WorldWideScience

Sample records for dairy industry

  1. Business opportunities in the Mexican dairy industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Armenta Gutierrez, B.M.; Poelarends, J.J.; Valk, van der O.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the Mexican and Dutch business opportunities in the dairy industry in Mexico. The report discusses first the external environment of the Mexican dairy sector: the economic developments, the country's overall competitiveness, and the economic and agricultural policies. Next, it

  2. A systems approach to the South African dairy industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elsabe Gagiano

    As the average productive life of dairy cows is 2.3 ... Keywords: Dairy cow, South Africa, dairy industry, milk production, milk price ..... optimize the entire production chain of the primary production systems, post harvest processes, transport,.

  3. Invited review : Changes in the dairy industry affecting dairy cattle health and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkema, H W; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Kastelic, J P; Lam, T J G M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/14686820X; Luby, C; Roy, J-P; LeBlanc, S J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F

    2015-01-01

    The dairy industry in the developed world has undergone profound changes over recent decades. In this paper, we present an overview of some of the most important recent changes in the dairy industry that affect health and welfare of dairy cows, as well as the science associated with these changes.

  4. The Role of Dairy Cattle Husbandry in Supporting The Development of National Dairy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Anggraeni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available An intensive development in Indonesian dairy industry has expanded over two decades. During this period, the structure of the national dairy industry has progressed completely. The capacity of the national fresh milk production, however, has been able to supply only 35% of domestic milk demand. The milk domestic demand is predicted to be continous due to the increases in the national population and their welfare. Raising temperate dairy breed (Holstein-Friesian under tropical climate has resulted many deteriorates in productivity. More inferiority has been found under a semi-intensive management at small dairy farms. The existence of various changes in the global trade regulation for agriculture commodities has been a considerable factor directly affecting the future development of the national dairy industry. Increasing efficiency of various determinant components of the national dairy industry is required to produce domestic fresh milk in a good quality at a competitive price. This paper is dealing with the status of various determined factors especially for dairy livestock components to improve the future national dairy industry prospectively, involving for the national dairy cattle population, domestic milk yield, productivity of dairy cattle, breeding system and supporting reproduction technology. More over, other essential factors providing for dairy institution as well as distribution and marketing domestic milk production are also described.

  5. Prevalence of paratuberculosis in the dairy goat and dairy sheep industries in Ontario, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Cathy A.; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula

    2016-01-01

    ). Using 3-test latent class Bayesian models, true farm-level prevalence was estimated to be 83.0% [95% probability interval (PI): 62.6% to 98.1%] for dairy goats and 66.8% (95% PI: 41.6% to 91.4%) for dairy sheep. The within-farm true prevalence for dairy goats was 35.2% (95% PI: 23.0% to 49......A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to estimate the prevalence of paratuberculosis in the small ruminant dairy industries in Ontario, Canada. Blood and feces were sampled from 580 goats and 397 sheep (lactating and 2 y of age or older) that were randomly selected...... from 29 randomly selected dairy goat herds and 21 convenience -selected dairy sheep flocks. Fecal samples were analyzed using bacterial culture (BD BACTEC MGIT 960) and polymerase chain reaction (Tetracore); serum samples were tested with the Prionics Parachek enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA...

  6. Invited review: Changes in the dairy industry affecting dairy cattle health and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkema, H W; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Kastelic, J P; Lam, T J G M; Luby, C; Roy, J-P; LeBlanc, S J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F

    2015-11-01

    The dairy industry in the developed world has undergone profound changes over recent decades. In this paper, we present an overview of some of the most important recent changes in the dairy industry that affect health and welfare of dairy cows, as well as the science associated with these changes. Additionally, knowledge gaps are identified where research is needed to guide the dairy industry through changes that are occurring now or that we expect will occur in the future. The number of farms has decreased considerably, whereas herd size has increased. As a result, an increasing number of dairy farms depend on hired (nonfamily) labor. Regular professional communication and establishment of farm-specific protocols are essential to minimize human errors and ensure consistency of practices. Average milk production per cow has increased, partly because of improvements in nutrition and management but also because of genetic selection for milk production. Adoption of new technologies (e.g., automated calf feeders, cow activity monitors, and automated milking systems) is accelerating. However, utilization of the data and action lists that these systems generate for health and welfare of livestock is still largely unrealized, and more training of dairy farmers, their employees, and their advisors is necessary. Concurrently, to remain competitive and to preserve their social license to operate, farmers are increasingly required to adopt increased standards for food safety and biosecurity, become less reliant on the use of antimicrobials and hormones, and provide assurances regarding animal welfare. Partly because of increasing herd size but also in response to animal welfare regulations in some countries, the proportion of dairy herds housed in tiestalls has decreased considerably. Although in some countries access to pasture is regulated, in countries that traditionally practiced seasonal grazing, fewer farmers let their dairy cows graze in the summer. The proportion of

  7. Impact of Market Access Reforms On the Canadian Dairy Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hacault, Anastasie; Rude, James; Carlberg, Jared G.

    2010-01-01

    The World Trade Organization's (WTO) latest round of negotiations, the Doha Development Agenda (DDA), will likely change the way most agricultural products are traded around the world. These new liberalization policies will potentially affect the Canadian production and consumption of dairy products. This paper uses a partial equilibrium model with stochastic world prices to evaluate the effects of these trade reforms on the Canadian dairy industry. Different liberalization scenarios are simu...

  8. Accounting for biodiversity in the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Grant C

    2015-05-15

    Biodiversity is an essential part of properly functioning ecosystems, yet the loss of biodiversity currently occurs at rates unparalleled in the modern era. One of the major causes of this phenomenon is habitat loss and modification as a result of intensified agricultural practices. This paper provides a starting point for considering biodiversity within dairy production, and, although focusing primarily on the United States, findings are applicable broadly. Biodiversity definitions and assessments (e.g., indicators, tools) are proposed and reviewed. Although no single indicator or tool currently meets all the needs of comprehensive assessment, many sustainable practices are readily adoptable as ways to conserve and promote biodiversity. These practices, as well as potential funding opportunities are identified. Given the state of uncertainty in addressing the complex nature of biodiversity assessments, the adoption of generally sustainable environmental practices may be the best currently available option for protecting biodiversity on dairy lands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Energy conservation and cost benefits in the dairy processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Guidance is given on measuring energy consumption in the plant and pinpointing areas where energy-conservation activities can return the most favorable economics. General energy-conservation techniques applicable to most or all segments of the dairy processing industry, including the fluid milk segment, are emphasized. These general techniques include waste heat recovery, improvements in electric motor efficiency, added insulation, refrigeration improvements, upgrading of evaporators, and increases in boiler efficiency. Specific examples are given in which these techniques are applied to dairy processing plants. The potential for energy savings by cogeneration of process steam and electricity in the dairy industry is also discussed. Process changes primarily applicable to specific milk products which have resulted in significant energy cost savings at some facilities or which promise significant contributions in the future are examined. A summary checklist of plant housekeeping measures for energy conservation and guidelines for economic evaluation of conservation alternatives are provided. (MHR)

  10. Evaluation of food safety management systems in Serbian dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Tomašević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports incentives, costs, difficulties and benefits of food safety management systems implementation in the Serbian dairy industry. The survey involved 27 food business operators with the national milk and dairy market share of 65 %. Almost two thirds of the assessed dairy producers (70.4 % claimed that they had a fully operational and certified HACCP system in place, while 29.6 % implemented HACCP, but had no third party certification. ISO 22000 was implemented and certified in 29.6 % of the companies, while only 11.1 % had implemented and certified IFS standard. The most important incentive for implementing food safety management systems for Serbian dairy producers was to increase and improve safety and quality of dairy products. The cost of product investigation/analysis and hiring external consultants were related to the initial set-up of food safety management system with the greatest importance. Serbian dairy industry was not greatly concerned by the financial side of implementing food safety management systems due to the fact that majority of prerequisite programmes were in place and regularly used by almost 100 % of the producers surveyed. The presence of competency gap between the generic knowledge for manufacturing food products and the knowledge necessary to develop and implement food safety management systems was confirmed, despite the fact that 58.8 % of Serbian dairy managers had university level of education. Our study brings about the innovation emphasizing the attitudes and the motivation of the food production staff as the most important barrier for the development and implementation of HACCP. The most important identified benefit was increased safety of dairy products with the mean rank scores of 6.85. The increased customer confidence and working discipline of staff employed in food processing were also found as important benefits of implementing/operating HACCP. The study shows that the level of HACCP

  11. Energy survey in the New Zealand dairy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vickers, V T; Shannon, D V

    1977-12-25

    An in-depth report on energy consumption in the New Zealand dairy industry for 1974--75 shows that a reduction in fuel consumption per unit of production has occurred when compared with two previous surveys (1954--55 and 1964--65). The increase in thermal efficiency of dairy processing was due mainly to the use of hot water heating systems in milk-treatment stations, the increased capacity of butter and cheese factories, increased thermal efficiency in skim milk drying and casein manufacture, increased efficiency in boiler plants, and higher drying air temperature achieved with the use of indirect oil- and gas-fired air heaters and liquid-phase air heating systems. Total energy consumed by the industry by type is tabulated. Recommendations to the industry following the survey are listed. (MCW)

  12. Ergonomic evaluation of cheese production process in dairy industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Brito Rodrigues

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work consisted of an analysis of work conditions aspects in small dairy industries from southwest region of Bahia state. The study considered the analysis of environmental variables and the organization of the work in the production process of cheeses. The analysis was performed by means of observations in loco and measurement of the environmental variables related to noise, illumination and temperature. The main problems are related to posture and inadequate illumination. The parameters were evaluated according to the norms and legislation available in order to propose suggestions for the identified problems, objectifying the comfort and safety of workers and the consequent improvement of activities developed in these industries. Keywords: Ergonomics, Dairy industries, Environmental comfort.

  13. Conservation practice and opportunities in the dairy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vickers, V. T.

    1977-10-15

    During the past two decades the dairy industry has increased the efficiency of fuel utilization in the manufacture of all dairy products. The increased thermal efficiency is due to the greater use of hot water heating in milk treatment stations, the operation of larger capacity butter and cheese factories with increased factory mechanization, greatly improved processing plant design in milk powder and casein factories, and the increased use of oil and gas firing, together with more efficient automatic boiler plants. In the industry, a greater decrease in energy consumption would be possible through the greater availability of natural gas. Natural gas-fired turbines and/or reciprocating engines could be used for on-site power generation using the waste heat for processing purposes.

  14. Possibilities of implementing nonthermal processing methods in the dairy industry

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Jeličić

    2010-01-01

    In the past two decades a lot of research in the field of food science has focused on new, non-thermal processing methods. This article describes the most intensively investigated new processing methodsfor implementation in the dairy industry, like microfiltration, high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound and pulsed electric fields. For each method an overview is given for the principle of microbial inactivation, the obtained results regarding reduction of microorganisms as well as the positive ...

  15. Possibilities of implementing nonthermal processing methods in the dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jeličić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades a lot of research in the field of food science has focused on new, non-thermal processing methods. This article describes the most intensively investigated new processing methodsfor implementation in the dairy industry, like microfiltration, high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound and pulsed electric fields. For each method an overview is given for the principle of microbial inactivation, the obtained results regarding reduction of microorganisms as well as the positive and undesirable effects on milk composition and characteristics. Most promising methods for further implementation in the dairy industry appeared to be combination of moderate temperatures with high hydrostatic pressure, respectively, pulsed electric fields and microfiltration, since those treatments did not result in any undesirable changes in sensory properties of milk. Additionally, milk treatment with these methodsresulted in a better milk fat homogenization, faster rennet coagulation, shorter duration of milk fermentations, etc. Very good results regarding microbial inactivation were obtained by treating milkwith combination of moderate temperatures and high intensity ultrasound which is also called a process of thermosonification. However, thermosonification treatments often result in undesirablechanges in milk sensory properties, which is most probably due to ultrasonic induced milk fat oxidation. This article also shortly describes the use of natural compounds with antimicrobial effects such as bacteriocins, lactoperoxidase system and lysozime. However their implementation is limited for reasons like high costs, interaction with other food ingredients, poor solubility, narrow activity spectrum, spontaneous loss of bacteriocinogenicity, etc. In addition, principles of antimicrobial effect of microwaves and ultraviolet irradiation are described. However their implementation in the dairy industry failed mostly due to technical and commercial reasons.

  16. Size and Distribution of Research Benefits in the Australian Dairy Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Esther; Tarrant, Katherine A.; Ho, Christie K.M.; Malcolm, Bill; Griffith, Garry R.

    2012-01-01

    An equilibrium displacement model of the Australian dairy industry is being developed for estimating the net benefits from dairy research undertaken by DPI Victoria. In this initial version, the dairy industry is represented by a system of aggregate demand and supply relationships for two input sectors, raw milk and milk processing inputs, and three output sectors, export and domestic manufactured milk and domestic fluid milk. Quantities and prices are calibrated in terms of milk equivalents....

  17. Greening production and consumption: the case of the appliance and dairy industries in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thongplew, N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Natapol Thongplew

    Thesis title: Greening production and consumption: The case of the appliance and dairy industries in Thailand

    This research looked into the greening of the appliance and dairy industries in

  18. Protein recovery from dairy industry wastes with aerobic biofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheatley, A D; Mitra, R I; Hawkes, H A

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to improve the economics of effluent treatment by the recovery of single cell protein. Field observations showed that acidic strong wastes, such as those from the dairy industry, produced a predominantly fungal biomass. Mixtures of dairy waste and domestic sewage did not produce fungal films. The most common fungi isolated were Fusarium and Geotrichum, but the species was affected by local conditions, i.e. creamery, yoghurt, milk or cheese wastes and the load to the plant. Batch culture was used to determine the growth requirements of Fusarium and Geotrichum and continuous culture, on vertical and horizontal fixed films, to determine growth and sloughing at different organic loads. The fungi grew well on acidic strong wastes which would discourage other organisms. A 1 cubic metre/hour pilot plant was built to treat the wastes from cheese, butter and cream production. The plant was run at pH 4-5 and at between 5 and 10 kg of BOD/day/cubic metres. BOD removal was between 30 and 50% and biomass production between 0.1 and 0.5 kg of dry solids/day. The filamentous fungal growth was separated from the tower effluent by an inclined screen. The amino acid content of the product was similar to other single-cell protein. Feeding trials are being carried out. (Refs. 14).

  19. Vitamin D status of dairy cattle: Outcomes of current practices in the dairy industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The need for vitamin D supplementation of dairy cattle has been known for the better part of the last century and is well-appreciated by dairy producers and nutritionists. Whether current recommendations and practices for supplemental vitamin D are meeting the needs of dairy cattle, however, is not...

  20. Measuring and explaining multi-directional inefficiency in the Malaysian dairy industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohd Suhaimi, Nurul Aisyah Binti; Mey, de Yann; Oude Lansink, Alfons

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure the technical inefficiency of dairy farms and subsequently investigate the factors affecting technical inefficiency in the Malaysian dairy industry. Design/methodology/approach: This study uses multi-directional efficiency analysis to measure the

  1. Econometric analysis of the performance of cooperatives and investor owned firms in the European dairy industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soboh, R.A.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Cooperatives, IOFs, European dairy industry, logistic regression, stochastic frontier analysis, inter- and intra-firm efficiency, catch-up component, data envelopment analysis, hyperbolic technical efficiency, overall efficiency, scale efficiency, bootstrapping.

    In this study

  2. Micrococcus lactis sp. nov., isolated from dairy industry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittpurna; Singh, Pradip K; Verma, Dipti; Pinnaka, Anil Kumar; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Korpole, Suresh

    2011-12-01

    A Gram-positive, yellow-pigmented, actinobacterial strain, DW152(T), was isolated from a dairy industry effluent treatment plant. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain DW152(T) exhibited low similarity with many species with validly published names belonging to the genera Micrococcus and Arthrobacter. However, phenotypic properties including chemotaxonomic markers affiliated strain DW152(T) to the genus Micrococcus. Strain DW152(T) had ai-C(15:0) and i-C(15:0) as major cellular fatty acids, and MK-8(H(2)) as the major menaquinone. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain DW152(T) had l-lysine as the diagnostic amino acid and the type was A4α. The DNA G+C content of strain DW152(T) was 68.0 mol%. In 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain DW152(T) exhibited significant similarity with Micrococcus terreus NBRC 104258(T), but the mean value of DNA-DNA relatedness between these strains was only 42.3%. Moreover, strain DW152(T) differed in biochemical and chemotaxonomic characteristics from M. terreus and other species of the genus Micrococcus. Based on the above differences, we conclude that strain DW152(T) should be treated as a novel species of the genus Micrococcus, for which the name Micrococcus lactis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Micrococcus lactis sp. nov. is DW152(T) (=MTCC10523(T) =DSM 23694(T)).

  3. Corporate political activity of the dairy industry in France: an analysis of publicly available information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialon, Melissa; Mialon, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we used a structured approach based on publicly available information to identify the corporate political activity (CPA) strategies of three major actors in the dairy industry in France. We collected publicly available information from the industry, government and other sources over a 6-month period, from March to August 2015. Data collection and analysis were informed by an existing framework for classifying the CPA of the food industry. Setting/Subjects Our study included three major actors in the dairy industry in France: Danone, Lactalis and the Centre National Interprofessionnel de l'Economie Laitière (CNIEL), a trade association. During the period of data collection, the dairy industry employed CPA practices on numerous occasions by using three strategies: the 'information and messaging', the 'constituency building' and the 'policy substitution' strategies. The most common practice was the shaping of evidence in ways that suited the industry. The industry also sought involvement in the community, establishing relationships with public health professionals, academics and the government. Our study shows that the dairy industry used several CPA practices, even during periods when there was no specific policy debate on the role of dairy products in dietary guidelines. The information provided here could inform public health advocates and policy makers and help them ensure that commercial interests of industry do not impede public health policies and programmes.

  4. Milking the region? South African capital and Zambia's dairy industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANBR

    and interviews with representatives or employees of most of the country's large, medium .... Zambeef secured this relationship with the retail multinational before ... Currently it does not buy centrally but each franchise sources dairy products.

  5. Optimization of the distribution chain in dairy industry

    OpenAIRE

    HAZUKOVÁ, Petra

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to analyse the distribution chain in the range of dairy products and to optimise logistic provisions of the distribution chain from the viewpoint of logistic services and logistic costs.

  6. Listeria monocytogenes incidence changes and diversity in some Brazilian dairy industries and retail products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxaran, Virginie; Lee, Sarah Hwa In; Chaul, Luíza Toubas; Corassin, Carlos Humberto; Barancelli, Giovana Verginia; Alves, Virgínia Farias; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Fernandes; Gram, Lone; De Martinis, Elaine Cristina Pereira

    2017-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can cause listeriosis, a severe foodborne disease. In Brazil, despite very few reported cases of listeriosis, the pathogen has been repeatedly isolated from dairies. This has led the government to implement specific legislation to reduce the hazard. Here, we determined the incidence of L. monocytogenes in five dairies and retail products in the Southeast and Midwest regions of Brazil over eight months. Of 437 samples, three samples (0.7%) from retail and only one sample (0.2%) from the dairies were positive for L. monocytogenes. Thus, the contamination rate was significantly reduced as compared to previous studies. MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST) was used to determine if contamination was caused by new or persistent clones leading to the first MLST profile of L. monocytogenes from the Brazilian dairy industry. The processing environment isolate is of concern being a sequence-type (ST) 2, belonging to the lineage I responsible for the majority of listeriosis outbreaks. Also, ST3 and ST8 found in commercialized cheese have previously been reported in outbreaks. Despite the lower incidence, dairy products still pose a potential health risk and the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in dairies and retail products emphasize the need for continuous surveillance of this pathogen in the Brazilian dairy industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. User's Manual for BEST-Dairy: Benchmarking and Energy/water-Saving Tool (BEST) for the Dairy Processing Industry (Version 1.2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, T.; Ke, J.; Sathaye, J.

    2011-04-20

    This User's Manual summarizes the background information of the Benchmarking and Energy/water-Saving Tool (BEST) for the Dairy Processing Industry (Version 1.2, 2011), including'Read Me' portion of the tool, the sections of Introduction, and Instructions for the BEST-Dairy tool that is developed and distributed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  8. Communication Strategies of the Chinese Dairy Industry Manufacturers to Rebuild Reputation and Maintain a Quality Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashi Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available After the Sanlu tainted milk powder crisis in China in 2008, the entire powdered milk manufacturing industry, and in many ways the food industry as a whole, faced a crisis of reputation and consumer confidence. Through a study of the organisation and public relationships of dairy companies, the crisis communication strategies they used, and how they cultivated relationships, this paper explores how companies within the milk industry rebuilt their reputations to a point where customers and other key elements of the public once again felt confident about their products. This study explores the organisation­-public relationships (OPRs cultivation strategies of the dairy companies and the communication strategies they used to rebuild the industry's reputation after the Sanlu crisis. The author interviewed dairy company personnel and consumers in China (N=18 and conducted secondary document research. The communication strategies that dairy companies used to maintain their relationship with the public are analysed. This study develops the theory of relationship management and provides suggestions for other companies to utilise should they face an industry crisis in the future. The cultivation strategies the dairy companies use to maintain their relationship with the public is hard to separate from communication strategy employed after the crisis.

  9. Invited review: Sustainable forage and grain crop production for the US dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N P; Russelle, M P; Powell, J M; Sniffen, C J; Smith, S I; Tricarico, J M; Grant, R J

    2017-12-01

    A resilient US dairy industry will be underpinned by forage and crop production systems that are economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable. Land use for production of perennial and annual forages and grains for dairy cattle must evolve in response to multiple food security and environmental sustainability issues. These include increasing global populations; higher incomes and demand for dairy and other animal products; climate change with associated temperature and moisture changes; necessary reductions in carbon and water footprints; maintenance of soil quality and soil nutrient concerns; and competition for land. Likewise, maintaining producer profitability and utilizing practices accepted by consumers and society generally must also be considered. Predicted changes in climate and water availability will likely challenge current feed and dairy production systems and their national spatial distribution, particularly the western migration of dairy production in the late 20th century. To maintain and stabilize profitability while reducing carbon footprint, particularly reductions in methane emission and enhancements in soil carbon sequestration, dairy production will need to capitalize on genetic and management innovations that enhance forage and grain production and nutritive value. Improved regional and on-farm integration of feed production and manure utilization is needed to reduce environmental nitrogen and phosphorus losses and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Resilient and flexible feed production strategies are needed to address each of these challenges and opportunities to ensure profitable feeding of dairy cattle and a sustainable dairy industry. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  10. Incorporation of whey permeate, a dairy effluent, in ethanol fermentation to provide a zero waste solution for the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashar, Archana; Jin, Yiqiong; Mason, Beth; Chae, Michael; Bressler, David C

    2016-03-01

    This study proposes a novel alternative for utilization of whey permeate, a by-product stream from the dairy industry, in wheat fermentation for ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Whey permeates were hydrolyzed using enzymes to release fermentable sugars. Hydrolyzed whey permeates were integrated into wheat fermentation as a co-substrate or to partially replace process water. Cold starch hydrolysis-based simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was done as per the current industrial protocol for commercial wheat-to-ethanol production. Ethanol production was not affected; ethanol yield efficiency did not change when up to 10% of process water was replaced. Lactic acid bacteria in whey permeate did not negatively affect the co-fermentation or reduce ethanol yield. Whey permeate could be effectively stored for up to 4 wk at 4 °C with little change in lactose and lactic acid content. Considering the global abundance and nutrient value of whey permeate, the proposed strategy could improve economics of the dairy and biofuel sectors, and reduce environmental pollution. Furthermore, our research may be applied to fermentation strategies designed to produce value-added products other than ethanol. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Listeria monocytogenes incidence changes and diversity in some Brazilian dairy industries and retail products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxaran, Virginie; In Lee, Sarah Hwa; Chaul, Luiza Toubas

    2017-01-01

    the incidence of L. monocytogenes in five dairies and retail products in the Southeast and Midwest regions of Brazil over eight months. Of 437 samples, three samples (0.7%) from retail and only one sample (0.2%) from the dairies were positive for L. monocytogenes. Thus, the contamination rate was significantly...... reduced as compared to previous studies. MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST) was used to determine if contamination was caused by new or persistent clones leading to the first MLST profile of L. monocytogenes from the Brazilian dairy industry. The processing environment isolate is of concern being...... a sequence-type (ST) 2, belonging to the lineage I responsible for the majority of listeriosis outbreaks. Also, ST3 and ST8 found in commercialized cheese have previously been reported in outbreaks. Despite the lower incidence, dairy products still pose a potential health risk and the occurrence of L...

  12. The dairy industry: a brief description of production practices, trends, and farm characteristics around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douphrate, David I; Hagevoort, G Robert; Nonnenmann, Matthew W; Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Reynolds, Stephen J; Jakob, Martina; Kinsel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The global dairy industry is composed of a multitude of countries with unique production practices and consumer markets. The global average number of cows per farm is about 1-2 cows; however, as a farm business model transitions from sustenance to market production, the average herd size, and subsequent labor force increases. Dairy production is unique as an agricultural commodity because milk is produced daily, for 365 days per year. With the introduction of new technology such as the milking parlor, the global industry trend is one of increasing farm sizes. The farm sizes are the largest in the United States; however, the European Union produces the most milk compared with other global producers. Dairy production is essential for economic development and sustainable communities in rural areas. However, the required capital investment and availability of local markets and labor are continued challenges. Due to farm expansion, international producers are faced with new challenges related to assuring food safety and a safe working environment for their workforce. These challenges exist in addition to the cultural and language barriers related to an increasing dependence on immigrant labor in many regions of the world. Continued success of the global dairy industry is vital. Therefore, research should continue to address the identification of occupational risk factors associated with injuries and illnesses, as well as develop cost-effective interventions and practices that lead to the minimization or elimination of these injuries and illnesses on a global scale, among our valuable population of dairy producers and workers.

  13. Measuring and explaining multi-directional inefficiency in the Malaysian dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Suhaimi, Nurul Aisyah Binti; de Mey, Yann; Oude Lansink, Alfons

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to measure the technical inefficiency of dairy farms and subsequently investigate the factors affecting technical inefficiency in the Malaysian dairy industry. This study uses multi-directional efficiency analysis to measure the technical inefficiency scores on a sample of 200 farm observations and single-bootstrap truncated regression model to define factors affecting technical inefficiency. Managerial and program inefficiency scores are presented for intensive and semi-intensive production systems. The results reveal marked differences in the inefficiency scores across inputs and between production systems. Intensive systems generally have lowest managerial and program inefficiency scores in the Malaysian dairy farming sector. Policy makers could use this information to advise dairy farmers to convert their farming system to the intensive system. The results suggest that the Malaysian Government should redefine its policy for providing farm finance and should target young farmers when designing training and extension programs in order to improve the performance of the dairy sector. The existing literature on Southeast Asian dairy farming has neither focused on investigating input-specific efficiency nor on comparing managerial and program efficiency. This paper aims to fill this gap.

  14. Future perspectives for international dairy education : successful education strategies for students, entrepreneurs and industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, A.M.; Nolles, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Due to global market, environmental and political developments, Global Dairy Farmers, her business partners and CAH Vilentum are not sure if the current studyprograms and current cooperation between CAH Vilentum and GDF fulfill the needs of the industry. Goal of this study is to give insight in the

  15. Effluent generation by the dairy industry: preventive attitudes and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Brião

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Work aimed to identify the effluent is generating areas in a dairy company for purpose of changing concept pollution prevention. methodology consisted measuring volumes and collecting samples effluents production sectors. analysis was conducted by sector, order those which generated excessive amounts effluents. results show that dry products (powdered milk powdered whey are greatest generators BOD, nitrogen phosphorus, while fluid form (UHT milk, formulated UHT, pasteurized cream butter produced large quantities oils grease. solids recovery, waste segregation water reuse can be applied with saving potential as much R$ 28,000 ($ 11,200 per month only raw materials also environmental gains in pollution prevention.

  16. DAIRY INDUSTRY: ALTERNATIVES TO RECOVERY WHEY AS A MEANS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Marquardt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium industries of dairy products in Brazil are facing serious problems of competition for the consumer market due to factors such as small scale production, lack of standardization of products and processes, deficiencies in effective control of quality, difficult to define niche markets and different levels of technology, although they are generating jobs and income. In addition to these factors, it appears that the control of environmental impacts caused by these industries, given the current environmental legislation, has forced a change of attitude on the part of entrepreneurs, in order to control pollution, despite the shortcomings often perceived in infrastructure linked to industrialization, such as high energy and water. The treatment and disposal of effluents and solid waste disposal, which are critical in industrial processes, are often overlooked in small and medium industries, generating significant environmental impacts. Among the main environmental impacts generated by the dairy industry stands to generate significant amounts of wastewater with high organic load. In this sense, the main objective of this study was a literature survey concerning the main factors of environmental impact of small and medium industries in the dairy sector, aiming to propose alternative environmental management that favors the minimization of the factors generating these impacts.

  17. [Emissions from dairy industry and the influence of herd management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Brade, Wilfried; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Rösemann, Claus; Dämmgen, Jürgen; Meyer, Ulrich

    2017-08-11

    The purpose of this paper is to identify specific emission-reduction opportunities in dairy herds arising from aspects of useful herd management with the potential to reduce emissions, which are within the scope of veterinary activities. In future, it might be one of a veterinarian's advisory capacities to deal with the aspect of climate and environmental protection in animal husbandry. The models involved are similar to those of the national agricultural emission inventory. They allow quantifying the impacts of improved animal health, extended productive lifespan and grazing of an entire dairy herd (cows, calves, heifers and bulls) on emissions from the herd itself, in addition to those originating from the entire production chain, including provision of primary energy, water, feed production and processing. Ammonia emissions are the main focus. The reductions achieved here are not huge, though noticeable. They do not create extra costs. As can be shown, improved animal health and welfare are also environmentally beneficial. The reduction of greenhouse gas and air pollutant (eutrophying and acidifying gases and particles) emissions is an acknowledged political goal. If Germany wants to achieve the emission ceilings it has agreed to, agriculture will have to contribute. Planning will have to precede action if agriculture is itself to keep control of the processes.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus in Some Brazilian Dairy Industries: Changes of Contamination and Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittmann, Karen Kiesbye; Chaul, Luiza T.; Lee, Sarah H. I.

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, a major food-poisoning pathogen, is a common contaminant in dairy industries worldwide, including in Brazil. We determined the occurrence of S. aureus in five dairies in Brazil over 8 months. Of 421 samples, 31 (7.4%) were positive for S. aureus and prevalence varied from 0.......8% of strains being sensitive to all antibiotic classes and no Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were found. The enterotoxin-encoding genes involved in food-poisoning, e.g., sea, sed, see, and seg were targeted by PCR. The two toxin-encoding genes, sed and see, were not detected. Only three strains...... contamination....

  19. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California’s Dairy Processing Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, Gregory K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-30

    During periods of peak electrical demand on the energy grid or when there is a shortage of supply, the stability of the grid may be compromised or the cost of supplying electricity may rise dramatically, respectively. Demand response programs are designed to mitigate the severity of these problems and improve reliability by reducing the demand on the grid during such critical times. In 2010, the Demand Response Research Center convened a group of industry experts to suggest potential industries that would be good demand response program candidates for further review. The dairy industry was suggested due to the perception that the industry had suitable flexibility and automatic controls in place. The purpose of this report is to provide an initial description of the industry with regard to demand response potential, specifically automated demand response. This report qualitatively describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by dairy processing facilities in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use. Typical process equipment and controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Two case studies of demand response at dairy facilities in California and across the country are reviewed. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  20. Global trends in milk quality: implications for the irish dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    More SJ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The quality of Irish agricultural product will become increasingly important with the ongoing liberalisation of international trade. This paper presents a review of the global and Irish dairy industries; considers the impact of milk quality on farm profitability, food processing and human health, examines global trends in quality; and explores several models that are successfully being used to tackle milk quality concerns. There is a growing global demand for dairy products, fuelled in part by growing consumer wealth in developing countries. Global dairy trade represents only 6.2% of global production and demand currently outstrips supply. Although the Irish dairy industry is small by global standards, approximately 85% of annual production is exported annually. It is also the world's largest producer of powdered infant formula. Milk quality has an impact on human health, milk processing and on-farm profitability. Somatic cell count (SCC is a key measure of milk quality, with a SCC not exceeding 400,000 cells/ml (the EU milk quality standard generally accepted as the international export standard. There have been ongoing improvements in milk quality among both established and emerging international suppliers. A number of countries have developed successful industry-led models to tackle milk quality concerns. Based on international experiences, it is likely that problems with effective translation of knowledge to practice, rather than incomplete knowledge per se, are the more important constraints to national progress towards improved milk quality.

  1. Veterinary dairy herd fertility service provision in seasonal and non-seasonal dairy industries - a comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee JF

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The decline in dairy herd fertility internationally has highlighted the limited impact of traditional veterinary approaches to bovine fertility management. Three questionnaire surveys were conducted at buiatrics conferences attended by veterinary practitioners on veterinary dairy herd fertility services (HFS in countries with a seasonal (Ireland, 47 respondents and non-seasonal breeding model (The Netherlands, 44 respondents and Portugal, 31 respondents. Of the 122 respondents, 73 (60% provided a HFS and 49 (40% did not. The majority (76% of all practitioners who responded stated that bovine fertility had declined in their practice clients' herds with inadequate cow management, inadequate nutrition and increased milk yield as the most important putative causes. The type of clients who adopted a herd fertility service were deemed more educated than average (70% of respondents, and/or had fertility problems (58% and/or large herds (53%. The main components of this service were routine postpartum examinations (95% of respondents, fertility records analysis (75% and ultrasound pregnancy examinations (69%. The number of planned visits per annum varied between an average of four in Ireland, where breeding is seasonal, and 23 in Portugal, where breeding is year-round. The benefits to both the practitioner and their clients from running a HFS were cited as better fertility, financial rewards and job satisfaction. For practitioners who did not run a HFS the main reasons given were no client demand (55% and lack of fertility records (33%. Better economic evidence to convince clients of the cost-benefit of such a service was seen as a major constraint to adoption of this service by 67% of practitioners.

  2. Key movement forces in the dairy industry in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Černíková

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses key movement forces in the dairy industry in the Czech Republic and evaluates their importance in the industry and their influence on the following development of the dairy industry in the Czech Republic.The current most important key movement forces in the dairy industry in the Czech Republic are identified: changes in the long-term industry growth rate and marketing innovations. There is space for growth of the industry – the average consumption of the milk products in the Czech Republic per inhabitant 225,1 kg in 2002 is almost by 17% lower than in 1989 (269 kg per inhabitant and also by 10% lower than the current average consumption in the EU countries (250 kg per inhabitant. There is also space for increase exports from the Czech Republic into the EU countries. The liberalization of the foreign trade with cheeses and curds – “double-zero variation” was positive for the Czech Republic in the first year after the introduction. The share of the import of cheeses and curds on the total export from the EU decreased from 24.6% to 15.5%, and the share of the export of cheeses and curds on the total export from the CR into the EU increased from 10.1% to 19.7%.The key movement forces in the dairy industry in the Czech Republic also are changes in the cost effectiveness; the foreign capital; and key forces resulting from the factors in the macro-environment – the integration of the Czech Republic into the European Union, the government interventions and changes in the government policy.

  3. Assessing the research and education needs of the organic dairy industry in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Brito, A F; Townson, L L; Townson, D H

    2013-01-01

    Demographic and management data about organic dairies have been reported previously, but the current study is the first needs assessment of research and educational priorities of organic dairy farmers in the northeastern United States based directly upon their input. Our objectives were to (1) develop an initial understanding of the emerging research and educational needs of organic dairy farmers in the northeastern United States via focus group interviews, and (2) prioritize the needs identified by the focus groups with a broader population of organic dairy farmers via survey methods. Focus group interviews determined the questions used for the survey questionnaire distributed to 1,200 members of the Northeast Organic Dairy Producers Alliance. The members were asked about demographic information, but more importantly, challenges concerning business management and marketing, organic certification, and animal nutrition, health, and reproduction. The results (183 respondents, 15% response rate) were parsed by region (New England farms compared with New York and Pennsylvania farms), herd size (i.e., 12 to 37, 38 to 59, and >60 cows), and years of organic certification (organic treatments for mastitis (92% respondents), growing forages for organic production (84%), and developing value-added products (84%). Farms with organic certification were concerned with level of knowledge and experience of local certifiers, whereas organic producers with ≥ 4 yr of organic certification were more interested in field testing of new organic products. Opportunities for educational programs included learning about direct marketing possibilities (76% respondents) and providing training to regional veterinarians interested in organic remedies (91%). In conclusion, the information obtained from the current needs assessment provides a foundation for future research proposals and educational outreach programs, germane to stakeholder needs, which could benefit the organic dairy industry

  4. Kivuguto traditional fermented milk and the dairy industry in Rwanda. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karenzi, E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods of fermenting milk involve the use of indigenous microorganisms, leading to the production of a variety of tastes in fermented milk products. Kivuguto is a fermented milk product, which is popular in Rwanda. Kivuguto is produced by traditional spontaneous acidification of raw milk by a microflora present both on utensils and containers used for milk preservation and in the near environment of cattle. Thus, this method does not allow the shelf stability of the product. Faced to such a situation, modern dairies now produce fermented milk and other dairy products using exotic strains. The main objectives of this paper are firstly, to provide documentation on the traditional production of kivuguto, as well as its by-products, and secondly, to describe the current situation of the dairy industry in Rwanda.

  5. Custom dairy heifer grower industry characteristics and contract terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, C A

    2003-09-01

    This study examines a national survey of professional custom heifer growers. Sixty-five respondents from 23 states provided information on operation size and characteristics, management practices, and contract terms. Responding operation current heifer inventories ranged from 30 to 20,000 heifers and the average operation had more than 1200 heifers on-farm. The regional pattern of operation size was similar to the regional pattern of dairy farm size with heifer grower operations in the West and South regions being larger, on average, than those in the Midwest and Northeast regions. On average, 71% of total income was derived from the heifer-growing enterprise. Operations in the Northeast region derived the highest percentage of income from heifer growing while operations in the South region derived the least income from heifer growing activities. Many operations entered business to utilize excess facilities, labor, or feed. A majority of the operations had two to five dairy farm clients. Sixty-nine percent of respondents used some form of written contract. Just over 50% of the respondents indicated that a set daily charge per heifer per day was the primary type of contract payment. Although the most common charge was dollars 1.50 per heifer per day, average daily charge was dollars 1.52/heifer. Operations that took heifers from prior to weaning through to prefresh charged a weighted average daily charge of dollars 1.60 per heifer. Explaining price charges as a function of characteristics and contract terms revealed that size and number of clients were negatively related to price while specialization in heifer growing was positively related to price charged.

  6. Evaluation Strategy Michael Porter's five forces model of the competitive environment on the dairy industry (Case Study: Amoll Haraz Dvshh dairy company)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Bolorian Tehrani; Faezeh Rahmani

    2016-01-01

    State of competition in an industry depends on five basic forces. Porter's five forces model including bargaining power of customers, bargaining power of suppliers, threat of newcomers to the industry, threat of substitute products is the intensity of rivalry between competitors. Joint strength of these forces determines the ultimate benefit of potentially any industry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the competitive environment of the dairy industry based on Michael Por...

  7. Multilocus Sequence Typing And Antibiotic Resistance Of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated From The Brazilian Dairy Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittmann, Karen Kiesbye; Chaul, Luiza; Lee, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of food poisoning due to enterotoxin production. This is particularly an issue in the dairy industry, where S. aureus can contaminate the product e.g. from raw milk or the handlers. In Brazil, soft cheese is mainly produced in small dairy plants where good ...

  8. Creating a framework for the prioritization of biosecurity risks to the New Zealand dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellner, P; Hodges, D; Ahlstrom, C; Newman, M; Davidson, R; Pfeiffer, D; Marshall, J; Morley, C

    2018-03-25

    The New Zealand dairy sector relies on robust biosecurity measures to control and mitigate a wide range of threats to the industry. To optimize the prioritization of organisms and manage the risk they pose to the sector in a transparent and credible way, the Dairy Biosecurity Risk Evaluation Framework (D-BRiEF) was developed. This comprehensive framework was specifically designed for decision support, using a standardized approach to address the full spectrum of biosecurity threats to the sector, including exotic and endemic animal disease organisms, pest plants and insects. D-BRiEF is underpinned by three main processes, namely (i) hazard identification; (ii) multicriteria risk assessment; and (iii) communication for risk management. Expert knowledge and empirical data, including associated uncertainty, are harnessed in a standardized format. Results feed into a probability-impact model that was developed in close collaboration with dairy sector economists to provide overall comparative 10-year quantitative economic impact estimates for each assessed risk organism. A description of the overarching framework, which applies to diverse organism groups, is presented with detailed methodology on both endemic and exotic animal disease risk organisms. Examples of visual outputs are included, although actual ranking results are not reported due to industry confidentiality. D-BRiEF can provide a decision advantage to DairyNZ biosecurity risk managers and sector stakeholders by creating a transparent process that can be interrogated and updated at multiple levels to fully understand the layers of risk posed by different organisms. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Optimization PHAs production from dairy industry wastewater (cheese whey) by Azohydromonas lata DSMZ 1123

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sharifzadeh Baei; G.D. Najafpour; Z. Lasemi; F. Tabandeh; H. Younesi; H. Issazadeh; M. Khodabandeh

    2010-01-01

    In the present research, whey was used as useful substrate which retained from permeates of dairy industry. The obtained whey was hydrolyzed to cleave its main carbon source, lactose to glucose and galactose.The hydrolyzed products were chosen as carbon sources for the production of poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) by Azohydromonas lata DSMZ 1123. The biosynthesis of PHA copolyesters containing 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) units from hydrolyzed whey permeate and valerat...

  10. Evaluation Of Decision Options For Industry Wide Control Of Salmonella In Dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, David; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Warnick, Lorin Dean

    2009-01-01

    dairy industry using data fields and logic mimicking the ecology, surveillance and control of S. Dublin. Superimposed on this was a system for simulating movement of cattle between herds and between regions accounting for the infection status of both the source and destination herds. Predictions from...... simulations showed that programs that enhance herd-level biosecurity (prevention of new outbreaks) and quickly resolve infections once they are detected are attractive additions to the current approach that has already resulted in substantial progress....

  11. Investigation of joint costs management practices of dairy industry: a contingency approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Costa da Silva Zonatto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research has investigated the adoption of administration practices in the set of costs in dairy product industries in the Southwest Region in Parana State, as well as, the contingency factors which has influenced the system in the management control at these companies. The explore research was developed through a study on data in quantitative approach in forty- three dairies. From these, just twenty-three produce milk and the other twenty cheese and its derivatives. According to the study these companies are concerned on how to check their costs on production. However, just the dairies which produce cheese and its derivatives are managing costs based on data in a planning and control process. The way used to determine the costs is based on the method of market value. These organizations stand out by the development of control systems of computerized costs where the aims are related to right identification of the costs and the prices for sale, as well. The main outside elements which have affected the organizations are the market needs and the goods availability. In relation to the model  of the manage control in these organizations, it was  checked that these are different from the others in the strategies structure, complexity in the production process, level of computerization and the aims of the use. It was concluded that the administration practices in those researched dairies are influenced by contingency factors.

  12. Learning Networks in Innovation Systems at Sector / Regional Level in Argentina: Winery and Dairy Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Sanchez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This work studies how the set of relationships that gives place to the learning processes is established in the food industry in Argentina. A theoretical ad hoc approach is adopted, conjugating the concepts of innovation systems at sector / regional level with some context considerations like the innovative behaviour of the global and local food industry and a description of the public and private S&T in Argentina. The study is focused in two cases: the wine industry, at the Mendoza province, and the dairy products industry at the centre of the Santa Fe province, both in Argentina. While the winery industry at the province of Mendoza exports differentiated products the dairy industry, at the central basin of the province of Santa Fe, exports commodities leaving differentiated (functional products for the domestic market. These facts determine different dynamics between them, despite of what the established set of relationships is very complex and knowledge intensive in both cases. Also, in both cases the preponderant contribution of the public institutions of science and technology as knowledge and technology source is flagged.

  13. Milk and Cheese in an Andean Country: What Place for the Peruvian Traditional Subsector Faced with Dairy Industries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Aubron

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 1990s, Peruvian milk production has increased greatly. The development of dairy supply chains is linked to the growth of a market protected from importations, and which is expanding because of urban population growth and improvements of the road network. It concerns both small dairy producers and the industrial dairy subsector, which are connected by interdependent and balance of power relations all along the chain. Dairy farmers were surveyed from a technical and economic angle in various regions. Results show that this dairy development brings about major income inequalities among producer types, reflecting an unequal access to resources. Statistical data in the literature and interviews of actors of the Peruvian dairy chains allow to assess the stakes and limits of quality approaches in the small producers’ chain faced with industries. Finally, the article questions the impact of free-trade agreements in which Peru is involved with regard to the domestic dairy subsector, and concludes with political proposals to accompany dairy development.

  14. Location-Allocation model for food industrial using fuzzy criteria: A case study of dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Esfandiyari

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A good facility layout plays an important role on increasing the profitability of a production unit. A good location needs to meet different criteria such as the distance between the plants and the places to reach raw materials, customers, etc. In this paper, we proposed a multi criteria decision making problem to locate a suitable dairy plant. We assume that all factors influencing the plant involves uncertainty and proposed fuzzy numbers to handle the uncertainty associated with all input parameters. We apply the method for a real-world case study of dairy production unit and analyze the results of our proposed model.

  15. Energy consumption in the dairy industry. Analysis of 1987. Energie in zuivel. Analyse 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The research on the title subject was carried out by the NOVEM (Dutch Agency for Energy and the Environment) aimed at planning energy conservation in the Dutch dairy industry for 1988. Data on the energy consumption (electric power and natural gas) were collected and are presented for: milk production on the farm; milk transport from the farm to the processing industry; cheese or butter production; production of consumption milk and derived products; production of evaporated milk; milk powder and whey powder production, and finally overall management and other products. 35 figs., 18 tabs., 1 app.

  16. Effects of reactive filters based on modified zeolite in dairy industry wastewater treatment process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolaković Srđan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of adsorbents based on organo-zeolites has certain advantages over conventional methods applied in food industry wastewater treatment process. The case study presented in this paper examines the possibilities and effects of treatment of dairy industry wastewater by using adsorbents based on organo-zeolites. The obtained results indicate favorable filtration properties of organo-zeolite, their high level of adsorption of organic matter and nitrate nitrogen in the analyzed wastewater. This paper concludes with recommendations of optimal technical and technological parameters for the application of these filters in practice.

  17. Removal of organic matter from dairy industry waste water using low-cost adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, M.; Bhole, A.G. [College of Engineering, Badnera (India). Civil Engineering Department

    2002-07-01

    The present study envisages the use of cost-effective adsorbents such as fly ash, bagasse, wheat straw dust, sawdust, and coconut coir for the reduction of the TDS (total dissolved solids) from dairy industry effluent waste water. PAC (powdered activated carbon) was also used and the results were compared. Sorption data have been correlated with both the Langmuir and the Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. The Freundlich static isotherm model is found applicable to all the six adsorbents for removing TDS from the dairy waste water. The order of selectivity is PAC, bagasse, fly ash, sawdust, wheat straw, coconut coir for the removal of TDS at optimum conditions. 8 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Feed Additives Production Out of Dairy Industry Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrikh, EV

    2017-05-01

    Application of macro- and microelements in animal feed is the most effective in the case of their industrial brining in mixed feeds, feed mixes, and protein-vitamin supplements in the form of various complex salts. Application of the product contributes to the body’s needs of broiler chickens in vitamins and minerals, normalization of metabolism, and ensures a high rate of growth and development. The composition of the premix can be adjusted depending on the actual proportion of biologically active substances in the feed used by a consumer. It is possible to include in the premix other biologically active substances. Assessing the slaughter qualities of experimental pigs, it was found (Table. 2) that the pigs of group II has a tendency toward greater weight of hot carcass (4.5 kg), of slaughter yelts (by 3.83%) and toward a smaller thickness of fat over the spinous processes of the 6-7th thoracic vertebrae (1.67 mm). The performed investigations have established that there is no significant difference between groups I and II in the content of certain amino acids, however, group I shows poorer results in the content of valine, isoleucine, leucine and lysine by 0.16 g / 100 g of protein (P> 0.999) 0.2 (P> 0.90), 0.46 (P> 0.999) and 0.39 (P> 0.999) g / 100 g protein respectively.

  19. The efficiency of electrocoagulation using aluminum electrodesin treating wastewater from a dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson de Freitas Silva Valente

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with the investigation of electrocoagulation (EC treatment of wastewater from a dairy plant using aluminum electrodes. Electrolysis time, pH, current density and distance between electrodes were considered to assess the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD, total solids (TS and their fractions and turbidity. Samples were collected from the effluent of a dairy plant using a sampling methodology proportional to the flow. The treatments were applied according to design factorial of half fraction with two levels of treatments and 3 repetitions at the central point. The optimization of parameters for treating dairy industry effluent by electrocoagulation using aluminum electrodes showed that electric current application for 21 minutes, an initial sample pH near 5.0 and a current density of 61.6A m-2 resulted in a significant reduction in COD by 57%; removal of turbidity by 99%, removal of total suspended solids by 92% and volatile suspended solids by 97%; and a final treated effluent pH of approximately 10. Optimum operating condition was used for cost calculations show that operating cost is approximately 3.48R$ m-3.

  20. Potential impact of the growth hormone and other technology on the United States dairy industry by the year 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mix, L S

    1987-02-01

    The United States dairy industry is projected to go through a major transition by the 2000 with some regions experiencing more change than others. Population growth plus medical discoveries favorable to certain dairy products combined with strengthened marketing programs could increase consumption of milk equivalent from the present 66.3 to 72.1 million metric tons by the yr 2000. Ongoing genetic, feeding, and management improvements could raise average milk production per cow from the 1984 level of 5,680 kg to 7,425 kg by 2000. If growth hormone biotechnology is adopted, average production per cow could reach 9,281 kg by the 21st century. This could reduce US dairy cow numbers 30% from the present 11.1 million to 7.8 million by the yr 2000. Likewise, the dairy industry and others could expect approximately 92,500 fewer commercial dairy farms, a decrease of 51%. This would mean 195,000 fewer employees and 3.6 to 4.1 million fewer crop hectares would be required. A transition of this magnitude will require indepth planning by legislators, policy makers, university teaching, research, and extension personnel, agribusiness, industry representatives, and dairy producers to cope with the necessary adjustments.

  1. Attitudes to coping with radiologically suspect or contaminated milk in the UK: a dairy industry viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komorowski, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    The attitudes of the UK milk processing industry to a nuclear incident which resulted in milk supplies being suspected of being contaminated, or actually being contaminated, with radioactivity is examined. The factors influencing these attitudes are discussed, together with their implications. In the event of a nuclear incident in which part of the United Kingdom's milk supply is possibly contaminated, the milk processing industry will want to ensure that consumers and retailers maintain complete confidence in dairy products. As a consequence the industry will require that solutions are not adopted merely to avoid wastage of milk, or awkward milk disposal problems. In the early history of the BSE crisis the government wrongly assured consumers that beef was completely safe to eat. It will be necessary to ensure that any assurances that milk is safe, following a nuclear incident, are well founded

  2. Enhanced heterotrophic denitrification: effect of dairy industry sludge acclimatization and operating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari Shahabi, Zeinab; Naeimpoor, Fereshteh

    2014-06-01

    Heterotrophic denitrification of drinking water was enhanced by selection of an anoxic sludge taken from a dairy industry among the sludges taken from various industries, and the effect of carbon sources was examined. Acclimatization to high nitrate concentration was then carried out in a five-stage process. Considering removals of both nitrate and nitrite, the sludge taken from anoxic unit of Tehran Pegah dairy industry was shown to be the superior microbial culture, with ethanol as carbon source as compared to acetate. To enhance the rate of denitrification, acclimatization to nitrate (at 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1,600 mg N-NO3/L) was carried out in sequencing batch reactors over a 3-month period under anoxic condition, and comparisons were made between the performances of acclimated and non-acclimated sludges at each stage. It was found that acclimatization up to the fourth stage enhanced the specific denitrification rate to a high value of 29.6 mg N-NO3/h/g mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), with no significant nitrite accumulation. Additionally, the effect of initial pH (6, 6.5, 7, and 7.5) and carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio (1, 1.5, 2, and 3) on the performance of this final acclimated sludge was assessed, where initial pH of 7 and C/N ratio of 1.5 resulted in the best performances considering both nitrate and nitrite removal.

  3. The prevalence and control of Bacillus and related spore-forming bacteria in the dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi eGopal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk produced in udder cells is sterile but due to its high nutrient content, it can be a good growth substrate for contaminating bacteria. The quality of milk is monitored via somatic cell counts and total bacterial counts, with prescribed regulatory limits to ensure quality and safety. Bacterial contaminants can cause disease, or spoilage of milk and its secondary products. Aerobic spore-forming bacteria, such as those from the genera Sporosarcina, Paenisporosarcina, Brevibacillus, Paenibacillus, Geobacillus and Bacillus, are a particular concern in this regard as they are able to survive industrial pasteurisation and form biofilms within pipes and stainless steel equipment. These single or multiple-species biofilms become a reservoir of spoilage microorganisms and a cycle of contamination can be initiated. Indeed, previous studies have highlighted that these microorganisms are highly prevalent in dead ends, corners, cracks, crevices, gaskets, valves and the joints of stainless steel equipment used in the dairy manufacturing plants. Hence, adequate monitoring and control measures are essential to prevent spoilage and ensure consumer safety. Common controlling approaches include specific cleaning-in-place processes, chemical and biological biocides and other novel methods. In this review, we highlight the problems caused by these microorganisms, and discuss issues relating to their prevalence, monitoring thereof and control with respect to the dairy industry.

  4. Waste water biological purification plants of dairy products industry and energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Sergey; Solkina, Olga; Stepanov, Alexander; Zhukova, Maria

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents results of engineering and economical comparison of waste water biological purification plants of dairy products industry. Three methods of purification are compared: traditional biological purification with the use of secondary clarifiers and afterpurification through granular-bed filters, biomembrane technology and physical-and-chemical treatment together with biomembrane technology for new construction conditions. The improvement of the biological purification technology using nitro-denitrification and membrane un-mixing of sludge mixture is a promising trend in this area. In these calculations, an energy management which is widely applied abroad was used. The descriptions of the three methods are illustrated with structural schemes. Costs of equipment and production areas are taken from manufacturers’ data. The research is aimed at an engineering and economical comparison of new constructions of waste water purification of dairy products industry. The experiment demonstrates advantages of biomembrane technology in waste water purification. This technology offers prospects of 122 million rubles cost saving during 25 years of operation when compared with of the technology of preparatory reagent flotation and of 13.7 million rubles cost saving compared to the option of traditional biological purification.

  5. Strategies to Characterize Fungal Lipases for Applications in Medicine and Dairy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Anbu, Periasamy; Lakshmipriya, Thangavel; Hilda, Azariah

    2013-01-01

    Lipases are water-soluble enzymes that act on insoluble substrates and catalyze the hydrolysis of long-chain triglycerides. Lipases play a vital role in the food, detergent, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries. In the past, fungal lipases gained significant attention in the industries due to their substrate specificity and stability under varied chemical and physical conditions. Fungal enzymes are extracellular in nature, and they can be extracted easily, which significantly reduces the cost and makes this source preferable over bacteria. Soil contaminated with spillage from the products of oil and dairy harbors fungal species, which have the potential to secrete lipases to degrade fats and oils. Herein, the strategies involved in the characterization of fungal lipases, capable of degrading fatty substances, are narrated with a focus on further applications. PMID:23865040

  6. Studying Present Dairy Industry Management in the Khorasan Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Valizadeh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present condition and feeds utilization of dairy industry in Khorasan province was studied in 113 dairy farms based on the official data from Ministry of Agricultural-Jehad. Questioners evaluated the required parameters. The percentage proportion of lactating cows, dry cows, pregnant heifers, virgin heifers, 6-12 months old calves, under 6 months and 3 months old calves and breeding bulls were; 39, 10, 11, 6, 15, 9, 10 and 0.1 precent, respectively. Mean of milk yield was 25.5 kg/day with fat content of 3.5%. A large variation was detected in forage quality and concentrate constituents and composition. Generally, difference between feed costs in various seasons was about 30%. All group of cows were offered more nutrients than the recommended levels. The percentage of extra feed cost in comparison with the total dairy cost of feeding was 9.1, 14.3, 15.0 and 9.1 percent for the high, medium and low milk- producing and dry cows. Most of the used concentrates were prepared in the farms. Net energy of lactation (NEL and protein contents of the hand made and factory made concentrates were 1.73±0.03 Mcal per kg dry matter, 16.1±0.8% and 1.68±0.04 Mcal per kg dry matter and 15.3±1.04%, respectively. In most of the farms, silos were non-appropriately made. It was concluded that most of the utilized rations were imbalance in energy and protein ratios. Technical attention must be regarded to the ration formulation and forage quality in the province.

  7. Pollution characterization of waste water of an industrial zone - Example of a dairy water clarification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazourli, S.; Ziati, M.; Boudiba, L.; Fedaoui, D.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is the estimation of the polluting load generated by domestic effluents added to those of various industries in one of the most important industrial zone in Africa. Analysis of waste water showed strong and irregular pollution which is prejudicial for the aquatic receiving medium (river, sea). This pollution is confirmed among others by COD/BOD ratio which may attain the value of 1.8. Pre-treatment by coagulation floculation of waste water used in a dairy belonging to this industrial zone showed a considerable reduction of the initial pollution by a systematic decreasing of pollution parameters. Aluminium sulphates and iron chloride tested in this experience have reduced considerably all the studied parameters; the organic charge has received a very significant reduction up to 99%. The discharge of treated effluent in the surrounding river or its use for recycling aims is then possible for this industry. However, the formed sludge can be the subject of a suitable treatment for possible agricultural, avicolous valorisation or other. (author)

  8. Order Picking Process in Warehouse: Case Study of Dairy Industry in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Habazin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The proper functioning of warehouse processes is fundamental for operational improvement and overall logistic supply chain improvement. Order picking is considered one of the most important from the group. Throughout picking orders in warehouses, the presence of human work is highly reflected, with the main goal to reduce the process time as much as possible, that is, to the very minimum. There are several different order picking methods, and nowadays, the most common ones are being developed and are significantly dependent on the type of goods, the warehouse equipment, etc., and those that stand out are scanning and picking by voice. This paper will provide information regarding the dairy industry in the Republic of Croatia with the analysis of order picking process in the observed company. Overall research highlighted the problem and resulted in proposals of solutions.

  9. IMPROVING MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND COST CALCULATION IN DAIRY INDUSTRY USING STANDARD COST METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdănoiu Cristiana-Luminiţa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss issues related to the improvement of management accounting in the dairy industry by implementing standard cost method. The methods used today do not provide informational satisfaction to managers in order to conduct effectively production activities, which is why we attempted the standard cost method, it responding to the managers needs to obtain the efficiency of production, and all economic entities. The method allows an operative control of how they consume manpower and material resources by pursuing distinct, permanent and complete deviations during the activity and not at the end of the reporting period. Successful implementation of the standard method depends on the accuracy by which standards are developed and promotes consistently anticipated calculation of production costs as well as determination, tracking and controlling deviations from them, leads to increased practical value of accounting information and business improvement.

  10. Analysis of development of basic characteristics of the dairy industry in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kučerová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of changes in the development of basic characteristics of the dairy industry in the Czech Republic, which cohere with the integration of the Czech Republic into the European Union. The attention is paid on size of the market, growth rate, life cycle, development of prices and development of foreign trade. The total domestic consumption reached 2111.1 million litres in 2004. The industry is in the maturity. The excess of supply exists in the industry; the growth rate is low, under 5% per year. The integration of the Czech Republic into the EU didn’t bring about changes in the development of basic characteristics – size of the market, growth rate, and life cycle. The volume of production changed. The total volume of purchase of raw milk for production went down by 1.4% to the value in 2000. And all prices in the product vertical – milk and milk products (prices of agricultural producers, production prices and consumer’s prices rose.The paper is a part of solution of the research plan of the FBE MUAF in Brno, No. MSM 6215648904.

  11. Market orientation of the Hungarian SMEs working in the meat processing and dairy industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polereczki Zs.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We are looking for the answer as to what tendencies were indicative of the future development of required marketing activity of the SMEs in the article dealing with the marketing activity of the SMEs working in the food industry. The article is based on a nationwide survey among 200 SMEs working in the food processing industry. In this article, we focus on the SMEs working in the dairy and meat processing industries. The results of the nationwide research and some domestic references refer to that there is a latent demand of effective marketing activity among small and medium-sized enterprises. It manifests itself in specifying marketing-related fields to be improved in the future. The marketing itself is believed not to be an important field at the same time. This apparent opposition is the small enterprise marketing paradox in the background of which is the lack of knowledge about the marketing instruments. It can be stated that these small businesses collect mainly general market information and have no information about particular products. Therefore, the presence of marketing planning is really rare and where there is some kind of planning it is not connected to available funds and follow-up control. The marketing strategy can be characterized by products processed mainly at low or medium level. Therefore, market position is deffned by “lower price-good quality”. They mainly use the traditional distribution channels and their communication is accidental and has a low level.

  12. Novel high-performance metagenome β-galactosidases for lactose hydrolysis in the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erich, Sarah; Kuschel, Beatrice; Schwarz, Thilo; Ewert, Jacob; Böhmer, Nico; Niehaus, Frank; Eck, Jürgen; Lutz-Wahl, Sabine; Stressler, Timo; Fischer, Lutz

    2015-09-20

    The industrially utilised β-galactosidases from Kluyveromyces spp. and Aspergillus spp. feature undesirable kinetic properties in praxis, such as an unsatisfactory lactose affinity (KM) and product inhibition (KI) by galactose. In this study, a metagenome library of about 1.3 million clones was investigated with a three-step activity-based screening strategy in order to find new β-galactosidases with more favourable kinetic properties. Six novel metagenome β-galactosidases (M1-M6) were found with an improved lactose hydrolysis performance in original milk when directly compared to the commercial β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis (GODO-YNL2). The best metagenome candidate, called "M1", was recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) in a bioreactor (volume 35 L), resulting in a total β-galactosidase M1 activity of about 1100 μkatoNPGal,37 °C L(-1). Since milk is a sensitive and complex medium, it has to be processed at 5-10 °C in the dairy industry. Therefore, the β-galactosidase M1 was tested at 8 °C in milk and possessed a good stability (t1/2=21.8 d), a desirably low apparent KM,lactose,8 °C value of 3.8±0.7 mM and a high apparent KI,galactose,8 °C value of 196.6±55.5 mM. A lactose hydrolysis process (milk, 40 nkatlactose mLmilk,8 °C(-1)) was conducted at a scale of 0.5L to compare the performance of M1 with the commercial β-galactosidase from K. lactis (GODO-YNL2). Lactose was completely (>99.99%) hydrolysed by M1 and to 99.6% (w/v) by K. lactis β-galactosidase after 25 h process time. Thus, M1 was able to achieve the limit of lactose per litre milk, which is recommended for dairy products labelled as "lactose-free". Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Interrelationships between Lactose Intolerance and the Modern Dairy Industry: Global Perspectives in Evolutional and Historical Backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissim Silanikove

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans learned to exploit ruminants as a source of milk about 10,000 years ago. Since then, the use of domesticated ruminants as a source of milk and dairy products has expanded until today when the dairy industry has become one of the largest sectors in the modern food industry, including the spread at the present time to countries such as China and Japan. This review analyzes the reasons for this expansion and flourishing. As reviewed in detail, milk has numerous nutritional advantages, most important being almost an irreplaceable source of dietary calcium, hence justifying the effort required to increase its consumption. On the other hand, widespread lactose intolerance among the adult population is a considerable drawback to dairy-based foods consumption. Over the centuries, three factors allowed humans to overcome limitations imposed by lactose intolerance: (i mutations, which occurred in particular populations, most notably in the north European Celtic societies and African nomads, in which carriers of the lactose intolerance gene converted from being lactose intolerant to lactose tolerant; (ii the ability to develop low-lactose products such as cheese and yogurt; and (iii colon microbiome adaptation, which allow lactose intolerant individuals to overcome its intolerance. However, in a few examples in the last decade, modern dairy products, such as the popular and widespread bio-cultured yogurts, were suspected to be unsuitable for lactose intolerant peoples. In addition, the use of lactose and milk-derived products containing lactose in non-dairy products has become widespread. For these reasons, it is concluded that it might be important and helpful to label food that may contain lactose because such information will allow lactose intolerant groups to control lactose intake within the physiological limitations of ~12 g per a single meal.

  14. The Interrelationships between Lactose Intolerance and the Modern Dairy Industry: Global Perspectives in Evolutional and Historical Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silanikove, Nissim; Leitner, Gabriel; Merin, Uzi

    2015-08-31

    Humans learned to exploit ruminants as a source of milk about 10,000 years ago. Since then, the use of domesticated ruminants as a source of milk and dairy products has expanded until today when the dairy industry has become one of the largest sectors in the modern food industry, including the spread at the present time to countries such as China and Japan. This review analyzes the reasons for this expansion and flourishing. As reviewed in detail, milk has numerous nutritional advantages, most important being almost an irreplaceable source of dietary calcium, hence justifying the effort required to increase its consumption. On the other hand, widespread lactose intolerance among the adult population is a considerable drawback to dairy-based foods consumption. Over the centuries, three factors allowed humans to overcome limitations imposed by lactose intolerance: (i) mutations, which occurred in particular populations, most notably in the north European Celtic societies and African nomads, in which carriers of the lactose intolerance gene converted from being lactose intolerant to lactose tolerant; (ii) the ability to develop low-lactose products such as cheese and yogurt; and (iii) colon microbiome adaptation, which allow lactose intolerant individuals to overcome its intolerance. However, in a few examples in the last decade, modern dairy products, such as the popular and widespread bio-cultured yogurts, were suspected to be unsuitable for lactose intolerant peoples. In addition, the use of lactose and milk-derived products containing lactose in non-dairy products has become widespread. For these reasons, it is concluded that it might be important and helpful to label food that may contain lactose because such information will allow lactose intolerant groups to control lactose intake within the physiological limitations of ~12 g per a single meal.

  15. Evolution and challenges of dairy supply chains: Evidence from supermarkets, industries and consumers in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francesconi, G.N.; Heerink, N.; Haese, D' M.F.C.

    2010-01-01

    In developing countries the demand for products of animal origin is expected to grow rapidly in the coming years. Using data collected from 200 urban households this study examines the evolution of the dairy market in Ethiopia. In particular, this study suggests that although the Ethiopian dairy

  16. Cleaning efficiency enhancement by ultrasounds for membranes used in dairy industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján-Facundo, M J; Mendoza-Roca, J A; Cuartas-Uribe, B; Álvarez-Blanco, S

    2016-11-01

    Membrane cleaning is a key point for the implementation of membrane technologies in the dairy industry for proteins concentration. In this study, four ultrafiltration (UF) membranes with different molecular weight cut-offs (MWCOs) (5, 15, 30 and 50kDa) and materials (polyethersulfone and ceramics) were fouled with three different whey model solutions: bovine serum albumin (BSA), BSA plus CaCl2 and whey protein concentrate solution (Renylat 45). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of ultrasounds (US) on the membrane cleaning efficiency. The influence of ultrasonic frequency and the US application modes (submerging the membrane module inside the US bath or applying US to the cleaning solution) were also evaluated. The experiments were performed in a laboratory plant which included the US equipment and the possibility of using two membrane modules (flat sheet and tubular). The fouling solution that caused the highest fouling degree for all the membranes was Renylat 45. Results demonstrated that membrane cleaning with US was effective and this effectiveness increased at lower frequencies. Although no significant differences were observed between the two different US applications modes tested, slightly higher cleaning efficiencies values placing the membrane module at the bottom of the tank were achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Membrane separation in dairy industry; Separazioni su membrana nell'industria lattiero-casearia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvadori, C. [Parmalat SpA, Direzione Scientifica, Parma (Italy)

    2001-04-01

    Many different techniques of membrane separation are widely used in the dairy industry. They allow substantial cost savings and the achievement of significant quality improvements. They allow substantial cost savings and the achievement of significant quality improvements. Also 'Parmalat' has introduced in its productions of yoghurt, UHT and pasteurized milk some of these techniques, obtaining new-concept products such as Plus milk, very rich in calcium, and a very high quality pasteurized milk, in the Canadian market, under the brand name Lactantia Pure Filtre, characterized by a double life compared to traditional products. As for yoghurt, in some plants, milk pre-concentration through ultra-filtration permits a considerable increase in the product's creaminess. [Italian] Le diverse tecniche di separazione su membrana consentono di operare forti risparmi e sensibili miglioramenti qualitativi. Anche la Parmalat ha inserito nelle produzioni di yogurt, latte UHT e latte pastorizzato, alcune di queste tecniche, ottenendo prodotti di nuova concezione come il latte Plus, particolarmente ricco in Calcio e, sul mercato Canadese, un latte pastorizzato di alta qualita' dal marchio Lactantia Pure Filtre caratterizzato da conservabilita' doppia rispetto al prodotto tradizionale. Nel caso dello yogurt, in alcuni stabilimenti, la preconcezione del latte per ultrafiltrazione aumenta considerevolmente la cremosita' del prodotto.

  18. Advantages and disadvantages of high power ultrasound application in the dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mislav Muža

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of food with thermal sterilisation is usually the most common way nowadays. Besides the positive aim of preservation regarding microorganisms’ reduction, elevated temperature in processing simultaneously causes serious changes in nutritive and organoleptical properties of food. Loss of food quality is related to structure and texture deformations, modification of macromolecules and creation of new compounds coming from reactions that are catalised with temperature. One of the new non-thermal processes that can in large scale improve different processes in food industry is ultrasound. In the last five years, new applications of high power ultrasound (HPU include inactivation of enzymes and microorganisms, assistance in membrane processes, improvement of dairy product texture, improvement of functional properties of proteins etc. High power ultrasound application is used in emulsification and milk homogenization, but in these processes the most important thing is to monitor possible negative effect like oxidation of fats, inactivation of valuable enzymes and denaturation of proteins. Controled and optimized application of ultrasound demands application of specific ultrasound frequency and optimal treatment time. Treatments should be performed at lower temperatures to avoid negative side effects on treated materials.

  19. Characterization of micro-organisms isolated from dairy industry after cleaning and fogging disinfection with alkyl amine and peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bore, E; Langsrud, S

    2005-01-01

    To characterize micro-organisms isolated from Norwegian dairy production plants after cleaning and fogging disinfection with alkyl amine/peracetic acid and to indicate reasons for survival. Microbial samples were collected from five dairy plants after cleaning and fogging disinfection. Isolates from two of these production plants, which used fogging with alkylamino acetate (plant A), and peracetic acid (plant B), were chosen for further characterization. The sequence of the 16S ribosomal DNA, fatty acid analysis and biochemical characteristics were used to identify isolates. Three isolates identified as Rhodococcus erythropolis, Methylobacterium rhodesianum and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were isolated from plant A and one Sphingomonas sp. and two M. extorquens from plant B. Different patterns of resistance to seven disinfectants in a bactericidal suspension test and variable degree of attachment to stainless steel were found. The strains with higher disinfectant resistance showed lower degree of attachment than susceptible strains. The study identifies and characterizes micro-organisms present after cleaning and fogging disinfection. Both surface attachment and resistance were shown as possible reasons for the presence of the isolates after cleaning and disinfection. These results contribute to the awareness of disinfectant resistance as well as attachment as mechanisms of survival in dairy industry. It also strengthens the argument of frequent alternation of disinfectants in the food processing industry to avoid the establishment of resistant house strains.

  20. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Dairy Processing Industry: An ENERGY STAR? Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brush, Adrian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Masanet, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Worrell, Ernst [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. dairy processing industry—defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the conversion of raw milk to consumable dairy products—consumes around $1.5 billion worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. dairy processing industry to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. dairy processing industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures applicable to dairy processing plants are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in dairy processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. Given the importance of water in dairy processing, a summary of basic, proven measures for improving water efficiency are also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. dairy processing industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures—as well as on their applicability to different production practices—is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  1. The trade network in the dairy industry and its implication for the spread of contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinior, B; Konschake, M; Platz, U; Thiele, H D; Petersen, B; Conraths, F J; Selhorst, T

    2012-11-01

    In case of an outbreak of a foodborne disease, administrative decisions in the context of crisis management are only efficient if they follow standard practices and are specifically adapted to the outbreak situation in a timely manner. These goals are hard to achieve. The complexity of national and global trade structures obscures a clear view of trade flows and, consequently, it is often impossible to unravel complex trade links quickly. Furthermore, increasing public concerns about possible health hazards caused by global trade put additional pressure on decision makers. The aim of this paper was to unveil the specific trade structures of the German milk supply chain, to highlight how these structures could affect the spatial spread of a hypothetical contaminant, and to quantify the risk of the contaminant reaching the consumer. To achieve this goal, the vertical and horizontal trade links between milk producers, dairies, and consumers were taken into account. The horizontal flow of milk between dairies (inter-dairy trade), which is intended to compensate a temporary over- or undersupply of milk, is of special importance in this respect. We hypothesized that the extent of inter-dairy trade would significantly influence the spatial spread of contaminated milk and the contamination risk. This hypothesis was tested using a computer simulation model that predicts the hypothetical spread of a contaminant via trade of milk. The model parameters were estimated using trade data collected in 2004 and 2010. The results of our study indicate that inter-dairy trade significantly influenced the contamination risk. Compared with a scenario with no inter-dairy trade, the risk that contaminated milk will reach the consumer was up to 4 times higher, even with moderate inter-dairy trade. The contamination risk depended on the extent of inter-dairy trade in a nonlinear way and reached its maximum asymptotically when inter-dairy trade increased. The contamination risk exhibited

  2. The strategic management of sudden changes in the competitive environment: The case of the French dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulette Robic

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The thesis defended is that sudden changes in the competitive environment constitutes more an opportunity than a constraint for pro-active companies. A neo-institutional framework is chosen to analyse the strategic management of such sudden changes. We focus on the sudden change in regulation the dairy industry experienced in 1984 (i.e. the restriction of raw materials by the fixing of milk quotas in 1984. The longitudinal study of a family dairy business – the Laconie society- complemented by a sectorial analysis has allowed us to analyse the effects of milk quotas on the strategy of these businesses. A phenomenon of coercive isomorphism is noted, as all the dairy firms launched into diversification. Simultaneously, we notice an obvious interaction between quotas (coercive institution- and abilities and organizational identity (cognitive institution. Confronted to sudden changes in the competitive environment the firms have, of course, been forced to evolve. However, the firms which had based their preceding development on their ability to anticipate, innovate, and change their organizational identity have been able, in a later stage, to transform these constraints into opportunities. The interaction between the environment and the strategic policy of the firms is obvious. It originates, in particular, from the permanent involvement of the firm in the social and economic sphere, as well as its organizational identity and the manager’s family. The concepts of involvement, isomorphism and interaction between the environment and strategic policy are called upon to conduct this research.

  3. U.S. DAIRY FORAGE RESEARCH CENTER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Vision: Leading the world in integrated dairy forage systems research. Mission: Providing dairy industry solutions for food security, environmental sustainability,...

  4. U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Vision: Leading the world in integrated dairy forage systems research. Mission: Providing dairy industry solutions for food security, environmental sustainability,...

  5. Studying the Efficiency of Industrial Dairy Farms of Saqqez and Divandarreh Cities: Using Super-Efficiency Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Mohammadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the developed world, particularly in developing countries, livestock is the most important agricultural sub-sector.Livestock of primary and secondary industries has an especial place in the national economybecause of their greatvalue of products, creating job opportunities, providing health products for consumers, increasing export income of the economy throughaccessing global markets of livestock products and finally their undeniable role in acquiring food security.The demand for milk in Iran increased due to an increase in population and the amount of milk production was also increased. The great share of increased produced milk goes to the industrial dairy farms. One of the major methods to increase the amount of milk production continually is to make its production efficient and improve economic conditions. The current study attempts to determine the efficiency and ranking of industrial dairy farms in Saqqez and Divandarreh cities using super-efficiency model. Materials and Methods: The statistical populations of the study are all active industrial dairy farms of Saqqez and Divandarreh cities which are about 19 farms. The required data for calculating the efficiency were gathered by surveying and completing questionnaires for the year 2013. In this study first, for each farm Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA method and GAMS software package were used to estimate super efficiency. Super efficiency is a form of modified DEA model in which each farm can get an efficiency greater than one. Then in order to make sure about being unbiased the obtained super-efficiency scores, the modified model of Banker and Gifford, was re-estimated and the conventional efficiency scores of farms were compared by normalizing and removing some of the scores of outlier farm based on pre-selected screens. The model has suggested conditions for which some of the estimates for dairy farms might have been contaminated with error.As a t result, it has been

  6. Method to assess the carbon footprint at product level in the dairy industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria; Thrane, Mikkel; Hermansen, John Erik

    2014-01-01

    associated with raw milk are allocated based on a weighted fat and protein content (1:1.4). Data from the dairy company Arla Foods give 1.1, 8.1, 6.5, 7.4 and 1.2 kg carbon dioxide equivalents per kg of fresh dairy product, butter and butter blend, cheese, milk powder and whey based product, and other......A model to calculate the farm-to-customer carbon footprint (CF) for different dairy product groups is presented. As the largest share of the CF of dairy products occurs at farm level, it is decisive how the emissions from raw milk production are allocated between different products. Impacts......, respectively. One critical aspect is how the by-product ‘whey’ is dealt with. No emissions are allocated to the milk solid whey, which is why products containing whey have an apparent low impact. Underlying methodological assumptions are open to debate and further research is needed concerning the CF impact...

  7. Financial Considerations for Health and Safety in the Australian Dairy Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lower, Tony; Pollock, Kirrily

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify the burden of fatal and workers' compensation-related injuries on the dairy sector in Australia and to assess current financial inputs for work health and safety actions. The first and second phases entailed a review of the financial costs associated with fatal (2001-2013) and workers' compensation cases (2008-2009 to 2012-2013). The third element was a case-study approach focusing on actual production and cost data from a small sample of dairy farms (n = 6) to ascertain an estimate for current financial inputs to work health and safety. The estimated financial impact was approximately AUD$12.4 million each year, comprising AUD$6.8 million for fatalities and AUD$5.6 million for compensable injuries. All sample businesses were investing in health and safety initiatives; however, this was modest and on average represented 0.4% of total expenditure (AUD$4,472) or financial case to increase strategic investments into work health and safety by dairy farmers in Australia. Increased investment has the potential to not only minimize the burden of injury and costs to dairy farmers, but will also significantly reduce the devastating impacts that these incidents have on individuals, their families and communities.

  8. How Programme Teams Progress Agricultural Innovation in the Australian Dairy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Ruth; Brightling, Pauline; Hope, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article outlines the emergence of programme teams in the Australian dairy farm sector as a response to counter weaknesses in the institutional environment for agricultural innovation which favours technology adoption/diffusion approaches. Design/methodology/approach: The strengths, weaknesses and risks of different approaches to…

  9. An experimental study of the transfer of radiocaesium from whole milk to a wide range of milk products produced by the Irish dairy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEnri, C.

    1990-07-01

    Milk and milk products constitute a substantial portion of the human diet and represent one of the principal means by which food-borne radionuclides are ingested. The Chernobyl accident and subsequent widespread contamination demonstrated clearly that the dairy industry is highly sensitive to air-borne pollution. In this thesis, the results of a project to study the transfer of radiocaesium from whole milk to a wide range of milk products manufactured by the Irish Dairy Industry are presented together with a review of the relevant literature

  10. Does productivity affect profitability in dairy processing industry? Evidence from Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Saša Muminović; Željana Aljinović Barać

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides insights into productivity in dairy processing companies in Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The aim is to find out whether EBITDA per employee, as a measure of overall productivity as well as labour and capital productivity and their management positively affect company’s profitability. Literature review shows that this issue was relatively neglected, although increase in productivity is regarded as the most important factor in maintaining a competitive advantage in most dev...

  11. Novel approach for the use of dairy industry wastes for bacterial growth media production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmi, Mariam; Elleuch, Lobna; Dahmeni, Ameni; Hamdi, Moktar; Trabelsi, Ismail; Snoussi, Mejdi

    2018-04-15

    This work proposes a novel approach for the reuse and the recovery of dairy wastes valuable components. Thermal coagulation was performed for dairy effluents and the main responsible fraction for the organic matter content (protein and fat) was separated. Dairy curds were prepared for the formulation of bacterial growth media. Protein, sugar, fat and fatty acids contents have been assessed. Samples treated at 100 °C exhibited marked improvement in terms of protein (25-50%) recovery compared to those treated at 80 °C. Fatty acid analysis revealed the presence of unsaturated fatty acids (mainly oleic acid) that are essential to promote Lactobacillus growth. Previously isolated and identified bacterial strains from dairy wastes (Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus brevis) were investigated for their ability to grow on the formulated media. All the tested lactic acid bacteria exhibited greater bacterial growth on the formulated media supplemented with glucose only or with both glucose and yeast extract compared to the control media. By reference to the commercial growth medium, the productivity ratio of the supplemented bactofugate (B) and decreaming (D) formulated media exceeded 0.6 for L. paracasei culture. Whereas, the productivity ratio of the supplemented B medium was greater than 1 compared to the control medium for all the tested strains. As for the supplemented D medium, its productivity ratio was greater than 1 compared to the control medium for both L. paracasei and L. plantarum strains. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Planning Change of the Type of Economic Development of Enterprises of the Dairy Industry with Consideration of Influence of the Competitive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulynych Yuriy M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article justifies a necessity of transition of dairy industry enterprises to the intensive type of economic development. It offers a mathematical model of transition to the intensive type of development. The model is build on the basis of the well-known methods. The author offers two variants of formation of the intensive type of development during the period of planning. Pursuant to the first variant, it is planned to increase expenditures of an enterprise during the period of planning, pursuant to the second – to reduce expenditures of the period of planning compared to the basic one. The author considers and analyses the essence of the innovation strategy of dairy enterprises and offers a model of formation of such a strategy at an enterprise. The article considers main problems that suppress investment activity in the country. The author focuses, in particular, on the following: inconsistent investment policy of the state in the food sphere, poorly developed innovation infrastructure, monopoly of reporcessors in the dairy products markets and low level of profitability of dairy enterprises. In conclusion the author offers measures on formation of investment attractiveness of the dairy industry.

  13. Does productivity affect profitability in dairy processing industry? Evidence from Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Muminović

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides insights into productivity in dairy processing companies in Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The aim is to find out whether EBITDA per employee, as a measure of overall productivity as well as labour and capital productivity and their management positively affect company’s profitability. Literature review shows that this issue was relatively neglected, although increase in productivity is regarded as the most important factor in maintaining a competitive advantage in most developed countries. Results obtained show that comprehensive measure of productivity EBITDA per employee has statistically significant positive impact on company’s profitability, the same as productivity management components labour cost competitiveness and capital productivity.

  14. UTILITY OF FUNCTIONALIZED AGAROSE NANOPARTICLES IN HYDROLYZING LACTOSE IN BATCH REACTORS FOR DAIRY INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmed Ansari

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the synthesis of agarose nanoparticles (ANPs and its surface modification by galactose for the immobilization of β-galactosidase. Galactose modified ANPs retained 91% enzyme activity upon immobilization. Optimum pH (4.5 and temperature (50 ºC remains unchanged after immobilization. However, immobilized enzyme retained greater catalytic activity against lower and higher, pH and temperature ranges. Immobilized β-galactosidase retained 89% biocatalytic activity even at 4% galactose concentration as compared to enzyme in solution, and exhibited 81% activity even after seventh repeated uses. Immobilized enzyme hydrolyzed greater amount of lactose at higher temperatures as compared to β-galactosidase in solution, thereby suggesting its potential application in obtaining lactose-free dairy products at large scale.

  15. Optimization of Conditions for Obtaining Alginate/Olive Oil Capsules for Application in Dairy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirieux Magalie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulation is a process of incorporation of bioactive substances in a specific matrix. It results in increasing and/or maintaining of the biological agent concentration in the food matrix or the fermentation system. The encapsulation process is influenced by various factors. The aim of the present work was to investigate the influence of alginate type and concentration, homogenization rate and the oil phase amount in the preparation of capsules rich in olive oil. It has been found that emulsions obtained with medium viscosity alginate were characterized by better stability. To establish the joint influence of the factors was used screening design experiment, the optimization features selected being temperature, centrifugal and microscopic stability. The optimal levels of the factors were established and they we applied for capsule preparation. The obtained capsules showed maximum stability and possibility to be used in dairy product manufacture.

  16. Future Applications of Apricot (Prunus Armeniaca Kaisa ß Galactosidase in Dairy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Shakeel Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the immobilization of β galactosidase from apricots (Prunus armeniaca kaisa on an inexpensive concanavalin A layered cellulose-alginate hybrid gel. Immobilized β galactosidase retained 78% of the initial activity after crosslinking by glutaraldehyde. It exhibited greater fraction of activity at both acidic and basic pH, and showed broad spectrum temperature optimum as compared to free enzyme. Moreover, immobilized enzyme exhibited higher thermal stability at 60°C and retained 80% of the original enzyme activity in presence of 3% galactose. The crosslinked immobilized enzyme showed improved hydrolysis of lactose from milk and whey in batch processes at 50°C as well as in continuous reactors operated at fl ow rate of 20 mL/h and 30 mL/h even after one month. Moreover, crosslinked adsorbed β galactosidase retained 76% activity even after its sixth repeated use, thereby promoting its use for lactose hydrolysis in various dairy products even for longer durations.

  17. Desinfection of water for industrial use in dairy factories by ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hup, G.; Stadhouders, J.

    1979-01-01

    Extensive tests were carried out on disinfection of (i) ground water and (ii) condenser water in dairy factories using the Wedeco type E1-3 UV apparatus with a nominal throughput of 1 m 3 /h. Max. bacterial content of (i) was 100 000/ml; it was reduced to 0 C, even when 0.05-0.8% skim-milk was added to the water before treatment. The surviving bacteria did not show any increased resistance to subsequent irradiation, and often had a longer lag-phase in water culturing; (ii) from milk or whey evaporation was treated at 55 0 C to simulate practical conditions, and an installation for this purpose is diagrammatically illustrated; it was found that despite much heavier initial contamination, bacterial contents of 0 C. Data on bacterial kills in (i) and (ii) at throughput rates of 3 /h are tabulated. It is emphasized that efficiency of UV disinfection rests, for (ii) in particular, on cleanliness conditions equal to those for milk. (orig.) [de

  18. Learning Networks in Innovation Systems at Sector / Regional Level in Argentina: Winery and Dairy Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Sanchez; Roberto Bisang

    2011-01-01

    This work studies how the set of relationships that gives place to the learning processes is established in the food indus- try in Argentina. A theoretical ad hoc approach is adopted, conjugating the concepts of innovation systems at sector / regional level with some context considerations like the innovative behaviour of the global and local food industry and a description of the public and private S&T in Argentina. The study is focused in two cases: the wine industry, at the Mendoza provinc...

  19. An integrated mechanical-enzymatic reverse osmosis treatment of dairy industry wastewater and milk protein recovery as a fat replacer: a closed loop approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sarghini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The dairy industry can be classified among the most polluting of the food industries in volume in regard to its large water consumption, generating from 0.2 to 10 L of effluent per liter of processed milk. Dairy industry effluents usually include highly dissolved organic matter with varying characteristics, and a correct waste management project is required to handle. In a framework of natural water resource availability and cost increase, wastewater treatment for water reuse can lower the overall water consumption and the global effluent volume of industrial plants. Moreover, correct dismissal of dairy industry wastewater is sometimes neglected by the operators , increasing the environmental impact due to the chemical and biological characteristics of such effluents. On the other hand, in the case of whey effluents, several by-products are still present inside, such as lactose and milk proteins. Membrane technology has some advantages including a high degree of reliability in removing dissolved, colloidal and particulate matter, like the selectivity in size of pollutants to be removed and the possibility of very compact treatment plants. For example, Reverse Osmosis (RO technology has been successfully applied for the treatment of dairy wastes (1, and as a technology for concentration and fractionation of whey. In this work a membrane treatment approach using reverse osmosis technology is investigated and implemented: the permeate obtained can be reused as clean warm water for cleaning and sanitation of production plants, while concentrated milk proteins are modified by using transglutaminase enzyme obtaining a high temperature resistant fat replacer to be used in different low-fat products like for example mozzarella cheese.

  20. Pretreatment of worn waters of the dairy industry by sand filtration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzid, H.; Derriche, Z.; Bettahar, N.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of the environment started to become a concern with the demographic increase and the industrial and agricultural development, especially in the great agglomeration, the relative increase out of water became a major concern. Water of the factories takes care of mineral substances and organics during manufacture and constitutes one of the principal sources of contamination of the environment. (Author)

  1. RANTAI NILAI PADA INDUSTRI SUSU STUDI KASUS PT CISARUA MOUNTAIN DAIRY (CIMORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Satrya Arjakusuma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study were to 1 map the value chain of Cimory, 2 analyze value chain governance in Cimory, 3 identify the barriers in Cimory value chain, 4 analyze the production efficiency in Cimory suppliers, and 5 identify the best strategy to upgrade the Cimory’s value chain so it can minimize any hindrance. This research used descriptive method that used value chain analysis, value chain governance analysis, barrier of production efficiency identification, and upgrading strategy. Based on value chain analysis, there are six actors in the whole Cimory value chain: KUD Giri Tani and KUD Cipanas as the dairy suppliers, Kiva Citra as the sugar supplier, Inopec as the bottle supplier, Cimory itself, Macrosentra Niagaboga as the main distributor, Cimory resto, Giant, Indomaret, Alfamart, Home Delivery, and Cimory agent. The relationship between Cimory and the main supplier is captive, between Cimory and secondary supplier is modular, and between Cimory and the distributor is more likely modular. The results of barriers identification showed that almost all barriers came from the main suppliers. The results from the production efficiency showed that only the working hour that didn’t have any positive effect for production. The prioritized strategy that needs to be done based on the upgrading analysis is improving the quality of fresh milk supplied to Cimory.Keywords: cimory, production efficiency, upgrading strategy, value chain, value chain analysis ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan 1 memetakan rantai nilai dari Cimory, 2 analisis pengelolaan rantai nilai dari Cimory, 3 mengidentifikasi berbagai hambatan pada rantai nilai Cimory, 4 analisis efisiensi produksi dari supplier Cimory, dan 5 identifikasi strategi yang tepat untuk meminimalisir hambatan yang dialami oleh Cimory. Penelitian ini bersifat penelitian deskriptif dengan menggunakan analisis rantai nilai, analisis pengelolaan rantai nilai, identifikasi hambatan, efisiensi

  2. Development and application of a processing model for the Irish dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, U; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Garrick, D J; Shalloo, L

    2010-11-01

    . The value per liter of milk in scenario 1 was 24.8, 30.8, and 27.4 cents for Irish Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, and New Zealand strain of Holstein-Friesian milk, respectively. In scenario 2 the value per liter of milk was 26.1, 32.6, and 28.9 cents for Irish Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, and New Zealand strain of Holstein-Friesian milk, respectively. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Energy rationalization in the dairy industry through the use of ultrafiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faletti, L; Peri, C

    1987-02-01

    This study is one of several made by Italian universities on behalf of ENEL to razionalize the energy demand pattern of some industrial branches and identify, among the various solutions, those that might bring about primary energy saving through the use of electricity. Specifically, this study was undertaken to verify the applicability of certain diaphragm separation technologies such as ultrafiltration in Italy, and to assess their energy-efficiency in terms of primary energy. Research carried out on this subject and the industrial experience of the last years point to the possibility of using ultrafiltration in the manufacture of typical soft cheese in direct competition with conventional technologies. The expected benefits of greater yield and energy saving are of great national economic relevance, since Italy imports both the raw material (milk) and energy resources.

  4. Isolation of Arcobacter butzleri in environmental and food samples collected in industrial and artisanal dairy plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Giacometti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence of Arcobacter species in two cheese factories; a total of 22 environmental samples and 10 food samples were collected from an artisanal and an industrial cheese factory; Arcobacter species were isolated after enrichment, and isolates were identified at species level by multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the artisanal cheese factory, Arcobacter spp. were isolated from several environmental samples, cow and water buffalo raw milk and ricotta cheese. In the industrial plant, Arcobacter spp. were isolated from surfaces not in contact with food and from a cleaned surface in contact with food; no Arcobacter spp. was isolated from food. All isolates were identified as A. butzleri. We report of the presence of A. butzleri in a ready-to-eat cheese produced for retail. In addition, the isolation of A. butzleri in food processing surfaces in the two cheese factories could be assessed as a source of potential contamination for cheeses

  5. Use of whey lactose from dairy industry for economical kefiran production by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens in mixed cultures with yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Radchabut, Sirilaor

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of producing kefiran industrially, whey lactose, a by-product from dairy industry, was used as a low cost carbon source. Because the accumulation of lactic acid as a by-product of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens inhibited cell growth and kefiran production, the kefir grain derived and non-derived yeasts were screened for their abilities to reduce lactic acid and promote kefiran production in a mixed culture. Six species of yeasts were examined: Torulaspora delbrueckii IFO 1626; Saccharomyces cerevisiae IFO 0216; Debaryomyces hansenii TISTR 5155; Saccharomyces exiguus TISTR 5081; Zygosaccharomyces rouxii TISTR 5044; and Saccharomyces carlsbergensis TISTR 5018. The mixed culture of L. kefiranofaciens with S. cerevisiae IFO 0216 enhanced the kefiran production best from 568 mg/L in the pure culture up to 807 and 938 mg/L in the mixed cultures under anaerobic and microaerobic conditions, respectively. The optimal conditions for kefiran production by the mixed culture were: whey lactose 4%; yeast extract 4%; initial pH of 5.5; and initial amounts of L. kefiranofaciens and S. cerevisiae IFO 0216 of 2.1×10(7) and 4.0×10(6)CFU/mL, respectively. Scaling up the mixed culture in a 2L bioreactor with dissolved oxygen control at 5% and pH control at 5.5 gave the maximum kefiran production of 2,580 mg/L in batch culture and 3,250 mg/L in fed-batch culture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Beliefs, intentions, and beyond: A qualitative study on the adoption of sustainable gastrointestinal nematode control practices in Flanders' dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Velde, F; Charlier, J; Hudders, L; Cauberghe, V; Claerebout, E

    2018-05-01

    Emerging anthelmintic resistance emphasizes the need for sustainable control approaches against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections in cattle. The uptake of diagnostic methods for sustainable control could enable more informed treatments and reduce excessive anthelmintic use. Unfortunately, the adoption of such methods remains relatively poor. A better understanding of farmers' motivations and behaviour would help to develop applicable advises and communication strategies for sustainable worm control strategies. A previous study created a general model for adoption intention of GIN diagnostics on dairy farms and measured the most important factors driving this intention (Vande Velde et al., 2015). The current research aimed to dig deeper into this model for the beliefs underlying these factors, and to identify additional factors impelling this specific behaviour. Data were collected through 22 semi-structured interviews with dairy farmers. Using analytic induction analysis, data were moved between deduction and induction. Results show that the adoption process of diagnostic methods for GIN occurs through three different phases: adoption intention, actual adoption and maintenance. Low infection awareness and low priority ('top of mind') of the disease are important barriers for adopting sustainable GIN control. Secondly, farmer behaviour is guided by two important social norms: the opinion of their veterinarian and their fellow farmers. However, farmers hold an incongruent relationship with both norms throughout different stages of behaviour: they do not value other farmers' opinions as a positive reference (intention phase), but follow and mimic their behaviour as a group (action phase). The veterinarian is seen as the most important positive reference, but also the responsible actor for GIN control. As such, the farmers do not hold themselves responsible for implementing sustainable control strategies. Thirdly, different types of motivations influence

  7. Fouling and Cleaning of Membrane Filtration Systems in the Dairy Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Thilo Heinz Alexander

    not necessarily be perfect hydraulic cleanliness in order to restore processing performance. Consequences of reduced cleaning could however be observed in subsequent CIPs; hydraulic cleanliness reached a lower level. Further research is required to assess the practical significance of these consequences......membranes that were industrially used for a longer period of time (“aged membranes”) to study fouling and cleaning phenomena. During this study, reduced cleaning (a onestep CIP instead of a three-step CIP) was investigated, leading to the suggestion that the aim of a cleaning procedure should...

  8. l-(+)-Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus B103 from dairy industry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Marcela Piassi; Coelho, Luciana Fontes; Sass, Daiane Cristina; Contiero, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid, which can be obtained through fermentation, is an interesting compound because it can be utilized in different fields, such as in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries as a bio-based molecule for bio-refinery. In addition, lactic acid has recently gained more interest due to the possibility of manufacturing poly(lactic acid), a green polymer that can replace petroleum-derived plastics and be applied in medicine for the regeneration of tissues and in sutures, repairs and implants. One of the great advantages of fermentation is the possibility of using agribusiness wastes to obtain optically pure lactic acid. The conventional batch process of fermentation has some disadvantages such as inhibition by the substrate or the final product. To avoid these problems, this study was focused on improving the production of lactic acid through different feeding strategies using whey, a residue of agribusiness. The downstream process is a significant bottleneck because cost-effective methods of producing high-purity lactic acid are lacking. Thus, the investigation of different methods for the purification of lactic acid was one of the aims of this work. The pH-stat strategy showed the maximum production of lactic acid of 143.7g/L. Following purification of the lactic acid sample, recovery of reducing sugars and protein and color removal were 0.28%, 100% and 100%, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. L-(+-Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus B103 from dairy industry waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Piassi Bernardo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Lactic acid, which can be obtained through fermentation, is an interesting compound because it can be utilized in different fields, such as in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries as a bio-based molecule for bio-refinery. In addition, lactic acid has recently gained more interest due to the possibility of manufacturing poly(lactic acid, a green polymer that can replace petroleum-derived plastics and be applied in medicine for the regeneration of tissues and in sutures, repairs and implants. One of the great advantages of fermentation is the possibility of using agribusiness wastes to obtain optically pure lactic acid. The conventional batch process of fermentation has some disadvantages such as inhibition by the substrate or the final product. To avoid these problems, this study was focused on improving the production of lactic acid through different feeding strategies using whey, a residue of agribusiness. The downstream process is a significant bottleneck because cost-effective methods of producing high-purity lactic acid are lacking. Thus, the investigation of different methods for the purification of lactic acid was one of the aims of this work. The pH-stat strategy showed the maximum production of lactic acid of 143.7 g/L. Following purification of the lactic acid sample, recovery of reducing sugars and protein and color removal were 0.28%, 100% and 100%, respectively.

  10. Cow allergen (Bos d2) and endotoxin concentrations are higher in the settled dust of homes proximate to industrial-scale dairy operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D' Ann L; McCormack, Meredith C; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Diette, Gregory B; McKenzie, Shawn E; Geyh, Alison S; Breysse, Patrick N

    2016-01-01

    Airborne contaminants produced by industrial agricultural facilities contain chemical and biological compounds that can impact the health of residents living in close proximity. Settled dust can be a reservoir for these contaminants and can influence long-term exposures. In this study, we sampled the indoor- and outdoor-settled dust from 40 homes that varied in proximity to industrial-scale dairies (ISD; industrial-scale dairy, a term used in this paper to describe a large dairy farm and adjacent waste sprayfields, concentrated animal feeding operation or animal feeding operation, that uses industrial processes) in the Yakima Valley, Washington. We analyzed settled dust samples for cow allergen (Bos d2, a cow allergen associated with dander, hair, sweat and urine, it is a member of the lipocalin family of allergens associated with mammals), mouse allergen (Mus m1; major mouse allergen, a mouse urinary allergen, in the lipocalin family), dust mite allergens (Der p1 (Dermatophagoides pteronissinus 1) and Der f1 (Dermatophagoides farinae 1)), and endotoxin (a component of the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, which can be found in air and dust and can produce a strong inflammatory response). A concentration gradient was observed for Bos d2 and endotoxin measured in outdoor-settled dust samples based on proximity to ISD. Indoor-settled dust concentrations of Bos d2 and endotoxin were also highest in proximal homes. While the associated health effects of exposure to cow allergen in settled dust is unknown, endotoxin at concentrations observed in these proximal homes (100 EU/mg) has been associated with increased negative respiratory health effects. These findings document that biological contaminants emitted from ISDs are elevated in indoor- and outdoor-settled dust samples at homes close to these facilities and extend to as much as three miles (4.8 km) away.

  11. Feasibility, safety, and economic implications of whey-recovered water in cleaning-in-place systems: A case study on water conservation for the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Yulie E; Flores, Rolando A

    2016-05-01

    Water scarcity is threatening food security and business growth in the United States. In the dairy sector, most of the water is used in cleaning applications; therefore, any attempt to support water conservation in these processes will have a considerable effect on the water footprint of dairy products. This study demonstrates the viability for recovering good quality water from whey, a highly pollutant cheese-making by-product, to be reused in cleaning-in-place systems. The results obtained in this study indicate that by using a combined ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis system, 47% of water can be recovered. This system generates protein and lactose concentrates, by-products that once spray-dried fulfill commercial standards for protein and lactose powders. The physicochemical and microbiological quality of the recovered permeate was also analyzed, suggesting suitable properties to be reused in the cleaning-in-place system without affecting the quality and safety of the product manufactured on the cleaned equipment. A cost analysis was conducted for 3 cheese manufacturing levels, considering an annual production of 1, 20, and 225 million liters of whey. Results indicate the feasibility of this intervention in the dairy industry, generating revenues of $0.18, $3.05, and $33.4 million per year, respectively. The findings provide scientific evidence to promote the safety of reuse of reconditioned water in food processing plants, contributing to building a culture of water conservation and sustainable production throughout the food supply chain. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Green gas in the natural gas distribution system. Towards a zero-energy dairy industry. Part 1; Groen gas op het aardgasnet. Naar een energieneutrale zuivelketen. Deel 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruinsma, B. [KWA Bedrijfsadviseurs, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    This is the second report in a series on 'zero-energy dairy industry' in the Netherlands. In this first report options were explored. In the second report three concrete pilot projects were presented (Beemster, Koudum. St. Oedenrode). In the third report we focus on making the transport part zero-energy [Dutch] Dit rapport is het eerste rapport in de reeks 'naar een energieneutrale zuivelketen' waarin de mogelijkheden worden verkend. In het tweede apport worden drie concrete pilotprojecten gepresenteerd (Beemster, Koudum. St. Oedenrode). In het derde rapport zoomen we in op het energieneutraal maken van het onderdeel transport in de zuivelketen.

  13. The Tanga Dairy Platform: Fostering Innovations for more Efficient Dairy Chain Coordination in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Joseph Cadilhon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Tanga Dairy Platform, created in 2008, is an informal forum of different stakeholders involved in the dairy industry of Tanzania’s Northeastern Tanga region. The platform’s objective is to exchange knowledge and develop joint actions to common problems. Six years on, it is a sustainable example of a commodity association addressing the joint problems of the region’s dairy industry. The platform has achieved a common understanding among chain actors on dairy price structure; it has successfully lobbied policy makers to reduce value-added tax on dairy inputs and products, and to remove limitations on urban dairy farming in Tanga city.

  14. The success of applying marketing mix 4Ps in Vietnamese dairy industry : Vinamilk – a typical case

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Truc

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on what Vinamilk has done and achieved by applying the concept of marketing mix 4Ps to become the biggest milk enterprise in Vietnamese dairy market at present. The literature is aggregated from textbooks, e-books, journals, and varieties of economics online webpages relating to the contents of the marketing mix 4Ps: product, price, place, and promotion. The secondary data of this thesis is mainly collected from online newspaper articles, as well as the Annual Report 20...

  15. Evaluation of Adsorption Capacity of Chitosan-Citral Schiff Base for Wastewater Pre-Treatment in Dairy Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava K. Tsaneva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to evaluate the adsorption capacity of the Schiff base chitosan-citral for its application in dairy wastewater pre-treatment. Chemical oxygen demand (COD reduction was the factor used to evaluate the adsorption efficiency. The maximum COD percentage reduction of 35.3% was obtained at 40.0 °C, pH 9.0, adsorbent dose 15 g L-1, contact time 180 min and agitation speed 100 rpm. It was found that the Langmuir isotherm fitted well the equilibrium data of COD uptake (R2 = 0.968, whereas the kinetic data were best fitted by the pseudo-second order model (R2=0.999. Enhancement of the adsorption efficiency up to 29.8% in dependence of the initial COD concentration of the dairy wastewater was observed by adsorption with the Schiff base chitosan-citral adsorbent compared to the non-modified chitosan at the same experimental conditions. The results indicated that the Schiff base chitosan-citral can be used for dairy wastewater physicochemical pretreatment by adsorption, which might be applied before the biological unit in the wastewater treatment plant to reduce the load.

  16. In vivo assessment of an industrial waste product as a feed additive in dairy cows: Effects of larch (Larix decidua L.) sawdust on blood parameters and milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, D; Garavaglia, L; Spagnuolo, M S; Pferschy-Wenzig, E M; Bauer, R; Franz, C

    2015-12-01

    When larch (Larix spp.) is processed in the wood industry, the sawdust is currently disposed of as waste or used as combustible material, even though it is rich in biologically active compounds. In this study the effect of larch sawdust supplementation on blood parameters as well as milk composition was examined in healthy mid-lactating dairy cows. Twenty-four multiparous Italian Friesian dairy cows were assigned to groups receiving either 300 g/day/cow of larch sawdust or a control diet, and treatments were continued for a 20 day period. Milk parameters were unaffected by treatment. A lower plasma total protein concentration was observed and can be attributed to a decrease in globulin concentration. A lower plasma urea concentration was also detected in the larch group. Moreover, biomarkers of liver function were influenced by the treatment. Total bilirubin was lower in larch-treated animals, and cholesterol tended to be lower. In addition, an interaction between day and treatment was observed for very low density lipoprotein. The concentration of other parameters, including reactive oxygen metabolites, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and nitrotyrosine, did not differ between treatments. The observed benefits, together with the good palatability, make larch sawdust a promising candidate for the development of beneficial feed supplements for livestock. Further studies will be useful, particularly to evaluate its efficacy in different health conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro Study of Noni Juice Extract Waste (Morinda citrifolia L.) and Pineapple Industrial Wastes (Ananas comosus L. Merr) as Energy Supplement in Dairy Goat Ration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evvyernie, D.; Tjakradidjaja, A. S.; Permana, I. G.; Toharmat, T.; Insani, A.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potency of noni juice extract waste (Morinda citrifolia L.) and pineapple industrial wastes (Ananas comosus L. Merr) as an energy supplement in dairy goat ration through in vitro study. This study used a complete randomized design with 5 treatments and 3 rumen fluid groups. The treatments were R0 as control (60% Napier grass (NG) + 40% concentrate), R1 (45% NG + 15% noni juice extract waste + 40% concentrate) + R2 (45% NG + 15% noni juice extract waste ammoniated + 40% concentrate), R3 (45% NG + 15% pineapple peel + 40% concentrate), and R4 (45% NG + 15% pineapple crown + 40% concentrate). The variables were totalbacterial population, protozoal population, fermentation characteristic (total VFA and NH3 concentration), and digestibility (dry matter and organic matter).Data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and differences among treatments were determined by orthogonal contrast.The results showed that total VFA concentration was significant increased (Ppineapple peel (R3). The average increasing of total VFA concentration was 74% compared to control. As conclusions, 15% pineapple peel or 15% noni juice extract waste can use as an energy supplement by replacing 25% of napier grass in lactating dairy goat ration.

  18. Sistemas de custeio para firmas agroalimentares: o caso dos laticínios e empresas processadoras de soja no Brasil Cost management systems for agrifood firms: the case of the dairy industry and soya bean industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cezar Leandro Scramim

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a aplicação de sistemas de custeio pelas indústrias processadoras de soja e laticínios no Brasil. O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar se a estrutura do setor, ao influenciar a estratégia competitiva a ser adotada pelas organizações, influenciaria o sistema de apuração e controle de custos utilizado nas empresas estudadas. A metodologia utilizada foi a entrevista pessoal junto a 06 (seis esmagadoras de soja e 08 (oito laticínios. No setor lácteo, os resultados apontam para um estado bastante precário relativo à utilização de sistemas de gerenciamento de custos. Por outro lado, no setor de oleaginosas verificou-se uma maior preocupação com a utilização de sistemas de controle mais rigorosos dos custos industriais, evidenciado pela utilização intensiva de sistemas de custeio mais tradicionais.This paper analyses the application of cost management systems in the Brazilian soya bean and dairy industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the structure of the sector, which influences the competitive strategy of the organizations, would influence the cost management system that the firms were using. The methodology was based on personal interviews in 06 (six soya bean companies and 08 (eight dairy companies. In the dairy sector the results indicate a precarious situation related to the application of the cost management systems. On the other hand, in the soya bean sector the results show a greater concern with the use of more rigorous control systems of the industrial costs. This was demonstrated by the intensive use of more traditional cost management systems by the companies studied.

  19. Developing a Contemporary Dairy Foods Extension Program: A Training and Technical Resource Needs Assessment of Pennsylvania Dairy Foods Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrko, Joseph; Kaylegian, Kerry E.

    2015-01-01

    Growth in the dairy industry and the passage of the Food Safety Modernization Act have renewed interest in dairy foods processing extension positions. A needs assessment survey was sent to Pennsylvania dairy processors and raw milk providers to guide priorities for a dairy foods extension program. The successful development and delivery of…

  20. STUDY CONCERNING THE PRODUCTION OF BIOMASS PROTEIN BY VALORISATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM THE DAIRY INDUSTRY ETUDE CONCERNANT L’OBTENTION DE BIOMASSE PROTEIQUE PAR VALORISATION DES SOUS-PRODUITS DE L’INDUSTRIE LAITIERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUMINITA GROSU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of the food industry ensures the necessary protein for the population and in this perspective the valorisation of by-products from the dairy industry (whey and buttermilk can be a solution in this direction. Whey is a very important substrate for the biosynthesis of single cell protein by its lactose content which is the main source of fermentable substrate for yeasts. As part of our research, the biomass protein was obtained using whey as source of lactose and other sugars and yeast strains of Candida utilis. The modelling program used is 2nd order system centred with three variables: amount of sugar, amount of nitrogen and quantity of phosphorus. The following parameters have been pursued: biomass content, yield of sugar consumption and protein content. The process conditions are influenced by the addition of different nutrients.

  1. ANALISIS PEMBOBOTAN KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATOR (KPI DENGAN SCOR MODEL MENGGUNAKAN METODE ANALITICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP PRODUK KEJU MOZZARELLA DI CV BRAWIJAYA DAIRY INDUSTRY, JUNREJO KOTA BATU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariani Ariani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pembobotan Key performance Indicator dengan model SCOR menggunakan metode Analitical Hierarchy Process (AHP produk keju mozzarella di CV Brawijaya Dairy Industry. Hasil penelitian di peroleh 36 Key Performance Indicator yang disesuikan dengan model SCOR yaitu plan, source, deliver, make (process, dan return. Hasil pembobotan dengan menggunakan pembobotan AHP pada hierarki tingkat 1 yang memiliki bobot tertinggi adalah make (process dengan nilai bobot 0,534. Hal ini dikarenakan perusahaan mementingkan kualitas produk yang dipengaruhi oleh proses produksi. Pada hierarki tingkat 2 bobot tertinggi terdapat pada variabel reliability dengan total bobot 0,739. Sedangkan nilai bobot tertinggi pada hierarki tingkat 3 (Key Performance Indicator  adalah pada KPI 24 Kehandalan kinerja karyawan dalam mengolah menjadi produk jadi dengan total bobot 0,180.

  2. Rapid analysis of effluents generated by the dairy industry for fat determination by preconcentration in nylon membranes and attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner Martínez, Y; Muñoz-Ortuño, M; Herráez-Hernández, R; Campíns-Falcó, P

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a new approach for the determination of fat in the effluents generated by the dairy industry which is based on the retention of fat in nylon membranes and measurement of the absorbances on the membrane surface by ATR-IR spectroscopy. Different options have been evaluated for retaining fat in the membranes using milk samples of different origin and fat content. Based on the results obtained, a method is proposed for the determination of fat in effluents which involves the filtration of 1 mL of the samples through 0.45 µm nylon membranes of 13 mm diameter. The fat content is then determined by measuring the absorbance of band at 1745 cm(-1). The proposed method can be used for the direct estimation of fat at concentrations in the 2-12 mg/L interval with adequate reproducibility. The intraday precision, expressed as coefficients of variation CVs, were ≤ 11%, whereas the interday CVs were ≤ 20%. The method shows a good tolerance towards conditions typically found in the effluents generated by the dairy industry. The most relevant features of the proposed method are simplicity and speed as the samples can be characterized in a few minutes. Sample preparation does not involve either additional instrumentation (such as pumps or vacuum equipment) or organic solvents or other chemicals. Therefore, the proposed method can be considered a rapid, simple and cost-effective alternative to gravimetric methods for controlling fat content in these effluents during production or cleaning processes. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Quantitative evaluation of the alkaline phosphatase activity in industrial and traditional dairy products supplied in Ahvaz as an indicator of pasteurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zarei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline phosphatase is an indigenous milk enzyme and is probably, the most important indigenous milk enzyme from a dairy technology viewpoint which is used to determine the efficacy of the pasteurization process. The aim of this study was to assess the alkaline phosphatase activity of 200 samples of industrial and traditional yoghurt, ice cream and cheese, as well as raw and pasteurized milk samples. To achieve this purpose, p-nitrophenylphosphate was used as substrate and the amount of liberated p-nitrophenol was measured spectrophotometrically. The amount of liberated p-nitrophenol in all samples of raw milk was very high (6839±4070 µg/ml but in pasteurized milk samples, the amount was in the range of 0.75-52.96 µg/ml and 88% of the samples had less than 10 µg p-nitrophenol/ml, the maximum permissible limit of p-nitrophenol in pasteurized products. The amount of liberated p-nitrophenol was in the range of 5.68-1210 µg/ml and 2.61-18.22 µg/ml in traditional and industrial cheese samples, respectively and it was estimated at the range of 0.75-26.67 µg/ml and 0.71- 35.82 µg/ml for traditional and industrial ice cream samples, respectively. The lowest alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in both industrial and traditional yoghurt samples. Meanwhile, p-nitrophenol in 12% of industrial cheese, 44% of traditional cheese and 16% of both industrial and traditional ice cream samples was higher than 10 µg/ml which could be due to the inadequate pasteurization of the product or cross contamination with raw milk. The results of the present study showed a need for more strict attention in the pasteurization of milk and its products.

  4. DAIRY DEREGULATION AND LOW-INPUT DAIRY PRODUCTION: A BIOECONOMIC EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Tozer, Peter R.; Huffaker, Ray G.

    1999-01-01

    Deregulation of the Australian dairy industry could affect the utilization of resources by milk producers and the profitability of dairy production. In this study we examine the feed mix that dairy producers use, both pastures and supplements, under partial and total deregulation. We are particularly interested in the interaction of pasture utilization and farm profitability. The results of this research demonstrate that profitable low-input dairy is constrained by the most limiting resource,...

  5. Dairy development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, P.; Hoorweg, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    The growth of the dairy sector as it has occurred in Kilifi and Malindi Districts is one of the few examples of successful agricultural development in the coastal region in the past decades. Between 1985 and 1997 dairy cattle have more than doubled in number. Three livestock systems are described:

  6. From commodity to customer value : the transition from a production-oriented to a market-oriented European dairy industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everwand, W.C.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Backus, G.B.C.

    2007-01-01

    The European food industry has been regulated for a long time. Since the 1960s, the European market has been protected from imports by relatively high taxes. Companies in Europe therefore never had to fear real competition from outside the Union in their domestic markets. This changed, when, due to

  7. An integrated bio-process for production of functional biomolecules utilizing raw and by-products from dairy and sugarcane industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Kusum; Sharma, Manisha; Patel, Satya Narayan; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, Sudhir P

    2018-04-21

    The study investigated an integrated bioprocessing of raw and by-products from sugarcane and dairy industries for production of non-digestible prebiotic and functional ingredients. The low-priced feedstock, whey, molasses, table sugar, jaggery, etc., were subjected to transglucosylation reactions catalyzed by dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides MTCC 10508. HPLC analysis approximated production of about 11-14 g L -1 trisaccharide i.e. 2-α-D-glucopyranosyl-lactose (4-galactosyl-kojibiose) from the feedstock prepared from table sugar, jaggery, cane molasses and liquid whey, containing about 30 g L -1 sucrose and lactose each. The trisaccharide was hydrolysed into the prebiotic disaccharide, kojibiose, by employing recombinant β-galactosidase from Escherichia coli. The enzyme β-galactosidase achieved about 90% conversion of 2-α-D-glucopyranosyl-lactose into kojibiose. The D-fructose generated by catalytic reactions of dextransucrase was targeted for catalytic transformation into rare sugar, D-allulose (or D-psicose), by treating the samples with Smt3-D-psicose 3-epimerase. The catalytic reactions resulted in the conversion of ~ 25% D-fructose to D-allulose. These bioactive compounds are known to exert a plethora of benefits to human health, and therefore, are preferred ingredients for making functional foods.

  8. Strengthening Dairy Cooperative through National Development of Livestock Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of dairy cattle development region needs to be conducted in accordance with the national dairy industry development plan. Dairy cattle regions have been designed and equipped with infrastructure supplies, supporting facilities, technologies, finance, processing, marketing, institutional and human resources. Dairy cooperative is one of the marketing channels of milk and milk products which have strategic roles to support the national dairy industry. Collaborations between dairy cooperatives and smallholder farmers within a district region have to be done based on agricultural ecosystems, agribusiness system, integrated farming and participatory approach. This may improve dairy cooperatives as an independent and competitive institution. Strengthening dairy cooperatives in national region dairy cattle was carried out through institutional inventory and dairy cooperatives performance; requirement of capital access, market and networks as well as education and managerial training; certification and accreditation feasibility analysis and information and technology utilization. Establishment of emerging dairy cooperatives towards small and micro enterprises is carried out by directing them to establish cooperatives which have legal certainty and business development opportunities. The impact of strengthening dairy cooperative may support dairy cattle development through increase population and milk production. Sustainable dairy cattle development needs to be supported by regional and national government policies.

  9. Wicked problems: a value chain approach from Vietnam's dairy product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoi, Nguyen Viet

    2013-12-01

    In the past few years, dairy industry has become one of the fastest growing sectors in the packaged food industry of Vietnam. However, the value-added creation among different activities in the value chain of Vietnam dairy sector is distributed unequally. In the production activities, the dairy farmers gain low value-added rate due to high input cost. Whereas the processing activities, which managed by big companies, generates high profitability and Vietnamese consumers seem to have few choices due to the lack of dairy companies in the market. These wicked problems caused an unsustainable development to the dairy value chain of Vietnam. This paper, therefore, will map and analyze the value chain of the dairy industry in Vietnam. It will also assess the value created in each activity in order to imply solutions for a sustainable development of Vietnam's dairy industry. M10, M11.

  10. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  11. Reproductive and Lactation Performance of Crossbreed Dairy Cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For several years, Ethiopia ranked first in cattle population in Africa. However, the dairy industry is not as developed as that of East African countries including Ethiopia. This study was conducted to assess the reproductive and lactation performance and factors affecting crossbreed dairy cattle in intensive dairy farm in ...

  12. Non-Dairy Probiotic Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soyuçok

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic products available in the markets today, are usually in the form of fermented milk products. Dairy consumption have been limited by lactose intolerance and the cholesterol content in dairy products. Besides, traditions and economic reasons that limit the use of dairy fermented products in some developing countries promote the idea of using of alternative raw materials as vehicles for the probiotic agents. For these reasons meat products, cereals, legumes, fruits and vegetables may be potential substrates, where the healthy probiotic bacteria will make their mark, amongst consumers. To develop of these products is a key research priority for food design and a challenge for both industry and science sectors. In this study, information’s were given about non-dairy probiotic foods and highlighting the researches done in this field.

  13. Prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus antibodies and antigen among the aborted cows in industrial dairy cattle herds in Mashhad area of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseri, Z.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of antibody responses of animals exposed to BVDV either through a natural exposure or an immunization protocol is still a standard procedure. For BVDV, the test formats have been largely limited to ELISA which is a valuable diagnostic test to measure the level of BVDV specific antibodies as well as antigen in blood samples. In the present study, 120 blood samples were collected from the cows with the history of abortion in different period of pregnancy from different industrial dairy cattle herds of Mashhad area of Iran. Also 30 samples were collected from the cows with no history of abortion as control. The presence of antibody against BVDV from the 120 serum samples was investigated by indirect ELISA. From 120 serum samples which were collected from aborted cows, 89 samples were positive (%74.16. From these positive samples, 12(13.48%, 54 (60.68% and 23 (25.84% samples belong to the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy, respectively. From 89 positive samples, 12 (13.48% samples were related to stillbirth and 8 (8.99% samples were belongs to the mummified fetus. From 89 positive samples, 71 (79.78% were related to cattle between 2-5 years old and 18 (20.22% were associated to cattle more than 5 years old. In control group, 20 samples (66.66% were antibody positive. Also the presence of BVDV antigen in serum samples was investigated by Ag-capture ELISA. From 120 serum samples, 2 samples were positive (1.67%, which belongs to the second period of pregnancy. In control group, none of the samples were antigen positive. The results of this study showed that the prevalence of BVDV infection is high among the aborted cows of Mashhad area. Although this prevalence is higher than the control group, the observed difference is not significant.

  14. Consumers' Motivations and Dairy Production Beliefs Regarding Participation in an Educational Dairy Farm Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFollette, Lindsay K.; Knobloch, Neil A.; Schutz, Michael M.; Brady, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory discriminant analysis was used to determine the extent adult consumers' interest motivation to participate in a free educational dairy farm event and their beliefs of the dairy industry could correctly classify the respondents' predicted participation in a nonformal educational event. The most prominent conclusion of the study was that…

  15. Smallholder Dairy Value Chain Interventions; The Kenya Market-led Dairy Programme (KMDP) – Status Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademaker, I.F.; Koech, R.K.; Jansen, A.; Lee, van der J.

    2016-01-01

    The Kenya Market-led Dairy Programme (KMDP) is a 4.5-year programme funded by the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and implemented by SNV Netherlands Development Organisation in collaboration with stakeholders in the dairy industry. The overall goal of KMDP is to contribute to the

  16. Polish food industry 2008-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Mroczek, Robert; Drożdż, Jadwiga; Tereszczuk, Mirosława; Urban, Roman

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the functioning of the food industry and its various sectors in 2008-2013. Meat and poultry industry. Dairy industry. Fishing industry. Milling industry. Sugar industry. Oil-mill industry. Processing of fruit, vegetables and potatoes. Bakery industry. Confectionery industry. Feed industry. Production of other food products. Production of alcoholic beverages.Tobacco industry. Food industry.

  17. Innovation Networks to Stimulate Public and Private Sector Collaboration for Advisory Services Innovation and Coordination: The Case of Pasture Performance Issues in the New Zealand Dairy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijswijk, K.; Brazendale, R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: An innovation network, called the Pasture Improvement Leadership Group (PILG), was formed to improve the quality and consistency of advice provided to dairy farmers in New Zealand, after they expressed dissatisfaction with their pastures. The aim of this paper is to better understand the challenges of forming and maintaining networks to…

  18. Engineering to support wellbeing of dairy animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caja, Gerardo; Castro-Costa, Andreia; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2016-01-01

    Current trends in the global milk market and the recent abolition of milk quotas have accelerated the trend of the European dairy industry towards larger farm sizes and higher-yielding animals. Dairy cows remain in focus, but there is a growing interest in other dairy species, whose milk is often...... directed to traditional and protected designation of origin and gourmet dairy products. The challenge for dairy farms in general is to achieve the best possible standards of animal health and welfare, together with high lactational performance and minimal environmental impact. For larger farms, this may...... need to be done with a much lower ratio of husbandry staff to animals. Recent engineering advances and the decreasing cost of electronic technologies has allowed the development of 'sensing solutions' that automatically collect data, such as physiological parameters, production measures and behavioural...

  19. NAFTA Renegotiations: An opportunity for Canadian Dairy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Beaulieu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available What are the implications of a renegotiated NAFTA for Canadian dairy producers? Many observers dread the prospect of even the slightest liberalization in the dairy sector. This paper takes a different perspective, arguing that opening Canada’s dairy sector would come with benefits not just for consumers, which is undeniable, but could also transform the industry and lead to a more productive dairy sector in Canada. Canadian dairy producers have been protected domestically through supply management and internationally through import-restricting border controls for over 40 years. This combination of domestic and foreign policies keeps Canadian dairy prices artificially high and allows producers to gain enormously from the system while hitting dairy consumers directly in the pocketbook. These policies are extremely costly for Canadian consumers and benefit the protected domestic dairy producers. Canadian international trade policies result in 200-percent tariffs on imports of many dairy products and almost 300-percent tariffs on over-quota imports of cheese. The OECD estimates that from 2010 to 2016, Canadian trade policy with respect to dairy and the “supply management system” annually transfers over US$2.9 billion from Canadian consumers and taxpayers to milk producers. This is extremely expensive for Canadian consumers and this transfer to Canadian dairy producers underscores why our trade partners have focused on the exorbitant tariffs that support this system. We argue that it is not only consumers that are hurt by the status quo, but that the industry itself can evolve and thrive from increased competition. According to standard trade theory, liberalizing trade in an industry like this leads the least productive producers to exit the industry as the most-productive producers increase market share and expand. These dynamics generate a more competitive and productive industry. We present evidence that these dynamics played out in Canada

  20. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  1. Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool. Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Flapper, Joris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kramer, Klaas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop a computer-based benchmarking and energy and water savings tool (BEST-Dairy) for use in the California dairy industry – including four dairy processes – cheese, fluid milk, butter, and milk powder.

  2. Effect of the mixed liquor suspended solid on permeate in a membrane bioreactor system applied for the treatment of sewage mixed with wastewater of the milk from the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, José M; Molina-Muñoz, Marisa; Moreno, Begoña; González-López, Jesús; Hontoria, Ernesto

    2007-06-01

    The performance of a bench-scale submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) equipped with ultrafiltration membranes (ZENON) was investigated at different mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) concentrations (3069, 4314 and 6204 mg/L). The pilot plant was located in the wastewater treatment plant of the city of Granada (Puente de los Vados, Granada, Spain), which receives the wastewater of the milk from the dairy industry of Granada. The results showed the capacity of the MBR systems to remove organic material (COD and BOD5), suspended solids, turbidity, color and microbial indicators such as E. coli and coliphages. Therefore, the results suggest that the transmembrane pressure (TMP) was influence by the MLSS concentration assayed. However, an increase in the MLSS concentration increases the nitrification processes and consequently the amount of NO3- in permeate.

  3. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  4. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  5. Using Delphi Surveying Techniques to Gather Input from Non-Academics for Development of a Modern Dairy Manufacturing Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Helen S.; Smith, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The current face of the dairy manufacturing industry has changed from its traditional conception. Industry emphasis is moving away from traditional dairy products, such as fluid milk, ice cream, and butter, and moving toward yogurts, dairy beverages, and value-added products incorporating ingredients derived from milk and whey. However, many…

  6. Development of a Bilingual Training Tool to Train Dairy Workers on the Prevention and Management of Non-Ambulatory Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Muniz, Ivette N.; Van Metre, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Dairy cows at risk of becoming non-ambulatory or downers represent economic losses and animal well-being issues for the dairy industry. Colorado State University researchers and Extension faculty collaborated with Colorado's dairy industry to create a training tool for the early identification and management of cows at risk of becoming downers on…

  7. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  8. Ploidy Variation in Kluyveromyces marxianus Separates Dairy and Non-dairy Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl A. Ortiz-Merino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Kluyveromyces marxianus is traditionally associated with fermented dairy products, but can also be isolated from diverse non-dairy environments. Because of thermotolerance, rapid growth and other traits, many different strains are being developed for food and industrial applications but there is, as yet, little understanding of the genetic diversity or population genetics of this species. K. marxianus shows a high level of phenotypic variation but the only phenotype that has been clearly linked to a genetic polymorphism is lactose utilisation, which is controlled by variation in the LAC12 gene. The genomes of several strains have been sequenced in recent years and, in this study, we sequenced a further nine strains from different origins. Analysis of the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in 14 strains was carried out to examine genome structure and genetic diversity. SNP diversity in K. marxianus is relatively high, with up to 3% DNA sequence divergence between alleles. It was found that the isolates include haploid, diploid, and triploid strains, as shown by both SNP analysis and flow cytometry. Diploids and triploids contain long genomic tracts showing loss of heterozygosity (LOH. All six isolates from dairy environments were diploid or triploid, whereas 6 out 7 isolates from non-dairy environment were haploid. This also correlated with the presence of functional LAC12 alleles only in dairy haplotypes. The diploids were hybrids between a non-dairy and a dairy haplotype, whereas triploids included three copies of a dairy haplotype.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus sp. FMQ74, a Dairy-contaminating Isolate from Raw Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okshevsky, Mira Ursula; Regina, Viduthalai R.; Marshall, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Representatives of the genus Bacillus are common milk contaminants that cause spoilage and flavor alterations of dairy products. Bacillus sp. FMQ74 was isolated from raw milk on a Danish dairy farm. To elucidate the genomic basis of this strain’s survival in the dairy industry, a high-quality draft...

  10. Applying ontologies in the dairy farming domain for big data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoosel, J.P.C.; Spek, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    In the Dutch SmartDairyFarming project, main dairy industry organizations like FrieslandCampina, AgriFirm and CRV work together on better decision support for the dairy farmer on daily questions around feeding, insemination, calving and milk production processes. This paper is concerned with the

  11. European Union dairy policy reform: impact and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reforms have affected dairy policy, including the milk quota system, and increased the market orientation of the sector. A modelling exercise, using the European Dairy Industry Model (EDIM), simulates an initial sharp decline in the EU milk price in response

  12. Current status of practical applications: Probiotics in dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gastrointestinal microbial population of dairy cattle is dense and diverse, and can be utilized to reduce pathogenic bacterial populations as well as improve animal productivity and environmental impacts. Because of the nature of the dairy industry, probiotic products have been widely used to e...

  13. Estudo da logística de distribuição física de um laticínio utilizando lógica fuzzy Study of physical distribution logistics of a dairy industry using fuzzy logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alysson Vinícius Neves dos Santos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo versa sobre a viabilidade da aplicação da lógica fuzzy para auxiliar o gerente de uma indústria de laticínios na tomada de decisão na área de logística de distribuição física. O estudo de caso realizado numa indústria de laticínios de pequeno porte em Minas Gerais identificou que, a cada novo pedido solicitado via internet, o profissional de logística manipula ao mesmo tempo um grande número de informações e decide, com base na sua experiência, a melhor forma de distribuição desses pedidos. A proposta deste trabalho é apresentar um modelo fuzzy como uma alternativa de apoio aos métodos tradicionais de processamento de pedidos e tomada de decisão logística. Os resultados permitiram concluir que o modelo foi transcrito de forma adequada ao problema proposto ao apresentar as mesmas decisões tomadas pelo especialista e que, se observados os pontos fracos detectados, este modelo pode se constituir em importante ferramenta para a competitividade das indústrias.This study focuses on the viability of fuzzy logic application to assist the management of a dairy industry in the process of decision-making in physical distribution logistics. The case study, carried out in a small dairy industry in the State of Minas Gerais, identified that, for each new order request via internet, the logistician copes with a large amount of information at the same time and decides, based on experience, the best way to distribute such orders. The purpose of this research was to present a fuzzy model as an alternative support to traditional methods for order processing and logistics decision-making. The results showed that the model adequately reproduced the problem proposed as it produced the same decisions made by the specialist and, if the weak points detected are observed, this model can be used as an important tool for the competitiveness of industries.

  14. Dairy Tool Box Talks: A Comprehensive Worker Training in Dairy Farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, Maristela; Carroll, Heidi; Foos, Rebecca; Erickson, Tracey; Garcia, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Today's dairies are growing rapidly, with increasing dependence on Latino immigrant workers. This requires new educational strategies for improving milk quality and introduction to state-of-the-art dairy farming practices. It also creates knowledge gaps pertaining to the health of animals and workers, mainly due to the lack of time and language barriers. Owners, managers, and herdsmen assign training duties to more experienced employees, which may not promote "best practices" and may perpetuate bad habits. A comprehensive and periodic training program administered by qualified personnel is currently needed and will enhance the sustainability of the dairy industry. Strategic management and employee satisfaction will be achieved through proper training in the employee's language, typically Spanish. The training needs to address not only current industry standards but also social and cultural differences. An innovative training course was developed following the same structure used by the engineering and construction industries, giving farm workers basic understanding of animal care and handling, cow comfort, and personal safety. The "Dairy Tool Box Talks" program was conducted over a 10-week period with nine sessions according to farm's various employee work shifts. Bulk milk bacterial counts and somatic cell counts were used to evaluate milk quality on the three dairy farms participating in the program. "Dairy Tool Box Talks" resulted in a general sense of employee satisfaction, significant learning outcomes, and enthusiasm about the topics covered. We conclude this article by highlighting the importance of educational programs aimed at improving overall cross-cultural training.

  15. Aplicação da análise custo/volume/lucro em pequena indústria de laticínios = Application of a cost/volume/profit analysis in a small industry of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Wernke

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Relata estudo de caso em que foi aplicada a Análise Custo/Volume/Lucro como instrumento de avaliação do desempenho de uma pequena indústria. Inicialmente foi efetuada uma revisão bibliográfica sobre os conceitos utilizados, especialmente margem de contribuição, ponto de equilíbrio e margem de segurança. Em seguida, descreveu-se o contexto da empresa pesquisada, mostrando suas principais características. Posteriormente foram apresentadas as etapas seguidas para aplicação da Análise Custo/Volume/Lucro. Foram demonstrados os cálculos efetuados e comentados os resultados oriundos mais relevantes para a administração da organização enfocada pelo estudo. Por último, foram elencadas as informações gerenciais obtidas, ressaltadas as limitações inerentes à ferramenta utilizada e sugerido tema para trabalhos futuros.This article reports a study case in which a Cost/Volume/Profit Analysis was applied asa tool to evaluate the performance of a small industry of dairy products. At first, abibliographic revision of the concepts was made, especially contribution margin, balancedpoint and security margin. After, the context of the industry was described, showing itsmain characteristics. After that, the steps which were followed so that the Cost/Volume/Profit Analysis was applied were presented, the calculi made were demonstrated andthe most relevant results from this study were commented for the industry management.Finally, the managerial information obtained was listed; emphasizing the limitations ofthe tool which was used and a theme for further research was suggested.

  16. Selective dry cow treatment in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpenzeel, C.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the dairy industry, udder health is associated with mastitis management, of which blanket dry cow treatment has been an important part for decades. To prevent the udder from new intramammary infections during the dry period, the use of blanket dry cow treatment has been advocated for more than 50

  17. BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION BY THERMOPHILIC DAIRY STREPTOCOCCI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUSSCHER, HJ; NEU, TR; VANDERMEI, HC

    Biosurfactant production of eight Streptococcus thermophilus strains, isolated from heat exchanger plates in the downstream side of the regenerator section of pasteurizers in the dairy industry has been measured using axisymmetric drop shape analysis by profile (ADSA-P). Strains were grown in M17

  18. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  19. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božanić; Irena Rogelj

    2003-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  20. Complementary cold water production for a dairy industry: the use of biogas generated in the effluent treatment station; Producao de agua gelada complementar para um laticinio: o uso do biogas produzido na estacao de tratamento de efluentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villela, I.A.C. [Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica de Lorena, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica Aplicada]. E-mail: iraides@debas.faenquil.br; Napoleao, D.A.S.; Silveira, J.L. [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: diovana@feg.unesp.br; joseluz@feg.unesp.br

    2000-07-01

    In this paper is analysed the possibility energetic utilization of biogas in the effluent treatment station of a medium dairy industry located in Sao Paulo state, Brazil. In this station is produced about 80 N m3/h of biogas, with a molar composition of 62,5% of CH{sub 4}, 13,4% of N{sub 2}, 5% of CO, 2,4% of CO{sub 2}, 2,4% of steam H{sub 2}O e 14,1% of H{sub 2}S. The generated biogas is today burning in a flair, according the national rule, with evident losses of energetic utilization potential.. The purpose of this paper is the direct utilization of this biogas to run an absorption refrigeration system utilizing H{sub 2}O + NH{sub 3} mixture. The level of H{sub 2}S in the biogas permits the energy recovery of the available heating minimum temperature level up to 230 deg C, according to the pinch point proceeding.This potential of energy recovery permits a complementation of the cold water production (7,3 kg/s) at 1 deg C. So, is made the energetic analysis of the proposed installation showing the technical feasibility of the actual use of the generated biogas, to produce useful energy. (author)

  1. Invited review: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of mortality and culling in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compton, C. W. R.; Heuer, C.; Thomsen, Peter T.

    2017-01-01

    Dairy industries and individual farmers are concerned about mortality and culling of dairy animals. This is because the timing and fates of animals that exit dairy farms have important animal welfare and economic consequences that reflect the conditions under which they are farmed and the efficie...

  2. Evaluation of dairy effluent management options using multiple criteria analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajkowicz, Stefan A; Wheeler, Sarah A

    2008-04-01

    This article describes how options for managing dairy effluent on the Lower Murray River in South Australia were evaluated using multiple criteria analysis (MCA). Multiple criteria analysis is a framework for combining multiple environmental, social, and economic objectives in policy decisions. At the time of the study, dairy irrigation in the region was based on flood irrigation which involved returning effluent to the river. The returned water contained nutrients, salts, and microbial contaminants leading to environmental, human health, and tourism impacts. In this study MCA was used to evaluate 11 options against 6 criteria for managing dairy effluent problems. Of the 11 options, the MCA model selected partial rehabilitation of dairy paddocks with the conversion of remaining land to other agriculture. Soon after, the South Australian Government adopted this course of action and is now providing incentives for dairy farmers in the region to upgrade irrigation infrastructure and/or enter alternative industries.

  3. Dairy Wise, A Whole-Farm Dairy Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Haan, de M.H.A.; Hemmer, J.G.A.; Pol, van den A.; Boer, de J.A.; Evers, A.G.; Holshof, G.; Middelkoop, van J.C.; Zom, R.L.G.

    2007-01-01

    A whole-farm dairy model was developed and evaluated. The DairyWise model is an empirical model that simulated technical, environmental, and financial processes on a dairy farm. The central component is the FeedSupply model that balanced the herd requirements, as generated by the DairyHerd model,

  4. Engineering to support wellbeing of dairy animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caja, Gerardo; Castro-Costa, Andreia; Knight, Christopher H

    2016-05-01

    Current trends in the global milk market and the recent abolition of milk quotas have accelerated the trend of the European dairy industry towards larger farm sizes and higher-yielding animals. Dairy cows remain in focus, but there is a growing interest in other dairy species, whose milk is often directed to traditional and protected designation of origin and gourmet dairy products. The challenge for dairy farms in general is to achieve the best possible standards of animal health and welfare, together with high lactational performance and minimal environmental impact. For larger farms, this may need to be done with a much lower ratio of husbandry staff to animals. Recent engineering advances and the decreasing cost of electronic technologies has allowed the development of 'sensing solutions' that automatically collect data, such as physiological parameters, production measures and behavioural traits. Such data can potentially help the decision making process, enabling early detection of health or wellbeing problems in individual animals and hence the application of appropriate corrective husbandry practices. This review focuses on new knowledge and emerging developments in welfare biomarkers (e.g. stress and metabolic diseases), activity-based welfare assessment (e.g. oestrus and lameness detection) and sensors of temperature and pH (e.g. calving alert and rumen function) and their combination and integration into 'smart' husbandry support systems that will ensure optimum wellbeing for dairy animals and thereby maximise farm profitability. Use of novel sensors combined with new technologies for information handling and communication are expected to produce dramatic changes in traditional dairy farming systems.

  5. DairyBISS Baseline report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buizer, N.N.; Berhanu, Tinsae; Murutse, Girmay; Vugt, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This baseline report of the Dairy Business Information Service and Support (DairyBISS) project presents the findings of a baseline survey among 103 commercial farms and 31 firms and advisors working in the dairy value chain. Additional results from the survey among commercial dairy farms are

  6. Staphylococcus aureus entrance into the dairy chain: Tracking S. aureus from dairy cow to cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Kümmel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. 1176 quarter milk (QM samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294 and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS. Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing, dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day fourteen of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires effective clearance strategies and hygienic

  7. A Study on Human Resource Practices of Mother Dairy, Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Shilpy Verma; Prof. Rajesh Mehrotra

    2017-01-01

    From past few decades the dairy industry is crucially concentrating on their human resource, as they are the most valued and most treasured assets as per latest studies. To assess the dairy sector Human Resource’s competiveness, the performance analysis in this research looked at four functions: 1. Recruitment and Selection, 2. Training and development, 3. Performance Management System, 4. Compensation and Benefits. The organizations should carefully map the available HR while recruiting the ...

  8. Freeze concentration of dairy products Phase 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, D.E.; Vasavada, K.C.

    1993-09-01

    An efficient, electrically driven freeze concentration system offers potential for substantially increasing electricity demand while providing the mature dairy industry with new products for domestic and export markets together with enhanced production efficiencies. Consumer tests indicate that dairy products manufactured from freeze-concentrated ingredients are either preferred or considered equivalent in quality to fresh milk-based products. Economic analyses indicate that this technology should be competitive with thermal evaporation processes on a commercial basis.

  9. Texturized dairy proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwulata, Charles I; Phillips, John G; Tunick, Michael H; Qi, Phoebi X; Cooke, Peter H

    2010-03-01

    Dairy proteins are amenable to structural modifications induced by high temperature, shear, and moisture; in particular, whey proteins can change conformation to new unfolded states. The change in protein state is a basis for creating new foods. The dairy products, nonfat dried milk (NDM), whey protein concentrate (WPC), and whey protein isolate (WPI) were modified using a twin-screw extruder at melt temperatures of 50, 75, and 100 degrees C, and moistures ranging from 20 to 70 wt%. Viscoelasticity and solubility measurements showed that extrusion temperature was a more significant (P extruded dairy protein ranged from rigid (2500 N) to soft (2.7 N). Extruding at or above 75 degrees C resulted in increased peak force for WPC (138 to 2500 N) and WPI (2.7 to 147.1 N). NDM was marginally texturized; the presence of lactose interfered with its texturization. WPI products extruded at 50 degrees C were not texturized; their solubility values ranged from 71.8% to 92.6%. A wide possibility exists for creating new foods with texturized dairy proteins due to the extensive range of states achievable. Dairy proteins can be used to boost the protein content in puffed snacks made from corn meal, but unmodified, they bind water and form doughy pastes with starch. To minimize the water binding property of dairy proteins, WPI, or WPC, or NDM were modified by extrusion processing. Extrusion temperature conditions were adjusted to 50, 75, or 100 degrees C, sufficient to change the structure of the dairy proteins, but not destroy them. Extrusion modified the structures of these dairy proteins for ease of use in starchy foods to boost nutrient levels. Dairy proteins can be used to boost the protein content in puffed snacks made from corn meal, but unmodified, they bind water and form doughy pastes with starch. To minimize the water binding property of dairy proteins, whey protein isolate, whey protein concentrate, or nonfat dried milk were modified by extrusion processing. Extrusion

  10. Seasonally Feed-Related Aflatoxins B1 and M1 Spread in Semiarid Industrial Dairy Herd and Its Deteriorating Impacts on Food and Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saideh Mozafari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To comparatively determine the levels of aflatoxin (AF B1 in feedstuffs and of AFM1 in milk from semiarid industrial cattle farms in northeastern Iran during four seasons and to elucidate the effects of mixed AFB1 and AFM1 on bovine granulocytes, 72 feedstuffs (concentrate, silage, and totally mixed ration (TMR and 200 bulk milk samples were simultaneously collected for ELISA-based AFs detection. Isolated blood and milk neutrophils (n=8/treatment were also preincubated with mix of 10 ng/ml AFB1 and 10 ng/ml AFM1 for 12 h; the impact was assessed on neutrophils functions. AFB1 levels in feedstuffs averaged 28 μg/kg (4–127 μg/kg, with TMR maximal (38±6.3 μg/kg, concentrate (32±6.5 μg/kg, and silage (16±1.5 μg/kg. The levels of AFB1 and AFM1 in feedstuffs and milk averaged 42±9.3, 27±2.8, 26±4.1, and 18.5±2.8 μg/kg and 85±7.3, 62±6.1, 46±6.2, and 41±6.5 ppb μg/kg in winter (maximal, autumn, spring, and summer, respectively. Mix of AFB1 and AFM1 weakened various functions of granulocytes. It adds new reason why during winter semiarid raised food-producing animals show more immune-incompetence.

  11. Dairy Tool Box Talks: a comprehensive worker training in dairy farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Rovai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Today’s dairies are growing rapidly, with increasing dependence on Latino immigrant workers. This requires new educational strategies for improving milk quality and introduction to state-of-the-art dairy farming practices. It also creates knowledge gaps pertaining to the health of animals and workers, mainly due to lack of time and language barriers. Owners, managers and herdsmen assign training duties to more experienced employees, which may not promote ‘best practices’ and may perpetuate bad habits. A comprehensive and periodic training program administered by qualified personnel is currently needed and will enhance the sustainability of the dairy industry. Strategic management and employee satisfaction will be achieved through proper training in the employee’s language, typically Spanish. The training needs to address not only current industry standards but also social and cultural differences. An innovative training course was developed following the same structure used by the engineering and construction industries, giving farm workers basic understanding of animal care and handling, cow comfort and personal safety. The Dairy Tool Box Talks program was conducted over a ten week period with nine 30-minute sessions according to farm’s various employee work shifts. Bulk milk bacterial counts and somatic cell count were used to evaluate milk quality on the three dairy farms participating in the program.Dairy Tool Box Talks resulted in a general sense of employee satisfaction, significant learning outcomes, and enthusiasm about the topics covered. We conclude this article by highlighting the importance of educational programs aimed at improving overall cross-cultural training.

  12. Growth Dynamics of Dairy Processing Firms in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.; Turi, K.N.; Wijnands, J.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the dairy processing industry in the European Union has changed enormously in recent decades. In many countries, the industry is characterized by a few large companies with a big market share accompanied by many small processors that often produce for niche markets. This article

  13. Dairy wastewater treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... treatment processes to treat dairy wastewater such as activated sludge system .... Gas chromatograph. (Perkin Elmer, Auto system XL), equipped with thermal conductivity ..... Enzymatic hydrolysis of molasses. Bioresour. Tech.

  14. Dairy goat nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ronchi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Good goat nutrition is fundamental to the success and sustainability of dairy goat farming in terms of economics, goat health, high quality products, and minimizing environmental impact.

  15. Feeding practices and potential risk factors for laminitis in dairy cows in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Pilachai, R.

    2013-01-01

    Laminitis is considered an important health problem facing the Thai dairy industry. Although the etiology of laminitis is multifactorial, nutrition is considered an important risk factor. Rumen acidosis, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and histamine may play a role in the development of laminitis in dairy cattle. However, the relevancy of these risk factors in relation to the occurrence of laminitis under practical feeding conditions in Thailand is not clear. In Thailand, dairy rations are generall...

  16. Selective dry cow treatment in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Scherpenzeel, C.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the dairy industry, udder health is associated with mastitis management, of which blanket dry cow treatment has been an important part for decades. To prevent the udder from new intramammary infections during the dry period, the use of blanket dry cow treatment has been advocated for more than 50 years as part of the five-point mastitis prevention program. The goal of dry cow treatment is to reduce the prevalence of intramammary infections by eliminating infections already present at dryin...

  17. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool. Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Flapper, Joris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kramer, Klaas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop a computer-based benchmarking and energy and water savings tool (BEST-Dairy) for use in the California dairy industry - including four dairy processes - cheese, fluid milk, butter, and milk powder. BEST-Dairy tool developed in this project provides three options for the user to benchmark each of the dairy product included in the tool, with each option differentiated based on specific detail level of process or plant, i.e., 1) plant level; 2) process-group level, and 3) process-step level. For each detail level, the tool accounts for differences in production and other variables affecting energy use in dairy processes. The dairy products include cheese, fluid milk, butter, milk powder, etc. The BEST-Dairy tool can be applied to a wide range of dairy facilities to provide energy and water savings estimates, which are based upon the comparisons with the best available reference cases that were established through reviewing information from international and national samples. We have performed and completed alpha- and beta-testing (field testing) of the BEST-Dairy tool, through which feedback from voluntary users in the U.S. dairy industry was gathered to validate and improve the tool's functionality. BEST-Dairy v1.2 was formally published in May 2011, and has been made available for free downloads from the internet (i.e., http://best-dairy.lbl.gov). A user's manual has been developed and published as the companion documentation for use with the BEST-Dairy tool. In addition, we also carried out technology transfer activities by engaging the dairy industry in the process of tool development and testing, including field testing, technical presentations, and technical assistance throughout the project. To date, users from more than ten countries in addition to those in the U.S. have downloaded the BEST-Dairy from the LBNL website. It is expected that the use of BEST-Dairy tool will advance understanding of energy and

  18. Feeding practices and potential risk factors for laminitis in dairy cows in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilachai, R.

    2013-01-01

    Laminitis is considered an important health problem facing the Thai dairy industry. Although the etiology of laminitis is multifactorial, nutrition is considered an important risk factor. Rumen acidosis, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and histamine may play a role in the development of laminitis in dairy

  19. DYNAMICS OF OPTIMAL INTERACTIONS BETWEEN PASTURE PRODUCTION AND MILK YIELDS OF AUSTRALIAN DAIRY FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Tozer, Peter R.; Huffaker, Ray G.

    1998-01-01

    Deregulation of the Australian dairy industry could effect the utilization of resources by milk producers. In this study we examine the feed input mix dairy producers use, both pastures and supplements, prior to and after deregulation. We are particularly interested in the interaction of pasture utilization and farm profitability.

  20. Factors Influencing New Entrant Dairy Farmer's Decision-Making Process around Technology Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Roberta; Heanue, Kevin; Pierce, Karina; Horan, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this paper are to (1) evaluate the main factors influencing grazing system technology adoption among new entrant (NE) dairy farmers within Europe and the Irish pasture-based dairy industry, and (2) to determine the extent to which economic factors influence decision-making around technology adoption and use among NEs to the…

  1. Stochastic bio—economic modeling of mastitis in Ethiopian dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Getaneh, Abraham Mekibeb; Mekonnen, Sefinew Alemu; Hogeveen, Henk

    2017-01-01

    Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland that is considered to be one of the most frequent and costly diseases in the dairy industry. Also in Ethiopia, bovine mastitis is one of the most frequently encountered diseases of dairy cows. However, there was no study, so far, regarding the costs

  2. Dairy beverages and energy balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Gilbert, Jo-Anne

    2010-01-01

    High dairy intakes have been associated with lower rates of obesity in observational studies, but mechanisms to explain the association are lacking. A high intake of dairy protein reduces spontaneous food intake and may be one important mechanism, but more specific effects of dairy calcium seem t...

  3. A comprehensive dairy valorization model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banaszewska, A.; Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Claassen, G.D.H.; Kampman, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Dairy processors face numerous challenges resulting from both unsteady dairy markets and some specific characteristics of dairy supply chains. To maintain a competitive position on the market, companies must look beyond standard solutions currently used in practice. This paper presents a

  4. Multiple criteria decision-making process to derive consensus desired genetic gains for a dairy cattle breeding objective for diverse production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kariuki, C.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Kahi, A.K.; Komen, H.

    2017-01-01

    Dairy cattle industries contribute to food and nutrition security and are a source of income for numerous households in many developing countries. Selective breeding can enhance efficiency in these industries. Developing dairy industries are characterized by diverse production and marketing

  5. Cultura e clima organizacionais: um estudo em indústrias de laticínios do estado do Rio Grande do Norte Organizational culture and climate: a study in Rio Grande do Norte's dairy industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Célio Souza Rocha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é investigar se existe relação entre a cultura organizacional e o clima organizacional, tendo, como locus de pesquisa, indústrias de laticínios do Rio Grande do Norte. Para tanto, realizou-se um estudo exploratório-descritivo e conclusivo-causal, em uma amostra composta por 211 funcionários de todos os níveis hierárquicos das empresas participantes, o que corresponde a 25,6% do total do setor. A partir dos dados coletados, identificaram-se as características pessoais dos respondentes, o perfil da cultura organizacional predominante e o clima organizacional predominante nas indústrias analisadas. Para a análise da cultura organizacional, utilizou-se o Modelo dos Valores Competitivos (CAMERON; QUINN, 2006 com adaptações, segundo Santos (2000. Para a análise do clima organizacional, utilizou-se a Escala de Medida de Clima Organizacional, proposta por Martins et al. (2004 e Martins (2008, com modificações de forma a se ter um instrumento mais enxuto. Os dados coletados foram submetidos a análises estatísticas quantitativas que permitiram chegar às seguintes conclusões: os perfis culturais foram encontrados de forma equilibrada nas organizações pesquisadas, com ênfase para os perfis "cultura clã" e "cultura mercado"; as organizações pesquisadas possuem um clima bom, segundo a classificação de Martins (2008, com destaque para os fatores "apoio da chefia e da organização" e "conforto físico", fatores estes bem coerentes com o perfil "cultura clã"; e os perfis culturais apresentaram influência sobre os fatores do clima organizacional. Assim, os resultados nos permitem concluir que há relações entre os perfis culturais e os fatores determinantes do clima organizacional nas organizações pesquisadas.The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between organizational culture and the organizational climate in Rio Grande do Norte's dairy industries. An exploratory

  6. New Zealand Dairy Farming: Milking Our Environment for All Its Worth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Kyleisha J.; Joy, Michael K.; Death, Russell G.

    2015-09-01

    Over the past two decades there have been major increases in dairy production in New Zealand. This increase in intensity has required increased use of external inputs, in particular fertilizer, feed, and water. Intensified dairy farming thus incurs considerable environmental externalities: impacts that are not paid for directly by the dairy farmer. These externalities are left for the wider New Zealand populace to deal with, both economically and environmentally. This is counter-intuitive given the dairy industry itself relies on a `clean green' image to maximize returns. This is the first nationwide assessment of some of the environmental costs of the recent increase of dairy intensification in New Zealand. Significant costs arise from nitrate contamination of drinking water, nutrient pollution to lakes, soil compaction, and greenhouse gas emissions. At the higher end, the estimated cost of some environmental externalities surpasses the 2012 dairy export revenue of NZ11.6 billion and almost reaches the combined export revenue and dairy's contribution to Gross Domestic Product in 2010 of NZ5 billion. For the dairy industry to accurately report on its profitability and maintain its sustainable marketing label, these external costs should be reported. This assessment is in fact extremely conservative as many impacts have not been valued, thus, the total negative external impact of intensified dairying is probably grossly underestimated.

  7. Composition of lactic acid bacteria in dairy products and their effect on tourism development of inner Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the development of dairy industry in Inner Mongolia has accelerated its economic growth, and its grassland culture has become appealing to the public. As an important support industry for the economic development in tourism area of Inner Mongolia, dairy industry can create economic value for the development of tourism. In view of the importance of dairy products-the habitat of lactic acid bacteria, this study aims to reveal the composition of lactic acid bacteria in dairy products and isolate lactic acid bacteria resources. Firstly, we selected 60 traditional dairy product samples (from the pasture in scenic area of Inner Mongolia as the research objects. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, lactic acid bacteria in the samples were isolated and identified; Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR technology was applied to the comparative analysis on the population of dominant bacteria in samples. It was found that there were significant differences in the numbers of dominant bacteria in different dairy products. With the advantages of improving nutritional value and extending storage time of dairy products, lactic acid bacteria is contributive to the development of dairy industry, which further promotes the prosperity of economy and tourism. Therefore, it is of great importance to study the composition of lactic acid bacteria in dairy products.

  8. Reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from global dairy processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Tengfang, E-mail: ttxu@lbl.go [International Energy Studies Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Flapper, Joris [International Energy Studies Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Centre for Energy and Environmental Studies, University of Groningen, IVEM, Nijenborgh 4, 9747, AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    Global butter, concentrated milk, and milk powder products use approximately 15% of annual raw milk production. Similar to cheese and fluid milk, dairy processing of these products can be energy intensive. In this paper, we analyzed production and energy data compiled through extensive literature reviews on butter, concentrated milk, milk and whey powder processing across various countries and plants. Magnitudes of national final and primary specific energy consumption (SEC) exhibited large variations across dairy products; in addition, the final SEC of individual plants and products exhibited significant variations within a country and between countries. Furthermore, we quantified national energy intensity indicators (EIIs) accounting for dairy product mixes and technological advancement. The significant variations of SEC and EII values indicate a high degree of likelihood that there is significant potential for energy savings in the global dairy processing industry. Based upon the study samples, we estimate potential energy savings for dairy processing industry in selected countries, and estimates annual reduction of 9-14 million metric-ton carbon-equivalent could be achieved if measures are implemented to lower SEC values by 50-80% in half of global dairy plants. The paper calls for publication of more energy data from the dairy processing industry. - Research highlights: {yields} The specific energy consumption exhibited large variations across dairy products, plants, and countries. {yields} National energy intensity indicators also exhibited significant variations. {yields} There is a large global potential for energy savings and carbon reduction in dairy processing plants. {yields} The paper calls for publication of more energy data from the dairy processing industry.

  9. Dairy Supply Chain Risk Management in Bangladesh: Field studies of Factors and Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasnuba Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain risk management (SCRM has gained wide attention among the academia and the business community in the present competitive business world. This paper aims to investigate the main risk factors associated with the dairy industry along with focuses on possible mitigation strategy to mitigate those risks. Qualitative field study has been undertaken in this research. The results of the interviews identify the different risk issues along with the possible mitigation strategies, embedded at storage, processing and distribution level in dairy industry of Bangladesh. The practical implication will contribute significantly to the dairy sector in terms of mitigating risks.

  10. Probiotic Delivery through Fermentation: Dairy vs. Non-Dairy Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Chaminda Senaka Ranadheera; Janak K. Vidanarachchi; Ramon Silva Rocha; Adriano G. Cruz; Said Ajlouni

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, mainly through the process of replacing or including beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Fermented dairy foods such as yogurt, fermented milk and cheese are the major vehicle in delivering probiotics, and probiotic delivery have been traditionally associated with these fermented dairy foods. Additionally, many other non-dairy probiotic products and non-food form ...

  11. Perspectives on pasture versus indoor feeding of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, Wilhelm

    2016-01-15

    The dairy industry in many regions of the world has moved towards a high-input/high-output system maximising annual milk production per cow, primarily through increasing concentrate-based total mixed rations fed indoors year round, as opposed to allowing cows to feed on pasture. Pasture-based dairy systems in regions like New Zealand and Ireland are oriented towards maximum milk yield per unit of pasture, which has led to Holstein strains that are 50 to 100 kg lighter, exhibit a higher body condition score, and produce roughly half the annual amount of milk as compared to their Holstein counterparts kept in confinement in North America and Europe. Freedom from hunger might not be guaranteed when high-yielding dairy cows are kept on pasture without any supplemental feed, but at the same time no access to pasture can be considered an animal welfare concern, because pasturing is generally beneficial to the animals' health. On pasture, lighter-weight dairy cows with a medium milk production potential have proven to be superior with regard to feed efficiency and fertility. The year-round indoor feeding of high-yielding dairy cows with total mixed rations containing substantial amounts of human-edible crops from arable land puts global food security at risk and fails to utilise the evolutionary advantages of ruminants. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Identification of gene networks underlying dystocia in dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dystocia is a trait with a high impact in the dairy industry. Among its risk factors are calf weight, gestation length, breed and conformation. Biological networks have been proposed to capture the genetic architecture of complex traits, where GWAS show limitations. The objective of this study was t...

  13. Productivity growth patterns in US dairy products manufacturing plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geylani, P.C.; Stefanou, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the productivity growth patterns in the US dairy products industry using the Census Bureau's plant-level data set. We decompose Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth into the scale and technical change components and analyse variability of plants' productivity by constructing transition

  14. The Dairy Technology System in Venezuela. Summary of Research 79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Ruben D.; Henderson, Janet L.

    A study examined the agricultural technology system in Venezuela with emphasis on the dairy industry. An analytical framework was used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the following components of Venezuela's agricultural technology system: policy, technology development, technology transfer, and technology use. Selected government…

  15. Dairy stock development and milk production with smallholders = De ontwikkeling van jongvee en melkproduktie met kleine boeren

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, de, R.

    1996-01-01


    My work in technical development cooperation and missions in developing countries, touched often upon worldwide dairy development, and stimulated my interest in comparative analysis of technical and economic progress in the sector. This did not only deal with milk production, but increasingly in the course of time with the development of dairy stock as the basis for enhanced andlor expanded milk production. Dairy production, generally performed on more specialized farms in industri...

  16. Dairy Dilemma: Are You Getting Enough Calcium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be avoiding dairy products because of lactose intolerance. Or you might have other reasons. But dairy ... the major reasons people avoid dairy products is lactose intolerance. Lactose is a natural sugar found in milk ...

  17. Radioactivity monitoring of Irish dairy produce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, K.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The RPII has been carrying out monitoring of milk and dairy produce since 1986. Milk samples are routinely analysed for radiocaesium and strontium-90 as part of the RPII's environmental monitoring programme to determine the doses received to the Irish population from milk consumption. The method the RPII utilises for determining the Sr-90 activity in milk is by measuring the Cerenkov radiation produced by its daughter 90 Y isolated from interfering nuclides such as uranium, thorium, radium and their decay products as well as isotopes of caesium, potassium and strontium by extraction with 10% di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (HDEHP) in toluene. The chemical yield of 90 Y is determined by the acidmetric titration of yttrium nitrate carrier with titriplex III. The levels of Sr-90 and dose to the Irish population from milk consumption have been negligible when compared to other radioactive sources in the Irish environment. Other dairy products are analysed for radiocaesium on a routine basis for commercial customers to ensure the levels of radioactivity in the dairy products fall within EC regulations governing the export/import of dairy produce. The export of milk and milk produce from Ireland is a very important industry, 80% of dairy products produced in Ireland are exported and these exports are worth Euro 2.2 billion annually to the Irish economy. The dairy products are analysed by gamma spectroscopy and include full and skim milk powders, butter, casein, cheese, cream, whey and lactose. The levels of radiocaesium in these products are typically below 5 Bk/kg and fall well within the limit of 370 Bq/kg laid down by the European Community in Council Regulation 737/90. Although the levels of these radionuclides are relatively low the RPII recognises the importance of analysing these samples for radioactivity to inform the public, ensure consumer confidence and, more importantly, to maintain a level of expertise in the RPII in these analytical techniques so that

  18. Radioactivity monitoring of Irish dairy produce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, K. (Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. Radiation Monitoring, Dublin (Ireland))

    2010-03-15

    Full text: The RPII has been carrying out monitoring of milk and dairy produce since 1986. Milk samples are routinely analysed for radiocaesium and strontium-90 as part of the RPII's environmental monitoring programme to determine the doses received to the Irish population from milk consumption. The method the RPII utilises for determining the Sr-90 activity in milk is by measuring the Cerenkov radiation produced by its daughter 90Y isolated from interfering nuclides such as uranium, thorium, radium and their decay products as well as isotopes of caesium, potassium and strontium by extraction with 10% di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (HDEHP) in toluene. The chemical yield of 90Y is determined by the acidmetric titration of yttrium nitrate carrier with titriplex III. The levels of Sr-90 and dose to the Irish population from milk consumption have been negligible when compared to other radioactive sources in the Irish environment. Other dairy products are analysed for radiocaesium on a routine basis for commercial customers to ensure the levels of radioactivity in the dairy products fall within EC regulations governing the export/import of dairy produce. The export of milk and milk produce from Ireland is a very important industry, 80% of dairy products produced in Ireland are exported and these exports are worth Euro 2.2 billion annually to the Irish economy. The dairy products are analysed by gamma spectroscopy and include full and skim milk powders, butter, casein, cheese, cream, whey and lactose. The levels of radiocaesium in these products are typically below 5 Bk/kg and fall well within the limit of 370 Bq/kg laid down by the European Community in Council Regulation 737/90. Although the levels of these radionuclides are relatively low the RPII recognises the importance of analysing these samples for radioactivity to inform the public, ensure consumer confidence and, more importantly, to maintain a level of expertise in the RPII in these analytical techniques so

  19. Milk and dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.; Heine, K.; Bundesanstalt fuer Milchforschung, Kiel

    1985-01-01

    Gammaspectroscopic measurements are taken as an example to describe the monitoring programme of the FRG for monitoring of milk and dairy products. A table shows the number of milk samples taken every year in the FRG in the general environment, and in the vicinity of nuclear installations, together with the radioactivity data obtained by gammaspectroscopy. Due to the decreasing radioactivity as a result of the nuclear weapons tests fallout, the number of samples taken in the general environment has been cut down to half over the period under review. The monitoring capacity set free by this decision has been used during this period for enhanced monitoring of milk and dairy products in regions where nuclear installations such as nuclear power plants have been operating. The nuclides of interest are Sr-90, Cs-137, J-131. (orig./DG) [de

  20. Dairy cow nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Tame, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This review pulls together the results of over 40 research projects and brings us up to date with the latest in thinking on dairy cow nutrition, incorporates the findings of a wide range of organic trials and draws some clear recommendations on appropriate strategies for forage type and management, supplementary feeding, ration formulation and farming systems. It raises important issues around sustainability versus optimum production and highlights future research priorities.

  1. Dairy donkey: an alternative building layout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Bibbiani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, donkey dairies are growing in popularity to produce an alternative milk source for human infants. The use of donkey milk is not limited to the paediatric field, being used in geriatric nutrition and in the cosmetic industry. In 2010, the Department of Veterinary Science, University of Pisa, was involved in a project supported by the Tuscany Region Rural Development Fund 2007- 2013 dealing with the creation of a donkey milk productive chain. The project has as its main partner the Bandite di Scarlino, an agro-forestry complex of considerable size. It covers approximately 9000 hectares, which fall in Scarlino, Castiglione della Pescaia, Follonica and Gavorrano municipalities, under Tuscany regional control. The so-called FILAMI project (Filiera Latte Asino Amiatino, acronym of the goal of the project in Italian had among its goals helping preserve an indigenous breed of donkeys called Amiatina. Salimei (2011 assessed that the presence of the foal during milking does not affect milk ejection in jennies (the female donkey adapted to the milking procedure, but when foals are not present the milking routine is more manageable for the animals and for optimal milk harvest; in accordance, in the present farming system the jenny has been kept separately from the foal during the milking session. To this purpose, the stable, the milking parlour and the paddocks must be well organised with a proper milking routine. Milking facilities must be designed for the milk treatment and storage at low temperature or for freezing. Currently, the milk undergoes a pasteurisation cycle for human consumption, or directed to the cosmetic industry. Moreover, the milking facilities should fulfil the creation of a milk collection centre in order to play an important role between the dairy donkey farms and the dairy industry. In this paper, the technical and technological aspects of the donkey stable, paddocks, milking parlour, mobile milking unit, and processing

  2. Exploring the causes of Low-Productivity in Dairy Supply Chain using AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul S Mor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dairy industry is one of the essential global industries with considerably important implications for world economy where the dairy supply chains (DSC cover every stage of the food system starting from the milk production at farmer level to final consumption. For achieving success in the dairy supply chain, it is needed to focus on critical factors (CFs that are necessary for an organization to achieve its corporate goals with continually improving the operational performance. In this context, the current study is an attempt to identify the critical factors causing low-productivity in dairy supply chains. After comprehensive literature review and pilot studies in some dairy industries located in northern region of India, a total of 32 critical factors have been identified. A structured questionnaire consisting of 32 CFs have been circulated and the data has been collected from select cooperative dairy units. Further, only eight major critical factors have been carried forward for AHP analysis based on the data collected. The factor having higher weightage score is considered as major CF. The findings of this study indicate that the poor logistics and transportation facilities is the most critical factor as productivity barrier in the context of coop. milk processing units in northern India. This research study would be useful for the dairy professionals & managers of milk processing units to manage their production operations effectively by considering the identified CFs.

  3. Reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from global dairy processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang [International Energy Studies Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Flapper, Joris [International Energy Studies Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Centre for Energy and Environmental Studies, University of Groningen, IVEM, Nijenborgh 4, 9747, AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    Global butter, concentrated milk, and milk powder products use approximately 15% of annual raw milk production. Similar to cheese and fluid milk, dairy processing of these products can be energy intensive. In this paper, we analyzed production and energy data compiled through extensive literature reviews on butter, concentrated milk, milk and whey powder processing across various countries and plants. Magnitudes of national final and primary specific energy consumption (SEC) exhibited large variations across dairy products; in addition, the final SEC of individual plants and products exhibited significant variations within a country and between countries. Furthermore, we quantified national energy intensity indicators (EIIs) accounting for dairy product mixes and technological advancement. The significant variations of SEC and EII values indicate a high degree of likelihood that there is significant potential for energy savings in the global dairy processing industry. Based upon the study samples, we estimate potential energy savings for dairy processing industry in selected countries, and estimates annual reduction of 9-14 million metric-ton carbon-equivalent could be achieved if measures are implemented to lower SEC values by 50-80% in half of global dairy plants. The paper calls for publication of more energy data from the dairy processing industry. (author)

  4. DairyWise, a whole-farm dairy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schils, R L M; de Haan, M H A; Hemmer, J G A; van den Pol-van Dasselaar, A; de Boer, J A; Evers, A G; Holshof, G; van Middelkoop, J C; Zom, R L G

    2007-11-01

    A whole-farm dairy model was developed and evaluated. The DairyWise model is an empirical model that simulated technical, environmental, and financial processes on a dairy farm. The central component is the FeedSupply model that balanced the herd requirements, as generated by the DairyHerd model, and the supply of homegrown feeds, as generated by the crop models for grassland and corn silage. The output of the FeedSupply model was used as input for several technical, environmental, and economic submodels. The submodels simulated a range of farm aspects such as nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, nitrate leaching, ammonia emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, energy use, and a financial farm budget. The final output was a farm plan describing all material and nutrient flows and the consequences on the environment and economy. Evaluation of DairyWise was performed with 2 data sets consisting of 29 dairy farms. The evaluation showed that DairyWise was able to simulate gross margin, concentrate intake, nitrogen surplus, nitrate concentration in ground water, and crop yields. The variance accounted for ranged from 37 to 84%, and the mean differences between modeled and observed values varied between -5 to +3% per set of farms. We conclude that DairyWise is a powerful tool for integrated scenario development and evaluation for scientists, policy makers, extension workers, teachers and farmers.

  5. The effect of preventive trimming on weight bearing and force balance on the claws of dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van der P.P.J.; Beek, van der S.S.; Metz, J.H.M.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.; Back, E.; Braam, C.R.; Weijs, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Claw disorders and lameness in dairy cattle are an increasing problem of the modern dairy industry. To prevent claw disorders from evolving from the subclinical to the clinical stage, trimming is the management practice most routinely applied. The goal of preventive trimming (Toussaint-Raven method)

  6. A Robust Statistical Model to Predict the Future Value of the Milk Production of Dairy Cows Using Herd Recording Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2017-01-01

    The future value of an individual dairy cow depends greatly on its projected milk yield. In developed countries with developed dairy industry infrastructures, facilities exist to record individual cow production and reproduction outcomes consistently and accurately. Accurate prediction of the fut...

  7. Effects of switching between production systems in dairy farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alvarez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing intensification of dairy farming in Europe has sparked an interest in studying the economic consequences of this process. However, empirically classifying farms as extensive or intensive is not a straightforward task. In recent papers, Latent Class Models (LCM have been used to avoid an ad-hoc split of the sample into intensive and extensive dairy farms. A limitation of current specifications of LCM is that they do not allow farms to switch between different productive systems over time. This feature of the model is at odds with the process of intensification of the European dairy industry in recent decades. We allow for changes of production system over time by estimating a single LCM model but splitting the original panel into two periods, and find that the probability of using the intensive technology increases over time. Our estimation proposal opens up the possibility of studying the effects of intensification not only across farms but also over time.

  8. Reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.T.; Barnabe, R.C.; Morales, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The review describes the commonly practised systems of milk production in sample countries within the five major topographical/climatological subregions of Latin America, viz. Central America, the Caribbean, the South American subtropics, the Andes and the Temperate Zone. The state of development and importance of the dairy industry to the economy of each country are discussed. Production and reproduction indices are quoted, as are the genetic make-up of the dairy herds, husbandry practices and the quality of livestock management. It is clear that there is an enormous capacity for improvement in the efficiency of milk production systems in the Latin American region as a whole; to achieve this improvement, there is an urgent need to pursue on-farm based research aimed at identifying constraints to the performance of dairy cattle and the implementation of low cost management/nutritional/health control measures. (author)

  9. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY IN DAIRY SECTOR IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek ZDENĚK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The most important for the stability of Europe and Czech milk market is to remain competitive in world markets, as the main way for balance on the internal market is based on successful export of dairy products to third countries. Price volatility and environmental sustainability are seen as the most serious current problems in the dairy industry and dairy farming. The aim of this paper is to assess the development of the production and milk prices in the EU and assess the main factors that affect labour productivity. The number of cows per worker is one of the most important factors affecting labour productivity. Effect of prices on labour productivity in monetary expression is not as significant as is usually assumed. The technical equipment of labour should be an important factor influencing the number of cows per worker. The hypothesis that higher technical equipment of labour should create better conditions for higher productivity could be assumed.

  10. Genomic selection in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de A.P.W.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this Ph.D. thesis were (1) to optimise genomic selection in dairy cattle with respect to the accuracy of predicting total genetic merit and (2) to optimise a dairy cattle breeding program using genomic selection. The study was performed using a combination of real data sets and

  11. Entrepreneurship of Dutch dairy farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergevoet, R.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Several developments in the Netherlands as well as in the other countries within the EU are forcing dairy farmers to reconsider their involvement in dairy production. Farmers are being called to account more for the entrepreneurial element of their farming behaviour. Up till now it was unclear how

  12. Dairy cluster design for Myanmar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, J.; Lee, van der J.

    2015-01-01

    At the request of the Dutch and Myanmar governments, a project team consisting of researchers from Wageningen University & Research centre and experts from dairy processor Royal FrieslandCampina, feed company Royal De Heus and AgriWorks consultancy have developed a design for a dairy cluster in

  13. Dairy Proteins and Energy Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist

    High protein diets affect energy balance beneficially through decreased hunger, enhanced satiety and increased energy expenditure. Dairy products are a major source of protein. Dairy proteins are comprised of two classes, casein (80%) and whey proteins (20%), which are both of high quality......, but casein is absorbed slowly and whey is absorbed rapidly. The present PhD study investigated the effects of total dairy proteins, whey, and casein, on energy balance and the mechanisms behind any differences in the effects of the specific proteins. The results do not support the hypothesis that dairy...... proteins, whey or casein are more beneficial than other protein sources in the regulation of energy balance, and suggest that dairy proteins, whey or casein seem to play only a minor role, if any, in the prevention and treatment of obesity....

  14. Application of Bacteriocins and Protective Cultures in Dairy Food Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia C. G. Silva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the human health risk posed by the use of chemical preservatives in foods. In contrast, the increasing demand by the dairy industry to extend shelf-life and prevent spoilage of dairy products has appeal for new preservatives and new methods of conservation. Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides, which can be considered as safe since they can be easily degraded by proteolytic enzymes of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. Also, most bacteriocin producers belong to lactic acid bacteria (LAB, a group that occurs naturally in foods and have a long history of safe use in dairy industry. Since they pose no health risk concerns, bacteriocins, either purified or excreted by bacteriocin producing strains, are a great alternative to the use of chemical preservatives in dairy products. Bacteriocins can be applied to dairy foods on a purified/crude form or as a bacteriocin-producing LAB as a part of fermentation process or as adjuvant culture. A number of applications of bacteriocins and bacteriocin-producing LAB have been reported to successful control pathogens in milk, yogurt, and cheeses. One of the more recent trends consists in the incorporation of bacteriocins, directly as purified or semi-purified form or in incorporation of bacteriocin-producing LAB into bioactive films and coatings, applied directly onto the food surfaces and packaging. This review is focused on recent developments and applications of bacteriocins and bacteriocin-producing LAB for reducing the microbiological spoilage and improve safety of dairy products.

  15. Treatment of dairy wastewater with a membrane bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Andrade

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the food industries, the dairy industry is considered to be the most polluting one because of the large volume of wastewater generated and its high organic load. In this study, an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR was used for the treatment of wastewater from a large dairy industry and two hydraulic retention times (HRT, 6 and 8 hours, were evaluated. For both HRTs removal efficiencies of organic matter of 99% were obtained. Despite high permeate flux (27.5 L/h.m², the system operated fairly stablely. The molecular weight distribution of feed, permeate and mixed liquor showed that only the low molecular weight fraction is efficiently degraded by biomass and that the membrane has an essential role in producing a permeate of excellent quality.

  16. The impact of collaborative strategies on disaster risk reduction in Zimbabwe dairy supply chains in 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Chari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Disasters are on the increase globally with accompanying devastating effects on dairy supply chains. The devastating effects, caused by disasters on economies in various countries such as United States of America, Japan, Kenya, Uganda, Mozambique and Zimbabwe call for urgent sustainable mitigating measures in disaster risk reduction. These countries have experienced notable natural and man-made disasters in the past. The disasters negatively impacted the economies of both developed and developing countries, causing misery to people as hunger and poverty drastically increased. Zimbabwe’s dairy industry was not spared from these devastating effects as it was vulnerable to disasters such as droughts and cyclones. Disasters adversely affected supply chains in the country as evidenced by the closure of some dairy firms between the years 2000 and 2014. This article is set against the backdrop of declining output across all agricultural sectors in Zimbabwe, evident particularly in the dairy farming sector which has witnessed inadequate supply of raw milk and dairy products by local producers. The article assesses the impact of dairy organisations’ partnerships with government departments and non-governmental organisations in reducing disaster risks on the dairy supply chain cost efficiency. It also aims to show how partnerships can reduce disaster risks and weighs the benefits of reduced supply chain costs in improving the affordability of milk and milk products to the general public. The study employs a mixed-methods approach comprising structured questionnaires, administered to a sample of 92 respondents out of a randomly sampled population of 122 participants from dairy farming clusters across the country, with an 85% response rate. Key informants in the form of 18 dairy officers were purposively sampled for interviews throughout the dairy farming regions. The research findings will help government in the formulation of public policies for the

  17. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits...... it less accountable to the concern of private farmers for the welfare of their animals. It is argued that there is a need to mobilise a wide range of stakeholders to monitor developments and maintain pressure on breeding companies so that they are aware of the need to take precautionary measures to avoid...

  18. 76 FR 26930 - Dairy Promotion and Research Program; Importer Nominations to the Dairy Promotion and Research Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ...: AMS-DA-08-0050] Dairy Promotion and Research Program; Importer Nominations to the Dairy Promotion and... to the Dairy Production Stabilization Act of 1983 (Dairy Act), as amended, and the Dairy Promotion... importer representation, initially two members, to the National Dairy Promotion and Research Board (Dairy...

  19. Food safety issues in China: a case study of the dairy sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoxia; Li, Zhemin

    2016-01-15

    Over the past 10 years, food safety incidents have occurred frequently in China. Food safety issues in the dairy sector have increasingly gained the attention of the Chinese government and the public. The objective of this research is to explore consumption changes of dairy products of different income groups after these dairy safety incidents. The research indicates that consumers' response to dairy safety risk is very intense. Dairy consumption has experienced a declining trend in recent years, and the impact of dairy safety incidents has lasted for at least 5 years. Until 2012, dairy consumption had not yet fully recovered from this influence. Using the random effects model, this study examined the relationship between food safety incident and consumption. Overall, the results show that consumers in the low-income group are more sensitive to safety risk than those in the high-income group. It can be seen from this paper that the decrease of urban residents' dairy consumption was mainly driven by changes in fresh milk consumption, while the decline of milk powder consumption, which was affected by the melamine incident, was relatively moderate, and milk powder consumption for the high-income group even increased. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Invited review: Current production trends, farm structures, and economics of the dairy sheep and goat sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulina, G; Milán, M J; Lavín, M P; Theodoridis, A; Morin, E; Capote, J; Thomas, D L; Francesconi, A H D; Caja, G

    2018-05-30

    Dairy small ruminants account for approximately 21% of all sheep and goats in the world, produce around 3.5% of the world's milk, and are mainly located in subtropical-temperate areas of Asia, Europe, and Africa. Dairy sheep are concentrated around the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions, where their dairy products are typical ingredients of the human diet. Dairy goats are concentrated in low-income, food-deficit countries of the Indian subcontinent, where their products are a key food source, but are also present in high-income, technologically developed countries. This review evaluates the status of the dairy sheep and goat sectors in the world, with special focus on the commercially and technically developed industries in France, Greece, Italy, and Spain (FGIS). Dairy small ruminants account for a minor part of the total agricultural output in France, Italy, and Spain (0.9 to 1.8%) and a larger part in Greece (8.8%). In FGIS, the dairy sheep industry is based on local breeds and crossbreeds raised under semi-intensive and intensive systems and is concentrated in a few regions in these countries. Average flock size varies from small to medium (140 to 333 ewes/farm), and milk yield from low to medium (85 to 216 L/ewe), showing substantial room for improvement. Most sheep milk is sold to industries and processed into traditional cheese types, many of which are Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) cheeses for gourmet and export markets (e.g., Pecorino, Manchego, and Roquefort). By comparing break-even milk price among FGIS countries, we observed the following: (1) most Greek and French dairy sheep farms were unprofitable, with the exception of the intensive Chios farms of Greece; (2) milk price was aligned with cost of production in Italy; and (3) profitable farms coexisted with unprofitable farms in Spain. In FGIS, dairy goat production is based on local breeds raised under more extensive systems than sheep. Compared with sheep, average dairy goat herds are

  1. Estratégias competitivas e de desenvolvimento de produtos lácteos funcionais: estudos de caso em empresas agroindustriais da região Sul do Brasil Competitive and product development strategies in functional dairy products: case studies in food processing industries from south Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Silva de Lima

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa buscou compreender o motivo e o modo como as empresas agroindustriais brasileiras desenvolvem novos produtos e se orientam para o mercado no segmento de alimentos lácteos funcionais. Ela também examina o papel do sistema regulatório nesse processo. Foi utilizada a abordagem de estudos de caso para esclarecer as inter-relações sistêmicas e trade-offs entre os fatores relacionados à inovação. Foi escolhido um desenho de pesquisa com uma unidade de análise (empresas agroindustriais que, recentemente, lançaram novos produtos no mercado de lácteos funcionais e estudos de caso múltiplos (três empresas agroindustriais da região Sul. Os resultados revelam que as empresas agroindustriais adotam estratégias seguidoras em relação às concorrentes multinacionais. Tradicionalmente, essa é uma estratégia considerada mais segura e exige menores investimentos em P&D e marketing. Contudo, ela corrói a imagem de marca e limita os retornos financeiros das inovações. O comportamento seguidor é resultado de um baixo grau de orientação para mercado e restrita cooperação com parceiros externos. Esse "ciclo vicioso" é reforçado pelas barreiras estabelecidas pelo sistema regulatório.This multi-case study searched to understand why and how food processing industries develop new products and market orientates to compete in the Brazilian functional dairy market. It also examines the regulatory framework role in this process. We use case studies as an approach to give evidence of the systemic relations and the existent trade-offs among factors related to innovation. We chose a research design with one unity of analysis (food processors that recently launched new products in the functional dairy market and multiple case studies (three Brazilian dairies of the southern region. The results reveal that the enterprises adopt a second-mover strategy vis-à-vis the multinational competitors. Traditionally, this strategy is considered

  2. [Lactic acid bacteria proteinase and quality of fermented dairy products--A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Lanwei; Han, Xue

    2015-12-04

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) could synthesize cell envelope proteinase with weak activity, which primarily degrades casein. In addition to its crucial role in the rapid growth of LAB in milk, LAB proteinases are also of industrial importance due to their contribution to the formation of texture and flavor of many fermented dairy products. The proteolytic system, properties of proteinase, the degradation product of casein and its effect on the quality of fermented dairy products were reviewed in this manuscript.

  3. Major advances in applied dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastridge, M L

    2006-04-01

    Milk yield per cow continues to increase with a slower rate of increase in dry matter intake; thus, efficiency of ruminal fermentation and digestibility of the dietary components are key factors in improving the efficiency of feed use. Over the past 25 yr, at least 2,567 articles relating to ruminant or dairy nutrition have been published in the Journal of Dairy Science. These studies have provided important advancements in improving feed efficiency and animal health by improving quality of feeds, increasing feedstuff and overall diet digestibility, better defining interactions among feedstuffs in diets, identifying alternative feed ingredients, better defining nutrient requirements, and improving efficiency of ruminal fermentation. The publications are vital in continuing to make advancements in providing adequate nutrition to dairy cattle and for facilitating exchange of knowledge among scientists. Forages have been studied more extensively than any other type of feed. Cereal grains continue to be the primary contributors of starch to diets, and thus are very important in meeting the energy needs of dairy cattle. Processing of cereal grains has improved their use. Feeding by-products contributes valuable nutrients to diets and allows feedstuffs to be used that would otherwise be handled as wastes in landfills. Many of these by-products provide a considerable amount of protein, nonforage fiber, fat, and minerals (sometimes a detriment as in the case of P) to diets. The primary feeding system today is the total mixed ration, with still considerable use of the pasture system. Major improvements have occurred in the use of protein, carbohydrates, and fats in diets. Although advancements have been made in feeding practices to minimize the risk of metabolic diseases, the periparturient period continues to present some of the greatest challenges in animal health. Computers are a must today for diet formulation and evaluation, but fewer software programs are developed by

  4. Food safety of milk and dairy product of dairy cattle from heavy metal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlia, E.; Rahmah, KN; Suryanto, D.

    2018-01-01

    Food safety of milk and dairy products is a prerequisite for consumption, which must be free from physical, biological and chemical contamination. Chemical contamination of heavy metals Pb (Plumbum/Lead) and Cd (Cadmium) is generally derived from the environment such as from water, grass, feed additives, medicines and farm equipment. The contamination of milk and dairy products can affect quality and food safety for human consumption. The aim of this research is to investigate contamination of heavy metals Pb and Cd on fresh milk, pasteurized milk, and dodol milk compared with the Maximum Residue Limits (MRL). The methods of this researched was through case study and data obtained analyzed descriptively. Milk samples were obtained from Bandung and surrounding areas. The number of samples used was 30 samples for each product: 30 samples of fresh milk directly obtained from dairy farm, 30 samples of pasteurized milk obtained from street vendors and 30 samples of dodol milk obtained from home industry. Parameters observed were heavy metal residues of Pb and Cd. The results showed that: 1) approximately 83% of fresh milk samples were contaminated by Pb which 57% samples were above MRL and 90% samples were contaminated by Cd above MRL; 2) 67% of pasteurized milk samples were contaminated by Pb below MRL; 3) 60% of dodol milk samples were contaminated by Pb and Cd above MRL.

  5. Probiotic Delivery through Fermentation: Dairy vs. Non-Dairy Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaminda Senaka Ranadheera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, mainly through the process of replacing or including beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Fermented dairy foods such as yogurt, fermented milk and cheese are the major vehicle in delivering probiotics, and probiotic delivery have been traditionally associated with these fermented dairy foods. Additionally, many other non-dairy probiotic products and non-food form such as capsules, pills and tablets are also available and some of these non-food forms are highly popular among the consumers. Certain non-dairy probiotic foods, especially beverages that are non-fermented products, can also play an important role in probiotic delivery. There is an increasing demand for non-dairy probiotic foods (both fermented and non-fermented including fruit and vegetable juices, soy and certain cereal products due to vegetarianism, lactose intolerance and dairy allergies, as well as interest in low cholesterol foods. In this context, this review mainly focus on the different types of probiotic food products including beverages with special reference to their viability followed by a brief account on the applicability of using fermented and non-fermented beverage products in probiotic delivery.

  6. Continuous lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Torben Gosvig; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Andersen, Jens Bech

    2008-01-01

    Reports over the past decade have indicated that normal lactational performance can be achieved in genetically superior and high-producing dairy cows, even when the dry period between 2 lactations is omitted. The hypothesis tested in this experiment was that normal lactogenesis I and metabolic...... function may be achievable in continuously milked high-yielding dairy cows as a result of the genetic selection for lactation performance and hence longevity of mammary epithelial cells. The milk production and mammary nutrient uptake in response to omission of the dry period for cows with an expected peak...... milk yield higher than 45 kg/d were studied in 28 Holstein dairy cows managed without bovine somatotropin. Performance and metabolic parameters were followed in late gestation and in the following early lactation. Fourteen cows were milked continuously throughout late gestation, and another 14 dairy...

  7. Methane from dairy waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-10-22

    This short article describes a facility which will incorporate features to allow for the recovery of the methane gas that is produced in the manufacture of cheese and spray-dried whey powder at the site. The dairy plant is expected to produce about 1,385 m/sup 3//day of methane which will supplement the operation of oil burners and replace the annual consumption of 4,000 bbl of heavy fuel oil. In addition, development of the treatment system would eliminate the consumption of 7,200 kWh/day of electrical energy that would otherwise be required to operate an aerobic disposal system. Total annual energy savings, when the project is fully operational in the spring of 1984, are expected to reach $321,000.

  8. Short communication: planning considerations for on-farm dairy processing enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S M; Chaney, E A; Bewley, J M

    2013-07-01

    Across the world, more dairy producers are considering on-farm dairy processing to add value to the milk produced on their farms. Dairy producers may bottle milk or process their milk into cheese, ice cream, butter, yogurt, or cream. The primary objective of this research was to establish a series of sound factors or indicators of success for those considering on-farm processing. A survey was employed to collect opinions and advice from managers of on-farm processing enterprises. Surveys were distributed online (n=120), with 31 surveys returned, accounting for a 25.8% response rate. Most (64%) respondents had been involved in on-farm dairy processing for less than 10 yr. Sixty-one percent of respondents attained a positive cash flow in 1 to 3 yr. The primary products manufactured were cheese (69%), milk (59%), ice cream (31%), yogurt (25%), and butter (21%). Factors influencing the decision to start an on-farm dairy processing enterprise included commodity milk prices (61%), desire to work with the public (41%), an opportunity to promote the dairy industry (39%), a desire to maintain or expand a small family operation (29%), and product differentiation (16%). Respondents cited dealing with regulations (26%), product marketing (19%), manufacturing technicalities (19%), and securing funding (17%) as the most difficult parts of starting the business. Open-ended responses provided by the respondents of this survey were also documented to give future dairy producers advice. The most common advice to future on-farm processors was to work on realistic business plans, develop and follow realistic budgets, and observe and use market surveys within the industry. These results provide a useful array of information for future on-farm dairy processing enterprises. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Evolving Role of Coliforms as Indicators of Unhygienic Processing Conditions in Dairy Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Helen Martin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Testing for coliforms has a long history in the dairy industry and has helped to identify raw milk and dairy products that may have been exposed to unsanitary conditions. Coliform standards are included in a number of regulatory documents (e.g., the U. S. Food and Drug Administration’s Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance. As a consequence, detection above a threshold of members of this method-defined, but diverse, group of bacteria can result in a wide range of regulatory outcomes. Coliforms are defined as aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, Gram negative, non-sporeforming rods capable of fermenting lactose to produce gas and acid within 48 hours at 32-35°C; 19 genera currently include at least some strains that represent coliforms. Most bacterial genera that comprise the coliform group (e.g., Escherichia, Klebsiella and Serratia are within the family Enterobacteriaceae, while at least one genus with strains recognized as coliforms, Aeromonas, is in the family Aeromonadaceae. The presence of coliforms has long been thought to indicate fecal contamination, however, recent discoveries regarding this diverse group of bacteria indicates that only a fraction are fecal in origin, while the majority are environmental contaminants. In the US dairy industry in particular, testing for coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions and post-processing contamination is widespread. While coliforms are easily and rapidly detected, and are not found in pasteurized dairy products that have not been exposed to post-processing contamination, advances in knowledge of bacterial populations most commonly associated with post-processing contamination in dairy foods has led to questions regarding the utility of coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions for dairy products. For example, Pseudomonas spp. frequently contaminate dairy products after pasteurization, yet they are not detected by coliform tests. This review will address the role that coliforms play

  10. The Evolving Role of Coliforms As Indicators of Unhygienic Processing Conditions in Dairy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicole H.; Trmčić, Aljoša; Hsieh, Tsung-Han; Boor, Kathryn J.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Testing for coliforms has a long history in the dairy industry and has helped to identify raw milk and dairy products that may have been exposed to unsanitary conditions. Coliform standards are included in a number of regulatory documents (e.g., the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s Grade “A” Pasteurized Milk Ordinance). As a consequence, detection above a threshold of members of this method-defined, but diverse, group of bacteria can result in a wide range of regulatory outcomes. Coliforms are defined as aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, Gram negative, non-sporeforming rods capable of fermenting lactose to produce gas and acid within 48 h at 32–35°C; 19 genera currently include at least some strains that represent coliforms. Most bacterial genera that comprise the coliform group (e.g., Escherichia, Klebsiella, and Serratia) are within the family Enterobacteriaceae, while at least one genus with strains recognized as coliforms, Aeromonas, is in the family Aeromonadaceae. The presence of coliforms has long been thought to indicate fecal contamination, however, recent discoveries regarding this diverse group of bacteria indicates that only a fraction are fecal in origin, while the majority are environmental contaminants. In the US dairy industry in particular, testing for coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions and post-processing contamination is widespread. While coliforms are easily and rapidly detected, and are not found in pasteurized dairy products that have not been exposed to post-processing contamination, advances in knowledge of bacterial populations most commonly associated with post-processing contamination in dairy foods has led to questions regarding the utility of coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions for dairy products. For example, Pseudomonas spp. frequently contaminate dairy products after pasteurization, yet they are not detected by coliform tests. This review will address the role that coliforms play in raw and

  11. Stress and Burnout Among Finnish Dairy Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallioniemi, Marja K; Simola, Ahti; Kaseva, Janne; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Psychosocial risks among farmers have increasingly been examined because of the ongoing changes in agriculture, such as restructuring of the industry, transition from family farming towards entrepreneurship, and climate change. The aims of the study were to determine the stressors, prevalence of stress and burnout, and variables associated with these symptoms among Finnish dairy farmers. In total 265 respondents completed a postal survey; their average age was 48 years, 44% were females and 56% males. The farms of the survey sample were larger (54 field hectares, 29 cows) than an average farm in Finland (37 hectares, 24 cows) in 2010. The most common stressors were external, such as "agricultural policy of the EU" (European Union) and "the treatment of farmers in society and the media." In addition, common stressors were related to farm and work, e.g., "amount of work," unpredictability, and "animal diseases." The prevalence of stress (42%) was found to have increased compared with earlier studies and was greater than among the general working population. All respondents as a group were classified as having slight symptoms of burnout, and one tenth (9%) of dairy farmers had experienced severe burnout. Stressors related to the workload and health were associated with stress and burnout symptoms. Also, a poor economic situation and loneliness were related to stress. Burnout correlated with a tie stall barn type and with a farm not being involved in the milk production record system. Factors protecting against burnout included positive features of the work and living environment. The study revealed changes during the past decade and new features of the well-being at work on dairy farms in Finland.

  12. From a homemade to an industrial product : manufacturing Bulgarian yogurt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoilova, E.R.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in yogurt production in the first half of the twentieth century were related to the transformation of dairy manufacturing through the incorporation of science and technology into the production process. The modernization of the dairy industry affected yogurt, which Bulgarians considered a

  13. Regular-Fat Dairy and Human Health: A Synopsis of Symposia Presented in Europe and North America (2014-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Arne; Rice Bradley, Beth H; Brenna, J Thomas; Delplanque, Bernadette; Ferry, Monique; Torres-Gonzalez, Moises

    2016-07-29

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort to disseminate, explore and discuss the state of the science on the relationship between regular fat dairy products and health, symposia were programmed by dairy industry organizations in Europe and North America at The Eurofed Lipids Congress (2014) in France, The Dairy Nutrition Annual Symposium (2014) in Canada, The American Society for Nutrition Annual Meeting held in conjunction with Experimental Biology (2015) in the United States, and The Federation of European Nutrition Societies (2015) in Germany. This synopsis of these symposia describes the complexity of dairy fat and the effects regular-fat dairy foods have on human health. The emerging scientific evidence indicates that the consumption of regular fat dairy foods is not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and inversely associated with weight gain and the risk of obesity. Dairy foods, including regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt, can be important components of an overall healthy dietary pattern. Systematic examination of the effects of dietary patterns that include regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt on human health is warranted.

  14. Ruminal Nitrogen Recycling and Nitrogen Efficiency in Lactating Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Excess nitrogen (N) excretion from animal agriculture results in reduced air and water quality, and poses a risk to human health. Although the dairy industry utilizes milk urea N (MUN) to monitor protein feeding and N excretion, phenotypic diversity among cows may influence MUN and thus bias feed management. An initial study using data from 2 previously published research trials and a field trial, observed that cow had a significant effect on MUN variation. Regression models, utilized ...

  15. Serum paraoxonase-1 as biomarker for improved diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Ayman Samir; Honkawa, Kazuyuki; Fath, Eman Mohamed; Nonaka, Nariaki; Horii, Yoichiro

    2013-04-11

    Fatty liver is a major metabolic disorder in dairy cows and is believed to result in major economic losses in dairy farming due to decreased health status, reproductive performance and fertility. Currently, the definitive means for diagnosing fatty liver is determining the fat content of hepatic tissue by liver biopsy, which is an invasive and costly procedure, making it poorly suited to dairy farms. Therefore, the key aim of this study was to investigate the measurement of serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1), an enzyme exclusively synthesized by the liver, as a sensitive noninvasive biomarker for diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows. A comparative cohort study using serum specimens from Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (46 healthy and 46 fatty liver cases) was conducted. Serum PON1 (paraoxonase, lactonase and arylesterase) activity and other biochemical and hematological parameters were measured. We found that serum PON1 activity was lower (Pratio (+LR), negative likelihood ratio (-LR), diagnostic odd ratio (DOR) and overall diagnostic accuracy in diagnosing fatty liver. The present results indicate that addition of serum PON1 activity measurement to the biochemical profile could improve the diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows, which would have a considerable clinical impact and lead to greater profitability in the dairy industry.

  16. Exploring the Determinants of Consumer Behavior in West Bank, Towards Domestic and Imported Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Maitah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate factors influencing the purchasing behavior of Palestinian customers towards domestic and imported dairy products (Israeli and foreign. The secondary data were obtained from the competent authorities. On the other hand, primary data were gathered by utilizing personal interviews and questionnaires. 450 questionnaires were distributed to all governorates of the West Bank. It has been concluded from statistical results that middle-income households concern mainly about quality, image and product validity period. In contrast, low-income households consider mainly product price. The consumer was satisfied with Israeli products that meet his needs. On the other hand, local consumer highly considered price and personal knowledge when purchasing local dairy products. Advertising negatively affected the consumer purchasing behavior of Israeli and foreign dairy products, in contrast it positively affected his behavior when purchasing local dairy products. Period of validity was the most influential factor on the purchasing decision for domestic and imported dairy products. It has been found that consumer expenditures on Israeli dairy products were the highest followed by local and foreign products. Recommendations are as follows: i producers should develop products that could meet the needs and desires of consumers, ii draw effective marketing policies, depending on technologists specialized in dairy industry, iii take into account consumer awareness when developing advertising strategy, and iv quality control should be adjusted in accordance with product specifications and standards.

  17. Lactic acid bacteria in dairy food: surface characterization and interactions with food matrix components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgain, J; Scher, J; Francius, G; Borges, F; Corgneau, M; Revol-Junelles, A M; Cailliez-Grimal, C; Gaiani, C

    2014-11-01

    This review gives an overview of the importance of interactions occurring in dairy matrices between Lactic Acid Bacteria and milk components. Dairy products are important sources of biological active compounds of particular relevance to human health. These compounds include immunoglobulins, whey proteins and peptides, polar lipids, and lactic acid bacteria including probiotics. A better understanding of interactions between bioactive components and their delivery matrix may successfully improve their transport to their target site of action. Pioneering research on probiotic lactic acid bacteria has mainly focused on their host effects. However, very little is known about their interaction with dairy ingredients. Such knowledge could contribute to designing new and more efficient dairy food, and to better understand relationships between milk constituents. The purpose of this review is first to provide an overview of the current knowledge about the biomolecules produced on bacterial surface and the composition of the dairy matter. In order to understand how bacteria interact with dairy molecules, adhesion mechanisms are subsequently reviewed with a special focus on the environmental conditions affecting bacterial adhesion. Methods dedicated to investigate the bacterial surface and to decipher interactions between bacteria and abiotic dairy components are also detailed. Finally, relevant industrial implications of these interactions are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychrotrophic bacteria and their negative effects on milk and dairy products quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimun Zamberlin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of bacterial populations in raw milk at the time of processing has a significant influence on shelf-life, organoleptic quality, spoilage and yields of raw milk, processed milk as well as on the other dairy products. Unfortunately, cold and extended storage of raw milk, as a common practice in dairy sector today, favour the growth of psychrotrophic bacteria. Therefore, their count in the refrigerated milk is more than the ideal limit of 10 % of the mesophilic count. Psychrotrophic bacteria are generally able to form extracellular or intracellular thermo-resistant enzymes (proteases, lipases, phospolipases which can contribute to milk and dairy products spoilage. In addition, besides exhibiting spoilage features, some species belonging to the psychrotrops are considered as emerging pathogens that carry innate resistance to antibiotics or produce toxins. In sense of quality, psychrotrophic bacteria have become major problem for today’s dairy industry as leading cause in spoilage of cold-storage milk and dairy products. This review article focuses on the impact of psychrotrops on quality problems associated with raw milk as well as on th final dairy products. Means of controlling the dominant psychrotrophic species responsible for undesirable activities in milk and dairy products were also discussed.

  19. Random survey of HFC and R22 emission, refrigerants and leakage percentage in the dairy, meat and other food industries; Steekproefonderzoek HFK en R22-emissies, koudemiddelvulling en lekpercentage in de Zuivel, Vlees en Overige voedingsmiddelensectoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennartz, A.M.G.; Van den Bovenkamp, M.V. [KWA Bedrijfsadviseurs, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    The EU member states are obliged to bring the EU F-gas and Ozone policy into operation, by minimalizing the R22 and F-gas emissions in cooperation with market parties. Factors that may guide the refrigerant emission policy are: leakage percentages per year (company level, sector, national level); emission quantities (company level, sector, national level); indirect indicators: knowledge, experience with refrigerating contractors, feed back to end users, proactive prevention by end users. At this moment there is no clear view of the emission percentages in practice with the end users. For this reason the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment, by NL Agency, has initiated a random test survey in the Dairy, Meat and Other Food sectors. The main goal is to obtain data on the size and trends of R22 and HFK emissions in the period 2007-2010 [Dutch] De EU-lidstaten dienen uitvoering te geven aan het EU F-gas en Ozon-beleid, door met de markt te streven naar minimale R22 en F-gas emissies bij de eindgebruikers. Indicatoren (trends) om het koudemiddel emissiebeleid op te kunnen sturen zijn: jaarlijks optredende lekpercentages (per bedrijf, sector, totaal NL); emissiehoeveelheden (per bedrijf, sector, totaal NL); indirecte factoren: kennis/ervaring in lekkagepreventie bij koelinstallateurs, terugkoppeling naar de opdrachtgevers, preventiebeleid/prioriteit vanuit de opdrachtgevers. Tot nu toe ontbreekt een scherp beeld van de optredende lekpercentages (grootte, trends) bij de eindverbruikers. Daarom is door het Ministerie van IenM, via Agentschap NL een steekproefonderzoek uitgezet in de sectoren Zuivel, Vlees en Overige voedingsmiddelen. Doel is een beeld te krijgen van de omvang en trend van de R22 en HFK-emissies over 2007-2010.

  20. BENCHMARKING THE INTERACTIONS AMONG BARRIERS IN DAIRY SUPPLY CHAIN: AN ISM APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul S Mor

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the key barriers in dairy supply chain and to analyze their interactions in the context of Indian dairy industry. A total of eight barriers have been identified through literature review and the opinions of an expert team consisting of managerial and technical experts from dairy industry and academics. A questionnaire has been developed for identified barriers and responses were collected from select dairy industries located at northern India. Interpretive structure modeling (ISM is used to analyze the interactions among barriers and to propose a structural model. Further, the importance of barriers is determined based on their driving and dependence power using MICMAC analysis. The ISM-based model allocates to 'traceability, unbalanced production line, over-processing' as key barriers, 'wastages and high production downtime' comes next. MICMAC analysis depicts one autonomous barrier, one dependent barrier and six linkage barriers. The ISM-based model and MICMAC analysis will support the decision makers in dairy industry for planning their supply chain activities in an efficient way by managing the identified barriers.

  1. Application of Electrocoagulation Process for Dairy Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Bazrafshan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy industry wastewater is characterized by high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and other pollution load. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the operating parameters such as applied voltage, number of electrodes, and reaction time on a real dairy wastewater in the electrocoagulation process. For this purpose, aluminum electrodes were used in the presence of potassium chloride as electrolytes. It has been shown that the removal efficiency of COD, BOD5, and TSS increased with increasing the applied voltage and the reaction time. The results indicate that electrocoagulation is efficient and able to achieve 98.84% COD removal, 97.95% BOD5 removal, 97.75% TSS removal, and >99.9% bacterial indicators at 60 V during 60 min. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of electrocoagulation techniques for the treatment of dairy wastewaters. Finally, the results demonstrated the technical feasibility of electrocoagulation process using aluminum electrodes as a reliable technique for removal of pollutants from dairy wastewaters.

  2. DAIRY PRODUCTION: A NUTRITION INTERVENTION IN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DAIRY PRODUCTION: A NUTRITION INTERVENTION IN A SUGARCANE GROWING AREA IN WESTERN KENYA. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... The influence of dairy production and a select number of household characteristics on the children's nutritional status was evaluated.

  3. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health.

  4. A space-time analysis of Mycoplasma bovis: bulk tank milk antibody screening results from all Danish dairy herds in 2013-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arede, Margarida; Nielsen, Per Kantsø; Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is an important pathogen causing severe disease outbreaks in cattle farms. Since 2011, there has been an apparent increase in M. bovis outbreaks among Danish dairy cattle herds. The dairy cattle industry performed cross-sectional antibody screening for M. bovis on four occasions,...

  5. Effects of dairy intake on weight maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiaocun

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the effects of low versus recommended levels of dairy intake on weight maintenance and body composition subsequent to weight loss. Design and Methods Two site (University of Kansas-KU; University of Tennessee-UT, 9 month, randomized trial. Weight loss was baseline to 3 months, weight maintenance was 4 to 9 months. Participants were maintained randomly assigned to low dairy ( 3 servings/d diets for the maintenance phase. Three hundred thirty eight men and women, age: 40.3 ± 7.0 years and BMI: 34.5 ± 3.1, were randomized; Change in weight and body composition (total fat, trunk fat from 4 to 9 months were the primary outcomes. Blood chemistry, blood pressure, resting metabolism, and respiratory quotient were secondary outcomes. Energy intake, calcium intake, dairy intake, and physical activity were measured as process evaluation. Results During weight maintenance, there were no overall significant differences for weight or body composition between the low and recommended dairy groups. A significant site interaction occurred with the low dairy group at KU maintaining weight and body composition and the low dairy group at UT increasing weight and body fat. The recommended dairy group exhibited reductions in plasma 1,25-(OH2-D while no change was observed in the low dairy group. No other differences were found for blood chemistry, blood pressure or physical activity between low and recommended dairy groups. The recommended dairy group showed significantly greater energy intake and lower respiratory quotient compared to the low dairy group. Conclusion Weight maintenance was similar for low and recommended dairy groups. The recommended dairy group exhibited evidence of greater fat oxidation and was able to consume greater energy without greater weight gain compared to the low dairy group. Recommended levels of dairy products may be used during weight maintenance without contributing to weight gain compared to diets low

  6. Digesters and demographics: identifying support for anaerobic digesters on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, D J; Roberts, M C; Ernst, S C; Thraen, C S

    2010-11-01

    The dairy industry in the United States is amidst a long-running trend toward fewer, larger dairy farms. This development has created a backlash in some communities over concerns such as odor, waste management, and environmental degradation. Separately, anaerobic digestion has advanced as a waste management technology that potentially offers solutions to some of these issues, providing odor control and a combustible biogas among other things. These digesters require significant capital investments. Voluntary consumer premiums for the renewable energy produced have been used in some instances as a means to move adoption of such systems toward financial feasibility. This project employed a survey to measure Ohio consumers' willingness to pay a premium for renewable energy produced by anaerobic digesters on dairy farms. Cluster analysis was used to segment consumers by willingness to pay, age, education, income, self-identified political inclination, and a composite variable that served as a proxy for respondents' environmental stewardship. Four distinctive groups emerged from the data. Older, less educated respondents were found to have the least amount of support for digesters on dairy farms, whereas politically liberal, environmentally proactive respondents demonstrated the strongest support. Well-educated, affluent respondents and young respondents fell between these 2 groups. Most large dairy farms are generally met with fairly negative responses from their local communities; in contrast, this research finds some popular support for anaerobic digestion technology. Going forward, establishing a positive link between support for anaerobic digesters and for their use on large dairies could open up a new route for less-contested large dairy farm developments. Evaluation of community demographics could become an important part of finding an optimal location for a large dairy farm. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  7. The role of non-CO2 mitigation within the dairy sector in pursuing climate goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolph, K.; Forest, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    Mitigation of non-CO2 climate forcing agents must complement the mitigation of carbon dioxide (CO2) to achieve long-term temperature and climate policy goals. By using multi-gas mitigation strategies, society can limit the rate of temperature change on decadal timescales and reduce the cost of implementing policies that only consider CO2 mitigation. The largest share of global non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions is attributed to agriculture, with activities related to dairy production contributing the most in this sector. Approximately 4% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is released from the dairy sub-sector, primarily through enteric fermentation, feed production, and manure management. Dairy farmers can significantly reduce their emissions by implementing better management practices. This study assesses the potential mitigation of projected climate change if greenhouse gases associated with the dairy sector were reduced. To compare the performance of several mitigation measures under future climate change, we employ a fully coupled earth system model of intermediate complexity, the MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM). The model includes an interactive carbon-cycle capable of addressing important feedbacks between the climate and terrestrial biosphere. Mitigation scenarios are developed using estimated emission reductions of implemented management practices studied by the USDA-funded Sustainable Dairy Project (Dairy-CAP). We examine pathways to reach the US dairy industry's voluntary goal of reducing dairy emissions 25% by 2020. We illustrate the importance of ongoing mitigation efforts in the agricultural industry to reduce non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions towards established climate goals.

  8. Insulin resistance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koster, Jenne D; Opsomer, Geert

    2013-07-01

    Glucose is the molecule that drives milk production, and insulin plays a pivotal role in the glucose metabolism of dairy cows. The effect of insulin on the glucose metabolism is regulated by the secretion of insulin by the pancreas and the insulin sensitivity of the skeletal muscles, the adipose tissue, and the liver. Insulin resistance may develop as part of physiologic (pregnancy and lactation) and pathologic processes, which may manifest as decreased insulin sensitivity or decreased insulin responsiveness. A good knowledge of the normal physiology of insulin is needed to measure the in vivo insulin resistance of dairy cows. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Carbon footprint of Canadian dairy products: calculations and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergé, X P C; Maxime, D; Dyer, J A; Desjardins, R L; Arcand, Y; Vanderzaag, A

    2013-09-01

    The Canadian dairy sector is a major industry with about 1 million cows. This industry emits about 20% of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the main livestock sectors (beef, dairy, swine, and poultry). In 2006, the Canadian dairy herd produced about 7.7 Mt of raw milk, resulting in about 4.4 Mt of dairy products (notably 64% fluid milk and 12% cheese). An integrated cradle-to-gate model (field to processing plant) has been developed to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of 11 Canadian dairy products. The on-farm part of the model is the Unified Livestock Industry and Crop Emissions Estimation System (ULICEES). It considers all GHG emissions associated with livestock production but, for this study, it was run for the dairy sector specifically. Off-farm GHG emissions were estimated using the Canadian Food Carbon Footprint calculator, (cafoo)(2)-milk. It considers GHG emissions from the farm gate to the exit gate of the processing plants. The CF of the raw milk has been found lower in western provinces [0.93 kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/L of milk] than in eastern provinces (1.12 kg of CO2e/L of milk) because of differences in climate conditions and dairy herd management. Most of the CF estimates of dairy products ranged between 1 and 3 kg of CO2e/kg of product. Three products were, however, significantly higher: cheese (5.3 kg of CO2e/kg), butter (7.3 kg of CO2e/kg), and milk powder (10.1 kg of CO2e/kg). The CF results depend on the milk volume needed, the co-product allocation process (based on milk solids content), and the amount of energy used to manufacture each product. The GHG emissions per kilogram of protein ranged from 13 to 40 kg of CO2e. Two products had higher values: cream and sour cream, at 83 and 78 kg of CO2e/kg, respectively. Finally, the highest CF value was for butter, at about 730 kg of CO2e/kg. This extremely high value is due to the fact that the intensity indicator per kilogram of product is high and that butter is almost exclusively

  10. Practical applications of trace minerals for dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, T R; Yasui, T

    2014-02-01

    Trace minerals have critical roles in the key interrelated systems of immune function, oxidative metabolism, and energy metabolism in ruminants. To date, the primary trace elements of interest in diets for dairy cattle have included Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se although data also support potentially important roles of Cr, Co, and Fe in diets. Trace minerals such as Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se are essential with classically defined roles as components of key antioxidant enzymes and proteins. Available evidence indicates that these trace minerals can modulate aspects of oxidative metabolism and immune function in dairy cattle, particularly during the transition period and early lactation. Chromium has been shown to influence both immune function and energy metabolism of cattle; dairy cows fed Cr during the transition period and early lactation have evidence of improved immune function, increased milk production, and decreased cytological endometritis. Factors that complicate trace mineral nutrition at the farm level include the existence of a large number of antagonisms affecting bioavailability of individual trace minerals and uncertainty in terms of requirements under all physiological and management conditions; therefore, determining the optimum level and source of trace minerals under each specific situation continues to be a challenge. Typical factorial approaches to determine requirements for dairy cattle do not account for nuances in biological function observed with supplementation with various forms and amounts of trace minerals. Trace mineral nutrition modulates production, health, and reproduction in cattle although both formal meta-analysis and informal survey of the literature reveal substantial heterogeneity of response in these outcome variables. The industry has largely moved away from oxide-based programs toward sulfate-based programs; however, some evidence favors shifting supplementation strategies further toward more bioavailable forms of inorganic and organic trace

  11. Mastitis treatment-Reduction in antibiotic usage in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krömker, V; Leimbach, S

    2017-08-01

    Animal-friendly, economical, resource-saving milk production provides the basis for sustained consumer acceptance. Bovine mastitis plays a decisive role in the dairy industry-disturbing animal health and welfare and causing considerable economic losses on the other hand. Currently, antimicrobial treatment is indispensable to keep bovine udder health, animal welfare and economic aspects in balance. On the contrary, emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an urgent matter of particular public interest, and as a consequence, antimicrobial usage (AMU) in production livestock is a critically discussed subject. In urgent need of future reduction in AMU in the dairy industry, this review article describes and discusses possible approaches promising prompt implementation, including therapeutical alternatives as well as pro- and metaphylactic concepts such as the implementation of evidence-based mastitis therapy concepts and selective dry cow treatment (sDCT), in search of the most effective and contemporary methods for decreasing AMU and AMR in dairy production. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. ADSA Foundation Scholar Award: Trends in culture-independent methods for assessing dairy food quality and safety: emerging metagenomic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Marie

    2012-12-01

    Enhancing the quality and safety of dairy food is critical to maintaining the competitiveness of dairy products in the food and beverage market and in reinforcing consumer confidence in the dairy industry. Raw milk quality has a significant effect on finished product quality. Several microbial groups found in raw milk have been shown to adversely affect the shelf life of pasteurized milk. Current microbiological criteria used to define milk quality are based primarily on culture-dependent methods, some of which are perceived to lack the desired sensitivity and specificity. To supplement traditional methods, culture-independent methods are increasingly being used to identify specific species or microbial groups, and to detect indicator genes or proteins in raw milk or dairy products. Some molecular subtyping techniques have been developed to track the transmission of microbes in dairy environments. The burgeoning "-omics" technologies offer new and exciting opportunities to enhance our understanding of food quality and safety in relation to microbes. Metagenomics has the potential to characterize microbial diversity, detect nonculturable microbes, and identify unique sequences or other factors associated with dairy product quality and safety. In this review, fluid milk will be used as the primary example to examine the adequacy and validity of conventional methods, the current trend of culture-independent methods, and the potential applications of metagenomics in dairy food research. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Glycerol from biodiesel production: the new corn for dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn S Donkin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattle is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental evidence supports the use of glycerol as a transition cow therapy but feeding rates are low, ranging from 5 to 8 % of the diet DM. There is a paucity of research that examines the use of glycerol as a macro-ingredient in rations for lactating dairy cows. Most reports indicate a lack of effect of addition of glycerol to the diet when it replaces corn or corn starch. Recent feeding experiments with lactating dairy cows indicate replacing corn with glycerol to a level of 15% of the ration DM does not adversely effect milk production or composition. Milk production was 37.0, 36.9, 37.3, 36.4 ± 0.6 kg/d and feed intake was 24.0, 24.5, 24.6, 24.1 ± 0.5 kg/d for 0, 5, 10 and 15% glycerol treatments respectively and did not differ (P > 0.05 except for a modest reduction in feed intake during the first 7 days for the 15% glycerol treatment. Glycerol fed to dairy cattle is fermented to volatile fatty acids in the rumen and early reports indicated that glycerol is almost entirely fermented to propionate. In vitro data indicates glycerol fermentation increases the production of propionate and butyrate at the expense of acetate. Rumen microbes appear to adapt to glycerol feeding and consequently, cows fed glycerol also require an adaptation period to glycerol inclusion. Debate exists regarding the fate of glycerol in the rumen and although most reports suggest that glycerol is largely fermented in the rumen, the extent of rumen digestion may depend on level of

  14. Teat condition in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    The dairy cow's teat is the first line of defence against mastitis pathogens. The milking process may affect the teat's condition, increasing the risk of mastitis. It is well-proven that teat-ends with severe erosions or broken skin will have an increased risk of mastitis. However, more common

  15. Teat Condition in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, F.

    2004-01-01

    The dairy cow's teat is the first line of defence against mastitis pathogens. The milking process may affect the teat's condition, increasing the risk of mastitis. It is well-proven that teat-ends with severe erosions or broken skin will have an increased risk of mastitis. However, more common

  16. Coping strategies in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopster, H.

    1998-01-01

    The central aim of this thesis is to investigate whether individual dairy cows display different and coherent patterns of physiological and behavioural stress responses. Such responses enable them to successful adapt in a changing environment.

    In Chapter 1, current

  17. Triticale for dairy forage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triticale forages have become increasingly important components of dairy-cropping systems. In part, this trend has occurred in response to environmental pressures, specifically a desire to capture N and other nutrients from land-applied manure, and/or to improve stewardship of the land by providing ...

  18. Lameness detection in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertem, Van T.; Bahr, C.; Schlageter Tello, A.; Viazzi, S.; Steensels, M.; Romanini, C.E.B.; Lokhorst, C.; Maltz, E.; Halachmi, I.; Berckmans, D.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate if a multi-sensor system (milk, activity, body posture) was a better classifier for lameness than the single-sensor-based detection models. Between September 2013 and August 2014, 3629 cow observations were collected on a commercial dairy farm in

  19. Metagenomic Analysis of Dairy Bacteriophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhammed, Musemma K.; Kot, Witold; Neve, Horst

    2017-01-01

    Despite their huge potential for characterizing the biodiversity of phages, metagenomic studies are currently not available for dairy bacteriophages, partly due to the lack of a standard procedure for phage extraction. We optimized an extraction method that allows to remove the bulk protein from...

  20. Factors Affecting Herd Status for Bovine Tuberculosis in Dairy Cattle in Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhla, Tawatchai; Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak; VanderWaal, Kimberly L.; Alvarez, Julio; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Phornwisetsirikun, Somphorn; Sankwan, Jamnong; Srijun, Mongkol; Wells, Scott J.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this case-control study was to identify farm-level risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in dairy cows in northern Thailand. Spatial analysis was performed to identify geographical clustering of case-farms located in Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai provinces in northern Thailand. To identify management factors affecting bTB status, a matched case-control study was conducted with 20 case-farms and 38 control-farms. Case-farms were dairy farms with at least single intradermal tuberculin test- (SIT-) reactor(s) in the farms during 2011 to 2015. Control-farms were dairy farms with no SIT-reactors in the same period and located within 5 km from case-farms. Questionnaires were administered for data collection with questions based on epidemiological plausibility and characteristics of the local livestock industry. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regressions. A significant geographic cluster was identified only in Chiang Mai province (p < 0.05). The risk factor associated with presence of SIT-reactors in dairy herds located in this region was purchasing dairy cows from dealers (OR = 5.85, 95% CI = 1.66–20.58, and p = 0.006). From this study, it was concluded that geographic clustering was identified for dairy farms with SIT-reactors in these provinces, and the cattle movements through cattle dealers increased the risks for SIT-reactor farm status. PMID:28553557

  1. Potentialities of biotechnology for the reduction and utilization for energy purposes of wastes generated by food industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-10-19

    The study dealt with the present trends in biotechnology related to the methods for the reduction and utilization, for energy purposes, of wastes generated by food industry and to the methods for controlling the emission of pollutants from industrial plants with emphasis on meat industry, dairy industry, food-packing trade, sugar industry, vinification, fatty foods, fish meal, beverage industry.

  2. Quality and microbiological safety of fermented bovine dairy produced in Federal District, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lima dos Reis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the growing importance of fermented dairy products in the domestic market and the scarcity of data in the Federal District (DF, it was evaluated the quality and microbiological safety of these products in the DF and its adaptation to current standards. The study was conducted in five dairy being collected 105 samples of fermented dairy products corresponding to 21 lots (n = 5 per lot, with 65 samples of yogurt, 20 of curd and 20 of fermented dairy drink. All samples were submitted to a count of aerobic mesophilic, psychrotrophic, coliforms at 35 ° C, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus coagulase positive, Salmonella spp., molds, yeasts and viable lactic acid bacteria (BAL. The total lots analyzed, 62% were considered acceptable under the Regulatory Instructions n ° 46/2007 and n ° 16/2005. In order of quality, fermented dairy drink was the one with lots more apt to consumption (75% followed by yoghurt (61.5% and, lastly, curd (50%. For samples units, the results showed that: 17% of yoghurt samples, 15% of curd and 20% of fermented dairy drink showed scores above the allowed CT; 11% of yoghurt samples and 30% of fermented dairy drink showed BAL counts below specific minimum limits; and 61% samples of yogurt and curd were 30% of curd was with yeasts and molds counts above permitted. No samples showed the development of E. coli or Salmonella spp. Despite the absence of microbiological hazards in the samples analyzed, the study indicates problems in the production of these products in the DF that may be related to deficiencies in hygienic of the processes, most rigor in the quality controls of dairy and oversight of industries is needed.

  3. Complete sequences of four plasmids of Lactococcus lactis subsp cremoris SK11 reveal extensive adaptation to the dairy environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siezen, R.J.; Renckens, B.; Swam, van I.; Peters, S.; Kranenburg, van R.; Kleerebezem, M.; Vos, de W.M.

    2005-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis strains are known to carry plasmids encoding industrially important traits. L. lactis subsp. cremoris SK11 is widely used by the dairy industry in cheese making. Its complete plasmid complement was sequenced and found to contain the plasmids pSK11A (10,372 bp), pSK11B (13,332 bp),

  4. Infrared thermography: A potential noninvasive tool to monitor udder health status in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sathiyabarathi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The animal husbandry and livestock sectors play a major role in the rural economy, especially for the small and marginal farmers. India has the largest livestock population in the world and ranks first in the milk production. Mastitis is the most common and expensive infectious disease in dairy cattle. The global economic losses per year due to mastitis amounts to USD 35 billion and for Indian dairy industry INR 6000 crores per year. Early detection of mastitis is very important to reduce the economic loss to the dairy farmers and dairy industry. Automated methods for early and reliable detection of mastitis are currently in focus under precision dairying. Skin surface temperature is an important indicator for the diagnosis of cow’s illnesses and for the estimation of their physiological status. Infrared thermography (IRT is a simple, effective, on-site, and noninvasive method that detects surface heat, which is emitted as infrared radiation and generates pictorial images without causing radiation exposure. In human and bovine medicine, IRT is used as a diagnostic tool for assessment of normal and physiological status.

  5. Whole farm impact of biogas generation and use on a New York dairy farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: The USDA and the dairy industry have set a goal for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 25% by 2020. Many mitigation strategies are required to meet this goal, but the use of anaerobic digesters for biogas production is considered to be an important component. Anaerobic digestion removes ...

  6. Immune dysfunction in periparturient dairy cows: Insight into pharmacologic and dietary immune treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    With a $40.5 billion Gross Domestic Value for milk produced in the U.S. during 2013, the dairy industry was the third largest sector of the 2013 U.S. animal agriculture economic engine. The value of milk produced in 2013 represented 24% of the total value of animal agriculture production; this figu...

  7. Immune Dysfunction in Transition Dairy Cows: Pharmacologic and Dietary Immune Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    With a $40.5 billion Gross Domestic Value for milk produced in the U.S. during 2013, the dairy industry was the third largest sector of the 2013 U.S. animal agriculture economic engine. The value of milk produced in 2013 represented 24% of the total value of animal agriculture production; this figu...

  8. Importance in dairy technology of bacteriocins produced by dairy starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedia Şimşek

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by Lactic acid bacteria (LAB and propionic acid bacteria (PAB are heterogeneous group of peptide inhibitors which include lantibiotics (class I, e. g. nisin, small heat-stable peptides (class II, e. g. pediocin PA-1 and large heat-labile proteins (class III, e. g. helveticin J. Many bacteriocins belonging to the first two groups can be successfully used to inhibit undesirable microorganisms in foods, but only nisin is produced industrially and is used as a food preservative. LAB and PAB develops easily in milk and milk products. LAB and PAB growth in dairy products can cause microbial interference to spoilage and pathogenic bacteria through several metabolits, specially bacteriocins. The review deals with the description of milk-borne bacteriocins and their application in milk and milk products either to extend the shelf life or to inhibit milk pathogens.

  9. Radiation methods in dairy production and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguli, N.C.

    1975-01-01

    Various uses of radiotracers and radiation in dairy technology are described. In dairy production, radiotracers are used for studying: (1) rumen metabolism leading to protein synthesis (2) total body water, blood volume and sodium (3) minerals metabolism (4) relation between climatic stress and thyroid functioning of dairy animals (5) volume of milk in mammary glands (6) hormone level in dairy animals and (7) spermatozoa metabolism. In dairy processing, radiotracers are used for studying: (1) compositional analysis of milk and milk products and (2) efficiency of cleaning agents for cleaning dairy equipment. Ionizing radiation is used for: (1) preservation of milk and milk products and (2) sterilization of packaging materials. Radiation source has been used to monitor the over-run in ice-cream and the fill control for fluid in papar cartons. (M.G.B.)

  10. Properties of a new fungal b-galactosidase with potential application in the dairy industry Propriedades de uma nova b-galactosidade fúngica com potencialidade para emprego na indústria de latícinios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Cruz

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available b-Galactosidase or b-D-galactoside-galactohydrolase (EC. 3.2.1.23 is an important enzyme industrially used for the hydrolysis of lactose from milk and milk whey for several applications. Lately, the importance of this enzyme was enhanced by its galactosyltransferase activity, which is responsible for the synthesis of transgalactosylated oligosaccharides (TOS that act as functional foods, with several beneficial effects on consumers. Penicillium simplicissimum, a strain isolated from soil, when grown in semi-solid medium showed good productivity of b-galactosidase with galactosyltransferase activity. The optimum pH for hydrolysis was in the 4.04.6 range and the optimum pH for galactosyltransferase activity was in the 6.07.0 range. The optimum temperature for hydrolysis and transferase activity was 55-60°C and 50°C, respectively, and the enzyme showed high thermostability for the hydrolytic activity. The enzyme showed a potential for several industrial applications such as removal of 67% of the lactose from milk and 84% of the lactose from milk whey when incubated at their original pH (4.5 and 6.34, respectively under optimum temperature conditions. When incubated with a 40% lactose solution in 150 mM McIlvaine buffer, pH 4.5, at 55°C the enzyme converted 86.5% of the lactose to its component monosaccharides. When incubated with a 60% lactose solution in the same buffer but at pH 6.5 and 50°C, the enzyme can synthetize up to 30.5% TOS, with 39.5% lactose and 30% monosaccharides remaining in the preparation.A b-galactosidase ou b-D-galactosídeo-galactohidrolase (EC. 3.2.1.23 é uma importante enzima utilizada industrialmente na hidrólise da lactose do leite e soro de leite para diversas aplicações. Ultimamente, sua importância foi realçada por sua atividade de galactosiltransferase responsável pela síntese de oligossacárides transgalactosilados (TOS que atuam como alimentos funcionais, trazendo diversos efeitos benéficos para seus

  11. Microbiological Spoilage of Dairy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledenbach, Loralyn H.; Marshall, Robert T.

    The wide array of available dairy foods challenges the microbiologist, engineer, and technologist to find the best ways to prevent the entry of microorganisms, destroy those that do get in along with their enzymes, and prevent the growth and activities of those that escape processing treatments. Troublesome spoilage microorganisms include aerobic psychrotrophic Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, molds, heterofermentative lactobacilli, and spore-forming bacteria. Psychrotrophic bacteria can produce large amounts of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, and the extent of recontamination of pasteurized fluid milk products with these bacteria is a major determinant of their shelf life. Fungal spoilage of dairy foods is manifested by the presence of a wide variety of metabolic by-products, causing off-odors and flavors, in addition to visible changes in color or texture.

  12. FGF-21: promising biomarker for detecting ketosis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuang; Xu, Qiushi; Chen, Yuanyuan; Yang, Wei; Xia, Cheng; Yu, Hongjiang; Zhu, Kuilin; Shen, Taiyu; Zhang, Ziyang

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the measurement of serum fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21), a protein mainly synthesized by the liver, as a sensitive biomarker for diagnosis of ketosis in dairy cows. Ninety Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 healthy and 30 ketosis cases) were selected and divided into a Ketosis group (K), and a Control group (C). We measured serum FGF-21 and other biochemical parameters by commercial ELISA kits. In a combined population of all 90 cows, we found that serum FGF-21 level was lower (P ketosis. When the β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) level increased over 1.2 mmol/L, the FGF-21 level tended to decline below 300.85 pg/ml. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) for serum FGF-21 for diagnosis of fatty liver was 0.952-0.025 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.904, 1.000] which was higher than the AUC-ROC for glucose (Glc) and other tested parameters. We concluded that FGF-21 could be a diagnostic parameter in the evaluation and auxiliary diagnosis of changes in the energy metabolism state, and serum FGF-21 measurement would have a considerable clinical impact and lead to greater profitability in the dairy industry.

  13. Bioactive Lipids in Dairy Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Nordby, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Milk fat is the most important energy source for the newborn infant beside its important role as energy source, milk fat also contain a range of bioactive lipids, that potentially can modulate the immune response and metabolic regulation in the child. In this chapter we review the literature on b...... on bioactive dairy fatty acids: conjugated linoleic acid, branched chained and odd chained fatty acids, as well as bioactive complex lipids such as sphingomyelin and gangliosides....

  14. The experience of functioning of the dairy cluster of the Voronezh region in the aspect of observing the criteria of economic efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kotarev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the analysis of tendencies of development of sector of dairy animal industries on the basis of formation of a dairy cluster is given. It is shown that the structure of dairy cattle breeding in the Voronezh region is built in the form of a milk cluster, in the functioning of which most of the existing enterprises of the dairy industry take part. The largest participants of the dairy cluster are: EkoNivaAgro LLC, GK Molvest, Agroholding Don-Agro. In the cluster, all the operations of the whole milk production process are carried out, starting from the production of feed and breeding of breeding animals and ending with the delivery of finished products to the end users. Also, the cluster included auxiliary organizations that carry out scientific, educational, research and veterinary support of the entire production chain. Within the framework of the cluster, effective interaction of all its participants is established, which is necessary for obtaining high quality milk and dairy products. The advantage of a dairy cluster in the Voronezh region is the opportunity to provide targeted benefits to organizations that are important for the economy of the region, and the state gets the opportunity to regulate innovation, investment flows and evaluate the effectiveness of financial investments. The implementation of investment projects in animal husbandry in the medium term (for the period until 2020 will increase milk production by 30%. The economic efficiency of dairy cattle is a cumulative category that reflects the impact of technological, economic, social and environmental factors on the productivity of production. Cluster development of the dairy cattle breeding industry in the Voronezh Region allows obtaining a positive synergistic effect, reducing transaction costs, and increasing the genetic potential of dairy cattle.

  15. Evaluating an intervention to reduce lameness in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, D C J; Leach, K A; Barker, Z E; Sedgwick, A K; Maggs, C M; Bell, N J; Whay, H R

    2012-06-01

    Lameness in dairy cattle remains a significant welfare concern for the UK dairy industry. Farms were recruited into a 3-yr study evaluating novel intervention approaches designed to encourage farmers to implement husbandry changes targeted toward reducing lameness. All farms completing the study were visited at least annually and received either monitoring only (MO, n=72) or monitoring and additional support (MS, n = 117) from the research team. The additional support included traditional technical advice on farm-specific solutions, facilitation techniques to encourage farmer participation, and application of social marketing principles to promote implementation of change. Lameness prevalence was lower in the MO (27.0 ± 1.94 SEM) and MS (21.4 ± 1.28) farms at the final visit compared with the same MO (38.9 ± 2.06) and MS (33.3 ± 1.76) farms on the initial visit. After accounting for initial lameness, intervention group status, and year of visit within a multilevel model, we observed an interaction between year and provision of support, with the reduction in lameness over time being greater in the MS group compared with the MO group. Farms in the MS group made a greater number of changes to their husbandry practices over the duration of the project (8.2 ± 0.39) compared with those farms in the MO group (6.5 ± 0.54). Because the lameness prevalence was lower in the MS group than the MO group at the start of the study, the contribution of the additional support was difficult to define. Lameness can be reduced on UK dairy farms although further work is needed to identify the optimum approaches. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Subprodutos industriais na ensilagem de capim-elefante para cabras leiteiras: consumo, digestibilidade de nutrientes e produção de leite Industrial by-products in elephant grass silage for dairy goats: intake, nutrient digestibility and milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jobel Beserra de Oliveira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente e a produção do leite em cabras alimentadas com silagens de capim-elefante contendo subprodutos industriais. Utilizaram-se oito cabras da raça Saanen, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos 4 × 4, com 4 períodos de 14 dias (10 dias de adaptação e 4 dias para coleta de dados. Os tratamentos foram: silagem de capim-elefante + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% de farelo de mandioca + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% de casca de café + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% farelo de cacau + concentrado. Os maiores consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, carboidratos totais (CT, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF e nutrientes digestíveis totais foram observados entre os animais alimentados com a silagem contendo farelo de mandioca. As silagens com farelo de mandioca ou casca de café promoveram maior consumo de extrato etéreo. Os maiores valores de digestibilidade da MS, MO, EE e CT foram obtidos na dieta contendo silagem de capim-elefante com farelo de mandioca. O valor de digestibilidade dos CNF foi semelhante entre as dietas contendo silagem de capim-elefante com farelo de mandioca, casca de café e farelo de cacau. A digestibilidade de fibra em detergente neutro e de fibra em detergente ácido foi maior para a silagem sem aditivo, com farelo de mandioca ou farelo de cacau. Entre os subprodutos avaliados, o farelo de mandioca é o que promove maiores consumos, digestibilidades dos nutrientes e produção de leite em cabras alimentadas com silagem de capim-elefante.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the intake, apparent digestibility and the milk yield of goats fed elephant grass silages containing industrial by-products. Eight Saanen breed goats were used, distributed in two 4 × 4 Latin squares, with four 14-day periods (ten days of adaptation and four days for data collection. The treatments were

  17. Galactomyces geotrichum - moulds from dairy products with high biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygier, Anna; Myszka, Kamila; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The article reviews the properties of the Galactomyces geotrichum species, the mould that is most important for the dairy industry. G. geotrichum mould has been isolated from milk, cheeses and alcoholic beverage. Its presence in food products makes it possible to obtain a characteristic aroma and taste, which corresponds to the needs and preferences of consumers. G. geotrichum plays an important role in ecology, where the mould is employed for the degradation of various hazardous substances and wastewater treatment. It has also been found to have potential for biofuel production. In addition to this, G. geotrichum can be applicable in two further major areas: agriculture and health protection.

  18. Forage Options for Dairy Farms with Reduced Water Availability in the Southern Murray Darling Basin of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Jane Rogers

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The dairy industry in the southern Murray Darling Basin region of Australia is a major consumer of irrigation water because rainfall is low relative to evapotranspiration and the industrys relies heavily on irrigated temperate pastures and fodder crops. Water reforms, and potential climate change scenarios for this region suggest that there will be an overall decline in rainfall and water available for irrigation in the future. For the irrigated dairy industry to remain economically viable, there is a need for dairy farmers to improve the water productivity (WP of their forage systems and to be able to respond to year-to-year, and within year, variation in water availability. Researchers and dairy farmers are evaluating strategies to increase WP. These include: (i selecting better-adapted species for current and predicted climatic conditions; (ii using species that can survive and still be productive under reduced irrigation and then recover when full irrigation is restored; (iii modifying irrigation strategies to reduce water use whilst maintaining WP; and (iv grazing management strategies that facilitate the survival during, and recovery after, periods of moisture stress. This review will examine these strategies and discusses their potential to optimise forage production from irrigation water inputs so that the dairy industry in the southern Murray Darling Basin remains viable in the future.

  19. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of zebu dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ariosto Ardila Silva

    2010-01-01

    In tropical regions, Gyr and Guzerat breeds (Bos indicus) are most explored for dairy industry and are much more adapted to climate. Gyr and Guzerat are Zebu breeds very common in Brazil and they are being used to generate Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses in order to combine good production, heat and parasite tolerance on the tropics. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of Zebu dairy cattle have been recently introduced in Brazil and is based on the use of genetically...

  20. An analysis of selected aspects of international business in Slovak dairies in the EU framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Zeleňáková

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an assessment of current trends in the dairy industry in Slovakia with emphasis on quality of milk products and their placement in the foreign markets. The analysis has shown that for the analysed enterprises more important stimuli exist for involvement into international business. Much greater weight is attached to regular orders from abroad, as it is supposed that they bring guaranteed sales of dairy products in foreign markets. At the same time out of 22 interviewed businesses, 15 said that business contacts of the management were helpful in establishing themselves in the international environment.

  1. Nota Científica: ultrafiltração de efluente da indústria de laticínios para recuperação de nutrientes: efeito da pressão e da velocidade tangencial Scientific Note: ultrafiltration of effluents from a dairy industry for nutrient recovery: effect of pressure and tangential velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandré Barbosa Brião

    2012-12-01

    ,44 m.s-1. A rejeição de ambas as membranas foi superior a 70% para a DQO, 94% para proteínas e acima de 85% para gordura. A concentração da água de enxágue foi realizada com a membrana espiral, reduzindo-se o seu volume inicial em 34 vezes. O concentrado lácteo foi obtido com 2,3% de sólidos totais, 1,1% de proteínas e 0,9% de gordura. A ultrafiltração demonstrou ser um processo viável para a recuperação de sólidos lácteos na indústria de laticínios.The cleaning process used in the dairy industry generates a great volume of effluent, engendering up to 10 L of effluent per litre of milk processed. The first rinsing water can carry off 1%-3% of the milk solids, representing production costs. Ultrafiltration can be used to recover these milk solids aiming to reinsert them into the process. The goal of this work was test two ultrafiltration membranes with different configurations (tubular and spiral with different pressures and cross-flow velocities to recover and concentrate these milk solids, aiming to obtain a dairy compound capable of reuse. The process was evaluated and optimized using a model rinsing water (1.7 g.L-1 of whole milk powder diluted in tap water, fed to a cross-flow ultrafiltration equipment, varying the pressure (98; 196 and 194 kPa for both membranes and cross-flow velocities (0.79; 1.42; 2.23 m.s-1 for the tubular membrane and 0.15; 0.27; 0.44 m.s-1 for the spiral membrane, using a 3² factorial design. The dependent variables were the permeate flow rate, the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, and the protein, fats and oils, lactose, phosphorus and calcium concentrations in the permeate. The optimized test conditions for the tubular membrane were obtained with a pressure of 294 kPa (raising the lactose rejection - 562 mg.L-1 of this compound in the permeate and a cross-flow velocity of 2.23 m.s-1 (increasing the permeate flow rate - 93.2 kg.m- 2.h-1 and reducing the fats and oils concentration in the permeate to 39 mg.L-1. With the spiral

  2. A Robust Statistical Model to Predict the Future Value of the Milk Production of Dairy Cows Using Herd Recording Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2017-01-01

    of the future value of a dairy cow requires further detailed knowledge of the costs associated with feed, management practices, production systems, and disease. Here, we present a method to predict the future value of the milk production of a dairy cow based on herd recording data only. The method consists......The future value of an individual dairy cow depends greatly on its projected milk yield. In developed countries with developed dairy industry infrastructures, facilities exist to record individual cow production and reproduction outcomes consistently and accurately. Accurate prediction...... of somatic cell count. We conclude that estimates of future average production can be used on a day-to-day basis to rank cows for culling, or can be implemented in simulation models of within-herd disease spread to make operational decisions, such as culling versus treatment. An advantage of the approach...

  3. Planning of dairy farm and dairy plant based ecotourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnyoto, A. S.; Tama, I. P.; Tantrika, C. F. M.

    2017-06-01

    One of a dairy production company producing pasteurized milk and yoghurt drink, whose brand has widely known in East Java, has a factory plant in Batu City, one of tourism destinations in Indonesia. Behind the factory plant, there is a vacant land with an estimated total area of 2.3 ha and a vacant cowshed which had not been used for cattle ranching. Because of that, the company planned to develop the vacant land as a dairy farm and plant based ecotourism. In addition, dairy farm and dairy plant based tourism attractions are still rarely found in Batu. Thus, the first aim of this study was to analyse the potencies of the company that related to future plans of ecotourism built. The second aim was to set up the strategies that can be done in order to actualize the ecotourism project. The next aim was to plan the ecotourism, especially the facilities planning and the facilities arrangement on the vacant land. Strategic management approach was used to analyse the potencies and to determine the strategies. To select the proper facilities, tourists were asked to give appraisal by using questionnaire. Appraisal result was mapped onto four quadrants spatial map to see advantages and shortcomings of each facility along with choosing the right facilities to be built. Those facilities and tourist activities were compared with ecotourism criteria to make sure that the facilities were appropriate to provide not only entertainment but also ecotourism function. To arrange the chosen facilities, the step in Systematic Layout Planning were conducted to generate a propose layout of facilities arrangement. Based on potencies analysis, in Internal-External matrix, the company current position was on quadrant 2 (grow and build), with the most appropriate strategy was intensive or integrative. The proposed strategies were to build the new infrastructure, to renovate cowshed, and to add new tourism facilities on the land. There were 11 selected facilities based on MDS. Moreover, based

  4. A review of health and safety leadership and managerial practices on modern dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagevoort, G Robert; Douphrate, David I; Reynolds, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    As modern dairy operations around the world expand, farmers are increasingly reliant on greater automation and larger numbers of hired labor to milk cows and perform other essential farm tasks. Dairy farming is among the most dangerous occupations, with high rates of injury, illness, and employee turnover. Lower education levels, illiteracy, and limited language proficiency increase the possibility of injury or death associated with higher risk occupations such as dairy. Sustaining a healthy, productive workforce is a critical component of risk management; however, many owners and managers have not received formal training in employee management or occupational health and safety. Optimal dairy farming management should address milk production that is sustainable and responsible from the animal welfare, social, economic, and environmental perspectives. Each of these aspects is interdependent with each other and with a sustainable, healthy, productive workforce. Very few studies address the effectiveness of risk management in the dairy industry. Studies suggest that labor management practices are a potential competitive advantage for dairy farms, but the connection with efficiency, productivity, and profitability has not been clearly demonstrated. Transformational leadership has been associated with improved safety climate and reduced incidence of injury, whereas passive leadership styles have opposite effects. There is a need to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of safety-specific transformational leadership among dairy owners and managers. A systematic approach to risk management should address worker health and safety as an integral component of production, food safety, and animal welfare. A successful program must address the cultural and linguistic barriers associated with immigrant workers.

  5. Calcium requirements from dairy foods in France can be met at low energy and monetary cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Tang, Wesley; Brazeilles, Rémi

    2015-12-14

    Inadequate Ca intakes are a concern for global public health. In France, most dietary Ca is provided by dairy products: milks, fermented milks (mostly yogurts), dairy desserts and cheeses. The present dairy database (n 837) included milks (n 101), fermented milks, yogurts and other fresh dairy products (n 326), desserts (n 162) and a wide variety of cheeses (n 248). Energy and nutrient values were obtained from industry sources and the French national nutrient composition database. Retail prices were from Paris supermarkets. Products in each group were aggregated into twenty-one categories using clustering analyses. The costs in energy (kJ (kcal)), euros (€), and in SFA, added sugar and Na (defined here as nutrients to LIMit) associated with providing 120 mg of Ca (equivalent to 15 % daily value (15 % DV)) were calculated for each product group and category. The milk group supplied Ca at the lowest energy, monetary and LIM cost. Fresh plain and 'light' yogurts and fermented milks were next, followed by sweetened yogurts and flavoured milks. Light dairy desserts provided Ca with relatively few energy but were more expensive. Cheeses were a heterogeneous group. Hard cheeses (Comté) provided the most Ca per serving. Semi-hard cheeses (Camembert) and cream and blue cheeses (Roquefort) provided Ca at a cost comparable with sweetened yogurts and flavoured milks. Double cream, soft and goat cheeses were not optimal Ca sources. New value metrics can help identify affordable dairy foods that provide Ca without excessive energy or nutrients to limit. These conditions were satisfied by a wide variety of dairy products in France.

  6. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of zebu dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariosto Ardila Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In tropical regions, Gyr and Guzerat breeds (Bos indicus are most explored for dairy industry and are much more adapted to climate. Gyr and Guzerat are Zebu breeds very common in Brazil and they are being used to generate Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses in order to combine good production, heat and parasite tolerance on the tropics. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of Zebu dairy cattle have been recently introduced in Brazil and is based on the use of genetically superior sires in the herds. A major objective of QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci and candidate genes is to find genes and markers that can be implemented in breeding programs across marker assisted selection (MAS. In Zebu dairy cattle MAS could be used to pre-select young candidate bulls to progeny testing, thus increasing selection differentials, shortening generation interval and increasing genetic gain

  7. Population structure of Lactobacillus helveticus isolates from naturally fermented dairy products based on multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhihong; Liu, Wenjun; Song, Yuqin; Xu, Haiyan; Yu, Jie; Bilige, Menghe; Zhang, Heping; Chen, Yongfu

    2015-05-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus is an economically important lactic acid bacterium used in industrial dairy fermentation. In the present study, the population structure of 245 isolates of L. helveticus from different naturally fermented dairy products in China and Mongolia were investigated using an multilocus sequence typing scheme with 11 housekeeping genes. A total of 108 sequence types were detected, which formed 8 clonal complexes and 27 singletons. Results from Structure, SplitsTree, and ClonalFrame software analyses demonstrated the presence of 3 subpopulations in the L. helveticus isolates used in our study, namely koumiss, kurut-tarag, and panmictic lineages. Most L. helveticus isolates from particular ecological origins had specific population structures. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficiency of European Dairy Processing Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soboh, R.A.M.E.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Dijk, van G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the technical efficiency and production frontier of dairy processing cooperativesand investor owned firms in six major dairy producing European countries. Two parametric produc-tion frontiers are estimated, i.e. for cooperatives and investor owned firms separately, which are

  9. Crossbreeding in Dairy Cattle: A Danish Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M K; Norberg, E; Pedersen, J

    2008-01-01

    The value of crossbreeding in livestock species has been known for a long time; it has been used heavily within beef cattle, pig, and poultry production systems for several decades. This has not been the case for dairy production but lately there has been increased interest in crossbreeding dairy...

  10. Grazing management for Nordic organic dairy farming

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusela, Eeva

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify limiting factors and to develop adjusted grazing management for Nordic organic dairy farming conditions. The focus was to combine the aspects of plant, animal and organic production, as they are all involved in organic dairy pastures.

  11. Milk and dairy product analyses at the Dairy Chemistry Division in Mauritius: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Neeliah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Government of Mauritius has continuously supported the dairy sector. In a 2011 speech, the Acting President pointed out that the implementation of schemes under the Food Security Fund strategic plan yielded satisfactory results such as an increase in milk production by 55%. One institution which has played a key role in boosting the sector is the Dairy Chemistry Division (DCD. DCD forms part of the Agricultural Services which fall under the aegis of the Ministry of Agro-Industry and Food Security (MOAFS. It has been at the forefront of milk test­ing, constantly innovating with respect to analytical methods and instrumentation use. It has thus evolved from a laboratory that had the responsibility of monitoring the quality of milk in Government dairies and, later on, of locally-produced fresh raw milk under the Pilot Milk Scheme, to an institution providing analytical, advisory and technical services in various fields of food science and technology. From 1999 to 2014, more than 116,000 samples have been tested. The fat and microbial con­tents, and percentage adulteration with water varied depending on the client. The laboratory was accredited in 2012 by Mauritas, the local accreditation body, for certain microbiological param­eters. The aim of this paper was to describe the evolution in DCD activities with a focus on milk testing. The paper is based on a review of DCD past annual reports and relevant technical documents pertaining to the local milk sector. Food testing started in the 1920s in the Agricultural Services of MOAFS. The main activities were the analysis of morning and evening milk samples from Government dairies for fat, solids non-fat and lactose. The milk was assessed as being of fairly good chemical quality. Table I provides a summary of results of analyses of milk collected from Government dairies. DCD was created in 1973 in line with the Government policy to support the dairy sector. Apart from testing activities DCD has

  12. Influence of dietary component manipulation and feed management strategies on growth and rumen development of weaned dairy heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Tana Shea

    2016-01-01

    Well-developed replacement heifers provide a central foundation for the continued success of the dairy industry. Emphasis on improving pre-weaned calf nutrition has predominated in the industry, but opportunities exist to improve post-weaning heifer nutrition and management. We aimed to evaluate common feed management strategies seen in the industry and their effects on growth, feed efficiency (G:F), and rumen development of calves from birth to 8 mo of age using pen- and individually-fed ani...

  13. Mastitis vaccines in dairy cows: Recent developments and recommendations of application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Bani Ismail

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review article was to summarize the most recent clinical field trials that have been published evaluating the use of different types of vaccines against mastitis pathogens in dairy cows. Mastitis is one of the most common and economically important diseases in dairy cows in the world. The disease is considered an important welfare issue facing the dairy industry in addition to the loss of production and premature removal or death of affected cows. Losses are also related to high cost of veterinary medicines and the cost of unsalable milk of treated cows. Mastitis can be caused by either contagious or environmental pathogens both of which are best prevented rather than treated. In addition to the application of best management practices in the parlor during milking, vaccination against common udder pathogens is widely practiced in many dairy farms to prevent or reduce the severity of clinical mastitis. In this review, the most recent clinical field studies that evaluated the use of different types of vaccines in dairy cows are summarized.

  14. Uterine inflammation affects the reproductive performance of dairy cows: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Eduardo Molina-Coto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of post- partum uterine disease is an important concern in dairy cattle, because it affects its reproduction. Therefore, the objective of this review of literature was to generate a multifactorial overview about uterine diseases, and the reproductive performance of dairy cows, from a zootechnical approach. Dairy cows face multiple challenges around parturition. Immune suppression around calving, exposition to trauma and uterine bacterial contamination, metabolic diseases, lactation, and changes in management make dairy cows susceptible to uterine diseases. Most cows are able to eliminate uterine infection after calving, however, some cows keep uterine disease. Uterine disease may show clinical signs, but also silent signs that affect fertility as well. Poor reproductive performance is not caused by those signs by themselves, but due to alterations in ovarian and uterine function. Also, the problem of this silent signs is that farmers become aware of the disease when it has already caused negative effects on the reproductiveperformance. Sometimes, uterine disease is still present at the moment of the first service after calving. Uterine diseasemake it harder for cows to get pregnant because it affects the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, being another cause for infertility, increasing the cull rate and decreasing incomes from the dairy industry.

  15. Diversity and Control of Spoilage Fungi in Dairy Products: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valence, Florence; Mounier, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Fungi are common contaminants of dairy products, which provide a favorable niche for their growth. They are responsible for visible or non-visible defects, such as off-odor and -flavor, and lead to significant food waste and losses as well as important economic losses. Control of fungal spoilage is a major concern for industrials and scientists that are looking for efficient solutions to prevent and/or limit fungal spoilage in dairy products. Several traditional methods also called traditional hurdle technologies are implemented and combined to prevent and control such contaminations. Prevention methods include good manufacturing and hygiene practices, air filtration, and decontamination systems, while control methods include inactivation treatments, temperature control, and modified atmosphere packaging. However, despite technology advances in existing preservation methods, fungal spoilage is still an issue for dairy manufacturers and in recent years, new (bio) preservation technologies are being developed such as the use of bioprotective cultures. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the diversity of spoilage fungi in dairy products and the traditional and (potentially) new hurdle technologies to control their occurrence in dairy foods. PMID:28788096

  16. Diversity and Control of Spoilage Fungi in Dairy Products: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucille Garnier

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are common contaminants of dairy products, which provide a favorable niche for their growth. They are responsible for visible or non-visible defects, such as off-odor and -flavor, and lead to significant food waste and losses as well as important economic losses. Control of fungal spoilage is a major concern for industrials and scientists that are looking for efficient solutions to prevent and/or limit fungal spoilage in dairy products. Several traditional methods also called traditional hurdle technologies are implemented and combined to prevent and control such contaminations. Prevention methods include good manufacturing and hygiene practices, air filtration, and decontamination systems, while control methods include inactivation treatments, temperature control, and modified atmosphere packaging. However, despite technology advances in existing preservation methods, fungal spoilage is still an issue for dairy manufacturers and in recent years, new (bio preservation technologies are being developed such as the use of bioprotective cultures. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the diversity of spoilage fungi in dairy products and the traditional and (potentially new hurdle technologies to control their occurrence in dairy foods.

  17. From field to fermentation: the origins of Lactococcus lactis and its domestication to the dairy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Daniel; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; McAuliffe, Olivia

    2015-05-01

    Lactococcus lactis is an organism of substantial economic importance, used extensively in the production of fermented foods and widely held to have evolved from plant strains. The domestication of this organism to the milk environment is associated with genome reduction and gene decay, and the acquisition of specific genes involved in protein and lactose utilisation by horizontal gene transfer. In recent years, numerous studies have focused on uncovering the physiology and molecular biology of lactococcal strains from the wider environment for exploitation in the dairy industry. This in turn has facilitated comparative genome analysis of lactococci from different environments and provided insight into the natural phenotypic and genetic diversity of L. lactis. This diversity may be exploited in dairy fermentations to develop products with improved quality and sensory attributes. In this review, we discuss the classification of L. lactis and the problems that arise with phenotype/genotype designation. We also discuss the adaptation of non-dairy lactococci to milk, the traits associated with this adaptation and the potential application of non-dairy lactococci to dairy fermentations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High genetic diversity among strains of the unindustrialized lactic acid bacterium Carnobacterium maltaromaticum in dairy products as revealed by multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Abdur; Cailliez-Grimal, Catherine; Bontemps, Cyril; Payot, Sophie; Chaillou, Stéphane; Revol-Junelles, Anne-Marie; Borges, Frédéric

    2014-07-01

    Dairy products are colonized with three main classes of lactic acid bacteria (LAB): opportunistic bacteria, traditional starters, and industrial starters. Most of the population structure studies were previously performed with LAB species belonging to these three classes and give interesting knowledge about the population structure of LAB at the stage where they are already industrialized. However, these studies give little information about the population structure of LAB prior their use as an industrial starter. Carnobacterium maltaromaticum is a LAB colonizing diverse environments, including dairy products. Since this bacterium was discovered relatively recently, it is not yet commercialized as an industrial starter, which makes C. maltaromaticum an interesting model for the study of unindustrialized LAB population structure in dairy products. A multilocus sequence typing scheme based on an analysis of fragments of the genes dapE, ddlA, glpQ, ilvE, pyc, pyrE, and leuS was applied to a collection of 47 strains, including 28 strains isolated from dairy products. The scheme allowed detecting 36 sequence types with a discriminatory index of 0.98. The whole population was clustered in four deeply branched lineages, in which the dairy strains were spread. Moreover, the dairy strains could exhibit a high diversity within these lineages, leading to an overall dairy population with a diversity level as high as that of the nondairy population. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis according to which the industrialization of LAB leads to a diversity reduction in dairy products. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Costs of Producing Biogas at Dairy Farms in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebrezgabher, S.A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    By 2020, Dutch dairy chains envisage to be self-sufficient with regard to energy used by dairy farms and dairy processors. This would require dairy farms to produce 25 PJ per year, possibly by a combination of wind, solar and biogas. This paper focuses on biogas. To evaluate the project’s viability

  20. Dairy development and nutrition in Kilifi District, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, P.; Ngolo, J.; Hoorweg, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study on dairy development in Kilifi District, Kenya, are, first, to assess the importance of - small-scale - intensive dairy farming as promoted by the Ministry of Livestock through the National Dairy Development Programme (DDP) compared with other types of small-scale dairy

  1. 21 CFR 163.145 - Mixed dairy product chocolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixed dairy product chocolates. 163.145 Section... § 163.145 Mixed dairy product chocolates. (a) Description. Mixed dairy product chocolates are the foods...; or (iv) Malted milk; and (2) The finished mixed dairy product chocolates shall contain not less than...

  2. The Myanmar dairy sector : a quickscan of opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, van der J.; Jong, M.J.; Thant, A.M.; Oo, T.; Lynn, P.K.; Ren, X.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the Myanmar dairy sector and opportunities for development, for private as well as public actors. It describes the dairy market, dairy farming systems, and the enabling environment for dairy. A number of business opportunities are listed. It concludes with recommendations on

  3. DAIRY BUSINESS: THE CASE OF BULGARIAN DAIRY CATTLE FARMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetana HARIZANOVA-METODIEVA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore differences between dairy cattle farmers in Bulgaria, according to certain factors. Information about the social characteristics of the farmers (educational level, gender, and age, and about the farm characteristics (number of cows in the main herd, average milk yield, and the rate of return on investment was collected. Sixty percent of the farmers were up to 50 years of age. Fifty percent of the farmers had had a secondary education and the rest had gained a university degree. The study found that only one of the 20 farmers was a woman. It was found that the group of farmers with a university degree had lower average age than the group of farmers with secondary school. There was no significant difference in the rate of return between the two groups of farms in terms of the effectiveness of the farm. The difference in the number of cows in the main herd was not significant too. The research identified a need for additional training for farmers in order to reduce their dependence on hired workers. It was found that farmers attend basic courses in the field of agriculture and livestock breeding in order to fill the gap between the existing levels of knowledge of farmers and the necessary skills for the effective management of dairy farms.

  4. Subclinical laminitis in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, H K; Shannon, D; Neilson, D R

    1989-08-19

    By causing poorer horn quality, subclinical laminitis is considered to be a major predisposing cause of other hoof problems, particularly sole ulcers in newly calved heifers. In this study the hind hooves of 136 female Friesian/Holstein cattle aged between four months and two years were examined to discover at what age the signs of subclinical laminitis appeared. Sole haemorrhages were found in the hoof horn of calves as young as five months. The consistent finding of these lesions in heifers of all ages indicated that subclinical laminitis of varying degree was a common condition during the early growing period of young dairy heifers.

  5. Phosphorus and the dairy cow

    OpenAIRE

    Ekelund, Adrienne

    2003-01-01

    The general aim of the present work was to investigate phosphorus balance in the dairy cow, with reference to the amount and source of phosphorus. Furthermore, biochemical bone markers were used to study the bone turnover during the lactation and dry period. Phosphorus is located in every cell of the body and has more known functions than any other mineral element in the animal body. Phosphorus is also an important constituent of milk, and is therefore required in large amounts in a high yiel...

  6. DAIRY TECHNOLOGY IMPACTS ON LIVEHOODS OF DAIRY PRODUCERS IN CENTRAL ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassahun Melesse

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in 2012 to assess the impact of dairy technologies on the livelihood of dairying households in Ada’a and Lume districts of central Ethiopia. A total of 108 dairy farms were interviewed using structured questionnaire. Dairying has significant contribution as a sustainable source of income to the dairy producing households. It contributed about 62% and 66% of the total monthly income in Ada’a and Lume districts, respectively. Dairying was the first income source for about 80% and 62% of the dairy producing households in Ada’a and Lume districts, respectively. On the other hand, 92.9 % and 88.9 % of the respondents in Ada’a and Lume districts respectively explained that dairy technology adoption has significantly increased their household income. About 56% and 32% of households in Ada’a and Lume districts were found to save money from dairying in a traditional form of saving. Adoption of dairy technologies has also an impact on the consumption of milk and milk products as all family members in about 77.5% and 87.1% of households in Ada’a and Lume districts, respectively could consume more milk.

  7. Proposal for energy rationalization in the dairy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, M.; Bova, S.; Florio, G.

    A cost-benefit analysis was carried out on the possible measures for energy rationalization in a small-medium cheese plant situated in Calabria (Southern Italy). The first stage involved detailing knowledge of the working processes and of the total energy needs. Based on this data and on the assumption that the present production cycle should be only slightly modified, some technically feasible solutions were identified. Among the most convenient solutions from the economic point of view, is that requiring cogeneration with diesel motors.

  8. Implications for the South African beef and dairy cattle industries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-09

    Mar 9, 2013 ... SNP over the entire bovine genome including the mitochondrial ... 2009]) level of autosomal SNP genotypes that do not adhere to Mendelian inheritance. ..... available number of breeding animals with records for maternal, ...

  9. Implications for the South African beef and dairy cattle industries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-09

    Mar 9, 2013 ... sequencing and high throughput technologies (Adams, 2008; Eggen, 2012). Since the completion of the. Human Genome project most farm animal species have been sequenced and mapped (Fan et al., 2010) creating new opportunities for genetic improvement in livestock that was previously beyond ...

  10. Impact of antibiotic use in adult dairy cows on antimicrobial resistance of veterinary and human pathogens: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stephen P; Murinda, Shelton E; Jayarao, Bhushan M

    2011-03-01

    Antibiotics have saved millions of human lives, and their use has contributed significantly to improving human and animal health and well-being. Use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has resulted in healthier, more productive animals; lower disease incidence and reduced morbidity and mortality in humans and animals; and production of abundant quantities of nutritious, high-quality, and low-cost food for human consumption. In spite of these benefits, there is considerable concern from public health, food safety, and regulatory perspectives about the use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals. Over the last two decades, development of antimicrobial resistance resulting from agricultural use of antibiotics that could impact treatment of diseases affecting the human population that require antibiotic intervention has become a significant global public health concern. In the present review, we focus on antibiotic use in lactating and nonlactating cows in U.S. dairy herds, and address four key questions: (1) Are science-based data available to demonstrate antimicrobial resistance in veterinary pathogens that cause disease in dairy cows associated with use of antibiotics in adult dairy cows? (2) Are science-based data available to demonstrate that antimicrobial resistance in veterinary pathogens that cause disease in adult dairy cows impacts pathogens that cause disease in humans? (3) Does antimicrobial resistance impact the outcome of therapy? (4) Are antibiotics used prudently in the dairy industry? On the basis of this review, we conclude that scientific evidence does not support widespread, emerging resistance among pathogens isolated from dairy cows to antibacterial drugs even though many of these antibiotics have been used in the dairy industry for treatment and prevention of disease for several decades. However, it is clear that use of antibiotics in adult dairy cows and other food-producing animals does contribute to increased antimicrobial resistance

  11. Dairy products, yogurts, and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli, René

    2014-05-01

    Fracture risk is determined by bone mass, geometry, and microstructure, which result from peak bone mass (the amount attained at the end of pubertal growth) and from the amount of bone lost subsequently. Nutritional intakes are an important environmental factor that influence both bone mass accumulation during childhood and adolescence and bone loss that occurs in later life. Bone growth is influenced by dietary intake, particularly of calcium and protein. Adequate dietary calcium and protein are essential to achieve optimal peak bone mass during skeletal growth and to prevent bone loss in the elderly. Dairy products are rich in nutrients that are essential for good bone health, including calcium, protein, vitamin D, potassium, phosphorus, and other micronutrients and macronutrients. Studies supporting the beneficial effects of milk or dairy products on bone health show a significant inverse association between dairy food intake and bone turnover markers and a positive association with bone mineral content. Fortified dairy products induce more favorable changes in biochemical indexes of bone metabolism than does calcium supplementation alone. The associations between the consumption of dairy products and the risk of hip fracture are less well established, although yogurt intake shows a weakly positive protective trend for hip fracture. By consuming 3 servings of dairy products per day, the recommended daily intakes of nutrients essential for good bone health may be readily achieved. Dairy products could therefore improve bone health and reduce the risk of fractures in later life.

  12. National Breeding System of Dairy Cattle Husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Anggraeni

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The husbandry of domestic dairy cattle as one of the components of livestock sub-sector development is hopefully to increase numerously the capacity and the quality on its milk production, to gradually meet national milk demand and face the competitiveness at the global. The achievement of this purpose should be supported by the production of dairy breeding stock in good quality and sufficient number to increase efficiency of both quantity and quality of domestic milk production. One of important aspect that should be prepared is in determining national breeding system of dairy cattle that can function effectively as guidance and regulation for producing, distributing, and using dairy cattle as “domestic breeding stock”. As in other livestock, breeding system of dairy cattle basically constituted of three main subsystems, i.e. production , distribution and marketing, and quality establishment subsystem. The paper discusses some aspects of these three subsystems to give considerable input in preparing the national concept of dairy cattle breeding system. enterprise (Animal Production 1(2: 43-55 (1999 KeyWords: dairy cattle, breeding stock, milk production.

  13. National Breeding System of Dairy Cattle Husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Diwyanto

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The husbandry of domestic dairy cattle as one of the components of  livestock sub-sector development is hopefully to increase numerously the capacity and the quality on its milk production, to gradually meet national milk demand and face the competitiveness at the global. The achievement of this purpose should be supported by the production of dairy breeding stock in good quality and sufficient number to increase efficiency of both quantity and quality of domestic milk production. One of important aspect that should be prepared is in determining national breeding system of dairy cattle that can function effectively as guidance and regulation for producing, distributing, and using dairy cattle as “domestic breeding stock”. As in other livestock, breeding system of dairy cattle basically constituted of three main subsystems, i.e. production , distribution and marketing, and quality establishment subsystem. The paper discusses some aspects of these three subsystems to give considerable input in preparing the national concept of dairy cattle breeding system. enterprise (Animal Production 1(2: 43-55 (1999   KeyWords: dairy cattle, breeding stock, milk production.

  14. Multiplex PCR for the detection and identification of dairy bacteriophages in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rio, B; Binetti, A G; Martín, M C; Fernández, M; Magadán, A H; Alvarez, M A

    2007-02-01

    Bacteriophage infections of starter lactic acid bacteria are a serious risk in the dairy industry. Phage infection can lead to slow lactic acid production or even the total failure of fermentation. The associated economic losses can be substantial. Rapid and sensitive methods are therefore required to detect and identify phages at all stages of the manufacture of fermented dairy products. This study describes a simple and rapid multiplex PCR method that, in a single reaction, detects the presence of bacteriophages infecting Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii, plus three genetically distinct 'species' of Lactococcus lactis phages commonly found in dairy plants (P335, 936 and c2). Available bacteriophage genome sequences were examined and the conserved regions used to design five pairs of primers, one for each of the above bacteriophage species. These primers were designed to generate specific fragments of different size depending on the species. Since this method can detect the above phages in untreated milk and can be easily incorporated into dairy industry routines, it might be readily used to earmark contaminated milk for use in processes that do not involve susceptible starter organisms or for use in those that involve phage-deactivating conditions.

  15. Biodegradation by bioaugmentation of dairy wastewater by fungal consortium on a bioreactor lab-scale and on a pilot-scale

    OpenAIRE

    Djelal , Hayet; Amrane , Abdeltif

    2013-01-01

    International audience; A fungal consortium including Aspergillus niger, Mucor hiemalis and Galactomyces geotrichum was tested for the treatment of dairy wastewater. The bio-augmentation method was tested at lab-scale (4 L), at pilot scale (110 L) and at an industrial scale in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP). The positive impact of fungal addition was confirmed when fungi was beforehand accelerated by pre-culture on whey (5 g/L lactose) or on the dairy effluent. Indeed, chemical oxygen dem...

  16. Detection of haplotypes associated with prenatal death in dairy cattle and identification of deleterious mutations in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Sebastien; Capitan, Aurelien; Djari, Anis; Rodriguez, Sabrina; Barbat, Anne; Baur, Aurélia; Grohs, Cecile; Weiss, Bernard; Boussaha, Mekki; Esquerre, Diane; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    The regular decrease of female fertility over time is a major concern in modern dairy cattle industry. Only half of this decrease is explained by indirect response to selection on milk production, suggesting the existence of other factors such as embryonic lethal genetic defects. Genomic regions harboring recessive deleterious mutations were detected in three dairy cattle breeds by identifying frequent haplotypes (>1%) showing a deficit in homozygotes among Illumina Bovine 50k Beadchip haplot...

  17. ECONOMICS OF DAIRY FARMING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Bor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study dairy farming activities in Turkey are employed to prove that small-scale agricultural production is disappearing rapidly due to costly investment and mechanization needs. For that purpose the cost structure and the investment needs in starting a dairy farm are analyzed. The results show that the capital requirements of building a dairy farm with optimal capacity are hard to reach for small farmers unless a system of marketing and production agricultural cooperatives and/or institutions are organized.

  18. Detection of Subclinical Ketosis in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zhang, Guowen Liu1, Hongbin Wang, Xiaobing Li1 and Zhe Wang1*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ketosis is a common metabolic disorder frequently observed in dairy cows during the early lactation period. It is characterized by increased levels of ketone bodies in the blood, urine, and milk. Subclinical ketosis (SCK in dairy cattle is an excess level of circulating ketone bodies in the absence of clinical signs of ketosis. Usually, detection of SCK is carried out by testing the ketone concentrations in blood, urine, and milk. Here, This review overview the detection methods for SCK in dairy cows, including cowside and laboratory tests.

  19. Current issues and future prospects of dairy sector in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.J.; Naeem, M.; Abbas, A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore the current status of livestock resources, their status of utilisation and the future research concepts in dairy production and milk processing in Pakistan. Advances in the areas of genetics of dairy species, cow reproduction, nutrition, dairy chemistry, milk microbiology, processing technology and milk-based functional foods, have to be applied in Pakistan since the increase in Pakistan's population from 65 to 165 million over the past 3 decades is forecasted to an increase to 234 million by 2025. The need to increase food production means that competition for land and water resources will become more intense. The ecological sustainability of already fragile systems will be further challenged. Agro-industrial byproducts and non-conventional feed resources could be used for feeding of livestock, if farmers are trained accordingly. Situation may be significantly improved if fodder conservation techniques are introduced in livestock feeding systems. Pakistan needs a competitive and profitable dairy farming industry not just for economic but also environmental and social reasons. Productivity potential of local breeds is low and an attempt to genetically improve the local cattle through cross breeding has resulted in improvement in milk yield, acceleration in growth rates and higher prices; however, its discriminate use has been also associated with decreased immunity against temperature changes, disease and nutritional and environmental stresses prevailing in the region. The long-term effects of new systems (such as extended lactations, robot milking and all-year-round housing) will call for ever more intelligent approaches to the simultaneous achievement of quality systems that minimise environmental burdens, sustain high standards of health and welfare and deliver nutritionally valuable products into well organised food supply chains. Value addition, processing, packaging and marketing of milk, meat and eggs, backed up by

  20. New Insight into Biofilm Formation Ability, the Presence of Virulence Genes and Probiotic Potential of Enterococcus sp. Dairy Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Popović

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci have controversial status due to their emerging role in nosocomial infections and transmission of antibiotic resistance genes, while some enterococci strains are used as probiotics for humans and animals and starter cultures in dairy industry. In order to improve our understanding of factors involved in the safe use of enterococci as potential probiotics, the antibiotic susceptibility, virulence and probiotic traits of 75 dairy enterococci isolates belonging to Enterococcus durans (50, En. faecium (15, En. faecalis (6, En. italicus (3, and En. hirae (1 were evaluated. The results revealed that ciprofloxacin resistance and biofilm formation are correlated with isolates originated from Golija mountain (Serbia, while gelatinase activity was more common in isolates from Prigorje region (Croatia, pointing to uncontrolled use of antibiotics and anthropogenic impact on dairy products' microbiota in these regions. The virulence genes were sporadically present in 13 selected dairy enterococci isolates. Interestingly, biofilm formation was correlated with higher ability of strains to reduce the adhesion of E. coli and Salmonella Enteritidis to HT29-MTX cells. To our knowledge this is the first study reporting the presence of the esp gene (previously correlated with pathogenesis in dairy enterococci isolates, mostly associated with the genes involved in adhesion property. Hence, the results of this study revealed that the virulence genes are sporadically present in dairy isolates and more correlated to adhesion properties and biofilm formation, implicating their role in gut colonization rather than to the virulence traits.

  1. A Guide to the Design of Occupational Safety and Health Training for Immigrant, Latino/a Dairy Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menger, Lauren M; Rosecrance, John; Stallones, Lorann; Roman-Muniz, Ivette Noami

    2016-01-01

    Industrialized dairy production in the U.S. relies on an immigrant, primarily Latino/a, workforce to meet greater production demands. Given the high rates of injuries and illnesses on U.S. dairies, there is pressing need to develop culturally appropriate training to promote safe practices among immigrant, Latino/a dairy workers. To date, there have been few published research articles or guidelines specific to developing effective occupational safety and health (OSH) training for immigrant, Latino/a workers in the dairy industry. Literature relevant to safety training for immigrant workers in agriculture and other high-risk industries (e.g., construction) was examined to identify promising approaches. The aim of this paper is to provide a practical guide for researchers and practitioners involved in the design and implementation of effective OSH training programs for immigrant, Latino/a workers in the dairy industry. The search was restricted to peer-reviewed academic journals and guidelines published between 1980 and 2015 by universities or extension programs, written in English, and related to health and safety training among immigrant, Latino/a workers within agriculture and other high-risk industries. Relevant recommendations regarding effective training transfer were also included from literature in the field of industrial-organizational psychology. A total of 97 articles were identified, of which 65 met the inclusion criteria and made a unique and significant contribution. The review revealed a number of promising strategies for how to effectively tailor health and safety training for immigrant, Latino/a workers in the dairy industry grouped under five main themes: (1) understanding and involving workers; (2) training content and materials; (3) training methods; (4) maximizing worker engagement; and (5) program evaluation. The identification of best practices in the design and implementation of training programs for immigrant, Latino/a workers within

  2. MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN DAIRY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Marchetti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The disease affects cows and other ruminants and causes high economic losses, mainly for dairy production. MAP may also have a role in the development of Crohn’s disease in humans. Infected animals shed viable MAP with milk and faeces and humans may assume MAP via the consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products. Current methods of milk pasteurization are not sufficient to kill all MAP cells present in milk and MAP has been found in raw or pasteurized milk and isolated from cheese. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge about MAP in dairy production. We analyzed studies on milk contamination, effect of pasteurization and methods for identification of MAP that can be applied to dairy products.

  3. Bacteriological studies on dairy waste activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, A.D.

    1966-01-01

    Dairy-waste activated sludge was examined for bacterial composition and response to different conditions. Strains isolated were classified mainly into three groups: predominantly coryneform bacteria (largely Arthrobacter), some Achromobacteraceae and a small groups of Pseudomonadaceae.

  4. Pain evaluation in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Karina Bech; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Munksgaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    selected andfifteen different behaviours were scored, subsequently a clinical examination was performed to allocatethe cows to a pain and non-pain group. The animals were then treated with an analgesic or a placebo andafter a resting period the cows were re-scored by two observers blinded to the treatment...... group but not after placebo treatment (p = 0.06); the pain score did not differ significantly before compared to after treatment with analgesic or placebo for the non-pain group (p = 0.2; p = 0.1). A second study was conducted to further validate the Cow Pain Scale. Cows from two herds were randomly......Pain compromises the welfare of animals. A prerequisite for being able to alleviate pain is that we areable to recognize it. Potential behavioural signs of pain were investigated for dairy cattle with the aimof constructing a pain scale for use under production conditions. Forty-three cows were...

  5. A 100-Year Review: A century of dairy processing advancements-Pasteurization, cleaning and sanitation, and sanitary equipment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, S A; Bradley, R L; Miller, G; Mildenhall, K B

    2017-12-01

    Over the past century, advancements within the mainstream dairy foods processing industry have acted in complement with other dairy-affiliated industries to produce a human food that has few rivals with regard to safety, nutrition, and sustainability. These advancements, such as milk pasteurization, may appear commonplace in the context of a modern dairy processing plant, but some consideration of how these advancements came into being serve as a basis for considering what advancements will come to bear on the next century of processing advancements. In the year 1917, depending on where one resided, most milk was presented to the consumer through privately owned dairy animals, small local or regional dairy farms, or small urban commercial dairies with minimal, or at best nascent, processing capabilities. In 1917, much of the retail milk in the United States was packaged and sold in returnable quart-sized clear glass bottles fitted with caps of various design and composition. Some reports suggest that the cost of that quart of milk was approximately 9 cents-an estimated $2.00 in 2017 US dollars. Comparing that 1917 quart of milk to a quart of milk in 2017 suggests several differences in microbiological, compositional, and nutritional value as well as flavor characteristics. Although a more comprehensive timeline of significant processing advancements is noted in the AppendixTable A1 to this paper, we have selected 3 advancements to highlight; namely, the development of milk pasteurization, cleaning and sanitizing technologies, and sanitary specifications for processing equipment. Finally, we provide some insights into the future of milk processing and suggest areas where technological advancements may need continued or strengthened attention and development as a means of securing milk as a food of high safety and value for the next century to come. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dairy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recipe Kits Delivered We've teamed up with Chef'd to bring you healthy recipe kits. Ways ... Us Policies Corporate Support Newsroom Press Releases For Professionals En Español Online Community Walk Bike Shop Sign ...

  7. Review: Efficiency of physical and chemical treatments on the inactivation of dairy bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marta Guglielmotti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages can cause great economic losses due to fermentation failure in dairy plants. Hence, physical and chemical treatments of raw material and/or equipment are mandatory to maintain phage levels as low as possible. Regarding thermal treatments used to kill pathogenic bacteria or achieve longer shelf-life of dairy products, neither low temperature long time (LTLT nor high temperature short time (HTST pasteurization were able to inactivate most lactic acid bacteria (LAB phages. Even though most phages did not survive 90ºC for 2 min, there were some that resisted 90ºC for more than 15 min (conditions suggested by the International Dairy Federation, IDF, for complete phage destruction. Among biocides tested, ethanol showed variable effectiveness in phage inactivation, since only phages infecting dairy cocci and Lactobacillus helveticus were reasonably inactivated by this alcohol, whereas isopropanol was in all cases highly ineffective. In turn, peracetic acid has consistently proved to be very fast and efficient to inactivate dairy phages, whereas efficiency of sodium hypochlorite was variable, even among different phages infecting the same LAB species. Both alkaline chloride foam and ethoxylated nonylphenol with phosphoric acid were remarkably efficient, trait probably related to their highly alkaline or acidic pH values in solution, respectively. Photocatalysis using UV light and TiO2 has been recently reported as a feasible option to industrially inactivate phages infecting diverse LAB species. Processes involving high pressure were barely used for phage inactivation, but until now most studied phages revealed high resistance to these treatments. To conclude, and given the great phage diversity found on dairies, it is always advisable to combine different anti-phage treatments (biocides, heat, high pressure, photocatalysis, rather than using them separately at extreme conditions.

  8. Microbiological performance of dairy processing plants is influenced by scale of production and the implemented food safety management system: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opiyo, Beatrice Atieno; Wangoh, John; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau

    2013-06-01

    The effects of existing food safety management systems and size of the production facility on microbiological quality in the dairy industry in Kenya were studied. A microbial assessment scheme was used to evaluate 14 dairies in Nairobi and its environs, and their performance was compared based on their size and on whether they were implementing hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) systems and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 22000 recommendations. Environmental samples from critical sampling locations, i.e., workers' hands and food contact surfaces, and from end products were analyzed for microbial quality, including hygiene indicators and pathogens. Microbial safety level profiles (MSLPs) were constructed from the microbiological data to obtain an overview of contamination. The maximum MSLP score for environmental samples was 18 (six microbiological parameters, each with a maximum MSLP score of 3) and that for end products was 15 (five microbiological parameters). Three dairies (two large scale and one medium scale; 21% of total) achieved the maximum MSLP scores of 18 for environmental samples and 15 for the end product. Escherichia coli was detected on food contact surfaces in three dairies, all of which were small scale dairies, and the microorganism was also present in end product samples from two of these dairies, an indication of cross-contamination. Microbial quality was poorest in small scale dairies. Most operations in these dairies were manual, with minimal system documentation. Noncompliance with hygienic practices such as hand washing and cleaning and disinfection procedures, which is common in small dairies, directly affects the microbial quality of the end products. Dairies implementing HACCP systems or ISO 22000 recommendations achieved maximum MSLP scores and hence produced safer products.

  9. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort to......, cheese and yogurt, can be important components of an overall healthy dietary pattern. Systematic examination of the effects of dietary patterns that include regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt on human health is warranted....

  10. Energy audit at Russian dairies. Energy guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draborg, S [Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Vanloese (Denmark); Sheina, L S; Kolesnikov, A I [RDIEE, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-12-31

    The project encompassed following activities: Elaboration of a description of the Russian dairy sector including a mapping of the entire sector in respect of production capacity, actual production, products, production technologies and energy consumption; Energy audits at twelve selected dairies with different typical productions; Elaboration of an `Energy Audit Guidance` which describes how to perform energy audits in dairies and where to expect energy saving possibilities. The energy savings possibilities are often due to the same kind of problems, e.g. low production, inefficient equipment or manually control of the process equipment. The main problems that Russian dairies faces can be divided into the following categories: Old and inefficient technological equipment which is operated at low capacity with very low energy efficiency; Lack of knowledge about new energy efficient technologies; Financial problems which causes low interest and few possibilities for using funds for investment in energy efficient equipment; Energy savings do not lead to personal gains for the persons in the dairy management or other employees which causes low interest in energy savings. At some dairies it seemd to be a problem for the management to adapt to the new and very different conditions for enterprises in Russian today, where sales, production, production capacity and raw milk available are interconnected. With respect to energy matters it was often a wish to replace existing oversized equipment with new equipment of the same size no matter that it is unlikely that the production will increase considerable in the future. The project has discovered that there is a need for demonstrating energy saving measures by implementation because it was in many ways hard for the dairy management`s to believe that, the energy consumption could be reduced dramatically without affecting the production or the processes. Furthermore, the project has discovered a need for transferring to the

  11. The concept evaluation of dairy cattle nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    ROUBÍČKOVÁ, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Bachelor thesis gives a comprehensive overview of the dairy cow nutrition and assesses the system of nutrition and feeding in relation to milk production. The main part is devoted to the basics of dairy cow nutrition, the main nutrient requirements and composition of feed diets. There was assessed composition of feed rations for the year 2010 in working conditions on the School farm Měšice. The recommendations were designed to improve the nutrition level on the farm on the based data.

  12. Displaced abomasum and ketosis in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Stengärde, Lena

    2010-01-01

    High producing dairy cows struggle to meet energy demands and handle various transitional changes in late gestation and early lactation. Negative energy balance in early lactation is inevitable and metabolic disorders may follow as a consequence of a deep negative energy balance. This thesis studies associations between blood profiles and body condition score (BCS) in dairy cows, and displaced abomasum (DA) or clinical ketosis, and investigates risk factors for the two diseases at the herd le...

  13. Energy audit at Russian dairies. Energy guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draborg, S. [Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Vanloese (Denmark); Sheina, L.S.; Kolesnikov, A.I. [RDIEE, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    The project encompassed following activities: Elaboration of a description of the Russian dairy sector including a mapping of the entire sector in respect of production capacity, actual production, products, production technologies and energy consumption; Energy audits at twelve selected dairies with different typical productions; Elaboration of an `Energy Audit Guidance` which describes how to perform energy audits in dairies and where to expect energy saving possibilities. The energy savings possibilities are often due to the same kind of problems, e.g. low production, inefficient equipment or manually control of the process equipment. The main problems that Russian dairies faces can be divided into the following categories: Old and inefficient technological equipment which is operated at low capacity with very low energy efficiency; Lack of knowledge about new energy efficient technologies; Financial problems which causes low interest and few possibilities for using funds for investment in energy efficient equipment; Energy savings do not lead to personal gains for the persons in the dairy management or other employees which causes low interest in energy savings. At some dairies it seemd to be a problem for the management to adapt to the new and very different conditions for enterprises in Russian today, where sales, production, production capacity and raw milk available are interconnected. With respect to energy matters it was often a wish to replace existing oversized equipment with new equipment of the same size no matter that it is unlikely that the production will increase considerable in the future. The project has discovered that there is a need for demonstrating energy saving measures by implementation because it was in many ways hard for the dairy management`s to believe that, the energy consumption could be reduced dramatically without affecting the production or the processes. Furthermore, the project has discovered a need for transferring to the

  14. Genetic control of dairy cow reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The decline in dairy cow reproductive performance compromised the productivity and profitability of dairy production worldwide. The phenotypic performance of lactating cows with similar proportions of Holstein genes, similar genetic merit for milk production traits, but either good (Fert+) or poor (Fert-) genetic merit for fertility traits managed in a standardised environment was compared. The objective of this study was to elucidate the physiological mechanisms contributing to suboptimal re...

  15. Short communication: Influence of pasteurization on the active compounds in medicinal plants to be used in dairy products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäger, Anna Katharina; Saaby, Lasse; Kudsk, Dorte Søndergaard

    2010-01-01

    Interest from the dairy industry in adding herbal drugs to milk and yogurt products raises the question of whether these plant materials can be pasteurized. Root material of Rhodiola rosea, Eleutherococcus senticosus, and Panax ginseng, all plants with adaptogenic activities, was pasteurized...

  16. A discussion support model for a regional dairy-pasture system with an example from Reunion island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nidumolu, U.B.; Lubbers, M.T.M.H.; Alary, V.; Lecomte, P.; Keulen, van H.

    2011-01-01

    Reunion Island, situated in the Indian Ocean, presents a unique case study for modelling regional bio-economic parameters of the dairy industry. It is a good example of a closed system for several parameters of the model such as movement of animals, labour, consumption and available land. The

  17. Simulating Escherichia coli O157:H7 transmission to assess effectiveness of interventions in Dutch dairy-beef slaughterhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vosough Ahmadi, B.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Hogeveen, H.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Beef contamination with Escherichia coli O157:H7 (VTEC) is an important food-safety issue. To investigate the effectiveness of interventions against VTEC in Dutch beef industrial slaughterhouses that slaughter 500 dairy cattle per day, a Monte Carlo simulation model was built. We examined seven

  18. Food preference for milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Derflerová Brázdová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products constitute an important source of energy and nutrients for humans. Food preferences may significantly influence the actual consumption (and thus nutrition of people at the population level. The objective of the present large-scale survey was to specify current preferences for milk and dairy products with regard to age and sex. The study was conducted across the Moravia region, Czech Republic, on a sample of 451 individuals divided into 4 age groups: children, adolescents, young adults, and elderly people. A graphic scale questionnaire was administered, with respondents rating their degree of preference for each food item by drawing a mark on a 35 mm line. Out of the 115 items in the questionnaire, 11 items represented dairy products. Data was analysed by means of a general linear model using IBM SPSS Statistics software. Preference for milk was lower in the elderly group than the other groups (P P < 0.01. The overall preference for dairy products (21.6 was lower than the average preference for all foods on the list (22.5. The cross-sectional study revealed intergenerational differences in preferences for specific dairy products, which were most marked in case of cream, processed cheese, blue cheese, and buttermilk. The knowledge of these differences might help promote more focused action at the community level directed at increasing the overall consumption of dairy products in the population.

  19. Fermented dairy food and CVD risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsell, Linda C

    2015-04-01

    Fermented dairy foods such as yoghurt and cheese are commonly found in the Mediterranean diet. Recent landmark research has confirmed the effect of the Mediterranean diet on reducing the CVD risk, but the relative contributions of fermented dairy foods have not been fully articulated. The present study provides a review of the relationship between fermented dairy foods consumption and CVD risk in the context of the whole diet. Studies show that people who eat healthier diets may be more likely to consume yoghurt, so there is a challenge in attributing separate effects to yoghurt. Analyses from large population studies list yoghurt as the food most negatively associated with the risk of weight gain (a problem that may lead to CVD). There is some suggestion that fermented dairy foods consumption (yoghurt or cheese) may be associated with reduced inflammatory biomarkers associated with the development of CVD. Dietary trials suggest that cheese may not have the same effect on raising LDL-cholesterol levels as butter with the same saturated fat content. The same might be stated for yoghurt. The use of different probiotic cultures and other aspects of study design remain a problem for research. Nevertheless, population studies from a range of countries have shown that a reduced risk of CVD occurs with the consumption of fermented dairy foods. A combination of evidence is necessary, and more research is always valuable, but indications remain that fermented dairy foods such as cheese and yoghurt are integral to diets that are protective against CVD.

  20. Fermented dairy products: knowledge and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat, Sharareh; Koba, Lesia

    2006-01-01

    Much has been published on the nutritional and health benefits of fermented dairy products, especially those containing probiotic microorganisms. However, consumers may not be familiar with the term "fermented dairy products," and therefore may not take full advantage of them. University students' knowledge and consumption patterns of fermented dairy products were assessed. University students (n=223) completed a survey consisting of a section on demographics and another on knowledge and consumption patterns. The majority of respondents (62%) were not familiar with the term "fermented dairy products." Most respondents consumed yogourt a few times a week (40%) or a few times a month (30%). Almost all respondents (92%) were unable to identify the difference between regular and probiotic yogourt. Most respondents (93%) had not heard of acidophilus milk, but the majority (65%) would be willing to try it. Most respondents were unsure whether sour cream (65%), yogourt beverages (74%), and cheddar cheese (61%) were fermented dairy products. Sixty percent of respondents never consumed yogourt drinks. Education is needed about fermented dairy products, especially probiotics, and their nutritional and health benefits. Such education may increase their acceptability and consumption.

  1. Effects of EU dairy policy reform for Dutch dairy farming : a primal approach using GMM estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, D.L.; Peerlings, J.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper estimates a production function for milk using a generalised method of moments estimator to avoid the endogeneity problem. Using the first-order conditions for profit maximisation, the economic effects for individual Dutch dairy farms of the 2003 EU dairy policy reform are analysed. With

  2. Foot disorders in dairy cattle: impact on cow and dairy farmer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Beerda, B.; Hogeveen, H.; Stassen, E.N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the economic consequences and the welfare impact of foot disorders in dairy cattle and the association between them, taking into account clinical and subclinical foot disorders. In dairy farming with cubicle housing and concrete floors, foot disorders are a major welfare problem

  3. Galactomyces geotrichum – moulds from dairy products with high biotechnological potential

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Grygier; Kamila Myszka; Magdalena Rudzińska

    2017-01-01

    The article reviews the properties of the Galactomyces geotrichum species, the mould that is most important for the dairy industry. G. geotrichum mould has been isolated from milk, cheeses and alcoholic beverage. Its presence in food products makes it possible to obtain a characteristic aroma and taste, which corresponds to the needs and preferences of consumers. G. geotrichum plays an important role in ecology, where the mould is employed for the degradation of various hazardous substances a...

  4. Characterization and Genetic Improvement of Lactobacilli for Application in Probiotic Dairy Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Elsayed

    2007-01-01

    Lactobacilli have a worldwide industrial use as starters in the manufacturing of fermented dairy products. Moreover, some Lactobacillus strains have probiotic characteristics leading to increasing the use of lactobacilli in fermented food products. Increasing of probiotic lactobacilli in food products and nutritional supplements underscores the need to evaluate and correctly identify these useful bacteria. The aims of this study were to evaluate putative probiotic lactobacilli isolated from d...

  5. Isolation and Analysis of Phospholipids in Dairy Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Pimentel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid fraction of milk is one of the most complex matrixes in foodstuffs due to the presence of a high number of moieties with different physical and chemical properties. Glycerolipids include glycerol and two fatty acids esterified in positions sn-1 and sn-2 with higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids than in the triglyceride fraction of milk. Sphingolipids consist of a sphingoid base linked to a fatty acid across an amide bond. Their amphiphilic nature makes them suitable to be added into a variety of foods and recent investigations show that phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylserine and sphingomyelin, can exert antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer activities as well as positive effects in Alzheimer’s disease, stress, and memory decline. Polar lipids can be found as natural constituents in the membranes of all living organisms with soybean and eggs as the principal industrial sources, yet they have low contents in phosphatidylserine and sphingomyelin. Animal products are rich sources of these compounds but since there are legal restrictions to avoid transmission of prions, milk and dairy products are gaining interest as alternative sources. This review summarizes the analysis of polar lipids in dairy products including sample preparation (extraction and fractionation/isolation and analysis by GC or HPLC and the latest research works using ELSD, CAD, and MS detectors.

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stormoen Marit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is a major problem for the sheep industry as it may cause reproduction problems. The importance of T. gondii in Norwegian goat herds is uncertain, but outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in dairy goat farms have been recorded. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of T. gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats by using serology. Findings Goat serum originally collected as part of two nationwide surveillance and control programmes between 2002 and 2008 were examined for T. gondii antibodies by using direct agglutination test. In total, 55 of 73 herds (75% had one or more serologically positive animals, while 377 of 2188 (17% of the individual samples tested positive for T. gondii antibodies. Conclusions This is the first prevalence study of T. gondii infection in Norwegian goats. The results show that Norwegian goat herds are commonly exposed to T. gondii. Nevertheless, the majority of goat herds have a low prevalence of antibody positive animals, which make them vulnerable to infections with T. gondii during the gestation period.

  7. Improving smallholder livelihoods: Dairy production in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ulicky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tanzania is primarily an agro-based economy, characterized by subsistence agricultural production that employs more than 80% of the population and contributes up to 45% of the GDP (2005. This country is endowed with a cattle population of 21.3 M, composed mainly of indigenous Zebu breeds and about 680 000 improved dairy animals. About 70% of the milk produced comes from the traditional sector (indigenous cattle kept in rural areas, while the remaining 30% comes from improved cattle, mainly kept by smallholder producers. In Northern Tanzania and particularly in Hai district of Kilimanjaro Region, some dairy farmers organize themselves into small producer groups for the purpose of milk collecting, marketing and general promotion of the dairy sector in their community. Nronga Women Dairy Cooperative Society (NWDCS Limited is one of such organizations dedicated to improve the well-being of the Nronga village community through promoting small-scale dairy farming and its flow-on benefits. Milk flows out of the village, and services for investment and dairy production flow into the village, ensuring a sustainable financial circulation necessary for poverty reduction, rural development and better life for the rural community. In 2001 NWDCS introduced a school milk feeding program that has attracted Australian donors since 2005. Guided by Global Development Group, a multi-faceted project, integrating micro-enterprises, business, education and child health/nutrition, was proposed and initiated by building a dairy plant in Hai District headquarters, the Boma plant. In March 2013, the Australian High Commission to East Africa approved Direct Aid Program funding of AUD 30 000 towards the NWDCS - Biogas Pilot Project in Tanzania, which included the renovation of zero-grazing cow shade units, the construction of 6-m3 biodigester plants on each farm, and encouragement of the use of bioslurry for pasture production and home gardens.

  8. Neuropathology of organophosphate poisoning in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulvian Sani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate pathological changes in brain tissues of Frisien Holstein dairy cattle affected by organophosphate (OP. The study was directed to anticipate spongiform encephalopathy. Samples consisted of animal feeds, sera and brain tissues were collected from Lembang, West Java. Animal feeds (fodders and commercial feed were collected directly from the dairy farms around Lembang. Sera (31 samples were from dairy cattle owned by the local farmers and brain tissues were from the local animal slaughter house. Pesticide residues were analysed following a standard procedure using gas chromatography (GC. There was an interaction between pesticide residues in animal feeds, residue level of pesticides in sera and brain tissues to cause encephalopathy in dairy cattle. Pesticide contamination in animal feeds was regarded as the source of encephalopathy in dairy cattle. The total average of OP residues (16.8 ppb were lower than organochlorines/OC (18.7 ppb in fodder, showing that pesticides were originated from the contaminated soils. On the other hand, the total average of OP residues in commercial feeds (12.0 ppb, sera (85.6 ppb and brain tissues (22.7 ppb were higher than OC (1.8; 16.7; and 5.1 ppb. The OP appears more frequently used for dairy farm activity as insecticides. Histopathological examination for brain tissues of dairy cattle showed that most cattle were diagnosed as encephalopathy with microscopic changes of vacuolation, neuronal necrosis, chromatolysis of neurons and nucleolysis of neurons. The encephalopathy was confirmed in rats intoxicated with chlorpyrifos methyl as severe brain damage with spongiform-like lesions.

  9. Anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and potato waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadanaparthi, Sai Krishna Reddy

    Dairy and potato are two important agricultural commodities in Idaho. Both the dairy and potato processing industries produce a huge amount of waste which could cause environmental pollution. To minimize the impact of potential pollution associated with dairy manure (DM) and potato waste (PW), anaerobic co-digestion has been considered as one of the best treatment process. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and potato waste in terms of process stability, biogas generation, construction and operating costs, and potential revenue. For this purpose, I conducted 1) a literature review, 2) a lab study on anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and potato waste at three different temperature ranges (ambient (20-25°C), mesophilic (35-37°C) and thermophilic (55-57°C) with five mixing ratios (DM:PW-100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60), and 3) a financial analysis for anaerobic digesters based on assumed different capital costs and the results from the lab co-digestion study. The literature review indicates that several types of organic waste were co-digested with DM. Dairy manure is a suitable base matter for the co-digestion process in terms of digestion process stability and methane (CH4) production (Chapter 2). The lab tests showed that co-digestion of DM with PW was better than digestion of DM alone in terms of biogas and CH4 productions (Chapter 3). The financial analysis reveals DM and PW can be used as substrate for full size anaerobic digesters to generate positive cash flow within a ten year time period. Based on this research, the following conclusions and recommendations were made: ▸ The ratio of DM:PW-80:20 is recommended at thermophilic temperatures and the ratio of DM:PW-90:10 was recommended at mesophilic temperatures for optimum biogas and CH4 productions. ▸ In cases of anaerobic digesters operated with electricity generation equipment (generators), low cost plug flow digesters (capital cost of 600/cow

  10. Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria with Potential to Design Natural Biofunctional Health-Promoting Dairy Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel M; Gómez, Carolina; Renes, Erica; Fresno, José M; Tornadijo, María E; Ross, R P; Stanton, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Consumer interest in healthy lifestyle and health-promoting natural products is a major driving force for the increasing global demand of biofunctional dairy foods. A number of commercial sources sell synthetic formulations of bioactive substances for use as dietary supplements. However, the bioactive-enrichment of health-oriented foods by naturally occurring microorganisms during dairy fermentation is in increased demand. While participating in milk fermentation, lactic acid bacteria can be exploited in situ as microbial sources for naturally enriching dairy products with a broad range of bioactive components that may cover different health aspects. Several of these bioactive metabolites are industrially and economically important, as they are claimed to exert diverse health-promoting activities on the consumer, such as anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic, anti-oxidative, immune-modulatory, anti-cholesterolemic, or microbiome modulation. This review aims at discussing the potential of these health-supporting bacteria as starter or adjunct cultures for the elaboration of dairy foods with a broad spectrum of new functional properties and added value.

  11. Effects of solid-liquid separation and storage on monensin attenuation in dairy waste management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Sarah C.; Watanabe, Naoko; Harter, Thomas; Bergamaschi, Brian; Parikh, Sanjai J.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental release of veterinary pharmaceuticals has been of regulatory concern for more than a decade. Monensin is a feed additive antibiotic that is prevalent throughout the dairy industry and is excreted in dairy waste. This study investigates the potential of dairy waste management practices to alter the amount of monensin available for release into the environment. Analysis of wastewater and groundwater from two dairy farms in California consistently concluded that monensin is most present in lagoon water and groundwater downgradient of lagoons. Since the lagoons represent a direct source of monensin to groundwater, the effect of waste management, by mechanical screen separation and lagoon aeration, on aqueous monensin concentration was investigated through construction of lagoon microcosms. The results indicate that monensin attenuation is not improved by increased solid-liquid separation prior to storage in lagoons, as monensin is rapidly desorbed after dilution with water. Monensin is also shown to be easily degraded in lagoon microcosms receiving aeration, but is relatively stable and available for leaching under typical anaerobic lagoon conditions.

  12. Treatment of dairy effluent model solutions by nanofiltration and reverse osmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kyrychuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dairy industry generates a large amount of wastewaters that have high concentrations and contain milk components. Membrane processes have been shown to be convenient for wastewater treatment recovering milk components present in wastewaters and producing treated water. Materials and methods. The experiments were carried out in an unstirred batch sell using nanofiltration membranes OPMN-P (ZAO STC “Vladipor”, Russian Federation and reverse osmosis membranes NanoRo, ZAO (“RM Nanotech”, Russian Federation. The model solutions of dairy effluents –diluted skim and whole milk were used. Results. The nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes showed the same permeate flux during the concentration of model solutions of dairy effluents. The reason of this was likely membrane fouling with feed components. The fouling indexes indicated the fouling factor that was higher for RO. The higher permeate quality was obtainedwith RO membranes. The NF permeate containing up to 0.4 g/L of lactose and 0.75 g/L of mineral salts can be discharged or after finishing trеatment (e.g. RO or other can be reused. The obtained NF and RO retentate corresponds to milk in composition and can be used for non-food applications or as feed supplement for animals. Conclusions.The studied RO and NF membranes can be used for concentration of dairy effluents at low pressure. They showed better performance and separation characteristics comparing with data of other membranes available in the literature.

  13. Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria with Potential to Design Natural Biofunctional Health-Promoting Dairy Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Linares

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Consumer interest in healthy lifestyle and health-promoting natural products is a major driving force for the increasing global demand of biofunctional dairy foods. A number of commercial sources sell synthetic formulations of bioactive substances for use as dietary supplements. However, the bioactive-enrichment of health-oriented foods by naturally occurring microorganisms during dairy fermentation is in increased demand. While participating in milk fermentation, lactic acid bacteria can be exploited in situ as microbial sources for naturally enriching dairy products with a broad range of bioactive components that may cover different health aspects. Several of these bioactive metabolites are industrially and economically important, as they are claimed to exert diverse health-promoting activities on the consumer, such as anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic, anti-oxidative, immune-modulatory, anti-cholesterolemic, or microbiome modulation. This review aims at discussing the potential of these health-supporting bacteria as starter or adjunct cultures for the elaboration of dairy foods with a broad spectrum of new functional properties and added value.

  14. Treatment of dairy wastewater in UASB reactors inoculated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of dairy wastewater in UASB reactors inoculated with flocculent biomass. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... of using flocculent sludge in UASB reactors applied to the treatment of dairy ...

  15. Lactation performance and serum biochemistry of dairy cows fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... supplementation in multiparous dairy cows diet may improve their milk yield in transition period. Key words: Dairy cow, ... 20 multiparous Holsteins (parity 3) housed in free stalls at the. Esfahan-Kesht farm .... Corn gluten meal.

  16. Management Practices and Their Potential Influence on Johne’s Disease Transmission on Canadian Organic Dairy Farms—A Conceptual Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pieper

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Johne’s disease (JD is a chronic, production-limiting disease of ruminants. Control programs aiming to minimize the effects of the disease on the dairy industry have been launched in many countries, including Canada. Those programs commonly focus on strict hygiene and management improvement, often combined with various testing methods. Concurrently, organic dairy farming has been increasing in popularity. Because organic farming promotes traditional management practices, it has been proposed that organic dairy production regulations might interfere with implementation of JD control strategies. However, it is currently unclear how organic farming would change the risk for JD control. This review presents a brief introduction to organic dairy farming in Canada, JD, and the Canadian JD control programs. Subsequently, organic practices are described and hypotheses of their effects on JD transmission are developed. Empirical research is needed, not only to provide scientific evidence for organic producers, but also for smaller conventional farms employing organic-like management practices.

  17. "Subclinical" laminitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermunt, J J

    1992-12-01

    In dairying countries worldwide, the economic importance of lameness in cattle is now recognised. Laminitis is regarded as a major predisposing factor in lameness caused by claw disorders such as white zone lesions, sole ulcer, and heel horn erosion. The existence of subclinical laminitis was first suggested in the late 1970s by Dutch workers describing the symptoms of sole haemorrhages and yellowish-coloured, soft sole horn. In an attempt to clarify some of the confusing and often conflicting terminology, the literature on laminitis is reviewed. Disturbed haemodynamics, in particular repeated or prolonged dilation of arteriovenous anastomoses, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both equine and bovine laminitis. Some characteristics of the vascular system of the bovine claw which may be of importance in the pathophysiology of the subclinical laminitis syndrome are therefore discussed. Clinical observations suggest that subclinical laminitis is a multifactorial disease. The different factors that are or may be involved in its aetiology vary in complexity and severity according to the management protocol of the animals. The possible involvement of subclinical laminitis in claw lesions is assessed.

  18. Meat, dairy, and cancer1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Zaynah; Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) report judged that the evidence for an association between red and processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer was convincing. In addition, the effect of other animal products on cancer risk has been studied, and the WCRF/AICR report concluded that milk probably decreases the risk of colorectal cancer but diets high in calcium probably increase the risk of prostate cancer, whereas there was limited evidence for an association between milk and bladder cancer and insufficient evidence for other cancers. There are several potential mechanisms relating meat to cancer, including heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds, and heme iron. Although the evidence in favor of a link between red and processed meat and colorectal cancer is convincing, the relations with other cancers are unclear. In this review, we summarize cohort studies conducted by the National Cancer Institute on meat and dairy intake in relation to cancer since the 2007 WCRF/AICR report. We also report the findings of meta-analyses published since 2007. PMID:24847855

  19. Biogas Application Options within Milk Dairy Cooperatives in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; Sommart, Kritapon

    2016-01-01

    .g. reduced GHG emissions and better manure handling practices, which limits pollution of nitrogen to recipients. Suggestions are provided of how to retrofit the stables to facilitate manure collection, storage and transport to the biogas plant. Which type of biogas plant to implement, financial issues......By means of a case study conducted within a milk dairy cooperative in Tambon Ban Kor, a district in Khon Kaen Province, this paper analyze opportunities for implementing a biogas development ‘hub’ in Thailand for achieving bio-economic and environmental benefits within a local rural community...... cooperative, etc. The biogas plant substitutes the use of fossil fuels, and surplus electricity can be exported to the power grid and provide extra income. Local crop farmers and ago-industries could benefit economically from sale of biomass residues to the energy plant. The environment will benefit from e...

  20. Systems Genetics and Transcriptomics of Feed Efficiency in Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Hoglund, J.; Løvendahl, P.

    Feed is the largest variable cost in milk production industries, thus improving feed efficiency will give better use of resources. This project works closely on definitions of feed efficiency in dairy cattle and uses advanced integrated genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology methods linking......-hydroxybutyrates, Triacylglyceride and urea. Feed efficiency, namely Residual Feed Intake and Kleiber Ratio based on daily feed or dry matter intake, body weight and milk production records also will be calculated. The bovine RNAseq gene expression data will be analyzed using statistical-bioinformatics and systems biology...... partitioning and deliver predictive biomarkers for feed efficiency in cattle. This study will also contribute to systems genomic prediction or selection models including the information on potential causal genes / SNPs or their functional modules....

  1. Hypochlorous and peracetic acid induced oxidation of dairy proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkaert, Barbara; Mestdagh, Frédéric; Cucu, Tatiana; Aedo, Philip Roger; Ling, Shen Yan; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-02-09

    Hypochlorous and peracetic acids, both known disinfectants in the food industry, were compared for their oxidative capacity toward dairy proteins. Whey proteins and caseins were oxidized under well controlled conditions at pH 8 as a function of the sanitizing concentration. Different markers for protein oxidation were monitored. The results established that the protein carbonyl content was a rather unspecific marker for protein oxidation, which did not allow one to differentiate the oxidant used especially at the lower concentrations. Cysteine, tryptophan, and methionine were proven to be the most vulnerable amino acids for degradation upon hypochlorous and peracetic acid treatment, while tyrosine was only prone to degradation in the presence of hypochlorous acid. Hypochlorous acid induced oxidation gave rise to protein aggregation, while during peracetic acid induced oxidation, no high molecular weight aggregates were observed. Protein aggregation upon hypochlorous acid oxidation could primarily be linked to tryptophan and tyrosine degradation.

  2. Dairy and cardiovascular health: Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, O; Vasilopoulou, D; Givens, D I; Lovegrove, J A

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence at a global level is predicted to increase substantially over the next decade due to the increasing ageing population and incidence of obesity. Hence, there is an urgent requirement to focus on modifiable contributors to CVD risk, including a high dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). As an important source of SFA in the UK diet, milk and dairy products are often targeted for SFA reduction. The current paper acknowledges that milk is a complex food and that simply focusing on the link between SFA and CVD risk overlooks the other beneficial nutrients of dairy foods. The body of existing prospective evidence exploring the impact of milk and dairy consumption on risk factors for CVD is reviewed. The current paper highlights that high milk consumption may be beneficial to cardiovascular health, while illustrating that the evidence is less clear for cheese and butter intake. The option of manipulating the fatty acid profile of ruminant milk is discussed as a potential dietary strategy for lowering SFA intake at a population level. The review highlights that there is a necessity to perform more well-controlled human intervention-based research that provides a more holistic evaluation of fat-reduced and fat-modified dairy consumption on CVD risk factors including vascular function, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipaemia and markers of inflammation. Additionally, further research is required to investigate the impact of different dairy products and the effect of the specific food matrix on CVD development. PMID:25400508

  3. Nutritional strategies to optimize dairy cattle immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordillo, L M

    2016-06-01

    Dairy cattle are susceptible to increased incidence and severity of both metabolic and infectious diseases during the periparturient period. A major contributing factor to increased health disorders is alterations in bovine immune mechanisms. Indeed, uncontrolled inflammation is a major contributing factor and a common link among several economically important infectious and metabolic diseases including mastitis, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis. The nutritional status of dairy cows and the metabolism of specific nutrients are critical regulators of immune cell function. There is now a greater appreciation that certain mediators of the immune system can have a reciprocal effect on the metabolism of nutrients. Thus, any disturbances in nutritional or immunological homeostasis can provide deleterious feedback loops that can further enhance health disorders, increase production losses, and decrease the availability of safe and nutritious dairy foods for a growing global population. This review will discuss the complex interactions between nutrient metabolism and immune functions in periparturient dairy cattle. Details of how either deficiencies or overexposure to macro- and micronutrients can contribute to immune dysfunction and the subsequent development of health disorders will be presented. Specifically, the ways in which altered nutrient metabolism and oxidative stress can interact to compromise the immune system in transition cows will be discussed. A better understanding of the linkages between nutrition and immunity may facilitate the design of nutritional regimens that will reduce disease susceptibility in early lactation cows. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. How can dairies maximize their profits and properly remunerate their dairy farmers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cedric Möller Meneghini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The current pricing process of raw milk in Brazil discourages producers from improving milk composition, which affects both yield and quality of dairy products. Furthermore, small and medium-sized dairies face great difficulties when it comes to planning production. Thus, a linear programming model was developed to price the raw milk and determine the optimal mix (combination of quantities of dairy products that maximizes total contribution margin (TCM under daily scenarios of high (January and low (July raw milk supplies (summer and winter, respectively by comparing optimal solutions with actual results. The TCM of optimal and actual mixes were higher in January due to the greater availability of raw material. Packaging was a limiting factor in the production of cheese in optimal mixes. The relationship between unit contribution margin (UCM and the required amount of raw materials per product unit and resource availability is crucial to defining the mix of dairy products and TCM of the dairy. Casein and raw milk volume showed shadow prices. Under both scenarios, the calculated prices of raw milk were higher than the prices charged by the dairy and were higher in January. The proposed model remunerates the producers based on the quantity and quality of raw milk. The dairy can maximize its TCM by better planning its mix of products with the use of linear programming.

  5. Dairy intake-related intentions, attitudes, subjective norms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... behaviour of consumption of 2–3 servings of dairy daily among nutrition professionals. ... Keywords: dairy intake, nutrition professionals, Theory of Planned Behaviour. Introduction ... reduce the risks for developing NCDs,4–6 even though differences ... subjective norms and perceived behavioural control to consume dairy.

  6. 21 CFR 1210.11 - Sanitary inspection of dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. 1210.11... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.11 Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. The sanitary conditions of any dairy farm producing milk or cream to be shipped or transported into...

  7. Performance of Improved Dairy Cattle Technologies Among Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    This study evaluated the performance of different dairy cattle technologies ... common phenomenon in Nigeria, especially among the poor segment of the society ... considerable amounts (over 70%) of milk today (Olaloku and Debre, 1992). ..... cross-bred dairy cattle was reported to be 30 percent of total dairy animals in.

  8. Behaviour of dairy cows under modern housing and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, H.K.

    1991-01-01

    The results of behavioural studies of dairy cows' behaviour under some modern housing and management conditions are presented. Social dominance in dairy cows is studied and methods to describe social dominance are discussed. The lying behaviour of dairy cows is studied under various

  9. Power quality of small rural industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval, D.O.; Leonard, J.J.; Licsko, Z.J.

    1991-01-01

    Successful and economical operation of small rural industries (e.g., grain, dairy, irrigation, pig, poultry, beef feedlots, etc.) is a fundamental objective of society. However, when the performance and life expectancy of industrial electronic and electrical equipment is significantly affected by power supply anomalies caused by polluting loads at an industrial site and by utility normal operational activities, the economic benefits of this technology are quickly eradicated. This paper will present the results of a detailed power quality survey of 23 small rural industries sponsored by the Canadian Electrical Association and provides a knowledge base on rural power quality and the possible origins of power supply problems experienced at the various industrial sites. The results of the survey provide a basis for mitigating actions by the utilities and their rural industrial customers to design and operate their electrical systems to minimize the effects of power supply anomalies

  10. Dairy products and plasma cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ohlsson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol synthesized in the body or ingested is an essential lipid component for human survival from our earliest life. Newborns ingest about 3–4 times the amount per body weight through mother's milk compared to the dietary intake of adults. A birth level of 1.7 mmol/L plasma total cholesterol will increase to 4–4.5 mmol/L during the nursing period and continue to increase from adulthood around 40% throughout life. Coronary artery disease and other metabolic disorders are strongly associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol as well as triacylglycerol concentration. Milk fat contains a broad range of fatty acids and some have a negative impact on the cholesterol rich lipoproteins. The saturated fatty acids (SFAs, such as palmitic acid (C16:0, myristic acid (C14:0, and lauric acid (C12:0, increase total plasma cholesterol, especially LDL, and constitute 11.3 g/L of bovine milk, which is 44.8% of total fatty acid in milk fat. Replacement of dairy SFA and trans-fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases plasma cholesterol, especially LDL cholesterol, and is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Available data shows different effects on lipoproteins for different dairy products and there is uncertainty as to the impact a reasonable intake amount of dairy items has on cardiovascular risk. The aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of milk components and dairy products on total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and the LDL/HDL quotients. Based on eight recent randomized controlled trials of parallel or cross-over design and recent reviews it can be concluded that replacement of saturated fat mainly (but not exclusively derived from high-fat dairy products with low-fat dairy products lowers LDL/HDL cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratios. Whey, dairy fractions enriched in polar lipids, and techniques such as fermentation, or fortification of cows feeding can be used

  11. Antimicrobial use on Canadian dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, V; McClure, J T; Léger, D; Dufour, S; Sheldon, A G; Scholl, D T; Barkema, H W

    2012-03-01

    Antimicrobial use (AMU) data are critical for formulating policies for containing antimicrobial resistance. The present study determined AMU on Canadian dairy farms and characterized variation in AMU based on herd-level factors such as milk production, somatic cell count, herd size, geographic region and housing type. Drug use data were collected on 89 dairy herds in 4 regions of Canada, Alberta, Ontario, Québec, and the Maritime provinces (Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia) for an average of 540 d per herd. Dairy producers and farm personnel were asked to deposit empty drug containers into specially provided receptacles. Antimicrobial use was measured as antimicrobial drug use rate (ADUR), with the unit being number of animal defined-daily doses (ADD)/1,000 cow-days. Antimicrobial drug use rates were determined at farm, region, and national level. Combined ADUR of all antimicrobial classes was 14.35 ADD/1,000 cow-days nationally. National level ADUR of the 6 most commonly used antimicrobial drug classes, cephalosporins, penicillins, penicillin combinations, tetracyclines, trimethoprim-sulfonamide combinations, and lincosamides were 3.05, 2.56, 2.20, 1.83, 0.87, and 0.84 ADD/1,000 cow-days, respectively. Dairy herds in Ontario were higher users of third-generation cephalosporins (ceftiofur) than in Québec. Alberta dairy herds were higher users of tetracyclines in comparison to Maritimes. Antimicrobial drug use rate was higher via systemic route as compared with intramammary and other routes of administration (topical, oral, and intrauterine). The ADUR of antimicrobials used intramammarily was higher for clinical mastitis treatment than dry cow therapy. For dry cow therapy, penicillin ADUR was greater than ADUR of first-generation cephalosporins. For clinical mastitis treatment, ADUR of intramammary penicillin combinations was greater than ADUR of cephapirin. Herd-level milk production was positively associated with overall ADUR, ADUR of

  12. Opportunities for reducing environmental emissions from forage-based dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Misselbrook

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern dairy production is inevitably associated with impacts to the environment and the challenge for the industry today is to increase production to meet growing global demand while minimising emissions to the environment. Negative environmental impacts include gaseous emissions to the atmosphere, of ammonia from livestock manure and fertiliser use, of methane from enteric fermentation and manure management, and of nitrous oxide from nitrogen applications to soils and from manure management. Emissions to water include nitrate, ammonium, phosphorus, sediment, pathogens and organic matter, deriving from nutrient applications to forage crops and/or the management of grazing livestock. This paper reviews the sources and impacts of such emissions in the context of a forage-based dairy farm and considers a number of potential mitigation strategies, giving some examples using the farm-scale model SIMSDAIRY. Most of the mitigation measures discussed are associated with systemic improvements in the efficiency of production in dairy systems. Important examples of mitigations include: improvements to dairy herd fertility, that can reduce methane and ammonia emissions by up to 24 and 17%, respectively; diet modification such as the use of high sugar grasses for grazing, which are associated with reductions in cattle N excretion of up to 20% (and therefore lower N losses to the environment and potentially lower methane emissions, or reducing the crude protein content of the dairy cow diet through use of maize silage to reduce N excretion and methane emissions; the use of nitrification inhibitors with fertiliser and slurry applications to reduce nitrous oxide emissions and nitrate leaching by up to 50%. Much can also be achieved through attention to the quantity, timing and method of application of nutrients to forage crops and utilising advances made through genetic improvements.

  13. Naturally occurring radionuclides in pasture soil, feed ingredients and milk of dairy cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turtiainen, T.; Kostiainen, E.; Solatie, D. [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides are generally considered being respective part of the environment and hence no statutory monitoring of their levels are required in food products. Therefore, limited data are available on the naturally occurring radionuclides in food. Dairy products constitute a significant portion of Finnish diet (400-500 g/d) and hence it is reasonable to study radionuclide levels in milk in more detail. Contrary to caesium, strontium and iodine, few transfer coefficients are available in the literature for naturally occurring radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. The renaissance of mining industry in Finland has raised a question among the public about the baseline values of naturally occurring radionuclides in Finnish agricultural products. The objective of this study was to investigate naturally occurring radionuclides in the components of dairy cattle diet and milk and calculate their transfer to milk. This information is needed for regulating the permitted discharges to the environment and for setting up monitoring programs if any unplanned discharges are released. In modern dairy farming, cattle are fed a precise diet in order to maximize milk production and quality and to achieve cost-effectiveness. Therefore, several different components are found in dairy cattle's diet and pasture grass concentrations are not sufficient for calculating radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. In this study, we carried out comprehensive sampling at four dairy farms each representing different areas of natural radiation background. The pasture soils were characterized and measured for natural radioactivity. Samples were taken from cattle's total diet (including e.g. pasture grass, water, silage, mineral forage) and milk. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  14. Scientific appraisal of the Irish grass-based milk production system as a sustainable source of premium quality milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Brien B.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Irish dairy industry is critically important to the economy and general well-being of a large section of the Irish population. Its quality, sustainability and maintenance are the key for a vibrant rural society in the future. Two important elements for the future of this industry include (a the quality, marketing and sale of dairy products on the export market and (b sustainability from the perspectives of people, planet and profit. This paper provides a short review of current scientific evidence in relation to a number of topics, each of which is important in maintaining and developing dairy product quality and the sustainability of the Irish dairy industry. The topics addressed in the paper are as follows: the parameters of milk composition; milk processing; hygiene quality and safety; farm management practices and the regulations that govern such practices; animal health and welfare; environmental impacts; economic implications for farm families and rural communities; and the overall future sustainability of the family-based dairy farm structure.

  15. Prevalence and viability of group A rotavirus in dairy farm water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, M; Schild, C; Caffarena, D; Bok, M; Giannitti, F; Armendano, J; Riet-Correa, F; Victoria, M; Parreño, V; Colina, R

    2018-03-01

    To analyse group A rotavirus (RVA) environmental contamination in waters used for calves' consumption and to assess viral viability in dairy farm water sources. We analysed 202 samples of water used for calves' consumption and RVA was detected by RT-qPCR in 35·1% (95% CI: 28·9-42·0%). A marked pattern of seasonality was observed with higher frequency of detection in colder than warmer months (P = 0·002). There was no association between viral load and season or between the number of milking cows in the herd and the detection of RVA in the farm. The viability of the RVA particles detected was confirmed by isolation of RVA in cell culture from 5 of 10 water samples. Furthermore, an RVA waterborne outbreak of neonatal calf diarrhoea was described. We demonstrate that RVA is frequent in dairy farm waters, and that the virus is infectious and capable of generating a diarrhoea outbreak. Neonatal diarrhoea syndrome leads to economic losses to the livestock industry worldwide. To determine transmission routes is essential to take action in this regard and reduce the impact that this syndrome has for the livestock production. The results obtained in this work alert the dairy industry and highlight that mitigation strategies are crucial to improve the microbiological quality of this water. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Herd-Level Mastitis-Associated Costs on Canadian Dairy Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahjoob Aghamohammadi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis imposes considerable and recurring economic losses on the dairy industry worldwide. The main objective of this study was to estimate herd-level costs incurred by expenditures and production losses associated with mastitis on Canadian dairy farms in 2015, based on producer reports. Previously, published mastitis economic frameworks were used to develop an economic model with the most important cost components. Components investigated were divided between clinical mastitis (CM, subclinical mastitis (SCM, and other costs components (i.e., preventive measures and product quality. A questionnaire was mailed to 374 dairy producers randomly selected from the (Canadian National Dairy Study 2015 to collect data on these costs components, and 145 dairy producers returned a completed questionnaire. For each herd, costs due to the different mastitis-related components were computed by applying the values reported by the dairy producer to the developed economic model. Then, for each herd, a proportion of the costs attributable to a specific component was computed by dividing absolute costs for this component by total herd mastitis-related costs. Median self-reported CM incidence was 19 cases/100 cow-year and mean self-reported bulk milk somatic cell count was 184,000 cells/mL. Most producers reported using post-milking teat disinfection (97% and dry cow therapy (93%, and a substantial proportion of producers reported using pre-milking teat disinfection (79% and wearing gloves during milking (77%. Mastitis costs were substantial (662 CAD per milking cow per year for a typical Canadian dairy farm, with a large portion of the costs (48% being attributed to SCM, and 34 and 15% due to CM and implementation of preventive measures, respectively. For SCM, the two most important cost components were the subsequent milk yield reduction and culling (72 and 25% of SCM costs, respectively. For CM, first, second, and third most important cost components were

  17. Identification of predictive biomarkers of disease state in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, D; Mandal, R; Saleem, F; Dunn, S M; Wishart, D S; Ametaj, B N

    2014-05-01

    In dairy cows, periparturient disease states, such as metritis, mastitis, and laminitis, are leading to increasingly significant economic losses for the dairy industry. Treatments for these pathologies are often expensive, ineffective, or not cost-efficient, leading to production losses, high veterinary bills, or early culling of the cows. Early diagnosis or detection of these conditions before they manifest themselves could lower their incidence, level of morbidity, and the associated economic losses. In an effort to identify predictive biomarkers for postpartum or periparturient disease states in dairy cows, we undertook a cross-sectional and longitudinal metabolomics study to look at plasma metabolite levels of dairy cows during the transition period, before and after becoming ill with postpartum diseases. Specifically we employed a targeted quantitative metabolomics approach that uses direct flow injection mass spectrometry to track the metabolite changes in 120 different plasma metabolites. Blood plasma samples were collected from 12 dairy cows at 4 time points during the transition period (-4 and -1 wk before and 1 and 4 wk after parturition). Out of the 12 cows studied, 6 developed multiple periparturient disorders in the postcalving period, whereas the other 6 remained healthy during the entire experimental period. Multivariate data analysis (principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis) revealed a clear separation between healthy controls and diseased cows at all 4 time points. This analysis allowed us to identify several metabolites most responsible for separating the 2 groups, especially before parturition and the start of any postpartum disease. Three metabolites, carnitine, propionyl carnitine, and lysophosphatidylcholine acyl C14:0, were significantly elevated in diseased cows as compared with healthy controls as early as 4 wk before parturition, whereas 2 metabolites, phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C42:4 and

  18. Herd-Level Mastitis-Associated Costs on Canadian Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamohammadi, Mahjoob; Haine, Denis; Kelton, David F.; Barkema, Herman W.; Hogeveen, Henk; Keefe, Gregory P.; Dufour, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Mastitis imposes considerable and recurring economic losses on the dairy industry worldwide. The main objective of this study was to estimate herd-level costs incurred by expenditures and production losses associated with mastitis on Canadian dairy farms in 2015, based on producer reports. Previously, published mastitis economic frameworks were used to develop an economic model with the most important cost components. Components investigated were divided between clinical mastitis (CM), subclinical mastitis (SCM), and other costs components (i.e., preventive measures and product quality). A questionnaire was mailed to 374 dairy producers randomly selected from the (Canadian National Dairy Study 2015) to collect data on these costs components, and 145 dairy producers returned a completed questionnaire. For each herd, costs due to the different mastitis-related components were computed by applying the values reported by the dairy producer to the developed economic model. Then, for each herd, a proportion of the costs attributable to a specific component was computed by dividing absolute costs for this component by total herd mastitis-related costs. Median self-reported CM incidence was 19 cases/100 cow-year and mean self-reported bulk milk somatic cell count was 184,000 cells/mL. Most producers reported using post-milking teat disinfection (97%) and dry cow therapy (93%), and a substantial proportion of producers reported using pre-milking teat disinfection (79%) and wearing gloves during milking (77%). Mastitis costs were substantial (662 CAD per milking cow per year for a typical Canadian dairy farm), with a large portion of the costs (48%) being attributed to SCM, and 34 and 15% due to CM and implementation of preventive measures, respectively. For SCM, the two most important cost components were the subsequent milk yield reduction and culling (72 and 25% of SCM costs, respectively). For CM, first, second, and third most important cost components were culling (48

  19. Dairy sheep production research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David L; Berger, Yves M; McKusick, Brett C; Mikolayunas, Claire M

    2014-01-01

    Commercial milking of sheep is a new agricultural industry in the United States starting approximately 30 yr ago. The industry is still small, but it is growing. The majority of the sheep milk is used in the production of specialty cheeses. The United States is the major importer of sheep milk cheeses with 50 to 60% of annual world exports coming to the United States during the past 20 yr. Therefore, there is considerable growth potential for the industry in the United States. The only dairy sheep research flock in North America is located at the Spooner Agricultural Research Station of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The research program started in 1993 and has been multifaceted; dealing with several areas important to commercial dairy sheep farmers. The East Friesian and Lacaune dairy breeds were compared and introduced to the industry through the research program. Both dairy breeds produced significantly more milk than traditional meat-wool breeds found in the U.S., but the two breeds differed in their production traits. East Friesian-cross ewes produced more lambs and slightly more milk than Lacaune-cross ewes whereas Lacaune-cross ewes produced milk with a higher percentage of fat and protein than East Friesian-cross ewes. Lactation physiology studies have shown that ewes with active corpora lutea have increased milk yields, oxytocin release during milking is required to obtain normal fat percentages in the milk, large udder cisterns of dairy ewes can allow for increased milking intervals, and short daylengths during late pregnancy results in increased milk yield. In the nutrition area, legume-grass pastures and forages with a higher percentage of legume will result in increased milk production. Grazing ewes respond to additional supplementation with increased milk yield, but it is important to match the supplement to the quality of the grazing. Ewes on high quality legume-grass pastures that are high in rumen degradable protein respond with increased

  20. Dairy sheep production research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA – a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Commercial milking of sheep is a new agricultural industry in the United States starting approximately 30 yr ago. The industry is still small, but it is growing. The majority of the sheep milk is used in the production of specialty cheeses. The United States is the major importer of sheep milk cheeses with 50 to 60% of annual world exports coming to the United States during the past 20 yr. Therefore, there is considerable growth potential for the industry in the United States. The only dairy sheep research flock in North America is located at the Spooner Agricultural Research Station of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The research program started in 1993 and has been multifaceted; dealing with several areas important to commercial dairy sheep farmers. The East Friesian and Lacaune dairy breeds were compared and introduced to the industry through the research program. Both dairy breeds produced significantly more milk than traditional meat-wool breeds found in the U.S., but the two breeds differed in their production traits. East Friesian-cross ewes produced more lambs and slightly more milk than Lacaune-cross ewes whereas Lacaune-cross ewes produced milk with a higher percentage of fat and protein than East Friesian-cross ewes. Lactation physiology studies have shown that ewes with active corpora lutea have increased milk yields, oxytocin release during milking is required to obtain normal fat percentages in the milk, large udder cisterns of dairy ewes can allow for increased milking intervals, and short daylengths during late pregnancy results in increased milk yield. In the nutrition area, legume-grass pastures and forages with a higher percentage of legume will result in increased milk production. Grazing ewes respond to additional supplementation with increased milk yield, but it is important to match the supplement to the quality of the grazing. Ewes on high quality legume-grass pastures that are high in rumen degradable protein respond with increased

  1. Canadian dairy policy and the returns to federal dairy cattle research

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Glenn; Roberts, Bruce; Brinkman, George L.

    1992-01-01

    The economic surplus approach is used to estimate the returns to federal investments in dairy cattle research in Canada. A national supply function is estimated using time series data. Lagged research expenditures are included as explanatory variables in the model, facilitating the calculation of marginal as well as average benefits from research. Simulation analysis is used to study the effects of product market distortions associated with Canadian dairy policy as well as of the marginal exc...

  2. Nutrient losses and greenhouse gas emissions from dairy production in China: Lessons learned from historical changes and regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nannan; Bai, Zhaohai; Luo, Jiafa; Ledgard, Stewart; Wu, Zhiguo; Ma, Lin

    2017-11-15

    The dairy industry in China was rapidly expanded and intensified from 1980 to 2010, engendering potential long-term impacts on the environment and natural resources. However, impacts of dairy intensification on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were unknown. This study was undertaken to examine these relations using the NUtrient flows in Food chains, Environment and Resources use (NUFER)-dairy model. Results showed that milk yield increased by 64% from 1980 to 2010 on average, and the use of concentrate feeds increased by 57% associated with a shift of production from traditional and grassland systems to collective and industrialized systems. At herd level, the N use efficiency (NUE; conversion of N inputs to products) doubled from 7 to 15%, and the P use efficiency (PUE) increased from 10 to 17%, primarily resulting from increased milk yield per cow. In contrast, at the system level, NUE showed a small increase (from 10 to 15%, associated with reduced gaseous losses) while PUE decreased from 46 to 30% due to a large increase in manure discharges. This is attributed to decoupling of feed and dairy production, as the proportion of manure N and P recycled to cropland decreased by 52% and 54%, respectively. Despite this, the average total N loss decreased from 63 to 48gkg -1 milk, and the average GHG emissions from 1.7 to 1.1kgCO 2 equivalentkg -1 milk associated with increased per-cow productivity. However, average P loss increased from 1.4 to 2.8gPkg -1 milk due to higher discharge rate to wastewater and landfill in collective and industrialized systems. Anyhow, average N and P losses exceeded levels in developed countries. There were large regional variations in nutrient use efficiency, nutrient losses and GHG emissions in China, largely determined by the dairy production structure. Average N losses and GHG emissions per unit of milk showed a negative correlation with production intensification based on the proportion of

  3. Invited review: The impact of automatic milking systems on dairy cow management, behavior, health, and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J A; Siegford, J M

    2012-05-01

    Over the last 100 yr, the dairy industry has incorporated technology to maximize yield and profit. Pressure to maximize efficiency and lower inputs has resulted in novel approaches to managing and milking dairy herds, including implementation of automatic milking systems (AMS) to reduce labor associated with milking. Although AMS have been used for almost 20 yr in Europe, they have only recently become more popular in North America. Automatic milking systems have the potential to increase milk production by up to 12%, decrease labor by as much as 18%, and simultaneously improve dairy cow welfare by allowing cows to choose when to be milked. However, producers using AMS may not fully realize these anticipated benefits for a variety of reasons. For example, producers may not see a reduction in labor because some cows do not milk voluntarily or because they have not fully or efficiently incorporated the AMS into their management routines. Following the introduction of AMS on the market in the 1990s, research has been conducted examining AMS systems versus conventional parlors focusing primarily on cow health, milk yield, and milk quality, as well as on some of the economic and social factors related to AMS adoption. Additionally, because AMS rely on cows milking themselves voluntarily, research has also been conducted on the behavior of cows in AMS facilities, with particular attention paid to cow traffic around AMS, cow use of AMS, and cows' motivation to enter the milking stall. However, the sometimes contradictory findings resulting from different studies on the same aspect of AMS suggest that differences in management and farm-level variables may be more important to AMS efficiency and milk production than features of the milking system itself. Furthermore, some of the recommendations that have been made regarding AMS facility design and management should be scientifically tested to demonstrate their validity, as not all may work as intended. As updated AMS

  4. Genomic selection in small dairy cattle populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jørn Rind

    on optimization of genomc selction for a small dairy cattle breed such as Danish Jersey. Implementing genetic superior breeding schemes thus requires more accurate genomc predictions. Besides international collaboration, genotyping of cows is an efficient way to obtain more accurate genomic predictions...

  5. Water footprinting of dairy farming in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphy, E.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Holden, N.M.; Shalloo, L.; Curran, T.P.; Upton, J.

    2017-01-01

    In the context of global water scarcity, water footprints have become an important sustainability indicator for food production systems. To improve the water footprint of the dairy sector, insight into freshwater consumption of individual farms is required. The objective of this study was to

  6. Structural changes in dairy business in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teo Vujčić

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Croatia today is in the economy transition process that also includes agriculture aiming to increase production and achieving competitive standard with international and European markets. Currently, domestic cow milk production ensures 80% of annual milk and dairy products requirements with the 20% import. In the period from 1990-1992, during the patriot war, 103000 cows and heifers were destroyed. Since then, Croatia started the gradual process of reorganization of the agricultural private sector including dairy business in order to increase production insensitivity.The agricultural structure of dairy segment is unsatisfactory with only 23.39% of farms holding four or more heifers. Households with 3 cows per farm dominate with average real estate of 0.10-3.0 acres.Changes in milk production (1990-2003 are reflected in the decrease of the number of breeding cattle – index 56.13%, and decrease of milk market producers from 65 000 to 65 151. Never the less, positive trends towards stabilization in milk production (2003 – 642 mil litres and annual milk intake increased from 342 mil litres in 1990 to 472 mil litres in 2003 (index 138.08% can be noticed. Changes in the structure of milk producers show certain positive movements as 23.39% of producers have 53.40% cows and respectively participation in milk production and buy off. Until 2008, with determined development conditions, cow milk production can increase for 42% and from 2703 litres to average of 4000 litres per dairy cow.

  7. 76 FR 34004 - Dairy Product Mandatory Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... other year. During each visit, AMS reviews applicable sales transactions records for at least the 4 most recent weeks. In some cases, AMS may review sales records for periods of up to 2 years. AMS verifies that... products to report sales information for a mandatory dairy product reporting program. The amendment further...

  8. 77 FR 8717 - Dairy Product Mandatory Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... such entity at least once every other year. During each visit, AMS reviews applicable sales transactions records for at least the 4 most recent weeks. In some cases, AMS may review sales records for up... products to report sales information for a mandatory dairy product reporting program. The amendment further...

  9. Silage alcohols in dairy cow nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    Corn silages with high propanol concentrations has been suspected to cause reduced feed intake and health problems for dairy cows in the post-pattum transition period. With the increasing use of hetero fermentative inoculants to support corn silage fermentation it is likely that silage concentrat......Corn silages with high propanol concentrations has been suspected to cause reduced feed intake and health problems for dairy cows in the post-pattum transition period. With the increasing use of hetero fermentative inoculants to support corn silage fermentation it is likely that silage...... of alcohols will lead to high alcohol concentrations in peripheral bood for a considerable period. Increased hepatic NEFA uptake in the postpartum transition period may result in even further decreased hepatic capacity for alcohol metabolism making post-partum transition cows especially vulnerable to high...... alcohol intakes. In order to evaluate the impact of alcohol fermentation in corn silages on dairy cow performance, the main purpose of this thesis was first to investigate the concentrations and composition of alcohols in typical field corn silages, and second to study how transition and lactating dairy...

  10. Selective breeding in organic dairy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Organic dairy farming started to take off in the early 1990s, when the European Union laid down organic standards for animal production. Until now, however, only incidental steps have been taken towards organic breeding and organic farmers mainly use breeding stock from conventional breeding

  11. Strontium 90 in Swedish dairy milk 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillberg-Wickman, M.; Oestergren, I.

    1980-01-01

    The contamination of strontium-90 in Swedish milk during 1978 is practically the same as in 1977. The country-wide mean ratio of strontium-90 to calcium in milk is 0.12 Bq 90 Sr(gCa) -1 , based on monthly determinations of samples obtained from 8 dairy plants situated throughout the country. (author)

  12. Anaerobic digestion of dairy farm slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, C

    1973-04-01

    Bell described the intermittent operation of a pilot-scale anaerobic digester receiving dilute dairy farm slurry. A 65 to 75 percent reduction of the ''permanganate (COD) value'' could be obtained at 35/sup 0/ and a 60 day detention time. Methane content of the gases ranged between 40 and 70 percent.

  13. 7 CFR 58.519 - Dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Material § 58.519 Dairy products. (a) Raw skim milk. All raw skim milk obtained from a secondary source... above. Skim milk after being pasteurized and separated shall be cooled to 45 °F. or lower unless the... used, shall be prepared from raw milk or skim milk that meets the same quality requirements outlined...

  14. Nitrogen performance indicators for dairy production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, De Cecile A.M.; Monaghan, Ross M.; Alfaro, Marta A.; Gourley, Cameron J.P.; Oenema, Oene; Mark Powell, J.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is invaluable for maintaining agricultural production, but its use, and particularly inefficient use, can lead to environmental losses. This paper reviews N use efficiency (NUE) and N surplus indicators for dairy production systems to assess their utility for optimising N use outcomes

  15. Supplementation of dairy weaners grazing tropical pastures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tropical pastures for growth of dairy replacement heifers, and to assess the need for ... restricted by intake of digestible nutrients. Tropical pastures ... 1983, 13(l). Table 1 Effect of rnaize or maize plus cotton seed meal on the growth of weaner calves. Level. Wean wt wean ro ll0 kg ll0- 130 kg. Wean ro 130 kg. Supplements.

  16. Selection for body weight in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.P.C.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with selection for body weight (BW) in dairy cattle. The economic efficiency of present breeding schemes might increase further when selection decisions also consider information on BW as BW relates to feed costs and revenues from beef production. However, the practical

  17. Labour organisation on robotic milking dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonck, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    1. Research issues

    The research described in this dissertation is focused on the effects of the integration of the milking robot in a dairy farm on the labour organisation at operational and tactical level. Attention was paid

  18. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  19. Aspects of rumen adaptation in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieho, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    In dairy cattle the nutrient requirements change rapidly around calving. During the dry period nutrients are required for maintenance, recovery from the previous lactation, and fetal growth. After calving, milk production commences and the energy requirements can increase by a factor 3 to ~184 MJ

  20. Carbon footprint from dairy farming system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Riva, A.; Kristensen, Troels; De Marchi1, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of milk production at farm gate considering two dairy cattle breeds, Holstein Friesian (HF) and Jersey (JE). Using Italian inventory data the emissions of CO2eq per kg ECM for dairy herds of HF and JE breed were estimated. The res......Aim of the present study was to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of milk production at farm gate considering two dairy cattle breeds, Holstein Friesian (HF) and Jersey (JE). Using Italian inventory data the emissions of CO2eq per kg ECM for dairy herds of HF and JE breed were estimated....... The results show 0.80 kg CO2eq/kg ECM in JE herd, while 0.96 kg CO2eq/kg ECM in HF herd. The main differences were due to the level of dry matter intake, milk yield and fertility traits. Indeed, JE herd showed a lower milk yield than HF herd, a lower DMI and better fertility, determining less production...

  1. Technical Efficiency of the Spanish Dairy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapelko, M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter uses DEA to measure the technical efficiency of a sample of Spanish dairy processing firms over the period 2001–2009. Differences in technical efficiency between firms of different sizes and between firms that operated in international markets versus those that were not are tested. The

  2. 75 FR 76253 - Dairy Import Licensing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... that the U.S. food market benefits from reliable and longer-term supply-chain relationships which may... reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget. Regulatory Flexibility Act The Regulatory Flexibility Act... customs broker, a manufacturer of dairy products, and a Congressman all in favor of the proposed 5-year...

  3. Invited review: Role of bacterial endotoxins in the etiopathogenesis of periparturient diseases of transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Emily F; Ametaj, Burim N

    2016-08-01

    The dairy industry continues to suffer severe economic losses due to the increased disease incidence cows experience during the transition period. It has long been the classical view that the major contributing factor to the development of these periparturient diseases is the considerable increase in nutritional demands for milk production. This classical view, however, fails to account for the substantial correlation between both metabolic and infectious diseases and the detrimental effects that can occur with the provision of high-energy diets to support these nutritional demands. Currently, increasing evidence implicates bacterial endotoxins in the etiopathology of most periparturient diseases. Bacterial endotoxins are components of the outer cell wall of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria that are highly immunostimulatory and can trigger proinflammatory immune responses. The ability of endotoxins to translocate from the mucosal tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract, mammary gland, and uterus, into the systemic circulation has been observed. Once they have entered the circulation, endotoxins potentially contribute to disease either directly, through eliciting an inflammatory response, or indirectly through other factors such as the overreaction of the natural protective mechanisms of the host. Although the evidence implicating a role of endotoxins in the pathogenesis of transition diseases continues to grow, our current knowledge of the host response to mucosal endotoxin exposure and pathogenic mechanisms remain largely unknown. Developing our understanding of the connection between endotoxemia and dairy cattle disease holds significant potential for the future development of preventative measures that could benefit the productivity of the dairy industry as well as animal welfare. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy use in the food manufacturing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, A.C.; Earle, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    A survey was conducted to find the level of energy consumption in the food manufacturing industry, which is the food processing industry excluding meat, dairy, and brewing. Data were used from 74 factories. The manufacturing industry was divided into 14 industry groups and the 4 major energy consumers were found to be fruit and vegetable processing, sugar refining, animal feed production, and bread and pastry baking. The present report summarizes results from the survey. It determined the following: the sources of energy used by the insu industry and the annual consumption of each energy form; the consumption of fuel and electricity in the production of the various manufactured food products; the minimum practical energy requirement for processing the various food products; and the potential for conservation and the methods for achieving savings.

  5. Decomposing variation in dairy profitability: the impact of output, inputs, prices, labour and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P

    2011-08-01

    The UK dairy sector has undergone considerable structural change in recent years, with a decrease in the number of producers accompanied by an increased average herd size and increased concentrate use and milk yields. One of the key drivers to producers remaining in the industry is the profitability of their herds. The current paper adopts a holistic approach to decomposing the variation in dairy profitability through an analysis of net margin data explained by physical input-output measures, milk price variation, labour utilization and managerial behaviours and characteristics. Data are drawn from the Farm Business Survey (FBS) for England in 2007/08 for 228 dairy enterprises. Average yields are 7100 litres/cow/yr, from a herd size of 110 cows that use 0·56 forage ha/cow/yr and 43·2 labour h/cow/yr. An average milk price of 22·57 pence per litre (ppl) produced milk output of £1602/cow/yr, which after accounting for calf sales, herd replacements and quota leasing costs, gave an average dairy output of £1516/cow/yr. After total costs of £1464/cow/yr this left an economic return of £52/cow/yr (0·73 ppl) net margin profit. There is wide variation in performance, with the most profitable (as measured by net margin per cow) quartile of producers achieving 2000 litres/cow/yr more than the least profitable quartile, returning a net margin of £335/cow/yr compared to a loss of £361/cow/yr for the least profitable. The most profitable producers operate larger, higher yielding herds and achieve a greater milk price for their output. In addition, a significantly greater number of the most profitable producers undertake financial benchmarking within their businesses and operate specialist dairy farms. When examining the full data set, the most profitable enterprises included significantly greater numbers of organic producers. The most profitable tend to have a greater reliance on independent technical advice, but this finding is not statistically significant

  6. Nutrition, immune function and health of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvartsen, K L; Moyes, K

    2013-03-01

    The large increase in milk yield and the structural changes in the dairy industry have caused major changes in the housing, feeding and management of the dairy cow. However, while large improvements have occurred in production and efficiency, the disease incidence, based on veterinary records, does not seem to be improved. Earlier reviews have covered critical periods such as the transition period in the cow and its influence on health and immune function, the interplay between the endocrine system and the immune system and nutrition and immune function. Knowledge on these topics is crucial for our understanding of disease risk and our effort to develop health and welfare improving strategies, including proactive management for preventing diseases and reducing the severity of diseases. To build onto this the main purpose of this review will therefore be on the effect of physiological imbalance (PI) on immune function, and to give perspectives for prevention of diseases in the dairy cow through nutrition. To a large extent, the health problems during the periparturient period relate to cows having difficulty in adapting to the nutrient needs for lactation. This may result in PI, a situation where the regulatory mechanisms are insufficient for the animals to function optimally leading to a high risk of a complex of digestive, metabolic and infectious problems. The risk of infectious diseases will be increased if the immune competence is reduced. Nutrition plays a pivotal role in the immune response and the effect of nutrition may be directly through nutrients or indirectly by metabolites, for example, in situations with PI. This review discusses the complex relationships between metabolic status and immune function and how these complex interactions increase the risk of disease during early lactation. A special focus will be placed on the major energetic fuels currently known to be used by immune cells (i.e. glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, beta

  7. A 100-Year Review: Reproductive technologies in dairy science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S G; Hasler, J F

    2017-12-01

    Reproductive technology revolutionized dairy production during the past century. Artificial insemination was first successfully applied to cattle in the early 1900s. The next major developments involved semen extenders, invention of the electroejaculator, progeny testing, addition of antibiotics to semen during the 1930s and 1940s, and the major discovery of sperm cryopreservation with glycerol in 1949. The 1950s and 1960s were particularly productive with the development of protocols for the superovulation of cattle with both pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin/equine chorionic gonadotrophin and FSH, the first successful bovine embryo transfer, the discovery of sperm capacitation, the birth of rabbits after in vitro fertilization, and the development of insulated liquid nitrogen tanks. Improved semen extenders and the replacement of glass ampules with plastic semen straws followed. Some of the most noteworthy developments in the 1970s included the initial successes with in vitro culture of embryos, calves born after chromosomal sexing as embryos, embryo splitting resulting in the birth of twins, and development of computer-assisted semen analysis. The 1980s brought flow cytometric separation of X- and Y-bearing sperm, in vitro fertilization leading to the birth of live calves, clones produced by nuclear transfer from embryonic cells, and ovum pick-up via ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration. The 20th century ended with the birth of calves produced from AI with sexed semen, sheep and cattle clones produced by nuclear transfer from adult somatic cell nuclei, and the birth of transgenic cloned calves. The 21st century has seen the introduction of perhaps the most powerful biotechnology since the development of artificial insemination and cryopreservation. Quick, inexpensive genomic analysis via the use of single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping chips is revolutionizing the cattle breeding industry. Now, with the introduction of genome editing technology, the

  8. The applicability of micro-filters produced by nuclear methods in the food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, S.A.; Ember, G.

    1982-01-01

    Problems of the applicability in the food industry of micro-filters produced by nuclear methods are dealt with. Production methods of the polymeric micro-filters, their main characteristics as well as their most important application fields (breweries, dairies, alcoholic- and soft-drink plants, wine industry) are briefly reviewed. (author)

  9. Responses of growth of lady's fingers (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) to different treatments methods of dairy wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dulaimi, Rana Ibrahim; Ismail, Norli; Ibrahim, Mahamad H

    2014-01-01

    Water is one of the most important precious resources found on the earth, and are most often affected by anthropogenic activities and by industry. Pollution caused by human beings and industries is a serious concern throughout the world. Population growth, massive urbanization, rapid rate of industrialization and modern techniques in agriculture have accelerated water pollution and led to the gradual deterioration of its quality. A large quantity of waste water disposed of at sea or on land has caused environmental problems which have led to environmental pollution, economic losses and chemical risks caused by the wastewater, and its impact on agriculture. However, waste water which contain nutrients and organic matter has possible advantages for agricultural purposes. Therefore, the presented study was undertaken to assess the impact of Dairy Effluent (treated and untreated waste water) on seed germination, seedling growth, dry matter production and the biochemical parameters of lady's fingers (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). A field experiment in a green house was conducted to use raw and treated dairy wastewater for watering lady's fingers (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). The plants were watered using (WW) raw dairy wastewater, (T1) chemicals treatment, (T2) physical treatment, (T3) dilution method treatment and tap water (TW) in pot experiments. Ten plants of each treatment /3 replicate were randomly selected and labelled for the collection of data. The data was collected sequentially, starting with chlorophyll content pre-harvest, vegetative qualities (shoot, root and seedling length) and dry matter quality (shoot and root dry matter) pos-tharvest. The effect was seen on the germination seed and growth of the plant. The results showed inhibitory effect from dairy effluent (WW) on seed germination and plant growth. Treatment with chemicals showed statistically significant differences with other treatments. Chemical treatment (TC2) at 20 mg/L Al2(SO4)3 and pH 6

  10. Analysis of farmers' willingness to participate in pasture grazing programs: Results from a discrete choice experiment with German dairy farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danne, M; Musshoff, O

    2017-09-01

    Over the last decades, the usage of pasture for grazing of dairy cows has decreased considerably. Pasture grazing programs initiated by dairy companies try to counteract this trend. The present paper investigates farmers' willingness to participate in such grazing programs. A special aim was to quantify the price premiums farmers require for program participation and to identify determinants influencing the premium level. The empirical analysis is based on a discrete choice experiment with 293 German dairy farmers. Models are estimated in terms of willingness to accept. It was found that farmers have no substantial preference for whether the pasture grazing program is financed by the food industry, a governmental scheme, or the dairy company. However, an extension of the annual or daily grazing period results in a decreasing willingness of farmers to participate in a pasture grazing program. In addition, farmers decline the option of a feeding standard prescribing the use of only green fodder when offered an alternative program that merely reduces the amount of concentrated feed or maize silage in the diet. Farmers' with an aversion toward program participation have a significant higher price demand for fulfilling the program requirements. Furthermore, the required price premiums increase with growing milk yields and a greater number of cows kept on the farm. However, if the availability of pasture is high, farmers are more likely to participate. The estimated price premiums and factors influencing farmers' willingness to participate found by this study should be considered by dairies and policymakers to gain insights into the design of possible pasture grazing programs from the perspective of farmers. Thereby, paying price premiums to farmers may increase the attractiveness of pasture grazing, which could finally result in an extended usage of pasture grazing. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A survey of Italian compost dairy barns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Leso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Compost-bedded pack barns (CBPB, generally known as compost dairy barns, are alternative housing systems for dairy cows. In these barns, the whole surface of the resting area is covered with a deepbedded pack that is frequently stirred in order to incorporate fresh manure into the pack and to enhance the evaporation of water. Experiences with CBPB for dairy cows are reported in literature from the US, Israel, the Netherlands and Austria. Potential advantages of these housing systems regard animal welfare and manure management. Since 2006, this housing system has been widely applied in Italy. However, there is still little scientific knowledge available about Italian CBPB. This study aims to describe the housing system, assess producers’ satisfaction and measure performance of dairy cows housed in CBPB. Ten commercial dairy farms in northern Italy were involved in the study. All pens in each farm were surveyed to determine the total available surface area, bedded area and pack depth. A questionnaire was submitted to each farm manager in order to investigate management practices, labour requirement, amount of bedding materials used and producers’ satisfaction. The temperature of the bedded pack was measured in summer and in winter. Data from the Italian Dairy Association were collected for each herd over a period of one year (from September 2011 to September 2012. In the barns involved in the study, the average total available area was 10.9 m2/cow and the average pack area was 6.7 m2/cow. The bedded pack was aerated 1.4 times per day.The most commonly used bedding material in these farms was dry sawdust. The consumption of bedding materials was 8.1 m3/cow per year. A tendency towards inverse correlation was found between the space per cow and the amount of bedding needed per cow (R2=0.395; P=0.051. Operations related to pack management required 4.1 hours of labour per cow per year. A direct relationship was found between the bedded area space

  12. Industrial Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  13. Farmaceutische industrie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros JPM; van der Poel P; Etman EJ; Montfoort JA; LAE

    1995-01-01

    Dit rapport over de farmaceutische industrie is gepubliceerd binnen het Samenwerkingsproject Procesbeschrijvingen Industrie Nederland (SPIN). In het kader van dit project is informatie verzameld over industriele bedrijven of industriele processen ter ondersteuning van het overheidsbeleid op het

  14. Quality characteristics of selected dairy products in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Djekic

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess and compare the compliance of the chosen quality characteristics of commercially available dairy products with the requirements of the current Serbian legislation. A total of 706 samples of liquid milks (pasteurized and UHT-treated, fermented milks (liquid and solid yoghurt and milk powders (skimmed and whole milk powder were collected from the market and analysed for milk fat content, pH value, water content and protein content, depending on the type of product. The obtained results were interpreted in relation to the dairy plants capacities in which the analysed dairy products were produced. Except the fermented milk samples with a declared milk fat content of 3.2 %, all other analysed compositional and quality parameters of the selected dairy products were in compliance with the current legislation. It was observed that dairy plants of smaller capacity had a higher variation of quality characteristics of dairy products.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions in milk and dairy product chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from dairy products is one important step towards a more sustainable dairy sector. To ensure effective mitigation, reliable assessment methods are required. The present PhD thesis focuses on some of the most critical methodological aspects influencing the carbon ...... throughout the value chain – from cow to consumer.......Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from dairy products is one important step towards a more sustainable dairy sector. To ensure effective mitigation, reliable assessment methods are required. The present PhD thesis focuses on some of the most critical methodological aspects influencing the carbon...... footprint (CF) of milk and dairy products, namely; estimating CH4 and N2O emissions; accounting for land use change; co-product handling; and defining the functional unit. In addition, the CF is calculated for different types of dairy products, and suggestions on various mitigation measures are presented...

  16. Competitive Dairy Value Chains in Southeast Asia – Part II : Dairy Expert Roundtable Meeting, December 8 & 9, 2010, Muak Lek, Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haartsen, L.; Lee, van der J.; Wouters, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    The regional Dairy Expert Roundtable Meeting on “Competitive Dairy Value Chains in Southeast Asia” provided a forum for participants from six Southeast Asian countries to discuss how dairy value chains in this region can become more competitive and sustainable. The demand for dairy products in these

  17. Dairy farming: indoor v. pasture-based feeding

    OpenAIRE

    HOFSTETTER, P.; FREY, H.-J; GAZZARIN, C.; WYSS, U.; KUNZ, P.

    2017-01-01

    The current situation of volatile milk prices and rising costs of, e.g. grain and labour, suggests that it is worth studying productivity and efficiency in dairy farming. The objective of the current whole-system study, carried out in lowland Central Switzerland from 2007 to 2010, was to compare the performance, efficiency, land productivity and profitability of indoor-feeding (IF) dairy production with that of pasture-based feeding (PF) dairy production. An IF herd consisting of 11 Holstein-...

  18. Competitiveness regulation of dairy products production in the Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domozhilkina Zh. V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available the article outlines the results of studying the major problems concerning supporting competitiveness and quality of dairy products in the Crimea. The researchers compared the level of competitiveness of the dairy enterprise ltd. «Бег» with other brands of milk and suggested measures to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of competitiveness management of dairy products in this region.

  19. Economic analysis of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis vaccines in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, J; Tauer, L W; Schukken, Y H; Gómez, M I; Smith, R L; Lu, Z; Grohn, Y T

    2012-04-01

    Johne's disease, or paratuberculosis, is a chronic infectious enteric disease of ruminants, caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Given the absence of a fail-safe method of prevention or a cure, Johne's disease can inflict significant economic loss on the US dairy industry, with an estimated annual cost of over $200 million. Currently available MAP control strategies include management measures to improve hygiene, culling MAP serologic- or fecal-positive adult cows, and vaccination. Although the 2 first control strategies have been reported to be effective in reducing the incidence of MAP infection, the changes in herd management needed to conduct these control strategies require significant effort on the part of the dairy producer. On the other hand, vaccination is relatively simple to apply and requires minor changes in herd management. Despite these advantages, only 5% of US dairy operations use vaccination to control MAP. This low level of adoption of this technology is due to limited information on its cost-effectiveness and efficacy and some important inherent drawbacks associated with current MAP vaccines. This study investigates the epidemiological effect and economic values of MAP vaccines in various stages of development. We create scenarios for the potential epidemiological effects of MAP vaccines, and then estimate economically justifiable monetary values at which vaccines become economically beneficial to dairy producers such that a net present value (NPV) of a farm's net cash flow can be higher than the NPV of a farm using no control or alternative nonvaccine controls. Any vaccination with either low or high efficacy considered in this study yielded a higher NPV compared with a no MAP control. Moreover, high-efficacy vaccines generated an even higher NPV compared with alternative controls, making vaccination economically attractive. Two high-efficacy vaccines were particularly effective in MAP control and NPV

  20. The effect of Common Agricultural Policy on Dairy production in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Šakić Bobić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2007 there was price jump at world milk market. In the middle of the year 2008 the market was temporarily stabilized, because European Commission introduced Common Agricultural Policy modernization suggestion to the members of the European Parliament as the answer to an increasing food demand. The main elements of this suggestion were to abolish obligation to keep some agricultural areas set aside, milk quota removal, and abolition of subvention rate - production quantity link. When East and Central European countries entered in the European Union, they faced agricultural tax and milk price decrease. Today in new member states, the protection taxes are lower then before entering the Union (exceptions are Poland and Romania. The production costs in new member states are higher then in the Union, so there is higher market pressure at milk producers to increase their capacity (Livestock unit, to increase capacity utilization (milk per animal, and to produce at lower cost price. One part of smaller producers could not react to this pressure, so they decided to leave the dairy business. The consequence is decreased export of milk and dairy products in the new member states. Today milk market production in Croatia is around 650 million liters. In the production, there are around 32 thousand producers with 177 thousand of dairy cows. In the last 5 years of Croatian dairy, there was important shift in the production and redemption. Help to dairy sector through annual high investments as state subsidies and credit loans, and dairy industry subsidies at basic price, made redemption increase of more then 150 million liters, but also milk producer’s decrease. To stay at present production and redemption level, the only one that counts as Quota I, with around 90 % standard milk, there is a need to increase standard milk for 119 million liters. This increase in production quality, in the negotiation period and just after planned Croatian

  1. Radionuclide cycling in a Utah dairy farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Eberhardt, L.L.; Hawthorne, H.A.; Zellmer, S.D.

    1976-01-01

    Both detailed and summarized data are presented for 137 Cs and for 90 Sr which resulted from a study of the deposition of fallout radionuclides into a Utah dairy farm. In addition, mathematical models and statistical methods (including nonlinear least-squares techniques) were used to obtain estimates of key parameters for a compartmental model of the dynamics of 137 Cs transfers in the dairy system. Both the results of laboratory studies and field observations were used to derive the estimates and to construct functional relationships for the model. Two computer models were used to further analyze and evaluate consistency of the fallout-alfalfa-milk sequence of data. The results of this study are compared with two similar investigations (in Colorado and Michigan) and are used to examine earlier analyses of the general system studied. Extensive data tabulations are also presented

  2. Quality based payment program and milk quality in dairy cooperatives of Southern Brazil: an econometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Garcia Botaro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Programs designed to enhance milk quality have been used to motivate dairy farmers to improve the quality of the raw milk they produce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between a milk quality payment program and four indicative variables of milk quality, by testing bulk tank somatic cell count (SCC, bulk tank total bacterial count (TBC, fat (FAT and protein (PROT percentages over three years in four dairy cooperatives in Southern Brazil. We used a multiple regression econometric model estimated from market data of milk delivered by farmers to the cooperatives. Bulk tank milk samples (n = 19,644 were monthly collected. The data set was analyzed for the effects of seasonality, average daily volume of milk, the award/penalty, producer, and cooperatives on SCC, TBC, FAT and PROT. Results suggested an association between the adoption of a payment program based on milk quality and the reduction of SCC and TBC. Nevertheless, the program seems to have not contributed to increase fat and protein milk percentages. This information may help the dairy industry in developing countries to conceive strategies to enhance overall milk quality.

  3. Effect of dairy powders fortification on yogurt textural and sensorial properties: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Marie Celeste; Gaiani, Claire; Hosri, Chadi; Burgain, Jennifer; Scher, Joël

    2013-11-01

    Yogurts are important dairy products that have known a rapid market growth over the past few decades. Industrial yogurt manufacture involves different processing steps. Among them, protein fortification of the milk base is elemental. It greatly enhances yogurt nutritional and functional properties and prevents syneresis, an undesirable yogurt textural defect. Protein enrichment can be achieved by either concentration process (evaporation under vacuum and membrane processing: reverse osmosis and/or ultrafiltration) or by addition of dairy ingredients. Traditionally, skim milk powder (SMP) is used to enrich the milk base before fermentation. However, increased quality and availability of other dairy ingredients such as milk protein isolates (MPI), milk protein concentrates (MPC) whey protein isolates (WPI) and concentrates (WPC), micellar casein (MC) and caseinates have promoted their use as alternatives to SMP. Substituting different dry ingredients for skim milk powder in yogurt making affects the yogurt mix protein composition and subsequent textural and sensorial properties. This review focuses on various type of milk protein used for fortification purposes and their influence on these properties.

  4. Analyses of Dynamics in Dairy Products and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria Population by Molecular Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytül Sofu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB with different ecological niches are widely seen in fermented meat, vegetables, dairy products and cereals as well as in fermented beverages. Lactic acid bacteria are the most important group of bacteria in dairy industry due to their probiotic characteristics and fermentation agents as starter culture. In the taxonomy of the lactic acid bacteria; by means of rep-PCR, which is the analysis of repetitive sequences that are based on 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene sequence, it is possible to conduct structural microbial community analyses such as Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP analysis of DNA fragments of different sizes cut with enzymes, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD polymorphic DNA amplified randomly at low temperatures and Amplified Fragment-Length Polymorphism (AFLP-PCR of cut genomic DNA. Besides, in the recent years, non-culture-based molecular methods such as Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE, Thermal Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (TGGE, and Fluorescence In-situ Hybridization (FISH have replaced classical methods once used for the identification of LAB. Identification of lactic acid bacteria culture independent regardless of the method will be one of the most important methods used in the future pyrosequencing as a Next Generation Sequencing (NGS techniques. This paper reviews molecular-method based studies conducted on the identification of LAB species in dairy products.

  5. Short communication: Association of disease incidence and adaptive immune response in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Crispi, K A; Hine, B; Quinton, M; Miglior, F; Mallard, B A

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to use previously calculated estimated breeding values for cell- (CMIR) and antibody-mediated immune responses (AMIR) to determine associations between immune response (IR) and economically important diseases of dairy cattle. In total, 699 Holsteins were classified as high, average, or low for CMIR, AMIR, and overall IR (combined CMIR and AMIR), and associations with mastitis, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasums, and retained fetal membranes were determined. The incidence of mastitis was higher among average cows as compared with cows classified as high AMIR [odds ratio (OR)=2.5], high CMIR (OR=1.8), or high IR (OR=1.8). Low-CMIR cows had a higher incidence of metritis (OR=11.3) and low-IR cows had a higher incidence of displaced abomasum (OR=4.1) and retained fetal membrane (OR=2.8) than did average responders. Results of this study show that cows classified as high immune responders have lower occurrence of disease, suggesting that breeding cattle for enhanced IR may be a feasible approach to decrease the incidence of infectious and metabolic diseases in the dairy industry. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A cross sectional study on reproductive health disorders in dairy cattle in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Mohamed Elhassan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional survey was carried out in dairy farms in four States of Sudan to determine prevalence of reproductive health disorders that affect dairy cattle industries in the country. A total of 575 adult female cows in dairy farms located in Khartoum, Gezira, Sennar, and White Nile States were investigated using questionnaire survey and face-to-face interviews with the owners. The results indicated that 24.4% of the animals were affected with one or more reproductive health disorders. Abortion (57.1% represented the major health problem affecting calf yield, followed by infertility (34.3% and neonatal death (8.6%. Other health problems included stillbirth, vaginitis and retained placenta, anomalies, metritis and repeat breeder. Most of the abortion cases were detected during third trimester (76.25% followed by first (12.5% and second (11.25% trimesters. Finally, countrywide investigations of reproductive disorders and increasing awareness to the owners are recommended for designing successful control strategies of reproductive disorders in Sudan.

  7. Temporal trends in reproductive performance in Irish dairy herds and associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee John F

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Irish dairy herd fertility has been declining since the 1980s. The extent, nature and causes of this decline in fertility and the current status of Irish dairy herd fertility were described. An increase in calving interval of approximately one day per year has been recorded. The principal components of this trend have been an increased incidence of postpartum endocrinopathies, reduced expression of oestrus and a fall in conception rate. Both submission rate and calving-to-service interval have increased slightly over time. Significant risk factors associated with these trends have been strain substitution within the Holstein-Friesian breed and single trait selection for milk production. Critically, these changes have been reflected in loss of body condition. Contributory factors included increased herd size and possibly increased use of DIYAI. The most recent Irish study showed that 48% of cows conceived to first service and 14% of cows were not pregnant at the end of the industry-average 15-week spring breeding season. However, the top quartile of herds achieved a first-service conception rate of 59%, illustrating the wide variation between herds. These phenotypic trends were attributed to both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. Recent Irish dairy herd fertility performance falls short of the targets set for seasonal compact calving.

  8. Practices for Alleviating Heat Stress of Dairy Cows in Humid Continental Climates: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournel, Sébastien; Ouellet, Véronique; Charbonneau, Édith

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The severity of heat stress issues on dairy cows will increase as global warming progresses. Fortunately, major advances in environmental management, including fans, misters, sprinklers, and cooled waterbeds, can attenuate the effects of thermal stress on cow health, production, and reproduction. These cooling systems were, however, tested in subtropical areas and their efficiency in northern regions is uncertain. This article assesses the potential of existing technologies to cool cows in humid continental climates through calculation of heat stress indices. Abstract Heat stress negatively affects the health and performance of dairy cows, resulting in considerable economic losses for the industry. In future years, climate change will exacerbate these losses by making the climate warmer. Physical modification of the environment is considered to be the primary means of reducing adverse effects of hot weather conditions. At present, to reduce stressful heat exposure and to cool cows, dairy farms rely on shade screens and various forms of forced convection and evaporative cooling that may include fans and misters, feed-line sprinklers, and tunnel- or cross-ventilated buildings. However, these systems have been mainly tested in subtropical areas and thus their efficiency in humid continental climates, such as in the province of Québec, Canada, is unclear. Therefore, this study reviewed the available cooling applications and assessed their potential for northern regions. Thermal stress indices such as the temperature-humidity index (THI) were used to evaluate the different cooling strategies. PMID:28468329

  9. Mortality, diarrhea and respiratory disease in Danish dairy heifer calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiten, M.; Rousing, T.; Thomsen, P. T.

    2018-01-01

    system (conventional/organic), season (summer/winter) and calf mortality risk, diarrhea, signs of respiratory disease and ocular discharge, respectively, for dairy heifer calves aged 0–180 days. Sixty Danish dairy herds, 30 conventional and 30 organic, were visited once during summer and once during......Diarrhea and respiratory disease are major health problems for dairy calves, often causing calf mortality. Previous studies have found calf mortality to be higher in organic dairy herds compared to conventional herds. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between production...... variables and in certain age groups, dependent on production system and season....

  10. Microparticulated whey proteins for improving dairy product texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Use of microparticulated whey protein (MWP) was patented in 1988; since then much research has been conducted on use of MWP. This review provides an overview of the use and functionality of MWP in dairy applications and discusses how MWP interacts with other components in dairy matrices. For ferm......Use of microparticulated whey protein (MWP) was patented in 1988; since then much research has been conducted on use of MWP. This review provides an overview of the use and functionality of MWP in dairy applications and discusses how MWP interacts with other components in dairy matrices...

  11. Comparison of the Effects of Goat Dairy and Cow Dairy Based Breakfasts on Satiety, Appetite Hormones, and Metabolic Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Martín, Elehazara; García-Escobar, Eva; Ruiz de Adana, Maria-Soledad; Lima-Rubio, Fuensanta; Peláez, Laura; Caracuel, Angel-María; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco-Javier; Soriguer, Federico; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Olveira, Gabriel

    2017-08-15

    The satiating effects of cow dairy have been thoroughly investigated; however, the effects of goat dairy on appetite have not been reported so far. Our study investigates the satiating effect of two breakfasts based on goat or cow dairy and their association with appetite related hormones and metabolic profile. Healthy adults consumed two breakfasts based on goat (G-Breakfast) or cow (C-Breakfast) dairy products. Blood samples were taken and VAS tests were performed at different time points. Blood metabolites were measured and Combined Satiety Index (CSI) and areas under the curves (AUC) were calculated. Desire to eat rating was significantly lower (breakfast & time interaction p cow dairy products, and pointed to a potential association of GLP-1 and triglyceride levels with the mechanisms by which dairy products might affect satiety after the G-Breakfast and C-Breakfast, respectively.

  12. Air filtration and air cooling in dairies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubzov, J A

    1986-01-01

    In addition to the maintenance of optimum temperatures and relative humidities, a continuous cleaning of the circulating air by means of suspended matter filters and regular disinfection of the spaces and equipment are required in the maturing and storage room for cheese. This contribution presents solutions to the use of suspended matter filters in air cooling plant for dairies in the U.S.S.R.

  13. Dairy farm production strategy and nitrogen surplus

    OpenAIRE

    Halberg, Niels; Jensen, Carsten Hvelplund

    1996-01-01

    Via public legislation minimum standards for the utilization of manure have been introduced as an obligatory part of fertilization planning. And many Danish livestock farmers have improved the utilization of manure during the last five to ten years. There is, however, still not consensus concerning the question of whether the results are sufficient to reduce the loss of nitrogen to ground water and the Danish marine environment to acceptable levels. In an analysis of 30 dairy farms Halberg...

  14. Modeling greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C Alan

    2017-11-15

    Dairy farms have been identified as an important source of greenhouse gas emissions. Within the farm, important emissions include enteric CH 4 from the animals, CH 4 and N 2 O from manure in housing facilities during long-term storage and during field application, and N 2 O from nitrification and denitrification processes in the soil used to produce feed crops and pasture. Models using a wide range in level of detail have been developed to represent or predict these emissions. They include constant emission factors, variable process-related emission factors, empirical or statistical models, mechanistic process simulations, and life cycle assessment. To fully represent farm emissions, models representing the various emission sources must be integrated to capture the combined effects and interactions of all important components. Farm models have been developed using relationships across the full scale of detail, from constant emission factors to detailed mechanistic simulations. Simpler models, based upon emission factors and empirical relationships, tend to provide better tools for decision support, whereas more complex farm simulations provide better tools for research and education. To look beyond the farm boundaries, life cycle assessment provides an environmental accounting tool for quantifying and evaluating emissions over the full cycle, from producing the resources used on the farm through processing, distribution, consumption, and waste handling of the milk and dairy products produced. Models are useful for improving our understanding of farm processes and their interacting effects on greenhouse gas emissions. Through better understanding, they assist in the development and evaluation of mitigation strategies for reducing emissions and improving overall sustainability of dairy farms. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article

  15. Nutrition and fertility in dairy cow

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition has an important impact on the reproductive performance of dairy cattle. Energy is the major nutrient required by adult cattle and inadequate energy intake has a detrimental impact on reproductive activity of bovine. Cows under negative energy balance have extended periods of anovulation. Postpartum anestrus, as well as infertility, is magnified by losses of body condition during the early postpartum period. Resumption of ovulatory cycles is associated with energy balance, but s...

  16. Labour organisation on robotic milking dairy farms

    OpenAIRE

    Sonck, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    1. Research issues

    The research described in this dissertation is focused on the effects of the integration of the milking robot in a dairy farm on the labour organisation at operational and tactical level. Attention was paid to the future requirements concerning human labour and labour (re)organisation with respect to the complex interaction between the cows and an automatic milking system (AMS) on a robotic milking d...

  17. The dairy cow and global climate changes

    OpenAIRE

    Flávio Baccari Jr

    2015-01-01

     High producing dairy cows are more sensitive to heat stress due mainly to their higher resting metabolic rate as compared to low producing and dry cows. Their responses to increasing levels of the temperature-humidity and the black globe-humidity indices are discussed as well as some aspects of heat tolerance as related to body temperature increase and milk production decrease. Some mitigation and adaptation practices are recommended to face the challenges of global climate changes.

  18. Danish dairy farmers' perception of biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Erling; Jakobsen, Esben B

    2011-05-01

    To implement biosecurity measures at farm-level is a motivational challenge to dairy farmers as emerging diseases and their consequences largely are unpredictable. One of the reasons for this challenge is that outcomes are more likely to benefit society than the individual farmer. From the individual farmer's point of view the impacts of zoonotic risk, international trade and welfare concerns appear less obvious than the direct costs at farm-level. Consequently, a social dilemma may arise where collective interests are at odds with private interests. To improve biosecurity at farm-level farmers must be motivated to change behavior in the 'right' direction which could provide selfish farmers with unintended possibilities to exploit the level of biosecurity provided by other dairy farmers' collective actions. Farmers' perception of risk of disease introduction into a dairy herd was explored by means of Q-methodology. Participating farmers owned very large dairy herds and were selected for this study because Danish legislation since 2008 has required that larger farms develop and implement a farm specific biosecurity plan. However, a year from introduction of this requirement, none of the participating farmers had developed a biosecurity plan. Farmers' perception of biosecurity could meaningfully be described by four families of perspectives, labeled: cooperatives; confused; defectors, and introvert. Interestingly, all families of perspectives agreed that sourcing of animals from established dealers represented the highest risk to biosecurity at farm-level. Farmers and policy-makers are faced with important questions about biosecurity at farm-level related to the sanctioning system within the contextual framework of social dilemmas. To solve these challenges we propose the development of a market-mediated system to (1) reduce the risk of free-riders, and (2) provide farmers with incentives to improve biosecurity at farm-level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All

  19. Fluorosis in a dairy herd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, W G

    1972-04-29

    Investigation of a high incidence of hip arthritis in a herd of Ayrshires resulted in the discovery of abnormal levels of fluorine in samples of bone. Suspicion of fluorosis was not aroused earlier as the area is not contaminated by industrial fall-out. In addition, many affected animals had no lesions in their teeth; this was because their dentition was complete before ingesting fluorine from a mineral supplement. Only cows receiving toxic levels of fluorine during their first lactation showed lesions, and these were confined to the fourth pair of incisors. Two metabolic profile tests were caried out to establish that the input-output balance in the main metabolites was normal. Analysis of various constituents of the diet revealed significant levels of fluorine in the mineral supplement only. Arthritis was the most prominent feature. This led to debility, with loss of milk and carcase value. Confirmation of fluorosis was obtained by analysis of bone and urine.

  20. Industrial electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melvin, J.G.

    1983-03-01

    The technical and economic scope for industrial process electrification in Canada is assessed in the light of increasing costs of combustion fuels relative to electricity. It is concluded that electricity is capable of providing an increasing share of industrial energy, eventually aproaching 100 percent. The relatively low cost of electricity in Canada offers industry the opportunity of a head start in process electrification with consequent advantages in world markets both for industrial products and for electrical process equipment and technology. A method is described to promote the necessary innovation by providing access to technology and financing. The potential growth of electricity demand due to industrial electrification is estimated

  1. Smart Dairy Farming through Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonsri Vate-U-LanAssumption University, Bangkok, Thailand

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to report a smart dairy farming in Ontario, Canada, which is a case study for future of food production, and ways that advancements related to the Internet of Things (IoT. It is impacting upon agricultural practice in the form of smart farming. Smart farming is the practice of intelligent agricultural management based upon technological data gathering farm practice for the purpose of increased levels of quality, production, and environmental protection. This paper will illustrate one example whereby partnerships among the academic world, government agencies and local food producing communities in Canada are adapting innovative thinking and smart technologies to address the need to implement the more effective agricultural practice. Food from Thought is a Canadian research project, based upon high-tech information systems to produce enough food for a growing human population while sustaining the Earth’s ecosystems. The paper will outline how one dairy farmer in Ontario has been able to apply smart farming technologies to increase milk production while maintaining the health of his cattle and preserving the environment. The review of applications of smart farming in Ontario such as digital tracking for a cow, genomic testing, digitally signaled birth, sensor driven crop management and data driven dairy production also details in this article.

  2. THOSE ISSUES AND MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES IN THE ORGANIZATION ENTITIES MILK INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGETA-MIHAELA ZAHARIA (CRIVAC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the features of the entities in the dairy industry. At first, a brief description of the dairy industry in Romania, giving priority factors that contribute to the development of this market. As in any economic unit, organization of management accounting and cost calculation is particularly important activity managers are required to study all factors and exercise influence principles, their implications, and then, taking account of them to choose the most appropriate form of organization of management accounting and cost calculation. Were analyzed and described in the study, factors and principles that characterize the entities in the dairy industry and have an influence in the organization of management accounting, but also in determining costs.

  3. Dairy intensification in developing countries: effects of market quality on farm-level feeding and breeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, A J; Teufel, N; Mekonnen, K; Singh, V K; Bitew, A; Gebremedhin, B

    2013-12-01

    Smallholder dairy production represents a promising income generating activity for poor farmers in the developing world. Because of the perishable nature of milk, marketing arrangements for collection, distribution and sale are important for enhanced livelihoods in the smallholder dairy sector. In this study we examined the relationship between market quality and basic feeding and breeding practices at farm level. We define market quality as the attractiveness and reliability of procurement channels and associated input supply arrangements. We took as our study countries, India with its well-developed smallholder dairy sector, and Ethiopia where the smallholder dairy industry has remained relatively undeveloped despite decades of development effort. We conducted village surveys among producer groups in 90 villages across three States in India and two Regions in Ethiopia. Producer groups were stratified according to three levels of market quality - high, medium and low. Data showed that diet composition was relatively similar in India and Ethiopia with crop residues forming the major share of the diet. Concentrate feeding tended to be more prominent in high market quality sites. Herd composition changed with market quality with more dairy (exotic) cross-bred animals in high market quality sites in both India and Ethiopia. Cross-bred animals were generally more prominent in India than Ethiopia. Herd performance within breed did not change a great deal along the market quality gradient. Parameters such as calving interval and milk yield were relatively insensitive to market quality. Insemination of cross-bred cows was predominantly by artificial insemination (AI) in India and accounted for around half of cross-bred cow inseminations in Ethiopia. Data on perceptions of change over the last decade indicated that per herd and per cow productivity are both increasing in high market quality sites with a more mixed picture in medium and low-quality sites. Similarly dairy

  4. FINANCIAL SECURITY OF FOOD INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the fi nancial security of food industry enterprises in Poland in 2009–2013, with particular emphasis on the processing industry of milk and cheese production, including those operating in the form of dairy cooperatives. The analysis was conducted using unpublished data of GUS, as well as individual fi nancial data on dairy cooperatives. The study indicates that the manufacturing sector of food and beverage production, as well as milk processing and cheese making, according to the established measures of fi nancial security, can be considered safe. This assessment, however, is varied and results from the specifi c industries, especially in relation to capital management.

  5. Anaerobic biodegradability of dairy wastewater pretreated with porcine pancreas lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Aguiar Mendes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipids-rich wastewater was partial hydrolyzed with porcine pancreas lipase and the efficiency of the enzymatic pretreatment was verified by the comparative biodegradability tests (crude and treated wastewater. Alternatively, simultaneous run was carried out in which hydrolysis and digestion was performed in the same reactor. Wastewater from dairy industries and low cost lipase preparation at two concentrations (0.05 and 0.5% w.v-1 were used. All the samples pretreated with enzyme showed a positive effect on organic matter removal (Chemical Oxygen Demand-COD and formation of methane. The best results were obtained when hydrolysis and biodegradation were performed simultaneously, attaining high COD and color removal independent of the lipase concentration. The enzymatic treatment considerably improved the anaerobic operational conditions and the effluent quality (lower content of suspended solids and less turbidity. Thus, the use of enzymes such as lipase seemed to be a very promising alternative for treating the wastewaters having high fat and grease contents, such as those from the dairy industry.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o pré-tratamento de efluente da indústria de laticínios na hidrólise de lipídeos, empregando lipase de fonte de células animais de baixo custo disponível comercialmente (pâncreas de porco na formação de gás metano por biodegradabilidade anaeróbia empregando diferentes concentrações de lipase (0,05 e 0,5 % w.v-1. A utilização de lipase no pré-tratamento do efluente acelerou a hidrólise de lipídeos e, conseqüentemente, auxiliou o tratamento biológico resultando na redução da matéria orgânica em termos de Demanda Química de Oxigênio (DQO, cor e sólidos em suspensão como lipídeos. Os melhores resultados em termos de remoção de DQO e cor foram obtidos quando a hidrólise e biodigestão foram realizadas simultaneamente, independente da concentração de lipase empregada. Estes resultados

  6. Genetic diversity and population structure of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus isolated from naturally fermented dairy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuqin; Sun, Zhihong; Guo, Chenyi; Wu, Yarong; Liu, Wenjun; Yu, Jie; Menghe, Bilige; Yang, Ruifu; Zhang, Heping

    2016-03-04

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is one of the most widely used starter culture strains in industrial fermented dairy manufacture. It is also common in naturally fermented dairy foods made using traditional methods. The subsp. bulgaricus strains found in naturally fermented foods may be useful for improving current industrial starter cultures; however, little is known regarding its genetic diversity and population structure. Here, a collection of 298 L. delbrueckii strains from naturally fermented products in Mongolia, Russia, and West China was analyzed by multi-locus sequence typing based on eight conserved genes. The 251 confirmed subsp. bulgaricus strains produced 106 unique sequence types, the majority of which were assigned to five clonal complexes (CCs). The geographical distribution of CCs was uneven, with CC1 dominated by Mongolian and Russian isolates, and CC2-CC5 isolates exclusively from Xinjiang, China. Population structure analysis suggested six lineages, L1-L6, with various homologous recombination rates. Although L2-L5 were mainly restricted within specific regions, strains belonging to L1 and L6 were observed in diverse regions, suggesting historical transmission events. These results greatly enhance our knowledge of the population diversity of subsp. bulgaricus strains, and suggest that strains from CC1 and L4 may be useful as starter strains in industrial fermentation.

  7. Stochastic bio-economic modeling of mastitis in Ethiopian dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getaneh, Abraham Mekibeb; Mekonnen, Sefinew Alemu; Hogeveen, Henk

    2017-03-01

    Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland that is considered to be one of the most frequent and costly diseases in the dairy industry. Also in Ethiopia, bovine mastitis is one of the most frequently encountered diseases of dairy cows. However, there was no study, so far, regarding the costs of clinical mastitis and only two studies were reported on costs of subclinical mastitis. Presenting an appropriate and complete study of the costs of mastitis will help farmers in making management decisions for mastitis control. The objective of this study was to estimate the economic effects of mastitis on Ethiopian market-oriented dairy farms. Market-oriented dairy farming is driven by making profits through selling milk in the market on a regular basis. A dynamic stochastic Monte-Carlo simulation model (bio-economic model) was developed taking into account both clinical and subclinical mastitis. Production losses, culling, veterinarian costs, treatment, discarded milk, and labour were the main cost factors which were modeled in this study. The annual incidence of clinical mastitis varied from 0 to 50% with a mean annual incidence of 21.6%, whereas the mean annual incidence of subclinical mastitis was 36.2% which varied between 0 and 75%. The total costs due to mastitis for a default farm size of 8 lactating cows were 6,709 ETB per year (838 ETB per cow per year). The costs varied considerably, with 5th and 95th percentiles of 109 ETB and 22,009 ETB, respectively. The factor most contributing to the total annual cost of mastitis was culling. On average a clinical case costs 3,631 ETB, varying from 0 to 12,401, whereas a sub clinical case costs 147 ETB, varying from 0 to 412. The sensitivity analysis showed that the total costs at the farm level were most sensitive for variation in the probability of occurrence of clinical mastitis and the probability of culling. This study helps farmers to raise awareness about the actual costs of mastitis and motivate them to timely

  8. Production and Energy Partition of Lactating Dairy Goats Fed Rations Containing Date Fruit Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yuniarti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dates fruit waste (DFW is a by-product of dates juice industry that contains high energy. So, it is suitable for an energy source in dairy goat ration. This study was conducted to observe the effect of DFW utilization in the ration on energy partition and productivity of lactating dairy goats. The experimental design was randomized block design using 9 primiparous lactating dairy goats. There were three types of ration as treatments used in this study, i.e. R0= 35% forage + 65% concentrate, R1= 35% forage + 55% concentrate + 10% DFW, and R2= 35% forage + 45% concentrate + 20% DFW. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and polynomial orthogonal test. The evaluated variables were dry matter intake (DMI, energy partition including energy intake, digestible and metabolizable energy, fecal and urine energy, energy in methane gas, and energy in milk, milk production and quality. The results showed that the linear decreased of DMI, energy intake, digestible energy, metabolizable energy, and urine energy with the increased of DFW level in the rations. The use of 10% DFW (R1 showed the lowest energy loss through feces and methane gas of all treatments about 1089.57 kcal/head/d and 2.36 kcal/head/d, respectively. The use of DFW did not affect energy retention in milk. The utilization of DFW in ration did not significantly prevent the decline of milk production and milk quality. It can be concluded that DFW can be used as an alternative feed for the lactating dairy goat up to 10% in the ration.

  9. Metrics and methods for characterizing dairy farm intensification using farm survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mejia, Alejandra; Styles, David; Wilson, Paul; Gibbons, James

    2018-01-01

    Evaluation of agricultural intensification requires comprehensive analysis of trends in farm performance across physical and socio-economic aspects, which may diverge across farm types. Typical reporting of economic indicators at sectorial or the "average farm" level does not represent farm diversity and provides limited insight into the sustainability of specific intensification pathways. Using farm business data from a total of 7281 farm survey observations of English and Welsh dairy farms over a 14-year period we calculate a time series of 16 key performance indicators (KPIs) pertinent to farm structure, environmental and socio-economic aspects of sustainability. We then apply principle component analysis and model-based clustering analysis to identify statistically the number of distinct dairy farm typologies for each year of study, and link these clusters through time using multidimensional scaling. Between 2001 and 2014, dairy farms have largely consolidated and specialized into two distinct clusters: more extensive farms relying predominantly on grass, with lower milk yields but higher labour intensity, and more intensive farms producing more milk per cow with more concentrate and more maize, but lower labour intensity. There is some indication that these clusters are converging as the extensive cluster is intensifying slightly faster than the intensive cluster, in terms of milk yield per cow and use of concentrate feed. In 2014, annual milk yields were 6,835 and 7,500 l/cow for extensive and intensive farm types, respectively, whilst annual concentrate feed use was 1.3 and 1.5 tonnes per cow. For several KPIs such as milk yield the mean trend across all farms differed substantially from the extensive and intensive typologies mean. The indicators and analysis methodology developed allows identification of distinct farm types and industry trends using readily available survey data. The identified groups allow the accurate evaluation of the consequences of the

  10. Metrics and methods for characterizing dairy farm intensification using farm survey data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Gonzalez-Mejia

    Full Text Available Evaluation of agricultural intensification requires comprehensive analysis of trends in farm performance across physical and socio-economic aspects, which may diverge across farm types. Typical reporting of economic indicators at sectorial or the "average farm" level does not represent farm diversity and provides limited insight into the sustainability of specific intensification pathways. Using farm business data from a total of 7281 farm survey observations of English and Welsh dairy farms over a 14-year period we calculate a time series of 16 key performance indicators (KPIs pertinent to farm structure, environmental and socio-economic aspects of sustainability. We then apply principle component analysis and model-based clustering analysis to identify statistically the number of distinct dairy farm typologies for each year of study, and link these clusters through time using multidimensional scaling. Between 2001 and 2014, dairy farms have largely consolidated and specialized into two distinct clusters: more extensive farms relying predominantly on grass, with lower milk yields but higher labour intensity, and more intensive farms producing more milk per cow with more concentrate and more maize, but lower labour intensity. There is some indication that these clusters are converging as the extensive cluster is intensifying slightly faster than the intensive cluster, in terms of milk yield per cow and use of concentrate feed. In 2014, annual milk yields were 6,835 and 7,500 l/cow for extensive and intensive farm types, respectively, whilst annual concentrate feed use was 1.3 and 1.5 tonnes per cow. For several KPIs such as milk yield the mean trend across all farms differed substantially from the extensive and intensive typologies mean. The indicators and analysis methodology developed allows identification of distinct farm types and industry trends using readily available survey data. The identified groups allow the accurate evaluation of the

  11. Ammonia losses and nitrogen partitioning at a southern High Plains open lot dairy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Richard W.; Cole, N. Andy; Hagevoort, G. Robert; Casey, Kenneth D.; Auvermann, Brent W.

    2015-06-01

    Animal agriculture is a significant source of ammonia (NH3). Cattle excrete most ingested nitrogen (N); most urinary N is converted to NH3, volatilized and lost to the atmosphere. Open lot dairies on the southern High Plains are a growing industry and face environmental challenges as well as reporting requirements for NH3 emissions. We quantified NH3 emissions from the open lot and wastewater lagoons of a commercial New Mexico dairy during a nine-day summer campaign. The 3500-cow dairy consisted of open lot, manure-surfaced corrals (22.5 ha area). Lactating cows comprised 80% of the herd. A flush system using recycled wastewater intermittently removed manure from feeding alleys to three lagoons (1.8 ha area). Open path lasers measured atmospheric NH3 concentration, sonic anemometers characterized turbulence, and inverse dispersion analysis was used to quantify emissions. Ammonia fluxes (15-min) averaged 56 and 37 μg m-2 s-1 at the open lot and lagoons, respectively. Ammonia emission rate averaged 1061 kg d-1 at the open lot and 59 kg d-1 at the lagoons; 95% of NH3 was emitted from the open lot. The per capita emission rate of NH3 was 304 g cow-1 d-1 from the open lot (41% of N intake) and 17 g cow-1 d-1 from lagoons (2% of N intake). Daily N input at the dairy was 2139 kg d-1, with 43, 36, 19 and 2% of the N partitioned to NH3 emission, manure/lagoons, milk, and cows, respectively.

  12. ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF TROPICAL THEILERIOSIS ON A HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN DAIRY FARM IN PAKISTAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Muhammad; Haroon, Akbar; Rashid, Muhmmad Imran; Khalid, Saeed; Liaquat, Ahmad; Saghir, Abdullah; Wasim, Shehzad; Saher, Islam; Shahid, Farooqi

    2018-03-09

    The dairy industry in Pakistan is booming and investors are anxious to fund dairy farms that are using high milk producing (exotic) cattle breeds such as Holsteins that are not native to the country. Unfortunately, the benefits of increased milk production do not provide resistance to pathogens present in regions where the exotic breeds are introduced. Therefore, the current study was conducted to evaluate the economic impact of Theileria annulata on a commercial Holstein dairy farm in the District of Ranjanpur, in the Province of Punjab, Pakistan. The economic impact of T. annulata infection was calculated for cattle with subclinical and clinical theileriosis. Losses were estimated based on milk production, morbidity, mortality and tick control costs (organophosphate sprays). Animals were classified into groups after screening for mastitis, teat abnormality, abnormal parturition, intestinal parasites and hemoparasites (T. annulata, Babesia spp., and Anaplasma spp.). Microscopy was done for hemoparasites and intestinal parasites. PCR was used to confirm microscopic identification of T. annulata. Animals were classified into 3 groups, comprising group A (normal), group B (subclinical theileriosis) and group C (acute theileriosis). Hemoparasites were observed microscopically in 28.7% of cows. Theileria annulata was found in 8% and the herd incidence (new cases) of T. annulata was 2.8%. Milk production, animal rectal temperature and body condition scores of group A with B and C were significantly different (P0.05). The total expenditure incurred due to theileriosis was US $74.98 per animal and 13.83% of total farm costs. Hence theileriosis caused significant economic loss of US $18743.76 (0.02 million) on this Holstein Friesian dairy.

  13. A space-time analysis of Mycoplasma bovis: bulk tank milk antibody screening results from all Danish dairy herds in 2013-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arede, Margarida; Nielsen, Per Kantsø; Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is an important pathogen causing severe disease outbreaks in cattle farms. Since 2011, there has been an apparent increase in M. bovis outbreaks among Danish dairy cattle herds. The dairy cattle industry performed cross-sectional antibody screening for M. bovis on four occasions...... population throughout the study period. Repeated bulk tank milk samples were used as a proxy for the herd-level diagnosis. Descriptive and spatial analyses were performed for the four screening rounds. Based on a previous diagnostic test evaluation study, the M. bovis status for each herd was determined...

  14. Dairy Food at the First Occasion of Eating Is Important for Total Dairy Food Intake for Australian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm D. Riley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The cross-sectional 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey collected detailed dietary information from a representative sample of more than 4400 children by 24-h dietary recall. Dairy food intake by Australian children is substantially lower than recommendations, and decreases as a percentage of energy intake as children grow older. Children aged 2 to 16 years are, on average, 2.3 times more likely to have a dairy food at the first daily occasion of eating, than at the second occasion. For children who consumed any dairy food at the first occasion of eating, the total daily intake of dairy foods was 129% (95% CI 120%–138% greater than for children who did not consume a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. Their dairy food intake for the rest of the day following the first occasion of eating was also greater by 29% (95% CI 21%–37%. Younger age group, male sex, location of eating being at home or in a residence and starting the first occasion of eating from 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. are all jointly associated with having a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. A simple strategy to increase Australian children’s intake from the dairy and alternatives food group may be to make sure that the first occasion of eating each day includes a dairy food or a nutritional equivalent.

  15. Prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody to Neospora caninum in dairy cattle of Hamedan province, west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Gharekhani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine neosporosis caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasite N. caninum, was initially recognized in 1989 and is now reported as a leading infectious cause of reproductive failure in dairy cattle in world wide. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in industrial dairy cattle of Hamedan province (west of Iran by ELISA method. Blood samples were collected from 492 cattle in 41 farms. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 63(12.80% sera. A Significant difference was observed between seropositive cattle and dog presence in farm, dog contact with herd, abortion history and herd population. No significant differences were found between seropositive cattle and age as well as breed. This study is the first report of N. caninum infection in dairy cattle farms in Hamedan province. As per our knowledge, Neospora is an important factor in abortion of cattle in this region. Therefore, comprehensive studies for control strategies and improving management of dairy farms is necessary.

  16. Diversity and antibiotic susceptibility of autochthonous dairy enterococci isolates: Are they safe candidates for autochthonous starter cultures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarela eTerzić-Vidojević

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci represent the most controversial group of dairy bacteria. They are found to be the main constituent of many traditional Mediterranean dairy products and contribute to their characteristic taste and flavor. On the other hand, during the last 50 years antibiotic-resistant enterococci have emerged as leading causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity, technological properties, antibiotic susceptibility and virulence traits of 636 enterococci previously isolated from 55 artisan dairy products from 12 locations in the Western Balkan countries of Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. All strains were identified both by microbiological and molecular methods. The predominant species was Enterococcus durans, followed by E. faecalis and E. faecium. Over 44% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, while 26.2% of the isolates were multi-resistant to three or more antibiotics belonging to different families. 185 isolates (29.1% were susceptible to all 13 of the antibiotics tested. The antibiotic-susceptible isolates were further tested for possible virulence genes and the production of biogenic amines. Finally, five enterococci isolates were found to be antibiotic susceptible with good technological characteristics and without virulence traits or the ability to produce biogenic amines, making them possible candidates for biotechnological application as starter cultures in the dairy industry.

  17. Process industry properties in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hualing

    2005-01-01

    In this article the writer has described the definition of process industry, expounded the fact classifying nuclear industry as process industry, compared the differences between process industry and discrete industry, analysed process industry properties in nuclear industry and their important impact, and proposed enhancing research work on regularity of process industry in nuclear industry. (authors)

  18. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finnish dairy cows: changes during recent decades and impact of cow and herd factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiitiö, Heidi; Vakkamäki, Johanna; Simojoki, Heli; Autio, Tiina; Junnila, Jouni; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Pyörälä, Satu

    2017-04-20

    The dairy industry has undergone substantial structural changes as intensive farming has developed during recent decades. Mastitis continues to be the most common production disease of dairy cows. Nationwide surveys of mastitis prevalence are useful in monitoring udder health of dairy herds and to study the impact of structural changes on the dairy industry. This survey on bovine subclinical mastitis was the first based on cow composite milk somatic cell count (SCC) data from the Finnish national health monitoring and milk recording database. A cow with composite milk SCC ≥200,000 cells/ml in at least one of the four test milkings during the year was considered to have subclinical mastitis and a cow with composite milk SCC ≥200,000 cells/ml in three or in all four test milkings during the year to have chronic subclinical mastitis. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and chronic subclinical mastitis in Finland in 1991, 2001 and 2010 and to investigate cow and herd factors associated with elevated SCC. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finland decreased over recent decades from 22.3% (1991) and 20.1% (2001) to 19.0% (2010). Prevalence of chronic subclinical mastitis was 20.4% in 1991, 15.5% in 2001 and 16.1% in 2010. The most significant cow and herd factors associated with subclinical mastitis or high milk SCC were increasing parity, Holstein breed, free-stalls with an automatic milking system and organic production. Milk SCC were highest from July to September. Main factors associated with chronic mastitis were increasing parity and Holstein breed. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finland decreased over recent decades, the greatest change taking place during the first decade of the study. Prevalence of chronic subclinical mastitis significantly decreased from 1991. The most significant factors associated with both types of mastitis were increasing parity and Holstein breed, and for subclinical mastitis also

  19. Trueperella pyogenes and Brucella abortus Coinfection in a Dog and a Cat on a Dairy Farm in Egypt with Recurrent Cases of Mastitis and Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Wareth

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Trueperella pyogenes was isolated from a dog and a cat with a mixed infection with Brucella abortus. Both lived on a dairy cattle farm with a history of regular cases of abortion and mastitis. Identification of the bacteria was done by means of MALDI-TOF MS, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP based on cpn60, partial 16S rRNA sequencing, and growth on Loeffler Serum Medium. Isolation of Trueperella pyogenes on the dairy farm highlights its neglected role in reproduction failure and draws attention to its effects in the dairy industry in Egypt. Diagnosis and control of abortion in Egypt should include Trueperella pyogenes as one of possible causes of abortion.

  20. Stochastic Simulation Using @ Risk for Dairy Business Investment Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A dynamic, stochastic, mechanistic simulation model of a dairy business was developed to evaluate the cost and benefit streams coinciding with technology investments. The model was constructed to embody the biological and economical complexities of a dairy farm system within a partial budgeting fram...

  1. Environmental impact of heifer management decisions on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, M.C.M.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Dairy farming contributes substantially to Dutch environmental problems. A dynamic heifer rearing model was used to determine the extent to which the rearing activity influences nutrient flows on a dairy farm. Based on current rearing conditions, the economic optimal rearing policy resulted in an

  2. Policies and Strategies for Eco-Friendly Dairy Product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziggers, G.W.; Conte, F.; Del Nobile, M.A.; Faccia, M.; Zambrini, A.V.; Conte, A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in, and market for, eco-friendly dairy production, a large-scale transition is not taking place. This is partly explained by the institutional context, since dairy production is organized in supply chains that generate interdependencies and, in turn, are subject to

  3. Biomarkers and mechanisms of natural disease resistance in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altena, van S.E.C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to define and test biomarkers for disease resistance in dairy cows and to determine the underlying mechanism in natural disease resistance. The health status of the cows is an important issue in dairy farming. Due to the mandatory reduction in the use of antibiotics,

  4. Environmental sensitivity in dairy cattle with focus on fertility traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismael, Ahmed; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling

    2012-01-01

    Dairy cattle differ in production, fertility, health, and other important traits in the different environment as both the phenopypic and genetic level (Winding et la., 2005 and Calus et al., 2005). Fertility of Nordic dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Red, Jersey) is a complex trait and the heritabi...

  5. Processing Challenges and Opportunities of Camel Dairy Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berhe, Tesfemariam; Seifu, Eyassu; Ipsen, Richard

    2017-01-01

    to bovine milk. Nonetheless, the relative composition, distribution, and the molecular structure of the milk components are reported to be different. Consequently, manufacturing of camel dairy products such as cheese, yoghurt, or butter using the same technology as for dairy products from bovine milk can...

  6. International Genetic Evaluations for Feed intake in Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry, Dognah; Coffey, Mike; Pryce, Jennie E

    2013-01-01

    Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information on which to make selection decisions. Individual cow feed intake data...

  7. Dairy production in some selected integrated farms in Sokoto State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of eight integrated farms in four local government areas of Sokoto state in north-western Nigeria revealed the following about dairy production on such farms:breed of cattle kept, Sokoto Gudali, Friesian, and Sahiwal; average dairy herd size,69.4 head; husbandry system was largely semi-intensive; milking was ...

  8. Genomic regulation of oestrous behaviour in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommadath, A.

    2012-01-01

    Concurrent to the impressive improvement achieved over the last few decades for the trait of milk production in dairy cows was a steady decline in several fertility traits including oestrous behaviour (OB). An understanding of the genomic regulation of OB, which is currently lacking in dairy

  9. Coagulase-negative staphylococci mastitis in Dutch dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampimon, O.C.

    2009-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most important diseases in dairy cattle. Recently, the so-called minor pathogens, of which coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most important group of bacteria, has received more attention. This thesis focuses on the role of CNS in udder health of dairy cows. The

  10. Assessment on Peri-Urban Dairy Production System and Evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment on Peri-Urban Dairy Production System and Evaluation of Quality of Cows' Raw Milk: A Case of Shambu, Fincha and Kombolcha Towns of Horro Guduru Wollega Zone, Ethiopia. ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... Keywords: Bacterial load Ethiopia Horro Guduru Peri-Urban Dairying Raw milk ...

  11. Perceived challenges in business development of smallholder dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dairy farmers face various challenges in developing their businesses. The current literature identifies several constraints towards a more efficient dairy sector that relate mostly to on-farm management practices. The available studies analyze constraints mostly from the objective viewpoint of the researcher, whereas very ...

  12. Genetic background of claw health in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, van der D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Van der Spek, D. (2015). Genetic background of claw health in dairy cattle. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands.

    Claw disorders affect cow welfare and profitability of farms and as such are important traits relevant to dairy cattle breeding.

  13. Diagnosis of pregnancy in dairy cows based on the progesterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnosis of pregnancy in dairy cows based on the progesterone content of milk. Part 1. ... best overall classification of dairy cows into pregnant and non-pregnant groups (confirmed by rectal palpation). Progesterone levels ... Teen 'n diskriminante progesteroonwaarde van 5 ng/ml melk het hierdie funksie 98,0% van alle ...

  14. Prevalence of Mastitis and Effectiveness of Mastitis Control in Dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed prevalence of mastitis and effectiveness of mastitis control in dairy cattle in Mathira constituency. Data regarding occurrence of mastitis, farmers' current practices in mastitis control, and administering a questionnaire to 76 smallholder farmers collected their knowledge about dairy cow mastitis. Quarter ...

  15. Contribution of Dairy to Nutrient Intake in the Western Diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, Kasper; Valenberg, van Hein

    2017-01-01

    Milk and dairy products play an important role in providing nutrients in both Western and developing countries. Most research in this area focuses on the intake of individual nutrients from food products, like dairy products. However, nutrients are not consumed, and do not function, in isolation.

  16. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in dairy cows in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in dairy cows in subtropical southern China. ... Dairy cows with the history of 5 pregnancies had the highest seroprevalence (33.3%). However, no statistically significant association was found between M. bovis infection and age or number of pregnancies (p > 0.05). All the ...

  17. Tracking antibiotic resistance genes in soil irrigated with dairy wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    In southern Idaho, the application of dairy wastewater to agricultural soils is a widely used practice to irrigate crops and recycle nutrients. In this study, small-scale field plots were irrigated monthly (6 times) with dairy wastewater (100%), wastewater diluted to 50% with irrigation (canal) wate...

  18. Stochastic simulation using @Risk for dairy business investment decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bewley, J.D.; Boehlje, M.D.; Gray, A.W.; Hogeveen, H.; Kenyon, S.J.; Eicher, S.D.; Schutz, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a dynamic, stochastic, mechanistic simulation model of a dairy business to evaluate the cost and benefit streams coinciding with technology investments. The model was constructed to embody the biological and economical complexities of a dairy farm

  19. Potential effects of accumulating environmental policies on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentsen, P.B.M.; Tiessink, M.

    2003-01-01

    Consequences for farm management, environment, and economics of environmental policies for Dutch dairy farms were examined through modeling with two policies applied successively to typical dairy farms. Both policies aim to decrease nutrient losses in the soil. The first policy, the Mineral

  20. Factors influencing energy demand in dairy farming | Kraatz | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of energy utilization is one of the key indicators for developing more sustainable agricultural practices. Factors influencing the energy demand in dairy farming are the cumulative energy demand for feed-supply, milk yield as well as the replacement rate of cows. The energy demand of dairy farming is ...

  1. Antagonism in the carbon footprint between beef and dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The higher increase in production (milk) of intensive dairy cows, compared to the increase in production (calf weight) of intensive beef cows, explains the antagonism in the carbon footprint between different beef and dairy production systems. Unfortunately, carbon sequestration estimates have been neglected and thus the ...

  2. Therapeutic potential of dairy bioactive peptides: A contemporary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Saira; Huma, Nuzhat; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Aleem, Muhammad; Abbas, Munawar

    2018-01-02

    Dairy products are associated with numerous health benefits. These are a good source of nutrients such as carbohydrates, protein (bioactive peptides), lipids, minerals, and vitamins, which are essential for growth, development, and maintenance of the human body. Accordingly, dairy bioactive peptides are one of the targeted compounds present in different dairy products. Dairy bioactive compounds can be classified as antihypertensive, anti-oxidative, immmunomodulant, anti-mutagenic, antimicrobial, opoid, anti-thrombotic, anti-obesity, and mineral-binding agents, depending upon biological functions. These bioactive peptides can easily be produced by enzymatic hydrolysis, and during fermentation and gastrointestinal digestion. For this reason, fermented dairy products, such as yogurt, cheese, and sour milk, are gaining popularity worldwide, and are considered excellent source of dairy peptides. Furthermore, fermented and non-fermented dairy products are associated with lower risks of hypertension, coagulopathy, stroke, and cancer insurgences. The current review article is an attempt to disseminate general information about dairy peptides and their health claims to scientists, allied stakeholders, and, certainly, readers.

  3. Sprouted barley for dairy cows: Is it worth it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouted grains have gained renewed interest among grazing dairy farmers in response to high grain prices, grain scarcity (in the organic dairy sector) and challenges in producing high-quality forages. This interest has been spurred by high-profile advertising by companies selling the systems, as we...

  4. Dairy consumption and patterns of mortality of Australian adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonthuis, M.; Hughes, M.C.B.; Ibiebele, T.I.; Green, A.C.; Pols, van der J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Dairy foods contain various nutrients that may affect health. We investigated whether intake of dairy products or related nutrients is associated with mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and all causes. Subjects/Methods: We carried out a 16-year prospective

  5. Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of Brucellosis in dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine brucellosis is a contagious disease of cattle causing reproductive failure, loss of milk production and zoonosis worldwide. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted on 816 dairy cattle (449 were cows) from 60 dairy farms to determine the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis ...

  6. Major advances in testing of dairy products: milk component and dairy product attribute testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbano, D M; Lynch, J M

    2006-04-01

    Milk component analysis is relatively unusual in the field of quantitative analytical chemistry because an analytical test result determines the allocation of very large amounts of money between buyers and sellers of milk. Therefore, there is high incentive to develop and refine these methods to achieve a level of analytical performance rarely demanded of most methods or laboratory staff working in analytical chemistry. In the last 25 yr, well-defined statistical methods to characterize and validate analytical method performance combined with significant improvements in both the chemical and instrumental methods have allowed achievement of improved analytical performance for payment testing. A shift from marketing commodity dairy products to the development, manufacture, and marketing of value added dairy foods for specific market segments has created a need for instrumental and sensory approaches and quantitative data to support product development and marketing. Bringing together sensory data from quantitative descriptive analysis and analytical data from gas chromatography olfactometry for identification of odor-active compounds in complex natural dairy foods has enabled the sensory scientist and analytical chemist to work together to improve the consistency and quality of dairy food flavors.

  7. A survey of silage management practices on California dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heguy, J M; Meyer, D; Silva-Del-Río, N

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to gather baseline information on corn silage-management practices to develop an outreach curriculum for dairy producers and growers. In spring 2013, dairy producers in the San Joaquin Valley (California) were surveyed on their silage-management practices. Response rate was 14.5% (n=160) and herd size averaged 1,512 milking cows. Harvest date was set solely by the dairy producer (53.4%) or with the assistance of the crop manager, custom chopper, or nutritionist (23.3%). On some dairies (23.3%), the dairy producer delegated the harvest date decision. Most dairies (75.0%) estimated crop dry matter before harvest, and the preferred method was milk line evaluation. Dairy producers were mostly unfamiliar with harvest rate but the number [1 (35.9%), 2 (50.3%), or 3 to 5 (13.8%)] and size [6-row (17.7%), 8-row (67.3%), or 10-row (15.0%)] of choppers working simultaneously was reported. Most dairies used a single packing tractor (68.8%) and weighed every load of fresh chopped corn delivered to the silage pit (62%). During harvest, dry matter (66.9%), particle length (80.4%), and kernel processing (92.5%) were monitored. Most dairies completed filling their largest silage structure in less than 3 d (48.5%) or in 4 to 7 d (30.9%). Silage covering was completed no later than 7 2h after structure completion in all dairies, and was often completed within 24 h (68.8%). Packed forage was covered as filled in 19.6% of dairies. Temporary covers were used on some dairies (51.0%), with filling durations of 1 to 60 d. When temporary covers were not used, structures were filled in no more than 15 d. After structure closure, silage feedout started in 1 to 3 wk (44.4%), 4 to 5 wk (31.4%), or 8 or more wk (24.2%). Future considerations included increasing the silage storage area (55.9%), increasing the number of packing tractors (37.0%), planting brown mid-rib varieties (34.4%), buying a defacer to remove silage (33.1%), and creating drive-over piles (32

  8. Ratio analysis specifics of the family dairies' financial statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the evaluation of the financial analysis specifics of the dairy enterprises with a focus on the implementation of the ratio analysis of financial statements. The ratio analysis is a central part of financial analysis, since it is based on investigating the relationship between logically related items in the financial statements to assess the financial position of the observed enterprise and its earning capacity. Speaking about the reporting of financial performance in family dairies, the basis is created for displaying techniques of financial analysis, with a special indication on the specifics of their application in agricultural enterprises focusing on companies engaged in dairying. Applied in the paper is ratio analysis on the example of a dairy enterprise, i.e. a family dairy operating in Serbia. The ratio indicators are the basis for identifying relationships based on which by comparing the actual performance and certain business standards differences or variations are identified.

  9. Influence of Strategy Selection of Dairy Enterprises on Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoqun REN; Yucheng HE; Lisha HU

    2016-01-01

    Dairy enterprises have to cope with intense market pressure and survival pressure.In such complex and competitive market environment,it is of great realistic significance for studying the influence of strategy selection of dairy enterprises on their performance.Through selecting 115 dairy enterprises,empirical analysis was made,and multiple linear regression model and structural equation model were established with the aid of SPSS and Amos software.Comparative analysis was carried out for performance of different strategy selection.Results indicate that dairy enterprises selecting vertical strategies obtain the best performance,followed by horizontal strategy,and the worst is multiple strategy,and the strategy selection exerts positive and direct influence on performance of dairy enterprises.

  10. Industrial Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  11. Industrial symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacchi, Romain; Remmen, Arne

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the development of industrial symbiosis through a practical model for physical, organizational, and social interactions in six different cases from around the world. The results provide a framework that can be used by industrial symbiosis practitioners to facilitate the creation...

  12. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heravi Mosavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  13. 2001 Industry Studies: Services Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cervone, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... has maintained its economic strength in traditional services industries such as transportation, tourism, public utilities, finance and insurance, accounting, engineering, architecture, medical, legal...

  14. Industrial garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The state of the global industrial garnet industry in 1999 is discussed. Industrial garnet mined in the U.S., which accounts for approximately one-third of the world's total, is usually a solid-solution of almandine and pyrope. The U.S. is the largest consumer of industrial garnet, using an estimated 47,800 st in 1999 as an abrasive and as a filtration medium in the petroleum industry, filtration plants, aircraft and motor vehicle manufacture, shipbuilding, wood furniture finishing operations, electronic component manufacture, ceramics manufacture, and glass production. Prices for crude concentrates ranged from approximately $50 to $110/st and refined garnet from $50 to $215/st in 1999, depending on type, source, quantity purchased, quality, and application.

  15. Industry honoured

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN has organised a day to thank industry for its exceptional contributions to the LHC project. Lucio Rossi addresses CERN’s industrial partners in the Main Auditorium.The LHC inauguration provided an opportunity for CERN to thank all those who have contributed to transforming this technological dream into reality. Industry has been a major player in this adventure. Over the last decade it has lent its support to CERN’s teams and participating institutes in developing, building and assembling the machine, its experiments and the computing infrastructure. CERN involved its industrial partners in the LHC inauguration by organising a special industry prize-giving day on 20 October. Over 70 firms accepted the invitation. The firms not only made fundamental contributions to the project, but some have also supported LHC events in 2008 and the inauguration ceremony through generous donations, which have been coordinated by Carmen Dell’Erba, who is responsible for secu...

  16. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...... of the system industry has to inform at the planning stage and afterwards in yearly reports on their waste arising and how the waste is managed. If available such information is very helpful in obtaining information about that specific industry. However, in many countries there is very little information...

  17. A 100-Year Review: Metabolic modifiers in dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffey, R K

    2017-12-01

    The first issue of the Journal of Dairy Science in 1917 opened with the text of the speech by Raymond A. Pearson, president of the Iowa State College of Agriculture, at the dedication of the new dairy building at the University of Nebraska (J. Dairy Sci. 1:4-18, 1917). Fittingly, this was the birth of a new research facility and more importantly, the beginning of a new journal devoted to the sciences of milk production and manufacture of products from milk. Metabolic modifiers of dairy cow metabolism enhance, change, or interfere with normal metabolic processes in the ruminant digestive tract or alter postabsorption partitioning of nutrients among body tissues. Papers on metabolic modifiers became more frequent in the journal around 1950. Dairy farming changed radically between 1955 and 1965. Changes in housing and feeding moved more cows outside, and cows and heifers in all stages of lactation, including the dry period, were fed as a single group. Rations became wetter with the shift to corn silage as the major forage in many rations. Liberal grain feeding met the requirements of high-producing cows and increased production per cow but introduced new challenges; for example, managing and feeding cows as a group. These changes led to the introduction of new strategies that identified and expanded the use of metabolic modifiers. Research was directed at characterizing the new problems for the dairy cow created by group feeding. Metabolic modifiers went beyond feeding the cow and included environmental and housing factors and additives to reduce the incidence and severity of many new conditions and pathologies. New collaborations began among dairy cattle specialties that broadened our understanding of the workings of the cow. The Journal of Dairy Science then and now plays an enormously important role in dissemination of the findings of dairy scientists worldwide that address existing and new technologies. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association

  18. Ammonia emissions from dairy production in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, L A; Flesch, T K; Powell, J M; Coblentz, W K; Jokela, W E; Martin, N P

    2009-05-01

    Ammonia gas is the only significant basic gas that neutralizes atmospheric acid gases produced from combustion of fossil fuels. This reaction produces an aerosol that is a component of atmospheric haze, is implicated in nitrogen (N) deposition, and may be a potential human health hazard. Because of the potential impact of NH3 emissions, environmentally and economically, the objective of this study was to obtain representative and accurate NH3 emissions data from large dairy farms (>800 cows) in Wisconsin. Ammonia concentrations and climatic measurements were made on 3 dairy farms during winter, summer, and autumn to calculate emissions using an inverse-dispersion analysis technique. These study farms were confinement systems utilizing freestall housing with nearby sand separators and lagoons for waste management. Emissions were calculated from the whole farm including the barns and any waste management components (lagoons and sand separators), and from these components alone when possible. During winter, the lagoons' NH3 emissions were very low and not measurable. During autumn and summer, whole-farm emissions were significantly larger than during winter, with about two-thirds of the total emissions originating from the waste management systems. The mean whole-farm NH3 emissions in winter, autumn, and summer were 1.5, 7.5, and 13.7% of feed N inputs emitted as NH3-N, respectively. Average annual emission comparisons on a unit basis between the 3 farms were similar at 7.0, 7.5, and 8.4% of input feed N emitted as NH3-N, with an annual average for all 3 farms of 7.6 +/- 1.5%. These winter, summer, autumn, and average annual NH3 emissions are considerably smaller than currently used estimates for dairy farms, and smaller than emissions from other types of animal-feeding operations.

  19. Major advances in fundamental dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drackley, J K; Donkin, S S; Reynolds, C K

    2006-04-01

    Fundamental nutrition seeks to describe the complex biochemical reactions involved in assimilation and processing of nutrients by various tissues and organs, and to quantify nutrient movement (flux) through those processes. Over the last 25 yr, considerable progress has been made in increasing our understanding of metabolism in dairy cattle. Major advances have been made at all levels of biological organization, including the whole animal, organ systems, tissues, cells, and molecules. At the whole-animal level, progress has been made in delineating metabolism during late pregnancy and the transition to lactation, as well as in whole-body use of energy-yielding substrates and amino acids for growth in young calves. An explosion of research using multicatheterization techniques has led to better quantitative descriptions of nutrient use by tissues of the portal-drained viscera (digestive tract, pancreas, and associated adipose tissues) and liver. Isolated tissue preparations have provided important information on the interrelationships among glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism in liver, adipose tissue, and mammary gland, as well as the regulation of these pathways during different physiological states. Finally, the last 25 yr has witnessed the birth of "molecular biology" approaches to understanding fundamental nutrition. Although measurements of mRNA abundance for proteins of interest already have provided new insights into regulation of metabolism, the next 25 yr will likely see remarkable advances as these techniques continue to be applied to problems of dairy cattle biology. Integration of the "omics" technologies (functional genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) with measurements of tissue metabolism obtained by other methods is a particularly exciting prospect for the future. The result should be improved animal health and well being, more efficient dairy production, and better models to predict nutritional requirements and provide rations to meet

  20. Coxiella burnetii shedding by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guatteo, Raphaël; Beaudeau, François; Joly, Alain; Seegers, Henri

    2007-01-01

    While shedding routes of Coxiella burnetii are identified, the characteristics of Coxiella shedding are still widely unknown, especially in dairy cattle. However, this information is crucial to assess the natural course of Coxiella burnetii infection within a herd and then to elaborate strategies to limit the risks of transmission between animals and to humans. The present study aimed at (i) describing the characteristics of Coxiella burnetii shedding by dairy cows (in milk, vaginal mucus, faeces) in five infected dairy herds, and at (ii) investigating the possible relationships between shedding patterns and serological responses. A total of 145 cows were included in a follow-up consisting of seven concomitant samplings of milk, vaginal mucus, faeces and blood (Day 0, D7, D14, D21, D28, D63, D90). Detection and quantification of Coxiella burnetii titres were performed in milk, vaginal mucus and faeces samples using real-time PCR assay, while antibodies against Coxiella were detected using an ELISA technique. For a given shedding route, and a given periodicity (weekly or monthly), cows were gathered into different shedding kinetic patterns according to the sequence of PCR responses. Distribution of estimated titres in Coxiella burnetii was described according to shedding kinetic patterns. Coxiella burnetii shedding was found scarcely and sporadically in faeces. Vaginal mucus shedding concerned almost 50% of the cows studied and was found intermittently or sporadically, depending on the periodicity considered. Almost 40% of cows were detected as milk shedders, with two predominant shedding patterns: persistent and sporadic, regardless of the sampling periodicity. Significantly higher estimated titres in Coxiella burnetii were observed in cows with persistent shedding patterns suggesting the existence of heavy shedder cows. These latter cows were mostly, persistently highly-seropositive, suggesting that repeated serological testings could be a reliable tool to screen