current genetic structure and distribution of the genetic variability that exists in Istrian sheep by analysing individuals sampled in two regional groups of Istrian sheep from Croatia and Slovenia. Cres island sheep and Lika pramenka sheep were used as out-groups for comparison. Genetic differentiation was analysed using factorial correspondence analysis and structure clustering over 26 microsatellite loci for a total of 104 sheep belonging to three breeds from Croatia and Slovenia. Factorial correspondence analysis and clustering-based structure analysis both showed three distinct populations: Lika pramenka sheep, Cres island sheep and Istrian sheep. We did not find a marked genetic divergence of the regional groups of Istrian sheep. Istrian sheep regional group from Slovenia showed lower genetic variability compared to the one from Croatia. Variability and structure information obtained in this study considered alongside with socio-cultural-contexts and economic goals for the Istrian sheep reared in Croatia and Slovenia indicate that the cross-border exchange of genetic material of animals carrying private alleles among populations would maintain these alleles at low frequencies and minimize

  13. Worm control practice against gastro-intestinal parasites in Norwegian sheep and goat flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Anthelmintic treatment is the most common way of controlling nematode infections in ruminants. However, several countries have reported anthelmintic resistance (AR), representing a limitation for sustainable small ruminant production. The knowledge regarding worm control management represents a baseline to develop a guideline for preventing AR. The aim of the present study was therefore to improve our knowledge about the worm control practices in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Methods A questionnaire survey regarding worm control practices was performed in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Flocks were selected from the three main areas of small ruminant farming, i.e. the coastal, inland and northern areas. A total of 825 questionnaires, comprising 587 sheep flocks (return rate of 51.3%) and 238 goat flocks (52.6%) were included. Results The results indicated that visual appraisal of individual weight was the most common means of estimating the anthelmintic dose used in sheep (78.6%) and goat (85.1%) flocks. The mean yearly drenching rate in lambs and ewes were 2.5 ± 1.7 and 1.9 ± 1.1, respectively, whereas it was 1.0 (once a year) in goats. However, these figures were higher in sheep in the coastal area with a rate of 3.4 and 2.2 in lambs and ewes, respectively. Benzimidazoles were the predominant anthelmintic class used in sheep flocks (64.9% in 2007), whereas benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones were both equally used in dairy goat flocks. In the period of 2005-2007, 46.3% of the sheep flocks never changed the anthelmintic class. The dose and move strategy was practiced in 33.2% of the sheep flocks. Conclusions The present study showed that inaccurate weight calculation gives a risk of under-dosing in over 90% of the sheep and goat flocks in Norway. Taken together with a high treatment frequency in lambs, a lack of anthelmintic class rotation and the common use of a dose-and-move strategy, a real danger for development of anthelmintic resistance

  14. Worm control practice against gastro-intestinal parasites in Norwegian sheep and goat flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatn Synnøve

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthelmintic treatment is the most common way of controlling nematode infections in ruminants. However, several countries have reported anthelmintic resistance (AR, representing a limitation for sustainable small ruminant production. The knowledge regarding worm control management represents a baseline to develop a guideline for preventing AR. The aim of the present study was therefore to improve our knowledge about the worm control practices in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Methods A questionnaire survey regarding worm control practices was performed in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Flocks were selected from the three main areas of small ruminant farming, i.e. the coastal, inland and northern areas. A total of 825 questionnaires, comprising 587 sheep flocks (return rate of 51.3% and 238 goat flocks (52.6% were included. Results The results indicated that visual appraisal of individual weight was the most common means of estimating the anthelmintic dose used in sheep (78.6% and goat (85.1% flocks. The mean yearly drenching rate in lambs and ewes were 2.5 ± 1.7 and 1.9 ± 1.1, respectively, whereas it was 1.0 (once a year in goats. However, these figures were higher in sheep in the coastal area with a rate of 3.4 and 2.2 in lambs and ewes, respectively. Benzimidazoles were the predominant anthelmintic class used in sheep flocks (64.9% in 2007, whereas benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones were both equally used in dairy goat flocks. In the period of 2005-2007, 46.3% of the sheep flocks never changed the anthelmintic class. The dose and move strategy was practiced in 33.2% of the sheep flocks. Conclusions The present study showed that inaccurate weight calculation gives a risk of under-dosing in over 90% of the sheep and goat flocks in Norway. Taken together with a high treatment frequency in lambs, a lack of anthelmintic class rotation and the common use of a dose-and-move strategy, a real danger for development of

  15. The impact of dystocia on dairy calf health, welfare, performance and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrier, A C; Haskell, M J; Birch, S; Bagnall, A; Bell, D J; Dickinson, J; Macrae, A I; Dwyer, C M

    2013-01-01

    Up to one-third of dairy calves are born after dystocia and this is a major cause of calf mortality. This study investigated the neonatal physiology, survival, health and subsequent growth of dairy calves following dystocia and is the first longitudinal study to analyse multiple effects and to look beyond the perinatal period. A total of 455 live born Holstein calves (N: No assistance, n=360; FN: Farmer assistance but normally presented calf, n=82; FM: Farmer assistance of malpresented calf, n=13) were followed from birth to first service (heifers) or until leaving the farm (bulls). Compared to N calves, FN and FM animals had higher salivary cortisol concentrations at day 1 (PDystocia had no biologically significant impact on rectal temperature throughout the first 4 days (P>0.05). During the first 60 days, FM calves had a higher proportion of days with non-routine health treatments (Pdystocia category (P>0.05). Calves which survive dystocia experience lower passive immunity transfer, higher mortality and higher indicators of physiological stress. Such calves have poorer welfare in the neonatal period and possibly beyond. Strategies need to be implemented to improve the subsequent health and welfare of such calves and to lower the incidence of dystocia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of water extract from spent mushroom substrate after Ganoderma balabacense cultivation by using JUNCAO technique on production performance and hematology parameters of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Zhao, Chao; Lin, Dongmei; Lin, Hui; Lin, Zhanxi

    2015-09-01

    The spent mushroom substrate of Ganoderma balabacense cultivation (SMSGB) contains a large amount of bioactive substances. However, the potentials of SMSGB for improving milk production in dairy cows have not been thoroughly studied. In this study, the effects of hot water extract (HWE) from spent mushroom substrate after G. balabacense cultivated with JUNCAO, the herbaceous plants long-known to be suitable for cultivating edible and medicinal fungi, on production performance and hematology parameters of dairy cows, were determined. Holstein dairy cows were fed different doses of HWE. After a 60-day administration period with 100 g/day of HWE, milk yield, milk protein and triglyceride (TG) levels increased by 4.02% (P < 0.01), 4.49% (P < 0.05) and 32.65% (P < 0.05), respectively; somatic cell count (SCC) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The production performance of dairy cows suggests that HWE with SMSGB treatment is effective in improving milk yield (P < 0.01) and hematology parameters of dairy cows, and may be useful as a functional feed additive. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Sheep laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dean M; Murray, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Turning preferences among 309 white-faced ewes were individually evaluated in an enclosed, artificially lit T-maze, followed by each ewe choosing either a right or left return alley to return to peers. Data recorded included time in the start box, time in the T-maze, exit arm chosen to leave the T-maze, and return alley. Right and left arms of the T-maze were chosen 65.7% and 34.3% of the time, respectively, while right and left return alleys were chosen 32.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Exit arm and return alley were not independently chosen (p laterality was not related (α =.05) to time of day the test was administered, ewe's age or genetics, most recent liveweight, or most recent shorn fleece weight. The mean time spent in the start box (21 s) was not related to exit arm (p =.947) or return alley (p =.779). Mean time (15 s) spent in the T-maze was not related to exit arm (p =.086) or return alley (p =.952). More research will be required to understand sheep turning laterality and how it can impact working facilities and research equipment.

  18. Meta-analysis to predict the effects of metabolizable amino acids on dairy cattle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, I J; de Ondarza, M B; Sniffen, C J; Santos, J E P; Griswold, K E

    2018-01-01

    Meta-analytic methods were used to determine statistical relationships between metabolizable AA supplies and milk protein yield, milk protein percentage, and milk yield in lactating dairy cows. Sixty-three research publications (258 treatment means) were identified through a search of published literature using 3 search engines and met the criteria for inclusion in this meta-analysis. The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) version 6.5 was used to determine dietary nutrient parameters including metabolizable AA. Two approaches were used to analyze the data. First, mixed models were fitted to determine whether explanatory variables predicted responses. Each mixed model contained a global intercept, a random intercept for each experiment, and data were weighted by the inverse of the SEM squared. The second analysis approach used classical effect size meta-analytical evaluation of responses to treatment weighted by the inverse of the treatment variance and with a random effect of treatment nested within experiment. Regardless of the analytical approach, CNCPS-predicted metabolizable Met (g/d) was associated with milk protein percentage and yield. Milk yield was positively associated with CNCPS-predicted metabolizable His, Leu, Trp, Thr, and nonessential AA (g/d). Milk true protein yield was also associated with CNCPS-predicted metabolizable Leu (g/d). Predicted metabolizable Lysine (g/d) did not increase responses in production outcomes. However, mean metabolizable Lys supply was less than typically recommended and the change with treatment was minimal (157 vs. 162 g; 6.36 vs. 6.38% metabolizable protein). Experiments based solely on Lys or Met interventions were excluded from the study database. It is possible that the inclusion of these experiments may have provided additional insight into the effect of these AA on responses. This meta-analysis supports other research indicating a positive effect of Met and His as co-limiting AA in dairy cows and

  19. Effects of feeding lutein on production performance, antioxidative status, and milk quality of high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C Z; Wang, H F; Yang, J Y; Wang, J H; Duan, Z Y; Wang, C; Liu, J X; Lao, Y

    2014-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the influences of supplementing different levels of an additive containing lutein in the diet of Chinese Holstein lactating cows on production performance, antioxidative plasma metabolites, and milk quality. This study was performed on 60 multiparous Holstein dairy cows in peak lactation. The cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 homogeneous treatments, with lutein preparation (extracted from marigolds; effective lutein content was 2%) added at levels of 0, 100, 150, and 200 g/d per head, with the actual available amounts being 0, 2, 3, and 4 g of lutein/d per head, respectively. The experiment lasted for 13 wk, with the first week for adaptation. Milk yield and milk compositions were recorded weekly, and milk concentrations of lutein, dry matter intake, and antioxidative blood index were analyzed in the first, fourth, seventh, and thirteenth week of the study. The results showed that adding lutein in the diet had no effect on dry matter intake compared with the control group; however, it slowed down the trend of decline in milk yield, and had a linear incremental effect on milk yield with increasing concentration of lutein. Dietary lutein tended to quadratically increase the percentage of milk fat, and linearly increased milk lactose concentration, with the highest value when treated at 200 g of lutein preparation/d per head, and decreased somatic cell count, with the lowest values when treated with 150 and 200 g of lutein preparation/d per head. The concentration of lutein in milk linearly increased with the incorporation of the additive, with a value of 0.59, 0.70, 1.20, and 1.50 μg/100mL when treated with 0, 100, 150, and 200 g/d, respectively. Total plasma antioxidant capacity tended to linearly increase in cows fed lutein preparation, whereas plasma superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities did not differ significantly. In conclusion, addition of lutein in the diet could improve the production

  20. Serum progesterone radioimmunoassay (RIA) for evaluation of reproductive performance of dairy herds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sula, F.; Stefanllari, K.; Lamce, Th.

    1996-01-01

    This publication summarizes the principal application of P 4-RIA of blood which helped to determine the time for onset of sexual functions after parturition, the incidence of silent oestrus, and the correct timing of service. Progesterone profiles showed that cows in this herd ovulated considerably later than 35+/-7 days after calving, which is the value reported for many other herds of dairy cows. The percentage of cows in oestrus was found 66% within 60 days post-partum while the incidence of silent oestrus was 20%. The correct timing of service is 85%. According to this study, the major causes for the lowered reproductive efficiency in this herd were found to be the delayed onset of post-partum ovarian activity and the incidence of silent oestrus. 9 refs. 3 tabs

  1. Effect of lactation stage, its number, current milk performance and barn air temperature on laterality of Holstein dairy cows laying behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Zejdová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine effect of lactation stage and number, current milk performance and ambient temperature on laterality of dairy cows laying behaviour (i.e. preference of either left or right body side. The monitoring was performed at the University Training Farm in Žabčice, Czech Republic, (geographical coordinates 49° 0’4’’ N and 16° 36’ E, the altitude 179 m within the six warmest months of the year 2010 (i.e. from 1 April 2010 to 30 September 2010. Observed were altogether 70 Holstein dairy cows with the average daily milk production of 34.48 kg of milk, which were kept in loose housing boxes with bedding (size of boxes: 2500 mm x 1250 mm. Animals were directly observed once a week (always at 9.00 a.m.. In the course of observation, the position of dairy cows in the barn was exactly recorded. In case of laying animals, it was recorded on which body side they were resting. Altogether 1,239 records of laying position of individual dairy cows were analysed and it was found out that the experimental animals preferred the left body side of their body (left and right laterality was observed in 671 and 568 animals, respectively. This left-side laterality was more frequent among animals in later stages of lactation (more than 200 days and also in dairy cows with a higher number of lactations (4th and more. Dairy cows with a below-average milk performance rested on their left body side more frequently than those with a high level of milk production. As compared with average and/or low air temperatures, the left laterality was more frequent in periods of high ambient temperatures.

  2. Interaction between the physical forms of starter and forage source on growth performance and blood metabolites of Holstein dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi-Mirzaei, H; Azarfar, A; Kiani, A; Mirzaei, M; Ghaffari, M H

    2018-04-11

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the physical forms of starter and forage sources on feed intake, growth performance, rumen pH, and blood metabolites of dairy calves. Forty male Holstein calves (41.3 ± 3.5 kg of body weight) were used (n = 10 calves per treatment) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with the factors being physical forms of starter (coarse mash and texturized) and forage source [alfalfa hay (AH) and wheat straw (WS)]. Individually housed calves were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments, including (1) coarsely mashed (CM; coarse ground grains combined with a mash supplement) starter feed with AH (CM-AH), (2) coarsely mashed starter feed with WS (CM-WS), (3) texturized feed starter (TF; includes steam-flaked corn, steam-rolled barley combined with a pelleted supplement) with AH (TF-AH), and (4) TF with WS (TF-WS). Both starters had the same ingredients and nutrient compositions but differed in their physical forms. Calves were weaned on d 56 and remained in the study until d 70. All calves had free access to drinking water and the starter feeding at all times. No interaction was detected between the physical forms of starter feeds and forage source concerning starter intake, dry matter intake, metabolizable energy (ME) intake, average daily gain (ADG)/ME intake, ADG, and feed efficiency (FE). The preweaning and overall starter feed intake, dry matter intake, and ME intake were greater for calves fed TF starter diets than those fed CM starter diets. The ADG/ME intake was greater for calves fed TF starter diets than that fed CM starter. The FE was greater for calves fed TF starter diets compared with those fed CM starter during the preweaning, postweaning, and overall periods. The WS improved FE during the postweaning period compared with AH. The physical form of starter, forage source, and their interaction did not affect plasma glucose, triglycerides, and very low-density lipoprotein

  3. The performance of a white clover-based dairy system in comparison with a grass/fertiliser-N system. II. Animal production, economics and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Boxem, T.; Jagtenberg, C.J.; Verboom, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    The performance of a white clover based dairy system in comparison with a grass/fertiliser-N system was studied during three years. Both systems had 59 cows, plus young stock, on an area of 40.6 ha for grass/clover and 34.4 ha for grass/fertiliser-N. During the grazing season, the cows in both

  4. Performance of dairy cattle under two different feeding systems, as practiced in Kiambu and Nyandarua district of Central Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbugua, P N; Gachuiri, C K; Wahome, R G; Wanyoike, M M; Abate, A [Department of Animal Production, University of Nairobi (Kenya); Munyua, S J.M. [Department of Clinical Studies, University of Nairobi (Kenya); Kamau, J M.Z. [Department of Animal Physiology, University of Nairobi (Kenya)

    1999-07-01

    A study was carried out in Central Kenya to compare the performance of dairy cattle under two different feeding systems, stall feeding in Kiambu and grazing in Nyandarua. A total of 23 dairy farmers were randomly selected, 11 from the Kiambu district with a total of 61 cows and 12 from Nyandarua district with a total of 102 cows. Data on milk production and reproduction was collected over a period of two years. Stall-fed cattle showed a significantly higher milk yield (P <0.05) than the grazed animals over a 10 month lactation period (3,150 vs 2,299 kg/lactation). In both feeding systems Ayshires performed better than the other breeds. The cross-bred animals compared well with pure-breds in the grazing system. Lactation yield increased with parity for the stall-fed animals while for grazed animals, milk yield declined from the 5th parity onwards. The calving intervals were long for both feeding systems (437 vs 513 days, stall-fed vs grazed, respectively). Services per conception were significantly lower (P <0.05) for stall-fed (1.85 vs 2.36) compared to grazed animals. Calving season did not have any significant effect on milk yield in both feeding systems but animals calving during the wet season, on average, had a slightly higher milk yield. Lactation curves for animals in both feeding systems did not show a distinct peak. Body weight and body condition score varied with the stage of lactation. (author) 6 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  5. Performance of dairy cattle under two different feeding systems, as practiced in Kiambu and Nyandarua district of Central Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbugua, P.N.; Gachuiri, C.K.; Wahome, R.G.; Wanyoike, M.M.; Abate, A.; Munyua, S.J.M.; Kamau, J.M.Z.

    1999-01-01

    A study was carried out in Central Kenya to compare the performance of dairy cattle under two different feeding systems, stall feeding in Kiambu and grazing in Nyandarua. A total of 23 dairy farmers were randomly selected, 11 from the Kiambu district with a total of 61 cows and 12 from Nyandarua district with a total of 102 cows. Data on milk production and reproduction was collected over a period of two years. Stall-fed cattle showed a significantly higher milk yield (P <0.05) than the grazed animals over a 10 month lactation period (3,150 vs 2,299 kg/lactation). In both feeding systems Ayshires performed better than the other breeds. The cross-bred animals compared well with pure-breds in the grazing system. Lactation yield increased with parity for the stall-fed animals while for grazed animals, milk yield declined from the 5th parity onwards. The calving intervals were long for both feeding systems (437 vs 513 days, stall-fed vs grazed, respectively). Services per conception were significantly lower (P <0.05) for stall-fed (1.85 vs 2.36) compared to grazed animals. Calving season did not have any significant effect on milk yield in both feeding systems but animals calving during the wet season, on average, had a slightly higher milk yield. Lactation curves for animals in both feeding systems did not show a distinct peak. Body weight and body condition score varied with the stage of lactation. (author)

  6. Effect of selenium on its content in milk and performance of dairy cows in ecological farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Horký

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the ecological farming is increasingly spread in the European Union. The aim of this relatively young farming method is a friendly approach to agricultural production with an emphasis to deliver healthy raw materials and food to final consumer. Selenium is included in an essential trace micronutrients which are necessary for the proper process of physiological reactions. It is a part of glutathione peroxidase, which is a powerful antioxidant. At present,  selenium-deficiency can occur in feed and food in central Europe. Selenium deficiency is one cause of the higher occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the experiment was to study whether the addition of selenium to the diet of dairy cows in ecological farming can increase its concentration in milk and affect quantitative (milk yield and quality (content of protein, fat, lactose, somatic cells and urea milk indicators. The experiment included twenty cows of Holstein breed. The first experimental group of cows (n = 10 was fed with selenium in an amount of 0.3 mg.kg-1 (as selenomethionine in the feed dose. The control group (n = 10 was not fed with the increased selenium in the feed dose. The basic feed dose contained 0.17 mg of Se/kg in the diet. For dairy cows, daily intake was of 20.5 kg of dry matter feed. The duration of the experiment was set at 45 days. The selenium concentration in milk was measured from 0.13 to 0.15 µg.mL-1 in the experimental group of cows during the evaluation. The control group of cows without the addition of selenium to the diet showed a selenium concentration below the detection limit. During the experiment, milk yield, lactose, fat and protein were not affected. A significant decrease (p <0.05 of somatic cells by 58% occurred in milk in the experimental group. The amount of urea was significantly lower in both groups in the experimental (by 52%; p <0.05 and control (50%; p <0.05. These results show that the addition of selenium may increase

  7. Effects of rumen-protected choline supplementation on metabolic and performance responses of transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Marques, R S; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare metabolic and milk production parameters in dairy cows supplemented and nonsupplemented with rumen-protected choline (RPC) during the transition period. Twenty-three nonlactating, multiparous, pregnant Holstein cows were ranked by BW and BCS 21 d before expected date of calving and immediately were assigned to receive (n = 12) or not receive (control; n = 11) RPC until 45 d in milk (DIM). Cows supplemented with RPC received (as-fed basis) 50 and 100 g/d of RPC (18.8% choline) before and after calving, respectively. Before calving, cows were maintained in 2 drylot pens according to treatment with ad libitum access to corn silage, and individually they received (as-fed basis) 3 kg/cow daily of a concentrate. Upon calving, cows were moved to 2 adjacent drylot pens according to treatment, milked twice daily, offered (as-fed basis) 35 kg/cow daily of corn silage, and individually received a concentrate formulated to meet their nutritional requirements after milking. The RPC was individually offered to cows as a topdressing into the morning concentrate feeding. Before calving, cow BW and BCS were recorded weekly, and blood samples were collected every 5 d beginning on d -21 relative to expected calving date. Upon calving and until 45 DIM, BW and BCS were recorded weekly, individual milk production was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected once a week and analyzed for fat, protein, and total solids. Blood samples were collected every other day from 0 to 20 DIM and every 5 d from 20 to 45 DIM. Based on actual calving dates, cows receiving RPC or control began receiving treatments 16.8 ± 1.7 and 17.3 ± 2.0 d before calving, respectively. No treatment effects were detected (P ≥ 0.18) on postpartum concentrate intake, BW and BCS, or serum concentrations of cortisol, β-hydroxybutyrate, NEFA, glucose, and IGF-I. Cows supplemented with RPC had greater (P ≤ 0.01) mean serum haptoglobin and insulin concentrations

  8. Milk and serum progesterone assay for evaluation of reproductive performance of dairy herds in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraraksa, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Cross-bred dairy cows (n=202) were used to study the milk progesterone profiles 0, 5, 7, 12, 20, 28, 35 and 45 days after artificial insemination. It was found that 57% (115/202) of the cows had a normal oestrous cycle and conceived, but in 13% (15/115) of cows that conceived the embryos died between 28 and 35 days of gestation. A total of 43% (87/202) of the cows did not become pregnant and these could be classified into four groups: 15% (31/202) had normal oestrous cycles; 7% (15/202) were inseminated during the luteal phase, i.e. when progesterone concentrations were elevated; 14% (29/202) had irregular cycles; and 6% (12/202) were acyclic. In another study milk samples were collected every 3 days from 90 cross-bred dairy cows, commencing 15 days after parturition and continuing until each animal had been inseminated. The milk progesterone profiles of each cow were collated with the records of oestrus and insemination. The average post-partum anoestrous periods of primiparous and multiparous cows were 35.0 ± 16.4 and 34.9 ± 14.5 days, respectively. In 68% of the primiparous cows and 65% of the multiparous cows oestrus occurred between days 20 and 40 of the post-partum period. Sequential serum samples from 42 repeat breeder cows and 8 infertile heifers were analysed for progesterone, and their ovaries were examined weekly by rectal palpation. They were treated with either human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG), pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) or prostaglandin F 2α . As a result, 23 cows and 5 heifers re-established oestrous cycles and became pregnant after AI. Progesterone profiles and rectal palpation revealed various causes of infertility, including ovarian cysts, irregular oestrous cycles, inactive ovaries and abnormal oviducts. Fifty-six per cent of repeat breeder cows and infertile heifers responded to hormone treatment in terms of resumed ovarian function. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  9. Differences in sheep and goats milk fatty acid profile between conventional and organic farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiplakou, Eleni; Kotrotsios, Vaios; Hadjigeorgiou, Ioannis; Zervas, George

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference in chemical composition and particularly in fatty acid (FA) profile, with emphasis on cis-9, trans-11 CLA, of milk obtained from conventional and organic dairy sheep and goats farms under the farming conditions practiced in Greece. Four dairy sheep and four dairy goat farms, representing common conventional production systems and another four dairy sheep and four dairy goat farms, organically certified, representing organic production and feeding systems were selected from all over Greece. One hundred and sixty two individual milk samples were collected from those farms in January-February 2009, about three months after parturition. The milk samples were analyzed for their main chemical constituents and their FA profile. The results showed that the production system affected milk chemical composition: in particular fat content was lower in the organic sheep and goats milk compared with the corresponding conventional. Milk from organic sheep had higher content in MUFA, PUFA, alpha-LNA, cis-9, trans-11 CLA, and omega-3 FA, whereas in milk from organic goats alpha-LNA and omega-3 FA content was higher than that in conventional one. These differences are, mainly, attributed to different feeding practices used by the two production systems. The results of this study show that the organic milk produced under the farming conditions practiced in Greece has higher nutritional value, due to its FA profile, compared with the respective conventional milk.

  10. The association between subclinical mastitis around calving and reproductive performance in grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Arcila, N A; Sanchez, J; Ratto, M H; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Duque-Madrid, P C; Sanchez-Arias, S; Ceballos-Marquez, A

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of subclinical mastitis (SCM) on calving-to-first-service interval (CFS), calving-to-conception interval (CC), and on the number of services per conception (S/C) in grazing Holstein and Normande cows. Primiparous (n=43) and multiparous (n=165) cows were selected from five dairy herds. Two composite milk samples were aseptically collected from each cow at drying-off, and then every week during the first postpartum month. One sample was used for somatic cell count (SCC), and the other one for bacteriological analysis. Cows were followed up to 300 d after calving. Non-parametric and parametric survival models, and negative binomial regression were used to assess the association between SCM, evaluated by SCC and milk culture, and reproductive indices. Staphylococcus aureus, CNS, and Streptococcus uberis were the most frequent isolated pathogens. Subclinical mastitis in the first month of lactation was not associated with CFS; however, the CC interval was longer in cows with SCM compared to healthy cows, the former also had a higher number of S/C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Economic performance of dairy cows fed diets with different levels of oregano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julinessa Silva Oliveira de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the economic viability of using different levels of oregano in diets for lactating cows fed sugar cane. We used 12 crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows assigned to three 4 x 4 Latin squares. The four treatments consisted of different levels of oregano: oregano free-control diet (0% and diets added with 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% oregano. Diets were formulated to meet the requirements for maintenance and milk production of 15 kg day-1. For economic analysis, we employed two economic indicators, net present value and internal rate of return. The total cost per animal and per liter of milk produced has increased with the inclusion of oregano. The inclusion of oregano was not effective for both productivity and profitability, with prices equal to R$ 0.87, 0.97, 1.09, 1.22, and R$ 0.78, 1.03, 1.28, and 1.52 of milk and concentrate, respectively for each level of inclusion. The internal rate of return was more advantageous when not adding oregano in the diet, indicating the viability of using oregano up to 0.8% inclusion to the diet of dairy cows under the conditions of this experiment. The net present value demonstrated that this investment is interesting for all discount rates used in the diet without the addition of oregano, pointing out that, in this treatment, the activity was feasible for any opportunity cost.

  12. Dairy Replacement Performance Fed Various Recipes of Pangola (Digitaria eriantha) Silage Ensiled with Irradiated Silage Innoculant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanpanich, Somkiert; Boon-ek, Lerchart; Piadang, Nattayana

    2006-09-01

    Various kinds of Pangola silage ensiled with molasses and 2 types of silage innoculant (wild and mutant types). There were 6 recipes consisting of Treatment 1 : Pangola silage, Treatment 2: Pangola ensiled with molasses 4 % w/w, Treatment 3 : Pangola ensiled with 106 cfu wild type innoculant /gm Pangola, Treatment 4 : Pangola ensiled with 106 cfu mutant type innoculant/gm Pangola, Treatment 5 : Pangola ensiled with 106 cfu wild type innoculant/gm Pangola and molasses 4 % w/w, Treatment 6 : Pangola ensiled with 106 cfu mutant type innoculant/gm Pangola and molasses 4 % w/w. After 21 days of fermentation, silage sample was taken for nutritive value analysis. Preference testing on all silage recipes was studied using 18 dairy yearlings, aged 10-12 months old and weighed 200-300 kg, at 6 treatments with 3 animals each for 21 days in a Complete Randomized Design. The results did show that Treatment 1 had higher dry matter intake than those consisted of silage innoculant. However, when taking body weight changes and blood metabolites into account, Treatment 4 : Pangola ensiled with 106 cfu mutant type innoculant/gm Pangola, has an advantage on the ease of making process. Then, it is concluded that Treatment 4 is the most appropriate method to improve silage quality.

  13. Productive performance and efficiency of utilization of the diet components in dairy cows fed castor meal treated with calcium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Variz Cobianchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of replacing of 0; 0.33; 0.67 and 1.0 (kg/kg of soybean meal (SBM by undecorticated castor seed meal treated with calcium oxide (CMT - 60 g/kg was evaluated on performance and efficiency of nutrient utilization in dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein and crossbred cows were distributed in four 4 × 4 latin squares. Animals received concentrated feed at a ratio of 1 kg for 3 kg of milk produced, in the natural matter. The diets had the same amount of nitrogen (150.4 g crude protein/kg DM, containing 325.6 g of concentrated feed/kg DM. There was no effect on the serum concentration of transaminase and the animals showed no clinical symptoms of intoxication by ricin. The intake of DM, crude protein (CP and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC reduced from 0.67 replacement of SBM by CMT. The intake of neutral detergent fibers corrected for ash and protein (NDFap increased from 0.33 replacement of SBM with CMT. Although the digestibility of dietary components decreased from 0.33 replacement, the intake of digestible components only reduced from 0.67 replacement. Because of the reduction of digestible energy, the synthesis of microbial CP and the utilization efficiency of rumen-degradable protein for the synthesis of microbial CP reduced with full replacement of SBM by CMT. Milk yield, milk composition, daily variation of body weight and the efficiency of utilization of the nutrients for the synthesis of N in milk reduced from 0.67 replacement of SBM by CMT. Castor seed meal treated with calcium oxide can replace up to 0.33 of SBM (50 g/kg DM diet DM in the diet of dairy cows with an average milk production of 20 kg/day.

  14. Effect of human chorionic gonadotropin on luteal function and reproductive performance of high-producing lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J E; Thatcher, W W; Pool, L; Overton, M W

    2001-11-01

    The objectives were to evaluate effects of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (3,300 IU i.m.) administered on d 5 after AI on CL number, plasma progesterone concentration, conception rate, and pregnancy loss in high-producing dairy cows. Following the synchronization of estrus and AI, 406 cows were injected with either hCG or saline on d 5 after AI in a randomized complete block design. Blood sampling and ovarian ultrasonography were conducted once between d 11 and 16 after AI. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed on d 28 by ultrasonography and on d 45 and 90 after AI by rectal palpation. Treatment with hCG on d 5 resulted in 86.2% of the cows with more than one CL compared with 23.2% in controls. Plasma progesterone concentrations were increased by 5.0 ng/mL in hCG-treated cows. The presence of more than one CL increased progesterone concentration in hCG-treated cows but not in controls. Conception rates were higher for hCG-treated cows on d 28 (45.8 > 38.7%), 45 (40.4 > 36.3%), and 90 (38.4 > 31.9%) after AI. Treatment with hCG improved conception rate in cows losing body condition between AI and d 28 after Al. Pregnancy losses were similar between treatment groups. Treatment with hCG on d 5 after AI induces accessory CL, enhances plasma progesterone concentration, and improves conception rate of high-producing dairy cows.

  15. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in cattle, sheep, goat, and pig rearing in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Klimešová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and resistant strains in livestock. In this study, 114 different samples from three cattle farms (84 from two farms of dairy cows and 30 from one farm of suckler cows, 132 samples from one sheep farm, 120 samples from one goat farm, and 82 samples from three pig farms were examined. Strains identified as Staphylococcus aureus were further analysed by the polymerase chain reaction method for detection of the mecA gene and for confirmation of the sequence type 398. Positive incidence of Staphylococcus aureus was confirmed in farms of suckler cows, sheep, goats and pigs. The incidence of methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was confirmed at a goat farm, with all strains belonging to the sequence type 398. Repetitive element palindromic-polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to compare the relatedness of selected human and animal S. aureus strains at the goat and sheep farms. The obtained data from repetitive element-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed significant clonal similarity among the tested isolates and indicated the possibility of mutual transmission between animals or animal and human and possible transfer in the food chain.

  16. Achieving high milk production performance at grass with minimal concentrate supplementation with spring-calving dairy cows: actual performance compared to simulated performance

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donovan, M.; Ruelle, Elodie; Coughlan, F.; Delaby, Luc

    2015-01-01

    The aim of high-profitability grazing systems is to produce milk efficiency from grazed pasture. There is very limited information available on the milk production capacity of dairy cows offered a grass-only diet for the main part of her lactation. In this study, spring-calving dairy cows were managed to achieve high milk production levels throughout the grazing season without supplementation. The calving date of the herd was 12 April; the herd had access to grass as they calved a...

  17. Dairy development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, P.; Hoorweg, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    The growth of the dairy sector as it has occurred in Kilifi and Malindi Districts is one of the few examples of successful agricultural development in the coastal region in the past decades. Between 1985 and 1997 dairy cattle have more than doubled in number. Three livestock systems are described:

  18. The effect of intrauterine infusion of dextrose on clinical endometritis cure rate and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Ganda, E K; Stephens, L; Milhomem, M; Freitas, G L; Zinicola, M; Pearson, J; Wieland, M; Guard, C; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the intrauterine administration use of 200 mL of 50% dextrose solution as a treatment against clinical endometritis (CE); CE cure rate and reproductive performance were evaluated. Additionally, the association of several relevant risk factors, such as retained placenta (RP), metritis, CE, anovulation, hyperketonemia, and body condition score with reproductive performance, early embryonic mortality, and CE were evaluated. A total of 1,313 Holstein cows housed on 4 commercial dairy farms were enrolled in the study. At 7±3 DIM cows were examined for metritis and had blood collected to determine serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentration. To determine if cows had ovulated at least once before 44±3 DIM, the presence of a corpus luteum was evaluated by ovarian ultrasonography at 30±3 DIM and at 44±3 DIM. At 30±3 DIM, CE was diagnosed using the Metricheck device (SimcroTech, Hamilton, New Zealand); cows with purulent or mucopurulent vaginal discharge were diagnosed as having CE. Cows diagnosed with CE (n=175) were randomly allocated into 2 treatment groups: treatment (intrauterine infusion of 200 mL of 50% dextrose) or control (no infusion). Clinical endometritis cows were re-evaluated as described above at 44±3 DIM, and cows that were free of purulent or mucopurulent vaginal discharge were considered cured. Intrauterine infusion of dextrose tended to have a detrimental effect on CE cure rate, and treatment did not have an effect on first-service conception rate and early embryonic mortality. A multivariable Cox's proportional hazard model was performed to evaluate the effect of several variables on reproductive performance; the variables RP, CE, parity, anovulation, and the interaction term between parity and anovulation were associated with hazard of pregnancy. Cows that did not have RP or CE were more likely to conceive than cows that were diagnosed with RP or CE. Cows that had RP were at 3.36 times higher odds of

  19. Effects of dietary betaine supplementation subjected to heat stress on milk performances and physiology indices in dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Ying, S J; An, W J; Lian, H; Zhou, G B; Han, Z Y

    2014-09-12

    This study aimed to determine whether feeding betaine to cows elevates their production performance during summer heat stress. Thirty-two lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into 4 groups: the control group, which received a total mixed ration (TMR), and 3 experimental groups that received TMR blended with 10 g/day (group I), 15 g/day (group II), and 20 g/day (group III) betaine for 8 weeks. Milk and blood were sampled throughout the experimental period. The average maximum and minimum air temperatures were 28.3 and 24.1°C, respectively. The average temperature-humidity index was 78.6 units. The results showed that feeding betaine to cows increased feed intake, milk yield, milk lactose, milk protein, plasma cortisol, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde levels (Pcows increases their milk performance and improves their antioxidant capacity; these processes help relieve the cow from heat stress. In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows with 15 g/day betaine generated the most positive influence on performance and productivity, and hence caused the greatest reduction in heat stress.

  20. Differential Gene Expression in Ovaries of Qira Black Sheep and Hetian Sheep Using RNA-Seq Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bin; Zhang, Yong Sheng; Wang, Xu Hai; Zeng, Xian Cun

    2015-01-01

    The Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep are two local breeds in the Northwest of China, which are characterized by high-fecundity and low-fecundity breed respectively. The elucidation of mRNA expression profiles in the ovaries among different sheep breeds representing fecundity extremes will helpful for identification and utilization of major prolificacy genes in sheep. In the present study, we performed RNA-seq technology to compare the difference in ovarian mRNA expression profiles between Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep. From the Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep libraries, we obtained a total of 11,747,582 and 11,879,968 sequencing reads, respectively. After aligning to the reference sequences, the two libraries included 16,763 and 16,814 genes respectively. A total of 1,252 genes were significantly differentially expressed at Hetian sheep compared with Qira black sheep. Eight differentially expressed genes were randomly selected for validation by real-time RT-PCR. This study provides a basic data for future research of the sheep reproduction. PMID:25790350

  1. Differential gene expression in ovaries of Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep using RNA-Seq technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ying Chen

    Full Text Available The Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep are two local breeds in the Northwest of China, which are characterized by high-fecundity and low-fecundity breed respectively. The elucidation of mRNA expression profiles in the ovaries among different sheep breeds representing fecundity extremes will helpful for identification and utilization of major prolificacy genes in sheep. In the present study, we performed RNA-seq technology to compare the difference in ovarian mRNA expression profiles between Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep. From the Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep libraries, we obtained a total of 11,747,582 and 11,879,968 sequencing reads, respectively. After aligning to the reference sequences, the two libraries included 16,763 and 16,814 genes respectively. A total of 1,252 genes were significantly differentially expressed at Hetian sheep compared with Qira black sheep. Eight differentially expressed genes were randomly selected for validation by real-time RT-PCR. This study provides a basic data for future research of the sheep reproduction.

  2. The effect of cartilage and bone density of mushroom-shaped, photooxidized, osteochondral transplants: an experimental study on graft performance in sheep using transplants originating from different species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilbe Monika

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in overall performance of osteochondral photooxidized grafts were studied in accordance of their species origin and a new, more rigorous cleansing procedure using alcohol during preparation. Methods Photooxidized mushroom-shaped grafts of bovine, ovine, human and equine origin were implanted in the femoral condyles of 32 sheep (condyles: n = 64. No viable chondrocytes were present at the time of implantation. Grafts were evaluated at 6 months using plastic embedded sections of non-decalcified bone and cartilage specimens. Graft incorporation, the formation of cyst-like lesions at the base of the cartilage junction as well as cartilage morphology was studied qualitatively, semi-quantitatively using a score system and quantitatively by performing histomorphometrical measurements of percentage of bone and fibrous tissue of the original defects. For statistical analysis a factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA- test was applied. Results Differences of graft performance were found according to species origin and cleansing process during graft preparation. According to the score system cartilage surface integrity was best for equine grafts, as well as dislocation or mechanical stability. The equine grafts showed the highest percentage for bone and lowest for fibrous tissue, resp. cystic lesions. The new, more rigorous cleansing process decreased cartilage persistence and overall graft performance. Conclusion Performance of grafts from equine origin was better compared to bovine, ovine and human grafts. The exact reason for this difference was not proven in the current study, but could be related to differences in density of cartilage and subchondral bone between species.

  3. Copper intoxication in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazaryan, V.S.; Sogoyan, I.S.; Agabalov, G.A.; Mesropyan, V.V.

    1966-01-01

    Of 950 sheep fed hay from a vineyard sprayed regularly with copper sulfate, 143 developed clinical copper poisoning and 103 died. The Cu content of the hay was 10.23 mg%, of the liver of dead sheep 17-52 mg%, and of the blood serum of affected sheep 0.86 mg%. The symptoms and the histological findings in kidneys and liver are described.

  4. Milk progesterone in evaluation of reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.T.; Hueckmann, F.; Estrada, S.; Padilla, M.; Robert, O.; Madriz, C.; Alfaro, R.; Gonzales, V.; Colmenares, A.

    1990-01-01

    Post-partum ovarian activity was studied by means of rectal palpation, and progesterone (P 4 ) concentration measured by radioimmunoassay in defatted milk samples in Jersey, Holstein, Criollo and Criollo x Jersey cows. The accuracy with which farm personnel detected oestrus was monitored from measurements of P 4 on the day of AI and 23 days later. P 4 profiles during the oestrous cycle and early pregnancy were determined in Jersey cows through the analysis of daily milk samples. Accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis as indicated by P 4 levels was 79% and 88% in Jersey and Holstein cows respectively. Diagnosis of non-pregnancy from P 4 levels was found to be 100% accurate. Only 62% of the Jerseys and 82.5% of the Holsteins which returned to oestrus after first AI post-partum were identified by staff on the different farms. Studies carried out in Jersey and Holstein cows during the early post-partum period revealed significant discrepancies between P 4 levels and palpable corpora lutea. P 4 profiles showed the presence of short (< 14 days) oestrous cycles in 53.9% and 47.4% of the Jersey and Holstein cows respectively during the first six weeks post-partum. Cows which developed milk fever at or before calving but which were treated promptly took no longer than healthy cows to resume ovarian activity. However, compared with healthy cows, those which had dystocia, retention of placenta or severe metritis took significantly longer (P < 0.01) to resume ovarian activity. Studies in the humid tropics during the post-partum period in Criollo, Criollo x Jersey and Jersey cows showed that 57% of the animals exhibited pre-ovulatory short cycles. Analysis of the monthly AI percentages in the different genetic groups indicated a seasonal distribution in sexual receptivity in both Criollo and Jersey dairy cows under these conditions; Criollo cows also resumed post-partum ovarian activity sooner than the other breeds. (author). 23 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs

  5. Investigation of the prospect of energy self-sufficiency and technical performance of an integrated PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell), dairy farm and biogas plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Tingting; Alvfors, Per; Lindbergh, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A PEMFC stack with a 40% of electrical efficiency will make the integrated PEMFC-CHP, biogas plant and dairy farm self-sufficient. • The quality of the reformate gas is good enough to support normal operation of the PEMFC-CHP. • The methane conversion rate and the content of the CH 4 in the biogas need to be balanced in order to obtain the best system performance. • Compared with a coal-fired CHP plant, the integrated system can avoid coal consumption and CO 2 emissions. - Abstract: A PEMFC fuelled with hydrogen is known for its high efficiency and low local emissions. However, the generation of hydrogen is always a controversial issue for the application of the PEMFC due to the use of fossil fuel and the possible carbon dioxide emissions. Presently, the PEMFC-CHP fed with renewable fuels, such as biogas, appears to be the most attractive energy converter–fuel combination. In this paper, an integrated PEMFC-CHP, a dairy farm and a biogas plant are studied. A PEMFC-CHP fed with reformate gas from the biogas plant generates electricity and heat to a dairy farm and a biogas plant, while the dairy farm delivers wet manure to the biogas plant as the feedstock for biogas production. This integrated system has been modelled for steady-state conditions by using Aspen Plus®. The results indicate that the wet manure production of a dairy farm with 300 milked cows can support a biogas plant to give 1280 MW h of biogas annually. Based on the biogas production, a PEMFC-CHP with a stack having an electrical efficiency of 40% generates 360 MW h electricity and 680 MW h heat per year, which is enough to cover the energy demand of the whole system while the total efficiency of the PEMFC-CHP system is 82%. The integrated PEMFC-CHP, dairy farm and biogas plant could make the dairy farm and the biogas plant self-sufficient in a sustainable way provided the PEMFC-CHP has the electrical efficiency stated above. The effect of the methane conversion rate and the

  6. A meta-analysis on the effect of dietary application of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes on the performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola, Kathy G; Oliveira, Andre S; Ma, Zhengxin X; Lean, Ian J; Giurcanu, Mihai C; Adesogan, Adegbola T

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to use meta-analytical methods to estimate effects of adding exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) to dairy cow diets on their performance and to determine which factors affect the response. Fifteen studies with 17 experiments and 36 observations met the study selection criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The effects were compared by using random-effect models to examine the raw mean difference (RMD) and standardized mean difference between EFE and control treatments after both were weighted with the inverse of the study variances. Heterogeneity sources evaluated by meta-regression included experimental duration, EFE type and application rate, form (liquid or solid), and method (application to the forage, concentrate, or total mixed ration). Only the cellulase-xylanase (C-X) enzymes had a substantial number of observations (n = 13 studies). Application of EFE, overall, did not affect dry matter intake, feed efficiency but tended to increase total-tract dry matter digestibility and neutral detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD) by relatively small amounts (1.36 and 2.30%, respectively, or 50%) was detected for total-tract dry matter digestibility and NDFD. Milk production responses were higher for the C-X enzymes (RMD = 1.04 kg/d; 95% confidence interval: 0.33 to 1.74), but were still only moderate, about 0.35 standardized mean difference. A 24% numerical increase in the RMD resulting from examining only C-X enzymes instead of all enzymes (RMD = 1.04 vs. 0.83 kg/d) suggests that had more studies met the inclusion criteria, the C-X enzymes would have statistically increased the milk response relative to that for all enzymes. Increasing the EFE application rate had no effect on performance measures. Application of EFE to the total mixed ration improved only milk protein concentration, and application to the forage or concentrate had no effect. Applying EFE tended to increase dry matter digestibility and NDFD and increased milk yield by

  7. The influence of genital tract status in postpartum period on the subsequent reproductive performance in high producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Helguera, I; López-Gatius, F; Garcia-Ispierto, I

    2012-04-15

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the early postpartum period in clinically healthy dairy cows by ultrasonography (US), endometrial cytology (EC), and white blood cell counts, and determine possible relationships between postpartum findings and subsequent reproductive performance. Fifty-three dairy cows were examined on Days 15 to 21 (Visit 1), 22 to 28 (Visit 2), and 29 to 35 (Visit 3) postpartum. The clinical examination included: examination of vaginal fluid, EC, transrectal palpation and ultrasonography of the genital tract (cervical diameter, endometrial thickness, presence of a corpus luteum [CL] or intrauterine fluid [IUF] and its echogenicity). Luteal activity (presence of a CL in a single visit), return to cyclicity (presence of a CL in 2 consecutive visits), and conception rate at 70 and 120 days postpartum were considered as the dependent variables in four consecutive binary logistic regression analyses. Factors affecting leukocyte counts were established by general linear model (GLM) repeated measures analysis of variance. Based on the odds ratio (OR), the likelihood of luteal activity was higher in multiparous than primiparous cows (OR = 3.75) and tended to diminish in cows showing increased endometrial thickness in Visit 1 (V1) (OR = 0.06). The likelihood of returning to cyclicity decreased for each centimeter increase in cervical diameter in V1 (OR = 0.14) and that of conception on Day 70 was lower in cows showing the presence of echogenic or anechogenic IUF in V1 (OR = 0.09 or OR = 0.13, respectively) compared with cows lacking IUF. Effects of parity and IUF were observed on neutrophil counts. Positive EC results were unrelated to the cumulative conception rate at 70 and 120 days in milk, whereas cows returning a positive EC result in V1 showed a greater likelihood of increased endometrial thickness. In conclusion, measuring cervical diameter, endometrial thickness, and detecting the echogenicity of IUF by ultrasonography from Days 15

  8. Genomic selection in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de A.P.W.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this Ph.D. thesis were (1) to optimise genomic selection in dairy cattle with respect to the accuracy of predicting total genetic merit and (2) to optimise a dairy cattle breeding program using genomic selection. The study was performed using a combination of real data sets and

  9. Purulent vaginal discharge in grazing dairy cows: Risk factors, reproductive performance, and prostaglandin F2α treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, M J; Magnasco, M; Magnasco, R P; Lacau-Mengido, I M; de la Sota, R L

    2017-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the association of a 4-point scale of vaginal discharge score (VDS) with time to pregnancy to define criteria for a practical case of purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) in dairy cows, to test the risk factors for PVD, and, finally, the effect of a dose of PGF 2α on cure and reproductive performance. In experiment 1, grazing Holstein cows (n = 2,414) had their vaginal discharge scored at ∼32 d in milk (DIM) on a 4-point scale, the effect of VDS on the hazard of pregnancy by 300 DIM was then assessed to derive a case definition of PVD. Risk factors for PVD and self-cure were also assessed. In experiment 2, grazing Holstein cows (n = 6,326) from 5 herds were checked for PVD at ∼30 DIM. Cows with PVD were assigned to receive one dose of 500 μg of PGF 2α analog (Cloprostenol; Ciclase, Syntex SA, Buenos Aires, Argentina) per cow (odd ear tag number) or to remain untreated (even tag number). Cure was declared if cows presented clear normal vaginal discharge (VDS-0) at visit 2 (∼62 DIM). Data were analyzed with Cox's regression and mixed logistic models. In experiment 1, cows with VDS ≥1 had lower hazard of pregnancy and longer calving to pregnancy interval than cows with VDS-0. This finding was not affected by the time at which the diagnosis was performed. Therefore, a cow ≥21 DIM and having VDS ≥1 was used to define a case of PVD. The odds of PVD were greater in primiparous cows compared with multiparous, in cows with abnormal calving compared with those with normal calving, and in those losing BCS peripartum. In experiment 2, PGF 2α treatment tended to slightly increase the hazard of pregnancy (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.13). Conversely, PGF 2α had no effect on the odds of cure of PVD [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.19], pregnancy at first service (AOR = 1.03), or pregnancy by 100 DIM (AOR = 0.89) or 200 DIM (AOR = 1.27). In conclusion, cows with VDS ≥1 can be considered to have PVD because of their lower hazard

  10. Management practices to control gastrointestinal parasites in dairy and beef goats in Minas Gerais; Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Alessandro de Sá; Gouveia, Aurora Maria Guimarães; do Carmo, Filipe Borges; Gouveia, Gabriela Canabrava; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão

    2011-03-10

    Parasitic infection is recognized worldwide as a limiting factor in the production of goats, and various control methods are used to reduce economic losses, often without considering the epidemiology of the parasites. This has led to the development of highly tolerant parasite populations and the presence of chemical residues in the beef and milk. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge of goat farmers about parasitic diseases and to correlate this with the epidemiology of endoparasites and parasite control practices in goat farms in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The analysis was based on a questionnaire applied by trained veterinarians. The sample was homogeneous throughout the state, covering 18.4% (157/853) of municipalities. Eighty-four dairy goat farms in 81 municipalities and 200 properties with beef goats in 76 municipalities were evaluated. The herd size per goat farm ranged from 4 to 57 (average 24) for beef herds and from 2 to 308 (average 63) for dairy farms. The majority of the beef herd production was extensive and semi-extensive (98.5%), while the dairy herds were maintained under intensive farming (98.8%). The mixed production of goats and sheep was reported by 36.5% of beef goat farmers and by 20.2% of dairy goat farmers. Among the beef goats farms on which the technological level was determined, 2.0% were categorized as having high technological level, 34.5% as medium, and 63.5% as low. Of the 84 dairy farms, 30% operated at a high, 47% at a medium, and 23% at a low technological level. The adoption of practices to reduce parasitism, such as the quarantine of animals, treatment of newly arrived animals, regular cleaning of the floor, and technical assistance, was significantly higher on dairy farms than on beef farms. Although 85.7% of dairy farmers and 83% of beef farmers medicate their animals, the treatments were performed without technical criteria, and deworming intervals ranged from 30 to 120 days or more. The

  11. Short communication: survival of the characteristic microbiota in probiotic fermented camel, cow, goat, and sheep milks during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, L; Süle, J; Nagy, P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the viability during storage of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 (A), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 (B), and Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC 742/2130 (T) in probiotic cultured dairy foods made from pasteurized camel, cow, goat, and sheep milks fermented by an ABT-type culture. The products manufactured were stored at 4°C for 42d. Microbiological analyses were performed at weekly intervals. Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC 742/2130 was the most numerous culture component in all 4 products both at the beginning and at the end of storage. The viable counts of streptococci showed no significant decline in fermented camel milk throughout the entire storage period. The initial numbers of Lb. acidophilus LA-5 were over 2 orders of magnitude lower than those of Strep. thermophilus CHCC 742/2130. With the progress of time, a slow and constant decrease was observed in lactobacilli counts; however, the final viability percentages of this organism did not differ significantly in the probiotic fermented milks tested. The cultured dairy foods made from cow, sheep, and goat milks had comparable B. animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 counts on d 0, exceeding by approximately 0.5 log10 cycle those in the camel milk-based product. No significant losses occurred in viability of bifidobacteria in fermented camel, cow, and sheep milks during 6wk of refrigerated storage. In conclusion, all 4 varieties of milk proved to be suitable raw materials for the manufacture of ABT-type fermented dairy products that were microbiologically safe and beneficial for human consumption. It was suggested that milk from small ruminants be increasingly used to produce probiotic fermented dairy foods. The development of camel milk-based probiotic cultured milks appears to be even more promising because new markets could thus be conquered. It must be emphasized, however, that further microbiological and sensory studies, technology development activities, and

  12. Effects of propylene glycol supplementation on blood indicators of hepatic function, body condition score, milk fat-protein concentration and reproductive performance of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Ionuţ Borş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of propylene glycol on metabolic variables of hepatic function, body condition score, milk fat-protein concentration and reproductive performance of dairy cows after ending administration. Postparturient dairy cows (n = 200 of Holstein Friesian breed were divided into two groups of 100 individuals. The experimental group received during days 0-7 post partum an oral daily dose of 600 ml of propylene glycol; the control group was without any supplement. The hepatic enzymes, glucose, cholesterol and serum albumin were measured on days 10-15, 45-50 and 70 post partum. Reproduction indicators of dairy cows were calculated from the farm recording data and the milk data record from a regular dairy control (days 10, 20, 30, and 50 post partum. Animals that received propylene glycol in the first 7 days post partum had reduced activities of aspartate transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transferase, elevated cholesterol concentration (P 0.05 and low milk fat percentage (P P 0.05. Our results suggest that some blood indicators of hepatic function, milk fat concentration and calving to first oestrus interval can be improved for 70 days post partum by the use of propylene glycol drenching in the first 7 days post partum. The beneficial effect of this treatment could be evaluated by easily available data, which can be used by practitioners in the field to analyze fertility problems in dairy herds and more exactly to examine whether metabolic stress, among other factors, is involved in the fertility problem.

  13. Associations between the degree of early lactation inflammation and performance, metabolism, and immune function in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M M; Yasui, T; Felippe, M J B; Overton, T R

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine associations between the severity of systemic inflammation during the early postpartum period and performance, energy metabolism, and immune function in dairy cows. Cows were assigned to categorical quartiles (Q; Q1=0.18-0.59, Q2=0.60-1.14, Q3=1.15-2.05, and Q4=2.06-2.50 g of haptoglobin/L) based on the highest plasma haptoglobin (Hp) concentration measured during wk 1 postpartum. Although cows were assigned to different categories of inflammation during the postpartum period, we detected a quadratic relationship of inflammation on prepartum dry matter intake (DMI) and body weight (BW) such that cows in Q2 had lower prepartum DMI and cows in Q2 and Q3 had lower prepartum BW compared with cows in the other quartiles. We also detected a quadratic association of inflammation with postpartum DMI and BW such that cows in Q2 and Q3 also had generally lower postpartum DMI and BW compared with cows in Q1. There was a tendency for a Q × time interaction for milk yield and Q × time interactions for 3.5% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk yields; quadratic relationships suggested decreased milk yield for Q2 and Q3 cows. We also found Q × parity and Q × time interactions for plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, suggesting alterations with differing degrees of inflammation. There was also a Q × time interaction for plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentration. In addition, alterations in liver triglyceride and glycogen contents for cows with inflammation as well as alterations in [1-(14)C]propionate oxidation in vitro were observed. Although we observed limited effects of inflammation on neutrophil and monocyte phagocytosis at d 7 postpartum, inflammation appeared to alter neutrophil and monocyte oxidative burst. Overall, cows with any degree of elevated haptoglobin in the first week after calving had alterations in both pre- and postpartum intake and postpartum metabolism. Copyright © 2016 American

  14. Association between subclinical hypocalcemia in the first 3 days of lactation and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caixeta, L S; Ospina, P A; Capel, M B; Nydam, D V

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of subclinical hypocalcemia on reproductive performance in dairy cows. In a prospective cohort study, 97 cows on 2 dairy farms with automatic milking systems were monitored for subclinical hypocalcemia. Animals were enrolled 7 ± 3 days prior to estimated calving date and three parity groups were defined based on the lactation that the animals were going to start: lactation = 1, lactation = 2, and lactation ≥3. Serum calcium concentration (Ca) was measured in all animals in the first 3 DIM and subclinical hypocalcemia (SCH) was defined as Ca ≤ 8.6 mg/dL; animals that presented a low Ca level during all 3 days were classified as chronic SCH (cSCH). Return to cyclicity during the voluntary waiting period was analyzed based on weekly progesterone concentrations measured in serum. Information on reproductive outcomes (i.e., number of breedings, pregnancy status, days open, etc.), were collected from on-farm software after all study cows had completed their study period. Chronic SCH was present in all parity groups with higher incidence in multiparous animals (20% of parity = 1, 32% of parity = 2; and 46% of parity ≥ 3 animals). The cSCH animals took longer to show active ovaries when compared to eucalcemic and SCH animals. In a multivariable Cox's Proportional Hazard model animals with normal Ca were 1.8 times more likely to return to cyclicity by the end of the voluntary waiting period when compared to cSCH animals. Animals with cSCH also had 0.27 odds of being pregnant at first service compared to eucalcemic cows when analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. Subclinical hypocalcemia had a negative effect on return of ovarian function during the voluntary waiting period and decreased the odds of pregnancy at first service. Those cows with cSCH had an even more pronounced impaired reproductive function than those with one subclinical measurement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  15. Effects of co-grazing dairy heifers with goats on animal performance, dry matter yield, and pasture forage composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, T S; Unruh-Snyder, L J; Neary, M K; Nennich, T D

    2012-12-01

    Mixed livestock grazing can offer an alternative management system for rearing dairy replacement heifers (Bos taurus). A 2-yr study was conducted during 2009 (yr 1) and 2010 (yr 2) to determine the effects of co-grazing Holstein heifers under rotational stocking with Boer × Kiko goats on animal performance, pasture DM yield, and botanical composition. Each year, 24 heifers (134 ± 6 d of age and 147.4 ± 31.2 kg BW in yr 1; 166 ± 11 d of age and 168.0 ± 27.6 kg BW in yr 2) and 6 goats (2 yr old and 39.7 ± 16.2 kg BW in yr 1; 1 yr old and 33.7 ± 7.4 kg BW in yr 2) were divided into 6 paddocks with 4 heifers and 2 goats, where applicable, per group. Low endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) pastures were used to evaluate 2 grazing strategies (heifers grazed alone [HO] or heifers co-grazed with goats [HG]). In addition, 6 goats were assigned to 2 paddocks and grazed alone (GO) each year to estimate goat pasture forage intake and compare Haemonchus contortus infection to co-grazed goats. Forage samples were taken monthly to assess DM yield and botanical composition. Samples collected for botanical composition were manually sorted into grass, legume, and weed species. Forage DMI was estimated using a rising plate meter before and after grazing. Heifer BW at the conclusion of yr 1 and yr 2 did not differ between HO and HG (P = 0.40 and P = 0.12, respectively). Likewise, overall ADG did not differ between HO and HG, averaging 0.65 kg/d and 0.63 kg/d over both grazing seasons (P = 0.70). Grazing strategy did not affect forage or total DMI in yr 1; however, HO consumed 2.3 kg/d more forage DM than HG (P pastures (P dairy heifers can be co-grazed with goats without negative effects on ADG or feed efficiency.

  16. Endometritis treatment with a PGF2alpha analog does not improve reproductive performance in a large dairy herd in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, Miguel Eduardo; Lacau-Mengido, Isabel María

    2005-03-15

    In Argentina, most dairy cows with endometritis are treated with prostaglandin (PGF(2alpha) or its analogs) and insemination is withheld until there are no signs of endometritis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate if this method of managing endometritis enhances reproductive performance. Three experiments were conducted over 4 years in a large farm in the west of Buenos Aires province. In Experiment 1, half of the cows diagnosed with endometritis (>1.5-fold difference in diameter of uterine horns, as determined by rectal palpation) received standard endometritis management (treatment with tiaprost, a PGF(2alpha) analog, rectal palpation every 20 days, and withholding of AI until endometritis apparently resolved) and the other half was untreated, with AI at the first estrus after the voluntary waiting period. Untreated cows were inseminated and conceived 20 days earlier than treated cows, and the pregnancy rate by Day 90 postpartum was higher in the untreated group. In Experiment 2, cows with endometritis were divided into four groups according to the severity of symptoms; within each group, cows were allocated to treatment or control, as in Experiment 1. Although first service conception rate decreased as endometritis severity increased, reproductive performance in treated versus control cows was similar to that of Experiment 1 (with no interaction due to degree of endometritis). Re-evaluation of the treated cow (to confirm uterine "normality") may have been responsible for the delay in conception in both experiments. The objective of Experiment 3 was to determine the effects of tiaprost treatment on clinically normal postpartum cows (no evidence of endometritis). Tiaprost treatment reduced the interval from calving to conception in multiparous cows, but it delayed conception and reduced the conception rate in primiparous cows. In conclusion, treatment with tiaprost impaired reproductive performance in primiparous cows (in the absence of

  17. Systemic and mammary gland disposition of enrofloxacin in healthy sheep following intramammary administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Cristina; García, Juan José; Sierra, Matilde; Diez, María José; Pérez, Claudia; Sahagún, Ana Maria; Fernández, Nélida

    2015-04-09

    Mastitis is one of the most important diseases affecting dairy sheep. Antimicrobial drugs are often administered directly through teat to treat or prevent this disease, but data on drug distribution within glandular tissue are scarce and it cannot be estimated from concentrations in milk. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate systemic and mammary gland distribution of enrofloxacin after intramammary administration. The drug was administered to 6 healthy lactating Assaf sheep with an injector containing an enrofloxacin preparation (1 g drug/5 g ointment). Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min. Animals were then sedated and sacrificed, and glandular tissue samples were obtained from treated udders at 2, 4, 6 and 8 cm height. Enrofloxacin concentrations were measured in plasma and tissue samples by UV high-performed liquid chromatography. Mean enrofloxacin plasma concentrations were below 0.5 μg/mL. Mean tissue concentrations decreased in mammary gland with vertical distance from the teat, ranging from 356.6 μg/g at 2 cm to 95.60 μg/g at the base of the udder. Glandular tissue concentrations best fitted to a decreasing monoexponential model, and showed a good correlation with an ex vivo model previously developed. Enrofloxacin concentrations were effective in the entire glandular tissue against the main pathogens causing mastitis in sheep. These results suggest that this drug may be suitable to treat mastitis in sheep by intramammary administration.

  18. Influence of dietary slow-release urea on growth performance, organ development and serum biochemical parameters of mutton sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, S K; Zhang, F; Sun, Y K; Deng, K D; Wang, B; Tu, Y; Zhang, N F; Jiang, C G; Wang, S Q; Diao, Q Y

    2017-10-01

    Eighty Dorper × thin-tailed Han cross-bred non-castrated male lambs [mean body weight (BW), 25.87 ± 1.06 kg] were randomly allocated to one of five different concentrations of slow-release urea (urea phosphate, UP). The feed consisted of an equal amount of concentrate diet and roughage; the concentrate feed was formulated to be isoenergetic and isonitrogenic and contained 0%, 1%, 2%, 4% and 8% UP (UP0.0, UP1.0, UP2.0, UP4.0 and UP8.0, respectively) as a replacement for soya bean meal. Feed intake, BW, average daily gain (ADG), feed utilisation efficiency (FUE), absolute and relative organ weights and biochemical and histopathological parameters were measured. Feed intake, BW, ADG and FUE significantly decreased in the group receiving UP8.0 (p  0.05). Quadratic equations were developed between the UP dosage in the concentrate feed and ADG or FUE (r 2  = 0.973 for ADG and r 2  = 0.761 for FUE) to determine the appropriate dosage of UP given the desire to maximise either ADG or FUE, the appropriate dosage (feed concentration) was calculated as 2.01% UP to achieve the greatest ADG or 2.13% UP to achieve the best FUE. The relative weight of the liver (% BW) in the UP2.0 groups was significantly greater than that of UP0.0 (p  0.05). The UP8.0 treatment significantly increased serum phosphorus levels (p < 0.05) and decreased the levels of alkaline phosphatase, glucose and calcium (Ca) compared with the lower UP dosage (p < 0.05). No histopathological differences were found in either hepatic tissues or renal tissues among treatments. Dietary UP as a replacement for soya bean in concentrate feeds for mutton sheep should not exceed 4%, as higher dosing may cause malnutrition and mineral disorders. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. The measurement of chest girth as an alternative to weight determination in the performance recording of meat sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Panella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess, for two Italian meat sheep breeds (Appenninica and Merinizzata italiana, the relationshipbetween an easily recorded measurement (girth of chest and the character used for selection purposes (weight,and to define the most appropriate mathematical methods to infer the second from the first.For the Appenninica 1392 lambs were measured, for the Merinizzata italiana 1559 lambs were measured. The possibilityof estimating weight through chest girth (CG measurement was evaluated, separately for each breed, by taking themost suitable model between those including different kinds of regression effect. The model was chosen in relation to thevalue of the determination coefficient and the sum of square residuals. The prediction accuracy of the model was assessedby comparing the expected values with the observed ones through a number of statistical tests.A further prediction analysis was carried out using the mean values of the observed weights that fell in each 1 cm classof girth, in order to reduce the error derived by the varying numbers of observations per unit of chest girth.The model including the square regression nested within the sex effect and the flock random effect nested within the sexeffect was observed to be the most suitable one to predict the weight from the chest girth; the determination coefficientsranged between 0.944 (Appenninica and 0.955 (Merinizzata. The prediction parameters were: -10.458+ 0.241 (CG +0.004 (CG2 for the Appenninica males; -6.121 + 0.093 (CG + 0.005 (CG2 for the Appenninica females; -6.325 + 0.189(CG + 0.004 (CG2 for the Merinizzata males; -4.676 + 0.078 (CG + 0.005 (CG2 for the Merinizzata females. The correlationbetween the observed and expected values was always higher than 0.97. The equations estimated using themean weights for each girth showed extremely high determination coefficients (˜ = 0.99 due to the reduction of variabilityimplied by this method. Choosing between the

  20. Characterizing the Performance of Gas-Permeable Membranes as an Ammonia Recovery Strategy from Anaerobically Digested Dairy Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingham, Melanie; VanderZaag, Andrew; Singh, Jessica; Burtt, Stephen; Crolla, Anna; Kinsley, Chris; MacDonald, J Douglas

    2017-10-07

    Capturing ammonia from anaerobically digested manure could simultaneously decrease the adverse effects of ammonia inhibition on biogas production, reduce reactive nitrogen (N) loss to the environment, and produce mineral N fertilizer as a by-product. In this study, gas permeable membranes (GPM) were used to capture ammonia from dairy manure and digestate by the diffusion of gaseous ammonia across the membrane where ammonia is captured by diluted acid, forming an aqueous ammonium salt. A lab-scale prototype using tubular expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) GPM was used to (1) characterize the effect of total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) concentration, temperature, and pH on the ammonia capture rate using GPM, and (2) to evaluate the performance of a GPM system in conditions similar to a mesophilic anaerobic digester. The GPM captured ammonia at a rate between 2.2 to 6.3% of gaseous ammonia in the donor solution per day. Capture rate was faster in anaerobic digestate than raw manure. The ammonia capture rate could be predicted using non-linear regression based on the factors of total ammonium nitrogen concentration, temperature, and pH. This use of membranes shows promise in reducing the deleterious impacts of ammonia on both the efficiency of biogas production and the release of reactive N to the environment.

  1. Effect of treating alfalfa silage with pistachio by-products extract on Saanen dairy goats performance and microbial nitrogen synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarpour, A; Naserian, A A; Pourmollae, F; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-08-01

    A lactation experiment was conducted to determine the influence of addition of pistachio by-products extract (PBE) to alfalfa silage (AS) on performance, rumen fermentation, milk yield and composition, and microbial nitrogen synthesis. Eight multiparous dairy goats (1.8 ± 0.25 kg of milk yield) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to compare two types of AS (supplemented with or without PBE) with two levels of dietary crude protein (14% vs. 16% CP). Dietary treatments were (i) AS with 14% CP of DM diet without PBE (14%CP-PBE), (ii) AS with 14% CP of DM diet with PBE (14%CP + PBE), (iii) AS with 16% CP of DM diet without PBE (16%CP-PBE) and (iv) AS with 16% CP of DM diet with PBE (16%CP + PBE). PBE was sprayed on fresh alfalfa at a ratio of 500 ml/kg alfalfa DM to get the final concentration of 1% tannin as tannic acid equivalent on DM basis. Intake of CP was greater (p pistachio by-products tannins. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Efeitos da monensina no desempenho de bezerras leiteiras em crescimento Effects of monensin on growing dairy heifers performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Saladini Vieira Salles

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito da suplementação de monensina sobre o desempenho de 32 novilhas Holandesas em crescimento, com peso médio de 84 kg, durante quatro meses . Os animais suplementados com monensina apresentaram maior peso e perímetro torácico aos 90 e 120 dias de experimentação, maior ganho de peso, mostrando um valor de 26,56% maior do que os animais controle. Não foi observada diferença no comprimento corporal e glicose sangüínea, enquanto a altura na cernelha apresentou tendência a valores mais altos nos animais suplementados. Concluiu-se que a suplementação de monensina resultou em maior desenvolvimento dos animais, podendo proporcionar precocidade reprodutiva e produtiva de novilhas leiteiras de reposição.The performance of 32 growing Holstein heifers, with average weight of 84 kg and supplemented with monensin, during four months, was studied. The animals supplemented with monensin presented higher weight and hearth girth at 90 and 120 days of experiment, higher weight gain, with value of 26.56% superior than the control animals. No difference was observed for the corporal length, plasma glucose and the height values. The animals fed monensin presented higher height values. The animals supplemented with monensin showed better development. The use of monensin provided reproductive and productive precocity for the replacement dairy heifers.

  3. Effects of evaporative cooling on reproductive performance and milk production of dairy cows in hot wet conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khongdee, S.; Chaiyabutr, N.; Hinch, G.; Markvichitr, K.; Vajrabukka, C.

    2006-05-01

    Fourteen animals of second and third lactation of Thai Friesian crossbred cows (87.5% Friesian × 12.5% Bos indicus) located at Sakol Nakhon Research and Breeding Centre, Department of Livestock Development, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, were divided randomly into two groups of seven each to evaluate the effects of evaporative cooling on reproductive and physiological traits under hot, humid conditions. Results indicated that installation of evaporating cooling in the open shed gave a further improvement in ameliorating heat stress in dairy cows in hot-wet environments by utilising the low humidity conditions that naturally occur during the day. The cows housed in an evaporatively cooled environment had both a rectal temperature and respiration rate (39.09°C, 61.39 breaths/min, respectively) significantly lower than that of the non-cooled cows (41.21°C; 86.87 breaths/min). The former group also had higher milk yield and more efficient reproductive performance (pregnancy rate and reduced days open) than the latter group. It is suggested that the non-evaporatively cooled cows did not gain benefit from the naturally lower heat stress during night time.

  4. Scale of production and implementation of food safety programs influence the performance of current food safety management systems: Case of dairy processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Opiyo, Beatrice; Wangoh, John

    2017-01-01

    An FSMS-Diagnostic Instrument was used to evaluate fifteen Kenyan dairy processors based on indicators and descriptive grids for context riskiness, FSMS activities, and microbial food safety (FS) output with respect to scale of production. Contextual riskiness was diagnosed as low, moderate or hi....... FSMS activities were diagnosed as absent, basic, average or advanced. FS output was diagnosed as not performed, poor, moderate or good. Four clusters with significantly different (p ...

  5. Parturition difficulties in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grommers, F. J.; Elving, L.; Eldik, P. van

    1985-01-01

    The incidence of difficult parturition was recorded in Texel Sheep lambs (224), Milk Sheep lambs (273) and various crossbreeds (1043) in ten spring lambing seasons. at lambing time the ewes were under 24-hour observation. Difficult parturition is defined as necessity for obstetrical assistance as

  6. Reduction of Coxiella burnetii prevalence by vaccination of goats and sheep, The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogerwerf, Lenny; van den Brom, René; Roest, Hendrik I J; Bouma, Annemarie; Vellema, Piet; Pieterse, Maarten; Dercksen, Daan; Nielen, Mirjam

    2011-03-01

    Recently, the number of human Q fever cases in the Netherlands increased dramatically. In response to this increase, dairy goats and dairy sheep were vaccinated against Coxiella burnetii. All pregnant dairy goats and dairy sheep in herds positive for Q fever were culled. We identified the effect of vaccination on bacterial shedding by small ruminants. On the day of culling, samples of uterine fluid, vaginal mucus, and milk were obtained from 957 pregnant animals in 13 herds. Prevalence and bacterial load were reduced in vaccinated animals compared with unvaccinated animals. These effects were most pronounced in animals during their first pregnancy. Results indicate that vaccination may reduce bacterial load in the environment and human exposure to C. burnetii.

  7. How milk-fed dairy calves perform in stable versus dynamic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rikke Engelbrecht; Sørensen, Jan Tind; Skjøth, F

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present field trial was to compare calf performance among pre-weaned calves in two different group housing systems, stable groups ("all in-all out") and dynamic groups (continuous introduction). Performance data was collected from 484 calves randomly assigned to the two syste....../days). The prevalence of both diarrhoea and respiratory disease were more than twice as high among calves in dynamic groups compared to calves in stable groups....

  8. Effects of Different Level and Source of Sulfur Supplement in Close-up diets of Dairy Cows on Blood Metabolites, Colostrums Composition and Liver Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Manidari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 24 maltiparous Holstein dairy cows were allocated in a completely randomized design to study the effects of different level and source of sulfur supplement in close-up diets on blood metabolites, colostrums composition and liver performance. The mean body weight of the cows was 687.9 kg and the mean days until expected calving date was 21.8 d. The first treatment (T1 has contained 0.21% sulfur (DM basis, the second treatment (T2 has contained 0.41% sulfur which supplied entirely through magnesium sulfate and the third treatment (T3 has contained 0.41% sulfur which supplied through a combination of magnesium sulfate and an organic source of sulfur (Mepran. The DMI for pre-calving (P < 0.001 was affected by treatments and T2 showed the lowest DMI among treatments. Colostrums yield, protein, DM and ash significantly decreased in inorganic sulfur supplemented treatment (P < 0.05. Among the blood metabolites, calcium, copper and glucose were decreased in T2 compared with two other treatments (P < 0.05. However, BHBA, NEFA and urea were increased in T2 (P < 0.05. Urine pH was affected with different treatments (P < 0.0001. The both liver enzymes (i.e. AST and CPK were increased supplementing inorganic sulfur showing that inorganic sulfur has potential to decrease liver performance in dairy cows. The results of the present study indicate that although magnesium sulfate (inorganic source has negative effect on dairy cow health and performance, a combination of magnesium sulfate and organic source of sulfur could have positive effects on dry matter intake, blood metabolites and liver health in dairy cows.

  9. DairyWise, a whole-farm dairy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schils, R L M; de Haan, M H A; Hemmer, J G A; van den Pol-van Dasselaar, A; de Boer, J A; Evers, A G; Holshof, G; van Middelkoop, J C; Zom, R L G

    2007-11-01

    A whole-farm dairy model was developed and evaluated. The DairyWise model is an empirical model that simulated technical, environmental, and financial processes on a dairy farm. The central component is the FeedSupply model that balanced the herd requirements, as generated by the DairyHerd model, and the supply of homegrown feeds, as generated by the crop models for grassland and corn silage. The output of the FeedSupply model was used as input for several technical, environmental, and economic submodels. The submodels simulated a range of farm aspects such as nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, nitrate leaching, ammonia emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, energy use, and a financial farm budget. The final output was a farm plan describing all material and nutrient flows and the consequences on the environment and economy. Evaluation of DairyWise was performed with 2 data sets consisting of 29 dairy farms. The evaluation showed that DairyWise was able to simulate gross margin, concentrate intake, nitrogen surplus, nitrate concentration in ground water, and crop yields. The variance accounted for ranged from 37 to 84%, and the mean differences between modeled and observed values varied between -5 to +3% per set of farms. We conclude that DairyWise is a powerful tool for integrated scenario development and evaluation for scientists, policy makers, extension workers, teachers and farmers.

  10. Características de crescimento para avaliar o desempenho de ovelhas lanadas em cruzamento absorvente Growth characteristics to evaluate the wool sheep performance at cross-breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Aidar de Queiroz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar o desempenho produtivo de cruzas de animais lanados, foram utilizados os dados da escrituração zootécnica do rebanho ovino pertencente à FCAV/Unesp, Jaboticabal, SP. Os dados da escrituração foram oriundos de 312 ovelhas, com 129 da raça Ideal, 44 1/2 Ile de France 1/2 Ideal, 98 3/4 Ile de France 1/4 Ideal e 41 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Ideal, submetidas ao cruzamento absorvente para a raça Ile de France. As análises das características produtivas peso ao nascer, peso ao desmame, peso aos 180 dias, ganho médio diário e tempo para o animal atingir 32kg de peso corporal foram realizadas no SAS (1996. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os genótipos avaliados para as caracteristicas produtivas peso ao nascer, peso ao desmame, e tempo para o animal atingir 32kg de peso corporal com valores médios de 3,08, 15, 67kg e 270,75 dias, respectivamente. Para as características ganho médio diário e peso aos 180 dias, houve efeito significativo para o genótipo 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Ideal com volores de 0,214 e 40,53kg respectivamente. O sistema de cruzamento utilizado possibilita às próximas gerações características produtivas satisfatórias para produção de carne, e as fêmeas provenientes desses cruzamentos que forem utilizadas para reposição podem aumentar as características produtivas de seus descendentes.In order to study productive and reproductive performance of crossbred sheep, data from the sheep recording of the ovine cattle from Paulista State University, FCAV/Unesp, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil were used. The record data came from 312 sheep (129 of Polwarth breed, 44 1/2 Ile de France 1/2 Polwarth, 98 3/4 Ile de France 1/4 Polwarth and 41 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Polwarth submitted to absorber cross-breeding for Ile de France. Productive characteristic analysis: body weight at birth, body weight at weaning, body weight with 180 days, daily weight gain average and necessary period for animals to get 32

  11. The effect of floor type on the performance, cleanliness, carcass characteristics and meat quality of dairy origin bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, V S; Lowe, D E; Lively, F O; Gordon, A W

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using different floor types to accommodate growing and finishing beef cattle on their performance, cleanliness, carcass characteristics and meat quality. In total, 80 dairy origin young bulls (mean initial live weight 224 kg (SD=28.4 kg)) were divided into 20 blocks with four animals each according to live weight. The total duration of the experimental period was 204 days. The first 101 days was defined as the growing period, with the remainder of the study defined as the finishing period. Cattle were randomly assigned within blocks to one of four floor type treatments, which included fully slatted flooring throughout the entire experimental period (CS); fully slatted flooring covered with rubber strips throughout the entire experimental period (RS); fully slatted flooring during the growing period and moved to a solid floor covered with straw bedding during the finishing period (CS-S) and fully slatted flooring during the growing period and moved to fully slatted flooring covered with rubber strips during the finishing period (CS-RS). Bulls were offered ad libitum grass silage supplemented with concentrates during the growing period. During the finishing period, bulls were offered concentrates supplemented with chopped barley straw. There was no significant effect of floor type on total dry matter intake (DMI), feed conversion ratio, daily live weight gain or back fat depth during the growing and finishing periods. Compared with bulls accommodated on CS, RS and CS-RS, bulls accommodated on CS-S had a significantly lower straw DMI (Pcarcass characteristics or meat quality. However, bulls accommodated on CS-S had a tendency for less channel, cod and kidney fat (P=0.084) compared with those accommodated on CS, RS and CS-RS. Overall, floor type had no effect on the performance, cleanliness, carcass characteristics or meat quality of growing or finishing beef cattle.

  12. Better postpartal performance in dairy cows supplemented with rumen-protected methionine compared with choline during the peripartal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z; Vailati-Riboni, M; Trevisi, E; Drackley, J K; Luchini, D N; Loor, J J

    2016-11-01

    The onset of lactation in dairy cows is characterized by high output of methylated compounds in milk when sources of methyl group are in short supply. Methionine and choline (CHOL) are key methyl donors and their availability during this time may be limiting for milk production, hepatic lipid metabolism, and immune function. Supplementing rumen-protected Met and CHOL may improve overall performance and health of transition cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental rumen-protected Met and CHOL on performance and health of transition cows. Eighty-one multiparous Holstein cows were used in a randomized, complete, unbalanced block design with 2×2 factorial arrangement of Met (Smartamine M, Adisseo NA, Alpharetta, GA) and CHOL (ReaShure, Balchem Inc., New Hampton, NY) inclusion (with or without). Treatments (20 to 21 cows each) were control (CON), CON+Met (SMA), CON+CHOL (REA), and CON+Met+CHOL (MIX). From -50 to -21d before expected calving, all cows received the same diet (1.40Mcal of NE L /kg of DM) with no Met or CHOL. From -21d to calving, cows received the same close-up diet (1.52Mcal of NE L /kg of DM) and were assigned randomly to treatments (CON, SMA, REA, or MIX) supplied as top dresses. From calving to 30 DIM, cows were fed the same postpartal diet (1.71Mcal of NE L /kg of DM) and continued to receive the same treatments through 30 DIM. The Met supplementation was adjusted daily at 0.08% DM of diet and REA was supplemented at 60g/d. Incidence of clinical ketosis and retained placenta tended to be lower in Met-supplemented cows. Supplementation of Met (SMA, MIX) led to greater DMI compared with other treatments (CON, REA) in both close-up (14.3 vs. 13.2kg/d, SEM 0.3) and first 30d postpartum (19.2 vs. 17.2kg/d, SEM 0.6). Cows supplemented with Met (SMA, MIX) had greater yields of milk (44.2 vs. 40.4kg/d, SEM 1.2), ECM (44.6 vs. 40.5kg/d, SEM 1.0), and FCM (44.6 vs. 40.8kg/d, SEM 1.0) compared with other (CON, REA) treatments

  13. Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor. PMID:16102318

  14. Induction of ovarian cystic follicles in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, S A; Bailey, M T; Head, W A; Wheaton, J E

    2000-10-01

    Cystic follicles are a significant cause of infertility in women, dairy cattle and sheep. Sheep were used as a model to identify factors that may elicit formation of cystic follicles. Insulin resistance and elevated LH activity were tested in overweight ewes because of associations among these factors and the formation of cystic follicles. Sheep were synchronized using a progesterone-releasing pessary and insulin resistance was induced during the synchronization period through administration of bovine somatotropin. Following removal of pessaries follicular growth was stimulated by treatment with eCG or eCG and hCG (PG-600). Follicular growth was monitored via daily transrectal ultrasonography and blood samples were collected for hormonal analyses. Six of 18 ewes had a subnormal or absent preovulatory gonadotropin surge and developed cystic follicles. Neither insulin resistance nor elevated LH activity were associated with formation of cystic follicles. Ewes that developed cystic follicles were heavier (93 +/- 4 kg) than ewes that ovulated (81 +/- 3 kg; P = 0.02). Furthermore, following pessary removal and initiation of daily ultrasonography, ewes that developed cystic follicles lost body weight (-3 +/- 1%), while ovulatory ewes continued to gain body weight (1 +/- 1%; P = 0.005). It is speculated that in heavy ewes metabolic factors associated with acute body weight loss inhibit the positive feedback of estradiol and thereby suppress the preovulatory gonadotropin surge leading to formation of cystic follicles.

  15. Associations between intrauterine bacterial infection, reproductive tract inflammation, and reproductive performance in pasture-based dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Melvin; Buddle, Bryce M; Heuer, Cord; Hussein, Hassan; Zheng, Tao; LeBlanc, Stephen J; McDougall, Scott

    2015-06-01

    Reproductive tract bacterial infections, particularly those caused by Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes, can have a negative impact on reproductive performance. It has been hypothesized that the presence of E coli early postpartum may increase the risk of isolation of T pyogenes later postpartum. The objective of the present study was to examine associations between intrauterine bacterial infections with E coli and T pyogenes and any bacterial growth (irrespective of bacterial species), purulent vaginal discharge (PVD), cytologic evidence of endometritis (an increased proportion of polymorphonuclear cells [PMNs]), and reproductive performance. Dairy cows (n = 272) from six herds were examined at Days 0 (median, 2 days in milk), 21 and 42 postpartum. From each cow two intrauterine samples were collected via triple-guarded cytobrush at Days 0 and 21. The first cytobrush was used for bacteriologic culture. Escherichia coli and T pyogenes were isolated by culture, and E coli isolates were assigned to one of four phylogenetic groups using a two-step triplex polymerase chain reaction. In addition, T pyogenes was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. The second cytobrush was used to prepare a cytology slide. Nucleated cells (n = 200) were categorized as epithelial cells, PMNs, or macrophages. Cows were also assessed for body condition score, PVD score, the presence of a CL, and pregnancy. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariable models. There was no association between the presence of E coli at Day 0 and probability of isolation of T pyogenes 3 weeks later; however, E coli positive cows at Day 0 were more likely to be diagnosed with E coli at Day 21 (relative risk [RR] = 2.0, P bacterial growth at Day 21, irrespective of species, were less likely to conceive within 3 weeks after the start of the seasonal breeding program (RR = 0.8; P = 0.05). Interestingly, cows with 25% PMNs or greater at Day 0 had shorter time to pregnancy (hazard ratio = 1.32; P

  16. Effect of breeding protocols and reproductive tract score on reproductive performance of dairy heifers and economic outcome of breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J L; Rodrigues, J A; Braga, F A; Bitente, S; Dalton, J C; Santos, J E P; Chebel, R C

    2008-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of reproductive protocols and reproductive tract score on reproductive performance of dairy heifers and economic outcomes of breeding programs. Holstein heifers (n = 534), 13 +/- 1 mo of age, were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 reproductive protocols. On the day of enrollment (d 0), heifers were palpated per rectum and received a score according to the maturity of their reproductive tract (1 = prepubertal; 2 = peripubertal; and 3 = puber-tal). Estrous detection-control heifers (CON, n = 146) received no treatment and were inseminated on detection of estrus for 28 d. Prostaglandin F(2alpha)-treated heifers (PGED, n = 137) received 1 injection of PGF(2alpha) on d 0 and were inseminated on detection of estrus; heifers not in-seminated by d 14 received a second injection of PGF(2alpha) and were observed for estrus and artificial insemination (AI) for an additional 14 d. Heifers enrolled in the estrous detection-timed AI (EDTAI, n = 140) treatment received a controlled internal drug-release (CIDR) insert on d 0, and 7 d later, the CIDR was removed and all heifers received an injection of PGF(2alpha), heifers received AI on detection of estrus, and those not inseminated by 72 h after PGF(2alpha) received an injection of GnRH concurrent with AI. Heifers in the GnRH-timed AI (GTAI, n = 111) treatment received 1 injection of GnRH on d 0, on d 6 heifers received a CIDR insert and injections of GnRH and PGF(2alpha), on d 13 the CIDR was removed and heifers received an injection of PGF(2alpha), and 48 h later all heifers received an injection of GnRH and AI. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 32 +/- 3 and 62 +/- 3 d after AI. Cost of reproductive protocols and their economic outcomes were calculated for a 28 d period beginning at enrollment. Heifers in the PGED treatment were inseminated at a faster rate than CON heifers. A smaller proportion of prepubertal and peripubertal heifers were inseminated within 14 d of enrollment

  17. Productive performance of dairy heifers supplemented in the dry season differed pasture, under two stoking rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Dias Signoretti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the characteristics of productive performance of crossbred Holstein x Gir heifers grazing on Brachiaria brizantha differed (Hochst. A. Rich. Stapf. cv. Marandu managed in a rotational stocking, during the dry season of the year. The treatments evaluated were stocking rate of 1.0 UA / ha and 6.0 g / kg body weight (BW / day and stocking rate of 2.0 UA / ha and 12.0 g / kg BW / day-energy protein supplement. The heifers had a average age of 17.46 ± 3.74 months and BW averaging 304.83 ± 33.7 kg and were distributed to a randomized block. The animals were weighed and measured for height at the withers (HW, heart girth (HG, rump length (RL and body condition score (BCS. The BW average batch was used for the calculations to adjust the amount of supplement offered. It was found that the performance of heifers that were subjected to stocking with 2 UA/ha and 12.0 g / kg BW had higher average daily gain (0.579 kg / animal in comparison to those undergoing stocking with 1 UA/ha and 6.0 g / kg BW (0.361 kg / animal. With respect to the development of animal body, it was found that the initial HG, initial and final HW, the initial RL and BCS did not differ between combinations of stocking rates and levels of supplementation. The heifers showed better productive performance in situations differed pastures, with 2 UA/ha and 12.0g/kg BW/day the protein-energetic supplement.

  18. Effect of yeast culture on milk production and metabolic and reproductive performance of early lactation dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalmus Piret

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this study was to estimate the effect of supplementation with Saccaromyces cerevisiae (SC (Yea-Sacc® 1026 on milk production, metabolic parameters and the resumption of ovarian activity in early lactation dairy cows. Methods The experiment was conducted during 2005/2006 in a commercial tied-house farm with an average of 200 milking Estonian Holstein Friesian cows. The late pregnant multiparous cows (n = 46 were randomly divided into two groups; one group received 10 g yeast culture from two weeks before to 14 weeks after calving. The groups were fed a total mixed ration with silages and concentrates. Milk recording data and blood samples for plasma metabolites were taken. Resumption of luteal activity was determined using milk progesterone (P4 measurements. Uterine bacteriology and ovarian ultrasonography (US were performed and body condition scores (BCS and clinical disease occurrences were recorded. For analysis, the statistical software Stata 9.2 and R were used to compute Cox proportional hazard and linear mixed models. Results The average milk production per cow did not differ between the groups (32.7 ± 6.4 vs 30.7 ± 5.3 kg/day in the SC and control groups respectively, but the production of milk fat (P P 4 results, all cows in both groups ovulated during the experimental period. The resumption of ovarian activity (first ovulations and time required for elimination of bacteria from the uterus did not differ between the groups. Conclusion Supplementation with SC had an effect on milk protein and fat production, but did not influence the milk yield. No effects on PP metabolic status, bacterial elimination from the uterus nor the resumption of ovarian activity were found.

  19. The comparison of dairy performance and some reproductive parameters of holstein cows imported from Sweden and their Polish age mates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The general aim of the present work was to compare dairy performance and some reproductive parameters of Holstein-Friesian (HF cows imported from Sweden as an in-calf heifers, and their age mates in Poland. The animals were kept freely on the deep litter on the farm owned by Agro-company “Witkowo” and feeding was based on TMR (total mixed ration system during whole year. All ration’s ingredients (bulky feed, concentrate, miscellaneous additives were mixed and fed as all-mash. The feed ration depended from the physiological condition of a cow and it was composed of corn and grass ensilage, mash concentrate, crushed corn meal, brewer’s grains and beet pulp.Cows imported from Sweden as in-calf heifers obtained higher milk, fat and protein yield in both lactations comparing to home cows. Significant statistical differences were observed for kg of milk, kg of protein, for FCM (P<0.01 and for kg of fat (P<0.05 in 2nd lactation. Fat and protein content in milk was in average higher for home cows (P<0.01. Big differences (P<0.01 were observed in SBT (proportion of protein to fat content and RTB (difference between concentration of fat and protein at imported cows in 2nd lactation. As far as reproduction parameters (gestation interval, calving interval, insemination index are concerned was cows from Sweden better too. Heifers from Sweden calved earlier. The usage of high genetic potential of imported cows is possible only with providing them optimum living conditions suitable to their needs.

  20. Performance and metabolite profile of dairy cows fed tropical grasses and concentrates containing crude protein with low or high degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael dos Santos Gomes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ten Holstein-Zebu crossbred cows distributed into two simultaneous Latin squares (5 × 5 as a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement formed by chopped sugarcane or elephant grass silage, both with high or low protein degradability supplements and a corn silage as a control treatment, were compared using orthogonal contrasts. The studied variables were the performance, plasma concentrations of urea-N, glucose, and creatinine, urine-N and milk urea-N, and the nychthemeral variation in NH3-N in the rumen fluid of dairy cows. Nutrient intake, milk production, and milk composition were affected by the treatments. The total mixed ration containing elephant grass silage combined with rumen undegradable protein (RUP provided balanced amounts of carbon and nitrogen in the rumen. This effect may explain the 18% increase in milk yield compared with the other treatments. The diurnal pattern of ruminal NH3-N was interpreted with a sinusoid model. In general, cows fed elephant grass silage exhibited higher concentrations of blood plasma and milk urea-N than animals fed sugarcane. The cows that consumed elephant grass silage with rumen degradable protein concentrate showed a higher milk urea-N compared with animals that consumed elephant grass silage with the RUP concentrate. The use of diets based on corn silage leads to a better use of nitrogen compounds because these diets resulted in lower levels of urea-N in the plasma, urine, and milk at the same level of milk production compared with diets containing elephant grass silage or chopped sugarcane as roughages. In sugarcane-based diets, even greater nitrogen losses in the urine are observed, despite the presence of readily fermentable carbohydrates in the diet.

  1. Risk factors and impact of retained fetal membranes on performance of dairy bovines reared under subtropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Susavi; Prasad, Shiv; Kumaresan, Arumugam; Manimaran, Ayyasamy; Patbandha, Tapas Kumar; Pathak, Rupal; Boro, Prasanta; Mohanty, Tushar Kumar; Ravi, Sanjay Kumar

    2015-02-01

    The risk factors and impact of retained fetal membranes (RFM) on productive and reproductive performance of crossbred cattle, Zebu cattle, and Murrah buffalos were evaluated using data spread over 12 years. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors and to quantify their odds ratio (OR). Overall incidence of RFM in crossbred cattle, Zebu cattle, and Murrah buffalos were 26, 16, and 13 %, respectively; and significant risk factors for RFM in crossbred cattle were abortion (OR = 3.9), dead calf (OR = 4.1), dystocia (OR = 4.3), pluriparity (OR = 1.5), and shorter gestation length (OR = 4.3). In Zebu cattle, abortion (OR = 4.0), dead calf (OR = 3.7), dystocia (OR = 3.9), lower birth weight of calf (OR = 1.6), and shorter gestation length (OR = 6.4) were significant risk factors for RFM. In Murrah buffalos, abortion (OR = 19.2), dead calf (OR = 4.4), dystocia (OR = 4.7), pluriparity (OR = 1.7), shorter gestation length (OR = 12.7), and calving during summer season (OR = 1.8) were the risk factors for RFM. Although the occurrence of RFM did not affect fertility parameters, a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in 305-day milk yield and total milk yield was observed in RFM-affected crossbred cattle. Taken together, it may be concluded that increased parity, abnormal calving, and short gestation length were the main risk factors for RFM in dairy bovine.

  2. Effects of Kefir as a Probiotic Source on the Performance and Health of Young Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Satık

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of kefir as a probiotic on the performance and health status of calves. Thirty Holstein female calves with 3-day-old were randomly allocated to three treatment groups: Control (without any probiotic, probiotic (a commercial probiotic mixture-3 g/d/calf bacteria-based and 2 g/d/calf yeast-based and kefir (20 ml/d/calf. The calves were weaned at 56 days of age. The experiment was performed in 70 days. Treatment had no effect (P>0.05 on weaning and final body weight and starter intake. Although differences in weight gain were not significant (P>0.05, there were trend to increase by probiotic treatments during 0-14 days. Probiotic treatments tended to have a positive effect on the population of the fecal lactic acid bacteria at 14 days. The results of the study indicated that kefir as a natural probiotic in calf nutrition may be beneficial during the first weeks of life.

  3. Pair housing and enhanced milk allowance increase play behavior and improve performance in dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Duve, Linda Rosager; Weary, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    -housed calves could perform social play behavior (play fighting), and the duration of this was greater on d 15 and 29 than on d 43 [8.3, 10.7 and 3.5 (±1.3) corresponding to 69, 115 and 12 s/24 h for d 15, 29, and 43]. Among calves on enhanced milk, pair-housed animals had a greater concentrate intake than...... observed no effect of pair versus individual housing [810 and 840 (±40) g/d]. In conclusion, greater durations of play behavior in enhanced-fed calves suggest an animal welfare benefit of this feeding method. Enhanced-fed calves consumed less concentrate, but pair housing stimulated concentrate intake......To investigate the effects of social housing and milk feeding on play behavior and performance, 48 Holstein-Friesian male and female calves were either individually or pair housed in straw-bedded pens (3.0 m × 4.5 m). Half of the calves in each housing treatment were fed a standard milk allowance...

  4. Abomasal protein infusion in postpartum transition dairy cows: Effect on performance and mammary metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Lapierre, H; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2014-01-01

    The effect of increasing the postpartum metabolizable protein (MP) supply on performance and mammary metabolism was studied using 8 Holstein cows in a complete randomized design. At parturition, cows were assigned to abomasal infusion of water (CTRL) or casein (CAS). Arterial and epigastric venous....../d for CTRL, but did not differ at 29 DIM (1,383 ± 48 g/d). The ratio of MP total supply to requirement was numerically greater at 4 DIM for CAS compared with CTRL, indicating less postpartum protein deficiency. In contrast, a greater net energy deficiency tended to be induced with CAS, but the greater milk...... of glucose, lactate, and β-hydroxybutyrate, whereas uptakes of volatile fatty acids were unaffected. Despite similar MP supply by 29 DIM, milk and lactose yields were greater with CAS indicating a persistent response to increased postpartum MP supply. In conclusion, the postpartum MP deficiency can have...

  5. Relationships between milk mid-IR predicted gastro-enteric methane production and the technical and financial performance of commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhez, P; Wyzen, B; Dalcq, A-C; Colinet, F G; Reding, E; Vanlierde, A; Dehareng, F; Gengler, N; Soyeurt, H

    2017-12-22

    Considering economic and environmental issues is important in ensuring the sustainability of dairy farms. The objective of this study was to investigate univariate relationships between lactating dairy cow gastro-enteric methane (CH4) production predicted from milk mid-IR (MIR) spectra and technico-economic variables by the use of large scale and on-farm data. A total of 525 697 individual CH4 predictions from milk MIR spectra (MIR-CH4 (g/day)) of milk samples collected on 206 farms during the Walloon milk recording scheme were used to create a MIR-CH4 prediction for each herd and year (HYMIR-CH4). These predictions were merged with dairy herd accounting data. This allowed a simultaneous study of HYMIR-CH4 and 42 technical and economic variables for 1024 herd and year records from 2007 to 2014. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were used to assess significant relationships (P<0.05). Low HYMIR-CH4 was significantly associated with, amongst others, lower fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM) yield (r=0.18), lower milk fat and protein content (r=0.38 and 0.33, respectively), lower quantity of milk produced from forages (r=0.12) and suboptimal reproduction and health performance (e.g. longer calving interval (r=-0.21) and higher culling rate (r=-0.15)). Concerning economic results, low HYMIR-CH4 was significantly associated with lower gross margin per cow (r=0.19) and per litre FPCM (r=0.09). To conclude, this study suggested that low lactating dairy cow gastro-enteric CH4 production tended to be associated with more extensive or suboptimal management practices, which could lead to lower profitability. The observed low correlations suggest complex interactions between variables due to the use of on-farm data with large variability in technical and management practices.

  6. MDA and GSH-Px activity in transition dairy cows under seasonal variations and their relationship with reproductive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colakoglu Hatice Esra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the blood glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and malondialdehyde (MDA levels under seasonal variations in dairy cows during transition period, and to assess the relationship between chosen reproductive parameters, GSH-Px, and MDA.

  7. Influence of carbohydrates on feed intake, rumen fermentation and milk performance in high-yielding dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de H.

    1993-01-01

    Food for human consumption originates directly from plants, after processing, or indirectly by conversion of plant materials into food of animal origin through livestock. An important example of food of animal origin are dairy products such as milk, cheese, butter, yoghurt,

  8. Effect of rumen-protected choline on performance, blood metabolites, and hepatic triacylglycerols of periparturient dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.L.G.; Baal, van J.; Goselink, R.M.A.; Bakker, J.A.; Veth, M.J.; Vuuren, van A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of a dietary supplement of rumen-protected choline on feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, blood metabolites, and hepatic triacylglycerol were evaluated in periparturient dairy cows. Thirty-eight multiparous cows were blocked into 19 pairs and then randomly allocated to either one

  9. Supplemental protein from dairy products increases body weight and vitamin D improves physical performance in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewansingh, Priya; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Krijnen, Wim P.; Schans, van der Cees P.; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët; Heuvel, van den Ellen G.H.M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of these systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness of dairy components on nutritional status and physical fitness in older adults, as evidence for efficacy of the supplementation of these components is inconclusive. Scopus and MEDLINE were searched. Main

  10. Consumption, nutrient digestibility and lactation performance of dairy cows fed soybeans in different forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria de Vasconcelos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Twelve Holstein cows were given diets containing soybean supplied in different ways in order to identify possible changes in lactation performance and evaluate the economic feasibility of the diets. The diets included: soybean meal only (SM-control; raw soybean (RaS; roasted soybean (RoS and soybean meal plus 5% urea (SMU. The forage consisted of corn silage. We analyzed the dry matter intake, milk production and collected milk samples. To estimate digestibility, we collected six samples of feces over a period of six consecutive days. The intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC did not differ among treatments. On the other hand, crude protein (CP intake was influenced by the diets, and the highest mean values of ether extract (EE were found with the RaS and RoS diets. The intake of total digestible nutrients (TDN was lower in the RaS and RoS diets compared to the control diet. DM, OM, CP, EE, and NDF digestibility were not affected by the different diets, while NFCs were reduced in the RoS diet and TDN decreased with both the RaS and RoS diets. There were also no differences observed across diets for total milk production, production corrected to 3.5% fat, diet efficiency, or milk per kilogram of dry matter and/or crude protein. We conclude that raw and roasted soybeans as well as concentrate plus 5% urea in dry matter may be used instead of soybean meal as feed for high-producing cows, without affecting milk production and composition. We also observed that the SMU diet was the least costly.

  11. Effects of Supplemental Mannanoligosaccharides on Growth Performance, Faecal Characteristics and Health in Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagdas Kara

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Holstein calves were used to investigate the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS supplementation in the whole milk on growth performance, faecal score, faecal pH, selected faecal bacterial populations and health during the preweaning period. Healthy calves selected by clinical examination were allocated to one of the two groups (control [CG] and experimental [EG] at 5 days old. Each group consisted of 5 male and 5 female calves. Each calf in EG was supplemented with 7 g/d of a MOS product (Celmanax from 5 days to 56 days of age. MOS supplement was mixed with the whole milk once in the morning and administered to the calves in EG via nipple bottle, whereas the calves in CG were fed the whole milk without MOS. Calves were weaned at 56 days of age. The final body weight, average daily weight gain (ADG and average daily feed intake (ADFI were statistically similar (p>0.05 but were higher by 3.70%, 6.66%, and 10.97%, respectively, in MOS than in control calves. Feed efficiency (ADG/ADFI was also similar in two calves group. While faecal scores did not differ on day 5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 49, and 56 between groups, EG had a higher faecal score (p = 0.05 than CG on day 35. Faecal concentration of Lactobacillus was lower (p0.05 in faecal concentrations of Bifidobacterium, Clostridium perfringens, and Escherichia coli were found between groups. Although there were no significant differences (p>0.05 in the incidence of diarrhoea, treatment days for diarrhoea and the costs associated with diarrhoea treatments between groups, collectively, the observed reductions in treatment days and the cost of diarrhoea treatments accompanying increases in final body weight, ADG and ADFI for EG may indicate potential benefit of MOS in treatment of diarrhoea.

  12. The production performance of Holstein Friesian dairy cattle in West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mahyudin

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The production performance of Holstein-Friesian cows in West Java was evaluated in two areas, Cisarua district (Bogor and Tanjungsari district (Sumedang. In Cisarua the evaluation was made on 175 cows with different stage of lactation (2 - 11 months. Feed offered, both forage and concentrate, milk production and chess girth were measured from each animal for 24 h only. Date of calving, date of service and stage of pregnancy were recorded by interviewing the farmers . In Tanjungsari the study was conducted on 102 postpartum cows . Milk production and chess girth were measured at the beginning of the study and then once a month (morning and afternoon milking for 3 months. Milk production was 3,700 1 and 3,400 1 per lactation with declining rate of 0 .03 and 0 .05 1/d for Cisarua and Tanjungsari area respectively. The ratio of concentrate : forage consumption was 1 and 1 .4 in Cisarua and in Tanjungsari respectively, and the ratio was reduced as milk production declined . The efficiency of conversion of feed ME to milk yield was approximately the same (0.12 1/MJ in both location . The proportion of cows lost weight in Cisarua during the first three months was lower (46 % as compared to that in Sumedang (77 %. Approximately 68 % of the population have conception rate (CR > 50 % , the remaining should be culled, 24 % have low CR and 8 % have days open > 150 days . From 61 cows observed, 71 % and 21% have a projected calving interval of 12 months and 13 - 14 months respectively . It can be concluded that milk production and reproduction efficiency of Holstein'cows in West Java are considered low.

  13. Whole genome structural analysis of Caribbean hair sheep reveals quantitative link to west african ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair sheep of Caribbean origin have become an important part of the U.S. sheep industry. Lack of wool eliminates a number of health concerns and drastically reduces the cost of production. More importantly, Caribbean hair sheep demonstrate robust performance even in the presence of drug resistant ga...

  14. Sheep do not have a major role in bovine herpesvirus 1 transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, J.J.; Vellema, P.; Schukken, Y.H.; Barkema, H.W.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Wentink, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    With regard to BHV1 eradication programs in cattle it is important to know whether sheep can he a reservoir of BHV1. We therefore performed an experiment that consisted of three phases. In phase 1, 10 sheep were inoculated with high doses of BHV1 and kept in close contact with 5 sheep and 5 calves.

  15. Fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia; an essential resource for smallholders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udo, H.M.J.; Budisatria, I.G.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the historical development of fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia, the dynamics of production systems, production and reproduction performances under farmers’ conditions, and roles of sheep in livelihoods. In the eighteenth and nineteenth century, fat-tailed sheep from southwest Asia

  16. Effects of physical form of a starter for dairy replacement calves on feed intake and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, A; Giménez, A; Juaristi, J L; Ahedo, J

    2007-06-01

    One hundred six female Holstein calves [body weight (BW) = 41.5 +/- 0.37 kg and 11.2 +/- 0.3 d old] were used to evaluate the effects of physical form of a starter on animal performance and starter intake. Calves were randomly allocated to 2 treatments consisting of either a multiparticle or a pelleted starter. Both starters had exactly the same ingredient and nutrient composition but differed in their physical form. Calves received 4 L/d of the same milk replacer at a 150 g/kg dilution rate in 2 offers of 2 L each until they consumed an average of 300 g/d of starter (as fed) for 2 consecutive days; then the dilution rate was decreased to 120 g/kg until the age of 49 d when milk replacer was limited to 1 daily dose of 2 L until 57 d of age. Calves were kept in individual hutches for at least 1 wk after weaning. Body weight was measured at the beginning of the study and at 49 and 64 d of age. The median perimeters for the multiparticle and pelleted starters were 0.61 +/- 0.016 and 2.71 +/- 0.082 cm, respectively. Overall starter consumption was greater in calves receiving the multiparticle starter (944.8 +/- 30.01 g/d) than in those receiving the pelleted starter (863.9 +/- 32.04 g/d). There were no differences in the total milk replacer intake between the 2 treatments. Calf BW when leaving the individual hutches at the end of the study was similar between both treatments. Consequently, feed conversion efficiency was greater in calves consuming the pelleted than the multiparticle starter up to 64 d of age, mainly due to the greater conversion efficiency obtained with the pelleted than with the multiparticle starter after the preweaning period. It is concluded that pelleted starters may result in lower dry feed consumption compared with multiparticle starters, but because final BW was similar in both treatments, feed efficiency of calves consuming pelleted starters may be greater than that of calves consuming multiparticle starters. Therefore, when feeding a starter

  17. Changes in animal performance and profitability of Holstein dairy operations after introduction of crossbreeding with Montbéliarde, Normande, and Scandinavian Red.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezetter, C; Bareille, N; Billon, D; Côrtes, C; Lechartier, C; Seegers, H

    2017-10-01

    An individual-based mechanistic, stochastic, and dynamic simulation model was developed to assess economic effects resulting from changes in performance for milk yield and solid contents, reproduction, health, and replacement, induced by the introduction of crossbreeding in Holstein dairy operations. Three crossbreeding schemes, Holstein × Montbéliarde, Holstein × Montbéliarde × Normande, and Holstein × Montbéliarde × Scandinavian Red, were implemented in Holstein dairy operations and compared with Holstein pure breeding. Sires were selected based on their estimated breeding value for milk. Two initial operations were simulated according to the prevalence (average or high) of reproductive and health disorders in the lactating herd. Evolution of operations was simulated during 15 yr under 2 alternative managerial goals (constant number of cows or constant volume of milk sold). After 15 yr, breed percentages reached equilibrium for the 2-breed but not for the 3-breed schemes. After 5 yr of simulation, all 3 crossbreeding schemes reduced average milk yield per cow-year compared with the pure Holstein scheme. Changes in other animal performance (milk solid contents, reproduction, udder health, and longevity) were always in favor of crossbreeding schemes. Under an objective of constant number of cows, margin over variable costs in average discounted value over the 15 yr of simulation was slightly increased by crossbreeding schemes, with an average prevalence of disorders up to €32/cow-year. In operations with a high prevalence of disorders, crossbreeding schemes increased the margin over variable costs up to €91/cow-year. Under an objective of constant volume of milk sold, crossbreeding schemes improved margin over variable costs up to €10/1,000L (corresponding to around €96/cow-year) for average prevalence of disorders, and up to €13/1,000L (corresponding to around €117/cow-year) for high prevalence of disorders. Under an objective of constant

  18. Reproductive performance of cows after fixed-time artificial insemination with ovulation synchronisation and re-synchrony in southern Australian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, M M; Humphris, M; Pryor, L; Perry, A; Morton, J M

    2018-04-01

    To describe reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) with ovulation synchronisation and re-synchrony in Australian dairy herds, and to compare reproductive outcomes with those of conventional mating programs. The study was conducted in two seasonally calving dairy herds in which lactating dairy cows (n = 675) were enrolled into three treatment groups: group 1, oestrus detection and AI for 34 days followed by a natural service period; group 2, FTAI on day 1 followed by re-synchrony of all cows prior to ultrasound pregnancy diagnosis at day 31 and FTAI of cows diagnosed not pregnant at day 34, then a natural service period; group 3, FTAI on day 1 followed by oestrus detection and AI for 34 days, then a natural service period. First-service conception rate (FSCR), 6-week in-calf (6WIC) rate and proportions pregnant at the end of mating were compared using logistic regression with farm fitted as a fixed effect. Times from mating start date to conception were described using survival analysis with Kaplan-Meier failure functions. FSCRs (45.3%, 49.1% and 45.6% for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively) and proportions pregnant at the end of mating (77.6%, 76.0% and 76.8% for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively) were similar for all groups. The 6WIC rate in group 2 was similar to that in group 3 (70.4% vs. 67.2%; P = 0.486), but tended to be higher than in group 1 (70.4% vs. 62.0%, P = 0.066). The median days to pregnancy for cows that conceived was 1 day in groups 2 and 3 and 10 days in group 1. Mating plans that use FTAI with ovulation synchronisation and re-synchrony during the AI period can achieve comparable reproductive performance to conventional mating programs in seasonally calving dairy herds. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.

  19. Valence of facial cues influences sheep learning in a visual discrimination task

    OpenAIRE

    Bellegarde, Lucille; Erhard, Hans; Weiss, A.; Boissy, Alain; Haskell, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Sheep are one of the most studied farm species in terms of their ability to process information from faces, but little is known about their face-based emotion recognition abilities. We investigated (a) whether sheep could use images of sheep faces taken in situation of varying valence as cues in a simultaneous discrimination task and (b) whether the valence of the situation affects their learning performance. To accomplish this, we photographed faces of sheep in three situations inducing emot...

  20. Valence of Facial Cues Influences Sheep Learning in a Visual Discrimination Task

    OpenAIRE

    Lucille G. A. Bellegarde; Lucille G. A. Bellegarde; Lucille G. A. Bellegarde; Hans W. Erhard; Alexander Weiss; Alain Boissy; Marie J. Haskell

    2017-01-01

    Sheep are one of the most studied farm species in terms of their ability to process information from faces, but little is known about their face-based emotion recognition abilities. We investigated (a) whether sheep could use images of sheep faces taken in situation of varying valence as cues in a simultaneous discrimination task and (b) whether the valence of the situation affects their learning performance. To accomplish this, we photographed faces of sheep in three situations inducing emot...

  1. Continuous lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Torben Gosvig; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Andersen, Jens Bech

    2008-01-01

    Reports over the past decade have indicated that normal lactational performance can be achieved in genetically superior and high-producing dairy cows, even when the dry period between 2 lactations is omitted. The hypothesis tested in this experiment was that normal lactogenesis I and metabolic...... function may be achievable in continuously milked high-yielding dairy cows as a result of the genetic selection for lactation performance and hence longevity of mammary epithelial cells. The milk production and mammary nutrient uptake in response to omission of the dry period for cows with an expected peak...... milk yield higher than 45 kg/d were studied in 28 Holstein dairy cows managed without bovine somatotropin. Performance and metabolic parameters were followed in late gestation and in the following early lactation. Fourteen cows were milked continuously throughout late gestation, and another 14 dairy...

  2. Intensive liquid feeding of dairy calves with a medium crude protein milk replacer: Effects on performance, rumen, and blood parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, M R; Oltramari, C E; Silva, J T; Gallo, M P C; Mourão, G B; Bittar, C M M

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different liquid-feeding systems using a medium crude protein milk replacer on performance, rumen, and blood parameters. Thirty newborn Holstein calves were blocked according to birth weight and date of birth, and randomly distributed to different liquid-feeding systems: conventional (4 L/d), intensive (8 L/d), or step-up/step-down (wk 1, 4 L/d; wk 2 to 6, 8 L/d; wk 7 and 8, 4 L/d). The commercial milk replacer (12.5% solids, 20.2% crude protein, 15.6% fat) was fed twice daily (0700 and 1700 h) until calves were weaned, at 8 wk of age. Calves were individually housed in wood hutches, with free access to water and starter concentrate, and to hay only after weaning. They were followed through 10 wk of age. Milk replacer and starter intake were inversely affected by feeding system. After weaning, starter intake and hay intake were similar among feeding systems. Total dry matter intake was higher during the liquid-feeding period for calves on the intensive system compared to calves on the conventional system, but conventional feeding resulted in the highest dry matter intake after weaning. Feed efficiency was similar among feeding systems before and after weaning. Average body weight and daily gain were not affected by feeding system before or after weaning. During liquid feeding, diarrhea occurrence was lower for calves on the conventional system; however, when calves on the step-up/step-down system were fed lower volumes of liquid feed, diarrhea occurrence was similar to that of calves on the conventional system. Plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate were higher for calves on the conventional system, reflecting starter intake. Rumen pH, short-chain fatty acids, and N-NH 3 were not affected by feeding system. Feeding higher volumes of milk replacer with a medium crude protein content had no beneficial effect on the performance of calves up to 10 wk of age. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science

  3. A survey on Aflatoxin M1 content in sheep and goat milk produced in Sardinia Region, Italy (2005-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Virdis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the results of a survey conducted in Sardinia Region on Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 contamination in milk of small ruminants from 2005 to 2013 are reported. A total of 517 sheep and 88 goat milk samples from bulk tank, tank trucks and silo tank milk were collected. Analyses were performed by the Regional Farmers Association laboratory using high-performance liquid chromatography following the ISO 14501:1998 standard. None of the sheep milk samples analysed during 2005- 2012 showed AFM1 contamination. In sheep milk samples collected in 2013, 8 out of 172 (4.6% were contaminated by AFM1 with a concentration (mean±SD of 12.59±14.05 ng/L. In one bulk tank milk sample 58.82 ng/L AFM1 was detected, exceeding the EU limit. In none of goat milk samples analysed from 2010 to 2012 AFM1 was detected. In 2013, 9 out of 66 goat milk samples (13.6% showed an AFM1 concentration of 47.21±19.58 ng/L. Two of these samples exceeded the EU limit, with concentrations of 62.09 and 138.6 ng/L. Higher contamination frequency and concentration rates were detected in bulk tank milk samples collected at farm than in bulk milk truck or silo samples, showing a dilution effect on AFM1 milk content along small ruminants supply chain. The rate and levels of AFM1 contamination in sheep and goat milk samples were lower than other countries. However, the small number of milk samples analysed for AFM1 in Sardinia Region in 2005-2013 give evidence that food business operators check programmes should be improved to ensure an adequate monitoring of AFM1 contamination in small ruminant dairy chain.

  4. A Survey on Aflatoxin M1 Content in Sheep and Goat Milk Produced in Sardinia Region, Italy (2005-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virdis, Salvatore; Scarano, Christian; Spanu, Vincenzo; Murittu, Gavino; Spanu, Carlo; Ibba, Ignazio; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi

    2014-12-09

    In the present work the results of a survey conducted in Sardinia Region on Aflatoxin M 1 (AFM 1 ) contamination in milk of small ruminants from 2005 to 2013 are reported. A total of 517 sheep and 88 goat milk samples from bulk tank, tank trucks and silo tank milk were collected. Analyses were performed by the Regional Farmers Association laboratory using high-performance liquid chromatography following the ISO 14501:1998 standard. None of the sheep milk samples analysed during 2005-2012 showed AFM 1 contamination. In sheep milk samples collected in 2013, 8 out of 172 (4.6%) were contaminated by AFM 1 with a concentration (mean±SD) of 12.59±14.05 ng/L. In one bulk tank milk sample 58.82 ng/L AFM 1 was detected, exceeding the EU limit. In none of goat milk samples analysed from 2010 to 2012 AFM 1 was detected. In 2013, 9 out of 66 goat milk samples (13.6%) showed an AFM 1 concentration of 47.21±19.58 ng/L. Two of these samples exceeded the EU limit, with concentrations of 62.09 and 138.6 ng/L. Higher contamination frequency and concentration rates were detected in bulk tank milk samples collected at farm than in bulk milk truck or silo samples, showing a dilution effect on AFM 1 milk content along small ruminants supply chain. The rate and levels of AFM 1 contamination in sheep and goat milk samples were lower than other countries. However, the small number of milk samples analysed for AFM 1 in Sardinia Region in 2005-2013 give evidence that food business operators check programmes should be improved to ensure an adequate monitoring of AFM 1 contamination in small ruminant dairy chain.

  5. Relationship between beta lactoglobulin and subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice sheep breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigli, I.; Riggio, V.; Monteleone, G.; Cacioppo, D.; Rosa, A.J.M.; Maizon, D.O.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the following research was to determine the effect of LGB genotypes on subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice dairy sheep. Ewes were classified as affected or not by subclinical mastitis within a lactation based on i) a positive culture in one of the test-days and ii) more than

  6. Effects of ground thyme and probiotic supplements in diets on broiler performance, blood biochemistry and immunological response to sheep red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed A. Hosseini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted to study the effects of the aromatic plant thyme, a commercial probiotic (Protexin and avilamycin on broiler performance, blood biochemical parameters and also the antibody response to sheep red blood cells. A total of 750 broilers were assigned into five replicate groups for each of five dietary treatments, namely; control (C, 2.5 mg/kg avilamycin (AB, 0.1 g/kg commercial probiotic (P, 5 g/kg ground thyme (T1, and 7.5 g/kg ground thyme (T2. In general, body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio were not affected by dietary treatments compared to the control birds (P>0.05. Birds fed the P supplemented treatment had the greatest serum protein levels (P<0.001 and highest albumin levels (P<0.001 when compared with control birds, while the birds fed T2 had the lowest (P<0.001. Dietary supplementation reduced (P<0.001 cholesterol and triglyceride concentration in serum of broilers, with the effect were more noticeable by P supplements. Moreover, blood calcium and phosphorus concentrations were higher (P<0.001 in birds fed the P-supplemented diet compared to the birds fed the control diets. This study suggests that probiotic supplementation in particular, and to an intermediate extent ground thyme supplementation in diets of broiler, resulted in chicks with favorably improved blood biochemical parameters and mineral utilization, compared to the birds fed diets supplemented with avilamycin or without any supplementation.

  7. Detoxified castor meal in substitution of soybean meal in sheep diet: growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Daniel Ribeiro; Costa, Roberto Germano; de Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; de Medeiros, Geovergue Rodrigues; Oliveira, Juliana Silva; Nascimento, Thiago Vinicius Costa; de Souza Rodrigues, Rafael Torres; Filho, José Morais Pereira; Busato, Karina Costa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake, digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of lambs fed different levels of replacement (0, 15, 30, and 45 % based on dry matter, DM) of soybean meal (SM) by detoxified castor meal (DCM). Twenty-four and 32 intact hair lambs of nondescript breed (21.7 ± 2.6 kg of initial average body weight and approximately 10 months old) were used, respectively, in the intake and digestibility and performance experiments. The diets were composed of buffel grass hay, ground corn grain, and different levels of SM, DCM, and urea, in a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 40:60. There was no effect of treatments on DM intake. However, crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intakes were higher at 30 and 45 % than at 0 and 15 % of DCM, which in turn showed higher intake of non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) (P replacement of SM by DCM up to 45 % in the feed of lambs did not negatively affect the intake, digestibility, performance, and main carcass features.

  8. Genetic parameters for ewe reproductive performance and peri-parturient fecal egg counts and their genetic relationships with lamb body weights and fecal egg counts in Katahdin sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic parameters for ewe reproductive traits [number of lambs born (NLB) and number of lambs weaned (NLW)] and ewe peri-parturient rise (PPR) fecal egg counts (FEC) at lambing (PPR0) and at 30-d post lambing (PPR30), and their genetic relationships with lamb BW and FEC in Katahdin sheep were estim...

  9. Genetic parameters for ewe reproductive performance and peri-parturient fecal egg counts and their genetic relationships with lamb body weights and fecal egg counts in Katahdin sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study estimated genetic parameters for ewe reproductive traits [number of lambs born (NLB) and weaned (NLW) per ewe lambing] and peri-parturient (PPR) fecal egg counts (FEC) at lambing (PPR0) and 30 d postpartum (PPR30), and their genetic relationships with lamb BW and FEC in Katahdin sheep. Th...

  10. Desempenho de ovinos mantidos com dietas com capim-elefante ensilado com diferentes aditivos Performance of sheep fed diets with elephant grass ensiled with different addictives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nobre de Carvalho Junior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da adição de 15% de casca de café, farelo de cacau ou farelo de mandioca, com base na matéria natural (peso/peso, à forragem verde de capim-elefante no momento da ensilagem sobre o consumo de nutrientes e o desempenho de 20 ovinos Santa Inês em confinamento. Os animais tinham 5 meses de idade, peso inicial de 22,27 ± 3,24 kg e o peso final foi de 28,6 ± 3,78 kg. Utilizou-se um delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os tratamentos foram: capim-elefante ensilado sem aditivo ou ensilado com 15% de casca de café, farelo de cacau ou farelo de mandioca. A utilização da casca de café, do farelo de cacau e do farelo de mandioca na ensilagem de capim-elefante aumentou o consumo de matéria seca. Os maiores consumos de proteína bruta foram observados nas silagens contendo farelo de cacau e farelo de mandioca. Os consumos de fibra em detergente neutro foram semelhantes e o consumo de nutrientes digestíveis totais foi maior na silagem contendo farelo de mandioca. A conversão alimentar dos animais não foi afetada pela inclusão dos aditivos na ensilagem. A inclusão de farelo de mandioca na ensilagem de capim-elefante aumenta o ganho de peso (140,5 g/dia em ovinos Santa Inês.The effects of the addition of 15% of different addictives (coffee hulls, cocoa meal and cassava meal to green elephant grass forage, in natural matter basis (weight/weight, at the ensilage moment on the consumption of nutrients and the performance of twenty Santa Inês sheep under feedlot system were evaluated. The animals had 5.0 months of age, initial weight of 22.27 ± 3.24 kg and final weight of 28.6 ± 3.78 kg. The treatments were: T1 = elephant grass ensiled without addictive; T2 = elephant grass ensiled with 15% coffee hulls; T3 = elephant grass ensiled with 15% cocoa meal; T4 = elephant grass ensiled with 15% cassava meal. The use of the addictives coffee hulls, cocoa meal and cassava

  11. Nutrient intake, productive performance and body measurements of dairy heifers fed with different sources of protein - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i3.18749

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Fereirra Ribeiro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of different protein sources (soybean meal, cottonseed meal, peanut meal and sunflower meal on dry matter and nutrient intake, productive performance and body measurements of dairy heifers, Holstein x Zebu, recreated in confinement. The experiment consisted in a randomized complete block design made up by 6 replications and 4 treatments. The mean values of ingestion of ether extract (EEI, kg day-1 were statistically different (p -1 to the diet with sunflower meal (0.82 kg day-1, and considering the final body weight, the diet with soybean meal was superior to the other treatments (p  

  12. Slow recovery of blood glucose in the insulin tolerance test during the prepartum transition period negatively impacts the nutritional status and reproductive performance postpartum of dairy cows.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hsu-Hsun; Kida, Katsuya; Miura, Ryotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Miyamoto, Akio; Kawashima, Chiho; Haneda, Shingo; Miyake, Yoh-ichi; Matsui, Motozumi

    2012-01-01

    In peripartum dairy cows, insulin resistance (IR) increases to adjust the direction of energy to lactation after calving. To investigate the effect of prepartum IR on postpartum reproductive performance, the insulin tolerance test (ITT) was applied to 15 cows at 3 weeks (Pre21) and 10 days (Pre10) before the predicted calving date. Blood glucose area under the curve (AUCglu) within 120 min after administration of 0.05 IU/kg-BW insulin was calculated. The occurrence of first ovulation, days to...

  13. Productive performance and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep grazing in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Rodríguez, Marcos; Solorio-Sánchez, Javier; Ku-Vera, Juan; Ayala-Burgos, Armín; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos; Solís-Pérez, Georgina

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate daily weight gain (DWG), total dry matter (DM) intake, rumen degradability of forage, and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala. A completely randomized design was carried out with two treatments: treatment 1 (T1) silvopastoral system with leucaena at a density of 35,000 plants/ha and treatment 2 (T2), leucaena at a density of 55,000 plants/ha. Leucaena was associated with tropical grasses Panicum maximum and Cynodon nlemfluensis. Twenty-four male Pelibuey lambs of 23.2 ± 3.4 kg live weight (LW) were used (12 lambs per treatment). Results showed differences (P < 0.05) in DWG of T1 (106.41 ± 11.66 g(-1) sheep(-1)) with respect to that of T2 (81.33 ± 11.81 g(-1) sheep). Voluntary intake was higher in lambs from T1 (83.81 ± 04.07 g DM/kg LW(0.75)) with respect to that from T2 (71.67 ± 8.12 g DM/kg LW(0.75)). There was a difference in color of urine between sheep of T1 and T2, the latter giving positive results for the presence of metabolites derived from mimosine (3-4 dihydroxypyridine and 2-3 dihydroxy pyridone). Rumen degradability of DM of L. leucocephala was higher (P < 0.05) compared to that of P. maximum and C. nlemfluensis (72.94 ± 0.40 vs. 67.06 ± 1.50 and 63.25 ± 1.51 %, respectively). It is concluded that grazing at high densities of L. leucocephala affects daily weight gain of hair sheep, possibly due to ingestion of high amounts of mimosine which may exert an adverse effect on voluntary intake.

  14. Fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia; an essential resource for smallholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Henk Mathijs Johannes; Budisatria, I Gede Suparta

    2011-10-01

    This paper discusses the historical development of fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia, the dynamics of production systems, production and reproduction performances under farmers' conditions, and roles of sheep in livelihoods. In the eighteenth and nineteenth century, fat-tailed sheep from southwest Asia and Africander sheep from South Africa were introduced. Crossing of fat-tailed sheep with the local thin-tailed sheep produced the Javanese fat-tailed sheep. Main motives for the gradual change-over to fat-tailed sheep have been their potential larger body size and the preference of consumers for their meat. Management systems are changing in response to the intensification of land use. The reproductive performances of fat-tailed sheep are good. Households keep four to six animals, housed close to the family quarters. This results in very high levels of faecal bacteria contamination of drinking water sources. Sheep provide a small income, manure, security and help to accumulate capital. Sheep also play a key role in religious festivities. Farmers hardly profit from the increased demand for the feast of sacrifice; animals are sold mainly when the owners have urgent cash needs. Systematic sheep fattening can contribute to higher economic results, if sufficient family labour and crop residues are available.

  15. Economic and genetic performance of various combinations of in vitro-produced embryo transfers and artificial insemination in a dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniyamattam, Karun; Block, Jeremy; Hansen, Peter J; De Vries, Albert

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to find the optimal proportions of pregnancies from an in vitro-produced embryo transfer (IVP-ET) system and artificial insemination (AI) so that profitability is maximized over a range of prices for embryos and surplus dairy heifer calves. An existing stochastic, dynamic dairy model with genetic merits of 12 traits was adapted for scenarios where 0 to 100% of the eligible females in the herd were impregnated, in increments of 10%, using IVP-ET (ET0 to ET100, 11 scenarios). Oocytes were collected from the top donors selected for the trait lifetime net merit (NM$) and fertilized with sexed semen to produce IVP embryos. Due to their greater conception rates, first ranked were eligible heifer recipients based on lowest number of unsuccessful inseminations or embryo transfers, and then on age. Next, eligible cow recipients were ranked based on the greatest average estimated breeding values (EBV) of the traits cow conception rate and daughter pregnancy rate. Animals that were not recipients of IVP embryos received conventional semen through AI, except that the top 50% of heifers ranked for EBV of NM$ were inseminated with sexed semen for the first 2 AI. The economically optimal proportions of IVP-ET were determined using sensitivity analysis performed for 24 price sets involving 6 different selling prices of surplus dairy heifer calves at approximately 105 d of age and 4 different prices of IVP embryos. The model was run for 15 yr after the start of the IVP-ET program for each scenario. The mean ± standard error of true breeding values of NM$ of all cows in the herd in yr 15 was greater by $603 ± 2 per cow per year for ET100 when compared with ET0. The optimal proportion of IVP-ET ranged from ET100 (for surplus dairy heifer calves sold for ≥$300 along with an additional premium based on their EBV of NM$ and a ≤$100 embryo price) to as low as ET0 (surplus dairy heifer calves sold at $300 with a $200 embryo price). For the default

  16. EFFECTS OF INTRAUTERINE NUTRITION ON FETAL PROGRAMMING OF REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS AND THE FUTURE REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE IN SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Clariget R

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of uterine undernutrition during the embryonic and fetal development has been of concern in human medicine due to the consequences on the health and welfare of the people it causes. However, in animal production it is in just the past two decades that the issue has gained interest from researchers. Animal production based on native pasture grazing systems often presets periods of under nutrition during gestation, so the topic is of particular interest to our region. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the effects of nutrition, with special emphasis on undernutrition of the pregnant ewe on the intrauterine development of the reproductive tract of both male and female offspring, and the reproductive performance of the adult ewe and ram.

  17. Productive performance and economic analysis of Santa Inês sheep slaughtered at different subcutaneous fat levels

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    Larissa de Oliveira Queiroz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the productive and economic performance of feedlot-finished Santa Inês lambs slaughtered at three subcutaneous fat levels. Twenty-four uncastrated male lambs with 100 ± 10 days of age and an initial body weight of 22.6 ± 3.9 kg were randomly assigned to three treatments and slaughtered at a subcutaneous fat thickness of 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mm. A completely randomized design consisting of three treatments and eight repetitions per treatment was adopted. Productivity parameters included final body weight, dry matter intake, daily and total weight gains, and feed conversion. For the determination of economically viable fat thickness for slaughter, only direct production costs such as lamb purchase costs, feed costs and cost of labor were considered, and revenue, expenses and profit were analyzed. The final body weight and total weight gain differed significantly (P<0.05 between treatments. Lambs slaughtered at a subcutaneous fat thickness of 3.0 and 4.0 mm had a higher final body weight (33.84 ± 1.71 and 34.65 ± 1.79 kg, respectively and total weight gain (9.06 ± 1.04 and 11.82 ± 1.02 kg. However, lambs with 3.0 mm fat thickness exhibited better economic results (profit of US$ 3.10 per kg cold carcass. The slaughter of Santa Inês lambs at 3.0 mm subcutaneous fat thickness is recommended since it provides better productive performance, higher profit per kilogram carcass, and greater profitability.

  18. Effects of ruminally degradable starch levels on performance, nitrogen balance, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed low corn-based starch diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobin Luo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective This trial was performed to examine the effects of ruminally degradable starch (RDS levels in total mixed ration (TMR with low corn-based starch on the milk production, whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows. Methods Eight multiparous Holstein cows (body weight [BW]: 717±63 kg; days in milk [DIM]: 169±29 were assigned to a crossover design with two dietary treatments: a diet containing 62.3% ruminally degradable starch (% of total starch, low RDS or 72.1% ruminally degradable starch (% of total starch, high RDS. Changes to the ruminally degradable levels were conducted by using either finely ground corn or steam-flaked corn as the starch component. Results The results showed that dry matter intake, milk yield and composition in dairy cows were not affected by dietary treatments. The concentration of milk urea nitrogen was lower for cows fed high RDS TMR than low RDS TMR. The whole-tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and crude protein decreased, and that of starch increased for cows fed high RDS TMR over those fed low RDS TMR, with no dietary effect on the whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and organic matter. The proportion of urinary N excretion in N intake was lower and that of fecal N excretion in N intake was higher for cows fed high RDS TMR than those fed low RDS TMR. The N secretion in milk and the retention of N were not influenced by the dietary treatments. Total purine derivative was similar in cows fed high RDS TMR and low RDS TMR. Consequently, estimated microbial N flow to the duodenum was similar in cows fed high RDS TMR and low RDS TMR. Conclusion Results of this study show that ruminally degradable starch levels can influence whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows fed low corn-based starch diets, with no influence on performance.

  19. Nutrient intake, rumen fermentation and growth performance of dairy calves fed extruded full-fat soybean as a replacement for soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZeidAli-Nejad, A; Ghorbani, G R; Kargar, S; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Pezeshki, A; Ghaffari, M H

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of extruded full-fat soybean (ESB) as a replacement for soybean meal (SBM) on nutrient intake, rumen fermentation, and growth performance of dairy calves. A total of 45 male Holstein dairy calves (42.0±0.5 kg of BW) were randomly assigned to one of three experimental diets: (1) 0% ESB (Control): 35.3% SBM no ESB; (2) 25% ESB: 27.0% SBM+9.0% ESB; and (3) 50% ESB: 19.0% SBM+19.0% ESB. All calves were weaned on day 56 of age and remained in the study until day 70 of age. During the pre-weaning and overall periods, substituting of SBM with ESB had no effect on intake of starter feed, metabolizable energy (ME), CP and non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC). Compared with the control, 50% ESB resulted in a decrease in starter feed intake, and intakes of other nutrients including CP, NFC and ME during the post-weaning period. Substituting SBM with ESB decreased intake of C16 : 0 and increased intakes of n-9 C18 : 1, n-6 C18 : 2 and n-3 C18 : 3 during the pre-weaning, post-weaning and overall periods. Using ESB as a replacement for SBM did not affect average daily gain, feed efficiency, rectal temperature and fecal score over the trial periods. Compared with control, the rumen concentration of NH3-N decreased for 50% ESB on days 35 and 56 of age but not when compared with 25% ESB. Rumen pH, total volatile fatty acids concentrations, and the molar proportions of ruminal acetate, propionate and butyrate were not different among treatments. Body measurements were not affected by the treatments. In conclusion, substitution of SBM with ESB may improve nitrogen utilization efficiency in dairy calves but slightly reduce post-weaning starter intake with no negative outcomes on growth performance and rumen fermentation.

  20. Assessing agro-environmental performance of dairy farms in northwest Italy based on aggregated results from indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudino, Stefano; Goia, Irene; Grignani, Carlo; Monaco, Stefano; Sacco, Dario

    2014-07-01

    Dairy farms control an important share of the agricultural area of Northern Italy. Zero grazing, large maize-cropped areas, high stocking densities, and high milk production make them intensive and prone to impact the environment. Currently, few published studies have proposed indicator sets able to describe the entire dairy farm system and their internal components. This work had four aims: i) to propose a list of agro-environmental indicators to assess dairy farms; ii) to understand which indicators classify farms best; iii) to evaluate the dairy farms based on the proposed indicator list; iv) to link farmer decisions to the consequent environmental pressures. Forty agro-environmental indicators selected for this study are described. Northern Italy dairy systems were analysed considering both farmer decision indicators (farm management) and the resulting pressure indicators that demonstrate environmental stress on the entire farming system, and its components: cropping system, livestock system, and milk production. The correlations among single indicators identified redundant indicators. Principal Components Analysis distinguished which indicators provided meaningful information about each pressure indicator group. Analysis of the communalities and the correlations among indicators identified those that best represented farm variability: Farm Gate N Balance, Greenhouse Gas Emission, and Net Energy of the farm system; Net Energy and Gross P Balance of the cropping system component; Energy Use Efficiency and Purchased Feed N Input of the livestock system component; N Eco-Efficiency of the milk production component. Farm evaluation, based on the complete list of selected indicators demonstrated organic farming resulted in uniformly high values, while farms with low milk-producing herds resulted in uniformly low values. Yet on other farms, the environmental quality varied greatly when different groups of pressure indicators were considered, which highlighted the

  1. Using an incomplete gamma function to quantify the effect of dystocia on the lactation performance of Holstein dairy cows in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashi, H; Abdolmohammadi, A R; Asaadi, A; Akhlaghi, A; Dadpasand, M; Ahangari, Y Jafari

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the effect of dystocia on lactation performance, using an incomplete gamma function. Data from March 2000 to April 2009 comprising 100,628 lactations of 65,421 cows in 204 dairy herds collected by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran were used. Of 100,628 births, 91.8% required no assistance, whereas 8.2% required assistance of some sort. Factors associated with the presence of dystocia were calving season, calving year, herd, calf sex, parity, and age of dam. Peak yield for primiparous cows with dystocia at calving occurred on d 87.2 [standard error (SE) 0.47], and for primiparous cows with easy calving, the peak of lactation was on d 83.3 (0.25). Peak yield was lowered by 0.39 (SE 0.07), 2.20 (SE 0.15), 2.22 (SE 0.21), and 2.54 (SE 0.32) kg for cows with incidence of dystocia compared with normal cows in parity 1 to 4, respectively. Dystocia was associated with decreased 305-d lactation performance in all parities, mostly in early lactation. Although more difficult births occurred in heifer calvings, loss in lactation performance was greater in second or later lactations following a difficult birth. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Imported coenurosis in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, G.; Grünenfelder, F.; Sydler, T.; Rademacher, N.; Braun, U.; Deplazes, P.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen sheep from a milk producing farm in the Canton of Grisons that presented chronic coenurosis were examined and subjected to treatment trials at the veterinary hospital in Zurich. Symptoms were first observed around two months after the import of two dogs from Italy (Abruzza) of which one was infected with Taenia multiceps and Echinococcus granulosus. The most frequently observed clinical symptoms of the sheep were reduced general condition, circling, reduced menace reflex, apathy, unsteady gait and head tilt. Analyses of cerebrospinal fluid revealed an increased leucocyte count in 3 sheep and eosinophilia in 4 sheep. In 4 animals that underwent computertomography, one or more hypodense, definable lesions were found in the brain. In 2 sheep surgical treatment and in 10 animals medical treatment with either Praziquantel (n=8) or Oxfendazol (n=2) was attempted. Only one animal treated with Praziquantel needed not to be euthanized. At necropsy, one or two coenurus cysts could be found either in a side ventricle (n=2), in the cerebellum (n=3) or in the cerebrum (n=7). The locations corresponded with the clinical findings. Despite Praziquantel or Oxfendazol treatment, living protoscoleces could be found in the parasite cysts [de

  3. A new approach to enhance reproductive performance in sheep using royal jelly in comparison with equine chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husein, M Q; Haddad, S G

    2006-06-01

    The objective was to compare the effects of royal jelly (RJ) and eCG treatments on reproductive performance of ewes synchronized using intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices. Forty-two cycling Awassi ewes were treated intramuscularly (i.m.) with 15 mg PGF2alpha. On the following day, all ewes were administered with CIDR-G for 12 days and were randomly allocated to three (RJ, eCG and control) groups of 14 ewes each. Ewes in the RJ-treated group received daily i.m. treatments of 400mg RJ during the period of CIDR-treatment. Each ewe in the eCG-treated group received an i.m. treatment of 500 IU eCG at the time of CIDR-G removal (day 0) and no further treatment was given to ewes in the control group. Ewes were exposed to four fertile rams for 72 h, from the time of CIDR-G removal, and checked for breeding marks at 6-h intervals. Blood samples were collected from day -13 until day 0 and thereafter until day 19 for progesterone analysis. Royal jelly treatment resulted in a greater rate of decline and lower (Pprogesterone concentrations between days -10 and 0 than eCG-treated and control ewes. Expression of estrus was similar among the three groups and intervals to onset of estrus were shorter (P<0.01) in RJ-treated (31.3h) and eCG-treated (29.8h) than control (41.3h) ewes. First-cycle pregnancy and lambing rates were greater (P<0.05) in RJ-treated (71.4 and 71.4%) and eCG-treated (85.7 and 78.6%) than in control (42.9 and 35.7%) ewes, respectively. Results demonstrate that the treatments of RJ and eCG in conjunction with CIDR-G were similarly effective in induction of estrus and improvement of pregnancy and lambing rates.

  4. Comparison between different selection criteria in the genetic evaluation of Valle del Belice sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Firpo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactation length in dairy sheep affects milk yield like other genetic and environmental factors. The length of the production period is affected by management decisions such as culling, mating and particularly ranking of animals with different parity and lambing in different months or seasons. Moreover the low heritability of lactation length (Barillet and Boichard, 1987; Dahlin et al., 1998 does not allow its use as a selection criterion. For this reason to achieve a good reliability in phenotypic and genetic evaluation of dairy species, production variability caused by systematic environmental effects must be removed. This is of particular interest for dairy sheep and goats reared in Sicily, where the typical production system is based on pasture, and related food availability is strongly affected by seasonal and annual climatic variations, which results in considerable variations in daily yields........

  5. Effects of forage provision to dairy calves on growth performance and rumen fermentation: A meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, M; Mirzaei, M; Baghbanzadeh-Nobari, B; Ghaffari, M H

    2017-02-01

    A meta-analysis of the potential effect of forage provision on growth performance and rumen fermentation of dairy calves was conducted using published data from the literature (1998-2016). Meta-regression was used to evaluate the effects of different forage levels, forage sources, forage offering methods, physical forms of starter, and grain sources on the heterogeneity of the results. We considered 27 studies that reported the effects of forage provision to dairy calves. Estimated effect sizes of forage were calculated on starter feed intake, average daily gain (ADG), feed efficiency (FE), body weight (BW), and rumen fermentation parameters. Intake of starter feed, ADG, BW, ruminal pH, and rumen molar proportion of acetate increased when supplementing forage but FE decreased. Heterogeneity (the amount of variation among studies) was significant for intake of starter feed, ADG, FE, final BW, and rumen fermentation parameters. Improving overall starter feed intake was greater in calves offered alfalfa hay compared with those offered other types of forages. During the milk feeding and overall periods, improving ADG was greater for calves fed a high level of forage (>10% in dry matter) compared with those fed a low level of forage (≤10% in dry matter) diets. The advantages reported in weight gain at a high level of forage could be due to increased gut fill. Improving overall ADG was lower for calves offered forages with textured starter feed compared with ground starter feed. The meta-regression analysis revealed that changes associated with forage provision affect FE differently for various forage sources and forage offering methods during the milk-feeding period. Forage sources also modulated the effect of feeding forage on ruminal pH during the milk-feeding period. In conclusion, forage has the potential to affect starter feed intake and performance of dairy calves, but its effects depend on source, level, and method of forage feeding and physical form of starter

  6. Effects of rumen-undegradable protein on intake, performance, and mammary gland development in prepubertal and pubertal dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A L; Detmann, E; Dijkstra, J; Pedroso, A M; Silva, L H P; Machado, A F; Sousa, F C; Dos Santos, G B; Marcondes, M I

    2018-04-04

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different amounts of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on intake, N balance, performance, mammary gland development, carcass traits, and hormonal status of Holstein heifers at different physiological stages (PS). Sixteen prepubertal (PRE) heifers (initial BW = 106 ± 7.6 kg; age = 4.3 ± 0.46 mo) and 16 pubertal (PUB) heifers (initial BW = 224 ± 7.9 kg; age = 12.6 ± 0.45 mo) were used in an experiment over a period of 84 d. Four diets with increasing RUP contents (38, 44, 51, and 57% of dietary crude protein) and heifers at 2 PS (PRE or PUB) were used in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in a completely randomized design. Throughout the experiment, 2 digestibility trials were performed over 5 consecutive days (starting at d 36 and 78) involving feed and ort sampling and spot collections of feces and urine. At d 0 and 83, body ultrasound images were obtained for real-time carcass trait evaluation. The mammary gland was ultrasonically scanned at d 0 and every 3 wk during the experiment. Blood samples were taken at d 0 and 84 to determine serum concentrations of progesterone, estrogen, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and insulin. No interaction between PS and the level of RUP was found for any trait. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein was not affected by RUP level but was lower for PRE compared with PUB heifers. Sorting against neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (tendency only) and for crude protein was greater for PUB than PRE heifers. Pubertal heifers had greater average daily gain (905 vs. 505 g/d) and N retention (25.9 vs. 12.5 g/d) than PRE heifers. In addition, average daily gain and N retention were greatest at 51% RUP of dietary protein. Mammary ultrasonography indicated no effects of RUP amounts on mammary gland composition, whereas PRE heifers had greater pixel values than PUB

  7. Technical note: Improving modeling of coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis of sheep milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolat-Gotet, Claudio; Pazzola, Michele; Ferragina, Alessandro; Cecchinato, Alessio; Dettori, Maria L; Vacca, Giuseppe M

    2018-04-18

    The importance of milk coagulation properties for milk processing, cheese yield, and quality is widely recognized. The use of traditional coagulation traits presents several limitations for testing bovine milk and even more for sheep milk, due to its rapid coagulation and curd firming, and early syneresis of coagulum. The aim of this technical note is to test and improve model fitting for assessing coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis of sheep milk. Using milk samples from 87 Sarda ewes, we performed in duplicate lactodynamographic testing. On each of the 174 analyzed milk aliquots, using 180 observations from each aliquot (one every 15 s for 45 min after rennet addition), we compared 4 different curd firming models as a function of time (CF t , mm) using a nonlinear procedure. The most accurate and informative results were observed using a modified 4-parameter model, structured as follows: [Formula: see text] , where t is time, RCT eq (min) is the gelation time, CF P (mm) is the potential asymptotical CF at an infinite time, k CF (%/min) is the curd firming rate constant, and k SR (%/min) is the curd syneresis rate constant. To avoid nonconvergence and computational problems due to interrelations among the equation parameters, CF P was preliminarily defined as a function of maximum observed curd firmness (CF max , mm) recorded during the analysis. For this model, all the modeling equations of individual sheep milk aliquots were converging, with a negligible standard error of the estimates (coefficient of determination >0.99 for all individual sample equations). Repeatability of the modeled parameters was acceptable, also in the presence of curd syneresis during the lactodynamographic analysis. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of feeding hull-less barley on production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient digestibility of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Corl, B A; Thomason, W E; Griffey, C A

    2017-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient digestibility in high-producing dairy cows consuming diets containing corn and hull-less barley (cultivar Amaze 10) in different proportions as the grain source. Eight primiparous and 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were fed once daily (1200 h) by means of a Calan gate system (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH). All diets contained ∼20% grain (dry matter basis). Treatments consisted of 100% corn (0B), 67% corn and 33% hull-less barley (33B), 33% corn and 67% hull-less barley (67B), and 100% hull-less barley (100B) as the grain sources. Total-tract nutrient digestibility was estimated using lanthanum chloride (LaCl 3 ) as an external marker. Dry matter intake differed quadratically among treatments, being lowest for 67B and highest for 0B and 100B. Feeding hull-less barley did not affect milk yield, and milk fat concentration differed cubically among treatments. The cubic response was attributed to the higher milk fat concentration observed for the diet containing 67B. Neither the concentrations in milk of protein and lactose nor the yields of protein and lactose differed among treatments. The proportion of de novo synthesized fatty acids in milk did not differ among treatments. The apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber did not differ among treatments. Although a quadratic effect was observed, starch digestibility was minimally affected by treatments. In conclusion, this study indicates that hull-less barley grain is as good as corn grain as an energy source when formulating diets for high-producing dairy cows. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Management, nutrition, and lactation performance are related to bulk tank milk de novo fatty acid concentration on northeastern US dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolpert, M E; Dann, H M; Cotanch, K W; Melilli, C; Chase, L E; Grant, R J; Barbano, D M

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship of management practices, dietary characteristics, milk composition, and lactation performance with de novo fatty acid (FA) concentration in bulk tank milk from commercial dairy farms with Holstein, Jersey, and mixed-breed cows. It was hypothesized that farms with higher de novo milk FA concentrations would more commonly use management and nutrition practices known to optimize ruminal conditions that enhance de novo synthesis of milk FA. Farms (n=44) located in Vermont and northeastern New York were selected based on a history of high de novo (HDN; 26.18±0.94g/100g of FA; mean ± standard deviation) or low de novo (LDN; 24.19±1.22g/100g of FA) FA in bulk tank milk. Management practices were assessed during one visit to each farm in March or April, 2014. Total mixed ration samples were collected and analyzed for chemical composition using near infrared spectroscopy. We found no differences in days in milk at the farm level. Yield of milk fat, true protein, and de novo FA per cow per day were higher for HDN versus LDN farms. The HDN farms had lower freestall stocking density (cows/stall) than LDN farms. Additionally, tiestall feeding frequency was higher for HDN than LDN farms. No differences between HDN and LDN farms were detected for dietary dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, starch, or percentage of forage in the diet. However, dietary ether extract was lower for HDN than LDN farms. This research indicates that overcrowded freestalls, reduced feeding frequency, and greater dietary ether extract content are associated with lower de novo FA synthesis and reduced milk fat and true protein yields on commercial dairy farms. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance of small-scale dairy farms in the highlands of central Mexico during the dry season under traditional feeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Carlos Galdino; Rayas-Amor, Adolfo Armando; Anaya-Ortega, Juan Pablo; Martínez-Castañeda, Francisco Ernesto; Espinoza-Ortega, Angélica; Prospero-Bernal, Fernando; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel

    2015-02-01

    In Mexico, small-scale dairy systems (SSDS) represent over 78 % of dairy farms and contribute with 37 % of national milk production; however, they face high feeding costs. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of SSDS during the dry season in terms of milk yields, milk composition and feeding costs under traditional feeding strategies, to identify areas of opportunity for improving their profitability. The information was collected from 22 SSDS every month during dry season. Feeds were classified in quality forages (QF), supplements (SU) and straws (ST). Two factors were identified: factor 1-a positive relationship among QF, SU, milk yield and ration cost and factor 2-represented straw usage. Four feeding strategies were identified: (1) low-cost feeding strategy; (2) home-grown feeding strategy; (3) high-cost feeding strategy; and (4) straw-based feeding strategy. There were differences (P  0.05) differences among feeding strategies for fat and protein contents in milk. It is concluded that to improve performance and profitability and enhance sustainability in SSDS, farmers should base feeding strategies on home-grown quality forages, as it was the case in group 2 which showed lower feeding cost and better milk yield. It is also recommended to increase the inclusion of quality forages like grazing pastures and maize silages during the dry season and to avoid the inclusion of straws.

  11. Effects of Feeding Corn-lablab Bean Mixture Silages on Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Performance of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Qu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of corn-lablab bean mixture silages relative to corn silages. The effects of feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages on nutrient apparent digestibility and milk production of dairy cows in northern China were also investigated. Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to determine the ruminal digestion kinetics and ruminal nutrient degradability of corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups of 30 cows each. Two diets were formulated with a 59:41 forage: concentrate ratio. Corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages constituted 39.3% of the forage in each diet, with Chinese wildrye hay constituting the remaining 60.7%. Corn-lablab bean mixture silages had higher lactic acid, acetic acid, dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ash, Ca, ether extract concentrations and ruminal nutrient degradability than monoculture corn silage (p<0.05. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF concentrations of corn-lablab bean mixture silages were lower than those of corn silage (p<0.05. The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF for cows fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was higher than for those fed corn silage (p<0.05. Feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield and milk protein of dairy cows when compared with feeding corn silage (p<0.05. The economic benefit for cow fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was 8.43 yuan/day/cow higher than that for that fed corn silage. In conclusion, corn-lablab bean mixture improved the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of silage compared with monoculture corn. In this study, feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield, milk protein and nutrient apparent digestibility of dairy cows compared with corn silage in northern China.

  12. Multipurpose fodder trees in Ethiopia : farmers'perception, constraints to adoption and effect of long-term supplementation on sheep performance

    OpenAIRE

    Mekoya, A.

    2008-01-01

    Many organizations in Ethiopia have promoted exotic multipurpose fodder tree species particularly Sesbania sesban for livestock feed and soil improvement. Despite the apparent benefits, the number of farmers planting these trees was low. Moreover, some farmers feeding Sesbania sesban reported reproduction problems in sheep. The latter was supported by a few short term reproduction studies conducted in Ethiopia. The present thesis was conducted to assess farmers’ perceptions about multipurpose...

  13. ANALISIS PEMBOBOTAN KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATOR (KPI DENGAN SCOR MODEL MENGGUNAKAN METODE ANALITICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP PRODUK KEJU MOZZARELLA DI CV BRAWIJAYA DAIRY INDUSTRY, JUNREJO KOTA BATU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariani Ariani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pembobotan Key performance Indicator dengan model SCOR menggunakan metode Analitical Hierarchy Process (AHP produk keju mozzarella di CV Brawijaya Dairy Industry. Hasil penelitian di peroleh 36 Key Performance Indicator yang disesuikan dengan model SCOR yaitu plan, source, deliver, make (process, dan return. Hasil pembobotan dengan menggunakan pembobotan AHP pada hierarki tingkat 1 yang memiliki bobot tertinggi adalah make (process dengan nilai bobot 0,534. Hal ini dikarenakan perusahaan mementingkan kualitas produk yang dipengaruhi oleh proses produksi. Pada hierarki tingkat 2 bobot tertinggi terdapat pada variabel reliability dengan total bobot 0,739. Sedangkan nilai bobot tertinggi pada hierarki tingkat 3 (Key Performance Indicator  adalah pada KPI 24 Kehandalan kinerja karyawan dalam mengolah menjadi produk jadi dengan total bobot 0,180.

  14. Strengthening Dairy Cooperative through National Development of Livestock Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of dairy cattle development region needs to be conducted in accordance with the national dairy industry development plan. Dairy cattle regions have been designed and equipped with infrastructure supplies, supporting facilities, technologies, finance, processing, marketing, institutional and human resources. Dairy cooperative is one of the marketing channels of milk and milk products which have strategic roles to support the national dairy industry. Collaborations between dairy cooperatives and smallholder farmers within a district region have to be done based on agricultural ecosystems, agribusiness system, integrated farming and participatory approach. This may improve dairy cooperatives as an independent and competitive institution. Strengthening dairy cooperatives in national region dairy cattle was carried out through institutional inventory and dairy cooperatives performance; requirement of capital access, market and networks as well as education and managerial training; certification and accreditation feasibility analysis and information and technology utilization. Establishment of emerging dairy cooperatives towards small and micro enterprises is carried out by directing them to establish cooperatives which have legal certainty and business development opportunities. The impact of strengthening dairy cooperative may support dairy cattle development through increase population and milk production. Sustainable dairy cattle development needs to be supported by regional and national government policies.

  15. Occurrence of human pathogenic Clostridium botulinum among healthy dairy animals: an emerging public health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moein, Khaled A; Hamza, Dalia A

    2016-01-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of human pathogenic Clostridium botulinum in the feces of dairy animals. Fecal samples were collected from 203 apparently healthy dairy animals (50 cattle, 50 buffaloes, 52 sheep, 51 goats). Samples were cultured to recover C. botulinum while human pathogenic C. botulinum strains were identified after screening of all C. botulinum isolates for the presence of genes that encode toxins type A, B, E, F. The overall prevalence of C. botulinum was 18.7% whereas human pathogenic C. botulinum strains (only type A) were isolated from six animals at the rates of 2, 2, 5.8, and 2% for cattle, buffaloes, sheep, and goats, respectively. High fecal carriage rates of C. botulinum among apparently healthy dairy animals especially type A alarm both veterinary and public health communities for a potential role which may be played by dairy animals in the epidemiology of such pathogen.

  16. Differences in the microstructure and rheological properties of low-fat yoghurts from goat, sheep and cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hanh T H; Afsar, Saeedeh; Day, Li

    2018-06-01

    Goat and sheep milks have long been used to produce a range of dairy products due to their nutritional value and health benefits. Information about the microstructure and rheology of goat and sheep yoghurts, however, is scarce. In this study, the microstructure, texture and rheological properties of cow, goat and sheep yoghurts were investigated and compared. The results show that a longer fermentation and gelation time was required for goat yoghurt with a lower storage modulus compared to cow and sheep yoghurts. Cooling resulted in an increase in the storage modulus at different magnitudes for cow, goat and sheep yoghurts. Goat yoghurt had a smaller particle size and a softer gel, which is linked with a more porous microstructure. The results obtained here demonstrate the effect of different milk types on the properties of yoghurts and provide a better understanding into the link between the microstructure and physical properties of the product. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A high-throughput screening method of bisphenols, bisphenols digycidyl ethers and their derivatives in dairy products by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yan; Nie, Xue-Mei; Wu, Han-Qiu; Hong, Yun-He; Yang, Bing-Cheng; Liu, Tong; Zhao, Dan; Wang, Jian-Feng; Yao, Gui-Hong; Zhang, Feng

    2017-01-15

    A simple and universal analytical method based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for high throughput screening of 21 bisphenols, bisphenols digycidyl ethers and their derivatives in dairy products was developed. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to optimize sample preparation conditions based on a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method. The analytes were extracted by using 15 mL acetonitrile with 1% acetic acid, and the extracts were further purified by using 190 mg of C18 and 390 mg of PSA. The extracts were analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization (ESI) source. Linearity was assessed by using matrix-matched standard calibration and good correlation coefficients (r 2  > 0.99) were obtained. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) for the analytes ranged from 0.02 to 5 μg kg -1 . The extraction recoveries were in a range of 88.2%-108.2%. Good method reproducibility in terms of intra- and inter-day precision was observed, yielding relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 8.9% and 9.9%, respectively. The validation method results revealed that the proposed method was sensitive and reliable. Finally, this method was successfully applied to dairy product analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of different levels of rapidly degradable carbohydrates calculated by a simple rumen model on performance of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenbos, J; Martín-Tereso, J; Dijkstra, J; van Laar, H

    2017-07-01

    Aggregating rumen degradation characteristics of different carbohydrate components into the term modeled rapidly degradable carbohydrates (mRDC) can simplify diet formulation by accounting for differences in rate and extent of carbohydrate degradation within and between feedstuffs. This study sought to evaluate responses of lactating dairy cows to diets formulated with increasing levels of mRDC, keeping the supply of other nutrients as constant as possible. The mRDC content of feedstuffs was calculated based on a simple rumen model including soluble, washable, and nonwashable but potentially degradable fractions, as well as the fractional degradation and passage rates, of sugar, starch, neutral detergent fiber, and other carbohydrates. The mRDC term effectively represents the total amount of carbohydrates degraded in the rumen within 2 h after ingestion. Fifty-two lactating Holstein cows (of which 4 were rumen fistulated) were assigned to 4 treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration consisting of 25.4% corn silage, 23.1% grass silage, 11.6% grass hay, and 39.9% concentrate on a dry matter basis. Differences in mRDC were created by exchanging nonforage neutral detergent fiber-rich ingredients (mainly sugar beet pulp) with starch-rich ingredients (mainly wheat) and by exchanging corn (slowly degradable starch) with wheat (rapidly degradable starch) in the concentrate, resulting in 4 treatments that varied in dietary mRDC level of 167, 181, 194, or 208 g/kg of dry matter. Level of mRDC did not affect dry matter intake. Fat- and protein-corrected milk production and milk fat and lactose yield were greatest at 181 mRDC and decreased with further increases in mRDC. Milk protein yield and concentration increased with increasing mRDC level. Mean rumen pH and diurnal variation in ruminal pH did not differ between treatments. Total daily meal time and number of visits per meal were smaller at 181 and 194 mRDC. Despite milk

  19. Effect of technical cashew nut shell liquid on rumen methane emission and lactation performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, A F; Giallongo, F; Frederick, T; Weeks, H; Oh, J; Hristov, A N

    2015-06-01

    Technical-grade cashew nut shell liquid (TCNSL) is a by-product of the cashew nut industry in tropical countries, and is known to exhibit a wide range of biological activities, including inhibitory effect against gram-positive bacteria. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of TCNSL (73.3% cardanol, 16.4% cardol, and 3.0% methylcardol) on rumen methane emission, nutrient digestibility, dry matter intake, and milk yield and composition in dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design trial with two 21-d experimental periods. The diet was based on corn silage and alfalfa haylage and was formulated to meet or exceed the energy and metabolizable protein requirements of the cows. Treatments were control (no TCNSL supplementation) or 30 g/cow per day of TCNSL. Rumen carbon dioxide emission was not affected by TCNSL. Treatment had no effect on methane emission (542 vs. 511±35.3 g/cow per day, respectively) and methane emission intensity (15.0 vs. 13.9±0.58 g/kg of energy-corrected milk, respectively) and tended to decrease methane emission per kilogram of dry matter intake (20.2 vs. 18.6±1.04 g/kg, respectively). Dry matter intake (average 26.9±1.00 kg/d), milk yield (40.0±1.73 kg/d), and milk composition were not different between treatments. The TCNSL had no effect on N losses in urine and feces and total-tract apparent digestibility of nutrients, except digestibility of neutral detergent fiber tended to be increased compared with the control. Plasma urea and glucose concentrations were not affected by TCNSL. Concentration of milk C18:0 tended to be decreased (17%) by TCNSL compared with the control. In this study, TCNSL did not alter absolute methane emission in the rumen, but tended to decrease it by 8% per kilogram of dry matter intake. The TCNSL had no effect on milk yield and composition in dairy cows. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Coxiella burnetii Circulation in a Naturally Infected Flock of Sheep: Individual Follow-Up of Antibodies in Serum and Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joulié, A; Rousset, E; Gasqui, P; Lepetitcolin, E; Leblond, A; Sidi-Boumedine, K; Jourdain, E

    2017-07-01

    The control of Q fever, a zoonotic disease caused by the Coxiella burnetii bacterium, remains a scientific challenge. Domestic ruminants are considered the main reservoir, shedding C. burnetii essentially through parturition products during abortion or birth. Sheep are particularly frequently associated with human outbreaks, but there are insufficient field data to fully understand disease dynamics and to instigate efficient control measures. A longitudinal follow-up study of a naturally infected sheep flock was performed (i) to investigate relationships between seropositivity and bacterial shedding in the vaginal mucus, (ii) to describe the kinetics of antibodies, including responses to vaccination, (iii) to monitor maternal antibodies in ewe lambs, and (iv) to compare serological results for milk and serum samples. For 8 months, we collected blood samples every 3 weeks from 11 aborting and 26 nonaborting dairy ewes, 20 nonaborting suckler ewes, and 9 ewe lambs. Individual milk samples were also obtained from lactating females. All serum and milk samples were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), whereas vaginal swabs were tested by quantitative PCR. We found that some dairy females did not seroconvert despite shedding C. burnetii in their vaginal mucus. Overall, antibody levels in adult females were found to remain stable over time, with exceptions during the mating and lambing periods. Maternal antibodies decreased during the first month after birth. Interestingly, antibody levels in milk were correlated with those in serum. This study provides valuable field data that will help improve Q fever surveillance and within-flock management measures. IMPORTANCE Field data are necessary to improve the surveillance, diagnosis, and sanitary management of Q fever in livestock. Here, we provide extensive serological data obtained from serum and milk samples from infected and vaccinated ewes belonging to a naturally infected flock of sheep. We show that

  1. The influence of genetic selection and feed system on the reproductive performance of spring-calving dairy cows within future pasture-based production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J; Pierce, K M; Berry, D P; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2009-10-01

    Three genetic groups of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were established from within the Moorepark (Teagasc, Ireland) dairy research herd: LowNA, indicative of the Irish national average-genetic-merit North American Holstein-Friesian; HighNA, high-genetic-merit North American Holstein-Friesian; HighNZ, high-genetic-merit New Zealand Holstein-Friesian. Genetic merit in this study was based on the Irish total merit index, the Economic Breeding Index. Animals from within each genetic group were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible post-European Union-milk-quota pasture-based feeding systems (FS): 1) The Moorepark (MP) pasture system (2.64 cows/ha and 500 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare (HC) pasture system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,200 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). A total of 126, 128, and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks, and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genetic group, FS, and the interaction between genetic group and FS on reproductive performance, body weight, body condition score, and blood metabolite concentrations were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genetic groups and FS. Odds ratios were used in the analysis of binary fertility traits, and survival analysis was used in the analysis of survival after first calving. When treatment means were compared, the HighNA and HighNZ genotypes (with greater genetic merit for fertility performance) had greater first-service pregnancy rates and had a greater proportion of cows pregnant after 42 d of the breeding season than the LowNA group. Both HighNA and HighNZ genotypes were submitted for artificial insemination earlier in the breeding season and had greater survival than the LowNA genotype. There was no significant FS or genotype by FS interactions for any of the reproductive

  2. Growth performance, feeding behavior, and selected blood metabolites of Holstein dairy calves fed restricted amounts of milk: No interactions between sources of finely ground grain and forage provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Ghaffari, M H

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of grain sources and forage provision on growth performance, blood metabolites, and feeding behaviors of dairy calves. Sixty 3-d-old Holstein dairy calves (42.2 ± 2.5 kg of body weight) were used in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with the factors being grain sources (barley and corn) and forage provision (no forage, alfalfa hay, and corn silage). Individually housed calves were randomly assigned (n = 10 calves per treatment: 5 males and 5 females) to 6 treatments: (1) barley grain (BG) without forage supplement, (2) BG with alfalfa hay (AH) supplementation, (3) BG with corn silage (CS) supplementation, (4) corn grain (CG) without forage supplement, (5) CG with AH supplementation, and (6) CG with CS supplementation. All calves had ad libitum access to water and starter feed throughout the experiment. All calves were weaned on d 49 and remained in the study until d 63. Starter feed intake and average daily gain (ADG) was greater for calves fed barley than those fed corn during the preweaning and overall periods. Calves supplemented with CS had greater final body weight and postweaning as well as overall starter feed intake than AH and non-forage-supplemented calves. During the preweaning and overall periods, feeding of CS was found to increase ADG compared with feeding AH and nonforage diets. However, feed efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments. Calves supplemented with CS spent more time ruminating compared with AH and control groups; nonnutritive oral behaviors were the greatest in non-forage-supplemented calves. Regardless of the grain sources, the rumen pH value was greater for AH calves compared with CS and non-forage-supplemented calves. Blood concentration of BHB was greater for CS-supplemented calves compared with AH and non-forage-supplemented calves. Furthermore, body length and heart girth were greater for calves fed barley compared with those fed corn, and also in forage

  3. The influence of grass silage-to-maize silage ratio and concentrate composition on methane emissions, performance and milk composition of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, K J; Huntington, J A; Wilkinson, R G; Bartram, C G; Sinclair, L A

    2015-06-01

    It is well-established that altering the proportion of starch and fibre in ruminant diets can alter ruminal and post-ruminal digestion, although quantitative evidence that this reduces enteric methane (CH4) production in dairy cattle is lacking. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of varying grass-to-maize silage ratio (70 : 30 and 30 : 70 DM basis), offered ad libitum, with either a concentrate that was high in starch or fibre, on CH4 production, intake, performance and milk composition of dairy cows. A total of 20 cows were allocated to one of the four experimental diets in a two-by-two factorial design run as a Latin square with each period lasting 28 days. Measurements were conducted during the final 7 days of each period. Cows offered the high maize silage ration had a higher dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk energy output and lower CH4 emissions when expressed per kg DMI and per unit of ingested gross energy, but there was no difference in total CH4 production. Several of the milk long-chain fatty acids (FA) were affected by forage treatment with the most notable being an increase in 18:0, 18:1 c9, 18:2 c9 c12 and total mono unsaturated FA, observed in cows offered the higher inclusion of maize silage, and an increase in 18:3 c9 c12 c15 when offered the higher grass silage ration. Varying the composition of the concentrate had no effect on DMI or milk production; however, when the high-starch concentrate was fed, milk protein concentration and milk FAs, 10:0, 14:1, 15:0, 16:1, increased and 18:0 decreased. Interactions were observed for milk fat concentration, being lower in cows offered high-grass silage and high-fibre concentrates compared with the high-starch concentrate, and FA 17:0, which was the highest in milk from cows fed the high-grass silage diet supplemented with the high-starch concentrate. In conclusion, increasing the proportion of maize silage in the diets of dairy cows increased intake and performance, and reduced CH

  4. Anthelmintic-resistant strains of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis isolated from an organic sheep and goat farm in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Enemark, Heidi L.; Thansborg, Stig M.

    2013-01-01

    A suspected case of anthelmintic resistance (AR) was investigated in an organic dairy sheep and goat farm. The herd was established in 2007 by purchase of animals from a number of other farms. Selection for the study was based on history of anthelmintic-treatment failure. Forty-eight lambs and 48......) or 10 mg/kg closantel (CLO). Kids were treated with 10 mg/kg FBZ, 0.3 mg/kg MOX, 14 mg/kg LEV, 0.2 mg/kg IVM or 10 mg/kg CLO. FECs were performed at day of treatment and 14 days post treatment. In a subsequent investigation, faeces from adult goats were cultured to obtain 3rd-stage nematode larvae (L3...... %. This is the first isolation of BZ-resistant H. contortus and T. colubriformis in Denmark and highlights the need for continuous surveillance of AR in conventional and organic farms....

  5. Slow recovery of blood glucose in the insulin tolerance test during the prepartum transition period negatively impacts the nutritional status and reproductive performance postpartum of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsu-Hsun; Kida, Katsuya; Miura, Ryotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Miyamoto, Akio; Kawashima, Chiho; Haneda, Shingo; Miyake, Yoh-Ichi; Matsui, Motozumi

    2012-04-01

    In peripartum dairy cows, insulin resistance (IR) increases to adjust the direction of energy to lactation after calving. To investigate the effect of prepartum IR on postpartum reproductive performance, the insulin tolerance test (ITT) was applied to 15 cows at 3 weeks (Pre21) and 10 days (Pre10) before the predicted calving date. Blood glucose area under the curve (AUC(glu)) within 120 min after administration of 0.05 IU/kg-BW insulin was calculated. The occurrence of first ovulation, days to first artificial insemination (AI) and first AI conception rate were recorded. Nutritional status postpartum was evaluated by blood chemical analysis. Based on AUC(glu) changes from Pre21 to Pre10, cows were classified into either the AUC-up group (AUC(glu) increase, n=5) or the AUC-down group (AUC(glu) decrease, n=10). There was no difference in the decrease in blood glucose at 30 min after insulin injection between groups, although glucose recovery from 30 to 60 min during the ITT was slow at Pre10 in the AUC-up group. The AUC-up group had a higher number of days to first AI and high glucose, total protein, globulin, γ-glutamyltransferase, triacylglycerol levels and a low albumin-globulin ratio at the 14th day postpartum. The present study infers that prepartum slow glucose recovery rather than insulin sensitivity might increase the potential for subclinical health problems postpartum and thus suppress reproductive performance. During the prepartum transition period, glucose dynamics in the ITT can be considered as a new indicator for the postpartum metabolic status and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

  6. Total replacement of corn by mesquite pod meal considering nutritional value, performance, feeding behavior, nitrogen balance, and microbial protein synthesis of Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Moraes, Gláucia Sabrine; de Souza, Evaristo Jorge Oliveira; Véras, Antonia Sherlânea Chaves; de Paula Almeida, Marina; da Cunha, Márcio Vieira; Torres, Thaysa Rodrigues; da Silva, Camila Sousa; Pereira, Gerfesson Felipe Cavalcanti

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study to assess the effects of mesquite pod addition replacing corn (0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g/kg in the dry matter basis) on nutrient intake, animal performance, feeding behavior, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, and microbial protein synthesis. Twenty-five Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers at 219 ± 22 kg initial body weight and 18 months of age were used. The experiment lasted 84 days, divided into three periods of 28 days. A completely randomized design was used, and data were submitted to analysis using PROC GLM for analysis of variance and PROC REG for regression analysis using the software Statistical Analysis Systems version 9.1. Experimental diets were composed of Tifton 85 hay, soybean meal, ground corn, mesquite pod meal, and mineral salt. Samples of food offered were collected during the last 3 days of each period, and the leftovers were collected daily, with samples bulked per week. At the end of each 28-day period, the remaining animals were weighed to determine total weight gain and average daily gain. The assessment of behavioral patterns was performed through instantaneous scans in 5-min intervals for three consecutive 12-h days. A single urine sample from each animal was collected on the last day of each collection period at about 4 h after the first feeding. The replacement of corn by mesquite pod meal did not significantly influence treatments regarding nutrients intake, animal performance, and feeding behavior. Retained and consumed nitrogen ratio did not statistically differ between replacement levels. Likewise, there were no statistical differences regarding microbial protein synthesis and efficiency between replacement levels. Mesquite pod meal can be used in Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers' diet with total corn replacement.

  7. Growth performance and sorting characteristics of corn silage-alfalfa haylage diets with or without forage dilution offered to replacement Holstein dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Esser, N M; Hoffman, P C; Akins, M S

    2015-11-01

    Gravid heifers consuming high-quality forage diets are susceptible to excessive weight gains and overconditioning. One approach for controlling this problem is to dilute diets with low-energy forages, such as straw, that reduce the caloric density and dry matter intake (DMI) of that diet by heifers. These diluting agents are often sortable by dairy heifers, but previous visual evidence has suggested that eastern gamagrass haylage may be a nonsortable alternative. Our objectives were (1) to compare the growth performance of dairy heifers offered a high-quality forage diet (control) with diets containing 1 of 3 diluting agents [eastern gamagrass haylage (EGH), chopped wheat straw (WS), or chopped corn fodder (CF)]; and (2) evaluate sorting behaviors of heifers offered these forage diets. Holstein heifers (n=128) were stratified (32 heifers/block) on the basis of initial body weight (heavy, 560 ± 27.7 kg; medium-heavy, 481 ± 17.7 kg; medium-light, 441 ± 22.0 kg; and light, 399 ± 14.4 kg), and then assigned to 1 of 16 identical research pens (4 pens/block; 8 heifers/pen), where each of the 4 research diets were assigned to 1 pen within each block. Diets were offered in a 118-d feeding trial with heifers crowded to 133% of capacity at the feed bunk. Inclusion of low-energy forages was effective in reducing both diet energy density and DMI. Concentrations of physically effective fiber (pef) particles did not change during the 24-h period following feeding for either the control or EGH diets; however, this response for pef particles masked the competing (and cancelling) responses for individual large and medium particles, which heifers sorted with discrimination and preference, respectively. Sorting against pef particles was detected for WS, and much more severely for the CF diet. Sorting of forage particles by heifers could not be related to heifer performance. Compared with control (1.16 kg/d), average daily gains (ADG) were reduced by dilution in all cases, but

  8. The Effect of increasing levels of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seed on the performance, ruminal fermentation, antioxidant status and milk fatty acid profile of Saanen dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, M; Bashtani, M; Naserian, A A; Farhangfar, H

    2017-10-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seed (DPS) on the performance, ruminal fermentation, antioxidant status and milk fatty acid (FA) profile of dairy goats. Eight multiparous Saanen dairy goats, averaging 97 ± 7 days in milk (DIM) and 2150 ± 130 g of milk production, were used in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design. Experimental diets contained 0% (control), 6% (DPS6), 12% (DPS12) and 18% (DPS18) of DPS. Dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and the composition and digestibility of the dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and crude protein (CP) were not affected by the diets. Adding DPS to the diet increased linearly total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in milk and blood (p content in milk and blood. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the blood, ruminal pH, NH 3 -N, ruminal total volatile fatty acid (VFA), acetate, butyrate, isovalerate and valeric acid concentration had no significant effect among the diets. The propionate acid concentration decreased linearly as DPS was added to the diet, and DPS18 had minimum propionate acid concentration (p < 0.05). The inclusion of DPS18 to diets increased linearly the proportion of C18:0 (compared to control) as well as cis-18:1, trans-18:1 (compared to control and DPS6) and decreased C14:1 (compared to control) in milk fat (p < 0.05). The concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in DPS18 was higher than other diets (p = 0.04). The results of this study implied that replacing DPS with a part of dairy goats' ration had no negative effects on the performance of the animals and could also improve the antioxidant activity and increase the concentration of CLA in their milk. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Determining optimum age of Holstein dairy calves when adding chopped alfalfa hay to meal starter diets based on measures of growth and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S M; Ghorbani, G R; Rezamand, P; Khorvash, M

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the optimum age of Holstein dairy calves for an effective inclusion of alfalfa hay (AH) in starter feed on performance, apparent digestibility and feeding behavior. A total of 40 Holstein dairy calves (20 female and 20 male) were used in a completely randomized design in which calves were randomly assigned to one of four different dietary treatments including control (CON) calves fed starter feed without any forage and three treatments consisting of the same starter feed plus 15% chopped AH fed when calves were at the 2nd (AH2), 4th (AH4) or 6th (AH6) week of age. Calves were individually housed and bedded with sand that was replaced every other day. Feed and water were available ad libitum throughout the experiment. Calves were fed milk at 10% of birth BW twice daily until d 57. The study concluded when calves were 73 days old. Starter intake was recorded daily and BW was measured weekly. Data were analyzed as a complete randomized design by MIXED procedures of SAS. Results demonstrate that calves receiving AH treatments numerically consumed more starter feed (0.62 v. 0.78, 0.71 and 0.65 kg/day for CON, AH2, AH4 and AH6, respectively) and had greater average daily gain (ADG) compared with CON (0.48 v. 0.57, 0.49 and 0.49 kg/day for CON, AH2, AH4 and AH6), although the significant difference was observed only between AH2 and CON. Among AH treatments, calves in AH2 had better performance than AH6 in several cases including starter intake, ADG. No detectable differences were observed, however, in apparent dry matter, organic matter or CP digestibility among treatments. Ruminal pH and NH3 concentrations, measured on weeks 4, 6, 8 and 10, were lower for calves fed CON compared with other treatments, with ammonia concentrations decreasing over time. Calves in the AH treatments spent more time eating and ruminating compared with CON. Calves fed CON, however, spent more time on laying down compared with other treatments

  10. Fatal pneumonia of bighorn sheep following association with domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J; Jessup, D A

    1982-04-01

    During 1979-1980 acute fibrinopurulent bronchopneumonia resulted in high mortality or total loss of herds of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in California and Washington. Contact with domestic sheep occurred shortly before the onset of disease in each case. Circumstantial evidence indicated that the apparently healthy domestic sheep transmitted pathogenic bacteria to the bighorns, resulting in mortality. Pasteurella multocida and Corynebacterium pyogenes were isolated from pulmonary tissue of dead bighorns. The presence of domestic sheep may have been an important stress which initiated or compounded the disease.

  11. Cytogenetical anchoring of sheep linkage map and syntenic groups using a sheep BAC library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cribiu Edmond-Paul

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to simultaneously integrate linkage and syntenic groups to the ovine chromosomal map, a sheep bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library was screened with previously assigned microsatellites using a sheep-hamster hybrid panel and genetic linkage. Thirty-three BACs were obtained, fluorescently labelled and hybridised on sheep-goat hybrid metaphases (2n = 57. This study allowed us, (i, to anchor all linkage groups on sheep chromosomes, (ii, to give information on the probable position of the centromere on the linkage map for the centromeric chromosomes, (iii, to contradict the previous orientation of the ovine × linkage group by the mapping of BMS1008 on OARXq38. Concerning our somatic cell hybrid panel, this study resulted in the assignment of all the previously unassigned groups to ovine chromosomes and a complete characterisation of the hybrid panel. In addition, since hybridisations were performed on a sheep-goat hybrid, new marker/anchoring points were added to the caprine cytogenetic map.

  12. Effect of pre-grazing herbage mass on dairy cow performance, grass dry matter production and output from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wims, C M; Delaby, L; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M

    2014-01-01

    A grazing study was undertaken to examine the effect of maintaining three levels of pre-grazing herbage mass (HM) on dairy cow performance, grass dry matter (DM) production and output from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pastures. Cows were randomly assigned to one of three pre-grazing HM treatments: 1150 - Low HM (L), 1400 - Medium HM (M) or 2000 kg DM/ha - High HM (H). Herbage accumulation under grazing was lowest (Ppastures required more grass silage supplementation during the grazing season (+73 kg DM/cow) to overcome pasture deficits due to lower pasture growth rates (Ppasture intake, although cows grazing the L pastures had to graze a greater daily area (Ppasture reduces pasture DM production and at a system level may increase the requirement for imported feed.

  13. Characterization of the analytic performance of an electrochemical point-of-care meter for measuring β-hydroxybutyrate concentration in blood and plasma from periparturient dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, Ameer A; Hiew, Mark W H; Townsend, Jonathan R; Constable, Peter D

    2017-06-01

    The Precision Xtra electrochemical meter is widely used to measure blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration (BHBb) in dairy cattle. The meter uses an algorithm optimized for human blood that assumes the HCT in cattle is the same as in people, and that intra-erythrocyte β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBe) and plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBp) concentration are equivalent. The first objective was to characterize the analytic performance of the meter for measuring BHBb and BHBp in dairy cattle. The second objective was to characterize the influence of HCT and sample temperature on BHBp concentration measured by the meter. Blood and plasma samples were obtained from 106 periparturient Holstein cattle and 15 lactating Holstein cows with experimentally induced electrolyte and acid-base imbalances. Meter performance was evaluated using Deming regression and Bland-Altman plots. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the effect of HCT and sample temperature on BHBb and BHBp concentration, respectively. The meter was linear up to BHB = 3.0 mmol/L as measured by the reference method, equivalent to meter values for BHBb > 4.5 mmol/L and BHBp > 5.2 mmol/L. An increase in HCT resulted in higher BHBb concentration. This result was partially explained by BHBe being much lower than BHBp. Changes in sample temperature caused a linear change in measured BHBp whenever BHBp > 3.0 mmol/L. Meter accuracy was markedly dependent on the BHBe-to-BHBp ratio and consequently the HCT. Therefore, the algorithm used by the meter should be revised when applied to bovine blood for improved accuracy. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  14. Effect of different pastures on CLA content in milk and sheep cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Piredda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that milk composition included conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is affected by animal feeding system (Cabiddu et al., 2001. In Sardinia dairy sheep feeding is mainly based on pastures. Most of them are characterised by self-regenerating species, like annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin and burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L.. Non conventional species belonging to the Compositae family such as (Chrysanthemum coronarium L. seem interesting for sheep feeding when other herbages decrease in quality (late spring- early summer...

  15. Investigating the Effects of Information Technology on the Capabilities and Performance of the Supply Chain of Dairy Companies in Fars Province: A Multiple Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays all organizations are somehow involved with information technology revolutions and the applicable aspects of information technology are evident in any field of supply chain, from the relationship with suppliers and producers to the relationship with the customers. In other words, the application of information technology is influential in the improvement of the supply chain. In this study, the effect of information technology tools on the capabilities and performance of the supply chain in the dairy companies of Fars province is investigated. In this research, in information technology sets of tools ,supply chain communication system (SCCS, electronic data interchange (EDI, electronic mail (Email, bar-coding, and radio frequency identification (RFID, in supply chain capabilities, four dimensions including information exchange, coordination, interfirm activity integration, and supply chain responsiveness, and in performance of supply chain, two variables of performance including marketing performance and financial performance will be examined. The results indicate that using information technology tools is effective on the capabilities and hence performance of the supply chain.

  16. SHEEP TEMPORAL BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Human temporal bones are difficult to procure now a days due to various ethical issues. Sheep temporal bone is a good alternative due to morphological similarities, easy to procure and less cost. Many middle ear exercises can be done easily and handling of instruments is done in the procedures like myringoplasty, tympanoplasty, stapedotomy, facial nerve dissection and some middle ear implants. This is useful for resident training programme.

  17. Gaucher disease in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgos, Litsa; Lancaster, Malcolm J; Nimmo, Judith S; Hopwood, John J

    2011-02-01

    Gaucher disease, an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the β-glucocerebrosidase gene, was recently discovered in sheep on a "Southdown" sheep stud in Victoria, Australia. Clinical signs include neuropathy, thickened leathery skin, and ichthyosis, with lambs unable to stand from birth. Affected lambs were found to be deficient in glucocerebrosidase activity, and mutational analysis found them to be homozygous for the missense mutations c.1142G>A (p.C381Y) and c.1400C>T (p.P467L). In addition, four silent mutations were detected (c.777C>A [p.Y259Y], c1203A>G [p.Q401Q], c.1335T>C [p.I445I], c.1464C>G [p.L488L]). The human equivalent [C342Y] to the C381Y mutation leads to an acute neuronopathic phenotype in patients. Identification of an acute neuronopathic form of Gaucher disease in sheep provides a large animal model that will enable studies of pathology and evaluation of therapies to treat this common lysosomal storage disorder.

  18. Effect of corn silage hybrids differing in starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility on lactation performance and total-tract nutrient digestibility by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraretto, L F; Fonseca, A C; Sniffen, C J; Formigoni, A; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    Selection for hybrids with greater starch and NDF digestibility may be beneficial for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a TMR containing a floury-leafy corn silage hybrid (LFY) compared with a brown midrib corn silage hybrid (BMR) for intake, lactation performance, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. Ninety-six multiparous Holstein cows, 105±31d in milk at trial initiation, were stratified by DIM and randomly assigned to 12 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments, BMR or LFY, in a completely randomized design; a 2-wk covariate period with cows fed a common diet followed by a 14-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diet. Starch digestibilities, in situ, in vitro, and in vivo, were greater for LFY compared with BMR; the opposite was observed for NDF digestibility. Cows fed BMR consumed 1.7kg/d more dry matter than LFY. Although, actual-, energy-, and solids-corrected milk yields were greater for BMR than LFY, feed conversions (kg of milk or component-corrected milk per kg of DMI) did not differ. Fat-corrected milk and milk fat yield were similar, as milk fat content was greater for cows fed LFY (4.05%) than BMR (3.83%). Cows fed BMR had lower milk urea nitrogen concentration, but greater milk protein and lactose yields compared with LFY. Body weight change and condition score were unaffected by treatment. Total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage; however, dry matter intake and milk and protein yields were greater for cows fed the BMR corn silage. Although total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage, feed efficiency was not affected by hybrid type due to greater dry matter intake and milk and protein yields by cows fed the BMR corn silage. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of biotin and pantothenic acid on performance and concentrations of avidin-binding substances in blood and milk of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gonzalo; Brown, Alston N; Teets, Christy L

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesized that pantothenic acid reduces the absorption of biotin in lactating dairy cows. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the plausible interaction between biotin and pantothenic acid on production performance and concentration of avidin-binding substances (ABS), an indicator of biotin concentration, in blood and milk of lactating dairy cows. Eight primiparous and 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diet sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 18-d periods. Cows were housed in a freestall barn and fed once daily (0730 h) by means of a Calan gate system (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH). Treatments consisted of a control diet that contained no B-vitamins, a biotin diet that contained 0.87 mg of biotin per kilogram of dry matter (DM), a pantothenic acid diet that contained 21 mg of pantothenic acid per kilogram of DM, and a biotin plus pantothenic acid diet that contained 0.87 mg of biotin and 21 mg of calcium pantothenic acid per kilogram of DM. Four different concentrates were prepared in a commercial feed mill. These concentrates were mixed with corn silage and grass hay and delivered ad libitum as a total mixed ration. Biotin supplementation did not affect DM intake, milk yield, or milk fat, protein, lactose, and milk-urea-nitrogen concentrations. Fat, protein, and lactose yields were not affected by treatments. The fat-to-protein ratio was Biotin supplementation did not increase the concentration of ABS in plasma. The supplementation of pantothenic acid did not affect the concentration of ABS in plasma when either supplemented alone or in combination with biotin. Biotin supplementation increased the concentration of ABS in milk relative to control. Contrary to our hypothesis, the supplementation of pantothenic acid did not decrease the concentration of ABS in milk relative to the control. When cows were supplemented with both biotin and pantothenic acid, the concentration of ABS in milk was similar

  20. Rumen Fermentation and Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows Affected by Physical Forms and Urea Treatment of Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gunun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different physical forms and urea treatment of rice straw on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and milk production. Four, multiparous Holstein crossbred dairy cows in mid-lactation with initial body weight (BW of 409±20 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were as follows: untreated, long form rice straw (LRS, urea-treated (5%, long form rice straw (5% ULRS, urea-treated (2.5%, long form rice straw (2.5% ULRS and urea-treated (2.5%, chopped (4 cm rice straw (2.5% UCRS. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2 and rice straw was fed ad libitum. The findings revealed significant improvements in total DM intake and digestibility by using long and short forms of urea-treated rice straw (p0.05, whereas ruminal NH3-N, BUN and MUN were found to be increased (p<0.01 by urea-treated rice straw as compared with untreated rice straw. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs concentrations especially those of acetic acid were decreased (p<0.05 and those of propionic acid were increased (p<0.05, thus acetic acid:propionic acid was subsequently lowered (p<0.05 in cows fed with long or short forms of urea-treated rice straw. The 2.5% ULRS and 2.5% UCRS had greater microbial protein synthesis and was greatest when cows were fed with 5% ULRS. The urea-treated rice straw fed groups had increased milk yield (p<0.05, while lower feed cost and greater economic return was in the 2.5% ULRS and 2.5% UCRS (p<0.01. From these results, it could be concluded that 2.5% ULRS could replace 5% ULRS used as a roughage source to maintain feed intake, rumen fermentation, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, milk production and economical return in mid-lactating dairy cows.

  1. Prepartum feeding level and body condition score affect immunological performance in grazing dairy cows during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Joshua; McCarthy, Allison; Kay, Jane; Meier, Susanne; Walker, Caroline; Crookenden, Mallory A; Mitchell, Murray D; Loor, Juan J; Roche, John R; Heiser, Axel

    2016-03-01

    Precalving feeding level affects dry matter intake, postcalving energy balance, the risk of hepatic lipidosis and metabolic disease, and gene expression in liver and adipose tissue. These coincide with a higher risk of disease postpartum and, very likely, a failure to reach optimum production as well as reproductive targets. Current interpretation of the available evidence suggest that metabolic stressors affect the immune system of transition dairy cows and lead to reduced immunocompetence. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of precalving body condition score (BCS) and level of feeding on immunocompetence during the peripartum period. Twenty-three weeks before calving, 78 cows were allocated randomly to 1 of 6 treatment groups (n=13) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement: 2 precalving BCS categories (4.0 and 5.0, based on a 10-point scale) and 3 levels of energy intake during the 3 wk preceding calving (75, 100, and 125% of estimated requirements). Blood was sampled precalving and at 1, 2 and 4 wk after calving. Cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR. The numbers of T helper lymphocytes (CD4+), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8+), natural killer cells (CD335+), and γδ T lymphocytes (WC1+) as well as their activation status [IL-2 receptor (CD25)+ cells] were highly variable between animals, but there was no evident effect of BCS, feeding level, or time. All groups presented with an increase in expression of cytokines in unstimulated blood cells in the week after calving, although this was significant only for IFNG in the BCS 4.0 group. Analysis of in vitro-stimulated cells allowed 2 general observations: (1) cows with high energy intake precalving (125%) had increased cytokine expression precalving, and (2) all cows had increased cytokine expression in the week after calving. The present study provides evidence that prepartum feed management can affect immunocompetence during the transition period. Considering

  2. Formation of volatile compounds in kefir made of goat and sheep milk with high polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cais-Sokolińska, D; Wójtowski, J; Pikul, J; Danków, R; Majcher, M; Teichert, J; Bagnicka, E

    2015-10-01

    This article explored the formation of volatile compounds during the production of kefir from goat and sheep milks with high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as a result of feeding animals forage supplemented with maize dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The increased PUFA content of the goat and sheep milks resulted in significant changes to the fermentation process. In particular, apart from an increase in the time taken to ferment sheep milk, fermentation yielded less 2,3-butanedione. The highest quantities of this compound were assayed in kefir produced from goat milk with an increased content of PUFA. An increase of PUFA significantly elevated ethanal synthesis during lactose-alcohol fermentation of sheep milk. Neither the origin of milk (sheep or goat) nor the level of PUFA had any statistical effect on the amount of ethanal assayed during the fermentation of milk and within the finished product. The proportion of l(+)-lactic acid was higher in kefirs produced using goat milk compared with sheep milk and did not depend on the content of PUFA in milk fat. The content of PUFA had a significant effect on the aroma profile of the resulting kefirs. An increase in PUFA content resulted in the loss of whey aroma in goat milk kefirs and the animal odor in sheep milk kefirs, and a creamy aroma became more prevalent in kefirs made from sheep milk. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Feeding Levels of Starter on Weaning Age, Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Health Parameters in Holstein Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ghassemi Nejad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of feeding four different levels of starter in male Holstein dairy calves, a completely randomized study was conducted, using 28 calves with initial body weight of 40.5±2.4 kg. The animals were fed iso-nitrogenous starter and were weaned when they consumed 350, 500, 650 and 800 g/d of starter for 3 d consecutively. Starter and water were available ad-libitum throughout the experiment. Body weight at pre-weaning (less than 5 wk and post-weaning (8 wk was lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter than in the other treatments (p0.05. Dry matter, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter compared with other treatments (p0.05.Treatments had no significant effect on time of starting rumination, respiratory score, and days of drug administration for pneumonia. There were no meaningful differences in feces, fecal odor scores, body temperature, and days of drug administration for diarrhea among all treatments (p>0.05. Total dry matter intake at the end of experiment showed no significant difference among calves fed 600 and 800 g/d of starter, but calves fed 350 and 500 g/d of starter showed more dry matter (DM intake than calves in the 600 and 800 g/d groups (p<0.05.

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 gene are associated with performance in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paul Mullen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 has been shown to be associated with fertility, growth and development in cattle. The aim of this study was to 1 identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the bovine IGF-1 gene and alongside previously identified SNPs 2 determine their association with traits of economic importance in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Nine novel SNPs were identified across a panel of 22 beef and dairy cattle by sequence analysis of the 5’ promoter, intronic and 3’ regulatory regions, encompassing ~ 5 kb of the IGF-1 gene. Genotyping and associations with daughter performance for milk production, fertility, survival and measures of body size were undertaken on 848 Holstein-Friesian AI sires. Using multiple regression analysis nominal associations (P<0.05 were identified between 6 SNPs (four novel and two previously identified and milk composition, survival, body condition score and body size. The C allele of AF017143 a previously published SNP (C-512T in the promoter region of IGF-1 predicted to introduce binding sites for transcription factors HSF1 and ZNF217 was associated (P<0.05 with increased cow carcass weight (i.e. an indicator of mature cow size. Novel SNPs were identified in the 3’ region of IGF-1 were associated (P<0.05 with functional survival and chest width. The remaining 4 SNPs, all located within introns of IGF-1 were associated (P<0.05 with milk protein yield, milk fat yield, milk fat concentration, somatic cell score, carcass conformation and carcass fat. Results of this study further demonstrate the multifaceted influences of IGF-1 on milk production and growth related traits in cattle.

  5. Isolation and Evaluation Virulence Factors of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis in Milk and Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Shaigan nia

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: To our best knowledge the present study is the first prevalence report of Salmonella spp., Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in raw sheep and goat samples in Iran. Consumption of pasteurized milk and dairy products can reduce the risk of salmonellosis.

  6. Variation in the metabolism of radiocaesium between individual sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Barnett, C.L.; Mayes, R.W.; MacEachern, P.J.; Crout, N.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Considerable variability has been recorded in the radiocaesium activity concentration of muscle between individual sheep in the same flocks in upland areas that received fallout from the Chernobyl accident. In a previous paper we demonstrated that there is a propensity for certain sheep within a flock to be always amongst the most contaminated and others to be consistently the least contaminated. Here we report a study to determine the extent to which variation in the metabolism of radiocaesium by individual sheep may contribute to the observed variability within sheep flocks. The transfer coefficient and biological half-life of orally administered ionic radiocaesium in muscle were determined under controlled conditions in 22 ewes from an upland farm in an area of the UK which received comparatively high levels of Chernobyl fallout. There was considerable variation between individuals in both the transfer coefficient (0.19-0.56 day.kg -1 ; mean 0.34 day.kg -1 ) and biological half-life in muscle (5.2- 18.7 days; mean 9.8 days). Changes in liveweight during the study and feed intake together accounted for 72% of the variation in the derived transfer coefficients; liveweight change also accounted for 56% of the observed variation in biological half-life. In a subsequent study, the true absorption coefficient of radiocaesium was determined in 12 of the ewes. There was a positive correlation between transfer and true absorption coefficients (R=0.57). We conclude that differences in the metabolism of radiocaesium will contribute to the observed variability in radiocaesium activity concentrations within sheep flocks in areas which were contaminated by Chernobyl fallout. We also suggest that for growing animals, the influence of liveweight change and feed intake on radiocaesium transfer may be greater than observed here. Similarly, in dairy cattle, for which feed intake changes considerably during the course of a lactation, large temporal variation in radiocaesium

  7. Fatal Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia in bighorn sheep after direct contact with clinically normal domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J

    1989-03-01

    Six Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep were raised in captivity from birth (n = 5) or taken from the wild as a lamb (n = 1). After the bighorn sheep were in captivity for over a year, 6 clinically normal domestic sheep were placed on the 2 ha of pasture on which the bighorn sheep were kept. Nasal swab specimens were obtained from all sheep at the time the domestic sheep were introduced. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from swab specimens obtained from 4 of 6 domestic sheep, but not from specimens obtained from the bighorn sheep. All 6 bighorn sheep died of acute hemorrhagic pneumonia after exposure to domestic sheep. Death in the bighorn sheep occurred on days 4, 27, 27, 29, 36, or 71 after initial exposure to domestic sheep. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from respiratory tract tissue specimens of all bighorn sheep at the time of death. None of the domestic sheep were clinically ill during the study. At the end of the study, 3 of 6 domestic sheep were euthanatized, and at necropsy, P haemolytica was isolated from 2 of them. The most common serotypes in bighorn and domestic sheep were P haemolytica T-3 and A-2. Other serotypes isolated included P haemolytica A-1, A-9, and A-11 in bighorn sheep and A-1 in domestic sheep. On the basis of results of this study and of other reports, domestic sheep and bighorn sheep should not be managed in proximity to each other because of the potential fatal consequences in bighorn sheep.

  8. Laparoscopic artificial insemination in dairy sheep with chilled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    C. Unilateral intrauterine ... conception rates to intrauterine insemination with chilled semen was relatively higher than Chios ewes. Key words: .... fertility trials and the effects of dilution methods on freezing ram semen in the ...

  9. Genetic trend for growth and wool performance in a closed flock of Bharat Merino sheep at sub temperate region of Kodai hills, Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, P K; Thirumaran, S M K; Pourouchottamane, R; Rajapandi, S; Venkataramanan, R; Nagarajan, G; Murali, G; Rajendiran, A S

    2016-03-01

    The study was conducted at Southern Regional Research Center, ICAR-Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute (CSWRI), Mannavanur, Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu to estimate genetic trends for birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (3WT), 6 months weight (6WT), and greasy fleece weight (GFY) in a Bharat Merino (BM) flock, where selection was practiced for 6WT and GFY. The data for this study represents a total of 1652 BM lambs; progeny of 144 sires spread over 15 years starting from 2000 to 2014, obtained from the BM flock of ICAR-SRRC (CSWRI), Mannavanur, Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu, India. The genetic trends were calculated by regression of average predicted breeding values using software WOMBAT for the traits BWT, 3WT, 6WT and GFY versus the animal's birth year. The least square means were 3.28±0.02 kg, 19.08±0.23 kg, 25.00±0.35 kg and 2.13±0.07 kg for BWT, 3WT, 6WT and GFY, respectively. Genetic trends were positive and highly significant (p<0.01) for BWT, while the values for 3WT, 6WT and GFY though positive, were not significant. The estimates of genetic trends in BWT, 3WT, 6WT and GFY were 5 g, 0.8 g, 7 g and 0.3 g/year gain and the fit of the regression shows 55%, 22%, 42% and 12% coefficient of determination with the regressed value, respectively. In this study, estimated mean predicted breeding value (kg) in BWT and 3WT, 6WT and GFY were 0.067, 0.008, 0.036 and -0.003, respectively. Estimates of genetic trends indicated that there was a positive genetic improvement in all studied traits and selection would be effective for the improvement of body weight traits and GFY of BM sheep.

  10. Engineering to support wellbeing of dairy animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caja, Gerardo; Castro-Costa, Andreia; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2016-01-01

    Current trends in the global milk market and the recent abolition of milk quotas have accelerated the trend of the European dairy industry towards larger farm sizes and higher-yielding animals. Dairy cows remain in focus, but there is a growing interest in other dairy species, whose milk is often...... directed to traditional and protected designation of origin and gourmet dairy products. The challenge for dairy farms in general is to achieve the best possible standards of animal health and welfare, together with high lactational performance and minimal environmental impact. For larger farms, this may...... need to be done with a much lower ratio of husbandry staff to animals. Recent engineering advances and the decreasing cost of electronic technologies has allowed the development of 'sensing solutions' that automatically collect data, such as physiological parameters, production measures and behavioural...

  11. Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Barbuti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A screening survey of the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 was carried out on 265 samples of cheese made from cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, sheep-goat milk collected in the Apulia region (Southern Italy. Selected samples included unripened, medium and long-term ripened cheeses. AFM1 was found in 16.6% of the analyzed samples. The highest positive incidence was for medium and long-term ripened cheeses, especially those made from sheep-goat milk, while buffalo cheeses tested consistently negative. Our results show that the level of contamination by AFM1 in dairy products from Apulia Region are lower than in other Italian and European regions. Moreover, it is important to underline that a common European norm concerning the AFM1 threshold limits for dairy products is still lacking.

  12. Effects of polymer-coated slow-release urea on performance, ruminal fermentation, and blood metabolites in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Delfino Calomeni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this experiment was to quantify the effects of feeding polymer-coated slow-release urea on nutrient intake and total tract digestion, milk yield and composition, nutrient balances, ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, and blood parameters in dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows (580±20 kg of live weight (mean ± standard deviation; 90 to 180 days in milk (DIM; and 28 kg/d of average milk yield were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design. The animals were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to receive one of the following experimental diets: 1 control (without urea addition; urea (addition of 1% on the diet DM basis; polymer-coated slow release urea 1 (addition of 1% on the diet DM basis; and polymer-coated slow release urea 2 (addition of 1% on the diet DM basis. All diets contained corn silage as forage source and a 50:50 forage:concentrate ratio. Milk and protein yield, production of volatile fatty acids, and propionate decreased when cows were fed diets containing urea. Addition of urea decreased nitrogen efficiency and nitrogen excreted in the feces. However, the diets did not change the cows' microbial protein synthesis, ruminal pH, or ammonia concentration. The inclusion of urea in cow diets decreases milk and protein yield due to lower production of volatile fatty acids. No advantages are observed with supplementation of polymer-coated slow-release urea when compared with feed-grade urea.

  13. Breeding Practices in Sheep Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Shejal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44

  14. Bloat in sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, H W; Backus, R C

    1988-01-01

    1. Most of the field studies on bloat are conducted with cattle and most of the laboratory experiments seeking to explain the various parameters associated with bloat are done with sheep. 2. Based on grazing behaviour, it would be expected that sheep might bloat more severely than cattle because they selectively choose to eat leaves over stems and chew what they ingest more frequently than cattle. Furthermore, sheep appear to select legumes over grasses because the legumes can be eaten more rapidly. However, because they are selective, sheep eat more slowly than cattle. Despite a higher bloat expectation, bloating in sheep is reported to be less of a problem than in cattle. 3. Although frothing of rumen ingesta was described earlier in cattle as the cause of acute legume bloat, experiments with frothy bloat in sheep preceded those in cattle. 4. Anti-frothing agents were used in sheep before cattle to treat acute legume bloat. 5. Experiments devoted to the study of eructation in ruminants were carried out on sheep, then cattle. 6. Convincing evidence that rumen motility does not cease during acute legume bloat was gathered using sheep. 7. Although the transected tracheal technique for the determination of the volume of eructated gas was developed with cattle, the pathway of eructated gas was confirmed with sheep. 8. All the current evidence accumulated from experiments with sheep supports the hypothesis that death due to legume bloat is caused by acute neural, respiratory, and cardiovascular insult resulting from the effect of the distended rumen on thoracic viscera, diaphragm, intercostal muscles, and the abdominal vena cava. 9. Experiments with sheep and cattle being fed scabrous and nonscabrous diets similar in chemical composition show that sheep are more resistant than cattle to the increase in intrarumen pressure, decline in rumen contraction amplitude, and decrease in rumen contraction frequency caused by nonscabrous diets. 10. The sequence of events in the

  15. Cystic echinococcosis in cattle dairy farms: spatial distribution and epidemiological dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Antonio; Bosco, Antonio; Pipia, Anna Paola; Tamponi, Claudia; Musella, Vincenzo; Costanzo, Nicola; Testoni, Francesco; Montisci, Antonio; Mocci, Giovanni; Longhi, Alessandro; Tilocca, Laura; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Varcasia, Antonio

    2017-05-29

    A study monitoring cystic echinococcosis (CE) in adult dairy cattle from intensive livestock farms located in the municipality of Arborea (Sardinia, Italy) was carried out between 2012 and 2015. A retrospective study of veterinary reporting forms of post-mortem inspections in 10 different Italian slaughterhouses was also performed. In addition, data on viability and molecular characterisation of hydatid cysts removed from parasitised organs in cattle was carried out. A geographical information system (GIS) with data layers of the study area and the geo-referenced points of 160 cattle farms was constructed. CE was found in 21.9% (35/160) of the surveyed farms. The retrospective study revealed that 0.05% (13/23,656) of adult slaughtered animals (over one year of age) from Arborea had tested positive to CE. The results stratified per year showed the following CE prevalences: 0.09% (5/5673) in 2012; 0.02% (1/5682) in 2013; 0.08% (5/6261) in 2014; and 0.03% (2/6040) in 2015 (χ2 with 3 degrees of freedom=3.81; P=0.282). The E. granulosus sensu stricto (formerly called G1 or sheep strain) was detected in all cysts subjected to molecular analysis. The GIS analysis showed that CE is fairly resilient in the Arborea territory where most of cattle farms are located, while a small cluster of cases was found located in the southeastern part of Arborea, close to districts where sheep farms are situated. The present survey reports the presence of CE in Sardinian dairy cattle intensive farms and suggests that the parasitic pressure of CE in the island continues to be very strong.

  16. Relationship between the degree of insulin resistance during late gestation and postpartum performance in dairy cows and factors that affect growth and metabolic status of their calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Chiho; Munakata, Megumi; Shimizu, Takashi; Miyamoto, Akio; Kida, Katsuya; Matsui, Motozumi

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of insulin resistance (IR) during the close-up dry period on the metabolic status and performance of dairy cows as well as to determine the effects on body weight (BW) and metabolic status of their calves. An insulin tolerance test (ITT) was conducted by administering 0.05 IU/kg BW of insulin to 34 multiparous Holstein cows at 3 weeks prepartum. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 45 and 60 min after insulin injection, and cows were divided into two groups based on the time required for glucose to reach the minimum levels [non-IR (NIR), 45 min (n=28); and IR, 60 min (n=6)]. Blood or milk sampling and body condition score (BCS) estimation were performed twice weekly during the experimental period. Blood samples from calves were collected immediately after birth. Cows with IR showed lower BCS (Pinsulin-like growth factor-I concentration (Pinsulin concentration (Pdairy cows is related to postpartum metabolic status and performance along with growth and metabolic status of their calves.

  17. Supporting the Development and Adoption of Automatic Lameness Detection Systems in Dairy Cattle: Effect of System Cost and Performance on Potential Market Shares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Gucht, Tim; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; Van Nuffel, Annelies; Lauwers, Ludwig; Vangeyte, Jürgen; Saeys, Wouter

    2017-10-08

    Most automatic lameness detection system prototypes have not yet been commercialized, and are hence not yet adopted in practice. Therefore, the objective of this study was to simulate the effect of detection performance (percentage missed lame cows and percentage false alarms) and system cost on the potential market share of three automatic lameness detection systems relative to visual detection: a system attached to the cow, a walkover system, and a camera system. Simulations were done using a utility model derived from survey responses obtained from dairy farmers in Flanders, Belgium. Overall, systems attached to the cow had the largest market potential, but were still not competitive with visual detection. Increasing the detection performance or lowering the system cost led to higher market shares for automatic systems at the expense of visual detection. The willingness to pay for extra performance was €2.57 per % less missed lame cows, €1.65 per % less false alerts, and €12.7 for lame leg indication, respectively. The presented results could be exploited by system designers to determine the effect of adjustments to the technology on a system's potential adoption rate.

  18. Effects of rumen-degradable protein:rumen-undegradable protein ratio and corn processing on production performance, nitrogen efficiency, and feeding behavior of Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savari, M; Khorvash, M; Amanlou, H; Ghorbani, G R; Ghasemi, E; Mirzaei, M

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the ratio of rumen-degradable protein (RDP) to rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) and corn processing method on production performance, nitrogen (N) efficiency, and feeding behavior of high-producing Holstein dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (second parity; milk yield = 48 ± 3 kg/d) were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factor 1 was corn processing method [ground corn (GC) or steam flaked corn (SFC) with a flake density of about 390 g/L], and factor 2 was RDP:RUP ratio [low ratio (LR) = 60:40; high ratio (HR) = 65:35] based on crude protein (%). The crude protein concentrations were kept constant across the treatments (16.7% of DM). No significant interactions of main treatment effects occurred for lactation performance data. Cows fed 2 different RDP:RUP ratios exhibited similar dry matter intake (DMI), but those fed SFC showed decreased feed intake compared with those receiving GC (25.1 ± 0.48 vs. 26.2 ± 0.47 kg/d, respectively). Cows fed HR diets produced more milk than did those fed LR diets (44.4 ± 1.05 vs. 43.2 ± 1.05 kg/d, respectively). Milk fat content decreased but milk protein content increased in cows fed SFC compared with those fed GC. Feed efficiency (i.e., milk yield/DMI) was enhanced with increasing ratio of RDP:RUP (1.68 ± 0.04 vs. 1.74 ± 0.04 for LR and HR, respectively). Apparent N efficiency was higher in cows fed HR than in those fed LR (30.4 ± 0.61 vs. 29.2 ± 0.62, respectively). Compared with cows fed the GC-based diet, those receiving SFC exhibited lower values of N intake, N-NH 3 concentration, and fecal N excretion. Cows receiving SFC-based diets spent more time ruminating (min/kg of DMI) than did those fed GC. Although these results showed no interaction effects of RDP:RUP ratio and corn processing method on performance, higher RDP:RUP ratios and ground corn can be effective feeding strategies for

  19. Effect of one or three timed artificial inseminations before natural service on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows not observed for detection of estrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, F S; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S; Ayres, H; Greco, L F; Galvão, K N; Risco, C A; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2012-06-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of one or three timed artificial insemination (AI) before natural service (NS) in lactating dairy cows not observed for detection of estrus on hazard of pregnancy, days nonpregnant, and 21-days cycle pregnancy rate. A total of 1050 lactating Holstein cows were subjected to a double Ovsynch program for their first postpartum AI. On the day of first AI (78 ± 3 days in milk), cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to receive either one timed AI (1TAI, n = 533) or three timed AI (3TAI, n = 517) before being exposed to NS. Cows assigned to 1TAI were exposed to bulls 7 days after the first AI. Nonpregnant cows in 3TAI were resynchronized with the Ovsynch protocol supplemented with progesterone twice, with intervals between AI of 42 days, before being exposed to NS 7 days after the third AI. Cows were evaluated for pregnancy 32 days after each timed AI, or every 28 days after being exposed to NS. Pregnant cows were re-examined for pregnancy 28 days later (i.e., 60-day gestation). Exposure to heat stress was categorized based on the first AI being performed during the hot or cool season, according to the temperature-humidity index. Body condition was scored at first AI. All cows were allowed a period of 231 days of breeding, after which nonpregnant cows were censored. Pregnancy to the first AI did not differ between 1TAI and 3TAI on Day 60 after insemination (30.8 vs. 33.5%). Cows receiving 3TAI had a 15% greater hazard of pregnancy and a 17% greater 21-days cycle pregnancy rate than 1TAI and these benefits originated from the first 84 days of breeding. These changes in rate of pregnancy reduced the median and mean days nonpregnant by 9 and 10 d, respectively. Despite the long inter-AI interval in cows subjected to 3TAI, reproductive performance was improved compared with a single timed AI and subsequent exposure to NS. In dairy herds that use a combination of AI and NS, allowing cows additional opportunities to AI

  20. Study on reproductive performance of Holstein x Lai Sind crossbred dairy heifers and cows at smallholdings in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Kien, Cuong; Van Khanh, Nguyen; Hanzen, Christian

    2017-03-01

    The reproductive performance of Holstein x Lai Sind crossbred dairy heifers and cows was evaluated at smallholdings in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). The data of 232 heifers and 244 cows (261 lactations) from 35 small dairy farms was collected over a 2-year period, from 2013 to 2014. The overall mean for age at first service (AFS), days between first and last service (DFLS), and age at conception (AC) of heifers was 479 (±80), 38 (±80), and 517 (±114) days, respectively. Average number of services per conception (NSC), conception rate (CR), and conception rate at first service (CRFS) was 1.8 (±1.4), 55, and 58%, respectively. The overall mean for the waiting period (WP), DFLS, and days open (DO) of cows was 109 (±52), 133 (±114), and 242 (±129) days, respectively. The mean for NSC, CR, and CRFS was 4.3 (±2.7), 23, and 14%, respectively. A very significant decrease in AFS and AC according to the year of birth, and a significant increase in AFS according to body weight at first insemination (>320 kg) were observed. The CRFS of heifers inseminated in 2013 was significantly higher than in 2014. Monthly mean CR in heifers and cows was negatively correlated with THI. The WP, DFLS, DO, and NSC of cows significantly decreased according to the year of calving. Cows that calved in rainy season had a significantly longer WP than in dry season. The occurrence of postpartum (PP) diseases was accompanied by an increase in WP, DO, and NSC. A decrease in body condition score (BCS) between calving and 60th day (C60) and also between 60th and 120th day of lactation resulted in a significant increase in WP and DO. A decrease in BCS between C60 was also accompanied by a considerable reduction in CRFS of cows. Season and BCS at insemination had a significant effect on NSC and CR of cows. Reproductive performance was satisfactory for heifers, but poor for cows. Losses of BCS during the first months of lactation and at insemination were the major risk factors for this poor performance

  1. Characteristics of Smallholder Sheep Production at Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The household owners of sheep seldom fed forage to their sheep (17.86%), while 25% of commercial sheep farmers fed forage. The common diseases in the area were diarrhea, pneumonia and mange. The constraints to sheep production in the area included automobile accidents, seasonal lack of feed, diseases, theft and ...

  2. Enhancing the performance of cut-and-carry based dairy production in selected peri-urban areas of the United Republic of Tanzania through strategic feed supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkya, R.; Kessy, B.M.; Shem, M.N.; Mwanga, I.E.

    2002-01-01

    A survey was conducted in 81 smallholder farms in the peri-urban areas of Morogoro (Site I: n=52) and Dar es Salaam (Site II: n=29). The results showed that food supply was insufficient and of poor quality resulting in the poor performance of cows. In order to investigate the effect of farm-formulated concentrate (FC) or urea-molasses multinutrient-blocks (UMMB) in improving the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cattle, two feeding trials were carried out in 56 farms, 48 at Site I and 8 at Site II. The cost:benefit analysis determined their suitability for incorporation in dry season feeding. The FC was given to 14 farms at Site I (n=37 cows) to be incorporated in the diet of cows at the rate of 0.8 kg per litre of milk produced. The UMMB was tested in 18 farms (14 at Site I and 4 at Site II), fed to 27 cows (18 in Site I and 9 in Site II) at approximately 0.7 - 1.0 kg per cow per day. The Control group comprised of 14 farms (10 at Site I and 4 at Site II) with 28 cows (20 at Site I and 8 at Site II). The supplements were introduced to the farms after successful on-station trials for acceptability by dairy cows. Chemical composition and in sacco rumen degradability of the major feeds showed low CP content and degradability. Supplementation of forage with FC and UMMB was associated with increased milk production of 1.26 and 1.5 litres per cow/day and BCS and body weight changes of 0.2 and 4 kg and 0.25 and 8 kg, respectively. The improvement in milk yield, BCS and body weight change were significantly different in the UMMB supplemented cows (P 0.05), and the control groups. Both supplementation strategies had no significant effect on reproductive performance. However, there was a slight reduction in the number of days postpartum (DPP) to first progesterone rise (65.3 vs 77.6), DPP to conception oestrus (120.2 vs 128.7), and calving interval (400 vs 414.5 days) in the UMMB supplemented cows compared to non-supplemented control animals. Conception rate

  3. Response profiles of enteric methane emissions and lactational performance during habituation to dietary coconut oil in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, M; Powers, W J; Fogiel, A C; Liesman, J S; Beede, D K

    2013-03-01

    Dietary coconut oil (CNO) can reduce dry matter intake (DMI), enteric methane (eCH(4)) emissions, and milk fat yield of lactating cows. The goals of this research were to examine responses to different CNO concentrations during the habituation period (34-d) and to evaluate temporal patterns of DMI, eCH(4), and milk fat yield. Treatment diets contained (dry basis): 0.0% (CNO0), 1.3% (CNO1.3), 2.7% (CNO2.7), 3.3% (CNO3.3), or 4.0% CNO (CNO4). In experiment 1, 12 primi- or small secundiparous cows were housed in individual, environmentally controlled rooms and fed CNO0, CNO1.3, CNO2.7, or CNO4. Measurements included DMI, eCH(4), and milk yield and composition. Due to a precipitous drop in DMI (26%), cows fed CNO4 were replaced with cows fed CNO3.3 following d 10. Dietary CNO of 2.7% or more reduced eCH(4) emissions. Reduction was greater with increased CNO and during the first than the second half of the day. Simultaneously, decline in DMI of cows fed CNO2.7, CNO3.3, or CNO4 was increasingly precipitous with increased CNO concentration. Total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility during wk 5 was reduced in cows fed CNO2.7 or CNO3.3, which in part explained concomitantly reduced eCH(4)/DMI. In addition, milk fat yield was depressed at an increasing rate in cows fed CNO2.7, CNO3.3, and CNO4. In experiment 2, DMI was measured individually in 12 multiparous cows during habituation to CNO0, CNO1.3, CNO2.7, or CNO3.3 for 21 d before relocation to individual, environmentally controlled rooms. Dietary CNO2.7 or CNO3.3 reduced DMI by d 4 and total-tract NDF digestibility during wk 5. Relocation to individual rooms was associated with a 15% reduction in DMI, which was not affected by treatment. Results showed that 2.7% or more dietary CNO reduced eCH(4) and DMI, caused milk fat depression, and decreased NDF digestibility. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Executive decision-making in the domestic sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jennifer Morton

    Full Text Available Two new large animal models of Huntington's disease (HD have been developed recently, an old world monkey (macaque and a sheep. Macaques, with their large brains and complex repertoire of behaviors are the 'gold-standard' laboratory animals for testing cognitive function, but there are many practical and ethical issues that must be resolved before HD macaques can be used for pre-clinical research. By contrast, despite their comparable brain size, sheep do not enjoy a reputation for intelligence, and are not used for pre-clinical cognitive testing. Given that cognitive decline is a major therapeutic target in HD, the feasibility of testing cognitive function in sheep must be explored if they are to be considered seriously as models of HD. Here we tested the ability of sheep to perform tests of executive function (discrimination learning, reversal learning and attentional set-shifting. Significantly, we found that not only could sheep perform discrimination learning and reversals, but they could also perform the intradimensional (ID and extradimensional (ED set-shifting tasks that are sensitive tests of cognitive dysfunction in humans. Their performance on the ID/ED shifts mirrored that seen in humans and macaques, with significantly more errors to reach criterion in the ED than the ID shift. Thus, sheep can perform 'executive' cognitive tasks that are an important part of the primate behavioral repertoire, but which have never been shown previously to exist in any other large animal. Sheep have great potential, not only for use as a large animal model of HD, but also for studying cognitive function and the evolution of complex behaviours in normal animals.

  5. Genetic control of dairy cow reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The decline in dairy cow reproductive performance compromised the productivity and profitability of dairy production worldwide. The phenotypic performance of lactating cows with similar proportions of Holstein genes, similar genetic merit for milk production traits, but either good (Fert+) or poor (Fert-) genetic merit for fertility traits managed in a standardised environment was compared. The objective of this study was to elucidate the physiological mechanisms contributing to suboptimal re...

  6. MRI of experimental focal cerebral ischemia in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerschler, A.; Waldmin, D.; Gille, U.; Leipzig Univ.; Zimmer, C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: With respect to the specific characteristic of rete mirabile epidurale rostrale in sheep, the aim of this study was to investigate the use of time of flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to observe vascular anatomy and to validate MCA occlusion in a new model of experimental focal cerebral ischemia by permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in sheep (designed to study stroke therapy using autologous stem cells from umbilical cord blood). Furthermore, we wanted to assess the extent and natural time course of ischemic focal brain injury in sheep using functional and morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Method: 13 Merino sheep were examined. In 4 of the animals all, in 5 sheep 1 or 2 MCA branches were occluded and in 1 one case touched (sham operation). 4 controls did not undergo a surgical procedure. 23 MRI sessions were performed in 10 sheep. These sessions included T1, T2, T2 * sequences, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and TOF MRA before and 2 - 46 days after the onset of stroke using a 1.5T clinical MR scanner. Corrosion casts of the cerebral arteries of 3 sheep were prepared and compared to MRA. Results: The MRA visualized the vessel anatomy or occlusion distal to the rete mirabile. Anatomical variants concerning the variant origin of the MCA and inconstant arteria choroidea rostralis and communicans rostralis were revealed. Sheep with occluded left MCA showed space occupying lesions with a drop in ADC values. Depending on the number of preserved MCA branches (0; 1; 2), highly significant (p < 0.001) differences in lesion size (21 ± 5.7; 13; 1.7 ± 1.3 ml) could be found. No indication of ischemia but minimal contusion damage was observed in the sham operated animal. (orig.)

  7. Evaluation of reproductive tract infection during early post-partum period and its relationship with subsequent reproductive performance in high milk producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senosy, W; Uchiza, M; Tameoka, N; Izaike, Y; Osawa, T

    2012-04-01

    Clinically normal Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 43) were used to establish a relationship between the evaluations of the uterine condition by vaginoscopy, Metricheck, endometrial cytology (EC) and ultrasonography (US) during post-partum period (pp), and subsequent reproductive performance. The uterine status of the selected cows was evaluated by EC, Metricheck, US and vaginoscopy on a weekly basis from the third week (W3) to the seventh week (W7) pp. The animals were bred after a voluntary waiting period of 45-60 days pp and diagnosed for pregnancy status at 45 days after breeding by US. First service conception rate (FSCR) of bred animals was 32.6% (14/43). There was no significant difference in polymorphonuclear leucocyte percentage between conceived and non-conceived cows during different weeks post-partum. First service conception rate in animals with normal vaginal discharge as detected by Metricheck was significantly low when compared to those of abnormal discharge during W3 (2.3% vs 30.3%; p reproductive performance of dairy cattle. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Effect of Dietary Cation-Anion Difference during Prepartum and Postpartum Periods on Performance, Blood and Urine Minerals Status of Holstein Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Razzaghi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four periparturient cows were used to determine the effects of DCAD on acid-base balance, plasma and urine mineral concentrations, health status, and subsequent lactation performance. Each group of 12 cows received either a diet containing −100 DCAD or +100 DCAD for 21 d prepartum. Both anionic and cationic groups were divided into two groups, one received a +200 DCAD and the other +400 DCAD diet for 60 d postpartum. Prepartum reduction of DCAD decreased DMI, urinary and blood pH, urinary concentrations of Na or K and increased plasma and urinary Ca, Mg, Cl and S. Also cows fed −100 DCAD diet consumed the most dry matter in the first 60 d after calving. Postpartum +400 DCAD increased milk fat and total solid percentages, urinary and blood pH and urinary Na and K concentrations, but urinary Ca, P, Cl and S contents decreased. Greater DMI, FCM yields were observed in cows fed a diet of +400 DCAD than +200 DCAD. No case of milk fever occurred for any diets but feeding with a negative DCAD diet reduced placenta expulsion time. In conclusion, feeding negative DCAD in late gestation period and high DCAD in early lactation improves performance and productivity of dairy cows.

  9. Effects of corn-based diet starch content and neutral detergent fiber source on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredin, S M; Akins, M S; Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of corn-based dietary starch content and source of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on lactation performance, nutrient digestion, bacterial protein flow, and ruminal parameters in lactating dairy cows. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows averaging 193±11d in milk were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatment diets were high corn grain (HCG; 38% corn silage, 19% dry ground corn, and 4% soy hulls), high soy hulls (HSH; 38% corn silage, 11% dry ground corn, and 13% soy hulls), high corn silage (HCS; 50% corn silage, 6% dry ground corn, and 4% soy hulls), and low corn silage (LCS; 29% corn silage, 15% corn, and 19% soy hulls). The HCG, HSH, HCS, and LCS diets contained 29, 23, 24, and 22% starch; 27, 32, 30, and 32% total NDF; and 21, 21, 25, and 17% forage NDF (dry matter basis), respectively. Mean dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by treatment. Cows fed LCS had reduced milk fat content compared with HSH and HCS. The concentration of milk urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed HCS compared with the other treatments. Total-tract digestion of NDF was reduced for cows fed the HCG diet. Total-tract starch digestion was increased for cows fed the HSH and HCS compared with HCG and LCS diets. Bacterial protein flow was unaffected by treatment. Ruminal ammonia concentration was reduced in cows fed the HCG and LCS diets compared with the HCS diet. Ruminal propionate increased and the acetate:propionate ratio decreased in cows fed the LCS diet compared with the HCS diet. Ruminal pH was greater for cows fed the HCS diet compared with cows fed the LCS diet. Diet digestibility and performance of mid- to late-lactation cows fed reduced-starch diets by partially replacing corn grain with soy hulls or corn silage was similar to or improved compared with cows fed a normal-starch diet. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  10. Economic performance of lactating dairy cows submitted for first service timed artificial insemination after a voluntary waiting period of 60 or 88 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangaferro, M L; Wijma, R; Masello, M; Thomas, Mark J; Giordano, J O

    2018-05-23

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic performance of dairy cows managed with a voluntary waiting period (VWP) of 60 or 88 d. A secondary objective was estimating variation in cash flow under different input pricing scenarios through stochastic Monte Carlo simulations. Lactating Holstein cows from 3 commercial farms were blocked by parity group and total milk yield in their previous lactation and then randomly assigned to a VWP of 60 (VWP60; n = 1,352) or 88 d (VWP88; n = 1,359). All cows received timed-artificial insemination (TAI) for first service after synchronization of ovulation with the Double-Ovsynch protocol. For second and greater services, cows received artificial insemination (AI) after detection of estrus or the Ovsynch protocol initiated 32 ± 3 d after AI. Two analyses were performed: (1) cash flow per cow for the calving interval of the experimental lactation and (2) cash flow per slot occupied by each cow enrolled in the experiment for an 18-mo period after calving in the experimental lactation. Extending the VWP from 60 to 88 d delayed time to pregnancy during lactation (~20 d) and increased the risk of leaving the herd for multiparous cows (hazard ratio = 1.21). As a result, a smaller proportion of multiparous cows calved again and had a subsequent lactation (-6%). The shift in time to pregnancy combined with the herd exit dynamics resulted in longer lactation length for primiparous (22 d) but not multiparous cows. Longer lactations led to greater milk income over feed cost and a tendency for greater cash flow during the experimental lactation for primiparous but not multiparous cows in the VWP88 group. On the other hand, profitability per slot for the 18-mo period was numerically greater ($68 slot/18 mo) for primiparous cows but numerically reduced (-$85 slot/18 mo) for multiparous cows in the VWP88 treatment. For primiparous cows most of the difference in cash flow was explained by replacement cost, whereas for multiparous

  11. Growth performance, rumen fermentation, nutrient utilization, and metabolic profile of dairy heifers limit-fed distillers dried grains with ad libitum forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthey, A K; Anderson, J L

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding a corn- and soybean-product-based concentrate mix or distillers dried grains with solubles concentrate mix with ad libitum grass hay to dairy heifers. A 16-wk randomized complete block design study was conducted using 24 heifers [18 Holstein and 6 Brown Swiss; 219 ± 2 d of age (±standard deviation); 230 ± 4 kg of body weight] to evaluate the effect of diet on dry matter intake (DMI), growth performance, rumen fermentation, metabolic profile, and nutrient digestibility. Treatments were (1) corn and soybean product concentrate mix, and (2) distillers-dried-grains-with-solubles-based concentrate mix (DDG). Both concentrate mixes were limit-fed at 0.8% of body weight and grass hay was offered ad libitum. Heifers were individually fed using Calan gates and orts were recorded daily at feeding. Heifers were weighed every 2 wk and ration concentrate mix offered was adjusted accordingly. Frame measurements and body condition score were recorded every 2 wk. Rumen fluid was collected via esophageal tubing during wk 12 and 16 for pH, ammonia N, and volatile fatty acid analysis. Jugular blood samples were collected every 4 wk for metabolite and metabolic hormone analysis. Total-tract digestibility of nutrients was evaluated during wk 16 by fecal grab sampling. No treatment by week interactions were observed for any of the growth measurements and growth measurements and DMI did not differ between treatments. A treatment by time interaction was observed for rumen butyrate percentage with heifers fed DDG having a greater percentage. Total volatile fatty acid concentration, acetate molar percentage, and acetate:propionate decreased with the DDG treatment, whereas propionate molar percentage increased. No treatment by week interactions were observed for any of the metabolites or metabolic hormones measured. A tendency was observed for glucose and plasma urea nitrogen concentration to decrease with DDG. Plasma

  12. Uterine disease and its effect on subsequent reproductive performance of dairy cattle: a comparison of two cow-side diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šavc, Miha; Duane, Mary; O'Grady, Luke E; Somers, Joris R; Beltman, Marijke E

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare vaginal mucus scoring and ultrasonographic assessment of uterine content as predictors of future reproductive performance of dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 493) from seven commercial dairy farms were enrolled in this study. All cows received one prebreeding examination (PBE) between 21 and 38 days after parturition. During the PBE, vaginal mucus was scored (MS) and the transrectal ultrasonographic examination of the uterus to assess content (UTS) took place. The MS was scored on a scale of 0 to 3 using a Metricheck device and appearance of the uterus on transrectal ultrasound was scored on a scale of 0 to 4 based on the presence and consistency of intraluminal fluid. Other data collected from each cow included the farm ID (F_ID), conception rate to first service, length of breeding window, lactation number, calving month, body condition score (BCS) at calving, BCS loss after calving, BCS at PBE, days in milk at PBE, 305 day milk yield, economic breeding index (EBI), EBI fertility subindex and EBI health subindex. For each cow these parameters were analyzed using univariate Cox proportional hazard model to evaluate the effect of variables on the reproductive performance, measured as positive pregnancy status (PS) at the end of the breeding season. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis of the diagnostic tests compared with each other took place as well. Cows with positive UTS were 7.75 times more likely to have a positive MS as well (P milk at PBE in relation to the subsequent PS (P = 0.04). Cows in lactation number 5 or more were less likely (r = 0.69) to get in calf before the end of the breeding season than cows in their first lactation. Cows that calved later in the season were less likely to become pregnant before the end of the breeding season (P mucus evaluation with the Metricheck device and an ultrasound scan of the uterus serve as a good predictor of the subsequent PS. There is overlap between the

  13. Grazing management and supplementation effects on forage and dairy cow performance on cool-season pastures in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macoon, B; Sollenberger, L E; Staples, C R; Portier, K M; Fike, J H; Moore, J E

    2011-08-01

    Cool-season annual forages provide high-quality herbage for up to 5 mo in the US Gulf Coast states, but their management in pasture-based dairy systems has received little attention. Objectives of this study were to evaluate pasture and animal responses when lactating Holstein cows (n=32, mean DIM=184±21) grazed either N-fertilized rye (Secale cereale L.)-annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) mixed pastures or rye-annual ryegrass-crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.)-red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) pastures at 2 stocking rates (5 vs. 2.5 cows/ha) and 2 rates of concentrate supplementation [0.29 or 0.40 kg of supplement (as is)/kg of daily milk production]. Two cows paired by parity (one multiparous and one primiparous) were assigned randomly to each pasture. The 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was replicated twice in a completely randomized design. Forage mixture and supplementation rate did not affect milk production during three 28-d periods. Greater milk production occurred at the low (19.7 kg/d) than the high (14.7 kg/d) stocking rate during periods 2 and 3, but production was similar during period 1. Despite lower production per cow, milk production per hectare was generally greater at the high stocking rate (81.6 vs. 49.5 kg/ha). Generally, greater pregraze herbage mass on pastures at the lower stocking rate (1,400 vs. 1,150 kg/ha) accounted for greater herbage allowance. Both forage (8.0 vs. 5.9 kg/d) and total (14.1 vs. 11.6) organic matter intake were greater at the low stocking rate. Cows fed less supplement had greater forage organic matter intake (8.0 vs. 6.1 kg/d). Greater herbage mass was associated with the greater intake and subsequent greater milk production. Differences in forage nutritive value, blood metabolites and milk composition, although showing some response to treatments, may not be of sufficient magnitude to affect choice of pasture species or other management practices. Animal performance was not improved by

  14. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products on performance and rumen fermentation and microbiota in dairy cows fed a diet containing low quality forage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Zhu; Zihai Wei; Ningning Xu; Fan Yang; Ilkyu Yoon; Yihua Chung; Jianxin Liu; Jiakun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Background:A possible option to meet the increased demand of forage for dairy industry is to use the agricultural byproducts,such as corn stover.However,nutritional value of crop residues is low and we have been seeking technologies to improve the value.A feeding trial was performed to evaluate the effects of four levels of Soccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP;Original XP;Diamond V) on lactation performance and rumen fermentation in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows fed a diet containing low-quality forage.Eighty dairy cows were randomly assigned into one of four treatments:basal diet supplemented with 0,60,120,or 180 g/d of SCFP per head mixed with 180,120,60,or 0 g of corn meal,respectively.The experiment lasted for 10 wks,with the first 2 weeks for adaptation.Results:Dry matter intake was found to be similar (P > 0.05) among the treatments.There was an increasing trend in milk production (linear,P ≤ 0.10) with the increasing level of SCFP supplementation,with no effects on contents of milk components (P > 0.05).Supplementation of SCFP linearly increased (P < 0.05) the N conversion,without affecting rumen pH and ammonia-N (P > 0.05).Increasing level of SCFP linearly increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of ruminal total volatile fatty acids,acetate,propionate,and butyrate,with no difference in molar proportion of individual acids (P > 0.05).The population of fungi and certain cellulolytic bacteria (Ruminococcus albus,R.flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes)increased linearly (P < 0.05) but those of lactate-utilizing (5elenomonas ruminontium and Megasphaera elsdenii) and lactate-producing bacteria (Streptococcus bovis) decreased linearly (P ≤ 0.01) with increasing level of SCFP.The urinary purine derivatives increased linearly (P < 0.05) in response to SCFP supplementation,indicating that SCFP supplementation may benefit for microbial protein synthesis in the rumen.Conclusions:The SCFP supplementation was effective in

  15. Marker-assisted selection in sheep and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werf, H.J. van der

    2007-01-01

    Sheep and goats are often kept in low input production systems, often at subsistence levels. In such systems, the uptake of effective commercial breeding programmes is limited, let alone the uptake of more advanced technologies such as those needed for marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, effective breeding programmes exist in a number of countries, the largest ones in Australia and New Zealand aiming for genetic improvement of meat and wool characteristics as well as disease resistance and fecundity. Advances have been made in sheep gene mapping with the marker map consisting of more than 1 200 microsatellites, and a virtual genome sequence together with a very dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map are expected within a year. Significant research efforts into quantitative trait loci (QTL) are under way and a number of commercial sheep gene tests have already become available, mainly for single gene effects but some for muscularity and disease resistance. Gene mapping in goats is much less advanced with mainly some activity in dairy goats. Integration of genotypic information into commercial genetic evaluation and optimal selection strategies is a challenge that deserves more development. (author)

  16. Modelling impacts of performance on the probability of reproducing, and thereby on productive lifespan, allow prediction of lifetime efficiency in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, H N; Blavy, P; Martin, O; Schmidely, P; Friggens, N C

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive success is a key component of lifetime efficiency - which is the ratio of energy in milk (MJ) to energy intake (MJ) over the lifespan, of cows. At the animal level, breeding and feeding management can substantially impact milk yield, body condition and energy balance of cows, which are known as major contributors to reproductive failure in dairy cattle. This study extended an existing lifetime performance model to incorporate the impacts that performance changes due to changing breeding and feeding strategies have on the probability of reproducing and thereby on the productive lifespan, and thus allow the prediction of a cow's lifetime efficiency. The model is dynamic and stochastic, with an individual cow being the unit modelled and one day being the unit of time. To evaluate the model, data from a French study including Holstein and Normande cows fed high-concentrate diets and data from a Scottish study including Holstein cows selected for high and average genetic merit for fat plus protein that were fed high- v. low-concentrate diets were used. Generally, the model consistently simulated productive and reproductive performance of various genotypes of cows across feeding systems. In the French data, the model adequately simulated the reproductive performance of Holsteins but significantly under-predicted that of Normande cows. In the Scottish data, conception to first service was comparably simulated, whereas interval traits were slightly under-predicted. Selection for greater milk production impaired the reproductive performance and lifespan but not lifetime efficiency. The definition of lifetime efficiency used in this model did not include associated costs or herd-level effects. Further works should include such economic indicators to allow more accurate simulation of lifetime profitability in different production scenarios.

  17. ANTIPARASITICAL PROTECTION IN SHEEP FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA ARDELEANU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Through our researches were carried out at ICDCOC- Palas, Constantza, we proposed ourselves to establish the poly-parasitism structure on sheep, as well as elaborating efficientical methods for anti-parasitical prophylaxis and fighting in sheep populations and pasture sourfaces, in order to ensuring anti-parasitical protection in sheep exploitations The copro-parasitological examinations was carried ovoscopicaly (flotation - by Willis and Mc. Master methods; sediment – by polyvalent method and larvoscopicaly – by Baermann method. The parasitological examination of coprological smears which were harvested on sheep showed the presence of polyparasitism phenomenon with protozoans (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. and helmints (cestodae: Moniesia expansa; gastro-intestinal nemathodes: Trichostrongylus spp., Nematodirus spp., Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nemathodes: Müellerius capillaris, Protostrongylus rufescens, Dictyocaulus filaria. Also, we proposed ourselves to study the paresites and their intermediary stages on pastures which were exploited with sheep, comparatively with mowed pastures. In the ansamble of research activities a special place is occupied by testing differents methods, in order to prevention and fighting of parasitical infestations on sheep and pasture in sheep farms.

  18. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon; Drögemüller, Cord; The International Sheep Genomics Consortium, ISGC

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep popula...

  19. Selection Signatures in Worldwide Sheep Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; Cristobal, Magali San; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep popula...

  20. Quantitative measurement of vitamin K2 (menaquinones) in various fermented dairy products using a reliable high-performance liquid chromatography method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoury, E; Jourdon, K; Boyaval, P; Fourcassié, P

    2013-03-01

    We evaluated menaquinone contents in a large set of 62 fermented dairy products samples by using a new liquid chromatography method for accurate quantification of lipo-soluble vitamin K(2), including distribution of individual menaquinones. The method used a simple and rapid purification step to remove matrix components in various fermented dairy products 3 times faster than a reference preparation step. Moreover, the chromatography elution time was significantly shortened and resolution and efficiency were optimized. We observed wide diversity of vitamin K(2) contents in the set of fermented dairy products, from undetectable to 1,100 ng/g of product, and a remarkable diversity of menaquinone forms among products. These observations relate to the main microorganism species currently in the different fermented product technologies. The major form in this large set of fermented dairy products was menaquinone (MK)-9, and contents of MK-9 and MK-8 forms were correlated, that of MK-9 being around 4 times that of MK-8, suggesting that microorganisms able to produce MK-9 also produce MK-8. This was not the case for the other menaquinones, which were produced independently of each other. Finally, no obvious link was established between MK-9 content and fat content or pH of the fermented dairy products. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hot topic: apparent total-tract nutrient digestibilities measured commercially using 120-hour in vitro indigestible neutral detergent fiber as a marker are related to commercial dairy cattle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalla, A; Meyer, L; Meyer, Z; Onetti, S; Schultz, A; Goeser, J

    2012-09-01

    under controlled experimental settings, very few have related practical in vivo measures to milk production. By documenting the practical OM digestibility relationship with milk production, nutritionists and scientists may have confidence in this approach for measuring diet performance and collecting nutritional data for commercial dairies. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ovine Paratuberculosis: A Seroprevalence Study in Dairy Flocks Reared in the Marche Region, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Rita, Attili; Victor, Ngu Ngwa; Silvia, Preziuso; Luciana, Pacifici; Anastasia, Domesi; Vincenzo, Cuteri

    2011-01-01

    In order to fulfil the seroprevalence gap on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in ovine dairy farms of Marche region (central Italy), a stratified study was carried out on 2086 adult female sheep randomly chosen from 38 herds selected in Ancona and Macerata provinces. 73.7% flocks resulted infected by a commercial ELISA test (Pourquier, France), with a mean seroprevalence of 6.29% of sampled sheep in both provinces. A higher number of MAP seropositive ewes was recorded in the large herds' consistence than in the small and medium herds' consistence (P = 0.0269), and a greater percentage of infected sheep was obtained among female at early/late than in peak lactation stage (P = 0.0237). MAP infection was confirmed in 12.6% of infected farms by faecal culture. The true sheep-level seroprevalence was 15.1% ± 7.3%. PMID:21876850

  3. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and feeding level on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, and body fat changes in mid-lactation goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the interaction between the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) and feeding level to test if milk performance or milk fatty acid (FA) profile are affected by the interaction between CLA and feeding level. Twenty-four dairy goats were used in an 8-wk trial with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental ration that contained corn silage, beet pulp, barley, and a commercial concentrate. During the third week, goats were assigned into blocks of 2 goats according to their dry matter intake (DMI), raw milk yield, and fat yield. Each block was randomly allocated to control (45 g of Ca salt of palm oil/d) or CLA treatment. Within each block, one goat was fed to cover 100% (FL100) of the calculated energy requirements and the other was fed 85% of the DMI of the first goat (FL85). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 3, 5, and 7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduced milk fat content and fat yield by 17 and 19%, respectively, independent of the feeding level. It reduced both the secretion of milk FA synthesized de novo, and those taken up from the blood. No interaction between CLA and feeding level was observed on milk secretion of any group of FA. The CLA supplementation had no effect on DMI, milk yield, protein, and lactose yields but it improved calculated net energy for lactation balance. Goats fed the FL100 × CLA diet tended to have the highest DMI and protein yield. The interaction between CLA and feeding level was not significant for any other variables. Compared with the goats fed FL100, those fed FL85 had lower DMI, lower net energy for lactation balance, and lower digestible protein in the intestine balance. The body weight; milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; and fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents in milk were not affected by

  4. Effects of corn-based diet starch content and corn particle size on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredin, S M; Ferraretto, L F; Akins, M S; Bertics, S J; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary starch content in corn-based diets and corn particle size on lactation performance, nutrient digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows using the omasal and reticular sampling technique. Eight ruminally cannulated lactating multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were fine (FG; mean particle size=552µm) and coarse (CG; 1,270µm) ground dry shelled corn in normal- (NS) and reduced- (RS) starch diets fed as total mixed rations. The NS and RS rations contained 27 and 18% starch (dry matter basis), respectively, and were formulated by partially replacing corn with soy hull pellets. Mean dry matter intake was unaffected by treatment (23.2kg/d). Cows fed NS diets produced 1.9kg/d more milk and 0.06kg/d more milk protein compared with cows fed RS diets. Cows fed NSFG and RSCG diets produced more fat-corrected milk than did cows fed NSCG and RSFG diets. Milk urea concentration was decreased for cows fed NS diets (12.4mg/dL) compared with RS diets (13.5mg/dL). Ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF; % of NDF intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with NS diets (43.4 vs. 34.9%), and total-tract digestibility of NDF (% of NDF intake) was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (50.1 vs. 43.1%). Ruminal digestibility of starch (% of starch intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was greater in cows fed NS diets compared with those fed RS diets (85.6 vs. 81.6%). Total-tract starch digestion was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (96.9 vs. 94.6%) and in cows fed FG diets compared with those fed CG diets (98.0 vs. 93.5%). Bacterial protein flow was unaffected by treatment. The omasal and reticular sampling techniques resulted in similar treatment effects for nutrient flow

  5. The effect of reproductive performance on the dairy cattle herd value assessed by integrating a daily dynamic programming model with a daily Markov chain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, A S; Cabrera, V E

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reproductive performance on dairy cattle herd value. Herd value was defined as the herd's average retention payoff (RPO). Individual cow RPO is the expected profit from keeping the cow compared with immediate replacement. First, a daily dynamic programming model was developed to calculate the RPO of all cow states in a herd. Second, a daily Markov chain model was applied to estimate the herd demographics. Finally, the herd value was calculated by aggregating the RPO of all cows in the herd. Cow states were described by 5 milk yield classes (76, 88, 100, 112, and 124% with respect to the average), 9 lactations, 750 d in milk, and 282 d in pregnancy. Five different reproductive programs were studied (RP1 to RP5). Reproductive program 1 used 100% timed artificial insemination (TAI; 42% conception rate for first TAI and 30% for second and later services) and the other programs combined TAI with estrus detection. The proportion of cows receiving artificial insemination after estrus detection ranged from 30 to 80%, and conception rate ranged from 25 to 35%. These 5 reproductive programs were categorized according to their 21-d pregnancy rate (21-d PR), which is an indication of the rate that eligible cows become pregnant every 21 d. The 21-d PR was 17% for RP1, 14% for RP2, 16% for RP3, 18% for RP4, and 20% for RP5. Results showed a positive relationship between 21-d PR and herd value. The most extreme herd value difference between 2 reproductive programs was $77/cow per yr for average milk yield (RP5 - RP2), $13/cow per yr for lowest milk yield (RP5 - RP1), and $160/cow per yr for highest milk yield (RP5 - RP2). Reproductive programs were ranked based on their calculated herd value. With the exception of the best reproductive program (RP5), all other programs showed some level of ranking change according to milk yield. The most dramatic ranking change was observed in RP1, which moved from being the worst ranked

  6. Effects of straw processing and pen overstocking on the growth performance and sorting characteristics of diets offered to replacement Holstein dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Akins, M S; Esser, N M; Ogden, R K; Gelsinger, S L

    2018-02-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of pen-stocking density and straw processing on the growth performance, feed-bunk sorting behaviors, and hygiene of Holstein dairy heifers. Two corn silage-alfalfa haylage diets diluted with wheat straw were offered; diet composition was identical, except that one diet contained short (well-processed) straw (SS; 46.0% neutral detergent fiber, 12.9% crude protein, 60.7% total digestible nutrients, TDN), and the other long (poorly processed) straw (LS; 46.5% neutral detergent fiber, 12.6% crude protein, 60.0% TDN; % of dry matter basis). A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of straw-processing (SS or LS) and pen-stocking-density [100, 125, or 150% of capacity] treatments was evaluated with 240 Holstein dairy heifers (410 ± 56.3 kg) that were blocked by weight, and then assigned to 24 pens with 4 pens/interactive treatment. For 91 d, diets were dispersed at 1100 h daily, and bunks were sampled subsequently at 1300, 1600, 1900, 2200, 0100, and 0600 h during 3 evaluation periods throughout the trial. Diets were offered for ad libitum intake, but with minimal orts (19 mm) particles increased linearly from 1.26 to 2.82 across sampling times, differing from the SS diet at 2200, 0100, 0600, and 0900 h (orts). Similar factors calculated for the SS diet also increased linearly across sampling times, but these responses were less severe (1.27 to 1.97). Overall, particle-size concentration factors for physically effective fiber exhibited responses similar to those observed for large particles, except they were limited to narrower ranges for both the SS (1.04 to 1.14) and LS (1.03 to 1.26) diets. Despite these differences, daily dry matter intake was not affected by treatment (mean = 9.65 kg of dry matter/d), nor was daily intake of TDN (mean = 5.92 kg of TDN/d). For SS, heifers housed within overstocked pens exhibited reduced average daily gain (ADG) compared with the 100% stocking rate (0.93 vs. 0.99 kg/d). With LS processing, ADG

  7. Effects of forage source and forage particle size as a free-choice provision on growth performance, rumen fermentation, and behavior of dairy calves fed texturized starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi-Mirzaei, H; Azarfar, A; Mirzaei, M; Kiani, A; Ghaffari, M H

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the interactive effects of forage source and forage particle size (PS) as a free-choice provision on growth performance, rumen fermentation, and behavior of dairy calves fed texturized starters. Forty-eight Holstein calves (42 ± 3 kg of body weight) were randomly assigned (n = 12 calves per treatment) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with the factors of forage source [alfalfa hay (AH) and wheat straw (WS)] and forage PS [(AH: medium = 1.96 mm or long = 3.93 mm) and (WS: medium = 2.03 mm or long = 4.10 mm), as geometric mean diameters]. The treatments were (1) AH with medium PS (AH-MPS), (2) AH with long PS (AH-LPS), (3) WS with medium PS (WS-MPS), and (4) WS with long PS (WS-LPS). Regardless of forage PS, the preweaning starter intake, dry matter intake, metabolizable energy intake, weaning body weight, and forage intake were greater for AH calves than WS calves. Average daily gain, average daily gain/metabolizable energy intake, feed efficiency, and final body weight of the calves did not differ among groups. An interaction of forage source and forage PS influenced acetate, propionate, and acetate-to-propionate ratio in the rumen on d 35, with the greatest acetate proportion and acetate-to-propionate ratio, but the least propionate proportion for AH-MPS calves than the other calves. The total volatile fatty acid concentration and the rumen proportions of propionate (d 70), butyrate (d 35), and valerate (d 35) were greater in AH-MPS calves than in AH-LPS calves. Calves fed AH had greater total volatile fatty acid concentration (d 35 and 70) and propionate proportion (d 70), but lesser ruminal proportions of butyrate (d 35 and 70), valerate (d 35 and 70), and acetate-to-propionate ratio (d 70) compared with calves fed WS. The ruminal valerate proportion (d 70) was greatest in WS-MPS calves than the other calves. An interaction of forage source and forage PS influenced preweaning standing time and starter eating time, with the least

  8. Effects of addition of Aspergillus oryzae culture and 2-hydroxyl-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid on milk performance and rumen fermentation of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hua; Wu, Yueming; Wang, Yanming; Wang, Chong; Liu, Jianxin

    2017-04-01

    To investigate effects of Aspergillus oryzae culture (AOC) and 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMB) on milk performance and rumen fermentation of dairy cows. Sixty-four multiparous Chinese Holstein cows were randomly allocated into four experimental diets: (i) Control diet; (ii) AOC diet: 5 g AOC/day per head; (iii) HMB diet: 25 g HMB/day; and (iv) AH diet: 5 g AOC plus 25 g HMB/day. Added HMB tended to increase the yield of milk protein (P = 0.06) and 3.5% fat-corrected milk (P = 0.08) and milk fat content (P = 0.09). Milk fat yield (P = 0.03) and the contents of milk protein (P = 0.05) were increased by adding HMB. The cows fed on AOC diet had a tendency for higher body weight (BW) gain (P = 0.08). Addition of AOC, HMB and AH increased content of microbial protein (MCP) and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) (P rumen fluid. Populations of rumen fungi, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens relative to total bacterial 16S rDNA (P ≤ 0.03) and activity of carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) (P contents of MCP and total VFA potentially by stimulating rumen microbe populations and CMCase activity. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Effects of different forage sources as a free-choice provision on the performance, nutrient digestibility, selected blood metabolites and structural growth of Holstein dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, B; Foroozandeh, A D; Shakeri, P

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different forage sources on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood metabolites of dairy calves. Individually housed calves (n = 40; body weight = 41.2 ± 3.5 kg) were randomly allocated (n = 10 calves per treatment: five males and five females) to one of the following four treatments: (i) starter without forage provision (CON), (ii) starter plus chopped alfalfa hay (AH), (iii) starter plus chopped wheat straw (WS) and 4) starter plus dried sugar beet pulp (BP) flakes. Calves fed AH diets had lowest (p Digestibility of NDF and ADF was greater (p digestibility of DM and OM than those fed CON diets and similar to those fed AH and WS diets. Calves in the AH treatment had greater (p digestibility than CON, but similar to WS and BP calves. Blood beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration was lower in forage-offered calves than CON one. Body measurements (with the exception of body barrel) did not differ across treatments. It was concluded that BP improves final body weight, ADG and nutrient digestibility of calves than starter without forage provision during weaning transition. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Valence of Facial Cues Influences Sheep Learning in a Visual Discrimination Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucille G. A. Bellegarde

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sheep are one of the most studied farm species in terms of their ability to process information from faces, but little is known about their face-based emotion recognition abilities. We investigated (a whether sheep could use images of sheep faces taken in situation of varying valence as cues in a simultaneous discrimination task and (b whether the valence of the situation affects their learning performance. To accomplish this, we photographed faces of sheep in three situations inducing emotional states of neutral (ruminating in the home pen or negative valence (social isolation or aggressive interaction. Sheep (n = 35 first had to learn a discrimination task with colored cards. Animals that reached the learning criterion (n = 16 were then presented with pairs of images of the face of a single individual taken in the neutral situation and in one of the negative situations. Finally, sheep had to generalize what they had learned to new pairs of images of faces taken in the same situation, but of a different conspecific. All sheep that learned the discrimination task with colored cards reached the learning criterion with images of faces. Sheep that had to associate a negative image with a food reward learned faster than sheep that had to associate a neutral image with a reward. With the exception of sheep from the aggression-rewarded group, sheep generalized this discrimination to images of faces of different individuals. Our results suggest that sheep can perceive the emotional valence displayed on faces of conspecifics and that this valence affects learning processes.

  11. Comparison of airway responses in sheep of different age in precision-cut lung slices (PCLS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena A Lambermont

    Full Text Available Animal models should display important characteristics of the human disease. Sheep have been considered particularly useful to study allergic airway responses to common natural antigens causing human asthma. A rationale of this study was to establish a model of ovine precision-cut lung slices (PCLS for the in vitro measurement of airway responses in newborn and adult animals. We hypothesized that differences in airway reactivity in sheep are present at different ages.Lambs were delivered spontaneously at term (147d and adult sheep lived till 18 months. Viability of PCLS was confirmed by the MTT-test. To study airway provocations cumulative concentration-response curves were performed with different allergic response mediators and biogenic amines. In addition, electric field stimulation, passive sensitization with house dust mite (HDM and mast cells staining were evaluated.PCLS from sheep were viable for at least three days. PCLS of newborn and adult sheep responded equally strong to methacholine and endothelin-1. The responses to serotonin, leukotriene D4 and U46619 differed with age. No airway contraction was evoked by histamine, except after cimetidine pretreatment. In response to EFS, airways in PCLS from adult and newborn sheep strongly contracted and these contractions were atropine sensitive. Passive sensitization with HDM evoked a weak early allergic response in PCLS from adult and newborn sheep, which notably was prolonged in airways from adult sheep. Only few mast cells were found in the lungs of non-sensitized sheep at both ages.PCLS from sheep lungs represent a useful tool to study pharmacological airway responses for at least three days. Sheep seem well suited to study mechanisms of cholinergic airway contraction. The notable differences between newborn and adult sheep demonstrate the importance of age in such studies.

  12. Protein turnover in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttery, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Considerable advances have been made in the knowledge of the mechanisms and control of synthesis and degradation of proteins in animal tissues during the last decade. Most of the work on the measurement of synthetic and degradative rates of the mixed protein fraction from tissues has been conducted in the rat. There have, unfortunately, been few publications describing results of protein turnover studies with ruminants. Consideration is given here to the techniques used to measure protein turnover, and some of the results obtained, particularly with sheep, are summarized. No attempt has been made to discuss directly the situation in parasitized animals; rather the aim is to provide background information which complements other work dealing with the effects of parasites on the nitrogen metabolism of ruminants. (author)

  13. Awassi sheep reproduction and milk production: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Ababneh, Mohammed M

    2011-10-01

    Awassi is the local breed of sheep in Jordan and is the most important breed in the semi-arid regions of the near east countries. Awassi ram and ewe lambs reach puberty at around 8 and 9 months of age, respectively. The breeding season of Awassi ewes starts as early as April and lasts through September. After puberty, Awassi rams are sexually active throughout the year. The normal estrous cycle in Awassi ewes is 15-20 days (average 17 days). Estrus ranges from 16-59 h (average 29 h) during the breeding season. The reproductive performance of unimproved Awassi sheep has been low while improved Awassi has the highest fertility and milk production and are the heaviest among all Awassi populations. The gestation length varies from 149 to 155 days (average 152 days). Hormones that are commonly used for induction and synchronization of estrus in Awassi ewes include progestins, gonadotropins and PGF2α. An Awassi ewe produces 40-60 and 70-80 kg of milk per 150-day lactation period under traditional and improved production systems, respectively, in addition to the suckled milk left for lambs until weaning. The improved Awassi has the highest milk production among all Awassi populations and may reach 506 L over 214-day lactation period. The objective of this review is to summarize the reproductive pattern and milk production of Awassi sheep in the Middle East region.

  14. Experimental studies on hemolysis following extracorporcal blood irradiation in sheep and goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmann, E.; Vogel, M.; Richter, K.D.; Widmer, H.W.

    1978-01-01

    In experimental studies extracorporal blood irradiation was performed in 3 sheep and 1 goat by means of a 500 Ci 137 Cs source. The sheep died of the sequelae of narcosis, with anemia being only moderately marked. In the goat a transit dosis of 466,566 rad could be applied before the animal died of the sequelae of hemolytic anemia. (author)

  15. Phytogenic additive on diet of dairy heifers: Performance and behavior parameters Desempenho produtivo e comportamento de novilhas submetidas a dietas com aditivo fitogênico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Reimann Skonieski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment evaluated the effects in the performance and behavior parameters of Jersey dairy heifers supplemented with herbal extracts. The experiment was conducted in Boapaba Ranch, Silveira Martins (RS, from July to September, 2004, utilizing 12 Jersey’s heifers. The animals were separated in two groups, with the same number of replications, considered a Control group (without addition of phytogenic additive and a Treatment group (with inclusion of 500 grams of phytogenic additive per ton. of concentrate. The phytogenic additive utilized was a commercial blend of essential oils, flavonoids and mucilage. The animals received daily, divided in two feeding, 2 kg. of concentrate and, 3 kg. of alfalfa hay and 10 kg. of chopped fresh black oat and ryegrass. The performance parameters evaluated were initial weight, final weight, and daily average daily weight gain and feed conversion and behavior parameters analyzed were feeding behavior, time of intake for concentrate and roughage, rectal temperature, and cardiac frequency. There were not significantly differences (P > 0.05 between treatments for performance parameters in general analysis of data, but occurred significantly differences between treatments when analyzed the periods (P< 0.05. Significant differences could be observed in feeding behavior (P < 0.05, cardiac frequency (P < 0.05, and time of intake for concentrate (P < 0.002,. The authors leading to the conclusion that the herbal extract influence on the performance and behavior parameters of dairy heifers receiving this supplement.Este experimento avaliou os efeitos no desempenho e no comportamento de novilhas leiteiras suplementadas com extratos herbais. O experimento foi conduzido na Granja Boapaba, no município de Silveira Martins (RS, de julho a setembro de 2004, com a utilização de 12 novilhas da raça Jersey. Os animais foram separados em dois grupos, com o mesmo número de indivíduos, considerados como grupo-controle (sem

  16. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božanić; Irena Rogelj

    2003-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  17. Field observations during the Bluetongue serotype 8 epidemic in 2006 II. Morbidity and mortality rate, case fatality and clinical recovery in sheep and cattle in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Backx, A.; Mintiens, K.; Gerbier, G.; Staubach, C.; Hendrickx, G.; Spek, van der A.N.

    2008-01-01

    Data collected in the Netherlands during the Bluetongue serotype 8 (BTV-8) epidemic indicated that in outbreak cattle herds, predominantly dairy and nursing cows were clinically affected and not young stock, beef cattle, beef calves, or breeding animals. In outbreak sheep flocks, mainly ewes and ¿

  18. Identification of farmer characteristics and farm strategies explaining changes in environmental management and environmental and economic performance of dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondersteijn, C.J.M.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    In 1998, the Mineral Accounting System (MINAS) was introduced in The Netherlands. MINAS penalises farms with a levy if the farm nutrient surpluses exceed a certain threshold. The threshold is strict, meaning that most farmers need to change their environmental management and performance to avoid

  19. Effects of rumen-undegradable protein on intake, performance, and mammary gland development in prepubertal and pubertal dairy heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, A.L.; Detmann, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Pedroso, A.M.; Silva, L.H.P.; Machado, A.F.; Sousa, F.C.; Santos, dos G.B.; Marcondes, M.I.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different amounts of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on intake, N balance, performance, mammary gland development, carcass traits, and hormonal status of Holstein heifers at different physiological stages (PS). Sixteen prepubertal (PRE)

  20. Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on calf birth weight, postpartum health, feed intake, milk yield, and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, R; Colazo, M G; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-05-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of supplemental fat (no oilseed vs. oilseed) during late gestation and the source of fat (canola vs. sunflower seed), on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma metabolite concentrations, milk production and composition, calf birth weight, postpartum health disorders, ovarian function and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Pregnant Holstein cows, blocked by body condition and parity, were assigned to 1 of 3 diets containing rolled canola seed (high in oleic acid; n=43) or sunflower (high in linoleic acid; n=45) at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed (control; n=43), for the last 35±2 d of pregnancy. After calving, all cows received a common lactation diet. Blood samples were collected at wk -3 (i.e., 2 wk after initiation of prepartum diets) and at wk +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5 postpartum to determine the concentration of fatty acids (mEq/dL), β-hydroxybutyrate (mg/dL), and glucose (mg/dL). Ovarian ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to determine the first appearance of dominant (10mm) and preovulatory-size (≥16mm) follicles, and ovulation. Uterine inflammatory status based on the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN; subclinical endometritis: >8% PMN) was assessed at d 25±1 postpartum. Significant parity by treatment interactions were observed for DMI and milk yield. Prepartum oilseed supplementation, more specifically sunflower seed supplementation, increased postpartum DMI in primiparous cows without affecting prepartum DMI or milk yield. Contrarily, in multiparous cows, prepartum oilseed supplementation decreased both prepartum and postpartum DMI and milk yield during the first 2 wk. Regardless of parity, prepartum feeding of canola reduced postpartum DMI compared with those fed sunflower. Mean fatty acids concentrations at wk -3 were greater in cows given supplemental oilseed than those fed no oilseeds. Gestation length and calf birth weight were increased in cows given supplemental oilseed prepartum

  1. Determination of bovine lactoferrin in dairy products by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry based on tryptic signature peptides employing an isotope-labeled winged peptide as internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jingshun; Lai, Shiyun; Cai, Zengxuan; Chen, Qi; Huang, Baifen; Ren, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A UHPLC–MS/MS method for quantification of bovine lactoferrin was developed. • Tryptic fragment LRPVAAEIYGTK was chosen as signature peptide of bovine lactoferrin. • A winged peptide containing isotopically-labeled signature peptide was designed as internal standard. • The method for determining lactoferrin does not discriminate between the different forms of lactoferrin. • Meet the growing demand to quantify bovine lactoferrin in different dairy products. - Abstract: A new and sensitive determination method was developed for bovine lactoferrin in dairy products including infant formulas based on the signature peptide by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography and triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry under the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The simple pretreatment procedures included the addition of a winged peptide containing the isotope-labeled signature peptide as internal standard, followed by an enzymatic digestion with trypsin. The signature peptide was chosen and identified from the tryptic hydrolyzates of bovine lactoferrin by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry based on sequence database search. Analytes were separated on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH 300 C18 column and monitored by MS/MS in seven minutes. Quantitative result bias due to matrix effect and tryptic efficiency was corrected through the use of synthetic isotope-labeled standards. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.3 mg/100 g and 1.0 mg/100 g, respectively. Bovine lactoferrin within the concentration range of 10–1000 nmol L −1 showed a strong linear relationship with a linear correlation coefficient (r) of >0.998. The intra- and inter-day precision of the method were RSD < 6.5% and RSD < 7.1%, respectively. Excellent repeatability (RSD < 6.4%) substantially supported the application of this method for the determination of bovine lactoferrin in dairy samples. The present

  2. Determination of bovine lactoferrin in dairy products by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry based on tryptic signature peptides employing an isotope-labeled winged peptide as internal standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jingshun [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310051 (China); Lai, Shiyun [Beingmate Research Institute, Beingmate Baby and Child Food Co., Ltd., Hangzhou 310007 (China); Cai, Zengxuan [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310051 (China); Chen, Qi [Beingmate Research Institute, Beingmate Baby and Child Food Co., Ltd., Hangzhou 310007 (China); Huang, Baifen [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310051 (China); Ren, Yiping, E-mail: renyiping@263.net [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310051 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • A UHPLC–MS/MS method for quantification of bovine lactoferrin was developed. • Tryptic fragment LRPVAAEIYGTK was chosen as signature peptide of bovine lactoferrin. • A winged peptide containing isotopically-labeled signature peptide was designed as internal standard. • The method for determining lactoferrin does not discriminate between the different forms of lactoferrin. • Meet the growing demand to quantify bovine lactoferrin in different dairy products. Abstract: A new and sensitive determination method was developed for bovine lactoferrin in dairy products including infant formulas based on the signature peptide by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography and triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry under the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The simple pretreatment procedures included the addition of a winged peptide containing the isotope-labeled signature peptide as internal standard, followed by an enzymatic digestion with trypsin. The signature peptide was chosen and identified from the tryptic hydrolyzates of bovine lactoferrin by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry based on sequence database search. Analytes were separated on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH 300 C18 column and monitored by MS/MS in seven minutes. Quantitative result bias due to matrix effect and tryptic efficiency was corrected through the use of synthetic isotope-labeled standards. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.3 mg/100 g and 1.0 mg/100 g, respectively. Bovine lactoferrin within the concentration range of 10–1000 nmol L⁻¹ showed a strong linear relationship with a linear correlation coefficient (r) of >0.998. The intra- and inter-day precision of the method were RSD < 6.5% and RSD < 7.1%, respectively. Excellent repeatability (RSD < 6.4%) substantially supported the application of this method for the determination of bovine lactoferrin in dairy samples. The present method

  3. Breeding objectives for Targhee sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kuehn, L A; Kott, R W

    2007-11-01

    Breeding objectives were developed for Targhee sheep under rangeland production conditions. Traits considered were those for which EPD were available from the US National Sheep Improvement Program and included direct and maternal effects on 120-d weaning weight (WW and MM, respectively); yearling weight (YW); yearling fleece weight, fiber diameter, and staple length; and percent lamb crop (PLC), measured as the number of lambs born per 100 ewes lambing. A bioeconomic model was used to predict the effects of a change of 1 additive SD in EPD for each trait, holding all other traits constant at their mean, on animal performance, feed requirements, feed costs, and economic returns. Resulting economic weightings were then used to derive selection indexes. Indexes were derived separately for 3 prolificacy levels (1.41, 1.55, and 1.70 lambs/ewe lambing), 2 triplet survival levels (50 and 67%), 2 lamb pricing policies (with or without discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs), and 3 forage cost scenarios (renting pasture, purchasing hay, or reducing flock size to accommodate increased nutrient requirements for production). Increasing PLC generally had the largest impact on profitability, although an increase in WW was equally important, with low feed costs and no discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs. Increases in PLC were recommended at all 3 prolificacy levels, but with low triplet survival the value of increasing PLC eventually declined as the mean litter size increased to approximately 2.15 lambs/ewe lambing and above. Increasing YW (independent of WW) increased ewe maintenance costs and reduced profitability. Predicted changes in breeding values for WW and YW under index selection varied with lamb pricing policy and feed costs. With low feed costs or no discounts for heavy lambs, YW increased at a modest rate in association with increasing WW, but with high feed costs or discounting of heavy lambs, genetic trends in WW were reduced by approximately 50% to

  4. Dairy farming: indoor v. pasture-based feeding

    OpenAIRE

    HOFSTETTER, P.; FREY, H.-J; GAZZARIN, C.; WYSS, U.; KUNZ, P.

    2017-01-01

    The current situation of volatile milk prices and rising costs of, e.g. grain and labour, suggests that it is worth studying productivity and efficiency in dairy farming. The objective of the current whole-system study, carried out in lowland Central Switzerland from 2007 to 2010, was to compare the performance, efficiency, land productivity and profitability of indoor-feeding (IF) dairy production with that of pasture-based feeding (PF) dairy production. An IF herd consisting of 11 Holstein-...

  5. Forage and sugar in dairy calves' starter diet and their interaction on performance, weaning age and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M

    2014-06-01

    The effects of sugar and forage inclusion in calves' starter and their interaction on animal performance and rumen fermentation parameters were investigated. Twenty-eight neonatal Holstein male calves 3 days of age with average body weights of 42 ± 4 kg were allocated to four different treatments. All calves were fed a similar basal diet consisting of milk and concentrate. The experimental treatments were: (i) basal diet with no supplementation (Control, hereafter designated by C), (ii) basal diet plus 5% granular sugar cane (Sugar, designated by S), (iii) basal diet plus 5% forage (Forage, designated by F) and (iv) basal diet plus 5% forage with 5% granular sugar cane (F × S). Supplement ingredients were used on a dry matter (DM) basis. Rumen fluid parameters were measured twice on days 35 and 70 of the study period. The calves were weaned when they could consume 1 kg of starter for three consecutive days. The results show that starter intake was not affected by treatment; however, the lowest ADG was observed with calves in the sugar treatment. Weaning age was affected by treatments, and forage showed to reduce milk consumption period down to its shortest. Forage-sugar interaction was found to have no effects on animal performance. The structural body indices as well as the health status of the calves were similar in different treatments. Rumen pH did not differ among the treatment groups. Among the rumen parameters, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate and propionate did not exhibit any significant differences among the treatments. However, ruminal acetate concentration decreased in calves that fed sugar cane during the early weeks of the study period. Comparison of forage and sugar included in the starter diets revealed that forage reduced weaning age, while sugar cane had a negative effect on calves' performance. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Performance and metabolite profile of dairy cows fed tropical grasses and concentrates containing crude protein with low or high degradability

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Raphael dos Santos; Oliveira, Tadeu Silva de; Pereira, José Carlos; Vieira, Ricardo Augusto Mendonça; Henrique, Douglas Sampaio; Fernandes, Alberto Magno; Leonel, Fernando de Paula

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ten Holstein-Zebu crossbred cows distributed into two simultaneous Latin squares (5 × 5) as a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement formed by chopped sugarcane or elephant grass silage, both with high or low protein degradability supplements and a corn silage as a control treatment, were compared using orthogonal contrasts. The studied variables were the performance, plasma concentrations of urea-N, glucose, and creatinine, urine-N and milk urea-N, and the nychthemeral variation in NH3-N in th...

  7. Effects of the dietary nonfiber carbohydrate content on lactation performance, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen utilization in mid-lactation dairy cows receiving corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zihai; Zhang, Baoxin; Liu, Jianxin

    2018-01-01

    Corn stover (CS) is an abundant source of feed for livestock in China. However, it is low in nutritional value that we have been seeking technologies to improve. Previous studies show that non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) might limit the utilization of a CS diet by lactating dairy cows. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the lactation performance and rumen fermentation characteristics in lactating cows consuming CS with two contents of NFC compared to an alfalfa hay-containing diet. Twelve Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with three dietary treatments: (1) low-NFC diet (NFC = 35.6%, L-NFC), (2) high-NFC diet (NFC = 40.1%, H-NFC), and (3) alfalfa hay diet (NFC = 38.9%, AH). Intake of DM was lower for cows fed H-NFC compared to L-NFC and AH, while the milk yield was higher in AH than in H-NFC and L-NFC ( P  contents of milk protein and lactose were not different among the groups ( P  > 0.11), but milk fat content was higher for cows fed H-NFC and L-NFC compared to AH ( P  rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration and the concentrations of urea nitrogen in blood and milk were lower for cows fed H-NFC and AH compared to L-NFC ( P  rumen propionate and total volatile fatty acids were different among groups ( P  content in a diet containing corn stover can improve the feed efficiency and benefit the nitrogen conversion.

  8. Effects of niacin supplementation and dietary concentrate proportion on body temperature, ruminal pH and milk performance of primiparous dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohölter, Malte; Meyer, Ulrich; Rauls, Caroline; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of niacin and dietary concentrate proportion on body temperature, ruminal pH and milk production of dairy cows. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, 20 primiparous Holstein cows (179 ± 12 days in milk) were assigned to four dietary treatments aimed to receive either 0 or 24 g niacin and 30% (low) or 60% (high) concentrate with the rest being a partial mixed ration (PMR) composed of 60% corn and 40% grass silage (on dry matter basis). Ambient temperature and relative humidity were determined and combined by the calculation of temperature humidity index. Respiration rates, rectal, skin and subcutaneous temperatures were measured. Milk production and composition were determined. Ruminal pH and temperature were recorded at a frequency of 5 min using wireless devices for continuous intra-ruminal measurement (boluses). pH values were corrected for pH sensor drift. The climatic conditions varied considerably but temporarily indicated mild heat stress. Niacin did not affect skin, rectal and subcutaneous temperatures but tended to increase respiration rates. High concentrate reduced skin temperatures at rump, thigh and neck by 0.1-0.3°C. Due to the technical disturbances, not all bolus data could be subjected to statistical evaluation. However, both niacin and high concentrate influenced mean ruminal pH. High concentrate increased the time spent with a pH below 5.6 and ruminal temperatures (0.2-0.3°C). Niacin and high concentrate enhanced milk, protein and lactose yield but reduced milk fat and protein content. Milk fat yield was slightly reduced by high concentrate but increased due to niacin supplementation. In conclusion, niacin did not affect body temperature but stimulated milk performance. High concentrate partially influenced body temperatures and had beneficial effects on milk production.

  9. Performance of dairy heifers raised on Xaraés palissadgrass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraés pasture supplemented with two types of mineral mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto B. de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of selective (e.g. mineral supplement formulated on the basis of nutritional and clinical examination of the herd or commercial mineral supplementation of crossbred dairy heifers (Holstein-Mantiqueira, on daily weight gain (DWG, body condition score (BCS, age at first mating (AFM and the intake of mineral mixture (IMM managed on Xaraés palissadgrass pasture (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraés were evaluated from February 2006 to March 2008. Structural characteristics, forage allowance and nutritional value of Xaraés palissadgrass were also evaluated. The structural variables of pasture, allowances and nutritive value of forage, besides the DWG were only affected (p<0.05 by season, with highest results for spring and summer. Throughout the experimental period (730 days, no sign of mineral deficiency was detected in heifers that ingested the selective supplement. The DWG and AFM were not influenced by the mineral mixture offered (0.52 and 0.33 kg/day during the spring/summer and in fall/winter for DWG, respectively, and 813 days of AFM. The IMM was higher for commercial mineral mixture than for selective (61.6 and 51.0g/day respectively. The BCS was slightly higher for selective (3.17 than for the commercial (3.02 mineral mixture. Thus, the selective mineral supplement was a strategy to prevent mineral deficiency in this herd and resulted in similar performance at lower costs (e.g. due to less IMM of crossbred heifers when compared with the commercial mineral supplementation.

  10. Relationship between udder and milking traits during lactation in Istrian dairy crossbreed ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kaps

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the udder morphology and milking characteristics changes throughout lactation during machine milking of the sheep. Additionally, udder morphology was analyzed by using slide ruler and digital picture. Milking characteristics were influenced by milking interval and day of lactation. Udder morphology traits did not change throughout lactation, except for udder width. The repeatability between slide ruler and digital picture measurements was high (r=0.53 to 0.68. Milkability in Istrian dairy crossbreed ewes could be improved if udder traits are incorporated in selection scheme. Digital picture analysis for faster recording of udder morphology measurements in sheep can be used.

  11. REPRODUCTIVE SEASONALITY OF SHEEP IN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Arroyo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to discuss and analyze the available information concerning the seasonal breeding behavior of sheep in Mexico, this review was conducted. We analyzed the neuroendocrine basis that modulate the annual reproductive cycle in sheep and then discussed the degree of reproductive seasonality in Creole sheep wool, breeds originating in high latitudes and hair sheep, mainly in Pelibuey ewes. The Creole sheep wool show continuous annual reproductive activity and short seasonal anestrous. The females of northern origin, express seasonal reproductive activity, similar to that observed in individuals geographically located at latitudes above 35º. Pelibuey sheep show variable annual reproductive behavior with reduced anestrus or lack thereof.  It is suggested that the neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating seasonal anestrus in ewes, are active in the sheep of northern origin that live in Mexico, in a manner contrary is not activated in Creole and hair sheep.

  12. External and internal modulators of sheep reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blache, Dominique; Bickell, Samantha L

    2011-12-01

    Several factors such as season, genetics, social interaction and metabolic status control or modulate the reproductive capacity of sheep. In addition to these well-studied factors in sheep, the influence of emotional reactivity on the reproductive success of sheep has started to be investigated over the last two decades. In this paper, after briefly reviewing the impact of classical factors affecting reproduction in sheep, we define emotional reactivity and the expression of its inter-individual variability, named temperament. Then, following a description of the protocol to measure temperament in sheep and discussion on the heritability of temperament traits, we illustrate how this selection affects the reproductive biology of sheep. We will be mainly using results obtained from a unique flock of sheep selected for low or high emotional reactivity. In conclusion, we propose that energy partitioning could be one of the mechanisms by which selection for temperament in sheep affects the different steps of the reproductive cycle.

  13. Analytical strategy for the detection of antibiotic residues in sheep and goat’s milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltrán, M.C.; Althaus, R.L.; Molina, A.; Berruga, M.I.; Molina, M.P.

    2015-07-01

    The use of antibiotics to treat mastitis and other infectious diseases in dairy sheep and goats is a widespread practice nowadays that can, when not properly applied, result in the contamination of the milk supply. Spanish legislation establishes the control of the presence of antibiotic residues in sheep and goat’s milk using screening methods that detect, at least, beta-lactam drugs. Microbial inhibitor tests using Geobacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis and specific receptor-binding assays are most widely employed for this purpose. The detection rates of screening tests routinely used in Spain have been calculated considering the frequency of use of veterinary drugs commonly applied in ovine and caprine livestock to treat and prevent mastitis as well as the test sensitivity toward these substances at safety levels. In general, the use of a single test allows detecting 62.8-82.4% of the antibiotics employed. For sheep milk, the total detection range achieved with microbial tests was significantly higher than that reached with rapid receptor tests. However, no significant differences between the two types of methods were found when goat's milk was analysed. In both types of milk, the simultaneous use of two screening tests with a different analytical basis increases the total detection range significantly, reaching values ≥ 90% in some cases (81.5-90.1% for sheep and 84.7-92.6% for goats). However, the periodical use of screening tests able to detect quinolones, macrolides or aminoglycosides would be recommended to carry out more efficient screening and ensure the safety of milk and dairy products from sheep and goats. (Author)

  14. Analytical strategy for the detection of antibiotic residues in sheep and goat’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carmen Beltrán

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics to treat mastitis and other infectious diseases in dairy sheep and goats is a widespread practice nowadays that can, when not properly applied, result in the contamination of the milk supply. Spanish legislation establishes the control of the presence of antibiotic residues in sheep and goat’s milk using screening methods that detect, at least, beta-lactam drugs. Microbial inhibitor tests using Geobacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis and specific receptor-binding assays are most widely employed for this purpose. The detection rates of screening tests routinely used in Spain have been calculated considering the frequency of use of veterinary drugs commonly applied in ovine and caprine livestock to treat and prevent mastitis as well as the test sensitivity toward these substances at safety levels. In general, the use of a single test allows detecting 62.8-82.4% of the antibiotics employed. For sheep milk, the total detection range achieved with microbial tests was significantly higher than that reached with rapid receptor tests. However, no significant differences between the two types of methods were found when goat’s milk was analysed. In both types of milk, the simultaneous use of two screening tests with a different analytical basis increases the total detection range significantly, reaching values ≥ 90% in some cases (81.5-90.1% for sheep and 84.7-92.6% for goats. However, the periodical use of screening tests able to detect quinolones, macrolides or aminoglycosides would be recommended to carry out more efficient screening and ensure the safety of milk and dairy products from sheep and goats.

  15. Analytical strategy for the detection of antibiotic residues in sheep and goat’s milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrán, M.C.; Althaus, R.L.; Molina, A.; Berruga, M.I.; Molina, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of antibiotics to treat mastitis and other infectious diseases in dairy sheep and goats is a widespread practice nowadays that can, when not properly applied, result in the contamination of the milk supply. Spanish legislation establishes the control of the presence of antibiotic residues in sheep and goat’s milk using screening methods that detect, at least, beta-lactam drugs. Microbial inhibitor tests using Geobacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis and specific receptor-binding assays are most widely employed for this purpose. The detection rates of screening tests routinely used in Spain have been calculated considering the frequency of use of veterinary drugs commonly applied in ovine and caprine livestock to treat and prevent mastitis as well as the test sensitivity toward these substances at safety levels. In general, the use of a single test allows detecting 62.8-82.4% of the antibiotics employed. For sheep milk, the total detection range achieved with microbial tests was significantly higher than that reached with rapid receptor tests. However, no significant differences between the two types of methods were found when goat's milk was analysed. In both types of milk, the simultaneous use of two screening tests with a different analytical basis increases the total detection range significantly, reaching values ≥ 90% in some cases (81.5-90.1% for sheep and 84.7-92.6% for goats). However, the periodical use of screening tests able to detect quinolones, macrolides or aminoglycosides would be recommended to carry out more efficient screening and ensure the safety of milk and dairy products from sheep and goats. (Author)

  16. Transvaginal ultrasound ovarian diathermy: sheep as an experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimentel Anita M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some techniques of transvaginal ovarian drilling have been previously described. Nevertheless a monopolar transvaginal ovarian cauterization, that use the expertise and safety of transvaginal puncture for oocyte captation seems to be an easier and feasible approach. The aim of this study was to develop a minimally invasive ovarian cauterization technique under transvaginal ultrasound control, and to evaluate the safety of the transvaginal ovarian monopolar cauterization, female sheep at reproductive age were used as an experimental model. Findings An experimental study was performed in a university research center. Seventeen female sheep (15 Corriedale e 2 Suffolk in reproductive age were submitted to transvaginal ovarian cauterization with a monopolar Valleylab Force 2 electrocautery. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions were assessed. Ovarian size were 1.31 cm2 ± 0,43 (Corriedale and 3.41 cm2 ± 0,64 (Suffolk. From 30 ovaries from Corriedale sheep punctured, only 3 were cauterized, presenting macroscopic and typical microscopic lesion. In the Suffolk sheep group, only one ovary was cauterized. No lesion could be found in the needle path. Conclusions This is the first experimental animal model described for ovarian cauterization needle guided by transvaginal ultrasound. The sheep does not seem to be the ideal animal model to study this technique. Another animal model, whose ovaries are better identified by transvaginal ultrasound should be sought for this technique, theoretically less invasive, before it could be offered safely to women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  17. Sheep production as a Senecio spp. control tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Mota Bandarra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Since poisoning by Senecio spp. is one of the main causes of cattle death in southern Brazil, control of these plants is a priority for the local livestock production. After the pasture has been mowed, grazing by 16 sheep was efficient for controlling Senecio brasiliensis and Senecio madagascariensis populations in a 5.5-hectare area that had long been severely infested with these species. A total of 28,629 plants among S. brasiliensis (flower-of-souls, 10,122 and S.madagascariensis (fireweed, 18,507 were almost completely eliminated in a two-year period. The number of sheep was kept at 3.0 stock units/ha, but a variable number of cattle were temporarily stocked according to pasture availability. The major sanitary practice applied to the sheep was anthelmintic administration. Liver biopsies taken from sheep and cattle before and after experimental period didn't reveal any change associable with seneciosis. The performance levels of the sheep were comparable to those observed in flocks managed under traditional extensive grazing systems in southern Brazil.

  18. Meteorological variables affect fertility rate after intrauterine artificial insemination in sheep in a seasonal-dependent manner: a 7-year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, C.; Abecia, J. A.

    2015-05-01

    A total number of 48,088 artificial inseminations (AIs) have been controlled during seven consecutive years in 79 dairy sheep Spanish farms (41° N). Mean, maximum and minimum ambient temperatures ( Ts), temperature amplitude (TA), mean relative humidity (RH), mean solar radiation (SR) and total rainfall of each insemination day and 15 days later were recorded. Temperature-humidity index (THI) and effective temperature (ET) have been calculated. A binary logistic regression model to estimate the risk of not getting pregnant compared to getting pregnant, through the odds ratio (OR), was performed. Successful winter inseminations were carried out under higher SR ( P 1 (maximum T, ET and rainfall on AI day, and ET and rainfall on day 15), and two variables presented OR AI day and maximum T on day 15). However, the effect of meteorological factors affected fertility in opposite ways, so T becomes a protective or risk factor on fertility depending on season. In conclusion, the percentage of pregnancy after AI in sheep is significantly affected by meteorological variables in a seasonal-dependent manner, so the parameters such as temperature reverse their effects in the hot or cold seasons. A forecast of the meteorological conditions could be a useful tool when AI dates are being scheduled.

  19. Dairy Wise, A Whole-Farm Dairy Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Haan, de M.H.A.; Hemmer, J.G.A.; Pol, van den A.; Boer, de J.A.; Evers, A.G.; Holshof, G.; Middelkoop, van J.C.; Zom, R.L.G.

    2007-01-01

    A whole-farm dairy model was developed and evaluated. The DairyWise model is an empirical model that simulated technical, environmental, and financial processes on a dairy farm. The central component is the FeedSupply model that balanced the herd requirements, as generated by the DairyHerd model,

  20. Innovation Networks to Stimulate Public and Private Sector Collaboration for Advisory Services Innovation and Coordination: The Case of Pasture Performance Issues in the New Zealand Dairy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijswijk, K.; Brazendale, R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: An innovation network, called the Pasture Improvement Leadership Group (PILG), was formed to improve the quality and consistency of advice provided to dairy farmers in New Zealand, after they expressed dissatisfaction with their pastures. The aim of this paper is to better understand the challenges of forming and maintaining networks to…

  1. Effects of feeding alfalfa stemlage or wheat straw for dietary energy dilution on nutrient intake and digestibility, growth performance and feeding behavior of holstein dairy heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding high-quality forage diets may lead to excessive weight gains and over-conditioning for dairy heifers. Restriction of energy density and dry matter intake by using low-energy forages, such as straw, is a good approach for controlling this problem. Alfalfa ...

  2. Effect of processed cereal grains as a supplement on grass intake, rumen pool sizes, ruminal kinetics and the performance of grazing lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tothi, R.; Zhang, R.H.; Chilibroste, P.; Boer, H.; Tamminga, S.

    2003-01-01

    Five multiparous lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows fitted with rumen cannula were allowed to graze perennial ryegrass swards. Next to a control treatment of grazing only, pelleted barley (PB), pelleted maize (PM), toasted and subsequently pelleted barley (TPB), and toasted and subsequently

  3. Different milk feeding intensities during the first 4 weeks of rearing in dairy calves: Part 1: Effects on performance and production from birth over the first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korst, M; Koch, C; Kesser, J; Müller, U; Romberg, F-J; Rehage, J; Eder, K; Sauerwein, H

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to test the effects of ad libitum feeding of whole milk (WM) or milk replacer (MR) versus restrictive feeding of MR during the first 4 wk of life on growth performance and on milk yield in the first lactation. We studied 57 German Holstein calves (29 females, 28 males) from birth until d 110 of life (trial 1). The 28 females from trial 1 were further studied during their first lactation (trial 2). In trial 1, all calves were randomly allocated at birth to 1 of 3 groups: MR-res [n = 20, 6.78 kg MR (11.5% solids)/calf per day], MR-ad lib (n = 17, 13.8% solids) or WM-ad lib (n = 20). All calves received colostrum ad libitum from their dam until d 3 of age. From d 4 to 27, calves were fed according to their group regimen. From d 28 to 55, all calves received MR-res feeding and were then gradually weaned until d 69. We recorded body weight (until d 110) and feed intake (amount, metabolizable energy, and frequency of liquid feed intake until weaning). We estimated the profitability of the different feeding regimens, taking into account income from milk yield (trial 2) and feed costs during rearing. In trial 1, the calves from WM-ad lib and MR-ad lib had total metabolizable energy intakes 2.02- and 1.65-fold greater than the MR-res group during the first 4 wk of life. During this period, concentrate intake did not differ among groups, but tended to be greater in WM-ad lib than in MR-ad lib calves from d 28 to 69. The MR-res calves visited the automatic feeders more often than the ad libitum-fed groups during differential feeding, but 70% of the visits were unrewarded (calves). When all calves were fed at the MR-res level, the average proportion of unrewarded visits was 65% in all groups. Average daily gain and body weight were greater among MR-ad lib and WM-ad lib calves than among MR-res animals during the first 4 wk of life, but not from d 1 to 110. In trial 2, age at first calving, dry matter intake, and body weight over the first 10 mo of lactation were not

  4. Effects of preweaning total plane of milk intake and weaning age on intake, growth performance, and blood metabolites of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Dadkhah, N; Baghbanzadeh-Nobari, B; Agha-Tehrani, A; Eshraghi, M; Imani, M; Shiasi-Sardoabi, R; Ghaffari, M H

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of preweaning total plane of milk intake and weaning age on intake, growth performance, and blood metabolites of dairy calves. A total of 48 Holstein calves (40 ± 1.6 kg of body weight) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors of weaning age (d 60 vs. 75) and the total plane of milk intake (medium vs. high) during the preweaning period. Calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: (1) calves fed medium plane of milk (MPM) intake and weaned on d 60 of age (MPM-60d, 4 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10, 6 L/d of milk from d 11 to 55, and 3 L/d of milk from d 56 to 60 of age; total milk intake = 317 L), (2) calves fed MPM intake and weaned on d 75 of age (MPM-75d, 4 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10 and 4.5 L/d of milk from d 11 to 70 of age followed by feeding 2.25 L/d of milk from d 71 to 75 of age; total milk intake = 313 L), (3) calves fed high plane of milk (HPM) intake and weaned on d 60 of age (HPM-60d, 4 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10, 6 L/d of milk from d 11 to 20, and 8.5 L/d of milk from d 21 to 55 followed by feeding 4.25 L/d of milk from d 56 to 60 of age; total milk intake = ∼411 L); and (4) calves fed HPM intake and weaned on d 75 (HPM-75d, 4 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10, and 6 L/d of milk from d 11 to 70 of age followed by feeding 3 L/d of milk from d 71 to 75 of age; total milk intake = 407 L) with no milk refusals. All of the calves were monitored up to d 90 of age. Regardless of weaning age, starter feed intake and dry matter intake (% of body weight) were lower in calves fed HPM compared with those receiving MPM. A tendency for the plane of milk intake × weaning age interaction was observed for metabolizable energy intake with the highest value was recorded with the HPM-75d calves. The lowest efficiency of metabolizable energy intake and average feed efficiency was observed in HPM-60d calves throughout the experimental period as compared with the other groups. An interaction was found between

  5. Fatal systemic cladosporiosis in a merino sheep flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haligur, Mehmet; Ozmen, Ozlem; Dorrestein, Gerry M

    2010-12-01

    Systemic cladosporiosis is described in 25 merino sheep from a flock consisting 250 animals. The fungal pneumonia appeared after an intensive antibiotic treatment, because of a respiratory system disorder. The pen of the flock was humid and crowded, and animals had signs of respiratory distress, coughing, fever and anorexia. All of the ill animals died, and necropsy was performed on 10 sheep. The lesions were characterized by a multifocal pyogranulomatous pneumonia and an abomasitis. Severe hemorrhages were observed in the lungs. At the histopathological examination, severe vasculitis with thrombosis was observed in various organs, especially in the lungs and abomasums, suggestive for a hematogenous dissemination of the infection in these organs. Numerous PAS-positive fungal elements were seen in the pyogranulomatous foci. Dark green fungal colonies were seen in the blood agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar that were identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides. This report highlights that phaeohyphomycosis can cause a severe systemic and fatal disease in merino sheep under insufficient management conditions.

  6. Dietary phosphorus depletion in sheep: Longterm effects on bone structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breves, G.; Prokop, M.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were performed on 6 sheep from 8 months old to study effects of dietary phosphorus depletion on bone structure. Sheep were given a semisynthetic diet of chopped straw and pellets for 38 weeks. Mean daily P in the diet was 0.97 g and 3 sheep were given additional NaH2PO4.H2O, increasing daily P supply to 4.5 g (controls). Bone density was estimated photometrically within the laterodistal metaphysis of the foreleg and standardized by a copper step wedge. Metacarpal cortical thickness was also measured. Cortical thickness and bone density started to decrease about 4 weeks after start of P depletion. The trabecular structure of the distal radius was coarser and less dense with reduced cross-linking between trabeculae

  7. Comparison of the Effects of Goat Dairy and Cow Dairy Based Breakfasts on Satiety, Appetite Hormones, and Metabolic Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Martín, Elehazara; García-Escobar, Eva; Ruiz de Adana, Maria-Soledad; Lima-Rubio, Fuensanta; Peláez, Laura; Caracuel, Angel-María; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco-Javier; Soriguer, Federico; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Olveira, Gabriel

    2017-08-15

    The satiating effects of cow dairy have been thoroughly investigated; however, the effects of goat dairy on appetite have not been reported so far. Our study investigates the satiating effect of two breakfasts based on goat or cow dairy and their association with appetite related hormones and metabolic profile. Healthy adults consumed two breakfasts based on goat (G-Breakfast) or cow (C-Breakfast) dairy products. Blood samples were taken and VAS tests were performed at different time points. Blood metabolites were measured and Combined Satiety Index (CSI) and areas under the curves (AUC) were calculated. Desire to eat rating was significantly lower (breakfast & time interaction p cow dairy products, and pointed to a potential association of GLP-1 and triglyceride levels with the mechanisms by which dairy products might affect satiety after the G-Breakfast and C-Breakfast, respectively.

  8. Energy audit at Russian dairies. Energy guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draborg, S [Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Vanloese (Denmark); Sheina, L S; Kolesnikov, A I [RDIEE, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-12-31

    The project encompassed following activities: Elaboration of a description of the Russian dairy sector including a mapping of the entire sector in respect of production capacity, actual production, products, production technologies and energy consumption; Energy audits at twelve selected dairies with different typical productions; Elaboration of an `Energy Audit Guidance` which describes how to perform energy audits in dairies and where to expect energy saving possibilities. The energy savings possibilities are often due to the same kind of problems, e.g. low production, inefficient equipment or manually control of the process equipment. The main problems that Russian dairies faces can be divided into the following categories: Old and inefficient technological equipment which is operated at low capacity with very low energy efficiency; Lack of knowledge about new energy efficient technologies; Financial problems which causes low interest and few possibilities for using funds for investment in energy efficient equipment; Energy savings do not lead to personal gains for the persons in the dairy management or other employees which causes low interest in energy savings. At some dairies it seemd to be a problem for the management to adapt to the new and very different conditions for enterprises in Russian today, where sales, production, production capacity and raw milk available are interconnected. With respect to energy matters it was often a wish to replace existing oversized equipment with new equipment of the same size no matter that it is unlikely that the production will increase considerable in the future. The project has discovered that there is a need for demonstrating energy saving measures by implementation because it was in many ways hard for the dairy management`s to believe that, the energy consumption could be reduced dramatically without affecting the production or the processes. Furthermore, the project has discovered a need for transferring to the

  9. Energy audit at Russian dairies. Energy guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draborg, S. [Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Vanloese (Denmark); Sheina, L.S.; Kolesnikov, A.I. [RDIEE, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    The project encompassed following activities: Elaboration of a description of the Russian dairy sector including a mapping of the entire sector in respect of production capacity, actual production, products, production technologies and energy consumption; Energy audits at twelve selected dairies with different typical productions; Elaboration of an `Energy Audit Guidance` which describes how to perform energy audits in dairies and where to expect energy saving possibilities. The energy savings possibilities are often due to the same kind of problems, e.g. low production, inefficient equipment or manually control of the process equipment. The main problems that Russian dairies faces can be divided into the following categories: Old and inefficient technological equipment which is operated at low capacity with very low energy efficiency; Lack of knowledge about new energy efficient technologies; Financial problems which causes low interest and few possibilities for using funds for investment in energy efficient equipment; Energy savings do not lead to personal gains for the persons in the dairy management or other employees which causes low interest in energy savings. At some dairies it seemd to be a problem for the management to adapt to the new and very different conditions for enterprises in Russian today, where sales, production, production capacity and raw milk available are interconnected. With respect to energy matters it was often a wish to replace existing oversized equipment with new equipment of the same size no matter that it is unlikely that the production will increase considerable in the future. The project has discovered that there is a need for demonstrating energy saving measures by implementation because it was in many ways hard for the dairy management`s to believe that, the energy consumption could be reduced dramatically without affecting the production or the processes. Furthermore, the project has discovered a need for transferring to the

  10. Comparison of Expansive Pedicle Screw and Polymethylmethacrylate-Augmented Pedicle Screw in Osteoporotic Sheep Lumbar Vertebrae: Biomechanical and Interfacial Evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Da; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Bo; Xie, Qing-yun; Wang, Cai-ru; Liu, Jin-biao; Liao, Dong-fa; Jiang, Kai; Lei, Wei; Pan, Xian-ming

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It was reported that expansive pedicle screw (EPS) and polymethylmethacrylate-augmented pedicle screw (PMMA-PS) could be used to increase screw stability in osteoporosis. However, there are no studies comparing the two kinds of screws in vivo. Thus, we aimed to compare biomechanical and interfacial performances of EPS and PMMA-PS in osteoporotic sheep spine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After successful induction of osteoporotic sheep, lumbar vertebrae in each sheep were random...

  11. Polymorphism in exon2 of BMP15 gene in Iranian sangsari sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zana pirkhezranian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fertility rate is an economically important trait in sheep, which is influenced by genetic and environment. So far, three genes have been identified that affects this trait, one of them would be the BMP family, the most famous one is BMP15. Different mutations in the BMP15 gene, increases reproductive performance and growth rate in sheep. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic and phylogenetic of BMP15 gene sequence in Iranian Sangsari sheep. For this purpose, the blood samples from 20 animal of Damghan station were collected. After DNA extracting, a segment of 222 bp of exon 2 of BMP15 gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction. Then, all of the PCR products were sequenced. The results showed existence of four haplotypes and three significant mutations of the gene that which one of them was seen for first. In order to determine the genetic distance of Sansari sheep with other animals especially sheep breeds about 103 sequences were taken from Genebank, Then, phylogenetic trees were drawn. Genetic distances and nucleotide differences were calculated. The results showed that goat, cattle and buffalo have minimum genetic distance and monkey, human and mouse have maximum distance with Sangsari sheep and native Hindi and Kashmiri sheep have not any differences with Iranian Sangsari sheep.

  12. DairyBISS Baseline report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buizer, N.N.; Berhanu, Tinsae; Murutse, Girmay; Vugt, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This baseline report of the Dairy Business Information Service and Support (DairyBISS) project presents the findings of a baseline survey among 103 commercial farms and 31 firms and advisors working in the dairy value chain. Additional results from the survey among commercial dairy farms are

  13. Effect of feeding Rumen-protected capsule containing niacin, K2SO4, vitamin C, and gamma-aminobutyric acid on heat stress and performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, W J; Zhen, L; Zhang, J X; Lian, S; Si, H F; Guo, J R; Yang, H M

    2017-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplemental rumen-protected capsule (RPC) on animal performance, serological indicators, and serum heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) of lactating Holstein cows under heat stress (HS). During summer months, 30 healthy multiparous lactating Holstein cows with a parity number of 3.1 ± 0.44, 70 ± 15 d in milk, an average body weight of 622 ± 62kg, and an average milk yield of 32.28 ± 0.96kg/d, were used. The cows were randomly allocated to two groups: a control group and an RPC-supplemented group (0.13373kg K 2 SO 4 , 0.02488kg vitamin C, 0.021148kg niacin, and 0.044784kggamma-aminobutyric acid per cow). During the 42-d experiment, ambient air temperature and relative humidity inside and outside the barn were recorded hourly every day for the determination of temperature-humidity index (THI). Milk and blood samples were collected every week, and body weight and body condition scoring were measured on day 0. Based on the THI values, the animals had moderate HS. On day 42, the RPC group had lower HSP70, adrenocorticotropic hormone (P = 0.0001), lactate dehydrogenase (P = 0.0338), and IL-6 (P = 0.0724) levels than the control group, with no significant differences in creatine kinase, glucocorticoid, or IL-2 levels. Milk yield, energy-corrected milk, and dry matter intake were higher in RPC than in the control group (P = 0.0196). There were no significant differences in milk fat or daily protein levels between the two groups; however, daily protein and milk fat levels were higher in the RPC group than in the control group (P = 0.0114 and P = 0.0665, respectively). Somatic cell counts were no different between the two groups. In conclusion, RPC may alleviate HS and improve dairy cow performance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The preference for water nipples vs. water bowls in dairy goats

    OpenAIRE

    B?e, Knut E; Ehrlenbruch, Rebecca; Andersen, Inger L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies have reported that the design of the water dispensers can influence the water intake in farm animals. Horses and dairy cows seem to prefer to drink from an open surface whereas sheep and pigs apparently prefer water nipples, probably because of the worse water quality in water bowls. The aim of the present study was to examine the preference of dairy goats for water nipples or water bowls. Methods In each of the two experiments (exp. 1, dry goats, exp. 2 l...

  15. Evaluating pharmacological models of high and low anxiety in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Doyle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available New tests of animal affect and welfare require validation in subjects experiencing putatively different states. Pharmacological manipulations of affective state are advantageous because they can be administered in a standardised fashion, and the duration of their action can be established and tailored to suit the length of a particular test. To this end, the current study aimed to evaluate a pharmacological model of high and low anxiety in an important agricultural and laboratory species, the sheep. Thirty-five 8-month-old female sheep received either an intramuscular injection of the putatively anxiogenic drug 1-(m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP; 1 mg/kg; n = 12, an intravenous injection of the putatively anxiolytic drug diazepam (0.1 mg/kg; n = 12, or acted as a control (saline intramuscular injection n = 11. Thirty minutes after the treatments, sheep were individually exposed to a variety of tests assessing their general movement, performance in a ‘runway task’ (moving down a raceway for a food reward, response to startle, and behaviour in isolation. A test to assess feeding motivation was performed 2 days later following administration of the drugs to the same animals in the same manner. The mCPP sheep had poorer performance in the two runway tasks (6.8 and 7.7 × slower respectively than control group; p < 0.001, a greater startle response (1.4 vs. 0.6; p = 0.02, a higher level of movement during isolation (9.1 steps vs. 5.4; p < 0.001, and a lower feeding motivation (1.8 × slower; p < 0.001 than the control group, all of which act as indicators of anxiety. These results show that mCPP is an effective pharmacological model of high anxiety in sheep. Comparatively, the sheep treated with diazepam did not display any differences compared to the control sheep. Thus we suggest that mCPP is an effective treatment to validate future tests aimed at assessing anxiety in sheep, and that future studies should include other subtle indicators of

  16. Sheep model for osteoporosis: The effects of peripheral hormone therapy on centrally induced systemic bone loss in an osteoporotic sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oheim, Ralf; Simon, Maciej J K; Steiner, Malte; Vettorazzi, Eik; Barvencik, Florian; Ignatius, Anita; Amling, Michael; Clarke, Iain J; Pogoda, Pia; Beil, F Timo

    2017-04-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary disconnection (HPD) leads to low bone turnover followed by bone loss and reduced biomechanical properties in sheep. To investigate the role of peripheral hormones in this centrally induced systemic bone loss model, we planned a hormone replacement experiment. Therefore, estrogen (OHE), thyroxin (OHT) or a combination of both (OHTE) was substituted in ovariectomized HPD sheep, as both hormones are decreased in HPD sheep and are known to have a significant but yet not fully understood impact on bone metabolism. Bone turnover and structural parameters were analyzed in comparison to different control groups - untreated sheep (C), ovariectomized (O) and ovariectomized+HPD sheep (OH). We performed histomorphometric and HR-pQCT analyses nine months after the HPD procedure, as well as biomechanical testing of all ewes studied. In HPD sheep (OH) the low bone turnover led to a significant bone loss. Treatment with thyroxin alone (OHT) mainly increased bone resorption, leading to a further reduction in bone volume. In contrast, the treatment with estrogen alone (OHE) and the combined treatment with estrogen and thyroxin (OHTE) prevented HPD-induced bone loss completely. In conclusion, peripheral hormone substitution was able to prevent HPD-induced low-turnover osteoporosis in sheep. But only the treatment with estrogen alone or in combination with thyroxin was able to completely preserve bone mass and structure. These findings demonstrate the importance of peripheral hormones for a balanced bone remodeling and a physiological bone turnover. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bartonella melophagi in blood of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) from the southwestern US: Cultures, genetic characterization, and ecological connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosoy, Michael; Bai, Ying; Enscore, Russell; Rizzo, Maria Rosales; Bender, Scott; Popov, Vsevolod; Albayrak, Levent; Fofanov, Yuriy; Chomel, Bruno

    2016-07-15

    Bartonella melophagi sp. nov. was isolated from domestic sheep blood and from sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) from the southwestern United States. The sequence analyses of the reference strain performed by six molecular markers consistently demonstrated that B. melophagi relates to but differ from other Bartonella species isolated from domestic and wild ruminants. Presence of 183 genes specific for B. melophagi, being absent in genomes of other Bartonella species associated with ruminants also supports the separation of this bacterial species from species of other ruminants. Bartonella DNA was detected in all investigated sheep keds; however, culturing of these bacteria from sheep blood rejects a speculation that B. melophagi is an obligatory endosymbiont. Instead, the results support the hypothesis that the domestic sheep is a natural host reservoir for B. melophagi and the sheep ked its main vector. This bacterium was not isolated from the blood of bighorn sheep and domestic goats belonging to the same subfamily Caprinae. B. melophagi has also been shown to be zoonotic and needs to be investigated further. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Integrating an automated activity monitor into an artificial insemination program and the associated risk factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Tracy A; Madureira, Augusto M L; Silper, Bruna F; Fernandes, A C C; Cerri, Ronaldo L A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 2 reproductive programs for the management of first postpartum artificial insemination (AI) based on activity monitors and timed AI, as well as to determine the effect of health-related factors on detection and expression of estrus. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 918) from 2 commercial farms were enrolled. Estrous cycles of all cows were presynchronized with 2 injections of PGF 2α administered 2 wk apart. Treatments were (1) first insemination performed by timed AI (TAI) and (2) first insemination based upon the detection of estrus by activity monitors (ACT; Heatime, SCR Engineering, Netanya, Israel) after the presynchronization, whereas cows not inseminated by the detection of estrus were enrolled in the Ovsynch protocol. Body condition score (BCS; scale 1 to 5), hock score (scale: 1 to 4), gait score (scale: 1 to 4), and corpus luteum presence detected by ovarian ultrasonography were recorded twice during the presynchronization. On the ACT treatment, 50.5% of cows were inseminated based on detected estrus, whereas 83.2% of the cows on the TAI treatment were inseminated appropriately after the timed AI protocol. Pregnancy per AI did not differ by treatment (30.8 vs. 33.5% for ACT and TAI, respectively). Success of pregnancy was affected by parity, cyclicity, BCS, milk production, and a tendency for leg health. In addition, treatment × cyclicity and treatment × parity interactions were found to affect pregnancy success, where anovulatory cows and older cows had compromised pregnancy outcomes on the ACT treatment but not on the TAI treatment. Factors affecting pregnancy outcomes varied among farms. Hazard of pregnancy by 300 DIM was affected by farm, parity, BCS, a treatment × cyclicity interaction, and a tendency for an interaction between leg health and farm. Detection of estrus was affected by farm, parity, cyclicity, and leg health, but not BCS or milk production. Expression of estrus was compromised in anovular and older

  19. Categorization of endometritis and its association with ovarian follicular growth and ovulation, reproductive performance, dry matter intake, and milk yield in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobikrushanth, M; Salehi, R; Ambrose, D J; Colazo, M G

    2016-10-15

    The objectives were to evaluate the effect of different categories of endometritis on follicular growth and ovulation, reproductive performance, dry matter intake (DMI), and milk yield (MY) in dairy cows. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 126) were examined for endometritis on 25 ± 1 day postpartum (DPP) using vaginoscopy, transrectal ultrasonography, and endometrial cytology to determine the presence and type of vaginal discharge, uterine fluid, and proportion of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells, respectively. Cows that had mucopurulent vaginal discharge and/or presence of uterine fluid, no mucopurulent vaginal discharge or uterine fluid but 8% or more PMN, and mucopurulent vaginal discharge and/or uterine fluid and 8% or more of PMN were defined as having clinical (CLIN; n = 45), cytological (CYTO; n = 15), and clinical and cytological (CLINCYTO; n = 30) endometritis, respectively. Cows that had none of the above pathological conditions were classified as unaffected (UNAF; n = 36). The diameter of the largest follicle at first examination, intervals from calving to first dominant (diameter = 10 mm) follicle, preovulatory size (diameter = 16 mm) follicle, ovulation, presence of follicular cyst, and proportion of ovular cows at 35 and 65 DPP were recorded as the measures of follicular growth and ovulation. None of the ovarian follicular parameters analyzed was affected by categories of endometritis. The first service conception rate tended (P = 0.06) to differ among categories of endometritis; cows that had CLIN and CLINCYTO endometritis were four times less likely to conceive to the first insemination compared to UNAF cows. Cows that had CLIN (hazard ratio: 0.52) and CLINCYTO (hazard ratio: 0.40) endometritis had decreased likelihood of pregnancy at 150 DPP compared to UNAF cows. Similarly, cows diagnosed as having CLINCYTO endometritis had decreased likelihood (hazard ratio: 0.48) of pregnancy at 250 DPP compared to UNAF cows. The DMI and MY up to 5

  20. Effect of Milk Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria on Diarrheal Incidence, Growth Performance and Microbiological and Blood Profiles of Newborn Dairy Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, N C; Chiaraviglio, J; Bru, E; De Chazal, L; Santos, V; Nader-Macías, M E F

    2017-08-02

    The effect of the administration of milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria to calves was evaluated. The strains included were: Lactobacillus murinus CRL1695, Lact. mucosae CRL1696, Lact. johnsonii CRL1693, and Lact. salivarius CRL1702, which were selected for their beneficial and functional properties and isolated from healthy calves in the northwestern region of Argentina. The trial was conducted on a dairy farm located in Tucumán (Holando-Argentino calves). A randomized controlled trial was performed in which 56 new-born animals were divided into two groups: the treated group (T) received the fermented milk for 60 days and the control group (C) only milk. The animals were fed a solid diet ad libitum. The treated group was given a daily dose of 1 × 10 9 CFU of the probiotic fermented milk while the control group was fed milk. Body weight and biometrical parameters were recorded between 15 and 60 days of age, and average daily gain was calculated with three samplings per animal throughout the trial. Rectal swabs and fecal and blood samples were also collected. Results showed the efficacy of the probiotic: lower morbidity and mortality of calves (morbidity was 69.20% in animals without the probiotic, and 46.15% in probiotic-treated animals, with P = 0.09; mortality in C was 34.61 and 7.69% in animals fed with ferment milk; P = 0.02).The calves fed with probiotic evidenced an improvement in nutritional parameters, body condition and weight gain (health index P = 0.01; average daily gain P = 0.03).Viable bacterial numbers showed no differences between the two experimental groups. Hematological parameters and serum proteins were not modified by the treatment. The results suggest that the fermented milk containing lactic acid bacteria can be a viable veterinary product for young calves due to its beneficial effects on health and growth.

  1. Fatal pneumonia following inoculation of healthy bighorn sheep with Pasteurella haemolytica from healthy domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, W J; Snipes, K P; Kasten, R W

    1994-04-01

    In a series of three experiments, isolates of Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2, ribotype reference WSU-1, from healthy domestic sheep, were inoculated intratracheally into eight bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) and seven domestic sheep with doses of bacteria ranging from 5.3 x 10(8) to 8.6 x 10(11) colony forming units. Seven of eight inoculated bighorn sheep died from acute pneumonia within 48 hr of inoculation, whereas all seven domestic sheep inoculated with comparable or greater doses of bacteria remained healthy. One contact control bighorn sheep also died 6 days after its penmates received P. haemolytica. Three other noncontact control bighorn sheep remained healthy during the experiments. Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2, ribotype reference WSU-1 in the inocula was recovered from one or more tissues from all bighorns that died; whereas, it was not detected in any bighorn sheep before inoculation. Three different ribotypes of P. haemolytica A2 were recovered from bighorn sheep; however, only the ribotype reference WSU-1 in the domestic sheep-origin inoculum was recovered from all dead bighorn sheep, and was not recovered from bighorn sheep that survived the experiments. Thus, a relatively nonpathogenic and common isolate of P. haemolytica from healthy domestic sheep was lethal in bighorn sheep under experimental conditions.

  2. Texturized dairy proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwulata, Charles I; Phillips, John G; Tunick, Michael H; Qi, Phoebi X; Cooke, Peter H

    <