WorldWideScience

Sample records for dairy industry effluents

  1. Effluent generation by the dairy industry: preventive attitudes and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Brião

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Work aimed to identify the effluent is generating areas in a dairy company for purpose of changing concept pollution prevention. methodology consisted measuring volumes and collecting samples effluents production sectors. analysis was conducted by sector, order those which generated excessive amounts effluents. results show that dry products (powdered milk powdered whey are greatest generators BOD, nitrogen phosphorus, while fluid form (UHT milk, formulated UHT, pasteurized cream butter produced large quantities oils grease. solids recovery, waste segregation water reuse can be applied with saving potential as much R$ 28,000 ($ 11,200 per month only raw materials also environmental gains in pollution prevention.

  2. Incorporation of whey permeate, a dairy effluent, in ethanol fermentation to provide a zero waste solution for the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashar, Archana; Jin, Yiqiong; Mason, Beth; Chae, Michael; Bressler, David C

    2016-03-01

    This study proposes a novel alternative for utilization of whey permeate, a by-product stream from the dairy industry, in wheat fermentation for ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Whey permeates were hydrolyzed using enzymes to release fermentable sugars. Hydrolyzed whey permeates were integrated into wheat fermentation as a co-substrate or to partially replace process water. Cold starch hydrolysis-based simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was done as per the current industrial protocol for commercial wheat-to-ethanol production. Ethanol production was not affected; ethanol yield efficiency did not change when up to 10% of process water was replaced. Lactic acid bacteria in whey permeate did not negatively affect the co-fermentation or reduce ethanol yield. Whey permeate could be effectively stored for up to 4 wk at 4 °C with little change in lactose and lactic acid content. Considering the global abundance and nutrient value of whey permeate, the proposed strategy could improve economics of the dairy and biofuel sectors, and reduce environmental pollution. Furthermore, our research may be applied to fermentation strategies designed to produce value-added products other than ethanol. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of dairy effluent management options using multiple criteria analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajkowicz, Stefan A; Wheeler, Sarah A

    2008-04-01

    This article describes how options for managing dairy effluent on the Lower Murray River in South Australia were evaluated using multiple criteria analysis (MCA). Multiple criteria analysis is a framework for combining multiple environmental, social, and economic objectives in policy decisions. At the time of the study, dairy irrigation in the region was based on flood irrigation which involved returning effluent to the river. The returned water contained nutrients, salts, and microbial contaminants leading to environmental, human health, and tourism impacts. In this study MCA was used to evaluate 11 options against 6 criteria for managing dairy effluent problems. Of the 11 options, the MCA model selected partial rehabilitation of dairy paddocks with the conversion of remaining land to other agriculture. Soon after, the South Australian Government adopted this course of action and is now providing incentives for dairy farmers in the region to upgrade irrigation infrastructure and/or enter alternative industries.

  4. Rapid analysis of effluents generated by the dairy industry for fat determination by preconcentration in nylon membranes and attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner Martínez, Y; Muñoz-Ortuño, M; Herráez-Hernández, R; Campíns-Falcó, P

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a new approach for the determination of fat in the effluents generated by the dairy industry which is based on the retention of fat in nylon membranes and measurement of the absorbances on the membrane surface by ATR-IR spectroscopy. Different options have been evaluated for retaining fat in the membranes using milk samples of different origin and fat content. Based on the results obtained, a method is proposed for the determination of fat in effluents which involves the filtration of 1 mL of the samples through 0.45 µm nylon membranes of 13 mm diameter. The fat content is then determined by measuring the absorbance of band at 1745 cm(-1). The proposed method can be used for the direct estimation of fat at concentrations in the 2-12 mg/L interval with adequate reproducibility. The intraday precision, expressed as coefficients of variation CVs, were ≤ 11%, whereas the interday CVs were ≤ 20%. The method shows a good tolerance towards conditions typically found in the effluents generated by the dairy industry. The most relevant features of the proposed method are simplicity and speed as the samples can be characterized in a few minutes. Sample preparation does not involve either additional instrumentation (such as pumps or vacuum equipment) or organic solvents or other chemicals. Therefore, the proposed method can be considered a rapid, simple and cost-effective alternative to gravimetric methods for controlling fat content in these effluents during production or cleaning processes. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Methanization of industrial liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederic, S.; Lugardon, A.

    2007-01-01

    In a first part, this work deals with the theoretical aspects of the methanization of the industrial effluents; the associated reactional processes are detailed. The second part presents the technological criteria for choosing the methanization process in terms of the characteristics of the effluent to be treated. Some of the methanization processes are presented with their respective advantages and disadvantages. At last, is described the implementation of an industrial methanization unit. The size and the main choices are detailed: the anaerobic reactor, the control, the valorization aspects of the biogas produced. Some examples of industrial developments illustrate the different used options. (O.M.)

  6. Methanization of industrial liquid effluents; Methanisation des effluents industriels liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederic, S.; Lugardon, A. [Societe Naskeo Environnement, 92 - Levallois-Perret (France)

    2007-09-15

    In a first part, this work deals with the theoretical aspects of the methanization of the industrial effluents; the associated reactional processes are detailed. The second part presents the technological criteria for choosing the methanization process in terms of the characteristics of the effluent to be treated. Some of the methanization processes are presented with their respective advantages and disadvantages. At last, is described the implementation of an industrial methanization unit. The size and the main choices are detailed: the anaerobic reactor, the control, the valorization aspects of the biogas produced. Some examples of industrial developments illustrate the different used options. (O.M.)

  7. Treatment of dairy effluent model solutions by nanofiltration and reverse osmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kyrychuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dairy industry generates a large amount of wastewaters that have high concentrations and contain milk components. Membrane processes have been shown to be convenient for wastewater treatment recovering milk components present in wastewaters and producing treated water. Materials and methods. The experiments were carried out in an unstirred batch sell using nanofiltration membranes OPMN-P (ZAO STC “Vladipor”, Russian Federation and reverse osmosis membranes NanoRo, ZAO (“RM Nanotech”, Russian Federation. The model solutions of dairy effluents –diluted skim and whole milk were used. Results. The nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes showed the same permeate flux during the concentration of model solutions of dairy effluents. The reason of this was likely membrane fouling with feed components. The fouling indexes indicated the fouling factor that was higher for RO. The higher permeate quality was obtainedwith RO membranes. The NF permeate containing up to 0.4 g/L of lactose and 0.75 g/L of mineral salts can be discharged or after finishing trеatment (e.g. RO or other can be reused. The obtained NF and RO retentate corresponds to milk in composition and can be used for non-food applications or as feed supplement for animals. Conclusions.The studied RO and NF membranes can be used for concentration of dairy effluents at low pressure. They showed better performance and separation characteristics comparing with data of other membranes available in the literature.

  8. Two stage treatment of dairy effluent using immobilized Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dairy effluents contains high organic load and unscrupulous discharge of these effluents into aquatic bodies is a matter of serious concern besides deteriorating their water quality. Whilst physico-chemical treatment is the common mode of treatment, immobilized microalgae can be potentially employed to treat high organic content which offer numerous benefits along with waste water treatment. Methods A novel low cost two stage treatment was employed for the complete treatment of dairy effluent. The first stage consists of treating the diary effluent in a photobioreactor (1 L) using immobilized Chlorella pyrenoidosa while the second stage involves a two column sand bed filtration technique. Results Whilst NH4+-N was completely removed, a 98% removal of PO43--P was achieved within 96 h of two stage purification processes. The filtrate was tested for toxicity and no mortality was observed in the zebra fish which was used as a model at the end of 96 h bioassay. Moreover, a significant decrease in biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand was achieved by this novel method. Also the biomass separated was tested as a biofertilizer to the rice seeds and a 30% increase in terms of length of root and shoot was observed after the addition of biomass to the rice plants. Conclusions We conclude that the two stage treatment of dairy effluent is highly effective in removal of BOD and COD besides nutrients like nitrates and phosphates. The treatment also helps in discharging treated waste water safely into the receiving water bodies since it is non toxic for aquatic life. Further, the algal biomass separated after first stage of treatment was highly capable of increasing the growth of rice plants because of nitrogen fixation ability of the green alga and offers a great potential as a biofertilizer. PMID:24355316

  9. Short communication: Industrial effluent treatments using heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioflocculants produced by Herbaspirillium sp. CH7, Paenibacillus sp. CH11, Bacillus sp. CH15 and a Halomonas sp. were preliminarily evaluated as flocculating agents in the treatment of industrial wastewater effluents. Industrial (1 local chemical-industry and 2 textile-industry: Biavin 109-medium blue dye and Whale dye) ...

  10. Complementary cold water production for a dairy industry: the use of biogas generated in the effluent treatment station; Producao de agua gelada complementar para um laticinio: o uso do biogas produzido na estacao de tratamento de efluentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villela, I.A.C. [Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica de Lorena, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica Aplicada]. E-mail: iraides@debas.faenquil.br; Napoleao, D.A.S.; Silveira, J.L. [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: diovana@feg.unesp.br; joseluz@feg.unesp.br

    2000-07-01

    In this paper is analysed the possibility energetic utilization of biogas in the effluent treatment station of a medium dairy industry located in Sao Paulo state, Brazil. In this station is produced about 80 N m3/h of biogas, with a molar composition of 62,5% of CH{sub 4}, 13,4% of N{sub 2}, 5% of CO, 2,4% of CO{sub 2}, 2,4% of steam H{sub 2}O e 14,1% of H{sub 2}S. The generated biogas is today burning in a flair, according the national rule, with evident losses of energetic utilization potential.. The purpose of this paper is the direct utilization of this biogas to run an absorption refrigeration system utilizing H{sub 2}O + NH{sub 3} mixture. The level of H{sub 2}S in the biogas permits the energy recovery of the available heating minimum temperature level up to 230 deg C, according to the pinch point proceeding.This potential of energy recovery permits a complementation of the cold water production (7,3 kg/s) at 1 deg C. So, is made the energetic analysis of the proposed installation showing the technical feasibility of the actual use of the generated biogas, to produce useful energy. (author)

  11. Cytogenotoxicity evaluation of two industrial effluents using Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    textile effluent was 4.5 times more toxic than the paint effluent. ... Key words: Genotoxicity, paint, textile, industrial effluents, Allium cepa, mutation, pollution, chromosomal .... concentration of a chemical producing 50% of the total effect).

  12. Business opportunities in the Mexican dairy industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Armenta Gutierrez, B.M.; Poelarends, J.J.; Valk, van der O.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the Mexican and Dutch business opportunities in the dairy industry in Mexico. The report discusses first the external environment of the Mexican dairy sector: the economic developments, the country's overall competitiveness, and the economic and agricultural policies. Next, it

  13. Cyanobacterial flora from polluted industrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Amit; Shah, Vishal; Madamwar, Datta

    2006-05-01

    Effluents originating from pesticides, agro-chemicals, textile dyes and dyestuffs industries are always associated with high turbidity, colour, nutrient load, and heavy metals, toxic and persistent compounds. But even with such an anthropogenic nature, these effluents contain dynamic cyanobacterial communities. Documentation of cyanobacterial cultures along the water channels of effluents discharged by above mentioned industries along the west coast of India and their relationship with water quality is reported in this study. Intensity of pollution was evaluated by physico-chemical analysis of water. Higher load of solids, carbon and nutrients were found to be persistent throughout the analysis. Sediment and water samples were found to be colored in nature. Cyanobacterial community structure was found to be influenced by the anthropogenic pollution. 40 different cyanobacterial species were recorded from 14 genera of 5 families and an elevated occurrence of Phormidium, Oscillatoria and Chroococcus genera was observed in all the sampling sites.

  14. Agricultural utilization of industrial thermal effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillermin, P.; Delmas, J.; Grauby, A.

    1976-01-01

    An assessment is made of the utilization of thermal effluent for agricultural purpose (viz. early vegetables, cereals, trees). Heated waters are being used in field experiments on soil heating, improvement of agricultural procedures and crop yields. Thermal pollution cannot be removed yet it is reduced to acceptable limits. New prospects are open to traditional agriculture, leading towards a more competitive industrial model [fr

  15. Introduction to Effluent Treatment and Industrial Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 11. Techniques of WasteWater Treatment - Introduction to Effluent Treatment and Industrial Methods. Amol A Kulkarni Mugdha Deshpande A B Pandit. General Article Volume 5 Issue 11 November 2000 pp 56-68 ...

  16. Chromium removal from tanning industries effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudry, M.A.; Ahmad, S.

    1997-01-01

    Air and water are the basic needs of human being and other living entities on the earth. Tanning industry uses water and some chemicals and so creates environmental problems, depending basically on two principal sources, hide and water. The processes of tanning are based on chromium sulphate and vegetable treatment of hide. According to the national environmental quality standards (NEQS) the effluent or disposed water should contain phenol less than 0.5 ppm, Cr, sulphates, chloride and other salts content. About 30-40 liters of water are used to process one Kg of raw hide into finished goods. Total installed capacity of hides and skins chrome tanning is 53.5 million square meter, earning a large amount of foreign exchange for our country. In the present work, seven tanning industries effluents from the suburbs of Multan city have been collected and analysed. The pH of the liquors have been found to vary from 2.72 to 4.4 and the constituent Cr have been found to be from zero to 8000 ppm from vegetable to chrome tanning industrial effluents studied. The stages involved in tanning and treatment of the effluent water waste including chemical treatment of Cr has been described with a special reference to supported liquid membranes process for removal of chromium ions. (author)

  17. Recycling liquid effluents in a ceramic industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Almeida, B.; Almeida, M.; Martins, S.; Alexandra Macarico, V.; Tomas da Fonseca, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work is presented a study on the recycling of liquid effluents in a ceramic installation for sanitary industry. The effluents were characterized by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma to evaluate their compositions. It was also assessed the daily production rate. Several glaze-slurry mixtures were prepared and characterized according to procedures and equipment of the company's quality laboratory. The results show that for most of the properties, the tested mixtures exhibited acceptable performance. However, the pyro plasticity parameter is highly influenced by the glaze content and imposes the separation of glaze and slurry liquid effluents. In addition, it is necessary to invest on a storage plant, including tanks with constant stirring and a new pipeline structure to implement the reincorporation method on the slurry processing. (Author)

  18. A systems approach to the South African dairy industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elsabe Gagiano

    As the average productive life of dairy cows is 2.3 ... Keywords: Dairy cow, South Africa, dairy industry, milk production, milk price ..... optimize the entire production chain of the primary production systems, post harvest processes, transport,.

  19. Impact of industrial effluents on surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.

    2000-01-01

    The indiscriminate discharge of untreated municipal and industrial effluents has given rise to serious problems of water pollution and human health in Pakistan. The City of Lahore discharges about 365 mgd of wastewater with a BOD load of 250 tons per day, without treatment, into Ravi river. Because of the untreated industrial discharges, river Ravi is devoid of dissolved oxygen through most of its react between Lahore and Upper Chenab Canal under low flow conditions. Pollution levels can be controlled if each industry treats its own wastewater prior to disposal, in accordance with NEQS (Pakistan). (author)

  20. Ion exchange for treatment of industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Daudinot, Aurora Maria; Ge Leyva, Midalis

    2016-01-01

    The acid leaching and ammoniacal carbonate technologies of laterite respectively, are responsible for the low quality of life of the local population, the big deforested areas due to the mining tilling, the elevated contents of solids in the air and waters, as well as the chemical contamination by metals presence, the acidity or basicity of the effluents of both industries, that arrive through the river and the bay to aquifer's mantle. The ion exchange resins allow ions separation contained in low concentrations in the solutions, where the separation of these elements for solvents, extraction or another chemical methods would be costly. Technological variants are proposed in order to reduce the impact produced on the flora and the fauna, by the liquid effluents of nickel industry, by means of ion exchange resins introduction as well as the recuperation of metals and their re incorporation to the productive process. (Author)

  1. Evaluation of some industrial effluents in Jos metropolis, Plateau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sometimes effluents gain access into wells or streams within the community. Analyses aimed to determine the strength of effluents of three different industries in Jos metropolis: industry A (a food industry), industry B (a pharmaceutical outfit) and Industry C (a water treatment plant) using parameters such as physicochemical, ...

  2. Physiochemical Treatment of Textile Industry Effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, M. I.; Qazi, M. A.; Khan, H.; Ahmad, N.

    2015-01-01

    The study mainly focuses on the application of chemical Coagulants (Lime, Alum and Ferrous Sulfate) and Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) (Ozone Treatment and Fenton Process, alone and in combination) to treat textile industry effluents, optimization of coagulation process for various Coagulants in terms of process conditions, including coagulant dose, pH and settling time. The results revealed that Alum was most effective. The efficiency of coagulation process was dose dependent and 400 mg/L dose of Alum alone showed maximum color removal of 47%, 57% and 54% of yellow, red and blue dyes, respectively in addition to the COD removal of 44%. The combined applications of Alum and Lime (300:75 mg/L) and Lime and Alum (300:75 mg/L) showed slightly better COD removal of 51%. However, color removal efficiency of all coagulants was at par. The Ozonation process appeared the most promising for the treatment of waste water and color/COD removal, the efficiency of which increased with increasing the treatment time at constant Ozone dose. For less polluted effluents, 97% color removal was obtained after 1 minute and after 15 minutes for highly polluted effluents; The COD removal efficiency of the process for less polluted effluents was around 89% after 5 minutes Ozonation and for highly polluted effluents 88% COD removal after 40 minutes. The performance of Fenton process was extremely low as compared to Ozonation process. Increase in pH, significantly decreased the color removal efficiency of the process. COD removal efficiency of Fenton process increased with an increase in settling time. (author)

  3. Protein recovery from dairy industry wastes with aerobic biofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheatley, A D; Mitra, R I; Hawkes, H A

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to improve the economics of effluent treatment by the recovery of single cell protein. Field observations showed that acidic strong wastes, such as those from the dairy industry, produced a predominantly fungal biomass. Mixtures of dairy waste and domestic sewage did not produce fungal films. The most common fungi isolated were Fusarium and Geotrichum, but the species was affected by local conditions, i.e. creamery, yoghurt, milk or cheese wastes and the load to the plant. Batch culture was used to determine the growth requirements of Fusarium and Geotrichum and continuous culture, on vertical and horizontal fixed films, to determine growth and sloughing at different organic loads. The fungi grew well on acidic strong wastes which would discourage other organisms. A 1 cubic metre/hour pilot plant was built to treat the wastes from cheese, butter and cream production. The plant was run at pH 4-5 and at between 5 and 10 kg of BOD/day/cubic metres. BOD removal was between 30 and 50% and biomass production between 0.1 and 0.5 kg of dry solids/day. The filamentous fungal growth was separated from the tower effluent by an inclined screen. The amino acid content of the product was similar to other single-cell protein. Feeding trials are being carried out. (Refs. 14).

  4. Sulphate removal from industrial effluents through barium sulphate precipitation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swanepoel, H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The pollution of South Africa’s water resources puts a strain on an already stressed natural resource. One of the main pollution sources is industrial effluents such as acid mine drainage (AMD) and other mining effluents. These effluents usually...

  5. Invited review : Changes in the dairy industry affecting dairy cattle health and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkema, H W; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Kastelic, J P; Lam, T J G M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/14686820X; Luby, C; Roy, J-P; LeBlanc, S J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F

    2015-01-01

    The dairy industry in the developed world has undergone profound changes over recent decades. In this paper, we present an overview of some of the most important recent changes in the dairy industry that affect health and welfare of dairy cows, as well as the science associated with these changes.

  6. Effect of industrial effluents on the growth and anatomical structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors investigated the impact of industrial effluents from 5 different industrial concerns in Lagos, Nigeria on Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). During the study, it was observed that these effluents induced detrimental effects on the flowering, fruiting, stem length, leaf width and leaf length of okra. Other parameters ...

  7. The Role of Dairy Cattle Husbandry in Supporting The Development of National Dairy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Anggraeni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available An intensive development in Indonesian dairy industry has expanded over two decades. During this period, the structure of the national dairy industry has progressed completely. The capacity of the national fresh milk production, however, has been able to supply only 35% of domestic milk demand. The milk domestic demand is predicted to be continous due to the increases in the national population and their welfare. Raising temperate dairy breed (Holstein-Friesian under tropical climate has resulted many deteriorates in productivity. More inferiority has been found under a semi-intensive management at small dairy farms. The existence of various changes in the global trade regulation for agriculture commodities has been a considerable factor directly affecting the future development of the national dairy industry. Increasing efficiency of various determinant components of the national dairy industry is required to produce domestic fresh milk in a good quality at a competitive price. This paper is dealing with the status of various determined factors especially for dairy livestock components to improve the future national dairy industry prospectively, involving for the national dairy cattle population, domestic milk yield, productivity of dairy cattle, breeding system and supporting reproduction technology. More over, other essential factors providing for dairy institution as well as distribution and marketing domestic milk production are also described.

  8. Potential for reuse of effluent from fish-processing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Morena Rodrigues Vitor Dias Ferraciolli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The most common problems in the fish processing industry relate to high water consumption and the generation of effluents with concentrated organic loads. Given that reuse can represent an alternative for sustainable development, this study sought to assess the potential for recycling effluents produced in a fish-processing plant. In order to do so, the final industrial effluent was analyzed using the American Public Health Association (APHA standard effluent-analysis method (2005. In addition, the study assessed treatments which produce effluents meeting the requirements prescribed by different countries' regulations for reuse and recycling. The results found that effluents with smaller organic loads, such as those from health barriers and monoblock washing, can be treated in order to remove nutrients and solids so that they can be subsequently reused. For effluents produced by the washing and gutting cylinders, it is recommended that large fragments of solid waste be removed beforehand. Effluents can in this way attain a quality compatible with industrial reuse. This study further highlights the possibility of treating effluents so as comply with drinking water standards. This would potentially allow them to be used within the actual fish-processing procedure; in such a case, a revision of standards and measures for controlling use should be considered to prevent microbiological damage to products and risks to handlers and final consumers.

  9. Treatment of some Textile Industrial Effluents using Dry Corn Stalk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn stalk ground to various mesh sizes was used to treat textile effluents obtained from three different industries. These effluents were first pretreated with alum and then charcoal; passing the water through a column, (20cm long and 5cm diameter) containing the ground corn stalk of size diameters of 300mm, 355mm ...

  10. Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality, soils and ... Knowledge of irrigation water quality is critical to predicting, managing and reducing salt ... Presence of heavy metals in concentration higher than the recommended ...

  11. The effects of land application of farm dairy effluent on groundwater quality : West Coast 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, T.M.; Hawke, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Land application of agricultural effluent is becoming a standard farming practice. The application of farm dairy effluent to land, as opposed to direct discharge to waterways, is the preferred method for disposal in New Zealand as regulatory authorities move to protect and enhance water quality and meet Maori spiritual and cultural values. Land application recognises the nutrient value of dairy effluent; however, it is not without risks. Careful management of land application of the effluent is required because of the potential nutrient and bacterial contamination of groundwater. In 2001, 19 groundwater bores were sampled on four occasions to assess the effects of farm dairy effluent on groundwater quality. Elevated (> 1.6 g m -3 nitrate-nitrogen concentrations were found in 14 of these bores (43 of 74 samples). The available long-term data shows statistically significant increasing trends in nitrate-nitrogen and chloride over the period 1998 to 2007. The nitrate-nitrogen and chloride results suggest effluent is the source of the elevated nitrate-nitrogen; however, the nitrogen isotope analysis indicates that the source of the nitrate-nitrogen may be from fertiliser or soil organic matter (average δ 15 N value of 3.5 permille). Spatially isolated occurrences of bacterial contamination were also recorded: in 7 bores and 12% of all samples analysed. Groundwater dating, using chlorofluorocarbons, suggested that the groundwater in the region was young (8 to 12 years). Overall, the spatial and temporal data suggests human influences are affecting groundwater quality on the West Coast. (author). 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Treatment of effluents in uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium processing technology in India has matured in the last 50 years and is able to meet the country's requirement. Right from mining of the ore to milling and refining, effluents are generated and are being processed for their safe disposal. While the available technology is able to meet the regulatory limits of the effluents, the same may not be enough to meet the increased demand of uranium in the future. The increased population, urbanization and climate change are not only going to decrease the supply of process water but will also place increased restrictions on disposal to environment. This demands technologies that will generate less effluent for disposal and enable reuse and recycle concept to the extent possible. Presently used conventional physical-chemical methods, to contain the contaminants would, therefore, require further refinements. Contaminants like sulfates, chlorides etc in the effluent of uranium mill based on acid leach process are the concerns for the future plants. Hence, there is an urgent need for development of suitable methods for maximum recycle of the process effluents, which will also enable in minimizing the consumption of process water. A suitable membrane based process can be an option leaving a concentrated brine for reuse or for further treatment and disposal

  13. A Novel Methylotrophic Bacterial Consortium for Treatment of Industrial Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingurao, Krushi; Nerurkar, Anuradha

    2018-01-01

    Considering the importance of methylotrophs in industrial wastewater treatment, focus of the present study was on utilization of a methylotrophic bacterial consortium as a microbial seed for biotreatment of a variety of industrial effluents. For this purpose, a mixed bacterial methylotrophic AC (Ankleshwar CETP) consortium comprising of Bordetella petrii AC1, Bacillus licheniformis AC4, Salmonella subterranea AC5, and Pseudomonas stutzeri AC8 was used. The AC consortium showed efficient biotreatment of four industrial effluents procured from fertilizer, chemical and pesticide industries, and common effluent treatment plant by lowering their chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 950-2000 mg/l to below detection limit in 60-96 h in 6-l batch reactor and 9-15 days in 6-l continuous reactor. The operating variables of wastewater treatment, viz. COD, BOD, pH, MLSS, MLVSS, SVI, and F/M ratio of these effluents, were also maintained in the permissible range in both batch and continuous reactors. Therefore, formation of the AC consortium has led to the development of an efficient microbial seed capable of treating a variety of industrial effluents containing pollutants generated from their respective industries.

  14. Benthos of Cochin backwaters receiving industrial effluents

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Venugopal, P.

    into the river. This stretch with a station 2 km further upstream forms the area of study. Faunal groups/species are rich at barmouth (st 1), gradually decline upstream and record lowest density at the effluent discharge point (st 8). Five major and 26 other...

  15. Microbial degradation of textile industrial effluents | Palamthodi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Textile waste water is a highly variable mixture of many polluting substance ranging from inorganic compounds and elements to polymers and organic products. To ensure the safety of effluents, proper technologies need to be used for the complete degradation of dyes. Traditionally, treatments of textile waste water involve ...

  16. Composite nanofibers/water photosplitting and photocatalytic degradation of dairy effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanjwal, Muzafar A.; Leung, Wallace W.F.; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2018-01-01

    Photocatalytic removal of Dairy effluent (DE) was studied by using TiO2-GeO2 and TiO2-CdO nanofibers (NFs), produced by electrospinning method. These NFs were characterized by SEM, TEM and XRD studies. The TiO2-GeO2 and TiO2-CdO NFs were smooth and continuous, with an average diameter of about 27...

  17. Data for comparison of chlorine dioxide and chlorine disinfection power in a real dairy wastewater effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Akhlaghi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Disinfection of water refers to a special operation that is doing to kill or disable causative organisms (i.e. Pathogens and in particular, intestinal bacteria. The aim of this pilot study is comparison of disinfection power of Chlorine dioxide and chlorine in a real dairy wastewater effluent. In this regard, firstly prepared two 220-l tanks made of polyethylene as reaction tanks and filled by effluent of a dairy wastewater treatment plant. Both tanks were equipped with mechanical stirrer. Then a Diaphragm dosing pumps with the maximum capacity of 3.9 l per hour were used for the chlorine dioxide and chlorine (Calcium hypochlorite 0.5 up to 3 ppm injection. Residual level of Chlorine dioxide and Chlorine were measured by portable photometric method DT4B kit, Germany. Finally, the Multiple-Tube Fermentation, Brilliant Green Bile Broth (BGB and Eosin methylene blue Agar (EMB technique was used for microbial analysis and the results were reported as the most probable number index (MPN respectively. The data showed that the residual of chlorine dioxide could stood more active than residual of chlorine in the aqueous environment significantly. Therefore, Use of chlorine dioxide is more effective than chlorine for removal fecal and total coliform from dairy wastewater effluent. Keywords: Disinfection, Chlorine dioxide, Chlorine, Total coliform, Fecal coliform

  18. The efficiency of electrocoagulation using aluminum electrodesin treating wastewater from a dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson de Freitas Silva Valente

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with the investigation of electrocoagulation (EC treatment of wastewater from a dairy plant using aluminum electrodes. Electrolysis time, pH, current density and distance between electrodes were considered to assess the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD, total solids (TS and their fractions and turbidity. Samples were collected from the effluent of a dairy plant using a sampling methodology proportional to the flow. The treatments were applied according to design factorial of half fraction with two levels of treatments and 3 repetitions at the central point. The optimization of parameters for treating dairy industry effluent by electrocoagulation using aluminum electrodes showed that electric current application for 21 minutes, an initial sample pH near 5.0 and a current density of 61.6A m-2 resulted in a significant reduction in COD by 57%; removal of turbidity by 99%, removal of total suspended solids by 92% and volatile suspended solids by 97%; and a final treated effluent pH of approximately 10. Optimum operating condition was used for cost calculations show that operating cost is approximately 3.48R$ m-3.

  19. Anaerobic degradation of dairy wastewater in intermittent UASB reactors: influence of effluent recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couras, C S; Louros, V L; Gameiro, T; Alves, N; Silva, A; Capela, M I; Arroja, L M; Nadais, H

    2015-01-01

    This work studied the influence of effluent recirculation upon the kinetics of anaerobic degradation of dairy wastewater in the feedless phase of intermittent upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors. Several laboratory-scale tests were performed with different organic loads in closed circuit UASB reactors inoculated with adapted flocculent sludge. The data obtained were used for determination of specific substrate removal rates and specific methane production rates, and adjusted to kinetic models. A high initial substrate removal was observed in all tests due to adsorption of organic matter onto the anaerobic biomass which was not accompanied by biological substrate degradation as measured by methane production. Initial methane production rate was about 45% of initial soluble and colloidal substrate removal rate. This discrepancy between methane production rate and substrate removal rate was observed mainly on the first day of all experiments and was attenuated on the second day, suggesting that the feedless period of intermittent UASB reactors treating dairy wastewater should be longer than one day. Effluent recirculation expressively raised the rate of removal of soluble and colloidal substrate and methane productivity, as compared with results for similar assays in batch reactors without recirculation. The observed bed expansion was due to the biogas production and the application of effluent recirculation led to a sludge bed contraction after all the substrates were degraded. The settleability of the anaerobic sludge improved by the introduction of effluent recirculation this effect being more pronounced for the higher loads.

  20. Bioremediation Kinetics of Pharmaceutical Industrial Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Šabić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, concerns about the occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals that could be present in water and wastewater has gained increasing attention. With the public’s enhanced awareness of eco-safety, environmentally benign methods based on microorganisms have become more accepted methods of removing pollutants from aquatic systems. This study investigates bioremediation of pharmaceutical wastewater from pharmaceutical company Pliva Hrvatska d.o.o., using activated sludge and bioaugmented activated sludge with isolated mixed bacterial culture. The experiments were conducted in a batch reactor in submerged conditions, at initial concentration of organic matter in pharmaceutical wastewater, expressed as COD, 5.01 g dm–3 and different initial concentrations of activated sludge, which ranged from 1.16 to 3.54 g dm–3. During the experiments, the COD, pH, concentrations of dissolved oxygen and biomass were monitored. Microscopic analyses were performed to monitor the quality of activated sludge. Before starting with the bioremediation in the batch reactor, toxicity of the pharmaceutical wastewater was determined by toxicity test using bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The obtained results showed that the effective concentration of the pharmaceutical wastewater was EC50 = 17 % and toxicity impact index was TII50 = 5.9, meaning that the untreated pharmaceutical industrial effluent must not be discharged into the environment before treatment. The results of the pharmaceutical wastewater bioremediation process in the batch reactor are presented in Table 1. The ratio γXv ⁄ γX maintained high values throughout all experiments and ranged from 0.90 and 0.95, suggesting that the concentrations of biomass remained unchanged during the experiments. The important kinetic parameters required for performance of the biological removal process, namely μmax, Ks, Ki, Y and kd were calculated from batch experiments (Table 2. Figs. 1 and 2 show the experimental

  1. Prevalence of paratuberculosis in the dairy goat and dairy sheep industries in Ontario, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Cathy A.; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula

    2016-01-01

    ). Using 3-test latent class Bayesian models, true farm-level prevalence was estimated to be 83.0% [95% probability interval (PI): 62.6% to 98.1%] for dairy goats and 66.8% (95% PI: 41.6% to 91.4%) for dairy sheep. The within-farm true prevalence for dairy goats was 35.2% (95% PI: 23.0% to 49......A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to estimate the prevalence of paratuberculosis in the small ruminant dairy industries in Ontario, Canada. Blood and feces were sampled from 580 goats and 397 sheep (lactating and 2 y of age or older) that were randomly selected...... from 29 randomly selected dairy goat herds and 21 convenience -selected dairy sheep flocks. Fecal samples were analyzed using bacterial culture (BD BACTEC MGIT 960) and polymerase chain reaction (Tetracore); serum samples were tested with the Prionics Parachek enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA...

  2. DAIRY INDUSTRY: ALTERNATIVES TO RECOVERY WHEY AS A MEANS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Marquardt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium industries of dairy products in Brazil are facing serious problems of competition for the consumer market due to factors such as small scale production, lack of standardization of products and processes, deficiencies in effective control of quality, difficult to define niche markets and different levels of technology, although they are generating jobs and income. In addition to these factors, it appears that the control of environmental impacts caused by these industries, given the current environmental legislation, has forced a change of attitude on the part of entrepreneurs, in order to control pollution, despite the shortcomings often perceived in infrastructure linked to industrialization, such as high energy and water. The treatment and disposal of effluents and solid waste disposal, which are critical in industrial processes, are often overlooked in small and medium industries, generating significant environmental impacts. Among the main environmental impacts generated by the dairy industry stands to generate significant amounts of wastewater with high organic load. In this sense, the main objective of this study was a literature survey concerning the main factors of environmental impact of small and medium industries in the dairy sector, aiming to propose alternative environmental management that favors the minimization of the factors generating these impacts.

  3. Micrococcus lactis sp. nov., isolated from dairy industry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittpurna; Singh, Pradip K; Verma, Dipti; Pinnaka, Anil Kumar; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Korpole, Suresh

    2011-12-01

    A Gram-positive, yellow-pigmented, actinobacterial strain, DW152(T), was isolated from a dairy industry effluent treatment plant. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain DW152(T) exhibited low similarity with many species with validly published names belonging to the genera Micrococcus and Arthrobacter. However, phenotypic properties including chemotaxonomic markers affiliated strain DW152(T) to the genus Micrococcus. Strain DW152(T) had ai-C(15:0) and i-C(15:0) as major cellular fatty acids, and MK-8(H(2)) as the major menaquinone. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain DW152(T) had l-lysine as the diagnostic amino acid and the type was A4α. The DNA G+C content of strain DW152(T) was 68.0 mol%. In 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain DW152(T) exhibited significant similarity with Micrococcus terreus NBRC 104258(T), but the mean value of DNA-DNA relatedness between these strains was only 42.3%. Moreover, strain DW152(T) differed in biochemical and chemotaxonomic characteristics from M. terreus and other species of the genus Micrococcus. Based on the above differences, we conclude that strain DW152(T) should be treated as a novel species of the genus Micrococcus, for which the name Micrococcus lactis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Micrococcus lactis sp. nov. is DW152(T) (=MTCC10523(T) =DSM 23694(T)).

  4. Characterization of effluent from food processing industries and stillage treatment trial with Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. and Panicum maximum (Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Noukeu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effluents from 11 food processing industries from various sectors were characterized through analysis of physical and chemical parameters. In general, effluents pHs are between 4.07 and 7.63. Lead (Pb2+ and cadmium (Cd+ concentrations range from 0.083 to 1.025 mg/l and 0.052–0.158 mg/l respectively. The biodegradability of the effluent is very low. The principal component analysis (PCA grouped industries according to their organic matter levels; thus, stillage, livestock, molasses and sugar refinery effluents show some similarities, as well as confectionery, oil mill, dairy and brewery effluents. Forms of nitrogen measured show low levels of nitrites (NO2−, high levels of nitrates (NO3−, ammonium (NH4+ and Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN. Among these effluents, a treatment trial with Eichhornia crassipes and Panicum maximum was applied to stillage effluent from Fermencam distillery. The results show that Panicum maximum and Eichhornia crassipes reduce pollutant loads of Fermencam's wastewater.

  5. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN

    2013-07-01

    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.

  6. Bentonite chemical modification for use in industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laranjeira, E.; Pinto, M.R.O.; Rodrigues, D.P.; Costa, B.P.; Guimaraes, P.L.F.

    2010-01-01

    The present work aims at synthesizing organoclays using a layered silicate of regional importance, bentonite clay, for the treatment of industrial effluents. The choice of clay to be organophilized was based on cation exchange capacity (CEC). Bentonite with higher CTC was called AN 35 (92 meq/100 g), and therefore was the one that suffered the chemical modification with salt cetyl trimethyl ammonium Cetremide, provided by Vetec.The unmodified and modified clays were characterized by FTIR and XDR. The data obtained through the characterizations confirmed the acquisition of bentonite organoclay thus suggesting its subsequent application in the treatment of industrial effluents. (author)

  7. The Growth and Yield of Sweet Corn Fertilized by Dairy Cattle Effluents Without Chemical Fertilizers in Inceptisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Sastro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Several research has proven the role of dairy cattle effluents in improving the growth and yield of some crops. However, its role in supporting the growth and yield of sweet corn, especialy in Inceptisols, has not been reported. The study aims to determine the effect of dairy cattle effluents on growth and yield of sweet corn in Inceptisols. The pot study was conducted in a greenhouse of the Assessment Institute for Agriculture Technology of Jakarta. The treatments were fertilization using dairy cattle effluents (without dilution, dilution with water 1:1 and 1:2, a mixture of Urea, SP-36 and KCl (NPK, and without fertilizer. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five replications. Compared to a without fertilizer treatment, dairy cattle effluents were significantly increased plant height (114%, leaf number (136%, cob weight (131%, cob length (124%, and cob diameters (128%. Base on cob weight, relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE of dairy cattle effluents reached 38.4% (without dilution, 47.5% (dilution with water 1:1, and 62.1% (dilution with water 1:2.

  8. Assessment of the disinfection capacity and eco-toxicological impact of atmospheric cold plasma for treatment of food industry effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patange, Apurva; Boehm, Daniela; Giltrap, Michelle; Lu, Peng; Cullen, P J; Bourke, Paula

    2018-08-01

    Generation of wastewater is one of the main environmental sustainability issues across food sector industries. The constituents of food process effluents are often complex and require high energy and processing for regulatory compliance. Wastewater streams are the subject of microbiological and chemical criteria, and can have a significant eco-toxicological impact on the aquatic life. Thus, innovative treatment approaches are required to mitigate environmental impact in an energy efficient manner. Here, dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) was evaluated for control of key microbial indicators encountered in food industry effluent. This study also investigated the eco-toxicological impact of cold plasma treatment of the effluents using a range of aquatic bioassays. Continuous ACP treatment was applied to synthetic dairy and meat effluents. Microbial inactivation showed treatment time dependence with significant reduction in microbial populations within 120 s, and to undetectable levels after 300 s. Post treatment retention time emerged as critical control parameter which promoted ACP bacterial inactivation efficiency. Moreover, ACP treatment for 20 min achieved significant reduction (≥2 Log 10 ) in Bacillus megaterium endospores in wastewater effluent. Acute aquatic toxicity was assessed using two fish cell lines (PLHC-1 and RTG-2) and a crustacean model (Daphnia magna). Untreated effluents were toxic to the aquatic models, however, plasma treatment limited the toxic effects. Differing sensitivities were observed to ACP treated effluents across the different test bio-assays in the following order: PLHC-1 > RTG-2 ≥ D. magna; with greater sensitivity retained to plasma treated meat effluent than dairy effluent. The toxic effects were dependent on concentration and treatment time of the ACP treated effluent; with 30% cytotoxicity in D. magna and fish cells observed after 24 h of exposure to ACP treated effluent for

  9. Effect of Industrial Effluent on the Growth of Marine Diatom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The marine centric diatom,Chaetoceros simplex (Ostenfeld, 1901) was exposed to five different concentrations of industrial effluent for 96 hrs to investigate the effect on growth. The physico-chemical parameters viz. colour, odour, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, pH, alkalinity, hardness, ammonia, nitrite, ...

  10. Effects of industrial effluents and fertilizer applications on the growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted in south-western Nigeria to determine the effects of different fertilizer applications on the growth performance of sunflower when cultivated in an Alfisols contaminated with effluents from a paints industry. This was with a view to assessing the yield and nutrient quality of harvested sunflower ...

  11. Industrial effluent quality, pollution monitoring and environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S; Hammad, Waleed S

    2008-12-01

    Royal Commission Environmental Control Department (RC-ECD) at Yanbu industrial city in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has established a well-defined monitoring program to control the pollution from industrial effluents. The quality of effluent from each facility is monitored round the clock. Different strategic measures have been taken by the RC-ECD to implement the zero discharge policy of RC. Industries are required to pre-treat the effluent to conform pretreatment standards before discharging to central biological treatment plant. Industries are not allowed to discharge any treated or untreated effluent in open channels. After treatment, reclaimed water must have to comply with direct discharge standards before discharge to the sea. Data of industrial wastewater collected from five major industries and central industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP) is summarized in this report. During 5-year period, 3,705 samples were collected and analyzed for 43,436 parameters. There were 1,377 violations from pretreatment standards from all the industries. Overall violation percentage was 3.17%. Maximum violations were recorded from one of the petrochemical plants. The results show no significant pollution due to heavy metals. Almost all heavy metals were within RC pretreatment standards. High COD and TOC indicates that major pollution was due to hydrocarbons. Typical compounds identified by GC-MS were branched alkanes, branched alkenes, aliphatic ketones, substituted thiophenes, substituted phenols, aromatics and aromatic alcohols. Quality of treated water was also in compliance with RC direct discharge standards. In order to achieve the zero discharge goal, further studies and measures are in progress.

  12. Invited review: Changes in the dairy industry affecting dairy cattle health and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkema, H W; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Kastelic, J P; Lam, T J G M; Luby, C; Roy, J-P; LeBlanc, S J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F

    2015-11-01

    The dairy industry in the developed world has undergone profound changes over recent decades. In this paper, we present an overview of some of the most important recent changes in the dairy industry that affect health and welfare of dairy cows, as well as the science associated with these changes. Additionally, knowledge gaps are identified where research is needed to guide the dairy industry through changes that are occurring now or that we expect will occur in the future. The number of farms has decreased considerably, whereas herd size has increased. As a result, an increasing number of dairy farms depend on hired (nonfamily) labor. Regular professional communication and establishment of farm-specific protocols are essential to minimize human errors and ensure consistency of practices. Average milk production per cow has increased, partly because of improvements in nutrition and management but also because of genetic selection for milk production. Adoption of new technologies (e.g., automated calf feeders, cow activity monitors, and automated milking systems) is accelerating. However, utilization of the data and action lists that these systems generate for health and welfare of livestock is still largely unrealized, and more training of dairy farmers, their employees, and their advisors is necessary. Concurrently, to remain competitive and to preserve their social license to operate, farmers are increasingly required to adopt increased standards for food safety and biosecurity, become less reliant on the use of antimicrobials and hormones, and provide assurances regarding animal welfare. Partly because of increasing herd size but also in response to animal welfare regulations in some countries, the proportion of dairy herds housed in tiestalls has decreased considerably. Although in some countries access to pasture is regulated, in countries that traditionally practiced seasonal grazing, fewer farmers let their dairy cows graze in the summer. The proportion of

  13. Photocatalytic degradation of dairy effluent using AgTiO2 nanostructures/polyurethane nanofiber membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmad; Barakat, Nasser A.M.; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy effluent (DE) is environmentally toxic and needs special attention. Photocatalytic degradation of DE was studied using novel polyurethane (PU)-based membranes. Typically, silver-titanium dioxide nanofibers (AgTiO2 NFs) and silver-titanium dioxide nanoparticles (AgTiO2 NPs) were individually...... incorporated in PU electrospun nanofibers to overcome the mandatory sophisticated separation of the nanocatalysts, which can create a secondary pollution, after the treatment process. These nanomembranes were characterized in SEM, TEM, XRD and UV studies. The polymeric electrospun nanofibers were smooth...

  14. Impact of Market Access Reforms On the Canadian Dairy Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hacault, Anastasie; Rude, James; Carlberg, Jared G.

    2010-01-01

    The World Trade Organization's (WTO) latest round of negotiations, the Doha Development Agenda (DDA), will likely change the way most agricultural products are traded around the world. These new liberalization policies will potentially affect the Canadian production and consumption of dairy products. This paper uses a partial equilibrium model with stochastic world prices to evaluate the effects of these trade reforms on the Canadian dairy industry. Different liberalization scenarios are simu...

  15. Removal of organic matter from dairy industry waste water using low-cost adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, M.; Bhole, A.G. [College of Engineering, Badnera (India). Civil Engineering Department

    2002-07-01

    The present study envisages the use of cost-effective adsorbents such as fly ash, bagasse, wheat straw dust, sawdust, and coconut coir for the reduction of the TDS (total dissolved solids) from dairy industry effluent waste water. PAC (powdered activated carbon) was also used and the results were compared. Sorption data have been correlated with both the Langmuir and the Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. The Freundlich static isotherm model is found applicable to all the six adsorbents for removing TDS from the dairy waste water. The order of selectivity is PAC, bagasse, fly ash, sawdust, wheat straw, coconut coir for the removal of TDS at optimum conditions. 8 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Arsenic removal from industrial effluent through electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, N. [Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Karaikudi (India). Dept. of Pollution Control; Madhavan, K. [Coimbatore Inst. of Technology, Coimbatore (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2001-05-01

    In the present investigation, it is attempted to remove arsenic from smelter industrial wastewater through electro-coagulation. Experiments covering a wide range of operating conditions for removal of the arsenic present in the smelter wastewater are carried out in a batch electrochemical reactor. It has been observed from the present work that arsenic can be removed effectively through electrocoagulation. (orig.)

  17. TOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT ON TOTAL CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT OF CERTAIN AQUATIC MACROPHYTES

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Priti; Vishen Ashish; Wadhwani R; Pandey Y.N

    2012-01-01

    To assess the toxicity of industrial effluents on certain macrophytes, the total chlorophyll content of free floating, submerged and emergent macrophytes were estimated in concentrations of industrial effluents at varying exposure duration. The result revealed reduction in total chlorophyll content of exposed macrophytes at higher concentrations of industrial effluents on prolonged duration.

  18. Accounting for biodiversity in the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Grant C

    2015-05-15

    Biodiversity is an essential part of properly functioning ecosystems, yet the loss of biodiversity currently occurs at rates unparalleled in the modern era. One of the major causes of this phenomenon is habitat loss and modification as a result of intensified agricultural practices. This paper provides a starting point for considering biodiversity within dairy production, and, although focusing primarily on the United States, findings are applicable broadly. Biodiversity definitions and assessments (e.g., indicators, tools) are proposed and reviewed. Although no single indicator or tool currently meets all the needs of comprehensive assessment, many sustainable practices are readily adoptable as ways to conserve and promote biodiversity. These practices, as well as potential funding opportunities are identified. Given the state of uncertainty in addressing the complex nature of biodiversity assessments, the adoption of generally sustainable environmental practices may be the best currently available option for protecting biodiversity on dairy lands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Energy conservation and cost benefits in the dairy processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Guidance is given on measuring energy consumption in the plant and pinpointing areas where energy-conservation activities can return the most favorable economics. General energy-conservation techniques applicable to most or all segments of the dairy processing industry, including the fluid milk segment, are emphasized. These general techniques include waste heat recovery, improvements in electric motor efficiency, added insulation, refrigeration improvements, upgrading of evaporators, and increases in boiler efficiency. Specific examples are given in which these techniques are applied to dairy processing plants. The potential for energy savings by cogeneration of process steam and electricity in the dairy industry is also discussed. Process changes primarily applicable to specific milk products which have resulted in significant energy cost savings at some facilities or which promise significant contributions in the future are examined. A summary checklist of plant housekeeping measures for energy conservation and guidelines for economic evaluation of conservation alternatives are provided. (MHR)

  20. Evaluation of food safety management systems in Serbian dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Tomašević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports incentives, costs, difficulties and benefits of food safety management systems implementation in the Serbian dairy industry. The survey involved 27 food business operators with the national milk and dairy market share of 65 %. Almost two thirds of the assessed dairy producers (70.4 % claimed that they had a fully operational and certified HACCP system in place, while 29.6 % implemented HACCP, but had no third party certification. ISO 22000 was implemented and certified in 29.6 % of the companies, while only 11.1 % had implemented and certified IFS standard. The most important incentive for implementing food safety management systems for Serbian dairy producers was to increase and improve safety and quality of dairy products. The cost of product investigation/analysis and hiring external consultants were related to the initial set-up of food safety management system with the greatest importance. Serbian dairy industry was not greatly concerned by the financial side of implementing food safety management systems due to the fact that majority of prerequisite programmes were in place and regularly used by almost 100 % of the producers surveyed. The presence of competency gap between the generic knowledge for manufacturing food products and the knowledge necessary to develop and implement food safety management systems was confirmed, despite the fact that 58.8 % of Serbian dairy managers had university level of education. Our study brings about the innovation emphasizing the attitudes and the motivation of the food production staff as the most important barrier for the development and implementation of HACCP. The most important identified benefit was increased safety of dairy products with the mean rank scores of 6.85. The increased customer confidence and working discipline of staff employed in food processing were also found as important benefits of implementing/operating HACCP. The study shows that the level of HACCP

  1. Physicochemical assessment of industrial textile effluents of Punjab (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Deepika; Sharma, Neeta Raj; Kanwar, Ramesh; Singh, Joginder

    2018-06-01

    Urbanization and industrialization are generating huge quantities of untreated wastewater leading to increased water pollution and human diseases in India. The textile industry is one of the leading polluters of surface water and consumes about 200-270 tons of water to produce 1 ton of textile product. The primary objective of the present study was to investigate the pollution potential of textile industry effluent draining into Buddha Nallah stream located in Ludhiana, Punjab (India), and determine the seasonal variation in physicochemical parameters (pH, water temperature, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of Buddha Nallah water. During summer months, for Site 1 and Site 2, the value of pH was in the alkaline range of 8.78 ± 0.47 and 8.51 ± 0.41, respectively. The values of pH in the rainy season were found to be in the range of 7.38 ± 0.58 and 7.11 ± 0.59 for Site 1 and Site 2, respectively. In the autumn and winter seasons, the average pH values were found to be in the range of 8.58 ± 1.40 and 8.33 ± 0.970, respectively. The maximum mean temperature in summer was recorded as 41.16 ± 4.99 °C, and lowest mean temperature in winter was recorded as 39.25 ± 2.25 °C at Site 2. The suspended solids were found to be highest (143.5 ± 75.01 and 139.66 ± 71.87 mg/L) in autumn for both the sites and lowest (86.50 + 15.10 mg/L) in the rainy season for Site 1. The values of BOD and COD of the textile effluent of both sites during all the seasons ranged from 121-580 to 240-990 mg/L, respectively, much higher than WHO water quality standard of 30 mg/L for BOD and 250 mg/L for COD. The present study deals with the collection of textile industry effluent and its characterization to find out the physicochemical load being drained by the effluent generated from textile industries, on the natural wastewater streams.

  2. Pollution characterization of waste water of an industrial zone - Example of a dairy water clarification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazourli, S.; Ziati, M.; Boudiba, L.; Fedaoui, D.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is the estimation of the polluting load generated by domestic effluents added to those of various industries in one of the most important industrial zone in Africa. Analysis of waste water showed strong and irregular pollution which is prejudicial for the aquatic receiving medium (river, sea). This pollution is confirmed among others by COD/BOD ratio which may attain the value of 1.8. Pre-treatment by coagulation floculation of waste water used in a dairy belonging to this industrial zone showed a considerable reduction of the initial pollution by a systematic decreasing of pollution parameters. Aluminium sulphates and iron chloride tested in this experience have reduced considerably all the studied parameters; the organic charge has received a very significant reduction up to 99%. The discharge of treated effluent in the surrounding river or its use for recycling aims is then possible for this industry. However, the formed sludge can be the subject of a suitable treatment for possible agricultural, avicolous valorisation or other. (author)

  3. Mapping of industrial effluent on coastal sediments using EDX

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gregory, MA

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available isotopes [14], magnetic and rare-earth markers such as Ta and Co [15] and bacterial tracers [16]. Passive tracers are materials/substances already present in the effluent as they leave the factory or treatment works. In the case of ?sludges? from sewage... for industrial waste [1,2]. To date, while EDX has been used to determine the speciation of marine suspended particles [21], monitor the translocation and mixing of fill sands [22] and describe the source and intermixing of sea-floor sediments [23...

  4. Industrial water and effluent management in the milk processing industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Funke, JW

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important commodities used in any food-processing industry is water which must be of the right quality. Water which comes into direct contact with milk or milk products must meet standards which are even stricter than those for a...

  5. Energy survey in the New Zealand dairy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vickers, V T; Shannon, D V

    1977-12-25

    An in-depth report on energy consumption in the New Zealand dairy industry for 1974--75 shows that a reduction in fuel consumption per unit of production has occurred when compared with two previous surveys (1954--55 and 1964--65). The increase in thermal efficiency of dairy processing was due mainly to the use of hot water heating systems in milk-treatment stations, the increased capacity of butter and cheese factories, increased thermal efficiency in skim milk drying and casein manufacture, increased efficiency in boiler plants, and higher drying air temperature achieved with the use of indirect oil- and gas-fired air heaters and liquid-phase air heating systems. Total energy consumed by the industry by type is tabulated. Recommendations to the industry following the survey are listed. (MCW)

  6. Ergonomic evaluation of cheese production process in dairy industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Brito Rodrigues

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work consisted of an analysis of work conditions aspects in small dairy industries from southwest region of Bahia state. The study considered the analysis of environmental variables and the organization of the work in the production process of cheeses. The analysis was performed by means of observations in loco and measurement of the environmental variables related to noise, illumination and temperature. The main problems are related to posture and inadequate illumination. The parameters were evaluated according to the norms and legislation available in order to propose suggestions for the identified problems, objectifying the comfort and safety of workers and the consequent improvement of activities developed in these industries. Keywords: Ergonomics, Dairy industries, Environmental comfort.

  7. Nitrogen removal and nitrate leaching for two perennial, sod-based forage systems receiving dairy effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Kenneth R; French, Edwin C; Sweat, Lewin A; Graetz, Donald A; Sollenberger, Lynn E; Macoon, Bisoondat; Portier, Kenneth M; Rymph, Stuart J; Wade, Brett L; Prine, Gordon M; Van Horn, Harold H

    2003-01-01

    In northern Florida, year-round forage systems are used in dairy effluent sprayfields to reduce nitrate leaching. Our purpose was to quantify forage N removal and monitor nitrate N (NO3(-)-N) concentration below the rooting zone for two perennial, sod-based, triple-cropping systems over four 12-mo cycles (1996-2000). The soil is an excessively drained Kershaw sand (thermic, uncoated Typic Quartzip-samment). Effluent N rates were 500, 690, and 910 kg ha(-1) per cycle. Differences in N removal between a corn (Zea mays L.)-bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.)-rye (Secale cereale L.) system (CBR) and corn-perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.)-rye system (CPR) were primarily related to the performance of the perennial forages. Nitrogen removal of corn (125-170 kg ha(-1)) and rye (62-90 kg ha(-1)) was relatively stable between systems and among cycles. The greatest N removal was measured for CBR in the first cycle (408 kg ha(-1)), with the bermudagrass removing an average of 191 kg N ha(-1). In later cycles, N removal for bermudagrass declined because dry matter (DM) yield declined. Yield and N removal of perennial peanut increased over the four cycles. Nitrate N concentrations below the rooting zone were lower for CBR than CPR in the first two cycles, but differences were inconsistent in the latter two. The CBR system maintained low NO3(-)-N leaching in the first cycle when the bermudagrass was the most productive; however, it was not a sustainable system for long-term prevention of NO3(-)-N leaching due to declining bermudagrass yield in subsequent cycles. For CPR, effluent N rates > or = 500 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) have the potential to negatively affect ground water quality.

  8. Nota Científica: ultrafiltração de efluente da indústria de laticínios para recuperação de nutrientes: efeito da pressão e da velocidade tangencial Scientific Note: ultrafiltration of effluents from a dairy industry for nutrient recovery: effect of pressure and tangential velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandré Barbosa Brião

    2012-12-01

    ,44 m.s-1. A rejeição de ambas as membranas foi superior a 70% para a DQO, 94% para proteínas e acima de 85% para gordura. A concentração da água de enxágue foi realizada com a membrana espiral, reduzindo-se o seu volume inicial em 34 vezes. O concentrado lácteo foi obtido com 2,3% de sólidos totais, 1,1% de proteínas e 0,9% de gordura. A ultrafiltração demonstrou ser um processo viável para a recuperação de sólidos lácteos na indústria de laticínios.The cleaning process used in the dairy industry generates a great volume of effluent, engendering up to 10 L of effluent per litre of milk processed. The first rinsing water can carry off 1%-3% of the milk solids, representing production costs. Ultrafiltration can be used to recover these milk solids aiming to reinsert them into the process. The goal of this work was test two ultrafiltration membranes with different configurations (tubular and spiral with different pressures and cross-flow velocities to recover and concentrate these milk solids, aiming to obtain a dairy compound capable of reuse. The process was evaluated and optimized using a model rinsing water (1.7 g.L-1 of whole milk powder diluted in tap water, fed to a cross-flow ultrafiltration equipment, varying the pressure (98; 196 and 194 kPa for both membranes and cross-flow velocities (0.79; 1.42; 2.23 m.s-1 for the tubular membrane and 0.15; 0.27; 0.44 m.s-1 for the spiral membrane, using a 3² factorial design. The dependent variables were the permeate flow rate, the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, and the protein, fats and oils, lactose, phosphorus and calcium concentrations in the permeate. The optimized test conditions for the tubular membrane were obtained with a pressure of 294 kPa (raising the lactose rejection - 562 mg.L-1 of this compound in the permeate and a cross-flow velocity of 2.23 m.s-1 (increasing the permeate flow rate - 93.2 kg.m- 2.h-1 and reducing the fats and oils concentration in the permeate to 39 mg.L-1. With the spiral

  9. Impact of Industrial Effluents on Water Quality of Streams in Nakawa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Industrial Effluents on Water Quality of Streams in Nakawa-Ntinda, Uganda. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... physicochemical parameters of streams that receive effluents from different categories of industries in Nakawa -Ntinda industrial area of Kampala. the stream water quality ...

  10. An integrated mechanical-enzymatic reverse osmosis treatment of dairy industry wastewater and milk protein recovery as a fat replacer: a closed loop approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sarghini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The dairy industry can be classified among the most polluting of the food industries in volume in regard to its large water consumption, generating from 0.2 to 10 L of effluent per liter of processed milk. Dairy industry effluents usually include highly dissolved organic matter with varying characteristics, and a correct waste management project is required to handle. In a framework of natural water resource availability and cost increase, wastewater treatment for water reuse can lower the overall water consumption and the global effluent volume of industrial plants. Moreover, correct dismissal of dairy industry wastewater is sometimes neglected by the operators , increasing the environmental impact due to the chemical and biological characteristics of such effluents. On the other hand, in the case of whey effluents, several by-products are still present inside, such as lactose and milk proteins. Membrane technology has some advantages including a high degree of reliability in removing dissolved, colloidal and particulate matter, like the selectivity in size of pollutants to be removed and the possibility of very compact treatment plants. For example, Reverse Osmosis (RO technology has been successfully applied for the treatment of dairy wastes (1, and as a technology for concentration and fractionation of whey. In this work a membrane treatment approach using reverse osmosis technology is investigated and implemented: the permeate obtained can be reused as clean warm water for cleaning and sanitation of production plants, while concentrated milk proteins are modified by using transglutaminase enzyme obtaining a high temperature resistant fat replacer to be used in different low-fat products like for example mozzarella cheese.

  11. Determination of amino acids in industrial effluents contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahar, M.T.; Khuhawar, M.Y.

    2014-01-01

    38 samples of soil for 19 locations partially irrigated on the effluents of sugar mill and oil andghee mill, bottom sediments of evaporation ponds of sugar and fertilizer industries were collected and analyzed for amino acids after acid digestion by gas chromatography using pre column derivatization with trifluroacetyleacetone and ethyl chloroformate. The results obtained were compared with the soil samples irrigated with fresh water. The soil samples were also analyzed for pH, total nitrogen contents and organic carbon. Nine essential (leucine (Leu), threonine (Thr), lysine (Lys), L-phenylalanine (Phe), tryptophan (Trp), histadine (His), L-valine (Val), methionine (Met) and isoleucine Ile) and ten non-essential ( alanine (Ala), cysteine (Cys), asparagine (Asn), glutamic acid (Glu), serine (Ser), glycine (Gly), proline (Pro), Glutamine (Gln), aspartic acid (Asp), tyrosine (Tyr)) amino acids were analyzed 13-15 amino acids were identified and determined quantitatively from soil samples. Amino acids Met, Asn, Gln and Trp were observed absent from all the samples. The variation in the amino acids contents in soil with the industrial effluents added and total nitrogen and organic carbon is discussed. (author)

  12. Bioprospecting of lipolytic microorganisms obtained from industrial effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GREICE H.S. PEIL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The lipases have ability to catalyze diverse reactions and are important in different biotechnological applications. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize microorganisms that produce lipases, from different food industry effluents localized in Pelotas, RS/Brazil. Bacteria were identified using Gram stain and biochemical tests (Vitek 2(r. Fungi were identified according to macro and micromorphology characteristics. The extracellular lipase production was evaluated using the Rhodamine B test and the enzymatic activity by titration. Twenty-one bacteria were isolated and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aerogenes, Raoultella ornithinolytica and Raoultella planticola. Were characterized isolated filamentous fungi by the following genera: Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp., Geotrichum sp., Gliocladium sp., Mucor sp., Paecilomyces sp. and Trichoderma sp. Extracellular lipase production was observed in 71.43% of the bacteria and 57.14% of the fungi. The bacterium that presented better promising enzymatic activity was E. aerogenes (1.54 U/ml however between fungi there was not significant difference between the four isolates. This study indicated that microorganisms lipase producers are present in the industrial effluents, as well as these enzymes have potential of biodegradation of lipid compounds.

  13. Bioprospecting of lipolytic microorganisms obtained from industrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peil, Greice H S; Kuss, Anelise V; Rave, Andrés F G; Villarreal, José P V; Hernandes, Yohana M L; Nascente, Patrícia S

    2016-01-01

    The lipases have ability to catalyze diverse reactions and are important in different biotechnological applications. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize microorganisms that produce lipases, from different food industry effluents localized in Pelotas, RS/Brazil. Bacteria were identified using Gram stain and biochemical tests (Vitek 2(r)). Fungi were identified according to macro and micromorphology characteristics. The extracellular lipase production was evaluated using the Rhodamine B test and the enzymatic activity by titration. Twenty-one bacteria were isolated and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aerogenes, Raoultella ornithinolytica and Raoultella planticola. Were characterized isolated filamentous fungi by the following genera: Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp., Geotrichum sp., Gliocladium sp., Mucor sp., Paecilomyces sp. and Trichoderma sp. Extracellular lipase production was observed in 71.43% of the bacteria and 57.14% of the fungi. The bacterium that presented better promising enzymatic activity was E. aerogenes (1.54 U/ml) however between fungi there was not significant difference between the four isolates. This study indicated that microorganisms lipase producers are present in the industrial effluents, as well as these enzymes have potential of biodegradation of lipid compounds.

  14. Conservation practice and opportunities in the dairy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vickers, V. T.

    1977-10-15

    During the past two decades the dairy industry has increased the efficiency of fuel utilization in the manufacture of all dairy products. The increased thermal efficiency is due to the greater use of hot water heating in milk treatment stations, the operation of larger capacity butter and cheese factories with increased factory mechanization, greatly improved processing plant design in milk powder and casein factories, and the increased use of oil and gas firing, together with more efficient automatic boiler plants. In the industry, a greater decrease in energy consumption would be possible through the greater availability of natural gas. Natural gas-fired turbines and/or reciprocating engines could be used for on-site power generation using the waste heat for processing purposes.

  15. Possibilities of implementing nonthermal processing methods in the dairy industry

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Jeličić

    2010-01-01

    In the past two decades a lot of research in the field of food science has focused on new, non-thermal processing methods. This article describes the most intensively investigated new processing methodsfor implementation in the dairy industry, like microfiltration, high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound and pulsed electric fields. For each method an overview is given for the principle of microbial inactivation, the obtained results regarding reduction of microorganisms as well as the positive ...

  16. Occurrence of antibiotics in hospital, residential, and dairy effluent, municipal wastewater, and the Rio Grande in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathryn D; Kulis, Jerzy; Thomson, Bruce; Chapman, Timothy H; Mawhinney, Douglas B

    2006-08-01

    This study had three objectives: 1) determine occurrence of antibiotics in effluent from hospitals, residential facilities, and dairies, and in municipal wastewater 2) determine antibiotic removal at a large wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Albuquerque, NM, and 3) determine concentrations of antibiotics in the Rio Grande, which receives wastewater from the Albuquerque WWTP. Twenty-three samples of wastewater and 3 samples of Rio Grande water were analyzed for the presence of 11 antibiotics. Fifty-eight percent of samples had at least one antibiotic present while 25% had three or more. Hospital effluent had detections of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, lincomycin, and penicillin G, with 4 of 5 hospital samples having at least one antibiotic detected and 3 having four or more. At the residential sampling sites, ofloxacin was found in effluent from assisted living and retirement facilities, while the student dormitory had no detects. Only lincomycin was detected in dairy effluent (in 2 of 8 samples, at 700 and 6600 ng/L). Municipal wastewater had detections of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin, with 4 of 6 samples having at least one antibiotic present and 3 having 3 or more. The relatively high concentrations (up to 35,500 ng/L) of ofloxacin found in hospital and residential effluent may be of concern due to potential genotoxic effects and development of antibiotic resistance. At the Albuquerque WWTP, both raw wastewater and treated effluent had detections of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and ofloxacin, at concentrations ranging from 110 to 470 ng/L. However, concentrations in treated effluent were reduced by 20% to 77%. No antibiotics were detected in the Rio Grande upstream of the Albuquerque WWTP discharge, and only one antibiotic, sulfamethoxazole, was detected in the Rio Grande (300 ng/L) below the WWTP.

  17. Nitrogen removal and nitrate leaching for forage systems receiving dairy effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Kenneth R; French, Edwin C; Sweat, Lewin A; Graetz, Donald A; Sollenberger, Lynn E; Macoon, Bisoondat; Portier, Kenneth M; Wade, Brett L; Rymph, Stuart J; Prine, Gordon M; Van Horn, Harold H

    2002-01-01

    Florida dairies need year-round forage systems that prevent loss of N to ground water from waste effluent sprayfields. Our purpose was to quantify forage N removal and monitor nitrate N (NO3(-)-N) concentrations in soil water below the rooting zone for two forage systems during four 12-mo cycles (1996-2000). Soil in the sprayfield is an excessively drained Kershaw sand (thermic, uncoated Typic Quartzipsamment). Over four cycles, average loading rates of effluent N were 500, 690, and 910 kg ha(-1) per cycle. Nitrogen removed by the bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.)-rye (Secale cereale L.) system (BR) during the first three cycles was 465 kg ha(-1) per cycle for the low loading rate, 528 kg ha(-1) for the medium rate, and 585 kg ha(-1) for the high. For the corn (Zea mays L.)-forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]-rye system (CSR), N removals were 320 kg ha(-1) per cycle for the low rate, 327 kg ha(-1) for the medium, and 378 kg ha(-1) for the high. The higher N removals for BR were attributed to higher N concentration in bermudagrass (18.1-24.2 g kg(-1)) than in corn and forage sorghum (10.3-14.7 g kg(-1)). Dry matter yield declined in the fourth cycle for bermudagrass but N removal continued to be higher for BR than CSR. The BR system was much more effective at preventing NO3(-)-N leaching. For CSR, NO3(-)-N levels in soil water (1.5 m below surface) increased steeply during the period between the harvest of one forage and canopy dosure of the next. Overall, the BR system was better than CSR at removing N from the soil and maintaining low NO3(-)-N concentrations below the rooting zone.

  18. Physio-Chemical Analysis of Industrial Effluents in parts of Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physio-Chemical Analysis of Industrial Effluents in parts of Edo States Nigeria. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... particularly, surface water results from all activities of man involving indiscriminate waste disposal from industry such as effluents into waterways, waste, agricultural waste, and all ...

  19. Microbial conversion of Cr (VI) in to Cr (III) in industrial effluent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These bacterial strains also take up and reduce Cr (VI) present in industrial effluents, and their reduction potential was not significantly affected in the presence of different metallic salts. Key Words: Cr (VI) reduction, bacteria, industrial effluent, heavy metals. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.3(11) 2004: 610-617 ...

  20. Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of industrial effluents originated from different industrial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathiratne, Asoka; Hemachandra, Chamini K; De Silva, Nimal

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of treated effluents originated from four types of industrial activities (two textile industries, three rubber based industries, two common treatment plants of industrial zones, and two water treatment plants) was assessed. Physico-chemical parameters including the heavy metal/metalloid levels of the effluents varied depending on the industry profile, but most of the measured parameters in the effluents were within the specified tolerance limits of Sri Lankan environmental regulations for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. In the A. cepa test system, the undiluted effluents induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitosis depression, and chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in most cases in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water signifying effluent induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Ethyl methane sulphonate (a mutagen, positive control) and all the effluents under 1:8 dilution significantly induced total chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water indicating inadequacy of expected 1:8 dilutions in the receiving waters for curtailing genotoxic impacts. The results support the use of a practically feasible A. cepa test system for rapid screening of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of diverse industrial effluents discharging into inland surface waters.

  1. The influence of agro-industrial effluents on River Nile pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayeda M. Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The major agro-industrial effluents of sugarcane and starch industries pose a serious threat to surface waters. Their disposal in the River Nile around Cairo city transitionally affected the microbial load. In situ bacterial enrichment (50–180% was reported and gradually diminished downstream; the lateral not vertical effect of the effluent disposal was evident. Disposed effluents increased BOD and COD, and then progressively decreased downstream. Ammoniacal N was elevated, indicating active biological ammonification and in situ biodegradability of the effluents. In vitro, the nitrogen-fixing rhizobacteria Crysomonas luteola, Azospirillum spp., Azomonas spp. and K. pneumoniae successfully grew in batch cultures prepared from the crude effluents. This was supported by adequate growth parameters and organic matter decomposition. Therefore, such biodegradability of the tested agro-industrial effluents strongly recommends their use for microbial biomass necessary for the production of bio-preparates.

  2. Heavy-metal contamination of agricultural soils irrigated with industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabi, G.; Ashraf, M.; Aslam, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    Pakistan is facing a thread of degradation of water and land-resources by industrial effluents. To evaluated the suitability of these effluents as a source of irrigation for agriculture and the study their effects on soil chemical properties, experiments were conducted in the industrial area of Sheikhupura, where effluent from Paper and Board Mill (PBM), Leather Industry (LI) and Fertilizer Industry (FI) were being used for irrigation. At each site, two fields were selected, one irrigated with industrial effluents and the other with tube-well/canal water. The soil samples were collected and analyzed for pH, ECe, SAR and for heavy metals, such as Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn, Pb, Mn, Fe, Al and Ni. Soil receiving effluent from LI showed higher ECe and SAR values, as compared to the soils receiving other effluents. The concentration of Al was high in the soil irrigated with LI effluent. The Mn and Fe contents were higher in soils irrigated with PBM effluent. Effluent from LI is not fit for irrigation, since its recipient soil showed high concentration of Cr and also high sodicity values. Except Cr, the heavy metals were not of environmental concern. (author)

  3. Assessment of the Impact of Industrial Effluents on Groundwater Quality in Okhla Industrial Area, New Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wequar Ahmad Siddiqui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study physicochemical parameters like pH, hardness, TDS, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, fluoride, DO, COD and conductivity of some important heavy metals such as iron, cobalt, cadmium, lead, mercury, chromium, selenium and arsenic were first analyzed in effluent water of Okhla industrial area phase-II and then groundwater of near by areas. Obtained values of effluent water were compared with ISI standard for effluent water discharge and groundwater values were compared with ISI and WHO drinking water standards. The result shows that discharge of untreated effluents by the industries is leading to contamination of groundwater of the surrounding areas. Lead, mercury, fluoride, TDS, sulphate was above the desirable limit in effluent water (ISI standard for effluent water discharge. Subsequent analysis of groundwater of nearby areas was rated as unacceptable for drinking because of presence of fluoride in all the samples above the desirable limit. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chloride was also detected in many samples.

  4. Possibilities of implementing nonthermal processing methods in the dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jeličić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades a lot of research in the field of food science has focused on new, non-thermal processing methods. This article describes the most intensively investigated new processing methodsfor implementation in the dairy industry, like microfiltration, high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound and pulsed electric fields. For each method an overview is given for the principle of microbial inactivation, the obtained results regarding reduction of microorganisms as well as the positive and undesirable effects on milk composition and characteristics. Most promising methods for further implementation in the dairy industry appeared to be combination of moderate temperatures with high hydrostatic pressure, respectively, pulsed electric fields and microfiltration, since those treatments did not result in any undesirable changes in sensory properties of milk. Additionally, milk treatment with these methodsresulted in a better milk fat homogenization, faster rennet coagulation, shorter duration of milk fermentations, etc. Very good results regarding microbial inactivation were obtained by treating milkwith combination of moderate temperatures and high intensity ultrasound which is also called a process of thermosonification. However, thermosonification treatments often result in undesirablechanges in milk sensory properties, which is most probably due to ultrasonic induced milk fat oxidation. This article also shortly describes the use of natural compounds with antimicrobial effects such as bacteriocins, lactoperoxidase system and lysozime. However their implementation is limited for reasons like high costs, interaction with other food ingredients, poor solubility, narrow activity spectrum, spontaneous loss of bacteriocinogenicity, etc. In addition, principles of antimicrobial effect of microwaves and ultraviolet irradiation are described. However their implementation in the dairy industry failed mostly due to technical and commercial reasons.

  5. The effect of industrial effluent stream on the groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasar, A.; Ahmad, N.; Chaudhry, M.N.; Sarwar, M.

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of the industrial wastewater stream on the groundwater. Wastewater was characterized in terms of inorganic and organic constituents. Inorganic constituents included Na/sup +/, Ca/sup 2+/ K/sup +/, Cl/sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/ and SO/sub 4//sup 2-/ coupled with heavy metal elements such as, Cd, Cr, Pb, Mn, Cu, Ni, Fe and In. Organic load of the stream was determined in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD/sub 5/) and ammonia-nitrogen (NH/sub 3/-N) contents. Other characteristics were pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS). The correlation coefficients between quality parameter pairs of stream water and groundwater were determined to ascertain the source of groundwater contamination. At station 1, BOD/sub 5/ and COD contents were 20 times and Cr concentration was 10 times higher than the permissible limits for stream water [1]. Contents of these parameters reflected the level of industrial and domestic pollution coming from India. However, large variations in the levels of these parameters at down stream sites of the drain were characteristic of type and nature of industrial effluents and domestic sewage joining the stream. Analysis results of more than one hundred groundwater samples from shallow and deep wells around the drain showed that groundwater of shallow aquifers was contaminated due to drain water. A comparison of the contents of these parameters in shallow wells with WHO standards showed that some parameters such as turbidity, TDS, Na/sup +/, F -and heavy metals like Cr were found higher than the permissible limits. (author)

  6. Effect of application of dairy manure, effluent and inorganic fertilizer on nitrogen leaching in clayey fluvo-aquic soil: A lysimeter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianling; Xiao, Jiao; Liu, Deyan; Ye, Guiping; Luo, Jiafa; Houlbrooke, David; Laurenson, Seth; Yan, Jing; Chen, Lvjun; Tian, Jinping; Ding, Weixin

    2017-08-15

    Dairy farm manure and effluent are applied to cropland in China to provide a source of plant nutrients, but there are concerns over its effect on nitrogen (N) leaching loss and groundwater quality. To investigate the effects of land application of dairy manure and effluent on potential N leaching loss, two lysimeter trials were set up in clayey fluvo-aquic soil in a winter wheat-summer maize rotation cropping system on the North China Plain. The solid dairy manure trial included control without N fertilization (CK), inorganic N fertilizer (SNPK), and fresh (RAW) and composted (COM) dairy manure. The liquid dairy effluent trial consisted of control without N fertilization (CF), inorganic N fertilizer (ENPK), and fresh (FDE) and stored (SDE) dairy effluent. The N application rate was 225kgNha -1 for inorganic N fertilizer, dairy manure, and effluent treatments in both seasons. Annual N leaching loss (ANLL) was highest in SNPK (53.02 and 16.21kgNha -1 in 2013/2014 and 2014/2015, respectively), which were 1.65- and 2.04-fold that of COM, and 1.59- and 1.26-fold that of RAW. In the effluent trial (2014/2015), ANLL for ENPK and SDE (16.22 and 16.86kgNha -1 , respectively) were significantly higher than CF and FDE (6.3 and 13.21kgNha -1 , respectively). NO 3 - contributed the most (34-92%) to total N leaching loss among all treatments, followed by dissolved organic N (14-57%). COM showed the lowest N leaching loss due to a reduction in NO 3 - loss. Yield-scaled N leaching in COM (0.35kgNMg -1 silage) was significantly (Pleaching loss while ensuring high crop yield in the North China Plain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Size and Distribution of Research Benefits in the Australian Dairy Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Esther; Tarrant, Katherine A.; Ho, Christie K.M.; Malcolm, Bill; Griffith, Garry R.

    2012-01-01

    An equilibrium displacement model of the Australian dairy industry is being developed for estimating the net benefits from dairy research undertaken by DPI Victoria. In this initial version, the dairy industry is represented by a system of aggregate demand and supply relationships for two input sectors, raw milk and milk processing inputs, and three output sectors, export and domestic manufactured milk and domestic fluid milk. Quantities and prices are calibrated in terms of milk equivalents....

  8. Greening production and consumption: the case of the appliance and dairy industries in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thongplew, N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Natapol Thongplew

    Thesis title: Greening production and consumption: The case of the appliance and dairy industries in Thailand

    This research looked into the greening of the appliance and dairy industries in

  9. Analysis of tannery effluents from the Challawa industrial estate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... and some physicochemical parameters such as conductivity, solids, chloride, chromium, alkalinity, sulphide, chemical oxygen demand, COD, and biochemical oxygen demand, BOD, of the waste water were determined. ... Keywords: tannery, effluent, pollution, environment

  10. Removal of heavy metal from industrial effluents using Baker's yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, Anika; Maisha, Nuzhat; Sultana, Nayer; Ahmed, Shoeb

    2016-07-01

    Bioremediation of wastewater containing heavy metals is one of the major challenges in environmental biotechnology. Heavy metals are not degraded and as a result they remain in the ecosystem, and pose serious health hazards as it comes in contact with human due to anthropogenic activities. Biological treatment with various microorganisms has been practiced widely in recent past, however, accessing and maintaining the microorganisms have always been a challenge. Microorganisms like Baker's yeast can be very promising biosorbents as they offer high surface to volume ratio, large availability, rapid kinetics of adsorption and desorption and low cost. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the biosorption process using baker's yeast. Here we present an experimental investigation of biosorption of Chromium (Cr) from water using commercial Baker's Yeast. It was envisaged that yeast, dead or alive, would adsorb heavy metals, however, operating parameters could play vital roles in determining the removal efficiency. Parameters, such as incubation time, pH, amount of biosorbent and heavy metal concentration were varied to investigate the impacts of those parameters on removal efficiency. Rate of removal was found to be inversely proportional to the initial Cr (+6) concentrations but the removal rate per unit biomass was a weakly dependent on initial Cr(+6) concentrations. Biosorption process was found to be more efficient at lower pH and it exhibited lower removal with the increase in solution pH. The optimum incubation time was found to be between 6-8 hours and optimum pH for the metal ion solution was 2. The effluents produced in leather industries are the major source of chromium pollution in Bangladesh and this study has presented a very cost effective yet efficient heavy metal removal approach that can be adopted for such kind of wastewater.

  11. Decomposition of organic pollutants in industrial Effluent induced by advanced oxidation process with Electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.; Oikawa, H.; Silveira, C.G.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) by electron beam irradiation induce the decomposition of pollutants in industrial effluent. Experiments were conducted using a Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37 Kew power. Experiments were conducted using samples from a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that receives about 20% of industrial wastewater, with the objective of use the electrons beam technology to destroy the refractory organic pollutants. Samples from WTP main Industrial Receiver Unit influent (IRU), Coarse Bar Screens effluent (CBS), Medium Bar Screens effluent (MBS), Primary Sedimentation effluent (PS) and Final Effluent (FE), were collected and irradiated in the electron beam accelerator in a batch system. The delivered doses were 5.0kGy, 10.0kGy and 20.0kGy. The electron beam irradiation showed be efficient on destroying the organic compounds delivered in these effluents mainly chloroform, dichloroethane, methyl isobutyl ketone, benzene, toluene, xylene, phenol. The necessary dose to remove 90% of the most organic compounds from industry effluent was 20 kGy. The removal of organic compounds from this complex mixture were described by the destruction G value (Gd) that were obtained for those compounds in different initial concentration and compared with literature

  12. Vitamin D status of dairy cattle: Outcomes of current practices in the dairy industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The need for vitamin D supplementation of dairy cattle has been known for the better part of the last century and is well-appreciated by dairy producers and nutritionists. Whether current recommendations and practices for supplemental vitamin D are meeting the needs of dairy cattle, however, is not...

  13. Transport and modeling of estrogenic hormones in a dairy farm effluent through undisturbed soil lysimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Laure D; Bidwell, Vincent J; Di, Hong J; Cameron, Keith C; Northcott, Grant L

    2010-04-01

    The presence of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including estrone (E1) and 17beta-estradiol (E2), in surface waters has been associated with physiological dysfunction in a number of aquatic organisms. One source of surface and groundwater contamination with E1 and E2 is the land application of animal wastes. The processes involved in the transport of these hormones in the soil, when applied with animal wastes, are still unclear. Therefore, a field-transport experiment was carried out, where a dairy farm effluent spiked with E1 and E2 was applied on large (50 cm diameter and 70 cm depth) undisturbed soil lysimeters. The concentrations of E1 and E2 in the leachate were monitored over a 3-month period, during which irrigation was applied. The experimental data suggest that E1 and E2 were transported through preferential/macropore flow pathways. The data from the experiment also show that E1 and E2 are leached earlier than the inert tracer (bromide). This observation can be explained either by the presence of antecedent concentrations in the soil or by an enhanced transport of E1 and E2 through the soil. A state-space mixing-cell model was further developed in order to describe the transport of E1 and E2 by three transport processes in parallel. The inverse modeling of the leaching data did not support the hypothesis that antecedent concentrations of estrogens could be responsible for the observed breakthrough curves but confirmed that estrogens were transported mainly via preferential/macropore flow and also via an enhanced transport. The parameter values that characterized this enhanced transport strongly suggest that this enhanced transport is mediated by colloids. For the first time, the simultaneous transport of E1 and E2 was modeled under transient conditions, taking into account the advection-dispersion, preferential/macropore flow, and colloidal-enhanced transport processes as well as E1 and E2 dissipation in the soil. These findings have major implications in

  14. Removal of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc from simulated industrial effluents using silica powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, T.; Awan, A.; Arshad, M.; Khan, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid industrial development have led to the recognition and increasing understanding of interrelationship between pollution, public health and environment. Industrial development results in the generation of industrial effluents, and if untreated results in water, sediment and soil pollution. In Pakistan most of the industrial effluents are discharged into surrounding ecosystems without any treatment. Industrial wastes and emission contain toxic and hazardous substances, most of which are detrimental to human health. Extensive efforts are being made around the world for the removal of heavy metal from industrial effluents. A laboratory scale study was designed for removal of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn from simulated solutions at various weight of silica (0.5gm, 1gm, 2 gm, 3gm and 4 gm), Voltammeter was used to quantify the metals. Maximum removal of all metals was achieved with 4 gm of silica. Absorption of lead onto silic a was higher than other metals. (author)

  15. Electrocoagulation for the treatment of textile industry effluent--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandegar, V; Saroha, Anil K

    2013-10-15

    Various techniques such as physical, chemical, biological, advanced oxidation and electrochemical are used for the treatment of industrial effluent. The commonly used conventional biological treatment processes are time consuming, need large operational area and are not effective for effluent containing toxic elements. Advanced oxidation techniques result in high treatment cost and are generally used to obtain high purity grade water. The chemical coagulation technique is slow and generates large amount of sludge. Electrocoagulation has recently attracted attention as a potential technique for treating industrial effluent due to its versatility and environmental compatibility. This technique uses direct current source between metal electrodes immersed in the effluent, which causes the dissolution of electrode plates into the effluent. The metal ions, at an appropriate pH, can form wide range of coagulated species and metal hydroxides that destabilize and aggregate particles or precipitate and adsorb the dissolved contaminants. Therefore, the objective of the present manuscript is to review the potential of electrocoagulation for the treatment of industrial effluents, mainly removal of dyes from textile effluent. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Measuring and explaining multi-directional inefficiency in the Malaysian dairy industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohd Suhaimi, Nurul Aisyah Binti; Mey, de Yann; Oude Lansink, Alfons

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure the technical inefficiency of dairy farms and subsequently investigate the factors affecting technical inefficiency in the Malaysian dairy industry. Design/methodology/approach: This study uses multi-directional efficiency analysis to measure the

  17. Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    is acidic, thus enhancing leaching and corrosive tendencies of the irrigation ... of heavy metals in the soil indicated contamination from the effluent from the .... well (SAR = 11.1), which contained high pH (pH= 6.65) and high Chloride ion (Cl-of.

  18. An Assessment of Physicochemical Parameters of Selected Industrial Effluents in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinay Man Shrestha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that the effluents released from the industries and environmental degradation go hand in hand. With the ongoing global industrialization this problem has been further aggravated. As such, Nepal is no exception. Hundreds of industries are being registered in the country annually which inevitably brings the issues regarding environmental pollution. This study has been conducted with samples of wastewater from 5 different industrial sites in 4 districts of Nepal, namely, Makwanpur, Sunsari, Morang, and Kathmandu, among which two were Waste Water Treatment Plants which treated the combined effluents collected from various sources. The other three sites were from wires and cables industry, paint manufacturing industry, and plastic cutting industry. The physicochemical parameters analysed were pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, and Cu, Cr, SO42-, and PO43- levels. Possible onsite measurements were recorded using portable, handheld devices whereas other parameters were assessed in the laboratory. The observed parameter levels in the collected samples were compared against the available Nepal national standards for industrial effluents and in the absence of standards for industrial effluents, with other relevant standard levels. Most of the parameters analysed were within the permissible limits with the exception of pH and Cr levels in some sites.

  19. Towards the design of a zero effluent facility in the pharmaceutical industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gouws, JF

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available . The pharmaceutical production industry has some unique characteristics that make it possible to reach the goal of zero effluent. In such industries wastewater is generally produced from washing out of mixing vessels. The wastewater thus contains valuable product...

  20. Identification of estrogenic activity change in sewage, industrial and livestock effluents by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byeong-Yong; Kang, Sung-Wook; Yoo, Jisu; Kim, Woong-Ki; Bae, Paek-Hyun; Jung, Jinho

    2012-01-01

    In this study, reduction of estrogenic activity in three different types of effluents from sewage, industrial and livestock wastewater treatment plants by gamma-irradiation was investigated using the yeast two-hybrid assay. After gamma-ray treatment at a dose of 10 kGy, estrogenic activities of sewage, industrial and livestock effluents decreased from 4.4 to 3.0, 1.5 to 1.0 and 16 to 9.9 ng-EEQ L −1 , respectively. The substantial reduction of estrogenic activity in livestock effluent was attributable to the degradation of 17β-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2). Although bisphenol A (BPA) was found at the highest concentration in all effluents, its contribution to the estrogenic activity was not significant due to its low relative estrogenic potency. Meanwhile, the calculated estrogenic activity based on concentrations of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA in the effluents significantly differed from the measured ones. Overestimation may have resulted by dissolved organic matters in effluents inhibiting the estrogenic activity of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA, whereas underestimation was likely due to estrogenic by-products generated by gamma-irradiation. - Highlights: ► Livestock effluent showed strong estrogenic activity due to E2, E1 and EE2. ► EE2 remained in all effluents after gamma-irradiation even at a dose of 10 kGy. ► DOMs in effluents inhibited degradation and activity of estrogenic compounds.

  1. Econometric analysis of the performance of cooperatives and investor owned firms in the European dairy industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soboh, R.A.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Cooperatives, IOFs, European dairy industry, logistic regression, stochastic frontier analysis, inter- and intra-firm efficiency, catch-up component, data envelopment analysis, hyperbolic technical efficiency, overall efficiency, scale efficiency, bootstrapping.

    In this study

  2. Integrated process for the removal of emulsified oils from effluents in the steel industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, J.M.; Rios, G.; Gutierrez, B.; Pazos, C.; Coca, J.

    1999-11-01

    Emulsified oils contained in aqueous effluents from cold-rolling mills of the steel industry can be effectively removed via an integrated process consisting of a coagulation/flocculation stage followed by ultrafiltration of the resulting aqueous phase. The effects of CaCl{sub 2}, NaOH, and lime on the stability of different industrial effluents were studied in the coagulation experiments. The flocculants tested were inorganic prehydrolyzed aluminum salts and quaternary polyamines. Ultrafiltration of the aqueous phase from the coagulation/flocculation stage was carried out in a stirred cell using Amicon PM30 and XM300 organic membranes. Permeate fluxes were measured for industrial effluents to which the indicated coagulants and flocculants had been added. Oil concentrations in the permeate were 75% lower than the limits established by all European Union countries. Complete regeneration of the membrane was accomplished with an aqueous solution of a commercial detergent.

  3. Corporate political activity of the dairy industry in France: an analysis of publicly available information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialon, Melissa; Mialon, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we used a structured approach based on publicly available information to identify the corporate political activity (CPA) strategies of three major actors in the dairy industry in France. We collected publicly available information from the industry, government and other sources over a 6-month period, from March to August 2015. Data collection and analysis were informed by an existing framework for classifying the CPA of the food industry. Setting/Subjects Our study included three major actors in the dairy industry in France: Danone, Lactalis and the Centre National Interprofessionnel de l'Economie Laitière (CNIEL), a trade association. During the period of data collection, the dairy industry employed CPA practices on numerous occasions by using three strategies: the 'information and messaging', the 'constituency building' and the 'policy substitution' strategies. The most common practice was the shaping of evidence in ways that suited the industry. The industry also sought involvement in the community, establishing relationships with public health professionals, academics and the government. Our study shows that the dairy industry used several CPA practices, even during periods when there was no specific policy debate on the role of dairy products in dietary guidelines. The information provided here could inform public health advocates and policy makers and help them ensure that commercial interests of industry do not impede public health policies and programmes.

  4. Dyeing Industry Effluent System as Lipid Production Medium of Neochloris sp. for Biodiesel Feedstock Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadharani Gopalakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AAS analysis. There was especially a reduction in heavy metal like lead (Pb concentration from 0.002 ppm to 0.001 ppm after Neochloris sp. treatment. Neochloris sp. cultivated in Bold Basal Medium (BBM (specific algal medium produced 41.93% total lipid and 36.69% lipid was produced in effluent based cultivation. Surprisingly Neochloris sp. cultivated in effluent was found with enhanced neutral lipid content, and it was confirmed by Nile red fluorescence assay. Further the particular enrichment in oleic acid content of the cells was confirmed with thin layer chromatography (TLC with oleic acid pure (98% control. The overall results suggested that textile dyeing industry effluent could serve as the best lipid productive medium for Neochloris sp. biodiesel feedstock preparation. This study was found to have a significant impact on reducing the biodiesel feedstock preparation cost with simultaneous lipid induction by heavy metal stress to microalgae.

  5. Desalination of brackish water and concentration of industrial effluents by electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Schoeman

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrodialysis (ED is, at present, used mainly for the desalination of brackish drinking-water. Brackish water with a high scaling potential can be successfully treated, using the electrodialysis reversal (EDR process without the addition of chemicals. The reliability of the ED process makes it very attractive for water treatment. Although used mainly for brackish water desalination, ED also has certain industrial applications. Plating wash waters, cooling tower recirculation water and glass etching effluents have been treated successfully with ED for water recovery and effluent volume reduction, while ED treatment of nickel plating wash waters is an established industrial process.

  6. Effect of textile industrial effluent on tree plantation and soil chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G; Bala, N; Rathod, T R; Singh, B

    2001-01-01

    A field study was conducted at Arid Forest Research Institute to study the effect of textile industrial effluent on the growth of forest trees and associated soil properties. The effluent has high pH, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) whereas the bivalent cations were in traces. Eight months old seedlings of Acacia nilotica, Acacia tortilis, Albizia lebbeck, Azadirachta indica, Parkinsonia aculeata and Prosopis juliflora were planted in July 1993. Various treatment regimes followed were; irrigation with effluent only (W1), effluent mixed with canal water in 1:1 ratio (W2), irrigation with gypsum treated effluent (W3), gypsum treated soil irrigated with effluent (W4) and wood ash treated soil irrigated with effluent (W5). Treatment regime W5 was found the best where plants attained (mean of six species) 173 cm height, 138 cm crown diameter and 9.2 cm collar girth at the age of 28 months. The poorest growth was observed under treatment regime of W3. The growth of the species varied significantly and the maximum growth was recorded for P. juliflora (188 cm height, 198 cm crown diameter and 10.0 cm collar girth). The minimum growth was recorded for A. lebbeck. Irrigation with effluent resulted in increase in percent organic matter as well as in EC. In most of the cases there were no changes in soil pH except in W5 where it was due to the effect of wood ash. Addition of wood ash influenced plant growth. These results suggest that tree species studied (except A. lebbeck) can be established successfully using textile industrial wastewater in arid region.

  7. Genotoxicity Screening of Industrial Effluents using Onion bulbs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: The potential cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of three industrial wastewaters (brewery .... National recommended water quality criteria – correction; cWorld Health Organisation (1996). ..... Industrial Pollution Policy Management Study.

  8. Biological treatment of the liquid effluents of a paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia, Juan Felipe; Ramirez, Gladys Eugenia; Arias Zabala, Mario

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the effect of the microorganisms Candida utilis and Candida tropicalis in the reduction of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the liquid effluents of a producing factory of paper kraft type, by means of fermentations made to pH of 5 and a 30 centigrade degrees during 6 days. The biological processing is preceded by a physicochemical process of directed acidulation to reduce pH of the effluent (liquor black) from its initial value, of approximately 13, to 5, in order to it is adapted for the growth of yeast. In this process, which forms precipitated, that is necessary to eliminate by centrifugation and filtration to facilitate the growth of the microorganisms, with is obtained one first removal of the COD of the order of 70 %. With the biological processing obtains for both yeasts a percentage of removal of 45 -50% of the COD surplus. The total removal of the COD, that is to say, obtained with the pre-cure and the fermentation it is of the order of 84% for the yeast. Additionally the possibility studied of implementing some complementary procedures to the biological processing, with a view to obtaining greater growth of yeast in the black liquor and thus obtaining additional reductions in the OCD of the same one

  9. Milking the region? South African capital and Zambia's dairy industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANBR

    and interviews with representatives or employees of most of the country's large, medium .... Zambeef secured this relationship with the retail multinational before ... Currently it does not buy centrally but each franchise sources dairy products.

  10. Optimization of the distribution chain in dairy industry

    OpenAIRE

    HAZUKOVÁ, Petra

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to analyse the distribution chain in the range of dairy products and to optimise logistic provisions of the distribution chain from the viewpoint of logistic services and logistic costs.

  11. Effluent Treatment Technologies in the Iron and Steel Industry - A State of the Art Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pallabi; Mondal, Gautam C; Singh, Siddharth; Singh, Abhay K; Prasad, Bably; Singh, Krishna K

    2018-05-01

      Iron and steel industry is the principal driving force propelling economic and technological growth of a nation. However, since its inception this industry is associated with widespread environmental pollution and enormous water consumption. Different units of a steel plant discharge effluents loaded with toxic, hazardous pollutants, and unutilized components which necessitates mitigation. In this paper, pollutant removal efficiency, effluent volume product quality, and economic feasibility of existing treatments are studied vis-à-vis their merits, demerits, and innovations to access their shortcomings which can be overcome with new technology to identify future research directions. While conventional methods are inadequate for complete remediation and water reclamation, the potential of advanced treatments, like membrane separation, remains relatively untapped. It is concluded that integrated systems combining membrane separation with chemical treatments can guarantee a high degree of contaminant removal, reusability of effluents concurrently leading to process intensification ensuring ecofriendliness and commercial viability.

  12. Negative environmental impacts of antibiotic-contaminated effluents from pharmaceutical industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielen, Ana; Šimatović, Ana; Kosić-Vukšić, Josipa; Senta, Ivan; Ahel, Marijan; Babić, Sanja; Jurina, Tamara; González Plaza, Juan José; Milaković, Milena; Udiković-Kolić, Nikolina

    2017-12-01

    Effluents from pharmaceutical industries are recognized as significant contributors to aquatic pollution with antibiotics. Although such pollution has been mostly reported in Asia, knowledge on industrial discharges in other regions of the world, including Europe, and on the effects associated with such exposures is still limited. Thus, we performed chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological analyses of effluents from two Croatian pharmaceutical industries during four seasons. In treated effluents of the company synthesizing macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZI), the total concentration of AZI and two macrolide by-products from its synthesis was 1-3 orders of magnitude higher in winter and springtime (up to 10.5 mg/L) than during the other two seasons (up to 638 μg/L). Accordingly, the highest total concentrations (up to 30 μg/L) in the recipient river were measured in winter and spring. Effluents from second company formulating veterinary antibiotics contained fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim, sulfonamides and tetracyclines ranging from low μg/L to approx. 200 μg/L. Low concentrations of these antibiotics, from below the limit of quantification to approx. few μg/L, have also been measured in the recipient stream. High frequency of culturable bacteria resistant to AZI (up to 83%) or sulfamethazine (up to 90%) and oxytetracycline (up to 50%) were also found in studied effluents. Finally, we demonstrated that toxicity to algae and water fleas often exceeded the permitted values. Most highly contaminated effluents induced multiple abnormalities in zebrafish embryos. In conclusion, using a wide array of analyses we have demonstrated that discharges from pharmaceutical industries can pose a significant ecological and public health concern due to their toxicity to aquatic organisms and risks for promoting development and spread of antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Listeria monocytogenes incidence changes and diversity in some Brazilian dairy industries and retail products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxaran, Virginie; Lee, Sarah Hwa In; Chaul, Luíza Toubas; Corassin, Carlos Humberto; Barancelli, Giovana Verginia; Alves, Virgínia Farias; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Fernandes; Gram, Lone; De Martinis, Elaine Cristina Pereira

    2017-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can cause listeriosis, a severe foodborne disease. In Brazil, despite very few reported cases of listeriosis, the pathogen has been repeatedly isolated from dairies. This has led the government to implement specific legislation to reduce the hazard. Here, we determined the incidence of L. monocytogenes in five dairies and retail products in the Southeast and Midwest regions of Brazil over eight months. Of 437 samples, three samples (0.7%) from retail and only one sample (0.2%) from the dairies were positive for L. monocytogenes. Thus, the contamination rate was significantly reduced as compared to previous studies. MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST) was used to determine if contamination was caused by new or persistent clones leading to the first MLST profile of L. monocytogenes from the Brazilian dairy industry. The processing environment isolate is of concern being a sequence-type (ST) 2, belonging to the lineage I responsible for the majority of listeriosis outbreaks. Also, ST3 and ST8 found in commercialized cheese have previously been reported in outbreaks. Despite the lower incidence, dairy products still pose a potential health risk and the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in dairies and retail products emphasize the need for continuous surveillance of this pathogen in the Brazilian dairy industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Color pollution control in textile dyeing industry effluents using tannery sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjala Sreedhar Reddy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective treatment of dyestuff containing textile dyeing industry effluents require advanced treatment technologies such as adsorption for the removal of dyestuffs. Powdered commercial coal based activated carbon has been the most widely used adsorbent for the removal of dyestuffs from dyeing industry effluents. As an alternative to commercial coal based activated carbon, activated carbon prepared from dried tannery sludge was used as an adsorbent for dyestuff removal from simulated textile dying industry effluent in this study. The color removal performance of tannery sludge derived activated carbon and commercial coal based activated carbon has been investigated using parameters such as adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and temperature. It was found that tannery sludge derived activated carbon exhibits dye removal efficiency that is about 80–90 % of that observed with commercial coal based activated carbon. The amount of dye adsorbed on to tannery sludge derived activated carbon is lower compared with commercial activated carbon at equilibrium and dye adsorption capacity increased with increase of initial dye concentration and temperature, and deceasing pH. It was found that the Langmuir isotherm appears to fit the isotherm data better than the Freundlich isotherm. The leachate of heavy metals from tannery sludge derived activated carbon to the environment is very low, which are within the standard limit of industrial effluent and leachable substances.

  15. Utilization of artificial recharged effluent as makeup water for industrial cooling system: corrosion and scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liangliang; Qin, Kena; Zhao, Qingliang; Noguera, Daniel R; Xin, Ming; Liu, Chengcai; Keene, Natalie; Wang, Kun; Cui, Fuyi

    2016-01-01

    The secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plants was reused for industrial cooling water after pre-treatment with a laboratory-scale soil aquifer treatment (SAT) system. Up to a 95.3% removal efficiency for suspended solids (SS), 51.4% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 32.1% for Cl(-) and 30.0% SO4(2-) were observed for the recharged secondary effluent after the SAT operation, which is essential for controlling scaling and corrosion during the cooling process. As compared to the secondary effluent, the reuse of the 1.5 m depth SAT effluent decreased the corrosion by 75.0%, in addition to a 55.1% decline of the scales/biofouling formation (with a compacted structure). The experimental results can satisfy the Chinese criterion of Design Criterion of the Industrial Circulating Cooling Water Treatment (GB 50050-95), and was more efficient than tertiary effluent which coagulated with ferric chloride. In addition, chemical structure of the scales/biofouling obtained from the cooling system was analyzed.

  16. Strategy for the investigation of hazardous substances in industrial effluents: IDA (Industrial Discharge Assessment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reemtsma, T.; Klinkow, N.

    2001-08-01

    The assessment of amounts and effects of hazardous substances in industrial effluents necessitates a combination of chemical and biological investigations. Therefore in this study a strategy for the investigation of hazardous substances in wastewater discharges was developed which connects the parameters persistence, bioaccumulation, and aquatic toxicity. The strategy IDA (Industrial Discharge Assessment) was elaborated based on the evaluation of existing investigation strategies and the available test systems. The strategy has a modular structure to assure a flexible investigation with regard to the particularities of a given wastewater. After the determination of acute and chronic toxicity and genotoxicity a microbial degradation test is carried out to obtain the persistent wastewater fraction. The bioaccumulating substances are determined from this fraction by solid-phase extraction. Within the strategy differences between direct and indirect discharges are taken into account and particulate matter is considered as well. By the modular linking it can be determined if a wastewater contains toxic and persistent and bioaccumulating substances, which present an important potential of hazard for the aquatic environment. The first application of the strategy on three wastewater samples of the chemical and the metal processing industry showed that the strategy can be used as planned. (orig.) [German] Die Erfassung der Gehalte und Wirkungen gefaehrlicher Stoffe in Abwassereinleitungen der Industrie erfordert eine Kombination chemischer und biologischer Untersuchungen, die ueber das bisher in der AbwV festgelegte Mass hinausgeht. In dieser Studie wurde deshalb eine Untersuchungsstrategie fuer gefaehrliche Stoffe in Abwasserleitungen entwickelt, die die Parameter Persistenz, Bioakkumulierbarkeit und Toxizitaet auch experimentell verknuepft. Die Ausarbeitung erfolgte nach Auswertung der international bestehenden Untersuchungsstrategien sowie der zur Verfuegung stehenden

  17. Application of the natural cellulosic supports modified chemically for the treatment of the industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassale, A.; Elbariji, S.; Lacherai, A.; Elamine, M.; Kabli, H.; Albourine, A.

    2009-01-01

    The process of purification and discoloration of industrial waters (and particularly effluents of the textile industry) can meet major difficulties: certain dyes agents get through the devices of purge without being to stop. the cost of equipment and products of purification is prohibitive. Finally, in many cases, the discoloration can be only partial because waters to be treated containing mixtures of dyes of different nature, the material of purification can be effective only screw/screw of some of them. (Author)

  18. Chemical investigation of the effluents of selected chemical industries in NWFP (Pakistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, M.R.; Shah, J.; Shah, H.

    2002-01-01

    Samples of effluents were collected from the waste water drains of selected chemical industries, located at small industries estate Kohat Road Peshawar on monthly basis from November 1994 to October 1995. These samples were studied for physico chemical properties and heavy metals like Pb, Ag, Cu, Zn, Fe, Cr, Cd, Mn and Ni using spectroscopic techniques. The results of our investigation are presented and discussed. (author)

  19. Bacterial removal of toxic phenols from an industrial effluent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... Chlorinated phenols, widely used in industries, are of growing concern owing to their high toxicity, .... phenol-degradation ability of bacterial isolate at the high phenol .... ed virtually no decrease in the respiratory response over.

  20. User's Manual for BEST-Dairy: Benchmarking and Energy/water-Saving Tool (BEST) for the Dairy Processing Industry (Version 1.2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, T.; Ke, J.; Sathaye, J.

    2011-04-20

    This User's Manual summarizes the background information of the Benchmarking and Energy/water-Saving Tool (BEST) for the Dairy Processing Industry (Version 1.2, 2011), including'Read Me' portion of the tool, the sections of Introduction, and Instructions for the BEST-Dairy tool that is developed and distributed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  1. Communication Strategies of the Chinese Dairy Industry Manufacturers to Rebuild Reputation and Maintain a Quality Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashi Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available After the Sanlu tainted milk powder crisis in China in 2008, the entire powdered milk manufacturing industry, and in many ways the food industry as a whole, faced a crisis of reputation and consumer confidence. Through a study of the organisation and public relationships of dairy companies, the crisis communication strategies they used, and how they cultivated relationships, this paper explores how companies within the milk industry rebuilt their reputations to a point where customers and other key elements of the public once again felt confident about their products. This study explores the organisation­-public relationships (OPRs cultivation strategies of the dairy companies and the communication strategies they used to rebuild the industry's reputation after the Sanlu crisis. The author interviewed dairy company personnel and consumers in China (N=18 and conducted secondary document research. The communication strategies that dairy companies used to maintain their relationship with the public are analysed. This study develops the theory of relationship management and provides suggestions for other companies to utilise should they face an industry crisis in the future. The cultivation strategies the dairy companies use to maintain their relationship with the public is hard to separate from communication strategy employed after the crisis.

  2. Effect of soda ash industry effluent on agarophytes, alginophytes and carrageenophyte of west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadeja, R N; Tewari, A

    2009-02-15

    This paper presents the results of a study on the impact of the effluent released by the soda ash industry on important red and brown macro algal species Gelidiella acerosa, Gracilaria corticata, Soleria robusta, Sargassum tenerrimum, Padina tetrastromatica in the tidal zone around Veraval, on the west coast of India, in the lowest low water tide of December 2003. The study examined the effect of effluent discharge on availability of biomass and percentage of phyco-colloids extraction such as agar, alginic acid and carrageen of these commercial seaweeds.

  3. Invited review: Sustainable forage and grain crop production for the US dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N P; Russelle, M P; Powell, J M; Sniffen, C J; Smith, S I; Tricarico, J M; Grant, R J

    2017-12-01

    A resilient US dairy industry will be underpinned by forage and crop production systems that are economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable. Land use for production of perennial and annual forages and grains for dairy cattle must evolve in response to multiple food security and environmental sustainability issues. These include increasing global populations; higher incomes and demand for dairy and other animal products; climate change with associated temperature and moisture changes; necessary reductions in carbon and water footprints; maintenance of soil quality and soil nutrient concerns; and competition for land. Likewise, maintaining producer profitability and utilizing practices accepted by consumers and society generally must also be considered. Predicted changes in climate and water availability will likely challenge current feed and dairy production systems and their national spatial distribution, particularly the western migration of dairy production in the late 20th century. To maintain and stabilize profitability while reducing carbon footprint, particularly reductions in methane emission and enhancements in soil carbon sequestration, dairy production will need to capitalize on genetic and management innovations that enhance forage and grain production and nutritive value. Improved regional and on-farm integration of feed production and manure utilization is needed to reduce environmental nitrogen and phosphorus losses and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Resilient and flexible feed production strategies are needed to address each of these challenges and opportunities to ensure profitable feeding of dairy cattle and a sustainable dairy industry. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  4. Treatment of industrial effluents in constructed wetlands: challenges, operational strategies and overall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shubiao; Wallace, Scott; Brix, Hans; Kuschk, Peter; Kirui, Wesley Kipkemoi; Masi, Fabio; Dong, Renjie

    2015-06-01

    The application of constructed wetlands (CWs) has significantly expanded to treatment of various industrial effluents, but knowledge in this field is still insufficiently summarized. This review is accordingly necessary to better understand this state-of-the-art technology for further design development and new ideas. Full-scale cases of CWs for treating various industrial effluents are summarized, and challenges including high organic loading, salinity, extreme pH, and low biodegradability and color are evaluated. Even horizontal flow CWs are widely used because of their passive operation, tolerance to high organic loading, and decolorization capacity, free water surface flow CWs are effective for treating oil field/refinery and milking parlor/cheese making wastewater for settlement of total suspended solids, oil, and grease. Proper pretreatment, inflow dilutions through re-circulated effluent, pH adjustment, plant selection and intensifications in the wetland bed, such as aeration and bioaugmentation, are recommended according to the specific characteristics of industrial effluents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Pseudomonas spp. isolated from effluent of an electroplating industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punjabi, Kapil; Yedurkar, Snehal; Doshi, Sejal; Deshapnde, Sunita; Vaidya, Shashikant

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and screen bacteria from soil and effluent of electroplating industries for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and characterize the potential isolate. Soil and effluent of electroplating industries from Mumbai were screened for bacteria capable of synthesizing silver nanoparticles. From two soils and eight effluent samples 20 bacterial isolates were obtained, of these, one was found to synthesize silver nanoparticles. Synthesis of silver nanoparticle by bacteria was confirmed by undertaking characterization studies of nanoparticles that involved spectroscopy and electron microscopic techniques. The potential bacteria was found to be Gram-negative short rods with its biochemical test indicating Pseudomonas spp . Molecular characterization of the isolate by 16S r DNA sequencing was carried out which confirmed its relation to Pseudomonas hibiscicola ATCC 19867. Stable nanoparticles synthesized were 50 nm in size and variable shapes as seen in SEM micrographs. The XRD and FTIR confirmed the crystalline structure of nanoparticles and presence of biomolecules mainly proteins as agents for reduction and capping of nanoparticles. The study demonstrates synthesis of nanoparticles by bacteria from effluent of electroplating industry. This can be used for large scale synthesis of nanoparticles by cost effective and environmentally benign mode of synthesis.

  6. Assessment of Nelumbo nucifera and Hydrilla verticillata in the treatment of pharmaceutical industry effluent from 24 Parganas, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamba Chatterjee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern day technologies employed in industrialization and unhygienic lifestyle of mankind has led to a severe environmental menace resulting in pollution of freshwater bodies. Pharmaceutical industry effluents cause eutrophication and provide adequate nutrients for growth of pathogenic bacteria. This study has been conducted with aquatic plants water lotus (Nelumbo nucifera and hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata with an novel aim to treat pharmaceutical industry effluents showing the outcome of the experiments carried out with the effluents collected from rural areas of 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. Determination of pH, solid suspend, BOD5, NH3-N, MPN and coliform test were used for this notioned purpose. Pharmaceutical waste effluent water treated with water lotus showed less pH, solid suspend, DO, BOD, NH3-N, MPN and coliform bacteria than hydrilla treatment when compared to the control. In conclusion, water lotus is found to be more efficient in treatment of pharmaceutical industry effluent waste water than hydrilla.

  7. Collective dose to the European Community from nuclear industry effluents discharge in 1978

    CERN Document Server

    Camplin, W C

    1983-01-01

    The results are presented of a study to evaluate the collective dose commitment to the population of the European Community from effluents released by the nuclear industry within the EC in 1978. Airborne and liquid effluent discharge data have been taken from published sources, and computer modelling techniques have been used to predict the transfer of radioactivity through the environment to man. The collective dose commitments due to discharges from each nuclear installation have been evaluated and the comparative significance of individual radionuclides and their pathways to man have been considered. Airborne releases resulted in an estimated collective effective dose equivalent commitment of 95 man Sv, the major part of which is due to carbon-14 from both power stations and reprocessing plants. The collective effective dose equivalent commitment from liquid effluents is estimated to be 408 man Sv, mostly due to caesium-137 and other radionuclides from the Sellafield (formerly Windscale) reprocessing plant...

  8. Distribution of 137Cs Radionuclide in Industrial Wastes Effluents of Gresik, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides 137Cs was measured from industrial waste effluent of Gresik to Gresik Sea in east Java, Indonesia. The activity of 37Cs detected at all stations was much lower than in northeast Japan both before and after NPP Fukushima accident. This indicated that in Gresik industrials waste did not consist of 137Cs. The lowest activity 137Cs occurred at the station nearest to the industrial waste effluent that contained some particle ions that were able to scavenge 137Cs and then precipate this radionuclide. Furthermore, the greatest 137Cs occured at the station that has high current speeds that stirred up sediment to release 137Cs in seawater as a secondary source. The lowest salinity did not effect on the activity of 137Cs even though the lowest salinity and activity 137Cs occured at the same station

  9. Radiation purification of the chemical industry effluents and possibilities of realization of this method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petryaev, E.P.; Kovalevskaya, A.M.; Shlyk, V.G.; Savushkin, I.A.; Kazazyan, V.T.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation-chemical methods for synthetic fibre industry effluents purification from cyanides, sulphides and monomers, as well as for disinfection of circulation water and improvement in sedimental and filtering properties of waste active slurry in petrochemical industry are described. Chemical plant effluents are purified by 70-90% from cyanides at the dose rate of 0,3 - 0,5 Mrad, by 60 - 70% from sulphides and monomers at the dose of 0,2 Mrad. Circulation water of petroleum processing plant is disinfected at the dose of 0,08 Mrad; the rates of filtration and sedimentation of waste active slurry increase two and three fold, correspondingly, at the dose of 0,6 Mrad. The power of radiation sources required for the industrial realization of radiation purification of liquid wastes has been calculated

  10. Use of native aquatic macrophytes in the reduction of organic matter from dairy effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Rita de Cássia Souza de; Andrade, Rodrigo Santos; Dantas, Isadora Rosário; Ribeiro, Vinícius de Souza; Neto, Luciano Brito Rodrigues; Almeida Neto, José Adolfo de

    2017-08-03

    Considering the diversity and the unexplored potential of regional aquatic flora, this study aimed to identify and analyze the potential of native aquatic macrophytes to reduce the organic matter of dairy wastewater (DW) using experimental constructed wetlands. The dairy wastewater (DW) had an average chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 7414.63 mg/L and then was diluted to 3133.16 mg/L (D1) and to 2506.53 mg/L (D2). Total solids, COD, temperature, and pH analyses were performed, and the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was estimated from the COD values. The best performance in the reduction of the organic matter was observed for Polygonum sp. (87.5% COD and 79.6% BOD) and Eichhornia paniculata (90% COD and 83.7% BOD) at dilution D1, on the 8th day of the experiment. However, the highest total solids removal was observed for Polygonum sp. (32.2%), on the 4th day, at dilution D2. The total solid (TS) concentration has also increased starting from the 8th day of the experiment was observed which may have been due to the development of mosquito larvae and their mechanical removal by sieving, thus changing the steady state of the experimental systems. The macrophytes Polygonum sp. and E. paniculata were considered suitable for the reduction of organic matter of DW using constructed wetlands.

  11. Listeria monocytogenes incidence changes and diversity in some Brazilian dairy industries and retail products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxaran, Virginie; In Lee, Sarah Hwa; Chaul, Luiza Toubas

    2017-01-01

    the incidence of L. monocytogenes in five dairies and retail products in the Southeast and Midwest regions of Brazil over eight months. Of 437 samples, three samples (0.7%) from retail and only one sample (0.2%) from the dairies were positive for L. monocytogenes. Thus, the contamination rate was significantly...... reduced as compared to previous studies. MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST) was used to determine if contamination was caused by new or persistent clones leading to the first MLST profile of L. monocytogenes from the Brazilian dairy industry. The processing environment isolate is of concern being...... a sequence-type (ST) 2, belonging to the lineage I responsible for the majority of listeriosis outbreaks. Also, ST3 and ST8 found in commercialized cheese have previously been reported in outbreaks. Despite the lower incidence, dairy products still pose a potential health risk and the occurrence of L...

  12. The treatment of liquid effluents from the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carley-Macauly, K.W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reviews the sources, and principles of management, of radioactive liquid wastes in the nuclear industry. The selection of processes for their treatment is based on consideration of the solution chemistry and of the total system for active waste disposal which must ensure that the activity or radiation dose arriving in the biosphere is kept within acceptable limits. Treatment processes aim primarily at concentration of the active species into a small volume, as by evaporation, selective ion exchange or precipitation. These well established methods have counterparts or developments among the more novel means of separation, such as membrane processes. (author)

  13. The dairy industry: a brief description of production practices, trends, and farm characteristics around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douphrate, David I; Hagevoort, G Robert; Nonnenmann, Matthew W; Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Reynolds, Stephen J; Jakob, Martina; Kinsel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The global dairy industry is composed of a multitude of countries with unique production practices and consumer markets. The global average number of cows per farm is about 1-2 cows; however, as a farm business model transitions from sustenance to market production, the average herd size, and subsequent labor force increases. Dairy production is unique as an agricultural commodity because milk is produced daily, for 365 days per year. With the introduction of new technology such as the milking parlor, the global industry trend is one of increasing farm sizes. The farm sizes are the largest in the United States; however, the European Union produces the most milk compared with other global producers. Dairy production is essential for economic development and sustainable communities in rural areas. However, the required capital investment and availability of local markets and labor are continued challenges. Due to farm expansion, international producers are faced with new challenges related to assuring food safety and a safe working environment for their workforce. These challenges exist in addition to the cultural and language barriers related to an increasing dependence on immigrant labor in many regions of the world. Continued success of the global dairy industry is vital. Therefore, research should continue to address the identification of occupational risk factors associated with injuries and illnesses, as well as develop cost-effective interventions and practices that lead to the minimization or elimination of these injuries and illnesses on a global scale, among our valuable population of dairy producers and workers.

  14. Water in the Mendoza, Argentina, food processing industry: water requirements and reuse potential of industrial effluents in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Elena Duek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the volume of water used by the Mendoza food processing industry considering different water efficiency scenarios. The potential for using food processing industry effluents for irrigation is also assessed. The methodology relies upon information collected from interviews with qualified informants from different organizations and food-processing plants in Mendoza selected from a targeted sample. Scenarios were developed using local and international secondary information sources. The results show that food processing plants in Mendoza use 19.65 hm3 of water per year; efficient water management practices would make it possible to reduce water use by 64%, i.e., to 7.11 hm3. At present, 70% of the water is used by the fruit and vegetable processing industry, 16% by wineries, 8% by mineral water bottling plants, and the remaining 6% by olive oil, beer and soft drink plants. The volume of effluents from the food processing plants in Mendoza has been estimated at 16.27 hm3 per year. Despite the seasonal variations of these effluents, and the high sodium concentration and electrical conductivity of some of them, it is possible to use them for irrigation purposes. However, because of these variables and their environmental impact, land treatment is required.

  15. Solar photo-degradation of a pharmaceutical wastewater effluent in a semi-industrial autonomous plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expósito, Antonio J; Durán, Antonio; Monteagudo, José M; Acevedo, Alba

    2016-05-01

    An industrial wastewater effluent coming from a pharmaceutical laboratory has been treated in a semi-industrial autonomous solar compound parabolic collector (CPC) plant. A photo-Fenton process assisted with ferrioxalate has been used. Up to 79% of TOC can be removed in 2 h depending on initial conditions when treating an aqueous effluent containing up to 400 ppm of initial organic carbon concentration (TOC). An initial ratio of Fe(II)/TOC higher than 0.5 guarantees a high removal. It can be seen that most of TOC removal occurs early in the first hour of reaction. After this time, mineralization was very slow, although H2O2 was still present in solution. Indeed it decomposed to form oxygen in inefficient reactions. It is clear that remaining TOC was mainly due to the presence of acetates which are difficult to degrade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pretreatment technologies for industrial effluents: Critical review on bioenergy production and environmental concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabakar, Desika; Suvetha K, Subha; Manimudi, Varshini T; Mathimani, Thangavel; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Rene, Eldon R; Pugazhendhi, Arivalagan

    2018-07-15

    The implementation of different pretreatment techniques and technologies prior to effluent discharge is a direct result of the inefficiency of several existing wastewater treatment methods. A majority of the industrial sectors have known to cause severe negative effects on the environment. The five major polluting industries are the paper and pulp mills, coal manufacturing facilities, petrochemical, textile and the pharmaceutical sectors. Pretreatment methods have been widely used in order to lower the toxicity levels of effluents and comply with environmental standards. In this review, the possible environmental benefits and concerns of adopting different pretreatment technologies for renewable energy production and product/resource recovery has been reviewed and discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Peat wetland as a natural filter of effluents from adjacent industrial areas

    OpenAIRE

    József DEZSO; Gabriella TÓTH; Dénes LÓCZY

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the project is the study of a peat wetland functioning as recipient of effluents from former and present-day industrial activities. The investigation was focused on heavy metal contaminations and their probable mobilization or fixation. The studied peatbog is a typical Eastern European wetland, located in Hungary on the border between medium mountains (Bakony Mountains) and a Neogene basin (the Sárrét, an area under nature conservation). Watercourses and prevailing air c...

  18. Impact of industrial effluent on growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in silty clay loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar Hossain, Mohammad; Rahman, Golum Kibria Muhammad Mustafizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mizanur; Molla, Abul Hossain; Mostafizur Rahman, Mohammad; Khabir Uddin, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    Degradation of soil and water from discharge of untreated industrial effluent is alarming in Bangladesh. Therefore, buildup of heavy metals in soil from contaminated effluent, their entry into the food chain and effects on rice yield were quantified in a pot experiment. The treatments were comprised of 0, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% industrial effluents applied as irrigation water. Effluents, initial soil, different parts of rice plants and post-harvest pot soil were analyzed for various elements, including heavy metals. Application of elevated levels of effluent contributed to increased heavy metals in pot soils and rice roots due to translocation effects, which were transferred to rice straw and grain. The results indicated that heavy metal toxicity may develop in soil because of contaminated effluent application. Heavy metals are not biodegradable, rather they accumulate in soils, and transfer of these metals from effluent to soil and plant cells was found to reduce the growth and development of rice plants and thereby contributed to lower yield. Moreover, a higher concentration of effluent caused heavy metal toxicity as well as reduction of growth and yield of rice, and in the long run a more aggravated situation may threaten human lives, which emphasizes the obligatory adoption of effluent treatment before its release to the environment, and regular monitoring by government agencies needs to be ensured. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Measuring and explaining multi-directional inefficiency in the Malaysian dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Suhaimi, Nurul Aisyah Binti; de Mey, Yann; Oude Lansink, Alfons

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to measure the technical inefficiency of dairy farms and subsequently investigate the factors affecting technical inefficiency in the Malaysian dairy industry. This study uses multi-directional efficiency analysis to measure the technical inefficiency scores on a sample of 200 farm observations and single-bootstrap truncated regression model to define factors affecting technical inefficiency. Managerial and program inefficiency scores are presented for intensive and semi-intensive production systems. The results reveal marked differences in the inefficiency scores across inputs and between production systems. Intensive systems generally have lowest managerial and program inefficiency scores in the Malaysian dairy farming sector. Policy makers could use this information to advise dairy farmers to convert their farming system to the intensive system. The results suggest that the Malaysian Government should redefine its policy for providing farm finance and should target young farmers when designing training and extension programs in order to improve the performance of the dairy sector. The existing literature on Southeast Asian dairy farming has neither focused on investigating input-specific efficiency nor on comparing managerial and program efficiency. This paper aims to fill this gap.

  20. Application of advanced oxidation process by electron beam irradiation in the organic compounds degradation present in industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Celina Lopes

    1999-01-01

    The inefficacy of conventional methods to destroy toxic organic compounds present in industrial effluent has taken the search for new technologies of treatment. he water irradiation is the most efficient process to generate radicals that mineralise these compounds. A study to evaluate the Advanced Oxidation Process by electron beam irradiation to treat industrial effluent with high toxic organic compounds concentration was carried out. Experiments were conducted using a Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1,5 MeV energy and 37 power. The effluent samples from a big industrial complex were irradiated using the IPEN's Liquid Effluent Irradiation Pilot Plant and the effluent samples from five steps of a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant from SABESP - ETE Suzano (industrial Receiver Unit, Coarse Bar Screens, Medium Bar Screens, Primary Sedimentation and Final Effluent), were irradiated in a batch system. The electron beam irradiation showed be efficient on destroying the organic compounds delivered in these effluents mainly chloroform, dichloroethane, methyl isobutyl ketone, benzene, toluene, xylene, phenol and in the decoloring of dyes present in some samples. To remove 90% of the most organic compounds was necessary a 20 kGy dose for industry's ETE, 20 kGy for IRU, CBS and MBS and 10 kGy to 20 kGy for PS and FE. (author)

  1. Effect of soap industry effluents on soil and ground water in Albageir area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awadalla, S. O.

    2004-02-01

    This study investigates the effect on soil and ground water produced by the effluent from soap industry discharged from Alsheikh Mustafa Alamin (SMA) factory, in Albageir industrial area, located 45 Km south of Khartoum. Soil samples were taken from the periphery of the effluent pond and from 25 and 50 cm depths from pits at different distances from the pond.The samples were analyzed for the following chemical and physical characteristics PH, EC, sodium, chloride ions and their grain size, in order to investigate any possible soil degradation. The results showed that there is an increase in soil salinity and sodicity resulting from the improper discharge of the liquid waste, and from lack of treatment before the discharge. Hence, there are definitive signs for soil degradation in the study area, which could reach a high magnitude in the long.This situation could be rectified by adopting updated techniques for treatment and disposal of effluent, and by regular inspection, by the authorities in order to make sure that the regulations are not violated. Chemical and physical analyses of ground water samples showed no signs of pollution. However, if the disposal practices are not revised, the possibility of pollution in the near future is likely to occur. A package of measurements is proposed in order to curb the impact of the industry on the environment. (Author)

  2. Pollution control in pulp and paper industrial effluents using integrated chemical-biological treatment sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bestawy, Ebtesam; El-Sokkary, Ibrahim; Hussein, Hany; Keela, Alaa Farouk Abu

    2008-11-01

    The main objective of the present study was to improve the quality of pulp and paper industrial wastewater of two local mills RAKTA and El-Ahlia, Alexandria, Egypt, and to bring their pollutant contents to safe discharge levels. Quality improvement was carried out using integrated chemical and biological treatment approaches after their optimization. Chemical treatment (alum, lime, and ferric chloride) was followed by oxidation using hydrogen peroxide and finally biological treatment using activated sludge (90 min for RAKTA and 60 min for El-Ahlia effluents). Chemical coagulation produced low-quality effluents, while pH adjustment during coagulation treatment did not enhance the quality of the effluents. Maximum removal of the tested pollutants was achieved using the integrated treatment and the pollutants recorded residual concentrations (RCs) of 34.67, 17.33, 0.13, and 0.43 mg/l and 15.0, 11.0, 0.0, and 0.13 mg/l for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), tannin and lignin, and silica in RAKTA and El-Ahlia effluents, respectively, all of which were below their maximum permissible limits (MPLs) for the safe discharge into water courses. Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) and sludge volume index (SVI) values reflect good conditions and healthy activated sludge. Based on the previous results, optimized conditions were applied as bench scale on the raw effluents of RAKTA and El-Ahlia via the batch chemical and the biological treatment sequences proposed. For RAKTA effluents, the sequence was as follows: (1) coagulation with 375 mg/l FeCl3, (2) oxidation with 50 mg/l hydrogen peroxide, and (3) biological treatment using activated sludge with 2,000 mg/l initial concentration and 90 min hydraulic retention time (HRT), while for El-Ahlia raw effluents, the sequence was (1) coagulation with 250 mg/l FeCl3, (2) oxidation with 45 mg/l hydrogen peroxide, and (3) biological treatment using activated sludge with 2,000 mg/l initial concentration and 60

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industrial and municipal effluents: Concentrations, congener profiles, and partitioning onto particulates and organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramani, Aparna; Howell, Nathan L.; Rifai, Hanadi S.

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater effluent samples were collected in the summer of 2009 from 16 different locations which included municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industrial outfalls in the Houston area. The effluent samples were analyzed for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using the USEPA method 1668A. The total PCBs (∑ 209) concentration in the dissolved medium ranged from 1.01 to 8.12 ng/L and ranged from 2.03 to 31.2 ng/L in the suspended medium. Lighter PCB congeners exhibited highest concentrations in the dissolved phase whereas, in the suspended phase, heavier PCBs exhibited the highest concentrations. The PCB homolog concentrations were dominated by monochlorobiphenyls through hexachlorobiphenyls, with dichlorobiphenyls exhibiting the highest concentration amongst them at most of the effluent outfalls, in the suspended phase. Both total suspended solids (TSS) and various organic carbon fractions played an important role in the distribution of the suspended fractions of PCBs in the effluents. The log K oc values determined in the effluents suggest that effluent PCB loads might have more risk and impact than what standard partitioning models predict. - Highlights: • 209 PCB congeners were measured in 16 different municipal and industrial effluents. • PCB congener differences were elucidated for the various effluent types. • In addition to log K ow , organic carbon and TSS affect partitioning of PCBs. • High concentrations of homolog 2 maybe due to biotransformation of PCBs

  4. Investigation of endogenous biomass efficiency in the treatment of unhairing effluents from the tanning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlaik, Najwa; Bouzid, Jalel; Gharsallah, Neji; Belbahri, Lassad; Woodward, Steve; Mechichi, Tahar

    2009-08-01

    The tanning industry is of great economic importance worldwide; however, the potential environmental impact of tanning is significant. An important component in tanning is the removal of hair from the hide (unhairing), a process which generates considerable amounts of toxic effluent characterized by a high concentration of sulphur, rich mineral compounds, a high alkalinity and a high organic load. The purpose of the work described here was to evaluate the biodegradability of the unhairing wastewater by endogenous biomass in batch culture and continuous systems. The detoxification of the effluent was assessed by seed germination tests. The batch culture experiments showed that variations in COD, temperature and pH significantly affected the endogenous biomass growth and activity. The optimal treatment condition corresponded to an initial COD of 6 g/L, pH of 7 and 30 degrees C. Under continuous culture conditions, the reactor was fed for 48 days with the unhairing effluent. The optimal COD removal efficiency was 85.5%. During treatment, a transformation of sulphides into thiosulphates and then sulphates was also observed. The effect of untreated and treated unhairing wastewater on seed germination of different plant species was studied. The data suggested that treatment decreased the wastewater toxicity. Indeed, germination was inhibited when the effluent dilution was lower than 20% and 10% for treated and untreated wastewater, respectively.

  5. New procedure for the control of the treatment of industrial effluents to remove volatile organosulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Makoś, Patrycja; Fernandes, André; Przyjazny, Andrzej

    2016-10-01

    We present a new procedure for the determination of volatile organosulfur compounds in samples of industrial effluents using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Initially, the extraction parameters were optimized. These included: type and volume of extraction solvent, volume of disperser solvent, salting out effect, pH, time and speed of centrifugation as well as extraction time. The procedure was validated for 30 compounds. The developed procedure has low detection limits of 0.0071-0.49 μg/L and a good precision (relative standard deviation values of 1.2-5.0 and 0.6-4.1% at concentrations of 1 and 10 μg/L, respectively). The procedure was used to determine the content of volatile organosulfur compounds in samples of effluents from the production of bitumens before and after chemical treatment, in which six compounds were identified, including 2-mercaptoethanol, thiophenol, thioanisole, dipropyl disulfide, 1-decanethiol, and phenyl isothiocyanate at concentrations ranging from 0.47 to 8.89 μg/L. Problems in the determination of organosulfur compounds related to considerable changes in composition of the effluents, increase in concentration of individual compounds and appearance of secondary pollutants during effluent treatment processes are also discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Future perspectives for international dairy education : successful education strategies for students, entrepreneurs and industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, A.M.; Nolles, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Due to global market, environmental and political developments, Global Dairy Farmers, her business partners and CAH Vilentum are not sure if the current studyprograms and current cooperation between CAH Vilentum and GDF fulfill the needs of the industry. Goal of this study is to give insight in the

  7. Response of Penaeid Prawns (Metapanaeus monoceros) to textile dye industrial effluents (TDIE): An indicator of stress

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Praneeth, R.R.; Shirodkar, P.V.; ManiMurali, R.; Ravindran, J.; Brahma, S.; Vethamony, P.

    and decaying food materials [8]. In order to reduce the excreted waste in the test tanks, the feeding was stopped 24hrs prior to the commencement of acute bioassay tests. Test method Short-term LC50 (median lethal concentration) toxicity tests were carried... of India. Material and Method The TDIE or the RO rejects were collected from 9 textile industries from the Erode Industrial area. Part of these collected effluents was used for physico-chemical analyses at the site itself and the other part was taken...

  8. Treatment and Energy Valorisation of an Agro-Industrial Effluent in Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Reactor (UASB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ramiro; Boaventura, Rui; Paulista, Larissa

    2017-12-01

    The accelerated growth of the population brings with it an increase in the generation of agro-industrial effluents. The inadequate discharge of these effluents significantly affects the quality of water resources. In this way, it becomes important to invest in treatment processes for agro-industrial effluents, particularly low-cost ones. In this context, the present study includes the design and construction of an UASB reactor and optimization of the anaerobic digestion treatment of the raw effluent from sweet chestnut production in the agro-industrial company Sortegel. The efficiency of the system was evaluated through the determination / monitoring of oxygen chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total suspended solids (TSS), biogas production rate and quality (% methane). The reactor was fed for 25 weeks and operated under mesophilic conditions (temperature 30-40 °C). Different values were tested for the hydraulic retention time (HRT) and volumetric flow rate (VF): 0.66 days (VF=1509 L.m-3.d-1); 1.33 days (VF=755 L.m-3.d-1); 2.41 d days (VF=415 L.m-3.d-1). The average COD removal efficiency reached values of 69%, 82% and 75%, respectively, and simultaneously the associated BOD5 removal efficiency was 84%, 91% and 70%. As regards TSS, removal values were 78%, 94% and 63%. In addition, high methane production rates were obtained, between 2500 and 4800 L CH4.kg-1 COD removed d-1. For all the hydraulic retention times tested, high concentrations of methane in the biogas were recorded: 66-75%, 70% and 75% for HRT of 0.66, 1.33 and 2.41 days, respectively.

  9. Evaluation of toxic metals in the industrial effluents and their segregation through peanut husk fence for pollution abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini, S.N.; Zaidi, J.H.; Matiullah; Akram, M.

    2011-01-01

    The industrial pollution is exponentially growing in the developing countries due to the discharge of untreated effluents from the industries in the open atmosphere. This may cause severe health hazards in the general public. To reduce this effect, it is essential to remove the toxic and heavy metals from the effluents before their disposal into the biosphere. In this context, samples of the effluents were collected from the textile/yarn, ceramics and pulp/paper industries and the concentrations of the toxic metal ions were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. The observed concentration values of the As, Cr and Fe ions, in the unprocessed industrial effluents, were 4.91 ± 0.8, 9.67 ± 0.7 and 9.71 ± 0.8 mg/L, respectively which was well above the standard recommended limits (i.e. 1.0, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L, respectively). In order to remove the toxic metal ions from the effluents, the samples were treated with pea nut husk fence. After this treatment, 91.5% arsenic, 81.9% chromium and 66.5% iron metal ions were successfully removed from the effluents. Then the treated effluents contained concerned toxic metal ions concentrations within the permissible limits as recommended by the national environmental quality standards (NEQS). (author)

  10. [Emissions from dairy industry and the influence of herd management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Brade, Wilfried; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Rösemann, Claus; Dämmgen, Jürgen; Meyer, Ulrich

    2017-08-11

    The purpose of this paper is to identify specific emission-reduction opportunities in dairy herds arising from aspects of useful herd management with the potential to reduce emissions, which are within the scope of veterinary activities. In future, it might be one of a veterinarian's advisory capacities to deal with the aspect of climate and environmental protection in animal husbandry. The models involved are similar to those of the national agricultural emission inventory. They allow quantifying the impacts of improved animal health, extended productive lifespan and grazing of an entire dairy herd (cows, calves, heifers and bulls) on emissions from the herd itself, in addition to those originating from the entire production chain, including provision of primary energy, water, feed production and processing. Ammonia emissions are the main focus. The reductions achieved here are not huge, though noticeable. They do not create extra costs. As can be shown, improved animal health and welfare are also environmentally beneficial. The reduction of greenhouse gas and air pollutant (eutrophying and acidifying gases and particles) emissions is an acknowledged political goal. If Germany wants to achieve the emission ceilings it has agreed to, agriculture will have to contribute. Planning will have to precede action if agriculture is itself to keep control of the processes.

  11. Treatment of industrial wastewater effluents using hydrodynamic cavitation and the advanced Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakinala, Anand G; Gogate, Parag R; Burgess, Arthur E; Bremner, David H

    2008-01-01

    For the first time, hydrodynamic cavitation induced by a liquid whistle reactor (LWR) has been used in conjunction with the advanced Fenton process (AFP) for the treatment of real industrial wastewater. Semi-batch experiments in the LWR were designed to investigate the performance of the process for two different industrial wastewater samples. The effect of various operating parameters such as pressure, H2O2 concentration and the initial concentration of industrial wastewater samples on the extent of mineralization as measured by total organic carbon (TOC) content have been studied with the aim of maximizing the extent of degradation. It has been observed that higher pressures, sequential addition of hydrogen peroxide at higher loadings and lower concentration of the effluent are more favourable for a rapid TOC mineralization. In general, the novel combination of hydrodynamic cavitation with AFP results in about 60-80% removal of TOC under optimized conditions depending on the type of industrial effluent samples. The combination described herein is most useful for treatment of bio-refractory materials where the diminution in toxicity can be achieved up to a certain level and then conventional biological oxidation can be employed for final treatment. The present work is the first to report the use of a hydrodynamic cavitation technique for real industrial wastewater treatment.

  12. Improvement of conventional parameters of actual industrial effluent by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.; Silveira, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    The ordinary process to treat wastewater from the dye, textile, chemical, pharmaceutical and paper mill industries do not degrade easily the coloured substances and organic compounds. A study on the improvement of this treatment using high energy electron irradiation was carried out. Experiments were conducted using samples from the public Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that receives about 80% of wastewater from industrial sources and 20% from domestic sources. A large amount of industrial wastewater comes from chemical and textile industries, which change everyday the quality, quantity and colour these characteristics depend on for the production line of each particular industry. Samples from WTP influent and effluent were collected every 15 days and irradiated in a batch system; the delivered doses were 3.0 kGy, 4.0 kGy, 6.0 kGy, 8.0 kGy and 10.0 kGy. For the non-irradiated and irradiated samples the following parameters were analyzed: chemical oxygen demand (COD), fixed and volatile total solids and fixed and volatile suspended solids, absorption spectrum (300-700nm) and gas chromatography. For samples from effluent irradiated with 3.0 kGy dose, the COD value presented a reduction average of 45%, and this result was fixed for higher doses, however the COD of influent sample did not show significant change for all the delivered doses

  13. Staphylococcus aureus in Some Brazilian Dairy Industries: Changes of Contamination and Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittmann, Karen Kiesbye; Chaul, Luiza T.; Lee, Sarah H. I.

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, a major food-poisoning pathogen, is a common contaminant in dairy industries worldwide, including in Brazil. We determined the occurrence of S. aureus in five dairies in Brazil over 8 months. Of 421 samples, 31 (7.4%) were positive for S. aureus and prevalence varied from 0.......8% of strains being sensitive to all antibiotic classes and no Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were found. The enterotoxin-encoding genes involved in food-poisoning, e.g., sea, sed, see, and seg were targeted by PCR. The two toxin-encoding genes, sed and see, were not detected. Only three strains...... contamination....

  14. Enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of paper and pulp industry effluent for biohydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmidevi, Rajendran; Muthukumar, Karuppan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology Campus, Anna University Chennai, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2010-04-15

    Paper and pulp industry effluent was enzymatically hydrolysed using crude cellulase enzyme (0.8-2.2FPU/ml) obtained from Trichoderma reesei and from the hydrolysate biohydrogen was produced using Enterobacter aerogenes. The influence of temperature and incubation time on enzyme production was studied. The optimum temperature for the growth of T. reesei was found to be around 29 C. The enzyme activity of 2.5 FPU/ml was found to produce about 22 g/l of total sugars consisting mainly of glucose, xylose and arabinose. Relevant kinetic parameters with respect to sugars production were estimated using two fraction model. The enzymatic hydrolysate was used for the biohydrogen production using E. aerogenes. The growth data obtained for E. aerogenes were fitted well with Monod and Logistic equations. The maximum hydrogen yield of 2.03 mol H{sub 2}/mol sugar and specific hydrogen production rate of 225 mmol of H{sub 2}/g cell/h were obtained with an initial concentration of 22 g/l of total sugars. The colour and COD of effluent was also decreased significantly during the production of hydrogen. The results showed that the paper and pulp industry effluent can be used as a substrate for biohydrogen production. (author)

  15. Sono assisted electrocoagulation process for the removal of pollutant from pulp and paper industry effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaithambi, P; Aziz, Abdul Raman Abdul; Sajjadi, Baharak; Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri Bin Wan

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, the efficiency of the sonication, electrocoagulation, and sono-electrocoagulation process for removal of pollutants from the industrial effluent of the pulp and paper industry was compared. The experimental results showed that the sono-electrocoagulation process yielded higher pollutant removal percentage compared to the sonication and electrocoagulation process alone. The effect of the operating parameters in the sono-electrocoagulation process such as electrolyte concentration (1-5 g/L), current density (1-5 A/dm 2 ), effluent pH (3-11), COD concentration (1500-6000 mg/L), inter-electrode distance (1-3 cm), and electrode combination (Fe and Al) on the color removal, COD removal, and power consumption were studied. The maximum color and COD removal percentages of 100 and 95 %, respectively, were obtained at the current density of 4 A/dm 2 , electrolyte concentration of 4 g/L, effluent pH of 7, COD concentration of 3000 mg/L, electrode combination of Fe/Fe, inter-electrode distance of 1 cm, and reaction time of 4 h, respectively. The color and COD removal percentages were analyzed by using an UV/Vis spectrophotometer and closed reflux method. The results showed that the sono-electrocoagulation process could be used as an efficient and environmental friendly technique for complete pollutant removal.

  16. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California’s Dairy Processing Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, Gregory K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-30

    During periods of peak electrical demand on the energy grid or when there is a shortage of supply, the stability of the grid may be compromised or the cost of supplying electricity may rise dramatically, respectively. Demand response programs are designed to mitigate the severity of these problems and improve reliability by reducing the demand on the grid during such critical times. In 2010, the Demand Response Research Center convened a group of industry experts to suggest potential industries that would be good demand response program candidates for further review. The dairy industry was suggested due to the perception that the industry had suitable flexibility and automatic controls in place. The purpose of this report is to provide an initial description of the industry with regard to demand response potential, specifically automated demand response. This report qualitatively describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by dairy processing facilities in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use. Typical process equipment and controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Two case studies of demand response at dairy facilities in California and across the country are reviewed. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  17. Global trends in milk quality: implications for the irish dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    More SJ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The quality of Irish agricultural product will become increasingly important with the ongoing liberalisation of international trade. This paper presents a review of the global and Irish dairy industries; considers the impact of milk quality on farm profitability, food processing and human health, examines global trends in quality; and explores several models that are successfully being used to tackle milk quality concerns. There is a growing global demand for dairy products, fuelled in part by growing consumer wealth in developing countries. Global dairy trade represents only 6.2% of global production and demand currently outstrips supply. Although the Irish dairy industry is small by global standards, approximately 85% of annual production is exported annually. It is also the world's largest producer of powdered infant formula. Milk quality has an impact on human health, milk processing and on-farm profitability. Somatic cell count (SCC is a key measure of milk quality, with a SCC not exceeding 400,000 cells/ml (the EU milk quality standard generally accepted as the international export standard. There have been ongoing improvements in milk quality among both established and emerging international suppliers. A number of countries have developed successful industry-led models to tackle milk quality concerns. Based on international experiences, it is likely that problems with effective translation of knowledge to practice, rather than incomplete knowledge per se, are the more important constraints to national progress towards improved milk quality.

  18. Veterinary dairy herd fertility service provision in seasonal and non-seasonal dairy industries - a comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee JF

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The decline in dairy herd fertility internationally has highlighted the limited impact of traditional veterinary approaches to bovine fertility management. Three questionnaire surveys were conducted at buiatrics conferences attended by veterinary practitioners on veterinary dairy herd fertility services (HFS in countries with a seasonal (Ireland, 47 respondents and non-seasonal breeding model (The Netherlands, 44 respondents and Portugal, 31 respondents. Of the 122 respondents, 73 (60% provided a HFS and 49 (40% did not. The majority (76% of all practitioners who responded stated that bovine fertility had declined in their practice clients' herds with inadequate cow management, inadequate nutrition and increased milk yield as the most important putative causes. The type of clients who adopted a herd fertility service were deemed more educated than average (70% of respondents, and/or had fertility problems (58% and/or large herds (53%. The main components of this service were routine postpartum examinations (95% of respondents, fertility records analysis (75% and ultrasound pregnancy examinations (69%. The number of planned visits per annum varied between an average of four in Ireland, where breeding is seasonal, and 23 in Portugal, where breeding is year-round. The benefits to both the practitioner and their clients from running a HFS were cited as better fertility, financial rewards and job satisfaction. For practitioners who did not run a HFS the main reasons given were no client demand (55% and lack of fertility records (33%. Better economic evidence to convince clients of the cost-benefit of such a service was seen as a major constraint to adoption of this service by 67% of practitioners.

  19. Key movement forces in the dairy industry in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Černíková

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses key movement forces in the dairy industry in the Czech Republic and evaluates their importance in the industry and their influence on the following development of the dairy industry in the Czech Republic.The current most important key movement forces in the dairy industry in the Czech Republic are identified: changes in the long-term industry growth rate and marketing innovations. There is space for growth of the industry – the average consumption of the milk products in the Czech Republic per inhabitant 225,1 kg in 2002 is almost by 17% lower than in 1989 (269 kg per inhabitant and also by 10% lower than the current average consumption in the EU countries (250 kg per inhabitant. There is also space for increase exports from the Czech Republic into the EU countries. The liberalization of the foreign trade with cheeses and curds – “double-zero variation” was positive for the Czech Republic in the first year after the introduction. The share of the import of cheeses and curds on the total export from the EU decreased from 24.6% to 15.5%, and the share of the export of cheeses and curds on the total export from the CR into the EU increased from 10.1% to 19.7%.The key movement forces in the dairy industry in the Czech Republic also are changes in the cost effectiveness; the foreign capital; and key forces resulting from the factors in the macro-environment – the integration of the Czech Republic into the European Union, the government interventions and changes in the government policy.

  20. Assessing the research and education needs of the organic dairy industry in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Brito, A F; Townson, L L; Townson, D H

    2013-01-01

    Demographic and management data about organic dairies have been reported previously, but the current study is the first needs assessment of research and educational priorities of organic dairy farmers in the northeastern United States based directly upon their input. Our objectives were to (1) develop an initial understanding of the emerging research and educational needs of organic dairy farmers in the northeastern United States via focus group interviews, and (2) prioritize the needs identified by the focus groups with a broader population of organic dairy farmers via survey methods. Focus group interviews determined the questions used for the survey questionnaire distributed to 1,200 members of the Northeast Organic Dairy Producers Alliance. The members were asked about demographic information, but more importantly, challenges concerning business management and marketing, organic certification, and animal nutrition, health, and reproduction. The results (183 respondents, 15% response rate) were parsed by region (New England farms compared with New York and Pennsylvania farms), herd size (i.e., 12 to 37, 38 to 59, and >60 cows), and years of organic certification (organic treatments for mastitis (92% respondents), growing forages for organic production (84%), and developing value-added products (84%). Farms with organic certification were concerned with level of knowledge and experience of local certifiers, whereas organic producers with ≥ 4 yr of organic certification were more interested in field testing of new organic products. Opportunities for educational programs included learning about direct marketing possibilities (76% respondents) and providing training to regional veterinarians interested in organic remedies (91%). In conclusion, the information obtained from the current needs assessment provides a foundation for future research proposals and educational outreach programs, germane to stakeholder needs, which could benefit the organic dairy industry

  1. Kivuguto traditional fermented milk and the dairy industry in Rwanda. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karenzi, E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods of fermenting milk involve the use of indigenous microorganisms, leading to the production of a variety of tastes in fermented milk products. Kivuguto is a fermented milk product, which is popular in Rwanda. Kivuguto is produced by traditional spontaneous acidification of raw milk by a microflora present both on utensils and containers used for milk preservation and in the near environment of cattle. Thus, this method does not allow the shelf stability of the product. Faced to such a situation, modern dairies now produce fermented milk and other dairy products using exotic strains. The main objectives of this paper are firstly, to provide documentation on the traditional production of kivuguto, as well as its by-products, and secondly, to describe the current situation of the dairy industry in Rwanda.

  2. Custom dairy heifer grower industry characteristics and contract terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, C A

    2003-09-01

    This study examines a national survey of professional custom heifer growers. Sixty-five respondents from 23 states provided information on operation size and characteristics, management practices, and contract terms. Responding operation current heifer inventories ranged from 30 to 20,000 heifers and the average operation had more than 1200 heifers on-farm. The regional pattern of operation size was similar to the regional pattern of dairy farm size with heifer grower operations in the West and South regions being larger, on average, than those in the Midwest and Northeast regions. On average, 71% of total income was derived from the heifer-growing enterprise. Operations in the Northeast region derived the highest percentage of income from heifer growing while operations in the South region derived the least income from heifer growing activities. Many operations entered business to utilize excess facilities, labor, or feed. A majority of the operations had two to five dairy farm clients. Sixty-nine percent of respondents used some form of written contract. Just over 50% of the respondents indicated that a set daily charge per heifer per day was the primary type of contract payment. Although the most common charge was dollars 1.50 per heifer per day, average daily charge was dollars 1.52/heifer. Operations that took heifers from prior to weaning through to prefresh charged a weighted average daily charge of dollars 1.60 per heifer. Explaining price charges as a function of characteristics and contract terms revealed that size and number of clients were negatively related to price while specialization in heifer growing was positively related to price charged.

  3. Evaluation Strategy Michael Porter's five forces model of the competitive environment on the dairy industry (Case Study: Amoll Haraz Dvshh dairy company)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Bolorian Tehrani; Faezeh Rahmani

    2016-01-01

    State of competition in an industry depends on five basic forces. Porter's five forces model including bargaining power of customers, bargaining power of suppliers, threat of newcomers to the industry, threat of substitute products is the intensity of rivalry between competitors. Joint strength of these forces determines the ultimate benefit of potentially any industry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the competitive environment of the dairy industry based on Michael Por...

  4. Electrospun NiO, ZnO and composite NiO–ZnO nanofibers/photocatalytic degradation of dairy effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmad; Chronakis, Ioannis S.; Barakat, Nasser A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Among the food wastes, the dairy effluent (DE) is considered to be the most polluting one because of the large volume of wastewater generated and its high organic load. Photocatalytic degradation of DE and organic dye methylene blue (MB) was studied using Zinc oxide nanofibers (ZnO NFs), Nickel....... The significant enhancement of degradation in the composite ZnO–NiO NFs is attributed to the photoactivity of material under visible light irradiation. The composite ZnO–NiO NFs eliminated 40% of DE and 65% of MB dye, after 1h and maximum degradation of 80% DE after 3h and 100% MB dye after 90min. Overall...

  5. EVALUATING THE EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SOIL IN VILLAGE DINGI, DISTRICT HARIPUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Asghar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present report is an outcome of research work conducted in Dingi village, District Haripur in 2012. The research aimed to assess and analyze the effects of industrial effluents on the soil fertility of the village, investigate contributing factors responsible for soil pollution and underlying causes creating the problems. Data analysis revealed that area had problems pertaining to water and soil quality. The key factors affecting soil fertility were the careless discharge of the untreated industrial effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate (HIE into the natural stream passing through village. The results were compared with the soil standards set by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF and European Committee Commission (ECC and all of these were exceeding the permissible limits and affecting the soil fertility. The soils were found not fit for agriculture. The investigation highlighted the need to take some effective steps to manage the monitoring program set for checking of industries by the government according to set rules and regulation.

  6. Toxicity evaluation of the process effluent streams of a petrochemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, J L R; Dezotti, M; Sant'Anna, G L

    2007-02-01

    The physico-chemical characteristics and the acute toxicity of several wastewater streams, generated in the industrial production of synthetic rubber, were determined. The acute toxicity was evaluated in bioassays using different organisms: Danio rerio (fish), Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and Brachionus calyciflorus (rotifer). The removal of toxicity attained in the industrial wastewater treatment plant was also determined upstream and downstream of the activated sludge process. The results obtained indicate that the critical streams in terms of acute toxicity are the effluents from the liquid polymer unit and the spent caustic butadiene washing stage. The biological treatment was able to partially remove the toxicity of the industrial wastewater. However, a residual toxicity level persisted in the biotreated wastewater. The results obtained with Lactuca sativa showed a high degree of reproducibility, using root length or germination index as evaluation parameters. The effect of volatile pollutants on the toxicity results obtained with lettuce seeds was assessed, using ethanol as a model compound. Modifications on the assay procedure were proposed. A strong correlation between the toxic responses of Lactuca sativa and Danio rerio was observed for most industrial effluent streams.

  7. Multilocus Sequence Typing And Antibiotic Resistance Of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated From The Brazilian Dairy Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittmann, Karen Kiesbye; Chaul, Luiza; Lee, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of food poisoning due to enterotoxin production. This is particularly an issue in the dairy industry, where S. aureus can contaminate the product e.g. from raw milk or the handlers. In Brazil, soft cheese is mainly produced in small dairy plants where good ...

  8. Novel approach for the use of dairy industry wastes for bacterial growth media production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmi, Mariam; Elleuch, Lobna; Dahmeni, Ameni; Hamdi, Moktar; Trabelsi, Ismail; Snoussi, Mejdi

    2018-04-15

    This work proposes a novel approach for the reuse and the recovery of dairy wastes valuable components. Thermal coagulation was performed for dairy effluents and the main responsible fraction for the organic matter content (protein and fat) was separated. Dairy curds were prepared for the formulation of bacterial growth media. Protein, sugar, fat and fatty acids contents have been assessed. Samples treated at 100 °C exhibited marked improvement in terms of protein (25-50%) recovery compared to those treated at 80 °C. Fatty acid analysis revealed the presence of unsaturated fatty acids (mainly oleic acid) that are essential to promote Lactobacillus growth. Previously isolated and identified bacterial strains from dairy wastes (Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus brevis) were investigated for their ability to grow on the formulated media. All the tested lactic acid bacteria exhibited greater bacterial growth on the formulated media supplemented with glucose only or with both glucose and yeast extract compared to the control media. By reference to the commercial growth medium, the productivity ratio of the supplemented bactofugate (B) and decreaming (D) formulated media exceeded 0.6 for L. paracasei culture. Whereas, the productivity ratio of the supplemented B medium was greater than 1 compared to the control medium for all the tested strains. As for the supplemented D medium, its productivity ratio was greater than 1 compared to the control medium for both L. paracasei and L. plantarum strains. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Creating a framework for the prioritization of biosecurity risks to the New Zealand dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellner, P; Hodges, D; Ahlstrom, C; Newman, M; Davidson, R; Pfeiffer, D; Marshall, J; Morley, C

    2018-03-25

    The New Zealand dairy sector relies on robust biosecurity measures to control and mitigate a wide range of threats to the industry. To optimize the prioritization of organisms and manage the risk they pose to the sector in a transparent and credible way, the Dairy Biosecurity Risk Evaluation Framework (D-BRiEF) was developed. This comprehensive framework was specifically designed for decision support, using a standardized approach to address the full spectrum of biosecurity threats to the sector, including exotic and endemic animal disease organisms, pest plants and insects. D-BRiEF is underpinned by three main processes, namely (i) hazard identification; (ii) multicriteria risk assessment; and (iii) communication for risk management. Expert knowledge and empirical data, including associated uncertainty, are harnessed in a standardized format. Results feed into a probability-impact model that was developed in close collaboration with dairy sector economists to provide overall comparative 10-year quantitative economic impact estimates for each assessed risk organism. A description of the overarching framework, which applies to diverse organism groups, is presented with detailed methodology on both endemic and exotic animal disease risk organisms. Examples of visual outputs are included, although actual ranking results are not reported due to industry confidentiality. D-BRiEF can provide a decision advantage to DairyNZ biosecurity risk managers and sector stakeholders by creating a transparent process that can be interrogated and updated at multiple levels to fully understand the layers of risk posed by different organisms. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Modified natural zeolite as heterogeneous Fenton catalyst in treatment of recalcitrants in industrial effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton M. Arimi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Industrial effluents with high recalcitrants should undergo post-treatment after biological treatment. The aim of this study was to use cheap and abundantly available natural materials to develop heterogeneous Fenton catalysts for the removal of colored recalcitrants in molasses distillery wastewater (MDW. The pellets of zeolite, which is naturally available in many countries, were modified by pre-treatment with sulphuric acid, nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, before embedding on them the ferrous ions. The effects of pH and temperature on heterogeneous Fenton were studied using the modified catalysts. The sulphuric acid-ferrous modified catalysts showed the highest affectivity which achieved 90% color and 60% TOC (total organic carbon removal at 150 g/L pellet catalyst dosage, 2 g/L H2O2 and 25 °C. The heterogeneous Fenton with the same catalyst caused improvement in the biodegradability of anaerobic effluent from 0.07 to 0.55. The catalyst was also applied to pre-treat the raw MDW and increased it's biodegradability by 4%. The color of the resultant anaerobic effluent was also reduced. The kinetics of total TOC removal was found to depend on operation temperature. It was best described by simultaneous first and second order kinetics model for the initial reaction and second order model for the rest of the reaction.

  11. Physico-chemical studies of effluents and emission of ghee/edible oil industries in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.; Ali, S.; Jan, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Samples of the effluents from various Ghee/Edible Oil Industries were collected on fortnightly basis from July 1993 to June 1994 and the emissions from January to April 1994. Parameters such as temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), total alkalinity total acidity, total hardness, chemical oxygen demand (COD). chlorides, sulphates, phosphates, silica, calcium magnesium, sodium, and iron were determined in the effluents, Trace metals like copper, manganese, nickel, and zinc were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, whereas SO/sub 2/, CO CO/sub 2/, hydrocarbons, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and argon were examined in the flue gases by Gas Chromatography and other standard techniques such as Orsat Gas Analyzer and Dragger Detection Tubes. Remedial measures were suggested for the pollutants exceeding the National Environmental Quality Standards, (NEQS). Parameters like chlorine, ammonia, sulphides, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead and tin were also analyzed in the effluents and were found to be nil or below the detection limit, while particulate matters, HCl, chlorine, HF, H/sub 2/S, mercaptans and NH/sub 3/ were found to be nil in the flue gases. (author)

  12. Adsorption behavior of rice husk for the decontamination of chromium from industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.; Rahman, A.; Ahmad, S.; Toheed, A.; Ahmed, J.

    1999-01-01

    Rice husk, an agricultural waste product, was studied as a potential decontaminant for chromium in the effluents of leather tanning industries. Physico-chemical parameters such as selection of appropriate electrolyte, shaking time, concentration of absorbent and absorbate were studied to optimize the best conditions in which this material can be utilized on commercial scale for the decontamination of effluents. The radiotracer technique was used to determine the distribution of chromium. In certain cases atomic absorption spectrophotometry was also employed. Maximum adsorption was observed at 0.01 mol x dm -3 acid solutions (HNO 3 , HCl, H 2 SO 4 and HClO 4 ) using 3.0 g of absorbent for 2.73 x 10 -3 mol x dm -3 chromium concentration in five minutes equilibration time. Studies show that the adsorption decreases with the increase in the concentrations of all acids. The adsorption data follows the Freundlich isotherm over the range of 2.73 x 10 -3 to 2.73 x 10 -2 mol x dm -3 chromium concentration. The characteristic Freundlich constants, i.e., 1/n = 0.86 ± 0.06 and A = 2.35 ± 0.06 mmol x g -1 have been computed for the sorption system. Thermodynamic parameters, i.e., ΔG deg, ΔS deg and ΔH deg have also been calculated for the system. Application of the method to a test case of a medium size industry showed that 21 kg of rice husk was sufficient to maintain the NEQS limits of chromium for industrial effluents. (author)

  13. Impacts and Policy Implications of Metals Effluent Discharge into Rivers within Industrial Zones: A Sub-Saharan Perspective from Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinabu, E.; Kelderman, P.; van der Kwast, J.; Irvine, K.

    2018-04-01

    Kombolcha, a city in Ethiopia, exemplifies the challenges and problems of the sub-Saharan countries where industrialization is growing fast but monitoring resources are poor and information on pollution unknown. This study monitored metals Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrations in five factories' effluents, and in the effluent mixing zones of two rivers receiving discharges during the rainy seasons of 2013 and 2014. The results indicate that median concentrations of Cr in the tannery effluents and Zn in the steel processing effluents were as high as 26,600 and 155,750 µg/L, respectively, much exceeding both the USEPA and Ethiopian emission guidelines. Cu concentrations were low in all effluents. Pb concentrations were high in the tannery effluent, but did not exceed emission guidelines. As expected, no metal emission guidelines were exceeded for the brewery, textile and meat processing effluents. Median Cr and Zn concentrations in the Leyole river in the effluent mixing zones downstream of the tannery and steel processing plant increased by factors of 52 (2660 compared with 51 µg Cr/L) and 5 (520 compared with 110 µg Zn/L), respectively, compared with stations further upstream. This poses substantial ecological risks downstream. Comparison with emission guidelines indicates poor environmental management by industries and regulating institutions. Despite appropriate legislation, no clear measures have yet been taken to control industrial discharges, with apparent mismatch between environmental enforcement and investment policies. Effluent management, treatment technologies and operational capacity of environmental institutions were identified as key improvement areas to adopt progressive sustainable development.

  14. Physico-Chemical parameters and trace-metals concentration in effluents from various industries in vicinity of Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulfraz, M.; Ahmad, T.; Afzal, H.

    2003-01-01

    Increasing problem of pollution has become serious in almost all big cities of Pakistan. The industrial effluents (Liquid waste) discharged by different industries are drained into streams/nallahs, which ultimately join the waterways (streams, lakes, rivers or sea). The effluent samples from five industries, like Tanneries, Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals, Fertilizers and metal/electroplating, working in Lahore, Sheikhupura and Kalashahkaku were selected for analysis. The parameters, like Temperature, pH, conductivity, hardness, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, chemical oxygen demands, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, major cations (Na, K, Ca, Mg) and heavy/trace metals, were studied. The results were compared with National environmental Quality standards (NEQS). It was further observed that when effluents of industries join fresh water of stream, lakes or rivers, this causes severe water-pollution and damages the flora and fauna. Suggestions for effective control of water-pollution are also given. (author)

  15. Optimization PHAs production from dairy industry wastewater (cheese whey) by Azohydromonas lata DSMZ 1123

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sharifzadeh Baei; G.D. Najafpour; Z. Lasemi; F. Tabandeh; H. Younesi; H. Issazadeh; M. Khodabandeh

    2010-01-01

    In the present research, whey was used as useful substrate which retained from permeates of dairy industry. The obtained whey was hydrolyzed to cleave its main carbon source, lactose to glucose and galactose.The hydrolyzed products were chosen as carbon sources for the production of poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) by Azohydromonas lata DSMZ 1123. The biosynthesis of PHA copolyesters containing 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) units from hydrolyzed whey permeate and valerat...

  16. Evaluation Of Decision Options For Industry Wide Control Of Salmonella In Dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, David; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Warnick, Lorin Dean

    2009-01-01

    dairy industry using data fields and logic mimicking the ecology, surveillance and control of S. Dublin. Superimposed on this was a system for simulating movement of cattle between herds and between regions accounting for the infection status of both the source and destination herds. Predictions from...... simulations showed that programs that enhance herd-level biosecurity (prevention of new outbreaks) and quickly resolve infections once they are detected are attractive additions to the current approach that has already resulted in substantial progress....

  17. Two fold modified chitosan for enhanced adsorption of hexavalent chromium from simulated wastewater and industrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahu, S S; Shekhawat, A; Saravanan, D; Jugade, R M

    2016-08-01

    Ionic solid (Ethylhexadecyldimethylammoniumbromide) impregnated phosphated chitosan (ISPC) was synthesized and applied for enhanced adsorption of hexavalent chromium from industrial effluent. The compound obtained was extensively characterized using instrumental techniques like FT-IR, TGA-DTA, XRD, SEM, BET and EDX. ISPC showed high adsorption capacity of 266.67mg/g in accordance with Langmuir isotherm model at pH 3.0 due to the presence of multiple sites which contribute for ion pair and electrostatic interactions with Cr(VI) species. The sorption kinetics and thermodynamic studies revealed that adsorption of Cr(VI) followed pseudo-second-order kinetics with exothermic and spontaneous behaviour. Applicability of ISPC for higher sample volumes was discerned through column studies. The real chrome plating industry effluent was effectively treated with total chromium recovery of 94%. The used ISPC was regenerated simply by dilute ammonium hydroxide treatment and tested for ten adsorption-desorption cycles with marginal decrease in adsorption efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Inorganic ion-exchangers for the treatment and disposal of industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasany, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Ion-exchangers can be broadly classified into organic and inorganic ion-exchangers. Inorganic ion-exchangers are stable at high temperatures and radiation dosage, resistant towards oxidizing agents and organic solvents. They are cheap and easy to prepare. Inorganic ion-exchangers, due to their superiority over organic ion-exchangers, have been extensively used for a wide variety of applications including treatment and management of industrial effluents. The criteria governing the division into essential and toxic elements for animal life have been described. The occupational sources of toxic elements and their compounds in the environment have been identified and their tolerance limits prescribed in air, water and food are given. The toxicity and adverse effects of harmful elements and their hazardous compounds are mentioned. Factors influencing sorption of trace elements onto inorganic ion-exchangers are highlighted. Examples of inorganic ion-exchangers are cited where they can be utilized for the treatment of industrial effluents before their safe discharge into waterways and biosphere. (author)

  19. Biosorption of chromium from electroplating and galvanizing industrial effluents under extreme conditions using Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sibi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI] is a toxic oxidized form and an important metal pollutant in the water bodies. Biosorption of chromium(VI offers a potential alternative to conventional metal removal methods. Dried biomass of Chlorella vulgaris was used as biosorbent for the removal of Cr(VI from electroplating and galvanizing industry effluents as a function of biosorbent dosage, contact time, pH, salinity and initial metal ion concentration. Batch experiments were conducted for biosorption and the optimum conditions were 1 g/L biomass, 4 h contact time, pH 2 and 2.893 mS/cm of electrical conductivity. The chromium biosorption was strictly pH dependent with a maximum Cr removal of 63.2 mg/L at pH 2. Highest Cr removal at a concentration of 81.3 mg/L was observed at Electrical conductivity (EC value of 2.893 mS/cm. A comparison of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models revealed that Freundlich isotherm model fitted the experimental data based on R2, qmax and standard error values. The results suggest that C. vulgaris biomass could be considered a promising low-cost biosorbent for the removal of Cr(VI from electroplating and galvanizing industry effluents. Keywords: Biosorption, Chlorella vulgaris, Microalgae, Hexavalent chromium

  20. Effects of effluent from electoplating industry on the immune response in the freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgia, V J Florence; Thatheyus, A J; Murugesan, A G; Alexander, S Catherine P; Geetha, I

    2018-08-01

    The present study was designed to assess the effect of sublethal concentrations of electoplating industry effluent (EIE) on the non-specific and specific immune responses in the freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio. Sublethal concentrations of electroplating industry effluent such as 0.004, 0.007, 0.010 and 0.013% were chosen based on the LC 50 values. Experimental fish were exposed to these sublethal concentrations of EIE for 28 days. After 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of treatment, non-specific immune response by serum lysozyme activity, myeloperoxidase activity and antiprotease activity and specific immune response by antibody response to Aeromonas hydrophila using bacterial agglutination assay and ELISA were assessed. The results showed that chronic exposure of fish to 0.004, 0.007, 0.010 and 0.013% EIE, dose-dependently decreased the non-specific and specific immune responses on all the days tested compared to control fish whereas statistically significant suppressive effects were observed in fish exposed to 0.013% of EIE on all activities tested. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigation of joint costs management practices of dairy industry: a contingency approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Costa da Silva Zonatto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research has investigated the adoption of administration practices in the set of costs in dairy product industries in the Southwest Region in Parana State, as well as, the contingency factors which has influenced the system in the management control at these companies. The explore research was developed through a study on data in quantitative approach in forty- three dairies. From these, just twenty-three produce milk and the other twenty cheese and its derivatives. According to the study these companies are concerned on how to check their costs on production. However, just the dairies which produce cheese and its derivatives are managing costs based on data in a planning and control process. The way used to determine the costs is based on the method of market value. These organizations stand out by the development of control systems of computerized costs where the aims are related to right identification of the costs and the prices for sale, as well. The main outside elements which have affected the organizations are the market needs and the goods availability. In relation to the model  of the manage control in these organizations, it was  checked that these are different from the others in the strategies structure, complexity in the production process, level of computerization and the aims of the use. It was concluded that the administration practices in those researched dairies are influenced by contingency factors.

  2. Treatment of industrial effluents using electron beam accelerator and adsorption with activated carbon. A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Las Casas, Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    Several methods are used In the pollutant removal from Industrial and domestic wastewater. However when the degradation of toxic organic pollutants, mainly the recalcitrant is objectified, the conventional treatments usually do not meet the desirable performance in the elimination or decrease the impact when the effluent are released to the environment what takes to the research of alternative methods that seek the improvement of the efficiency of the wastewater treatment systems jointly employees or separately. This work presents a study of degradation/removal of pollutants organic compounds comparing two methods using radiation from industrial electron beam and granular activated carbon (GAC). The removal efficiency of the pollutants was evaluated and it was verified that the efficiency of adsorption with activated carbon is similar to the radiation method. The obtained results allowed to evaluated the relative costs of these methods. (author)

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industrial and municipal effluents: Concentrations, congener profiles, and partitioning onto particulates and organic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramani, Aparna, E-mail: aparna.27889@gmail.com; Howell, Nathan L., E-mail: nlhowell@central.uh.edu; Rifai, Hanadi S., E-mail: rifai@uh.edu

    2014-03-01

    Wastewater effluent samples were collected in the summer of 2009 from 16 different locations which included municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industrial outfalls in the Houston area. The effluent samples were analyzed for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using the USEPA method 1668A. The total PCBs (∑ 209) concentration in the dissolved medium ranged from 1.01 to 8.12 ng/L and ranged from 2.03 to 31.2 ng/L in the suspended medium. Lighter PCB congeners exhibited highest concentrations in the dissolved phase whereas, in the suspended phase, heavier PCBs exhibited the highest concentrations. The PCB homolog concentrations were dominated by monochlorobiphenyls through hexachlorobiphenyls, with dichlorobiphenyls exhibiting the highest concentration amongst them at most of the effluent outfalls, in the suspended phase. Both total suspended solids (TSS) and various organic carbon fractions played an important role in the distribution of the suspended fractions of PCBs in the effluents. The log K{sub oc} values determined in the effluents suggest that effluent PCB loads might have more risk and impact than what standard partitioning models predict. - Highlights: • 209 PCB congeners were measured in 16 different municipal and industrial effluents. • PCB congener differences were elucidated for the various effluent types. • In addition to log K{sub ow}, organic carbon and TSS affect partitioning of PCBs. • High concentrations of homolog 2 maybe due to biotransformation of PCBs.

  4. Learning Networks in Innovation Systems at Sector / Regional Level in Argentina: Winery and Dairy Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Sanchez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This work studies how the set of relationships that gives place to the learning processes is established in the food industry in Argentina. A theoretical ad hoc approach is adopted, conjugating the concepts of innovation systems at sector / regional level with some context considerations like the innovative behaviour of the global and local food industry and a description of the public and private S&T in Argentina. The study is focused in two cases: the wine industry, at the Mendoza province, and the dairy products industry at the centre of the Santa Fe province, both in Argentina. While the winery industry at the province of Mendoza exports differentiated products the dairy industry, at the central basin of the province of Santa Fe, exports commodities leaving differentiated (functional products for the domestic market. These facts determine different dynamics between them, despite of what the established set of relationships is very complex and knowledge intensive in both cases. Also, in both cases the preponderant contribution of the public institutions of science and technology as knowledge and technology source is flagged.

  5. Bioassessment of the Effluents Discharged from Two Export Oriented Industrial Zones Located in Kelani River Basin, Sri Lanka Using Erythrocytic Responses of the Fish, Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, C K; Pathiratne, A

    2017-10-01

    Complex effluents originating from diverse industrial processes in industrial zones could pose cytotoxic/genotoxic hazards to biota in the receiving ecosystems which cannot be revealed by conventional monitoring methods. This study assessed potential cytotoxicity/genotoxicity of treated effluents of two industrial zones which are discharged into Kelani river, Sri Lanka combining erythrocytic abnormality tests and comet assay of the tropical model fish, Nile tilapia. Exposure of fish to the effluents induced erythrocytic DNA damage and deformed erythrocytes with serrated membranes, vacuolations, nuclear buds and micronuclei showing cytotoxic/genotoxic hazards in all cases. Occasional exceedance of industrial effluent discharge regulatory limits was noted for color and lead which may have contributed to the observed cytotoxicity/genotoxicity of effluents. The results demonstrate that fish erythrocytic responses could be used as effective bioanalytical tools for cytotoxic/genotoxic hazard assessments of complex effluents of industrial zones for optimization of the waste treatment process in order to reduce biological impacts.

  6. Milk and Cheese in an Andean Country: What Place for the Peruvian Traditional Subsector Faced with Dairy Industries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Aubron

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 1990s, Peruvian milk production has increased greatly. The development of dairy supply chains is linked to the growth of a market protected from importations, and which is expanding because of urban population growth and improvements of the road network. It concerns both small dairy producers and the industrial dairy subsector, which are connected by interdependent and balance of power relations all along the chain. Dairy farmers were surveyed from a technical and economic angle in various regions. Results show that this dairy development brings about major income inequalities among producer types, reflecting an unequal access to resources. Statistical data in the literature and interviews of actors of the Peruvian dairy chains allow to assess the stakes and limits of quality approaches in the small producers’ chain faced with industries. Finally, the article questions the impact of free-trade agreements in which Peru is involved with regard to the domestic dairy subsector, and concludes with political proposals to accompany dairy development.

  7. Location-Allocation model for food industrial using fuzzy criteria: A case study of dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Esfandiyari

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A good facility layout plays an important role on increasing the profitability of a production unit. A good location needs to meet different criteria such as the distance between the plants and the places to reach raw materials, customers, etc. In this paper, we proposed a multi criteria decision making problem to locate a suitable dairy plant. We assume that all factors influencing the plant involves uncertainty and proposed fuzzy numbers to handle the uncertainty associated with all input parameters. We apply the method for a real-world case study of dairy production unit and analyze the results of our proposed model.

  8. Evaluation of the phytotoxicity of polycontaminated industrial effluents using the lettuce plant (Lactuca sativa) as a bioindicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Jérémie; Sancey, Bertrand; Morin-Crini, Nadia; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Degiorgi, François; Trunfio, Giuseppe; Crini, Grégorio

    2011-10-01

    Industrial wastewater containing heavy metals is generally decontaminated by physicochemical treatment consisting in insolublizing the contaminants and separating the two phases, water and sludge, by a physical process (filtration, settling or flotation). However, chemical precipitation does not usually remove the whole pollution load and the effluent discharged into the environment can be toxic even if it comes up to regulatory standards. To assess the impact of industrial effluent from 4 different surface treatment companies, we performed standardized bioassays using seeds of the lettuce Lactuca sativa. We measured the rate of germination, and the length and mass of the lettuce plantlet. The results were used to compare the overall toxicity of the different effluents: effluents containing copper and nickel had a much higher impact than those containing zinc or aluminum. In addition, germination tests conducted using synthetic solutions confirmed that mixtures of metals have higher toxicity than the sum of their separate constituents. These biological tests are cheap, easy to implement, reproducible and highlight the effects caused by effluent treated with the methods commonly applied in industry today. They could be routinely used to check the impact of industrial discharges, even when they meet regulatory requirements for the individual metals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Energy consumption in the dairy industry. Analysis of 1987. Energie in zuivel. Analyse 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The research on the title subject was carried out by the NOVEM (Dutch Agency for Energy and the Environment) aimed at planning energy conservation in the Dutch dairy industry for 1988. Data on the energy consumption (electric power and natural gas) were collected and are presented for: milk production on the farm; milk transport from the farm to the processing industry; cheese or butter production; production of consumption milk and derived products; production of evaporated milk; milk powder and whey powder production, and finally overall management and other products. 35 figs., 18 tabs., 1 app.

  10. Effects of reactive filters based on modified zeolite in dairy industry wastewater treatment process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolaković Srđan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of adsorbents based on organo-zeolites has certain advantages over conventional methods applied in food industry wastewater treatment process. The case study presented in this paper examines the possibilities and effects of treatment of dairy industry wastewater by using adsorbents based on organo-zeolites. The obtained results indicate favorable filtration properties of organo-zeolite, their high level of adsorption of organic matter and nitrate nitrogen in the analyzed wastewater. This paper concludes with recommendations of optimal technical and technological parameters for the application of these filters in practice.

  11. Temporal and spatial changes of microbial community in an industrial effluent receiving area in Hangzhou Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Lujun; Sun, Renhua; Dai, Tianjiao; Tian, Jinping; Zheng, Wei; Wen, Donghui

    2016-06-01

    Anthropogenic activities usually contaminate water environments, and have led to the eutrophication of many estuaries and shifts in microbial communities. In this study, the temporal and spatial changes of the microbial community in an industrial effluent receiving area in Hangzhou Bay were investigated by 454 pyrosequencing. The bacterial community showed higher richness and biodiversity than the archaeal community in all sediments. Proteobacteria dominated in the bacterial communities of all the samples; Marine_Group_I and Methanomicrobia were the two dominant archaeal classes in the effluent receiving area. PCoA and AMOVA revealed strong seasonal but minor spatial changes in both bacterial and archaeal communities in the sediments. The seasonal changes of the bacterial community were less significant than those of the archaeal community, which mainly consisted of fluctuations in abundance of a large proportion of longstanding species rather than the appearance and disappearance of major archaeal species. Temperature was found to positively correlate with the dominant bacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and negatively correlate with the dominant archaea, Marine_Group_I; and might be the primary driving force for the seasonal variation of the microbial community. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Electrochemical treatment of simulated sugar industrial effluent: Optimization and modeling using a response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Asaithambi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The removal of organic compounds from a simulated sugar industrial effluent was investigated through the electrochemical oxidation technique. Effect of various experimental parameters such as current density, concentration of electrolyte and flow rate in a batch electrochemical reactor was studied on the percentage of COD removal and power consumption. The electrochemical reactor performance was analyzed based on with and without recirculation of the effluent having constant inter-electrodes distance. It was found out that the percentage removal of COD increased with the increase of electrolyte concentration and current density. The maximum percentage removal of COD was achieved at 80.74% at a current density of 5 A/dm2 and 5 g/L of electrolyte concentration in the batch electrochemical reactor. The recirculation electrochemical reactor system parameters like current density, concentration of COD and flow rate were optimized using response surface methodology, while COD removal percents were maximized and power consumption minimized. It has been observed from the present analysis that the predicted values are in good agreement with the experimental data with a correlation coefficient of 0.9888.

  13. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF; average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  14. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  15. Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  16. Using Artificial Neural Networks to Determine Significant Factors Affecting the Pricing of WPT Effluent for Industrial Uses in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mirmohamadsaseghi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The evidence indicates increasing trend of use of municipal wastewater treatment effluent as an alternative source of water both in developed and developing countries. Proper pricing of this unconventional water is one of the most effective economic tools to encourage optimum use of fresh water resources. In this study, artificial neural network is employed to identify and assess the factors affecting effluent tariffs supplied to local industries in Isfahan region. Given the wide variety of factors involved in the ultimate value of wastewater traement plant effluent, an assortment of relevant factors  has been considered in this study; the factors include the population served by the treatment plant, volume of effluent produced, maintenance, repair and replacement. costs of operating plants, topography, different water uses in the region, industrial wastewater collection fees, unit cost of pipe and fittings, and the volumes of water supplied from springs and aqueducts  in the region. Neural network modeling is used as a tool to determine the significance of each factor for pricing effluent. Based on the available data and the neural network models, the effects of different model architectures with different intermediate layers and numbers of nodes in each layer on the price of wastewater were investigated to develop aand adopt a final neural network model. Results indicate that the proposed neural network model enjoys a high potential and has been well capable of determining the weights of the parameter affecting in pricing effluent. Based on the the results of this study, the factors with the greatest role in effluent pricing are unit cost of pipe and fittings, industrial use of water, and the costs of plant maintentance, repair and replacement.

  17. Feed Additives Production Out of Dairy Industry Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrikh, EV

    2017-05-01

    Application of macro- and microelements in animal feed is the most effective in the case of their industrial brining in mixed feeds, feed mixes, and protein-vitamin supplements in the form of various complex salts. Application of the product contributes to the body’s needs of broiler chickens in vitamins and minerals, normalization of metabolism, and ensures a high rate of growth and development. The composition of the premix can be adjusted depending on the actual proportion of biologically active substances in the feed used by a consumer. It is possible to include in the premix other biologically active substances. Assessing the slaughter qualities of experimental pigs, it was found (Table. 2) that the pigs of group II has a tendency toward greater weight of hot carcass (4.5 kg), of slaughter yelts (by 3.83%) and toward a smaller thickness of fat over the spinous processes of the 6-7th thoracic vertebrae (1.67 mm). The performed investigations have established that there is no significant difference between groups I and II in the content of certain amino acids, however, group I shows poorer results in the content of valine, isoleucine, leucine and lysine by 0.16 g / 100 g of protein (P> 0.999) 0.2 (P> 0.90), 0.46 (P> 0.999) and 0.39 (P> 0.999) g / 100 g protein respectively.

  18. Electro-coagulation applied to the treatment of industrial effluents; Electrocoagulation appliquee en traitement des effluents industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laplace, C.; Leboucher, G.; Coste, M. [Anjou Recherche, Vivendi Water, 78 - Maisons-Laffitte (France)

    2001-07-01

    The electro-coagulation is a water treatment technic in electrolysis cell with double anode. In substitution to the coagulant reagent often used in water de-pollution, it realizes also the coloring decomposition, the DCO abatement and sometimes improving the sludges processing. The technic presents meanwhile some limitations as its poor treatment capacity and the necessity of a high effluent conductivity. An example of application shows that this technic is economically competitive. (A.L.B.)

  19. Utilization of ALANPOL dosemeter composed by alanine and polyethylene for determination of doses in industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rela, Carolina S.; Sampa, Maria Helena de O.; Napolitano, Celia M.; Pontuschka, Walter M.

    2005-01-01

    A study of traceability and accuracy was performed with the dosimetry system ALANPOL developed by IVHTJ/ Poland that uses alanine as a dosimeter and EPR as the read out system. The dosimeter ALANPOL is a polymer compound that aggregates alanine. The dosimeter has the outside diameter 3 mm, and the length of 25,4 mm (1 inch). In order to use this dosimeter for monitoring the existing real time calorimetry dosimeter system set up in a electron beam waste treatment plant. Electron beam and gamma irradiation experiments with ALANPOL was carried out under demineralized water and industrial effluent. The result show that in the dose range of 1-40 kGy the ALANPOL dosimeter system is suitable underwater monitoring for absorbed dose and can be applied for the evaluation of the on line calorimetry dosimeter system. (author)

  20. A long-term study on the effect of magnetite supplementation in continuous anaerobic digestion of dairy effluent - Magnetic separation and recycling of magnetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Gahyun; Jung, Heejung; Kim, Jaai; Lee, Changsoo

    2017-10-01

    Promotion of direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between exoelectrogenic bacteria and electron-utilizing methanogens has recently been discussed as a new method for enhanced biomethanation. This study evaluated the effect of magnetite-promoted DIET in continuous anaerobic digestion of dairy effluent and tested the magnetic separation and recycling of magnetite to avoid continuous magnetite addition. The applied magnetite recycling method effectively supported enhanced DIET activity and biomethanation performance over a long period (>250days) without adding extra magnetite. DIET via magnetite particles as electrical conduits was likely the main mechanism for the enhanced biomethanation. Magnetite formed complex aggregate structures with microbes, and magnetite recycling also helped retain more biomass in the process. Methanosaeta was likely the major methanogen group responsible for DIET-based methanogenesis, in association with Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi populations as syntrophic partners. The recycling approach proved robust and effective, highlighting the potential of magnetite recycling for high-rate biomethanation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Computerized effluent control and evaluation of environmental impact for an industrial plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez de Angulo, L.F.; Garcia Gutierrez, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    Growing public interest and concern for the environment is translated at official level into regulatory standards to limit, control and evaluate the environmental impact produced by polluting facilities. This paper seeks to demonstrate the convenience of automatizing all these computerized systems. This philosophy has been put into practice to computerize processes in the industry with the most complex standards: the nuclear industry. The application used has the capacity to store and manage data on all the discharges, evaluate the effect produced by them and generate information to be sent periodically to the competent authority. The conceptual definition of the application can be adapted to any industrial or public utility facility releasing polluting effluents which must undergo control, monitoring and analysis of the environmental impact by the relevant regulatory body, bearing in mind the environmental standard applicable to the category of the facility and the type of polluting substance released. The application can be run interactively in a personal computer on the basis of menus and screens, under a relational Data Base Management System (DBMS). Its implementation is independent of the DBMS used and the hardware with supports it. (author)

  2. Potential impact of the growth hormone and other technology on the United States dairy industry by the year 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mix, L S

    1987-02-01

    The United States dairy industry is projected to go through a major transition by the 2000 with some regions experiencing more change than others. Population growth plus medical discoveries favorable to certain dairy products combined with strengthened marketing programs could increase consumption of milk equivalent from the present 66.3 to 72.1 million metric tons by the yr 2000. Ongoing genetic, feeding, and management improvements could raise average milk production per cow from the 1984 level of 5,680 kg to 7,425 kg by 2000. If growth hormone biotechnology is adopted, average production per cow could reach 9,281 kg by the 21st century. This could reduce US dairy cow numbers 30% from the present 11.1 million to 7.8 million by the yr 2000. Likewise, the dairy industry and others could expect approximately 92,500 fewer commercial dairy farms, a decrease of 51%. This would mean 195,000 fewer employees and 3.6 to 4.1 million fewer crop hectares would be required. A transition of this magnitude will require indepth planning by legislators, policy makers, university teaching, research, and extension personnel, agribusiness, industry representatives, and dairy producers to cope with the necessary adjustments.

  3. Attitudes to coping with radiologically suspect or contaminated milk in the UK: a dairy industry viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komorowski, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    The attitudes of the UK milk processing industry to a nuclear incident which resulted in milk supplies being suspected of being contaminated, or actually being contaminated, with radioactivity is examined. The factors influencing these attitudes are discussed, together with their implications. In the event of a nuclear incident in which part of the United Kingdom's milk supply is possibly contaminated, the milk processing industry will want to ensure that consumers and retailers maintain complete confidence in dairy products. As a consequence the industry will require that solutions are not adopted merely to avoid wastage of milk, or awkward milk disposal problems. In the early history of the BSE crisis the government wrongly assured consumers that beef was completely safe to eat. It will be necessary to ensure that any assurances that milk is safe, following a nuclear incident, are well founded

  4. Enhanced heterotrophic denitrification: effect of dairy industry sludge acclimatization and operating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari Shahabi, Zeinab; Naeimpoor, Fereshteh

    2014-06-01

    Heterotrophic denitrification of drinking water was enhanced by selection of an anoxic sludge taken from a dairy industry among the sludges taken from various industries, and the effect of carbon sources was examined. Acclimatization to high nitrate concentration was then carried out in a five-stage process. Considering removals of both nitrate and nitrite, the sludge taken from anoxic unit of Tehran Pegah dairy industry was shown to be the superior microbial culture, with ethanol as carbon source as compared to acetate. To enhance the rate of denitrification, acclimatization to nitrate (at 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1,600 mg N-NO3/L) was carried out in sequencing batch reactors over a 3-month period under anoxic condition, and comparisons were made between the performances of acclimated and non-acclimated sludges at each stage. It was found that acclimatization up to the fourth stage enhanced the specific denitrification rate to a high value of 29.6 mg N-NO3/h/g mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), with no significant nitrite accumulation. Additionally, the effect of initial pH (6, 6.5, 7, and 7.5) and carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio (1, 1.5, 2, and 3) on the performance of this final acclimated sludge was assessed, where initial pH of 7 and C/N ratio of 1.5 resulted in the best performances considering both nitrate and nitrite removal.

  5. Effluent Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effluent guidelines are national standards for wastewater discharges to surface waters and municipal sewage treatment plants. We issue the regulations for industrial categories based on the performance of treatment and control technologies.

  6. A combination anaerobic digestion scheme for biogas production from dairy effluent-CSTR and ABR, and biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgensen, Lars; Ehimen, Ehiaze Augustine; Born, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of low-strength dairy waste water was used for the production of biogas which is aimed at serving as a concentrated carbon dioxide (CO2) source for further methanation. Using hydrogen (which can be produced via electrolysis using renewably sourced electricity), the CO2 fraction...... of the produced biogas can be used as a mechanism to store surplus electricity by the Sabatier process, which converts the CO2 fractions to methane (CH4), i. e. synthetic natural gas. This study investigates the use a combined reactor scheme for the anaerobic digestion of dairy waste water, and the further...

  7. Supporting data for identification of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Abdullah, Shakila; Salim, Mohd Razman

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluet. The identification of the potential bacterial strain using a polymerase chain reaction of the 16S rRNA gene analysis was closely related to Serratia marcescens with its recorded strain of SA30 “Fundamentals of mass transfer and kinetics for biosorption of oil and grease from agro-food industrial effluent by Serratia marcescens SA30” (Fulazzaky et al., 2015) [1]; however, many biochemical tests have not been published yet. The biochemical tests of biosurfactant production, haemolytic assay and cell surface hydrophobicity were performed to investigate the beneficial strain of biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Here we do share data collected from the biochemical tests to get a better understanding of the use of Serratia marcescens SA30 to degrade oil, which contributes the technical features of strengthening the biological treatment of oil-contaminated wastewater in tropical environments. PMID:27077083

  8. Supporting data for identification of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Fulazzaky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to identify the biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluet. The identification of the potential bacterial strain using a polymerase chain reaction of the 16S rRNA gene analysis was closely related to Serratia marcescens with its recorded strain of SA30 “Fundamentals of mass transfer and kinetics for biosorption of oil and grease from agro-food industrial effluent by Serratia marcescens SA30” (Fulazzaky et al., 2015 [1]; however, many biochemical tests have not been published yet. The biochemical tests of biosurfactant production, haemolytic assay and cell surface hydrophobicity were performed to investigate the beneficial strain of biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Here we do share data collected from the biochemical tests to get a better understanding of the use of Serratia marcescens SA30 to degrade oil, which contributes the technical features of strengthening the biological treatment of oil-contaminated wastewater in tropical environments.

  9. Peat wetland as a natural filter of effluents from adjacent industrial areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József DEZSO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the project is the study of a peat wetland functioning as recipient of effluents from former and present-day industrial activities. The investigation was focused on heavy metal contaminations and their probable mobilization or fixation. The studied peatbog is a typical Eastern European wetland, located in Hungary on the border between medium mountains (Bakony Mountains and a Neogene basin (the Sárrét, an area under nature conservation. Watercourses and prevailing air currents can transport contaminants from industrial areas to the wetland. At first the basic parameters of surface waters and subsurface conditions (soils, groundwater were investigated. These parameters (EC, Cl are possible indicators of contamination. Subsequently, the amounts of heavy metals (Cd, Pb extracted by solution in two steps (HCl, CaCl2 were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. The extracted values indicate what amounts of which elements could be mobilized by human impact and/or production of humic acids, which occasionally emerges during the remediation works. The total heavy metal concentrations in the samples were investigated by X-ray fluorescence method. Based on the investigation, the peatbog is claimed to function as a natural filter.

  10. Remediation of lead from lead electroplating industrial effluent using sago waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyanthi, G P; Shanthi, G

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metals are known toxicants, which inflict acute disorders to the living beings. Electroplating industries pose great threat to the environment through heavy load of metals in the wastewater discharged on land and water sources. In the present study, sago processing waste, which is both a waste and a pollutant, was used to adsorb lead ions from lead electroplating industrial effluent. Two types of sago wastes, namely, coarse sago waste and fine sago waste were used to study their adsorption capacity with the batch adsorption and Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The parameters that were considered for batch adsorption were pH (4, 5 and 6), time of contact (1, 2 and 3 hrs), temperature (30, 37 and 45 degrees C) and dosage of the adsorbent (2,4 and 6 g/L). The optimal condition for the effective removal of lead was found to be pH 5, time of contact 3 hrs, temperature 30 degrees C and dosage 4 g/L with coarse sago waste than fine sago waste.

  11. Long-term evaluation of lethal and sublethal toxicity of industrial effluents using Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xianliang; Kang, Sung-Wook; Jung, Jinho

    2010-06-15

    Acute toxicity and feeding rate inhibition of effluent from a wastewater treatment plant and its adjacent stream water on Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa were comparatively studied. The acute toxicity of the final effluent (FE) fluctuated greatly over the sampling period from January to August 2009. Toxicity identification results of the FE in July 2009 showed that Cu originating from the Fenton's reagent was likely a key toxicant. In addition, the feeding rate of both species was still inhibited by the FEs in which acute toxicity was not observed. These findings indicate that the feeding response would be a useful tool for monitoring sublethal effects of industrial effluents. For the acute toxicity test, M. macrocopa was more sensitive than D. magna, but the opposite result was true in the case of the feeding rate inhibition. These suggest that different species have different sensitivities to toxic chemicals and to the test methods. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Insight into the applications of palm oil mill effluent: A renewable utilization of the industrial agricultural waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foo, K.Y.; Hameed, B.H.

    2010-01-01

    Water scarcity and pollution rank equal to climate change as the most intricate environmental turmoil for the 21st century. Today, the percolation of palm oil mill effluents into the waterways and ecosystems, remain a fastidious concern towards the public health and food chain interference. With the innovation of palm oil residue into a high valuable end commodity, there has been a steadily growing interest in this research field. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents a state of art review of palm oil mill effluent industry, its fundamental characteristics and environmental implications. Moreover, the key advance of its implementations, major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expanding of palm oil mill effluent in numerous field of application represents a plausible and powerful circumstance, for accruing the worldwide environmental benefit and shaping the national economy. (author)

  13. Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.C.F.; Romanelli, M.F; Sena, H.C.; Pasqualini da Silva, G.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Borrely, S.I.

    2004-01-01

    Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. The raw toxic effluents exibitted from 0.6 ppm up to 11.67 ppm for anionic surfactant before being treated by the electron beam. Radiation processing resulted in reduction of the acute toxicity as well as surfactant removal. The final biological effluent was in general less toxic than other sites but the presence of anionic surfactants was evidenced

  14. Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, M.C.F. E-mail: mariacristinafm@uol.com.br; Romanelli, M.F; Sena, H.C.; Pasqualini da Silva, G.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Borrely, S.I

    2004-10-01

    Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. The raw toxic effluents exibitted from 0.6 ppm up to 11.67 ppm for anionic surfactant before being treated by the electron beam. Radiation processing resulted in reduction of the acute toxicity as well as surfactant removal. The final biological effluent was in general less toxic than other sites but the presence of anionic surfactants was evidenced.

  15. Toxicity effects of nickel electroplating effluents treated by photoelectrooxidation in the industries of the Sinos River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuti, T; Rodrigues, Mas; Arenzon, A; Bernardes, A M; Zoppas-Ferreira, J

    2015-05-01

    The Sinos river Basin is an industrial region with many tanneries and electroplating plants in southern Brazil. The wastewater generated by electroplating contains high loads of salts and metals that have to be treated before discharge. After conventional treatment, this study applied an advanced oxidative process to degrade organic additives in the electroplating bright nickel baths effluent. Synthetic rinsing water was submitted to physical-chemical coagulation for nickel removal. The sample was submitted to ecotoxicity tests, and the effluent was treated by photoelectrooxidation (PEO). The effects of current density and treatment time were evaluated. The concentration of total organic carbon (TOC) was 38% lower. The toxicity tests of the effluent treated using PEO revealed that the organic additives were partially degraded and the concentration that is toxic for test organisms was reduced.

  16. Toxicity effects of nickel electroplating effluents treated by photoelectrooxidation in the industries of the Sinos River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Benvenuti

    Full Text Available The Sinos river Basin is an industrial region with many tanneries and electroplating plants in southern Brazil. The wastewater generated by electroplating contains high loads of salts and metals that have to be treated before discharge. After conventional treatment, this study applied an advanced oxidative process to degrade organic additives in the electroplating bright nickel baths effluent. Synthetic rinsing water was submitted to physical-chemical coagulation for nickel removal. The sample was submitted to ecotoxicity tests, and the effluent was treated by photoelectrooxidation (PEO. The effects of current density and treatment time were evaluated. The concentration of total organic carbon (TOC was 38% lower. The toxicity tests of the effluent treated using PEO revealed that the organic additives were partially degraded and the concentration that is toxic for test organisms was reduced.

  17. The prevalence and control of Bacillus and related spore-forming bacteria in the dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi eGopal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk produced in udder cells is sterile but due to its high nutrient content, it can be a good growth substrate for contaminating bacteria. The quality of milk is monitored via somatic cell counts and total bacterial counts, with prescribed regulatory limits to ensure quality and safety. Bacterial contaminants can cause disease, or spoilage of milk and its secondary products. Aerobic spore-forming bacteria, such as those from the genera Sporosarcina, Paenisporosarcina, Brevibacillus, Paenibacillus, Geobacillus and Bacillus, are a particular concern in this regard as they are able to survive industrial pasteurisation and form biofilms within pipes and stainless steel equipment. These single or multiple-species biofilms become a reservoir of spoilage microorganisms and a cycle of contamination can be initiated. Indeed, previous studies have highlighted that these microorganisms are highly prevalent in dead ends, corners, cracks, crevices, gaskets, valves and the joints of stainless steel equipment used in the dairy manufacturing plants. Hence, adequate monitoring and control measures are essential to prevent spoilage and ensure consumer safety. Common controlling approaches include specific cleaning-in-place processes, chemical and biological biocides and other novel methods. In this review, we highlight the problems caused by these microorganisms, and discuss issues relating to their prevalence, monitoring thereof and control with respect to the dairy industry.

  18. Waste water biological purification plants of dairy products industry and energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Sergey; Solkina, Olga; Stepanov, Alexander; Zhukova, Maria

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents results of engineering and economical comparison of waste water biological purification plants of dairy products industry. Three methods of purification are compared: traditional biological purification with the use of secondary clarifiers and afterpurification through granular-bed filters, biomembrane technology and physical-and-chemical treatment together with biomembrane technology for new construction conditions. The improvement of the biological purification technology using nitro-denitrification and membrane un-mixing of sludge mixture is a promising trend in this area. In these calculations, an energy management which is widely applied abroad was used. The descriptions of the three methods are illustrated with structural schemes. Costs of equipment and production areas are taken from manufacturers’ data. The research is aimed at an engineering and economical comparison of new constructions of waste water purification of dairy products industry. The experiment demonstrates advantages of biomembrane technology in waste water purification. This technology offers prospects of 122 million rubles cost saving during 25 years of operation when compared with of the technology of preparatory reagent flotation and of 13.7 million rubles cost saving compared to the option of traditional biological purification.

  19. Strategies to Characterize Fungal Lipases for Applications in Medicine and Dairy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Anbu, Periasamy; Lakshmipriya, Thangavel; Hilda, Azariah

    2013-01-01

    Lipases are water-soluble enzymes that act on insoluble substrates and catalyze the hydrolysis of long-chain triglycerides. Lipases play a vital role in the food, detergent, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries. In the past, fungal lipases gained significant attention in the industries due to their substrate specificity and stability under varied chemical and physical conditions. Fungal enzymes are extracellular in nature, and they can be extracted easily, which significantly reduces the cost and makes this source preferable over bacteria. Soil contaminated with spillage from the products of oil and dairy harbors fungal species, which have the potential to secrete lipases to degrade fats and oils. Herein, the strategies involved in the characterization of fungal lipases, capable of degrading fatty substances, are narrated with a focus on further applications. PMID:23865040

  20. TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF EFFLUENTS FROM A DAIRY FARM IN BUENOS AIRES PROVINCE, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Dido

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an alternative sanitation to the negative environmental impacts caused by the intensification of the production system and the inadequate management of waste from a dairy farm with 1050 cows, belonging to Trenque Lauquen, Buenos Aires Province of Argentina. Anaerobic digestion technology allows the biological degradation of organic material in an oxygen free environment and it is proposed to develop a treatment system that allows evaluation of the products obtained through electricity generation and biofertilizer. The working methodology includes an analysis of preliminary data from anaerobic digestion of cattle manure, characterization of the generated waste, the design of the treatment system and a technical economic analysis. This study shows that it is possible to reach the dairy sanitation with energy benefits developing a sustainable resource and environmental management

  1. Analytical strategies for uranium determination in natural water and industrial effluents samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Juracir Silva

    2011-01-01

    The work was developed under the project 993/2007 - 'Development of analytical strategies for uranium determination in environmental and industrial samples - Environmental monitoring in the Caetite city, Bahia, Brazil' and made possible through a partnership established between Universidade Federal da Bahia and the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear. Strategies were developed to uranium determination in natural water and effluents of uranium mine. The first one was a critical evaluation of the determination of uranium by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) performed using factorial and Doehlert designs involving the factors: acid concentration, radio frequency power and nebuliser gas flow rate. Five emission lines were simultaneously studied (namely: 367.007, 385.464, 385.957, 386.592 and 409.013 nm), in the presence of HN0 3 , H 3 C 2 00H or HCI. The determinations in HN0 3 medium were the most sensitive. Among the factors studied, the gas flow rate was the most significant for the five emission lines. Calcium caused interference in the emission intensity for some lines and iron did not interfere (at least up to 10 mg L -1 ) in the five lines studied. The presence of 13 other elements did not affect the emission intensity of uranium for the lines chosen. The optimized method, using the line at 385.957 nm, allows the determination of uranium with limit of quantification of 30 μg L -1 and precision expressed as RSD lower than 2.2% for uranium concentrations of either 500 and 1000 μg L -1 . In second one, a highly sensitive flow-based procedure for uranium determination in natural waters is described. A 100-cm optical path flow cell based on a liquid-core waveguide (LCW) was exploited to increase sensitivity of the arsenazo 111 method, aiming to achieve the limits established by environmental regulations. The flow system was designed with solenoid micro-pumps in order to improve mixing and minimize reagent consumption, as well as

  2. Assessment of heavy metals in the industrial effluents, tube-wells and municipal supplied water of Dehradun, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshrestha, Shail; Awasthi, Alok; Dabral, S K

    2013-07-01

    The bio-geochemical cycles of metals involve the lands, rivers, oceans and the atmosphere. Although a large number of metals are introduced to the water bodies during their mining and extraction processes and geochemical weathering of rocks, but the role of domestic and industrial wastes is predominant and of much concern. Increased industrial activities has increased the incidence of percolation of toxic metal ions to the soil and water bodies and presently their presence in ecosystem, have reached to an alarming level that environmentalists are finding it difficult to enforce control measures. Human activities and large number of small and big industrial units are increasingly discharging deleterious metals present in the effluents and wastes, to the environment and aquatic systems and have contaminated heavily even the ground water. The toxic metals have a great tendency of bioaccumulation through which they enter the food chain system and ultimately affect adversely the life on this planet Earth in various ways. Further, due to contamination of irrigation system by the harmful Chemicals and toxic metals, the farm products, vegetables, fruits, potable water and even milk is not spared. This paper describes the assessment of the heavy metal concentration in various industrial effluents of the surrounding area. Various physico-chemical characteristics of the effluents collected from various sites are also reported. To assess the status of ground water quality, water samples from four tube wells of different localities of the area and four drinking water samples supplied by Municipal Distribution System were also analyzed.

  3. Studying Present Dairy Industry Management in the Khorasan Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Valizadeh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present condition and feeds utilization of dairy industry in Khorasan province was studied in 113 dairy farms based on the official data from Ministry of Agricultural-Jehad. Questioners evaluated the required parameters. The percentage proportion of lactating cows, dry cows, pregnant heifers, virgin heifers, 6-12 months old calves, under 6 months and 3 months old calves and breeding bulls were; 39, 10, 11, 6, 15, 9, 10 and 0.1 precent, respectively. Mean of milk yield was 25.5 kg/day with fat content of 3.5%. A large variation was detected in forage quality and concentrate constituents and composition. Generally, difference between feed costs in various seasons was about 30%. All group of cows were offered more nutrients than the recommended levels. The percentage of extra feed cost in comparison with the total dairy cost of feeding was 9.1, 14.3, 15.0 and 9.1 percent for the high, medium and low milk- producing and dry cows. Most of the used concentrates were prepared in the farms. Net energy of lactation (NEL and protein contents of the hand made and factory made concentrates were 1.73±0.03 Mcal per kg dry matter, 16.1±0.8% and 1.68±0.04 Mcal per kg dry matter and 15.3±1.04%, respectively. In most of the farms, silos were non-appropriately made. It was concluded that most of the utilized rations were imbalance in energy and protein ratios. Technical attention must be regarded to the ration formulation and forage quality in the province.

  4. Mitigation of solid waste and reuse of effluent from paint and varnish automotive and industrial treated by irradiation at electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Fernando C.; Ribeiro, Marcia A.; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Minamidani, Pedro T.; Guzella, Catia C.

    2011-01-01

    One of the most representative industrial segments is the polymeric coatings for house paint, automotive, industrial, marine, maintenance, and repainting markets. The general consumption of paint market in 2010 was 438,364 10 3 gallons of paint, in Brazil. However, when produce paints and varnishes, various kinds of solid wastes and liquid effluent are generated. The present research focus on the effluent from resins, water base paint and paint for electrophoresis, automotive industry, and general industrial coatings. The goal of this study is to use ionizing radiation to destroy the pollutants allowing the use of part of effluent as reuse water, and the rest discarded within the specified requirements. Actual industrial effluent samples were irradiated at Electron beam Accelerator applying absorbed doses of 10 kGy, 30 kGy and 50 kGy. The results, in this preliminary stage, showed a reduction of organic compounds and suspended solids. (author)

  5. Palm oil mill effluent treatment and utilization to ensure the sustainability of palm oil industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanudin, U; Sugiharto, R; Haryanto, A; Setiadi, T; Fujie, K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current condition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment and utilization and to propose alternative scenarios to improve the sustainability of palm oil industries. The research was conducted through field survey at some palm oil mills in Indonesia, in which different waste management systems were used. Laboratory experiment was also carried out using a 5 m(3) pilot-scale wet anaerobic digester. Currently, POME is treated through anaerobic digestion without or with methane capture followed by utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer or further treatment (aerobic process) to fulfill the wastewater quality standard. A methane capturing system was estimated to successfully produce renewable energy of about 25.4-40.7 kWh/ton of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 109.41-175.35 kgCO2e/tonFFB (CO2e: carbon dioxide equivalent). Utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer increased FFB production by about 13%. A palm oil mill with 45 ton FFB/hour capacity has potential to generate about 0.95-1.52 MW of electricity. Coupling the POME-based biogas digester and anaerobic co-composting of empty fruit bunches (EFBs) is capable of adding another 0.93 MW. The utilization of POME and EFB not only increases the added value of POME and EFB by producing renewable energy, compost, and liquid fertilizer, but also lowers environmental burden.

  6. Study of technical and economical feasibility for implementation of a movable unit for treatment of industrial effluents with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rela, Carolina Sciamarelli

    2006-01-01

    The treatment of industrial effluents is a practice that is disseminating in accelerated rhythm, of contributing to reinforce the public image, through the combat of the pollution, it brings economical advantages allowing the companies the reuse of the treated water in their own processes. The liquid effluent treatment technique studied in the present work is the one that uses the chemical oxidation/reduction standing out the use of the electron beam (e.b.) radiation. This technique uses an advanced oxidation process, generating radicals highly reagents that provoke the oxidation, reduction, dissociation and degradation in composed organic and exercising lethal effect in general in the microorganisms and parasites. In this work a conceptual and basic project of a movable unit of effluents treatment using electron beam radiation process was developed, in order that the unit moves until the treatment point, where the effluent is produced, facilitating the logistics. A technical and economical feasibility study was also elaborated allowing data on the capacity and cost of effluents processing to consolidate the values of the necessary investments to be presented to foundations organs for the construction of a movable unit. The results of the studies demonstrated that it is technically viable attending the pertinent legislation of Brazil, in the aspects of Radiation Protection and transport limit capacity. The unitary cost of the e.b. radiation processing in the movable unit was shown more expensive than in the fixed unit, the reason is the decrease of the efficiency of the interaction of the incident electrons in the effluent, due to the reduction of electron energy operation time of the unit. (author)

  7. Bioremediation of Synthetic and Industrial Effluents by Aspergillus niger Isolated from Contaminated Soil Following a Sequential Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulzar, Tahsin; Huma, Tayyaba; Jalal, Fatima; Iqbal, Sarosh; Abrar, Shazia; Kiran, Shumaila; Nosheen, Sofia; Hussain, Waqar; Rafique, Muhammad Asim

    2017-12-16

    The present study aimed to assess and compare the ability to remediate synthetic textile and industrial wastewaters by Fenton treatment, a biological system and sequential treatments using Aspergillus niger ( A. niger ). All studied treatments were found to be effective in decolorization of the effluents under study. Fenton treatment followed by A. niger showed excellent potential for the maximum decolorization of the synthetic and industrial effluents under study. The effectiveness of sequential treatment was evaluated by water quality parameters such as total organic carbon (TOC), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) before and after each treatment. The results indicated that A. niger is an effective candidate for detoxification of textile wastewaters.

  8. Bioremediation of Synthetic and Industrial Effluents by Aspergillus niger Isolated from Contaminated Soil Following a Sequential Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahsin Gulzar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess and compare the ability to remediate synthetic textile and industrial wastewaters by Fenton treatment, a biological system and sequential treatments using Aspergillus niger (A. niger. All studied treatments were found to be effective in decolorization of the effluents under study. Fenton treatment followed by A. niger showed excellent potential for the maximum decolorization of the synthetic and industrial effluents under study. The effectiveness of sequential treatment was evaluated by water quality parameters such as total organic carbon (TOC, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5 and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD before and after each treatment. The results indicated that A. niger is an effective candidate for detoxification of textile wastewaters.

  9. Toxicity Identification and Evaluation for the Effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plant in Industrial Complex using D.magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Keum, H.; Chun Sang, H.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the interests on the impacts of industrial wastewater on aquatic ecosystem have increased with concern about ecosystem protection and human health. Whole effluent toxicity tests are used to monitor toxicity by unknown toxic chemicals as well as conventional pollutants from industrial effluent discharges. This study describes the application of TIE (toxicity identification evaluation) procedures to an acutely toxic effluent from a wastewater treatment plant in industrial complex which was toxic to Daphnia magna. In TIE phase I (characterization step), the toxic effects by heavy metals, organic compounds, oxidants, volatile organic compounds, suspended solids and ammonia were screened and revealed that the source of toxicity is far from these toxicants group. Chemical analysis (TIE phase II) on TDS showed that the concentration of chloride ion (6,900 mg/L) was substantially higher than that predicted from EC50 for D. magna. In confirmation step (TIE phase III), chloride ion was demonstrated to be main toxicant in this effluent by the spiking approach, species sensitivity approach and deletion approach. Calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, fluorine, sulfate ion concentration (450, 100, 80, 5,300, 0.66, 2,200mg/L) was not shown toxicity from D. magna. Finally, we concluded that chloride was the most contributing toxicant in the waste water treatment plant. Further research activities are needed for technical support of toxicity identification and evaluation on the various types of wastewater treatment plant discharge in Korea. Keywords : TIE, D. magna, Industrial waste water Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (15IFIP-B089908-02) from Plant Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government

  10. Assessment of the effluent quality from a gold mining industry in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong, Mike A; Paksirajan, Kannan; Lens, Piet N L

    2013-06-01

    The physical and chemical qualities of the process effluent and the tailings dam wastewater of AngloGold-Ashanti Limited, a gold mining company in Ghana, were studied from June to September, 2010. The process effluent from the gold extraction plant contains high amounts of suspended solids and is therefore highly turbid. Arsenic, copper and cyanide were identified as the major pollutants in the process effluent with average concentrations of 10.0, 3.1 and 21.6 mg L(-1), respectively. Arsenic, copper, iron and free cyanide (CN(-)) concentrations in the process effluent exceeded the Ghana EPA discharge limits; therefore, it is necessary to treat the process effluent before it can be discharged into the environment. Principal component analysis of the data indicated that the process effluent characteristics were influenced by the gold extraction process as well as the nature of the gold-bearing ore processed. No significant correlation was observed between the wastewater characteristics themselves, except for the dissolved oxygen and the biochemical oxygen demand. The process effluent is fed to the Sansu tailings dam, which removes 99.9 % of the total suspended solids and 99.7 % of the turbidity; but copper, arsenic and cyanide concentrations were still high. The effluent produced can be classified as inorganic with a high load of non-biodegradable compounds. It was noted that, though the Sansu tailings dam stores the polluted effluent from the gold extraction plant, there will still be serious environmental problems in the event of failure of the dam.

  11. Order Picking Process in Warehouse: Case Study of Dairy Industry in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Habazin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The proper functioning of warehouse processes is fundamental for operational improvement and overall logistic supply chain improvement. Order picking is considered one of the most important from the group. Throughout picking orders in warehouses, the presence of human work is highly reflected, with the main goal to reduce the process time as much as possible, that is, to the very minimum. There are several different order picking methods, and nowadays, the most common ones are being developed and are significantly dependent on the type of goods, the warehouse equipment, etc., and those that stand out are scanning and picking by voice. This paper will provide information regarding the dairy industry in the Republic of Croatia with the analysis of order picking process in the observed company. Overall research highlighted the problem and resulted in proposals of solutions.

  12. IMPROVING MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND COST CALCULATION IN DAIRY INDUSTRY USING STANDARD COST METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdănoiu Cristiana-Luminiţa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss issues related to the improvement of management accounting in the dairy industry by implementing standard cost method. The methods used today do not provide informational satisfaction to managers in order to conduct effectively production activities, which is why we attempted the standard cost method, it responding to the managers needs to obtain the efficiency of production, and all economic entities. The method allows an operative control of how they consume manpower and material resources by pursuing distinct, permanent and complete deviations during the activity and not at the end of the reporting period. Successful implementation of the standard method depends on the accuracy by which standards are developed and promotes consistently anticipated calculation of production costs as well as determination, tracking and controlling deviations from them, leads to increased practical value of accounting information and business improvement.

  13. Analysis of development of basic characteristics of the dairy industry in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kučerová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of changes in the development of basic characteristics of the dairy industry in the Czech Republic, which cohere with the integration of the Czech Republic into the European Union. The attention is paid on size of the market, growth rate, life cycle, development of prices and development of foreign trade. The total domestic consumption reached 2111.1 million litres in 2004. The industry is in the maturity. The excess of supply exists in the industry; the growth rate is low, under 5% per year. The integration of the Czech Republic into the EU didn’t bring about changes in the development of basic characteristics – size of the market, growth rate, and life cycle. The volume of production changed. The total volume of purchase of raw milk for production went down by 1.4% to the value in 2000. And all prices in the product vertical – milk and milk products (prices of agricultural producers, production prices and consumer’s prices rose.The paper is a part of solution of the research plan of the FBE MUAF in Brno, No. MSM 6215648904.

  14. Market orientation of the Hungarian SMEs working in the meat processing and dairy industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polereczki Zs.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We are looking for the answer as to what tendencies were indicative of the future development of required marketing activity of the SMEs in the article dealing with the marketing activity of the SMEs working in the food industry. The article is based on a nationwide survey among 200 SMEs working in the food processing industry. In this article, we focus on the SMEs working in the dairy and meat processing industries. The results of the nationwide research and some domestic references refer to that there is a latent demand of effective marketing activity among small and medium-sized enterprises. It manifests itself in specifying marketing-related fields to be improved in the future. The marketing itself is believed not to be an important field at the same time. This apparent opposition is the small enterprise marketing paradox in the background of which is the lack of knowledge about the marketing instruments. It can be stated that these small businesses collect mainly general market information and have no information about particular products. Therefore, the presence of marketing planning is really rare and where there is some kind of planning it is not connected to available funds and follow-up control. The marketing strategy can be characterized by products processed mainly at low or medium level. Therefore, market position is deffned by “lower price-good quality”. They mainly use the traditional distribution channels and their communication is accidental and has a low level.

  15. effect of Indomie industrial effluent discharge on the fish fauna of New

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    . KEYWORDS: Effluent, pollution, environment, fish and fauna. .... Atlantic ocean near Bonny and it contains fresh water till ... swamp forests and municipal sewers within the. Choba area of .... Risk and Water Quality Assessment. Overview of ...

  16. Physical factors related to the marine disposal of industrial effluents off Pondicherry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Vijayakumar, C.V.; Govindan, K.; Desai, B.N.

    the nearshore bed was mostly composed of sand. Dye-diffusion studies showed that the waters off Pondicherry proper were less turbulent than those off Pilliarkuppam. The results are discussed in the context of locating effluent outlets...

  17. Whole effluent assessment of industrial wastewater for determination of BAT compliance. Part 2: metal surface treatment industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartiser, Stefan; Hafner, Christoph; Hercher, Christoph; Kronenberger-Schäfer, Kerstin; Paschke, Albrecht

    2010-06-01

    Toxicity testing has become a suitable tool for wastewater evaluation included in several reference documents on best available techniques of the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive. The IPPC Directive requires that for direct dischargers as well as for indirect dischargers, the same best available techniques should be applied. Within the study, the whole effluent assessment approach of OSPAR has been applied for determining persistent toxicity of indirectly discharged wastewater from the metal surface treatment industry. Twenty wastewater samples from the printed circuit board and electroplating industries which indirectly discharged their wastewater to municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have been considered in the study. In all factories, the wastewater partial flows were separated in collecting tanks and physicochemically treated in-house. For assessing the behaviour of the wastewater samples in WWTPs, all samples were biologically pretreated for 7 days in the Zahn-Wellens test before ecotoxicity testing. Thus, persistent toxicity could be discriminated from non-persistent toxicity caused, e.g. by ammonium or readily biodegradable compounds. The fish egg test with Danio rerio, the Daphnia magna acute toxicity test, the algae test with Desmodesmus subspicatus, the Vibrio fischeri assay and the plant growth test with Lemna minor have been applied. All tests have been carried out according to well-established DIN or ISO standards and the lowest ineffective dilution (LID) concept. Additionally, genotoxicity was tested in the umu assay. The potential bioaccumulating substances (PBS) were determined by solid-phase micro-extraction and referred to the reference compound 2,3-dimethylnaphthalene. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) values of the effluents were in the range of 30-2,850 mg L(-1) (COD) and 2-614 mg L(-1) (TOC). With respect to the metal concentrations, all samples were not heavily polluted. The

  18. An assessment of whole effluent toxicity testing as a means of regulating waters produced by the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.L.; Bergman, H.L.

    1993-01-01

    Approximately 500 million barrels of produced water are discharged to Wyoming's surface waters by the oil and gas industry. This discharges are of two types: direct and indirect. The direct discharges have been issued NPDES permits requiring whole effluent toxicity testing. Toxicity testing requirements have not been incorporated into permits written for indirect discharges because of the applicability of toxicity testing for regulating these waters has not been determined. Preliminary testing has shown that most produced waters are toxic at the point of discharge because of high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, but that the toxicity of an indirect discharge is often lost before it reaches a receiving stream. Thus, whole effluent toxicity testing of an indirect discharge may be overly stringent, resulting in treatment or reinjection of the water or closure of the well. Any of these options would have severe economic consequences for oil producers and the state's agricultural industry. The purpose of this study was to determine whether whole effluent toxicity testing actually predicts the in-stream effects of indirect discharges on water quality and benthic invertebrate populations. The authors will report the results of short-term ambient toxicity tests and in-stream bioassessments performed upstream and downstream of six indirect discharges located in four drainages in Wyoming

  19. Evaluation of Changes in Effluent Quality from Industrial Complexes on the Korean Nationwide Scale Using a Self-Organizing Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Jung Bae

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major issues related to the environment in the 21st century is sustainable development. The innovative economic growth policy has supported relatively successful economic development, but poor environmental conservation efforts, have consequently resulted in serious water quality pollution issues. Hence, assessments of water quality and health are fundamental processes towards conserving and restoring aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we characterized spatial and temporal changes in water quality (specifically physico-chemical variables plus priority and non-priority pollutants of discharges from industrial complexes on a national scale in Korea. The data were provided by the Water Quality Monitoring Program operated by the Ministry of Environment, Korea and were measured from 1989 to 2008 on a monthly basis at 61 effluent monitoring sites located at industrial complexes. Analysis of monthly and annual changes in water quality, using the seasonal Mann-Kendall test, indicated an improvement in water quality, which was inferred from a continuous increase in dissolved oxygen and decrease in other water quality factors. A Self-Organizing Map, which is an unsupervised artificial neural network, also indicated an improvement of effluent water quality, by showing spatial and temporal differences in the effluent water quality as well as in the occurrence of priority pollutants. Finally, our results suggested that continued long-term monitoring is necessary to establish plans and policies for wastewater management and health assessment.

  20. Evaluation of Changes in Effluent Quality from Industrial Complexes on the Korean Nationwide Scale Using a Self-Organizing Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Mi-Jung; Kim, Jun-Su; Park, Young-Seuk

    2012-01-01

    One of the major issues related to the environment in the 21st century is sustainable development. The innovative economic growth policy has supported relatively successful economic development, but poor environmental conservation efforts, have consequently resulted in serious water quality pollution issues. Hence, assessments of water quality and health are fundamental processes towards conserving and restoring aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we characterized spatial and temporal changes in water quality (specifically physico-chemical variables plus priority and non-priority pollutants) of discharges from industrial complexes on a national scale in Korea. The data were provided by the Water Quality Monitoring Program operated by the Ministry of Environment, Korea and were measured from 1989 to 2008 on a monthly basis at 61 effluent monitoring sites located at industrial complexes. Analysis of monthly and annual changes in water quality, using the seasonal Mann-Kendall test, indicated an improvement in water quality, which was inferred from a continuous increase in dissolved oxygen and decrease in other water quality factors. A Self-Organizing Map, which is an unsupervised artificial neural network, also indicated an improvement of effluent water quality, by showing spatial and temporal differences in the effluent water quality as well as in the occurrence of priority pollutants. Finally, our results suggested that continued long-term monitoring is necessary to establish plans and policies for wastewater management and health assessment. PMID:22690190

  1. The sequential application of macroalgal biosorbents for the bioremediation of a complex industrial effluent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel T Kidgell

    Full Text Available Fe-treated biochar and raw biochar produced from macroalgae are effective biosorbents of metalloids and metals, respectively. However, the treatment of complex effluents that contain both metalloid and metal contaminants presents a challenging scenario. We test a multiple-biosorbent approach to bioremediation using Fe-biochar and biochar to remediate both metalloids and metals from the effluent from a coal-fired power station. First, a model was derived from published data for this effluent to predict the biosorption of 21 elements by Fe-biochar and biochar. The modelled outputs were then used to design biosorption experiments using Fe-biochar and biochar, both simultaneously and in sequence, to treat effluent containing multiple contaminants in excess of water quality criteria. The waste water was produced during ash disposal at an Australian coal-fired power station. The application of Fe-biochar and biochar, either simultaneously or sequentially, resulted in a more comprehensive remediation of metalloids and metals compared to either biosorbent used individually. The most effective treatment was the sequential use of Fe-biochar to remove metalloids from the waste water, followed by biochar to remove metals. Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn were reduced to the lowest concentration following the sequential application of the two biosorbents, and their final concentrations were predicted by the model. Overall, 17 of the 21 elements measured were remediated to, or below, the concentrations that were predicted by the model. Both metalloids and metals can be remediated from complex effluent using biosorbents with different characteristics but derived from a single feedstock. Furthermore, the extent of remediation can be predicted for similar effluents using additive models.

  2. The sequential application of macroalgal biosorbents for the bioremediation of a complex industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidgell, Joel T; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A; Roberts, David A

    2014-01-01

    Fe-treated biochar and raw biochar produced from macroalgae are effective biosorbents of metalloids and metals, respectively. However, the treatment of complex effluents that contain both metalloid and metal contaminants presents a challenging scenario. We test a multiple-biosorbent approach to bioremediation using Fe-biochar and biochar to remediate both metalloids and metals from the effluent from a coal-fired power station. First, a model was derived from published data for this effluent to predict the biosorption of 21 elements by Fe-biochar and biochar. The modelled outputs were then used to design biosorption experiments using Fe-biochar and biochar, both simultaneously and in sequence, to treat effluent containing multiple contaminants in excess of water quality criteria. The waste water was produced during ash disposal at an Australian coal-fired power station. The application of Fe-biochar and biochar, either simultaneously or sequentially, resulted in a more comprehensive remediation of metalloids and metals compared to either biosorbent used individually. The most effective treatment was the sequential use of Fe-biochar to remove metalloids from the waste water, followed by biochar to remove metals. Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn were reduced to the lowest concentration following the sequential application of the two biosorbents, and their final concentrations were predicted by the model. Overall, 17 of the 21 elements measured were remediated to, or below, the concentrations that were predicted by the model. Both metalloids and metals can be remediated from complex effluent using biosorbents with different characteristics but derived from a single feedstock. Furthermore, the extent of remediation can be predicted for similar effluents using additive models.

  3. The exposure of the EC (European Community) population from nuclear industry effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomfield, M.

    1983-01-01

    The collective dose commitment to the EC population from routine effluents released from nuclear power stations and reprocessing plants within the Community in 1978 amounted to approximately 500 man Sv. The collective dose commitments associated with discharges from the nuclear power stations was approximately 50 man Sv, being almost entirely due to airborne carbon-14. The total collective dose commitment from the reprocessing plants was approximately 450 man Sv, about two-thirds of which was due to radiocaesium in the liquid effluent from Sellafield. (UK)

  4. The use of PHP in the radioactive effluent treatment in rare earth industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shitang, Q.; Ruensheng, W.

    1985-01-01

    Monazite is one of the most important rare earth resources, processing monazite, however, is accompanied by radioactive effluent that needs treatment. A satisfactory treatment should be able not only to insolubilize the radioactive isotopes but also to clarify the suspension quickly and completely. In this study, out of 15 different coagulants, partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHP) of molecular weight 1000 has been chosen as the most efficient one for the clarification of the treated effluent in question. Satisfactory performance has been attained in a continuous clarifier

  5. Biosorption of Cr (VI) ions from electroplating industrial effluent using immobilized Aspergillus niger biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhikara, S; Dhankhar, R

    2008-09-01

    A fungus, Aspergillus niger was chemically treated with 0.1 M H2SO4 and 0.1 N NaOH to form biosorbent and it was immobilized in calcium alginate beads. The biosorption capacity of immobilized biosorbents for Cr (VI) was found to depend on pH, contact time, biosorbent dose and initial concentration of Cr (VI). The maximum uptake of Cr (VI) was 92.5, 95.9 and 98.4 mg respectively at a pH of 1.5 and with an increase in pH up to 10.5 the metal uptake decreased gradually up to 38.75, 50.19 and 65.28 mg respectively for acid treated, untreated and base treated fungal biosorbents. Increase in biosorbent dose up to 1 g of biomass and contact time up to 60 min resulted in an increase in biosorption from 19.6, 15.6 and 26.1 mg at a biosorbent dose of 0.1 g 100 ml(-1) to 92.45, 95.7 and 98.52 mg at a biosorbent dose of 1.0 g 100 ml(-1) and then further increase in adsorbent dose and contact time did not resulted in more Cr (VI) adsorption by per unit weight of biosorbent. The value of Kad (adsorption rate constant) revealed the pseudo-first order nature of biosorption. The percentage metal uptake by the biosorbent was found to decrease upto 62.33, 52.67 and 83.5 percent respectively for acid treated, untreated and base treated fungal biosorbents at the 300 mgl(-1) Cr (VI) ion concentration. The resulted data was found to fit well in Langmuir model of adsorption isotherm with a high value of correlation coefficient. The value of Qmax, b (Langmuir constants), R(L) (separation factor) and delta G (Gibb's free energy) revealed the favourable nature of adsorption. The biosorbed metal was eluted from the biosorbent by using 0.1 M H2SO4 as elutant. Immobilized biosorbent can be reused for five consecutive biosorption/desorption cycles without apparent loss of efficiency after its reconditioning. The biosorbent was found to perform well in the electroplating industrial effluent.

  6. Novel high-performance metagenome β-galactosidases for lactose hydrolysis in the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erich, Sarah; Kuschel, Beatrice; Schwarz, Thilo; Ewert, Jacob; Böhmer, Nico; Niehaus, Frank; Eck, Jürgen; Lutz-Wahl, Sabine; Stressler, Timo; Fischer, Lutz

    2015-09-20

    The industrially utilised β-galactosidases from Kluyveromyces spp. and Aspergillus spp. feature undesirable kinetic properties in praxis, such as an unsatisfactory lactose affinity (KM) and product inhibition (KI) by galactose. In this study, a metagenome library of about 1.3 million clones was investigated with a three-step activity-based screening strategy in order to find new β-galactosidases with more favourable kinetic properties. Six novel metagenome β-galactosidases (M1-M6) were found with an improved lactose hydrolysis performance in original milk when directly compared to the commercial β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis (GODO-YNL2). The best metagenome candidate, called "M1", was recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) in a bioreactor (volume 35 L), resulting in a total β-galactosidase M1 activity of about 1100 μkatoNPGal,37 °C L(-1). Since milk is a sensitive and complex medium, it has to be processed at 5-10 °C in the dairy industry. Therefore, the β-galactosidase M1 was tested at 8 °C in milk and possessed a good stability (t1/2=21.8 d), a desirably low apparent KM,lactose,8 °C value of 3.8±0.7 mM and a high apparent KI,galactose,8 °C value of 196.6±55.5 mM. A lactose hydrolysis process (milk, 40 nkatlactose mLmilk,8 °C(-1)) was conducted at a scale of 0.5L to compare the performance of M1 with the commercial β-galactosidase from K. lactis (GODO-YNL2). Lactose was completely (>99.99%) hydrolysed by M1 and to 99.6% (w/v) by K. lactis β-galactosidase after 25 h process time. Thus, M1 was able to achieve the limit of lactose per litre milk, which is recommended for dairy products labelled as "lactose-free". Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. New procedure for the examination of the degradation of volatile organonitrogen compounds during the treatment of industrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Makoś, Patrycja; Fernandes, Andre; Przyjazny, Andrzej

    2017-03-01

    We present a new procedure for the determination of 32 volatile organonitrogen compounds in samples of industrial effluents with a complex matrix. The procedure, based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus and mass spectrometric detection, was optimized and validated. Optimization of the extraction included the type of extraction and disperser solvent, disperser solvent volume, pH, salting out effect, extraction, and centrifugation time. The procedure based on nitrogen-phosphorus detection was found to be superior, having lower limits of detection (0.0067-2.29 μg/mL) and quantitation as well as a wider linear range. The developed procedure was applied to the determination of content of volatile organonitrogen compounds in samples of raw effluents from the production of bitumens in which 13 compounds were identified at concentrations ranging from 0.15 to 10.86 μg/mL and in samples of effluents treated by various chemical methods. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Extracellular synthesis and characterization of nickel oxide nanoparticles from Microbacterium sp. MRS-1 towards bioremediation of nickel electroplating industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyavathi, S; Manjula, A; Rajendhran, J; Gunasekaran, P

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, a nickel resistant bacterium MRS-1 was isolated from nickel electroplating industrial effluent, capable of converting soluble NiSO4 into insoluble NiO nanoparticles and identified as Microbacterium sp. The formation of NiO nanoparticles in the form of pale green powder was observed on the bottom of the flask upon prolonged incubation of liquid nutrient medium containing high concentration of 2000ppm NiSO4. The properties of the produced NiO nanoparticles were characterized. NiO nanoparticles exhibited a maximum absorbance at 400nm. The NiO nanoparticles were 100-500nm in size with unique flower like structure. The elemental composition of the NiO nanoparticles was 44:39. The cells of MRS-1 were utilized for the treatment of nickel electroplating industrial effluent and showed nickel removal efficiency of 95%. Application of Microbacterium sp. MRS-1 would be a potential bacterium for bioremediation of nickel electroplating industrial waste water and simultaneous synthesis of NiO nanoparticles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Modelling of Far-Field Mixing of Industrial Effluent Plume in Ambient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to describe the dynamics of advective and dispersive transport of the effluent plume in the river and also ascertain the extent of its effect from discharge location to downstream far-field region. A homogenous differential equation was used as analytics to describe the physical process that describes the ...

  10. Design improvement and performance evaluation of solar photocatalytic reactor for industrial effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ranjith G; Bharadwaj, P J; Samdarshi, S K

    2016-12-01

    This work reports the details of the design components and materials used in a linear compound parabolic trough reactor constructed with an aim to use the photocatalyst for solar photocatalytic applications. A compound parabolic trough reactor has been designed and engineered to exploit both UV and visible part of the solar irradiation. The developed compound parabolic trough reactor could receive almost 88% of UV radiation along with a major part of visible radiation. The performance of the reactor has been evaluated in terms of degradation of a probe pollutant using the parameters such as rate constant, residence time and photonic efficiency. An attempt has been made to assess the performance in different ranges of solar spectrum. Finally the developed reactor has been employed for the photocatalytic treatment of a paper mill effluent using Degussa P25 as the photocatalyst. The paper mill effluent collected from Nagaon paper mill, Assam, India has been treated under both batch mode and continuous mode using Degussa P25 photocatalyst under artificial and natural solar radiation, respectively. The photocatalytic degradation kinetics of the paper mill effluent has been determined using the reduction in total organic carbon (TOC) values of the effluent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. UNC Nuclear Industries reactor and fuels production facilities 1985 effluent release report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokkan, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Analyses of routine samples from radioactive liquid and airborne streams were performed using UNC's Radioanalytical Laboratory and the analytical services of US Testing Company. All significant effluent discharges from UNC facilities to the environment during CY 1985 are reported in this document

  12. The Interrelationships between Lactose Intolerance and the Modern Dairy Industry: Global Perspectives in Evolutional and Historical Backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissim Silanikove

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans learned to exploit ruminants as a source of milk about 10,000 years ago. Since then, the use of domesticated ruminants as a source of milk and dairy products has expanded until today when the dairy industry has become one of the largest sectors in the modern food industry, including the spread at the present time to countries such as China and Japan. This review analyzes the reasons for this expansion and flourishing. As reviewed in detail, milk has numerous nutritional advantages, most important being almost an irreplaceable source of dietary calcium, hence justifying the effort required to increase its consumption. On the other hand, widespread lactose intolerance among the adult population is a considerable drawback to dairy-based foods consumption. Over the centuries, three factors allowed humans to overcome limitations imposed by lactose intolerance: (i mutations, which occurred in particular populations, most notably in the north European Celtic societies and African nomads, in which carriers of the lactose intolerance gene converted from being lactose intolerant to lactose tolerant; (ii the ability to develop low-lactose products such as cheese and yogurt; and (iii colon microbiome adaptation, which allow lactose intolerant individuals to overcome its intolerance. However, in a few examples in the last decade, modern dairy products, such as the popular and widespread bio-cultured yogurts, were suspected to be unsuitable for lactose intolerant peoples. In addition, the use of lactose and milk-derived products containing lactose in non-dairy products has become widespread. For these reasons, it is concluded that it might be important and helpful to label food that may contain lactose because such information will allow lactose intolerant groups to control lactose intake within the physiological limitations of ~12 g per a single meal.

  13. The Interrelationships between Lactose Intolerance and the Modern Dairy Industry: Global Perspectives in Evolutional and Historical Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silanikove, Nissim; Leitner, Gabriel; Merin, Uzi

    2015-08-31

    Humans learned to exploit ruminants as a source of milk about 10,000 years ago. Since then, the use of domesticated ruminants as a source of milk and dairy products has expanded until today when the dairy industry has become one of the largest sectors in the modern food industry, including the spread at the present time to countries such as China and Japan. This review analyzes the reasons for this expansion and flourishing. As reviewed in detail, milk has numerous nutritional advantages, most important being almost an irreplaceable source of dietary calcium, hence justifying the effort required to increase its consumption. On the other hand, widespread lactose intolerance among the adult population is a considerable drawback to dairy-based foods consumption. Over the centuries, three factors allowed humans to overcome limitations imposed by lactose intolerance: (i) mutations, which occurred in particular populations, most notably in the north European Celtic societies and African nomads, in which carriers of the lactose intolerance gene converted from being lactose intolerant to lactose tolerant; (ii) the ability to develop low-lactose products such as cheese and yogurt; and (iii) colon microbiome adaptation, which allow lactose intolerant individuals to overcome its intolerance. However, in a few examples in the last decade, modern dairy products, such as the popular and widespread bio-cultured yogurts, were suspected to be unsuitable for lactose intolerant peoples. In addition, the use of lactose and milk-derived products containing lactose in non-dairy products has become widespread. For these reasons, it is concluded that it might be important and helpful to label food that may contain lactose because such information will allow lactose intolerant groups to control lactose intake within the physiological limitations of ~12 g per a single meal.

  14. Evolution and challenges of dairy supply chains: Evidence from supermarkets, industries and consumers in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francesconi, G.N.; Heerink, N.; Haese, D' M.F.C.

    2010-01-01

    In developing countries the demand for products of animal origin is expected to grow rapidly in the coming years. Using data collected from 200 urban households this study examines the evolution of the dairy market in Ethiopia. In particular, this study suggests that although the Ethiopian dairy

  15. Cleaning efficiency enhancement by ultrasounds for membranes used in dairy industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján-Facundo, M J; Mendoza-Roca, J A; Cuartas-Uribe, B; Álvarez-Blanco, S

    2016-11-01

    Membrane cleaning is a key point for the implementation of membrane technologies in the dairy industry for proteins concentration. In this study, four ultrafiltration (UF) membranes with different molecular weight cut-offs (MWCOs) (5, 15, 30 and 50kDa) and materials (polyethersulfone and ceramics) were fouled with three different whey model solutions: bovine serum albumin (BSA), BSA plus CaCl2 and whey protein concentrate solution (Renylat 45). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of ultrasounds (US) on the membrane cleaning efficiency. The influence of ultrasonic frequency and the US application modes (submerging the membrane module inside the US bath or applying US to the cleaning solution) were also evaluated. The experiments were performed in a laboratory plant which included the US equipment and the possibility of using two membrane modules (flat sheet and tubular). The fouling solution that caused the highest fouling degree for all the membranes was Renylat 45. Results demonstrated that membrane cleaning with US was effective and this effectiveness increased at lower frequencies. Although no significant differences were observed between the two different US applications modes tested, slightly higher cleaning efficiencies values placing the membrane module at the bottom of the tank were achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Membrane separation in dairy industry; Separazioni su membrana nell'industria lattiero-casearia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvadori, C. [Parmalat SpA, Direzione Scientifica, Parma (Italy)

    2001-04-01

    Many different techniques of membrane separation are widely used in the dairy industry. They allow substantial cost savings and the achievement of significant quality improvements. They allow substantial cost savings and the achievement of significant quality improvements. Also 'Parmalat' has introduced in its productions of yoghurt, UHT and pasteurized milk some of these techniques, obtaining new-concept products such as Plus milk, very rich in calcium, and a very high quality pasteurized milk, in the Canadian market, under the brand name Lactantia Pure Filtre, characterized by a double life compared to traditional products. As for yoghurt, in some plants, milk pre-concentration through ultra-filtration permits a considerable increase in the product's creaminess. [Italian] Le diverse tecniche di separazione su membrana consentono di operare forti risparmi e sensibili miglioramenti qualitativi. Anche la Parmalat ha inserito nelle produzioni di yogurt, latte UHT e latte pastorizzato, alcune di queste tecniche, ottenendo prodotti di nuova concezione come il latte Plus, particolarmente ricco in Calcio e, sul mercato Canadese, un latte pastorizzato di alta qualita' dal marchio Lactantia Pure Filtre caratterizzato da conservabilita' doppia rispetto al prodotto tradizionale. Nel caso dello yogurt, in alcuni stabilimenti, la preconcezione del latte per ultrafiltrazione aumenta considerevolmente la cremosita' del prodotto.

  17. Advantages and disadvantages of high power ultrasound application in the dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mislav Muža

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of food with thermal sterilisation is usually the most common way nowadays. Besides the positive aim of preservation regarding microorganisms’ reduction, elevated temperature in processing simultaneously causes serious changes in nutritive and organoleptical properties of food. Loss of food quality is related to structure and texture deformations, modification of macromolecules and creation of new compounds coming from reactions that are catalised with temperature. One of the new non-thermal processes that can in large scale improve different processes in food industry is ultrasound. In the last five years, new applications of high power ultrasound (HPU include inactivation of enzymes and microorganisms, assistance in membrane processes, improvement of dairy product texture, improvement of functional properties of proteins etc. High power ultrasound application is used in emulsification and milk homogenization, but in these processes the most important thing is to monitor possible negative effect like oxidation of fats, inactivation of valuable enzymes and denaturation of proteins. Controled and optimized application of ultrasound demands application of specific ultrasound frequency and optimal treatment time. Treatments should be performed at lower temperatures to avoid negative side effects on treated materials.

  18. Genotoxic evaluation of an industrial effluent from an oil refinery using plant and animal bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Postalli Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are genotoxic chemicals commonly found in effluents from oil refineries. Bioassays using plants and cells cultures can be employed for assessing environmental safety and potential genotoxicity. In this study, the genotoxic potential of an oil refinery effluent was analyzed by means of micronucleus (MN testing of Alium cepa, which revealed no effect after 24 h of treatment. On the other hand, primary lesions in the DNA of rat (Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC were observed through comet assaying after only 2 h of exposure. On considering the capacity to detect DNA damage of a different nature and of these cells to metabolize xenobiotics, we suggest the association of the two bioassays with these cell types, plant (Allium cepa and mammal (HTC cells, for more accurately assessing genotoxicity in environmental samples.

  19. Genotoxic evaluation of an industrial effluent from an oil refinery using plant and animal bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fernando Postalli; Angeli, José Pedro Friedmann; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio; Guedes, Carmen Luisa Barbosa; Jordão, Berenice Quinzani

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are genotoxic chemicals commonly found in effluents from oil refineries. Bioassays using plants and cells cultures can be employed for assessing environmental safety and potential genotoxicity. In this study, the genotoxic potential of an oil refinery effluent was analyzed by means of micronucleus (MN) testing of Alium cepa, which revealed no effect after 24 h of treatment. On the other hand, primary lesions in the DNA of rat (Rattus norvegicus) hepatoma cells (HTC) were observed through comet assaying after only 2 h of exposure. On considering the capacity to detect DNA damage of a different nature and of these cells to metabolize xenobiotics, we suggest the association of the two bioassays with these cell types, plant (Allium cepa) and mammal (HTC) cells, for more accurately assessing genotoxicity in environmental samples.

  20. Effect of long-term industrial waste effluent pollution on soil enzyme activities and bacterial community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, Gangavarapu; Shen, Ju-Pei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Archana, Gattupalli; Zhang, Li-Mei

    2016-02-01

    Although numerous studies have addressed the influence of exogenous pollutants on microorganisms, the effect of long-term industrial waste effluent (IWE) pollution on the activity and diversity of soil bacteria was still unclear. Three soil samples characterized as uncontaminated (R1), moderately contaminated (R2), and highly contaminated (R3) receiving mixed organic and heavy metal pollutants for more than 20 years through IWE were collected along the Mahi River basin, Gujarat, western India. Basal soil respiration and in situ enzyme activities indicated an apparent deleterious effect of IWE on microbial activity and soil function. Community composition profiling of soil bacteria using 16S rRNA gene amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method indicated an apparent bacterial community shift in the IWE-affected soils. Cloning and sequencing of DGGE bands revealed that the dominated bacterial phyla in polluted soil were affiliated with Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria, indicating that these bacterial phyla may have a high tolerance to pollutants. We suggested that specific bacterial phyla along with soil enzyme activities could be used as relevant biological indicators for long-term pollution assessment on soil quality. Graphical Abstract Bacterial community profiling and soil enzyme activities in long-term industrial waste effluent polluted soils.

  1. Enhanced removal of arsenic from a highly laden industrial effluent using a combined coprecipitation/nano-adsorption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yingnan; Hua, Ming; Wu, Bian; Ma, Hongrui; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Quanxing

    2014-05-01

    Effective arsenic removal from highly laden industrial wastewater is an important but challenging task. Here, a combined coprecipitation/nano-adsorption process, with ferric chloride and calcium chloride as coprecipitation agents and polymer-based nanocomposite as selective adsorbent, has been validated for arsenic removal from tungsten-smelting wastewater. On the basis of operating optimization, a binary FeCl3 (520 mg/L)-CaCl2 (300 mg/L) coprecipitation agent could remove more than 93% arsenic from the wastewater. The resulting precipitate has proved environmental safety based on leaching toxicity test. Fixed-bed column packed with zirconium or ferric-oxide-loaded nanocomposite was employed for further elimination of arsenic in coprecipitated effluent, resulting in a significant decrease of arsenic (from 0.96 to less than 0.5 mg/L). The working capacity of zirconium-loaded nanocomposite was 220 bed volumes per run, much higher than that of ferric-loaded nanocomposite (40 bed volumes per run). The exhausted zirconium-loaded nanocomposite could be efficiently in situ regenerated with a binary NaOH-NaCl solution for reuse without any significant capacity loss. The results validated the combinational coprecipitation/nano-adsorption process to be a potential alternative for effective arsenic removal from highly laden industrial effluent.

  2. Metal concentration of liquid effluents and surroundings of a pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Adeyeye

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Major and trace metals (Mg, Na, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Sn, Al, Pb, As, Cr, Cd, Mn and Ti in liquid effluents, soil sediments and plant parts (roots and leaves from Tisco Nigeria Limited, Akure, were determined in both open effluent channel and closed direct tank. The plant in the open effluent channel was Pennisetum purpureum while the one around the direct tank was Chloris pilosa. The correlation coefficient (Cc of the metals in the open channel gave the values: soil sediments/water (0.61, roots/leaves (0.709; and (0.34, (0.91, respectively, in direct tank. F-test values showed that 67 % of the metals were significantly different (p < 0.05 among the samples. The soil sediments would serve as reservoir for all the metals determined. This was also the case for both plant roots with species variation. The plant leaves showed evidence of bioaccumulation of some metals. The high levels of Pb, As and Cd in the samples call for concern as environmental contaminants.

  3. Characterization of micro-organisms isolated from dairy industry after cleaning and fogging disinfection with alkyl amine and peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bore, E; Langsrud, S

    2005-01-01

    To characterize micro-organisms isolated from Norwegian dairy production plants after cleaning and fogging disinfection with alkyl amine/peracetic acid and to indicate reasons for survival. Microbial samples were collected from five dairy plants after cleaning and fogging disinfection. Isolates from two of these production plants, which used fogging with alkylamino acetate (plant A), and peracetic acid (plant B), were chosen for further characterization. The sequence of the 16S ribosomal DNA, fatty acid analysis and biochemical characteristics were used to identify isolates. Three isolates identified as Rhodococcus erythropolis, Methylobacterium rhodesianum and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were isolated from plant A and one Sphingomonas sp. and two M. extorquens from plant B. Different patterns of resistance to seven disinfectants in a bactericidal suspension test and variable degree of attachment to stainless steel were found. The strains with higher disinfectant resistance showed lower degree of attachment than susceptible strains. The study identifies and characterizes micro-organisms present after cleaning and fogging disinfection. Both surface attachment and resistance were shown as possible reasons for the presence of the isolates after cleaning and disinfection. These results contribute to the awareness of disinfectant resistance as well as attachment as mechanisms of survival in dairy industry. It also strengthens the argument of frequent alternation of disinfectants in the food processing industry to avoid the establishment of resistant house strains.

  4. Effective decolorization and adsorption of contaminant from industrial dye effluents using spherical surfaced magnetic (Fe_3O_4) nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suriyaprabha, R.; Khan, Samreen Heena; Pathak, Bhawana; Fulekar, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of highly concentrated Industrial dye stuff effluents released in the environment is the major issue faced in the era of waste management as well as in water pollution. Though there is availability of conventional techniques in large numbers, there is a need of efficient and effective advance technologies. In account of that, Nanotechnology plays a prominent role to treat the heavy metals, organic and inorganic contaminants using smart materials in nano regime (1 -100 nm). Among these nanomaterials like Iron Oxide (Fe_3O_4, magnetic nanoparticle) is one of the most promising candidates to remove the heavy metals from the industrial effluent. Fe_3O_4 is the widely used smart material with magnetic property having high surface area; high surface to volume ratio provides more surface for the chemical reaction for the surface adsorption. Fe_3O_4 nanoparticles have been synthesized using sonochemical method using ultra frequency in aqueous solution under optimized conditions. The as-synthesized nanoparticle was analyzed using different characterization tool. The Transmission Electron microscope (TEM) images revealed 10-12 nm spherical shape nanoparticles; crystal phase and surface morphology was confirmed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), respectively. The functional group were identified by Fourier Transform-Infra Red Spectroscopy (FT-IR), revealed the bending and stretching vibrations associated with Iron Oxide nanoparticle. In present study, for the efficient removal of contaminants, different concentration (10-50 ppm) of dye stuff effluent has been prepared and subjected to adsorption and decolourization at definite time intervals with Fe_3O_4 nanoparticles. The concentration of Iron oxide and the time (45 mins) was kept fixed for the reaction whereas the concentration of dye stuff effluent was kept varying. It was found that the spherical shaped Fe_3O_4 proved to be the potential material for the adsorption of

  5. Ruthenium recovery from acetic acid industrial effluent using chemically stable and high-performance polyethylenimine-coated polysulfone-Escherichia coli biomass composite fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sok; Choi, Yoon-E; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The PEI-PSBF was fabricated and used for Ru recovery from industrial effluent. • PEI-PSBF was not swollen nor dissolved in the effluent. • PEI-PSBF showed superior sorption capacity to commercial resins. • Thin fiber type PEI-PSBF could be successfully applied in flow-through column. - Abstract: Recovery of precious metal ions from waste effluents is of high concern. In general, ruthenium (Ru) is used in the Cativa process as promoter for carbonylation catalyst and discharged into acetic acid effluent. In the present work, we have designed and developed polyethylenimine-coated polysulfone-bacterial biomass composite fiber (PEI-PSBF) to recover Ru from industrial effluent. The sorbent was manufactured by electrostatic attachment of polyethylenimine (PEI) to the surface of polysulfone-biomass composite fiber (PSBF), which was prepared through spinning of the mixture of polysulfone and Escherichia coli biomass in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) into water. Developed PEI-PSBF was highly stable in the acetic acid effluent. The maximum sorption capacity of the developed sorbent PEI-PSBF, coated with PEI (with M.W. of 75,000), was 121.28 ± 13.15 mg/g, which was much higher than those of ion exchange resins, TP214, Amberjet 4200, and M500. The PEI-PSBF could be successfully applied in the flow-through column system, showing 120 beds of breakthrough volume.

  6. Ruthenium recovery from acetic acid industrial effluent using chemically stable and high-performance polyethylenimine-coated polysulfone-Escherichia coli biomass composite fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sok [Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yoon-E, E-mail: yechoi@korea.ac.kr [Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Yeoung-Sang, E-mail: ysyun@jbnu.ac.kr [Division of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • The PEI-PSBF was fabricated and used for Ru recovery from industrial effluent. • PEI-PSBF was not swollen nor dissolved in the effluent. • PEI-PSBF showed superior sorption capacity to commercial resins. • Thin fiber type PEI-PSBF could be successfully applied in flow-through column. - Abstract: Recovery of precious metal ions from waste effluents is of high concern. In general, ruthenium (Ru) is used in the Cativa process as promoter for carbonylation catalyst and discharged into acetic acid effluent. In the present work, we have designed and developed polyethylenimine-coated polysulfone-bacterial biomass composite fiber (PEI-PSBF) to recover Ru from industrial effluent. The sorbent was manufactured by electrostatic attachment of polyethylenimine (PEI) to the surface of polysulfone-biomass composite fiber (PSBF), which was prepared through spinning of the mixture of polysulfone and Escherichia coli biomass in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) into water. Developed PEI-PSBF was highly stable in the acetic acid effluent. The maximum sorption capacity of the developed sorbent PEI-PSBF, coated with PEI (with M.W. of 75,000), was 121.28 ± 13.15 mg/g, which was much higher than those of ion exchange resins, TP214, Amberjet 4200, and M500. The PEI-PSBF could be successfully applied in the flow-through column system, showing 120 beds of breakthrough volume.

  7. Management of effluents and waste from pharmaceutical industry in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Deschamps

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the management of solid waste and wastewater is a major concern for humanity. In the last decade, traces of pharmaceuticals have been reported in the water cycle and have raised concerns among regulators, water suppliers and the public regarding the potential risks to human health. This study evaluated solid waste management in the state of Minas Gerais and concluded that the main fate of hazardous waste has been incineration, while the non-hazardous waste has been recycled or sent to landfills. However, complaints to the Environmental Agency - FEAM have indicated that a significant number of companies just send their hazardous wastes to landfills or even to garbage dumps, thus highlighting the urgent need for adequate waste management in Minas Gerais. Most of the pharmaceutical companies in Minas Gerais use conventional wastewater treatment. Mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI-MS showed that the treatment routes adopted by the two 2 selected pharmaceutical industries were not effective enough since residues and degradation products of antibiotics were detected. The physicochemical analysis of the effluents showed variability in their characteristics, which may influence their treatability. The degradation assay with Fenton's reagent stood out as a promising route in achieving a higher removal capacity compared to the conventional treatment. This study contributes to enhancing our knowledge of the management of wastewater as well as of solid waste from the pharmaceutical industry in Minas Gerais and points out the need for further research.Atualmente, a gestão de resíduos sólidos e águas residuais é uma grande preocupação para a humanidade. Na ultima década, a detecção de traços de medicamentos no ciclo da água tem sido reportada e tem gerado preocupação entre os agentes reguladores, fornecedores de água e público devido os riscos potenciais para a saúde humana. As empresas farmacêuticas, em Minas Gerais

  8. Generation of continuous packed bed reactor with PVA-alginate blend immobilized Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1 cells for effective removal of N,N-dimethylformamide from industrial effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjeev Kumar, S.; Kumar, M. Santosh [Department of Biochemistry, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India); Siddavattam, D. [Department of Animal Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Karegoudar, T.B., E-mail: goudartbk@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Removal of DMF was compared by free and immobilized cells of Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1 cells entrapped in PVA-alginate have shown more tolerance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PVA-alginate beads removed DMF even in the presence of other organic solvents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Removal of DMF from industrial effluents by PVA-alginate blended batch operations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development of industrially feasible remediation strategy for DMF removal. - Abstract: Effective removal of dimethylformamide (DMF), the organic solvent found in industrial effluents of textile and pharma industries, was demonstrated by using free and immobilized cells of Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1, a soil isolate capable of utilizing DMF as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen. The free cells have efficiently removed DMF from culture media and effluents, only when DMF concentration was less than 1% (v/v). Entrapment of cells either in alginate or in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) failed to increase tolerance limits. However, the cells of Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1 entrapped in PVA-alginate mixed matrix tolerated higher concentration of DMF (2.5%, v/v) and effectively removed DMF from industrial effluents. As determined through batch fermentation, these immobilized cells have retained viability and degradability for more than 20 cycles. A continuous packed bed reactor, generated by using PVA-alginate beads, efficiently removed DMF from industrial effluents, even in the presence of certain organic solvents frequently found in effluents along with DMF.

  9. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Dairy Processing Industry: An ENERGY STAR? Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brush, Adrian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Masanet, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Worrell, Ernst [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. dairy processing industry—defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the conversion of raw milk to consumable dairy products—consumes around $1.5 billion worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. dairy processing industry to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. dairy processing industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures applicable to dairy processing plants are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in dairy processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. Given the importance of water in dairy processing, a summary of basic, proven measures for improving water efficiency are also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. dairy processing industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures—as well as on their applicability to different production practices—is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  10. Techno-economic feasibility and life cycle assessment of dairy effluent to renewable diesel via hydrothermal liquefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Hailey M; Ledbetter, Rhesa N; McCurdy, Alex T; Morgan, Michael R; Seefeldt, Lance C; Jena, Umakanta; Hoekman, S Kent; Quinn, Jason C

    2015-11-01

    The economic feasibility and environmental impact is investigated for the conversion of agricultural waste, delactosed whey permeate, through yeast fermentation to a renewable diesel via hydrothermal liquefaction. Process feasibility was demonstrated at laboratory-scale with data leveraged to validate systems models used to perform industrial-scale economic and environmental impact analyses. Results show a minimum fuel selling price of $4.78 per gallon of renewable diesel, a net energy ratio of 0.81, and greenhouse gas emissions of 30.0g-CO2-eqMJ(-1). High production costs and greenhouse gas emissions can be attributed to operational temperatures and durations of both fermentation and hydrothermal liquefaction. However, high lipid yields of the yeast counter these operational demands, resulting in a favorable net energy ratio. Results are presented on the optimization of the process based on economy of scale and a sensitivity analysis highlights improvements in conversion efficiency, yeast biomass productivity and hydrotreating efficiency can dramatically improve commercial feasibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bacterial bioluminescence response to long-term exposure to reverse osmosis treated effluents from dye industries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, J.; Manikandan, B.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Francis, K.X.; ManiMurali, R.; Vethamony, P.

    essential and important in view of environmental pollution. Analysis of these effluents using physical and chemical methods is insufficient due to their complex nature and they may not reflect the biological effects (Coombe et al. 1999). In-vivo tests....K., and Duffy, L.K. 2007. Effects of total dissolved solids on aquatic organism: A review of literature and recommendation for salmonid species. Am. J Environ. Sci. 3: 1-6. 3. Coombe, V.T., Moore, K.W., and Hutchings, M.J. 1999. TIE and TRE: An abbreviated...

  12. A Study on Membrane Bioreactor for Water Reuse from the Effluent of Industrial Town Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Hosseinzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the toxic effects of heavy metals and microbial pathogens in industrial wastewaters, it is necessary to treat metal and microbial contaminated wastewater prior to disposal in the environment. The purpose of this study is to assess the removal of heavy metals pollution and microbial contamination from a mixture of municipal and industrial wastewater using membrane bioreactor. Methods: A pilot study with a continuous stream was conducted using a 32-L-activated sludge with a flat sheet membrane. Actual wastewater from industrial wastewater treatment plant was used in this study. Membrane bioreactor was operated with a constant flow rate of 4 L/hr and chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids concentration, six heavy metals concentration, and total coliform amounts were recorded during the operation. Results: High COD, suspended solids, heavy metals, and microbial contamination removal was measured during the experiment. The average removal percentages obtained by the MBR system were 81% for Al, 53% for Fe, 94% for Pb, 91% for Cu, 59% for Ni, and 49% for Cr which indicated the presence of Cu, Ni, and Cr in both soluble and particle forms in mixed liquor while Al, Fe, and Pb were mainly in particulate form. Also, coliforms in the majority of the samples were <140 MPN/100mL that showed that more than 99.9% of total coliform was removed in MBR effluent. Conclusion: The Membrane Biological Reactor (MBR showed a good performance to remove heavy metals and microbial matters as well as COD and suspended solids. The effluent quality was suitable for reusing purposes.

  13. The trade network in the dairy industry and its implication for the spread of contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinior, B; Konschake, M; Platz, U; Thiele, H D; Petersen, B; Conraths, F J; Selhorst, T

    2012-11-01

    In case of an outbreak of a foodborne disease, administrative decisions in the context of crisis management are only efficient if they follow standard practices and are specifically adapted to the outbreak situation in a timely manner. These goals are hard to achieve. The complexity of national and global trade structures obscures a clear view of trade flows and, consequently, it is often impossible to unravel complex trade links quickly. Furthermore, increasing public concerns about possible health hazards caused by global trade put additional pressure on decision makers. The aim of this paper was to unveil the specific trade structures of the German milk supply chain, to highlight how these structures could affect the spatial spread of a hypothetical contaminant, and to quantify the risk of the contaminant reaching the consumer. To achieve this goal, the vertical and horizontal trade links between milk producers, dairies, and consumers were taken into account. The horizontal flow of milk between dairies (inter-dairy trade), which is intended to compensate a temporary over- or undersupply of milk, is of special importance in this respect. We hypothesized that the extent of inter-dairy trade would significantly influence the spatial spread of contaminated milk and the contamination risk. This hypothesis was tested using a computer simulation model that predicts the hypothetical spread of a contaminant via trade of milk. The model parameters were estimated using trade data collected in 2004 and 2010. The results of our study indicate that inter-dairy trade significantly influenced the contamination risk. Compared with a scenario with no inter-dairy trade, the risk that contaminated milk will reach the consumer was up to 4 times higher, even with moderate inter-dairy trade. The contamination risk depended on the extent of inter-dairy trade in a nonlinear way and reached its maximum asymptotically when inter-dairy trade increased. The contamination risk exhibited

  14. Phytoremediation efficiency of Portulaca tuberosa rox and Portulaca oleracea L. naturally growing in an industrial effluent irrigated area in Vadodra, Gujrat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, K K; Dwivedi, S; Mishra, S; Srivastava, S; Tripathi, R D; Singh, N K; Chakraborty, S

    2008-12-01

    Phytoremediation is a novel, solar-driven and cost-effective technology for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated environments through exploitation of plants ability to accumulate heavy metals in their harvestable shoot parts. In the present investigation, we collected plants of two species of Portulaca i.e. P. tuberosa and P. oleracea from field sites in Vadodra, Gujrat, India. At one site, field was being irrigated with industrial effluent while at other with tube well water. Analysis of heavy metals was performed in industrial effluent, tube well water, soils irrigated with them, and in different parts viz., roots, stem, leaves and flowers of the plant samples. Industrial effluent and soil irrigated with it had very high level of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cd, Cr and As) as compared to the tube well water and soil irrigated with that. Plants of both the species growing in effluent irrigated soils showed high accumulation of metals in all plant parts with the maximum being in roots and the least in flowers. Interestingly, both species of Portulaca hyperaccumulated more than one heavy metal viz., Cd, Cr and As. The total shoot concentrations (microg g(-1) dw) of Cd, Cr and As in P. tuberosa were 1,571, 7,957 and 3,118, respectively while in P. oleracea, these were 1,128, 7,552 and 2,476, respectively. Portulaca plants have good biomass and high regeneration potential; hence appear to be suitable for the remediation of effluent (metal) contaminated areas.

  15. Silica removal in industrial effluents with high silica content and low hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, Isabel; Miranda, Ruben; Blanco, Angeles

    2014-01-01

    High silica content of de-inked paper mill effluents is limiting their regeneration and reuse after membrane treatments such as reverse osmosis (RO). Silica removal during softening processes is a common treatment; however, the effluent from the paper mill studied has a low hardness content, which makes the addition of magnesium compounds necessary to increase silica removal. Two soluble magnesium compounds (MgCl₂∙6H₂O and MgSO₄∙7H₂O) were tested at five dosages (250-1,500 mg/L) and different initial pH values. High removal rates (80-90%) were obtained with both products at the highest pH tested (11.5). With these removal efficiencies, it is possible to work at high RO recoveries (75-85%) without silica scaling. Although pH regulation significantly increased the conductivity of the waters (at pH 11.5 from 2.1 to 3.7-4.0 mS/cm), this could be partially solved by using Ca(OH)₂ instead of NaOH as pH regulator (final conductivity around 3.0 mS/cm). Maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal obtained with caustic soda was lower than with lime (15 vs. 30%). Additionally, the combined use of a polyaluminum coagulant during the softening process was studied; the coagulant, however, did not significantly improve silica removal, obtaining a maximum increase of only 10%.

  16. The strategic management of sudden changes in the competitive environment: The case of the French dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulette Robic

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The thesis defended is that sudden changes in the competitive environment constitutes more an opportunity than a constraint for pro-active companies. A neo-institutional framework is chosen to analyse the strategic management of such sudden changes. We focus on the sudden change in regulation the dairy industry experienced in 1984 (i.e. the restriction of raw materials by the fixing of milk quotas in 1984. The longitudinal study of a family dairy business – the Laconie society- complemented by a sectorial analysis has allowed us to analyse the effects of milk quotas on the strategy of these businesses. A phenomenon of coercive isomorphism is noted, as all the dairy firms launched into diversification. Simultaneously, we notice an obvious interaction between quotas (coercive institution- and abilities and organizational identity (cognitive institution. Confronted to sudden changes in the competitive environment the firms have, of course, been forced to evolve. However, the firms which had based their preceding development on their ability to anticipate, innovate, and change their organizational identity have been able, in a later stage, to transform these constraints into opportunities. The interaction between the environment and the strategic policy of the firms is obvious. It originates, in particular, from the permanent involvement of the firm in the social and economic sphere, as well as its organizational identity and the manager’s family. The concepts of involvement, isomorphism and interaction between the environment and strategic policy are called upon to conduct this research.

  17. HPLC determination of chloride, bromide and iodide ions in drinking water and industrial effluents using trifluoromethylmercuric nitrate as derivatizing reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arain, M.A.; Bhanger, M.I.; Khuhawar, M.Y.

    1997-01-01

    A simple procedure for the simultaneous determination of various halides in drinking water and industrial effluents of Hyderabad and Iodized salt is reported. The method utilizes derivatization of halides through trifluoromethylmercuric nitrate in aqueous solution, extraction in petroleum ether followed by reverse phase HPLC separation using c-18 Lichrosorb column, 150 x 4 mm i.d., mobile phase methanol : water (20: 80) and UV detection at 225 nm. Linear calibration ranges for chloride, bromide and iodide (0-10 ug/mL) with correlation coefficient 0.996, 0.998 and 0.989 have been determined with lowest possible detection limit as 1.0, 0.25 and 1.5 Mu g/ml, respectively. The effect of various interfering ions is also discussed. (author)

  18. Regulatory impact analysis of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the offshore oil and gas industry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    For all major rulemaking actions, Executive Order 12291 requires a Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA), in which benefits of the regulation are compared to costs imposed by the regulation. The report presents the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA, or the Agency) RIA of the final rule on the effluent limitations guidelines for the Offshore Subcategory of the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry. The principal requirement of the Executive Order is that the Agency perform an analysis comparing the benefits of the regulation to the costs that the regulation imposes. Three types of benefits are analyzed in this RIA: quantified and monetized benefits; quantified and non-monetized benefits; and non-quantified and non-monetized benefits

  19. Reducing the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for its application to an industrial wastewater treatment plant treating winery effluent wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Diéguez, Carlos; Bernard, Olivier; Roca, Enrique

    2013-03-01

    The Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) is a complex model which is widely accepted as a common platform for anaerobic process modeling and simulation. However, it has a large number of parameters and states that hinder its calibration and use in control applications. A principal component analysis (PCA) technique was extended and applied to simplify the ADM1 using data of an industrial wastewater treatment plant processing winery effluent. The method shows that the main model features could be obtained with a minimum of two reactions. A reduced stoichiometric matrix was identified and the kinetic parameters were estimated on the basis of representative known biochemical kinetics (Monod and Haldane). The obtained reduced model takes into account the measured states in the anaerobic wastewater treatment (AWT) plant and reproduces the dynamics of the process fairly accurately. The reduced model can support on-line control, optimization and supervision strategies for AWT plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiation induced environmental remediation of Cr(VI) heavy metal in aerated neutral solution under simulated industrial effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djouider, Fathi; Aljohani, Mohammed S. [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    2017-08-01

    Cr(VI) compounds are major water contaminants in most industrial effluents, due to their carcinogenicity, while Cr(III) is an important element for human metabolism. In a previous work, we showed that Cr(VI) was radiolytically reduced to Cr(III) by the CO{sub 2}{sup -.} radical at pH 3 N{sub 2}O-saturated solution in the presence of formate. Here in the present work, this removal was investigated by steady state irradiation and pulse radiolysis in aerated solution at neutral pH, which is close to natural conditions in most wastewaters, where the reducing agent is the superoxide radical anion O{sub 2}{sup -.} The degradation of Cr(VI) increased linearly with the absorbed dose and was significantly enhanced by the added formate but not by the radiolitically produced hydrogen peroxide at this pH. The rate constant for this reduction was found to be 1.28 x 10{sup 8} M{sup -1} s{sup -1} and the absorption spectrum of Cr(V) transient species was obtained. A partial recovery of Cr(VI) is observed over a period of ca. 5 ms following a second order kinetics with a rate constant 8.0 x 10{sup 6} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. These outcomes suggest that gamma-irradiation of Cr(VI)-contaminated wastewaters and industrial effluents in presence of formate can be simple, effective and economical means for the remediation of this major contaminant.

  1. The Implementation of Effluent Taxes for Cambodian Industry: An Assessment of Pollutant Levies

    OpenAIRE

    Sideth Muong

    2006-01-01

    This study looks at how the Cambodian government might introduce a pollution levy system to address the country's industrial pollution problem. Using information drawn from a variety of sources, including a recent industrial survey, it estimates the levels of pollution charges that would reduce pollution by 25%-85%. It also calculates the overall revenue that such levies would produce and estimates the costs that industry would have to bear in terms of abatement costs and pollution charges. B...

  2. Utilisation of respirometry to assess organic matter reduction of effluents from the Camaçari industrial complex (BA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla A. Oliveira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The treatment efficiency of industrial effluents, after biological treatment by activated sludge in aeration tanks (AT, was assessed through the utilisation of respirometry tests at the Cetrel's-wastewater treatment plant (WTP. Samples of the equalised effluent (EE, prior to treatment, and of the treated effluent (TE, after treatment, were analysed. Twenty bioassays batch were carried out to AT (AT-2, AT-3 and AT-4. Each test consisted of: a basic test, a basic test with peptone added, a test using EE and a test using TE. The data showed that there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05 in the respiration activity between the aeration tanks. Regarding the specific oxygen uptake rate there was a mean reduction of 70.8% between the tests performed with EE and TE. The results demonstratd that respirometry tests could successfully assess the efficiency of the activated sludge process and, therefore, be adopted as tool for the monitoring from the WTP.Este trabalho avaliou, através de ensaios de respirometria, a eficiência do tratamento de efluentes industriais, após tratamento por lodo ativado em tanques de aeração (TA. Foram analisadas amostras do efluente equalisado (EE, antes do tratamento, e do efluente tratado (ET. Vinte baterias de ensaios foram realizadas com cada um dos TA (TA-2, TA-3 e TA-4. Cada bateria consistiu de um ensaio básico, contendo apenas o licor misto, um ensaio com adição de peptona, um ensaio com o EE e um com o ET. Não houve diferença estatística significativa (p>0,05 na atividade respiratória dos TA. Quanto à taxa de consumo de oxigênio específica houve uma redução média de 70,8% entre os ensaios realizados com EE e ET. Os ensaios de respirometria determinaram com eficiência o nível de tratamento através de lodo ativado, e deve ser adotado no monitoramento dos efluentes da estação de tratamento de efluentes do Pólo Industrial de Camaçari.

  3. Treatment of real industrial wastewaters through nano-TiO2 and nano-Fe2O3 photocatalysis: case study of mining and kraft pulp mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, V; Lopes, I; Rocha-Santos, T A P; Gonçalves, F; Pereira, R

    2018-06-01

    High quantities of industrial wastewaters containing a wide range of organic and inorganic pollutants are being directly discharged into the environment, sometimes without proper treatment. Nanotechnology has a tremendous potential improving the existing treatments or even develop new treatment solutions. In this study, nano-TiO 2 or nano-Fe 2 O 3 was used for the photocatalytic treatment of kraft pulp mill effluent and mining effluent. The experiments with the organic effluent lead to reduction percentages of 93.3%, 68.4% and 89.8%, for colour, aromatic compounds and chemical oxygen demand, respectively, when treated with nano-TiO 2 /H 2 O 2 /UV and nano-Fe 2 O 3 /H 2 O 2 /UV, at pH 3.0. Significant removal of metals from the mining effluent was recorded but only for Zn, Al and Cd, the highest removal attained with 1.0 g L -1 of nano-TiO 2 /UV and nano-Fe 2 O 3 /UV. Regarding the toxicity of the organic effluent to Vibrio fischeri, it was reduced with the treatments combining the oxidant and the catalyst. However, for the inorganic effluent, the best reduction was achieved using 1.0 g L -1 of catalyst. In fact, the increase in dose of the catalyst, especially for nano-TiO 2 , enhanced toxicity reduction. Our results have shown that the use of these NMs seemed to be more effective in the organic effluent than in metal-rich effluent.

  4. Comprehensive evaluation of the effluents eluted from different processes of the textile industry and its immobilization to trim down the environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini, S.N.; Zaidi, J.H.; Matiullah; Akram, M.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the significance of industrial waste water pollution, which creates severe health hazards in humans, this study concentrates over the reduction and determination of the amounts of toxic metals/pollution parameters in the effluents leached from different processes of the textile industry. The concentrations of metal ions were measured by using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. The values of toxic metals such as As (49.1 ± 1.8 mg/L), Cu (42.7 ± 1.5 mg/L), Ni (41.1 ± 3.3 mg/L), Mn (51.1 ± 0.7 mg/L), Sb (1.89 ± 0.04 mg/L), Se (0.41 ± 0.01 mg/L), Co (7.5 ± 0.3 mg/L), Cr (8.5 ± 0.5 mg/L) and Cd (1.21 ± 0.08 mg/L) were found very high in crude textile's effluents as compared to their standard recommended limits. The immense variation observed among the injurious pollutants of the effluents i.e. pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, turbidity, biological oxygen demands, chemical oxygen demands, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, total solids etc. The toxic metals and injurious pollutants in the unprocessed effluents have been reduced in the post filtration effluents up to 98% and 96% respectively with the help of an ultra-filtration membrane therapy unit. (author)

  5. U.S. DAIRY FORAGE RESEARCH CENTER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Vision: Leading the world in integrated dairy forage systems research. Mission: Providing dairy industry solutions for food security, environmental sustainability,...

  6. U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Vision: Leading the world in integrated dairy forage systems research. Mission: Providing dairy industry solutions for food security, environmental sustainability,...

  7. Simultaneously bio treatment of textiles and food industries effluent at difference ratios with the aid of e-beam radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Selambakkannu, Sarala; Ting, Teo Ming; Shariff, Jamaliah

    2012-09-01

    The combination of irradiation and biological technique was used to study COD, BOD5 and colour removal of textiles effluent in the presence of food industry wastewater at two different ratios. Two biological treatment system, the first consisting a mix of unirradiated textile and food industry wastewater and the second a mix of irradiated textile wastewater and food industry wastewater were operated in parallel. The experiment was conducted by batch. For the first batch the ratio was use for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:1. Meanwhile, for the second batch the ratio used for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:2. The results obtained for the first and second batch varies from each other. After irradiation, COD reduce in textile wastewater for the both batches are roughly 29% - 33% from the unirradiated wastewater. But after undergoing the biological treatment the percentage of COD reduction for first batch and second batch was 62.1% and 80.7% respectively. After irradiation the BOD5 of textile wastewater reduced by 22.2% for the first batch and 55.1% for the second batch. But after biological treatment, the BOD5 value for the first batch was same as its initial, 36mg/l and 40.4mg/l for the second batch. Colour had decreased from 899.5 ADMI to 379.3 ADMI after irradiation and decrease to 109.3 after undergoes biological treatment for the first batch. Meantime for the batch two, colour had decreased from 1000.44 ADMI to 363.40 ADMI after irradiation and dropped to 79.20 ADMI after biological treatment. The experiment show that 1:2 ratio show better reduction on COD, BOD5 and colour, compared to the ratio of 1:1.

  8. Combination of physico-chemical analysis, Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay/nuclear abnormalities tests for cyto-genotoxicity assessments of treated effluents discharged from textile industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2016-09-01

    Bioassays for cyto-genotoxicity assessments are generally not required in current textile industry effluent discharge management regulations. The present study applied in vivo plant and fish based toxicity tests viz. Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay and nuclear abnormalities tests in combination with physico-chemical analysis for assessing potential cytotoxic/genotoxic impacts of treated textile industry effluents reaching a major river (Kelani River) in Sri Lanka. Of the treated effluents tested from two textile industries, color in the Textile industry 1 effluents occasionally and color, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand in the Textile industry 2 effluents frequently exceeded the specified Sri Lankan tolerance limits for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. Exposure of A. cepa bulbs to 100% and 12.5% treated effluents from both industries resulted in statistically significant root growth retardation, mito-depression, and induction of chromosomal abnormalities in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water in all cases demonstrating cyto-genotoxicity associated with the treated effluents. Exposure of O. niloticus to the 100% and 12.5% effluents, resulted in erythrocytic genetic damage as shown by elevated total comet scores and induction of nuclear abnormalities confirming the genotoxicity of the treated effluents even with 1:8 dilution. The results provide strong scientific evidence for the crucial necessity of incorporating cyto-genotoxicity impact assessment tools in textile industry effluent management regulations considering human health and ecological health of the receiving water course under chronic exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Studying the Efficiency of Industrial Dairy Farms of Saqqez and Divandarreh Cities: Using Super-Efficiency Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Mohammadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the developed world, particularly in developing countries, livestock is the most important agricultural sub-sector.Livestock of primary and secondary industries has an especial place in the national economybecause of their greatvalue of products, creating job opportunities, providing health products for consumers, increasing export income of the economy throughaccessing global markets of livestock products and finally their undeniable role in acquiring food security.The demand for milk in Iran increased due to an increase in population and the amount of milk production was also increased. The great share of increased produced milk goes to the industrial dairy farms. One of the major methods to increase the amount of milk production continually is to make its production efficient and improve economic conditions. The current study attempts to determine the efficiency and ranking of industrial dairy farms in Saqqez and Divandarreh cities using super-efficiency model. Materials and Methods: The statistical populations of the study are all active industrial dairy farms of Saqqez and Divandarreh cities which are about 19 farms. The required data for calculating the efficiency were gathered by surveying and completing questionnaires for the year 2013. In this study first, for each farm Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA method and GAMS software package were used to estimate super efficiency. Super efficiency is a form of modified DEA model in which each farm can get an efficiency greater than one. Then in order to make sure about being unbiased the obtained super-efficiency scores, the modified model of Banker and Gifford, was re-estimated and the conventional efficiency scores of farms were compared by normalizing and removing some of the scores of outlier farm based on pre-selected screens. The model has suggested conditions for which some of the estimates for dairy farms might have been contaminated with error.As a t result, it has been

  10. Biodegradation by bioaugmentation of dairy wastewater by fungal consortium on a bioreactor lab-scale and on a pilot-scale

    OpenAIRE

    Djelal , Hayet; Amrane , Abdeltif

    2013-01-01

    International audience; A fungal consortium including Aspergillus niger, Mucor hiemalis and Galactomyces geotrichum was tested for the treatment of dairy wastewater. The bio-augmentation method was tested at lab-scale (4 L), at pilot scale (110 L) and at an industrial scale in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP). The positive impact of fungal addition was confirmed when fungi was beforehand accelerated by pre-culture on whey (5 g/L lactose) or on the dairy effluent. Indeed, chemical oxygen dem...

  11. Phthalates and alkylphenols in industrial and domestic effluents: case of Paris conurbation (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergé, A; Gasperi, J; Rocher, V; Gras, L; Coursimault, A; Moilleron, R

    2014-08-01

    Phthalates and alkylphenols are toxics classified as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). They are of particular concern due to their ubiquity and generally higher levels found in the environment comparatively to other EDCs. Industrial and domestic discharges might affect the quality of receiving waters by discharging organic matter and contaminants through treated waters and combined sewer overflows. Historically, industrial discharges are often considered as the principal vector of pollution in urban areas. If this observation was true in the past for some contaminants, no current data are today available to compare the quality of industrial and domestic discharges as regards EDCs. In this context, a total of 45 domestic samples as well as 101 industrial samples were collected from different sites, including 14 residential and 33 industrial facilities. This study focuses more specifically on 4 phthalates and 2 alkylphenols, among the most commonly studied congeners. A particular attention was also given to routine wastewater quality parameters. For most substances, wastewaters from the different sites were heavily contaminated; they display concentrations up to 1200 μg/l for di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and between 10 and 100 μg/l for diethyl phthalate and nonylphenol. Overall, for the majority of compounds, the industrial contribution to the flux of contaminant reaching the wastewater treatment plants ranges between 1 and 3%. The data generated during this work constitutes one of the first studies conducted in Europe on industrial fluxes for a variety of sectors of activity. The study of the wastewater contribution was used to better predict the industrial and domestic contributions at the scale of a huge conurbation heavily urbanized but with a weak industrial cover, illustrated by Paris. Our results indicate that specific investigations on domestic discharges are necessary in order to reduce the release of phthalates and alkylphenols in the sewer systems

  12. Method to assess the carbon footprint at product level in the dairy industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria; Thrane, Mikkel; Hermansen, John Erik

    2014-01-01

    associated with raw milk are allocated based on a weighted fat and protein content (1:1.4). Data from the dairy company Arla Foods give 1.1, 8.1, 6.5, 7.4 and 1.2 kg carbon dioxide equivalents per kg of fresh dairy product, butter and butter blend, cheese, milk powder and whey based product, and other......A model to calculate the farm-to-customer carbon footprint (CF) for different dairy product groups is presented. As the largest share of the CF of dairy products occurs at farm level, it is decisive how the emissions from raw milk production are allocated between different products. Impacts......, respectively. One critical aspect is how the by-product ‘whey’ is dealt with. No emissions are allocated to the milk solid whey, which is why products containing whey have an apparent low impact. Underlying methodological assumptions are open to debate and further research is needed concerning the CF impact...

  13. Financial Considerations for Health and Safety in the Australian Dairy Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lower, Tony; Pollock, Kirrily

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify the burden of fatal and workers' compensation-related injuries on the dairy sector in Australia and to assess current financial inputs for work health and safety actions. The first and second phases entailed a review of the financial costs associated with fatal (2001-2013) and workers' compensation cases (2008-2009 to 2012-2013). The third element was a case-study approach focusing on actual production and cost data from a small sample of dairy farms (n = 6) to ascertain an estimate for current financial inputs to work health and safety. The estimated financial impact was approximately AUD$12.4 million each year, comprising AUD$6.8 million for fatalities and AUD$5.6 million for compensable injuries. All sample businesses were investing in health and safety initiatives; however, this was modest and on average represented 0.4% of total expenditure (AUD$4,472) or financial case to increase strategic investments into work health and safety by dairy farmers in Australia. Increased investment has the potential to not only minimize the burden of injury and costs to dairy farmers, but will also significantly reduce the devastating impacts that these incidents have on individuals, their families and communities.

  14. How Programme Teams Progress Agricultural Innovation in the Australian Dairy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Ruth; Brightling, Pauline; Hope, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article outlines the emergence of programme teams in the Australian dairy farm sector as a response to counter weaknesses in the institutional environment for agricultural innovation which favours technology adoption/diffusion approaches. Design/methodology/approach: The strengths, weaknesses and risks of different approaches to…

  15. Impact of industrial effluents on geochemical association of metals within intertidal sediments of a creek

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Volvoikar, S.P.; Nayak, G.N.

    Metal speciation studies were carried out on three intertidal core sediments of the industrially impacted Dudh creek located along west coast of India Metals indicated a drastic increase in the bioavailable fraction towards the surface of the cores...

  16. Comparative studies of utilization of industrial electron accelerators and adsorption with activated carbon for industrial effluent treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampa, Maria Helena de O.; Rela, Paulo R.; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Las Casas, Alexandre; Mori, Manoel Nunes; Omi, Nelson M.

    2005-01-01

    A technical and economical feasibility study was performed comparing the use electron beam and activated charcoal for treatment of industrial wastewater. In this study was used synthetic solutions, prepared in laboratory with organic compounds standards, where the composition was focused on the critical organic contaminants usually presented in wastewater from petrochemical industry. For the sample irradiation was used an industrial electron beam from Radiation Dynamics Inc. 1.5 MeV - 37.5 kW setup in IPEN. The doses ranged from 5 kGy to 100 kGy. A common granulated activated charcoal in a fixed-bed absorber glass column was used to study the pollutants absorption performance. The results show that if the adequate irradiation dose was delivered to the organic pollutant, it is possible to conclude for the studied compounds that the Electron Beam Process is, in aspect of organic removal efficiency, similar to the activated carbon process. (author)

  17. Cadmium tolerance and bioremediation potential of bacteria isolated from soils irrigated with untreated industrial effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, R.; Hassan, M.M.U.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the Cd tolerance of bacteria isolated from municipal effluent irrigated soils. Thirty bacterial strains were isolated and screened for their Cd+ tolerance by growing on nutrient agar plates amended with varying amount of Cd +. Out of them four bacteria (GS 2, GS5, GS10 and GS20) were found highly Cd tolerant (600 ppm Cd). The minimum inhibitory concentration of Cd+ was found 200 ppm. The isolates showed optimum growth at 30 degree C and pH 7.5-8.5. Growth curve study against different concentrations of Cd (0-600 ppm) revealed that GS2 was more tolerant among selected strains showing only 33% reduction in growth compared to 64% by GS5 and 77% by both GS 10 and GS20 at 600 ppm Cd. Inoculation of maize seeds with Cd tolerant bacteria for root elongation demonstrated upto 1.7 fold increase in root elongation (in the absence of Cd) and up to 1.5 fold (in the presence of 50 ppm Cd) compared to the un-inoculated plants. The results of the study revealed that the bacterial isolates exhibiting great Cd tolerance and growth promoting activity can be potential candidates for bioremediation of metal contaminated soils and wastewaters. (author)

  18. p-Chlorophenol Oxidation in Industrial Effluent by Ultrasonic/Fenton Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolmotaleb Seid Mohammadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds have become a cause for of worldwide concern due to their persistence, toxicity and health risks. Hence, removal of these pollutants from aqueous effluents is an important practical problem. Ultrasonic technology may be used for water and wastewater treatment as an advanced oxidation process. Application of this technology, leads to the decomposition of many organic compounds during cavitation process. The degradation of 4-chlorophenol in aqueous solution under sonolysis at 45 kHz coupled with fFenton process was is investigated. The oxidation rate was influenced by many factors, such as the pH value, the amount of hydrogen peroxide, catalyst (FeSO4 and initial p-chlorophenol concentration. The experimental results showed that the decomposition of p-chlorophenol was affected by the various reaction conditions. The optimum conditions obtained for the best degradation rate were pH=3, H2O2 concentration of 0.05 mol/L and 0.025 mmol/L for catalyst, respectively. Also it was observed that the degradation of p-chlorophenol depended on its initial concentration

  19. Treatment of pulp and paper industry bleaching effluent by electrocoagulant process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, R.; Sivakumar, V.; Prince Immanuel, V.; Prakash Maran, J.

    2011-01-01

    The experiments were carried out in an electrocoagulation reactor with aluminum as sacrificial electrodes. The influence of electrolysis time, current density, pH, NaCl concentration, rotational speed of the stirrer and electrode distance on reduction of color, COD and BOD were studied in detail. From the experimental results, 15 mA/cm 2 current density, pH of 7, 1 g/l NaCl, 100 rpm, 28 deg, C temperature and 3 cm electrode distance were found to be optimum for maximum reduction of color, COD and BOD. The reduction of color, COD and BOD under the optimum condition were found to be 94%, 90% and 87% respectively. The electrode energy consumption was calculated and found to be varied from 10.1 to 12.9 kWh/m 3 depending on the operating conditions. Under optimal operating condition such as 15 mA/cm 2 current density, pH of 7, 1 g/l NaCl, 100 rpm, 28 deg, C temperature and 3 cm electrode distance, the operating cost was found to be 1.56 US $/m 3 . The experimental results proved that the electrocoagulation is a suitable method for treating bleaching plant effluents for reuse.

  20. Treatment of pulp and paper industry bleaching effluent by electrocoagulant process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridhar, R., E-mail: sridhar36k@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode 638052, TN (India); Sivakumar, V., E-mail: drvsivakumar@yahoo.com [Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode 638052, TN (India); Prince Immanuel, V., E-mail: princeimmanuel79@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Erode Sengunthar Engineering College, Thudupathi, Erode 638057, TN (India); Prakash Maran, J., E-mail: prakashmaran@gmail.com [Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode 638052, TN (India)

    2011-02-28

    The experiments were carried out in an electrocoagulation reactor with aluminum as sacrificial electrodes. The influence of electrolysis time, current density, pH, NaCl concentration, rotational speed of the stirrer and electrode distance on reduction of color, COD and BOD were studied in detail. From the experimental results, 15 mA/cm{sup 2} current density, pH of 7, 1 g/l NaCl, 100 rpm, 28 deg, C temperature and 3 cm electrode distance were found to be optimum for maximum reduction of color, COD and BOD. The reduction of color, COD and BOD under the optimum condition were found to be 94%, 90% and 87% respectively. The electrode energy consumption was calculated and found to be varied from 10.1 to 12.9 kWh/m{sup 3} depending on the operating conditions. Under optimal operating condition such as 15 mA/cm{sup 2} current density, pH of 7, 1 g/l NaCl, 100 rpm, 28 deg, C temperature and 3 cm electrode distance, the operating cost was found to be 1.56 US $/m{sup 3}. The experimental results proved that the electrocoagulation is a suitable method for treating bleaching plant effluents for reuse.

  1. Evaluation of haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms with potential application in the effluent treatment of the petroleum industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguín-Lora, P; Le Borgne, S; Castorena-Cortés, G; Roldán-Carrillo, T; Zapata-Peñasco, I; Reyes-Avila, J; Alcántara-Pérez, S

    2011-02-01

    Haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing mixed cultures for the treatment of alkaline-saline effluents containing sulfide were characterized and evaluated. The mixed cultures (IMP-PB, IMP-XO and IMP-TL) were obtained from Mexican alkaline soils collected in Puebla (PB), Xochimilco (XO) and Tlahuac (TL), respectively. The Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (RISA) revealed bacteria related to Thioalkalibacterium and Thioalkalivibrio in IMP-XO and IMP-PB mixed cultures. Halomonas strains were detected in IMP-XO and IMP-TL. In addition, an uncultured Bacteroides bacterium was present in IMP-TL. Mixed cultures were evaluated at different pH and NaCl concentrations at 30°C. IMP-PB and IMP-TL expressed thiosulfate-oxidizing activity in the 7.5-10.5 pH range, whereas IMP-XO presented its maximal activity with 19.0 mg O₂ g (protein)⁻¹ min⁻¹, at pH 10.6; it was not affected by NaCl concentrations up to 1.7 M. In continuous culture, IMP-XO showed a growth rate of 15 day⁻¹, productivity of 433.4 mg(protein) l⁻¹ day⁻¹ and haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing activity was also detected up to 170 mM by means of N-methyl-diethanolamine (MDEA). Saline-alkaline soil samples are potential sources of haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and the mixed cultures could be applied in the treatment of inorganic sulfur compounds in petroleum industry effluents under alkaline-saline conditions.

  2. Raw Materials Synthesis from Heavy Metal Industry Effluents with Bioremediation and Phytomining: A Biomimetic Resource Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmah B. Karman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal wastewater poses a threat to human life and causes significant environmental problems. Bioremediation provides a sustainable waste management technique that uses organisms to remove heavy metals from contaminated water through a variety of different processes. Biosorption involves the use of biomass, such as plant extracts and microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, algae, yeast, and represents a low-cost and environmentally friendly method of bioremediation and resource management. Biosorption-based biosynthesis is proposed as a means of removing heavy metals from wastewaters and soils as it aids the development of heavy metal nanoparticles that may have an application within the technology industry. Phytomining provides a further green method of managing the metal content of wastewater. These approaches represent a viable means of removing toxic chemicals from the effluent produced during the process of manufacturing, and the bioremediation process, furthermore, has the potential to save metal resources from depletion. Biomimetic resource management comprises bioremediation, biosorption, biosynthesis, phytomining, and further methods that provide innovative ways of interpreting waste and pollutants as raw materials for research and industry, inspired by materials, structures, and processes in living nature.

  3. An experimental study of the transfer of radiocaesium from whole milk to a wide range of milk products produced by the Irish dairy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEnri, C.

    1990-07-01

    Milk and milk products constitute a substantial portion of the human diet and represent one of the principal means by which food-borne radionuclides are ingested. The Chernobyl accident and subsequent widespread contamination demonstrated clearly that the dairy industry is highly sensitive to air-borne pollution. In this thesis, the results of a project to study the transfer of radiocaesium from whole milk to a wide range of milk products manufactured by the Irish Dairy Industry are presented together with a review of the relevant literature

  4. Laboratory and Feasibility Study for Industrial Wastewater Effluents Treatment by Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimek, Z.; Głuszewski, W. [Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-07-01

    The study of wastewater treatment by radiation regarding chemical processes contribution and physical-chemical separation of highly concentrated non-organic pollutants deposited in specific industrial waste are proposed. Laboratory stand should be build and the study should be performed to confirm possible mechanism of the sedimentation process of nonorganic pollutants during separation initiated by ionizing radiation. Evaluation from technical and economical point of view of this specific radiation technology and feasibility study preparation for industrial facility will be the main output at the final stage of the project. (author)

  5. Laboratory and Feasibility Study for Industrial Wastewater Effluents Treatment by Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.; Głuszewski, W.

    2012-01-01

    The study of wastewater treatment by radiation regarding chemical processes contribution and physical-chemical separation of highly concentrated non-organic pollutants deposited in specific industrial waste are proposed. Laboratory stand should be build and the study should be performed to confirm possible mechanism of the sedimentation process of nonorganic pollutants during separation initiated by ionizing radiation. Evaluation from technical and economical point of view of this specific radiation technology and feasibility study preparation for industrial facility will be the main output at the final stage of the project. (author)

  6. Does productivity affect profitability in dairy processing industry? Evidence from Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Saša Muminović; Željana Aljinović Barać

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides insights into productivity in dairy processing companies in Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The aim is to find out whether EBITDA per employee, as a measure of overall productivity as well as labour and capital productivity and their management positively affect company’s profitability. Literature review shows that this issue was relatively neglected, although increase in productivity is regarded as the most important factor in maintaining a competitive advantage in most dev...

  7. Application of a pneumatic flotation process for the treatment of oil-burdened industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinabo, C.

    1993-01-01

    Different industrial waste waters containing oil emulsions were investigated using pneumatic flotation techniques. The separation efficiency is determined by the zeta potential of the oil/water emulsion. The electrophoretic measurements indicated that, the iep of the emulsion lies within the region of pH 5. Within this pH region it was possible to reduce the oil mud to a minimum level from the waste water using flotation. The laboratory flotation results showed the rest oil concentration amounts to 0.2 and 0.01% depending on the loading grade of oil in the waste water. Applying an emulsion with an oil content of 12%, it was possible to achieve a product in industrial scale with a rest oil concentration of 0.08%. (orig.) [de

  8. Hexavalent chromium reduction by bacterial consortia and pure strains from an alkaline industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñón-Castillo, H A; Brito, E M S; Goñi-Urriza, M; Guyoneaud, R; Duran, R; Nevarez-Moorillon, G V; Gutiérrez-Corona, J F; Caretta, C A; Reyna-López, G E

    2010-12-01

    To characterize the bacterial consortia and isolates selected for their role in hexavalent chromium removal by adsorption and reduction. Bacterial consortia from industrial wastes revealed significant Cr(VI) removal after 15 days when incubated in medium M9 at pH 6·5 and 8·0. The results suggested chromium reduction. The bacterial consortia diversity (T-RFLP based on 16S rRNA gene) indicated a highest number of operational taxonomic units in an alkaline carbonate medium mimicking in situ conditions. However, incubations under such conditions revealed low Cr(VI) removal. Genomic libraries were obtained for the consortia exhibiting optimal Cr(VI) removal (M9 medium at pH 6·5 and 8·0). They revealed the dominance of 16S rRNA gene sequences related to the genera Pseudomonas/Stenotrophomonas or Enterobacter/Halomonas, respectively. Isolates related to Pseudomonas fluorescens and Enterobacter aerogenes were efficient in Cr(VI) reduction and adsorption to the biomass. Cr(VI) reduction was better at neutral pH rather than under in situ conditions (alkaline pH with carbonate). Isolated strains exhibited significant capacity for Cr(VI) reduction and adsorption. Bacterial communities from chromium-contaminated industrial wastes as well as isolates were able to remove Cr(VI). The results suggest a good potential for bioremediation of industrial wastes when optimal conditions are applied. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology. No claim to Mexican Government works.

  9. Aerobic granular SBR systems applied to the treatment of industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, V. del; Figueroa, M.; Arrojo, B.; Mosquera-Corral, A.; Campos, J. L.; Garcia-Torriello, G.; Mendez, R.

    2009-01-01

    Systems based on aerobic granular biomass are an alternative to the conventional activated sludge plants for wastewater treatment. Large organic and nitrogen loads are treated in these systems where biomass grown as granules, easy to separate by setting, make unnecessary the construction of secondary settler reducing the surface requirements for the treatment system construction. Furthermore, in aerobic granular reactors simultaneously carbon and nitrogen removal is feasible. These systems have been already applied at laboratory scale for the treatment of different types of industrial and urban wastewater. (Author)

  10. Aerobic granular SBR systems applied to the treatment of industrial effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, V. del; Figueroa, M.; Arrojo, B.; Mosquera-Corral, A.; Campos, J. L.; Garcia-Torriello, G.; Mendez, R.

    2009-07-01

    Systems based on aerobic granular biomass are an alternative to the conventional activated sludge plants for wastewater treatment. Large organic and nitrogen loads are treated in these systems where biomass grown as granules, easy to separate by setting, make unnecessary the construction of secondary settler reducing the surface requirements for the treatment system construction. Furthermore, in aerobic granular reactors simultaneously carbon and nitrogen removal is feasible. These systems have been already applied at laboratory scale for the treatment of different types of industrial and urban wastewater. (Author)

  11. Grafting of aniline derivatives onto chitosan and their applications for removal of reactive dyes from industrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Mojtaba; Jaymand, Mehdi; Niroomand, Pouneh; Farnoudian-Habibi, Amir; Karaj-Abad, Saber Ghasemi

    2017-02-01

    A series of chitosan-grafted polyaniline derivatives {chitosan-g-polyaniline (CS-g-PANI), chitosan-g-poly(N-methylaniline) (CS-g-PNMANI), and chitosan-g-poly(N-ethylaniline) (CS-g-PNEANI)} were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidation polymerization method. The synthesized copolymers were analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopies, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). These copolymers were applied as adsorbent for removal of acid red 4 (AR4) and direct red 23 (DR23) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption processes were optimized in terms of pH, adsorbent amount, and dyes concentrations. The maximum adsorption capacities (Q m ) for the synthesized copolymers were calculated, and among them the CS-g-PNEANI sample showed highest Q m for both AR4 (98mgg -1 ) and DR23 (112mgg -1 ) dyes. The adsorption kinetics of AR4 and DR23 dyes follow the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The regeneration and reusability tests revealed that the synthesized adsorbents had the relatively good reusability after five repetitions of the adsorption-desorption cycles. As the results, it is expected that the CS-g-PANIs find application for removal of reactive dyes (especially anionic dyes) from industrial effluents mainly due to their low production costs and high adsorption effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Accumulation of heavy metals and trace elements in fluvial sediments received effluents from traditional and semiconductor industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Liang-Ching; Huang, Ching-Yi; Chuang, Yen-Hsun; Chen, Ho-Wen; Chan, Ya-Ting; Teah, Heng Yi; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Chang, Chiung-Fen; Liu, Yu-Ting; Tzou, Yu-Min

    2016-09-29

    Metal accumulation in sediments threatens adjacent ecosystems due to the potential of metal mobilization and the subsequent uptake into food webs. Here, contents of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and trace elements (Ga, In, Mo, and Se) were determined for river waters and bed sediments that received sewage discharged from traditional and semiconductor industries. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the metal distribution in relation to environmental factors such as pH, EC, and organic matter (OM) contents in the river basin. While water PCA categorized discharged metals into three groups that implied potential origins of contamination, sediment PCA only indicated a correlation between metal accumulation and OM contents. Such discrepancy in metal distribution between river water and bed sediment highlighted the significance of physical-chemical properties of sediment, especially OM, in metal retention. Moreover, we used Se XANES as an example to test the species transformation during metal transportation from effluent outlets to bed sediments and found a portion of Se inventory shifted from less soluble elemental Se to the high soluble and toxic selenite and selenate. The consideration of environmental factors is required to develop pollution managements and assess environmental risks for bed sediments.

  13. Genetic characterization, nickel tolerance, biosorption, kinetics, and uptake mechanism of a bacterium isolated from electroplating industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, N; Gunasekaran, P; Rajendran, P

    2015-04-01

    Electroplating industries in Madurai city produce approximately 49,000 L of wastewater and 1200 L of sludge every day revealing 687-5569 ppm of nickel (Ni) with other contaminants. Seventeen Ni-tolerant bacterial strains were isolated from nutrient-enriched effluents. Among them one hyper Ni accumulating strain was scored and identified as Bacillus cereus VP17 on the basis of morphology, biochemical tests, 16S rDNA gene sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. Equilibrium data of Ni(II) ions using the bacterium as sorbent at isothermal conditions (37 °C) and pH 6 were best adjusted by Langmuir (R(2) = 0.6268) and Freundlich models (R(2) = 0.9505). Experimental validation reveals Ni sorption takes place on a heterogeneous surface of the biosorbent, and predicted metal sorption capacity is 434 ppm. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted the biosorption kinetic data better than the pseudo-first-order kinetic model (R(2) = 0.9963 and 0.3625). Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies of the bacterial strain with and without Ni(II) ion reveals the biosorption mechanism. The results conclude possibilities of using B. cereus VP17 for Ni bioremediation.

  14. Planning Change of the Type of Economic Development of Enterprises of the Dairy Industry with Consideration of Influence of the Competitive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulynych Yuriy M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article justifies a necessity of transition of dairy industry enterprises to the intensive type of economic development. It offers a mathematical model of transition to the intensive type of development. The model is build on the basis of the well-known methods. The author offers two variants of formation of the intensive type of development during the period of planning. Pursuant to the first variant, it is planned to increase expenditures of an enterprise during the period of planning, pursuant to the second – to reduce expenditures of the period of planning compared to the basic one. The author considers and analyses the essence of the innovation strategy of dairy enterprises and offers a model of formation of such a strategy at an enterprise. The article considers main problems that suppress investment activity in the country. The author focuses, in particular, on the following: inconsistent investment policy of the state in the food sphere, poorly developed innovation infrastructure, monopoly of reporcessors in the dairy products markets and low level of profitability of dairy enterprises. In conclusion the author offers measures on formation of investment attractiveness of the dairy industry.

  15. Does productivity affect profitability in dairy processing industry? Evidence from Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Muminović

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides insights into productivity in dairy processing companies in Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The aim is to find out whether EBITDA per employee, as a measure of overall productivity as well as labour and capital productivity and their management positively affect company’s profitability. Literature review shows that this issue was relatively neglected, although increase in productivity is regarded as the most important factor in maintaining a competitive advantage in most developed countries. Results obtained show that comprehensive measure of productivity EBITDA per employee has statistically significant positive impact on company’s profitability, the same as productivity management components labour cost competitiveness and capital productivity.

  16. Photoautotrophic microorganisms and bioremediation of industrial effluents: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Amandeep; Kumar, Manish; Vivekanand, Vivek; Pareek, Nidhi

    2017-05-01

    Growth of the industrial sector, a result of population explosion has become the root cause of environmental deterioration and has raised the concerns for efficient wastewater management and reuse. Photoautotrophic cultivation of microorganisms is a boon and considered as a potential biological treatment for remediation of wastewater as it sequesters CO 2 during growth. Photoautotrophs viz. cyanobacteria, micro-algae and macro-algae can photosynthetically assimilate the excessive pollutants present in the wastewater. The present review emphasizes on the achievability of microorganisms to bestow wastewater as the nutrient source for biomass production, which can further be reused for feed, food and fertilizers. To support this, various case studies have been cited that prove phycoremediation as a cost-effective and sustainable process over conventional wastewater treatment processes that requires high chemical load and more energy inputs.

  17. Impact of urban and industrial effluents on the coastal marine environment in Oran, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeb, A; Chellali, M R; Hamou, A; Debbah, S

    2015-09-15

    In Algeria most of the urban waste water is dumped without treatment into the Sea. It is tremendously important to assess the consequences of organic matter rich sewage on marine ecosystem. In this study we investigated the effects of industrial and urban sewage on the dissolved oxygen (O2), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demands (BOD5), pH, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC), Metal element (Hg, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Cd), petroleum hydrocarbons (HC), oil and grease (OG) in Bay of Oran, Algeria. A ten-year follow-up research showed that the concentrations of oil and grease released into the bionetwork are of higher ecological impact and this needs to be given the desired consideration. Information on bathing water quality revealed that the most beaches in Oran are under the national environmental standard limit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Potential for bioremediation of agro-industrial effluents with high loads of pesticides by selected fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, Panagiotis A; Perruchon, Chiara; Exarhou, Katerina; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2011-02-01

    Wastewaters from the fruit packaging industry contain a high pesticide load and require treatment before their environmental discharge. We provide first evidence for the potential bioremediation of these wastewaters. Three white rot fungi (WRF) (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus) and an Aspergillus niger strain were tested in straw extract medium (StEM) and soil extract medium (SEM) for degrading the pesticides thiabendazole (TBZ), imazalil (IMZ), thiophanate methyl (TM), ortho-phenylphenol (OPP), diphenylamine (DPA) and chlorpyrifos (CHL). Peroxidase (LiP, MnP) and laccase (Lac) activity was also determined to investigate their involvement in pesticide degradation. T. versicolor and P. ostreatus were the most efficient degraders and degraded all pesticides (10 mg l⁻¹) except TBZ, with maximum efficiency in StEM. The phenolic pesticides OPP and DPA were rapidly degraded by these two fungi with a concurrent increase in MnP and Lac activity. In contrast, these enzymes were not associated with the degradation of CHL, IMZ and TM implying the involvement of other enzymes. T. versicolor degraded spillage-level pesticide concentrations (50 mg l⁻¹) either fully (DPA, OPP) or partially (TBZ, IMZ). The fungus was also able to rapidly degrade a mixture of TM/DPA (50 mg l⁻¹), whereas it failed to degrade IMZ and TBZ when supplied in a mixture with OPP. Overall, T. versicolor and P. ostreatus showed great potential for the bioremediation of wastewaters from the fruit packaging industry. However, degradation of TBZ should be also achieved before further scaling up.

  19. Development of a surfactant liquid membrane extraction process for the cleansing of industrial aqueous effluents containing metallic cation traces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapaumbya Akaye, Guy-Roland

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a process of surfactant liquid membrane extraction to purify industrial waste solution containing Cu(II), Fe(III), and Zn(II) (about 0,1 g/L). The extractant is the ammonium salt of Cyanex 306 and Aliquat 336. The first part of this work deals with the study of the liquid-liquid extraction of the metals. The efficiency of the extractant has been shown for the extraction of each metal alone and for Cu(II) and Zn(II) in the case of a mixture of the three metals. During this study we have observed that Fe(III) is reduced to Fe(II) (which is not extracted by the salt of Cyanex 301) in presence of Cu(II) and the quaternary ammonium salt (Aliquat 336). The optimisation of the experimental conditions for the discontinuous surfactant liquid membrane process led us to choose the following composition of the emulsion: 1,5 % of Cyanex 301 salt, 2,5 % of ECA 4360, dodecan. The internal phase is an aqueous solution containing 3,5 mol/L of NaOH and 0,5 mol/L tri-ethanolamin The residual concentration of Cu(II) and Zn(II) in the external phase is very low. In the case of iron, only 60 % are extracted because of the reduction phenomenon (10 % in liquid-liquid extraction). The realisation of the continuous process in pulsed column, after optimisation of hydrodynamics conditions, leads to similar results. In stationary conditions, we obtain a raffinate containing less than 0,5 mg/L of Cu(II) and Zn(II) and 36 mg/L of iron. The internal phase contains about 2 g/L of Cu(II) an Zn(II). We tried and minimize the reduction of Fe(III) in surfactant liquid membrane process. Less than 16 % of iron cannot be reduced. This leads to a purification of only 84 % In the basis of these results, processes of purification have been proposed for effluents of various composition. They enable to purify the effluent and besides to concentrate the pollutants about twenty times. (author) [fr

  20. Functionalized nanostructured silica by tetradentate-amine chelating ligand as efficient heavy metals adsorbent : Applications to industrial effluent treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahbazi, Afsaneh [Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Younesi, Habibollah [Tarbiat Modares University, Noor (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Badiei, Alireza [University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Organofunctionalized nanostructured silica SBA-15 with tri(2-aminoethyl)amine tetradentate-amine ligand was synthesized and applied as adsorbent for the removal of Cu{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, and Cd{sup 2+} from both synthetic wastewater and real paper mill and electroplating industrial effluents. The prepared materials were characterized by XRD, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, TGA, and FT-IR analysis. The Tren-SBA-15 was found to be a fast adsorbent for heavy metal ions from single solution with affinity for Cu{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, than for Cd{sup 2+} due to the complicated impacts of metal ion electronegativity. The kinetic rate constant decreased with increasing metal ion concentration due to increasing of ion repulsion force. The equilibrium batch experimental data is well described by the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity was 1.85 mmol g{sup -1} for Cu{sup 2+}, 1.34 mmol g{sup -1} for Pb{sup 2+}, and 1.08 mmol g{sup -1} for Cd{sup 2+} at the optimized adsorption conditions (pH=4, T=323 K, t=2 h, C0=3 mmol L{sup -1}, and adsorbent dose=1 g L{sup -1}). All Gibbs energy was negative as expected for spontaneous interactions, and the positive entropic values from 103.7 to 138.7 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1} also reinforced this favorable adsorption process in heterogeneous system. Experiment with real wastewaters showed that approximately a half fraction of the total amount of studied metal ions was removed within the first cycle of adsorption. Hence, desorption experiments were performed by 0.3M HCl eluent, and Tren-SBA-15 successfully reused for four adsorption/desorption cycles to complete removal of metal ions from real effluents. The regenerated Tren-SBA-15 displayed almost similar adsorption capacity of Cu{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, and Cd{sup 2+} even after four recycles. The results suggest that Tren-SBA-15 is a good candidate as an adsorbent in the removal of Cu{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, and Cd{sup 2+} from aqueous solutions.

  1. Ecotoxicological assessment of the impact of fluoride (F-) and turbidity on the freshwater snail Physella acuta in a polluted river receiving an industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Julio A; Alonso, Álvaro

    2017-06-01

    We carried out field studies and laboratory experiments to assess the impact of fluoride (F - ) and turbidity on the freshwater snail Physella acuta in a polluted river receiving an industrial effluent (the middle Duraton River, Central Spain). Fluoride concentrations and turbidity levels significantly increased downstream from the industrial effluent (with the highest values being 0.6 mg F - /L and 55.2 nephelometric turbidity unit). In addition, higher deposition of fine inorganic matter was evident at polluted sampling sites. Conversely, the abundance of P. acuta significantly declined (until its virtual disappearance) downstream from the industrial effluent. Toxicity bioassays showed that P. acuta is a relatively tolerant invertebrate species to fluoride toxicity, with estimated safe concentrations (expressed as LC 0.10 values for infinite hours of exposure) for juvenile and adult snails being 2.4 and 3.7 mg F - /L, respectively. Furthermore, juvenile snails (more sensitive than adult snails) did not show significant alterations in their behavior through 15 days of exposure to 2.6 mg F - /L: mean values of the proportion of test snails located on the water surface habitat, as well as mean values of the sliding movement rate (velocity) of test snails, never showed significant differences when comparing control and treatment glass vessels. It is concluded that instream habitat degradation, derived from increased turbidity levels, might be a major cause for significant reductions in the abundance of P. acuta downstream from the industrial effluent. The presence of the competing gastropod Ancylus fluviatilis could also affect negatively the recovery of P. acuta abundance.

  2. Aerosol ionization gas analyzer for continious detection of toxic compounds in industrial gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groze, Kh.; Dering, Kh.; Gleizberg, F.

    1979-01-01

    In is noted that the problem of the environment protection as well as protection of the personnel at their working places against influence of harmful substances in air, demands continious measuring of an increasing number of harmful substances with provision of high sensitivity and accuracy of measurements. The demands are listed to the gas analyzers developed for these purposes: flexibility towards solution of different problems of measurement; great number of the substances to be measured; acceptable threshold of determination of different substances concentration in air and small measurement error; simplicity of maintanance and technical service and high reliability in exploitation; economy of fabrication and application. The data are given for the aerosol ionization gas analyzer which, in many cases, met the requirements listed. In the gas analyzer described, the analysed substance is converted for measuring its concentration into an aerosol by means of the aerosol generator, especially designed for this substance or group of substances. The produced aerosol is introduced into an ionization chamber with build-in radiation source and caused decrease of the ionization current in it. According to the decrease of the ionization current, concentration of the harmful substance in air is determined. Characteristics and possibilities of the gas analyzer exploitation are given and discussed on the base of the results of determination of some harmful substances concentrations in air in the laboratory conditions and in the real conditions of industrial production and in the health protection system [ru

  3. Phytoremediation of Hg and Cd from industrial effluents using an aquatic free floating macrophyte Azolla pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2008-01-01

    The level of heavy metal pollution in Singrauli, an industrial region in India, was assessed and the phytoremediation capacity of a small water fern, Azolla pinnata R.BR (Azollaceae), was observed to purify waters polluted by two heavy metals, i.e., mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) under a microcosm condition. Azolla pinnata is endemic to India and is an abundant and easy-growing free-floating water fern usually found in the rice fields, polluted ponds, and reservoirs of India. The fern was grown in 24 40-L aquariums containing Hg2+ and Cd2+ ions each in concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 mgL(-1) during the course of this study. The study revealed an inhibition of Azolla pinnata growth by 27.0-33.9% with the highest in the presence of Hg (II) ions at 0.5 mgL(-1) in comparison to the control After 13 days of the experiment, metal contents in the solution were decreased up to 70-94%. In the tissues of Azolla pinnata, the concentration of selected heavy metals during investigation was recorded between 310 and 740 mgKg(-1) dry mass, with the highest levelfoundfor Cd (II) treatment at 3.0 mgL(-1) containing a metal solution.

  4. Use of drum driers for processing various industrial wastes into high-grade animal feeding stuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritze, H

    1976-01-01

    Strict anti-pollution legislation governing admissible effluent concentrations and high charges are forcing certain industries (potato starch and dried potato flake factories, sugar factories and dairies) to install facilities for recovering valuable substances, which are used mainly as fodder. In this way the effluent charges can be reduced and a return is obtained on the investment and operating costs. Processes are described whereby such substances can be extracted efficiently when using Escher Wyss drum driers.

  5. Phytoaccumulation of heavy metals in natural plants thriving on wastewater effluent at Hattar industrial estate, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sajjad; Pervez, Arshid; Inoue, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the potential of native plants for the phytoaccumulation of heavy metals (HM). Thirteen predominant plant species (including trees, bushes and grasses) namely Ricinus communis, Ipomoea carnea, Cannabis sativa, Parthenium hysterophorus, Acacia nilotica, Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia modesta, Solanum nigrum, Xanthium stromarium, Chenopodium album, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, and Dactyloctenium aegyptium were collected from the wastewater originated from Hattar industrial estate of Pakistan, Plants shoots and roots were analyzed for heavy metals/metalloid: Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Fe, Ni, and As. Among plant species, the accumulation potential for HM varied depending on the type of element. Regardless of the plant species, HM concentrations varied in the order of Fe>Zn>Cr>Pb>Ni>Cd>As. Tree species of R. communis, A. nilotica, A. modesta, and D. sissoo exhibited an enhanced concentrations of metals. Accumulation pattern of Fe, Pb, Cd, and As in plants could be related to the HM composition of soil and wastewater. Most of the species exhibited higher HM composition in the root as compared to shoot. The species that found with greater ability to absorb HM in the root, got higher HM concentrations in its shoot. Shoot tissue concentrations of HM were attained by the species as D. sissoo>A. modesta>A. nilotica>R. communis>I. carnea>C. album>E. indica>P. hysterophorus>S. nigrum>C. sativa>D. aegyptium>X. strumarium>C. dactylon. Based on results, tree plants were noticed as higher accumulators of HM in polluted soils.

  6. Method for the simultaneous determination of monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in industrial effluents using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoś, Patrycja; Fernandes, André; Boczkaj, Grzegorz

    2018-02-23

    We present a new method for simultaneous determination of 22 monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in postoxidative effluents from the production of petroleum bitumen using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The eight extraction parameters including the type and volume of extraction and disperser solvent, pH, salting out effect, extraction, and centrifugation time were optimized. The low detection limit ranging from 0.36 to 28 μg/L, limit of quantitation (1.1-84 μg/L), good reproducibility, and wide linear ranges, as well as the recoveries ranging from 71.74 to 114.67% revealed that the new method allows the determination of aromatic hydrocarbons at low concentration levels in industrial effluents having a very complex composition. The developed method was applied to the determination of content of mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in samples of raw postoxidative effluents in which 15 compounds were identified at concentrations ranging from 1.21 to 1017.0 μg/L as well as in effluents after chemical treatment. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Simultaneous Treatment of Agro-Industrial and Industrial Wastewaters: Case Studies of Cr(VI/Second Cheese Whey and Cr(VI/Winery Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantafyllos I. Tatoulis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI was co-treated either with second cheese whey (SCW or winery effluents (WE using pilot-scale biological trickling filters in series under different operating conditions. Two pilot-scale filters in series using plastic support media were used in each case. The first filter (i.e., Cr-SCW-filter or Cr-WE-filter aimed at Cr(VI reduction and the partial removal of dissolved chemical oxygen demand (d-COD from SCW or WE and was inoculated with indigenous microorganisms originating from industrial sludge. The second filter in series (i.e., SCW-filter or WE-filter aimed at further d-COD removal and was inoculated with indigenous microorganisms that were isolated from SCW or WE. Various Cr(VI (5–100 mg L−1 and SCW or WE (d-COD, 1000–25,000 mg L−1 feed concentrations were tested. Based on the experimental results, the sequencing batch reactor operating mode with recirculation of 0.5 L min−1 proved very efficient since it led to complete Cr(VI reduction in the first filter in series and achieved high Cr(VI reduction rates (up to 36 and 43 mg L−1 d−1, for SCW and WW, respectively. Percentage d-COD removal for SCW and WE in the first filter was rather low, ranging from 14 to 42.5% and from 4 to 29% in the Cr-SCW-filter and Cr-WE-filter, respectively. However, the addition of the second filter in series enhanced total d-COD removal to above 97% and 90.5% for SCW and WE, respectively. The above results indicate that agro-industrial wastewater could be used as a carbon source for Cr(VI reduction, while the use of two trickling filters in series could effectively treat both industrial and agro-industrial wastewaters with very low installation and operational costs.

  8. UTILITY OF FUNCTIONALIZED AGAROSE NANOPARTICLES IN HYDROLYZING LACTOSE IN BATCH REACTORS FOR DAIRY INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmed Ansari

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the synthesis of agarose nanoparticles (ANPs and its surface modification by galactose for the immobilization of β-galactosidase. Galactose modified ANPs retained 91% enzyme activity upon immobilization. Optimum pH (4.5 and temperature (50 ºC remains unchanged after immobilization. However, immobilized enzyme retained greater catalytic activity against lower and higher, pH and temperature ranges. Immobilized β-galactosidase retained 89% biocatalytic activity even at 4% galactose concentration as compared to enzyme in solution, and exhibited 81% activity even after seventh repeated uses. Immobilized enzyme hydrolyzed greater amount of lactose at higher temperatures as compared to β-galactosidase in solution, thereby suggesting its potential application in obtaining lactose-free dairy products at large scale.

  9. Optimization of Conditions for Obtaining Alginate/Olive Oil Capsules for Application in Dairy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirieux Magalie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulation is a process of incorporation of bioactive substances in a specific matrix. It results in increasing and/or maintaining of the biological agent concentration in the food matrix or the fermentation system. The encapsulation process is influenced by various factors. The aim of the present work was to investigate the influence of alginate type and concentration, homogenization rate and the oil phase amount in the preparation of capsules rich in olive oil. It has been found that emulsions obtained with medium viscosity alginate were characterized by better stability. To establish the joint influence of the factors was used screening design experiment, the optimization features selected being temperature, centrifugal and microscopic stability. The optimal levels of the factors were established and they we applied for capsule preparation. The obtained capsules showed maximum stability and possibility to be used in dairy product manufacture.

  10. The impact of an industrial effluent on the water quality, submersed macrophytes and benthic macroinvertebrates in a dammed river of Central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, Cristina; Camargo, Julio A

    2013-10-01

    This research was conducted in the middle Duratón River (Central Spain), in the vicinity of Burgomillodo Reservoir. An industrial effluent enters the river 300 m downstream from the dam. Fluoride and turbidity levels significantly increased downstream from the effluent, these levels being to some extent affected by differential water releases from the dam. The community of submersed macrophytes exhibited slighter responses and, accordingly, lower discriminatory power than the community of benthic macroinvertebrates, this indicating that metrics and indices based on macroinvertebrates may be more suitable for the biological monitoring of water pollution and habitat degradation in dammed rivers receiving industrial effluents. However, in relation to fluoride bioaccumulation at the organism level, macrophytes (Fontinalis antipyretica and Potamogeton pectinatus) were as suitable bioindicators of fluoride pollution as macroinvertebrates (Ancylus fluviatilis and Pacifastacus leniusculus). Fluoride bioaccumulation in both hard and soft tissues of these aquatic organisms could be used as suitable bioindicator of fluoride pollution (even lower than 1 mg F(-)L(-1)) in freshwater ecosystems. Echinogammarus calvus exhibited a great sensitivity to the toxicity of fluoride ions, with a 96 h LC₅₀ of 7.5 mg F(-)L(-1) and an estimated safe concentration of 0.56 mg F(-)L(-1). The great capacity of E. calvus to take up and retain fluoride during exposures to fluoride ions would be a major cause of its great sensitivity to fluoride toxicity. It is concluded that the observed fluoride pollution might be partly responsible for the absence of this native amphipod downstream from the industrial effluent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anaerobic biodegradability and methanogenic toxicity of key constituents in copper chemical mechanical planarization effluents of the semiconductor industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeremy; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Zhou, Michael; Ogden, Kimberly L; Field, Jim A

    2005-06-01

    Copper chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) effluents can account for 30-40% of the water discharge in semiconductor manufacturing. CMP effluents contain high concentrations of soluble copper and a complex mixture of organic constituents. The aim of this study is to perform a preliminary assessment of the treatability of CMP effluents in anaerobic sulfidogenic bioreactors inoculated with anaerobic granular sludge by testing individual compounds expected in the CMP effluents. Of all the compounds tested (copper (II), benzotriazoles, polyethylene glycol (M(n) 300), polyethylene glycol (M(n) 860) monooleate, perfluoro-1-octane sulfonate, citric acid, oxalic acid and isopropanol) only copper was found to be inhibitory to methanogenic activity at the concentrations tested. Most of the organic compounds tested were biodegradable with the exception of perfluoro-1-octane sulfonate and benzotriazoles under sulfate reducing conditions and with the exception of the same compounds as well as Triton X-100 under methanogenic conditions. The susceptibility of key components in CMP effluents to anaerobic biodegradation combined with their low microbial inhibition suggest that CMP effluents should be amenable to biological treatment in sulfate reducing bioreactors.

  12. Influence of biomass acclimation on the performance of a partial nitritation-anammox reactor treating industrial saline effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustinianovich, Elisa A; Campos, José-Luis; Roeckel, Marlene D; Estrada, Alejandro J; Mosquera-Corral, Anuska; Val Del Río, Ángeles

    2018-03-01

    The performance of the partial nitritation/anammox processes was evaluated for the treatment of fish canning effluents. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was fed with industrial wastewater, with variable salt and total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) concentrations in the range of 1.75-18.00 g-NaCl L -1 and 112 - 267 mg-TAN L -1 . The SBR operation was divided into two experiments: (A) progressive increase of salt concentrations from 1.75 to 18.33 g-NaCl L -1 ; (B) direct application of high salt concentration (18 g-NaCl L -1 ). The progressive increase of NaCl concentration provoked the inhibition of the anammox biomass by up to 94% when 18 g-NaCl L -1 were added. The stable operation of the processes was achieved after 154 days when the nitrogen removal rate was 0.021 ± 0.007 g N/L·d (corresponding to 30% of removal efficiency). To avoid the development of NOB activity at low salt concentrations and to stabilize the performance of the processes dissolved oxygen was supplied by intermittent aeration. A greater removal rate of 0.029 ± 0.017 g-N L -1 d -1 was obtained with direct exposure of the inoculum to 18 g-NaCl L -1 in less than 40 days. Also, higher specific activities than those from the inoculum were achieved for salt concentrations of 15 and 20 g-NaCl L -1 after 39 days of operation. This first study of the performance of the partial nitritation/anammox processes, to treat saline wastewaters, indicates that the acclimation period can be avoided to shorten the start-up period for industrial application purposes. Nevertheless, further experiments are needed in order to improve the efficiency of the processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Future Applications of Apricot (Prunus Armeniaca Kaisa ß Galactosidase in Dairy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Shakeel Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the immobilization of β galactosidase from apricots (Prunus armeniaca kaisa on an inexpensive concanavalin A layered cellulose-alginate hybrid gel. Immobilized β galactosidase retained 78% of the initial activity after crosslinking by glutaraldehyde. It exhibited greater fraction of activity at both acidic and basic pH, and showed broad spectrum temperature optimum as compared to free enzyme. Moreover, immobilized enzyme exhibited higher thermal stability at 60°C and retained 80% of the original enzyme activity in presence of 3% galactose. The crosslinked immobilized enzyme showed improved hydrolysis of lactose from milk and whey in batch processes at 50°C as well as in continuous reactors operated at fl ow rate of 20 mL/h and 30 mL/h even after one month. Moreover, crosslinked adsorbed β galactosidase retained 76% activity even after its sixth repeated use, thereby promoting its use for lactose hydrolysis in various dairy products even for longer durations.

  14. Desinfection of water for industrial use in dairy factories by ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hup, G.; Stadhouders, J.

    1979-01-01

    Extensive tests were carried out on disinfection of (i) ground water and (ii) condenser water in dairy factories using the Wedeco type E1-3 UV apparatus with a nominal throughput of 1 m 3 /h. Max. bacterial content of (i) was 100 000/ml; it was reduced to 0 C, even when 0.05-0.8% skim-milk was added to the water before treatment. The surviving bacteria did not show any increased resistance to subsequent irradiation, and often had a longer lag-phase in water culturing; (ii) from milk or whey evaporation was treated at 55 0 C to simulate practical conditions, and an installation for this purpose is diagrammatically illustrated; it was found that despite much heavier initial contamination, bacterial contents of 0 C. Data on bacterial kills in (i) and (ii) at throughput rates of 3 /h are tabulated. It is emphasized that efficiency of UV disinfection rests, for (ii) in particular, on cleanliness conditions equal to those for milk. (orig.) [de

  15. Learning Networks in Innovation Systems at Sector / Regional Level in Argentina: Winery and Dairy Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Sanchez; Roberto Bisang

    2011-01-01

    This work studies how the set of relationships that gives place to the learning processes is established in the food indus- try in Argentina. A theoretical ad hoc approach is adopted, conjugating the concepts of innovation systems at sector / regional level with some context considerations like the innovative behaviour of the global and local food industry and a description of the public and private S&T in Argentina. The study is focused in two cases: the wine industry, at the Mendoza provinc...

  16. Industrial effluent costs in some Spanish regions and other parts of the EU. Canons and taxes of water treatment; El coste del vertido industrial en varias comunidades autonomas espanolas y en algunos territorios europeos. Los canones y tasas de depuracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Rahola, J.; Munoz Requena, A.; Ruaix Prat, T.

    2009-07-01

    In this article, the different systems existing in the Spanish regions for paying all the expense related to industrial effluents are examined and compared with the ones in use in other parts of the EU. Also, the degree of fulfillment of the economic objectives of the Water Framework Directives is determined. The findings are quite clear that there is a comparative disadvantage in the sense that some of the regions have not even regulated and instrument to ensure the principle of Who pollutes, pays, there is a widespread unequal treatment for the same type of effluent within Spain and there is clear evidence of a transfer of resources from the industrial use to the domestic one. (Author)

  17. Assessing the application of advanced oxidation processes, and their combination with biological treatment, to effluents from pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merayo, Noemí; Hermosilla, Daphne; Blanco, Laura; Cortijo, Luis; Blanco, Angeles

    2013-11-15

    The closure of water circuits within pulp and paper mills has resulted in a higher contamination load of the final mill effluent, which must consequently be further treated in many cases to meet the standards imposed by the legislation in force. Different treatment strategies based on advanced oxidation processes (ozonation and TiO2-photocatalysis), and their combination with biological treatment (MBR), are herein assessed for effluents of a recycled paper mill and a kraft pulp mill. Ozone treatment achieved the highest efficiency of all. The consumption of 2.4 g O3 L(-1) resulted in about a 60% COD reduction treating the effluent from the kraft pulp mill at an initial pH=7; although it only reached about a 35% COD removal for the effluent of the recycled paper mill. Otherwise, photocatalysis achieved about a 20-30% reduction of the COD for both type of effluents. In addition, the effluent from the recycled paper mill showed a higher biodegradability, so combinations of these AOPs with biological treatment were tested. As a result, photocatalysis did not report any significant COD reduction improvement whether being performed as pre- or post-treatment of the biological process; whereas the use of ozonation as post-biological treatment enhanced COD removal a further 10%, summing up a total 90% reduction of the COD for the combined treatment, as well as it also supposed an increase of the presence of volatile fatty acids, which might ultimately enable the resultant wastewater to be recirculated back to further biological treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pretreatment of worn waters of the dairy industry by sand filtration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzid, H.; Derriche, Z.; Bettahar, N.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of the environment started to become a concern with the demographic increase and the industrial and agricultural development, especially in the great agglomeration, the relative increase out of water became a major concern. Water of the factories takes care of mineral substances and organics during manufacture and constitutes one of the principal sources of contamination of the environment. (Author)

  19. Method for the determination of carboxylic acids in industrial effluents using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with injection port derivatization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoś, Patrycja; Fernandes, Andre; Boczkaj, Grzegorz

    2017-09-29

    The paper presents a new method for the determination of 15 carboxylic acids in samples of postoxidative effluents from the production of petroleum bitumens using ion-pair dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with injection port derivatization. Several parameters related to the extraction and derivatization efficiency were optimized. Under optimized experimental conditions, the obtained limit of detection and quantification ranged from 0.0069 to 1.12μg/mL and 0.014 to 2.24μg/mL, respectively. The precision (RSD ranged 1.29-6.42%) and recovery (69.43-125.79%) were satisfactory. Nine carboxylic acids at concentrations ranging from 0.10μg/mL to 15.06μg/mL were determined in the raw wastewater and in samples of effluents treated by various oxidation methods. The studies revealed a substantial increase of concentration of benzoic acids, in samples of wastewater after treatment, which confirms the need of carboxylic acids monitoring during industrial effluent treatment processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Energy recovery from effluents of sugar processing industries in the UASB reactors seeded with granular sludge developed under low and high concentrations of calcium ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raphael, D M; Rubindamayugi, M S.T. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Dept. of Botany, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The digestion of wastewater from sugar processing industries in a single phase UASB reactor was evaluated by a step wise increase in organic loading rate. This study was conducted to compare the treatability of effluents from sugar processing industries in a single phase UASB reactors inoculated with granular sludge developed under low and high concentrations of calcium ions. At OLR of 11.34 g COD/l/day and HRT of 16 hours, UASB reactor R2 attained a COD removal efficiency of 90% with a maximum methane production rate of 3 l/l/day. From the results, the digestion of the wastewater from sugar industries in the UASB reactor inoculated with granular sludge developed under high calcium ion concentration seem feasible with regard to COD removal efficiency and methane production rate. (au) 24 refs.

  1. Energy recovery from effluents of sugar processing industries in the UASB reactors seeded with granular sludge developed under low and high concentrations of calcium ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raphael, D.M.; Rubindamayugi, M.S.T. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Dept. of Botany, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The digestion of wastewater from sugar processing industries in a single phase UASB reactor was evaluated by a step wise increase in organic loading rate. This study was conducted to compare the treatability of effluents from sugar processing industries in a single phase UASB reactors inoculated with granular sludge developed under low and high concentrations of calcium ions. At OLR of 11.34 g COD/l/day and HRT of 16 hours, UASB reactor R2 attained a COD removal efficiency of 90% with a maximum methane production rate of 3 l/l/day. From the results, the digestion of the wastewater from sugar industries in the UASB reactor inoculated with granular sludge developed under high calcium ion concentration seem feasible with regard to COD removal efficiency and methane production rate. (au) 24 refs.

  2. RANTAI NILAI PADA INDUSTRI SUSU STUDI KASUS PT CISARUA MOUNTAIN DAIRY (CIMORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Satrya Arjakusuma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study were to 1 map the value chain of Cimory, 2 analyze value chain governance in Cimory, 3 identify the barriers in Cimory value chain, 4 analyze the production efficiency in Cimory suppliers, and 5 identify the best strategy to upgrade the Cimory’s value chain so it can minimize any hindrance. This research used descriptive method that used value chain analysis, value chain governance analysis, barrier of production efficiency identification, and upgrading strategy. Based on value chain analysis, there are six actors in the whole Cimory value chain: KUD Giri Tani and KUD Cipanas as the dairy suppliers, Kiva Citra as the sugar supplier, Inopec as the bottle supplier, Cimory itself, Macrosentra Niagaboga as the main distributor, Cimory resto, Giant, Indomaret, Alfamart, Home Delivery, and Cimory agent. The relationship between Cimory and the main supplier is captive, between Cimory and secondary supplier is modular, and between Cimory and the distributor is more likely modular. The results of barriers identification showed that almost all barriers came from the main suppliers. The results from the production efficiency showed that only the working hour that didn’t have any positive effect for production. The prioritized strategy that needs to be done based on the upgrading analysis is improving the quality of fresh milk supplied to Cimory.Keywords: cimory, production efficiency, upgrading strategy, value chain, value chain analysis ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan 1 memetakan rantai nilai dari Cimory, 2 analisis pengelolaan rantai nilai dari Cimory, 3 mengidentifikasi berbagai hambatan pada rantai nilai Cimory, 4 analisis efisiensi produksi dari supplier Cimory, dan 5 identifikasi strategi yang tepat untuk meminimalisir hambatan yang dialami oleh Cimory. Penelitian ini bersifat penelitian deskriptif dengan menggunakan analisis rantai nilai, analisis pengelolaan rantai nilai, identifikasi hambatan, efisiensi

  3. Development and application of a processing model for the Irish dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, U; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Garrick, D J; Shalloo, L

    2010-11-01

    . The value per liter of milk in scenario 1 was 24.8, 30.8, and 27.4 cents for Irish Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, and New Zealand strain of Holstein-Friesian milk, respectively. In scenario 2 the value per liter of milk was 26.1, 32.6, and 28.9 cents for Irish Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, and New Zealand strain of Holstein-Friesian milk, respectively. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. UV/H2O2 process performance improvement by ultrafiltration and physicochemical clarification systems for industrial effluent pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Hespanhol

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the removal of TOC from an effluent with high organic load resulted from the treatment of oil-water emulsion by thermal process. Hollow Fiber Ultrafiltration membrane (HF-UF and physicochemical clarification process were used as pretreatment options to assess the influence of feed effluent quality on the UV/H2O2 oxidation process. Results for TOC removals showed HF-UF and physicochemical clarification processes can significantly improve the efficiency of UV/H2O2 oxidation process, when compared with the direct effluent oxidation. Reaction time for obtaining a TOC removal higher than 90% was reduced to approximately half of the time needed when no pretreatment was applied. Considering both pretreatment processes it was not possible to notice any significant difference on the UV/H2O2 oxidation process performance. However, the complexity of physicochemical process due to the use of three different chemicals and sludge production made the HF-UF process the best pretreatment alternative, without increasing the Total Dissolved Solids of the effluent, a very important issue when water reuse is considered.

  5. Energy rationalization in the dairy industry through the use of ultrafiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faletti, L; Peri, C

    1987-02-01

    This study is one of several made by Italian universities on behalf of ENEL to razionalize the energy demand pattern of some industrial branches and identify, among the various solutions, those that might bring about primary energy saving through the use of electricity. Specifically, this study was undertaken to verify the applicability of certain diaphragm separation technologies such as ultrafiltration in Italy, and to assess their energy-efficiency in terms of primary energy. Research carried out on this subject and the industrial experience of the last years point to the possibility of using ultrafiltration in the manufacture of typical soft cheese in direct competition with conventional technologies. The expected benefits of greater yield and energy saving are of great national economic relevance, since Italy imports both the raw material (milk) and energy resources.

  6. Isolation of Arcobacter butzleri in environmental and food samples collected in industrial and artisanal dairy plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Giacometti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence of Arcobacter species in two cheese factories; a total of 22 environmental samples and 10 food samples were collected from an artisanal and an industrial cheese factory; Arcobacter species were isolated after enrichment, and isolates were identified at species level by multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the artisanal cheese factory, Arcobacter spp. were isolated from several environmental samples, cow and water buffalo raw milk and ricotta cheese. In the industrial plant, Arcobacter spp. were isolated from surfaces not in contact with food and from a cleaned surface in contact with food; no Arcobacter spp. was isolated from food. All isolates were identified as A. butzleri. We report of the presence of A. butzleri in a ready-to-eat cheese produced for retail. In addition, the isolation of A. butzleri in food processing surfaces in the two cheese factories could be assessed as a source of potential contamination for cheeses

  7. Use of whey lactose from dairy industry for economical kefiran production by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens in mixed cultures with yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Radchabut, Sirilaor

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of producing kefiran industrially, whey lactose, a by-product from dairy industry, was used as a low cost carbon source. Because the accumulation of lactic acid as a by-product of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens inhibited cell growth and kefiran production, the kefir grain derived and non-derived yeasts were screened for their abilities to reduce lactic acid and promote kefiran production in a mixed culture. Six species of yeasts were examined: Torulaspora delbrueckii IFO 1626; Saccharomyces cerevisiae IFO 0216; Debaryomyces hansenii TISTR 5155; Saccharomyces exiguus TISTR 5081; Zygosaccharomyces rouxii TISTR 5044; and Saccharomyces carlsbergensis TISTR 5018. The mixed culture of L. kefiranofaciens with S. cerevisiae IFO 0216 enhanced the kefiran production best from 568 mg/L in the pure culture up to 807 and 938 mg/L in the mixed cultures under anaerobic and microaerobic conditions, respectively. The optimal conditions for kefiran production by the mixed culture were: whey lactose 4%; yeast extract 4%; initial pH of 5.5; and initial amounts of L. kefiranofaciens and S. cerevisiae IFO 0216 of 2.1×10(7) and 4.0×10(6)CFU/mL, respectively. Scaling up the mixed culture in a 2L bioreactor with dissolved oxygen control at 5% and pH control at 5.5 gave the maximum kefiran production of 2,580 mg/L in batch culture and 3,250 mg/L in fed-batch culture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Beliefs, intentions, and beyond: A qualitative study on the adoption of sustainable gastrointestinal nematode control practices in Flanders' dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Velde, F; Charlier, J; Hudders, L; Cauberghe, V; Claerebout, E

    2018-05-01

    Emerging anthelmintic resistance emphasizes the need for sustainable control approaches against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections in cattle. The uptake of diagnostic methods for sustainable control could enable more informed treatments and reduce excessive anthelmintic use. Unfortunately, the adoption of such methods remains relatively poor. A better understanding of farmers' motivations and behaviour would help to develop applicable advises and communication strategies for sustainable worm control strategies. A previous study created a general model for adoption intention of GIN diagnostics on dairy farms and measured the most important factors driving this intention (Vande Velde et al., 2015). The current research aimed to dig deeper into this model for the beliefs underlying these factors, and to identify additional factors impelling this specific behaviour. Data were collected through 22 semi-structured interviews with dairy farmers. Using analytic induction analysis, data were moved between deduction and induction. Results show that the adoption process of diagnostic methods for GIN occurs through three different phases: adoption intention, actual adoption and maintenance. Low infection awareness and low priority ('top of mind') of the disease are important barriers for adopting sustainable GIN control. Secondly, farmer behaviour is guided by two important social norms: the opinion of their veterinarian and their fellow farmers. However, farmers hold an incongruent relationship with both norms throughout different stages of behaviour: they do not value other farmers' opinions as a positive reference (intention phase), but follow and mimic their behaviour as a group (action phase). The veterinarian is seen as the most important positive reference, but also the responsible actor for GIN control. As such, the farmers do not hold themselves responsible for implementing sustainable control strategies. Thirdly, different types of motivations influence

  9. Fouling and Cleaning of Membrane Filtration Systems in the Dairy Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Thilo Heinz Alexander

    not necessarily be perfect hydraulic cleanliness in order to restore processing performance. Consequences of reduced cleaning could however be observed in subsequent CIPs; hydraulic cleanliness reached a lower level. Further research is required to assess the practical significance of these consequences......membranes that were industrially used for a longer period of time (“aged membranes”) to study fouling and cleaning phenomena. During this study, reduced cleaning (a onestep CIP instead of a three-step CIP) was investigated, leading to the suggestion that the aim of a cleaning procedure should...

  10. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  11. Economic benefits of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the offshore oil and gas industry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report provides an overview of the benefits analysis of the effluent limitation guidelines for offshore oil and gas facilities. Regulatory options were evaluated for two wastestreams: (1) drilling fluids (muds) and cuttings; and (2) produced water. The analysis focuses on the human health-related benefits of the regulatory options considered. These health risk reduction benefits are associated with reduced human exposure to various carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, including lead, by way of consumption of shrimp and recreationally caught finfish from the Gulf of Mexico. Most of the health-risk reduction benefits analysis is based upon a previous report (RCG/Hagler, Bailly, January 1991), developed in support of the proposed rulemaking. Recreational, commercial, and nonuse benefits have not been estimated for these regulations, due to data limitations and the difficulty of estimating these values for effluent controls in the open-water marine environment

  12. Determination of Kr-85 in environmental samples and gaseous effluents from nuclear industries using the standard method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras Iniquez, M.C.; Perez Garcia, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    The determination of the Kr-85 activity in environmental samples and gaseous effluents from Spanish Nuclear Power Stations is described. The method employed has been published elsewhere. The determinations has been carried out in environmental samples token at JEN Laboratories (Madrid) and the Nuclear Power Stations, Jose Cabrera (Zorita), Garona and Vandellos. Also samples of gaseous effluents of the three plants has been analyzed. Values of the Kr-85 environmental background activity in the Almaraz Nuclear Power Stations, has been determined, before the beginning of its nuclear activity. In this paper the sampling equipment used is described and the values found of Kr-85 activity in all the samples in given. (Author) 29 refs

  13. Oestrogenic activity of a textile industrial wastewater treatment plant effluent evaluated by the E-screen test and MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiliro, Tiziana, E-mail: tiziana.schiliro@unito.it [Department of Public Health and Microbiology, University of Torino, Via Santena 5bis, 10126 Torino (Italy); Porfido, Arianna [Department of Public Health and Microbiology, University of Torino, Via Santena 5bis, 10126 Torino (Italy); Spina, Federica; Varese, Giovanna Cristina [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Torino, Viale Mattioli 25, 10125 Torino (Italy); Gilli, Giorgio [Department of Public Health and Microbiology, University of Torino, Via Santena 5bis, 10126 Torino (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    This study quantified the biological oestrogenic activity in the effluent of a textile industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWWTP) in northwestern Italy. Samples of the IWWTP effluent were collected monthly, both before and after tertiary treatment (ozonation). After solid phase extraction, all samples were subjected to two in vitro tests of total estrogenic activity, the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 BUS) proliferation assay, or E-screen test, and the luciferase-transfected human breast cancer cell line (MELN) gene-reporter assay, to measure the 17{beta}-oestradiol equivalent quantity (EEQ). In the E-screen test, the mean EEQ values were 2.35 {+-} 1.68 ng/L pre-ozonation and 0.72 {+-} 0.58 ng/L post-ozonation; in the MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay, the mean EEQ values were 4.18 {+-} 3.54 ng/L pre-ozonation and 2.53 {+-} 2.48 ng/L post-ozonation. These results suggest that the post-ozonation IWWTP effluent had a lower oestrogenic activity (simple paired t-tests, p < 0.05). The average reduction of estrogenic activity of IWWTP effluent after ozonation was 67 {+-} 26% and 52 {+-} 27% as measured by E-screen test and MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay, respectively. There was a positive and significant correlation between the two tests (Rho S = 0.650, p = 0.022). This study indicates that the environmental risk is low because oestrogenic substances are deposited into the river via IWWTP at concentrations lower than those at which chronic exposure has been reported to affect the endocrine system of living organisms. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two in vitro tests are suited for oestrogenic activity assessment in textile WWTP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a significant correlation between the results of the two in vitro tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oestrogenic activity of the effluent is reduced by ozonation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The input of estrogenic substances into the river via textile WWTP is low.

  14. Pilot Control of Viscous Bulking in the Activated Sludge Treatment of Industrial Effluent from Soft Drink Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Esfahani

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Viscous bulking is a typical problem arising in activated sludge facilities treating effluent from soft drink plants. The drawbacks associated with this phenomenon include increased effluent organic loading and undesirable sludge settlement. In order to investigate this phenomenon, a soft drink factory was selected as a pilot plant for a case study (where metal tanks were used as a biological selector, an aeration basin, and a clarifier. The study shows that the major causes of viscous bulking are high organic loading and undesirable ratio of monovalent to divalent cations. In the biological selector (with a retention time of 20 hours, while the organic load in the influent to the aeration basin decreased by about 50%, with an impact on reduced viscous bulking, pH value decreased from 12 to 6.5 due to fatty acids production. Adjustment of Na/Ca ratio improved bacterial surface hydrophobicity and prevented degradation of biological flocs. This resulted in improved sludge settleability. Application of this method improved sludge settling, made flocs stronger, and reduced effluent organic load (COD to less than 150 mg/l, indicating stability of the system.

  15. l-(+)-Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus B103 from dairy industry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Marcela Piassi; Coelho, Luciana Fontes; Sass, Daiane Cristina; Contiero, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid, which can be obtained through fermentation, is an interesting compound because it can be utilized in different fields, such as in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries as a bio-based molecule for bio-refinery. In addition, lactic acid has recently gained more interest due to the possibility of manufacturing poly(lactic acid), a green polymer that can replace petroleum-derived plastics and be applied in medicine for the regeneration of tissues and in sutures, repairs and implants. One of the great advantages of fermentation is the possibility of using agribusiness wastes to obtain optically pure lactic acid. The conventional batch process of fermentation has some disadvantages such as inhibition by the substrate or the final product. To avoid these problems, this study was focused on improving the production of lactic acid through different feeding strategies using whey, a residue of agribusiness. The downstream process is a significant bottleneck because cost-effective methods of producing high-purity lactic acid are lacking. Thus, the investigation of different methods for the purification of lactic acid was one of the aims of this work. The pH-stat strategy showed the maximum production of lactic acid of 143.7g/L. Following purification of the lactic acid sample, recovery of reducing sugars and protein and color removal were 0.28%, 100% and 100%, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. L-(+-Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus B103 from dairy industry waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Piassi Bernardo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Lactic acid, which can be obtained through fermentation, is an interesting compound because it can be utilized in different fields, such as in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries as a bio-based molecule for bio-refinery. In addition, lactic acid has recently gained more interest due to the possibility of manufacturing poly(lactic acid, a green polymer that can replace petroleum-derived plastics and be applied in medicine for the regeneration of tissues and in sutures, repairs and implants. One of the great advantages of fermentation is the possibility of using agribusiness wastes to obtain optically pure lactic acid. The conventional batch process of fermentation has some disadvantages such as inhibition by the substrate or the final product. To avoid these problems, this study was focused on improving the production of lactic acid through different feeding strategies using whey, a residue of agribusiness. The downstream process is a significant bottleneck because cost-effective methods of producing high-purity lactic acid are lacking. Thus, the investigation of different methods for the purification of lactic acid was one of the aims of this work. The pH-stat strategy showed the maximum production of lactic acid of 143.7 g/L. Following purification of the lactic acid sample, recovery of reducing sugars and protein and color removal were 0.28%, 100% and 100%, respectively.

  17. Effective decolorization and adsorption of contaminant from industrial dye effluents using spherical surfaced magnetic (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suriyaprabha, R., E-mail: sooriyarajendran@gmail.com; Khan, Samreen Heena [Centre for Nanosciences, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhainagar-382030 (India); Pathak, Bhawana; Fulekar, M. H., E-mail: mhfulekar@yahoo.com [School of Environment and Sustainable Development, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhainagar-382030 (India)

    2016-04-13

    Treatment of highly concentrated Industrial dye stuff effluents released in the environment is the major issue faced in the era of waste management as well as in water pollution. Though there is availability of conventional techniques in large numbers, there is a need of efficient and effective advance technologies. In account of that, Nanotechnology plays a prominent role to treat the heavy metals, organic and inorganic contaminants using smart materials in nano regime (1 -100 nm). Among these nanomaterials like Iron Oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, magnetic nanoparticle) is one of the most promising candidates to remove the heavy metals from the industrial effluent. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} is the widely used smart material with magnetic property having high surface area; high surface to volume ratio provides more surface for the chemical reaction for the surface adsorption. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles have been synthesized using sonochemical method using ultra frequency in aqueous solution under optimized conditions. The as-synthesized nanoparticle was analyzed using different characterization tool. The Transmission Electron microscope (TEM) images revealed 10-12 nm spherical shape nanoparticles; crystal phase and surface morphology was confirmed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), respectively. The functional group were identified by Fourier Transform-Infra Red Spectroscopy (FT-IR), revealed the bending and stretching vibrations associated with Iron Oxide nanoparticle. In present study, for the efficient removal of contaminants, different concentration (10-50 ppm) of dye stuff effluent has been prepared and subjected to adsorption and decolourization at definite time intervals with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The concentration of Iron oxide and the time (45 mins) was kept fixed for the reaction whereas the concentration of dye stuff effluent was kept varying. It was found that the spherical shaped Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} proved to be

  18. Cryo magnetic separation adaptation to environment technologies: application to industrial effluents; Adaptation de la separation cryomagnetique aux technologies de l`environnement: application a l`epuration d`effluents liquides industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bureau, V

    1993-12-20

    Cryomagnetic separation adaptation to environment technologies application to industrial liquid effluents. The performance, obtained by superconducting high filed - high gradient magnetic separation, permitted to foresee the magnetic treatment of heavy metals in rinse waters, derived from the surface finishing industry. The paramagnetic ions, precipitated in basic media as hydroxides, present a very hydrated amorphous structure, which masks their subjacent magnetic properties. Coprecipitation of a `magnetic carrier`, jointly with the heavy metals, has been studied: ferric chloride forms in basic media, an hydrated iron oxide. Its structure is of the goethite type, and it stabilizes as hematite. The magnetic susceptibility of the obtained product is still weak and its crystalline structure is not enough affirmative to utilize magnetic filtration with efficiency. Mixture of ferrous sulphate and ferric chloride forms, in a basic media, an hydrated magnetite. Initial ideal ratio between divalent iron and trivalent iron, varies between 0,5 and 1,2. This mixture, coprecipitated with the heavy metals, permits to optimize the magnetic cleaning of the fluids in a high field - high gradient filter. (author)

  19. Cow allergen (Bos d2) and endotoxin concentrations are higher in the settled dust of homes proximate to industrial-scale dairy operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D' Ann L; McCormack, Meredith C; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Diette, Gregory B; McKenzie, Shawn E; Geyh, Alison S; Breysse, Patrick N

    2016-01-01

    Airborne contaminants produced by industrial agricultural facilities contain chemical and biological compounds that can impact the health of residents living in close proximity. Settled dust can be a reservoir for these contaminants and can influence long-term exposures. In this study, we sampled the indoor- and outdoor-settled dust from 40 homes that varied in proximity to industrial-scale dairies (ISD; industrial-scale dairy, a term used in this paper to describe a large dairy farm and adjacent waste sprayfields, concentrated animal feeding operation or animal feeding operation, that uses industrial processes) in the Yakima Valley, Washington. We analyzed settled dust samples for cow allergen (Bos d2, a cow allergen associated with dander, hair, sweat and urine, it is a member of the lipocalin family of allergens associated with mammals), mouse allergen (Mus m1; major mouse allergen, a mouse urinary allergen, in the lipocalin family), dust mite allergens (Der p1 (Dermatophagoides pteronissinus 1) and Der f1 (Dermatophagoides farinae 1)), and endotoxin (a component of the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, which can be found in air and dust and can produce a strong inflammatory response). A concentration gradient was observed for Bos d2 and endotoxin measured in outdoor-settled dust samples based on proximity to ISD. Indoor-settled dust concentrations of Bos d2 and endotoxin were also highest in proximal homes. While the associated health effects of exposure to cow allergen in settled dust is unknown, endotoxin at concentrations observed in these proximal homes (100 EU/mg) has been associated with increased negative respiratory health effects. These findings document that biological contaminants emitted from ISDs are elevated in indoor- and outdoor-settled dust samples at homes close to these facilities and extend to as much as three miles (4.8 km) away.

  20. Combined electrocoagulation and TiO2 photoassisted treatment applied to wastewater effluents from pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroski, Marcela; Rodrigues, Angela Claudia; Garcia, Juliana Carla; Sampaio, Luiz Carlos; Nozaki, Jorge; Hioka, Noboru

    2009-01-01

    The treated wastewater consists of refractory materials and high organic content of hydrolyzed peptone residues from pharmaceutical factory. The combination of electrocoagulation (EC) followed by heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO 2 ) conditions was maximized. The EC: iron cathode/anode (12.50 cm x 2.50 cm x 0.10 cm), current density 763 A m -2 , 90 min and initial pH 6.0. As EC consequence, the majority of the dissolved organic and suspended material was removed (about 91% and 86% of the turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD), respectively). After EC, refractory residues still remained in the effluent. The subsequent photocatalysis: UV/TiO 2 /H 2 O 2 (mercury lamps), pH 3.0, 4 h irradiation, 0.25 g L -1 TiO 2 and 10 mmol L -1 H 2 O 2 shows high levels of inorganic and organic compounds eliminations. The obtained COD values: 1753 mg L -1 for the sample from the factory, 160 mg L -1 after EC and 50 mg L -1 after EC/photocatalyzed effluents pointed out that the combined treatment stresses this water purification

  1. Combined electrocoagulation and TiO{sub 2} photoassisted treatment applied to wastewater effluents from pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boroski, Marcela; Rodrigues, Angela Claudia; Garcia, Juliana Carla; Sampaio, Luiz Carlos; Nozaki, Jorge [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Avenida Colombo 5790, Maringa-PR 87020-900 (Brazil); Hioka, Noboru [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Avenida Colombo 5790, Maringa-PR 87020-900 (Brazil)], E-mail: nhioka2@yahoo.com.br

    2009-02-15

    The treated wastewater consists of refractory materials and high organic content of hydrolyzed peptone residues from pharmaceutical factory. The combination of electrocoagulation (EC) followed by heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO{sub 2}) conditions was maximized. The EC: iron cathode/anode (12.50 cm x 2.50 cm x 0.10 cm), current density 763 A m{sup -2}, 90 min and initial pH 6.0. As EC consequence, the majority of the dissolved organic and suspended material was removed (about 91% and 86% of the turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD), respectively). After EC, refractory residues still remained in the effluent. The subsequent photocatalysis: UV/TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (mercury lamps), pH 3.0, 4 h irradiation, 0.25 g L{sup -1} TiO{sub 2} and 10 mmol L{sup -1} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} shows high levels of inorganic and organic compounds eliminations. The obtained COD values: 1753 mg L{sup -1} for the sample from the factory, 160 mg L{sup -1} after EC and 50 mg L{sup -1} after EC/photocatalyzed effluents pointed out that the combined treatment stresses this water purification.

  2. Exploiting the efficacy of Lysinibacillus sp. RGS for decolorization and detoxification of industrial dyes, textile effluent and bioreactor studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratale, Rijuta G; Saratale, Ganesh D; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Kim, Dong S

    2015-01-01

    Complete decolorization and detoxification of Reactive Orange 4 within 5 h (pH 6.6, at 30°C) by isolated Lysinibacillus sp. RGS was observed. Significant reduction in TOC (93%) and COD (90%) was indicative of conversion of complex dye into simple products, which were identified as naphthalene moieties by various analytical techniques (HPLC, FTIR, and GC-MS). Supplementation of agricultural waste extract considered as better option to make the process cost effective. Oxido-reductive enzymes were found to be involved in the degradation mechanism. Finally Loofa immobilized Lysinibacillus sp. cells in a fixed-bed bioreactor showed significant decolorization with reduction in TOC (51 and 64%) and COD (54 and 66%) for synthetic and textile effluent at 30 and 35 mL h(-1) feeding rate, respectively. The degraded metabolites showed non-toxic nature revealed by phytotoxicity and photosynthetic pigments content study for Sorghum vulgare and Phaseolus mungo. In addition nitrogen fixing and phosphate solubilizing microbes were less affected in treated wastewater and thus the treated effluent can be used for the irrigation purpose. This work could be useful for the development of efficient and ecofriendly technologies to reduce dye content in the wastewater to permissible levels at affordable cost.

  3. Feasibility, safety, and economic implications of whey-recovered water in cleaning-in-place systems: A case study on water conservation for the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Yulie E; Flores, Rolando A

    2016-05-01

    Water scarcity is threatening food security and business growth in the United States. In the dairy sector, most of the water is used in cleaning applications; therefore, any attempt to support water conservation in these processes will have a considerable effect on the water footprint of dairy products. This study demonstrates the viability for recovering good quality water from whey, a highly pollutant cheese-making by-product, to be reused in cleaning-in-place systems. The results obtained in this study indicate that by using a combined ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis system, 47% of water can be recovered. This system generates protein and lactose concentrates, by-products that once spray-dried fulfill commercial standards for protein and lactose powders. The physicochemical and microbiological quality of the recovered permeate was also analyzed, suggesting suitable properties to be reused in the cleaning-in-place system without affecting the quality and safety of the product manufactured on the cleaned equipment. A cost analysis was conducted for 3 cheese manufacturing levels, considering an annual production of 1, 20, and 225 million liters of whey. Results indicate the feasibility of this intervention in the dairy industry, generating revenues of $0.18, $3.05, and $33.4 million per year, respectively. The findings provide scientific evidence to promote the safety of reuse of reconditioned water in food processing plants, contributing to building a culture of water conservation and sustainable production throughout the food supply chain. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Green gas in the natural gas distribution system. Towards a zero-energy dairy industry. Part 1; Groen gas op het aardgasnet. Naar een energieneutrale zuivelketen. Deel 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruinsma, B. [KWA Bedrijfsadviseurs, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    This is the second report in a series on 'zero-energy dairy industry' in the Netherlands. In this first report options were explored. In the second report three concrete pilot projects were presented (Beemster, Koudum. St. Oedenrode). In the third report we focus on making the transport part zero-energy [Dutch] Dit rapport is het eerste rapport in de reeks 'naar een energieneutrale zuivelketen' waarin de mogelijkheden worden verkend. In het tweede apport worden drie concrete pilotprojecten gepresenteerd (Beemster, Koudum. St. Oedenrode). In het derde rapport zoomen we in op het energieneutraal maken van het onderdeel transport in de zuivelketen.

  5. CONCAWE effluent speciation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonards, P.; Comber, M.; Forbes, S.; Whale, G.; Den Haan, K.

    2010-09-15

    In preparation for the implementation of the EU REACH regulation, a project was undertaken to transfer the high-resolution analytical method for determining hydrocarbon blocks in petroleum products by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) to a laboratory external to the petroleum industry (Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM) of the VU University of Amsterdam). The method was validated and used for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons extracted from refinery effluents. The report describes the technology transfer and the approaches used to demonstrate the successful transfer and application of the GCxGC methodology from analysing petroleum products to the quantitative determination of hydrocarbon blocks in refinery effluents. The report describes all the methods used for all the determinations on the effluent samples along with an overview of the results obtained which are presented in summary tables and graphs. These data have significantly improved CONCAWE's knowledge of what refineries emit in their effluents. A total of 111 Effluent Discharge Samples from 105 CONCAWE refineries in Europe were obtained in the period June 2008 to March 2009. These effluents were analysed for metals, standard effluent parameters (including COD, BOD), oil in water, BTEX and volatile organic compounds. The hydrocarbon speciation determinations and other hydrocarbon analyses are also reported. The individual refinery analytical results are included into this report, coded as per the CONCAWE system. These data will be, individually, communicated to companies and refineries. The report demonstrates that it is feasible to conduct a research programme to investigate the fate and effects of hydrocarbon blocks present in discharged refinery effluents.

  6. Preparation of high purity nickel film from industrial effluent by the distribution of charge over microelectrodes using newly designed free electrolytic diffusion approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Sheikh Asrar; Qadir, Muhammad Abdul; Zafar, Muhammad Nadeem; Hussain, Ishtiaq; Tufail, Shahid; Rashid, Saima; Shah, Hamid Ali

    2008-01-01

    The present work deals with the development of a newly designed free electrolytic diffusion approach (the distribution of charge over microelectrodes) for the purification of metals and was successfully applied for the purification of nickel from the industrial effluent containing high proportion of nickel. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) analyzed the purified nickel deposited on working microelectrodes. The results obtained show that the purity of nickel was enhanced from 95% to 99.9% with traces of copper etc. It was concluded that distribution of charge over the microcathodes at a rate of 50 cycles per second (cps) shows better results for the production of high purity (HP) nickel as compared to 25 cycles per second (cps)

  7. Preparation of high purity nickel film from industrial effluent by the distribution of charge over microelectrodes using newly designed free electrolytic diffusion approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Sheikh Asrar; Qadir, Muhammad Abdul [Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan); Zafar, Muhammad Nadeem [Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan)], E-mail: znadeempk@yahoo.com; Hussain, Ishtiaq [Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan); Tufail, Shahid [PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Feroz pur Road, Lahore (Pakistan); Rashid, Saima; Shah, Hamid Ali [Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan)

    2008-09-15

    The present work deals with the development of a newly designed free electrolytic diffusion approach (the distribution of charge over microelectrodes) for the purification of metals and was successfully applied for the purification of nickel from the industrial effluent containing high proportion of nickel. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) analyzed the purified nickel deposited on working microelectrodes. The results obtained show that the purity of nickel was enhanced from 95% to 99.9% with traces of copper etc. It was concluded that distribution of charge over the microcathodes at a rate of 50 cycles per second (cps) shows better results for the production of high purity (HP) nickel as compared to 25 cycles per second (cps)

  8. Effect of alkaline and acidic fractions of industrial effluents on some lymphoid cells of the fish Rasbora daniconius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth, T K; Balasubramanian, N K; John, P A

    1981-01-01

    The percentage frequency of the different types of lymphoid cell found in the head-kidney of Rasbora daniconius exposed for 24 h to lc/sub 50/ levels of the ammonia (alkali), phosphoric and sulphuric acid fractions of the effluent from a fertiliser factory was determined by the imprint method. 'T' tests showed that both the alkaline and the acidic fractions could significantly affect the composition of the lymphoid cell population. Different types of lymphoid cell reacted differently to the different fractions; some cell types increased in number while others decreased. Some cell types were not affected. This indicated some sort of specificity in the action of the fractions on the lymphoid cells.

  9. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization plan. Area 6 Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 South and North Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration Division (ERD). The purposes of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste (IDW). The scope of the characterization may include excavation, drilling, and sampling of soil in and around both ponds; sampling of the excavated material; in situ sampling of the soil at the bottom and on the sides of the excavations as well as within subsurface borings; and conducting sample analysis for both characterization and waste management purposes. Contaminants of concern include RCRA-regulated VOCs and metals

  10. Treatment of industrial effluents using electron beam accelerator and adsorption with activated carbon. A comparative study; Tratamento de efluentes industriais utilizando a radiacao ionizante de acelerador industrial de eletrons e por adsorcao com carvao ativado. Estudo comparativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Las Casas, Alexandre

    2004-07-01

    Several methods are used In the pollutant removal from Industrial and domestic wastewater. However when the degradation of toxic organic pollutants, mainly the recalcitrant is objectified, the conventional treatments usually do not meet the desirable performance in the elimination or decrease the impact when the effluent are released to the environment what takes to the research of alternative methods that seek the improvement of the efficiency of the wastewater treatment systems jointly employees or separately. This work presents a study of degradation/removal of pollutants organic compounds comparing two methods using radiation from industrial electron beam and granular activated carbon (GAC). The removal efficiency of the pollutants was evaluated and it was verified that the efficiency of adsorption with activated carbon is similar to the radiation method. The obtained results allowed to evaluated the relative costs of these methods. (author)

  11. Avaliação da produção de lipases por diferentes cepas de microrganismos isolados em efluentes de laticínios por fermentação submersa Evaluation of lipase production using different strains of microorganisms isolated from dairy effluent through submerged fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Roveda

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A produção enzimática é um dos campos mais promissores dentro das tecnologias para a síntese de compostos de alto valor agregado, estando em constante crescimento pela grande capacidade dos microrganismos de realizarem transformações químicas. As enzimas produzidas por processos fermentativos têm sido utilizadas para o controle ambiental. Muitas destas enzimas podem ser produzidas a partir de resíduos industriais, diminuindo os custos de produção. As lipases são enzimas que catalisam a hidrólise de triglicerídeos em glicerídeos e ácidos graxos. As lipases vêm sendo utilizadas na redução da concentração dos lipídios contidos nos efluentes, promovendo a hidrólise dos óleos e gorduras presentes. Objetivou-se avaliar a produção de lipases por fungos isolados a partir de efluentes de laticínios. Foram isolados 21 fungos, pertencentes aos gêneros Penicillium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma e Fusarium. Na etapa de seleção, 9 fungos foram selecionados devido à capacidade de crescimento em meio contendo azeite de oliva como substrato. Na fermentação submersa, os fungos E9 (Aspergillus, E21 (Aspergillus e E20 (Penicillium foram os que apresentaram as maiores atividades enzimáticas, de 1,250 a 2,250 U, utilizando-se como meio de cultivo o efluente coletado na saída do equalizador do sistema de tratamento de efluente.Enzymatic production is one of the most promising fields within technologies for the synthesis of high added value compounds, given their constant growth due to the great capacity of microorganisms to carry out chemical transformations. The enzymes produced from fermentation processes have been used for environmental control. Many of these enzymes can be produced from industrial residues, reducing the production cost. Lipases are a group of enzymes that catalyze hydrolysis of triglycerides to glycerides and fatty acids. Lipases have been used to reduce the concentration of lipids contained in effluent, promoting

  12. Characterization of tuna cooking effluents generated in seafood canning industries; Caracterizacion de los efluentes de coccion de atum generados en la industrias conserveras de productos marinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Paz, D.; Torres Ayaso, A. B.; Vieites Baptista de Sousa, J. M.

    2006-07-01

    Tuna cooking effluents from different factories were analyzed, in this work. It has been analyzed effluents form water cooking and steam cooking processes. Steam cooking effluents are more appropriate for protein recovery due to the higher protein concentrations (up to 10 g/l, in some cases) and lower volume. Besides, steam cooking effluents, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) were up to 50 and 5 g/l, respectively. Different correlations between the main parameters the main parameters have been found, for example protein and TKN concentrations of a tuna cooking effluent can be estimated from COD concentrations. (Author) 9 refs.

  13. The Tanga Dairy Platform: Fostering Innovations for more Efficient Dairy Chain Coordination in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Joseph Cadilhon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Tanga Dairy Platform, created in 2008, is an informal forum of different stakeholders involved in the dairy industry of Tanzania’s Northeastern Tanga region. The platform’s objective is to exchange knowledge and develop joint actions to common problems. Six years on, it is a sustainable example of a commodity association addressing the joint problems of the region’s dairy industry. The platform has achieved a common understanding among chain actors on dairy price structure; it has successfully lobbied policy makers to reduce value-added tax on dairy inputs and products, and to remove limitations on urban dairy farming in Tanga city.

  14. Treatment of real effluents from the pharmaceutical industry: A comparison between Fenton oxidation and conductive-diamond electro-oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, J F; Llanos, J; Sáez, C; López, C; Cañizares, P; Rodrigo, M A

    2017-06-15

    Wastewater produced in pharmaceutical manufacturing plants (PMPs), especially the one coming from organic-synthesis facilities, is characterized by its large variability due to the wide range of solvents and chemical reagents used in the different stages of the production of medicines. Normally, the toxicity of the organic compounds prevent the utilization of biological processes and more powerful treatments are needed becoming advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) a valid alternative. In this work, the efficiency in abatement of pollution by Fenton oxidation (FO) and conductive-diamond electro-oxidation (CDEO) are compared in the treatment of 60 real effluents coming from different processes carried out in a pharmaceutical facility, using standardized tests. In 80% of the samples, CDEO was found to be more efficient than FO and in the remaining 20%, coagulation was found to exhibit a great significance in the COD abatement mechanism during FO, pointing out the effectiveness of the oxidation promoted by the electrochemical technology. Mean oxidation state of carbon was found to be a relevant parameter to understand the behavior of the oxidation technologies. It varied inversely proportional to efficiency in FO and it showed practically no influence in the case of CDEO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The success of applying marketing mix 4Ps in Vietnamese dairy industry : Vinamilk – a typical case

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Truc

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on what Vinamilk has done and achieved by applying the concept of marketing mix 4Ps to become the biggest milk enterprise in Vietnamese dairy market at present. The literature is aggregated from textbooks, e-books, journals, and varieties of economics online webpages relating to the contents of the marketing mix 4Ps: product, price, place, and promotion. The secondary data of this thesis is mainly collected from online newspaper articles, as well as the Annual Report 20...

  16. Development of a Polyphenol Oxidase Biosensor from Jenipapo Fruit Extract (Genipa americana L. and Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Textile Industrial Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Souza Antunes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an innovative polyphenol oxidase biosensor was developed from Jenipapo (Genipa americana L. fruit and used to assess phenolic compounds in industrial effluent samples obtained from a textile industry located in Jaraguá-GO, Brasil. The biosensor was prepared and optimized according to: the proportion of crude vegetal extract, pH and overall voltammetric parameters for differential pulse voltammetry. The calibration curve presented a linear interval from 10 to 310 µM (r2 = 0.9982 and a limit of detection of 7 µM. Biosensor stability was evaluated throughout 15 days, and it exhibited 88.22% of the initial response. The amount of catechol standard recovered post analysis varied between 87.50% and 96.00%. Moreover, the biosensor was able to detect phenolic compounds in a real sample, and the results were in accordance with standard spectrophotometric assays. Therefore, the innovatively-designed biosensor hereby proposed is a promising tool for phenolic compound detection and quantification when environmental contaminants are concerned.

  17. Evaluation of Adsorption Capacity of Chitosan-Citral Schiff Base for Wastewater Pre-Treatment in Dairy Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava K. Tsaneva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to evaluate the adsorption capacity of the Schiff base chitosan-citral for its application in dairy wastewater pre-treatment. Chemical oxygen demand (COD reduction was the factor used to evaluate the adsorption efficiency. The maximum COD percentage reduction of 35.3% was obtained at 40.0 °C, pH 9.0, adsorbent dose 15 g L-1, contact time 180 min and agitation speed 100 rpm. It was found that the Langmuir isotherm fitted well the equilibrium data of COD uptake (R2 = 0.968, whereas the kinetic data were best fitted by the pseudo-second order model (R2=0.999. Enhancement of the adsorption efficiency up to 29.8% in dependence of the initial COD concentration of the dairy wastewater was observed by adsorption with the Schiff base chitosan-citral adsorbent compared to the non-modified chitosan at the same experimental conditions. The results indicated that the Schiff base chitosan-citral can be used for dairy wastewater physicochemical pretreatment by adsorption, which might be applied before the biological unit in the wastewater treatment plant to reduce the load.

  18. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) of Belford Roxo industrial plant effluent and its contribution in water quality of downstream of Sarapui River, Iguacu River sub-basin, Baia da Guanabara Basin, RJ, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Luiz Eduardo Botelho

    2006-01-01

    The quality of Belford Roxo Industrial Plant effluent and water from Sarapui River were evaluated with Daphnia similis, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Danio rerio acute and chronic toxicity tests. In association with the ecotoxicological monitoring, the Toxicity Identification Evaluation procedure were performed and the identification of the toxic compounds was possible. The Chloride ion was identified as the major toxic compound in the effluent with additional effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. For the Sarapui River, the compounds of Phosphorus and Nitrogen were identified as the major toxic compounds with addictive effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. Although the environmental impact estimation based on the effluent toxicity suggests a minor impact on the water quality of Sarapui River, this was already sufficiently contaminated to make impracticable the establishment of an aquatic community. The constant discharge of untreated sludge promotes the eutrophication of this water body and makes impossible the equilibrium of this ecosystem. (author)

  19. Improving photofermentative biohydrogen production by using intermittent ultrasonication and combined industrial effluents from palm oil, pulp and paper mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiman, Pretty Mori; Wu, Ta Yeong; Ramanan, Ramakrishnan Nagasundara; Md Jahim, Jamaliah

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Intermittent ultrasonication onto broth improved biohydrogen production. • A20T10 treatment produced 14.438 mL H_2/mL_m_e_d_i_u_m with 7.412% light efficiency. • Excessive ultrasonication (>306.1 J/mL) inhibited biohydrogen production. - Abstract: An ultrasonication technique was applied intermittently onto photofermentation broth during the first six hours of photofermentation to improve biohydrogen production by using Rhodobacter sphaeroides NCIMB8253. In this research, photofermentation broth consisted of a combination of palm oil (25%, v/v), pulp and paper (75%, v/v) mill effluents as well as liquid inoculum. The effects of amplitude (10, 20 and 30%, A) and ultrasonication duration (5, 10 and 15 min, T) were investigated in terms of their influences on photofermentative biohydrogen yield and total chemical oxygen demand (COD_t_o_t_a_l) removal. The recommended ultrasonication parameters were found at the middle range of amplitude and duration (A20T10). Using A20T10 intermittent treatment, the production of biohydrogen could be maximized up to 14.438 mL H_2/mL_m_e_d_i_u_m with a COD_t_o_t_a_l removal and light efficiency of 52.2% and 7.412%, respectively. By comparing the treatment without intermittent ultrasonication, an increase of biohydrogen yield by 44.6% was achieved in A20T10 treatment. A total energy input of 306.1 J/mL (A20T10 treatment) was supplied to improve substrate consumption and light distribution during the photofermentation, which led to the increase of biohydrogen yield.

  20. In vivo assessment of an industrial waste product as a feed additive in dairy cows: Effects of larch (Larix decidua L.) sawdust on blood parameters and milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, D; Garavaglia, L; Spagnuolo, M S; Pferschy-Wenzig, E M; Bauer, R; Franz, C

    2015-12-01

    When larch (Larix spp.) is processed in the wood industry, the sawdust is currently disposed of as waste or used as combustible material, even though it is rich in biologically active compounds. In this study the effect of larch sawdust supplementation on blood parameters as well as milk composition was examined in healthy mid-lactating dairy cows. Twenty-four multiparous Italian Friesian dairy cows were assigned to groups receiving either 300 g/day/cow of larch sawdust or a control diet, and treatments were continued for a 20 day period. Milk parameters were unaffected by treatment. A lower plasma total protein concentration was observed and can be attributed to a decrease in globulin concentration. A lower plasma urea concentration was also detected in the larch group. Moreover, biomarkers of liver function were influenced by the treatment. Total bilirubin was lower in larch-treated animals, and cholesterol tended to be lower. In addition, an interaction between day and treatment was observed for very low density lipoprotein. The concentration of other parameters, including reactive oxygen metabolites, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and nitrotyrosine, did not differ between treatments. The observed benefits, together with the good palatability, make larch sawdust a promising candidate for the development of beneficial feed supplements for livestock. Further studies will be useful, particularly to evaluate its efficacy in different health conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro Study of Noni Juice Extract Waste (Morinda citrifolia L.) and Pineapple Industrial Wastes (Ananas comosus L. Merr) as Energy Supplement in Dairy Goat Ration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evvyernie, D.; Tjakradidjaja, A. S.; Permana, I. G.; Toharmat, T.; Insani, A.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potency of noni juice extract waste (Morinda citrifolia L.) and pineapple industrial wastes (Ananas comosus L. Merr) as an energy supplement in dairy goat ration through in vitro study. This study used a complete randomized design with 5 treatments and 3 rumen fluid groups. The treatments were R0 as control (60% Napier grass (NG) + 40% concentrate), R1 (45% NG + 15% noni juice extract waste + 40% concentrate) + R2 (45% NG + 15% noni juice extract waste ammoniated + 40% concentrate), R3 (45% NG + 15% pineapple peel + 40% concentrate), and R4 (45% NG + 15% pineapple crown + 40% concentrate). The variables were totalbacterial population, protozoal population, fermentation characteristic (total VFA and NH3 concentration), and digestibility (dry matter and organic matter).Data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and differences among treatments were determined by orthogonal contrast.The results showed that total VFA concentration was significant increased (Ppineapple peel (R3). The average increasing of total VFA concentration was 74% compared to control. As conclusions, 15% pineapple peel or 15% noni juice extract waste can use as an energy supplement by replacing 25% of napier grass in lactating dairy goat ration.

  2. Effluent standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, G C [Pennsylvania State University (United States)

    1974-07-01

    At the conference there was a considerable interest in research reactor standards and effluent standards in particular. On the program, this is demonstrated by the panel discussion on effluents, the paper on argon 41 measured by Sims, and the summary paper by Ringle, et al. on the activities of ANS research reactor standards committee (ANS-15). As a result, a meeting was organized to discuss the proposed ANS standard on research reactor effluents (15.9). This was held on Tuesday evening, was attended by members of the ANS-15 committee who were present at the conference, participants in the panel discussion on the subject, and others interested. Out of this meeting came a number of excellent suggestions for changes which will increase the utility of the standard, and a strong recommendation that the effluent standard (15.9) be combined with the effluent monitoring standard. It is expected that these suggestions and recommendations will be incorporated and a revised draft issued for comment early this summer. (author)

  3. Sistemas de custeio para firmas agroalimentares: o caso dos laticínios e empresas processadoras de soja no Brasil Cost management systems for agrifood firms: the case of the dairy industry and soya bean industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cezar Leandro Scramim

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a aplicação de sistemas de custeio pelas indústrias processadoras de soja e laticínios no Brasil. O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar se a estrutura do setor, ao influenciar a estratégia competitiva a ser adotada pelas organizações, influenciaria o sistema de apuração e controle de custos utilizado nas empresas estudadas. A metodologia utilizada foi a entrevista pessoal junto a 06 (seis esmagadoras de soja e 08 (oito laticínios. No setor lácteo, os resultados apontam para um estado bastante precário relativo à utilização de sistemas de gerenciamento de custos. Por outro lado, no setor de oleaginosas verificou-se uma maior preocupação com a utilização de sistemas de controle mais rigorosos dos custos industriais, evidenciado pela utilização intensiva de sistemas de custeio mais tradicionais.This paper analyses the application of cost management systems in the Brazilian soya bean and dairy industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the structure of the sector, which influences the competitive strategy of the organizations, would influence the cost management system that the firms were using. The methodology was based on personal interviews in 06 (six soya bean companies and 08 (eight dairy companies. In the dairy sector the results indicate a precarious situation related to the application of the cost management systems. On the other hand, in the soya bean sector the results show a greater concern with the use of more rigorous control systems of the industrial costs. This was demonstrated by the intensive use of more traditional cost management systems by the companies studied.

  4. Developing a Contemporary Dairy Foods Extension Program: A Training and Technical Resource Needs Assessment of Pennsylvania Dairy Foods Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrko, Joseph; Kaylegian, Kerry E.

    2015-01-01

    Growth in the dairy industry and the passage of the Food Safety Modernization Act have renewed interest in dairy foods processing extension positions. A needs assessment survey was sent to Pennsylvania dairy processors and raw milk providers to guide priorities for a dairy foods extension program. The successful development and delivery of…

  5. Analytical strategies for uranium determination in natural water and industrial effluents samples; Estrategias analiticas para determinacao de uranio em amostras de aguas e efluentes industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Juracir Silva

    2011-07-01

    The work was developed under the project 993/2007 - 'Development of analytical strategies for uranium determination in environmental and industrial samples - Environmental monitoring in the Caetite city, Bahia, Brazil' and made possible through a partnership established between Universidade Federal da Bahia and the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear. Strategies were developed to uranium determination in natural water and effluents of uranium mine. The first one was a critical evaluation of the determination of uranium by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) performed using factorial and Doehlert designs involving the factors: acid concentration, radio frequency power and nebuliser gas flow rate. Five emission lines were simultaneously studied (namely: 367.007, 385.464, 385.957, 386.592 and 409.013 nm), in the presence of HN0{sub 3}, H{sub 3}C{sub 2}00H or HCI. The determinations in HN0{sub 3} medium were the most sensitive. Among the factors studied, the gas flow rate was the most significant for the five emission lines. Calcium caused interference in the emission intensity for some lines and iron did not interfere (at least up to 10 mg L{sup -1}) in the five lines studied. The presence of 13 other elements did not affect the emission intensity of uranium for the lines chosen. The optimized method, using the line at 385.957 nm, allows the determination of uranium with limit of quantification of 30 {mu}g L{sup -1} and precision expressed as RSD lower than 2.2% for uranium concentrations of either 500 and 1000 {mu}g L{sup -1}. In second one, a highly sensitive flow-based procedure for uranium determination in natural waters is described. A 100-cm optical path flow cell based on a liquid-core waveguide (LCW) was exploited to increase sensitivity of the arsenazo 111 method, aiming to achieve the limits established by environmental regulations. The flow system was designed with solenoid micro-pumps in order to improve mixing and

  6. STUDY CONCERNING THE PRODUCTION OF BIOMASS PROTEIN BY VALORISATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM THE DAIRY INDUSTRY ETUDE CONCERNANT L’OBTENTION DE BIOMASSE PROTEIQUE PAR VALORISATION DES SOUS-PRODUITS DE L’INDUSTRIE LAITIERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUMINITA GROSU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of the food industry ensures the necessary protein for the population and in this perspective the valorisation of by-products from the dairy industry (whey and buttermilk can be a solution in this direction. Whey is a very important substrate for the biosynthesis of single cell protein by its lactose content which is the main source of fermentable substrate for yeasts. As part of our research, the biomass protein was obtained using whey as source of lactose and other sugars and yeast strains of Candida utilis. The modelling program used is 2nd order system centred with three variables: amount of sugar, amount of nitrogen and quantity of phosphorus. The following parameters have been pursued: biomass content, yield of sugar consumption and protein content. The process conditions are influenced by the addition of different nutrients.

  7. ANALISIS PEMBOBOTAN KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATOR (KPI DENGAN SCOR MODEL MENGGUNAKAN METODE ANALITICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP PRODUK KEJU MOZZARELLA DI CV BRAWIJAYA DAIRY INDUSTRY, JUNREJO KOTA BATU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariani Ariani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pembobotan Key performance Indicator dengan model SCOR menggunakan metode Analitical Hierarchy Process (AHP produk keju mozzarella di CV Brawijaya Dairy Industry. Hasil penelitian di peroleh 36 Key Performance Indicator yang disesuikan dengan model SCOR yaitu plan, source, deliver, make (process, dan return. Hasil pembobotan dengan menggunakan pembobotan AHP pada hierarki tingkat 1 yang memiliki bobot tertinggi adalah make (process dengan nilai bobot 0,534. Hal ini dikarenakan perusahaan mementingkan kualitas produk yang dipengaruhi oleh proses produksi. Pada hierarki tingkat 2 bobot tertinggi terdapat pada variabel reliability dengan total bobot 0,739. Sedangkan nilai bobot tertinggi pada hierarki tingkat 3 (Key Performance Indicator  adalah pada KPI 24 Kehandalan kinerja karyawan dalam mengolah menjadi produk jadi dengan total bobot 0,180.

  8. Quantitative evaluation of the alkaline phosphatase activity in industrial and traditional dairy products supplied in Ahvaz as an indicator of pasteurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zarei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline phosphatase is an indigenous milk enzyme and is probably, the most important indigenous milk enzyme from a dairy technology viewpoint which is used to determine the efficacy of the pasteurization process. The aim of this study was to assess the alkaline phosphatase activity of 200 samples of industrial and traditional yoghurt, ice cream and cheese, as well as raw and pasteurized milk samples. To achieve this purpose, p-nitrophenylphosphate was used as substrate and the amount of liberated p-nitrophenol was measured spectrophotometrically. The amount of liberated p-nitrophenol in all samples of raw milk was very high (6839±4070 µg/ml but in pasteurized milk samples, the amount was in the range of 0.75-52.96 µg/ml and 88% of the samples had less than 10 µg p-nitrophenol/ml, the maximum permissible limit of p-nitrophenol in pasteurized products. The amount of liberated p-nitrophenol was in the range of 5.68-1210 µg/ml and 2.61-18.22 µg/ml in traditional and industrial cheese samples, respectively and it was estimated at the range of 0.75-26.67 µg/ml and 0.71- 35.82 µg/ml for traditional and industrial ice cream samples, respectively. The lowest alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in both industrial and traditional yoghurt samples. Meanwhile, p-nitrophenol in 12% of industrial cheese, 44% of traditional cheese and 16% of both industrial and traditional ice cream samples was higher than 10 µg/ml which could be due to the inadequate pasteurization of the product or cross contamination with raw milk. The results of the present study showed a need for more strict attention in the pasteurization of milk and its products.

  9. Ultratrace Determination of Cr(VI and Pb(II by Microsample Injection System Flame Atomic Spectroscopy in Drinking Water and Treated and Untreated Industrial Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameel Ahmed Baig

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple and robust analytical procedures were developed for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI and lead (Pb(II by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME using microsample injection system coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (MIS-FAAS. For the current study, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC, carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol were used as chelating agent, extraction solvent, and disperser solvent, respectively. The effective variables of developed method have been optimized and studied in detail. The limit of detection of Cr(VI and Pb(II were 0.037 and 0.054 µg/L, respectively. The enrichment factors in both cases were 400 with 40 mL of initial volumes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, were 96%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(VI and Pb(II at ultratrace levels in natural drinking water and industrial effluents wastewater of Denizli. Moreover, the proposed method was compared with the literature reported method.

  10. Application of a continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Karray, Fatma; Mhiri, Najla; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2011-01-01

    A continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) was used to optimize feasible and reliable bioprocess system in order to treat hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewaters. A successful bioremediation was developed by an efficient acclimatized microbial consortium. After an experimental period of 225 days, the process was shown to be highly efficient in decontaminating the wastewater. The performance of the bioaugmented reactor was demonstrated by the reduction of COD rates up to 95%. The residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) decreased from 320 mg TPH l -1 to 8 mg TPH l -1 . Analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified 26 hydrocarbons. The use of the mixed cultures demonstrated high degradation performance for hydrocarbons range n-alkanes (C10-C35). Six microbial isolates from the CSTR were characterized and species identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that 5 strains were closely related to Aeromonas punctata (Aeromonas caviae), Bacillus cereus, Ochrobactrum intermedium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Rhodococcus sp. The 6th isolate was affiliated to genera Achromobacter. Besides, the treated wastewater could be considered as non toxic according to the phytotoxicity test since the germination index of Lepidium sativum ranged between 57 and 95%. The treatment provided satisfactory results and presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries.

  11. Application of a continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Karray, Fatma; Mhiri, Najla; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2011-05-15

    A continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) was used to optimize feasible and reliable bioprocess system in order to treat hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewaters. A successful bioremediation was developed by an efficient acclimatized microbial consortium. After an experimental period of 225 days, the process was shown to be highly efficient in decontaminating the wastewater. The performance of the bioaugmented reactor was demonstrated by the reduction of COD rates up to 95%. The residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) decreased from 320 mg TPH l(-1) to 8 mg TPH l(-1). Analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified 26 hydrocarbons. The use of the mixed cultures demonstrated high degradation performance for hydrocarbons range n-alkanes (C10-C35). Six microbial isolates from the CSTR were characterized and species identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that 5 strains were closely related to Aeromonas punctata (Aeromonas caviae), Bacillus cereus, Ochrobactrum intermedium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Rhodococcus sp. The 6th isolate was affiliated to genera Achromobacter. Besides, the treated wastewater could be considered as non toxic according to the phytotoxicity test since the germination index of Lepidium sativum ranged between 57 and 95%. The treatment provided satisfactory results and presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of a continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Karray, Fatma; Mhiri, Najla; Aloui, Fathi [Laboratoire des Bioprocedes Environnementaux, Pole d' Excellence Regional AUF-LBPE, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, Universite de Sfax, BP 1117, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Sayadi, Sami, E-mail: sami.sayadi@cbs.rnrt.tn [Laboratoire des Bioprocedes Environnementaux, Pole d' Excellence Regional AUF-LBPE, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, Universite de Sfax, BP 1117, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2011-05-15

    A continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) was used to optimize feasible and reliable bioprocess system in order to treat hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewaters. A successful bioremediation was developed by an efficient acclimatized microbial consortium. After an experimental period of 225 days, the process was shown to be highly efficient in decontaminating the wastewater. The performance of the bioaugmented reactor was demonstrated by the reduction of COD rates up to 95%. The residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) decreased from 320 mg TPH l{sup -1} to 8 mg TPH l{sup -1}. Analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified 26 hydrocarbons. The use of the mixed cultures demonstrated high degradation performance for hydrocarbons range n-alkanes (C10-C35). Six microbial isolates from the CSTR were characterized and species identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that 5 strains were closely related to Aeromonas punctata (Aeromonas caviae), Bacillus cereus, Ochrobactrum intermedium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Rhodococcus sp. The 6th isolate was affiliated to genera Achromobacter. Besides, the treated wastewater could be considered as non toxic according to the phytotoxicity test since the germination index of Lepidium sativum ranged between 57 and 95%. The treatment provided satisfactory results and presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries.

  13. Electrochemical oxidation of bio-refractory dye in a simulated textile industry effluent using DSA electrodes in a filter-press type FM01-LC reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Francisca A; Mateo, María N; Aceves, Juan M; Rivero, Eligio P; González, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a study on degradation of indigo carmine dye in a filter-press type FM01-LC reactor using Sb2O5-doped Ti/IrO2-SnO2 dimensionally stable anode (DSA) electrodes. Micro- and macroelectrolysis studies were carried out using solutions of 0.8 mM indigo carmine in 0.05 M NaCl, which resemble blue denim laundry industrial wastewater. Microelectrolysis results show the behaviour of DSA electrodes in comparison with the behaviour of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. In general, dye degradation reactions are carried out indirectly through active chlorine generated on DSA, whereas in the case of BDD electrodes more oxidizing species are formed, mainly OH radicals, on the electrode surface. The well-characterized geometry, flow pattern and mass transport of the FM01-LC reactor used in macroelectrolysis experiments allowed the evaluation of the effect of hydrodynamic conditions on the chlorine-mediated degradation rate. Four values of Reynolds number (Re) (93, 371, 464 and 557) at four current densities (50, 100, 150 and 200 A/m2) were tested. The results show that the degradation rate is independent of Re at low current density (50 A/m2) but becomes dependent on the Re at high current density (200 A/m2). This behaviour shows the central role of mass transport and the reactor parameters and design. The low energy consumption (2.02 and 9.04 kWh/m3 for complete discolouration and chemical oxygen demand elimination at 50 A/m2, respectively) and the low cost of DSA electrodes compared to BDD make DSA electrodes promising for practical application in treating industrial textile effluents. In the present study, chlorinated organic compounds were not detected.

  14. VOC removal and deodorization of effluent gases from an industrial plant by photo-oxidation, chemical oxidation, and ozonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeño, Celia; Rodríguez-Lafuente, Angel; Martos, J M; Bilbao, Rafael; Nerín, Cristina

    2010-04-01

    The efficiency of photo-oxidation, chemical oxidation by sodium hypochlorite, and ozonization for the industrial-scale removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and odors from gaseous emissions was studied by applying these treatments (in an experimental system) to substances passing through an emission stack of a factory producing maize derivatives. Absorption and ozonization were the most efficient treatment, removing 75% and 98% of VOCs, respectively, while photo-oxidation only removed about 59%. The emitted chemical compounds and odors were identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (in full-scan mode). In addition to presenting the results, their implications for selecting optimal processes for treating volatile emissions are discussed.

  15. Remediação de efluentes derivados da indústria de papel e celulose: tratamento biológico e fotocatalítico Remediation of effluents from paper and cellulose industry: biological and photocatalytic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Peralta-Zamora

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of the industrial activities to the environmental contamination phenomena is evident. Great efforts are dedicated to the establishment of methodologies which permits an adequate treatment of the produced effluents, as a manner of minimizing the environmental impact of these wastes. The methodologies based on photocatalytic processes are very promise alternatives, because permits degradation of a great number of chemical substances of high toxic potential, without the use of other chemicals. The present work is an overview about the principal environmental aspects related with the paper and cellulose industry and the main alternatives employed for the reduction of environmental impact produced for its residues. The principal results of the photocatalytic treatment of this kind of effluents using metallic semiconductors is also showed.

  16. Decree no 96-761 from August 27, 1996 authorizing the company for industrial wastes and effluents conditioning to create a basic nuclear installation, named Centraco, in the town of Codolet (Gard department)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juppe, A.; Borotra, F.; Lepage, C.

    1996-01-01

    This decree from the French prime minister, the minister of environment and the minister of industry and postal services gives permission to the Socodei company to create a basic nuclear installation, named Centraco, in the town of Codolet (Gard department, France) for the selection, decontamination, valorization, treatment and conditioning of low radioactive effluents and wastes from French and foreign industries. The decree describes the Centraco installation (buildings, incineration and storage unit, maintenance unit). It summarizes the technical rules which must be applied concerning the quality assurance, the protection against risks of radioactive or chemical materials dissemination, the personnel and public protection against ionizing radiations, the control of environmental pollution with liquid and gaseous effluents, the reduction of volume and radioactivity of solid wastes, the transport and handling of radioactive materials, the protection against earthquakes and fire, the safety systems for plant operation, and the personnel training. (J.S.)

  17. Deposition of chromium in aquatic ecosystem from effluents of handloom textile industries in Ranaghat–Fulia region of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmay Sanyal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of chromium (Cr was determined in water, sediment, aquatic plants, invertebrates and fish in aquatic ecosystems receiving effluents from handloom textile industries in Ranaghat–Fulia region of West Bengal in India. Cr was determined in the samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and data were analyzed functionally by Genetic Algorithm to determine trend of depositions of Cr in the sediment and water. Area plot curve was used to represent accumulation of Cr in biota. The results indicate that the aquatic ecosystems receiving the effluents from handloom textile factories are heavily contaminated by Cr. The contamination is hardly reflected in the concentration of Cr in water, but sediment exhibits seasonal fluctuation in deposition of Cr, concentration reaching to as high as 451.0 μg g−1 during the peak production period. There is a clear trend of gradual increase in the deposition of Cr in the sediment. Aquatic weed, insect and mollusk specimens collected from both closed water bodies (S1 & S2 and riverine resources (S3 & S4 showed high rate of accumulation of Cr. Maximum concentration of Cr was detected in roots of aquatic weeds (877.5 μg g−1. Fish specimens collected from the polluted sites (S3 & S4 of river Churni showed moderate to high concentration of Cr in different tissues. Maximum concentration was detected in the liver of Glossogobius giuris (679.7 μg g−1 during monsoon followed by gill of Mystus bleekeri (190.0 μg g−1 and gut of G. giuris (123.7 μg g−1 during summer. Eutropiichthys vacha showed moderately high concentration of Cr in different tissues (65–99 μg g−1 while Puntius sarana showed relatively low concentration of Cr (below detection limit to 18.0 μg g−1 in different tissues except in gill (64.4 μg g−1.

  18. Chemical and microbiological water quality of subsurface agricultural drains during a field trial of liquid dairy manure effluent application rate and varying tillage practices, Upper Tiffin Watershed, southeastern Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan Kidd; Duris, Joseph W.

    2008-01-01

    A field trial was done in the Upper Tiffin River Watershed, in southeastern Michigan, to determine the influence of liquid dairy manure effluent (LDME) management practices on the quality of agricultural subsurface-drain water. Samples from subsurface drains were analyzed for nutrients, fecal-coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, antibiotics, chemicals typically detected in wastewater, and the occurrence of genes indicating the presence of shiga-toxin-producing E. coli, or of bovine-specific Bacteroidetes bacteria. Samples were collected from November 2, 2006, to March 20, 2007, from eight subsurface drains under field plots that received no LDME and no tillage (controls) or received 4,000 or 8,000 gallons per acre (gal/acre) of LDME and either no tillage or two different types of tillage. The two types of tillage tested were (1) ground-driven, rotary, subsurface cultivation and (2) rolling-tine aeration. Samples were collected before LDME application and at 4 hours, and 1, 2, 6, 7, and 14 days post-application. Nutrient concentrations were high in subsurface-drain water throughout the field-trial period and could not be attributed to the field-trial LDME application. Of the 59 drain-water samples, including those collected before LDME application and control samples for each date, 56 had concentrations greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Ecoregion VI recommended surface-water criterion for total phosphorus, and all samples had concentrations greater than the recommended total nitrogen criterion. Nitrate + nitrite nitrogen concentration exceeded 20 milligrams per liter for every sample and contributed most to the total nitrogen concentrations. Substantial increases in drain-water concentrations of organic and ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus were found for all treatments, including controls, at 14 days post-application after 0.84 inch of rainfall over 2 days. E. coli concentrations exceeded the USEPA recreational

  19. DAIRY DEREGULATION AND LOW-INPUT DAIRY PRODUCTION: A BIOECONOMIC EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Tozer, Peter R.; Huffaker, Ray G.

    1999-01-01

    Deregulation of the Australian dairy industry could affect the utilization of resources by milk producers and the profitability of dairy production. In this study we examine the feed mix that dairy producers use, both pastures and supplements, under partial and total deregulation. We are particularly interested in the interaction of pasture utilization and farm profitability. The results of this research demonstrate that profitable low-input dairy is constrained by the most limiting resource,...

  20. Investigation of hydrogenase molecular marker to optimize hydrogen production from organic wastes and effluents of agro-food industries [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years policy makers have started looking for alternatives to fossil fuels, not only to counter the threat of global warming, but also to reduce the risk of overdependence on imported oil and gas supplies. By contrast with hydrocarbon fuels, hydrogen (H2, whether burned directly or used in fuel cells, is intrinsically a clean energy vector with near zero emission. However the main current method of producing hydrogen, steam reforming of methane, involves the release of large quantities of greenhouse gases. So although hydrogen already accounts for around 2% of world consumption of energy, its more widespread adoption is limited by several challenges. Therefore new processes are investigated, especially those using renewable raw material, e.g. woods and organic wastes, and/or involving microorganisms. Indeed, for some algae and bacteria, the generation of molecular hydrogen is an essential part of their energy metabolism. The approach with the greatest commercial potential is fermentative hydrogen generation (dark fermentation by bacteria from the Clostridium genus. This biological process, as a part of the methane-producing anaerobic digestion process, is very promising since it allows the production of hydrogen from a wide variety of renewable resources such as carbohydrate waste from the agricultural and agro-food industries or processed urban waste and sewage. To date most publications on hydrogen production by Clostridium strains have focused on the effects of operating parameters (such as temperature, pH, dilution rate, etc.. We now need to extend this knowledge by identifying and monitoring the various different metabolic agents involved in high H2 activity. Consequently the aim of this research at the CWBI in the University of Liege is to investigate the role of [Fe] hydrogenases, the key enzymes that remove excess electrons accumulating during fermentation. Clostridium butyricum CWBI1009, the strain used for these investigations

  1. Upflow anaerobic sludge reactors for the treatment of combined industrial effluent in subtropical conditions: a comparison between UASB and UASF reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasar, A.; Ahmad, N.; Chaudhry, M.N.; Sarwar, M.; Masood, T.; Yaqub, A.

    2005-01-01

    The performance of anaerobic biological process is heavily process conditions dependent. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the influence of process conditions like temperature, sludge age and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the efficiency of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and upflow anaerobic sludge filter (UASF) to treat combined industrial wastewater. Reactors were operated at easing ambient temperatures (38, 30, 20 and 14 deg. C) and correspondingly increasing sludge ages (60, 90, 120 and 150 days). At temperature 38 deg. C and sludge age of 60 days, UASF showed better performance than VASE reactor. This mainly due to the enhanced filtration through well-graded sand filter and fairly good biological activity in UASF. At this stage, lack of sludge granulation in VASE reactor resulted in poor biological activity; hence, relatively poor performance. At temperatures 30 and 20 deg. C with sludge ages of 90 and 120 days, respectively, UASB gave better results than UASF. The reason was rapid biological degradation due to proper sludge granulation and favorable temperature. At temperature 14 deg. C, a substantial decrease in the efficiency of UASB reactor as compared to the UASF was evident. Drop in efficiency was because of inhabitation of methanogenic bacteria and liquidation of sludge granules. These factors mounted to a decrease in biological activity, stoppage as production and an increase in total suspended solids (TSS) in the effluent. The influence of hydraulic retention time (ranging between 3-12 hours at an increment of 3 hours) on the removal efficiency of both UASB and UASF was not significant. At favorable temperature (20 to 30 deg. C) and sludge age (90 to 120 days) UASB reactor appeared to be more efficient than UASF.(author)

  2. Responses of growth of lady's fingers (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) to different treatments methods of dairy wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dulaimi, Rana Ibrahim; Ismail, Norli; Ibrahim, Mahamad H

    2014-01-01

    Water is one of the most important precious resources found on the earth, and are most often affected by anthropogenic activities and by industry. Pollution caused by human beings and industries is a serious concern throughout the world. Population growth, massive urbanization, rapid rate of industrialization and modern techniques in agriculture have accelerated water pollution and led to the gradual deterioration of its quality. A large quantity of waste water disposed of at sea or on land has caused environmental problems which have led to environmental pollution, economic losses and chemical risks caused by the wastewater, and its impact on agriculture. However, waste water which contain nutrients and organic matter has possible advantages for agricultural purposes. Therefore, the presented study was undertaken to assess the impact of Dairy Effluent (treated and untreated waste water) on seed germination, seedling growth, dry matter production and the biochemical parameters of lady's fingers (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). A field experiment in a green house was conducted to use raw and treated dairy wastewater for watering lady's fingers (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). The plants were watered using (WW) raw dairy wastewater, (T1) chemicals treatment, (T2) physical treatment, (T3) dilution method treatment and tap water (TW) in pot experiments. Ten plants of each treatment /3 replicate were randomly selected and labelled for the collection of data. The data was collected sequentially, starting with chlorophyll content pre-harvest, vegetative qualities (shoot, root and seedling length) and dry matter quality (shoot and root dry matter) pos-tharvest. The effect was seen on the germination seed and growth of the plant. The results showed inhibitory effect from dairy effluent (WW) on seed germination and plant growth. Treatment with chemicals showed statistically significant differences with other treatments. Chemical treatment (TC2) at 20 mg/L Al2(SO4)3 and pH 6

  3. Dairy development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, P.; Hoorweg, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    The growth of the dairy sector as it has occurred in Kilifi and Malindi Districts is one of the few examples of successful agricultural development in the coastal region in the past decades. Between 1985 and 1997 dairy cattle have more than doubled in number. Three livestock systems are described:

  4. Application of hydrocyanic acid vapor generation via focused microwave radiation to the preparation of industrial effluent samples prior to free and total cyanide determinations by spectrophotometric flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaresma, Maria Cristina Baptista; de Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Batista; Meirelles, Francis Assis; Santiago, Vânia Maria Junqueira; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal

    2007-02-01

    A sample preparation procedure for the quantitative determination of free and total cyanides in industrial effluents has been developed that involves hydrocyanic acid vapor generation via focused microwave radiation. Hydrocyanic acid vapor was generated from free cyanides using only 5 min of irradiation time (90 W power) and a purge time of 5 min. The HCN generated was absorbed into an accepting NaOH solution using very simple glassware apparatus that was appropriate for the microwave oven cavity. After that, the cyanide concentration was determined within 90 s using a well-known spectrophotometric flow injection analysis system. Total cyanide analysis required 15 min irradiation time (90 W power), as well as chemical conditions such as the presence of EDTA-acetate buffer solution or ascorbic acid, depending on the effluent to be analyzed (petroleum refinery or electroplating effluents, respectively). The detection limit was 0.018 mg CN l(-1) (quantification limit of 0.05 mg CN l(-1)), and the measured RSD was better than 8% for ten independent analyses of effluent samples (1.4 mg l(-1) cyanide). The accuracy of the procedure was assessed via analyte spiking (with free and complex cyanides) and by performing an independent sample analysis based on the standard methodology recommended by the APHA for comparison. The sample preparation procedure takes only 10 min for free and 20 min for total cyanide, making this procedure much faster than traditional methodologies (conventional heating and distillation), which are time-consuming (they require at least 1 h). Samples from oil (sour and stripping tower bottom waters) and electroplating effluents were analyzed successfully.

  5. Effect of mercury and arsenic from industrial effluents on the drinking water and comparison of the water quality of polluted and non-polluted areas: a case study of Peshawar and Lower Dir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, M; Jan, F Akbar; Khan, Murad Ali; Ihsanullah, I; Ahmad, I; Shakirullah, M; Roohullah

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to find out the sources of mercury and arsenic pollution of water in the industrial area of Peshawar, the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Samples of effluents, mud, and water were collected from the target area (industrial area of Peshawar), the area of water supply source, and from the less polluted area, the Lower Dir district, as the control. Hg was determined by the cold vapor generation technique, while arsenic was determined using the electrothermal atomic absorption technique. Data of the water from the industrial area were compared with that of the source area, control area, as well as with the WHO and some international drinking water quality standards. The results show that some parameters, i.e., TDS, DO, pH, and hardness, were more than the permissible limits. Textile and glass industries were found to be the major sources of Hg and As pollution. Downstream dilution of these contaminants was also observed.

  6. Study of whole effluent acute toxicity test (Daphnia magna as an evaluation of Ministry of Environment and Forestry Decree No. 3 In 2014 concerning industrial performance rank in environmental management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmah Neng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Only 15% of the industries in Citarum Watershed, specifically in Bandung Regency, West Bandung Regency, Sumedang Regency, Bandung City and Cimahi City, are registered as PROPER industries. They must comply to indicators as set in the Minister of Environment and Forestry Decree No. 3 In 2014 concerning Industrial Performance Rank in Environmental Management, as a requirement to apply for PROPER. Wastewater treatment and management, referencing to Minister of Environment and Forestry Decree No. 5 In 2014 concerning Wastewater Effluent Standards, must be performed to be registered as PROPER industries. Conducting only physical-chemical parameter monitoring of wastewater is insufficient to determine the safety of wastewater discharged into the river, therefore additional toxicity tests involving bioindicator are required to determine acute toxicity characteristic of wastewater. The acute toxicity test quantifies LC50 value based on death response of bioindicators from certain dosage. Daphnia magna was used as bioindicator in the toxicity test and probit software for analysis. In 2015-2016, the number of industries that discharged wastewater exceeding the standard was found greater in non-PROPER industries than in PROPER industries. Based on the toxicity level, both PROPER and non-PROPER industries have toxic properties, however PROPER industries of 2015-2016 is more toxic with LC5096 value reaching 2.79%.

  7. From commodity to customer value : the transition from a production-oriented to a market-oriented European dairy industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everwand, W.C.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Backus, G.B.C.

    2007-01-01

    The European food industry has been regulated for a long time. Since the 1960s, the European market has been protected from imports by relatively high taxes. Companies in Europe therefore never had to fear real competition from outside the Union in their domestic markets. This changed, when, due to

  8. An integrated bio-process for production of functional biomolecules utilizing raw and by-products from dairy and sugarcane industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Kusum; Sharma, Manisha; Patel, Satya Narayan; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, Sudhir P

    2018-04-21

    The study investigated an integrated bioprocessing of raw and by-products from sugarcane and dairy industries for production of non-digestible prebiotic and functional ingredients. The low-priced feedstock, whey, molasses, table sugar, jaggery, etc., were subjected to transglucosylation reactions catalyzed by dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides MTCC 10508. HPLC analysis approximated production of about 11-14 g L -1 trisaccharide i.e. 2-α-D-glucopyranosyl-lactose (4-galactosyl-kojibiose) from the feedstock prepared from table sugar, jaggery, cane molasses and liquid whey, containing about 30 g L -1 sucrose and lactose each. The trisaccharide was hydrolysed into the prebiotic disaccharide, kojibiose, by employing recombinant β-galactosidase from Escherichia coli. The enzyme β-galactosidase achieved about 90% conversion of 2-α-D-glucopyranosyl-lactose into kojibiose. The D-fructose generated by catalytic reactions of dextransucrase was targeted for catalytic transformation into rare sugar, D-allulose (or D-psicose), by treating the samples with Smt3-D-psicose 3-epimerase. The catalytic reactions resulted in the conversion of ~ 25% D-fructose to D-allulose. These bioactive compounds are known to exert a plethora of benefits to human health, and therefore, are preferred ingredients for making functional foods.

  9. Strengthening Dairy Cooperative through National Development of Livestock Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of dairy cattle development region needs to be conducted in accordance with the national dairy industry development plan. Dairy cattle regions have been designed and equipped with infrastructure supplies, supporting facilities, technologies, finance, processing, marketing, institutional and human resources. Dairy cooperative is one of the marketing channels of milk and milk products which have strategic roles to support the national dairy industry. Collaborations between dairy cooperatives and smallholder farmers within a district region have to be done based on agricultural ecosystems, agribusiness system, integrated farming and participatory approach. This may improve dairy cooperatives as an independent and competitive institution. Strengthening dairy cooperatives in national region dairy cattle was carried out through institutional inventory and dairy cooperatives performance; requirement of capital access, market and networks as well as education and managerial training; certification and accreditation feasibility analysis and information and technology utilization. Establishment of emerging dairy cooperatives towards small and micro enterprises is carried out by directing them to establish cooperatives which have legal certainty and business development opportunities. The impact of strengthening dairy cooperative may support dairy cattle development through increase population and milk production. Sustainable dairy cattle development needs to be supported by regional and national government policies.

  10. Wicked problems: a value chain approach from Vietnam's dairy product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoi, Nguyen Viet

    2013-12-01

    In the past few years, dairy industry has become one of the fastest growing sectors in the packaged food industry of Vietnam. However, the value-added creation among different activities in the value chain of Vietnam dairy sector is distributed unequally. In the production activities, the dairy farmers gain low value-added rate due to high input cost. Whereas the processing activities, which managed by big companies, generates high profitability and Vietnamese consumers seem to have few choices due to the lack of dairy companies in the market. These wicked problems caused an unsustainable development to the dairy value chain of Vietnam. This paper, therefore, will map and analyze the value chain of the dairy industry in Vietnam. It will also assess the value created in each activity in order to imply solutions for a sustainable development of Vietnam's dairy industry. M10, M11.

  11. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  12. Reproductive and Lactation Performance of Crossbreed Dairy Cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For several years, Ethiopia ranked first in cattle population in Africa. However, the dairy industry is not as developed as that of East African countries including Ethiopia. This study was conducted to assess the reproductive and lactation performance and factors affecting crossbreed dairy cattle in intensive dairy farm in ...

  13. Non-Dairy Probiotic Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soyuçok

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic products available in the markets today, are usually in the form of fermented milk products. Dairy consumption have been limited by lactose intolerance and the cholesterol content in dairy products. Besides, traditions and economic reasons that limit the use of dairy fermented products in some developing countries promote the idea of using of alternative raw materials as vehicles for the probiotic agents. For these reasons meat products, cereals, legumes, fruits and vegetables may be potential substrates, where the healthy probiotic bacteria will make their mark, amongst consumers. To develop of these products is a key research priority for food design and a challenge for both industry and science sectors. In this study, information’s were given about non-dairy probiotic foods and highlighting the researches done in this field.

  14. Prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus antibodies and antigen among the aborted cows in industrial dairy cattle herds in Mashhad area of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseri, Z.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of antibody responses of animals exposed to BVDV either through a natural exposure or an immunization protocol is still a standard procedure. For BVDV, the test formats have been largely limited to ELISA which is a valuable diagnostic test to measure the level of BVDV specific antibodies as well as antigen in blood samples. In the present study, 120 blood samples were collected from the cows with the history of abortion in different period of pregnancy from different industrial dairy cattle herds of Mashhad area of Iran. Also 30 samples were collected from the cows with no history of abortion as control. The presence of antibody against BVDV from the 120 serum samples was investigated by indirect ELISA. From 120 serum samples which were collected from aborted cows, 89 samples were positive (%74.16. From these positive samples, 12(13.48%, 54 (60.68% and 23 (25.84% samples belong to the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy, respectively. From 89 positive samples, 12 (13.48% samples were related to stillbirth and 8 (8.99% samples were belongs to the mummified fetus. From 89 positive samples, 71 (79.78% were related to cattle between 2-5 years old and 18 (20.22% were associated to cattle more than 5 years old. In control group, 20 samples (66.66% were antibody positive. Also the presence of BVDV antigen in serum samples was investigated by Ag-capture ELISA. From 120 serum samples, 2 samples were positive (1.67%, which belongs to the second period of pregnancy. In control group, none of the samples were antigen positive. The results of this study showed that the prevalence of BVDV infection is high among the aborted cows of Mashhad area. Although this prevalence is higher than the control group, the observed difference is not significant.

  15. Anaerobic co-digestion of crude glycerin and starch industry effluent Codigestão anaeróbia de glicerina bruta e efluente de fecularia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Larsen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brazil's Biodiesel Production and Use Program introduces biodiesel in the Brazilian energy matrix, bringing along the perspective of a growth of the glycerin offer, co-product generated in the proportion of 10 kg for each 100 L of biodiesel. The aim of this study was to evaluate the addition of crude glycerin in the anaerobic digestion of cassava starch industry effluent (cassava wastewater, in a horizontal semi-continuous flow reactor of one phase in laboratory scale. It was used a reactor with a 8.77 L of useful volume, a medium support for corrugated conduit of polyvinyl chloride (PVC, temperature of 261 ºC, fed with cassava wastewater and glycerin, with hydraulic detention times of 4 and 5 days and increasing volumetric organic load of 3.05; 9.32; 14.83 and 13.59 g COD L-1 d-1, obtained with the addition of glycerin at 0; 2; 3 and 2% (v/v, respectively. The average removal efficiencies of TS and TVS were decreasing from the addition of glycerin to the cassava wastewater, averaging 81.19 to 55.58% for TS and 90.21 to 61.45% for TVS. The addition of glycerin at 2% increased the biogas production compared to the control treatment, reaching 1.979 L L-1 d-1. The biogas production as a function of the consumed COD was higher for the control treatment than for the treatments with addition of glycerin, which indicates lower conversion of organic matter into biogas.O Programa Nacional de Produção e Uso do Biodiesel introduziu o biodiesel na matriz energética brasileira, trazendo a perspectiva de aumento da oferta de glicerina, coproduto gerado na proporção de 10 kg para cada 100 L de biodiesel. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi avaliar a adição de glicerina bruta na digestão anaeróbia de efluente de indústria de fécula de mandioca (manipueira, em reator de fluxo semicontínuo horizontal de uma fase, em escala de laboratório. Foi utilizado um reator com volume útil de 8,77 L, meio suporte em eletroduto corrugado de policloreto

  16. Life cycle analysis as a tool for assessing new waste water treatment systems. A case study of textile industry effluent; Analisis del ciclo de vida como herramienta de evaluacion de nuevos sistemas de depuracion de aguas residulaes. Caso practico: efluentes de la industria textil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hospido, A.; Novo, E.; Moreira, M. T.; Feijoo, G.

    2001-07-01

    Life cycle analysis (LCA) is a technique that analyses the life cycle of a product process or activity in an attempt to identify its overall environmental impact. This approach can be of great help in strategic or operational decision-making in industry or business. This article takes as an example a comparative study of systems for treating strongly coloured industrial effluent. To this end, two well established technologies for dealing with industrial waste were examined: a) the physico-chemical treatment of effluents by coagulation-flocculation: b) a process combining physico-chemical treatment and biological aerobic activated sludge treatment. In addition, the viability of an emerging technology based on the decolouring of effluents with ligninolytic fungi was considered, although this process is still at the study stage. (Author) 13 refs.

  17. Caractérisation de deux effluents industriels au Togo :étude d'impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of two industrial effluents in Togo : environment impact study. Environment pollution due to two industrial effluents has been investigated. Results how that effluent derive from the factory of the treatment of Kpémé posphate ore was loaded with settling suspended matter (> 90 % of total suspended solids).

  18. Some considerations on the use of gamma spectrometry for Kr-85 determination at gaseous effluents in the nuclear industry and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras Iniquez, M.C.; Perez Garcia, M.M.; Travesi, A.

    1983-01-01

    The possibilities of using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry with GeLi semiconductor detector for measured the 0.514 KeV gamma radiation of Kr-B5 la explored, The detection limit of Kr-85 for a measuring time is 4.10 - 4 μCi with a counting time of 1000 minutes in a GeLi detector with a 20% efficiency relative to the INa (Tl). It is concluded that the use of gamma ray spectrometry for measuring the Kr-85 is not useful for environmental samples, but it can be used for the Kr-85 effluents control in Nuclear Stations. (Author) 26 refs

  19. Membrane processes for the treatment of exhausted effluents from leather industry; Processi a membrana per il trattamento degli effluenti esausti dell'industria conciaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassano, A.; Molinari, R.; Drioli, E. [Arcavata di Rende Univ. della Calabria, Arcavata di Rende, CS (Italy). Istituto di Ricerca su Membrane e Modellistica di Reattori Chimici

    2001-03-01

    This paper considers the potentiality of some membrane processes such as ultrafiltration (UF), nano filtration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO), in the treatment of exhausted effluents produced by the tanning cycle, based on the experimental results of the Research Group. [Italian] In questo studio vengono analizzate le potenzialita' applicative di alcuni processi a membrana, quali ultrafiltrazione (UF), nanofiltrazione (NF) e osmosi inversa (Ol), nel trattamento degli effluenti esausti del ciclo conciario, sulla base di risultati sperimentali del gruppo di ricerca del Cnr-Irmerc.

  20. Waste monitoring system for effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, J.M.; Gomez, B.; Trujillo, L.; Malcom, J.E.; Nekimken, H.; Pope, N.; Bibeau, R.

    1995-07-01

    The waste monitoring system in use at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility, TA-55, is a computer-based system that proves real-time information on industrial effluents. Remote computers monitor discharge events and data moves from one system to another via a local area network. This report describes the history, system design, summary, instrumentation list, displays, trending screens, and layout of the waste monitoring system

  1. EFFECTS OF REFINERY EFFLUENT ON THE PHYSICO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE ... Abstract. Managing oil and gas industrial environment requires constant monitoring of the effluent discharges from such industries. The essence of such ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  2. Biodegradation of BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes) composites present in the petrochemical effluents industries; Biodegradacao dos compostos BTX (Benzeno, Tolueno e Xilenos) presentes em efluentes petroquimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minatti, Gheise; Mello, Josiane M.M. de; Souza, Selene M.A. Guelli Ulson de; Ulson de, Antonio Augusto [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The compounds BTX inside of the petrochemical effluent have presented a high potential of pollution, representing a serious risk to the environment and to the human. The great improvements in the field of biological treatment of liquid effluent were reached through the process using biofilm capable of degrading toxic compounds. The objective of this paper is to determine the degradation kinetics of BTX using biofilm. The experimental data were compared with two kinetic models, kinetic of first order and model of Michaelis-Menten. The kinetic parameters of BTX compounds were experimentally obtained in a bioreactor in batch with biomass immobilized in activated-carbon, being fed daily with solution of nutrients and BTX. For the kinetic models studied in this paper, the best performance was achieved with the model of Michaelis-Menten showing a good correlation coefficient for the three compounds. The biomass amount in these bioreactors was 49.18, 28.35 and 5.15 mg of SSV per gram of support for the toluene, benzene and o-xylene, respectively. The experimental tests showed that the biomass inside of bioreactor is capable to degrade all compounds in a time of approximately 300 minutes. (author)

  3. Consumers' Motivations and Dairy Production Beliefs Regarding Participation in an Educational Dairy Farm Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFollette, Lindsay K.; Knobloch, Neil A.; Schutz, Michael M.; Brady, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory discriminant analysis was used to determine the extent adult consumers' interest motivation to participate in a free educational dairy farm event and their beliefs of the dairy industry could correctly classify the respondents' predicted participation in a nonformal educational event. The most prominent conclusion of the study was that…

  4. Smallholder Dairy Value Chain Interventions; The Kenya Market-led Dairy Programme (KMDP) – Status Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademaker, I.F.; Koech, R.K.; Jansen, A.; Lee, van der J.

    2016-01-01

    The Kenya Market-led Dairy Programme (KMDP) is a 4.5-year programme funded by the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and implemented by SNV Netherlands Development Organisation in collaboration with stakeholders in the dairy industry. The overall goal of KMDP is to contribute to the

  5. The Kaldnes Moving Bed biofilm technology for treatment of industrial wastewater; Tecnologia Kaldnes Moving Bed biofilm (KMT) para la depuracion de aguas residuales industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, V.; Garcia Carrion, M.; Farre Solsona, C.

    2004-07-01

    The Kaldnes Moving bed biofilm technology is a biofilm process which is very suitable for treatment of industrial wastewaters. Biofilm processes have several acknowledged advantages compared to suspended biomass processes, e. g. resistance to toxicity and load variations. Traditionally biofilm processes have been known to clog at high loads and hence have not been suited for industrial effluents: however, the Kaldnes Moving Bed biofilm process has overcome this problem. This article describes how the process has been used as pre-treatment up front of activated sludge at a dairy in USA, and as sole treatment at pharmaceutical industry in Sweden. (Author)

  6. Overexpression of antibiotic resistance genes in hospital effluents over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Will P M; Baker-Austin, Craig; Verner-Jeffreys, David W; Ryan, Jim J; Micallef, Christianne; Maskell, Duncan J; Pearce, Gareth P

    2017-06-01

    Effluents contain a diverse abundance of antibiotic resistance genes that augment the resistome of receiving aquatic environments. However, uncertainty remains regarding their temporal persistence, transcription and response to anthropogenic factors, such as antibiotic usage. We present a spatiotemporal study within a river catchment (River Cam, UK) that aims to determine the contribution of antibiotic resistance gene-containing effluents originating from sites of varying antibiotic usage to the receiving environment. Gene abundance in effluents (municipal hospital and dairy farm) was compared against background samples of the receiving aquatic environment (i.e. the catchment source) to determine the resistome contribution of effluents. We used metagenomics and metatranscriptomics to correlate DNA and RNA abundance and identified differentially regulated gene transcripts. We found that mean antibiotic resistance gene and transcript abundances were correlated for both hospital ( ρ  = 0.9, two-tailed P  hospital effluent samples. High β-lactam resistance gene transcript abundance was related to hospital antibiotic usage over time and hospital effluents contained antibiotic residues. We conclude that effluents contribute high levels of antibiotic resistance genes to the aquatic environment; these genes are expressed at significant levels and are possibly related to the level of antibiotic usage at the effluent source. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  7. Facility effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the facility effluent monitoring programs and provides an evaluation of effluent monitoring data. These evaluations are useful in assessing the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control systems, as well as management practices.

  8. The effects of Niger State water treatment plant effluent on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... The effect of water treatment plant effluent on its receiving river (Kaduna) was examined. Samples were ... Agency (FEPA) limits for effluent discharge into surface water. .... municipal sewage, garbages, domestic and industrial.

  9. Removal of heavy metals from metal-containing effluent by yeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Removal of heavy metals from metal-containing effluent by yeast biomass. ... Research studies have described this phenomenon of fast initial sorption with a ... chrome and tin from the chrome and tin effluents of a local iron and steel industry.

  10. Polish food industry 2008-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Mroczek, Robert; Drożdż, Jadwiga; Tereszczuk, Mirosława; Urban, Roman

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the functioning of the food industry and its various sectors in 2008-2013. Meat and poultry industry. Dairy industry. Fishing industry. Milling industry. Sugar industry. Oil-mill industry. Processing of fruit, vegetables and potatoes. Bakery industry. Confectionery industry. Feed industry. Production of other food products. Production of alcoholic beverages.Tobacco industry. Food industry.

  11. Innovation Networks to Stimulate Public and Private Sector Collaboration for Advisory Services Innovation and Coordination: The Case of Pasture Performance Issues in the New Zealand Dairy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijswijk, K.; Brazendale, R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: An innovation network, called the Pasture Improvement Leadership Group (PILG), was formed to improve the quality and consistency of advice provided to dairy farmers in New Zealand, after they expressed dissatisfaction with their pastures. The aim of this paper is to better understand the challenges of forming and maintaining networks to…

  12. Selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides from industrial gases by hydrogen or methane; Reduction catalytique selective des oxydes d'azote (NO{sub x}) provenant d'effluents gazeux industriels par l'hydrogene ou le methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann Pirez, M

    2004-12-15

    This work deals with the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), contained in the effluents of industrial plants, by hydrogen or methane. The aim is to replace ammonia, used as reducing agent, in the conventional process. The use of others reducing agents such as hydrogen or methane is interesting for different reasons: practical, economical and ecological. The catalyst has to convert selectively NO into N{sub 2}, in presence of an excess of oxygen, steam and sulfur dioxide. The developed catalyst is constituted by a support such as perovskites, particularly LaCoO{sub 3}, on which are dispersed noble metals (palladium, platinum). The interaction between the noble metal and the support, generated during the activation of the catalyst, allows to minimize the water and sulfur dioxide inhibitor phenomena on the catalytic performances, particularly in the reduction of NO by hydrogen. (O.M.)

  13. Utilization of ALANPOL dosemeter composed by alanine and polyethylene for determination of doses in industrial effluents; Utilizacao do dosimetro ALANPOL composto por alanina e polietileno para determinacao de doses em efluentes industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rela, Carolina S.; Sampa, Maria Helena de O.; Napolitano, Celia M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: csrela@ipen.br; Pontuschka, Walter M. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2005-07-01

    A study of traceability and accuracy was performed with the dosimetry system ALANPOL developed by IVHTJ/ Poland that uses alanine as a dosimeter and EPR as the read out system. The dosimeter ALANPOL is a polymer compound that aggregates alanine. The dosimeter has the outside diameter 3 mm, and the length of 25,4 mm (1 inch). In order to use this dosimeter for monitoring the existing real time calorimetry dosimeter system set up in a electron beam waste treatment plant. Electron beam and gamma irradiation experiments with ALANPOL was carried out under demineralized water and industrial effluent. The result show that in the dose range of 1-40 kGy the ALANPOL dosimeter system is suitable underwater monitoring for absorbed dose and can be applied for the evaluation of the on line calorimetry dosimeter system. (author)

  14. Simulation of adsorption process of benzene present in effluent of the petrochemical industry; Simulacao do processo de adsorcao do benzeno presente em efluentes da industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, Adriana D. da; Mello, Josiane M.M. de; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene M.A. Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Adriano da [Universidade Comunitaria Regional de Chapeco (UNOCHAPECO), SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The adsorption processes have shown quite efficient in the removal of pollutant in liquid effluents, especially hydrocarbons of difficult removal, such as benzene. This work presents a phenomenological model that describes the process of benzene removal through the adsorption in a fixed bed column, being used coal activated as adsorbent. The model considers the internal and external resistances of mass transfer to the adsorbent particle. The method of Finite Volumes is used in the discretization of the equations. The numerical results obtained through the simulation presented good correlation when compared with experimental data found in the literature, demonstrating that the developed computational code, together with the mathematical modeling, represents an important tool for the project of adsorption columns. (author)

  15. Desalination of effluent using fin type solar still

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velmurugan, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Infant Jesus College of Engineering, Thoothukudi, Tamil Nadu 628 851 (India); Deenadayalan, C.K.; Vinod, H.; Srithar, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai, Tamil Nadu 625 015 (India)

    2008-11-15

    In this work, an attempt is made to produce potable water from industrial effluents. An ordinary basin type solar still integrated with fins at the basin plate is used for experimentation. Since industrial effluent is used as feed, before this still, an effluent settling tank is provided to get clarified effluent. This effluent settling tank is fabricated with three chambers, consists of pebble, coal and sand for settling the impurities and removing the bacteria in the effluents. Sponges, pebbles, black rubber and sand are used in the fin type single basin solar still for enhancing the yield. Results show that the productivity increases considerably due to this modification. A theoretical analysis is also carried out which, closely converges with experimental results. The economic analysis proved that the approximate payback period of such kinds of still is 1 year. (author)

  16. Assessment of dairy wastewater treatment and its potential for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extent of pollution of dairy wastewater treated in a septic tank and its potential for biogas production was investigated. Performance of the existing treatment system was assessed through characterization of both raw and treated effluents. From the analysis parameters likeChemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical ...

  17. Engineering to support wellbeing of dairy animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caja, Gerardo; Castro-Costa, Andreia; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2016-01-01

    Current trends in the global milk market and the recent abolition of milk quotas have accelerated the trend of the European dairy industry towards larger farm sizes and higher-yielding animals. Dairy cows remain in focus, but there is a growing interest in other dairy species, whose milk is often...... directed to traditional and protected designation of origin and gourmet dairy products. The challenge for dairy farms in general is to achieve the best possible standards of animal health and welfare, together with high lactational performance and minimal environmental impact. For larger farms, this may...... need to be done with a much lower ratio of husbandry staff to animals. Recent engineering advances and the decreasing cost of electronic technologies has allowed the development of 'sensing solutions' that automatically collect data, such as physiological parameters, production measures and behavioural...

  18. NAFTA Renegotiations: An opportunity for Canadian Dairy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Beaulieu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available What are the implications of a renegotiated NAFTA for Canadian dairy producers? Many observers dread the prospect of even the slightest liberalization in the dairy sector. This paper takes a different perspective, arguing that opening Canada’s dairy sector would come with benefits not just for consumers, which is undeniable, but could also transform the industry and lead to a more productive dairy sector in Canada. Canadian dairy producers have been protected domestically through supply management and internationally through import-restricting border controls for over 40 years. This combination of domestic and foreign policies keeps Canadian dairy prices artificially high and allows producers to gain enormously from the system while hitting dairy consumers directly in the pocketbook. These policies are extremely costly for Canadian consumers and benefit the protected domestic dairy producers. Canadian international trade policies result in 200-percent tariffs on imports of many dairy products and almost 300-percent tariffs on over-quota imports of cheese. The OECD estimates that from 2010 to 2016, Canadian trade policy with respect to dairy and the “supply management system” annually transfers over US$2.9 billion from Canadian consumers and taxpayers to milk producers. This is extremely expensive for Canadian consumers and this transfer to Canadian dairy producers underscores why our trade partners have focused on the exorbitant tariffs that support this system. We argue that it is not only consumers that are hurt by the status quo, but that the industry itself can evolve and thrive from increased competition. According to standard trade theory, liberalizing trade in an industry like this leads the least productive producers to exit the industry as the most-productive producers increase market share and expand. These dynamics generate a more competitive and productive industry. We present evidence that these dynamics played out in Canada

  19. Photocatalytic treatment of an industrial effluent using artificial and solar UV radiation: an operational cost study on a pilot plant scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, A; Monteagudo, J M; San Martín, I

    2012-05-15

    The aim of this work was to study the operation costs of treating a real effluent from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power station located in Spain. The study compares different homogeneous photocatalytic processes on a pilot plant scale using different types of radiation (artificial UV or solar UV with a compound parabolic collector). The efficiency of the processes was evaluated by an analysis of the total organic carbon (TOC) removed. The following processes were considered in the study: (i) a photo-Fenton process at an artificial UV pilot plant (with the initial addition of H(2)O(2)), (ii) a modified photo-Fenton process with continuous addition of H(2)O(2) and O(2) to the system and (iii) a ferrioxalate-assisted solar photo-Fenton process at a compound parabolic collector (CPC) pilot plant. The efficiency of these processes in degrading pollutants has been studied previously, and the results obtained in each of those studies have been published elsewhere. The operational costs due to the consumption of electrical energy, reagents and catalysts were calculated from the optimal conditions of each process. The results showed that the solar photo-Fenton system was economically feasible, being able to achieve up to 75% mineralization with a total cost of 6 €/m(3), which can be reduced to 3.6 €/m(3) by subtracting the electrical costs because the IGCC plant is self-sufficient in terms of energy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effluent treatment efficiency and compliance monitoring in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of effluent treatment at the Eleme Petrochemical Industry, Port Harcourt, Nigeria was monitored weekly for six weeks to assess their level of compliance with the Directorate of Petroleum Resources (DPR) guidelines and standards for environmental safety. Effluent samples were taken from the untreated ...

  1. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) of Belford Roxo industrial plant effluent and its contribution in water quality of downstream of Sarapui River, Iguacu River sub-basin, Baia da Guanabara Basin, RJ, Brazil; Avaliacao e identificacao da toxicidade (Toxity Identification Evaluation - TIE) do efluente liquido do polo industrial de Belford Roxo, RJ, e sua contribuicao na qualidade das aguas do corso inferior do Rio Sarapui, sub-bacia do Rio Iguacu, Bacia da Baia da Guanabara, RJ, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Luiz Eduardo Botelho

    2006-07-01

    The quality of Belford Roxo Industrial Plant effluent and water from Sarapui River were evaluated with Daphnia similis, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Danio rerio acute and chronic toxicity tests. In association with the ecotoxicological monitoring, the Toxicity Identification Evaluation procedure were performed and the identification of the toxic compounds was possible. The Chloride ion was identified as the major toxic compound in the effluent with additional effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. For the Sarapui River, the compounds of Phosphorus and Nitrogen were identified as the major toxic compounds with addictive effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. Although the environmental impact estimation based on the effluent toxicity suggests a minor impact on the water quality of Sarapui River, this was already sufficiently contaminated to make impracticable the establishment of an aquatic community. The constant discharge of untreated sludge promotes the eutrophication of this water body and makes impossible the equilibrium of this ecosystem. (author)

  2. Comparison of different liquid anaerobic digestion effluents as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Fuqing; Shi Jian; Lv Wen; Yu Zhongtang; Li Yebo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Compared methane production of solid AD inoculated with different effluents. ► Food waste effluent (FWE) had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens. ► Solid AD inoculated with FWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 4. ► Dairy waste effluent (DWE) was rich of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. ► Solid AD inoculated with DWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 2. - Abstract: Effluents from three liquid anaerobic digesters, fed with municipal sewage sludge, food waste, or dairy waste, were evaluated as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover in mesophilic reactors. Three feedstock-to-effluent (F/E) ratios (i.e., 2, 4, and 6) were tested for each effluent. At an F/E ratio of 2, the reactor inoculated by dairy waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 238.5 L/kgVS feed , while at an F/E ratio of 4, the reactor inoculated by food waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 199.6 L/kgVS feed . The microbial population and chemical composition of the three effluents were substantially different. Food waste effluent had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens, while dairy waste effluent had the largest populations of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Dairy waste also had the highest C/N ratio of 8.5 and the highest alkalinity of 19.3 g CaCO 3 /kg. The performance of solid-state batch anaerobic digestion reactors was closely related to the microbial status in the liquid anaerobic digestion effluents.

  3. Comparison of different liquid anaerobic digestion effluents as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Fuqing; Shi Jian [Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691 (United States); Lv Wen; Yu Zhongtang [Department of Animal Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Li Yebo, E-mail: li.851@osu.edu [Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared methane production of solid AD inoculated with different effluents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Food waste effluent (FWE) had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with FWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dairy waste effluent (DWE) was rich of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with DWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 2. - Abstract: Effluents from three liquid anaerobic digesters, fed with municipal sewage sludge, food waste, or dairy waste, were evaluated as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover in mesophilic reactors. Three feedstock-to-effluent (F/E) ratios (i.e., 2, 4, and 6) were tested for each effluent. At an F/E ratio of 2, the reactor inoculated by dairy waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 238.5 L/kgVS{sub feed}, while at an F/E ratio of 4, the reactor inoculated by food waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 199.6 L/kgVS{sub feed}. The microbial population and chemical composition of the three effluents were substantially different. Food waste effluent had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens, while dairy waste effluent had the largest populations of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Dairy waste also had the highest C/N ratio of 8.5 and the highest alkalinity of 19.3 g CaCO{sub 3}/kg. The performance of solid-state batch anaerobic digestion reactors was closely related to the microbial status in the liquid anaerobic digestion effluents.

  4. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  5. 40 CFR 436.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Industrial Sand Subcategory § 436.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent... 6.0 and water quality criteria in water quality standards approved under the Act authorize such lower pH, the pH limitation for such discharge may be adjusted downward to the pH water quality...

  6. Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool. Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Flapper, Joris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kramer, Klaas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop a computer-based benchmarking and energy and water savings tool (BEST-Dairy) for use in the California dairy industry – including four dairy processes – cheese, fluid milk, butter, and milk powder.

  7. The Optimization-Based Design and Synthesis of Water Network for Water Management in an Industrial Process: Refinery Effluent Treatment Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sueviriyapan, Natthapong; Siemanond, Kitipat; Quaglia, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The increasing awareness of the sustainability of water resources has become an important issue. Many process industries contribute to high water consumption and wastewater generation. Problems in industrial water management include the processing of complex contaminants in wastewater, selection...... of wastewater treatment technologies, as well as water allocation, limited reuse, and recycling strategies. Therefore, a water and wastewater treatment network design requires the integration of both economic and environmental perspectives. The aim of this work was to modify and develop a generic model......-based synthesis process for a water/wastewater treatment network design problem utilizing the framework of Quaglia et al. (2013) in order to effectively design, synthesize, and optimize an industrial water management problem using different scenarios (both existing and retrofit system design). The model...

  8. Efficient secretion of three fungal laccases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their potential for decolorization of textile industry effluent - A comparative study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antošová, Zuzana; Herkommerová, Klára; Pichová, I.; Sychrová, Hana

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2018), s. 69-80 ISSN 8756-7938 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA01011461 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : laccase * decolorization * gene expression * expression optimization * Saccharomyces cerevisiae Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics OBOR OECD: Industrial biotechnology Impact factor: 1.986, year: 2016

  9. Effect of the mixed liquor suspended solid on permeate in a membrane bioreactor system applied for the treatment of sewage mixed with wastewater of the milk from the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, José M; Molina-Muñoz, Marisa; Moreno, Begoña; González-López, Jesús; Hontoria, Ernesto

    2007-06-01

    The performance of a bench-scale submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) equipped with ultrafiltration membranes (ZENON) was investigated at different mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) concentrations (3069, 4314 and 6204 mg/L). The pilot plant was located in the wastewater treatment plant of the city of Granada (Puente de los Vados, Granada, Spain), which receives the wastewater of the milk from the dairy industry of Granada. The results showed the capacity of the MBR systems to remove organic material (COD and BOD5), suspended solids, turbidity, color and microbial indicators such as E. coli and coliphages. Therefore, the results suggest that the transmembrane pressure (TMP) was influence by the MLSS concentration assayed. However, an increase in the MLSS concentration increases the nitrification processes and consequently the amount of NO3- in permeate.

  10. physico-chemical characteristics of effluents from garri processing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    0.62ppm all in contrast to World Health Organization maximum admissible limit of 0.07ppm. A two- ... indiscriminate discharge of industrial effluents [Salami and Egwin, 1997]. ..... Wastewater Engineering, Treatment and Refuse,. 4th edition ...

  11. Diffusion characteristics of the Kakinada Bay for effluent assessment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Asthana, V.

    The present study reports the determination of diffusion characteristics of the Kakinada Bay to choose a suitable marine outfall location for industrial discharge of effluents from a proposed fertilizer plant. The study consisted of dye diffusion...

  12. Bioremediation of chromium in tannery effluent by microbial consortia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... Chromium is the most toxic and common among the heavy metal pollutants of industrial effluents .... Chromium (Cleseari and Green, 1995) included the oxidation of .... like uranium in its cells might also match with its tendency.

  13. Biosorption of Zn(II) from industrial effluents using sugar beet pulp and F. vesiculosus: From laboratory tests to a pilot approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Laura; Blázquez, M Luisa; González, Felisa; Muñoz, Jesús A; Ballester, Antonio

    2017-11-15

    The aim of this work was to demonstrate the feasibility of the application of biosorption in the treatment of metal polluted wastewaters through the development of several pilot plants to be implemented by the industry. The use as biosorbents of both the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus and a sugar beet pulp was investigated to remove heavy metal ions from a wastewater generated in an electroplating industry: Industrial Goñabe (Valladolid, Spain). Batch experiments were performed to study the effects of pH, contact time and initial metal concentration on metal biosorption. It was observed that the adsorption capacity of the biosorbents strongly depended on the pH, increasing as the pH rises from 2 to 5. The adsorption kinetic was studied using three models: pseudo first order, pseudo second order and Elovich models. The experimental data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and the brown alga F. vesiculosus showed higher metal uptake than the sugar beet pulp. The biomasses were also used for zinc removal in fixed-bed columns. The performance of the system was evaluated in different experimental conditions. The mixture of the two biomasses, the use of serial columns and the inverse flow can be interesting attempts to improve the biosorption process for large-scale applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation, characterization, and application of Ti/TiO2-NTs/Sb-SnO2 electrode in photo-electrochemical treatment of industrial effluents under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subba Rao, Anantha N; Venkatarangaiah, Venkatesha T

    2018-04-01

    Ti/TiO 2 -NTs/Sb-SnO 2 electrode was prepared by gradient pulsed electrodeposition, and its electrochemical properties were evaluated. The catalytic activity and reusability of the electrode were tested by electrochemical oxidation (EO) and photoelectrochemical oxidation (PEO) of organics present in textile industry wastewater (TWW) and coffee bean processing industry wastewater (CWW). COD removal of ~ 41% was achieved after 5-h electrolysis under a constant applied current density of 30 mA cm -2 for TWW and 50 mA cm -2 for CWW. Nearly 14 and 18% increment in COD removal was observed under PEO for TWW and CWW, respectively. The turbidity of TWW reduced from 15 to ~ 3 NTU and the turbidity of CWW reduced from 27 to ~ 3 NTU by both EO and PEO. The % COD removal observed after 5-h electrolysis remained consistent for 7 repeated cycles; however, the catalytic activity of the electrode reduced gradually. These results suggested that the Ti/TiO 2 -NTs/Sb-SnO 2 can be a potential electrode for the treatment of industrial wastewater.

  15. Industrial wastewater treatment with a bioelectrochemical process: assessment of depuration efficiency and energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molognoni, Daniele; Chiarolla, Stefania; Cecconet, Daniele; Callegari, Arianna; Capodaglio, Andrea G

    2018-01-01

    Development of renewable energy sources, efficient industrial processes, energy/chemicals recovery from wastes are research issues that are quite contemporary. Bioelectrochemical processes represent an eco-innovative technology for energy and resources recovery from both domestic and industrial wastewaters. The current study was conducted to: (i) assess bioelectrochemical treatability of industrial (dairy) wastewater by microbial fuel cells (MFCs); (ii) determine the effects of the applied organic loading rate (OLR) on MFC performance; (iii) identify factors responsible for reactor energy recovery losses (i.e. overpotentials). For this purpose, an MFC was built and continuously operated for 72 days, during which the anodic chamber was fed with dairy wastewater and the cathodic chamber with an aerated mineral solution. The study demonstrated that industrial effluents from agrifood facilities can be treated by bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) with >85% (average) organic matter removal, recovering power at an observed maximum density of 27 W m -3 . Outcomes were better than in previous (shorter) analogous experiences, and demonstrate that this type of process could be successfully used for dairy wastewater with several advantages.

  16. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  17. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  18. Treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia. ... Discharge of untreated rubber effluent to waterways resulted in water pollution that affected the human health. ... Key words: Rubber industry, effluent, waste management, Malaysia.

  19. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of CeO2-TiO2 nanocomposite for degradation of crystal violet dye and industrial waste effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Mehvish; Arshad, Amara; Khan, Yaqoob; Iqbal, Mazhar; Bajwa, Sadia Zafar; Soomro, Razium Ali; Ahmad, Ishaq; Butt, Faheem K.; Iqbal, M. Zubair; Wu, Aiguo; Khan, Waheed S.

    2018-03-01

    This study presents the synthesis of CeO2-TiO2 nanocomposite and its potential application for the visible light-driven photocatalytic degradation of model crystal violet dye as well as real industrial waste water. The ceria-titania (CeO2-TiO2) nanocomposite material was synthesised using facile hydrothermal route without the assistance of any template molecule. As-prepared composite was characterised by SEM, TEM, HRTEM, XRD, XPS for surface features, morphological and crystalline characters. The formed nanostructures were determined to possess crystal-like geometrical shape and average size less than 100 nm. The as-synthesised nanocomposite was further investigated for their heterogeneous photocatalytic potential against the oxidative degradation of CV dye taken as model pollutant. The photo-catalytic performance of the as-synthesised material was evaluated both under ultra-violet as well as visible light. Best photocatalytic performance was achieved under visible light with complete degradation (100%) exhibited within 60 min of irradiation time. The kinetics of the photocatalytic process were also considered and the reaction rate constant for CeO2-TiO2 nanocomposite was determined to be 0.0125 and 0.0662 min-1 for ultra-violet and visible region, respectively. In addition, the as-synthesised nanocomposite demonstrated promising results when considered for the photo-catalytic degradation of coloured industrial waste water collected from local textile industry situated in Faisalabad region of Pakistan. Enhanced photo-catalytic performance of CeO2-TiO2 nanocomposite was proposed owing to heterostructure formation leading to reduced electron-hole recombination.

  20. Using Delphi Surveying Techniques to Gather Input from Non-Academics for Development of a Modern Dairy Manufacturing Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Helen S.; Smith, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The current face of the dairy manufacturing industry has changed from its traditional conception. Industry emphasis is moving away from traditional dairy products, such as fluid milk, ice cream, and butter, and moving toward yogurts, dairy beverages, and value-added products incorporating ingredients derived from milk and whey. However, many…

  1. Development of a Bilingual Training Tool to Train Dairy Workers on the Prevention and Management of Non-Ambulatory Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Muniz, Ivette N.; Van Metre, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Dairy cows at risk of becoming non-ambulatory or downers represent economic losses and animal well-being issues for the dairy industry. Colorado State University researchers and Extension faculty collaborated with Colorado's dairy industry to create a training tool for the early identification and management of cows at risk of becoming downers on…

  2. modelling effluent assimila modelling effluent assimilat modelling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    G EFFLUENT ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY OF IKPOBA RIVE. BENIN CITY, NIGERIA ... l purposes to communities rse such as ... treat in order for it to meet the aforeme of the communities. It is therefore i ..... Substituting and integrating yields the following equations ..... Purification Potentials of Small Tropical Urban. Stream: A ...

  3. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  4. Biodegradation by bioaugmentation of dairy wastewater by fungal consortium on a bioreactor lab-scale and on a pilot-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djelal, Hayet; Amrane, Abdeltif

    2013-09-01

    A fungal consortium including Aspergillus niger, Mucor hiemalis and Galactomyces geotrichum was tested for the treatment of dairy wastewater. The bio-augmentation method was tested at lab-scale (4 L), at pilot scale (110 L) and at an industrial scale in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP). The positive impact of fungal addition was confirmed when fungi was beforehand accelerated by pre-culture on whey (5 g/L lactose) or on the dairy effluent. Indeed, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal yields increased from 55% to 75% for model medium, diluted milk. While after inoculation of an industrial biological tank from a dairy factory with the fungal consortium accelerated by pre-cultivation in a 1000 L pilot plant, the outlet COD values decreased from values above the standard one (100 mg/L) to values in the range of 50-70 mg/L. In addition, there was a clear impact of fungal addition on the 'hard' or non-biodegradable COD owing to the significant reduction of the increase of the COD on BOD5 ratio between the inlet and the outlet of the biological tank of WWTP. It was in the range of 451%-1111% before adding fungal consortium, and in the range of 257%-153% after bio-augmentation with fungi. An inoculated bioreactor with fungal consortium was developed at lab-scale and demonstrated successfully at pilot scale in

  5. Monitoring and assessment of mercury pollution in the vicinity of a chloralkali plant. III. Concentration and genotoxicity of mercury in the industrial effluent and contaminated water of Rushikulya estuary, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, K K; Lenka, M; Panda, B B

    1992-01-01

    Aquatic mercury pollution of the Rushikulya estuary in the vicinity of the chloralkali plant at Ganjam, India was monitored over a period from October 1987 to May 1989. The concentrations of aquatic mercury in the water samples taken from the effluent channel and from different sites along the course of the estuary covering a distance of 2 km were periodically recorded and ranged from 0 to 0.5 mg/l. The bioconcentration and genotoxicity of aquatic mercury in the samples were assessed by the Allium micronucleus (MNC) assay. The frequency of cells with MNC was highly correlated not only with bioconcentrated mercury (root mercury) but also with the levels of aquatic mercury. The threshold assessment values such as effective concentration fifty (EC50) for root growth, lowest effective concentration tested (LECT), and highest ineffective concentration tested (HICT) for induction of MNC in Allium MNC assay for the present aquatic industrial mercury were determined to be 0.14, 0.06 and 0.02 mg/l, respectively.

  6. Ploidy Variation in Kluyveromyces marxianus Separates Dairy and Non-dairy Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl A. Ortiz-Merino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Kluyveromyces marxianus is traditionally associated with fermented dairy products, but can also be isolated from diverse non-dairy environments. Because of thermotolerance, rapid growth and other traits, many different strains are being developed for food and industrial applications but there is, as yet, little understanding of the genetic diversity or population genetics of this species. K. marxianus shows a high level of phenotypic variation but the only phenotype that has been clearly linked to a genetic polymorphism is lactose utilisation, which is controlled by variation in the LAC12 gene. The genomes of several strains have been sequenced in recent years and, in this study, we sequenced a further nine strains from different origins. Analysis of the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in 14 strains was carried out to examine genome structure and genetic diversity. SNP diversity in K. marxianus is relatively high, with up to 3% DNA sequence divergence between alleles. It was found that the isolates include haploid, diploid, and triploid strains, as shown by both SNP analysis and flow cytometry. Diploids and triploids contain long genomic tracts showing loss of heterozygosity (LOH. All six isolates from dairy environments were diploid or triploid, whereas 6 out 7 isolates from non-dairy environment were haploid. This also correlated with the presence of functional LAC12 alleles only in dairy haplotypes. The diploids were hybrids between a non-dairy and a dairy haplotype, whereas triploids included three copies of a dairy haplotype.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus sp. FMQ74, a Dairy-contaminating Isolate from Raw Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okshevsky, Mira Ursula; Regina, Viduthalai R.; Marshall, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Representatives of the genus Bacillus are common milk contaminants that cause spoilage and flavor alterations of dairy products. Bacillus sp. FMQ74 was isolated from raw milk on a Danish dairy farm. To elucidate the genomic basis of this strain’s survival in the dairy industry, a high-quality draft...

  8. Applying ontologies in the dairy farming domain for big data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoosel, J.P.C.; Spek, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    In the Dutch SmartDairyFarming project, main dairy industry organizations like FrieslandCampina, AgriFirm and CRV work together on better decision support for the dairy farmer on daily questions around feeding, insemination, calving and milk production processes. This paper is concerned with the

  9. European Union dairy policy reform: impact and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reforms have affected dairy policy, including the milk quota system, and increased the market orientation of the sector. A modelling exercise, using the European Dairy Industry Model (EDIM), simulates an initial sharp decline in the EU milk price in response

  10. Current status of practical applications: Probiotics in dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gastrointestinal microbial population of dairy cattle is dense and diverse, and can be utilized to reduce pathogenic bacterial populations as well as improve animal productivity and environmental impacts. Because of the nature of the dairy industry, probiotic products have been widely used to e...

  11. Study of technical and economical feasibility for implementation of a movable unit for treatment of industrial effluents with electron beam; Estudo de viabilidade tecnica e economica para implementacao de uma unidade movel para tratamento de efluentes industriais com feixe de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rela, Carolina Sciamarelli

    2006-07-01

    The treatment of industrial effluents is a practice that is disseminating in accelerated rhythm, of contributing to reinforce the public image, through the combat of the pollution, it brings economical advantages allowing the companies the reuse of the treated water in their own processes. The liquid effluent treatment technique studied in the present work is the one that uses the chemical oxidation/reduction standing out the use of the electron beam (e.b.) radiation. This technique uses an advanced oxidation process, generating radicals highly reagents that provoke the oxidation, reduction, dissociation and degradation in composed organic and exercising lethal effect in general in the microorganisms and parasites. In this work a conceptual and basic project of a movable unit of effluents treatment using electron beam radiation process was developed, in order that the unit moves until the treatment point, where the effluent is produced, facilitating the logistics. A technical and economical feasibility study was also elaborated allowing data on the capacity and cost of effluents processing to consolidate the values of the necessary investments to be presented to foundations organs for the construction of a movable unit. The results of the studies demonstrated that it is technically viable attending the pertinent legislation of Brazil, in the aspects of Radiation Protection and transport limit capacity. The unitary cost of the e.b. radiation processing in the movable unit was shown more expensive than in the fixed unit, the reason is the decrease of the efficiency of the interaction of the incident electrons in the effluent, due to the reduction of electron energy operation time of the unit. (author)

  12. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  13. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H.

    1993-01-01

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC's program results

  14. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  15. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  16. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  17. The Efficient Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Industry Effluents Using Waste Biomass as Low-Cost Adsorbent: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indhumathi, Ponnuswamy; Sathiyaraj, Subbaiyan; Koelmel, Jeremy P.; Shoba, Srinivasan U.; Jayabalakrishnan, Chinnasamy; Saravanabhavan, Munusamy

    2018-05-01

    The ability of green micro algae Chlorella vulgaris for biosorption of Cu(II) ions from an aqueous solution was studied. The biosorption process was affected by the solution pH, contact time, temperature and initial Cu(II) concentration. Experimental data were analyzed in terms of pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intra particle diffusion models. Results showed that the sorption process of Cu(II) ions followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The sorption data of Cu(II) ions are fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson isotherms, and the Temkin isotherm. The thermodynamic study shows the Cu(II) biosorption was exothermic in nature. The Cu(II) ions were recovered effectively from Chlorella vulgaris biomass using 0.1 M H2SO4 with up to 90.3% recovery, allowing for recycling of the Cu. Green algae from freshwater bodies showed significant potential for Cu(II) removal and recovery from industrial wastewater.

  18. Agent orange herbicides, organophosphate and triazinic pesticides analysis in olive oil and industrial oil mill waste effluents using new organic phase immunosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Elisabetta; Merola, Giovanni; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi

    2015-02-15

    New immunosensors working in organic solvent mixtures (OPIEs) for the analysis of traces of different pesticides (triazinic, organophosphates and chlorurates) present in hydrophobic matrices such as olive oil were developed and tested. A Clark electrode was used as transducer and peroxidase enzyme as marker. The competitive process took place in a chloroform-hexane 50% (V/V) mixture, while the subsequent enzymatic final measurement was performed in decane and using tert-butylhydroperoxide as substrate of the enzymatic reaction. A linear response of between about 10nM and 5.0μM was usually obtained in the presence of olive oil. Recovery tests were carried out in commercial or artisanal extra virgin olive oil. Traces of pesticides were also checked in the oily matrix, in pomace and mill wastewaters from an industrial oil mill. Immunosensors show good selectivity and satisfactory precision and recovery tests performed in olive oil gave excellent results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Estudo da logística de distribuição física de um laticínio utilizando lógica fuzzy Study of physical distribution logistics of a dairy industry using fuzzy logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alysson Vinícius Neves dos Santos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo versa sobre a viabilidade da aplicação da lógica fuzzy para auxiliar o gerente de uma indústria de laticínios na tomada de decisão na área de logística de distribuição física. O estudo de caso realizado numa indústria de laticínios de pequeno porte em Minas Gerais identificou que, a cada novo pedido solicitado via internet, o profissional de logística manipula ao mesmo tempo um grande número de informações e decide, com base na sua experiência, a melhor forma de distribuição desses pedidos. A proposta deste trabalho é apresentar um modelo fuzzy como uma alternativa de apoio aos métodos tradicionais de processamento de pedidos e tomada de decisão logística. Os resultados permitiram concluir que o modelo foi transcrito de forma adequada ao problema proposto ao apresentar as mesmas decisões tomadas pelo especialista e que, se observados os pontos fracos detectados, este modelo pode se constituir em importante ferramenta para a competitividade das indústrias.This study focuses on the viability of fuzzy logic application to assist the management of a dairy industry in the process of decision-making in physical distribution logistics. The case study, carried out in a small dairy industry in the State of Minas Gerais, identified that, for each new order request via internet, the logistician copes with a large amount of information at the same time and decides, based on experience, the best way to distribute such orders. The purpose of this research was to present a fuzzy model as an alternative support to traditional methods for order processing and logistics decision-making. The results showed that the model adequately reproduced the problem proposed as it produced the same decisions made by the specialist and, if the weak points detected are observed, this model can be used as an important tool for the competitiveness of industries.

  20. Dairy Tool Box Talks: A Comprehensive Worker Training in Dairy Farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, Maristela; Carroll, Heidi; Foos, Rebecca; Erickson, Tracey; Garcia, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Today's dairies are growing rapidly, with increasing dependence on Latino immigrant workers. This requires new educational strategies for improving milk quality and introduction to state-of-the-art dairy farming practices. It also creates knowledge gaps pertaining to the health of animals and workers, mainly due to the lack of time and language barriers. Owners, managers, and herdsmen assign training duties to more experienced employees, which may not promote "best practices" and may perpetuate bad habits. A comprehensive and periodic training program administered by qualified personnel is currently needed and will enhance the sustainability of the dairy industry. Strategic management and employee satisfaction will be achieved through proper training in the employee's language, typically Spanish. The training needs to address not only current industry standards but also social and cultural differences. An innovative training course was developed following the same structure used by the engineering and construction industries, giving farm workers basic understanding of animal care and handling, cow comfort, and personal safety. The "Dairy Tool Box Talks" program was conducted over a 10-week period with nine sessions according to farm's various employee work shifts. Bulk milk bacterial counts and somatic cell counts were used to evaluate milk quality on the three dairy farms participating in the program. "Dairy Tool Box Talks" resulted in a general sense of employee satisfaction, significant learning outcomes, and enthusiasm about the topics covered. We conclude this article by highlighting the importance of educational programs aimed at improving overall cross-cultural training.

  1. Characterization of the resistome in manure, soil and wastewater from dairy and beef production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Noelle R. Noyes; Xiang Yang; Lyndsey M. Linke; Roberta J. Magnuson; Shaun R. Cook; Rahat Zaheer; Hua Yang; Dale R. Woerner; Ifigenia Geornaras; Jessica A. McArt; Sheryl P. Gow; Jaime Ruiz; Kenneth L. Jones; Christina A. Boucher; Tim A. McAllister

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that livestock production effluents such as wastewater, airborne dust and manure increase the density of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and genes in the environment. The public health risk posed by this proposed outcome has been difficult to quantify using traditional microbiological approaches. We utilized shotgun metagenomics to provide a first description of the resistome of North American dairy and beef production effluents, and identify factors that significantly i...

  2. Petroleum Refinery Effluents Treatment by Advanced Oxidation Process with Methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoucheng, Wen [Yangtze Univ., HuBei Jingzhou (China)

    2014-02-15

    Petroleum refinery effluents are waste originating from industries primarily engaged in refining crude oil. It is a very complex compound of various oily wastes, water, heavy metals and so on. Conventional processes are unable to effectively remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of petroleum refinery effluents. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) was proposed to treat petroleum refinery effluents. In this paper, methanol was used to investigate co-oxidative effect of methanol on petroleum refinery effluents treatment. The results indicated that supercritical water oxidation is an effective process for petroleum refinery effluents treatment. Adding methanol caused an increase in COD removal. When reaction temperature is 440 .deg. C, residence time is 20 min, OE is 0.5 and initial COD is 40000 mg/L, and COD removal increases 8.5%.

  3. Petroleum Refinery Effluents Treatment by Advanced Oxidation Process with Methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoucheng, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum refinery effluents are waste originating from industries primarily engaged in refining crude oil. It is a very complex compound of various oily wastes, water, heavy metals and so on. Conventional processes are unable to effectively remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of petroleum refinery effluents. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) was proposed to treat petroleum refinery effluents. In this paper, methanol was used to investigate co-oxidative effect of methanol on petroleum refinery effluents treatment. The results indicated that supercritical water oxidation is an effective process for petroleum refinery effluents treatment. Adding methanol caused an increase in COD removal. When reaction temperature is 440 .deg. C, residence time is 20 min, OE is 0.5 and initial COD is 40000 mg/L, and COD removal increases 8.5%

  4. In situ and laboratory bioassays to evaluate the impact of effluent discharges on receiving aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolders, R.; Bervoets, L.; Blust, R.

    2004-01-01

    Effluents are a main source of direct and often continuous input of pollutants into aquatic ecosystems with long-term implications on ecosystem functioning. Therefore, the study of the effects of effluent exposure on organisms, populations or communities within the framework of impact assessment has a high ecological relevance. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicological impact of two effluents, one household wastewater treatment effluent (Effluent 1) and one industrial effluent (Effluent 2), on the receiving aquatic ecosystem using two test species under both in situ and laboratory conditions. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed under laboratory conditions in an online monitoring flow-through system (receiving different concentrations of Effluent 2) and under in situ conditions along the pollution gradient established by these two effluent discharges. Bioassays focussed on growth and condition related endpoints (i.e. condition, growth, lipid budget), since these are key functional processes within organisms and populations. Under laboratory conditions, increasing concentrations of the industrial effluent (Effluent 2) had a negative effect on both zebra mussel and carp energy reserves and condition. Under in situ conditions, the same negative impact of Effluent 2 was observed for zebra mussels, while Effluent 1 had no apparent effect on exposed zebra mussels. Carp growth and condition, on the other hand, were significantly increased at the discharge sites of both effluents when compared to the reference site, probably due to differences in food availability. The results indicate that a combination of in situ and laboratory exposures can illustrate how ecological processes influence bioassay studies. The incorporation of indirect, ecological effects, like changes in food availability, provides considerable benefit in understanding and predicting effects of effluents on selected species under realistic exposure

  5. In situ and laboratory bioassays to evaluate the impact of effluent discharges on receiving aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolders, R. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: roel.smolders@ua.ac.be; Bervoets, L. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, R. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2004-11-01

    Effluents are a main source of direct and often continuous input of pollutants into aquatic ecosystems with long-term implications on ecosystem functioning. Therefore, the study of the effects of effluent exposure on organisms, populations or communities within the framework of impact assessment has a high ecological relevance. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicological impact of two effluents, one household wastewater treatment effluent (Effluent 1) and one industrial effluent (Effluent 2), on the receiving aquatic ecosystem using two test species under both in situ and laboratory conditions. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed under laboratory conditions in an online monitoring flow-through system (receiving different concentrations of Effluent 2) and under in situ conditions along the pollution gradient established by these two effluent discharges. Bioassays focussed on growth and condition related endpoints (i.e. condition, growth, lipid budget), since these are key functional processes within organisms and populations. Under laboratory conditions, increasing concentrations of the industrial effluent (Effluent 2) had a negative effect on both zebra mussel and carp energy reserves and condition. Under in situ conditions, the same negative impact of Effluent 2 was observed for zebra mussels, while Effluent 1 had no apparent effect on exposed zebra mussels. Carp growth and condition, on the other hand, were significantly increased at the discharge sites of both effluents when compared to the reference site, probably due to differences in food availability. The results indicate that a combination of in situ and laboratory exposures can illustrate how ecological processes influence bioassay studies. The incorporation of indirect, ecological effects, like changes in food availability, provides considerable benefit in understanding and predicting effects of effluents on selected species under realistic exposure

  6. EVALUACIÓN DE LOS EFLUENTES PROVENIENTES DE LA AGROINDUSTRIA DEL FIQUE EN EL MUNICIPIO DE TOTORÓ - CAUCA. EVALUATION OF THE ORIGINATING EFFLUENTS OF THE AGRO-INDUSTRY OF THE FIQUE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF TOTORÓ - CAUCA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN F DAGUA-MOSQUERA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron los efluentes provenientes de la agroindustria del fique en el río Molino del corregimiento de Paniquitá (Totoró-Cauca en tres fincas y en cuatro sitios a lo largo del río (1: Bocatoma del acueducto de Paniquitá, 2: Finca La Esperanza, 3: El Puente y 4: San José Bajo para generar alternativas de manejo. Los resultados muestran que la carga contaminante para el sitio 3 fue la DBO5 (8.42 kg/día, SST (61.16 kg/día, el 4 registró un valor de DBO5 (113.33 kg/día, SST (70.76 kg/día y el 1 presenta las características del nacimiento de un río. Para las tres fincas evaluadas registraron valores promedios de DBO5 (3113.88 kg/día, SST (3673.13 kg/día.The originating effluents of the agro-industry of fique in the Molino river of the group of judges of Paniquitá (Totoró-Cauca in three farms and four sites along river (1: Of the aqueduct of Paniquitá, 2: Farm La Esperanza, 3: El Puente, 4: San José Bajo generating handling alternatives. The results show that the polluting load for site 3 was the DBO5 (8,42 kg/día, SST (61,16 kg/día, the 4 registered a value of DBO5 (113,33 kg/día, SST (70,76 kg/ día and the 1 presents/displays the characteristics of the birth of a river. For the three evaluated farms they registered values averages of DBO5 (3113,88 kg/día, SST (3673,13 kg/día.

  7. Aplicação da análise custo/volume/lucro em pequena indústria de laticínios = Application of a cost/volume/profit analysis in a small industry of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Wernke

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Relata estudo de caso em que foi aplicada a Análise Custo/Volume/Lucro como instrumento de avaliação do desempenho de uma pequena indústria. Inicialmente foi efetuada uma revisão bibliográfica sobre os conceitos utilizados, especialmente margem de contribuição, ponto de equilíbrio e margem de segurança. Em seguida, descreveu-se o contexto da empresa pesquisada, mostrando suas principais características. Posteriormente foram apresentadas as etapas seguidas para aplicação da Análise Custo/Volume/Lucro. Foram demonstrados os cálculos efetuados e comentados os resultados oriundos mais relevantes para a administração da organização enfocada pelo estudo. Por último, foram elencadas as informações gerenciais obtidas, ressaltadas as limitações inerentes à ferramenta utilizada e sugerido tema para trabalhos futuros.This article reports a study case in which a Cost/Volume/Profit Analysis was applied asa tool to evaluate the performance of a small industry of dairy products. At first, abibliographic revision of the concepts was made, especially contribution margin, balancedpoint and security margin. After, the context of the industry was described, showing itsmain characteristics. After that, the steps which were followed so that the Cost/Volume/Profit Analysis was applied were presented, the calculi made were demonstrated andthe most relevant results from this study were commented for the industry management.Finally, the managerial information obtained was listed; emphasizing the limitations ofthe tool which was used and a theme for further research was suggested.

  8. Selective dry cow treatment in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpenzeel, C.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the dairy industry, udder health is associated with mastitis management, of which blanket dry cow treatment has been an important part for decades. To prevent the udder from new intramammary infections during the dry period, the use of blanket dry cow treatment has been advocated for more than 50

  9. BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION BY THERMOPHILIC DAIRY STREPTOCOCCI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUSSCHER, HJ; NEU, TR; VANDERMEI, HC

    Biosurfactant production of eight Streptococcus thermophilus strains, isolated from heat exchanger plates in the downstream side of the regenerator section of pasteurizers in the dairy industry has been measured using axisymmetric drop shape analysis by profile (ADSA-P). Strains were grown in M17

  10. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  11. Utilization of vinasse effluents from an anaerobic reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, F J.C.B.; Rocha, B B.M.; Viana, C E; Toledo, A C

    1986-01-01

    An anaerobic reactor was developed to biodigest alcohol distillery wastes. A further post-treatment of the effluent reduced the level of pollution to the point of eventually discharging into streams and rivers. The present work also analyses the use of biodigested vinasse as a source of food for fish. Very high efficiencies were obtained during primary and secondary treatment of vinasse effluent, as demonstrated by the greatly reduced organic load. The utilization of the treated effluent as a source of fish food presents an excellent alternative for the Brazilian alcohol industry. (Refs. 6).

  12. Radioactive clearance discharge of effluent from nuclear and radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinhua; Xu Chunyan

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the basic concepts of radiation safety management system exemption, exclusion and clearance, we expound that the general industrial gaseous and liquid effluent discharges are exempted or excluded, gaseous and liquid effluent discharged from nuclear and radiation facilities are clearance, and non-radioactive. The main purpose of this paper is to clarify the concepts, reach a consensus that the gaseous and liquid effluent discharged from nuclear and radiation facilities are non-radioactive and have no hazard to human health and natural environment. (authors)

  13. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božanić; Irena Rogelj

    2003-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  14. Design parameters for waste effluent treatment unit from beverages production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. Abdel-Fatah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on a successful experimental result from laboratory and bench scale for treatment of wastewater from beverages industry, an industrial and efficient treatment unit is designed and constructed. The broad goal of this study was to design and construct effluent, cost effective and high quality treatment unit. The used technology is the activated sludge process of extended aeration type followed by rapid sand filters and chlorination as tertiary treatment. Experimental results have been considered as the basis for full scale design of the industrial capacity of 1600 m3/day treatment plant. Final effluent characteristics after treatment comply with Egyptian legalizations after reducing COD and BOD5 by about 97% and 95% respectively. So it is recommended to reuse treated effluent in textile industry in dyeing process.

  15. PFOS and PFOA in influents, effluents, and biosolids of Chinese wastewater treatment plants and effluent-receiving marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hong; Zhang Can; Han Jianbo; Yu Yixuan; Zhang Peng

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in influents, effluents and sludges were investigated by analyzing the samples from twelve wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China. The highest concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in influents were found to occur in municipal and industrial WWTPs, respectively. Relative to PFOS and PFOA concentrations in influents, elevated concentrations were observed in effluents from WWTPs applying anaerobic–anoxic–oxic wastewater treatment process. Importantly, application of previously reported organic carbon normalized partition coefficients (K OC ) derived from sediment-based sorption experiments appear to underestimate the PFOS and PFOA levels in biosolids quantified in the current study. PFOS and PFOA levels in effluents were found to be approximately 27 and 2 times higher than those detected in the effluent-receiving seawater, respectively. However, their levels in this area of seawater haven't exceeded the provisional short-term health advisories in drinking water issued by U.S. EPA yet. - Highlights: ► Levels of PFOS and PFOA in influents, effluents and sludge from Chinese WWTPs were examined. ► Municipal sewage was the main source for PFOS in Chinese WWTPs, while industrial sewage for PFOA. ► PFOS and PFOA concentrations in effluents were much higher than those in receiving seawater. - Levels of PFOS and PFOA in influent, effluent and sludge samples from Chinese WWTPs were examined and found much higher than those in receiving seawater.

  16. Ação de Micoflora de efluentes agroindustriais sobre diferentes corantes e substratos lignocelulósicos =Action of mycoflora from agri-industrial effluents on different dyes and lignocellulosic substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Queijeiro López

    2011-09-01

    activity of the mycoflora of effluents from sugar-alcohol industry, to the ones of other fungi acquired in official collection. The tested dyes proved to be excellent substitutes for Poly R478. The isolate that showed more intense decolorant activity than the diameter of its growth (Cladosporium sp. was then tested on two natural and one synthetic substrate (sugarcane bagasse, sawing wood, and methylene blue in liquid medium. This isolate removed highconcentrations of reducing sugars, proteins and total phenols, and reduced the COD in medium containing sawdust as natural substrate of phenols. This fungus, therefore, seems promising to form consortia for co-metabolism and bioremediation of effluents in which there is a presence of phenolic or other recalcitrant compounds with similar structure to lignin.

  17. Bioremediation Kinetics of Pharmaceutical Industrial Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    M. Šabić; M. Vuković Domanovac; Z. Findrik Blažević; E. Meštrović

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, concerns about the occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals that could be present in water and wastewater has gained increasing attention. With the public’s enhanced awareness of eco-safety, environmentally benign methods based on microorganisms have become more accepted methods of removing pollutants from aquatic systems. This study investigates bioremediation of pharmaceutical wastewater from pharmaceutical company Pliva Hrvatska d.o.o., using activated sludge and bioaugmente...

  18. Volatile organic monitor for industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguna, G.R.; Peter, F.J.; Stuart, A.D.; Loyola, V.M.

    1993-07-01

    1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have created the need for instruments capable of monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in public air space in an unattended and low cost manner. The purpose of the study was to develop and demonstrate the capability to do long term automatic and unattended ambient air monitoring using an inexpensive portable analytic system at a commercial manufacturing plant site. A gas chromatograph system personal computer hardware, meteorology tower ampersand instruments, and custom designed hardware and software were developed. Comparison with an EPA approved method was performed. The system was sited at an aircraft engines manufacturing site and operated in a completely unattended mode for 60 days. Two VOCs were monitored every 30 minutes during the 24hr day. Large variation in the concentration from 800ppb to the limits of detection of about 10ppb were observed. Work to increase the capabilities of the system is ongoing

  19. Contaminant Characterization of Effluent from Pennsylvania Brine Treatment, Inc., Josephine Facility: Implications for Disposal of Oil and Gas Flowback Fluids from Brine Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PBT-Josephine Facility accepts only wastewater from the oil and gas industry. This report describes the concentrations of selected contaminants in the effluent water and compares the contaminant effluent concentrations to state and federal standards.

  20. Invited review: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of mortality and culling in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compton, C. W. R.; Heuer, C.; Thomsen, Peter T.

    2017-01-01

    Dairy industries and individual farmers are concerned about mortality and culling of dairy animals. This is because the timing and fates of animals that exit dairy farms have important animal welfare and economic consequences that reflect the conditions under which they are farmed and the efficie...