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Sample records for dairy herd improvement

  1. Short communication: Bulk milk somatic cell penalties in herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, K J; Godkin, M A; Kelton, D F

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of somatic cell count (SCC) monitoring at the cow level through Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) programs on the risk of bulk tank SCC (BTSCC) penalties. For the year 2009, BTSCC for all producers in Ontario were examined, for a total of 2,898 DHI herds, 1,186 non-DHI herds, and 48,250 BTSCC records. Two penalty levels were examined, where BTSCC exceeded 499,000 (P500) and 399,000 (P400) cells/mL. Data were modeled first to determine the odds of a BTSCC exceeding a set penalty threshold and second to determine the odds of incurring a penalty under the Ontario Milk Act. All data were modeled as a generalized mixed model with a binary link function. Random effects included herd, fixed effects included season of BTSCC (summer, May to September, and winter, October to April), total milk shipped per month (L), fat paid per month (kg), protein paid per month (kg), and participation or not in the DHI program. The likelihood of a BTSCC exceeding a penalty threshold in a non-DHI herd compared with a DHI herd was significantly greater than 1 at both penalty levels, where the odds ratios were estimated to be 1.42 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19 to 1.69] and 1.38 (95% CI: 1.25 to 1.54) for P500 and P400, respectively. The likelihood of incurring a BTSCC penalty (where 3 out of 4 consecutive BTSCC exceeded penalty thresholds) was not significantly different at P500; however, it was significantly different for P400, where the odds ratio was estimated to be 1.42 (95% CI: 1.12 to 1.81).

  2. Factors associated with frequency of abortions recorded through Dairy Herd Improvement test plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frequency of abortions recorded through Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) testing was summarized for cows with lactations completed from 2001 through 2009. Reported abortions were 1.3% for 8.5 million DHI lactations of cows with recorded breeding dates and that were >151 d pregnant at lactation terminati...

  3. Factors associated with frequency of abortions recorded through Dairy Herd Improvement test plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, H D; Miller, R H; Wright, J R; Hutchison, J L; Olson, K M

    2012-07-01

    Frequency of abortions recorded through Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) testing was summarized for cows with lactations completed from 2001 through 2009. For 8.5 million DHI lactations of cows that had recorded breeding dates and were >151 d pregnant at lactation termination, the frequency of recorded abortions was 1.31%. Effects of year, herd-year, month, and pregnancy stage at lactation termination; parity; breed; milk yield; herd size; geographic region; and state within region associated with DHI-recorded abortion were examined. Abortions recorded through DHI (minimum gestation of 152 d required) were more frequent during early gestation; least squares means (LSM) were 4.38, 3.27, 1.19, and 0.59% for 152 to 175, 176 to 200, 201 to 225, and 226 to 250 d pregnant, respectively. Frequency of DHI-recorded abortions was 1.40% for parity 1 and 1.01% for parity ≥ 8. Abortion frequency was highest from May through August (1.42 to 1.53%) and lowest from October through February (1.09 to 1.21%). Frequency of DHI-recorded abortions was higher for Holsteins (1.32%) than for Jerseys (1.10%) and other breeds (1.27%). Little relationship was found between DHI-recorded abortions and herd size. Abortion frequencies for effects should be considered to be underestimated because many abortions, especially those caused by genetic recessives, go undetected. Therefore, various nonreturn rates (NRR; 60, 80, …, 200 d) were calculated to document pregnancy loss confirmed by the absence of homozygotes in the population. Breeding records for April 2011 US Department of Agriculture sire conception rate evaluations were analyzed with the model used for official evaluations with the addition of an interaction between carrier status of the service sire (embryo's sire) and cow sire (embryo's maternal grandsire). Over 13 million matings were examined using various NRR for Holstein lethal recessive traits (brachyspina and complex vertebral malformation) and undesirable recessive haplotypes (HH1

  4. Surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, the potential for improvements in surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) infection and paratuberculosis in dairy herds was investigated, leading to a reduction in surveillance costs whilst continuing to meet specific quality targets. In particular, differen

  5. Prevalence of VTEC O157 in dairy and veal herds and risk factors for veal herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, I.M.G.A.; Graat, E.A.M.; Swart, W.A.J.M.; Weber, M.F.; Giessen, van de A.W.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Heuvelink, A.E.; Weering, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the herd prevalence of veal and dairy herds and to identify risk factors for VTEC O157 positive veal herds. The study was based on monitoring data from November 1996 through July 2005 of 1051 dairy herds and 930 veal herds. The herd level prevalence (95% CI) wa

  6. Benchmarking dairy herd health status using routinely recorded herd summary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Cole, J B; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C

    2016-02-01

    Genetic improvement of dairy cattle health through the use of producer-recorded data has been determined to be feasible. Low estimated heritabilities indicate that genetic progress will be slow. Variation observed in lowly heritable traits can largely be attributed to nongenetic factors, such as the environment. More rapid improvement of dairy cattle health may be attainable if herd health programs incorporate environmental and managerial aspects. More than 1,100 herd characteristics are regularly recorded on farm test-days. We combined these data with producer-recorded health event data, and parametric and nonparametric models were used to benchmark herd and cow health status. Health events were grouped into 3 categories for analyses: mastitis, reproductive, and metabolic. Both herd incidence and individual incidence were used as dependent variables. Models implemented included stepwise logistic regression, support vector machines, and random forests. At both the herd and individual levels, random forest models attained the highest accuracy for predicting health status in all health event categories when evaluated with 10-fold cross-validation. Accuracy (SD) ranged from 0.61 (0.04) to 0.63 (0.04) when using random forest models at the herd level. Accuracy of prediction (SD) at the individual cow level ranged from 0.87 (0.06) to 0.93 (0.001) with random forest models. Highly significant variables and key words from logistic regression and random forest models were also investigated. All models identified several of the same key factors for each health event category, including movement out of the herd, size of the herd, and weather-related variables. We concluded that benchmarking health status using routinely collected herd data is feasible. Nonparametric models were better suited to handle this complex data with numerous variables. These data mining techniques were able to perform prediction of health status and could add evidence to personal experience in herd

  7. Reproductive performance in a select sample of dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, James D; Skidmore, Andrew

    2013-02-01

    Sixteen herds were selected from a pool of 64 herds nominated by consultants for participation in a national survey to demonstrate excellence in reproductive performance. For inclusion in the survey, herds had to have comprehensive records in a farm computer database or participate in a Dairy Herd Improvement Association record system and have superior reproductive performance as judged by the herd advisor. Herd managers were asked to fill out a questionnaire to describe their reproductive management practices and provide herd records for data analysis. Reproductive analysis was based on individual cow records for active and cull dairy cows that calved during the calendar year 2010. Breeding records by cow were used to calculate indices for insemination rate (IR), conception rate (CR), pregnancy rate (PR), and culling. Herds ranged in size from 262 to 6,126 lactating and dry cows, with a mean of 1,654 [standard deviation (SD) 1,494] cows. Mean days to first insemination (DFS) was 71.2d (SD 4.7d), and IR for first insemination was 86.9%. Mean days between inseminations were 33.4d (SD 3.1d), and 15.4% of insemination intervals were greater than 48 d (range: 7.2 to 21.5%). First-service conception rate was 44.4% (SD 4.8%) across all herds and ranged from 37.5 to 51.8%. Mean PR was 32.0% (SD 3.9%) with a range of 26.5 to 39.4%. Lactation cull rate was 32.2% (SD 12.4%) with a range from 13.6 to 58.1%. Compared with mean data and SD for herds in the Raleigh Dairy Herd Improvement Association system, mean indices for these herds ranked them in the 99 th percentile for IR (using heat detection rate as comparison), 99 th percentile for PR, the bottom 18.6 percentile for DFS, and around the 50th percentile for CR. This suggests that excellent herd reproductive performance was associated with reproductive management that resulted in high insemination rates combined with average CR.

  8. Management information system impact on dairy production for selected herds in Texas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomaszewski, M.A.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Otten, A.

    2000-01-01

    Yearly production and performance data were obtained for dairy herd improvement members in Texas to determine whether on-farm use of a management information system (MIS) quantitatively impacted performance. Data from 66 dairy operations for the years 1983–1996 were evaluated. Herds enrolled in an M

  9. Characteristics of the USA dairy herd as related to management and demographic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data characteristics of the United States dairy herd related to animals enrolled in milk recording (dairy herd improvement) are the basic foundation and important influencers for the management and genetic progress achieved in a population or animal production unit. The amount, characteristics ...

  10. DHI体系在奶牛生产中的作用效果分析%Effect Analysis of Dairy Herd Improvement Report during Dairy Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁琛; 张晓彦; 张建海; 张磊

    2012-01-01

    为了发挥DHI体系在奶牛生产管理中的作用,促进奶牛健康养殖和乳品质量的提高,本研究利用DHI技术对包头某奶牛场6个月的奶牛生产情况进行了分析。结果发现,该奶牛场奶牛的乳脂率较低,体细胞数较高,一些奶牛患有严重的临床性乳房炎或隐性乳房炎。奶牛营养状况差,泌乳高峰期到达时间晚,产奶量少,存在潜在的奶损失。针对上述问题,提出了相应的解决措施。%To determine and analysis the production situation of cows in Baotou cow farm during the time from January to June of 2011, Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) data report was applied. The results suggested that these cows had lower butter fat rate and higher somatic cell count (SCC), which displayed they had caught serious mastitis or recessive mastitis. Meanwhile, poor nutritional status and relatively late lactation peak indirectly induced milk losses. Aiming at the above problems, appropriate measures were required immediate action.

  11. Bacteriological etiology and treatment of mastitis in Finnish dairy herds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johanna Vakkamaki; Suvi Taponen; Anna-Maija Heikkila; Satu Pyorala

    2017-01-01

    .... This study addressed pathogen-specific microbiological data and treatment and culling records, in combination with cow and herd characteristics, from the Finnish dairy herd recording system during 2010-2012...

  12. Use of Stochastic Simulation to Evaluate the Reduction in Methane Emissions and Improvement in Reproductive Efficiency from Routine Hormonal Interventions in Dairy Herds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C Archer

    Full Text Available This study predicts the magnitude and between herd variation in changes of methane emissions and production efficiency associated with interventions to improve reproductive efficiency in dairy cows. Data for 10,000 herds of 200 cows were simulated. Probability of conception was predicted daily from the start of the study (parturition for each cow up to day 300 of lactation. Four scenarios of differing first insemination management were simulated for each herd using the same theoretical cows: A baseline scenario based on breeding from observed oestrus only, synchronisation of oestrus for pre-set first insemination using 2 methods, and a regime using prostaglandin treatments followed by first insemination to observed oestrus. Cows that did not conceive to first insemination were re-inseminated following detection of oestrus. For cows that conceived, gestation length was 280 days with cessation of milking 60 days before calving. Those cows not pregnant after 300 days of lactation were culled and replaced by a heifer. Daily milk yield was calculated for 730 days from the start of the study for each cow. Change in mean reproductive and economic outputs were summarised for each herd following the 3 interventions. For each scenario, methane emissions were determined by daily forage dry matter intake, forage quality, and cow replacement risk. Linear regression was used to summarise relationships. In some circumstances improvement in reproductive efficiency using the programmes investigated was associated with reduced cost and methane emissions compared to reliance on detection of oestrus. Efficiency of oestrus detection and the time to commencement of breeding after calving influenced variability in changes in cost and methane emissions. For an average UK herd this was a saving of at least £50 per cow and a 3.6% reduction in methane emissions per L of milk when timing of first insemination was pre-set.

  13. Cubicle Refusal in Norwegian Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myren HJ

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to survey the behaviour of choosing the alley area instead of a cubicle as a lying place (cubicle refusal, a questionnaire was sent to the 273 dairy farms in Norway known to keep cows in cubicle housing systems. Sixty-six percent of the farmers contacted were included in the study. The median herd size was 18 cows (range 7–118. More than 85% of the herds had sheds providing one or more cubicles per cow. The mean herd occurrence of cubicle refusal was 6%, but showed great variation (range 0–55%. Regression analysis showed a significant association between rearing heifers in slatted floor pens and an increased cubicle refusal occurrence (p = 0.02, R2 = 0.05, while herd size, use of litter, or cubicle-to-animal ratio were not found to be associated with cubicle refusal. The practice of rearing heifers in slatted floor pens accounted for about one half of the observed cubicle refusal (etiologic fraction = 0.51.

  14. Bovine tuberculosis and its risk factors among dairy cattle herds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, being cross breed .... objective of this dairy system is to sale milk as a means of additional cash income. ... and herd characteristics (such as dairy herd management system, herd size, keeping of ...

  15. Within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin in endemically infected dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In this study within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin was investigated in three age groups (calves, young stock, adult cows) during five herd visits at 3-month intervals of 14 endemically infected dairy herds. A total of 10162 paired faecal cultures and antibody measurements were used...... stock and adult cows than in calves. Hierarchical mixed-model results showed that seroprevalence was associated with the bacteriological status in calves and cows, but not in young stock. These results can be used to develop and validate theoretical infection dynamics models and to design effective...... control programmes for Salmonella Dublin in dairy herds....

  16. Technical indicators of financial performance in the dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Erling Lundager; Østergaard, Søren; Krogh, Mogens Agerbo

    2008-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation was used to predict the long-term financial performance related to the technical performance of dairy herds. The indicators addressed were derived from data collected routinely in the herd. They indicated technical performance that can be affected by the farmer......, mortality in cows and calves, dynamics of body condition, and somatic cell counts. Each indicator was defined by 2 or 3 levels, and 2- and 3-factor interactions were included in the simulation experiment, which included 72 scenarios. Each scenario was replicated 200 times, and the resulting gross margin per...... increased the gross margin 2.6 times more than improved reproduction efficiency, which again increased the gross margin 2.6 to 5.9 times more than improved management related to heifers, body condition score, mortality, and somatic cell counts. These results were implemented in a simple "metamodel...

  17. Optimizing breeding decisions for Finnish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala-Schultz, P J; Gröhn, Y T; Allore, H G

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of reproductive performance on profitability and optimal breeding decisions for Finnish dairy herds. We used a dynamic programming model to optimize dairy cow insemination and replacement decisions. This optimization model maximizes the expected net revenues from a given cow and her replacements over a decision horizon. Input values and prices reflecting the situation in 1998 in Finland were used in the study. Reproductive performance was reflected in the model by overall pregnancy rate, which was a function of heat detection and conception rate. Seasonality was included in conception rate. The base run had a pregnancy rate of 0.49 (both heat detection and conception rate of 0.7). Different scenarios were modeled by changing levels of conception rate, heat detection, and seasonality in fertility. Reproductive performance had a considerable impact on profitability of a herd; good heat detection and conception rates provided an opportunity for management control. When heat detection rate decreased from 0.7 to 0.5, and everything else was held constant, net revenues decreased approximately 2.6%. If the conception rate also decreased to 0.5 (resulting in a pregnancy rate of 0.25), net revenues were approximately 5% lower than with a pregnancy rate of 0.49. With lower fertility, replacement percentage was higher and the financial losses were mainly from higher replacement costs. Under Finnish conditions, it is not optimal to start breeding cows calving in spring and early summer immediately after the voluntary waiting period. Instead, it is preferable to allow the calving interval to lengthen for these cows so that their next calving is in the fall. However, cows calving in the fall should be bred immediately after the voluntary waiting period. Across all scenarios, optimal solutions predicted most calvings should occur in fall and the most profitable time to bring a replacement heifer into a herd was in the fall. It

  18. Epidemiological Studies on Bovine Mastitis in Smallholder Dairy Herds in the Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kivaria, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Recently the number of milking cows has increased substantially in the Dar es Salaam region due to an increasing demand for fresh milk in this densely populated urban centre. It is estimated that there are 1,765 smallholder dairy herds with 8,233 improved dairy animals in and around the Dar es Sala

  19. Epidemiological Studies on Bovine Mastitis in Smallholder Dairy Herds in the Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kivaria, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Recently the number of milking cows has increased substantially in the Dar es Salaam region due to an increasing demand for fresh milk in this densely populated urban centre. It is estimated that there are 1,765 smallholder dairy herds with 8,233 improved dairy animals in and around the Dar es

  20. Low prevalence of Salmonella in Swedish dairy herds highlight differences between serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågren, Estelle C C; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna; Wahlström, Helene; Emanuelson, Ulf; Frössling, Jenny

    2016-03-01

    Legislated Salmonella control in Sweden has been in place since the 1960s. The purpose of this study was to investigate presence of Salmonella antibodies in dairy cattle herds and to provide a basis for decisions on how surveillance and control can be improved. Bulk milk samples from all Swedish dairy herds (n=4 683) were analysed with two different ELISAs; one detecting antibodies against Salmonella Dublin (Dublin ELISA), and one detecting antibodies against several of the serotypes causing bovine salmonellosis including S. Dublin (Bovine ELISA). Information about herds, i.e. geographical location, local animal density, number of test positive herds within 5km, animal trade and herd size, was based on register data. The results confirm a very low prevalence of Salmonella in Swedish dairy herds throughout the country with the exception of an island in the southeast. The test positive herds split into two groups; 41 herds (1%) positive in the Dublin ELISA, and 101 herds (2%) positive in the Bovine ELISA but negative in the Dublin ELISA. Geographical location of positive herds, and comparison of the results of the screening with serotypes previously isolated from some of the herds, indicated that the first group represents herds presently or previously infected with S. Dublin while the second group represents herds presently or previously infected with other serotypes. Differences in serological status between herds in different regions, of different size, with different animal purchase patterns et cetera, were tested using logistic regression. Presence of positive herds within 5km was significantly associated to testing positive. For herds testing positive in the Dublin ELISA, significant associations were also seen with herd size. Purchase of animals during the last year was not significantly associated with the outcome in the final models. We conclude that for future surveillance, the Bovine ELISA can be used to help in identifying infected herds, and the Dublin

  1. Technical indicators of financial performance in the dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Erling Lundager; Østergaard, Søren; Krogh, Mogens Agerbo;

    2008-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation was used to predict the long-term financial performance related to the technical performance of dairy herds. The indicators addressed were derived from data collected routinely in the herd. They indicated technical performance that can be affected by the farmer or the consu......Monte Carlo simulation was used to predict the long-term financial performance related to the technical performance of dairy herds. The indicators addressed were derived from data collected routinely in the herd. They indicated technical performance that can be affected by the farmer......" that used data extracted from ordinary management software to predict herd-specific financial performance related to major management changes. The metamodel was derived from systematic experiments with a complex simulation model that was used directly for advanced herd-specific decision support. We...

  2. Herd-level diagnosis for Salmonella enterica subsp enterica serovar Dublin infection in bovine dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, J.; Barkema, H.W.; Schans, van de J.; Zijderveld, van F.G.; Verhoeff, J.

    2002-01-01

    Herd-level sensitivities of bacteriological and serological methods were compared in 79 bovine dairy herds, recently infected with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin. All farms experienced clinical signs of salmonellosis for the first time and had no history of vaccination against sa

  3. Evaluating the reproductive performance of British beef and dairy herds using national cattle movement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, M C

    2013-11-23

    National cattle movement databases provide a valuable opportunity to monitor the reproductive performance of breeding cattle on an industry-wide scale. In this analysis, records from the Cattle Tracing System database were used to derive key measures of reproductive efficiency for British beef and dairy herds, including calving spread, age at first calving, calving interval, culling rate and calf mortality rate. At the animal level, only 8.5 per cent of beef heifers and 6.9 per cent of dairy heifers calved by the target age of 24 months. The average calving interval was 394 days for beef dams (median: 371) and 426 days for dairy dams (median: 400). Differences in performance were noted between cattle breeds. An estimated 43.9 per cent calves born in dairy herds were crossbreed beef animals, which may limit the availability of replacement dairy heifers. At the herd level, calving spread and calf mortality rates increased with herd size, while average age at first calving, calving interval, and crossbreeding generally decreased with herd size. Dam age, calving month, breed and twinning were significant risk factors for culling and calf mortality at the animal level. Wide variation in performance between individual herds highlights the potential for improving the efficiency of British cattle production.

  4. Identifying risk factors associated with lameness in pasture-based dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, S; Rabiee, A R; Gunn, A; House, J K

    2016-09-01

    Lameness is a significant welfare concern for dairy farmers and a major contributing economic loss to the dairy industry. Information is limited on environmental and managerial risk factors associated with lameness in Australian dairy herds. The objective of this study was to explore and quantify the environmental and management risk factors associated with lameness in pasture-based dairy herds. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 63 pasture-based dairy herds between 2011 and 2014, where all lactating cows were locomotion scored (scale 1-4) during a single visit. Environmental and management variables, such as length of main track and animal handling practices, were recorded during the visit. The prevalence of lameness was measured for each farm and associated risk factors were analyzed using a Generalized Linear Model, where farm was the unit of analysis. Estimated average prevalence of lameness was 18.9% (range 5 to 44.5%). The prevalence of lameness was associated with the amount of rainfall during the 30 d before the farm assessment, smoothness of concrete surface and available space per cow in the holding yard, and length of feed-pad available per cow. Inappropriate handling of cows on the track (e.g., causing sideways pushing among cows) was also a contributing risk factor to high prevalence of lameness in these dairy herds. The findings of this study suggest that by managing several environmental and farming practices, producers can reduce the prevalence of lameness, leading to improved productivity of their herds.

  5. Random within-herd variation in financial performance and time to financial steady-state following management changes in dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Erling Lundager; Østergaard, Søren; Krogh, Mogens Agerbo

    2008-01-01

    The manager of a dairy herd and the affiliated consultants constantly need to judge whether financial performance of the production system is satisfactory and whether financial performance relates to real (systematic) effects of changes in management. This is no easy task because the dairy herd...... is a very complex system. Thus, it is difficult to obtain empirical data that allows a valid estimation of the random (within-herd) variation in financial performance corrected for management changes. Thus, simulation seems to be the only option. This study suggests that much caution must be recommended...... when claming effect of changes in herd management because the link between management changes (cause) and effect (measured as improvement of gross margin per cow year) is extensively blurred by a large within-herd variation in available real life accounting data and differences between herds in time...

  6. Herd health and management of dairy cow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćaǧlayan, Alper; Yüca, Songül

    2016-04-01

    Herd management requires multidisciplinary practices including animal feeding, gynecology, artificial insemination, immunology, and similar topics. Animal feeding is the most delicate subject as the fodder expense is 70% of the farm cost and as nearly all of the metabolic diseases arising out as health problem are because of misfeeding. However, a business organization's being able to maintain making profit will be possible by taking a healthy calf from breeding herd every year. For this reason, precision registrations of birth and artificial insemination, following-up pregnant state of animals, and making the other animals pregnant as soon as possible should be primary aim. It should not be forgotten that diarrhea and pneumonia in calves are among the most frequently witnessed infection related health problems. Mastitis, metritis and foot diseases take an important place in mature cows. These diseases can be minimized by vaccinations that are done properly and in suitable time, in-service training of staffs, making shelters suitable for animals welfare, and improving the hygienic conditions.

  7. Performance of Improved Dairy Cattle Technologies Among Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    In pastoral system dominated milk production in Nigeria, it still supplies considerable ... return of sales of dairy products and constraints encountered by dairy cattle .... to improve herd productivity is to cross local cows to the exotic bulls and/or.

  8. Stochastic models to simulate paratuberculosis in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.S.; Weber, M.F.; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic simulation models are widely accepted as a means of assessing the impact of changes in daily management and the control of different diseases, such as paratuberculosis, in dairy herds. This paper summarises and discusses the assumptions of four stochastic simulation models and their use...... the models are somewhat different in their underlying principles and do put slightly different values on the different strategies, their overall findings are similar. Therefore, simulation models may be useful in planning paratuberculosis strategies in dairy herds, although as with all models caution...

  9. Diagnostic studies of abortion in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Willadsen, C. M.; Nielsen, Thomas Krogh

    1997-01-01

    Diagnostic findings in 218 aborted bovine foetuses are reported. The materials were examined in a matched case-control study of 69 Danish dairy herds with a sudden increase in the number of abortions and a corresponding 69 control herds. Foetuses aborted during the subsequent 6-month period were...... examined to identify the cause of abortion if possible. A total of 186 specimens were submitted from case herds and 32 from control herds. A likely cause of abortion was diagnosed in 73 foetuses. The most common cause was bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV: 13%) followed by Neospora caninum infection (10......%), mycosis (5%) and Bacillus licheniformis infection (4%). Foetal and/or placental lesions were found in a further 27 cases. Only BVDV infection and neosporosis were diagnosed in more than one foetus per herd and only protozoal associated abortions occurred significantly more frequently in the case, rather...

  10. A partnership of universities and agri-business for an effective dairy herd management learning experience for undergraduates: the Dairy Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber Nielsen, M S; Domecq, J J; Davis, L E; Beede, D K; Budine, M; Martsolf, F

    2003-03-01

    The Dairy Challenge contest allows undergraduate students to apply knowledge gained in the classroom in an evaluation of the management practices of commercial dairy farms. University faculty partnered with industry representatives to develop the competition. Participants in the Dairy Challenge do the following: 1) critically evaluate dairy herd management practices and make recommendations for improvements; 2) visit local dairy farms and gain knowledge of different farms' management practices; 3) meet and interact with potential employers from the dairy industry during the contest; 4) evaluate herd records and utilize knowledge of dairy herd management software and computer presentation tools; 5) test their speaking, presentation, and problem-solving skills; and 6) work as a team to build consensus and tag-team speaking formats. Teams of four undergraduate students critically evaluate a commercial dairy farm using herd records, a description of farm operations, and tour of the farm facilities. The farmer answers questions pertaining to management of the farm in a group interview with all teams and in a separate interview with each individual team. Teams give a 20-min presentation that is scored on the description and assessment of the management practices and recommendations for improvements in management and facilities. Additionally, scoring is based on apparent level of preparation, speaking, presentation skills, and responses to judges' questions. The judges are university specialists and dairy industry professionals. This capstone experience allows students to interact with dairy farmers and representatives from the dairy industry and expands their knowledge and skills gained during their academic career.

  11. Copper toxicity in a New Zealand dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Howard; Beasley, Laura; MacPherson, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Chronic copper toxicity was diagnosed in a Jersey herd in the Waikato region of New Zealand following an investigation into the deaths of six cattle from a herd of 250 dry cows. Clinical signs and post-mortem examination results were consistent with a hepatopathy, and high concentrations of copper in liver and blood samples of clinically affected animals confirmed copper toxicity. Liver copper concentrations and serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activities were both raised in a group of healthy animals sampled at random from the affected herd, indicating an ongoing risk to the remaining cattle; these animals all had serum copper concentrations within normal limits. Serum samples and liver biopsies were also collected and assayed for copper from animals within two other dairy herds on the same farm; combined results from all three herds showed poor correlation between serum and liver copper concentrations. To reduce liver copper concentrations the affected herd was drenched with 0.5 g ammonium molybdate and 1 g sodium sulphate per cow for five days, and the herd was given no supplementary feed or mineral supplements. Liver biopsies were repeated 44 days after the initial biopsies (approximately 1 month after the end of the drenching program); these showed a significant 37.3% decrease in liver copper concentrations (P record keeping, but multiple sources of copper contributed to a long term copper over supplementation of the herd; the biggest source of copper was a mineral supplement. The farmer perceived this herd to have problems with copper deficiency prior to the diagnosis of copper toxicity, so this case demonstrates the importance of monitoring herd copper status regularly. Also the poor correlation between liver and serum copper concentrations in the three herds sampled demonstrates the importance of using liver copper concentration to assess herd copper status.

  12. Cow- and herd-level risk factors for on-farm mortality in Midwest US dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, M Q; Reneau, J K; Chester-Jones, H; Chebel, R C; Endres, M I

    2015-07-01

    indicated that first test-day records, especially those indicative of negative energy balance in cows, could be helpful to identify animals at high risk for mortality. Higher milk yield per cow did not have a negative association with mortality. In addition, the association between herd-level factors and mortality indicated that management quality could be an important factor in lowering on-farm mortality, thereby improving cow welfare. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Eradication of Prototheca zopfii infection in a dairy cattle herd].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösler, U; Hensel, A

    2003-09-01

    Protothecosis is a severe form of mastitis in dairy cows caused by colorless algae of the genus Prototheca. Since P. zopfii is highly resistant to all known chemotherapeutics, infected cows must be removed from the herd. Eradication measures are difficult since many chronically infected cows may become intermittent shedders. Therefore, cultural methods are insufficient for control measures. In order to eradicate Prototheca zopfii-mastitis in dairy cattle herds, two isotype specific indirect ELISA for detection of IgA and IgG1 in whey were used in a dairy herd highly affected with protothecal mastitis. All cows (n = 313) were tested four times in intervals of six months. Milk specimens were examined in parallel by cultivation and serologically using two indirect ELISA systems for specific IgA and IgG1 in whey. Cows tested Prototheca positive were consequently separated from the herd and slaughtered. At the first examination, 15.6% of the animals were found positive by culture, and 23.3% were positive in at least one of the ELISA systems. Within two years, protothecal prevalence and incidence decreased to zero indicating that the eradication strategy used was successful. In summary, serological identification of P. zopfii-infected lactating cows is an useful tool to eradicate protothecal bovine mastitis in infected herds.

  14. Prevalence of Coxielle Burnetii anbitodies in Danish Dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jens F.; Christoffersen, Anna-Bodil; Rattenborg, Erik

    2010-01-01

    During recent years in Denmark higher rates of antibodies to Coxiella burnetii have been detected in animals and humans than previously reported. A study based on bulk tank milk samples from 100 randomly selected dairy herds was performed to estimate the prevalence and geographical distribution o...

  15. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, E; Rousing, T; Thomsen, P T; Otten, N D; Sørensen, J T

    2013-05-01

    Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality® inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than during full-time winter housing. Furthermore, we expected improved welfare with an increase in daily summer grazing hours. In total, 41 herds have been visited once in the winter and once in the summer of 2010 to assess their welfare status with 17 different animal- and resource-based welfare measures. A panel of 20 experts on cattle welfare and husbandry evaluated the relative weight of the 17 welfare measures in a multidimensional assessment scheme. They estimated exact weights for a priori constituted severe compared with moderate scores of welfare impairment concerning each measure, as well as relevance of the measures in relation to each other. A welfare index (WI; possible range 0 to 5400) was calculated for each herd and season with a higher index indicating poorer welfare. The within-herd comparison of summer grazing v. winter housing considered all the 17 measures. The mean WI in summer was significantly lower (better) than in winter (mean 2926 v. 3330; paired t-test P = 0.0001) based on a better state of the integument, claw conformation and better access to water and

  16. Herd-level risk factors for infection with bovine leukemia virus in Canadian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouei, Omid; VanLeeuwen, John; Sanchez, Javier; Kelton, David; Tiwari, Ashwani; Keefe, Greg

    2015-05-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an economically important infection of dairy cattle worldwide, which is caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). The prevalence of infection in Canadian dairy herds is high and continues to increase; however, there has not been a national program to control BLV. This cross-sectional study was conducted to identify potentially important risk factors for BLV infection on Canadian dairy herds, which is a prerequisite to developing an effective control program. During 1998-2003, based on a stratified two-stage random sampling process, 315 dairy farms from seven provinces of Canada were selected. Within each farm, 9-45 cows were bled and tested with a commercial serum ELISA kit for BLV antibodies. A comprehensive questionnaire, targeting potentially important herd-level management indicators, was successfully administered in 272 herds. A zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression model was fit to the resulting data to assess the potential associations between BLV seropositivity and a variety of herd-level factors. Seventy-eight percent of the herds were identified as BLV-positive (had one or more test positive animals). In the negative-binomial part of the final ZINB model, herds with clinical cases of leukosis during the 12 months prior to sampling, as well as herds which purchased animals with unknown BLV infection status in the last five years, had a significantly larger proportion of BLV positive animals. Based on a significant interaction between two of the risk factors, changing gloves between cows during pregnancy examination was not statistically associated with lower proportion of infected cows compared with not changing gloves, in the western Canadian provinces. In the logistic part of the model, herds from eastern Canadian provinces and those not purchasing cows in the last five years had increased odds of being free from BLV. The high prevalence of infection across Canada should be addressed through the development and

  17. Case study: Comparison of biological active compounds in milk from organic and conventional dairy herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conflicting reports of the quantities of biologically active compounds present in milk from organic grass-fed and conventional herds show that more research is required, especially as these compounds are linked to human health benefits and can improve the health value consumers place on dairy produc...

  18. Visual monitoring of reproduction in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Iver; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    1994-01-01

    Two complementary approaches to produce visual information from reproduction records are described and exemplified. The Event Display shows all reproductive events, over a year, for all cows in a herd, by symbols placed in an array with columns representing calendar weeks and rows representing in...

  19. Infectious reproductive disease pathogens in dairy herd bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, A S; Younis, P J; Beggs, D S; Mansell, P D; Pyman, M F

    2015-10-01

    Investigate the presence of infectious reproductive disease pathogens in dairy herd bulls in south-west Victoria, Australia, using a cross-sectional study. Dairy herd bulls from 32 herds were sampled for bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV: 256 bulls, 32 herds) prior to the natural mating period, bovine herpes virus-1 prior to (10 bulls, 5 herds) and after (118 bulls, 19 herds) the natural mating period, and for Campylobacter fetus spp. and Tritrichomonas foetus after the natural mating period (61 bulls, 7 herds). BVDV was detected from an ear-notch sample using a commercially available rapid assay ELISA, bovine herpes virus-1 and T. foetus were screened for by PCR from a penile swab and preputial sample respectively, and C. fetus spp. were screened for by culture of preputial samples. None of the bulls tested positive for BVDV antigen. Campylobacter fetus venerealis (or C. fetus fetus) was cultured in 6.6% (4/61) of bulls, representing 2 of the 7 (28.6%) farms that were not vaccinating bulls against bovine genital campylobacteriosis. Bovine herpes virus-1 was identified in 7.8% (10/128) bulls sampled; T. foetus was not identified in any samples. Bovine genital campylobacteriosis is present in south-western Victoria, despite longstanding recommendations to vaccinate bulls. Screening bulls for persistent infection with BVDV is probably justified, despite the absence of persistently infected bulls in this study. Further research is warranted to investigate the potential reproductive implications of BHV-1, and the presence of T. foetus. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  20. 基于DHI的奶牛隐性乳房炎分析%Subclinical Mastitis Analysis of Dairy Cattle Based on the Dairy Herd Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳兰; 茹彩霞; 王建华

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to analyze the incidence of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle so as to provide scientific basis for the control of subclinical mastitis. [ Method] According to the number of somatic cells in the DHI report of three dairy farms in 2009, the incidence of subclinical mastitis in three dairy farms, at different lactation periods and parities was studied. [ Result] The incidence of subclinical mastitis was different on different dairy farms, the lactating cattle on farm 1 had low incidence of subclinical mastitis than on other two farms (P 0.05). [Conclusion] The incidence of subclinical mastitis was influenced by the lactation periods and parity as well as the breeding and management of the cattle farms. Each farm should take measures to control the incidence of subclinical mastitis according to their own conditions and DHI results.%[目的]分析奶牛隐性乳房炎的发生情况,为隐性乳房炎的控制提供科学依据.[方法]以3个牛场2009年DHI报告的体细胞数大小来分析隐性乳房炎在不同牛场、泌乳阶段和胎次的发生情况.[结果]不同牛场隐性乳房炎发生率存在差异,牛场1泌乳牛隐性乳房炎的发生率显著低于另外2个场(P<0.05).随着泌乳时间的增加,奶牛隐性乳房炎的发生率呈增加的趋势,牛场3在第6、7、8和第12泌乳月隐性乳房炎的发生率显著高于其他泌乳月.随着胎次的增加,奶牛隐性乳房炎的发生率呈增加趋势,牛场1在4胎以后奶牛隐性乳房炎的发生率显著增加且与其他2个场差异不显著(P>0.05).[结论]奶牛隐性乳房炎的发生率与泌乳阶段和胎次有关,与牛场自身的饲养管理有关.各个牛场应根据自身条件及DHI结果采取相应的措施控制奶牛隐性乳房炎的发生.

  1. The effect of grazing on cow mortality in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, Elke; Thomsen, Peter Thorup; Sørensen, Jan Tind;

    2011-01-01

    The effect of summer grazing in large Danish dairy herds and certain management characteristics of grazing were studied for their impact on dairy cow mortality. Mortality data (from the Danish Cattle Database) from 391 Danish dairy herds (>100 cows) were combined with information from a questionn...

  2. Improving percentage of successful first insemination using electronic detector of oestrus in a herd of Norman dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decuadro-Hansen Gustavo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the field work of a farmer (75 milking Normandy breed cows during the reproductive season (between the 15 of October and the 15 of February of years 1995-2002, and to compare the visual detection technique with the use of the DEC (electronic heat detector. At the same time the information that the farmer received from the DEC helped him to breed the cows in an optimum moment for AI, which consequently reduced the number of cows that would come back into heat after 3 weeks, as well as reduce the number of cows he would cull at the end of the reproductive season for reproductive reasons. In such a manner he improved his first AI success rate from year to year (1995-49%, 1996-44%, 1997-33%, 1998- 31%, 1999-16%, 2000-58%, 2001-55% and 2002-63%.

  3. Paratuberculosis sero-status and milk production, SCC and calving interval in Irish dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoogendam K

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of paratuberculosis sero-status on milk yield, fat, protein, somatic cell count and calving interval in Irish dairy herds. Serum from all animals over 12 months of age (n = 2,602 in 34 dairy herds was tested for antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using an ELISA. Herds were categorised by sero-status into positive, non-negative and negative, where a positive herd contained two or more positive cows, a non-negative herd contained only one positive cow and a negative herd contained no positive cows. Data at animal, parity and herd-level were analysed by multiple regression using general linear models. Positive herds (mean herd size = 129 cows and non-negative herds (81 cows were larger than negative herds (72 cows (P

  4. Aetiology of clinical mastitis in six Somerset dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A J; Green, M J

    2001-06-02

    Clinical mastitis was monitored in six Somerset dairy herds for one year. The herds all had three-month geometric mean bulk milk somatic cell counts of less than 250,000 cells/ml. Escherichia coli was the predominant pathogen isolated on all the farms and in all months of the year. Environmental pathogens accounted for 61.4 per cent of all cases of clinical mastitis and for 79.3 per cent of the mastitis cases in which an aetiological agent was identified. The mean annual incidence was 41.6 cases per 100 cows (range 14 to 75). Affected cows suffered a mean of 1.5 cases and 16.4 per cent of quarters suffered at least one repeat case. Mastitis due to E. coli was more severe than mastitis due to other causes and it tended to be more severe in early lactation and during the housing period. Mastitis was significantly more severe (grades 2 and 3) in the herd with the lowest bulk milk somatic cell count and in the herd which was kept indoors throughout the year than in the other four herds. Mastitis was fatal in 2.2 per cent of cases and resulted in the death of 0.6 per cent of the lactating cows.

  5. Survey of preweaning dairy calf-rearing practices in Czech dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staněk, S; Zink, V; Doležal, O; Štolc, L

    2014-01-01

    It is important to describe weaknesses in rearing calves not only to improve their welfare, but also to detect areas where current scientific knowledge is poorly integrated into practice. A survey of preweaning calf-rearing practices was conducted using a farmer questionnaire. The survey included 136 farms, representing 11.9% of all dairy cows in the Czech Republic. Mean herd size (± standard deviation) was 326 ± 131.4 cows, and mean milk production 7,413 ± 1,389.5 kg per cow per year. We evaluated 59 farms with Holsteins (H) and 77 with the Czech Fleckvieh breed (C). The survey revealed that (1) calving in group pens predominated (67.6% of farms); (2) no disinfection of calf navels occurred on 11.8% of herds; (3) pooled colostrum was fed on 15.4% of farms; (4) colostrum quality was controlled on only 44.1% of farms, and only 73.5% of farms had reserve colostrum stocks; (5) nonmarket waste milk was fed in 64.7% of herds but it was pasteurized in only in 6.8% of herds and acidified in 35.2% of herds; (6) milk replacer was mixed with nonmarket waste milk on 52.9% of farms; (7) 58.8% of farms enabled calves to obtain milk by sucking and 41.2% by drinking from a bucket; (8) the main criterion in weaning was calf age (61.7%), followed by acceptance of starter and concentrated feed (19.9%) and lack of housing capacity (18.4%); and (9) newborn calves were individually housed on 96.7% of farms and group-housed on 3.3% of farms. The most marked differences in calf-rearing management between Holstein and Czech Fleckvieh farms were (1) a higher proportion of operations calving in tie-stalls or stanchions in C (6.5%) versus H (1.7%) farms; (2) a higher proportion of untreated navels on C (15.6%) versus H (6.8%) farms; (3) a lower proportion of C (11.7%) versus H (20.4%) farms feeding pooled colostrum; (4) a lower proportion of C (39%) versus H (50.9%) farms monitoring colostrum quality; (5) sucking milk from nipple buckets predominated (61%) on C farms, whereas drinking

  6. Spatial modelling of the between-herd infection dynamics of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in dairy herds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Houe, H.

    2010-01-01

    According to the current literature BVDV-infected neighbours probably impose a high risk of infection of susceptible cattle herds. In the present study, the objective was to evaluate the risk of a dairy herd changing infection status (from not having persistently infected (PI) animals to having PI-animals...

  7. Bacteriological etiology and treatment of mastitis in Finnish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakkamäki, Johanna; Taponen, Suvi; Heikkilä, Anna-Maija; Pyörälä, Satu

    2017-05-25

    The Finnish dairy herd recording system maintains production and health records of cows and herds. Veterinarians and farmers register veterinary treatments in the system. Milk samples for microbiological analysis are routinely taken from mastitic cows. The laboratory of the largest dairy company in Finland, Valio Ltd., analyzes most samples using real-time PCR. This study addressed pathogen-specific microbiological data and treatment and culling records, in combination with cow and herd characteristics, from the Finnish dairy herd recording system during 2010-2012. The data derived from 240,067 quarter milk samples from 93,529 dairy cows with mastitis; 238,235 cows from the same herds served as the control group. No target pathogen DNA was detected in 12% of the samples. In 49% of the positive samples, only one target species and in 19%, two species with one dominant species were present. The most common species in the samples with a single species only were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) (43%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21%), Streptococcus uberis (9%), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (8%), Corynebacterium bovis (7%), and Escherichia coli (5%). On average, 36% of the study cows and 6% of the control cows had recorded mastitis treatments during lactation. The corresponding proportions were 16 and 6% at drying-off. For more than 75% of the treatments during lactation, diagnosis was acute clinical mastitis. In the milk samples from cows with a recorded mastitis treatment during lactation, CNS and S. aureus were most common, followed by streptococci. Altogether, 48% of the cows were culled during the study. Mastitis was reported as the most common reason to cull; 49% of study cows and 18% of control cows were culled because of mastitis. Culling was most likely if S. aureus was detected in the milk sample submitted during the culling year. The PCR test has proven to be an applicable method also for large-scale use in bacterial diagnostics. In the present

  8. Using a Herd Profile to Determine Age-Specific Prevalence of Bovine Leukemia Virus in Michigan Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J. Erskine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic bovine leukosis is a contagious disease of cattle caused by the retrovirus, bovine leukemia virus (BLV and is the most common cause of malignant neoplasm in cattle. In order to facilitate surveillance of this disease in dairy herds, we developed a method to combine ELISA of milk collected during routine production testing with a prescribed sampling of cows that is independent of the proportion of cows within each lactation. In 113 Michigan dairy herds, milk samples from ten cows in each of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥4th lactations were analyzed for anti-Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV antibodies by milk ELISA. For each herd, a BLV herd profile (BHP was calculated as the simple average of the percent of BLV-positive cows within each of the four lactation groups. The mean BHP for all herds was 32.8%, with means of 18.5, 28.8, 39.2, and 44.8% of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥4th lactation animals infected, respectively. In eight herds, we determined the correlation between the BHP, and true herd prevalence by testing the entire lactating herd (r=0.988,  P<0.0001. The BHP allows discrimination of lactation-specific BLV prevalence within a dairy herd, to help identify risk factors and management plans that may be important in transmission of BLV.

  9. Applied epidemiology: another tool in dairy herd health programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankena, K; Noordhuizen, J P; Stassen, E N

    1994-01-01

    Data bases of herd health programs concern data from individual animals mainly. Several parameters that determine herd performance can be calculated from these programs, and by comparing actual values with standard values, areas for further improvement of health (and production) can be advised. However, such advice is usually not backed up by the proper statistical analyses. Moreover, data concerning the environment of the animals are not present and hence advice concerning multifactorial diseases are based on common knowledge and experience. Veterinary epidemiology offers methods that might improve the value of herd health programs by identification and quantification of factors and conditions contributing to multifactorial disease occurrence. Implementation of these methods within herd health programs will lead to more scientifically sound advice.

  10. Evaluation of two dairy herd reproductive performance indicators that are adjusted for voluntary waiting period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löf Emma

    2012-01-01

    between different levels, followed by PV30, NotIC200, IC100 and the calving interval. IV30 could not discriminate between the two levels. Conclusion PV30 is the single best performance indicator for estimating the level of both herd management efficiency and reproductive physiology followed by NotIC200 and IC100. This indicates that PV30 could be a potential candidate for inclusion in dairy herd improvement schemes.

  11. Synchronization and Artificial Insemination Strategies in Dairy Herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jeffrey S

    2016-07-01

    Timed artificial insemination (AI) programs are commonly used in the dairy industry for lactating cows, but less so in replacement heifers. Excellent programs using combinations of prostaglandin F2α and gonadotropin-releasing hormone in protocols relying on timed AI without detection of estrus or in protocols that combine timed AI with inseminations performed after detected estrus are able to achieve acceptable pregnancy percentages. In herds with excellent estrus detection, timed AI programs serve as a failsafe system to address cows or heifers not yet inseminated after a defined period of estrus detection.

  12. Paratuberculosis sero-status and milk production, SCC and calving interval in Irish dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendam, K.; Richardson, E.; Mee, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of paratuberculosis sero-status on milk yield, fat, protein, somatic cell count and calving interval in Irish dairy herds. Serum from all animals over 12 months of age (n=2,602) in 34 dairy herds was tested for antibodies to Mycobacterium avi

  13. Patterns of clinical mastitis manifestations in Danish organic dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    1997-01-01

    Danish organic dairy production is characterized by a low input of antibiotics for udder treatment and a high input of other mastitis control procedures. A study was conducted in 14 organic dairy herds with the objectives of obtaining a comprehensive description of clinical mastitis cases...... and identifying characteristic patterns in these results. Clinical signs, inflammatory reactions and microbiological identifications were obtained from 367 cases of clinical mastitis occurring over 18 months. Cow characteristics and preincident values such as milk yield and somatic cell count were obtained...... for each cow. Signs of previous udder inflammation were present in two-thirds of the clinical mastitis cases. Severe local inflammatory reactions were found in 21% of the cases and some indication of generalized signs such as fever and reduced appetite were found in 35% of the cases. Logistic regression...

  14. Postpartum uterine diseases and their impacts on conception and days open in dairy herds in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, F; Vincenti, L; Ricci, A; Schukken, Y H

    2015-10-15

    The objective of this study was to describe the incidence and the impact of postpartum uterine diseases in postpartum cows on future uterine status and reproductive performance in large Italian dairy herds. This study provides an important quantitative estimate of uterine and postpartum diseases incidence that afflict high-producing Italian dairy cows. The total number of cows included in the study was 1498 on three farms; all cows were followed from the dry period until 300 days postpartum. All farms used high-quality data collection systems and standard operating procedures: weekly herd health visits, monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association visits, and, due to cheese-making milk quality requirements, a supplementary milk sample collected at 7 ± 3 days postpartum evaluated for milk components. Clinical metritis in primiparous cows did not change the time to the first artificial insemination (AI) or days open; conversely, clinical metritis in multiparous cows had impact on the time to first AI (hazard ratio: 0.66, P cows and had a strong negative effect on the proportion of pregnant cows at 300 days (P parameters, and understanding the immune response in first-lactation cows may be of value for developing alternative intervention protocols for older-lactation cows.

  15. Loser cows in Danish dairy herds: definition, prevalence and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Peter T; Østergaard, Søren; Sørensen, Jan Tind; Houe, Hans

    2007-05-16

    During the last few years, many Danish dairy farmers have expressed increasing concerns regarding a group of cows, which we have chosen to term 'loser cows'. Until now, a loser cow has not been described scientifically. We defined a loser cow on the basis of a clinical examination of the cow. A total of 15,151 clinical examinations were made on 6,451 individual cows from 39 randomly selected, large Danish dairy herds with loose-housing systems using a clinical protocol. Scores for the clinical signs lameness, body condition, hock lesions, other cutaneous lesions, vaginal discharge, condition of hair coat and general condition were converted into a loser cow score. Cows with a loser cow score of 8 or more were classified as loser cows. The overall prevalence of loser cows was 2.15%, 4.50% and 2.98% during the first, second and third round of herd visits, respectively. The associations between the loser cow state and milk production, mortality, morbidity, culling and workload for the farmer were evaluated using data from herd visits and from the Danish Cattle Database and a number of different statistical techniques. It was concluded that the loser cow state has significant negative consequences for both the farmer and the cow. On average, loser cows yielded 0.61 to 2.24 kg energy corrected milk less per day than non-loser cows depending on parity. Hazard ratio for death or euthanasia was 5.69 for loser cows compared to non-loser cows. Incidence rate ratio for disease treatments was 0.69 for non-loser cows compared to loser cows. Loser cows were often culled in an 'unfavourable' way and generally caused extra workload for the farmer. A simplified version of the loser cow score was evaluated and is recommended for future research and use in practice.

  16. Participatory Livestock Farmer Training for improvement of animal health in rural and peri-urban smallholder dairy herds in Jinja, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Byarugaba, D.K.; Nakavuma, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract  Within the framework of a research project investigating methods to decrease mastitis incidence, farmer groups for participatory training in a modified Farmer Field School approach were initiated in order to improve animal health and farmer knowledge in mastitis control technologies...... knowledge and experience from training in systematic clinical examination of animals, evaluation of the farm environments, and identification of improvements. Much of the acquired new knowledge was about basic dairy cow management and husbandry practices. In addition, they gave examples of how they were now...

  17. The Canadian National Dairy Study 2015-Adoption of milking practices in Canadian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belage, E; Dufour, S; Bauman, C; Jones-Bitton, A; Kelton, D F

    2017-03-16

    Several studies have investigated which management practices have the greatest effect on udder health, but little information is available on how broadly the recommended milking practices are adopted across Canada. The National Dairy Study 2015 was designed to gather dairy cattle health and management data on dairy farms across Canada. The objectives of the present study were to describe the current proportions of adoption of milking practices on Canadian dairy farms, and identify factors associated with their use on farms. A bilingual questionnaire measuring use of various practices, including an udder health-specific section, was developed and sent to all Canadian dairy farms. The questions in the udder health section of the questionnaire were adapted from a bilingual questionnaire previously validated and containing questions regarding general milking hygiene and routine, and on-farm mastitis management. Chi-squared tests were used to investigate simple associations between adoption of practices and various explanatory variables including region, milking system, herd size, and bulk tank somatic cell count. In total, 1,373 dairy producers completed the survey. The regional distribution of the participants was representative of the Canadian dairy farm population, and milk quality was, on average, similar to nonparticipants. Overall, Canadian dairy producers followed the recommendations for milking procedures, but some were more extensively used than others. Fore-stripping, cleaning teats, wiping teats dry, using single-cow towels, and use of postmilking teat disinfectant were widely adopted. Use of gloves and glove hygiene, use of a premilking teat disinfectant, and use of automatic takeoffs were not as extensively implemented. Adoption percentages for several practices, including use of gloves, use of a premilking teat disinfectant, teat drying methods, and use of automatic takeoffs were significantly associated with milking system, herd size, and region. It

  18. Testing of bulk tank milk for Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, A.; Stroger, U.; Bitsch, V.;

    2001-01-01

    of being test-negative in the third test round was 0.926 for a herd with 2 previous test-negative results. It was concluded that the investigated ELISA method was in general accordance with the cases of clinical S. Dublin infection recorded. and that the method has a potential for national screening......The usefulness of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was investigated as a simple method to screen for Salmonella Dublin infection in dairy herds, examining bulk tank milk samples for lipopolysaccharide (O:1,9,12) antibodies. The cut-off value for the ELISA on bulk tank milk was established...... based on individual milk samples (n = 2887) and bulk tank milk from 52 herds. Bulk tank milk samples (n = 5108) were collected from 1464 dairy herds located in 19 different areas. About 10% of the dairy herds in Denmark participated in the study. The percentage of herds changing from test...

  19. Association between bovine-leukosis virus seroprevalence and herd-level productivity on US dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, S L; Johnson, R; Wells, S J

    2003-12-12

    Bovine-leukosis virus (BLV; also termed 'bovine-leukemia virus') is a retrovirus that primarily affects lymphoid tissue of dairy and beef cattle. Our objective was to investigate the association between BLV infection and annual value of production (AVP) on dairy herds within the United States, as part of the USDA National Animal Health Monitoring System's 1996 dairy study. 1006 herds (in 20 states) with at least 30 dairy cows were interviewed during 1996. The agar-gel immunodiffusion test was used to detect serum antibodies to BLV. 10-40 cows from each herd were tested and each tested cow was classified as negative or positive based on results of a single test. A multivariable regression model was used with the 976 herds with complete data for analysis. When compared to herds with no test-positive cows, herds with test-positive cows produced 218 kg per cow (i.e. 3%) less milk. The average reduction in AVP was $59 per cow for test-positive herds relative to test-negative herds. For the dairy industry as a whole, BLV seropositivity was associated with loss to producers of $285 million and $240 million for consumers. Most of this $525 million industry loss was due to reduced milk production in test-positive herds.

  20. Characteristics of peri-urban dairy herds of Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sidibe, M.; Boly, H.; Lakouetené, T.; Leroy, P.; Bosma, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    Peri-urban dairy cattle farms within 50 km of Bobo-Dioulasso were studied to assess herd type, disease incidence, management, feeding and breeding strategy. Out of 417 cattle farmers, 42% had dairy objectives and were studied. Among these peri-urban dairy farmers, 60% were settled, 36% semi-settled,

  1. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, E; Rousing, T; Thomsen, P T

    2013-01-01

    studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality (R......Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been......) inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than...

  2. Herd management and social variables associated with bulk tank somatic cell count in dairy herds in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewe, R L; Kayitsinga, J; Contreras, G A; Odom, C; Coats, W A; Durst, P; Hovingh, E P; Martinez, R O; Mobley, R; Moore, S; Erskine, R J

    2015-11-01

    The ability to reduce somatic cell counts (SCC) and improve milk quality depends on the effective and consistent application of established mastitis control practices. The US dairy industry continues to rely more on nonfamily labor to perform critical tasks to maintain milk quality. Thus, it is important to understand dairy producer attitudes and beliefs relative to management practices, as well as employee performance, to advance milk quality within the changing structure of the dairy industry. To assess the adoption rate of mastitis control practices in United States dairy herds, as well as assess social variables, including attitudes toward employees relative to mastitis control, a survey was sent to 1,700 dairy farms in Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Florida in January and February of 2013. The survey included questions related to 7 major areas: sociodemographics and farm characteristics, milking proficiency, milking systems, cow environment, infected cow monitoring and treatment, farm labor, and attitudes toward mastitis and related antimicrobial use. The overall response rate was 41% (21% in Florida, 39% in Michigan, and 45% in Pennsylvania). Herd size ranged from 9 to 5,800 cows. Self-reported 3-mo geometric mean bulk tank SCC (BTSCC) for all states was 194,000 cells/mL. Multivariate analysis determined that proven mastitis control practices such as the use of internal teat sealants and blanket dry cow therapy, and not using water during udder preparation before milking, were associated with lower BTSCC. Additionally, farmer and manager beliefs and attitudes, including the perception of mastitis problems and the threshold of concern if BTSCC is above 300,000 cells/mL, were associated with BTSCC. Ensuring strict compliance with milking protocols, giving employees a financial or other penalty if BTSCC increased, and a perceived importance of reducing labor costs were negatively associated with BTSCC in farms with nonfamily employees. These findings highlight the

  3. Evaluating results of the Welfare Quality multi-criteria evaluation model for classification of dairy cattle welfare at the herd level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, M; Bokkers, E A M; van Schaik, G; Botreau, R; Engel, B; Dijkstra, T; de Boer, I J M

    2013-10-01

    The Welfare Quality multi-criteria evaluation (WQ-ME) model aggregates scores of single welfare measures into an overall assessment for the level of animal welfare in dairy herds. It assigns herds to 4 welfare classes: unacceptable, acceptable, enhanced, or excellent. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relative importance of single welfare measures for WQ-ME classification of a selected sample of Dutch dairy herds. Seven trained observers quantified 63 welfare measures of the Welfare Quality protocol in 183 loose housed- and 13 tethered Dutch dairy herds (herd size: 10 to 211 cows). First, values of welfare measures were compared among the 4 welfare classes, using Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-squared tests. Second, observed values of single welfare measures were replaced with a fictitious value, which was the median value of herds classified in the next highest class, to see if improvement of a single measure would enable a herd to reach a higher class. Sixteen herds were classified as unacceptable, 85 as acceptable, 78 as enhanced, and none as excellent. Classification could not be calculated for 17 herds because data were missing (15 herds) or data were deemed invalid because the stockperson disturbed behavioral observations (2 herds). Herds classified as unacceptable showed significantly more very lean cows, more severely lame cows, and more often an insufficient number of drinkers than herds classified as acceptable. Herds classified as acceptable showed significantly more cows with high somatic cell count, with lesions, that could not be approached closer than 1m, colliding with components of the stall while lying down, and lying outside the lying area, and showed fewer cows with diarrhea, more often had an insufficient number of drinkers, and scored lower for the descriptors "relaxed" and "happy" than herds classified as enhanced. Increasing the number of drinkers and reducing the percentage of cows colliding with components of the stall while lying down

  4. Veterinary dairy herd fertility service provision in seasonal and non-seasonal dairy industries - a comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee JF

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The decline in dairy herd fertility internationally has highlighted the limited impact of traditional veterinary approaches to bovine fertility management. Three questionnaire surveys were conducted at buiatrics conferences attended by veterinary practitioners on veterinary dairy herd fertility services (HFS in countries with a seasonal (Ireland, 47 respondents and non-seasonal breeding model (The Netherlands, 44 respondents and Portugal, 31 respondents. Of the 122 respondents, 73 (60% provided a HFS and 49 (40% did not. The majority (76% of all practitioners who responded stated that bovine fertility had declined in their practice clients' herds with inadequate cow management, inadequate nutrition and increased milk yield as the most important putative causes. The type of clients who adopted a herd fertility service were deemed more educated than average (70% of respondents, and/or had fertility problems (58% and/or large herds (53%. The main components of this service were routine postpartum examinations (95% of respondents, fertility records analysis (75% and ultrasound pregnancy examinations (69%. The number of planned visits per annum varied between an average of four in Ireland, where breeding is seasonal, and 23 in Portugal, where breeding is year-round. The benefits to both the practitioner and their clients from running a HFS were cited as better fertility, financial rewards and job satisfaction. For practitioners who did not run a HFS the main reasons given were no client demand (55% and lack of fertility records (33%. Better economic evidence to convince clients of the cost-benefit of such a service was seen as a major constraint to adoption of this service by 67% of practitioners.

  5. Spread of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to penicillin and tetracycline within and between dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waage, S.; Bjorland, J.; Caugant, D. A.

    2002-01-01

    One hundred and seven bovine isolates of penicillin and tetracycline resistant Staphylococcus aureus, recovered from 25 different dairy herds in various parts of Norway, were characterized using antimicrobial susceptibility testing, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, ribotyping, plasmid analysis...... and serotyping of capsular polysaccharide. Forty-one isolates from one particular herd, 37 isolates from 5 herds that used a common pasture and milking parlour in summer and 21 isolates from 12 herds in 8 different counties belonged to the same strain. The remaining 8 isolates, which originated from herds in 5...

  6. Relationship between leukocyte population and nutritive conditions in dairy herds with frequently appearing mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Kohiruimaki, Masayuki; Hayashi, Tomohito; Katsuda, Ken; Matsuda, Kei-ichi; Masui, Machiko; Abe, Ryo; Kawamura, Sei-ichi

    2006-02-01

    To clarify the relationship between cellular immune status and nutritive condition, feeding program, blood profiles, and leukocyte populations were analyzed in two dairy herds experiencing frequent mastitis. Fourteen of the 35 lactating cows in herd A, and 18 of the 50 lactating cows in herd B scored positive on the California Mastitis Test (CMT), and 3 of the 73 lactating cows were CMT positive in herd C, which was the control. All herds were evaluated during five different milking stages, and blood was collected from five cows at each stage. With regard to feed content, the percentages of total digestible nutrients (TDN) and crude protein (CP) were found to be lower in herds A and B than in herd C. Levels of serum total cholesterol and blood urea nitrogen were lower in herds A and B than those in herd C. Neutrophil counts in herds A and B were increased compared to the neutrophil counts in herd C. On the other hand, the numbers of CD3(+) T cells and CD14-MHC class(+) cells were lower in herd A and B than in herd C. A decrease in peripheral lymphocytes and undernourishment were observed in the herds with frequent occurring mastitis.

  7. Prevalence of Pathogens Causing Subclinical Mastitis in Argentinean Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Andrea Dieser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of different mastitis pathogens in Argentinean dairy farms. Composite milk samples were collected of 2296 cows from 51 randomly selected herds in Córdoba, Argentina. Somatic cell count was determined in all samples and bacterial examination of the milk samples with a SCC exceeding 200,000 cells/mL was performed. About 54%of cows were diagnosed with subclinical mastitis (SCC ≥200,000/mL. Bacteria were isolated in 83.1% of milk samples subjected to bacteriological analysis. The most frequently isolated pathogen was coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS (52.1%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21.3%, Corynebacterium spp. (5.2%, Streptococcus agalactiae (4.4% and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (4.4%. This study demonstrates that among the major pathogens isolated, the contagious bacteria caused most of the subclinical infections of dairy cows in Cordoba, Argentina. Moreover, CNS was the most relevant group of minor pathogens causing subclinical mastitis.

  8. Invasion and transmission of Salmonella Kentucky in an adult dairy herd using approximate Bayesian computation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Zhao; Mitchell, Rebecca M; Smith, Rebecca L; Karns, Jeffrey S; van Kessel, Jo Ann S; Wolfgang, David R; Schukken, Ynte H; Grohn, Yrjo T

    2013-01-01

    An outbreak of Salmonella Kentucky followed by a high level of sustained endemic prevalence was recently observed in a US adult dairy herd enrolled in a longitudinal study involving intensive fecal sampling...

  9. Mastitis and related management factors in certified organic dairy herds in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Ingrid

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis is one of the major threats to animal health, in organic farming as well as conventional. Preliminary studies of organic dairy herds have indicated better udder health in such herds, as compared to conventional herds. The aim of this paper was to further study mastitis and management related factors in certified organic dairy herds. Methods An observational study of 26 certified organic dairy herds in mid-eastern Sweden was conducted during one year. A large-animal practitioner visited the herds three times and clinically examined and sampled cows, and collected information about general health and management routines. Data on milk production and disorders treated by a veterinarian in the 26 herds, as well as in 1102 conventional herds, were retrieved from official records. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between herd type (organic vs. conventional and incidence of disorders. Results The organic herds that took part in the study ranged in size from 12 to 64 cows, in milk production from 3772 to 10334 kg per cow and year, and in bulk milk somatic cell counts from 83000 to 280000 cells/ml. The organic herds were found to have a lower incidence of clinical mastitis, teat injuries, and a lower proportion of cows with a high somatic cell count (as indicated by the UDS, Udder Disease Score compared to conventional herds. The spectrum of udder pathogenic bacteria was similar to that found in other Swedish studies. Treatment of mastitis was found to be similar to what is practised in conventional herds. Homeopathic remedies were not widely used in the treatment of clinical mastitis. The calves in most of these organic herds suckled their dams for only a few days, which were not considered to substantially affect the udder health. The main management factor that was different from conventional herds was the feeding strategy, where organic herds used a larger share of forage. Conclusion Udder

  10. Interactions between optimal replacement policies and feeding strategies in dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas, B.; Herrero, M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    A dynamic performance model was integrated with a model that optimised culling and insemination policies in dairy herds using dynamic programming. The performance model estimated daily feed intake, milk yield and body weight change of dairy cows on the basis of availability and quality of feed and p

  11. Exploring the value of routinely collected herd data for estimating dairy cattle welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Schaik, van G.; Engel, B.; Dijkstra, T.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Routine on-farm assessment of dairy cattle welfare is time consuming and, therefore, expensive. A promising strategy to assess dairy cattle welfare more efficiently is to estimate the level of animal welfare based on herd data available in national databases. Our aim was to explore the value of rout

  12. Pathogen-specific incidence rate of clinical mastitis in Flemish dairy herds, severity, and association with herd hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Joren; Piepers, Sofie; Supré, Karlien; De Vliegher, Sarne

    2014-11-01

    A one-year survey on clinical mastitis was conducted on 50 randomly selected commercial Flemish dairy herds to estimate the pathogen-specific incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM). The severity of the cases and the potential associations with herd hygiene were studied. Participating producers sampled 845 cases and 692 dairy cows. The mean and median IRCM was estimated at 7.4 and 5.3 quarter cases per 10,000 cow-days at risk, respectively. A large between-herd variation was observed (range of 0-21.3). In general, the IRCM was lower in heifers compared with multiparous cows (2.9 vs. 11.0 quarter cases per 10,000 cow-days at risk). However, the overall IRCM in the first week after calving was higher in heifers compared with cows (43.4 vs. 31.6 quarter cases per 10,000 cow-days at risk). Streptococcus uberis (18.2% of the cases) and Escherichia coli (15.5%) were the most frequently isolated pathogens and no growth was observed in 19.9% of the cases. The majority of the cases (63.1%) were mild (only clots in milk). Moderate (hard quarter without general signs) and severe symptoms (systemic illness) were observed in 29.9 and 7.0% of the cases, respectively. Isolation of E. coli (vs. any other culture result) was more likely in moderate and severe cases compared with mild cases. Overall IRCM and E. coli IRCM were higher in dirty compared with clean herds based on udder hygiene scores (9.0 and 1.7 vs. 6.0 and 0.6 quarter cases per 10,000 cow-days at risk, respectively). This study broadens the knowledge on clinical mastitis in Flemish dairy herds and underlines the high risk of CM in early-lactation heifers, the role of the so-called environmental pathogens, and herd hygiene.

  13. Evaluation of the surveillance program of Streptococcus agalactiae in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H. J.; Pedersen, L. H.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Danish surveillance program of Streptococcus agalactiae in dairy herds with respect to 1) fluctuation over time of the presence of S. agalactiae in bulk tank milk, 2) sensitivity and specificity of the bacteriological method used, and 3) contamination...... of bulk tank milk samples with milk from other herds. From June to September 1996, bulk tank milk was sampled from 100 Danish dairy herds seven times, with intervals of 2 wk. The samples were examined for the presence of S. agalactiae by four different methods: 1) by the method approved for the program, 2...... the isolates. Streptococcus agalactiae was found in eight of 96 herds in which S. agalactiae had never previously been found during the surveillance program. Streptococcus agalactiae was not found in all seven sampling rounds in any of the eight herds. Comparing the approved method with supplemental findings...

  14. Associations of Neospora caninum seropositivity with gestation number and pregnancy outcome in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anette Møllegaard; Bjorkman, C.; Kjeldsen, A.M.;

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence and distribution of seropositivity towards the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum were studied in single blood samples from 1561 cows from 31 Danish dairy herds. Blood samples were analysed by an indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay and an indirect fluorescent-antibody test......, Seroprevalence in 15 herds with previous abortions assigned to neosporosis ranged from I% to 58%, with a mean frequency of 22%. In eight out of 16 herds without a history of N. caninum related abortions, no seroreactors were found. In the remaining eight herds, the seroprevalence ranged from 6% to 59...

  15. Control and eradication programme of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) from selected dairy herds in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgu, I; Alkan, F; Karaoglu, T; Bilge-Dagalp, S; Can-Sahna, K; Güngör, B; Demir, B

    2005-07-01

    Serum samples of 15,909 cattle from 31 dairy herds located in various regions of Turkey were tested for the presence of antibodies against bovine leucosis virus (BLV) using Agar Gel Immuno-diffusion technique (AGID). 48.3% (15/31) of the herds had seropositive animals and positivity rates were detected from 0.5-34.4% in these herds. In an EBL control/eradication programme all seropositive animals were culled in the infected herds. Thereafter, a total of 74,347 sera were tested for the presence of BLV specific antibodies. The serological results and detail of EBL control/eradication programme were shown in this paper.

  16. Economic analysis of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis vaccines in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, J; Tauer, L W; Schukken, Y H; Gómez, M I; Smith, R L; Lu, Z; Grohn, Y T

    2012-04-01

    Johne's disease, or paratuberculosis, is a chronic infectious enteric disease of ruminants, caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Given the absence of a fail-safe method of prevention or a cure, Johne's disease can inflict significant economic loss on the US dairy industry, with an estimated annual cost of over $200 million. Currently available MAP control strategies include management measures to improve hygiene, culling MAP serologic- or fecal-positive adult cows, and vaccination. Although the 2 first control strategies have been reported to be effective in reducing the incidence of MAP infection, the changes in herd management needed to conduct these control strategies require significant effort on the part of the dairy producer. On the other hand, vaccination is relatively simple to apply and requires minor changes in herd management. Despite these advantages, only 5% of US dairy operations use vaccination to control MAP. This low level of adoption of this technology is due to limited information on its cost-effectiveness and efficacy and some important inherent drawbacks associated with current MAP vaccines. This study investigates the epidemiological effect and economic values of MAP vaccines in various stages of development. We create scenarios for the potential epidemiological effects of MAP vaccines, and then estimate economically justifiable monetary values at which vaccines become economically beneficial to dairy producers such that a net present value (NPV) of a farm's net cash flow can be higher than the NPV of a farm using no control or alternative nonvaccine controls. Any vaccination with either low or high efficacy considered in this study yielded a higher NPV compared with a no MAP control. Moreover, high-efficacy vaccines generated an even higher NPV compared with alternative controls, making vaccination economically attractive. Two high-efficacy vaccines were particularly effective in MAP control and NPV

  17. Effect of exposure to Neospora caninum, Salmonella, and Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo on the economic performance of Irish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Doherty, E; Sayers, R; O' Grady, L; Shalloo, L

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to quantify the effects of exposure to Salmonella, Neospora caninum, and Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo (L. hardjo) on dairy farm profitability and to simulate the effect of vaccination for Salmonella and L. hardjo on dairy farm profitability. The production effects associated with exposure to each of these pathogens in study herds were defined under 3 categories: (1) milk production effects, (2) reproduction effects (including culling), and (3) mortality effects. The production effects associated with exposure to Salmonella, N. caninum, and L. hardjo were incorporated into the Moorepark Dairy Systems Model. In the analysis, herds negative for exposure to Salmonella, N. caninum, and L. hardjo were assumed baseline herds, with all results presented relative to this base. In simulations examining the effect of vaccination for Salmonella and L. hardjo on farm profitability, vaccinated herds (vaccination costs included) were considered as baseline herds and results were presented relative to this base. Total annual profits in unvaccinated herds were reduced by €77.31, €94.71, and €112.11 per cow at milk prices of €0.24, €0.29, and €0.34/L, respectively, as a result of exposure to Salmonella. In the current study, herds positive for exposure to Salmonella recorded a 316-kg reduction in milk yield, whereas no association was detected between exposure to N. caninum or L. hardjo and milk production. Exposure to both N. caninum and L. hardjo was associated with compromised reproductive performance. Herds positive for exposure to N. caninum and Salmonella had greater rates of adult cow mortality and calf mortality, respectively. Vaccination for both Salmonella and L. hardjo was associated with improved performance in study herds. Exposure to N. caninum resulted in a reduction in annual farm profits of €11.55, €12, and €12.44 per cow at each milk price, whereas exposure to L. hardjo resulted in a reduction in

  18. Opinions and practices of veterinarians and dairy farmers towards herd health management in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J; Wapenaar, W

    2012-04-28

    The objective was to compare farm veterinary surgeons' and dairy farmers' opinions on herd health plans and herd health and production management with the aim of discovering and better understanding the differences. Two comparable questionnaires, one for farm veterinarians and one for dairy farmers, were distributed throughout the UK. While listing the 'major roles' of the veterinarian on the farm, veterinarians considered 'optimising milk production', 'decreasing overall cost' and 'being an independent adviser' as important roles, but these were not seem to be perceived as such by the farmers. In addition, when presenting themselves to clients, veterinarians seemed to favour the 'friend of the farmer' approach; a much smaller proportion of farmers seemed to prefer this approach. The majority of farm respondents (98 of 121; 81 per cent) valued the discussions with their veterinarian, and it was apparent from the relatively small proportion of veterinarians instigating a discussion on farm (33 of 125; 26 per cent) that there is the opportunity for a more proactive approach from veterinarians. The study underlines that 'demonstrating cost-effectiveness' is still a main concern for veterinarians and farmers and identifies areas that can be improved by more training and effective communication.

  19. An assessment of dairy herd bulls in southern Australia: 1. Management practices and bull breeding soundness evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, A S; Younis, P J; Beggs, D S; Mansell, P D; Stevenson, M A; Pyman, M F

    2016-12-01

    In the pasture-based, seasonally calving dairy herds of southern Australia, the mating period usually consists of an initial artificial insemination period followed by a period of natural service using herd bulls. Bull breeding soundness evaluations (BBSE) were performed on 256 bulls from 32 dairy herds in southwest Victoria, using guidelines produced by the Australian Cattle Veterinarians, before and immediately after a single natural mating period. At the same time, herd managers were questioned regarding the management of the bulls. The objectives of this study were to describe the management practices of dairy herd bulls; to describe the causes of increased risk of reduced fertility in dairy herd bulls, as measured by a standard BBSE; and to describe the reasons for bull removal by herd managers during mating. At the premating BBSE, 19.5% of bulls were classified as high risk of reduced fertility, mostly due to physical abnormalities and reduced semen quality. At the postmating BBSE, 36.5% of bulls were classified as high risk of reduced fertility, mostly due to physical abnormalities, primarily lameness. Of the bulls used, 15.9% were removed from normal mating use by the herd manager, predominantly due to lameness and injuries. A premating BBSE is recommended in dairy herd bulls to identify bulls at risk of reduced fertility. Lameness is the most common problem in dairy herd bulls during the natural mating period, and risk factors associated with lameness in these bulls should be identified to better manage herd bulls.

  20. A comparison of somatic cell count and antimicrobial susceptibility of subclinical mastitis pathogens in organic and conventional dairy herds

    OpenAIRE

    Boutet, Philippe; Detilleux, Johann; Motkin, Michel; Deliege, M.; PIRAUX, E.; Depinois, A.; Debliquy, P.; Mainil, Jacques; Czaplicki, G.; Lekeux, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of somatic cell count and antimicrobial susceptibility of subclinical mastitis pathogens in organic and conventional dairy herds.Bovine subclinical mastitis is the most important disease affecting dairy cows. The fluctuating increase in somatic cell count (SCC) that occurs causes major economic losses in dairy industry. This comparative study between conventional and organic dairy herds was conducted in the aim to better characterize which consequences might have different manage...

  1. Factors affecting success of embryo collection and transfer in large dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebel, R C; Demétrio, D G B; Metzger, J

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate factors that affected the success of embryo transfer programs in large dairy herds. Non-lactating donor cows produced a larger number of ova/embryos (Pcows. The interaction between season and donor class was correlated with the proportion of ova/embryos classified as fertilized (P=0.03), because lactating donors had fewer fertilized ova in the summer. There was no correlation between 305-day mature equivalent milk yield and response to superstimulation. Although the interval between superstimulation protocols was correlated with the number of ova/embryos (P=0.03), there was no correlation with the number of viable embryos. Pregnancy per embryo transfer (P/ET) in heifer recipients was correlated with embryo quality grade (Pcows tended to have a lower rate of P/ET during the summer (P=0.12 to P=0.08). Synchronization protocols tended to be (P=0.06; Herd 1) or were (P=0.02; Herd 2) correlated with P/ET. Lactating cows receiving vitrified IVF embryos had a lower (P=0.01) P/ET than those receiving fresh IVF embryos, especially in the summer (P=0.09). Milk yield was not correlated with P/ET. The use of heat abatement systems is critical to improve embryo production and P/ET. Synchronization protocols that optimized synchrony of ovulation may increase fertility of recipient cows and eliminate the need for estrous detection.

  2. Herd monitoring to optimise fertility in the dairy cow: making the most of herd records, metabolic profiling and ultrasonography (research into practice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R F; Oultram, J; Dobson, H

    2014-05-01

    Fertility performance is intrinsically linked to the quality of the animal environment, overall management and nutrition. This review describes the use of dairy herd records, metabolic profiles and ultrasonographic findings at veterinary fertility examinations to monitor and manage dairy herd fertility. After calving, a cow has to overcome a series of physiological hurdles before establishing a pregnancy. The selection of timely key performance indicators (KPIs) that monitor specific events in the postpartum and service periods is vital to correctly identify problems and their potential causes that hopefully can be rectified. Cumulative sum charts are the timeliest monitors of efficiency of detection of oestrus, insemination outcome and relationship between postpartum events and fertility, with the point of inflection indicating when a change took place. Other KPIs use data from specific cohorts, adding an inherent delay to when change is indicated. Metabolic profiles and milk constituent data allow monitoring of nutritional adequacy and developments to offer new possibilities of on-farm systems for regular measurements of milk constituents (including progesterone) and energy status. Examination of the reproductive tract can be used to indicate individual and herd fertility status but the currently available detail is under used. Recent advances in ultrasonography can improve the diagnosis of reproductive tract pathophysiology still further but the clinical use of these methods in veterinary practice needs further evaluation. Development of new KPIs to exploit research findings are needed to ensure this knowledge is used to improve on-farm performance.

  3. Exploring the value of routinely collected herd data for estimating dairy cattle welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, M; Bokkers, E A M; van Schaik, G; Engel, B; Dijkstra, T; de Boer, I J M

    2014-02-01

    Routine on-farm assessment of dairy cattle welfare is time consuming and, therefore, expensive. A promising strategy to assess dairy cattle welfare more efficiently is to estimate the level of animal welfare based on herd data available in national databases. Our aim was to explore the value of routine herd data (RHD) for estimating dairy cattle welfare at the herd level. From November 2009 through March 2010, 7 trained observers collected data for 41 welfare indicators in a selected sample of 183 loose-housed and 13 tethered Dutch dairy herds (herd size: 10 to 211 cows) using the Welfare Quality protocol for cattle. For the same herds, RHD relating to identification and registration, management, milk production and composition, and fertility were extracted from several national databases. The RHD were used as potential predictors for each welfare indicator in logistic regression at the herd level. Nineteen welfare indicators were excluded from the predictions, because they showed a prevalence below 5% (15 indicators), or were already listed as RHD (4 indicators). Predictions were less accurate for 7 welfare indicators, moderately accurate for 14 indicators, and highly accurate for 1 indicator. By forcing to detect almost all herds with a welfare problem (sensitivity of at least 97.5%), specificity ranged from 0 to 81%. By forcing almost no herds to be incorrectly classified as having a welfare problem (specificity of at least 97.5%), sensitivity ranged from 0 to 67%. Overall, the best-performing prediction models were those for the indicators access to at least 2 drinkers (resource based), percentage of very lean cows, cows lying outside the supposed lying area, and cows with vulvar discharge (animal based). The most frequently included predictors in final models were percentages of on-farm mortality in different lactation stages. It was concluded that, for most welfare indicators, RHD have value for estimating dairy cattle welfare. The RHD can serve as a

  4. Optimization of surveillance opf Bovine Viral Diarrhea in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro

    ELISA (Rønsholt et al., 1997; Bitsch et al., 1997) and the SVANOVIR ELISA (Juntti at al., 1987; Niskanen, 1993) were compared on milk and serum samples. The prevalence of antibody positive milking cows, which can be detected by each of those tests, was estimated by diluting positive individual milk...... dairy herds (e.g. after import of infected cattle) could be more difficult to detect compared to the past, due to the lower prevalence of antibody positive milking cows and the (expected) higher dilution of antibodies in bigger milk containers. Therefore, an evaluation and an eventual optimization...... of the BVD surveillance system in Danish dairy herds were considered necessary by the Danish Cattle Federation. In study I, we verified how the BVD herd prevalence, the herd size and the dilution of individual milk within the bulk tank milk (BTM) changed, between 2003 and 2010. Moreover, the Danish blocking...

  5. Herd-level seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle in central and northeastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Sławomir J; Czopowicz, Michał; Weber, Corinna N; Müller, Elisabeth; Witkowski, Lucjan; Kaba, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    A serosurvey was carried out to estimate the herd-level seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in cattle in central and northeastern Poland. Ninety seven dairy cattle herds from 2 provinces of Poland (Podlaskie, 47 herds and Łodzkie, 50 herds) were randomly enrolled in the study using two-stage cluster method. A simple random selection was applied within each herd to select a sample of adult cows (≥18 month-old). A total number of 734 cows were enrolled in the study. The animals were screened with a commercial competitive ELISA (Bio-X Diagnostics, Belgium). To calculate true herd-level seroprevalence test sensitivity and specificity were adjusted from an individual- to a herd-level using FreeCalc method. The true overall herd-level seroprevalence of N. caninum infection was 56.7% (95% CI: 47.5%, 65.9%). The true herd-level seroprevalence in Podlaskie was 63.3% (95% CI: 43.0%, 83.6%) and 50.5% (95% CI: 32.8%, 68.2%) in Łodzkie province and these figures did not differ significantly between the two provinces (chi2 test p = 0.238). One hundred forty three of 734 cows (19.5%) were seropositive which gave the true overall individual-level seroprevalence of 20.1% (95% CI: 17.4%, 23.2%). Percentage of seropositive cows in each herd varied from 6% to 80%. This study is the first epidemiological investigation of herd-level seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in Polish dairy cattle population. In conclusion, the result of the study confirmed previous data that N. caninum infection is widespread in the Polish cattle population and thus should be considered as a potential cause of spontaneous abortions.

  6. Streptococcus agalactiae in the environment of bovine dairy herds--rewriting the textbooks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, H J; Nordstoga, A B; Sviland, S; Zadoks, R N; Sølverød, L; Kvitle, B; Mørk, T

    2016-02-29

    Many free-stall bovine dairy herds in Norway fail to eradicate Streptococcus agalactiae despite long-term control measures. In a longitudinal study of 4 free-stall herds with automatic milking systems (AMS), milk and extramammary sites were sampled 4 times with 1-2 month intervals. Composite milk, rectal- and vaginal swabs were collected from dairy cows; rectal swabs from heifers and young stock; rectal- and tonsillar swabs from calves; and environmental swabs from the AMS, the floors, cow beds, watering and feeding equipment. A cross sectional study of 37 herds was also conducted, with 1 visit for environmental sampling. Fifteen of the herds were known to be infected with S. agalactiae while the remaining 22 had not had evidence of S. agalactiae mastitis in the preceding 2 years. All samples were cultured for S. agalactiae, and selected isolates (n=54) from positive herds were genotyped by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Results show that the bovine gastrointestinal tract and the dairy cow environment are reservoirs of S. agalactiae, and point to the existence of 2 transmission cycles; a contagious transmission cycle via the milking machine and an oro-fecal transmission cycle, with drinking water as the most likely vehicle for transmission. Ten sequence types were identified, and results suggest that strains differ in their ability to survive in the environment and transmit within dairy herds. Measures to eradicate S. agalactiae from bovine dairy herds should take into account the extra-mammary reservoirs and the potential for environmental transmission of this supposedly exclusively contagious pathogen.

  7. Transmission of bovine leukaemia virus within dairy herds by simulation modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Monti, G.E.; Frankena, K.; Jong, de, F.

    2007-01-01

    In Argentina, bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection is common in dairy herds. The country currently has a National Voluntary Control Programme but relatively few farms have enrolled. However, there is increased interest from authorities and farmers to implement regional compulsory programmes but there is scarce quantitative information of the transmission of BLV in cattle herds. This information is a prerequisite to develop effective BLV control strategies. Mathematical modelling offers ways...

  8. Dynamic probabilistic simulation of dairy herd management practices 1. Model description and outcome of different seasonal calving patterns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalvingh, A.W.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    A dynamic probabilistic model has been designed to determine the technical and economic consequences of various biological variables and management strategies concerning reproduction, replacement and calving patterns in dairy herds. The Markov chain approach is used to simulate herd dynamics. Herds

  9. A longitudinal study on transmission of Staphylococcus aureus genotype B in Swiss communal dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Borne, Bart H P; Graber, Hans U; Voelk, Verena; Sartori, Carlotta; Steiner, Adrian; Haerdi-Landerer, M Christina; Bodmer, Michèle

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common mastitis causing pathogen of dairy cattle. Several S. aureus genotypes exist, of which genotype B (GTB) is highly prevalent in Swiss dairy herds. Dairy farming in mountainous regions of Switzerland is characterised by the movement of dairy cattle to communal pasture-based operations at higher altitudes. Cows from different herds of origin share pastures and milking equipment for a period of 2 to 3 months during summer. The aim of this longitudinal observational study was to quantify transmission of S. aureus GTB in communal dairy operations. Cows (n=551) belonging to 7 communal operations were sampled at the beginning and end of the communal period. Transmission parameter β was estimated using a Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS) model. The basic reproduction ratio R0 was subsequently derived using previously published information about the duration of infection. Mean transmission parameter β was estimated to be 0.0232 (95% CI: 0.0197-0.0274). R0 was 2.6 (95% CI: 2.2-3.0), indicating that S. aureus GTB is capable of causing major outbreaks in Swiss communal dairy operations. This study emphasized the contagious behaviour of S. aureus GTB. Mastitis management in communal dairy operations should be optimized to reduce S. aureus GTB transmission between cows and back to their herds of origin.

  10. Economic effects of exposure to bovine viral diarrhea virus on dairy herds in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, C; Healy, A; Zerbini, C

    2007-12-01

    The economic loss to dairy farmers associated with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is believed to be high in New Zealand, but no estimates are yet available. The aim was therefore to estimate the economic loss associated with BVDV in dairy herds in New Zealand. Bulk tank milk (BTM) from a random sample of 590 herds from the Northland, Bay of Plenty, and Waikato regions was tested for antibody against BVDV. The inhibition percentage (sample to positive ratio), based on a threshold validated in an earlier study, was used to indicate herd-level infection. Herd reproductive indices, herd lactation-average somatic cell counts, and herd average production of milk solids were regressed on BTM inhibition percentage. Herd averages of the overall annual culling rate, the rate of culling because of failure to conceive, the proportion of physiological inter-service intervals, the first-service conception rate, the pregnancy rate at the end of mating, and somatic cell counts were not associated with BVDV antibody in BTM. Abortion rates, rates of calving induction, the time from calving to conception, and the number of services per conception increased, however, whereas milk production decreased with increasing BVDV antibody in BTM. The results indicated significant reproductive and production loss associated with the amount of BVDV antibody in BTM. Total loss attributable to infection with BVDV was similar to reports from other countries and estimated as NZ$87 per cow and year in affected herds, and NZ$44.5 million per year for the New Zealand dairy industry based on an estimated 14.6% affected herds. The loss estimate excludes added cost and negative consequences with respect to animal welfare attributable to increased induction rates, and a greater incidence of production disease because of BVD-induced immune suppression.

  11. Temporal trends in reproductive performance in Irish dairy herds and associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee John F

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Irish dairy herd fertility has been declining since the 1980s. The extent, nature and causes of this decline in fertility and the current status of Irish dairy herd fertility were described. An increase in calving interval of approximately one day per year has been recorded. The principal components of this trend have been an increased incidence of postpartum endocrinopathies, reduced expression of oestrus and a fall in conception rate. Both submission rate and calving-to-service interval have increased slightly over time. Significant risk factors associated with these trends have been strain substitution within the Holstein-Friesian breed and single trait selection for milk production. Critically, these changes have been reflected in loss of body condition. Contributory factors included increased herd size and possibly increased use of DIYAI. The most recent Irish study showed that 48% of cows conceived to first service and 14% of cows were not pregnant at the end of the industry-average 15-week spring breeding season. However, the top quartile of herds achieved a first-service conception rate of 59%, illustrating the wide variation between herds. These phenotypic trends were attributed to both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. Recent Irish dairy herd fertility performance falls short of the targets set for seasonal compact calving.

  12. Spatial differences in occurrence of paratuberculosis in Danish dairy herds and in control programme participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihrmann, Kristine; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection of economic importance to the cattle industry and a voluntary control programme is offered to Danish dairy farmers. Our objective was to evaluate spatial differences in both control programme participation and paratuberculosis prevalence in Denmark. The study...... included 4414 dairy herds: 1249 were participating in the control programme, and 1503 were tested for antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Spatial differences were evaluated by kernel smoothing, kriging, and cluster analysis. Participation was lowest among herds on the island...

  13. Reducing use of antimicrobials - experiences from an intervention study in organic dairy herds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner; Klaas, Ilka Christine; Vaarst, Mette

    2010-01-01

    With the aim of phasing out the use of antimicrobials 23 Danish organic dairy producers from the same organic dairy company participated in Stable School farmer groups from February 2004 to March 2005 in order to go through a common learning and development process towards their common goal. Data...... the project period though the reduction of the incidence rates in the project herds was not statistically significant. It is concluded that the farmers participating in the Stable Schools managed to reduce the use of antimicrobials in their herds also after the project period without apparent negative effects...

  14. Serological study of bovine herpes virus type 1 in dairy herds of Hamedan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar Bahari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study with a random cluster sampling design was carried out to estimate the seroprevalence of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1 in non-vaccinated dairy herds in Hamedan province, west of Iran. Simple random sampling was used for selection of cattle in each herd. Informative data about each herd and selected animals were recorded by the farm manager in a provided questionnaire. Blood samples were collected from 492 animals in 41 industrial herds. A commercial indirect ELISA test was used to determine the seropositivity against BHV-1. The individual and herd seroprevalence for BHV-1 were 58.74% and 82.93%, respectively. The intra-herd prevalences were ranged from 16.70% to 100%. Geographical characteristics of Hamedan province may explain the high sero- prevalence rates found in this study compared to those of others obtained from different parts of the country. The proportion of seropositive cows were increased with age (p <0.05. Animals from large and moderate sized herds had higher odds of seropositivity than those of small size herds. These findings could be related to the presence of a considerable number of BHV-1 carriers in this region. The high herd and animal prevalence found in the present study suggested necessity of implementing an intensive control program for reducing BHV-1 infection rates.

  15. Some reproductive indexes of thirty dairy herds in the Po valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cerioli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The need of increasing the daily milk yield often has negative backup on herd fertility (Westwood et al., 2002. Culling because of reproductive failure is a cost in dairy breeding. The reproductive efficiency is often expressed as days open (DOPN or calving interval. However, these indexes are a function of the pregnancy rate (PR which is calculated as the heat detection rate (HDR times the conception rate (CR (Ferguson, 1991. Thus, the herd reproductive performance is affected by HDR and CR (Maatje et al., 1997; Nir, 1996, Ferguson, 1996. This work was conducted to estimate reproductive efficiency of cows from thirty herds of the Po valley.........

  16. An observational study of Corynebacterium bovis in selected Ontario dairy herds.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    An observational study of Corynebacterium bovis was conducted in 74 Ontario dairy herds. The levels of infection with C. bovis were 19.9, 36.2 and 85.6% at the quarter, cow and herd level, respectively. Teat disinfection was found to be the variable best able to distinguish between herds with a high or low C. bovis quarter infection rate. Mean total milk somatic cell counts for 1103 quarters and 107 cows infected with only C. bovis ranged between 150,000 and 200,000/mL and were significantly ...

  17. A structural equation model to evaluate direct and indirect factors associated with a latent measure of mastitis in Belgian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detilleux, J; Theron, L; Beduin, J-M; Hanzen, C

    2012-12-01

    In dairy cattle, many farming practices have been associated with occurrence of mastitis but it is often difficult to disentangle the causal threads. Structural equation models may reduce the complexity of such situations. Here, we applied the method to examine the links between mastitis (subclinical and clinical) and risk factors such as herd demographics, housing conditions, feeding procedures, milking practices, and strategies of mastitis prevention and treatment in 345 dairy herds from the Walloon region of Belgium. During the period January 2006 to October 2007, up to 110 different herd management variables were recorded by two surveyors using a questionnaire for the farm managers and during a farm visit. Monthly somatic cell counts of all lactating cows were collected by the local dairy herd improvement association. Structural equation models were created to obtain a latent measure of mastitis and to reduce the complexity of the relationships between farming practices, between indicators of herd mastitis and between both. Robust maximum likelihood estimates were obtained for the effects of the herd management variables on the latent measure of herd mastitis. Variables associated directly (pteat disinfection; the presence of cows with hyperkeratotic teats, of cubicles for housing and of dirty liners before milking; the treatment of subclinical cases of mastitis; and the age of the herd (latent variable for average age and parity of cows, and percentage of heifers in the herd). Treatment of subclinical mastitis was also an intermediate in the association between herd mastitis and post-milking teat disinfection. The study illustrates how structural equation model provides information regarding the linear relationships between risk factors and a latent measure of mastitis, distinguishes between direct relationships and relationships mediated through intermediate risk factors, allows the construction of latent variables and tests the directional hypotheses

  18. A diagnostic and prognostic tool for epidemiologic and economic analyses of dairy herd health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Sørensen, J.T.; Thysen, Iver;

    1995-01-01

    A computer program framework was established to enable a dairy herd production consultant to perform whole-herd analysis. The diagnostic process was an extensive data analysis 1) to derive key parameters related to production, reproduction, and health and 2) to produce input to a prognostic process....... The prognostic process synthesized the obtained information into short- or long-term prognoses for the herd through a complex herd simulation model. Site specificity of parameter estimation and forecasting and explorability of assumptions and results were major characteristics of the approach. A user acceptance...... problem related to the simulation was addressed through a simultaneous process of development and validation during the introduction of the program framework into veterinary practices. The generally slow adoption of herd simulation models in extension work could be due to lack of credibility of the models...

  19. Risk factors for changing test classification in the Danish surveillance program for Salmonella in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lennarth Ravn; Warnick, L. D.; Greiner, M.

    2007-01-01

    A surveillance program in which all cattle herds in Denmark are classified into Salmonella infection categories has been in place since 2002. Dairy herds were considered test negative and thus most likely free of infection if Salmonella antibody measurements were consistently low in bulk tank milk...... samples collected every 3 mo. Herds were considered test positive and thus most likely infected if the 4-quarter moving average bulk tank milk antibody concentration was high or if there was a large increase in the most recent measurement compared with the average value from the previous 3 samples....... The objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for changing from test negative to positive, which was indicative of herds becoming infected from one quarter of the year to the next, and risk factors for changing from test positive to negative, which was indicative of herds recovering from infection...

  20. A diagnostic and prognostic tool for epidemiologic and economic analyses of dairy herd health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Sørensen, J.T.; Thysen, Iver

    1995-01-01

    A computer program framework was established to enable a dairy herd production consultant to perform whole-herd analysis. The diagnostic process was an extensive data analysis 1) to derive key parameters related to production, reproduction, and health and 2) to produce input to a prognostic process....... The prognostic process synthesized the obtained information into short- or long-term prognoses for the herd through a complex herd simulation model. Site specificity of parameter estimation and forecasting and explorability of assumptions and results were major characteristics of the approach. A user acceptance...... problem related to the simulation was addressed through a simultaneous process of development and validation during the introduction of the program framework into veterinary practices. The generally slow adoption of herd simulation models in extension work could be due to lack of credibility of the models...

  1. BVDV and BHV-1 Infections in Dairy Herds in Northern and Northeastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanlun A

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Bulk milk samples from 220 dairy herds were collected at 9 public milk collection centres in the northeastern and northern Thailand, and a subset of 11 herds was selected for individual testing. The samples were tested for presence of antibodies to BVDV and BHV-1 using an indirect ELISA. The results from the bulk milk testing demonstrated a moderate level of exposure to BVDV and BHV-1 (73% and 67%, respectively. However, the low proportion of herds with high BVDV antibody-levels (13% and the low within-herd seroprevalence of BVDV and BHV-1 in the 11 herds (24% and 5%, respectively, particularly among the young stock (15% and 0%, respectively, demonstrated a low prevalence of active BVDV infection and a low rate of reactivation of latent BHV-1. The presence of a self-clearance process was also indicated by the results from the individual testing. Moreover, a surprisingly low prevalence of BVDV and BHV-1 antibody-positive herds at one of the milk centres was found. This centre was established 5–10 years before the others. Our impression is that this reflects the self-clearance process, where consecutive replacement of imported infected animals without further spread has resulted in a nearly total elimination of the infections. Based on our experiences and on these results we are convinced that this process can continue if there is awareness of herd biosecurity. This is especially important in the context of a future intensification of the dairy production.

  2. Validation of the FAMACHA© method for selective anthelmintic treatment in dairy goat herds

    OpenAIRE

    Zárate Rendón, Daniel; Laboratorio de Parasitología, Departamento Académico de Nutrición, Facultad de Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima; Rojas Flores, Julio; Laboratorio de Parasitología, Departamento Académico de Nutrición, Facultad de Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima; Segura Hong, Alan; Laboratorio de Parasitología, Departamento Académico de Nutrición, Facultad de Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima

    2017-01-01

    A study in goats was carried out in the central coast of Peru to validate the FAMACHA© method for selective anthelmintic treatment in dairy goat herds. Blood and fecal samples were taken from 120 adult goats in five dairy goat farms. The micro haematocrit and the McMaster techniques plus faecal culture were used to evaluate the haematocrit, faecal nematode egg count (EPG) and to identify major nematode species, respectively. Spearman correlation coefficients were obtained. Two FAMACHA© criter...

  3. A spreadsheet-based model demonstrating the nonuniform economic effects of varying reproductive performance in Ohio dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, C; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Frazer, G S

    2005-03-01

    A spreadsheet-based model was developed to estimate the economic effect of varying reproductive performance in dairy herds. Scenarios were created to model an average cow with respect to production, herd lifetime, and reproductive events. Average milk yield per day of life as well as lifetime calf and replacement heifer production were examined. Additional inputs representing milk, feed, semen, calf, and salvage prices were used to calculate net cash flow for each day of herd life for the average cow in a scenario. Economic comparison of different scenarios was accomplished using an equivalent annual cash flow (annuity) methodology.Herd performance measures and prices representative of Ohio dairy herds were used to establish a baseline average cow that had a 160-d calving-to-conception interval [days open (DO)]. Alternative scenarios that differed from baseline in DO, annual culling rate, and feed and milk prices were created to characterize the effects of changes. Under scenario inputs representative of typical Ohio dairy herds, the model indicated that a lower annual culling rate (25%) was preferable to higher annual culling rates (34 or 45%). The model estimated maximum average milk yield per day of life to occur at 110 DO. At 34% annual culling rate, calves and replacement heifers produced per lifetime declined as DO increased; beyond 150 DO, the modeled cow produced less than 1 replacement heifer per lifetime. The model also estimated a loss of $1.37 per cow per year for a 1-d increase in DO beyond 160 d. At 20% higher feed and milk prices, the model estimated a loss of $1.52 per cow per year; at 20% lower feed and milk prices, the model estimated a loss of $1.23 per cow per year. Furthermore, the model suggested that the loss associated with a 1-d increase in DO changed as DO changed. Using baseline inputs, the model calculated losses for a 1-d increase of $0.44 per cow per year at 130 DO and $1.71 per cow per year at 190 DO. The nonuniform nature of the cost

  4. Effects of feeding practices on milk yield and composition in peri-urban and rural smallholder dairy cow and pastoral camel herds in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashongwe, O B; Bebe, B O; Matofari, J W; Huelsebusch, C G

    2017-03-29

    Associations between feeding practices, milk yield, and composition were assessed in smallholder rural and peri-urban dairy cow (n = 97) and pastoral camel (n = 15) herds. A cross-sectional survey supplemented by follow-up collection of feed and milk samples for laboratory analyses was conducted. Data was analyzed using descriptive, correlation, and analysis of variance statistics. Feeding practices in rural smallholder dairy cows' herds were pastured based (87.7%) with napier grass (89.4%) and concentrates (93.9%) as forage and concentrate supplements. In smallholder peri-urban dairy cows' herds, it was napier grass based (68.4%) with concentrates (100%), oat forages (42.9%), and crop residues (28.6%). Pastoral camel herds were shrub browsing (53%), rangeland pasture grazing (20%), or Euphorbia tirucalli feeding (27%). Smallholder rural farmers offered more feeds (16.1 vs 15.3 kg/day) than peri-urban farmers, hence net energy for lactation (1.4 vs 1.3 Mcal/kg), crude protein (CP) (10 vs 12%), and milk yields (12 vs 9 kg/herd/day) was higher. Milk fat was higher in smallholder peri-urban (4.3%) than that of rural (3.9%). In pastoral camels, E. tirucalli feeding had higher daily milk yield/herd, fat, and CP (63 kg, 4.5 and 3.6%) than shrub browsing (35 kg, 4.2 and 3.0%) and grazing (23 kg yield, 2.6 and 2.7%). Five feeding practices out of 14 in smallholder dairy cattle herds resulted in more than 10 kg milk/cow/day because of low forage-to-concentrate ratio (2.5), inclusion of legume crop residue, or processing forages. They present opportunities for improved production in smallholder herds. In pastoral camel, E. tirucalli feeding showed the highest potential.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Chlamydophila abortus infection in dairy herds in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Ababneh, Mohammed M; Ababneh, Mustafa M; Al-Majali, Ahmad M

    2012-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine seroprevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Chlamydophila abortus infection in 62 nonvaccinated dairy herds (671 cows) in Jordan between January and June 2007. Information regarding herd management was recorded through a personal interview with farmers. Antibodies against C. abortus were detected using an ELISA test kit. Chi-square analysis and multivariable logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors associated with C. abortus seropositivity. The true prevalence of antibodies against C. abortus in individual cows and cattle herds were 19.9 % and 66.3 %, respectively. Univariable Chi-square analysis revealed three variables with P ≤ 0.25 that were further offered to multivariable logistic regression analysis. Small-sized herds were identified as a risk factor for seropositivity to C. abortus, while sweeping followed by water hosing and using disinfectants were identified as protective factors. Cows in the age groups of >8 and ≤ 10 years old and >2 and ≤ 6 years old had the highest and lowest significant seroprevalence to C. abortus, respectively. Results of this study indicated that C. abortus is highly prevalent in Jordan's dairy herds and Chlamydophila infection could be controlled by applying strict biosecurity measures in the dairy farms.

  6. Modeling of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis dynamics in a dairy herd : An individual based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Mamun, Mohammad A; Smith, Rebecca L; Schukken, Ynte H; Gröhn, Yrjö T

    2016-01-01

    In the dairy industry, Johne's disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is one of the major investigated diseases. To date, researchers have suggested some control strategies for JD, such as test-and-cull based herd management, isolated calf rearing management, and v

  7. Association between Dictyocaulus viviparus status and milk production parameters in Dutch dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dank, M.; Holzhauer, M.; Veldhuis, A.; Frankena, K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the association between Dictyocaulus viviparus bulk tank milk (BTM) test results and milk production and milk composition parameters in adult Dutch dairy cattle herds. Bulk tank milk samples were collected in August and November 2013, and ELISA tests were

  8. Transmission of bovine leukaemia virus within dairy herds by simulation modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monti, G.E.; Frankena, K.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    In Argentina, bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection is common in dairy herds. The country currently has a National Voluntary Control Programme but relatively few farms have enrolled. However, there is increased interest from authorities and farmers to implement regional compulsory programmes but th

  9. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella and E. coli from Pennsylvania dairy herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial pathogens is an increasing public health concern. The objective of this study was to examine antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella and E. coli isolates from Pennsylvania dairy herds. Manure composite samples were collected from 76 farms: on each farm one sample...

  10. Bulk milk ELISA and the diagnosis of parasite infections in dairy herds: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, Mary; Zintl, Annetta; Doherty, Michael L

    2013-07-25

    The bulk milk enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) is a rapid and inexpensive method of assessing herd exposure to pathogens that is increasingly being used for the diagnosis of parasite infections in dairy herds. In this paper, with the dairy herd health veterinarian in mind, we review the principles of the assay and the recent literature on the potential role of bulk milk ELISA for the diagnosis of ostertagiosis, fasciolosis, parasitic bronchitis due to cattle lung worm and neosporosis. It is generally accepted that assay results reflect exposure to the parasite rather than the presence of active infection. Bulk milk ELISA can be a useful tool for the veterinary practitioner as a component of a herd health monitoring programme or in the context of a herd health investigation. It can also play a role in regional or national surveillance programmes. However, the results need to be interpreted within the context of the herd-specific health management, the milk production pattern and the parasite life cycle.

  11. Annual incidence, prevalence and transmission characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mweu, Marshal M.; Nielsen, Søren S.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq;

    2012-01-01

    -level incidence rates and apparent prevalences of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in the population of Danish dairy cattle herds over a 10-year period from 2000 to 2009 inclusive and (2) to estimate the herd-level entry and exit rates (demographic parameters), the transmission parameter, β, and recovery......Contagious mastitis pathogens continue to pose an economic threat to the dairy industry. An understanding of their frequency and transmission dynamics is central to evaluating the effectiveness of control programmes. The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) to estimate the annual herd...... rate for S. agalactiae infection. Data covering the specified period, on bacteriological culture of all bulk tank milk samples collected annually as part of the mandatory Danish S. agalactiae surveillance scheme, were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database and subsequently analysed...

  12. Evaluation of Three Commercial Hoof-Care Products Used in Footbaths in Danish Dairy Herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Peter; Sørensen, Jan Tind; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2008-01-01

    Digital dermatitis is a serious problem in dairy production in many countries. Footbaths have been used extensively for the prevention and cure of digital dermatitis. But there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of hoof-care products used in footbaths. The objective...... was to evaluate 3 commercial hoof-care products in 12 Danish dairy herds (testing each product in 4 herds) using a controlled clinical trial. One-half of the herds were conventional and the other half was organically managed. The hoof-care products represented the 3 main groups of active compounds currently legal...... new infections). Percentage cured ranged from 13.6 to 100, and percentage new infections ranged from 0 to 35.5. For all hoof-care products, the difference between treatment and control sides was not statistically significant. Overall, there was no effect on percentage cured or percentage new...

  13. Mathematical Modeling of the Dynamics of Salmonella Cerro Infection in a US Dairy Herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapagain, Prem; van Kessel, Jo Ann; Karns, Jeffrey; Wolfgang, David; Schukken, Ynte; Grohn, Yrjo

    2006-03-01

    Salmonellosis has been one of the major causes of human foodborne illness in the US. The high prevalence of infections makes transmission dynamics of Salmonella in a farm environment of interest both from animal and human health perspectives. Mathematical modeling approaches are increasingly being applied to understand the dynamics of various infectious diseases in dairy herds. Here, we describe the transmission dynamics of Salmonella infection in a dairy herd with a set of non-linear differential equations. Although the infection dynamics of different serotypes of Salmonella in cattle are likely to be different, we find that a relatively simple SIR-type model can describe the observed dynamics of the Salmonella enterica serotype Cerro infection in the herd.

  14. Factors associated with Neospora caninum serostatus in cattle of 20 specialised Costa Rican dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, J J; Perez, E; Dolz, G; Frankena, K

    2002-04-15

    Twenty-five specialised Costa Rican dairy farms (located in the Poás area) were used to determine neosporosis seroprevalence and the association of seropositivity with environmental and management factors. The farms involved were selected intentionally and all of them use VAMPP 5.1 (Veterinary Automated Management and Production Control Programme) as management-information system. Holstein-Friesian, Jersey and crosses between them were the most-frequent breeds in these herds. The number of females per farm varied from 41 to 296. Our cross-sectional study had two phases. In the first phase, we determined the presence or absence of seropositivity at herd level. For the second phase, all females in 20 seropositive farms were bled. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to Neospora caninum using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A questionnaire with factors mentioned in the literature was administered to the farmers. Logistic regression (LR with herd as random effect) was used to assess the relationships of the serostatus at the individual level with characteristics of the cows and environmental factors. In the first phase all herds had >20% seropositive females; therefore, all herds were eligible for the second phase. In the second phase, the overall prevalence was 39.7% (1191/3002), and within-herd prevalences were between 25.0 and 70.5%. Age 3-6 years, parity < or =2 of the dam of the cow, Jersey breed and lack of purposive sampling to diagnose abortive infectious disease were associated with positive serostatus; other management and environmental factors did not show significant associations. The lack of association between management and environmental factors with serostatus might be because all farms were exposed to a considerable number of potential factors. That all herds of this study were seropositive for neosporosis and the within-herd prevalence was considerable raises questions about how far the infection is spread in other dairy

  15. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in dairy cattle herds in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilnont, Theerakul; Aiumlamai, Suneerat; Kanistanont, Kwankate; Inchaisri, Chaidate; Kampa, Jaruwan

    2016-08-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus causes a wide range of clinical manifestation with subsequent economic losses in dairy production worldwide. Our study of a population of dairy cattle in Thailand based on 933 bulk tank milk samples from nine public milk collection centers aimed to monitor infective status and to evaluate the effect of the infection in cows as well as to examine the reproductive performance of heifers to provide effective recommendations for disease control in Thailand. The results showed a moderate antibody-positive prevalence in the herd (62.5 %), with the proportion of class-3 herd, actively infected stage, being 17.3 %. Fourteen persistently infected (PI) animals were identified among 1196 young animals from the class-3 herds. Most of the identified PI animals, 11/14, were born in one sub-area where bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) investigation has not been performed to date. With respect to reproductive performance, class-3 herds also showed higher median values of reproductive indices than those of class-0 herds. Cows and heifers in class-3 herds had higher odds ratio of calving interval (CI) and age at first service (AFS) above the median, respectively, compared to class-0 herds (OR = 1.29; P = 0.02 and OR = 1.63; P = 0.02). Our study showed that PI animals were still in the area that was previously studied. Furthermore, a newly studied area had a high prevalence of BVDV infection and the infection affected the reproductive performance of cows and heifers. Although 37.5 % of the population was free of BVDV, the lack of official disease prevention and less awareness of herd biosecurity may have resulted in continuing viral spread and silent economic losses have potentially occurred due to BVDV. We found that BVDV is still circulating in the region and, hence, a national control program is required.

  16. The effect of becoming BVDV-free on fertility and udder health in Dutch dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, I M G A; Swart, W A J M; Frankena, K; Muskens, J; Lam, T J G M; van Schaik, G

    2008-04-17

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of BVDV-free certification of dairy herds on fertility and udder health. Cases were defined as dairy herds that had at least one BVDV-antigen positive animal, subsequently gained the BVDV-free status by participating in the BVDV-control programme of the Animal Health Service (AHS) and maintained this status for at least 2 years. Controls had an unknown status for BVDV and two controls were matched to one case by region and herd size. Data concerning fertility and milk production of all herds were provided by The Dutch Royal Cattle Syndicate (NRS). After validation, data of 79,607 cows of 392 case herds and 124,831 cows of 730 control herds were analysed on ten fertility and three udder health parameters. For the analyses all observations were aggregated at herd level. To account for the matching, differences for fertility parameters were calculated between each of the two pairs of case-control within a matching code. The analyses were performed with these differences as dependent variables. Mixed models and GEE models were used for the statistical analyses of fertility and udder health. Case herds had a significantly lower abortion rate in the BVDV-free period than controls herds (10.3% versus 11.6%, P<0.01) while there was no significant difference for the other fertility parameters. There was no effect on mastitis prevalence or bulk-milk SCC but the mastitis incidence significantly decreased for case herds in the BVDV-free period (cases 0.6 % lower than controls, P<0.05). In our study the effect of getting the BVDV-free status may have been underestimated for several reasons like an unknown status for control herds, not knowing when an acute infection occurred in case herds and not knowing the management for both cases and controls. Interestingly, both significant variables, being abortions and mastitis incidence, are parameters that are more difficult to influence by the farmer than the other parameters (e

  17. Managerial and environmental determinants of clinical mastitis in Danish dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houe Hans

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several management and environmental factors are known as contributory causes of clinical mastitis in dairy herd. The study objectives were to describe the structure of herd-specific mastitis management and environmental factors and to assess the relevance of these herd-specific indicators to mastitis incidence rate. Methods Disease reports from the Danish Cattle Data Base and a management questionnaire from 2,146 herds in three Danish regions were analyzed to identify and characterize risk factors of clinical mastitis. A total of 94 (18 continuous and 76 discrete management and production variables were screened in separate bivariate regression models. Variables associated with mastitis incidence rate at a p-value Results Three latent factors (quality of labor, region of Denmark and claw trimming, and quality of outdoor holding area were identified from 14 variables. Daily milk production per cow, claw disease, quality of labor and region of Denmark were found to be significantly associated with mastitis incidence rate. A common multiple regression analysis with backward and forward selection procedures indicated there were 9 herd-specific risk factors. Conclusion Though risk factors ascertained by farmer-completed surveys explained a small percentage of the among-herd variability in crude herd-specific mastitis rates, the study suggested that farmer attitudes toward mastitis and lameness treatment were important determinants for mastitis incidence rate. Our factor analysis identified one significant latent factor, which was related to labor quality on the farm.

  18. Paratuberculosis en rebaños caprinos chilenos Paratuberculosis in Chilean dairy goat herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Kruze

    2007-01-01

    origen.Paratuberculosis in goats is widely distributed throughout the world. Recently the disease has been officially reported in Chile. The purpose of this study was to determine the infection status of some dairy goat herds under two types of management systems (intensive and extensive in different regions of Chile. Faecal samples were collected from 383 female goats > 2 years old belonging to 8 dairy goat herds located in the Metropolitan Region (2, 9th Region (5 and 10th Region (1. Differences in routine management were not considered when selecting the herds. Faecal samples were collected via rectum, decontaminated with hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HPC and antibiotics, cultured on Herrold’s Egg Yolk Medium with mycobactin J, and incubated at 37ºC for up to nine months. The suspected colonies were confirmed by PCR (IS900 technology using specific primers for this pathogen (P90+ and P91+. Thirty five out of the 383 sampled goats were faecal culture positive (9.1%, all of them belonging to only four herds. These infected herds were generally larger, intensively managed, and they systematically violated most management recommendations for paratuberculosis control, including the routine introduction of animals of unknown paratuberculosis tests status from herds of unknown Map infection status. The remaining four uninfected herds were extensively managed, did not import goats from other herds, and were located in geographical areas where no mixed grazing with other susceptible ruminant species took place, this being a possible risk factor for paratuberculosis. This study reports the presence of caprine paratuberculosis in Chile, in particular in those dairy goat herds that have introduced high producing milk breeds of animals to improve the genetic capacity of milk production. Therefore, any attempt to evaluate the risk of introducing the infection in a paratuberculosisfree area as the result of purchasing animals is worthwhile.

  19. Premilking teat disinfection: is it worthwhile in pasture-grazed dairy herds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, John M; Penry, John F; Malmo, Jakob; Mein, Graeme A

    2014-12-01

    A controlled trial was conducted in 5 pasture-grazed commercial dairy herds in Australia in 2012 to determine whether premilking teat disinfection and drying of teats reduces clinical mastitis incidence during early lactation by at least 50%. A 50% reduction was estimated to be the minimum required to justify additional costs of labor, disinfectants, and other resources if premilking teat disinfection was implemented in a 500-cow herd averaging 8 clinical cases per 100 cow-months. A secondary aim was to determine whether this premilking teat disinfection routine reduces incidence of new udder infections. Treatment was applied in each herd for approximately 60 d (range of 59.5 to 61 d), commencing in each herd soon after the start of the herd's main or only calving period. Within each herd, cows were allocated to either the treatment (premilking disinfection) or the control (no premilking disinfection) group based on their herd identity number. During the trial period, any cow having a new case of clinical mastitis or an individual cow cell count greater than 250,000 cells/mL of milk (when preceded by individual cow cell counts of 250,000 cells/mL of milk or below) was deemed to have had a new infection. Overall, neither clinical mastitis incidence nor new infection rate differed significantly between treatment and control groups. Over the whole study period, 98 of the 1,029 cows in the premilking disinfection group and 97 of the 1,025 cows in the control group had clinical mastitis. Total cow-days at risk of clinical mastitis were similar in each group. However, clinical incidence rates were markedly lower in treatment cows in one herd (herd 3; incidence rate ratio=0.34) and there was some evidence that new infection incidence rates were lower in treated cows in this herd (incidence rate ratio=0.42). Rainfall during the study period was below long-term district average in all 5 study herds. Cows' teats were less dirty than in previous, wetter years for the 4 herds

  20. A genetic study of loser cows in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede; Kargo, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Following the recent years' increase in herd size, the awareness of a group of cows with a generally lowered health and production level, the “loser cows,” has arisen in Denmark. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations between the loser cow score, 305d protein yield and realize...

  1. Epidemiological characteristics of bovine herpesvirus 1 infections determined by bulk milk testing of all Dutch dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wuijckhuise, L; Bosch, J; Franken, P; Frankena, K; Elbers, A R

    1998-02-21

    Samples of bulk milk were taken from all 33,636 Dutch dairy herds in November 1994 and tested for the presence of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) antibodies with a gB-blocking ELISA. Sixteen per cent of the herds had a negative BHV-1 status in the bulk milk. Farms with only dairy cows were 1.9 times more likely to have a negative or weakly positive BHV-1 status than herds which also had beef/veal animals. Farms in areas containing less than one herd/km2 were 1.5 times more likely to have a negative or weakly positive BHV-1 status than herds in areas with more than three herds/km2. Differences in numbers of animals per unit area were not significantly associated with BHV-1 status. The probability of herds having a negative or weakly positive BHV-1 status decreased linearly with herd size by a factor of 1.2 per 10 animals. The purchase of stock was significantly associated with a negative or weakly positive BHV-1 status, but there was an interaction between farm type and purchase of stock. For farms with both dairy and beef/veal animals there was a weak association between the purchase of stock and BHV-1 status. For pure dairy herds the probability of having a negative or weakly positive BHV-1 status decreased linearly with the numbers of purchased stock by a factor of 1.3 per 10 animals purchased.

  2. Lungworm Infections in German dairy cattle herds--seroprevalence and GIS-supported risk factor analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Schunn

    Full Text Available In November 2008, a total of 19,910 bulk tank milk (BTM samples were obtained from dairy farms from all over Germany, corresponding to about 20% of all German dairy herds, and analysed for antibodies against the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus by use of the recombinant MSP-ELISA. A total number of 3,397 (17.1%; n = 19,910 BTM samples tested seropositive. The prevalences in individual German federal states varied between 0.0% and 31.2% positive herds. A geospatial map was drawn to show the distribution of seropositive and seronegative herds per postal code area. ELISA results were further analysed for associations with land-use and climate data. Bivariate statistical analysis was used to identify potential spatial risk factors for dictyocaulosis. Statistically significant positive associations were found between lungworm seropositive herds and the proportion of water bodies and grassed area per postal code area. Variables that showed a statistically significant association with a positive BTM test were included in a logistic regression model, which was further refined by controlled stepwise selection of variables. The low Pseudo R(2 values (0.08 for the full model and 0.06 for the final model and further evaluation of the model by ROC analysis indicate that additional, unrecorded factors (e.g. management factors or random effects may substantially contribute to lungworm infections in dairy cows. Veterinarians should include lungworms in the differential diagnosis of respiratory disease in dairy cattle, particularly those at pasture. Monitoring of herds through BTM screening for antibodies can help farmers and veterinarians plan and implement appropriate control measures.

  3. Associations between herd-level feeding management practices, feed sorting, and milk production in freestall dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, A D; LeBlanc, S J; McBride, B W; DeVries, T J

    2013-07-01

    The challenges associated with group-housed dairy cows include within-herd variability in nutrient consumption and milk production, which may be related to feeding management. The objective of this observational study was to examine the association of herd-level feeding management factors, feed sorting, and milk production. Twenty-two freestall herds with an average lactating herd size of 162±118 cows, feeding total mixed rations, were each studied for 7 consecutive days in summer and winter. In cases of multiple feeding groups within a herd, the highest producing group of cows with an even distribution of days in milk and parity was selected for this study. The average group size studied was 83±31 cows. The average study group consisted of cows 187±47 days in milk, with a parity of 2.3±0.6, consuming 24.3±2.6kg of dry matter, with an average group-level yield of 34.3±6kg of milk/d, 3.7±0.3% milk fat, and 3.2±0.18% milk protein. Milk production parameters, including yield, fat, and protein, were recorded through regular Dairy Herd Improvement milk testing. A survey of feeding management practices and barn characteristics was administered on each farm. The amounts of feed offered and refused were recorded and sampled daily to assess dry matter intake (DMI) and particle size distribution. Feeding twice per day compared with once per day was associated with an average increase of 1.42kg of DMI, 2.0kg of milk yield, and less sorting against long ration particles (>19mm). Every 2% group-level selective refusal (sorting) of long particles was associated with 1kg/d of reduction in milk yield. A 10cm/cow increase in feed bunk space was associated with a 0.06-percentage-point increase in group-average milk fat and a 13% decrease in group-average somatic cell count. These results support that herd-level management practices to promote feed access, such as increased feeding frequency and bunk space, may improve DMI and promote more balanced nutrient intake and greater

  4. Description and factors of variation of the overall health score in French dairy cattle herds using the Welfare Quality(®) assessment protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coignard, M; Guatteo, R; Veissier, I; de Boyer des Roches, A; Mounier, L; Lehébel, A; Bareille, N

    2013-11-01

    Extensive information is available in the literature on the specific risk factors of the main health disorders afflicting dairy cattle herds. However, it remains difficult to manage a herd's overall health because measures to control one risk factor can exacerbate the risk of another disease. To achieve and maintain good overall herd health, livestock systems and management practices need to simultaneously take into account all of the main health disorders. We aimed to identify the characteristics of systems and practices conducive to good herd health using the Welfare Quality(®) assessment protocol for cattle. This protocol allows an assessment of the level of health and welfare at the herd level according to the opinion of a selected group of 13 experts from animal sciences. Our objectives were to (i) describe the distribution of dairy herds' health scores in a representative sample of French dairy cattle herds, and (ii) to investigate systems (housing system, milking system, herd size, breed, farm location) and management practices associated with variations of the overall health score of dairy herds. This protocol was carried out on 130 farms between December 2010 and March 2011. A multivariable analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to investigate the factors of variation of the overall health score at the herd level. The overall health scores of the farms in the sample were classified as moderate for the vast majority of farms (95.4%) (mainly due to subclinical mastitis, dystocia and pain induced by disbudding/dehorning) and varied little between farms. Some livestock systems were associated with a higher overall health score: straw yards and milking parlors (P<0.0001), highland vs. lowland locations (P=0.013), Montbeliarde rather than Holstein breeds (P=0.006). Some management practices also were associated with a higher level of health: medium herd average parity (P=0.03), low proportion of dirty cows (P=0.002) and low proportion of cows with abnormal

  5. Q Fever Dairy Herd Status Determination Based on Serological and Molecular Analysis of Bulk Tank Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastácio, S; Carolino, N; Sidi-Boumedine, K; da Silva, G J

    2016-04-01

    Ruminants are recognized as the main reservoirs of Coxiella burnetii. EFSA highlighted the lack of knowledge about Q fever prevalence in many European countries. A cross-sectional study was carried out in randomly selected dairy herds (n = 109) from central Portugal to screen for C. burnetii infection and to correlate it with herd factors. Bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from cattle (n = 45) and small ruminant (n = 64) herds were tested by ELISA and PCR. The apparent seroprevalence of Q fever was estimated in 45.9% (95% CI: 36.3-55.7) being higher in small ruminants (51.6; 95% CI: 39.6-63.4) than in cattle (37.8; 95% CI: 25.1-52.4). The shedding of C. burnetii in BTM was detected in 11.9% (95% CI: 7.1-19.4) of BTM, and it was higher in cattle (20%; 95% CI: 10.9-33.8) than in sheep and mixed herds (6.3%; 95% CI: 2.5-15). A high bacterial load (≥ 3 × 10(3) bacteria/ml) was observed in 85% of PCR-positive BTM. A significant correlation was found between the bacterial load and positive samples on ELISA (P < 0.001). Antibody positivity was significantly associated with the increased herd size (P < 0.01) and the occurrence of abortion (P < 0.05), whereas the shedding of C. burnetii was significantly associated with the report of infertility (P < 0.05). The results highlight that serological and molecular methods in combination are a useful tool to screen for Q fever and to clarify the herd infection status. The shedding of C. burnetii through milk is important, especially in dairy cattle, and thus, the role of milk as a potential source of infection among dairy workers should not be neglected. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting C. burnetii infection in dairy livestock in Portugal showing that Q fever is significant in dairy herds, leading to economic losses and being a risk for public health, which highlights the need of implementation of control measures. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Detection of Dairy Herds at Risk for Changing Salmonella Dublin status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockmarr, Anders; Bødker, Rene; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    Salmonella Dublin (S. Dublin) is a costly infection for dairy cows, potentially lethal to humans. Surveillance is based on bulk tank milk (BTM) antibody measurements, taken each quarter of the year. Herds are classified as Status 1- likely free of S. Dublin, or Status 2 – likely infected with S....... Dublin, based on present /recent characteristics, but not actual S. Dublin detection. We develop a predictive model based on characteristics from last quarter, using on registry data for 2001-2007 for 9387 herds in Denmark . Only 2004-2007 data modeled due to data contamination....

  7. Modelling the dynamics and economics of health in individual dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Sørensen, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    Collaboration with practicing veterinarians was established in a research project and has resulted in several epidemiologic tools to assist them in their work. Simultaneously, the research group obtained continuous access to valid and precise data and obtained first-hand knowledge about real......-life problems for the dairy farmer and the practicing veterinarian. The veterinarian was able to supply detailed information concerning managerial routines applied on the farm. Epidemiologic analyses of the collected data produced input for herd-specific modelling of herd dynamic and economic effects...

  8. Effect of including genetic progress in milk yield on evaluating the use of sexed semen and other reproduction strategies in a dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettema, Jehan Frans; Østergaard, Søren; Sørensen, M K

    2010-01-01

    Herd simulation modelling has been recognized as a relevant method to study reproduction management strategies in a dairy herd (Dijkhuizen et al., 1997; Marsh et al., 1987; Østergaard et al., 2005a). These models estimate the technical and economic effects of certain replacement and breeding...... strategies based on the phenotypical states of the individual animals over a number of years. Typically, the genetic levels of replacement heifers in these models are not different from those of the culling candidates in the herd; continuous genetic improvement in the population is ignored. The importance...... of including genetic progress when evaluating reproductive strategies with simulation models has not been explored. Improved reproductive efficiency does allow a higher selection intensity of which cows to stay in the herd and give birth to own young stock....

  9. Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in endemically infected dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R L; Schukken, Y H; Pradhan, A K; Smith, J M; Whitlock, R H; Van Kessel, J S; Wolfgang, D R; Grohn, Y T

    2011-10-01

    Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is thought to be one of the primary sources of infection for dairy cattle. The exact link between fecal shedding of MAP by individual cows and environmental contamination levels at the herd level was explored with a cross-sectional analysis of longitudinally collected samples on 3 dairy farms. Composite samples from multiple environmental sites in 3 commercial dairy herds in the Northeast US were cultured quarterly for MAP, providing 1131 samples (133 (11.8%) were culture-positive), and all adult animals in the herds were tested biannually by fecal culture (FC), for 6 years. Of the environmental sites sampled, manure storage areas and shared alleyways were most likely to be culture-positive. Environmental sample results were compared to FC results from either the concurrent or previous sampling date at both the herd and the pen level. At the herd level, a 1 log unit increase in average fecal shedding increased the odds of a positive non-pen environmental sample by a factor of 6 and increased the average amount of MAP in non-pen samples by 2.9 cfu/g. At the pen level, a 1 log unit increase in average fecal shedding in the pen increased the odds of a positive environment by a factor of 2.4 and the average amount of MAP was increased by 3.5 cfu/g. We were not able to model the relationship between non-pen environmental sample status and the distance between shedding animals and the sample's location, and neighboring pens did not significantly affect the results of the pen-level analysis. The amount of MAP in pen-level samples and the probability of a pen testing positive for MAP were both positively but non-significantly correlated with the number of animals in the pen shedding >30 cfu/g of MAP. At least 6 environmental samples met the criteria for the U.S. Voluntary Bovine Johne's Disease Control Program on 47 of the 72 sampling dates; of these, 19 of the 47 FC-positive sampling dates

  10. Spread of Coxiella burnetii between dairy cattle herds in an enzootic region: modelling contributions of airborne transmission and trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Pranav; Hoch, Thierry; Ezanno, Pauline; Beaudeau, François; Vergu, Elisabeta

    2016-04-05

    Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a looming concern for livestock and public health. Epidemiological features of inter-herd transmission of C. burnetii in cattle herds by wind and trade of cows are poorly understood. We present a novel dynamic spatial model describing the inter-herd regional spread of C. burnetii in dairy cattle herds, quantifying the ability of airborne transmission and animal trade in C. burnetii propagation in an enzootic region. Among all the new herd infections, 92% were attributed to airborne transmission and the rest to cattle trade. Infections acquired following airborne transmission were shown to cause relatively small and ephemeral intra-herd outbreaks. On the contrary, disease-free herds purchasing an infectious cow experienced significantly higher intra-herd prevalence. The results also indicated that, for short duration, both transmission routes were independent from each other without any synergistic effect. The model outputs applied to the Finistère department in western France showed satisfactory sensitivity (0.71) and specificity (0.80) in predicting herd infection statuses at the end of one year in a neighbourhood of 3 km around expected incident herds, when compared with data. The model developed here thus provides important insights into the spread of C. burnetii between dairy cattle herds and paves the way for implementation and assessment of control strategies.

  11. Effects of different dry period lengths on production and economy in the dairy herd estimated by stochastic simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.T.; Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.

    1993-01-01

    A range of preplanned dry period lengths in a dairy herd was evaluated, at different culling strategies and feeding regimes, by means of a dynamic stochastic model simulating the production at herd level. Dry period lengths were studied in the range of 4 to 10 weeks. The culling strategies exhibi...

  12. Risk factors for Coxiella burnetii antibodies in bulk tank milk from Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jens Frederik; Paul, Suman; Christoffersen, Anna-Bodil

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to identify risk factors associated with Coxiella burnetii antibody positivity in bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from 100 randomly selected Danish dairy cattle herds. Antibody levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay. Before testing the herds, the farm managers were...

  13. Serological survey of Neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle herds in Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vázquez, Z; Cruz-Vázquez, C; Medina-Espinoza, L; García-Tapia, D; Chavarria-Martinez, B

    2002-06-03

    A serological survey for antibody activity to Neospora caninum was carried out in Aguascalientes, a state in the central part of Mexico. One-hundred and eighty-seven serum samples from 13 dairy herds were tested by the ELISA test. The herd prevalence was 100% and the overall prevalence was 59% (n=110). Seventy-six of 97 seropositive cows had previous records of abortion. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups (P<0.05). However, the odds ratio was 1.4, suggesting an association between abortion and seropositivity. Neosporosis in dairy cattle appears to be widespread in Mexico, warranting more epidemiological studies to determine the distribution of the causative protozoan.

  14. Nitrate toxicosis in beef and dairy cattle herds due to contamination of drinking water and whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruham, I; Shlosberg, A; Hanji, V; Bellaiche, M; Marcus, M; Liberboim, M

    1997-10-01

    Four cases of rarely reported nitrate toxicosis due to contamination of drinking water or whey were recorded in 2 beef and 2 dairy cattle herds. In the cases associated with water contamination, water containing ammonium nitrate as a fertilizer for irrigating orchards accidentally entered drinking water troughs for cattle through malfunctioning 1-way valves. The whey contamination in 1 instance was caused by transportation in containers which contained traces of concentrated ammonium nitrate; the 2nd case was induced by whey derived from the production of a specialty cheese produced by the incorporation of nitrate. Mortality occurred in 2 herds and abortions in the 2 other herds. Affected cows responded well to treatment, but some animals remained in a deteriorated physical condition for several months.

  15. Associations between fasciolosis and milk production, and the impact of anthelmintic treatment in dairy herds

    OpenAIRE

    K?stenberger, Kerstin; Tichy, Alexander; Bauer, Karl; Pless, Peter; Wittek, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Liver fluke is a ubiquitous parasite that causes extensive production losses in cattle and is a zoonosis. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of fasciolosis in 178 dairy cattle herds in Styria (federal state of Austria) and its influence on production, to detect the risk factors for infection, and to explore effective strategies in management and control. A questionnaire on farm management, prophylaxis, and therapy was developed and applied. Furthermore, production paramet...

  16. Frequency and causes of infectious abortion in a dairy herd in Queretaro, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Escamilla, H. Patricia; Martínez, M. José Juan; Medina, C. Mario; Morales, S. Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of infectious bovine abortion and to identify some of its causes, specifically brucellosis, leptospirosis, bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and neosporosis. The study was carried out in a dairy herd in the state of Queretaro, Mexico, between September 2002 and March 2003. At the beginning of the study, blood samples were taken from a random 33% of the 300 lactating or pregnant cows; antibodies against Leptospi...

  17. Spatial analysis and risk mapping of Fasciola hepatica infection in dairy herds in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Selemetas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is generally a subclinical infection of dairy cows and can cause marked economic losses. This study investigated the prevalence and spatial distribution of fasciolosis in dairy cow herds in Ireland using an in-house antibodydetection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay applied to bulk tank milk (BTM samples collected during the autumn of 2012. A total of 5,116 BTM samples were collected from 4,602 different herds, with 514 farmers submitting BTM samples in two consecutive months. Analysis of the BTM samples showed that 82% (n = 3,764 of the dairy herds had been exposed to Fasciola hepatica. A total of 108 variables, including averaged climatic data for the period 1981-2010 and contemporary meteorological data for the year 2012, such as soil, subsoil, land cover and habitat maps, were investigated for a possible role as predictor of fasciolosis. Using mainly climatic variables as the major predictors, a model of the predicted risk of fasciolosis was created by Random Forest modelling that had 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The most important predictors in descending order of importance were: average of annual total number of rain-days for the period 1981-2010, total rainfall during September, winter and autumn of 2012, average of annual total number of wet-days for the period 1981- 2010 and annual mean temperature of 2012. The findings of this study confirm the high prevalence of fasciolosis in Irish dairy herds and suggest that specific weather and environmental risk factors support a robust and precise distribution model.

  18. Effects of Cow Age and Pregnancy on Bartonella Infection in a Herd of Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Maillard, R.; Grimard, B; Chastant-Maillard, S; Chomel, B.; Delcroix, T.; Gandoin, C.; Bouillin, C.; Halos, L.; Vayssier-Taussat, M.; Boulouis, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    Bartonella spp. are small hemotropic bacteria infecting mammals. Four Bartonella species have been recently described in cattle and wild ruminants. To date, the biology and possible pathogenic role of Bartonella species isolated from ruminants are poorly understood. Therefore, a dairy herd of 448 cows and heifers was surveyed in order to establish the prevalence of Bartonella bovis and B. chomelii infections, the level of bacteremia, and the relationship between bacteremia and age or pregnanc...

  19. The association between milk urea nitrogen and DHI production variables in western commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R G; Young, A J

    2003-09-01

    A retrospective observational study was conducted using data from Dairy Herd Improvement monthly tests to investigate the association between milk urea nitrogen (MUN) concentration and milk yield, milk protein, milk fat percentage, SCC, and parity for commercial Holstein and Jersey herds in Utah, Idaho, and Montana. Mean MUN for Holstein cows was 15.5 mg/ dl (5.5 mmol/L) MUN and 14.1 mg/dl (5.0 mmol/L) for Jersey cows. Mean MUN, categorized by 30-d increments of days in milk (DIM), paralleled changes in milk values and followed a curvilinear shape. For Holstein cows, concentrations of MUN were different among lactation groups 1, 2, and 3+ for the first 90 DIM for Holsteins. Overall, concentrations of MUN were lower during for the first 30 DIM compared with all other DIM categories for both Holstein and Jersey cows. Multivariate regression models of MUN by milk protein showed that as the milk protein percentage increased, MUN concentration decreased; however, models for Jersey cows showed that MUN did not decrease significantly until above 3.4% milk protein. Milk fat percentage also decreased as MUN increased, but by only 1 mg/dl MUN over the range of 2.2 to 5.8% milk fat. Somatic cell count showed a negative relationship with MUN. Holstein cows with milk protein percentage >3.2% had lower MUN compared with cows having milk protein <3.2% for milk yields from 27.3 to 54.5 kg/d and lower than cows having a milk protein <3.0% for milk yield of 54.5 to 63.6 kg/d. In Jersey cows, MUN concentrations were not different among milk protein percentage categorized by milk yield. This study found that MUN was inversely associated with milk protein percentage and paralleled change in milk yield over time.

  20. Epidemiology and impact of Fasciola hepatica exposure in high-yielding dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Alison; Baylis, Matthew; Smith, Rob; Pinchbeck, Gina; Williams, Diana

    2015-09-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a trematode parasite with a worldwide distribution and is the cause of important production losses in the dairy industry. The aim of this observational study was to assess the prevalence of exposure to F. hepatica in a group of high yielding dairy herds, to determine the risk factors and investigate their associations with production and fertility parameters. Bulk milk tank samples from 606 herds that supply a single retailer with liquid milk were tested with an antibody ELISA for F. hepatica. Multivariable linear regression was used to investigate the effect of farm management and environmental risk factors on F. hepatica exposure. Higher rainfall, grazing boggy pasture, presence of beef cattle on farm, access to a stream or pond and smaller herd size were associated with an increased risk of exposure. Univariable regression was used to look for associations between fluke exposure and production-related variables including milk yield, composition, somatic cell count and calving index. Although causation cannot be assumed, a significant (phepatica exposure and estimated milk yield at the herd level, representing a 15% decrease in yield for an increase in F. hepatica exposure from the 25th to the 75th percentile. This remained significant when fertility, farm management and environmental factors were controlled for. No associations were found between F. hepatica exposure and any of the other production, disease or fertility variables.

  1. Association between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and culling in dairy cattle herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Arrazuría

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to analyse the causes for culling in dairy herds with different Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection status and to compare these causes with those observed over the general dairy cattle population. During 2009, causes for culling were registered in two different groups of farms: (1 farms with seropositive cows for three consecutive years (2007-2009 but where Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis has not been isolated from any of the fecal samples collected and (2 farms with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis seropositive cows for three consecutive years (2007-2009 and where the bacteria has been isolated from at least one fecal sample. Causes for animal loss were compared between both groups and between them and the general dairy cattle population by means of regression analysis. The distribution of culling reasons was different between infected herds (both bacteriologically positive and negative and the general population. The percentage of losses seemed to be higher in infected herds from the first parity on. The most remarkable difference among groups was observed in losses due to "death/urgent slaughter".

  2. Evaluation of test-strategies for estimating probability of low prevalence of paratuberculosis in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sergeant, E.S.G.; Nielsen, Søren S.; Toft, Nils

    2008-01-01

    . Using this model, five herd-testing strategies were evaluated: (1) milk-ELISA on all lactating cows; (2) milk-ELISA on lactating cows 4 years old; (4) faecal culture on all lactating cows; and (5) milk-ELISA plus faecal culture in series on all lactating cows. The five testing strategies were evaluated...... using observed milk-ELISA results from 19 Danish dairy herds as well as for simulated results from the same herds assuming that they were uninfected. Whole-herd milk-ELISA was the preferred strategy, and considered the most cost-effective strategy of the five alternatives. The five strategies were all...... efficient in detecting infection, i.e. estimating a low Pr-Low in infected herds, however, Pr-Low estimates for milk-ELISA on age-cohorts were too low in simulated uninfected herds and the strategies involving faecal culture were too expensive to be of practical interest. For simulated uninfected herds...

  3. Dairy cattle mortality in an organized herd in Bangladesh

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    M. M. Hossain

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to find out the causes and factors affecting the dairy cattle mortality. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of dairy cattle mortality on the Central Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farm (CCBDF in Bangladesh was carried out between 1992 and 2007. Sixteen years of data on mortality of dairy cattle were analyzed for the effects of year, season, age, sex, breed, and etiology on mortality rate. Results: The average overall mortality rate was 5.60% and on average, female cattle (55.71% were found to die more than males (44.29%. Mortality was more in crossbred cattle than in indigenous breed. Higher mortality of cattle was observed in rainy season (37.98% followed by winter (33.03% and summer (28.99%. The major causes of death were diseases of the respiratory tract, mainly pneumonia (39.91%. Tuberculosis was the second most common cause of mortality accounting for 20.58% of deaths. The other major cause of death was disease of the alimentary tract, mainly enteritis (15.58%. Other causes of death occurred in the following frequencies: malnutrition (5.91%, debility (4.43%, hairball (3.35%, tympanitis (2.56%, babesiosis (2.27%, internal haemorrhage (2.16%, black quarter (1.76%, and foot and mouth disease (1.48%. Conclusions: Of the four potential risk factors investigated, age was the most important factor and significantly associated with mortality. During the first month of life, calves had a higher risk of mortality than adults.

  4. Application of a Dot Blot Hybridization Platform to Assess Streptococcus uberis Population Structure in Dairy Herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Pedro; Ribeiro, Niza; Almeida, Alexandre; Panschin, Irena; Porfirio, Afonso; Vales, Marta; Diniz, Francisca; Madeira, Helena; Tavares, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus uberis is considered one of the most important pathogens associated with bovine mastitis. While traditionally acknowledged as an environmental pathogen, S. uberis has been shown to adopt a contagious epidemiological pattern in several dairy herds. Since different control strategies are employed depending on the mode of transmission, in-depth studies of S. uberis populations are essential to determine the best practices to control this pathogen. In this work, we optimized and validated a dot blot platform, combined with automatic image analysis, to rapidly assess the population structure of infective S. uberis, and evaluated its efficiency when compared to multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) genotyping. Two dairy herds with prevalent S. uberis infections were followed in a 6 month period, in order to collect and characterize isolates from cows with persistent infections. These herds, located in Portugal (Barcelos and Maia regions), had similar management practices, with the herd from Barcelos being smaller and having a better milking parlor management, since infected cow segregation was immediate. A total of 54 S. uberis isolates were obtained from 24 different cows from the two herds. To overcome operator-dependent analysis of the dot blots and increase the technique's consistency and reliability, the hybridization signals were converted into probability values, with average probabilities higher than 0.5 being considered positive results. These data allowed to confirm the isolates' identity as S. uberis using taxa-specific markers and to determine the presence of virulence- and antibiotic resistance-related genes. In addition, MLSA allowed to disclose the most prevalent S. uberis clonal lineages in both herds. Seven different clusters were identified, with Barcelos showing a high clonal diversity and Maia a dominant lineage infecting most cows, suggesting distinct epidemiological patterns, with S. uberis displaying an environmental or contagious

  5. A Dairy Herd Case Investigation with Very Low Dietary Cation–Anion Difference in Prepartum Dairy Cows

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    Pedro Melendez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the periparturient period, subclinical hypocalcemia (total plasma Ca concentration <2.0 mmol/l is a potential problem for the dairy cow; consequently, its prevention is essential for success of fertility and productive performance. Dietary cation–anion difference (DCAD has been defined as the difference in milliequivalents of cations (Na, K and anions (Cl, S per kilogram of dry matter (DM and has a direct impact on blood acid–base metabolism. Diets rich in K and Na induce metabolic alkalosis, interfering with tissue sensitivity to parathyroid hormone, and diets rich in Cl and S (anionic salts cause metabolic acidosis, reducing the risk of hypocalcemia. Consequently, the use of anionic salts has become a popular method to prevent hypocalcemia in dairy cattle. Monitoring diets with anionic salts can be done by measuring urine pH, with optimal values between 6.2 and 6.8 for Holstein cows. The objective of this report is to present a herd case investigation involving a dairy farm feeding a very low DCAD (−143 mEq/kg DM, expecting improved Ca homeostasis. The diet of −143 mEq/kg (urine pH 5.2–5.8 was changed to a diet with −53 mEq/kg DM (urine pH 6.2–6.8. Blood samples were taken at the time of calving for 10 cows that calved before and then for 10 cows that calved after changing the diet. Cows with extremely low DCAD had Ca concentrations of 2.11 ± 0.22 mmol/l and cows with a more moderated DCAD, 2.11 ± 0.16 mmol/l (P > 0.05. Several other blood metabolites (P, Mg, Na, K, Cl, albumin, globulins, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and GGT were also similar between groups. This very low DCAD during the prepartum period may severely compromise animal physiology unnecessarily, with little advantage over normal calcium concentrations at parturition, when compared with a less negative DCAD (−53 mEq/kg DM. Feeding a less negative DCAD ration (−53 mEq/kg DM did not decrease plasma Ca levels right after

  6. Estimation of the relative impact of treatment and herd management practices on prevention of digital dermatitis in French dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relun, A; Lehebel, A; Bruggink, M; Bareille, N; Guatteo, R

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to concurrently estimate the effect of different digital dermatitis (DD) treatment regimens and herd management practices on the occurrence of a new DD lesion. A controlled clinical trial was conducted and involved 4678 dairy cows from 52 French dairy farms where DD was endemic. Farms were allocated by minimisation to one of 4 treatment regimens, varying through the mode (footbath or collective spraying) and the frequency of application (2 days every 4 weeks or fortnightly). They were visited 7 times every 4 weeks by 14 trained investigators. Frailty Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative effect of potential risk factors and treatment practices on the time until the first occurrence of a DD lesion. At herd level, high initial DD prevalence strongly increased the risk for DD occurrence (HR=1.93, CI 1.23-3.04), as well as absence of hoof-trimming (HR=1.75, CI 1.36-2.27) and poor leg cleanliness (HR=2.44, CI 1.80-3.31). At animal level, Holstein breed (HR=1.92, CI 1.35-3.57) and high-productive cows (HR=1.26, CI 1.01-1.56) were identified to be at higher risk for DD compared to Normande breed and low-productive cows, respectively. Compared to individual topical antibiotic treatments alone, collective treatments tended to decrease the risk of DD occurrence only when applied over 2 days at least every fortnight (HR range=0.64-0.73). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between Dictyocaulus viviparus status and milk production parameters in Dutch dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dank, M; Holzhauer, M; Veldhuis, A; Frankena, K

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the association between Dictyocaulus viviparus bulk tank milk (BTM) test results and milk production and milk composition parameters in adult Dutch dairy cattle herds. Bulk tank milk samples were collected in August and November 2013, and ELISA tests were performed. Two hundred BTM positive (BTM+) and 200 BTM negative (BTM-) herds were selected based on their BTM test result of November 2013, obtained from a list of farms that participated in the Dutch GD Animal Health voluntary monitoring program for controlling nematode infections. The relationship between D. viviparus BTM status and 3 production parameters (milk production, milk fat %, and milk protein %) in summer (June to August 2013) and autumn (September and October 2013) was investigated using generalized linear mixed models. Production data were available for 126 BTM- herds and 109 BTM+ herds. Results showed that a positive D. viviparus status was associated with decreased milk production (June: -1.01, July: -1.19, August: -1.68, September and October: -1.33kg/cow per d). Milk fat percentage was 0.14% and 0.08% lower during summer and autumn, respectively, in BTM+ herds. No significant association was demonstrated between a positive BTM test result and milk protein percentage. Because a strong correlation was present between the BTM status for D. viviparus and that for Ostertagia ostertagi, these losses cannot be attributed to one of the two parasites. However, it is clear that these parasite infections have a considerable effect on production.

  8. Determining the optimum replacement policy for Holstein dairy herds in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, A S; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, H; Moradi, M; Sanders, A H; De Vries, A

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimum replacement policy for Holstein dairy herds in Iran using a dynamic programming model. Cows were described in terms of state variables that included milk production class, parity, pregnancy status, and month in milk with a 1-mo stage length. The objective function maximized the net present value of cows over a 15-yr planning horizon. Markov simulation was used to estimate expected herd dynamics under the optimal decision plan determined by dynamic programming. Stochastic elements included probabilities of pregnancy and abortion, production level, and involuntary culling. The optimum annual culling rate was estimated to be 31.4%, and cows had an expected herd life (time from first calving until culling) of 3.18 yr. High replacement cost and low carcass value resulted in only 2.87% voluntary culling (i.e., optimal model-based replacement). Assuming a heat detection rate of 0.4, cows averaged 2.8 services per lactation under the optimal policy. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to evaluate the effect of milk price, herd-average production, feed cost, heifer price, and carcass value on optimum replacement decisions. Herd-average production, replacement cost, and risk of involuntary culling were important factors affecting the optimal culling policy. Changes in the price of feed, calves, and milk and the probability of pregnancy had no considerable effect on the optimal policy considering the market situation in Iran during 2008.

  9. Interdigital dermatitis, heel horn erosion, and digital dermatitis in 14 Norwegian dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knappe-Poindecker, M.; Gilhuus, M.; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2013-01-01

    wanted to compare diseased and healthy cows in all herds. The study included 14 dairy herds with a total of 633 cows. Eight herds had a history of ID and E, and 6 were control herds. All cows were scored for lameness, and infectious foot diseases on the hind feet were recorded after trimming. Swabs...... and biopsies were taken from the skin of 10 cows in each herd for bacterial analyses. In total, samples were taken from 34 cows with ID, 11 with E, 40 with both ID and E, and 8 with digital dermatitis (DD), and from 47 cows with healthy feet. Swabs were analyzed for identification and characterization of D...... with DD, and in 66.0% of cows with healthy feet. All serogroups of D. nodosus except F and M were detected, and all isolates were defined as benign by the gelatin gel test. Treponema spp. were detected in 50.0% of the cows with ID, in 9.1% with E, in 67.5% with ID and E, in all cows with DD, and in 6...

  10. Housing, Feeding and Management of Calves and Replacement Heifers in Swedish Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberg P

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire was sent to 1500 randomly selected dairy herds in Sweden, asking for general information about the herds, including routines from birth to first calving and also routines at breeding, calving and during the grazing period. Fifty-eight percent of the questionnaires were returned. The preweaned calves were kept in individual calf pens in 68% and in group housing systems in 28% of the herds. Pens with slatted floors were the main housing system for replacement heifers from weaning to breeding, and tie stalls from breeding to first calving. Whole milk was used in 44% and milk replacements in 42% of the herds. The calves received, as a median, 2.5 litres of milk per meal and 2 meals per day. The median age at weaning was 8 weeks. Age was the single most common criteria used for deciding both weaning and breeding time. The median age when the heifers were first turned out to pasture was 6 months. Prophylactic anthelmintic treatment was used by 65% of the herds. The most common diet for replacement heifers before calving was a combination of grain, hay and silage.

  11. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in tie-stall dairy herds using a standardized environmental sampling technique and targeted pooled samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Sabogal, Juan C; Côté, Geneviève; Paré, Julie; Labrecque, Olivia; Roy, Jean-Philippe; Buczinski, Sébastien; Doré, Elizabeth; Fairbrother, Julie H; Bissonnette, Nathalie; Wellemans, Vincent; Fecteau, Gilles

    2016-07-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease, a chronic contagious enteritis of ruminants that causes major economic losses. Several studies, most involving large free-stall herds, have found environmental sampling to be a suitable method for detecting MAP-infected herds. In eastern Canada, where small tie-stall herds are predominant, certain conditions and management practices may influence the survival and transmission of MAP and recovery (isolation). Our objective was to estimate the performance of a standardized environmental and targeted pooled sampling technique for the detection of MAP-infected tie-stall dairy herds. Twenty-four farms (19 MAP-infected and 5 non-infected) were enrolled, but only 20 were visited twice in the same year, to collect 7 environmental samples and 2 pooled samples (sick cows and cows with poor body condition). Concurrent individual sampling of all adult cows in the herds was also carried out. Isolation of MAP was achieved using the MGIT Para TB culture media and the BACTEC 960 detection system. Overall, MAP was isolated in 7% of the environmental cultures. The sensitivity of the environmental culture was 44% [95% confidence interval (CI): 20% to 70%] when combining results from 2 different herd visits and 32% (95% CI: 13% to 57%) when results from only 1 random herd visit were used. The best sampling strategy was to combine samples from the manure pit, gutter, sick cows, and cows with poor body condition. The standardized environmental sampling technique and the targeted pooled samples presented in this study is an alternative sampling strategy to costly individual cultures for detecting MAP-infected tie-stall dairies. Repeated samplings may improve the detection of MAP-infected herds.

  12. Transmission of bovine leukaemia virus within dairy herds by simulation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, G E; Frankena, K; De Jong, M C M

    2007-07-01

    In Argentina, bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection is common in dairy herds. The country currently has a National Voluntary Control Programme but relatively few farms have enrolled. However, there is increased interest from authorities and farmers to implement regional compulsory programmes but there is scarce quantitative information of the transmission of BLV in cattle herds. This information is a prerequisite to develop effective BLV control strategies. Mathematical modelling offers ways of integrating population-level knowledge and epidemiological data to predict the outcomes of intervention scenarios. The purpose of the current paper is to gain understanding about the dynamics of the transmission of BLV in dairy herds from Argentina by simulation and to compare various BLV transmission models and select the one that is most appropriate. The hypothetical herd is conceptually described in terms of BLV status as a population of individuals that are protected by maternal antibodies (M), that are susceptible (S), that are in the latent period (E) or that are infectious (I). BLV is spread by horizontal and vertical transmission. We used an age-structured population model and within-herd transmission was simulated by Monte Carlo techniques. The next-generation approach has been used for the systematic computation of the basic reproduction ratio (R0). Parameter values for disease transmission were derived from previously published data; rates of entry, exit or transition between age groups were calculated based on our previous study, observational data, expert opinions and literature. With these parameter values the probability of a minor outbreak was estimated to be 10%, the probability of extinction was estimated as <0.001% and the expected time to extinction as more than 80 years. The probability of a minor outbreak and changes in prevalence were different when the index case was an adult cow compared to introduction by a heifer. Prediction of prevalences from

  13. A stochastic model simulating the feeding-health-production complex in a dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergaard, S; Sørensen, J T; Kristensen, A R

    2000-04-01

    A dynamic, stochastic, and mechanistic Monte Carlo model, simulating a dairy herd with focus on the feeding-health-production complex is presented. By specifying biological parameters at cow level and a management strategy at herd level, the model can simulate the technical and economic consequences of scenarios at herd level. The representation of the feeding-health-production complex is aimed to be sufficiently detailed, to include relationships likely to cause significant herd effects, and to be sufficiently simple to enable a feasible parameterization of the model and interpretation of the results from the model. Consequently, diseases are defined as four disease types: two metabolic disease types, an udder disease type, and a reproductive disease type. Risk factors for the diseases were defined as parity, yield capacity, disease recurrence, disease interrelationships, lactation stage, and season. Direct effects of the diseases were defined according to milk yield, feed intake, feed utilization, conception, culling, involuntary removal, and death. Scenarios differing in base risks of milk fever and ketosis, heat detection rate, and culling strategy were simulated for describing the model behavior. Annual milk yield per cow was decreased by increased risk of ketosis and by increased risk of milk fever, even though no direct effect of milk fever on milk yield was modeled at the cow level. The indirect effect from milk fever is a consequence of increased replacement rate (relatively lower milk yield from younger cows). By ignoring the history of milk fever in insemination and replacement decisions, a significantly reduced net income per cow was found in some herds. We concluded that important benefits from using such a herd model are the capability of accounting for herd management factors and the advantage of avoiding to double count the indirect effects from disease, such as increased risk of other diseases, poorer reproduction results, and increased risk of

  14. A HACCP-based approach to mastitis control in dairy herds. Part 1: Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekhuis-Gibbon, Lies; Whyte, Paul; O'Grady, Luke; More, Simon J; Doherty, Michael L

    2011-03-31

    Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) systems are a risk based preventive approach developed to increase levels of food safety assurance. This is part 1 of a pilot study on the development, implementation and evaluation of a HACCP-based approach for the control of good udder health in dairy cows. The paper describes the use of a novel approach based on a deconstruction of the infectious process in mastitis to identify Critical Control Points (CCPs) and develop a HACCP-based system to prevent and control mastitis in dairy herds. The approach involved the creation of an Infectious Process Flow Diagram, which was then cross-referenced to two production process flow diagrams of the milking process and cow management cycle. The HACCP plan developed, may be suitable for customisation and implementation on dairy farms. This is a logical, systematic approach to the development of a mastitis control programme that could be used as a template for the development of control programmes for other infectious diseases in the dairy herd.

  15. A HACCP-based approach to mastitis control in dairy herds. Part 1: Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beekhuis-Gibbon Lies

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP systems are a risk based preventive approach developed to increase levels of food safety assurance. This is part 1 of a pilot study on the development, implementation and evaluation of a HACCP-based approach for the control of good udder health in dairy cows. The paper describes the use of a novel approach based on a deconstruction of the infectious process in mastitis to identify Critical Control Points (CCPs and develop a HACCP-based system to prevent and control mastitis in dairy herds. The approach involved the creation of an Infectious Process Flow Diagram, which was then cross-referenced to two production process flow diagrams of the milking process and cow management cycle. The HACCP plan developed, may be suitable for customisation and implementation on dairy farms. This is a logical, systematic approach to the development of a mastitis control programme that could be used as a template for the development of control programmes for other infectious diseases in the dairy herd.

  16. Evaluation of Pathogenic Serovars of Leptospira Interrogans in Dairy Cattle Herds of Shahrekord by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Shahbazkia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira interrogans. Leptospirosis leads to economical losses in dairy farm industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR.Materials and Methods: Two hundred samples (100 urine and 100 blood were collected from 100 cows randomly and delivered to the laboratory. Samples were stored at -20 °C. DNA was extracted and purified from the plasma and urine samples and concentrated on diatoms in the presence of guanidine thiocyanate (GuSCN. PCR products were detected and identified as Leptospira by ilumination of the expected size of DNA bands after staining of the agarose gel with ethidium bromide gels. PCR products were purified and sequenced.Results: The results showed that 28% of urine samples and 23% of plasma samples were contaminated. The major serotypes were Icterohaemorrhagiae (50% and Pomona (37.5%. The urine samples of 17 cows were positive for Leptospira without positive plasma samples. This indicated that these cows are reservoirs in dairy herds of Shahrekord and dangerous for human health. The plasma samples of twelve cows were positive for Leptospira without positive urine samples.Conclusions: Leptospira serotypes can be maintained in relatively dry regions and must be considered when dealing with leptospirosis in dairy farms of Shahrekord and human health.

  17. Simulation model estimates of test accuracy and predictive values for the Danish Salmonella surveillance program in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnick, L.D.; Nielsen, L.R.; Nielsen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    antibody measurements for infected and noninfected herds were determined from field study data. Herd infection was defined as having either >= 1 Salmonella culture-positive fecal sample or >= 5% within-herd prevalence based on antibody measurements in serum or milk from individual animals. No distinction......The Danish government and cattle industry instituted a Salmonella surveillance program in October 2002 to help reduce Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Dublin (S. Dublin) infections. All dairy herds are tested by measuring antibodies in bulk tank milk at 3-month intervals. The program...... is based on a well-established ELISA, but the overall test program accuracy and misclassification was not previously investigated. We developed a model to simulate repeated bulk tank milk antibody measurements for dairy herds conditional on true infection status. The distributions of bulk tank milk...

  18. Characterization of colostrum from dams of BLV endemic dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Lomonaco, Marina; Alvarez, Irene; Fernandez, Fernando; Trono, Karina

    2015-06-12

    Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) is endemic in Argentina, where the individual prevalence is higher than 80% in dairy farms. The aim of this work was to find preliminary evidence to know if the high level of infection of the dam would implicate a higher challenge to her own offspring. We collected 65 sets of samples consisting of dam's blood and colostrum from two heavily infected dairy farms, and investigated the correlation between the dam's blood proviral load and the presence of provirus in colostrum. We also described the dual antibody/provirus profile in the colostrum. Provirus was detected in 69.23% of the colostrum samples, mostly from dams with a high proviral load, 36/45 (80%). Colostrum proviral load was significantly higher in dams with high blood proviral load (pcolostrum samples all along the antibody distribution, even in those with a low amount of antibodies. These results show that even when high blood proviral load dams offer higher levels of infected cells to their offspring through colostrum they also offer higher levels of protection of antibodies. On the contrary, low blood proviral load dams also offer infected cells but a poor content of antibodies, suggesting that these animals could play an important role in the epidemiological cycle of transmission.

  19. Records of performance and sanitary status from a dairy cattle herd in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio E. F. Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the emphasis on the health of dairy cows has changed from an individual to a herd level. In this scenario, the role played by the recording system and its interpretation by veterinarians has gained primordial importance. The records of productive and reproductive performance and of sanitary status from a southern Brazilian dairy cattle herd have been presented and discussed. The period of study was 2000-2009. Mean values per lactation period were 349D 8436M 290F 275P 201SCS (D: days in lactation, M: kg of milk yield, F: kg of fat, P: kg of protein and SCS: somatic cell score in 1000 cells/ml of milk. Major indexes of reproductive efficiency included age at first calving (31 months, services per conception (2.1, intercalving interval (428 days, calving to conception interval (146 days, mean annual rates of parturitions (76.2%, fetal losses (9.8-19.0%, and stillbirths (3.6%, apart of voluntary waiting period (94 days. Main information on sanitary status of the herd was associated with the mean prevalence of common disorders of dairy cattle such as anaplasmosis (29.8%, mastitis (27.8%, digital diseases (26.3%, ovarian cysts (21.3%, placental retention (19.7%, postpartum uterine infections (10.6%, and calf diarrhea (23.7% and pneumonia (16.8%, among others. In addition, culling reasons (low reproductive performance [56.3%] and udder/mastitis problems [33.6%], causes of cattle deaths (anaplasmosis [16.4%] and leukosis [11.4], and the impact of cattle diseases such as tuberculosis, leukosis, and neosporosis on the herd have also been presented and succinctly discussed. Numbers between brackets represent rates accumulated in the 10-year period.

  20. Assessing the potential impact of Salmonella vaccines in an endemically infected dairy herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella spp. in cattle are contributing to bacterial foodborne disease for humans. Reduction of Salmonella prevalence in herds is important to prevent human Salmonella infections. Typical control measures are culling of infectious animals, vaccination, and improved hygiene management. Vaccines ha...

  1. A large Markovian linear program to optimize replacement policies and dairy herd net income for diets and nitrogen excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, V E

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was 2-fold: 1) to propose a novel modeling framework using Markovian linear programming to optimize dairy farmer-defined goals under different decision schemes and 2) to illustrate the model with a practical application testing diets for entire lactations. A dairy herd population was represented by cow state variables defined by parity (1 to 15), month in lactation (1 to 24), and pregnancy status (0 nonpregnant and 1 to 9 mo of pregnancy). A database of 326,000 lactations of Holsteins from AgSource Dairy Herd Improvement service (http://agsource.crinet.com/page249/DHI) was used to parameterize reproduction, mortality, and involuntary culling. The problem was set up as a Markovian linear program model containing 5,580 decision variables and 8,731 constraints. The model optimized the net revenue of the steady state dairy herd population having 2 options in each state: keeping or replacing an animal. Five diets were studied to assess economic, environmental, and herd structural outcomes. Diets varied in proportions of alfalfa silage (38 to 98% of dry matter), high-moisture ear corn (0 to 42% of dry matter), and soybean meal (0 to 18% of dry matter) within and between lactations, which determined dry matter intake, milk production, and N excretion. Diet ingredient compositions ranged from one of high concentrates to alfalfa silage only. Hence, the model identified the maximum net revenue that included the value of nutrient excretion and the cost of manure disposal associated with the optimal policy. Outcomes related to optimal solutions included the herd population structure, the replacement policy, and the amount of N excreted under each diet experiment. The problem was solved using the Excel Risk Solver Platform with the Standard LP/Quadratic Engine. Consistent replacement policies were to (1) keep pregnant cows, (2) keep primiparous cows longer than multiparous cows, and (3) decrease replacement rates when milk and feed prices are favorable

  2. Stochastic modeling of imperfect Salmonella vaccines in an adult dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhao; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Smith, Rebecca L; Karns, Jeffrey S; Hovingh, Ernest; Schukken, Ynte H

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of bacterial foodborne disease. Human salmonellosis results in significant public health concerns and a considerable economic burden. Dairy cattle are recognized as a key source of several Salmonella serovars that are a threat to human health. To lower the risk of Salmonella infection, reduction of Salmonella prevalence in dairy cattle is important. Vaccination as a control measure has been applied for reduction of preharvest Salmonella prevalence on dairy farms. Salmonella vaccines are usually imperfect (i.e., vaccines may provide a partial protection for susceptible animals, reduce the infectiousness and shedding level, shorten the infectious period of infected animals, and/or curb the number of clinical cases), and evaluation of the potential impacts of imperfect Salmonella vaccines at the farm level is valuable to design effective intervention strategies. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of imperfect Salmonella vaccines on the stochastic transmission dynamics in an adult dairy herd. To this end, we developed a semi-stochastic and individual-based continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) vaccination model with both direct and indirect transmission, and applied the CTMC vaccination model to Salmonella Cerro transmission in an adult dairy herd. Our results show that vaccines shortening the infectious period are most effective in reducing prevalence, and vaccines decreasing host susceptibility are most effective in reducing the outbreak size. Vaccines with multiple moderate efficacies may have the same effectiveness as vaccines with a single high efficacy in reducing prevalence, time to extinction, and outbreak size. Although the environment component has negligible contributions to the prevalence, time to extinction, and outbreak size for Salmonella Cerro in the herd, the relative importance of environment component was not assessed. This study indicates that an effective vaccination program against Salmonella Cerro

  3. Farmers taking responsibility for herd health development—stable schools in research and advisory activities as a tool for dairy health and welfare planning in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivemeyer, Silvia; Bell, Nick J.; Brinkmann, Jan

    2015-01-01

    farms. Farmers and facilitators were convinced of the approach and benefits for dairy herds. Farmers’ attitude and attention towards their herds and their ownership of the process appear to be crucial success factors for herd health and welfare situations. In some European countries, this method has......, farmers take responsibility for health and welfare planning by identifying issues, setting goals, and acting to improve the health situation based on farm-specific data, e.g. milk production. This paper reviews the results from intervention studies that used a modified ‘farmer field school’ approach...... for animal health and welfare planning, providing an overview of ongoing activities and their implementation into advisory situations in selected European countries. Studies on stable schools as an intervention tool showed improvements regarding the specific project aim on the majority of the participating...

  4. Farm management factors associated with bulk tank somatic cell count in Irish dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly PT

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The relationship between bulk tank somatic cell count (SCC and farm management and infrastructure was examined using data from 398 randomly selected, yet representative, Irish dairy farms where the basal diet is grazed grass. Median bulk tank SCC for the farms was 282,887 cells/ml ranging from 82,209 to 773,028 cells/ml. Two questionnaires were administered through face-to-face contact with each farmer. Herd-level factors associated with bulk tank SCC were determined using linear models with annual somatic cell score (i.e., arithmetic mean of the natural logarithm of bulk tank SCC included as the dependent variable. All herd level factors were analysed individually in separate regression models, which included an adjustment for geographical location of the farm; a multiple regression model was subsequently developed. Management practices associated with low SCC included the use of dry cow therapy, participation in a milk recording scheme and the use of teat disinfection post-milking. There was an association between low SCC and an increased level of hygiene and frequency of cleaning of the holding yard, passageways and cubicles. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank SCC in Irish grazing herds are generally in agreement with most previous studies from confinement systems of milk production.

  5. Farm management factors associated with bulk tank somatic cell count in Irish dairy herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between bulk tank somatic cell count (SCC) and farm management and infrastructure was examined using data from 398 randomly selected, yet representative, Irish dairy farms where the basal diet is grazed grass. Median bulk tank SCC for the farms was 282,887 cells/ml ranging from 82,209 to 773,028 cells/ml. Two questionnaires were administered through face-to-face contact with each farmer. Herd-level factors associated with bulk tank SCC were determined using linear models with annual somatic cell score (i.e., arithmetic mean of the natural logarithm of bulk tank SCC) included as the dependent variable. All herd level factors were analysed individually in separate regression models, which included an adjustment for geographical location of the farm; a multiple regression model was subsequently developed. Management practices associated with low SCC included the use of dry cow therapy, participation in a milk recording scheme and the use of teat disinfection post-milking. There was an association between low SCC and an increased level of hygiene and frequency of cleaning of the holding yard, passageways and cubicles. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank SCC in Irish grazing herds are generally in agreement with most previous studies from confinement systems of milk production. PMID:22081962

  6. Estimate of Inbreeding Coefficient and Its Effects on Reproductive Traits of Dairy Herds in Isfahan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gholizadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to study the inbreeding coefficient and its effect on reproductive performance of dairy cows (age at first calving, calving interval and open days in Isfahan province. Records of 31,977 (primiparous cows, 36,982 and 51,423 (multiparous cows for age at first calving, calving interval and open days were used, respectively. The inbreeding coefficients of animals were calculated using pedigree information of 78,425 females and 8,056 males, which were born from 1963 to 2009. The overall mean and maximum inbreeding coefficients in Holstein cows were 2.33% and 31.30%, respectively. The results showed that 57,234 animals were inbred with 3.57% inbreeding coefficient. Regression coefficients on inbreeding coefficient for age at first calving, calving interval and open days were 0.589±0.21, 1.08±0.15 and 0.27±12, respectively. Estimated inbreeding indicated significantly negative effect on the reproductive traits in different parturition periods. The results revealed that the average inbreeding trend was increased in the dairy herds. The increased inbreeding was due to close mating systems between the candidates, and it showed negative effects on the reproductive traits in Isfahan dairy herds.

  7. Characterization of a Dairy Gyr herd with respect to its mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Eugênio Vercesi Filho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zebu breeds were introduced in Brazil mainly in the last century by imports from the Indian subcontinent. When the Zebu cattle arrived, the national herd suffered a significative change by backcrossing the national cows of taurine origin with Zebu sires. These processes created a polymorphism in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA in the Zebu animals with are in a major part derived from backcrossing and sharing mtDNA of taurine origin. To verify the maternal origin of cows belonging to the Dairy Gyr herd of APTA, Mococa 60 females were analyzed and 33 presented mtDNA from Bos taurus origin and 27 presented mtDNA from Bos indicus origin. None of these animals presented patterns of both mtDNA origins, indicating absence of heteroplasmy for these mitochondrial genotypes.

  8. Effects of bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis on productivity in a dairy herd in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, S; Mazuz, M; Brenner, J; Friedgut, O; Koren, O; Goshen, T; Elad, D

    2008-05-01

    Bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis (BNVV) is characterized by the development of a necrotic vulvovaginal lesion, almost exclusively in post-parturient first-lactation cows, associated with Porphyromonas levii. The scope of this survey was to evaluate the impact of BNVV on herd productivity as a means to rationally evaluate the resources that should be allocated in dealing with the syndrome. During an outbreak of BNVV in a dairy herd, following the introduction of a large number of cows from another farm, the impact of the animals' origin (local or transferred) and BNVV (positive or negative) upon involuntary culling rate, milk yield and days between pregnancies were assessed. The results indicated that the number of days between pregnancies was significantly higher in first-lactation cows with BNVV but was not influenced by the other independent variables. None of the other variables included in this survey had any effect on the involuntary culling rate and milk yield.

  9. Relationship between stepping and kicking behavior and milking management in dairy cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L. Cerqueira, Joaquim; Araújo, José P P; Blanco-Penedo, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    We studied the relationship between behavior during milking with milking parlor management, measuring the occurrence of steps and kicks, and cow-related factors. We also investigated the link between stepping and kicking during milking and udder health. A total of 2,903 direct observations...... of milking behavior were collected in 44 dairy herds in the north of Portugal. The results showed great variability in the occurrence of stepping and kicking among herds during milking. Mixed linear and logistic regression models for factors associated with stepping and kicking were developed. Cows in tandem...... of the visit also showed a trend toward higher kicking frequency. The results suggest that animal welfare measures, like kicking and stepping, are suitable for epidemiologic studies. Significant interactions were observed when animals were affected by challenging health and welfare situations....

  10. Risk factors associated with within-herd transmission of bovine leukemia virus on dairy farms in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konishi Misako

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several attempts have been made to control enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL at the local level, a nationwide control program has not been implemented in Japan, except for passive surveillance. Effective control of EBL requires that the transmission routes of bovine leukemia virus (BLV infection should be identified and intercepted based on scientific evidence. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the risk factors associated with within-herd transmission of BLV on infected dairy farms in Japan. Blood samples taken from 30 randomly selected adult cows at each of 139 dairy farms were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Information on herd management was collected using a structured questionnaire. Results Infected farms were defined as those with more than one ELISA-positive animal and accounted for 110 (79.1% of the 139 farms in the study. Completed questionnaires obtained from 90 of these 110 farms were used for statistical analysis. Seroprevalence, which was defined as the proportions of animals that tested positive out of all animals tested on the farm, was 17.1%, 48.1%, and 68.5% for the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles, respectively. A mixed logistic regression analysis implicated a loose housing system, dehorning, and a large number of horseflies in summer as risk factors (coefficient = 0.71, 1.11, and 0.82; p = 0.03, Conclusion Control of EBL in infected dairy farms in Japan will be improved by focusing particularly on these risk and protective factors.

  11. Invited review: associations between variables of routine herd data and dairy cattle welfare indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, M; Bokkers, E A M; Dijkstra, T; van Schaik, G; de Boer, I J M

    2011-07-01

    As farm animal welfare is high on the political and societal agendas of many countries, considerable pressure exists to establish audit programs in which farm animal welfare is routinely monitored. On-farm assessment of animal welfare, however, is time-consuming and costly. A promising strategy to monitor animal welfare more efficiently is to first estimate the level of animal welfare on a farm based on routine herd data that are available in national databases. It is not currently known which variables of routine herd data (VRHD) are associated with dairy cattle welfare indicators (WI). Our aim was to identify VRHD that are associated with WI in a literature review. The 27 VRHD used in this review included the main types of data that are currently collected in national herd databases of developed countries, and related to identification and registration, management, milk production, and reproduction of dairy herds. The 34 WI used in this review were based on the Welfare Quality Assessment Protocol for Cattle. The search yielded associations in 146 studies. Twenty-three VRHD were associated with 16 WI. The VRHD that related to milk yield, culling, and reproduction were associated with the largest number of WI. Few associations were found for WI that referred to behavioral aspects of animal welfare, nonspecific disease symptoms, or resources-based indicators. For 18 WI, associations with VRHD were not significant (n=5 WI) or no studies were found that investigated associations with VRHD (n=13 WI). It was concluded that many VRHD have potential to estimate the level of animal welfare on dairy farms. As strengths of associations were not considered in this review, however, the true value of these VRHD should be further explored. Moreover, associations found at the animal level and in an experimental setting might not appear at the farm level and in common practice and should be investigated. Cross-sectional studies using integrated welfare scores at the farm level are

  12. Herd-prevalence of Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) antibodies in dairy cattle farms based on bulk tank milk analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Khalili; Ehsanollah Sakhaee; Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian; Naser Shahabi-Nejad

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) antibody positive randomly selected dairy herds in southeast Iran (Kerman). Methods: Bulk tank milk samples were collected randomly from 44 sufficiently large commercial dairy herds, included near 12 000 dairy cattle, in Kerman (The largest province of Iran), southeast Iran. The samples were tested for antibodies against C. burnetii using the commercial CHEKIT® Q fever antibody ELISA Test Kit (Idexx, Liebefeld-Bern, Switzerland). Results: The prevalence of positive, negative and intermediate herds were 45.4%, 43.2% and 11.4%, respectively. Conclusions: The result supports the hypothesis of high prevalence and endemic pattern of Q fever in Iran. This investigation highlights the importance of further studies on Q fever in Iran.

  13. A space-time analysis of Mycoplasma bovis: bulk tank milk antibody screening results from all Danish dairy herds in 2013-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arede, Margarida; Nielsen, Per Kantsø; Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin;

    2016-01-01

    , using the indirect BIO K 302 M. bovis enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Bio-X, Belgium) in bulk tank milk from all dairy herds between June 2013 and July 2014. The objective of this study was to investigate the evolution of the spatial distribution of M. bovis in the Danish dairy herd...

  14. A Robust Statistical Model to Predict the Future Value of the Milk Production of Dairy Cows Using Herd Recording Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2017-01-01

    The future value of an individual dairy cow depends greatly on its projected milk yield. In developed countries with developed dairy industry infrastructures, facilities exist to record individual cow production and reproduction outcomes consistently and accurately. Accurate prediction of the future value of a dairy cow requires further detailed knowledge of the costs associated with feed, management practices, production systems, and disease. Here, we present a method to predict the future value of the milk production of a dairy cow based on herd recording data only. The method consists of several steps to evaluate lifetime milk production and individual cow somatic cell counts and to finally predict the average production for each day that the cow is alive. Herd recording data from 610 Danish Holstein herds were used to train and test a model predicting milk production (including factors associated with milk yield, somatic cell count, and the survival of individual cows). All estimated parameters were either herd- or cow-specific. The model prediction deviated, on average, less than 0.5 kg from the future average milk production of dairy cows in multiple herds after adjusting for the effect of somatic cell count. We conclude that estimates of future average production can be used on a day-to-day basis to rank cows for culling, or can be implemented in simulation models of within-herd disease spread to make operational decisions, such as culling versus treatment. An advantage of the approach presented in this paper is that it requires no specific knowledge of disease status or any other information beyond herd recorded milk yields, somatic cell counts, and reproductive status. PMID:28261585

  15. A stochastic model for simulation of the economic consequences of bovine virus diarrhoea virus infection in a dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.T.; Enevoldsen, Carsten; Houe, H.

    1995-01-01

    A dynamic, stochastic model simulating the technical and economic consequences of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections for a dairy cattle herd for use on a personal computer was developed. The production and state changes of the herd were simulated by state changes of the individual cows...... modelling principle. The validation problem in relation to the model was discussed. A comparison between real and simulated data using data from a published case report was shown to illustrate how user acceptance can be obtained....

  16. Bayesian estimation of prevalence of paratuberculosis in dairy herds enrolled in a voluntary Johne's Disease Control Programme in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAloon, Conor G; Doherty, Michael L; Whyte, Paul; O'Grady, Luke; More, Simon J; Messam, Locksley L McV; Good, Margaret; Mullowney, Peter; Strain, Sam; Green, Martin J

    2016-06-01

    Bovine paratuberculosis is a disease characterised by chronic granulomatous enteritis which manifests clinically as a protein-losing enteropathy causing diarrhoea, hypoproteinaemia, emaciation and, eventually death. Some evidence exists to suggest a possible zoonotic link and a national voluntary Johne's Disease Control Programme was initiated by Animal Health Ireland in 2013. The objective of this study was to estimate herd-level true prevalence (HTP) and animal-level true prevalence (ATP) of paratuberculosis in Irish herds enrolled in the national voluntary JD control programme during 2013-14. Two datasets were used in this study. The first dataset had been collected in Ireland during 2005 (5822 animals from 119 herds), and was used to construct model priors. Model priors were updated with a primary (2013-14) dataset which included test records from 99,101 animals in 1039 dairy herds and was generated as part of the national voluntary JD control programme. The posterior estimate of HTP from the final Bayesian model was 0.23-0.34 with a 95% probability. Across all herds, the median ATP was found to be 0.032 (0.009, 0.145). This study represents the first use of Bayesian methodology to estimate the prevalence of paratuberculosis in Irish dairy herds. The HTP estimate was higher than previous Irish estimates but still lower than estimates from other major dairy producing countries.

  17. Survival analysis of factors affecting incidence risk of Salmonella Dublin in Danish dairy herds during a 7-year surveillance period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dohoo, Ian

    2012-01-01

    -quarters (YQs), either at the start of the study period or after recovery from infection. Survival analysis was performed on a dataset including 6931 dairy herds with 118969 YQs at risk, in which 1523 failures (new infection events) occurred. Predictors obtained from register data were tested in a multivariable......A national surveillance programme for Salmonella Dublin, based on regular bulk-tank milk antibody screening and movements of cattle, was initiated in Denmark in 2002. From 2002 to end of 2009 the prevalence of test-positive dairy herds was reduced from 26% to 10%. However, new infections and spread...

  18. Effect of including genetic Progress in milk yield on evaluating the use of sexed semen and other reproduction strategies in a dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettema, Jehan F.; Østergaard, Søren; Sørensen, Morten Kargo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the importance of including genetic progress in milk yield when evaluating different reproductive strategies in a dairy herd by simulation modeling. The model used in this study was SimHerd V, a dynamic and mechanistic Monte Carlo simulation model...... effect with regard to postponing first insemination. This study has proven that it is important to include genetic progress in decisions on reproduction strategies in a dairy herd....

  19. Spatial pattern in prevalence of paratuberculosis infection diagnosed with misclassification in Danish dairy herds in 2009 and 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihrmann, Kristine; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer

    2016-01-01

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection of economic importance to the dairy industry. The infection may be latent for years, which makes diagnostic misclassification a general challenge. The objective of this study was to identify the spatial pattern in infection prevalence, when results were...... adjusted for covariate information and diagnostic misclassification. Furthermore, we compared the estimated spatial pattern with the spatial pattern obtained without adjustment for misclassification. The study included 1242 herds in 2009 and 979 herds in 2013. The within-herd prevalence was modelled using...... results suggested that the estimated range of influence and the overall location of areas with increased prevalence are not very sensitive to diagnostic misclassification....

  20. Evaluation of milk yield losses associated with Salmonella antibodies in bulk tank milk in bovine dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T D; Green, L E; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad;

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Salmonella on milk production is not well established in cattle. The objective of this study was to investigate whether introduction of Salmonella into dairy cattle herds was associated with reduced milk yield and determine the duration of any such effect. Longitudinal data from 2005...... through 2009 were used, with data from 12 mo before until 18 mo after the estimated date of infection. Twenty-eight case herds were selected based on an increase in the level of Salmonella-specific antibodies in bulk-tank milk from ... was randomly allocated to the control herds. Hierarchical mixed effect models with the outcome test-day yield of energy-corrected milk (ECM)/cow were used to investigate daily milk yield before and after the estimated herd infection date for cows in parities 1, 2, and 3+. Control herds were used to evaluate...

  1. A Robust Statistical Model to Predict the Future Value of the Milk Production of Dairy Cows Using Herd Recording Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2017-01-01

    The future value of an individual dairy cow depends greatly on its projected milk yield. In developed countries with developed dairy industry infrastructures, facilities exist to record individual cow production and reproduction outcomes consistently and accurately. Accurate prediction...... of the future value of a dairy cow requires further detailed knowledge of the costs associated with feed, management practices, production systems, and disease. Here, we present a method to predict the future value of the milk production of a dairy cow based on herd recording data only. The method consists...... presented in this paper is that it requires no specific knowledge of disease status or any other information beyond herd recorded milk yields, somatic cell counts, and reproductive status....

  2. Quantitative assessment of the risk of introduction of bovine viral diarrhea virus in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Boklund, Anette; Stockmarr, Anders

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative risk assessment was carried out to estimate the likelihood of introduc-ing bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in Danish dairy herds per year and per trimester,respectively. The present study gives important information on the impact of risk mitiga-tion measures and sources of uncer......A quantitative risk assessment was carried out to estimate the likelihood of introduc-ing bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in Danish dairy herds per year and per trimester,respectively. The present study gives important information on the impact of risk mitiga-tion measures and sources...... of uncertainty due to lack of data. As suggested in the Agreementon the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement), the OIE Ter-restrial Animal Health Code was followed for a transparent science-based risk assessment.Data from 2010 on imports of live cattle, semen, and embryos, exports...... of live cattle, aswell as use of vaccines were analyzed. Information regarding the application of biosecuritymeasures, by veterinarians and hoof trimmers practicing in Denmark and in other countries,was obtained by contacting several stakeholders, public institutions and experts. Stochas-tic scenario...

  3. Herd factors influencing oocyst production of Eimeria and Cryptosporidium in Estonian dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Brian; Viltrop, Arvo; Järvis, Toivo

    2009-10-01

    Cryptosporidium and Eimeria are intestinal parasites which are sensitive to the surroundings, behaviour and well-being of their host. In the present study, a range of factors related to farm management systems, environment, housing and herd characteristics were investigated with regard to alterations in oocyst excretion in cattle, using a mixed-effects model. Information and samples for three age categories were obtained from 45 Estonian dairy farms, located in 15 counties. Leaving the calf with the mother after birth reduced the risk of shedding higher levels of Cryptosporidium (OR = 0.20) and Eimeria (OR = 0.68) oocysts in all animals. The calves younger than 3 months kept on farms housing at least 150 animals had less risk (OR = 0.39) of producing higher numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts. A somewhat lower infection level was observed in 3- to 12-month-old animals housed in separate buildings (OR = 0.64). The chance of shedding higher levels of Eimeria doubled (OR = 2.27) in cattle older than a year in case a vacancy period was used before replacing animals in pens and tripled (OR = 2.94) when the relative humidity exceeded 75% in the cowshed. Winter reduced the odds (OR = 0.25) of shedding Eimeria oocysts in the oldest animals compared to the fall season. Simple changes in handling and housing of cattle may produce a positive effect on controlling coccidian infections in Estonian dairy herds.

  4. Modelling effectiveness of herd level vaccination against Q fever in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courcoul Aurélie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. The control of this infection in cattle is crucial: infected ruminants can indeed encounter reproductive disorders and represent the most important source of human infection. In the field, vaccination is currently advised in infected herds but the comparative effectiveness of different vaccination protocols has never been explored: the duration of the vaccination programme and the category of animals to be vaccinated have to be determined. Our objective was to compare, by simulation, the effectiveness over 10 years of three different vaccination strategies in a recently infected dairy cattle herd. A stochastic individual-based epidemic model coupled with a model of herd demography was developed to simulate three temporal outputs (shedder prevalence, environmental bacterial load and number of abortions and to calculate the extinction rate of the infection. For all strategies, the temporal outputs were predicted to strongly decrease with time at least in the first years of vaccination. However, vaccinating only three years was predicted inadequate to stabilize these dynamic outputs at a low level. Vaccination of both cows and heifers was predicted as being slightly more effective than vaccinating heifers only. Although the simulated extinction rate of the infection was high for both scenarios, the outputs decreased slower when only heifers were vaccinated. Our findings shed new light on vaccination effectiveness related to Q fever. Moreover, the model can be further modified for simulating and assessing various Q fever control strategies such as environmental and hygienic measures.

  5. A Long-Term Study of Neospora caninum Infection in a Swedish Dairy Herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uggla Arvid

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal study was performed in a Swedish dairy herd where Neospora caninum had been isolated from a stillborn calf. Starting in autumn 1994, blood samples from all female animals in the herd were collected once yearly until 1999. The sera were analysed for presence of IgG1 antibodies to N. caninum by the iscom ELISA, and by an avidity ELISA to establish the timing of infection. In addition, data on reproductive performance were compiled. During the study the percentage of seropositive female animals increased from 63% to 87%. In 1994 a large number of young animals tested seropositive although their dams were seronegative, indicating that a transmission of the parasite other than the vertical had recently occurred. Low avidity values supported this assumption. The annual abortion rate increased from a mean of 2% before the initiation of the study to 9% in 1994–1998. During the same time, as judged by the avidity data, a large proportion of the animals shifted from being recently to being chronically infected. The source of the external infection in the herd could not be identified.

  6. An outbreak of acute bovine mastitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in a dairy herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva N.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of coliform mastitis is described in a dairy herd from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. During a four-month period 14 fatal cases of Klebsiella pneumoniae-related mastitis were observed in a herd of 104 lactating cows. The symptoms included peracute enterotoxemia in which the cows died 6 to 12 h after the detection of mastitis by CMT. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae Streptococcus agalactiae were also isolated although could not be associated with cases of acute fatal mastitis. Milking practices were also evaluated. The milking machine was being used correctly and adequate precautions for hygiene and pre-milking and post-milking teat dipping were used. The organism was sensitive to gentamicin. Therapy for acute toxic mastitis required early action for the treatment of infections, involving corticosteroids and fluid therapy. The use of a Klebsiella vaccine produced from the microorganisms isolated from the herd, associated with hygiene measures, resulted in the control of the outbreak.

  7. Short communication: Streptococcus canis is able to establish a persistent udder infection in a dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Jarosław; Twardoń, Jan; Mrowiec, Jacek; Podkowik, Magdalena; Dejneka, Grzegorz; Dębski, Bogdan; Nowicki, Tadeusz; Zalewski, Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    Bovine mastitis caused by Streptococcus canis is relatively rare. Consequently, many epidemiologic aspects of the infection, including factors that mediate crossing of host species barriers by the pathogen, infectiousness of the microorganism to the mammary gland, and the course of the disease within a herd, are still not elucidated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe results of a 15-mo observation of subclinical Strep. canis mastitis on a dairy farm housing 76 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Upon 3 visits to the farm during a period between April 2013 and June 2014, Strep. canis was cultured from milk samples of 17 (22.4% of the herd), 7 (9.6%), and 8 (11.3%) cows, respectively. The isolates obtained were characterized phenotypically by means of the API Strep identification kit (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), as well as genetically by using random amplified polymorphic DNA and macrorestriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All strains displayed the same biochemical features, and the molecular methods revealed that the isolates belonged to a single clone or were very closely related. Results of the study indicate that Strep. canis is capable of causing intramammary infections of long duration, behaving in a contagious manner. Because a persistently infected cow may serve as the source of Strep. canis infection for other animals, effective control of this type of udder infection within a herd may require similar measures to those adopted in Streptococcus agalactiae eradication programs.

  8. Metabolic profiles in five high-producing Swedish dairy herds with a history of abomasal displacement and ketosis

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    Stengärde Lena

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body condition score and blood profiles have been used to monitor management and herd health in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to examine BCS and extended metabolic profiles, reflecting both energy metabolism and liver status around calving in high-producing herds with a high incidence of abomasal displacement and ketosis and to evaluate if such profiles can be used at herd level to pinpoint specific herd problems. Methods Body condition score and metabolic profiles around calving in five high-producing herds with high incidences of abomasal displacement and ketosis were assessed using linear mixed models (94 cows, 326 examinations. Cows were examined and blood sampled every three weeks from four weeks ante partum (ap to nine weeks postpartum (pp. Blood parameters studied were glucose, fructosamine, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin and cholesterol. Results All herds had overconditioned dry cows that lost body condition substantially the first 4–6 weeks pp. Two herds had elevated levels of NEFA ap and three herds had elevated levels pp. One herd had low levels of insulin ap and low levels of cholesterol pp. Haptoglobin was detected pp in all herds and its usefulness is discussed. Conclusion NEFA was the parameter that most closely reflected the body condition losses while these losses were not seen in glucose and fructosamine levels. Insulin and cholesterol were potentially useful in herd profiles but need further investigation. Increased glutamate dehydrogenase suggested liver cell damage in all herds.

  9. The effect of lactation length on greenhouse gas emissions from the national dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, E; Coffey, M P; Pollott, G E

    2012-11-01

    Many governments have signed up to greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) reduction programmes under their national climate change obligations. Recently, it has been suggested that the use of extended lactations in dairy herds could result in reduced GHGE. Dairy GHGE were modelled on a national basis and the model was used to compare emissions from lactations of three different lengths (305, 370 and 440 days), and a current 'base' scenario on the basis of maintaining current milk production levels. In addition to comparing GHGE from the average 'National Herd' under these scenarios, results were used to investigate how accounting for lactations of different lengths might alter the estimation of emissions calculated from the National Inventory methodology currently recommended by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Data for the three lactation length scenarios were derived from nationally recorded dairy performance information and used in the GHGE model. Long lactations required fewer milking cows and replacements to maintain current milk yield levels than short ones, but GHGEs were found to rise from 1214 t of CO2 equivalent (CE)/farm per year for lactations of 305 days to 1371 t CE/farm per year for 440-day lactations. This apparent anomaly can be explained by the less efficient milk production (kg milk produced per kg cow weight) found in later lactation, a more pronounced effect in longer lactations. The sensitivity of the model to changes in replacement rate, persistency and level of milk yield was investigated. Changes in the replacement rate from 25% to 20% and in persistency by −10% to +20% resulted in very small changes in GHGE. Differences in GHGE due to the level of milk yield were much more dramatic with animals in the top 10% for yield, producing about 25% less GHGE/year than the average animal. National Inventory results were investigated using a more realistic spread of lactation lengths than recommended for such calculations using emissions

  10. Analysis of Q fever in Dutch dairy goat herds and assessment of control measures by means of a transmission model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontje, D M; Backer, J A; Hogerwerf, L; Roest, H I J; van Roermund, H J W

    2016-01-01

    Between 2006 and 2009 the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source of infection was traced back to dairy goat herds with abortion problems due to Q fever. The first aim of control measures taken in these herds was the reduction of human exposure. To analyze Q fever dynamics in goat herds and to study the effect of control measures, a within-herd model of Coxiella burnetii transmission in dairy goat herds was developed. With this individual-based stochastic model we evaluated six control strategies and three herd management styles and studied which strategy leads to a lower Q fever prevalence and/or to disease extinction in a goat herd. Parameter values were based on literature and on experimental work. The model could not be validated with independent data. The results of the epidemiological model were: (1) Vaccination is effective in quickly reducing the prevalence in a dairy goat herd. (2) When taking into account the average time to extinction of the infection and the infection pressure in a goat herd, the most effective control strategy is preventive yearly vaccination, followed by the reactive strategies to vaccinate after an abortion storm or after testing BTM (bulk tank milk) positive. (3) As C. burnetii in dried dust may affect public health, an alternative ranking method is based on the cumulative amount of C. burnetii emitted into the environment (from disease introduction until extinction). Using this criterion, the same control strategies are effective as when based on time to extinction and infection pressure (see 2). (4) As the bulk of pathogen excretion occurs during partus and abortion, culling of pregnant animals during an abortion storm leads to a fast reduction of the amount of C. burnetii emitted into the environment. However, emission is not entirely prevented and Q fever will not be eradicated in the herd by this measure. (5) A search & destroy (i.e. test and cull) method by PCR of individual milk

  11. Spatiotemporal patterns, annual baseline and movement-related incidence of Streptococcus agalactiae infection in Danish dairy herds: 2000–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mweu, Marshal M.; Nielsen, Søren S.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2014-01-01

    surveillance scheme as well as live cattle movements into dairy herds during the specified 10-year period. The results indicated that the predicted risk of a herd becoming infected with S. agalactiae varied spatiotemporally; the risk being more homogeneous and higher in the period after 2005. Additionally...... clustering of cases relative to the population of herds at risk nor spatial dependency between herds. Nevertheless, the results signal a need to beef up within-herd biosecurity in order to reduce the risk of new herd infections....

  12. An epidemiologic study of disease in 32 registered Holstein dairy herds in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dorp, R T; Martin, S W; Shoukri, M M; Noordhuizen, J P; Dekkers, J C

    1999-07-01

    Data recorded in a herd health management system were obtained from 32 registered Holstein dairy herds from British Columbia. Frequencies of disease were described, and the effect of herd, age, year, season, and the interrelationships between diseases within a lactation on the occurrence of disease were evaluated. Lactational incidence rates were computed for diseases with a short period of risk (ie, udder edema, milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis), whereas for diseases with a longer period of risk (ie, cystic ovaries, mastitis and stable footrot), incidence densities were calculated. Overall, the disease incidence was low and showed an increase in frequency by year, which we attributed to more observing and complete recording by the owner, rather than an actual increase in disease incidence. Most diseases occurred early in lactation and their frequency increased with lactation number; the exception was udder edema, which occurred mainly during the first 2 lactations. An informal path model of disease interrelationships was made conditional on herd. Based on the results we inferred 2 independent pathways: one started by udder edema, and the other by milk fever. Udder edema was directly associated with mastitis occurrence from 0 to 30 d in lactation, metritis, and cystic ovaries. Mastitis from 0-30 d in lactation increased the risk of both mastitis from 31-150 d in lactation and cystic ovaries. Both of these increased the risk of late lactation mastitis. Milk fever was directly related with displaced abomasum, which increased the risk of footrot. In general, diseases that occurred in early lactation tended to increase the risk of other diseases later in lactation.

  13. Estimation of the economical effects of Eimeria infections in Estonian dairy herds using a stochastic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Brian; Ostergaard, Søren

    2012-10-01

    In this study, a stochastic predictive model stimulating a constant infection pressure of Eimeria was used to estimate production outcome, economic, and effects of treatment decisions in a dairy herd of 100 cows. The intestinal parasite cause problems mainly in calves, and is known to have long term effects on the growth rate, and in severe cases can result in mortalities. Due to the inconspicuous nature of the parasite, the clinical signs and sub-clinical manifestations it may produce can be overlooked. Acquired data from literature and Estonian dairy farms were implemented in the SimHerd IV model to simulate three scenarios of symptomatic treatment: no calves treated (NT), default estimate of the current treatment strategy (DT), and all calves treated (AT). Effects of metaphylactic treatment were studied as a lowering of the infection pressure. Delay in the age for beginning of insemination of heifers was the effect with the largest economic impact on the gross margin, followed by calf mortality and reduction in growth rate. Large expenses were associated with the introduction of replacement heifers and feeding of heifers as a result of the delay in reaching a specific body weight at calving. Compared to the control scenarios, with no effects and treatments of Eimeria, dairy farmers were estimated to incur annual losses ranging 8-9% in the balanced income. Providing metaphylactic drugs resulted in an increased gross margin of 6-7%. Purchase of new heifers compensated for some production losses that would otherwise have enhanced expenses related to Eimeria. The simulation illustrates how effects of Eimeria infections can have long lasting impact on interacting management factors. It was concluded that all three simulated symptomatic treatment regimes provided only small economic benefits if they were applied alone and not in combination with lowering of infection pressure.

  14. Fecal shedding of thermophilic Campylobacter in a dairy herd producing raw milk for direct human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merialdi, Giuseppe; Giacometti, Federica; Bardasi, Lia; Stancampiano, Laura; Taddei, Roberta; Serratore, Patrizia; Serraino, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Factors affecting the fecal shedding of thermophilic Campylobacter in Italian dairy farms were investigated in a 12-month longitudinal study performed on a dairy farm authorized to sell raw milk in Italy. Fifty animals were randomly selected from 140 adult and young animals, and fecal samples were collected six times at 2-month intervals. At each sampling time, three trough water samples and two trough feed samples also were collected for both adult and young animals. Samples were analyzed with real-time PCR assay and culture examination. Overall, 33 samples (9.7%) were positive for thermophilic Campylobacter by real-time PCR: 26 (9.2%) of 280 fecal samples, 6 (16.6%) of 36 water samples, and 1 (4.2%) of 24 feed samples. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 6 of 280 samples; no other Campylobacter species was isolated. A higher (but not significantly) number of positive fecal samples were found in younger animals (11.33 versus 6.92% of adult animals), and a significantly higher number of positive water samples were collected from the water troughs of young animals. A distinct temporal trend was observed during the study period for both cows and calves, with two prevalence peaks between November and December and between May and July. Several factors such as calving, housing practices, herd size, management practices forcing together a higher number of animals, and variations in feed or water sources (previously reported as a cause of temporal variation in different farming conditions) were excluded as the cause of the two seasonal peaks in this study. The factors affecting the seasonality of Campylobacter shedding in the dairy herds remain unclear and warrant further investigation. The results of the present study indicate that special attention should be paid to farm hygiene management on farms authorized to produce and sell raw milk, with increased surveillance by the authorities at certain times of the year.

  15. Synergy between selection for production and longevity and the use of extended lactation: insights from a resource allocation model in a dairy goat herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douhard, F; Tichit, M; Amer, P R; Friggens, N C

    2014-11-01

    Although most of the genetic progress in production efficiency is achieved through selection at a global scale, locally, farm managers can also influence the selection process to better match genotypes and their varying herd environment. This study focused on the influence of a particular management decision--the use of extended lactation (EL) in dairy goat production systems--as it affects the survival and reproduction rates at the herd level, which may then shape different long-term selection responses. The objective was to understand and quantify the influences of EL and variability in achieved intake level on the responses to selection for production, reproduction, and longevity. An animal model of resource allocation between life functions was applied to the dairy goat. It predicts the trajectory of change in the herd genetic composition as affected by the feeding level and the selection pressure applied by the manager. During 40 yr, goats were selected for milk yield, reproduction, and, with a different selection weight for age (WAGE), for longevity. Under varying achieved intake levels, increasing WAGE improved the survival rate but a nonlinear effect was observed for the average milk yield and BCS. When moderately increasing WAGE from 0, resources were reallocated from lactation towards body reserves and survival, which led to a trade-off at the herd level between improving survival and BCS and increasing milk yield. When further increasing WAGE, old females became systematically preferred regardless of their reproductive status and the proportion of EL in the herd increased. Females undergoing EL had reduced energetic costs of reproduction, which improved their probability of survival. Across generations, an increased herd incidence of EL led to a relaxation of the selection pressure on the resource allocation to body reserves, which is normally imposed by the manager's priority to achieve successful reproduction at each mating. As selection for longevity

  16. Efficiency of dairy farms participating and not participating in veterinary herd health management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derks, Marjolein; Hogeveen, Henk; Kooistra, Sake R; van Werven, Tine; Tauer, Loren W

    2014-12-01

    This paper compares farm efficiencies between dairies who were participating in a veterinary herd health management (VHHM) program with dairies not participating in such a program, to determine whether participation has an association with farm efficiency. In 2011, 572 dairy farmers received a questionnaire concerning the participation and execution of a VHHM program on their farms. Data from the questionnaire were combined with farm accountancy data from 2008 through 2012 from farms that used calendar year accounting periods, and were analyzed using Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA). Two separate models were specified: model 1 was the basic stochastic frontier model (output: total revenue; input: feed costs, land costs, cattle costs, non-operational costs), without explanatory variables embedded into the efficiency component of the error term. Model 2 was an expansion of model 1 which included explanatory variables (number of FTE; total kg milk delivered; price of concentrate; milk per hectare; cows per FTE; nutritional yield per hectare) inserted into the efficiency component of the joint error term. Both models were estimated with the financial parameters expressed per 100 kg fat and protein corrected milk and per cow. Land costs, cattle costs, feed costs and non-operational costs were statistically significant and positive in all models (P<0.01). Frequency distributions of the efficiency scores for the VHHM dairies and the non-VHHM dairies were plotted in a kernel density plot, and differences were tested using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test. VHHM dairies had higher total revenue per cow, but not per 100 kg milk. For all SFA models, the difference in distribution was not statistically different between VHHM dairies and non-VHHM dairies (P values 0.94, 0.35, 0.95 and 0.89 for the basic and complete model per 100 kg fat and protein corrected milk and per cow respectively). Therefore we conclude that with our data farm participation in VHHM is not related

  17. Effect of region, herd size, and milk production on reasons cows leave the herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J W; Ely, L O; Chapa, A M

    2000-12-01

    Dairy Herd Improvement Holstein herd summary records (n = 11,259) were obtained for the year ending 1998. Reasons cows reportedly left the herd based on termination codes were analyzed for the effect of region, herd size, and herd milk production level. Regions were: North, Midsouth, and South. Herd sizes were: small (25 to 99), low medium (100 to 149), high medium (150 to 299), and large (greater than or equal to 300 cows). Milk production levels were: low (less than 7258 kg), medium (7258 to 9072 kg), and high (greater than 9072 kg). The overall percentage of cows leaving the herd was higher in the Midsouth than the South and increased with herd size. Low producing herds reported a lower percentage of cows left than high producing herds. Herds in the South reported more cows leaving for reproduction, death, and low production and fewer leaving for mastitis. Herds in the North and Midsouth reported more cows leaving for injury/other and disease, respectively. Cows left herds for disease less frequently in the North. Large herds in the South had a higher percentage leaving for low production than any herd size group in the North. Small herds reported more cows leaving for reproduction and mastitis than high medium and low medium size herds. The percentage of cows leaving for feet and leg problems was lowest for small size herds. High producing herds reported more cows leaving for reproduction, mastitis, feet and legs and disease.

  18. Adjusting for multiple clinical observers in an unbalanced study design using latent class models of true within-herd lameness prevalence in Danish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, N D; Toft, N; Houe, H; Thomsen, P T; Sørensen, J T

    2013-11-01

    The elimination of misclassification bias introduced by multiple observers was evaluated and discussed based on an illustrative example using lameness prevalence in 80 Danish dairy herds. Data from 5073 cows from loose-housed cubicle herds larger than 100 cows were included in the analysis. Four trained observers performed clinical scoring on cow level and undertook a calibration test with 39 video sequences. The calibration test served both the purpose of estimating inter-observer agreement (PABAK=0.69) in accordance with previous results and to estimate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) for each observer. In the absence of a gold standard for the clinical observations, a latent class analysis (LCA) evaluating the true within-herd lameness prevalence was used. Sensitivity amongst observers was fairly low (0.24-0.81) inducing a general underestimation of the true prevalence. Comparative analyses were made to assess the effect of grazing on the lameness prevalence in order to demonstrate the consequences of using unadjusted apparent prevalences (AP) compared to the true prevalences (TP). Lameness prevalence was higher in grazing herds using AP estimates (19.0% zero-grazing, 20.2% grazing); while the TP estimates showed the expected higher lameness prevalence in zero-grazing herds (42.3% vs. 35.9%). Hence, this study emphasizes the importance of adjusting for observer Se and Sp to obtain true prevalence and avoid false interpretation.

  19. Economic effect of bovine abortion syndrome in commercial dairy herds in Southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gädicke, P; Vidal, R; Monti, G

    2010-10-01

    Bovine abortion is a limiting factor for dairy business, as it decreases milk production and the potential, number of herd replacements, increases feeding and medical treatment costs, increases the number of artificial inseminations to obtain a calf as well as culling rates of cows. An estimation of the economic impact of abortion in dairy farms in Chile is not available yet. The aim of this study was to estimate the economic consequences of bovine abortion syndrome (BAS) in dairy cows from Chile. A stochastic model was proposed to evaluate the cost of an abortion on a yearly basis to include variability in cost and income by dairy and by year. The marginal total net revenue (ΔTNR) for a typical, lactation was obtained by the calculating the difference between total revenues (retail milk and calf sales) and total expenses (production cost (cows, feeding, labor, health) plus administrative and, general costs) for lactation with and without abortion. Production data were obtained from a retrospective study of 127 dairy herds located in southern Chile between 2000 and 2006. Milk production from cows with and without abortion was estimated by a mixed model using milk test day data. Production cost and prices paid to farmers were obtained from service company records (TODOAGRO S.A.). Cost and income value was corrected for inflation and expressed in the values from 2006. In addition, a separate analysis for different parities (1, 2, 3 or more) was performed. Distributions for the stochastic variables were obtained by fitting distributions from our database using @Risk. The stochastic variables included in the analysis were all related to income, feeding, depreciation, health, Artificial Insemination and general costs like fuel, salaries, taxes, etc. There was a high probability (89.20%) of a negative ΔTNR in lactations with abortion for overall, parities, with a mean loss of $ -143.32. Stratifying by parity, the predicted mean of the distribution for ΔTNR in each

  20. Association between antibody status to bovine herpesvirus 1 and quality of milk in dairy herds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rola, J G; Larska, M; Grzeszuk, M; Rola, J

    2015-02-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1) is one of the most important pathogens of cattle; however, its effect on somatic cell count and milk components is not completely understood. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of BoHV1 infection on quality of bovine bulk tank milk (BTM). A total of 1,790 individual blood samples collected at 28 dairy farms were used to determine the BoHV1 infection status of the herds with ELISA tests. The quality parameters of milk were evaluated by instrumental methods with BTM samples collected at monthly intervals from May 2011 to May 2012. The statistical analysis was performed to study the associations between BoHV1 herd status, quality of BTM, and herd-specific parameters. The risk factors influencing bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) were estimated using the multivariable mixed-effects maximum likelihood regression model. The true prevalences of BoHV1 infection at the animal and herd levels were 49.3 and 64.6%, respectively. The average BMSCC differed significantly between the herds grouped accordingly to their BoHV1 infection status. Interestingly, the highest BMSCC was observed in the vaccinated herds (240.3×10(3) cells/mL). Additionally, the BoHV1 herd status had a significant effect on the fat content of BTM. The largest herds that were investigated had a BoHV1 seroprevalence over 30%. The herd status was considerably influenced by the numbers of cows in the herds. Besides, no significant differences in total bacterial count or protein content in milk from BoHV1-infected und uninfected herds were observed. An increase in BMSCC was observed during summer compared with the winter months regardless of the BoHV1 status of the herds. In the final multivariable regression model, the main risk factors associated with BMSCC were BoHV1 herd status, the percentage of BoHV1 infected animals in a herd, the number of cows in a herd, and the season. Our study suggests that BoHV1 infection may influence BMSCC levels, which are key

  1. Evaluation of temporal surveillance system sensitivity and freedom from bovine viral diarrhea in Danish dairy herds using scenario tree modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Stockmarr, Anders; Boklund, Anette

    2016-01-01

    The temporal sensitivity of the surveillance system (TemSSe) for Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) in Danish dairy herds was evaluated. Currently, the Danish antibody blocking ELISA is used to test quarterly bulk tank milk (BTM). To optimize the surveillance system as an early warning system, we...

  2. The validity of a monitoring system based on routinely collected dairy cattle health data relative to a standardized herd check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, H; Stegeman, J A; Straatsma, J W; Hooijer, G A; Schaik, G van

    2015-11-01

    Dairy cattle health is often assessed during farm visits. However, farm visits are time consuming and cattle health is assessed at only one point in time. Moreover, farm visits are poorly comparable and/or repeatable when inspection is carried out by many different professionals. Many countries register cattle health parameters such as bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) and mortality in central databases. A great advantage of such routinely available data is that they are uniformly gathered and registered throughout time. This makes comparison between dairy cattle herds possible and could result in opportunities to develop reliable tools for assessing cattle health based on routinely available data. In 2005, a monitoring system for the assessment of cattle health in Dutch dairy herds based on routinely available data was developed. This system had to serve as an alternative for the compulsory quarterly farm visits, which were implemented in 2002. However, before implementation of the alternative system for dairy cows, the validity of the data-based monitoring system and the compulsory quarterly visits relative to the real health status of the herd should be known. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the data-based monitoring system and the compulsory quarterly visits relative to a standardized herd check for detecting dairy herds with health problems. The results showed that routinely available data can be used to develop an effective screening instrument for detecting herds with poor cattle health. Routinely available data such as cattle mortality and BMSCC that were used in this study had a significant association with animal-based measurements such as the general health impression of the dairy cows (including e.g. rumen fill and body condition). Our study supports the view that cattle health parameters based on routinely available data can serve as a tool for detecting herds with a poor cattle health status which can reduce the number of

  3. Genomic Selection Improves Heat Tolerance in Dairy Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, J. B.; Douglas, M. L.; Williams, S. R. O; Wales, W. J.; Marett, L. C.; Nguyen, T. T. T.; Reich, C. M.; Hayes, B. J.

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products are a key source of valuable proteins and fats for many millions of people worldwide. Dairy cattle are highly susceptible to heat-stress induced decline in milk production, and as the frequency and duration of heat-stress events increases, the long term security of nutrition from dairy products is threatened. Identification of dairy cattle more tolerant of heat stress conditions would be an important progression towards breeding better adapted dairy herds to future climates. Breeding for heat tolerance could be accelerated with genomic selection, using genome wide DNA markers that predict tolerance to heat stress. Here we demonstrate the value of genomic predictions for heat tolerance in cohorts of Holstein cows predicted to be heat tolerant and heat susceptible using controlled-climate chambers simulating a moderate heatwave event. Not only was the heat challenge stimulated decline in milk production less in cows genomically predicted to be heat-tolerant, physiological indicators such as rectal and intra-vaginal temperatures had reduced increases over the 4 day heat challenge. This demonstrates that genomic selection for heat tolerance in dairy cattle is a step towards securing a valuable source of nutrition and improving animal welfare facing a future with predicted increases in heat stress events. PMID:27682591

  4. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis and associated risk factors at cow and herd level in dairy farms in North-West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, S A; Koop, G; Melkie, S T; Getahun, C D; Hogeveen, H; Lam, T J G M

    2017-09-15

    Knowledge of mastitis pathogens and their predominance as well as understanding of risk factors are prerequisites to improve udder health in a herd, region or country. In Ethiopia, such information is scarce, despite the fact that mastitis is an important cattle disease in the country. A cross-sectional study that describes prevalence and causative agents of subclinical mastitis (SCM) as well as risk factors at cow and herd level was conducted on 167 dairy farms in North-West Ethiopia. On average, 33% of the quarters and 62% of the cows were California Mastitis Test (CMT) positive, but the within herd quarter level prevalence ranged between 0 and 100%. A total of 1543 milk samples, being 27 quarters that showed signs of CM, 606 CMT positive quarters and 910 CMT negative quarters were cultured, respectively 40%, 67% and 47% was positive on bacteriological culture. Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) (31%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (9%) were the pathogens most frequently isolated. Based on face-to-face questionnaire data, 35 herd level and 13 cow level factors were evaluated for their association with SCM (based on CMT) and with a positive culture for any bacteria, CNS or S. aureus. Cows with a history of CM, of higher parity, >150days in milk (DIM) and herds with owners that have >10th grade level of education had higher odds of SCM. The odds of being culture positive for any bacteria was higher in cows with ≥25% Holstein Friesian blood level (HBL), >150 DIM, housed on cemented floors, and milked by squeezing rather than stripping. Similarly, the odds of culturing CNS was higher in cows with 25-50% HBL, >150 DIM, and milked by squeezing. Staphylococcus aureus was more often found in cows with a history of CM and in larger herds. Checking the udder for mastitis, feeding cows according to their requirements and allowing calves to suckle the cows were negatively associated with SCM, with culturing any bacteria and with culturing CNS, respectively. Higher

  5. Molecular epidemiology and extended-spectrum β-lactamases production of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from three dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego B. Nóbrega

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to isolate Klebsiella pneumoniae from different sources in three dairy cattle herds, to use the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE to measure genotypic similarities between isolates within a dairy herd, to verify the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs by the double-disk synergy test (DDST, and to use the PCR to detect the main ESBLs subgroups genes. Three dairy farms were selected based on previous mastitis outbreaks caused by K. pneumoniae. Milk samples were collected from lactating cows and from the bulk tank. Swabs were performed in different locations, including milking parlors, waiting room, soil, animal's hind limbs and rectum. K. pneumoniae was isolated from 27 cases of intramammary infections (IMI and from 41 swabs. For farm A isolates from IMI and bulk tank were considered of the same PGFE subtype. One isolate from a bulk tank, three from IMI cases and four from environmental samples were positive in the DDST test. All eight DDST positive isolates harbored the bla shv gene, one harbored the bla tem gene, and three harbored the bla ctx-m gene, including the bulk tank isolate. Our study confirms that ESBL producing bacteria is present in different locations in dairy farms, and may be responsible for IMI. The detection of ESBLs on dairy herds could be a major concern for both public and animal health.

  6. Strategies for time of culling in control of paratuberculosis in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudahl, A B; Nielsen, S S; Ostergaard, S

    2011-08-01

    based on a milk yield criterion the most profitable culling strategy for a longer period (11 to 13 yr). A 20% reduction in heifer price made immediate culling after a positive test the most profitable strategy overall in herds with typical reproduction, and after 9 yr in herd with poor reproduction. To conclude, the ideal culling strategy depends on the aim of intervention, the time horizon, and the reproductive capabilities combined with prices of replacement animals. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. GENETIC POLYMORPHISM AT THE K-CASEIN LOCUS IN A DAIRY HERD OF ROMANIAN SPOTTED AND BROWN OF MARAMURES BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIE DANIELA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Caseins are a family of milk proteins that exist in several molecular forms and arethe main proteins present in the bovine milk. Genetic variation of these proteins hasbeen associated with the quality and quantity of cheese derived from milk.This study was focused on possibilities to evaluate the frequency of the K-casein Ballele in dairy herds from the Research and Development Station for Bovine RaisingArad in order to have breeding programs that target an increase in the frequency ofthe B allele in the dairy cattle population.In order to differentiate the favorable genotype for superior composition and highercheese yield, we used simple DNA extraction method from fresh blood andtechniques based on DNA analysis, which include polymerase chain reaction andrestriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP methods. Employing thesetechniques we were able to determine the k-casein genotype of all individuals in agiven population under selection, regardless of sex, age or physiological stage.As a result, it is now possible to include information on milk protein genotypes intomarker assisted selection programs and consequently improve response to selection.

  8. GENETIC POLYMORPHISM AT THE K-CASEIN LOCUS IN A DAIRY HERD OF ROMANIAN SPOTTED AND BROWN OF MARAMURES BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA ILIE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Caseins are a family of milk proteins that exist in several molecular forms and arethe main proteins present in the bovine milk. Genetic variation of these proteins hasbeen associated with the quality and quantity of cheese derived from milk.This study was focused on possibilities to evaluate the frequency of the K-casein Ballele in dairy herds from the Research and Development Station for Bovine RaisingArad in order to have breeding programs that target an increase in the frequency ofthe B allele in the dairy cattle population.In order to differentiate the favorable genotype for superior composition and highercheese yield, we used simple DNA extraction method from fresh blood andtechniques based on DNA analysis, which include polymerase chain reaction andrestriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP methods. Employing thesetechniques we were able to determine the k-casein genotype of all individuals in agiven population under selection, regardless of sex, age or physiological stage.As a result, it is now possible to include information on milk protein genotypes intomarker assisted selection programs and consequently improve response to selection.

  9. Genetic gain in dairy cattle populations is increased using sexed semen in commercial herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten Kargo; Andersen, Jakob Voergaard; Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl

    2011-01-01

    with 100 cows each. Each year 50 young bulls (YB), 10 active sires and 215 BD were selected on best linear unbiased prediction estimated breeding values by truncation selection across the simulated population, and the YB were tested within the population. Use of sexed semen alone gave a positive increase......Using stochastic simulation, the effect of using sexed semen to cow dams (CD) in a dairy cattle breeding scheme, with or without use of multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) to bull dams (BD), on annual genetic gain at the population level was examined. Three levels of sexed semen were...... combined with three levels of MOET: no sexed semen, sexed semen to the best CD and sexed semen to all heifers, combined with no MOET, MOET on all BD and MOET randomly on 20% of the BD. In total, nine scenarios were compared. The simulated population was monitored for 30 years and included 450 herds...

  10. Risk factors for the introduction and within-herd transmission of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP infection on 59 Irish dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cashman W

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since 1994, Irish cattle have been exposed to greater risks of acquiring Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP infection as a consequence of the importation of over 70,000 animals from continental Europe. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of reported clinical cases of paratuberculosis in Ireland. This study examines the prevalence of factors that promote the introduction and within-herd transmission of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP on selected Irish dairy farms in the Cork region, and the association between these factors and the results of MAP screening tests on milk sock filter residue (MFR. A total of 59 dairy farms, selected using non-random methods but apparently free of endemic paratuberculosis, were enrolled into the study. A questionnaire was used to collect data about risk factors for MAP introduction and transmission. The MFR was assessed on six occasions over 24 months for the presence of MAP, using culture and immunomagnetic separation prior to polymerase chain reaction (IMS-PCR. Furthermore, blood samples from all entire male and female animals over one year of age in 20 herds were tested by ELISA. Eighteen (31% farms had operated as closed herds since 1994, 28 (47% had purchased from multiple sources and 14 (24% had either direct or indirect (progeny contact with imported animals. Milk and colostrum were mixed on 51% of farms, while 88% of farms fed pooled milk. Thirty (51% herds tested negative to MFR culture and IMS-PCR, 12 (20% were MFR culture positive, 26 (44% were IMS-PCR positive and seven (12% were both culture and IMS-PCR positive. The probability of a positive MFR culture was significantly associated with reduced attendance at calving, and with increased use of individual calf pens and increased (but not significantly if mulitiple suckling was practised. There was poor agreement between MFR culture and MFR IMS-PCR results, but moderate agreement

  11. The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea antibodies in selected South African dairy herds, and control of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Ferreira

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD serologically positive animals in 18 dairy herds with clinical and pathological lesions suggestive of BVD infection, the post-vaccinal seroconversion rates in negative animals vaccinated twice with an inactivated BVD vaccine, and the control measures taken, are described. The pathological and histopathological findings in 6 necropsies performed on animals that died in 5 separate herds closely resembled published descriptions. Positive immunohistochemistry results in 3 cases confirmed the diagnosis in those animals. In 1 herd the prevalence of prevaccinal BVDantibodies was only 36.8 %, while the prevalence varied from 79.85 to 100 % in the remainder. Control measures taken included immunoprophylaxis with an inactivated vaccine, culling animals that were serologically negative after vaccination that were regarded as probably persistently infected (PI and the implementation of additional biosecurity measures. The prevalence of serologically negative PI animals in 10 herds varied from 0.38 to 4.04 %, with 8 herds less than 1 %and 2 herds at 2.79 %and 4.04 %, respectively. Methods based on vaccinating the herd, followed by serological testing and culling cattle that did not develop an antibody titre, are not reliable. The identification of PI animals should be confirmed by isolation of the virus or identification of the antigen.

  12. Epidemiology and risk factors for exposure to gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy herds in northwestern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennema, Sita C; Vercruysse, Jozef; Morgan, Eric; Stafford, Kathryn; Höglund, Johan; Demeler, Janina; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Charlier, Johannes

    2010-10-29

    In this survey, the epidemiology of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes in dairy herds in five northwestern European countries was studied using a standardized Ostertagia ostertagi ELISA applied on bulk-tank milk, and a common questionnaire. The levels of exposure to GI nematodes were high in Belgium, the UK and Ireland, intermediate in Germany and low in Sweden, with a mean (95% confidence interval) ELISA result (ODR) of 0.83 (0.82-0.84) in Belgium, 0.82 (0.79-0.84) in the UK and 0.80 (0.78-0.83) in Ireland; significantly higher than the mean ODR of 0.66 (0.65-0.68) in Germany and 0.52 (0.51-0.53) in Sweden. Taking into account previous literature, these regional differences are likely to be systematic. Regional variations in exposure were significantly explained by differences in management (grazing time per day, mowing, the months of turnout, housing and anthelmintic treatment). However, after controlling for these factors, significant regional differences in levels of exposure remained, suggesting an importance for climate (temperature, rainfall) and unmeasured management factors. This study emphasizes that GI nematode-induced production losses should be considered on a large percentage of northwest European dairy herds. Proposals are made for the development of region-specific monitoring and control strategies. Further advances in this area are likely to come from intervention studies that investigate the feasibility of control measures and from studies on the potential effects of climatic conditions on shifts in levels of exposure between years and regions.

  13. Detection and characterization of Salmonella typhimurium from a dairy herd in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, L K; Giddings, C W; Boland, E W; Steffen, D J; Brown, J; Misek, A

    1995-01-01

    Nasal secretions, faecal samples and buffy coats were obtained from 102 cattle from a North Dakota dairy herd with a history of calf scours. Treated buffy coats, faecal samples and nasal secretions were inoculated into tetrathionate broth (TB), incubated at 37 degrees C overnight, and plated onto brilliant green agar medium with novobiocin (BGAN). The TB was left at room temperature for 5 days and then used to inoculate fresh TB. The fresh TB was incubated at 37 degrees C over night and plated onto BGAN medium. All the plates were incubated at 37 degrees C over night and observed for Salmonella-like growth. Suspect colonies were further tested and Salmonella isolates were serotyped by the National Veterinary Services laboratory. Twenty-two of the 36 calves sampled harboured S. typhimurium in their faeces, but no samples from cows were positive. No Salmonella were isolated from the buffy coats, but 4 calves were shown to have Salmonella in their nasal secretions. Extended enrichment of the faecal cultures in TB resulted in a significant increase in Salmonella isolations, although 2 samples were positive following the initial enrichment period and not after secondary enrichment. The typical Salmonella isolate detected from this herd contained a transmissible R-plasmid encoding resistance to tetracycline, kanamycin, sulphisoxazole and ampicillin. This study confirmed that delayed secondary enrichment in TB is superior to primary enrichment for detection of Salmonella from cattle.

  14. Evaluation of natural transmission of bovine leukaemia virus within dairy herds of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, G E; Frankena, K; De Jong, M C M

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe patterns of seroconversion to bovine leukaemia virus and to estimate the main parameters needed for future model building. A longitudinal study was carried out between February 1999 and November 2001 in seven commercial dairy farms in Argentina using 1535 lactating cows. Time-interval parameters were analysed using a parametric survival model with shared frailty, time until infection was analysed using a Bayesian interval-censoring survival model and the infection transmission parameter (beta) was estimated by a generalized linear model. The reproduction ratio (R0) was calculated. In total, 1000 cows tested positive and 494 tested negative. The predicted median age at infection was 4.6 years for seroconverted cows. For infected herds, the proportion of positive calves was as high as for infected cows and showed a large proportion of infected breeding heifers. Peaks in the overall average incidence per season-year were observed during autumn and spring. Results reveal that the period around parturition is a high-risk period. Moreover, heavily infected herds seem to have an increased proportion of young stock infected. The overall beta was estimated as 2.9/year (95% CI 1.9-3.7) and combined with a relatively long infectious period it resulted in a high reproductive ratio (R0=8.9). Therefore, a high effectiveness of control measures needs to be achieved to eradicate the disease.

  15. Serological survey of Neospora caninum in dairy herds from Parauapebas, State of Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Laurindo Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is a coccidian protozoan that affects cattle worldwide causing economic losses. To survey the frequency of anti-N. caninum antibodies in dairy herds in the municipality of Parauapebas, Southeast of Pará, samples of 465 sera from 45 farms were subjected to indirect immunofluorescence assay (cutoff 1:100. Anti-N. caninum antibodies were found with a frequency of 13,33% with the following titer distribution: 27 (43,55% for titer 100; 14 (22,58% for 200; 16 (25,80% for 400, and 5 (8,07% for 800; no serum titers more than 800 was noted, but at least one positive animal was present in most farms. The highest frequency occurred among females, with no significant difference in frequency between the sexes (Fisher exact test = 0,59, P = 0,99; 2-year-old animals had the highest frequency, although their numbers were lesser than those aged >5 years, with no significant difference in frequency between the age groups (?2 = 2,1, P = 0,71. No significant difference was observed between the frequency and occurrence of abortion (?2 = 2,3, P = 0,13 and frequency and presence of dogs in the farms (?2 = 0,26, P = 0,60. Actions toward health monitoring are recommended to prevent the entry of new sources of N. caninum and to control its spread within herds.

  16. Frequency and causes of infectious abortion in a dairy herd in Queretaro, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, H Patricia; Martínez, M José Juan; Medina, C Mario; Morales, S Elizabeth

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of infectious bovine abortion and to identify some of its causes, specifically brucellosis, leptospirosis, bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and neosporosis. The study was carried out in a dairy herd in the state of Queretaro, Mexico, between September 2002 and March 2003. At the beginning of the study, blood samples were taken from a random 33% of the 300 lactating or pregnant cows; antibodies against Leptospira interrogans were the most commonly identified, in 91% of the 99 samples. Blood samples were also taken 14 to 28 d after the 26 subsequent abortions in the herd in the 6-mo study period, as well as from 22 cows that had not aborted within 5 d after the abortions in the other group. Seroconversion was most frequent for L. hardjo, occurring in 8 (67%) of the 12 dams that aborted after the initial serologic sampling and for which paired serum samples were therefore available. Of the 16 collected fetuses, 10 had histologic lesions suggesting infection in various organs, the features correlating with the serologic results for the dams in 7 cases. Thus, the abortions may have been caused by more than 1 infectious agent.

  17. Exploring the characteristics and dynamics of Ontario dairy herds experiencing increases in bulk milk somatic cell count during the summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, D A; LeBlanc, S J; Leslie, K E; Hand, K; Godkin, M A; Coe, J B; Kelton, D F

    2015-06-01

    Regionally aggregated bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) data from around the world shows a repeatable cyclicity, with the highest levels experienced during warm, humid seasons. No studies have evaluated this seasonal phenomenon at the herd level. The objectives of this study were to define summer seasonality in BMSCC on an individual herd basis, and subsequently to describe the characteristics and dynamics of herds with increased BMSCC in the summer. The data used for this analysis were from all dairy farms in Ontario, Canada, between January 2000 and December 2011 (n≈4,000 to 6,000 herds/yr). Bulk milk data were obtained from the milk marketing board and consisted of bulk milk production, components (fat, protein, lactose, other solids), and quality (BMSCC, bacterial count, inhibitor presence, freezing point), total milk quota of the farm, and milk quota and incentive fill percentage. A time-series linear mixed model, with random slopes and intercepts, was constructed using sine and cosine terms as predictors to describe seasonality, with herd as a random effect. For each herd, seasonality was described with reference to 1 cosine function of variable amplitude and phase shift. The predicted months of maximal and minimal BMSCC were then calculated. Herds were assigned as low, medium, and high summer increase (LSI, MSI, and HSI, respectively) based on percentiles of amplitude in BMSCC change for each of the 4 seasons. Using these seasonality classifications, 2 transitional repeated measures logistic regression models were built to assess the characteristics of MSI and HSI herds, using LSI herds as controls. Based on the analyses performed, a history of summer BMSCC increases increased the odds of experiencing a subsequent increase. As herd size decreased, the odds of experiencing HSI to MSI in BMSCC increased. Herds with more variability in daily BMSCC were at higher odds of experiencing MSI and HSI in BMSCC, as were herds with lower annual mean BMSCC. Finally

  18. Prevalence and risk factors for extended-spectrum β-lactamase or AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in organic dairy herds in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santman-Berends, I M G A; Gonggrijp, M A; Hage, J J; Heuvelink, A E; Velthuis, A; Lam, T J G M; van Schaik, G

    2017-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase and AmpC-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL/AmpC) are an emerging problem and are hypothesized to be associated with antimicrobial use (AMU), and more specifically with the use of third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. Whether ESBL/AmpC also occur in organic dairy herds, which have restricted AMU, is not known. Additionally, it is unknown whether, in addition to restricted AMU, other factors in organic herd management are associated with ESBL/AmpC herd status. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC in organic dairy herds in the Netherlands. Subsequently, the relationships between the ESBL/AmpC herd status and AMU and between ESBL/AmpC herd status and farmers' management were assessed in organic dairy herds. For this study, 90 randomly selected, officially registered organic dairy herds were included. The ESBL/AmpC herd status was determined based on the bacteriological culture result of a slurry sample. The sensitivity of testing slurry samples for ESBL/AmpC herd status is less than 100% for detecting herds with a low ESBL/AmpC prevalence. For that reason, herds that tested positive for ESBL/AmpC in slurry were defined as positive and herds with negative slurry samples were defined as unsuspected. A comprehensive questionnaire on management practices was conducted and records on specified antimicrobials that were provided to these herds by the veterinary service providers were obtained. From the data on antimicrobial supplies by the veterinarian, the animal daily defined dose of antimicrobials per farm per year (DDDAF) was calculated. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the relation between the ESBL/AmpC herd status and DDDAF. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate management factors associated with the ESBL/AmpC herd status. We found ESBL/AmpC in 12 of the 90 (13%; 95% confidence interval=7-22%) slurry samples from organic dairy herds. The median DDDAF in organic dairy

  19. Short communication: Factors affecting vitamin B12 concentration in milk of commercial dairy herds: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplessis, M; Pellerin, D; Cue, R I; Girard, C L

    2016-06-01

    Only bacteria can synthesize vitamin B12, and this requires adequate Co supply. The natural source of vitamin B12 in human diets comes from animal products, especially those from ruminants. This study aimed to describe variability regarding vitamin B12 concentration in milk among and within commercial dairy herds in early lactation. A secondary objective was to explore potential causes for this variability such as genetic variation and diet characteristics. In total, 399 dairy cows (135 primiparous and 264 multiparous; 386 Holstein and 13 Jersey cows) in 15 commercial herds were involved. Milk samples were taken at 27.4±4.1 and 55.4±4.1d in milk. Neither parity (primiparous vs. multiparous) nor sampling time affected milk concentrations of vitamin B12. Nevertheless, vitamin B12 concentration in milk was highly variable among and within dairy herds. The lowest vitamin B12 concentration in milk of cows was observed in the Jersey herd. Among herds, vitamin B12 concentration in milk ranged from 2,309 to 3,878 pg/mL; one glass (250mL) of milk from those herds would provide between 23 and 40% of the vitamin B12 recommended daily allowance. Among individual cows, however, this provision varied between 16 and 57% of the recommendation. In spite of the limited size of the studied population, the heritability value was 0.23, suggesting that genetic selection could modify milk vitamin B12 concentration. We observed a positive relationship between milk vitamin B12 concentration and dietary acid detergent fiber content and a negative relationship between milk concentration of vitamin B12 and dietary crude protein content.

  20. Survey of Infectious Etiologies of Bovine Abortion during Mid- to Late Gestation in Dairy Herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkallah, Mohamed; Slima, Ahlem Ben; Mallek, Zouhir; Gautier, Michel; Greub, Gilbert; Gdoura, Radhouane; Fendri, Imen

    2014-01-01

    Bovine abortion of unknown infectious etiology still remains a major economic problem. Thus, we investigated whether Brucella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Coxiella burnetii are associated with abortion and/or stillbirth in Tunisian dairy cattle. Using a pan-Chlamydiales PCR, we also investigated the role of Chlamydiaceae, Waddlia chondrophila, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and other members of the Chlamydiales order in this setting. Veterinary samples taken from mid to late-term abortions from twenty dairy herds were tested. From a total of 150 abortion cases collected, infectious agents were detected by PCR in 73 (48.66%) cases, 13 (8.66%) of which represented co-infections with two infectious agents. Detected pathogens include Brucella spp (31.3%), Chlamydiaceae (4.66%), Waddlia chondrophila (8%), Parachlamydia acanthamoebae (5.33%), Listeria monocytogenes (4.66%) and Salmonella spp. (3.33%). In contrast, Campylobacter spp. and Coxiella burnetii DNA were not detected among the investigated veterinary samples. This demonstrates that different bacterial agents may cause bovine abortion in Tunisia. This is the first report suggesting the role of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae in bovine abortion in Africa. Further studies with a larger number of samples are necessary to confirm whether this emerging pathogen is directly linked to abortion in cattle. PMID:24662769

  1. A stochastic model for simulation of the economic consequences of bovine virus diarrhoea virus infection in a dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.T.; Enevoldsen, Carsten; Houe, H.

    1995-01-01

    A dynamic, stochastic model simulating the technical and economic consequences of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections for a dairy cattle herd for use on a personal computer was developed. The production and state changes of the herd were simulated by state changes of the individual cows...... variables describing biologic and management variables including 21 decision variables describing the effect of BVDV infection on the production of the individual animal. Two markedly different scenarios were simulated to demonstrate the behaviour of the developed model and the potentials of the applied...

  2. Neospora caninum in Estonian dairy herds in relation to herd size, reproduction parameters, bovine virus diarrhoea virus, and bovine herpes virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Brian; Orro, Toomas; Aleksejev, Annely; Raaperi, Kerli; Järvis, Toivo; Viltrop, Arvo

    2012-11-23

    Cows infected with the tissue parasite Neospora caninum (Nc) are more likely to abort or give birth to calves with neurological disorders. The known infection routes are transplacentally and by consumption of oocysts shed by the definitive host, the dog. It has been hypothesised, that dormant stages of persistent Nc infection may be reactivated by immunosuppression mechanisms such as pathogenic invasions as bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV1) and bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV). The study was set to give the first prevalence data on Nc from Estonian dairy herds in both animal as well as herd level. In addition, association between herd size and Nc, and association of Nc with abortion incidence (Ab), stillbirth incidence (Sb), insemination index (II), and calving interval (CaI) in the presence of BHV1 and BVDV was studied. Blood samples from 1973 animals from 100 herds were collected in 2006-2008, and 320 bulk tank milk (BTM) samples were collected in 2007. Antibodies against Nc was found in 2.5 ± 0.4% (95% CI) of the animals and at least one positive animal was found in 37.0 ± 4.7% (95% CI) of the herds. In addition, Nc antibodies were detected in 16.3 ± 2.0% (95% CI) of the tested BTM. Large herds (≥ 200 animals) were less likely to have seropositive animals for Nc. Logistic regression models showed that herds with more than one animal seropositive for Nc had significantly higher odds ratio of abortion incidence (OR: 11.92, 1.18-120.18 95% CI, p=0.036) and tendency of having more stillbirths (OR: 5.52, 0.87-35.02 95% CI, p=0.07). On the other hand one Nc seropostive cow in the herd was associated with lower odds ratio (OR: 0.22, 0.05-0.91 95% CI, p=0.04) of higher calving intervals. Estonian prevalence results reflect observations in the region. No evidence was found of the pathogens were affecting fertility variables through interactions but independently BHV1 and Nc had an impact on the abortion.

  3. Perceptions of French private veterinary practitioners’ on their role in organic dairy farms and opportunities to improve their advisory services for organic dairy farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duval, J E; Bareille, N; Fourichon, C

    2016-01-01

    are – from private veterinary practitioners’ point of views- i) to describe the roles of veterinarians today in organic dairy farmers’ animal health promotion strategies, ii) to identify factors related to organic farming which determine their role on organic dairy farms, and, iii) to identify opportunities...... for improvement of veterinarians’ advisory services for organic dairy herds. Fourteen veterinarians, providing herd health advisory services to dairy farmers, were interviewed using qualitative semi-structured research interviews. A modified approach to Grounded Theory was used for data collection and analysis...... not always able to establish themselves an advisory role supporting farmers in improving this. Indeed, organic production principles, regulations and farmers’ health approaches challenged veterinarians’ values on animal health and welfare and their perceptions of ‘good veterinary practices’. Also, some...

  4. Temporal trends in bulk tank somatic cell count and total bacterial count in Irish dairy herds during the past decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D P; O'Brien, B; O'Callaghan, E J; Sullivan, K O; Meaney, W J

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to document temporal trends in bulk tank somatic cell count (SCC) and total bacterial counts (TBC) in Irish dairy herds during the years 1994 to 2004. Three milk processors participated in the study, providing data on 2,754,270 individual bulk tank SCC and 2,056,992 individual bulk tank TBC records from 9,113 herds. Somatic cell counts decreased during the years 1994 to 2000, followed by an annual increase thereafter of more than 2,000 cells/mL. A tendency existed for TBC to decrease over time. Across all years, bulk tank SCC were the lowest in April and highest in November; TBC were the lowest in May and highest in December. The significant seasonal pattern observed in herd SCC and TBC was an artifact of seasonal calving in Ireland. In general, herds selling more milk had lower bulk tank SCC and TBC. Herds having the highest SCC (i.e., > 450,000 cells/mL) and the lowest SCC (i.e., < or = 150,000 cells/mL) both contributed substantially to the mean SCC of the milk pool collected by the milk processors. Derived transition matrices showed that between adjacent years, herds had the greatest probability of remaining in the same annual mean SCC or TBC category.

  5. Evaluating results of the Welfare Quality multi-criteria evaluation model for classification of dairy cattle welfare at the herd level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Schaik, van G.; Botreau, R.; Engel, B.; Dijkstra, T.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Welfare Quality multi-criteria evaluation (WQ-ME) model aggregates scores of single welfare measures into an overall assessment for the level of animal welfare in dairy herds. It assigns herds to 4 welfare classes: unacceptable, acceptable, enhanced, or excellent. The aim of this study was to de

  6. Resistance to penicillin of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from cows with high somatic cell counts in organic and conventional dairy herds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsgaard, Torben W.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2006-01-01

    Background: Quarter milk samples from cows with high risk of intramammary infection were examined to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and penicillin resistant SA (SAr) in conventional and organic dairy herds and herds converting to organic farming in a combined longitudinal ...

  7. Environmental and behavioural factors affecting the prevalence of foot lameness in New Zealand dairy herds - a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesterton, R N; Pfeiffer, D U; Morris, R S; Tanner, C M

    1989-12-01

    A case-control study of environmental and behavioural factors influencing foot lameness was undertaken on 62 dairy herds comprising an average of 185 milking cows in Taranaki, New Zealand. Thirty two case herds were identified as having had at least 10 per cent of the cows lame during the milking season in which the herd was studied, and thirty control herds were selected on the basis that no more than 3 per cent of cows in these herds had been lame per year for at least two years immediately prior to investigation. Each herd was visited at both a morning and an afternoon milking, and 58 risk factors were measured between the time the farmer began to assemble the cows for milking and the completion of milking. Comparison of single variables between case and control herds identified 24 which showed differences (p<0.10). These variables were then subjected to stepwise multivariate logistic regression, and statistically significant variables in this analysis were used to create a tentative path diagram of possible causal web relationships between the various risk factors and the outcome variable, the lameness prevalence level. Information from a review of the published literature was used to include further variables to the 24 into the initial (or null hypothesis) path model. Logistic path analysis was then used to eliminate non-significant paths from the diagram, leaving 19 arrows joining 13 variables in the final path diagram, compared with 33 joining 20 variables in the initial version. The most influential variables in explaining variation between case and control herds were the average level of maintenance of the track and the degree of patience shown by the farmer in bringing the cows in for milking. Overall, factors associated with the movement of animals to the milking shed explained 40 per cent of the variation (deviance) with regard to the lameness prevalence level. Risk factors associated with characteristics of the milking process explain 24 per cent, and

  8. Use of a proactive herd management system in a dairy farm of northern italy: technical and economic results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Leonardi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive and economic data were recorded before and one year after the installation of Herd Navigator™ in a dairy farm with AMS (Automatic Milking System located in a mountain area of Northern Italy. Number of days open reduced from 166 to 103 days, number of days between the first and second insemination decreased from 45 to 28 days, and days for identifying an abortion were 80 % less, from 31 to 6 days. The preliminary results highlight the usefulness of the proactive herd management system installed for the reproduction management. A basic economic model is proposed to evaluate the potential economic benefits coming from the introduction of this technology. The model considers the benefits deriving from the reduction of reproduction problems and, consequently, of days open. Considering the effects related to the above mentioned aspects in a case study involving 60 dairy cows, a return on investment over 5 years has been calculated.

  9. Association of herd BRSV and BHV-1 seroprevalence with respiratory disease and reproductive performance in adult dairy cattle

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    Raaperi Kerli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to detect the associations between bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1 status of a herd and respiratory disease (BRD occurrence and reproductive performance in pregnant heifers and cows. The association between management-related factors and higher BRD occurrence was also estimated. Methods Serum samples, collected from cows and youngstock from 103 dairy cattle herds, were analyzed for antibodies against BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV, and Mycoplasma bovis. A questionnaire was used to collect data concerning herd management factors and reproductive performance, as well as the occurrence of clinical signs of respiratory disease in the last two years, as evaluated by the veterinarian or farm manager. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA and logistic regression analysis were performed to identify and quantify the risk factors. Results A low to moderate prevalence (1-49% of BRSV antibodies among youngstock was associated with a high occurrence of respiratory disease (OR = 6.2, p = 0.010 in cows and in-calf heifers. Employees of the farm may participate in the spread of such disease. Larger herd size, loose-housing of cows, housing youngstock separately from cows until pregnancy, and purchasing new animals were factors possibly related to a high occurrence of respiratory disease symptoms in pregnant heifers and cows. The highest risk of abortions (> 1.3% and increased insemination index (number of inseminations per pregnancy (> 1.9 occurred in herds with a moderate prevalence of BHV-1 antibodies (1-49% in cows. Conclusions BHV-1 was not associated with acute respiratory disease in adult dairy cattle, however was significantly related to reproductive performance. BRSV possesses the main role in respiratory disease complex in adult dairy cattle.

  10. Bovine mastitis: prevalence, risk factors and isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in dairy herds at Hawassa milk shed, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Rahmeto; Hatiya, Hagere; Abera, Mesele; Megersa, Bekele; Asmare, Kassahun

    2016-12-03

    Mastitis is a disease of major economic importance in dairy industry worldwide. It is of particular concern in developing countries like Ethiopia, where milk and milk products are scarce. The objectives of the study were to estimate the prevalence of mastitis, identify the cow-and herd-level potential risk factors and isolate Staphylococcus aureus, one of etiological agents for contagious mastitis, from cows positive for mastitis. A total of 529 lactating cows selected randomly from 95 herds were screened by California mastitis test (CMT) for sub-clinical mastitis. Also 172 milk samples collected from CMT positive cows were cultured for isolation of S. aureus. Based on CMT result and clinical examination, the prevalence of mastitis at herd-level was 74.7% (95% CI: 64.5, 82.8). The corresponding cow-level prevalence was 62.6% (95% CI: 58.3, 66.7), of which 59.2 and 3.4% were sub-clinical and clinical mastitis cases, respectively. S. aureus was isolated from 51.2% of the milk samples cultured and 73.2% of the herds affected with mastitis. In the multivariable logistic regression model, the herd-level factors significantly associated (p mastitis were herd size, bedding material, and milking mastitic cows last, while at cow-level, breed, parity, stage of lactation, udder and leg hygiene, and teat end shape were noted to have a significant effect on mastitis occurrence. The very high prevalence of mastitis, more importantly the sub-clinical one, in the herds examined revealed the huge potential economic loss the sector suffers. Perhaps this was attributed to lack of implementation of the routine mastitis prevention and control practices by all of the herd owners. The findings of this study warrants the need for strategic approach including dairy extension that focus on enhancing dairy farmers' awareness and practice of hygienic milking, regular screening for sub-clinical mastitis, dry cow therapy and culling of chronically infected cows.

  11. Implementation of strategies for mastitis control in dairy herds in Macedonia: A case report

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    Atanasov Branko

    2012-01-01

    reduce the prevalence of clinical and sub-clinical mastitis in dairy herds.

  12. Trends in udder health and emerging mastitogenic pathogens in South African dairy herds

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    I.M. Petzer

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse the results of milk samples obtained from South African dairy herds during the period 1996 to April 2007 in order to identify possible trends in isolates of microorganisms and their pathogenicity under field conditions. Milk samples were obtained from 7 of the 9 provinces in South Africa where there are low numbers of dairy cows. Although there is scientific limitation to a country wide survey, such as the variation in herd size, management skills, parity, milk yield, milking frequency and other parameters, the size of this database helps to give a fair indication of general udder health in South Africa. Cytology and routine bacteriology were performed on 379 000 milk samples of lactating cows and bacteriology on 11 946 samples from non-lactating cows. According to the results obtained, mastitis did not decrease in South Africa over the test period. The prevalence of mastitis and teat canal infection was lowest in 2002. Mastitis and teat canal infection increased from 2002 to 2006 from 8.1 % and 24.1 % to 15.4 and 30.0 % respectively. The percentage of mastitogenic pathogens isolated from cows over these years also varied. Previously unknown or almost eradicated mastitogenic pathogens such as αβ haemolytic Staphylococcus aureus which is thought to be of human origin, Streptococcus agalactiae and Enterococcus canis were responsible for numerous mastitis outbreaks seen in the test samples. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most frequently isolated bacteria in milk samples from both lactating and dry cows, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. Although Staphylococcus aureus remained the principal mastitogenic pathogen in South Africa, owing to its chronic nature and resultant economic losses, most cases of mastitis were caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci. This finding increases the importance of coagulase-negative staphylococci (formerly described as a

  13. Bacterial subclinical mastitis and its effect on milk yield in low-input dairy goat herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelasakis, A I; Angelidis, A S; Giannakou, R; Filioussis, G; Kalamaki, M S; Arsenos, G

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to record the major pathogens associated with subclinical mastitis (SCM), (2) to calculate their incidence during the milking period, and (3) to estimate the effect of SCM on daily milk yield (DMY) for goats reared under low-input management schemes. Dairy goats (n=590) of Skopelos and indigenous Greek breeds from 4 herds were randomly selected for the study. The study included monthly monitoring, milk yield recording, and bacteriological analyses of milk of individual goats during the course of 2 successive milking periods. Incidence and cumulative incidence were calculated for SCM cases. Moreover, 2 mixed linear regression models were built to assess the effects of (1) SCM and (2) different pathogens isolated from SCM cases, on DMY. The estimated incidence and cumulative incidence of SCM for the first and the second year of the study were 69.5 and 96.4 new cases of SCM/1,000 goat-months, and 24.1 and 31.7%, respectively. A total of 755 milk samples were subjected to microbiological examination, resulting in 661 positive cultures. Coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive staphylococci were isolated from 50.2 and 34.5% of the positive cultures, respectively. The incidence of infections (new infections per 1,000 goat-months) for the first and the second year of the study were 34 and 53 for coagulase-negative staphylococci, 23 and 28 for coagulase-positive staphylococci, 3 and 5 for Streptococcus/Enterococcus spp., and 5.5 and 9.1 for gram-negative bacteria. Goats with SCM had lower DMY when compared with goats without SCM (ca. 47g/d, corresponding to a 5.7% decrease in DMY). In particular, goats with SCM due to coagulase-positive staphylococci infection produced approximately 80g/d less milk (a reduction of ca. 9.7%) compared with uninfected ones, whereas SCM due to gram-negative bacteria resulted in approximately 15% reduction in DMY. Investigating the epidemiology of SCM and its effects on production traits is critical for

  14. Associations between age at first calving, rearing average daily weight gain, herd milk yield and dairy herd production, reproduction, and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Kvapilík, J; Burdych, J; Crump, P

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of variable intensity in rearing dairy heifers on 33 commercial dairy herds, including 23,008 cows and 18,139 heifers, with age at first calving (AFC), average daily weight gain (ADG), and milk yield (MY) level on reproduction traits and profitability. Milk yield during the production period was analyzed relative to reproduction and economic parameters. Data were collected during a 1-yr period (2011). The farms were located in 12 regions in the Czech Republic. The results show that those herds with more intensive rearing periods had lower conception rates among heifers at first and overall services. The differences in those conception rates between the group with the greatest ADG (≥0.800 kg/d) and the group with the least ADG (≤0.699 kg/d) were approximately 10 percentage points in favor of the least ADG. All the evaluated reproduction traits differed between AFC groups. Conception at first and overall services (cows) was greatest in herds with AFC ≥800 d. The shortest days open (105 d) and calving interval (396 d) were found in the middle AFC group (799 to 750 d). The highest number of completed lactations (2.67) was observed in the group with latest AFC (≥800 d). The earliest AFC group (≤749 d) was characterized by the highest depreciation costs per cow at 8,275 Czech crowns (US$414), and the highest culling rate for cows of 41%. The most profitable rearing approach was reflected in the middle AFC (799 to 750 d) and middle ADG (0.799 to 0.700 kg) groups. The highest MY (≥8,500 kg) occurred with the earliest AFC of 780 d. Higher MY led to lower conception rates in cows, but the highest MY group also had the shortest days open (106 d) and a calving interval of 386 d. The same MY group had the highest cow depreciation costs, net profit, and profitability without subsidies of 2.67%. We conclude that achieving low AFC will not always be the most profitable approach, which will depend upon farm

  15. Associations between milking practices, somatic cell counts and milk postharvest losses in smallholder dairy and pastoral camel herds in Kenya

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    Olivier B. Kashongwe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available On-farm hygienic practices are important in assuring quality and safety of milk for consumers and for reducing losses at production and at post-harvest. This study investigated the relationship between milking practices, mastitis as well as milk somatic cell counts (SCC and the effects of high SCC on milk production and post-harvest losses (PHL in smallholder dairy (n = 64 and pastoral camel (n = 15 herds in Kenya. The collected data included milking practices, mastitis test on udder quarters (n = 1236 and collection of milk samples for laboratory analyses: SCC, detection of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus species. Production losses were computed as a proportion of cows and herds with SCC (>200,000 cells/mL and PHL as quantity of milk exceeding 4 × 105 cells/mL. Practices associated with production herds included hands, udder washing and drying, and milk let down stimulation with calves suckling or manually (p < 0.001. Udder drying was only applied in peri-urban herds (100%. Herd level prevalence of mastitis was lower in smallholder than in pastoral herds (60.7% vs 93.3%. Mastitis positive samples had higher prevalence of S.aureus than of Streptococcus species in both smallholder (57.9% vs 23.7% and pastoral (41.6% vs 36.5% herds. Moreover, SCC was significantly affected by presence of mastitis and S.aureus (p < 0.001. Milk PHL from high SCC was higher in smallholder rural herds (27% compared to peri-urban (7% and in pastoral peri-urban (81% compared to rangelands (76%. Milking practices may have contributed to maintain mastitis pathogens in herds. This has led to substantial pre and postharvest milk losses in smallholder and pastoral herds. Therefore teat dipping, dry cow period and herd level mastitis treatment may complement current practices for lower SCC and milk PHL.

  16. Mastitis diagnosis in ten Galician dairy herds (NW Spain) with automatic milking systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, A.; Pereira, J.M.; Amiama, C.; Bueno, J.

    2015-07-01

    Over the last few years, the adoption of automatic milking systems (AMS) has experienced significant increase. However, hardly any studies have been conducted to investigate the distribution of mastitis pathogens in dairy herds with AMS. Because quick mastitis detection in AMS is very important, the primary objective of this study was to determine operational reliability and sensibility of mastitis detection systems from AMS. Additionally, the frequency of pathogen-specific was determined. For this purpose, 228 cows from ten farms in Galicia (NW Spain) using this system were investigated. The California Mastitis Test (CMT) was considered the gold-standard test for mastitis diagnosis and milk samples were analysed from CMT-positive cows for the bacterial examination. Mean farm prevalence of clinical mastitis was 9% and of 912 milk quarters examined, 23% were positive to the AMS mastitis detection system and 35% were positive to the CMT. The majority of CMT-positive samples had a score of 1 or 2 on a 1 (lowest mastitis severity) to 4 (highest mastitis severity) scale. The average sensitivity and specificity of the AMS mastitis detection system were 58.2% and 94.0% respectively being similar to other previous studies, what could suggest limitations for getting higher values of reliability and sensibility in the current AMSs. The most frequently isolated pathogens were Streptococcus dysgalactiae (8.8%), followed by Streptococcus uberis (8.3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (3.3%). The relatively high prevalence of these pathogens indicates suboptimal cleaning and disinfection of teat dipping cups, brushes and milk liners in dairy farms with AMS in the present study. (Author)

  17. Mastitis diagnosis in ten Galician dairy herds (NW Spain with automatic milking systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Castro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, the adoption of automatic milking systems (AMS has experienced significant increase. However, hardly any studies have been conducted to investigate the distribution of mastitis pathogens in dairy herds with AMS. Because quick mastitis detection in AMS is very important, the primary objective of this study was to determine operational reliability and sensibility of mastitis detection systems from AMS. Additionally, the frequency of pathogen-specific was determined. For this purpose, 228 cows from ten farms in Galicia (NW Spain using this system were investigated. The California Mastitis Test (CMT was considered the gold-standard test for mastitis diagnosis and milk samples were analysed from CMT-positive cows for the bacterial examination. Mean farm prevalence of clinical mastitis was 9% and of 912 milk quarters examined, 23% were positive to the AMS mastitis detection system and 35% were positive to the CMT. The majority of CMT-positive samples had a score of 1 or 2 on a 1 (lowest mastitis severity to 4 (highest mastitis severity scale. The average sensitivity and specificity of the AMS mastitis detection system were 58.2% and 94.0% respectively being similar to other previous studies, what could suggest limitations for getting higher values of reliability and sensibility in the current AMSs. The most frequently isolated pathogens were Streptococcus dysgalactiae (8.8%, followed by Streptococcus uberis (8.3% and Staphylococcus aureus (3.3%. The relatively high prevalence of these pathogens indicates suboptimal cleaning and disinfection of teat dipping cups, brushes and milk liners in dairy farms with AMS in the present study.

  18. A space-time analysis of Mycoplasma bovis: bulk tank milk antibody screening results from all Danish dairy herds in 2013-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arede, Margarida; Nielsen, Per Kantsø; Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin;

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is an important pathogen causing severe disease outbreaks in cattle farms. Since 2011, there has been an apparent increase in M. bovis outbreaks among Danish dairy cattle herds. The dairy cattle industry performed cross-sectional antibody screening for M. bovis on four occasions,...

  19. Manageable risk factors associated with bacterial and coliform counts in unpasteurized bulk milk in Flemish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepers, S; Zrimšek, P; Passchyn, P; De Vliegher, S

    2014-01-01

    Associations between herd management practices and both bacterial counts (BC) and coliform counts (CC) from 254 and 242 dairy herds in Flanders (Belgium), respectively, were studied. Data were analyzed using multivariable, multilevel linear regression analysis, allowing variance components analyses. Both BC and CC fluctuated throughout the year, although the milk quality parameters followed an opposite pattern. Bacterial count values decreased with each increase of the cleaning frequency of the cubicles (once per week, once per day, twice per day, or more than twice per day) between January and March. Herds with a conventional milking parlor had substantially lower BC than herds where the cows were milked using an automatic milking system. Lower BC were observed when the milking parlor was equipped with an automatic cluster removal system, when premilking teat disinfection was applied, when the dry cows were supplemented with a mix of minerals and vitamins, and when the teats were prepared either first wet and dried or via an automatic milking system. Milking cows with a high-pipeline milking parlor setup or with an automatic milking system was associated with substantially higher CC values. Herds where prepartum heifers were often treated with antimicrobials before calving had a lower CC than farms where heifers were either not or only rarely treated. Most variation in BC and CC resided at the herd level rather than at the observation level, indicating that management is important in the control of both BC and CC. Still, only a small proportion of the total variance was explained by factors capturing information related to the milking, herd health, and dry cow management, which suggests that the bacteriological milk quality and, in particular, CC is primarily driven by other factors than the ones included in this study.

  20. Management practices as risk factors for the presence of bulk milk antibodies to Salmonella, Neospora caninum and Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in Irish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Doherty, E; Berry, D P; O' Grady, L; Sayers, R

    2014-06-01

    A survey of management practices in 309 Irish dairy herds was used to identify risk factors for the presence of antibodies to Salmonella, Neospora caninum and Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in extensively managed unvaccinated dairy herds. A previous study documented a herd-level seroprevalence in bulk milk of 49%, 19% and 86% for Salmonella, Neospora caninum and leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo, respectively in the unvaccinated proportion of these 309 herds in 2009. Association analyses in the present study were carried out using multiple logistic regression models. Herds where cattle were purchased or introduced had a greater likelihood of being positive to leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo (PNeospora caninum (PNeospora caninum possibly due to limited access of dogs to infected materials including afterbirths. The information from this study will assist in the design of suitable control programmes for the diseases under investigation in pasture-based livestock systems.

  1. Clinical parameters for assessment of udder health in Danish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houe, H; Vaarst, M; Enevoldsen, C

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the possibilities of using clinical parameters related to the bovine udder for characterisation of udder health. Five clinicians performed systematic clinical recordings of udder health at 3 visits to 4 dairy herds. Several of the clinical parameters were scored on an ordinal scale. The agreement between clinicians was compared using kappa statistics. Factor analysis was used to identify udder types. The clinical evaluations showed substantial variation among clinicians. Parameters that were not directly related to pathological conditions showed the highest variation e.g. length of the claws, teat shape and hardness of the udder parenchyma. On the other hand, evaluation of pathological parameters such as nodes in the udder, skin lesions and oedema showed good agreement between clinicians. Udder types identified by means of factor analysis were found to be suitable for characterisation of udder health. Especially one factor related to dry quarters and udder asymmetry showed a more consistent relationship to milk yield than traditionally applied udder health parameters such as treatment rate and cell count. It is concluded that there is a considerable need for increased efforts among clinicians in order to standardise clinical recordings. It is further concluded that certain combinations of extended clinical recordings have significant perspectives for future characterisation of udder health.

  2. Helicobacteraceae in Bulk Tank Milk of Dairy Herds from Northern Italy

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    Valentina Bianchini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is responsible for gastritis and gastric adenocarcinoma in humans, but the routes of transmission of this bacterium have not been clearly defined. Few studies led to supposing that H. pylori could be transmitted through raw milk, and no one investigated the presence of other Helicobacteraceae in milk. In the current work, the presence of Helicobacteraceae was investigated in the bulk tank milk of dairy cattle herds located in northern Italy both by direct plating onto H. pylori selective medium and by screening PCR for Helicobacteraceae, followed by specific PCRs for H. pylori, Wolinella spp., and “Candidatus Helicobacter bovis.” Three out of 163 bulk milk samples tested positive for Helicobacteraceae, but not for the subsequent PCRs. H. pylori was not isolated in any case. However, given similar growth conditions, Arcobacter butzleri, A. cryaerophilus, and A. skirrowii were recovered. In conclusion, the prevalence of Helicobacteraceae in raw milk was negligible (1.8%, and H. pylori was not identified in any of the positive samples, suggesting that, at least in the farming conditions of the investigated area, bovine milk does not represent a potential source of infection.

  3. Low body condition predisposes cattle to lameness: An 8-year study of one dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, L V; Green, M J; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C; Archer, S C; Green, L E; Huxley, J N

    2015-06-01

    Lameness in dairy cows is a multifactorial and progressive disease with complex interactions between risk factors contributing to its occurrence. Detailed records were obtained from one United Kingdom dairy herd over an 8-yr period. Weekly locomotion scores were used to classify cows as not lame (score 1 to 2), mildly lame (score 3) and severely lame (score 4 to 5). These outcomes were used to investigate the hypothesis that low body condition score (BCS) is associated with an increased risk of lameness in dairy cows. Mixed effect multinomial logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between prior BCS and repeat lameness events during the longitudinal period of the study. Discrete time survival models were used to explore the relationship between prior BCS and first lifetime lameness events. In total, 79,565 cow weeks at risk were obtained for 724 cows. The number of lameness events was 17,114, of which 8,799 were categorized as mildly lame and 8,315 as severely lame. The median BCS was 2.25 (range, 0.75 to 4.25) and the mean body weight (BW) and age at first calving were 619.5 kg (range, 355.6 to 956.4 kg) and 25.8 mo (range, 20.5 to 37.8 mo), respectively. Subsets of the data were used in the discrete time survival models: 333 mild and 211 severe first lifetime lameness events in heifers (first lactation cows), and 81 mild and 49 severe first lifetime lameness events in cows second lactation or greater. Low BCS 3 wk before a repeated lameness event was associated with a significantly increased risk of lameness. Cows with BCS<2 were at greatest risk of mild or severe lameness, and an increased BCS above 2 was associated with a reduced risk of mild or severe lameness. Low BCS 16 or 8 wk before a first mild or severe lifetime lameness event, respectively, also had a positive association with risk of lameness in cows second lactation or greater. This provides evidence to support targeting management toward maintaining BCS to minimize the

  4. Perceptions of French private veterinary practitioners' on their role in organic dairy farms and opportunities to improve their advisory services for organic dairy farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, J E; Bareille, N; Fourichon, C; Madouasse, A; Vaarst, M

    2016-10-01

    Veterinarians could be the expected sparring partners of organic dairy farmers in promoting animal health which is one of the main organic principles. However, in the past organic dairy farmers did not always consider veterinarians to be pertinent advisors for them. The objectives of this study are - from private veterinary practitioners' point of views- i) to describe the roles of veterinarians today in organic dairy farmers' animal health promotion strategies, ii) to identify factors related to organic farming which determine their role on organic dairy farms, and, iii) to identify opportunities for improvement of veterinarians' advisory services for organic dairy herds. Fourteen veterinarians, providing herd health advisory services to dairy farmers, were interviewed using qualitative semi-structured research interviews. A modified approach to Grounded Theory was used for data collection and analysis. Most often veterinarians had only contact with the organic dairy farmers in cases of individual ill animals or acute herd health problems. Even though certain veterinarians experienced situations and approaches of animal health and welfare on organic dairy farms not meeting their standards, they were not always able to establish themselves an advisory role supporting farmers in improving this. Indeed, organic production principles, regulations and farmers' health approaches challenged veterinarians' values on animal health and welfare and their perceptions of 'good veterinary practices'. Also, some veterinarians considered that there was no direct economic interest for them in the organic dairy sector and that could diminish their willingness to invest in this sector. Possible opportunities for improvement were identified; for example proposing more proactively advice via existing organisations, by making adaptations to advisory services for the organic sector and/or by dissociating veterinarians' curative role from their advisory role in disease prevention.

  5. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa

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    N. Patience Manzana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances inland ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational studywas conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistributionproject in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For thepurposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study wasconducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory ruralappraisal (PRA and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and designappropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the secondphase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. Thesewere: (1 A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residueswith minimal rations purchased. (2 An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a totalmixed ration. (3 A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank fromthe cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoptionwas monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulatedrations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded thatveterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option forsuch complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extensionservices appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditionalmodel of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labourintensive.

  6. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzana, N Patience; McCrindle, Cheryl M E; Sebei, P Julius; Prozesky, Leon

    2014-07-09

    Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances inland ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational studywas conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistributionproject in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For thepurposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study wasconducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory ruralappraisal (PRA) and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and designappropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the secondphase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. Thesewere: (1) A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residueswith minimal rations purchased. (2) An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a totalmixed ration. (3) A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank fromthe cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoptionwas monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulatedrations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded thatveterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option forsuch complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extensionservices appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditionalmodel of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labourintensive.

  7. Economic comparison of common treatment protocols and J5 vaccination for clinical mastitis in dairy herds using optimized culling decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, J A; Cha, E; Johnson, S K; Welcome, F L; Kristensen, A R; Gröhn, Y T

    2016-05-01

    This study used an existing dynamic optimization model to compare costs of common treatment protocols and J5 vaccination for clinical mastitis in US dairy herds. Clinical mastitis is an infection of the mammary gland causing major economic losses in dairy herds due to reduced milk production, reduced conception, and increased risk of mortality and culling for infected cows. Treatment protocols were developed to reflect common practices in dairy herds. These included targeted therapy following pathogen identification, and therapy without pathogen identification using a broad-spectrum antimicrobial or treating with the cheapest treatment option. The cost-benefit of J5 vaccination was also estimated. Effects of treatment were accounted for as changes in treatment costs, milk loss due to mastitis, milk discarded due to treatment, and mortality. Following ineffective treatments, secondary decisions included extending the current treatment, alternative treatment, discontinuing treatment, and pathogen identification followed by recommended treatment. Average net returns for treatment protocols and vaccination were generated using an existing dynamic programming model. This model incorporates cow and pathogen characteristics to optimize management decisions to treat, inseminate, or cull cows. Of the treatment protocols where 100% of cows received recommended treatment, pathogen-specific identification followed by recommended therapy yielded the highest average net returns per cow per year. Out of all treatment scenarios, the highest net returns were achieved with selecting the cheapest treatment option and discontinuing treatment, or alternate treatment with a similar spectrum therapy; however, this may not account for the full consequences of giving nonrecommended therapies to cows with clinical mastitis. Vaccination increased average net returns in all scenarios. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Method for Accuracy of Genetic Evaluation by Utilization of Canadian Genetic Evaluation Information to Improve Heilongjiang Holstein Herds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Ke-wei; TAKEO Kayaba

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to set up a new genetic evaluation procedure to predict the breeding values of Holstein herds in Heilongjiang Province of China for milk and fat production by utilizing Canadian pedigree and genetic evaluation information and to compare the breeding values of the sires from different countries. The data used for evaluating young sires for the Chinese Holstein population consisted of records selected from 21 herds in HeiIongjiang Province. The first lactation records of 2 496 daughters collected in 1989 and 2000 were analyzed. A single-trait animal model including a fixed herd-year effect, random animal and residual effects was used by utilizing Canadian pedigree and genetic evaluation information of 5 126 sires released from the Canadian Dairy Network in August 2000. The BLUP procedure was used to evaluate all cattle in this study and the Estimated Breeding Values (EBV)for milk and fat production of 6 697 cattle (including 673 sires and 6 024 cows) were predicted. The genetic levels of the top 100 sires originated from different countries were compared.Unlike the BLUP procedure that is being used in conjunction with the single-trait sire model in Heilongjiang Province of China now, the genetic evaluation procedure used in this study not only can be used simultaneously to evaluate sires and cows but also increase the accuracy of evaluation due to using the relationships and genetic values of the Canadian evaluated sires with more daughters. The results showed that the new procedure was useful for genetic evaluation of dairy herds and the comparison of the breeding values of these sires imported from different countries showed that a significant genetic improvement has been achieved for milk production of the Heilongjiang Holstein dairy population by importing sires from foreign countries, especially from the United States due to the higher breeding values.

  9. Incidence of and risks associated with Giardia infections in herds on dairy farms in the New York City Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaaf Stephanie

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aims of this study were to determine the incidence of Giardia infections in dairy herds on farms in the New York City Watershed region and to evaluate risk factors associated with infections. Because co-infections of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. are common in this population, we also evaluated the effect of herd infection status on Giardia infections. Methods Farms were grouped into three cohorts based on their prior infection status with Giardia and/or Cryptosporidium spp. The sampling plan included collecting fecal samples from all calves below 30 days of age and proportional sampling of calves, young stock, and adults. A total of 10,672 fecal samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of Giardia cysts using zinc sulfate flotation. Herds enrolled in the study were sampled seasonally for a study period of two years. The probability of shedding cysts past a certain age and the factors that influenced the likelihood of shedding were evaluated using survival analysis. Linear regression was used to evaluate factors that were associated with the intensity of shedding. Results The majority of Giardia infections occurred in calves within their first 180 days of age, with the most number of calves shedding Giardia cysts between 11 and 20 days of age. The incidence of shedding of Giardia cysts ranged from 0.0004 per animal day for cattle in the low risk cohort to 0.0011 per animal day for cattle in the high risk cohort. The likelihood of shedding was influenced by the prior infection status of the herd and the season of collection. Infected animals shed on average 9,658 cysts/gram and the intensity of shedding Giardia cysts varied significantly with the age (p Conclusion Giardia infections are common in dairy herds in the New York City watershed, particularly in calves less than 6 months of age. Seasonality may be an important factor in the perpetuation of infections based on changes in management practices

  10. Associations between herd-level factors and lying behavior of freestall-housed dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, K; Chapinal, N; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the associations between herd-level factors and lying behavior of high-producing dairy cows housed in freestall barns. Lying behavior of approximately 40 focal cows in one high-producing pen was monitored on each of 40 farms in the northeastern United States (NE) and 39 farms in California (CA). All cows within the pen were gait scored using a 1-to-5 scale to calculate the prevalence of clinical lameness (score ≥3) and severe lameness (score ≥4). Facility and management measures, including stall design, bedding, and flooring type within the pen, were collected. Herd-level factors associated with daily lying time, standard deviation (SD) of daily lying time, frequency of lying bouts, and lying bout duration at the univariate level were submitted to multivariable general linear models. In the NE, daily lying time increased with the use of deep bedding (estimate = 0.80±0.31h/d) and as average days in milk (DIM) of the focal cows increased (estimate = 0.08±0.04h/d for a 10-d increase in DIM). The SD of daily lying time decreased as stall stocking density increased (estimate = -0.08±0.03h/d for a 10% increase), and increased with the presence of rubber flooring in the pen (estimate = 0.16±0.08h/d) and percentage of stalls with fecal contamination (estimate = 0.04±0.01h/d for a 10% increase). Frequency of lying bouts decreased (estimate = -1.90±0.63 bouts/d) and average bout duration increased (estimate = 15.44±3.02 min) with the use of deep bedding. In CA, where all farms used deep bedding, daily lying time increased as average DIM of the focal cows increased (estimate = 0.08±0.03h/d for a 10-d increase). The SD of daily lying time decreased when feed was delivered more than once per day (estimate = -0.24±0.08h/d). The percentage of lame cows was correlated with the percentage of stalls with fecal contamination (r=0.45), which in turn was associated with fewer (estimate = -0.25±0.06 bouts/d) and longer lying bouts (estimate

  11. Evaluation of an O antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening of milk samples for Salmonella dublin infection in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Lind, Peter; Bitsch, V.

    1995-01-01

    Levels of antibodies to the O antigens (0:1,9,12) of Salmonella dublin were tested in 1355 serum, 1143 cow milk and 160 bulk milk samples from dairy herds using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In order to define the background reaction, milk samples from all lactating cows and serum......-positive. A significant correlation was found between ELISA reactions in milk and in serum of cows (34% and 32% respectively, r(s) = 0.69, P milk samples to screening and, eventually, regular certification of herds....... of 0.95. While none of the sera in the herds from Bornholm was ELISA positive, 2 herds had a few reactors in the milk ELISA. Using the same cutoff, all but 1 bulk milk sample from 150 herds on Bornholm was ELISA-negative, and all 10 salmonellosis-positive herds from Jutland were ELISA...

  12. Relative associations of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) seropositivity in beef and dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, M C; Woolhouse, M E J; Gunn, G J; Humphry, R W

    2013-11-01

    The success of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) eradication campaigns can be undermined by spread through local transmission pathways and poor farmer compliance with biosecurity recommendations. This work combines recent survey data with cattle movement data to explore the issues likely to impact on the success of BVDV control in Scotland. In this analysis, data from 249 beef suckler herds and 185 dairy herds in Scotland were studied retrospectively to determine the relative influence of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity on BVDV seropositivity. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed that cattle movement risk factors had approximately 3 times greater explanatory power than risk factors for local spread amongst beef suckler herds, but approximately the same explanatory power as risk factors for local spread amongst dairy herds. These findings are most likely related to differences in cattle husbandry practices and suggest that where financial prioritization is required, focusing on reducing movement-based risk is likely to be of greatest benefit when applied to beef suckler herds. The reported use of biosecurity measures such as purchasing cattle from BVDV accredited herds only, performing diagnostic screening at the time of sale, implementing isolation periods for purchased cattle, and installing double fencing on shared field boundaries had minimal impact on the risk of beef or dairy herds being seropositive for BVDV. Only 28% of beef farmers and 24% of dairy farmers with seropositive herds recognized that their cattle were affected by BVDV and those that did perceive a problem were no less likely to sell animals as replacement breeding stock and no more likely to implement biosecurity measures against local spread than farmers with no perceived problems. In relation to the current legislative framework for BVDV control in Scotland, these findings emphasize the importance of requiring infected herds take appropriate biosecurity measures

  13. Schmallenberg virus antibody development and decline in a naturally infected dairy cattle herd in Germany, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Holsteg, Mark; Sasserath, Michael; Beer, Martin

    2015-12-31

    In late 2011, the novel insect-transmitted orthobunyavirus Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged in Central Europe. Since that year, a dairy cattle herd kept in the German region in which the virus was initially detected was continuously monitored. In order to evaluate the development of the within-herd seroprevalence, but also to assess the long-term persistence of antibodies against SBV in individual animals, blood samples of all cows older than 24 months were taken yearly after the respective vector season and serologically analyzed. In December 2011, in 74% of the tested animals SBV-specific antibodies were detectable. Additional scattered seroconversions were observed between the 2011 and 2012 vector seasons, thereafter all seronegative animals remained negative. Until December 2014, the intra-herd seroprevalence decreased to 58%. A total of 122 cows infected presumable in autumn 2011 were sampled every year, 9 of them became seronegative until December 2014. Consequently, though SBV-specific antibodies were detected in about 90% of the monitored animals for more than three years, a lifelong antibody-based immunity is not expected in every animal. The loss of anti-SBV antibodies in individual animals combined with the missing infection of young stock results in a declining herd seroprevalence and increases the risk of a renewed virus circulation to a greater extent within the next years.

  14. Resistance to penicillin of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from cows with high somatic cell counts in organic and conventional dairy herds in Denmark

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    Vaarst Mette

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quarter milk samples from cows with high risk of intramammary infection were examined to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (SA and penicillin resistant SA (SAr in conventional and organic dairy herds and herds converting to organic farming in a combined longitudinal and cross-sectional study. Methods 20 conventional herds, 18 organic herds that converted before 1995, and 19 herds converting to organic farming in 1999 or 2000 were included in the study. Herds converting to organic farming were sampled three times one year apart; the other herds were sampled once. Risk of infection was estimated based on somatic cell count, milk production, breed, age and lactation stage. Results The high-risk cows represented about 49 % of the cows in the herds. The overall prevalence of SA and SAr among these cows was 29% (95% confidence interval: 24%–34% and 4% (95% confidence interval: 2%–5% respectively. The prevalence of penicillin resistance among SA infected cows was 12% (95% confidence interval: 6%–19% when calculated from the first herd visits. No statistically significant differences were observed in the prevalence of SAr or the proportion of isolates resistant to penicillin between herd groups. Conclusion The proportion of isolates resistant to penicillin was low compared to studies in other countries except Norway and Sweden. Based on the low prevalence of penicillin resistance of SA, penicillin should still be the first choice of antimicrobial agent for treatment of bovine intramammary infection in Denmark.

  15. Effects of infectious young stock on results of certification, surveillance and control programmes for paratuberculosis in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M F; Groenendaal, H

    2012-01-27

    In many epidemiological models for paratuberculosis, it is assumed that infected young stock (stock from adult cattle (≥ 2 years) would largely prevent postnatal infections, provided that uninfected adult cattle are highly resistant to infection. However, this assumption is in contrast with observed faecal shedding of MAP in young stock. Consequently, this assumption may have resulted in an underestimation of the effects of MAP transmission in herds participating in certification-, surveillance-, and control programmes for paratuberculosis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term effects of transmission of MAP amongst young stock on key output parameters of certification-, surveillance-, and control programmes for paratuberculosis in simulated closed dairy herds. Closed Dutch dairy herds participating in a paratuberculosis programme were simulated with a stochastic model, JohneSSim. Various test schemes, preventive management measures, distributions of age at onset of faecal shedding and rates of effective contacts between young stock were simulated. The results indicate that transmission of MAP amongst young stock has no relevant effects on the animal-level prevalence and milk quality of herds that are certified in a paratuberculosis programme. However, transmission of MAP amongst young stock increased the economic losses due to paratuberculosis and costs of participation in a programme. Moreover, it substantially decreased the beneficial effect of the separation of young stock from adult cattle on the probability of being certified. However, even in the presence of transmission of MAP amongst young stock, preventive management measures to separate young stock from adult cattle remain important. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Age-structured dynamic, stochastic and mechanistic simulation model of Salmonella Dublin infection within dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad; Østergaard, Søren

    2012-01-01

    of the six age-groups; 2) S. Dublin incidence and number of animals in each infection state; and 3) S. Dublin related morbidity and mortality in the acutely infected animals. The effects of introducing one infectious heifer on the risk of spread of S. Dublin within the herd and on the duration of infection...... for the individual animals in each of the six age groups in the herd. The hygiene level was highly influential on the probability that the infection spread within the herd, duration of infection and epidemic size. The herd susceptibility level was also influential, but not likely to provide sufficient prevention...... the probability of extinction. In general, disease and mortality patterns followed epidemic waves in the herds. However, an interesting pattern was seen for acute infections and abortions in adult cattle after the first 2 years of infection in herds with poor hygiene and high susceptibility. Repeated infections...

  17. Association of gene BoLA DRB3.2 with production traits in a dairy herd of Antioquia, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Zambrano A.; Julián Echeverri Z.; Albeiro López-Herrera

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. To determine the associations of BoLA DRB3.2 alleles present in Holstein and BON x Holstein cattle to production and milk quality traits in a dairy herd of Antioquia, Colombia. Materials and methods. Ninety-one cows, 66 Holstein and 25 BxH, were genotyped for the BoLA DRB3.2 gene, through PCR-RFLP technique. Furthermore, the association of the alleles of the gene BoLA DRB3.2 with milk yield (PL305), fat yield (PG305), protein yield (PP305) fat percentage (PGRA) and protein ...

  18. Association of gene BoLA DRB3.2 with production traits in a dairy herd of Antioquia, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Zambrano A; Julián Echeverri Z.; Albeiro López-Herrera

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. To determine the associations of BoLA DRB3.2 alleles present in Holstein and BON x Holstein cattle to production and milk quality traits in a dairy herd of Antioquia, Colombia. Materials and methods. Ninety-one cows, 66 Holstein and 25 BxH, were genotyped for the BoLA DRB3.2 gene, through PCR-RFLP technique. Furthermore, the association of the alleles of the gene BoLA DRB3.2 with milk yield (PL305), fat yield (PG305), protein yield (PP305) fat percentage (PGRA) and protein ...

  19. Impact of animal health and welfare planning on medicine use, herd health and production in European organic dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivemeyer, S; Smolders, G; Brinkmann, J

    2012-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining high herd health and welfare status and low veterinary medicine inputs are important aims in organic livestock farming. Therefore, an on-farm intervention study (CORE Organic ANIPLAN) was conducted on 128 organic dairy farms in seven European countries aiming at minimising...... generated in Stable Schools (adapted Farmer Field Schools) or using face-to-face advice but following similar principles. Most frequently chosen focus areas were metabolic disorders (66% of farms), udder health (58%), lameness (47%), and fertility (39%). General linear models for repeated measures were used...

  20. Risk factors for bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk in Prince Edward Island dairy herds. Part 1: overall risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmoslemany, A M; Keefe, G P; Dohoo, I R; Jayarao, B M

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine on-farm risk factors for bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. Bulk tank raw milk quality was evaluated on all Prince Edward Island dairy herds (n = 235) over a 2-yr period (March 2005 to March 2007). Biweekly total bacterial, preliminary incubation, laboratory pasteurization, and coliform counts were conducted using a Petrifilm culture system. For the assessment of risk factors, a case-control study was conducted from January 2006 to May 2007. Case and control herds were defined based on the last 6 analyses of bulk tank bacterial counts before on-farm evaluation. Cases were herds that had multiple elevated counts for any of the parameters measured. A total of 69 herds (39 cases and 30 control herds) were evaluated. Data collection included 1) observation and questionnaire on basic hygiene and farm management practices; 2) complete wash analysis of the milking equipment, monitoring the presence of bacterial films on equipment and evaluation of cooling system function; and 3) environmental and cow hygiene scoring. Data were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. The results of the final model indicated that high alkalinity in the wash water and poor teat-end cleanliness were associated with high bacterial counts in bulk tank milk (odds ratios = 12 and 5.3, respectively). It was also observed that high water temperature of detergent wash and the use of a water softener were associated with low bacterial counts in bulk tank milk (odds ratios = 0.87 and 0.11, respectively). A significant association between udder hair clipping and teat-end cleanliness was also observed. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of udder hygiene and milking system washing factors on hygienic quality of bulk tank milk.

  1. Control of bovine leukosis virus in a dairy herd by a change in dehorning.

    OpenAIRE

    DiGiacomo, R F; Hopkins, S G; Darlington, R L; Evermann, J F

    1987-01-01

    Following the demonstration that bovine leukosis virus was transmitted in calves by gouge dehorning, electrical dehorning at a younger age was implemented in a commercial Holstein herd. Subsequently, annual testing of the herd revealed a decline in the prevalence of bovine leukosis virus antibodies as older cattle dehorned by the former method were replaced by younger cattle dehorned by the latter method.

  2. Evaluation of milk production performance of dairy buffaloes raised in various herds of the Philippine Carabao Center

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    L.C. Cruz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Milk production performance of dairy buffaloes from 9 herds was evaluated. There were a total of 1,858 305D milk production records containing 13,219 milk test records from 1997 to 2006 available for evaluation. Records were analyzed with general linear model to determine the effect of season, parity and age at calving on standard 305D milk yield. Parity, season of calving and age at calving affected milk yield significantly. Average 305D milk production increased significantly from 864 kg in 1997 to 1244 kg in 2006. Genetic evaluation of milk production traits was also done using the same data set. The model for analysis is a multi-trait full animal model. Only the first three lactations are included in the analysis. The first lactation is divided into three stages namely, 100D, 200D, 300D each being considered as three separate traits. The resulting values from the three traits are combined into one to get the first lactation estimated breeding values (EBV. The genetic correlations between traits were all positive ranging from 0.78 to 0.94 between 100D and 303D of the lactation and between the 2nd and third lactation respectively. Estimates of heritabilities used in the analysis were 0.36, 0.39, 0.30, 0.32, and 0.33, for 100D, 200D, 300D, 2nd lactation and 3rd lactation respectively. The average EBVs of cows were plotted against birth year. The trend was positive with 4 kg and 8.4 kg increase per birth year for the 1st and both the 2nd and 3rd lactation respectively. This positive trend is consistent and may be responsible for the increase in milk production performance of cows. Apparently, selection of replacement animals based on milk production performance of dams and use of imported semen from proven bulls was effective before EBV information on sires and dams are available in the Philippines. The use of EBVs in selection would increase the rate of genetic improvement in dairy buffalo population in the Philippines.

  3. Dairy farmers' attitudes and intentions towards improving dairy cow foot health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Hogeveen, H.; Garforth, C.J.; Stassen, E.N.

    2013-01-01

    Dairy cow foot health is a subject of concern because it is considered to be the most important welfare problem in dairy farming and causes economic losses for the farmer. In order to improve dairy cow foot health it is important to take into account the attitude and intention of dairy farmers. In

  4. Risk factors for clinical mastitis in a random sample of dairy herds from the southern part of The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbers, A R; Miltenburg, J D; De Lange, D; Crauwels, A P; Barkema, H W; Schukken, Y H

    1998-02-01

    The incidence of clinical mastitis in dairy cows was estimated in 171 randomly selected dairy herds from the southern part of The Netherlands. A total of 1103 quarter cases was reported. The mean annual incidence rate was 12.7 quarter cases/yr per 100 cows. The modeling incidence rate of clinical mastitis at the herd level indicated that a number of risk factors were associated with a higher rate of clinical mastitis: one or more cows that were leaking milk, one or more cows with trampled teats, no disinfection of the maternity area after calving, consistent use of post-milking teat disinfection, Red and White cattle (Meuse-Rhine-Yssel) as the predominant breed, and an annual bulk milk somatic cell count teats, no disinfection of the maternity area after calving, consistent use of post-milking teat disinfection, use of a thick layer of bedding in the stall, and the stripping of foremilk before cluster attachment. The following risk factors were associated with a higher rate of clinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus: Red and White cattle (Meuse-Rhine-Yssel) as the predominant breed, cows with trampled teats, the stripping of foremilk before cluster attachment, no regular disinfection of the stall, no regular replacement of stall bedding, and an annual bulk milk somatic cell count < 150,000 cells/ml.

  5. Direct and indirect effects of johne's disease on farm and animal productivity in an irish dairy herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson EKB

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Johne's disease (JD is caused by infection with the organism Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis, leading to chronic diarrhoea and ill thrift in adult cattle. JD is considered to adversely affect farm performance and profitability. This retrospective case study was undertaken on a single commercial dairy herd in the south west of Ireland. Animal production records were interrogated to assess the effect of JD on milk yield (total kg per lactation, somatic cell count (the geometric mean over the lactation, reasons for culling, cull price and changes in herd parity structure over time. JD groups were defined using clinical signs and test results. One control animal was matched to each case animal on parity number and year. Specific lactations (clinical, pre-clinical and test-positive only from 1994 to 2004 were compared between JD case and control cows. A significantly lower milk yield (1259.3 kg/lactation was noted from cows with clinical JD in comparison to their matched control group. Clinical animals had an average cull price of €516 less than animals culled without signs of clinical disease. In contrast, little effect was noted for sub-clinical infections. These direct effects of JD infections, in combination with increased culling for infertility and increasing replacement rates, had a negative impact on farm production. Results from this study provide preliminary information regarding the effects of JD status on both herd and animal-level performance in Ireland.

  6. Evaluation of the epidemiological and economic consequences of control scenarios for bovine viral diarrhea virus in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santman-Berends, I M G A; Mars, M H; van Duijn, L; van Schaik, G

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important endemic infection. However, no information was available on whether it would be economically beneficial to implement a national control program in the Netherlands. Therefore, a stochastic simulation model was developed in which control scenarios were added to compare the epidemiological and economic consequences of BVDV control in Dutch dairy herds in the next 10 yr. In the epidemiological part of the model, herds could be classified as susceptible, infectious, recovered, or vaccinated. The outputs of the epidemiological module served as input for the economic module. Net costs that could be attributed to bovine viral diarrhea consisted of production losses, costs for testing, and culling persistently infected cattle in the present voluntary Dutch BVDV control program and costs for vaccination. Four different control scenarios were simulated, involving testing and culling of persistently infected (based on serum or ear-notch testing), and monitoring BVDV statuses and vaccination and were derived from BVDV control programs that are currently executed in Europe. The costs and benefits of BVDV control in the current situation and in each of the simulated control scenarios were evaluated assuming an annual discount rate of 2%. The model estimated a mean BVDV herd prevalence of 18.0% in 2014 and showed a slightly decreasing prevalence over time. The outputs seemed realistic for the present situation in the Netherlands when compared with actual survey data. The average annual net costs associated with bovine viral diarrhea were estimated at €27.8 million for the dairy industry. Two control scenarios were beneficial in controlling BVDV during the study period (between 2015 and 2025). In the scenario where tracing and removing of PI animals and monitoring of the subsequent status was obligatory, the benefit to cost (B/C) ratio was 1.5 (€1.5 benefit for each invested euro). In the scenario in which the BVDV status of

  7. Extended lactations may improve cow health, productivity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from organic dairy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Jesper Overgård; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    The concept of extended lactation is a break with the tradition of getting one calf per cow per year that should improve cow health, increase productivity and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission per kg milk produced in high-yield organic dairy herds. These effects are achieved through fewer...... calvings per year and hence a production of fewer replacement heifers, which, in combination with fewer days dry per cow per year, will reduce the annual herd requirement for feed. Total herd feed use is a major determinant of GHG emission at farm gate. However, these effects also rely on the assumption...... of an unchanged milk production per feeding day (days lactating plus days dry) when changing from lactations of traditional length to extended lactations. Thus, milk yield per feeding day becomes a primary determinant of the success of using extended lactations at farm level. Cows undergoing an extended lactation...

  8. A comparison of timed artificial insemination and automated activity monitoring with hormone intervention in 3 commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolecheck, K A; Silvia, W J; Heersche, G; Wood, C L; McQuerry, K J; Bewley, J M

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the reproductive performance of cows inseminated based on automated activity monitoring with hormone intervention (AAM) to cows from the same herds inseminated using only an intensive timed artificial insemination (TAI) program. Cows (n=523) from 3 commercial dairy herds participated in this study. To be considered eligible for participation, cows must have been classified with a body condition score of at least 2.50, but no more than 3.50, passed a reproductive tract examination, and experienced no incidences of clinical, recorded metabolic diseases in the current lactation. Within each herd, cows were balanced for parity and predicted milk yield, then randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: TAI or AAM. Cows assigned to the TAI group were subjected to an ovulation synchronization protocol consisting of presynchronization, Ovsynch, and Resynch for up to 3 inseminations. Cows assigned to the AAM treatment were fitted with a leg-mounted accelerometer (AfiAct Pedometer Plus, Afimilk, Kibbutz Afikim, Israel) at least 10 d before the end of the herd voluntary waiting period (VWP). Cows in the AAM treatment were inseminated at times indicated by the automated alert system for up to 90 d after the VWP. If an open cow experienced no AAM alert for a 39±7-d period (beginning at the end of the VWP), hormone intervention in the form of a single injection of either PGF2α or GnRH (no TAI) was permitted as directed by the herd veterinarian. Subsequent to hormone intervention, cows were inseminated when alerted in estrus by the AAM system. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasound 33 to 46 d after insemination. Pregnancy loss was determined via a second ultrasound after 60 d pregnant. Timed artificial insemination cows experienced a median 11.0 d shorter time to first service. Automated activity-monitored cows experienced a median 17.5-d shorter service interval. No treatment difference in probability of pregnancy to first AI, probability

  9. Economic consequences of mastitis and withdrawal of milk with high somatic cell count in Swedish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, C; Ostergaard, S; Emanuelson, U; Andersson, H; Berglund, B; Strandberg, E

    2010-10-01

    The main aim was to assess the impact of mastitis on technical and economic results of a dairy herd under current Swedish farming conditions. The second aim was to investigate the effects obtained by withdrawing milk with high somatic cell count (SCC). A dynamic and stochastic simulation model, SimHerd, was used to study the effects of mastitis in a herd with 150 cows. Results given the initial incidence of mastitis (32 and 33 clinical and subclinical cases per 100 cow-years, respectively) were studied, together with the consequences of reducing or increasing the incidence of mastitis by 50%, modelling no clinical mastitis (CM) while keeping the incidence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) constant and vice versa. Six different strategies to withdraw milk with high SCC were compared. The decision to withdraw milk was based on herd-level information in three scenarios: withdrawal was initiated when the predicted bulk tank SCC exceeded 220 000, 200 000 or 180 000 cells/ml, and on cow-level information in three scenarios: withdrawal was initiated when the predicted SCC in an individual cow's milk exceeded 1 000 000, 750 000 or 500 000 cells/ml. The accuracy with which SCC was measured and predicted was assumed to affect the profitability of withdrawing milk with high SCC and this was investigated by applying high, low or no uncertainty to true SCC. The yearly avoidable cost of mastitis was estimated at €8235, assuming that the initial incidence of mastitis could be reduced by 50%. This cost corresponded to 5% of the herd net return given the initial incidence of mastitis. Expressed per cow-year, the avoidable cost of mastitis was €55. The costs per case of CM and SCM were estimated at €278 and €60, respectively. Withdrawing milk with high SCC was never profitable because this generated a substantial amount of milk withdrawal that was not offset by a sufficient increase in the average price per delivered kg milk. It had the most negative impact on net return when

  10. Assessment of Structural Traits and Management Related to Dairy Herds in the Peri-urban Area of Bobo Dioulasso (South West of Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mattoni

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available To define mean herd size, structural traits, animal sourcing and use, management and aspects related to the milk production, 118 dairy herds, involved in a FAO dairy development project were studied. The mean herd size after allocation to clusters: Small (≤38 heads, Medium (>38, ≤61 heads and Large (>61 heads was 52.8±25.8, ranging from 7 to 134 heads of cattle. The following genotypes: Cross bred (CR 58.8%, Zebu (ZB 23.2% and Taurine cattle (TA 18.0% which were not uniformly distributed neither across nor within herds were identified. Sex ratio was two thirds of females (70.6%, one third of males (28.1% and a low proportion (1.3% of castrated males. No mature TA males compared to 53.3% of the male ZB and 31.4% of the male CR, were indicated as potential sires. Investments in purchase of animals were higher in Small than in Medium and Large herds; of all purchased sires 53.8% were found in Small herds vs. 28.2% and 18.0% in Medium and Large. Herd property was equally distributed between single (56.8% and multi property (43.2%. There was more manpower available per 100 cows in Small, being almost double and triple than in Medium and Large herds. Although milk extracted, was similar in all clusters averaging 2.4±0.5 litres/day/cow, milk off take rate, due to higher proportion of lactating cows, appeared higher in Small herds.

  11. Improving smallholder livelihoods: Dairy production in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ulicky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tanzania is primarily an agro-based economy, characterized by subsistence agricultural production that employs more than 80% of the population and contributes up to 45% of the GDP (2005. This country is endowed with a cattle population of 21.3 M, composed mainly of indigenous Zebu breeds and about 680 000 improved dairy animals. About 70% of the milk produced comes from the traditional sector (indigenous cattle kept in rural areas, while the remaining 30% comes from improved cattle, mainly kept by smallholder producers. In Northern Tanzania and particularly in Hai district of Kilimanjaro Region, some dairy farmers organize themselves into small producer groups for the purpose of milk collecting, marketing and general promotion of the dairy sector in their community. Nronga Women Dairy Cooperative Society (NWDCS Limited is one of such organizations dedicated to improve the well-being of the Nronga village community through promoting small-scale dairy farming and its flow-on benefits. Milk flows out of the village, and services for investment and dairy production flow into the village, ensuring a sustainable financial circulation necessary for poverty reduction, rural development and better life for the rural community. In 2001 NWDCS introduced a school milk feeding program that has attracted Australian donors since 2005. Guided by Global Development Group, a multi-faceted project, integrating micro-enterprises, business, education and child health/nutrition, was proposed and initiated by building a dairy plant in Hai District headquarters, the Boma plant. In March 2013, the Australian High Commission to East Africa approved Direct Aid Program funding of AUD 30 000 towards the NWDCS - Biogas Pilot Project in Tanzania, which included the renovation of zero-grazing cow shade units, the construction of 6-m3 biodigester plants on each farm, and encouragement of the use of bioslurry for pasture production and home gardens.

  12. Quality of bulk tank milk samples from Danish dairy herds based on real-time polymerase chain reaction identification of mastitis pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katholm, Jørgen; Bennedsgaard, T.W.; Koskinen, M.T.;

    2012-01-01

    Results of a commercial real-time PCR analysis for 11 mastitis pathogens from bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from all 4,258 Danish dairy herds in November 2009 to January 2010 were compared with somatic cell count (SCC) and total bacteria count (TBC) estimates in BTM. For Streptococcus agalactiae, ...

  13. Comparative Evaluation of Different Test Combinations for Diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Infecting Dairy Herds in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Garg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 355 cows were sampled (serum, n=315; faeces, n=355; milk, n=209 from dairy farms located in the Punjab state of India. Faeces and serum/milk samples were screened by acid fast staining and “indigenous ELISA,” respectively. IS900 PCR was used to screen faeces and milk samples. Bio-load of MAP in dairy cows was 36.9, 15.6, 16.3, and 14.4%, using microscopy, serum ELISA, milk ELISA and milk PCR, respectively. Estimated kappa values between different test combinations: serum and milk ELISA, faecal microscopy and faecal PCR, milk ELISA and milk PCR, faecal PCR and serum ELISA were 0.325, 0.241, 0.682, and 0.677, respectively. Estimation of the relative sensitivity and specificity of different tests in the present study indicated that “serum ELISA” and “milk ELISA” were good screening tests, add “milk PCR” was “confirmatory test” for MAP infection. Combination of milk ELISA with milk PCR may be adopted as a model strategy for screening and diagnosis of JD in lactating/dairy cattle herds in Indian conditions.

  14. Evaluation of udder health parameters and risk factors for clinical mastitis in Dutch dairy herds in the context of a restricted antimicrobial usage policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santman-Berends, I M G A; Swinkels, J M; Lam, T J G M; Keurentjes, J; van Schaik, G

    2016-04-01

    Recently, many changes have been implemented in Dutch dairy herds. Herd sizes have increased and antimicrobial use has been reduced. Certain types of antimicrobials can only be used in specific circumstances, and the preventive use of antimicrobials in dry cows is prohibited. The aim of this study was to quantify clinical mastitis (CM), subclinical mastitis (SCM), and risk factors associated with CM in Dutch dairy herds in 2013, in the context of these changes. For this study, 240 dairy herds were randomly selected from farms that participated in test-day milk recording, used a conventional milking system, and agreed to participate in the study. Eventually, 233 Dutch dairy farmers had complete records of CM in their herds in 2013 and 224 of these farmers completed a questionnaire on management factors potentially associated with CM. All participating farmers gave consent to use their routinely collected herd data such as test-day records and cow identification and registration data. Clinical and subclinical mastitis incidence rate (CMI and SCMI, respectively) per 100 cows per year, subclinical mastitis prevalence, and average bulk tank milk somatic cell count were obtained for 2013. The risk factor analysis was conducted using a generalized linear model with a log link function and a negative binomial distribution on herd level in Stata 13.1. A median CMI of 28.6 per 100 cows at risk per year, SCMI of 70.1 per 100 cows at risk per year, SCM prevalence of 15.8%, and bulk tank milk somatic cell count of 171 × 10(3) cells/mL were observed in 2013. Factors that were significantly associated with a higher CMI were cleaning slatted floors only once per day compared with more than 4 times a day (i.e., mechanical), a higher percentage of Holstein Friesian cows present in the herd, treating less than 50% of the cows with CM with antimicrobials, postmilking teat disinfection, and treatment of cows with elevated somatic cell count with antimicrobials. The results of this

  15. Multivariate factor analysis of detailed milk fatty acid profile: Effects of dairy system, feeding, herd, parity, and stage of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, M; Macciotta, N P P; Cecchinato, A; Conte, G; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the potential of using multivariate factor analysis to extract metabolic information from data on the quantity and quality of milk produced under different management systems. We collected data from individual milk samples taken from 1,158 Brown Swiss cows farmed in 85 traditional or modern herds in Trento Province (Italy). Factor analysis was carried out on 47 individual fatty acids, milk yield, and 5 compositional milk traits (fat, protein, casein, and lactose contents, somatic cell score). According to a previous study on multivariate factor analysis, a variable was considered to be associated with a specific factor if the absolute value of its correlation with the factor was ≥0.60. The extracted factors were representative of the following 12 groups of fatty acids or functions: de novo fatty acids, branched fatty acid-milk yield, biohydrogenation, long-chain fatty acids, desaturation, short-chain fatty acids, milk protein and fat contents, odd fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids, linoleic acid, udder health, and vaccelenic acid. Only 5 fatty acids showed small correlations with these groups. Factor analysis suggested the existence of differences in the metabolic pathways for de novo short- and medium-chain fatty acids and Δ(9)-desaturase products. An ANOVA of factor scores highlighted significant effects of the dairy farming system (traditional or modern), season, herd/date, parity, and days in milk. Factor behavior across levels of fixed factors was consistent with current knowledge. For example, compared with cows farmed in modern herds, those in traditional herds had higher scores for branched fatty acids, which were inversely associated with milk yield; primiparous cows had lower scores than older cows for de novo fatty acids, probably due to a larger contribution of lipids mobilized from body depots on milk fat yield. The statistical approach allowed us to reduce a large number of variables to a few latent factors with biological

  16. Epidemiology of Q fever in dairy goat herds in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogerwerf, L.

    2014-01-01

    Between 2007 and 2009, the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source was traced back to dairy goat farms, where abortion storms caused by Coxiella burnetii had been observed. Intervention measures included vaccination of dairy goats, followed by one-time c

  17. Genetic diversity of bovine papillomavirus types, including two putative new types, in teat warts from dairy cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardi, Michele; de Camargo Tozato, Claudia; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; de Alcântara, Brígida Kussumoto; Vilas-Boas, Laurival Antonio; Otonel, Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano; Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2016-06-01

    Teat papillomatosis affects dairy cows worldwide. Milking can become difficult due to teat warts, and maintaining affected cows in the herds may diminish economic profit in the dairy industry. Currently, 13 bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types have been fully characterized, and numerous putative BPV types have been identified through partial L1 gene PCR. In order to identify the viral types present in warts on the udders of dairy cows, 40 teat lesions from 24 cows from 13 cattle farms in three States of Brazil were evaluated by PV L1 gene PCR. The warts that were evaluated contained sequences from BPVs 6-10, the putative BPV types BAPV9 and BAPV4, and two unreported putative papillomavirus (PV) types, named BPV/BR-UEL6 and BPV/BR-UEL7. In addition, mixed infections and coinfections were identified, since more than one lesion was observed on the udders of 13 cows. Phylogenetic analysis showed that BPV/BR-UEL6 is closely related to BPVs belonging to the genus Xipapillomavirus, while BPV/BR-UEL7 clustered with the previously reported strains Cervus timorensis and Pudu puda PVs, which represent a putative new PV type, and it was only distantly related to xi-, epsilon-, delta- and dyoxi-PVs. These results provide information that will assist in the understanding of the association of BPVs 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10, as well as putative BPV types BAPV4 and BAPV9, with mammary papillomatosis. This is the first characterization of putative novel PV types BPV/BR-UEL6 and BPV/BR-UEL7 in teat warts of dairy cows, highlighting the high genetic diversity of BPVs associated with teat papillomatosis.

  18. The dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection in nine Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, H. D.; Sloth, K. H.; Elsberg, C.

    2000-01-01

    skin lesions, milking personnel, and non-farm-related human carriers were included in the study. Certain types predominated in one or several herds during the study period of one-and-a-half to two years, whereas the presence of other types was of a more sporadic nature. Within the individual herds......, there was a close correspondence between ribo- and phage types of S. aureus isolated from bovine intramammmary infections and skin lesions. Isolates from milking personnel, however, were not identical to any of the predominant intramammary strains. Furthermore, several of the isolates from milking personnel showed...

  19. Prevalence of and risk factors for bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection in non-vaccinated dairy and dual-purpose cattle herds in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saa, Luis Rodrigo; Perea, Anselmo; Jara, Diego Vinicio; Arenas, Antonio José; Garcia-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Borge, Carmen; Carbonero, Alfonso

    2012-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection in non-vaccinated dairy and dual-purpose cattle herds from Ecuador. A total of 2,367 serum samples from 346 herds were collected from June 2008 to February 2009. A questionnaire, which included variables related to cattle, health, management measures, and the environment, was filled out in each herd. Presence of antibodies against BRSV was analyzed using a commercial indirect ELISA test. A logistic regression model was used to determine risk factors associated with BRSV at herd level. The individual seroprevalence against BRSV in non-vaccinated herds in Ecuador was 80.48% [1,905/2,367; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 78.9-82.1]. The herd prevalence was 91.3% (316/346; 95% CI = 88.3-94.3), and the intra-herd prevalence ranged between 25% and 100% (mean, 90.47%). The logistic regression model showed that the existence of bordering cattle farms, the dual-purpose farms, and the altitude of the farm (more than 2,338 m above sea level) were risk factors associated with BRSV infection. This is the first study about BRSV prevalence in Ecuador. It shows the wide spread of the BRSV infection in the country. The risk factors found will help to design effective control strategies.

  20. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated to Neospora caninum in dairy cattle herds in the municipality of Pasto, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Cedeño Q.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine seroprevalence and risk factors associated to Neospora caninum in non-vaccinated dairy cattle against infectious agents of reproductive syndrome in the municipality of Pasto, Colombia. Materials and methods. Farms over 2527 meters over sea level were selected, a total of 238 serum samples of Holstein cows were collected and analyzed using the indirect ELISA test to determine N. caninum seropositivity. An epidemiological survey was realized in each herd which included variables related to health and management measures of cattle. A multivariate analysis of binary logistic regression was used with a confidence interval of 95% (p<0.05 using SPSS19® program. Results. The estimated prevalence of N. caninum was 76.9%. The risk factors associated to neosporosis infection in the analyzed farms are as follows: residues of abortions generally left outdoors and not buried (OR 3.81, 95% CI 1.5 - 9.6; dogs fed with leftovers (OR 15.44 IC 95% 1.94-123.22 and bulls allowed to mate with cows (OR 19.68, 95% CI 2.34 - 165.52. Conclusions. The high prevalence of N. caninum and the low abortion rate in dairy herds of the municipality of Pasto corroborated no existence of the disease in all animals serologically positive, but it did suggest that at some point in their lives they were exposed to N. caninum. From the identified risk factors in this study, recommendations can be provided for an effective control of reproductive diseases like Neosporosis present in this region.

  1. Economic assessment of Ostertagia ostertagi and Fasciola hepatica infections in dairy cattle herds in Germany using Paracalc(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanke, Jane; Charlier, Johannes; Steppin, Torsten; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Vercruysse, Jozef; Demeler, Janina

    2017-06-15

    The aim of the current study was to estimate economic costs of Ostertagia ostertagi and Fasciola hepatica infections in dairy cattle herds in Germany using the online calculation programme Paracalc(®). Following a questionnaire, survey data were available from 464 farms in 14 federal states. On those farms bulk tank milk (BTM) samples and additionally up to six serum samples collected from first season grazing calves were analysed, using a commercially available ELISA (Boehringer Ingelheim SVANOVA Biotech AB, Uppsala, Sweden), an in-house ELISA (F. hepatica) and an in-house serum pepsinogen test. In total, samples obtained from 344 farms were included in the analysis since those were the only farms with complete questionnaires. Median costs per farm and year were estimated for gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections (€721.38) and F. hepatica infection (€565.61). Decreases in milk yield in multiparous cows were the major reason for annual production losses due to GI nematodes (€13.33 per cow) and F. hepatica infections (€7.95 per cow), which was followed by annual costs for anthelmintic treatment against GI nematode infections in adult cows (€10.00 per cow) and F. hepatica infection associated annual costs due to repeated artificial insemination (€10.13 per cow) and prolonged calving intervals (€9.40 per cow). The study demonstrated that if all required information is provided, the Paracalc(®) tool can assist to identify productions losses in dairy cattle herds due to helminth infections and to optimise farm economics in Germany. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pathogen group specific risk factors at herd, heifer and quarter levels for intramammary infections in early lactating dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepers, S; Peeters, K; Opsomer, G; Barkema, H W; Frankena, K; De Vliegher, S

    2011-05-01

    Risk factors for intramammary infections caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci, contagious major pathogens and environmental major pathogens in early lactating heifers were evaluated at the herd, heifer and quarter levels. In total, 764 quarters of 191 dairy heifers in 20 randomly selected farms in Flanders (Belgium) were sampled. Quarter milk samples were collected between 1 and 4 days in milk and between 5 and 8 days in milk for bacteriological culture. Data were analyzed using multivariable, multilevel logistic regression analysis. Higher average herd milk somatic cell count (>200,000 cells/mL), not having an effective fly control strategy, contact with lactating cows prior to calving and moderate to severe udder edema prior to calving increased the odds of intramammary infections caused by contagious major pathogens. Poor heifer hygiene and lack of mineral/vitamin supplementation prior to calving were risk factors for intramammary infection caused by environmental major pathogens. Teat apex colonization with coagulase-negative staphylococci prior to calving seemed to protect quarters against intramammary infections caused by major pathogens. Poor heifer hygiene before calving, a non-clipped udder and not practicing of teat dipping prior to calving increased the odds of intramammary infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci. Although management is important in the prevention and control of intramammary infections in early lactating heifers, most variation in the prevalence of intramammary infections resided at the heifer and quarter levels, indicating that the susceptibility for intramammary infections around calving is mainly determined by heifer and quarter characteristics.

  3. [Outbreak of subclinical mastitis due to beta hemolytic group L streptococci (S. dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis) in an Austrian dairy herd].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Martina; Giffinger, Friederike; Hoppe, Jan Christoph; Spergser, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    This study is reporting an outbreak of subclinical mastitis due to beta-hemolytic group L streptococci in an Austrian dairy herd with a history of high somatic cell count. At the first survey 16 of 33 lactating cows (28 quarters of 132) were cultured positive for beta-hemolytic, CAMP and esculin negative cocci that grew on Columbia blood agar with small grey catalase negative colonies. With the commercial API 20 Strep system (bioMerieux, F) isolates were classified as members of streptococci group L. All tested strains (eight of 28) produced acid from ribose, lactose, trehalose, amidon and glycogen; they hydrolysed hippurate and showed beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase, alkaline phosphatase, leucinaminopeptidase and arginindehydrolase activity. Isolates were sensitive to bacitracin but resistant to tetracycline. Using phenotypic characterisation as well as sequence analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region of a representative strain, recovered isolates were identified as Streptococcus (S.) dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis. Mastitis was characterized by normal milk secretions and absence of clinical abnormalities but high elevations of somatic cell count. Based on the characteristics of the strains and on the observations during the first herd survey, contagious transmission during milking as a result of poor milking hygiene was assumed. The mastitis was controlled through implementation of a strict hygiene protocol including use of single-use udder towels, post milking teat desinfection and cluster disinfection between milking cows in combination with antibiotic treatment of infected udders.

  4. Register-based predictors of violations of animal welfare legislation in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otten, Nina; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Thomsen, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    AWL) defined as occurrence of at least one of the two most frequently violated measures found at recent inspections in Denmark, namely (a) presence of injured animals not separated from the rest of the group and/or (b) animals in a condition warranting euthanasia still being present in the herd. A total of 25...

  5. Control measures against Q fever in Dutch dairy goat herds: epidemiological and economical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontje, D.M.; Backer, J.A.; Roest, H.I.J.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Roermund, van H.J.W.

    2013-01-01

    To analyse the disease dynamics in goat herds and to study the effect of control measures, a Q fever transmission model was developed by CVI. With such a model we can study questions like ‘What strategy can lower the incidence of Q fever in goats or even lead to disease extinction?’ and ‘Is vaccinat

  6. Risk factors for changing test classification in the Danish surveillance program for Salmonella in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lennarth Ravn; Warnick, L. D.; Greiner, M.

    2007-01-01

    test positive to negative, whereas the breed and neighbor factors were not found to be important for small herds. Organic production was associated with remaining test positive, but not with becoming test positive. The results emphasize the importance of external and internal biosecurity measures...

  7. Control measures against Q fever in Dutch dairy goat herds: epidemiological and economical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontje, D.M.; Backer, J.A.; Roest, H.I.J.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Roermund, van H.J.W.

    2013-01-01

    To analyse the disease dynamics in goat herds and to study the effect of control measures, a Q fever transmission model was developed by CVI. With such a model we can study questions like ‘What strategy can lower the incidence of Q fever in goats or even lead to disease extinction?’ and ‘Is vaccinat

  8. The economic effects of whole-herd versus selective anthelmintic treatment strategies in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlier, J.; Levecke, B.; Devleesschauwer, B.; Vercruysse, J.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Current control practices against gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy cows rely strongly on anthelmintic use. To reduce the development of anthelmintic resistance or disposition of drug residues in the environment, novel control approaches are currently proposed that target anthelmintic treatment to

  9. Welfare-positive management and nutrition for the dairy herd: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, David N; Mayne, C Sinclair

    2014-01-01

    As European dairy farms become larger and diverge between grass-based and fully housed systems, interest in the welfare of the dairy cow and related environmental issues by consumers and legislators is increasing. These pressures mean that good nutrition and management, which underpin much dairy cow welfare, is critical. Despite considerable research into the management and nutrition of the dairy cow from calf to adulthood there is much on-farm variability in its application. While the incidences of many endemic diseases are reduced most are still significant, for example lameness. In addition, trade and climate change are bringing a more diverse range of pathogens, parasites and pests into Northern Europe. Housing aspects are limited in application by economics and in most cases still do not match grazing for welfare in temperate climates. Genomic technologies offer increased opportunities to breed for 'robustness' but like 'precision animal management systems' have still to be fully exploited.

  10. The economic effects of whole-herd versus selective anthelmintic treatment strategies in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlier, J.; Levecke, B.; Devleesschauwer, B.; Vercruysse, J.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Current control practices against gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy cows rely strongly on anthelmintic use. To reduce the development of anthelmintic resistance or disposition of drug residues in the environment, novel control approaches are currently proposed that target anthelmintic treatment to

  11. Risk factors associated with clinical mastitis in low somatic cell count British dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeler, E J; Green, M J; Fitzpatrick, J L; Morgan, K L; Green, L E

    2000-11-01

    A cross-sectional survey of dairy farms with low bulk milk somatic cell counts was carried out to assess the level of clinical mastitis and to quantify risk factors associated with the incidence rate of clinical mastitis. Questionnaires were sent to 3009 milk operations with an annual mean bulk milk somatic cell count of less than 100,000 cells/ml during 1997. A response rate was 61%. The mean incidence of clinical mastitis reported was 22.8 cases per 100 cows/yr. Negative binomial regression models were used to assess statistically significant risk factors associated with the incidence of clinical mastitis. The incidence increased when farmers reported that they had straw yard housing for milking cows (compared with cubicle housing), mucked out the calving area less frequently than once per month, kept cows standing in a yard after milking, always practiced postmilking teat disinfection, had greater than 50% replacement rate, had some cows that leaked milk on entry to the parlor, had some cows that leaked milk at other times, and foremilked before cluster attachment. The incidence of clinical mastitis was lower on farms when the gathering yard used before milking was scraped at least twice a day, cows were offered feed after both milkings, rubber gloves were not worn during milking, teat liners were changed after 6000 milkings, and the average dry period was less than 40 d. The study has identified areas of the environment in which efforts to improve hygiene should be focused.

  12. Effects of folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on culling rate, diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplessis, M; Girard, C L; Santschi, D E; Laforest, J-P; Durocher, J; Pellerin, D

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of a combined folic acid and vitamin B12 supplement given in early lactation on culling rate, metabolic disorders and other diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds. A total of 805 cows (271 primiparous and 534 multiparous cows) in 15 commercial dairy herds were involved. Every 2mo from February to December 2010 and within each herd, cows were assigned according to parity, previous 305-d milk production, and calving interval to 5mL of either (1) saline 0.9% NaCl (control group) or (2) 320mg of folic acid + 10mg of vitamin B12 (vitamin group). Treatments were administered weekly by intramuscular injections starting 3wk before the expected calving date until 8wk after parturition. A total of 221 cows were culled before the next dry period. Culling rate was not affected by treatment and was 27.5%; culling rate was greater for multiparous (32.2%) than for primiparous cows (18.8%). Within the first 60d in milk (DIM), 47 cows were culled, representing 21.3% of total culling, and no treatment effect was noted. Ketosis incidence based on a threshold ≥100µmol/L of β-hydroxybutyrate in milk was 38.3±2.9% for the vitamin group and 41.8±3.0% for the control group and was not affected by treatment. The combined supplement of folic acid and vitamin B12 did not decrease incidence of retained placenta, displaced abomasum, milk fever, metritis, or mastitis. However, the incidence of dystocia decreased by 50% in multiparous cows receiving the vitamin supplement, although no effect was observed in primiparous cows. The first breeding postpartum for multiparous cows occurred 3.8d earlier with the vitamin supplement compared with controls, whereas no treatment effect was seen for primiparous cows. Days open, first- and second-breeding conception rates, number of breedings per conception, and percentage of cows pregnant at 150 DIM were not affected by treatment. The reduced percentage of dystocia combined with the

  13. An intra-laboratory cultural and real-time PCR method comparison and evaluation for the detection of subclinical paratuberculosis in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuvelink, Annet; Hassan, Abdulwahed Ahmed; van Weering, Hilmar; van Engelen, Erik; Bülte, Michael; Akineden, Ömer

    2016-12-17

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is a vigorous microorganism which causes incurable chronic enteritis, Johne's disease (JD) in cattle. A target of control programmes for JD is to accurately detect MAP-infected cattle early to reduce disease transmission. The present study evaluated the efficacy of two different cultural procedures and a TaqMan real-time PCR assay for detection of subclinical paratuberculosis in dairy herds. Therefore, sixty-one faecal samples were collected from two Dutch dairy herds (n = 40 and n = 21, respectively) which were known to be MAP-ELISA positive. All individual samples were assessed using two different cultural protocols in two different laboratories. The first cultural protocol (first laboratory) included a decontamination step with 0.75% hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HPC) followed by inoculation on Herrold's egg yolk media (HEYM). The second protocol (second laboratory) comprised of a decontamination step using 4% NaOH and malachite green-oxalic acid followed by inoculation on two media, HEYM and in parallel on modified Löwenstein-Jensen media (mLJ). For the TaqMan real-time PCR assay, all faecal samples were tested in two different laboratories using TaqMan® MAP (Johne's) reagents (Life Technologies). The cultural procedures revealed positive reactions in 1.64% of the samples for cultivation protocol 1 and 6.56 and 8.20% of the samples for cultivation protocol 2, respectively. The results of the TaqMan real-time PCR performed in two different laboratories yielded 13.11 and 19.76% positive reaction. The kappa test showed proportional agreement 0.54 between the mLJ media (second laboratory) and TaqMan® real-time PCR method (second laboratory). In conclusion, the TaqMan real-time PCR could be a strongly useful and efficient assay for the detection of subclinical paratuberculosis in dairy cattle leading to an improvement in the efficiency of MAP control strategies.

  14. The environmental impact of mastitis: a case study of dairy herds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hospido, Almudena [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)]. E-mail: ahospido@usc.es; Sonesson, Ulf [Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology (SIK), PO Box 5401, SE-402 29 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-05-01

    Mastitis is defined as an inflammatory reaction of udder tissue to bacterial, chemical, thermal or mechanical injury, which causes heavy financial losses and milk wastage throughout the world. Until now, studies have focused on the economic aspects from which perspective mastitis can generally be considered as the most serious disease in dairy cows; however, costs are not the only negative consequence resulting from the infection. The environmental impact is also significant; milk is discarded, which means lower efficiency and hence a greater environmental impact per produced liter of milk. Less milk is produced, which leads to an increased need for calf feed, and meat production is also affected. The main aim of this paper was to quantify the environmental impact of mastitis incidence. A standard scenario (representative of present-day reality in Galicia, Spain) and an improved scenario (in which mastitis incidence rate is reduced by diverse actions) have been defined and compared using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. Among the impact categories studied, acidification, eutrophication and global warming were found to be the most significant environmental impacts. In all these categories, it was revealed that a decrease in mastitis incidence has a positive influence as the environmental impact is reduced. Even if the quantitative results cannot show a considerable decrease in the environmental burden, the impact cannot be regarded as negligible when the total consumption or total production of a region is considered. For example, the outcome of the proposed improvement measures for Spain's greenhouse gas emissions can be quantified as 0.06% of total emissions and 0.56% of emissions by the agricultural sector.

  15. Economic trade-offs between genetic improvement and longevity in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, A

    2017-05-01

    Genetic improvement in sires used for artificial insemination (AI) is increasing faster compared with a decade ago. The genetic merit of replacement heifers is also increasing faster and the genetic lag with older cows in the herd increases. This may trigger greater cow culling to capture this genetic improvement. On the other hand, lower culling rates are often viewed favorably because the costs and environmental effects of maintaining herd size are generally lower. Thus, there is an economic trade-off between genetic improvement and longevity in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to investigate the principles, literature, and magnitude of these trade-offs. Data from the Council on Dairy Cattle Breeding show that the estimated breeding value of the trait productive life has increased for 50 yr but the actual time cows spend in the herd has not increased. The average annual herd cull rate remains at approximately 36% and cow longevity is approximately 59 mo. The annual increase in average estimated breeding value of the economic index lifetime net merit of Holstein sires is accelerating from $40/yr when the sire entered AI around 2002 to $171/yr for sires that entered AI around 2012. The expectation is therefore that heifers born in 2015 are approximately $50 more profitable per lactation than heifers born in 2014. Asset replacement theory shows that assets should be replaced sooner when the challenging asset is technically improved. Few studies have investigated the direct effects of genetic improvement on optimal cull rates. A 35-yr-old study found that the economically optimal cull rates were in the range of 25 to 27%, compared with the lowest possible involuntary cull rate of 20%. Only a small effect was observed of using the best surviving dams to generate the replacement heifer calves. Genetic improvement from sires had little effect on the optimal cull rate. Another study that optimized culling decisions for individual cows also showed that the

  16. Strategies for time of culling in control of paratuberculosis in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad; Nielsen, S S; Østergaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    the ranking between the different culling strategies. Increased market price (20%) of replacement heifers made all culling strategies less profitable and made culling based on a milk yield criterion the most profitable culling strategy for a longer period (11 to 13 yr). A 20% reduction in heifer price made...... reproduction management. However, this strategy only stabilized the prevalence and did not reduce it. In the long term (>7 yr from implementation of a strategy), it was most profitable to cull cows immediately or as soon as possible after testing positive the first time. Varying milk prices did not affect...... immediate culling after a positive test the most profitable strategy overall in herds with typical reproduction, and after 9 yr in herd with poor reproduction. To conclude, the ideal culling strategy depends on the aim of intervention, the time horizon, and the reproductive capabilities combined with prices...

  17. Triennial Lactation Symposium: Opportunities for improving milk production efficiency in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, E E; Hutchison, J L; Olson, K M; Norman, H D

    2012-05-01

    Increasing feed costs and the desire to improve environmental stewardship have stimulated renewed interest in improving feed efficiency of livestock, including that of US dairy herds. For instance, USDA cost projections for corn and soybean meal suggest a 20% increase over 2010 pricing for a 16% protein mixed dairy cow ration in 2011, which may lead to a reduction in cow numbers to maintain profitability of dairy production. Furthermore, an October 2010 study by The Innovation Center for US Dairy to assess the carbon footprint of fluid milk found that the efficiency of feed conversion is the single greatest factor contributing to variation in the carbon footprint because of its effects on methane release during enteric fermentation and from manure. Thus, we are conducting research in contemporary US Holsteins to identify cows most efficient at converting feed to milk in temperate climates using residual feed intake (RFI), a measure used successfully to identify the beef cattle most efficient at converting feed to gain. Residual feed intake is calculated as the difference between predicted and actual feed intake to support maintenance and production (e.g., growth in beef cattle, or milk in dairy cattle). Heritability estimates for RFI in dairy cattle reported in the literature range from 0.01 to 0.38. Selection for a decreased RFI phenotype can reduce feed intake, methane production, nutrient losses in manure, and visceral organ weights substantially in beef cattle. We have estimated RFI during early lactation (i.e., to 90 d in milk) in the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center Holstein herd and observed a mean difference of 3.7 kg/d (P 0.20) in mean BW, ADG, or energy-corrected milk exhibited between the 2 groups. These results indicate promise for using RFI in dairy cattle to improve feed conversion to milk. Previous and current research on the use of RFI in lactating dairy cattle are discussed, as well as opportunities to improve production efficiency of dairy

  18. Blood Selenium Associated with Health and Fertility in Norwegian Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kommisrud E

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of blood selenium (Se concentrations in Norwegian Red heifers and dry period cows was conducted to reveal possible association to management, feeding, health and fertility. Selenium contents were determined in 254 herd blood samples consisting of pooled samples from individual non-lactating animals from herds in 5 counties. The Se concentrations showed a normal distribution with mean 0.09 μg Se/g blood, with a standard deviation (SD of 0.05, and ranged from 0.02 to 0.23 μg/g, with 50 % of the samples being between 0.06 and 0.11 μg/g. The herds with Se concentrations below 0.06 μg/g were smaller (21.4 ± 8.7 cow-years than those with Se levels above 0.11 μg/g (27.5 ± 14.1 cow-years (P pre partum and decreased incidence of mastitis, ovarian cysts and anoestrus/silent oestrus post partum.

  19. Detection of an untyped strain of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in a dairy herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Bortolin Affonso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV causes important lower respiratory tract illness in calves. According to F and G proteins genetic sequences, three BRSV subgroups have been reported and characterized in several countries, showing differences in its distribution. In Brazil, the virus is widely disseminated throughout the herds and the few characterized isolates revealed the solely occurrence of the subgroup B. This study describes the detection and characterization of an untyped BRSV strain from a twenty-days-old calf from a herd without clinical respiratory disease. Nasal swabs were analyzed by RT-nested PCR for the F and G proteins genes. One sample has amplified the F protein gene. Sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic reconstruction were accomplished, revealing that the strain could not be grouped with any other BRSV subgroups reported. This result may suggest that the BRSV is in constantly evolution, even in Brazil, where the vaccination is not a common practice. More detailed studies about BRSV characterization are necessary to know the virus subgroups distribution among the Brazilian herds to recommend appropriated immunoprophylaxis.

  20. The effect of reproductive performance on the dairy cattle herd value assessed by integrating a daily dynamic programming model with a daily Markov chain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, A S; Cabrera, V E

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reproductive performance on dairy cattle herd value. Herd value was defined as the herd's average retention payoff (RPO). Individual cow RPO is the expected profit from keeping the cow compared with immediate replacement. First, a daily dynamic programming model was developed to calculate the RPO of all cow states in a herd. Second, a daily Markov chain model was applied to estimate the herd demographics. Finally, the herd value was calculated by aggregating the RPO of all cows in the herd. Cow states were described by 5 milk yield classes (76, 88, 100, 112, and 124% with respect to the average), 9 lactations, 750 d in milk, and 282 d in pregnancy. Five different reproductive programs were studied (RP1 to RP5). Reproductive program 1 used 100% timed artificial insemination (TAI; 42% conception rate for first TAI and 30% for second and later services) and the other programs combined TAI with estrus detection. The proportion of cows receiving artificial insemination after estrus detection ranged from 30 to 80%, and conception rate ranged from 25 to 35%. These 5 reproductive programs were categorized according to their 21-d pregnancy rate (21-d PR), which is an indication of the rate that eligible cows become pregnant every 21 d. The 21-d PR was 17% for RP1, 14% for RP2, 16% for RP3, 18% for RP4, and 20% for RP5. Results showed a positive relationship between 21-d PR and herd value. The most extreme herd value difference between 2 reproductive programs was $77/cow per yr for average milk yield (RP5 - RP2), $13/cow per yr for lowest milk yield (RP5 - RP1), and $160/cow per yr for highest milk yield (RP5 - RP2). Reproductive programs were ranked based on their calculated herd value. With the exception of the best reproductive program (RP5), all other programs showed some level of ranking change according to milk yield. The most dramatic ranking change was observed in RP1, which moved from being the worst ranked

  1. Evaluation of natural transmission of bovine leukaemia virus within dairy herds of Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monti, G.E.; Frankena, K.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe patterns of seroconversion to bovine leukaemia virus and to estimate the main parameters needed for future model building. A longitudinal study was carried out between February 1999 and November 2001 in seven commercial dairy farms in Argentina using 1535

  2. Factors associated with Neospora caninum serostatus in cattle of 20 specialised Costa Rican dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, J.J.; Perez, E.; Dolz, G.; Frankena, K.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-five specialised Costa Rican dairy farms (located in the Poás area) were used to determine neosporosis seroprevalence and the association of seropositivity with environmental and management factors. The farms involved were selected intentionally and all of them use VAMPP 5.1 (Veterinary Autom

  3. Evaluation of natural transmission of bovine leukaemia virus within dairy herds of Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monti, G.E.; Frankena, K.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe patterns of seroconversion to bovine leukaemia virus and to estimate the main parameters needed for future model building. A longitudinal study was carried out between February 1999 and November 2001 in seven commercial dairy farms in Argentina using 1535 la

  4. Bovine herpesvirus 4-associated postpartum metritis in a Spanish dairy herd.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monge, A.; Elvira, L.; Gonzalez, J.V.; Astiz, S.; Wellenberg, G.J.

    2006-01-01

    In more than 10 Spanish dairy cows, a bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) associated postpartum metritis was confirmed by virus isolation, BHV4-glycoprotein B (gB) PCR and/or serology. In this study, 12 cows with, and, at the time of sampling, 3 cows without clinical signs of acute postpartum metritis from

  5. Use of a staphylococcal vaccine to reduce prevalence of mastitis and lower somatic cell counts in a registered Saanen dairy goat herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, F M; Nickerson, S C; Ely, L O

    2014-08-01

    This investigation evaluated the efficacy of a bacterin in reducing the prevalence of staphylococcal mastitis and somatic cell counts (SCC) in a dairy goat herd. Does were vaccinated or left as controls, and the levels of mastitis and SCC monitored over 18 months. Staphylococcus caprae (42.5%), S. xylosus (15.1%), and S. simulans (10.0%) were the predominant causes of intramammary infections (IMI). The infection rate was 1.64 IMI/doe among vaccinates, which tended to be lower (P mastitis vaccines for use in managing staphylococcal mastitis and SCC in dairy goats. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. ENZYME-LINKED-IMMUNOSORBENT-ASSAY FOR SCREENING OF MILK SAMPLES FOR SALMONELLA-TYPHIMURIUM IN DAIRY HERDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Wedderkopp, A.

    1995-01-01

    positive (herd specificity, 0.9 and herd sensitivity, 1.0). A sig nificant correlation (P serum and milk samples from cows in the herds with a history of salmonellosis. It was concluded that ELISA testing of individual milk sam ples can be used for surveillance......We investigated the ability of an antibody-specific, O antigen-based ELISA to document Salmonella typhimurium herd infections by screening of milk samples. Three cattle populations, 20 herds with no history of salmonellosis, 8 herds with history of S typhimurium epsiodes within the previous 7...... of herds for S typhimurium infections, but further modifications are needed to test bulk tank milk samples....

  7. A study of duration of digital dermatitis lesions after treatment in a Danish dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bodil; Thomsen, Peter; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Digital dermatitis (DD) is a contagious disease of cattle affecting the skin adjacent to the claws. Disease dynamics of DD have been described to some extend, but we still need to quantify the duration of lesions and look into non-treatment factors affecting this. The aim of this study......- and multiparous cows and between different stages in lactation at onset of the lesion. The median duration of lesions were estimated to be 42 days, less than previous published estimates. The relatively aggressive regime of topical treatment in the study herd might have shortened the duration of the lesions...

  8. Cluster analysis of fasciolosis in dairy cow herds in Munster province of Ireland and detection of major climatic and environmental predictors of the exposure risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Selemetas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is a widespread parasitic disease in cattle farms. The aim of this study was to detect clusters of fasciolosis in dairy cow herds in Munster Province, Ireland and to identify significant climatic and environmental predictors of the exposure risk. In total, 1,292 dairy herds across Munster was sampled in September 2012 providing a single bulk tank milk (BTM sample. The analysis of samples by an in-house antibody-detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, showed that 65% of the dairy herds (n = 842 had been exposed to F. hepatica. Using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic, 16 high-risk and 24 low-risk (P <0.01 clusters of fasciolosis were identified. The spatial distribution of high-risk clusters was more dispersed and mainly located in the northern and western regions of Munster compared to the low-risk clusters that were mostly concentrated in the southern and eastern regions. The most significant classes of variables that could reflect the difference between high-risk and low-risk clusters were the total number of wet-days and rain-days, rainfall, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, temperature and soil type. There was a bigger proportion of well-drained soils among the low-risk clusters, whereas poorly drained soils were more common among the high-risk clusters. These results stress the role of precipitation, grazing, temperature and drainage on the life cycle of F. hepatica in the temperate Irish climate. The findings of this study highlight the importance of cluster analysis for identifying significant differences in climatic and environmental variables between high-risk and low-risk clusters of fasciolosis in Irish dairy herds.

  9. A mixed methods inquiry: How dairy farmers perceive the value(s of their involvement in an intensive dairy herd health management program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Erling

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has been scarce when it comes to the motivational and behavioral sides of farmers' expectations related to dairy herd health management programs. The objectives of this study were to explore farmers' expectations related to participation in a health management program by: 1 identifying important ambitions, goals and subjective well-being among farmers, 2 submitting those data to a quantitative analysis thereby characterizing perspective(s of value added by health management programs among farmers; and 3 to characterize perceptions of farmers' goals among veterinarians. Methods The subject was initially explored by means of literature, interviews and discussions with farmers, herd health management consultants and researchers to provide an understanding (a concourse of the research entity. The concourse was then broken down into 46 statements. Sixteen Danish dairy farmers and 18 veterinarians associated with one large nationwide veterinary practice were asked to rank the 46 statements that defined the concourse. Next, a principal component analysis was applied to identify correlated statements and thus families of perspectives between respondents. Q-methodology was utilized to represent each of the statements by one row and each respondent by one column in the matrix. A subset of the farmers participated in a series of semi-structured interviews to face validate the concourse and to discuss subjects like animal welfare, veterinarians' competences as experienced by the farmers and time constraints in the farmers' everyday life. Results Farmers' views could be described by four families of perspectives: Teamwork, Animal welfare, Knowledge dissemination, and Production. Veterinarians believed that farmers' primary focus was on production and profit, however, farmers' valued teamwork and animal welfare more. Conclusion The veterinarians in this study appear to focus too much on financial performance and increased

  10. Executive summary of effects of air emissions from sour gas plants on the health and productivity of beef and dairy herds in Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M. H.

    1998-07-01

    The effects of licensed emissions into air from sour gas processing plants and oilfield batteries on the health and productivity of beef cow-calf and dairy herds was investigated. Four distinct atmospheric dispersion models were used to assess historical exposures at 1,382 dairy and 5,726 beef cow-calf farm sites from 1985 through 1994 to three exposure variables: (1) emissions into air from licensed sour gas processing plants, (2) sulphur dioxide from all larger industrial sources, or (3) solution gas flaring. In the dairy study, none of the emissions were found to have harmful association with herd culling or mortality, milk production, milk somatic cell count, stillbirths or twin births. The beef cow-calf study showed no significant negative association between the sour gas or sulphur dioxide exposure variables and herd culling, the calf-crop delivered, stillbirth, calf mortality, or calf-crop weaned. Some negative association was found to exist between the level of exposure to sulphur dioxide from large industrial sources, which increased the number of twin births and produced an increased calving season profile. However, this finding does not directly implicate the sour gas industry as a cause.

  11. Antibody dynamics in BRSV-infected Danish dairy herds as determined by isotype-specific immunoglobulins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Larsen, Lars Erik; Philipsen, J.S.;

    2000-01-01

    Using specific ELISAs, antibody levels of four different isotypes to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) were determined in calves, following experimental BRSV infection. Most calves experienced an increase in the specific IgM and IgG1 titres about 6-10 days after infection with BRSV. The Ig......M titre was transient showing positive titres for only 5-10 days, while specific IgG1 was present for a longer time. IgA was detected concomitantly with IgM but at a lower level. Production of IgG2 anti-BRSV antibodies was detected from 3 weeks after infection. In two closed herds, repeated blood...... samplings were performed on young stock to analyse maternal immunity. The passively transferred antibodies were mainly of the IgG1 isotype and the half-life of IgG1 to BRSV was estimated to be 26.6 days. One of the herds had an outbreak of enzootic pneumonia, diagnosed to be caused by BRSV. Furthermore...

  12. Milk Fatty Acids Predicted by Mid-infrared Spectroscopy in Mixed Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo De Marchi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, healthy food has gained interest among consumers, especially with regard to the fat content of livestock products which has been associated to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Individual milk samples (n = 12,624 of 2,977 Holstein-Friesian (HF, Brown Swiss (BS and Simmental (SI cows from 39 multibreed herds were analyzed for fat content, protein content, casein content and somatic cell count using mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS. Daily milk yield was also recorded. Groups of fatty acids (FA, expressed as percentage of milk fat, were predicted by MIRS: they were saturated (SFA, unsaturated (UFA, monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated (PUFA FA. Data were analyzed with a linear mixed model including the fixed effects of month of sampling, parity, days in milk (DIM, herd, breed, and interactions between parity and breed, and DIM and breed. The random effects were cow nested within breed and residual. Milk of HF cows exhibited the lowest percentage of SFA (70.45% and the highest of UFA (31.20%, and milk of SI cows was intermediate between that of HF and BS breeds for all groups of FA. The values of groups of FA across DIM were similar for the different breeds. Results from this study indicate that, under similar environmental and management conditions, milk of HF exhibits better FA profile than milk of BS and SI.

  13. Evaluation of natural transmission of bovine leukaemia virus within dairy herds of Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Monti, G.E.; Frankena, K.; Jong, de, F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe patterns of seroconversion to bovine leukaemia virus and to estimate the main parameters needed for future model building. A longitudinal study was carried out between February 1999 and November 2001 in seven commercial dairy farms in Argentina using 1535 lactating cows. Time-interval parameters were analysed using a parametric survival model with shared frailty, time until infection was analysed using a Bayesian interval-censoring survival model and ...

  14. The effect of somatic cell count data adjustment and interpretation, as outlined in European Union legislation, on herd eligibility to supply raw milk for processing of dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, S J; Clegg, T A; Lynch, P J; O'Grady, L

    2013-06-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC) limits are a key component of national and international regulation for milk quality. As yet, very limited work has been published on SCC regulatory standards, including on the effect of different approaches to SCC data adjustment and interpretation. This study examines the effect of SCC data adjustment and interpretation, as outlined in current European Union (EU) legislation, on herd eligibility to supply raw milk for processing of dairy products for human consumption, using Irish data for illustration. The study used Irish milk-recording data as a proxy for bulk tank SCC (BTSCC) data, to calculate an unadjusted monthly SCC value for each herd during each month of participation. Subsequently, 4 data adjustments were applied, as outlined in EU and national legislation: seasonal adjustment; 3-mo rolling geometric average, without accounting for a break in the supply; 3-mo rolling geometric average, after accounting for a break in the supply; and seasonal adjustment and 3-mo rolling geometric average combined, after accounting for a break in the supply. Analyses were conducted to examine the effect, during the period from 2004 to 2010, of data adjustment on the percentage of herds with herd SCC >400,000 cells/mL. In all, 4 interpretation scenarios, incorporating different data adjustment combinations, were used to estimate herd eligibility (compliant, under warning, or suspended, as defined by legislation) to supply raw milk for processing. The 4 methods of data adjustment each led to a sizable reduction (6.7, 5.0, 5.3, and 11.1 percentage points, respectively, compared with the unadjusted data) in the percentage of herds exceeding a herd SCC of 400,000 cells/mL. Herd eligibility varied by interpretation scenarios, in particular those incorporating seasonal adjustment. The study provides new perspectives on the effect of data adjustment on herd SCC and of interpretation scenarios on herd eligibility. The results provide an illustrative

  15. The DD Check App for prevention and control of digital dermatitis in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marlène; Bennett, Tom; Döpfer, Dörte

    2016-09-15

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is the most important infectious claw disease in the cattle industry causing outbreaks of lameness. The clinical course of disease can be classified using 5 clinical stages. M-stages represent not only different disease severities but also unique clinical characteristics and outcomes. Monitoring the proportions of cows per M-stage is needed to better understand and address DD and factors influencing risks of DD in a herd. Changes in the proportion of cows per M-stage over time or between groups may be attributed to differences in management, environment, or treatment and can have impact on the future claw health of the herd. Yet trends in claw health regarding DD are not intuitively noticed without statistical analysis of detailed records. Our specific aim was to develop a mobile application (app) for persons with less statistical training, experience or supporting programs that would standardize M-stage records, automate data analysis including trends of M-stages over time, the calculation of predictions and assignments of Cow Types (i.e., Cow Types I-III are assigned to cows without active lesions, single and repeated cases of active DD lesions, respectively). The predictions were the stationary distributions of transitions between DD states (i.e., M-stages or signs of chronicity) in a class-structured multi-state Markov chain population model commonly used to model endemic diseases. We hypothesized that the app can be used at different levels of record detail to discover significant trends in the prevalence of M-stages that help to make informed decisions to prevent and control DD on-farm. Four data sets were used to test the flexibility and value of the DD Check App. The app allows easy recording of M-stages in different environments and is flexible in terms of the users' goals and the level of detail used. Results show that this tool discovers trends in M-stage proportions, predicts potential outbreaks of DD, and makes comparisons among

  16. Management, operational, animal health, and economic characteristics of large dairy herds in 4 states in the Upper Midwest of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evink, T L; Endres, M I

    2017-09-06

    Recent trends in dairy farm structure in the United States have included a decreasing number of farms, although farm size has increased, especially the share of milk production from very large herds (>2,500 cows). The objectives of this observational study were to describe common management practices; to characterize labor and operational structure; to measure some aspects of animal health, including lameness, hock lesions, mortality, and mastitis incidence; and to summarize cost of production on farms with more than 2,500 cows in 4 states in the Upper Midwest of the United States. The study included 15 dairy farms in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and South Dakota. Farms were visited twice, once each year, and on-farm herd records were collected for those 2 yr. On-farm herd records were used to investigate mortality, culling, pregnancy rate, and clinical mastitis incidence. At least 1 high-producing pen of mature cows and 1 pen of fresh cows were scored for locomotion. Likewise, at least 1 pen of high-producing mature cows was scored for cleanliness and hock lesions. Median herd size was 3,975 cows (range = 2,606-13,266). Milk sold per employee was 1,120,745 kg and the number of cows per employee was 105. Eighty percent of the farms had Holstein cows, 13% had Jersey, and 7% had Jersey-Holstein crosses. All farms used artificial insemination as the sole form of breeding and 100% of the farms used hormonal synchronization or timed artificial insemination programs in their reproductive protocols; 21-d pregnancy rate was 21.7%. Median lameness prevalence was 18.3% and median severe lameness prevalence was 5.1%. Median hock lesion prevalence was 17.4% and median severe hock lesion prevalence was 1.9%; mortality rate was 7.4%. Clinical mastitis incidence was 62.5 cases per 100 cow-years. Feed costs accounted for approximately 53% of the total cost of producing milk, followed by labor at 11%, interest and depreciation expenses at 10%, and replacement costs at 9.5%. Herds in

  17. SYNCHRONIZATION PROGRAMS FOR REPRODUCTIVE MANAGEMENT OF DAIRY HERDS PROGRAMAS DE SINCRONIZACIÓN DE CELOS PARA EL MANEJO REPRODUCTIVO DE GANADERÍAS DE LECHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Jose

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors that can influence reproduction of the dairy cow such as management, physiologic factors, nutrition, genetics, and diseases Reproductive efficiency. Reproductive performance is therefore a major concern in dairy herds to success, and it has to be subject of continuous and accurate evaluation in reproductive herd health programs, in order to detect problems and implement adequate solutions. Controlled breeding programs have allowed dairy producers to optimize service rate with little impact on conception and pregnancy losses in lactating dairy cows.Existen muchos factores que pueden influenciar la reproduccion en ganaderías de leche, tales como el manejo, factores fisiológicos, la nutrición, genéticos, y la presentación de enfermedades, entre otros. Por esta razon la eficiencia reproductiva es de gran importancia en las ganaderías para ser exitosas y debe ser continua y adecuadamente evaluada en los programas reproductivos de salud de hato, con el fin de detectar los problemas y establecer las soluciones adecuadas. Los programas de reproduccion controlados, han permitido a los productores optimizar las tasas de servicios con un muy pequeño impacto en las tasas de concepción y perdida gestacional en ganaderías de leche.

  18. Subclinical mastitis effects in some dairy herds in the Upper Chicamocha River (Boyacá Department)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrey Pinzón Trujillo; Fausto Camilo Moreno Vásquez; Germán Rodríguez Martínez

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to carry out a study about the effects of subclinical mastitis in cows of 34 dairy farms in the Upper Chicamocha region (Boyacá department).The farms are registered in the livestock farmers association of Boyacá (FABEGAN). This study was done with the aim to know about the infection status of cows and establish which are the principal etiologic agents associated with the disease and its relation with the milking routine. To this aim, applied comparison even tests ...

  19. An Unusual Occurrence of Actinobacillosis in Heifers and Cows in A Dairy Herd in Tehran suburb-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atyabi, N.,

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An unusual occurrence of actinobacillosis was diagnosed in 4 heifers aged 8-15 months and 2 cattle in a dairy herd with 190 Iranian Holstein breed. Anorexia, dysphagia, drooling of normal or foodtinged saliva and presence of warts-like lesions on the dorsal surface of tongue shaft were observed in a 15-month-old heifer without showing protrusion of tongue or presenting woody tongue and no involvement of either sulcus lingualis or tongue base. In addition to tongue, soft tissues of oral cavity and pharyngeal region including lymph nodes, salivary glands and tonsils were contained multiple whitish nodules. Histopathologically, typical pyogranulomas of actinobacillosis contained radiating eosinophilic clubs surrounded by many neutrophils were diagnosed. Actinobacillus lignieresii was isolated from the lesions in pure culture. Clinical examination of other animals revealed the presence of different degrees of granulomatous abscesses in soft tissues including skin around mandibles in at least 3 heifers aged 8-11 months and 2 cattle. Due to 4 recent droughty years feeding the heifers, dry cows and low milk producing cattle by cheap oat and wheat straw mixed with plant awns could be the cause of this event.

  20. RELATION BETWEEN NUTRITION AND HEALTH IN DAIRY HERDS RELACIÓN ENTRE NUTRICIÓN Y SALUD EN HATOS LECHEROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carulla Juan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of health and production problems related to feeding, nutrition and/or metabolism have being growing in dairy herds. Early diagnosis allows their reduction and consequently reduces economic losses. Monitoring nutritional status periodically allows to identify possible causes of nutritional unbalances and/or mistakes in feeding practices and establish corrective measurements.La incidencia de problemas alimenticios, nutricionales y metabólicos es cada vez mayor en hatos lecheros, así como la aparición de problemas sanitarios, productivos y reproductivos asociados a los mismos. La detección oportuna y correcta de éstos permite reducir su incidencia y, por tanto, las pérdidas económicas de los hatos. El monitoreo nutricional periódico hace posible establecer el estado nutricional de una población animal, e identificar las posibles causas de desbalances nutricionales y errores en la alimentación, así como orientar en la toma de decisiones acerca de los correctivos que se deben establecer cuando se detectan problemas. El análisis de las posibles relaciones existentes entre la información aportada por cada uno de los aspectos evaluados en el monitoreo nutricional permite una evaluación más adecuada que su análisis independiente y aislado.

  1. Quantification of antimicrobial consumption in adult cattle on dairy herds in Flanders, Belgium, and associations with udder health, milk quality, and production performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, M; Piepers, S; Supré, K; Dewulf, J; De Vliegher, S

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to quantify the (compound-specific) antimicrobial consumption (AMC) in adult cattle in a convenience sample of Flemish dairy herds. Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained between 2012 and 2013 by "garbage can audits" and expressed as antimicrobial treatment incidence (ATI), with the unit of the ATI being the number of defined daily doses animal (DDDA) used per 1,000 cow-days. Herds were stratified by DDDA into low-, medium-, and high-consuming herds to study the AMC per route of administration, and associations with parameters reflecting udder health, milk quality, and production performances were examined. The average ATI in adult dairy cattle for all compounds was 20.78 DDDA (per 1,000 cow-days). Large variation existed between herds (ranging from 8.68 to 41.62 DDDA). Fourth-generation cephalosporins were used most (4.99 DDDA), followed by penicillins (3.70 DDDA) and third-generation cephalosporins (2.95 DDDA). The average ATI of the critically important antimicrobials for human health (i.e., third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones according to the World Organisation for Animal Health classification) was somewhat lower than the average ATI of the other antimicrobials (8.59 and 12.18 DDDA, respectively). The average ATI for intramammary treatment of (sub)clinical mastitis, for dry-cow therapy, and for systemically administered antimicrobials was 6.30, 6.89, and 7.44 DDDA, respectively. In low-consuming herds, most antimicrobials were being used for dry-cow therapy, whereas in high-consuming herds, most antimicrobials were being used as injectable or intramammary mastitis therapy. The incidence rate of treated mastitis was positively associated with ATI. Herds that applied blanket dry-cow therapy tended to have a higher ATI than herds in which cows were selectively dried off with long-acting antimicrobials. The ATI decreased with an increasing prevalence of primiparous cows.

  2. Using routinely recorded herd data to predict and benchmark herd and cow health status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic improvement of dairy cattle health using producer-recorded data is feasible. Estimates of heritability are low, indicating that genetic progress will be slow. Improvement of health traits may also be possible with the incorporation of environmental and managerial aspects into herd health pro...

  3. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus strains from dairy herds in KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schmidt

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is 1 of the most important causes of bovine mastitis and is responsible for significant economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide. One of the principal approaches used in treating intramammary infections is the administration of antimicrobials. Due to the propensity of S. aureus to develop resistance, antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring is necessary to ensure that treatment regimens are effective. As part of this investigation, 90 S. aureus strains isolated from mastitis cases submitted to Allerton Provincial Veterinary Laboratory during 2008 and 2009 were evaluated for their susceptibility to a panel of 10 antimicrobials. Only 8 of the 90 S. aureus isolates tested (8.9 % were found to be susceptible to all of the antimicrobials evaluated. A very high level of resistance to the beta-lactam antibiotics was noted: 47.8 % of the isolates were resistant to penicillin and 65.6 % were resistant to ampicillin. Minimal resistance to oxacillin, cephalothin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1.1 % was found. Seventeen (18.9 % of the isolates tested were found to be resistant to 3 or more antimicrobials. The need for vigilant monitoring of bacterial resistance trends in the dairy industry is warranted as the potential public health implications are significant.

  4. The influence of the environment on dairy cow behavior, claw health and herd lameness dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Nigel B; Nordlund, Kenneth V

    2009-03-01

    Free stall housing increases the exposure of dairy cows' claws to concrete walk-ways and to manure between periods of rest, and generally shows the highest rate of lameness compared with other dairy management systems. However, there is great variation within a system, and the rate of new cases of lameness can be reduced to very low levels provided time spent resting per day is maximized through good stall design, access to stalls through stocking density control and comfortable transition cow facilities, limiting the time spent milking, provision of adequate heat abatement, and good leg hygiene. Sand bedded stalls are useful as they also permit lame cows to maintain adequate daily rest. Rubberized alley flooring surfaces benefit the cow by reducing claw wear and trauma compared to concrete, making them ideal for parlor holding areas and long transfer lanes and walk ways. However, caution is required when using rubber floors in pens with uncomfortable stalls due to apparent adverse effects on cow time budgets, which may in turn have a detrimental effect on lameness.

  5. The impact of cooling ponds in North Central Texas on dairy farm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomaszewski, M.A.; Haan, de M.H.A.; Thompson, J.A.; Jordan, E.R.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether measurable differences existed between farms with and without cooling ponds. Data from Dairy Herd Improvement records for 1999 through 2002 were obtained on 42 herds located in North Central Texas. Nineteen herds had installed cooling ponds,

  6. Pathogens associated with bovine mastitis in dairy herds in the south region of Brazil

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    Marta Bañolas Jobim

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, through microbiological examinations, the etiology of bovine mastitis in 628 milk samples coming from dairy farms from Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul along the year of 2007 were evaluated. Out of this total 1,382 microorganisms were isolated. By taking into account the total of isolations, the following microorganisms and their percentage, respectively were found: Staphylococcus spp. (30.53%, Escherichia coli (21.64%, Streptococcus bovis (17.08%, Streptococcus agalactiae (11.07%, Enterobacter spp. (7.53%, Pseudomonas spp. (4.12% and others (8.03%. The microorganisms grouped into the others are: Streptococcus spp., Proteus spp., gram negative rods, Shigella spp., Alcaligenes spp., Klebsiella spp., Edwarsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., Serratia spp., Salmonella spp. e Corynebacterium spp. The environmental pathogens predominated among the isolated microorganisms; 33.13% of the cultures presented more than three pathogens, suggesting contamination of the samples; in the mounts of November and December, there was an increase of the samples sent.

  7. Carbon footprint and land requirement for dairy herd rations: impacts of feed production practices and regional climate variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, M; Cederberg, C; Swensson, C

    2014-08-01

    Feed production is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy production and demands large arable and pasture acreage. This study analysed how regional conditions influence GHG emissions of dairy feed rations in a life cycle perspective, that is the carbon footprint (CF) and the land area required. Factors assessed included regional climate variations, grass/clover silage nutrient quality, feedstuff availability, crop yield and feed losses. Using the Nordic feed evaluation model NorFor, rations were optimised for different phases of lactation, dry and growing periods for older cows, first calvers and heifers by regional feed advisors and combined to annual herd rations. Feed production data at farm level were based on national statistics and studies. CF estimates followed standards for life cycle assessment and used emissions factors provided by IPCC. The functional unit was 'feed consumption to produce 1 kg energy corrected milk (ECM) from a cow with annual milk yield of 9 900 kg ECM including replacement animals and feed losses'. Feed ration CF varied from 417 to 531 g CO2 e/kg ECM. Grass/clover silage contributed more than 50% of total GHG emissions. Use of higher quality silage increased ration CF by up to 5% as a result of an additional cut and increased rates of synthetic N-fertiliser. Domestically produced horse bean (Vicia faba), by-products from the sugar industry and maize silage were included in the rations with the lowest CF, but horse bean significantly increased ration land requirement. Rations required between 1.4 to 2 m2 cropland and 0.1 to 0.2 m2/kg semi-natural grassland per kg ECM and year. Higher yield levels reduced ration total CF. Inclusion of GHG emissions from land use change associated with Brazilian soya feed significantly increased ration CF. Ration CF and land use depended on ration composition, which was highly influenced by the regional availability and production of feedstuffs. The impact of individual

  8. Whole-Genome Sequence Analysis of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae Isolates from Canadian Dairy Herds

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    Julián Reyes Vélez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to determine the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR genes using whole-genome sequence (WGS of Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (S. dysgalactiae isolates, recovered from dairy cows in the Canadian Maritime Provinces. A secondary objective included the exploration of the association between phenotypic AMR and the genomic characteristics (genome size, guanine–cytosine content, and occurrence of unique gene sequences. Initially, 91 isolates were sequenced, and of these isolates, 89 were assembled. Furthermore, 16 isolates were excluded due to larger than expected genomic sizes (>2.3 bp × 1,000 bp. In the final analysis, 73 were used with complete WGS and minimum inhibitory concentration records, which were part of the previous phenotypic AMR study, representing 18 dairy herds from the Maritime region of Canada (1. A total of 23 unique AMR gene sequences were found in the bacterial genomes, with a mean number of 8.1 (minimum: 5; maximum: 13 per genome. Overall, there were 10 AMR genes [ANT(6, TEM-127, TEM-163, TEM-89, TEM-95, Linb, Lnub, Ermb, Ermc, and TetS] present only in S. uberis genomes and 2 genes unique (EF-TU and TEM-71 to the S. dysgalactiae genomes; 11 AMR genes [APH(3′, TEM-1, TEM-136, TEM-157, TEM-47, TetM, bl2b, gyrA, parE, phoP, and rpoB] were found in both bacterial species. Two-way tabulations showed association between the phenotypic susceptibility to lincosamides and the presence of linB (P = 0.002 and lnuB (P < 0.001 genes and the between the presence of tetM (P = 0.015 and tetS (P = 0.064 genes and phenotypic resistance to tetracyclines only for the S. uberis isolates. The logistic model showed that the odds of resistance (to any of the phenotypically tested antimicrobials was 4.35 times higher when there were >11 AMR genes present in the genome, compared with <7 AMR genes (P < 0.001. The odds of resistance was lower for S

  9. Factors affecting pregnancy loss from gestation Day 38 to 90 in lactating dairy cows from a single herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gatius, F; Santolaria, P; Yániz, J; Rutllant, J; López-Béjar, M

    2002-03-01

    The present study was designed to establish whether factors such as previous estrus synchronization, corpus luteum and embryo number at the time of pregnancy diagnosis, changes in body condition score, milk production, clinical disease (mastitis or lameness) and the inseminating bull affect pregnancy loss from 38 to 90 days of gestation. We derived data from 601 pregnant lactating dairy cows from a single herd. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by ultrasonography between Day 38 and 44 following insemination. We also recorded corpus luteum and embryo number at this time. Pregnancy loss was defined as a negative pregnancy diagnosis on the second palpation per rectum undertaken between 90 and 96 days after insemination. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression methods. Cows that had an additional corpus luteum were eight times less likely to miscarry. The risk of pregnancy loss was 3.1 times higher in cows bearing twins. A one unit reduction in body condition score from previous partum to 30 days postpartum resulted in a 2.4-fold increase in pregnancy loss. We noted a higher incidence of pregnancy loss in cows inseminated using semen from one of the six bulls used. This particular bull led to a 3.4-fold increase in the rate of pregnancy loss. Logistic regression analysis showed no significant effects of previous estrus synchronization, milk production, clinical disease, body condition at previous partum or at pregnancy diagnosis, or body condition change between previous partum and pregnancy diagnosis. Our findings indicate a positive relationship between the presence of an additional corpus luteum and the maintenance of gestation. Risk factors for pregnancy loss were twin pregnancy, reduced body condition after previous parturition and the inseminating bull.

  10. Molecular typing of isolates obtained from aborted foetuses in Brucella-free Holstein dairy cattle herd after immunisation with Brucella abortus RB51 vaccine in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareth, Gamal; Melzer, Falk; Böttcher, Denny; El-Diasty, Mohamed; El-Beskawy, Mohamed; Rasheed, Nesma; Schmoock, Gernot; Roesler, Uwe; Sprague, Lisa D; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2016-12-01

    Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Egypt in spite of application of surveillance and control measures. An increase of abortions was reported in a Holstein dairy cattle herd with 600 animals in Damietta governorate in Egypt after immunisation with Brucella (B.) abortus RB51 vaccine. Twenty one (10.6%) of 197 vaccinated cows aborted after 3 months. All aborted cows had been tested seronegative for brucellosis in the past 3 years. B. abortus was isolated from four foetuses. Conventional biochemical and bacteriological identification and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed two B. abortus biovar (bv.) 1 smooth and two B. abortus rough strains. None of the B. abortus isolates were identified as RB51. Genotyping analysis by multiple locus of variable number tandem repeats analysis based on 16 markers (MLVA-16) revealed two different profiles with low genetic diversity. B. abortus bv1 was introduced in the herd and caused abortions.

  11. Molecular detection and sensitivity to antibiotics and bacteriocins of pathogens isolated from bovine mastitis in family dairy herds of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Galván, Ma Fabiola; Barboza-Corona, José E; Lechuga-Arana, A Arianna; Valencia-Posadas, Mauricio; Aguayo, Daniel D; Cedillo-Pelaez, Carlos; Martínez-Ortega, Erika A; Gutierrez-Chavez, Abner J

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two farms (n = 535 cows) located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, were sampled. Pathogens from bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM) and clinical mastitis (CLM) were identified by 16S rDNA and the sensitivity to both antibiotics and bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis was tested. Forty-six milk samples were selected for their positive California Mastitis Test (CMT) (≥3) and any abnormality in the udder or milk. The frequency of SCM and CLM was 39.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Averages for test day milk yield (MY), lactation number (LN), herd size (HS), and number of days in milk (DM) were 20.6 kg, 2.8 lactations, 16.7 animals, and 164.1 days, respectively. MY was dependent on dairy herd (DH), LN, HS, and DM (P antibiotics tested in this study.

  12. Effect of dairy farming system, herd, season, parity, and days in milk on modeling of the coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis of bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittante, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Malchiodi, F; Sturaro, E; Tagliapietra, F; Schiavon, S; Cecchinato, A

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the variation in curd firmness model parameters obtained from coagulating bovine milk samples, and to investigate the effects of the dairy system, season, individual farm, and factors related to individual cows (days in milk and parity). Individual milk samples (n = 1,264) were collected during the evening milking of 85 farms representing different environments and farming systems in the northeastern Italian Alps. The dairy herds were classified into 4 farming system categories: traditional system with tied animals (29 herds), modern dairy systems with traditional feeding based on hay and compound feed (30 herds), modern dairy system with total mixed ration (TMR) that included silage as a large proportion of the diet (9 herds), and modern dairy system with silage-free TMR (17 herds). Milk samples were analyzed for milk composition and coagulation properties, and parameters were modeled using curd firmness measures (CFt) collected every 15 s from a lacto-dynamographic analysis of 90 min. When compared with traditional milk coagulation properties (MCP), the curd firming measures showed greater variability and yielded a more accurate description of the milk coagulation process: the model converged for 93.1% of the milk samples, allowing estimation of 4 CFt parameters and 2 derived traits [maximum CF (CF(max)) and time from rennet addition to CF(max) (t(max))] for each sample. The milk samples whose CFt equations did not converge showed longer rennet coagulation times obtained from the model (RCT(eq)) and higher somatic cell score, and came from less-productive cows. Among the sources of variation tested for the CFt parameters, dairy herd system yielded the greatest differences for the contrast between the traditional farm and the 3 modern farms, with the latter showing earlier coagulation and greater instant syneresis rate constant (k(SR)). The use of TMR yielded a greater tmax because of a higher instant curd

  13. Subclinical mastitis effects in some dairy herds in the Upper Chicamocha River (Boyacá Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Pinzón Trujillo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to carry out a study about the effects of subclinical mastitis in cows of 34 dairy farms in the Upper Chicamocha region (Boyacá department.The farms are registered in the livestock farmers association of Boyacá (FABEGAN. This study was done with the aim to know about the infection status of cows and establish which are the principal etiologic agents associated with the disease and its relation with the milking routine. To this aim, applied comparison even tests for the productive variables to relate with the California Mastitis Test (CMT and the microbiological characterization, a blocks design under factorial 2 x 4 array to analyze the existence of significant differences between the mastitis grades, the sample season and its interaction, and blocks design under factorial 2 x 4 array to analyze the existence of significant differences among the mastitis subclinical grades, the sampling season and its interaction. 6616 quarters were submitted to the California Mastitis Test (CMT in two times and different season. The results did not show any significant differences between the two times of sampling. The positive samples according with CMT (CMT-2 and CMT-3 were submitted to microbiological tests where, in the most of the cases of mastitis, the presence of Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus was detected. They are the main etiologic agents in the disease. The results indicate the close relation between the milking routine and mastitis. The deficient practices in the milking process are the cause of dissemination and prevalence of mastitis in farms.

  14. Comparison of three estrus detection systems during summer in a large commercial dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, O A; Pearson, R E; Nebel, R L

    2005-06-01

    The objective of the study was to compare three systems for estrus detection and combinations of these systems on a large commercial dairy (1075 lactating cows) during stress of summer heat. At 37-45 days in milk (DIM), 255 cows were fitted with a HeatWatch device (HW; DDx Inc., Denver, CO), an activity sensor ALPRO (ALPRO; DeLaval Inc., Kansas City, MO), and visually observed (VO) three times daily. Pregnancy status was determined by uterine palpation per rectum 35-49 days following artificial insemination (AI). Effects of DIM, parity, standing events, inseminator, and interval between onset of estrus and AI on conception rates were determined using logistic regression. Efficiencies for detection of estrus, determined by comparing detected periods of estrus with a theoretical total of 570 periods, were 49.3% (VO), 37.2% (ALPRO), 48.0% (HW), and 80.2% for all three systems simultaneously. Conception rates (LSM+/-S.E.) for cows detected by one or more of the three systems were 6.2+/-3.9 for VO, 19.8+/-5.6 for ALPRO, 17.3+/-5.0 for HW, 22.8+/-7.0 for VO+ALPRO, 26.9+/-4.6 for VO+HW, 23.2+/-5.2 for ALPRO+HW, and 18.4+/-4.7 for VO+ALPRO+HW. Inseminations performed during no and mild heat stress (temperature-humidity index; THIheat stress conditions (THI>76; 17.6%). Number of mounts were higher for primiparous versus multiparous cows (PCows over 80 DIM during estrus exhibited fewer (Pdetection.

  15. Freezing point of milk in a herd of high yielding dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Golc Teger

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting the freezing point of milk in a herd of 200 Black and White cows with the average milk yield of 8 386 kg in the lactation and 8 328 kg in the standard lactation were examinated. Over the period of one year (2002 and based upon 1 773 individual monthly collected milk samples with the average contents of 3.91% fat, 3.26% protein, 4.54% lactose, 33.4 mg/100 ml urea and 331000 somatic cells per ml in milk were determined. The average freezing point of milk (n = 1 680 was estimated to be –0.527 ºC, with a range from -0.562 ºC to -0.423 ºC. In 210 (12.5% samples was higher than -0.515 ºC. The lowest freezing point (-0.532 ºC was found in the samples collected in the first month after calving and highest (-0.522 ºC in the samples of 12th month of lactation. The differences between the freezing point of milk after the first and the second calving (-0.530 ºC; P < 0.05 and those after the fifth calving (-0.523 ºC; P < 0.05 were also significant. The samples collected in month from January to April (-0.538 ºC to -0.532 ºC were significantly lower in comparison to samples collected in May and June (-0.517 ºC and -0.519 ºC. The following statistically significant correlation coefficients between cows' properties, milk composition and the freezing point of milk were found: month of lactation r = 0.233 (P < 0.001; lactation number r = 0.196 (P < 0.001; age of cows (years r = 0.231 (P < 0.001; month of the year r = 0.0253 (P < 0.001; milk yield per milking day r = -0.106 (P < 0.001; fat corrected milk content (FCM per milking day r = -0.234 (P < 0.001; lactose % r = -0.530 (P < 0.001; fat % r = -0.351 (P < 0.001; protein % r = 0.058 (P < 0.05; urea mg/100 mL r = 0.091 (P < 0.001 and somatic cell count r = 0.154 (P < 0.001. The sum of effects (month of the year, lactation lenght and fat, protein and lactose content of milk was found to account for about 70% variability of the total depression of milk freezing point (R2 = 0.698.

  16. Discovery of Bovine Digital Dermatitis-Associated Treponema spp. in the Dairy Herd Environment by a Targeted Deep-Sequencing Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Weiss Nielsen, Martin; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian;

    2014-01-01

    The bacteria associated with the infectious claw disease bovine digital dermatitis (DD) are spirochetes of the genus Treponema; however, their environmental reservoir remains unknown. To our knowledge, the current study is the first report of the discovery and phylogenetic characterization of r......RNA gene sequences from DD-associated treponemes in the dairy herd environment. Although the spread of DD appears to be facilitated by wet floors covered with slurry, no DD-associated treponemes have been isolated from this environment previously. Consequently, there is a lack of knowledge about the spread...

  17. Risk factors associated with faecal shedding of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in eight known-infected Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Helene; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Andersen, Jens Strodl

    2003-01-01

    A risk-factor study was performed in eight dairy herds found to excrete verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157 in a former prevalence study. Associations between excretion of VTEC O157 and management factors such as housing and feeding were analysed in a generalised linear mixed model....... The animals were stratified in three age groups and sampled four times during I year. The risk of excreting VTEC O157 was higher among weaned calves than non-weaned calves. Among the calves aged 1-4 months, the risk was reduced if the calf had suckled colostrum from the mother or if the calf had stayed >2...

  18. Improving fertility of dairy cattle using translational genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selection for higher milk production in United States dairy cattle has been very successful during the past 50 years, however today’s lactating dairy cows exhibit a high incidence of subfertility and infertility with a national pregnancy rate of only 15%. An integrated approach to improve fertility ...

  19. A case-control study to estimate the effects of acute clinical infection with the Schmallenberg virus on milk yield, fertility and veterinary costs in Swiss dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, M; Lechner, I; Aebi, M; Vögtlin, A; Posthaus, H; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Meylan, M

    2016-04-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was first detected in Switzerland in July 2012 and many Swiss dairy farmers reported acute clinical signs in dairy cattle during the spread of the virus until December 2012. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of an acute infection with SBV on milk yield, fertility and veterinary costs in dairy farms with clinical signs of SBV infection (case farms), and to compare those farms to a matched control group of dairy farms in which cattle did not show clinical signs of SBV infection. Herd size was significantly (pcase farms (33 cows, n=77) than in control farms (25 cows, n=84). Within case herds, 14.8% (median) of the cows showed acute clinical signs. Managers from case farms indicated to have observed a higher abortion rate during the year with SBV (6.5%) than in the previous year (3.7%). Analysis of fertility parameters based on veterinary bills and data from the breeding associations showed no significant differences between case and control farms. The general veterinary costs per cow from July to December 2012 were significantly higher (p=0.02) in case (CHF 19.80; EUR 16.50) than in control farms (CHF 15.90; EUR 13.25). No differences in milk yield were found between groups, but there was a significant decrease in milk production in case farms in the second half year in 2012 compared to the same period in 2011 (pclinical signs (n=461) were treated by a veterinarian. The average calculated loss after SBV infection for a standardized farm was CHF 1606 (EUR 1338), which can be considered as low at the national level, but the losses were subject to great fluctuations between farms, so that individual farms could have very high losses (>CHF 10,000, EUR 8333).

  20. A retrospective evaluation of a Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) antibody ELISA on bulk-tank milk samples for classification of the BHV-1 status of Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nylin, Britta; Strøger, Ulla; Rønsholt, Leif

    2000-01-01

    and relative specificity were 82 and 100%, respectively. The herd-level relative sensitivity depended on the within-herd prevalence of seropositive cows and the cut-off value in the assay, but not on the time interval (up to 90 days) between the collection of the bulk-tank milk sample and the individual serum......Bulk-tank milk samples analysed in a Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) blocking ELISA are still in use in the Danish BHV-1 programme as a tool to classify dairy herds as BHV-1 infected or BHV-1 free herds. in this retrospective study, we used data from the Danish BHV-1 eradication campaign to evaluate...... samples. The BHV-1 blocking ELISA on bulk-tank milk could detect seropositive herds (few), with prevalence proportions as low as one seropositive cow out of 70 cows....

  1. Case history: tracking the nutritional value of milk from a transitioning-to-organic dairy herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research is focusing on many of the factors that influence the amounts of biologically active compounds (BACs) in milk, such as the influence of on-farm and seasonal factors, to improve the nutritional and health values of milk. In collaboration with the Rodale Institute, Kutztown, PA, our current s...

  2. Association of gene BoLA DRB3.2 with production traits in a dairy herd of Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zambrano A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the associations of BoLA DRB3.2 alleles present in Holstein and BON x Holstein cattle to production and milk quality traits in a dairy herd of Antioquia, Colombia. Materials and methods. Ninety-one cows, 66 Holstein and 25 BxH, were genotyped for the BoLA DRB3.2 gene, through PCR-RFLP technique. Furthermore, the association of the alleles of the gene BoLA DRB3.2 with milk yield (PL305, fat yield (PG305, protein yield (PP305 fat percentage (PGRA and protein percentage (PPRO were determined, using a general linear model. Results. Twenty-seven BoLA DRB3.2 alleles were identified; the most frequent alleles in Holstein were: BoLA DRB3.2*23, 22, and 24 with frequencies of: 0.159, 0.129, and 0.106, respectively and the most frequent alleles in BxH were: BoLA DRB3.2*23, 24 and 20 with frequencies of: 0.20, 0.140, and 0.120, respectively. Associations of BoLA DRB3.2 alleles with production and milk quality traits were also determined. In Holstein cows the BoLA DRB3.2*36 allele was associated with low PL305 (p≤0.01, high PGRA in multiparous cows (p≤0.05 and high PG305 in primiparous cows (p≤0.01. The BoLA DRB3.2*33 allele was associated with increased in the PPRO in multiparous cows (p≤0.01. In BXH cows only the BoLA DRB3*19 allele was associated with high PGRA (p≤0.05. Conclusions. The gene BoLA DRB3.2 shows high polymorphism in both groups; Holstein and BxH and some of its allelic variants were associated with production and milk quality traits.

  3. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and of methicillin-resistant S. aureus clonal complexes in bulk tank milk from dairy cattle herds in Lombardy Region (Northern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortimiglia, C; Luini, M; Bianchini, V; Marzagalli, L; Vezzoli, F; Avisani, D; Bertoletti, M; Ianzano, A; Franco, A; Battisti, A

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most important causative agent of subclinical mastitis in cattle resulting in reduced milk production and quality. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains has a clear zoonotic relevance, especially in the case of occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in bulk tank milk (BTM) from dairy cattle herds in the Lombardy Region (Northern Italy) and to identify the main MRSA circulating genotypes. MRSA strains were characterized by susceptibility testing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing and SCCmec typing. A total 844 BTM samples were analysed and S. aureus and MRSA were detected in 47·2% and 3·8% of dairy herds, respectively. MLST showed that the majority (28/32) of isolates belonged to the typical livestock-associated lineages: ST398, ST97 and ST1. Interestingly, in this study we report for the first time the new ST3211, a single locus variant of ST(CC)22, with the newly described 462 aroE allele. Our study indicates high diffusion of S. aureus mastitis and low, but not negligible, prevalence of MRSA in the considered area, suggesting the need for planning specific control programmes for bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus, especially when MRSA is implicated.

  4. Incidence of error in oestrus detection based on secondary oestrus signs in a 24-h tie-stalled dairy herd with low fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, R M S B K; Nakao, T; Kobayashi, A

    2009-08-01

    Oestrus detection error and conception rates after AI based only on secondary oestrus signs were evaluated in a high yielding, 24-h tie-stalled dairy herd with low fertility, using milk progesterone profiles. Oestrus detection was based on the secondary oestrus signs such as restlessness, swelling, congestion of vulva and clear mucus discharge. Sixty eight AI conducted after observing the secondary oestrus signs in 44 animals were included in the study. Of the 68 AI, 53 (77.9%) were conducted in the follicular phase, and 13 (19.1%) and 2 (2.9%) were carried out in the luteal phase and during pregnancy, respectively. The overall error in oestrus detection based on milk progesterone profiles was 22.1%. The oestrus detection error did not differ significantly among different secondary oestrus signs. None of the AI conducted in the luteal phase resulted in conception, whereas 20.8% of AI conducted in the follicular phase resulted in conception. No significant difference in the conception rates among the groups of cows with different secondary oestrus signs was shown. The high incidence of oestrus detection error in this study might have been caused by the detection of cows in oestrus based only on secondary oestrus signs due to the confinement of animals. In conclusion, there was a high incidence of heat detection error in the 24-h tie-stalled dairy herd and oestrus detection based only on secondary oestrus signs resulted in low conception rate.

  5. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species from bovine subclinical mastitis in dairy herds in the central region of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspanti, Claudia G; Bonetto, Cesar C; Vissio, Claudina; Pellegrino, Matías S; Reinoso, Elina B; Dieser, Silvana A; Bogni, Cristina I; Larriestra, Alejandro J; Odierno, Liliana M

    2016-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a common cause of bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM). The prevalence of CNS species causing SCM identified by genotyping varies among countries. Overall, the antimicrobial resistance in this group of organisms is increasing worldwide; however, little information exists about a CNS species resistant to antibiotics. The aim of the present study was to genotypically characterize CNS at species level and to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profiles of CNS species isolated from bovine SCM in 51 dairy herds located in the central region of the province of Cordoba, Argentina. In this study, we identified 219 CNS isolates at species level by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the groEL gene. Staphylococcus chromogenes (46.6%) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (32%) were the most prevalent species. A minimum of three different CNS species were present in 41.2% of the herds. S. chromogenes was isolated from most of the herds (86.3%), whereas S. haemolyticus was isolated from 66.7% of them. The broth microdilution method was used to test in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Resistance to a single compound or two related compounds was expressed in 43.8% of the isolates. S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus showed a very high proportion of isolates resistant to penicillin. Resistance to two or more non-related antimicrobials was found in 30.6% of all CNS. S. haemolyticus exhibited a higher frequency of resistance to two or more non-related antimicrobials than S. chromogenes.

  6. Bulk tank milk surveillance as a measure to detect Coxiella burnetii shedding dairy goat herds in the Netherlands between 2009 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Brom, R; Santman-Berends, I; Luttikholt, S; Moll, L; Van Engelen, E; Vellema, P

    2015-06-01

    In the period from 2005 to 2009, Coxiella burnetii was a cause of abortion waves at 28 dairy goat farms and 2 dairy sheep farms in the Netherlands. Two years after the first abortion waves, a large human Q fever outbreak started mainly in the same region, and aborting small ruminants were regarded as most probable source. To distinguish between infected and noninfected herds, a surveillance program started in October 2009, based on PCR testing of bulk tank milk (BTM) samples, which had never been described before. The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of this surveillance program and to evaluate both the effect of culling of pregnant dairy goats on positive farms and of vaccination on BTM results. Bulk tank milk samples were tested for C. burnetii DNA using a real-time PCR, and results were analyzed in relation to vaccination, culling, and notifiable (officially reported to government) C. burnetii abortion records. In spring and autumn, BTM samples were also tested for antibodies using an ELISA, and results were evaluated in relation to the compulsory vaccination campaign. Between October 2009 and April 2014, 1,660 (5.6%) out of 29,875 BTM samples from 401 dairy goat farms tested positive for C. burnetii DNA. The percentage of positive samples dropped from 20.5% in 2009 to 0.3% in 2014. In a multivariable model, significantly higher odds of being PCR positive in the BTM surveillance program were found in farms of which all pregnant dairy goats were culled. Additionally, the risk for C. burnetii BTM PCR positivity significantly decreased after multiple vaccinations. Bulk tank milk ELISA results were significantly higher after vaccination than before. The ELISA results were higher after multiple vaccinations compared with a single vaccination, and ELISA results on officially declared infected farms were significantly higher compared with noninfected farms. In conclusion, BTM surveillance is an effective and useful tool to detect C. burnetii shedding

  7. Economic and Biological Values for Pasture-Based Dairy Cattle Porduction Systems and their Application in Genetic Improvement in the Tropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahinya, P K; Otieno, Tobias Okeno; Kosgey, I S;

    2015-01-01

    estimated under fixed herd (FH) and pasture (FP) production circumstances assuming milk marketing based on volume, and volume and butter fat. Further, economic values were estimated involving risk using the Arrow Pratt coefficients at two levels. For the former economic values for the traits ranged from KSh...... during the estimation of economic values. Genetic improvements targeting MY and growth traits would be recommended to production system with unlimited feed supply for profit maximization. However, since dairy production systems in the tropics are characterised by feed scarcity, fixing the herd...

  8. Ultrasonic treatment to improve anaerobic digestibility of dairy waste streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmowski, L; Simons, L; Brooks, R

    2006-01-01

    The dairy-processing industry generates various types of organic wastes, which are utilised as stock feed, for anaerobic digestion, spread on land or alternatively land-filled at high costs. Owing to the generation of renewable energy, anaerobic digestion is an attractive option for many factories. To enhance the biological degradation process, a mechanical disintegration of various waste dairy streams was undertaken. While the successful application of ultrasonic treatment has been reported for various municipal waste streams, limited information was available for dairy industry applications. The results of this study showed that ultrasonic treatment can improve the digestibility of the more problematic dairy waste streams, such as sludges, by breaking down micro-organisms' cell walls and releasing soluble cell compounds. For more soluble streams, such as dairy factory effluent, an increased gas production was observed and attributed to the reduced particle size of the fat globules.

  9. A prospective study of the effect of Neospora caninum and BVDV infections on bovine abortions in a dairy herd in Arequipa, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, K; Björkman, C; Emanuelson, U; Rivera, H; Zelada, A; Moreno-López, J

    2006-08-17

    We used a prospective seroepidemiological approach to investigate endemic abortion in a dairy herd in Arequipa, Peru, and its association with Neospora caninum and bovine viral-diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections. Between January 2002 and March 2004, 1094 pregnancies were confirmed in 538 cows. Of these, 137 pregnancies (13%) in 121 cows ended in abortion. The serological status to N. caninum was assessed using a single serological screening, whereas BVDV status was assessed at the herd level through consecutive samplings of young stock. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the effect of N. caninum and BVDV on the hazard of early (between day 42 and day 100 in gestation), and late (after day 100) abortions, respectively. Serological status to N. caninum was included as a dichotomous variable, and the effect of BVDV estimated at the herd level, as a time-dependent seasonal effect. Because data from repeated pregnancies were included, we considered possible lack of independence between observations and included frailty effects into the models. Our models also considered the possible confounding by parity and animal origin. Only multiparity was associated with the hazard of early abortion (HR=2.8 compared to nulliparous heifers). N. caninum seropositivity significantly affected the hazard of late abortion, but interacted with parity. The HRs for Neospora-positive animals were 6.4, 3.7 and 1.9, respectively, for nulliparous heifers, first-lactation cows and multiparous cows. Evidence of BVDV circulating (or not) among the young stock was not associated with abortions, but few cows in this herd were susceptible to incident infection.

  10. Establishment of comprehensive dairy herd management and support techniques for the area based on regional characteristics in northern Japan

    OpenAIRE

    久保田, 学

    2014-01-01

    The recent dairy farms in Hokkaido have been increasing the amount of production milk yield by the scale expansion of production facilities and increase in the number of cows. A new machine and a new technology were adopted, and dependence on concentrate feeds became higher in the nourishment of the cow. Furthermore, the production system in dairy farms changed from grazing to housing to maintain stable milk production and stable milk quality. A figure of grazing style in dairy farms disappe...

  11. Estimation of the time of seroconversion to the New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus in sentinel cattle of dairy herds located at high and low elevations in southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    To estimate time to seroconversion to vesicular stomatitis 1 New Jersey virus (VSNJV) in sentinel cattle in southern Mexico, ninety-two sentinel cattle in four free-ranging dairy herds at high- (=500 mts) and low-elevation (<500 mts) locations in southern Mexico were studied. A prospective cohort s...

  12. Communication in production animal medicine: modelling a complex interaction with the example of dairy herd health medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleen, Joachim L; Atkinson, Owen; Noordhuizen, Jos Ptm

    2011-07-20

    The importance of communication skills in veterinary medicine is increasingly recognised. Appropriate communication skills towards the client are of utmost importance in both companion animal practice and production animal field and consultancy work. The need for building a relationship with the client, alongside developing a structure for the consultation is widely recognised and applies to both types of veterinary practice. Veterinary advisory practice in production animal medicine is, however, characterised by a more complex communication on different levels. While the person-orientated communication is a permanent process between veterinarian and client with a rather personal perspective and defines the roles of interaction, the problem-orientated communication deals with emerging difficulties; the objective is to solve an acute health problem. The solution - orientated communication is a form of communication in which both veterinarian and client address longstanding situations or problems with the objective to improve herd health and subsequently productivity performance. All three forms of communication overlap. Based on this model, it appears useful for a veterinary practice to offer both a curative and an advisory service, but to keep these two separated when deemed appropriate. In veterinary education, the strategies and techniques necessary for solution orientated communication should be included in the teaching of communication skills.

  13. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis and associated risk factors at cow and herd level in dairy farms in North-West Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Sefinew Alemu; Koop, G.; Melkie, S.T.; Getahun, C.D.; Hogeveen, H.; Lam, Theo J.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of mastitis pathogens and their predominance as well as understanding of risk factors are prerequisites to improve udder health in a herd, region or country. In Ethiopia, such information is scarce, despite the fact that mastitis is an important cattle disease in the country. A

  14. A Robust Statistical Model to Predict the Future Value of the Milk Production of Dairy Cows Using Herd Recording Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2017-01-01

    The future value of an individual dairy cow depends greatly on its projected milk yield. In developed countries with developed dairy industry infrastructures, facilities exist to record individual cow production and reproduction outcomes consistently and accurately. Accurate prediction of the fut...

  15. Management of heat stress to improve fertility in dairy cows in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamenbaum, Israel; Galon, Nadav

    2010-01-01

    , respectively. Pregnancy rate (the amount of pregnant cows out of the eligible cows in the herd) calculated for 90, 120 and 150 days after calving differed significantly between the groups, (44, 59 and 73% vs., 5, 11 and 11%), in cooled and non-cooled cows, respectively. CR and pregnancy rates obtained in intensively cooled herds in this experiment were similar to those obtained during the winter of that year, in commercial dairy farms in Israel. Differently from the results described above, when cows in summer were intensively cooled, only for a period of 2 days before and 8 days after A.I, CR failed to improve (31 and 36%), in cooled and non-cooled cows, respectively. These results offer a conclusion that cows must be intensively cooled and must maintain normal body temperatures during the entire day and during the whole summer. i.e. the entire reproductive process from follicular development until implantation of the embryo in the uterus, in order to express cow's full reproductive potential in Israeli summer conditions. The effect of cooling intensity on cow's productive and reproductive traits was studied in a wide survey, during four consecutive years (1998-2001), on 14 farms, averaging 300 milking cows each, all located in the coastal plain of Israel. Farms were categorized into three different groups according to the intensity of summer cooling. "Intensive" (7.5 cumulative cooling hours per day), "Moderate" (4.5 cumulative hours per day) and "No-cooling" at all. CR was 56, 53 and 54%, and 40, 34 and 15%, for primiparous (P drop in CR, even in very high yielding herds. The Ministry of Agriculture extension service, in cooperation with the Israel Cattle Breeders Association (ICBA), developed a computerized report called "Summer to Winter (S:W) Performance Ratio", based on the "Israeli Herd book" data from more than 300 herds. The higher the ratio is for productive and reproductive traits, the better a farm handles summer negative effects on cow's performance. Based on the

  16. Economic consequences of mastitis and withdrawal of milk with high somatic cell count in Swedish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C; Østergaard, Søren; Emanuelson, U

    2010-01-01

    no clinical mastitis (CM) while keeping the incidence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) constant and vice versa. Six different strategies to withdraw milk with high SCC were compared. The decision to withdraw milk was based on herd-level information in three scenarios: withdrawal was initiated when the predicted......% of the herd net return given the initial incidence of mastitis. Expressed per cow-year, the avoidable cost of mastitis was €55. The costs per case of CM and SCM were estimated at €278 and €60, respectively. Withdrawing milk with high SCC was never profitable because this generated a substantial amount of milk...... resulted in less negative effect on net return. It was concluded that the current milk-pricing system makes it more profitable for farmers to sell a larger amount of milk with higher SCC than to withdraw milk with high SCC to obtain payment premiums, at least in herds with mastitis incidences within...

  17. Effect of premilking teat disinfection on mastitis incidence, total bacterial count, cell count and milk yield in three dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowey, R W; Collis, K

    1992-02-29

    An iodophor teat disinfectant was applied before milking by dip or spray to 50 cows and 50 cows were left untreated in each of three commercial herds. The mean incidence of clinical mastitis was reduced by 57 per cent, the total bacterial count by 70 per cent and the count of thermoduric organisms by 32 per cent. These results were not statistically significant, except that one herd showed a significant decrease in total bacterial count. There was no effect on somatic cell count, milk production or milk iodine residues. Atmospheric iodine concentrations increased in the two herds which applied the treatment as a spray, but the levels attained were not likely to be detrimental to human health.

  18. Herd- and individual-level prevalences of and risk factors for Salmonella spp. fecal shedding in dairy farms in Al-Dhulail Valley, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazi, Yaser H; Abo-Shehada, Mahmoud N

    2015-10-01

    Salmonellosis is an important disease frequently associated with diarrhea in calves. From January to September 2009, a cross-sectional study involving 91 dairy farms was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella spp. infection in cattle in Al-Dhulail Valley, Jordan. A total of 910 calve and cow fecal samples were collected. Information on farm management practices was obtained through personal interviews using a standardized questionnaire and was tested as risk factors for Salmonella spp. positivity in farms by using logistic regression analysis. Standard conventional methods for Salmonella isolation and serotyping were used, and the disk agar diffusion test was used for antimicrobial testing. The herd-level prevalence of Salmonella spp. in calves, cows, and dairy farms was 12, 12, and 23 %, respectively, and the individual-level prevalence was 4 % for calves, cows, and dairy farms. Forty-six percent of the dairy farms had calf diarrhea, and 4 % had cow diarrhea. Seven (17 %) of the 42 farms with calf diarrhea had Salmonella. However, only 7 % (95 % CI: 4, 10) of the 221 diarrheic and 1 % (95 % CI: 0.2, 4) of the 234 of non-diarrheic calves had Salmonella. A total of 33 Salmonella isolates were obtained from the fecal samples: 12 isolates were Salmonella typhimurium, 6 were Salmonella montevideo, 6 were Salmonella anatum, 2 were Salmonella enteritidis, and 7 isolates were not serotyped. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamycin, neomycin, colisitin, and amoxicillin at 100, 91, 85, 79, 79, and 70 %, respectively. Out of the 11 variables/categories, the frequency of cleaning every 2 months or more was associated with high odds of infection among calves (OR = 5.6) and farms (OR = 7.0).

  19. Studies on BVD involving establishment of sentinel calves and assessment of herd immunity in a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Elzein, Eltayb; Alkhalyifa, Mofeed

    2012-03-01

    Little information is published, so far, regarding bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region. This study is the first of its kind in the country. Its aim was to explore the BVD situation in a large dairy farm, which has been experiencing reproduction problems suggestive of BVD virus infection, albeit the practice of routine vaccination. The study took two pathways; the first involved establishment of a cohort of sentinel calves so as: (a) to note the BVD virus activity in the farm by following the time lapse and pattern for waning of the maternally derived antibodies and detection of any subsequent seroconversion and (b) to look for any clinical signs suggestive of BVD virus infection in these calves. The second pathway was to assess the level of herd immunity in the different age groups of lactating cows and maiden heifers. The obtained results were discussed, and control strategies were outlined.

  20. Epidemiology of intramammary infections with Staphylococcus aureus and mastitis streptococci in a dairy cattle herd with a history of recurrent clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlkova, H; Babak, V; Vrtkova, I; Cervinkova, D; Marosevic, D; Moravkova, M; Jaglic, Z

    2017-03-28

    The aim of the present work was to examine a dairy herd with an anamnesis of recurrent clinical mastitis and decreased milk production. A total of 239 individual cow milk samples originating from asymptomatic cows were collected at four-month intervals and examined mainly for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and mastitis streptococci using standard cultivation methods. In total, 29.7% and 9.2% samples were positive for S. aureus and mastitis streptococci, respectively. Unlike for mastitis streptococci, the prevalence of animals positive for S. aureus had an increasing trend (pmastitis, reproductive and periparturient disorders and administration of antibiotics. In contrast to S. aureus, the occurrence of mastitis streptococci in milk was linked with previous cases of clinical mastitis and intramammary administration of antibiotics.

  1. Molecular Detection and Sensitivity to Antibiotics and Bacteriocins of Pathogens Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Family Dairy Herds of Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Fabiola León-Galván

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two farms (n=535 cows located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, were sampled. Pathogens from bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM and clinical mastitis (CLM were identified by 16S rDNA and the sensitivity to both antibiotics and bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis was tested. Forty-six milk samples were selected for their positive California Mastitis Test (CMT (≥3 and any abnormality in the udder or milk. The frequency of SCM and CLM was 39.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Averages for test day milk yield (MY, lactation number (LN, herd size (HS, and number of days in milk (DM were 20.6 kg, 2.8 lactations, 16.7 animals, and 164.1 days, respectively. MY was dependent on dairy herd (DH, LN, HS, and DM P<0.01, and correlations between udder quarters from the CMT were around 0.49 P<0.01. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were mainly identified, as well as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, B. conglomeratum, and Staphylococcus agnetis. Bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, clindamycin, ampicillin, and cefotaxime. Bacteriocins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis inhibited the growth of multiantibiotic resistance bacteria such as S. agnetis, S. equorum, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, and Brachybacterium conglomeratum, but they were not active against S. sciuri, a microorganism that showed an 84% resistance to antibiotics tested in this study.

  2. Correlation between mastitis occurrence and the count of microorganisms in bulk raw milk of bovine dairy herds in four selective culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Luís I M; Minagawa, Clarice Y; Telles, Evelise O; Garbuglio, Márcio A; Amaku, Marcos; Melville, Priscilla A; Dias, Ricardo A; Sakata, Sonia T; Benites, Nilson R

    2010-02-01

    Milk is the normal secretion of the mammary gland, practically free of colostrum and obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy animals. Mastitis is an inflammatory process of the mammary gland and it may cause alterations in the milk. The present work aimed to verify whether it is possible, by means of the counts of microorganism in the bulk raw milk in four selective culture media, to establish a correlation with the occurrence of mastitis and therefore, to monitor this disease in bovine dairy herds. The following selective culture media were used: KF Streptococcus Agar, Edwards Agar, Baird-Parker Agar, Blood Agar plus potassium tellurite. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated in order to compare the occurrence of mastitis (percentage) in each herd with respective selective culture media counts of microorganisms in bulk raw milk. Thirty-six possibilities were analysed (Tamis and CMT-positive rates were compared with the log-transformed count in four selective culture media) and there was a negative correlation between Tamis 3 and the Baird-Parker Agar plate count. The total results of microbiological tests showed that there were three correlations of the counts in selective culture media. Fifty-two possibilities were analysed and there was a negative correlation between no-bacterial-growth mastitis rates and log10 of KF Streptoccocus Agar plate count and there were two positive correlations between coagulase-positive staphylococci and log10 of Baird-Parker Agar plate count and Blood Agar plus potassium tellurite plate count.

  3. Effectiveness of simulated interventions in reducing the estimated prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in lactating cows in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosough Ahmadi, Bouda; Frankena, Klaas; Turner, Joanne; Velthuis, Annet G J; Hogeveen, Henk; Huirne, Ruud B M

    2007-01-01

    A transmission model developed to investigate the dynamics of Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacteria in a typical Dutch dairy herd was used to assess the effectiveness of vaccination, diet modification, probiotics (colicin) and hygienic measures as to water troughs and bedding, when they are applied single or in combination, in reducing the prevalence of infected animals. The aim was to rank interventions based on their effectiveness in reducing the baseline prevalence of infected animals in the lactating group. The baseline prevalence of the lactating group and the within-herd prevalence were estimated by the model to be 5.02% and 13.96% respectively. The results show that all four interventions, if applied to all four animal groups or only to young stock, are the most effective and will reduce the baseline prevalence by 84% to 99%. In general, combinations of hygiene (applied in all groups) and one other intervention had the highest effectiveness in reducing prevalence in the lactating group. Vaccination and diet modification show a slightly higher effectiveness than colicin and hygiene.

  4. Molecular Detection and Sensitivity to Antibiotics and Bacteriocins of Pathogens Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Family Dairy Herds of Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Galván, Ma. Fabiola; Barboza-Corona, José E.; Lechuga-Arana, A. Arianna; Valencia-Posadas, Mauricio; Aguayo, Daniel D.; Cedillo-Pelaez, Carlos; Martínez-Ortega, Erika A.; Gutierrez-Chavez, Abner J.

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two farms (n = 535 cows) located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, were sampled. Pathogens from bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM) and clinical mastitis (CLM) were identified by 16S rDNA and the sensitivity to both antibiotics and bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis was tested. Forty-six milk samples were selected for their positive California Mastitis Test (CMT) (≥3) and any abnormality in the udder or milk. The frequency of SCM and CLM was 39.1% and 9.3%, respectively. Averages for test day milk yield (MY), lactation number (LN), herd size (HS), and number of days in milk (DM) were 20.6 kg, 2.8 lactations, 16.7 animals, and 164.1 days, respectively. MY was dependent on dairy herd (DH), LN, HS, and DM (P < 0.01), and correlations between udder quarters from the CMT were around 0.49 (P < 0.01). Coagulase-negative staphylococci were mainly identified, as well as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, B. conglomeratum, and Staphylococcus agnetis. Bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, clindamycin, ampicillin, and cefotaxime. Bacteriocins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis inhibited the growth of multiantibiotic resistance bacteria such as S. agnetis, S. equorum, Streptococcus uberis, Brevibacterium stationis, and Brachybacterium conglomeratum, but they were not active against S. sciuri, a microorganism that showed an 84% resistance to antibiotics tested in this study. PMID:25815326

  5. A benefit to cost analysis of the effect of premilking teat hygiene on somatic cell count and intramammary infections in a commercial dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegg, P L; Dohoo, I R

    1997-10-01

    A field trial was conducted to determine the effect of premilking teat disinfection (predipping) on several measures of mastitis in a commercial dairy farm where the predominant organisms isolated from intramammary infections were coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. Cows were randomly assigned to a treated (predipped with 0.5% iodine germicide plus "good udder preparation") or a control group ("good udder preparation" alone). Sterile composite milk samples were collected at the initiation of the trial and on an approximately bimonthly basis throughout the duration of the trial. There was no difference in the prevalence of isolation of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. from composite milk samples obtained during the 6 herd cultures. The incidence rate for clinical mastitis in the control group was 1.38 cases per 1000 cow days. The incidence rate for clinical mastitis in the treatment group was 1.06 cases per 1000 cow days. The ratio of these 2 was 1.3, suggesting a higher rate in the control group, but the ratio was not statistically significant (P = 0.34). Logistic regression analysis indicated that the effect of treatment group was not significant, although the coefficient suggested that predipping reduced the risk of clinical mastitis. The benefit to cost ratio of 0.37 indicated that the benefit of reduced incidence of clinical cases of mastitis would not have justified the added expense required to predip the herd.

  6. Use of profit equations to determine relative economic value of dairy cattle herd life and production from field data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    Profit equations or functions that reflect the realized profitability of cows have been used in the literature to determine the relative importance of different variables such as milk yield and herd life. In all profit equations, the opportunity cost of postponed replacement, which reflects the prof

  7. Multivariate dynamic linear models for estimating the effect of experimental interventions in an evolutionary operations setup in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stygar, Anna Helena; Krogh, Mogens Agerbo; Kristensen, Troels

    2017-01-01

    . The objective of this study was to construct a tool to assess the intervention effect on milk production in an evolutionary operations setup. The method used for this purpose was a dynamic linear model (DLM) with Kalman filtering. The DLM consisted of parameters describing milk yield in a herd, individual cows...

  8. Economic comparison of reproductive programs for dairy herds using estrus detection, timed artificial insemination, or a combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, K N; Federico, P; De Vries, A; Schuenemann, G M

    2013-04-01

    within each level of accuracy or compliance, when evaluated separately, ED60 with 95% accuracy or TAI with 95% compliance were as profitable as or more profitable than TAI-ED with low ED, accuracy, or compliance. Therefore, producers can improve their profits by combining TAI and ED as reproductive management; however, if a herd can achieve high ED with high accuracy or have high compliance with injections, using only ED or TAI might be more profitable than trying to do both.

  9. GENETIC POLYMORPHISM AT THE Β-LACTOGLOBULIN LOCUS IN A DAIRY HERD OF ROMANIAN SPOTTED AND BROWN OF MARAMURES BREEDS

    OpenAIRE

    DANIELA ILIE; AURELIA SĂLĂJEANU; ANUłA MAGDIN; CLAUDIA STANCA; I. VINTILĂ

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was focused on possibilities to estimate the allele and genotype frequencies of β-lactoglobulin (BLG) gene polymorphisms in dairy cattle belonging to two different genetic groups from the Research and Development Station for Bovine Raising Arad in order to have breeding programs that target an increase in the frequency of the B allele in the dairy cattle population. Genotyping was performed on 20 Romanian Spotted and 18 Brown of Maramures cattle.In order to ...

  10. Udder infections with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis at calving in dairy herds with suboptimal udder health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Å; Nyman, A-K; Aspán, A; Börjesson, S; Unnerstad, H Ericsson; Waller, K Persson

    2016-03-01

    Udder infections with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis are common causes of bovine mastitis. To study these pathogens in early lactation, a 12-mo longitudinal, observational study was carried out in 13 herds with suboptimal udder health. The aims of the study were to investigate the occurrence of these pathogens and to identify if presence of the 3 pathogens, and of genotypes within the pathogens, differed with respect to herd, season, and parity. Quarter milk samples, collected at calving and 4 d in milk (DIM), were cultured for the 3 pathogens. Genotyping of staphylococcal and streptococcal isolates was performed using spa typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, respectively. For each of the 3 pathogens, cows with an udder infection at calving or 4 DIM were allocated to 1 of 4 infection types: cleared (pathogen present only at calving), persistent (pathogen present in the same quarter at calving and 4 DIM), new (pathogen present only at 4 DIM), or cleared/new (pathogen present in 1 quarter at calving and in another quarter at 4 DIM). Associations between season or parity and overall occurrence of pathogens or infection types were determined using univariable mixed-effect logistic-regression models and the Fisher's exact test, respectively. The most commonly occurring pathogen was Staph. aureus, followed by Strep. dysgalactiae and Strep. uberis. Persistent infections were the most common infection type among Staph. aureus-infected cows, whereas cleared infections were the most common among Strep. dysgalactiae- and Strep. uberis-positive cows. The proportion of cows with persistent Staph. aureus infections and the proportion of cows having a Strep. uberis infection at calving or 4 DIM were higher in the multiparous cows than in primiparous cows. Infections with Strep. dysgalactiae were less common during the early housing season than during the late housing or pasture seasons, whereas persistent Strep. uberis

  11. Longitudinal study of two Irish dairy herds: Low numbers of of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and O26 super-shedders identified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Patricia Murphy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A 12-month longitudinal study was undertaken on two dairy herds to ascertain the Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC O157 and O26 shedding status of the animals and its impact (if any on raw milk. Cattle are a recognised reservoir for these organisms with associated public health and environmental implications. Animals shedding E. coli O157 at >10,000 CFU/g of faeces have been deemed super-shedders. There is a gap in the knowledge regarding super-shedding of other STEC serogroups. A cohort of 40 lactating cows from herds previously identified as positive for VTEC in a national surveillance project were sampled every second month between August, 2013 and July, 2014. Metadata on any potential super-shedders was documented including e.g. age of the animal, number of lactations and days in lactation, nutritional condition, somatic cell count and content of protein in milk to assess if any were associated with risk factors for super-shedding. Recto-anal mucosal swabs, raw milk, milk filters and water samples were procured for each herd. The swabs were examined for E. coli O157 and O26 using a quantitative real time PCR method. Counts (CFU swab-1 were obtained from a standard calibration curve that related real-time PCR cycle threshold (Ct values against the initial concentration of O157 or O26 in the samples. Results from Farm A: 305 animals were analysed; 15 E. coli O157 (5% were recovered, 13 were denoted STEC encoding either stx1 and/or stx2 virulence genes and 5 (2% STEC O26 were recovered. One super-shedder was identified shedding STEC O26 (stx1&2. Farm B: 224 animals were analysed; eight E. coli O157 (3.5% were recovered (seven were STEC and 9 (4% STEC O26 were recovered. Three super-shedders were identified, one was shedding STEC O157 (stx2 and two STEC O26 (stx2. Three encoded the adhering and effacement gene (eae and one isolate additionally encoded the haemolysin gene (hlyA. The results of this study show, low numbers of super

  12. Measures to improve dairy cow foot health: consequences for farmer income and dairy cow welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijnis, M R N; Hogeveen, H; Stassen, E N

    2013-01-01

    Dairy farming in western countries with cubicle housing is an efficient way of dairy farming. Though, a disadvantage is the high prevalence and incidence of foot disorders (clinical and subclinical), which cause high economic losses and also seriously impair the welfare of dairy cattle. To point out the importance of reducing the amount and severity of foot disorders, advice to farmers should include information about the scale of the problem and the consequences in terms of economics and animal welfare. To provide support in making decisions on implementing intervention measures, insight into costs and benefits of different measures should be available. The objective of this study, therefore, is to provide more insight into the costs and benefits, for farmer and cow, of different intervention measures to improve dairy cow foot health. Intervention measures were modeled when they were applicable on a dairy farm with cubicle housing and when sufficient information was available in literature. Net costs were calculated as the difference between the costs of the measure and the economic benefits resulting from the measure. Welfare benefits were calculated as well. Cost-effective measures are: improving lying surface (mattress and bedding, €7 and €1/cow per year, respectively), reducing stocking density (break even) and performing additional foot trimming (€1/cow per year). Simultaneously, these measures have a relative high welfare benefit. Labor costs play an important role in the cost-effectiveness of labor-intensive measures. More insight into cost-effectiveness and welfare benefits of intervention measures can help to prioritize when choosing between intervention measures.

  13. Assuring dairy cattle welfare : towards efficient assessment and improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.

    2013-01-01

      In many countries, there is an increasing interest to assure the welfare of production animals. On-farm assessment of dairy cattle welfare, however, is time-consuming and, therefore, expensive. Besides this, effects of housing and management interventions that are aimed at improving welfare

  14. Development of a Simherd web application for herd health advisors - experiences and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren; Ettema, Jehan Frans; Kudahl, Anne Braad

    2010-01-01

    SimHerd is a computer model of a dairy herd. In more than a decade the model has been applied and further developed within the research in herd management and animal health economics in dairy herds. Analyses with the SimHerd model have been included in 2 doctoral theses, 9 PhD theses, 4 MSc these....... The following describes experiences with developing a commercial herd health advisory tool based on the history of the research tool - SimHerd.......SimHerd is a computer model of a dairy herd. In more than a decade the model has been applied and further developed within the research in herd management and animal health economics in dairy herds. Analyses with the SimHerd model have been included in 2 doctoral theses, 9 PhD theses, 4 MSc theses...

  15. Economic impact of clinical mastitis in a dairy herd assessed by stochastic simulation using different methods to model yield losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagnestam-Nielsen, Christel; Østergaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    losses was investigated by comparing the results obtained using the potential yield of mastitic cows, had they not developed CM, with those obtained using the yield of non-mastitic cows. The yearly maximum avoidable cost of CM at herd level was estimated at €14 504, corresponding to 6.9% of the net...... and the conventional modelling strategy, with the exception of the cost per case of CM. Similarities between the results obtained using the two methods were particularly evident when the mastitic cows' own yield level, had they not developed CM, was used as the reference for production in healthy cows when yield...

  16. Invited review: Sustainability of the US dairy industry

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The US dairy industry has realized tremendous improvements in efficiencies and milk production since the 1940s. During this time, farm and total cow numbers have decreased and average herd size has increased. This intensification, combined with the shift to a largely urban public, has resulted in increased scrutiny of the dairy industry by social and environmental movements and increased concern regarding the dairy industry's sustainability. In response to these concerns, a group of scientist...

  17. Comparative Suitability of Ear Notch Biopsy and Serum Pairs for Detecting Nature of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Infection in Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arfan Ahmad, Masood Rabbani, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Khushi Muhammad1, Tahir Yaqub, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi2, Rana Khurram Khalid, Muhammad Abu Bakr Shabbir3 and Shumaila Yousaf Alvi4

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Suitability of ear notch biopsy (EN and serum pairs (n= 307 collected from 10 Holstein dairy herds located in Charlottetown, Canada was evaluated for simultaneous detection, nature of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infection and genotype of the prevailing BVDV through Real time RT-PCR. Depending upon vaccination status and age, the sampled animals were categorized into two groups, A (n=123, ≤ 6 month of age and B (n=184, ≥ 6 months of age originating from 4 vaccinated (n=108 and 3 non-vaccinated (n=76 animal herds. On first round of testing a discrepancy between ear notch biopsies and sera pairs (3.25 and 6.50%; P<0.05 of groups A was observed, however, a complete harmony (50% for EN and sera each, P<0.01 was found on second round of testing that confirmed the presence of 4 persistent infection (PI animals harboring genotype 1 of BVDV. Complete concordance between EN and sera pairs (P<0.01 on first and follow up testing in group B was observed (2.77%, each, depicting 3 PI animals with the same genotype as in group A. In the study, ear notch biopsies did not detect any transient infection (TI but sera samples detected 3.25% transiently infected animals in group A that was 1.30 % among all the test samples (n=307 while no TI animal was found in group B. It may be concluded that both the serum and ear notch biopsy can be used to detect PI animals and that, serum samples are more sensitive than ear notch (P < 0.05 for detection of TI using real time RT-PCR.

  18. Muestreo predial pequeño para predecir una infección activa por virus diarrea viral bovina (VDVB en planteles lecheros de la Xª Región de Chile A small herd sample to predict an active infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV in dairy herds of X Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. REINHARDT

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La diarrea viral bovina está distribuida mundialmente y la mayoría del ganado es seropositivo, aunque la seroprevalencia varía entre predios y grupos de edad. Los animales con infección persistente son los transmisores más eficientes, pasan desapercibidos y son la fuente más importante para la perpetuación de la infección. Este trabajo entrega los resultados del análisis serológico de una muestra predial de 10 animales entre 6 y 12 meses de edad de 44 predios lecheros de la X Región de Chile. Se constató que en 35 planteles (79.5% existiría infección activa con virus diarrea viral bovina, pues al menos 6 de los 10 sueros estudiados presentaron anticuerpos. De esta manera, mediante una muestra pequeña de animales jóvenes es posible predecir, con certeza, la presencia de infección activa en los plantelesBovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV has a worldwide distribution and most cattle are seropositive, although the prevalence may vary among herds and among different age groups. Persistently infected (PI animals are the most efficient transmitters of infection often remaining unnoticed in the herds thus, becoming the most important source to perpetuate the infection. In each of the 44 dairy herds studied from X Region, Chile, ten young stock aged 6 _ 12 months were tested for antibodies against BVDV. In 35 dairy herds (79.5% BVDV active infection was predicted because at least 6 over ten sera were antibody carriers. Thus, based on few blood samples, herds with PI animals and herds without PI animals could be distinguished with a high degree of accuracy

  19. Invited review: Current state of genetic improvement in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, A; Casu, Sara; Salaris, S

    2009-12-01

    Dairy sheep have been farmed traditionally in the Mediterranean basin in southern Europe, central Europe, eastern Europe, and in Near East countries. Currently, dairy sheep farming systems vary from extensive to intensive according to the economic relevance of the production chain and the specific environment and breed. Modern breeding programs were conceived in the 1960s. The most efficient selection scheme for local dairy sheep breeds is based on pyramidal management of the population with the breeders of nucleus flocks at the top, where pedigree and official milk recording, artificial insemination, controlled natural mating, and breeding value estimation are carried out to generate genetic progress. The genetic progress is then transferred to the commercial flocks through artificial insemination or natural-mating rams. Increasing milk yield is still the most profitable breeding objective for several breeds. Almost all milk is used for cheese production and, consequently, milk content traits are very important. Moreover, other traits are gaining interest for selection: machine milking ability and udder morphology, resistance to diseases (mastitis, internal parasites, scrapie), and traits related to the nutritional value of milk (fatty acid composition). Current breeding programs based on the traditional quantitative approach have achieved appreciable genetic gains for milk yield. In many cases, further selection goals such as milk composition, udder morphology, somatic cell count, and scrapie resistance have been implemented. However, the possibility of including other traits of selective interest is limited by high recording costs. Also, the organizational effort needed to apply the traditional quantitative approach limits the diffusion of current selection programs outside the European Mediterranean area. In this context, the application of selection schemes assisted by molecular information, to improve either traditional dairy traits or traits costly to record

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions in milk and dairy product chains: Improving the carbon footprint of dairy products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flysjoe, A.M.

    2012-11-01

    The present PhD project has focused on some of the most critical methodological aspects influencing GHG emission estimates of milk and dairy products and how the methodology can be improved. In addition, the Carbon Footprint (CF) for different types of dairy products has been analysed. Based on these results, mitigation options have been identified along the entire dairy value chain. The key methodological challenges analysed in the present study are: estimation of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions, assessment of CO{sub 2} emissions from land use change (LUC), co-product handling, and definition of the functional unit. Estimates of the biogenic emissions CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are associated with large uncertainties due to the complexity and natural variation in biological processes. Accounting for these variations resulted in a {+-}30-50% variation in the CF for milk in Sweden and New Zealand (excluding emissions from LUC). The inclusion of emissions from LUC can drastically affect the CF of dairy products, and different models can even provide contradictory results. Thus, it is suggested that emissions associated with LUC are reported separately and that underlying assumptions are clearly explained. Accounting for the by-product beef is decisive for the CF of milk, and when designing future strategies for the dairy sector, milk and meat production needs to be addressed in an integrated approach. It is shown that an increase in milk yield per cow does not necessarily result in a lower CF of milk, when taking into account the alternative production of the by-product beef. This demonstrates that it is important to investigate interactions between different product chains, i.e. to apply system thinking. The CF of dairy products from Arla Foods analysed in the present study range from: 1.2-5.5 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg fresh dairy products, 7.3-10.9 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg butter and butter blends, 4.5-9.9 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg cheese, and 1.0-17.4 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg milk

  1. Improved grazing activity of dairy heifers in shaded tropical grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Cristina Tavares de Mello

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Trees in the production systems can effectively reduce hot weather-induced stress in the Brazilian Midwest. High temperatures cause changes in animals daily routine, and trees into pastures can promote benefits. The aim of this research was to evaluate the behavior of dairy heifers in silvopastoral systems in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. A herd of 24 crossbreed heifers (3/4 and 7/8 Holstein/Zebu, 350kg average weight, was evaluated over three seasons. Piatã grass was managed under three shade levels: full-sun, moderate-shade, and intensive-shade provided by 10 to 12m high Eucalyptus trees. Behavior data were collected every 15 minutes from 8:30h to 16h. Shade availability significantly impacted heifer behavior, mainly affecting grazing frequency and time during the hottest hours. Grazing behavior was affected by shade levels during the different seasons. Heifers showed preferred grazing times. Heifers in the intensive-shade system visited shady areas during the hottest hours throughout the seasons. Heifers in the full sun-system avoided grazing during the warmer times, ceasing feeding activities. Our results from the Brazilian Midwest showed that shade availability causes breed heifers to change their daily routine.

  2. ESTRATEGIC MANAGEMENT DURING THE TRANSICION PERIOD TO OPTIMISE PRODUCTIVITY AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE IN THE DAIRY HERD MANEJO ESTRATÉGICO DURANTE EL PERIODO DE TRANSICIÓN PARA OPTIMIZAR LA PRODUCCIÓN Y EL COMPORTAMIENTO REPRODUCTIVO GANADO LECHERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risco Carlos

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In dairy herds, the interval between calving and pregnancy depend on many factors including preparation of the cow for calving, dietary management before and after calving. Factors such as hypocalcemia and body condition are determinant in the presentation of postpartum pathologies and ovarian activity resumption. Additionally, management of the dairy cattle should include fixed time artificial insemination protocols to increase the number of animals bred close to the voluntary waiting period and pregnancy rates. The following review will address topics related with cattle body condition and puerperal hypocalcemia that affect negatively postpartum reproductive performance and also will, address management alternatives to improve pregnancy rates y to reduce days open.Los días abiertos en el hato lechero dependen de muchos factores, dentro de los cuales se debe considerar, la preparación de la vaca preparto incluyendo el manejo dietario pre y postparto. Factores como la hipocalcemia y la condición corporal son determinantes en la presentación de patologías puerperales y en el inicio de la ciclicidad. Adicional a este manejo, se debe considerar la utilización de protocolos de inseminación a tiempo fijo que incrementa el número de animales servidos cerca del tiempo voluntario de espera y genera un incremento en las tasas de preñez. La presente revisión discutirá temas relacionados con la condición corporal y la presentación de hipocalcemia puerperal que afectan la fertilidad posparto de la vaca, así como alternativas para mejorar las tasa de preñez y reducir los días abiertos.

  3. An observational study of the vertical transmission of Theileria orientalis (Ikeda) in a New Zealand pastoral dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, K E; Gedye, K; McFadden, A M J; Pulford, D J; Pomroy, W E

    2016-03-15

    Although only recently recognised, Theileria orientalis (Ikeda) is now the most important infectious cause of anaemia in New Zealand cattle. The aim of this study was to test if vertical transmission of T. orientalis (Ikeda) from dam to calf across the placenta occurs in naturally infected New Zealand dairy cattle and to also test whether the infection status of the dam at calving affects the future susceptibility of its offspring to T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection. Dairy cows (n=97) and their calves were sampled at calving; and the calves again at 4 months of age. All samples were measured for haematocrit and screened for T. orientalis genotypes using a multiplex Buffeli, Chitose and Ikeda specific TaqMan assay. Ikeda positive samples were further tested by singleplex PCR in triplicate to calculate the Ikeda infection intensity as genomes/μl of blood from each infected animal. No T. orientalis (Ikeda) infected calves were born to either T. orientalis (Ikeda) infected or uninfected dams. There were 56/97 dams positive for T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection at calving and 79/90 calves positive for T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection at 4 months of age but no effect on calf susceptibility of dam infection status at calving. There was a significant negative effect of infection intensity on haematocrit after controlling for whether the infected animal was a dam or a 4 month old calf. Vertical trans-uterine transmission of T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection is unlikely in chronically infected dairy cows and thus not a factor in the epidemiology of T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for shedding of thermophilic Campylobacter in calves with and without diarrhea in Austrian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, D; Alispahic, M; Sofka, D; Iwersen, M; Drillich, M; Hilbert, F

    2013-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter in feces of calves with and without diarrhea on dairy farms and to survey farm characteristics and management practices to define risk factors for the presence of Campylobacter. Fifty dairy farms were chosen based on the presence of calf diarrhea, and 50 farms in which calves were free from diarrhea served as a standard of comparison. In total, fecal samples were taken from 382 calves. Farm data and management practices were surveyed using a questionnaire on farm. Campylobacter were isolated from fecal samples and colonies were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. Campylobacter spp., mainly Campylobacter jejuni (93% of isolated species), were detected on 33% of the farms and in 14.9% of the calves. Detection of Campylobacter did not differ between farms or between calves with and without diarrhea, although we found a tendency for calves suffering from diarrhea to shed Campylobacter more often. Calves may act as a reservoir of Campylobacter and may therefore lead to infections of other animals and humans. To define control strategies to reduce Campylobacter in calves, we identified on-farm risk factors. The presence of poultry on the farm, the time of cow-calf separation following birth, the use of an individual bucket for each calf, the feeding of waste milk, and the duration of individual housing were variables significantly associated with the appearance or absence of Campylobacter. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gross margin losses due to Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy cattle herds estimated by simulation modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Dahl; Kudahl, Anne Braad; Østergaard, S.

    2013-01-01

    and dynamic simulation model. The model incorporated six age groups (neonatal, pre-weaned calves, weaned calves, growing heifers, breeding heifers and cows) and five infection stages (susceptible, acutely infected, carrier, super shedder and resistant). The effects of introducing one S. Dublin infectious...... losses. This was more influential in the poorer management scenarios due to increased number of infected cows. The results can be used to inform dairy farmers of the benefits of preventing introduction and controlling spread of S. Dublin. Furthermore, they can be used in cost-benefit analyses of control...

  6. Temporal Variation of Faecal Shedding of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in A Dairy Herd Producing Raw Milk for Direct Human Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merialdi, Giuseppe; Bardasi, Lia; Stancampiano, Laura; Taddei, Roberta; Delogu, Mauro; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Guarniero, Ilaria; Grilli, Ester; Fustini, Mattia; Bonfante, Elena; Giacometti, Federica

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse over time the evolution of E. coli O157:H7 faecal shedding in a dairy herd producing raw milk for direct human consumption. The study was performed between October 2012 and September 2013 in an average size Italian dairy farm where animals are housed inside the barn all over the year. The farm housed about 140 animals during the study – 70 cows and 70 calves and heifers. Twenty-six animals were randomly selected from both the cows and young animals group, and faecal sampling was performed rectally six times two months apart in each animal. Eleven animals were culled during the study and a total of 285 faecal samples were collected. At each faecal sampling, three trough water samples and two trough feed samples were also collected for a total of 36 water samples and 24 feed samples. Samples were analysed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and culture. Overall, 16 (5.6%) faecal samples were positive for E. coli O157 by RT-PCR. Cultural examination found 9 (3.1%) samples positive for E. coli O157; all the isolates were positive for stx1, stx 2 and eae genes. One (4.1%) feed sample was positive for E. coli O157 by RT-PCR; none of the water samples was positive for E. coli O157. The model highlighted a general significant reduction of the number of positive samples observed during the study from the first to the sixth sampling (P=0.000) and a positive relation between the presence of positive samples and average environmental temperature (P=0.003). The results of the study showed that in an Italian dairy farm housing animals all year, faecal shedding of E. coli O157 followed the same temporal trend reported for other types of farming. The enhanced faecal shedding during warmer months may have a significant impact on environmental contamination and the safety of raw milk and its byproducts.

  7. Temporal variation of faecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a dairy herd producing raw milk for direct human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Merialdi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse over time the evolution of E. coli O157:H7 faecal shedding in a dairy herd producing raw milk for direct human consumption. The study was performed between October 2012 and September 2013 in an average size Italian dairy farm where animals are housed inside the barn all over the year. The farm housed about 140 animals during the study – 70 cows and 70 calves and heifers. Twenty-six animals were randomly selected from both the cows and young animals group, and faecal sampling was performed rectally six times two months apart in each animal. Eleven animals were culled during the study and a total of 285 faecal samples were collected. At each faecal sampling, three trough water samples and two trough feed samples were also collected for a total of 36 water samples and 24 feed samples. Samples were analysed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and culture. Overall, 16 (5.6% faecal samples were positive for E. coli O157 by RT-PCR. Cultural examination found 9 (3.1% samples positive for E. coli O157; all the isolates were positive for stx1, stx 2 and eae genes. One (4.1% feed sample was positive for E. coli O157 by RT-PCR; none of the water samples was positive for E. coli O157. The model highlighted a general significant reduction of the number of positive samples observed during the study from the first to the sixth sampling (P=0.000 and a positive relation between the presence of positive samples and average environmental temperature (P=0.003. The results of the study showed that in an Italian dairy farm housing animals all year, faecal shedding of E. coli O157 followed the same temporal trend reported for other types of farming. The enhanced faecal shedding during warmer months may have a significant impact on environmental contamination and the safety of raw milk and its byproducts.

  8. Occurrence of Clinical and Sub-Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds in the West Littoral Region in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivero R

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine dairy farms were selected to determine the incidence of clinical mastitis, prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis and bacterial aetiology in the West Littoral Region of Uruguay. In samples taken by the owner and frozen at -20°C during a week the incidence rate of clinical mastitis was determined as 1.2 cases per 100 cow-months at risk. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated pathogen in 37.5% of 40 milk samples from clinical cases obtained in 1 month. No bacteria grew in the 32.5% of the total samples. A sub-sample including 1077 dairy cows from randomly selected farms was used to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. These samples were taken on one visit to each farm. The prevalence was 52.4% on a cow basis and 26.7% on an udder quarter basis. In 55.1% of the quarters of the selected animals with more than 300 000 cells/ml there was no growth. The isolated pathogens from sub-clinical cases and their relative frequencies were: Staphylococcus aureus 62.8%, Streptococcus agalactiae 11.3%, Enterococcus sp. 8%, coagulase-negative staphylococci 7.4%, Streptococus uberis 6.4%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae 1.8%, Escherichia coli 1.5% and Staphylococcus hyicus coagulase-positive 0.6%.

  9. Assessment of the California mastitis test usage in smallholder dairy herds and risk of violative antimicrobial residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitandi, Anakalo; Kihumbu, Gathoni

    2004-03-01

    This study evaluated how predictive the California Mastitis Test (CMT) is for sub-clinical mastitis under tropical smallholder dairy production conditions in Kenya. It intended to establish whether the CMT usage could be contributing to misdiagnosis and consequent mistreatment with animal drugs resulting in residue problems. Milk samples (n = 239) were aseptically collected from lactating cows in the Rift Valley of Kenya and tested using the CMT, somatic cell counts (SCC) and bacterial culture. The samples were also screened for violative drug residues using the commercial delvo test and compared to the milks mastitic status for possible association. There was a numerical but non-significant (p > 0.05) difference evident in the frequencies observed using the three different mastitis indicators. The prevalent bacterial species isolated from mammary glands with subclinical mastitis were Staphylococcus aureus (45.6%), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (13.0%), Streptococci (11.7%) and Escherichia coli 5.9%. There was an overall poor but significant (p CMT and the violative antimicrobial residues in samples from all quarters, infected and non-infected respectively. The results suggest that the CMT use amongst the smallholder dairy sector as a mastitic indicator may not be a risk factor in violative antimicrobial residues problems in milk.

  10. Occurrence of Clinical and Sub-Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds in the West Littoral Region in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianneechini, R; Concha, C; Rivero, R; Delucci, I; López, J Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-nine dairy farms were selected to determine the incidence of clinical mastitis, prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis and bacterial aetiology in the West Littoral Region of Uruguay. In samples taken by the owner and frozen at -20°C during a week the incidence rate of clinical mastitis was determined as 1.2 cases per 100 cow-months at risk. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated pathogen in 37.5% of 40 milk samples from clinical cases obtained in 1 month. No bacteria grew in the 32.5% of the total samples. A sub-sample including 1077 dairy cows from randomly selected farms was used to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. These samples were taken on one visit to each farm. The prevalence was 52.4% on a cow basis and 26.7% on an udder quarter basis. In 55.1% of the quarters of the selected animals with more than 300 000 cells/ml there was no growth. The isolated pathogens from sub-clinical cases and their relative frequencies were: Staphylococcus aureus 62.8%, Streptococcus agalactiae 11.3%, Enterococcus sp. 8%, coagulase-negative staphylococci 7.4%, Streptococus uberis 6.4%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae 1.8%, Escherichia coli 1.5% and Staphylococcus hyicus coagulase-positive 0.6%. PMID:12831175

  11. Characterization of Dutch dairy farms using sensor systems for cow management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.

    2015-01-01

    To improve cow management in large dairy herds, sensors have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. Recently, the number of dairy farms using sensor systems has increased. It is not known, however, to what extent sensor systems are

  12. The use of crossbreeding with beef bulls in dairy herds: effects on calving difficulty and gestation length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouz, R; Gandoy, F; Sanjuán, M L; Yus, E; Diéguez, F J

    2013-02-01

    This study was designed to analyse the evolution in the use of beef bull semen for dairy cattle insemination and, mainly, to assess calving difficulty, gestation length and proportion of stillbirths after breeding pure Holsteins or crossbreeding. Data were collected during 2004 to 2011 for 552 571 Holstein calvings (457 070 Holstein × Holstein, 43 384 Holstein × Limousine, 32 174 Holstein × Belgian Blue and 19 943 Holstein × Galician Blonde). The highest calving difficulty, compared with pure Holsteins was for crosses with Belgian Blue followed by Limousine and Galician Blonde. The Holstein × Limousine and Holstein × Galician Blonde crossbred calves had significantly longer gestation lengths than Holstein × Holstein and Holstein × Belgian Blue calves. Between the latter two, pure Holstein had the shortest gestation length. Calving difficulty and gestation length decreased as the age of the dam advanced. The most difficult calvings were observed in twin calvings, followed by the calvings of male calves and female calves. The gestations leading to the birth of male calves were longer than those leading to female calves and twin calves. Stillbirths were not related to the breed used for mating. Through examining these parameters, sire breed should be considered when selecting a beef breed for the insemination of milk-producing dams.

  13. Short communication: Lipolytic activity on milk fat by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae strains commonly isolated in Swedish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidanarachchi, Janak K; Li, Shengjie; Lundh, Åse Sternesjö; Johansson, Monika

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the lipolytic activity on milk fat of 2 bovine mastitis pathogens, that is, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. The lipolytic activity was determined by 2 different techniques, that is, thin-layer chromatography and an extraction-titration method, in an experimental model using the most commonly occurring field strains of the 2 mastitic bacteria isolated from Swedish dairy farms. The microorganisms were inoculated into bacteria-free control milk and incubated at 37°C to reflect physiological temperatures in the mammary gland. Levels of free fatty acids (FFA) were analyzed at time of inoculation (t=0) and after 2 and 6h of incubation, showing significant increase in FFA levels. After 2h the FFA content had increased by approximately 40% in milk samples inoculated with Staph. aureus and Strep. agalactiae, and at 6h the pathogens had increased FFA levels by 47% compared with the bacteria-free control milk. Changes in lipid composition compared with the bacteria-free control were investigated at 2 and 6h of incubation. Diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols, and phospholipids increased significantly after 6h incubation with the mastitis bacteria, whereas cholesterol and sterol esters decreased. Our results suggest that during mammary infections with Staph. aureus and Strep. agalactiae, the action of lipases originating from the mastitis pathogens will contribute significantly to milk fat lipolysis and thus to raw milk deterioration.

  14. Short communication: Outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-associated mastitis in a closed dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, F F; Manzi, M P; Joaquim, S F; Richini-Pereira, V B; Langoni, H

    2017-01-01

    Cows are probably the main source of contamination of raw milk with Staphylococcus aureus. Mammary glands with subclinical mastitis can shed large numbers of Staph. aureus in milk. Because of the risk of this pathogen to human health as well as animal health, the aim of this paper was to describe an outbreak of mastitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA), oxacillin-susceptible mecA-positive Staph. aureus (OS-MRSA), and methicillin-susceptible Staph. aureus (MSSA) on a dairy farm. Milk samples were obtained from all quarters, showing an elevated somatic cell count by the California Mastitis Test. The isolates were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 53% (61/115) of the milk samples, with 60 isolates identified as Staph. aureus (98.4%) and 1 isolate identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis (1.6%). The presence of the mecA gene was verified in 48.3% of Staph. aureus isolates. Of the Staph. aureus isolates, 23.3% were MRSA and 25.0% were OS-MRSA. The total of mastitis cases infected with MRSA was 12.2%. The detection of this large percentage of mastitis cases caused by MRSA and OS-MRSA is of great concern for the animals' health, because β-lactams are still the most important antimicrobials used to treat mastitis. In addition, Staph. aureus isolates causing bovine mastitis represent a public health risk.

  15. Haematological profile of crossbred dairy cattle to monitor herd health status at medium elevation in Central Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B; Pachauri, S P

    2000-10-01

    Haematological profile-haemoglobin concentration (Hb), total erythrocytes count (TEC), packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte indices-mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were studied in crossbred dairy cattle (Holstein Friesian x Sahiwal) under various physiological states: non-pregnant heifers (NPH), pregnant heifers (PH), empty dry cows (EDC), pregnant lactating cows (PLC), medium yield early lactating cows (MYELC) and high yield early lactating cows (HYELC) during summer and winter seasons at 1700 metres altitude from mean sea level in the Central Himalayas. On comparison of annual means, the highest values of Hb and PCV were recorded in PH and of TEC in NPH, whereas the lowest values of these parameters were found in EDC. The Hb and TEC tended to decrease with increasing milk yield. Comparison of annual means of erythrocyte indices revealed the highest MCV and MCH in EDC, which simultaneously showed the lowest MCHC. Significant seasonal variations in haematological profile were recorded. The overall group mean (OGM) of Hb, MCV, MCH and MCHC was found to be significantly higher (P OGM (P < 0.01) during the winter season.

  16. Prevalence of contagious and environmental mastitis-causing bacteria in bulk tank milk and its relationships with milking practices of dairy cattle herds in São Miguel Island (Azores).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Carla; Pacheco, Diana; Soares, Luísa; Romão, Ricardo; Moitoso, Mónica; Maldonado, Jaime; Guix, Roger; Simões, João

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the degree of contamination of bulk tank milk (BTM) by Staphylococcus spp. and coliform bacteria and to identify major milking practices that help perpetuate them in dairy cattle herds in São Miguel Island. In July 2014, BTM was sampled and a survey concerning local milking practices was conducted on 100 herds. Semi quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction detected coagulase-negative staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and other coliform bacteria (Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens) in 100, 75, 59, and 35 % of BTM, respectively. According to multivariable univariate models, on herds not using hot water for cleaning the milking machine and teat liners, there was at least 3.4 more odds (P < 0.01) to have S. aureus or coliform bacteria contamination in BTM. The likelihood of finding S. aureus in BTM was higher (P < 0.001) on herds without high hygiene during milking, when milking mastitic cows at the end, on abrupt cessation of milking at dry-off, and official milk control implementation. The glove use also favored (odds ratio (OR) 5.8; P < 0.01) the detection of coliform bacteria in BTM. Poor milking practices identified in this study should be avoided in order to decrease S. aureus and coliform bacteria contamination of BTM. Other factors associated with milk quality in São Miguel Island also should be further investigated.

  17. A phylogenetically distinct Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus detected in a dromedary calf from a closed dairy herd in Dubai with rising seroprevalence with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernery, Ulrich; El Rasoul, I Hassab; Wong, Emily Y M; Joseph, Marina; Chen, Yixin; Jose, Shanty; Tsang, Alan K L; Patteril, Nissy Annie Georgy; Chen, Honglin; Elizabeth, Shyna K; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Joseph, Sunitha; Xia, Ningshao; Wernery, Renate; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2015-12-02

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was detected by monoclonal antibody-based nucleocapsid protein-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), RNA detection, and viral culture from the nasal sample of a 1-month-old dromedary calf in Dubai with sudden death. Whole genome phylogeny showed that this MERS-CoV strain did not cluster with the other MERS-CoV strains from Dubai that we reported recently. Instead, it formed a unique branch more closely related to other MERS-CoV strains from patients in Qatar and Hafr-Al-Batin in Saudi Arabia, as well as the MERS-CoV strains from patients in the recent Korean outbreak, in which the index patient acquired the infection during travel in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. Non-synonymous mutations, resulting in 11 unique amino acid differences, were observed between the MERS-CoV genome from the present study and all the other available MERS-CoV genomes. Among these 11 unique amino acid differences, four were found in ORF1ab, three were found in the S1 domain of the spike protein, and one each was found in the proteins encoded by ORF4b, ORF5, envelope gene, and ORF8. MERS-CoV detection for all other 254 dromedaries in this closed dairy herd was negative by nucleocapsid protein-capture ELISA and RNA detection. MERS-CoV IgG sero-positivity gradually increased in dromedary calves with increasing age, with positivity rates of 75% at zero to three months, 79% at four months, 89% at five to six months, and 90% at seven to twelve months. The development of a rapid antigen detection kit for instantaneous diagnosis is warranted.Emerging Microbes & Infections (2015) 4, e74; doi:10.1038/emi.2015.74; published online 2 December 2015.

  18. Effects of feeding level and protein content of milk replacer on the performance of dairy herd replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S J; Wicks, H C F; Fallon, R J; Twigge, J; Dawson, L E R; Wylie, A R G; Carson, A F

    2009-11-01

    It has been suggested that United Kingdom recommendations for feeding the neonatal calf (500 g milk replacer (MR)/day; 200-230 g CP/kg milk powder) are inadequate to sustain optimal growth rates in early life. The current study was undertaken with 153 high genetic merit, male and female Holstein-Friesian calves (PIN2000 = £48) born between September and March, with heifers reared and bred to calve at 24 months of age. Calves were allocated to one of four pre-weaning dietary treatments arranged in a 2 MR feeding level (5 v. 10 l/day) × 2 MR protein content (210 v. 270 g CP/kg dry matter (DM)) factorial design. MR was reconstituted at a rate of 120 g/l of water, throughout, and was offered via computerised automated milk feeders. Calves were introduced to pre-weaning diets at 5 days of age and weaned at day 56. During the first 56 days of life, calves offered 10 l MR/day had significantly higher liveweight gains (P calves fed 5 l MR/day. No significant differences in liveweight gain were found between calves fed 210 g CP/kg DM MR and those fed 270 g CP/kg DM MR from birth to day 56. Differences in live weight and body size due to feeding level disappeared by day 90. Neither MR feeding level nor MR CP content affected age at first service or age at successful service, and with no milk production effects, the results indicate no post-weaning benefits of increased nutrition during the milk-feeding period in dairy heifers.

  19. A structured approach to control of Salmonella Dublin in 10 Danish dairy herds based on risk scoring and test-and-manage procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2012-01-01

    stock and adult cattle in 10 case herds that were followed for more than three years. The five steps in the structured approach were: 1) risk scoring to determine transmission routes within the herd and into the herd; 2) determining a plan of action; 3) performing management changes to close important...... routes of infection; 4) interpretation of repeated testing of individual animals to detect high-risk animals for special hygienic management or culling; and 5) diagnostic testing of different age groups and bulk tank milk to evaluate progress of control over time. Serology, true prevalence estimates...... and changes in herd classification in the Danish surveillance programme for Salmonella Dublin were used to assess the progress in the herds during and after the control period. Effective control of Salmonella Dublin was achieved in all participating herds through management that focused on closing infection...

  20. FORAGES AND PASTURES SYMPOSIUM: Improving efficiency of production in pasture- and range-based beef and dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Rius, A G; Edwards, M A; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; Nave, R L G

    2015-06-01

    Despite overall increased production in the last century, it is critical that grazing production systems focus on improving beef and dairy efficiency to meet current and future global food demands. For livestock producers, production efficiency is essential to maintain long-term profitability and sustainability. This continued viability of production systems using pasture- and range-based grazing systems requires more rapid adoption of innovative management practices and selection tools that increase profitability by optimizing grazing management and increasing reproductive performance. Understanding the genetic variation in cow herds will provide the ability to select cows that require less energy for maintenance, which can potentially reduce total energy utilization or energy required for production, consequently improving production efficiency and profitability. In the United States, pasture- and range-based grazing systems vary tremendously across various unique environments that differ in climate, topography, and forage production. This variation in environmental conditions contributes to the challenges of developing or targeting specific genetic components and grazing systems that lead to increased production efficiency. However, across these various environments and grazing management systems, grazable forage remains the least expensive nutrient source to maintain productivity of the cow herd. Beef and dairy cattle can capitalize on their ability to utilize these feed resources that are not usable for other production industries. Therefore, lower-cost alternatives to feeding harvested and stored feedstuffs have the opportunity to provide to livestock producers a sustainable and efficient forage production system. However, increasing production efficiency within a given production environment would vary according to genetic potential (i.e., growth and milk potential), how that genetic potential fits the respective production environment, and how the grazing

  1. Delivering Improved Nutrition: Dairy Ingredients in Food Aid Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossman, Nina

    2016-03-01

    The United States has a long history of food assistance for humanitarian need. The Food for Peace Act of 1954 established the United States' permanent food assistance program which has fed over 3 billion people in 150 countries worldwide through thousands of partner organizations. In 60 years, the program has evolved and will continue to do so. Recently, the program has gone from a focus on quantity of food shipped to quality food assistance from improved products, programs, and processes to effectively meet the needs of different vulnerable groups. The current debate focuses on the appropriateness of using fortified blended foods to prevent and treat malnutrition during the first 1000 days of life. Dairy ingredients have been at the center of this debate; they were included initially in fortified blended, removed in the 1980s, and now reincorporated into fortified therapeutic and supplemental foods. Improved quality food baskets and effective nutrition programming to prevent and treat malnutrition were developed through multisectoral collaboration between government and nongovernment organizations. The US Agency for International Development has focused on improving nutrition through development programs often tied to health, education, and agriculture. The years since 2008 have been a particularly intense period for improvement. The Food Aid Quality Review was established to update current food aid programming products, program implementation, cost-effectiveness, and interagency processes. Trials are underway to harmonize the areas of multisectoral nutrition programming and gather more evidence on the effects of dairy ingredients in food aid products.

  2. Analyzing the heterogeneity of farmers' preferences for improvements in dairy cow traits using farmer typologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Collado, D; Byrne, T J; Amer, P R; Santos, B F S; Axford, M; Pryce, J E

    2015-06-01

    Giving consideration to farmers' preferences for improvements in animal traits when designing genetic selection tools such as selection indexes might increase the uptake of these tools. The increase in use of genetic selection tools will, in turn, assist in the realization of genetic gain in breeding programs. However, the determination of farmers' preferences is not trivial because of its large heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to quantify Australian dairy farmers' preferences for cow trait improvements to inform and ultimately direct the choice of traits and selection indexes in the 2014 review of the National Breeding Objective. A specific aim was to analyze the heterogeneity of preferences for cow trait improvements by determining whether there are farmer types that can be identified with specific patterns of preferences. We analyzed whether farmer types differed in farming system, socioeconomic profile, and attitudes toward breeding and genetic evaluation tools. An online survey was developed to explore farmers' preferences for improvement in 13 cow traits. The pairwise comparisons method was used to derive a ranking of the traits for each respondent. A total of 551 farmers fully completed the survey. A principal component analysis followed by a Ward hierarchical cluster analysis was used to group farmers according to their preferences. Three types of farmers were determined: (1) production-focused farmers, who gave the highest preference of all for improvements in protein yield, lactation persistency, feed efficiency, cow live weight, and milking speed; (2) functionality-focused farmers with the highest preferences of all for improvements in mastitis, lameness, and calving difficulty; and (3) type-focused farmers with the highest preferences of all for mammary system and type. Farmer types differed in their age, their attitudes toward genetic selection, and in the selection criteria they use. Surprisingly, farmer types did not differ for herd size

  3. Estimated economic losses due to neospora caninum infection in dairy herds with and without a history of neospora caninum associated abortion epidemics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, C.J.M.; Hogeveen, H.; Schaik, van G.; Wouda, W.; Dijkstra, Th.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, direct economic losses due to Neospora caninum infection, based on actual data from N. caninum seropositive reference herds and from herds that experienced an N. caninum- associated abortion epidemic, were calculated using a stochastic model with random elements. The results demonstra

  4. Salmonella dublin in Danish dairy herds: Frequency of change to positive serological status in bulk tank milk ELISA in relation to serostatus of neighbouring farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, A.; Strøger, U.; Lind, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Bulk tank milk from 1,429 herds were collected in 3 rounds from 19 different geographic areas. The milk samples were tested by use of indirect LPS-ELISA procedure to detect Salmonella dublin antibodies. From the obtained OD-values herd seroprevalence in the given area was determined and GR...

  5. An outbreak of winter dysentery caused by bovine coronavirus in a high-production dairy cattle herd from a tropical country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Takiuchi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine coronavirus (BCoV is a known cause of winter dysentery (WD in adult cattle. The morbidity of the disease is high, that results in a significant decrease in milk production and consequently, economic losses. In the present study, we report on a classical outbreak of WD that affected a high-production Holstein dairy herd raised in a tropical country. The lactating batch included 154 cows, and 138 (90% presented diarrhea in a short (nine days period of time. Three (2% cows died. The other batches of animals did not become ill. The evolution of the disease in the herd, including the clinical signs and epidemiological features, strongly suggested a WD case. Semi-nested PCR and RFLP confirmed that BCoV was the cause of the infection. Samples tested negative for all other enteric pathogens. This case report highlights the importance of BCoV in WD even in tropical countries such as Brazil.O coronavirus bovino (BCoV pode causar a diarreia de inverno (WD - Winter Dysentery ao infectar bovinos adultos, particularmente em regiões de clima temperado ou frio. A morbidade da doença é alta, resultando em queda na produção de leite e, consequentemente, perdas econômicas. No presente estudo, é descrito um surto clássico de WD acometendo um rebanho de bovinos leiteiros da raça Holandesa PB, de alta produção, proveniente do estado do Paraná. O lote afetado era composto por 154 vacas em lactação, sendo que 138 (90% apresentaram diarreia em um curto (nove dias período de tempo e 3 (2% vacas morreram em consequência da diarreia, desidratação e desequilíbrio eletrolítico. As outras categorias de animais do rebanho (bezerras, novilhas e vacas secas não apresentaram sinal clínico. A evolução da doença clínica, assim como a epidemiologia da infecção sugeriu um quadro clássico de WD. O diagnóstico foi realizado por meio da identificação do BCoV, pela técnica de semi-nested PCR e confirmação por RFLP, em amostra fecal de uma vaca

  6. Improving Milk Quality for Dairy Goat Farm Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cyrilla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate factors affecting goat’s milk quality, consumer’s satisfaction to goat’s milk, and technical responses associated with goat’s milk quality. Three farms having more than 100 dairy goats were purposively selected for the study. Thirty consumers were determined by using judgement sampling techniques to assess the satisfaction of consumer to goat’s milk quality. Data were analyzed by using fishbone diagram and House of Quality matrix. The study revealed that milk quality produced by dairy goat farms met the standard quality of milk composition namely; specific gravity, total solid, fat, protein, and total solid non-fat. The main factors affecting goat milk quantity and quality were the quality of does, pregnancy status, number of kids per birth, shape and size of the udder, lactation length, and the health status of the goat. The attributes of goat’s milk that were able to achieve customer’s satisfaction targets were nutritional content, packaging size, and goat milk color. Technical responses that were major concern in ensuring goat’s milk quality included goat breed quality and health conditions, skills and performances of farmers and employees, feed quality, farm equipment hygiene and completeness, cleanliness, and hygiene of livestock housing and environment. Technical response on livestock health condition was the first priority to be improved.

  7. Management factors related to seroprevalences to bovine viral-diarrhoea virus, bovine-leukosis virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum in dairy herds in the Canadian Maritimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Junwook; VanLeeuwen, John A; Weersink, Alfons; Keefe, Gregory P

    2002-09-10

    Bovine viral-diarrhoea (BVD), enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), Johne's disease (JD), and neosporosis lower on-farm productivity, reduce export competitiveness, and increase consumer concerns regarding safety. Our purpose was to examine the relationship between 27 control practices and the estimated true seroprevalences for these four diseases for 2604 cattle in 90 dairy herds in the Maritimes provinces of Canada. Overall, 37.8, 20.4, 3.4, and 19.2% of all sampled cattle were truly exposed to the agents of BVD, EBL, JD, and neosporosis, respectively. The median within-herd true prevalences were 0, 9.3, 0, and 12.3%, respectively. Factor analysis reduced the 27 control practices to two highly correlated factors. Tobit-regression analyses determined that vaccination practices were associated with reduced prevalence of exposure for Bovine viral-diarrhoea and EBL. Also, farms that tended to purchase their dairy animals were associated with higher seroprevalence for Johnes' disease. Neither of these two factors was associated with the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection. The few routine biosecurity measures that were investigated in this study were generally not related to the seroprevalences of these farms.

  8. Mastitis prevention and control practices and mastitis treatment strategies associated with the consumption of (critically important) antimicrobials on dairy herds in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, M; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S

    2016-04-01

    The main objectives of this study were to evaluate to what extent variations in herd-level antimicrobial consumption (AMC) can be explained by differences in management practices that are consistently effective in the prevention of (sub)clinical mastitis, on the one hand, and by differences in mastitis treatment strategies, on the other hand. Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained during 2012 and 2013 by "garbage can audits" and expressed as antimicrobial treatment incidences (ATI) for all compounds combined (total ATI) and for the critically important antimicrobials for human health separately. Data on mastitis prevention and control practices were obtained via face-to-face interviews performed during herd visits in March 2013. Some management practices and treatment strategies related to udder health were associated with the total AMC. However, the results demonstrated that implementing effective udder health management practices does not necessarily imply a low AMC and vice versa. Herds participating in a veterinary herd health management program and herds selectively drying off cows used fewer antimicrobials compared with herds not participating in such a program or applying blanket dry-cow therapy. Moreover, herds treating (some) (sub)clinical mastitis cases with intramammary homeopathic substances consumed fewer antimicrobials than herds not applying such homeopathic treatments. Besides these factors, no other direct association was found between effective udder health management practices on the one hand and AMC on the other hand. Also, the use of critically important antimicrobials was only associated with the way in which subclinical mastitis cases were treated. The latter indicates that the AMC of critically important antimicrobials is potentially driven by factors other than those included in this study such as those related to the "mindset" of the veterinarians and their farmers. Future research should therefore aim to unravel the reasoning of

  9. Improved forage strategies for high-yielding dairy cows in Vietnam : report of a workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, A.P.; Lee, van der J.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents results of the workshop "Improved forage strategies for high-yielding dairy cows in Vietnam" which was held with Vietnamese stakeholders on January 17-18, 2013 in Ho Chi Minh City as part of the project "Forage and Grass Production for Dairy Development in Vietnam" funded by the

  10. Consequences of two or four months of finishing feeding of culled dry dairy cows on carcass characteristics and technological and sensory meat quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, M.; Madsen, N. T.; Bligaard, H. B.;

    2007-01-01

    Finishing feeding was evaluated as a way to improve carcass-, meat- and eating quality of culled dairy cows. In total, 125 Danish Friesian cows were purchased from commercial dairy herds. Cows were culled for various typical reasons at different stages of lactation, were non-pregnant and had milk...... and better technological as well as sensory quality characteristics....

  11. Study of Digital Management System of Milking Process on Large-Sized Dairy Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This study was to supply the systemic and full milking process data to support the implementation of both dairy herd improvement (DHI) and digital feeding of dairy cattle. This study designed the relational structured database and developed a set of digital management information system on milking process of intensive dairy farm using Visual Basic 6.0, Access databases, and Crystal report combining the milking characteristics of a grown cow, such as quality and sanitation testing indexes of raw milk. The system supplies a series of convenient, intelligent input interfaces of crude datum, and can count, analyze, and graphically show milking datum based on different types and different parities of cows or herds in a specific duration, and can dynamically produce some important derived data, such as days of grown cow, daily average of milk production of grown cow, days of cow milk production, and daily average of milking cow production; and can carry out all-pervasive data mining. With the help of system analysis and software design techniques, it is possible to realize precision farming for a dairy cattle herd based on whole digital management of milking process and real-time prediction on nutrient requirements and ration of dairy cattle, as well as dairy herd improvement.

  12. Mean effective sensitivity for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infection in cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Græsbøll, Kaare; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in cattle are generally challenging to detect and cost-effective test strategies are consequently difficult to identify. MAP-specific antibody ELISAs for milk and serum are relatively inexpensive, but their utility...... within and between groups, and in some groups we found a bimodal distribution of MES. Dairy herds generally showed higher MES than non-dairy herds. Dairy herds in a control programme for paratuberculosis showed a MES similar to all other dairy herds from which animals >2.0 years were tested (both groups...

  13. Effect of management on prevention of Salmonella Dublin exposure of calves during a one-year control programme in 84 Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Dahl; Vesterbæk, I L; Kudahl, A B;

    2012-01-01

    by solid walls rather than bars and not introducing biosecurity routines between the barn sections (e.g. boot wash, change of clothing) were associated with increased probability of successful control in the logistic analysis. The latter may seem illogical, but may be explained by successful herds already...

  14. A Novel Optimization Technique to Improve Gas Recognition by Electronic Noses Based on the Enhanced Krill Herd Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Jia, Pengfei; Huang, Tailai; Duan, Shukai; Yan, Jia; Wang, Lidan

    2016-08-12

    An electronic nose (E-nose) is an intelligent system that we will use in this paper to distinguish three indoor pollutant gases (benzene (C₆H₆), toluene (C₇H₈), formaldehyde (CH₂O)) and carbon monoxide (CO). The algorithm is a key part of an E-nose system mainly composed of data processing and pattern recognition. In this paper, we employ support vector machine (SVM) to distinguish indoor pollutant gases and two of its parameters need to be optimized, so in order to improve the performance of SVM, in other words, to get a higher gas recognition rate, an effective enhanced krill herd algorithm (EKH) based on a novel decision weighting factor computing method is proposed to optimize the two SVM parameters. Krill herd (KH) is an effective method in practice, however, on occasion, it cannot avoid the influence of some local best solutions so it cannot always find the global optimization value. In addition its search ability relies fully on randomness, so it cannot always converge rapidly. To address these issues we propose an enhanced KH (EKH) to improve the global searching and convergence speed performance of KH. To obtain a more accurate model of the krill behavior, an updated crossover operator is added to the approach. We can guarantee the krill group are diversiform at the early stage of iterations, and have a good performance in local searching ability at the later stage of iterations. The recognition results of EKH are compared with those of other optimization algorithms (including KH, chaotic KH (CKH), quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO), particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA)), and we can find that EKH is better than the other considered methods. The research results verify that EKH not only significantly improves the performance of our E-nose system, but also provides a good beginning and theoretical basis for further study about other improved krill algorithms' applications in all E-nose application areas.

  15. Mortality, culling by sixty days in milk, and production profiles in high- and low-survival Pennsylvania herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechow, C D; Goodling, R C

    2008-12-01

    The objectives were to describe culling patterns and reasons for culling across lactation, estimate mortality and the proportion of cows leaving from 21 d before an expected calving date through 60 d in milk (DIM; CULL60) for Pennsylvania (PA) dairy herds, and to describe production measures for herds with high and low mortality and CULL60. Weekly culling frequencies and reasons for culling from 3 wk before a reported expected calving date through >or= 100 wk of lactation were calculated for all PA cows with at least 1 Dairy Herd Improvement test in 2005. It was estimated that at least 5.0% of PA dairy cows died in 2005, and that at least 7.6% were culled by 60 DIM. The majority of cows exiting the herd by 60 DIM either died (35.1%) or had a disposal code of injury/other (29.9%). A total of 137,951 test-day records from 20,864 cows in herds with high mortality (>8.0%) and CULL60 (>12.0%) and 136,906 test-day records from 12,993 cows in herds with low mortality (or= 6 (-0.7 +/- 0.32 kg/d) and had higher SCS (+0.24 +/- 0.02), more change in early-lactation fat percentage (-1.77% vs. -1.59%), and a greater frequency of fat-protein inversions (3.6 +/- 0.3%). There is an opportunity to manipulate management practices to reduce mortality and early-lactation culling rates, which will improve cow welfare and the efficiency of dairy production by capturing a greater proportion of potential lactation milk yield, increasing cow salvage values, and reducing replacement costs.

  16. Cultural lag: A new challenge for mastitis control on dairy farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, R J; Martinez, R O; Contreras, G A

    2015-11-01

    Recent changes in the US dairy industry include increases in herd size and the proportion of milk that is produced by large herds. These changes have been accompanied by an increased reliance on hired employees and an increasing role of immigrant labor to perform critical tasks such as milking cows. Thus, there is a growing need for training and education programs for dairy employees because many employees lack previous dairy experience and employee turnover rates are problematic on many farms. Although extension programs have played an important role in the education and support of dairy producers and allied professionals in attaining improved milk quality, dairy employees have limited access to educational programs. Additionally, metrics to assess employee learning are not validated and the ability to sustain work-related behavioral change has not been well described. In this article, we propose a model that may further our understanding of communication and cultural barriers between dairy managers and employees, based on a demonstration project in 12 Michigan dairy herds. As part of this demonstration, a pilot survey was tested to assess the management culture on dairy farms. Results from this survey found that only 23% of employees across all herds were able to meet with farm management on a regular basis, 36% of employees did not know somatic cell count goals for the farm for which they worked, and 71% of employees stated they primarily received training on milking protocols by other employees or that they learned on their own. Latino employees were more likely to not know farm goals or receive primary training on milking protocols from other employees or on their own compared with their English-speaking counterparts. The survey information, along with input from focus group discussions with participating dairy producers, veterinarians, and employees, suggests that extension needs to build capacity for on-farm training and education for employees to support

  17. Microparticulated whey proteins for improving dairy product texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Richard

    2017-01-01

    . For fermented dairy products, fine-tuning of the interaction potential of MWP is of major importance. For products where MWP serves as an inert filler (e.g., cheese, ice cream), initial processing should ensure that MWP will not interact with the product matrix ensuring creaminess and desired structural...

  18. Cambridge journals blog: Improving feed efficiency in dairy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because the cost of feeding animals is one of the greatest expenses in dairy production (40-60% of production costs), research focused on ways to identify and select for animals that are the most efficient at converting feed into milk has greatly expanded during the last decade. The animal Article o...

  19. Harnessing the genetics of the modern dairy cow to continue improvements in feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VandeHaar, M J; Armentano, L E; Weigel, K; Spurlock, D M; Tempelman, R J; Veerkamp, R

    2016-06-01

    Feed efficiency, as defined by the fraction of feed energy or dry matter captured in products, has more than doubled for the US dairy industry in the past 100 yr. This increased feed efficiency was the result of increased milk production per cow achieved through genetic selection, nutrition, and management with the desired goal being greater profitability. With increased milk production per cow, more feed is consumed per cow, but a greater portion of the feed is partitioned toward milk instead of maintenance and body growth. This dilution of maintenance has been the overwhelming driver of enhanced feed efficiency in the past, but its effect diminishes with each successive increment in production relative to body size and therefore will be less important in the future. Instead, we must also focus on new ways to enhance digestive and metabolic efficiency. One way to examine variation in efficiency among animals is residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of efficiency that is independent of the dilution of maintenance. Cows that convert feed gross energy to net energy more efficiently or have lower maintenance requirements than expected based on body weight use less feed than expected and thus have negative RFI. Cows with low RFI likely digest and metabolize nutrients more efficiently and should have overall greater efficiency and profitability if they are also healthy, fertile, and produce at a high multiple of maintenance. Genomic technologies will help to identify these animals for selection programs. Nutrition and management also will continue to play a major role in farm-level feed efficiency. Management practices such as grouping and total mixed ration feeding have improved rumen function and therefore efficiency, but they have also decreased our attention on individual cow needs. Nutritional grouping is key to helping each cow reach its genetic potential. Perhaps new computer-driven technologies, combined with genomics, will enable us to optimize management for

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase or AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in organic dairy herds in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santman-Berends, I M G A; Gonggrijp, M A; Hage, J J; Heuvelink, A E; Velthuis, A; Lam, T J G M; van Schaik, G

    2016-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase and AmpC-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL/AmpC) are an emerging problem and are hypothesized to be associated with antimicrobial use (AMU), and more specifically with the use of third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. Whether ESBL/AmpC also occur in organic dairy h

  1. Acute dairy milk ingestion does not improve nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation in the cutaneous microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Billie K; Stanhewicz, Anna E; Kenney, W Larry; Alexander, Lacy M

    2016-07-01

    In epidemiological studies, chronic dairy milk consumption is associated with improved vascular health and reduced age-related increases in blood pressure. Although milk protein supplementation augments conduit artery flow-mediated dilation, whether or not acute dairy milk intake may improve microvascular function remains unclear. We hypothesised that dairy milk would increase direct measurement of endothelial nitric oxide (NO)-dependent cutaneous vasodilation in response to local skin heating. Eleven men and women (61 (sem 2) years) ingested two or four servings (473 and 946 ml) of 1 % dairy milk or a rice beverage on each of 4 separate study days. In a subset of five subjects, an additional protocol was completed after 473 ml of water ingestion. Once a stable blood flow occurred, 15 mm-N G -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester was perfused (intradermal microdialysis) to quantify NO-dependent vasodilation. Red-blood-cell flux (RBF) was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry, and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC=RBF/mean arterial pressure) was calculated and normalised to maximum (%CVCmax; 28 mm-sodium nitroprusside). Full expression of cutaneous vasodilation was not different among dairy milk, rice beverage and water, and there was no effect of serving size on the total vasodilatory response. Contrary to our hypothesis, NO-dependent vasodilation was lower for dairy milk than rice beverage (D: 49 (sem 5), R: 55 (sem 5) %CVCmax; Pdairy milk ingestion does not augment NO-dependent vasodilation in the cutaneous microcirculation compared with a rice beverage control.

  2. Herd immunity and herd effect: new insights and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, T J; Samuel, R

    2000-01-01

    The term herd immunity has been used by various authors to conform to different definitions. Earlier this situation had been identified but not corrected. We propose that it should have precise meaning for which purpose a new definition is offered: "the proportion of subjects with immunity in a given population". This definition dissociates herd immunity from the indirect protection observed in the unimmunised segment of a population in which a large proportion is immunised, for which the term 'herd effect' is proposed. It is defined as: "the reduction of infection or disease in the unimmunised segment as a result of immunising a proportion of the population". Herd immunity can be measured by testing a sample of the population for the presence of the chosen immune parameter. Herd effect can be measured by quantifying the decline in incidence in the unimmunised segment of a population in which an immunisation programme is instituted. Herd immunity applies to immunisation or infection, human to human transmitted or otherwise. On the other hand, herd effect applies to immunisation or other health interventions which reduce the probability of transmission, confined to infections transmitted human to human, directly or via vector. The induced herd immunity of a given vaccine exhibits geographic variation as it depends upon coverage and efficacy of the vaccine, both of which can vary geographically. Herd effect is determined by herd immunity as well as the force of transmission of the corresponding infection. Clear understanding of these phenomena and their relationships will help improve the design of effective and efficient immunisation programmes aimed at control, elimination or eradication of vaccine preventable infectious diseases.

  3. Time-to-event analysis of predictors for recovery from Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds between 2002 and 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dohoo, Ian

    2013-01-01

    on the conditional probability of recovery (i.e. the hazard) was time-dependent: early in the study period, long durations of infection were predictive of a low hazard of recovery. Later in the control programme the effect of duration of infection was reduced indicating a desired effect of an intensified control......-positive herds. Participation in a voluntary paratuberculosis control programme reduced the duration of infection, and there were indications that recovery from S. Dublin infection was stimulated by a centrally organised and targeted control campaign. This is the first large-scale study that investigated...

  4. On the surveillance for animal diseases in small herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greiner, Matthias; Dekker, Aldo

    2005-01-01

    Small herds may present a problem in surveillance for infectious animal diseases because typical levels of a within-herd design prevalence are not directly applicable. We suggest a definition of small herds as those smaller than 2/(within-herd design prevalence) on the basis that such herds would...... be expected to have less than two (i.e. only one) infected animals. Consequently, the probability of detecting small herds cannot be improved by choosing a larger sample size within the herd. We derive necessary sample sizes of herds and the probability ("confidence") of detecting disease within a stratum...... of small herds, given the among-herd design prevalence and test diagnostic sensitivity. Both a binomial model and a Poisson model can be used to establish the confidence for a given sample size of herds (and vice versa). The results of a simulation study suggest that the Poisson model provides more...

  5. Nutrition and Health Disparities: The Role of Dairy in Improving Minority Health Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Brown-Riggs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Consuming a balanced diet, such as the food groups represented on MyPlate, is key to improving health disparities. Despite the best of intentions, however, the dietary guidelines can be culturally challenging, particularly when it comes to dairy consumption. Many African and Hispanic Americans avoid milk and dairy products—key contributors of three shortfall nutrients (calcium, potassium and vitamin D—because many people in these populations believe they are lactose intolerant. However, avoiding dairy can have significant health effects. An emerging body of evidence suggests that yogurt and other dairy products may help support reduced risk of heart disease, hypertension, obesity, and type 2 diabetes—conditions that disproportionately impact people of color. For this reason, the National Medical Association and the National Hispanic Medical Association issued a joint consensus statement recommending African Americans consume three to four servings of low-fat dairy every day. Cultured dairy products could play an important role in addressing these recommendations. Because of the presence of lactase-producing cultures, yogurt is often a more easily digestible alternative to milk, and thus more palatable to people who experience symptoms of lactose intolerance. This was a key factor cited in the final rule to include yogurt in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.

  6. Bayesian estimation of true between-herd and within-herd prevalence of Salmonella in Danish veal calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Dahl; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Toft, Nils

    2011-01-01

    Specialised veal producers that purchase and raise calves from several dairy herds are potentially at high risk of delivering Salmonella-infected animals to slaughter. However, the true prevalence of Salmonella infected veal producing herds and the prevalence of infected calves delivered...... six of 68 herds obtaining posterior probability of being infected less than 10%. Furthermore, this study indicated that serology is sufficiently sensitive and specific to be used for estimating the prevalence of Salmonella-infected specialised veal producing herds....

  7. Seroreactivity of Salmonella-infected cattle herds against a fimbrial antigen in comparison with lipopolysaccharide antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Lind, Peter; Bell, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    The IgG seroreaction of Salmonella-infected cattle herds against a fimbrial antigen (SEF14) was compared with that against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigens. Sera from 23 dairy herds (n = 205) from an island with no occurrence of salmonellosis, four herds (n = 303) with recent outbreaks of S...

  8. A benefit to cost analysis of the effect of premilking teat hygiene on somatic cell count and intramammary infections in a commercial dairy herd.

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    A field trial was conducted to determine the effect of premilking teat disinfection (predipping) on several measures of mastitis in a commercial dairy farm where the predominant organisms isolated from intramammary infections were coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. Cows were randomly assigned to a treated (predipped with 0.5% iodine germicide plus "good udder preparation") or a control group ("good udder preparation" alone). Sterile composite milk samples were collected at the initiation ...

  9. Integrated Approach for Improving Small Scale Market Oriented Dairy Systems in Pakistan: Economic Impact of Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghaffar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA launched a Coordinated Research Program in 10 developing countries including Pakistan involving small scale market oriented dairy farmers to identify and prioritize the constraints and opportunities in the selected dairy farms, develop intervention strategies and assess the economic impact of the intervention. The interventions in animal health (control of mastitis at sub-clinical stage and reduction in calf mortality, nutrition (balanced feed reproduction (mineral supplementation, and general management (training of farmers were identified and implemented in a participatory approach at the selected dairy farms. The calf mortality was reduced from 35 to 13 percent up to the age of 3 months. Use of Alfa Deval post milking teat dips reduced the incidence of sub-clinical mastitis from 34 to 5% showing economical benefits of the interventions. Partial budget technique was used to analyze its impact in the registered herds. The farmers recorded monthly quantities of different feed ingredients and seasonal green fodder offered to the animals. From this data set total metabolizeable energy requirements and availability from feed were computed which revealed that animals were deficient in metabolizeable energy in all locations. This was also confirmed by seasonal variation in body condition scoring. At some selected farms the mineral mixture supplement was introduced which exhibited increased milk yield by 5 % in addition to shorten service period by 30 days. Three sessions of training were arranged to train the farmers to care new born calves, daily farm management and detect the animals in heat efficiently to enhance the over all income of the farmers. The overall income of the farm was increased by 40%.

  10. Studies on test-day and lactation milk, fat and protein yield of dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilmink, J.B.M.

    1987-01-01

    Data of milk recording provides the basis to control herd management and genetic improvement of cows. Different management guides can be presented to dairy farmers. Breeding values are predicted for 305-day yields in order to select bulls and cows. However, breeding values should be predicted as ear

  11. Strategic test-day recording regimes to estimate lactation yield in tropical dairy animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGill, D.M.; Thomson, P.C.; Mulder, H.A.; Lievaart, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background In developing dairy sectors, genetic improvement programs have limited resources and recording of herds is minimal. This study evaluated different methods to estimate lactation yield and sampling schedules with fewer test-day records per lactation to determine recording regimes that (1) e

  12. Análisis comparativo de la salud y costo en el período vaca parida en rodeos lecheros Comparative analysis of health and cost of fresh cow in dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Frias

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitorear la vaca en transición es fundamental para detectar precozmente enfermedades. El objetivo fue evaluar la incidencia y costo de eventos en el período “vaca parida” en un tambo del partido de Tandil y compararla con resultados del grupo Clave. Se monitoreó diariamente por 12-14 días posparto la producción láctea, actitud, temperatura corporal, función ruminal, palpación transrectal, glándula mamaria y score de locomoción a 240 vacas y 102 vaquillonas Holstein, durante 3 meses desde el 01/03/2010. La alimentación preparto, fue silo de maíz, grano de cebada, heno y sal mineral; durante la transición post parto (12-14 días se conformó con silo de maíz, heno de pastura, pastura y concentrado. El estadístico se realizó mediante el cálculo de Chi². Se observan mayores valores en metritis/endometritis y menores valores en patologías podales en tambo, respecto del grupo Clave. En tambo hubo diferencias (pMonitoring the transition cow is fundamental for early detection of diseases. The objective was to evaluate the incidence and cost of events in the period “calved cow” on a dairy farm in Tandil and compare with results of the Clave group. Postpartum milk production, attitude, body temperature, rumen function, trans-rectal palpation, mammary gland and locomotion score were monitored daily for 12-14 days in 240 Holstein cows and 102 heifers during the 3 months from 01/03/2010. The pre partum diet was corn silage, barley grain, hay and commercial mineral salt; during the postpartum transition (12-14 days the diet was corn silage, pasture hay, pasture and concentrate. The statistical analysis was performed by calculating Chi². Higher values were observed in metritis/ endometritis and lower values in podal diseases on dairy farm, compared with the Clave group. On the dairy farm there were differences (p <0.05 in assisted birth and hypocalcemia/ Mg recovered between categories. Loss of production, discarded milk and costs

  13. Growth rate, health and welfare in a dairy herd with natural suckling until 6–8 weeks of age: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejdell Cecilie

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over a period of two years, growth rate and health were measured for dairy calves allowed to suckle their mothers up to 6–8 weeks of age. Thirty-one calves were weighted weekly, and the mean daily growth rate was 1.2 ± 0.03 kg from birth up to 13 weeks of age. Illness in calves and young stock was not observed. In the cows, the mean incidences of ketosis, displaced abomasum, puerperal paresis, mastitis, teat injury and retained placenta were 0, 0, 8, 22, 1 and 1%, respectively, during a 6-year period. The mean daily gain of 56 growing bulls was 1.4 kg when slaughtered at 15 months of age, which is higher than the mean daily gain of 0.95 kg in the population. Probiotics, hormones and vaccines were not used, and antibiotics were only used for treating illness. The present study indicates many advantages and few problems when dairy calves are penned together with the cows and allowed natural feeding up to 6–8 weeks of age. This production system was easy to manage, preferred by the farmer, and may satisfy the public concern regarding the practice of immediate separation of cow and calf in commercial milk production.

  14. Herd characteristics influence farmers’ preferences for trait improvements in Danish Red and Danish Jersey cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slagboom, Margot; Kargo, Morten; Edwards, David;

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize preferences of farmers for breeding goal traits with Danish Red (DR) or Danish Jersey (DJ) cows. A breed-specific survey was established to characterize farmers’ preferences for improvements in 10 traits, by means of pairwise rankings using the online...

  15. Influence of carbohydrates on feed intake, rumen fermentation and milk performance in high-yielding dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    de Visser

    1993-01-01

    Food for human consumption originates directly from plants, after processing, or indirectly by conversion of plant materials into food of animal origin through livestock. An important example of food of animal origin are dairy products such as milk, cheese, butter, yoghurt, etc.

    During the last decades milk production from Dutch dairy herds has increased considerably. This increase in production, yield and content, was the result of a combination of improvements in genetic po...

  16. Engaging Dairy Farmers to Improve Water Quality in the Aorere Catchment of New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jodie; Edgar, Nick; Tyson, Ben

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, dairy farmers in the Aorere Catchment of New Zealand began to investigate allegations that they had a pollution problem affecting the viability of the community's shellfish industry. From 2007 to 2010, the New Zealand Landcare Trust's Aorere Catchment Project (ACP) helped farmers engage in actions to improve conditions in their waterways.…

  17. Engaging Dairy Farmers to Improve Water Quality in the Aorere Catchment of New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jodie; Edgar, Nick; Tyson, Ben

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, dairy farmers in the Aorere Catchment of New Zealand began to investigate allegations that they had a pollution problem affecting the viability of the community's shellfish industry. From 2007 to 2010, the New Zealand Landcare Trust's Aorere Catchment Project (ACP) helped farmers engage in actions to improve conditions in their waterways.…

  18. Feeding and grazing management for dairy cattle: opportunities for improved production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    An adequate feed intake is an important prerequisite to realize high milk production in dairy cows, especially during grazing. The analysis of feed intake behaviour can assist in understanding variation in daily intake and in improving its prediction. Indeed, our results indicated that difference

  19. Increased serum serotonin improves parturient calcium homeostasis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Hernandez, Laura L; Weaver, Samantha; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2017-02-01

    Hypocalcemia in dairy cows is caused by the sudden increase in calcium demand by the mammary gland for milk production at the onset of lactation. Serotonin (5-HT) is a key factor for calcium homeostasis, modulating calcium concentration in blood. Therefore, it is hypothesized that administration of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), a 5-HT precursor, can increase 5-HT concentrations in blood and, in turn, induce an increase in blood calcium concentration. In this study, 20 Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups. Both groups received a daily i.v. infusion of 1 L of either 0.9% NaCl (C group; n = 10) or 0.9% NaCl containing 1 mg of 5-HTP/kg of BW (5-HTP group, n = 10). Infusions started d 10 before the estimated parturition and ceased the day of parturition, resulting in at least 4 d of infusion (8.37 ± 0.74 d of infusion). Until parturition, blood samples were collected every morning before the infusions, after parturition samples were taken daily until d 7, and a final sample was collected on d 30. Milk yield was recorded during this period. No differences between groups were observed for blood glucose, magnesium, and β-hydroxybutyrate. Cows receiving the 5-HTP infusion showed an increase in fatty acid concentrations from d -3 to -1 before parturition. Serum 5-HT concentrations were increased at d -4 related to parturition until d 5 postpartum in the 5-HTP group compared with the C group. In addition, cows from the 5-HTP group had increased 5-HT concentrations in colostrum, but not in mature milk, on d 7 postpartum. Serum calcium concentrations decreased in both groups around parturition; however, calcium remained higher in the 5-HTP group than in controls, with a significant difference between groups on d 1 (1.62 ± 0.08 vs. 1.93 ± 0.09 mmol/L in control and 5-HTP groups, respectively) and d 2 (1.83 ± 0.06 vs. 2.07 ± 0.07 mmol/L in control and 5-HTP groups, respectively). Additionally, colostrum yield (first milking) was lower in the

  20. Eradication of bovine tuberculosis at a herd-level in Madrid, Spain: study of within-herd transmission dynamics over a 12 year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Julio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eradication of bovine tuberculosis (bTB through the application of test-and-cull programs is a declared goal of developed countries in which the disease is still endemic. Here, longitudinal data from more than 1,700 cattle herds tested during a 12 year-period in the eradication program in the region of Madrid, Spain, were analyzed to quantify the within-herd transmission coefficient (β depending on the herd-type (beef/dairy/bullfighting. In addition, the probability to recover the officially bTB free (OTF status in infected herds depending on the type of herd and the diagnostic strategy implemented was assessed using Cox proportional hazard models. Results Overall, dairy herds showed higher β (median 4.7 than beef or bullfighting herds (2.3 and 2.2 respectively. Introduction of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ as an ancillary test produced an apparent increase in the β coefficient regardless of production type, likely due to an increase in diagnostic sensitivity. Time to recover OTF status was also significantly lower in dairy herds, and length of bTB episodes was significantly reduced when the IFN-γ was implemented to manage the outbreak. Conclusions Our results suggest that bTB spreads more rapidly in dairy herds compared to other herd types, a likely cause being management and demographic-related factors. However, outbreaks in dairy herds can be controlled more rapidly than in typically extensive herd types. Finally, IFN-γ proved its usefulness to rapidly eradicate bTB at a herd-level.

  1. Pension funds' herding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, D.; Chen, D.; Minderhoud, P.; Schudel, W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses unique and detailed transaction data to analyse herding behavior among pension funds. We distinguish between weak, semi strong and strong herding behaviour. Weak herding occurs if pension funds have similar rebalancing strategies. Semi strong herding arises when pension funds react s

  2. Biochar can be used to recapture essential nutrients from dairy wastewater and improve soil quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ghezzehei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the potential for biochar use to recapture excess nutrients from dairy wastewater has been a focus of a growing number of studies. It is suggested that biochar produced from locally available waste biomass can be important in reducing release of excess nutrient elements from agricultural runoff, improving soil productivity, and long-term carbon (C sequestration. Here we present a review of a new approach that is showing promise for the use of biochar for nutrient capture. Using batch sorption experiments, it has been shown that biochar can adsorb up to 20 to 43% of ammonium and 19–65% of the phosphate in flushed dairy manure in 24 h. These results suggest a potential of biochar for recovering essential nutrients from dairy wastewater and improving soil fertility if the enriched biochar is returned to soil. Based on the sorption capacity of 2.86 and 0.23 mg ammonium and phosphate, respectively, per gram of biochar and 10–50% utilization of available excess biomass, in the state of California (US alone, 11 440 to 57 200 t of ammonium-N and 920–4600 t of phosphate can be captured from dairy waste each year while at the same time disposing up to 8–40 million tons of waste biomass.

  3. Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Bovine Mastitis and Close Human Contacts in South African Dairy Herds: Genetic Diversity and Inter-Species Host Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Tracy; Kock, Marleen M.; Ehlers, Marthie M.

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common etiological agents of contagious bovine mastitis worldwide. The purpose of this study was to genetically characterize a collection of S. aureus isolates (bovine = 146, human = 12) recovered from cases of bovine mastitis and nasal swabs of close human contacts in the dairy environment. Isolates were screened for a combination of clinically significant antimicrobial and virulence gene markers whilst the molecular epidemiology of these isolates and possible inter-species host transmission was investigated using a combination of genotyping techniques. None of the isolates under evaluation tested positive for methicillin or vancomycin resistance encoding genes. Twenty seven percent of the bovine S. aureus isolates tested positive for one or more of the pyrogenic toxin superantigen (PTSAg) genes with the sec and sell genes predominating. Comparatively, 83% of the human S. aureus isolates tested positive for one or more PTSAg genes with a greater variety of genes being detected. Genomic DNA macrorestriction followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of the bovine isolates generated 58 electrophoretic patterns which grouped into 10 pulsotypes at an 80% similarity level. The majority of the bovine isolates, 93.2% (136/146), clustered into four major pulsotypes. Seven sequence types (ST) were identified among the representative bovine S. aureus isolates genotyped, including: ST8 (CC8), ST97 (CC97), ST351 (CC705), ST352 (CC97), ST508 (CC45), ST2992 (CC97) and a novel sequence type, ST3538 (CC97). Based on PFGE analysis, greater genetic diversity was observed among the human S. aureus isolates. Bovine and human isolates from three sampling sites clustered together and were genotypically indistinguishable. Two of the isolates, ST97 and ST352 belong to the common bovine lineage CC97, and their isolation from close human contacts suggests zoonotic transfer. In the context of this study, the third isolate, ST8 (CC8), is

  4. Clinical course of digital dermatitis lesions in an endemically infected herd without preventive herd strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhauer, M.; Bartels, C.J.M.; Dopfer, D.; Schaik, van G.

    2008-01-01

    Lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in four separately housed groups in a herd with endemic digital dermatitis (E)D) were monitored weekly for 4 weeks in December 2004 for the presence of and transition between five stages (MO-M4) of DD. Cows were also monitored for the presence of heel horn eros

  5. Field trial on glucose-induced insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein and Estonian Red dairy cows in two herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaart Tanel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin secretion and tissue sensitivity to insulin is considered to be one of the factors controlling lipid metabolism post partum. The objective of this study was to compare glucose-induced blood insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein (EH, n = 14 and Estonian Red (ER, n = 14 cows. Methods The study was carried out using the glucose tolerance test (GTT performed at 31 ± 1.9 days post partum during negative energy balance. Blood samples were obtained at -15, -5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min relative to infusion of 0.15 g/kg BW glucose and analysed for glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, cholesterol and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB. Applying the MIXED Procedure with the SAS System the basal concentration of cholesterol, and basal concentration and concentrations at post-infusion time points for other metabolites, area under the curve (AUC for glucose and insulin, clearance rate (CR for glucose, and maximum increase from basal concentration for glucose and insulin were compared between breeds. Results There was a breed effect on blood NEFA (P P P P P P th min nadir (P th min postinfusion (P Conclusion Our results imply that glucose-induced changes in insulin concentration and metabolite responses to insulin differ between EH and ER dairy cows.

  6. Influência do descarte involuntário de matrizes no impacto econômico da mastite em rebanhos leiteiros Influence of involuntary of matrices culling on the economic impact of mastitis in dairy herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Alves Demeu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa, analisar e quantificar a influência do descarte involuntário de matrizes no impacto econômico da mastite em rebanhos leiteiros. A pesquisa foi realizada por meio de simulação no sistema computacional CU$TO MASTITE, considerando rebanhos leiteiros com taxas de descarte de 2, 4 e 6%. Foram considerados como prevenção as despesas com monitoramento (cultura e antibiograma, contagem de células somáticas no tanque e contagem de células somáticas individuais, pré e pós dipping, vacinação, tratamento de vacas secas e manutenção de ordenhadeira. Como medidas curativas consideraram-se os tratamentos de casos clínicos, cuja percentagem foi de 7% das vacas em lactação. O impacto da mastite foi estimado como sendo o total de perdas acrescido das despesas com prevenção e tratamento de casos clínicos. O aumento da taxa de descarte influenciou diretamente no impacto econômico da mastite. O elevado impacto econômico evidencia a necessidade de monitoramento da doença, para diminuírem os prejuízos causados pela mesma. As despesas com tratamento preventivo representaram, no máximo, 9,2% do impacto econômico, o que demonstra vantagem em investir nessa prática, pois ela irá contribuir significativamente para diminuição da contagem de células somáticas no tanque e, consequentemente, para reduzir o impacto econômico da mastite.The objectives of this research were to analyze and quantify the influence of the percentage of involuntary culling of matrices on the economic impact of mastitis in dairy herd. The work was conducted by means of a simulation in the CU$TO MASTITE software, taking into account dairy herds with culling rates of 2, 4 and 6%. The expenditures on monitoring were considered as prevention (culture and ambiogram, bulk tank somatic cell count and individual somatic cell count pre- and post-dipping, vaccination, treatment of dry cows and maintenance of milking machine. As curative

  7. Mastite por leveduras em bovinos leiteiros do Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil Mastitis caused by yeasts in dairy herds in the South of the Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Márcio da Costa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a freqüência de infecções intramamárias ocasionadas por leveduras a partir de amostras de leite (n=1710 coletadas em 40 rebanhos leiteiros do Estado de Minas Gerais. Cinqüenta e seis estirpes de leveduras do gênero Candida e uma linhagem de Trichosporon loubieri foram isoladas. Candida albicans foi a espécie dominante (28,1% das cepas, seguida por Candida parapsilosis (19,3%, Candida catenulata (14,0%, Candida glabrata (14,0% e Candida tropicalis (8,8%. Infecções mistas foram detectadas em 29,8% das vacas levedura-positivas. Amostras positivas para leveduras foram predominantemente obtidas (84% de vacas com mastite subclínica. A baixa taxa de isolamento de leveduras sugere que estes microrganismos não são relevantes para mastite bovina na região estudada.The objective of this study was to report the frequency of intramammary infections by yeasts, in Minas Gerais State, from milk samples (n = 1710 collected in 40 dairy herds. Fifty six yeast strains of the genus Candida and one strain of Trichosporon loubieri were isolated. Candida albicans was the dominant species (28.1% of the strains, followed by Candida parapsilosis (19.3%, Candida catenulata (14.0%, Candida glabrata (14.0%, Candida tropicalis (8.8%. Mixed infections were detected in 29.8% of yeast-positive cows. The yeast infection was more frequent (84% in cows with subclinical mastitis. The low rate of isolation of yeasts suggests that these microorganisms are not relevant to bovine mastitis in the studied region.

  8. Evolution of Enzootic Bovine Leukosis prevalence in an university dairy herd / Evolução da soroprevalência da Leucose Enzoótica Bovina em um rebanho bovino leiteiro universitário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Daniel Ollhoff

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Enzootic Bovine Leukosis virus infection was determined in adult cows of the catholic university of Paraná (Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná dairy herd in 2000, 2003 and 2006 using the agar-gel immunodiffusion. The prevalence of the infection in adult lactating cows was respectively, over the years, 63.33%, 81.08% and 55.56%. Serum samples of all animals were taken in 2006, observing a continuously rise in antibody prevalence over the time up to more than 80% in animals older than 60 months, after vanishing of colostral maternal antibodies. The possible causes of this high prevalence were discussed under the particular circumstances of a teaching and research farm of an university.Determinou-se a soroprevalência do vírus da Leucose Enzoótica Bovina (LEB em vacas adultas de um rebanho leiteiro da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná nos anos de 2000, 2003 e 2006 através da imunodifusão em ágar-gel. Avaliou-se a evolução da prevalência da infecção neste rebanho, verificando-se respectivamente uma prevalência nos animais em lactação de 63,33%, 81,08% e 55,56%. Em 2006 determinou-se a soroprevalência para a LEB de todas as faixas etárias do rebanho, verificando-se após a queda dos anticorpos colostrais uma prevalência crescente, culminando com mais de 80% de animais soropositivos após os 60 meses de idade. Discutiram-se as possíveis causas destas soroprevalências ao vírus da LEB considerando-se a particularidade deste rebanho visar o ensino e a extensão.

  9. Performance and welfare of dairy cows in an alternative housing system in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberg, A E; Endres, M I; Salfer, J A; Reneau, J K

    2007-03-01

    The compost bedded pack dairy barn is an alternative housing system for lactating cows that has received increased attention in the last 2 yr. No descriptive data were available about this housing system. Therefore, a study of 12 compost dairy barns in Minnesota was conducted between late June 2005 and September 2005. The objectives of this study were to describe the housing system, identify management practices used in these herds, observe cow welfare, analyze herd performance and udder health prior to and following the change in housing system, and measure producer satisfaction with the system. Producers were interviewed on various aspects related to the housing system and herd management, samples of milk were collected, and cows were scored for locomotion, body condition, hygiene, and hock lesions. In addition, historical bulk tank information and Dairy Herd Improvement Association data were collected when available. At the time of the visit, the Dairy Herd Improvement Association somatic cell count (SCC) was 325,000 +/- 172,000 cells/mL, rolling herd average was 10,457 +/- 1,138 kg per cow, and herd size was 73 +/- 35.5 lactating cows. The body condition score was 3.04 +/- 0.11, the cow hygiene score was 2.66 +/- 0.19, and 7.8% of all cows were clinically lame (locomotion score > or = 3 on a 1 to 5 scale). No hock lesions were present on 74.9% of the cows; 24.1% of cows had a mild lesion (hair loss), and 1.0% had a severe lesion (swollen hock). Historical analysis of the bulk tank SCC showed that 3 out of the 7 herds analyzed had a significant reduction in bulk tank SCC when compared with the previous housing system. Mastitis infection rates decreased significantly by 12% on 6 of the 9 farms analyzed. Reproductive performance significantly improved for 4 out of the 7 herds analyzed, with 25.9 and 34.5% improvement in heat detection rates and pregnancy rates, respectively. The main reasons producers reported for building this type of housing system were for

  10. Short communication: The effect of 4 antiseptic compounds on umbilical cord healing and infection rates in the first 24 hours in dairy calves from a commercial herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A L; Timms, L L; Stalder, K J; Tyler, H D

    2015-08-01

    when used within 30min of birth. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in hoof health and animal hygiene in a dairy herd after covering concrete slatted floor with slatted rubber mats: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, F; Platz, S; Link, C; Mahling, M; Meyer, H H D; Erhard, M H

    2011-05-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of changing the flooring in the alleys of a barn from slatted concrete to slatted rubber mats on hoof disorders and animal hygiene in 44 loose-housed Brown Swiss dairy cows. Cows were examined for disorders of the hind hooves (hemorrhages, white line fissures, ulcers, heel horn erosion, and digital dermatitis) and for skin lesions. The dirtiness of the animals and of the floor was recorded. Climatic (temperature, humidity) and ammonia gas conditions were measured. Evaluations were carried out when the cows were housed on a concrete slatted floor and after 4 and 10 mo on soft flooring (slatted rubber mats, 29-mm thick). The anatomical portion of claw (medial, lateral), number of lactations (parity), and days in milk were included as covariates in the statistical model. Changing the flooring from slatted concrete to slatted rubber mats increased the score for white line fissures [1.0 ± 0.3 (concrete) vs. 2.5 ± 0.4 (10 mo rubber mats)] and influenced air humidity (i.e., the difference in the absolute humidity between the inside and outside of the barn increased from 1.5 ± 0.1 to 1.7 ± 0.2g/m(3)), whereas the other hoof disorders, skin lesions (score of 8.7 ± 0.3), the dirtiness of the animals (score of 5.9 ± 0.3), and the floor (score of 2.1 ± 0.1), and ammonia gas concentration (2.6 ± 0.3mg/kg) were not affected (overall scores or measures; mean ± SE). Lateral claws were more affected (except for heel horn erosion) than medial claws (estimated effects between 1.3 ± 0.2 and 3.0 ± 0.6). Parity influenced hoof disorders (except for hemorrhages) and skin lesions (estimated effects between -0.6 ± 0.3 and 0.5 ± 0.2). Days in milk influenced hoof disorders, but had no effect on skin lesions and on the dirtiness of the animal. Irrespective of floor type, the slots (2.6 ± 0.1) were dirtier than the slats (1.6 ± 0.1). In conclusion, covering slatted concrete flooring with slatted rubber mats partially impaired hoof

  12. Fate of Nitrogen on California Dairies as Measured by Regulatory Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, T.; Lee, E.; Harter, T.

    2016-12-01

    California is the largest dairy producer in the Unites States, generating over 20% of U.S. milk and cheese. Many California dairy herds live in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in the Central Valley. Surrounding these CAFOs, dairies also manage a significant amount of forage land where animal waste is recycled. Through expansion and more efficient production, the milk and manure output of the Central Valley dairies increased nearly exponentially for five decades, until animal numbers levelled off in the 2000s. Due to this expansion, specifically in the Central Valley, the dairy industry poses significant concerns in regard to nitrate contamination and salinization of groundwater. In 2007, new regulations were placed upon the California dairy industry, pertaining to nonpoint source emissions to groundwater. We have digitized and are currently analyzing these annual dairy reports submitted by individual operators to the regulatory agency (Regional Water Boards) to assess the fate of nutrients on dairies in the Central Valley. We are able to assess data completeness and consistency, annual trends over the first eight years of the program, and evaluate the reporting program. Our analysis can be used to determine potential groundwater nitrate impacts based on field nitrogen mass balance. Preliminary results indicate that increased regulation and efforts made by dairy operations have decreased the presence of excess nutrients on dairy lands, although improvements need to be made to the reporting process in order to further this progress.

  13. A survey of dairy calf management practices in Canada that affect animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, E; Borderas, F; Cue, R I; Lefebvre, D; Pellerin, D; Rushen, J; Wade, K M; de Passillé, A M

    2010-03-01

    There is growing interest among the public in farm animal welfare and a need for methods to assess animal welfare on farm. A survey on calf rearing practices that might affect dairy calf welfare was performed via a 1-h interview on 115 dairy farms (mean +/- SD: herd size=52.5+/-20.9 cows; milk production=8,697+/-1,153L) distributed throughout the province of Quebec. Despite frequent recommendations, many dairy producers continue to use management practices that increase the health risks of milk-fed calves. Major risk factors for poor calf welfare identified were 1) no use of calving pen in 51.3% of herds and low level of surveillance of calvings, especially at nighttime (once every 12h), 2) no disinfection of newborn's navel in 36.8% of herds, and delayed identification and, hence, calf monitoring (3 d), 3) 15.6% of farms relied on the dam to provide colostrum and none checked colostrum quality or passive transfer of immunity, 4) dehorning and removal of extra teats proceeded at late ages (6.4 wk and 6.7 mo, respectively) and without adequate pain control, 5) use of traditional restrictive milk feeding and waste milk distributed to unweaned calves without precaution in 48.2% of herds, 6) abrupt weaning performed in 16.5% of herds, and 7) calves housed individually in 87.9% of herds, and most inappropriate housing systems (crate=27.0%, tie-stall=13.9%, attached against a wall=5.7%) remained. This risk factor assessment was the first step in an intervention strategy to improve calf welfare on dairy farms.

  14. Organic dairy farmers put more emphasis on production traits than conventional farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slagboom, Margot; Kargo, Morten; Edwards, David

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of this research was to characterize the preferences of Danish dairy farmers for improvements in breeding goal traits. The specific aims were (1) to investigate the presence of heterogeneity in farmers’ preferences by means of cluster analysis, and (2) to associate these clusters......, and farmers that gave the highest ranking to cow and heifer fertility had the lowest conception rate in their herds. This finding suggests that farmers prefer to improve traits that are more problematic in their herd. The proportion of organic and conventional farmers also differed between clusters; we found...

  15. Improving Dairy Organizational Communication from the Veterinarian's Perspective: Results of a Continuing Veterinary Medical Education Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dale A.; Sischo, William M.; Kurtz, Suzanne; Siler, Julie D.; Pereira, Richard V.; Warnick, Lorin D.; Davis, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing size and complexity of US dairy farms could make it more difficult for a veterinary practitioner to effectively communicate protocol recommendations for prevention or treatment on the farm. A continuing education workshop was set up based on the results of research on dairy organizational communication on dairy farms, which resulted in a tool to assess dairy communication structure and flow. The workshop specifically focused on communication structure and whom to talk to when implementing health care changes in calf rearing. In addition, modern methods of veterinary–client communication knowledge and skills were provided. Primary outcomes of the workshops were to obtain feedback from participants about research findings and the communication model, to improve awareness about the complexity of communication structures on dairy farms, and to change participants' knowledge and skills associated with on-farm communication by providing communication theory and skills and an approach to evaluate and improve dairy organizational communication. Of the 37 participants completing the pre-program assessment, most recognized a need for themselves or their practice to improve communication with clients and farm employees. After the program, most participants were confident in their new communication skills and would consider using them. They highlighted specific new ideas they could apply in practice, such as conducting a “communication audit”. The results from the assessment of this communication workshop, focused on dairy veterinarians, highlighted the need for communication training in this sector of the profession and practitioners' desire to engage in this type of training. PMID:26751909

  16. Improving Dairy Organizational Communication from the Veterinarian's Perspective: Results of a Continuing Veterinary Medical Education Pilot Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dale A; Sischo, William M; Kurtz, Suzanne; Siler, Julie D; Pereira, Richard V; Warnick, Lorin D; Davis, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    The increasing size and complexity of US dairy farms could make it more difficult for a veterinary practitioner to effectively communicate protocol recommendations for prevention or treatment on the farm. A continuing education workshop was set up based on the results of research on dairy organizational communication on dairy farms, which resulted in a tool to assess dairy communication structure and flow. The workshop specifically focused on communication structure and whom to talk to when implementing health care changes in calf rearing. In addition, modern methods of veterinary-client communication knowledge and skills were provided. Primary outcomes of the workshops were to obtain feedback from participants about research findings and the communication model, to improve awareness about the complexity of communication structures on dairy farms, and to change participants' knowledge and skills associated with on-farm communication by providing communication theory and skills and an approach to evaluate and improve dairy organizational communication. Of the 37 participants completing the pre-program assessment, most recognized a need for themselves or their practice to improve communication with clients and farm employees. After the program, most participants were confident in their new communication skills and would consider using them. They highlighted specific new ideas they could apply in practice, such as conducting a "communication audit." The results from the assessment of this communication workshop, focused on dairy veterinarians, highlighted the need for communication training in this sector of the profession and practitioners' desire to engage in this type of training.

  17. Improving food safety within the dairy chain: an application of conjoint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, N I; Meuwissen, M P M; Lansink, A G J M Oude; Huirne, R B M

    2005-04-01

    This study determined the relative importance of attributes of food safety improvement in the production chain of fluid pasteurized milk. The chain was divided into 4 blocks: "feed" (compound feed production and its transport), "farm" (dairy farm), "dairy processing" (transport and processing of raw milk, delivery of pasteurized milk), and "consumer" (retailer/catering establishment and pasteurized milk consumption). The concept of food safety improvement focused on 2 main groups of hazards: chemical (antibiotics and dioxin) and microbiological (Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, and Staphylococcus aureus). Adaptive conjoint analysis was used to investigate food safety experts' perceptions of the attributes' importance. Preference data from individual experts (n = 24) on 101 attributes along the chain were collected in a computer-interactive mode. Experts perceived the attributes from the "feed" and "farm" blocks as being more vital for controlling the chemical hazards; whereas the attributes from the "farm" and "dairy processing" were considered more vital for controlling the microbiological hazards. For the chemical hazards, "identification of treated cows" and "quality assurance system of compound feed manufacturers" were considered the most important attributes. For the microbiological hazards, these were "manure supply source" and "action in salmonellosis and M. paratuberculosis cases". The rather high importance of attributes relating to quality assurance and traceability systems of the chain participants indicates that participants look for food safety assurance from the preceding participants. This information has substantial decision-making implications for private businesses along the chain and for the government regarding the food safety improvement of fluid pasteurized milk.

  18. Mentasta Caribou Herd

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mentasta caribou herd is located in southeast mainland Alaska and Western Yukonn Territory. This small herd has declined from a high Of approximately 3,100...

  19. Herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus in commercial dairy and beef cattle in eastern, northern and northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wu-Wen; Meng, Qing-Feng; Cong, Wei; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Chun-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-11-01

    Although the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle have been reported in some areas in China, most of them were conducted with small number of cattle samples and very limited districts and neglected the assessment of herd management factors associated with herd-level prevalence of these pathogen infections. Thus, from September 2013 to December 2014, a large-scale seroprevalence study was conducted to determine the animal-level and herd-level seroprevalence and identify herd-level risk factors associated with these pathogen infections in 4487 cattle from 134 herds in five provinces (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong, Hebei) and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. At animal level, the true prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was 10.48, 17.14, 11.92 and 50.10%, respectively. At herd level, the true prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and BVDV was 27.16, 29.10, 37.31 and 40.30%, respectively. Multivariate analysis of these characteristics showed that source of water and presence of felids were significantly associated with T. gondii infection in the studied cattle herds. Source of water was significantly associated with N. caninum infection in the studied cattle herds. While herd size and management system were significantly associated with BVDV infection in the studied cattle herds, this is the first report of herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors of T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and BVDV infection in cattle in China.

  20. Organic and Conventional Dairy Farmers Prefer Different Improvements in Breeding Goal Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slagboom, Margot; Kargo, Morten; Edwards, David;

    In dairy cattle breeding, breeding goals (BG) are developed and subsequently a selection index that farmers want to use. Therefore it is important to take their preferences for BG traits into account. Two production systems that are expected to influence farmer preferences for BG traits are organ....... This study shows that organic and conventional farmers differ in their preferences for improvements in BG traits, and the results can be used to set up specific breeding goals for organic and conventional farming systems.......In dairy cattle breeding, breeding goals (BG) are developed and subsequently a selection index that farmers want to use. Therefore it is important to take their preferences for BG traits into account. Two production systems that are expected to influence farmer preferences for BG traits are organic...

  1. Motivation of dairy farmers to improve mastitis management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were 1) to explore different motivating factors and to quantify their importance in decisions of farmers on improving mastitis management, 2) to evaluate different quality payment schemes as extra incentive mechanisms for farmers, and 3) to link the motivating factors to farme

  2. Dairy cow culling strategies: making economical culling decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehenbauer, T W; Oltjen, J W

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to examine important economic elements of culling decisions, to review progress in development of culling decision support systems, and to discern some of the potentially rewarding areas for future research on culling models. Culling decisions have an important influence on the economic performance of the dairy but are often made in a nonprogrammed fashion and based partly on the intuition of the decision maker. The computer technology that is available for dairy herd management has made feasible the use of economic models to support culling decisions. Financial components--including profit, cash flow, and risk--are major economic factors affecting culling decisions. Culling strategies are further influenced by short-term fluctuations in cow numbers as well as by planned herd expansion. Changes in herd size affect the opportunity cost for postponed replacement and may alter the relevance of optimization strategies that assume a fixed herd size. Improvements in model components related to biological factors affecting future cow performance, including milk production, reproductive status, and mastitis, appear to offer the greatest economic potential for enhancing culling decision support systems. The ultimate value of any culling decision support system for developing economic culling strategies will be determined by its results under field conditions.

  3. Risk Assessment and Epidemiological Characteristics of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea in Dairy Herds in Beijing%北京地区奶牛场牛传染性鼻气管炎、牛病毒性腹泻病风险评估及流行情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李栋梁; 赵景义; 沈俊乐; 史苍桀; 曹杰

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiology of the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) were assessed in the medium and small dairy herds and the farming community in Beijing.The percent of IBR antibodypositive heifers was 50.52%,and the result was 70.98% for BVDV.At the herds level,the antibody positive rate reached 50% (12/24) for IBR and 87.50% (21/24) for BVD.IBR high-risk herds were 9,BVD high-risk herds were 12,seven herds were combination risk of IBR and BVDV.The serological investigation and analysis showed that IBR prevalence is relatively serious in Beijing,and vaccine should be considered; Most of herds had BVDV history or contact with acute infection,high-risk herds need to start BVDV eradication program.%本研究对北京地区中小奶牛场及养殖小区进行了牛传染性鼻气管炎(IBR)、牛病毒性腹泻病(BVD)的风险评估.结果表明,参试牛场及小区的后备牛IBR血清阳性率达50.52%,BVD血清抗体阳性率达70.98%;从牛场水平看,24个牛场中IBR抗体场间阳性率达到50% (12/24),BVD抗体场间阳性率达到87.50%(21/24),IBR高风险牛场9个,BVD高风险牛场12个,双高风险牛场7个.此次评估结果表明,北京地区IBR流行情况较为严重,应考虑疫苗免疫;参试的大部分牛场有BVDV的急性感染史或接触史,高风险牛场应启动BVDV清除计划.

  4. Breeding for improvement of functional traits in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Boettcher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection programs for increasing milk production per cow have been very successful over time. This success has been partially due to the consideration of few other traits. Unfortunately, many traits related to costs of production and cattle functionality (i.e., “functional traits”, such as fertility and health, are antagonistically correlated with milk yield. Therefore, the average merit for these traits has decreased over time. The decline in functionality, along with increased awareness of the costs of production and animal well-being, has spurred interest in breeding for improvement in functional traits. Unfortunately, factors such as low heritability and lack of data make the selection for functionality more difficult than for production. Research has been able to overcome some of these limitations, at least to some extent, through the development and application of advanced statistical analyses and through indirect selection on genetically correlated traits. Possibilities exist in the future for additional refinement of selection procedures for improvement of functional traits. Computing capacities are continually increasing and more complex but statistically appropriate analysis methods are being developed. Furthermore, genome scans have identified chromosomal regions that have putative associations with functional traits. The bovine genome has been recently sequenced, so the possibility to identify the genes affecting functional traits exists, at least in theory. With low heritabilities and difficulties in measurement, functional traits are the ideal candidates for the application of marker-assisted selection.

  5. An epidemiological study of reproductive failure in dairy herds from Goiânia Estudo epidemiológico de problemas reprodutivos em rebanhos bovinos na bacia leiteira de Goiânia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R.A. Andrade

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological study was carried out on 2823 cows from 34 dairy herds from Goiania in the State of Goias-Brazil during 2001 to 2002. The pregnancy rate was 47.8%. In 1473 non-pregnant cows, causes of reproductive failure problems were sought. The most prevalent uterine infection was endometritis (17.0%. Uterine disorders such as partial hypoplasia of the genital system (0.04%, macerate fetus (0.01%, adhesion of ovaries (0.04%, stillbirth (0.04%, retained placenta (0.01%, cervix inflammation (0.6% and abortion (0.88% also were found. Uterine swabs were collected aseptically for microbiological culture. Gram positives cocci (41.3% and Gram negatives rods (52.6% were found, and Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the most prevalent pathogens. Susceptibility patterns of microorganisms suggested the use of chloramphenicol, gentamicin and neomycin for antimicrobial therapy.No período de março 2001 a julho 2002 foram estudadas 2823 fêmeas bovinas, em idade de reprodução, mestiças das raças Holandesa e Gir, pertencentes a 34 propriedades da bacia leiteira de Goiânia. A taxa de prenhez foi 47,8%. Entre os animais não gestantes (n= 1473, 17% apresentaram alterações inflamatórias do útero. Outras anormalidades encontradas foram: aplasia parcial do sistema genital (0,04%, feto macerado (0,01%, ovário aderido (0,04%. Casos de natimortalidade (0,04%, retenção placentária (0,01% e cervicite (0,6% e taxas de abortos (0,88% também foram registrados. Cocos Gram positivos (41,3% e bastonetes Gram negativos (52,6% foram os microrganismos mais isolados, sendo Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli os principais patógenos encontrados nas infeccções uterinas. Testes in vitro mostraram que esses microrganismos apresentaram maior susceptibilidade frente ao cloranfenicol, à gentamicina e à neomicina.

  6. Baseline survey of health prophylaxis and management practices on Swiss dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, P; Kohler, S; Reist, M; van den Borne, B; Menéndez González, S; Doherr, M

    2012-09-01

    Health prophylaxis management practices have acquired a major role in the success of dairy herd health programs, however, little is known about the scope and level of implementation on Swiss dairy farms. The main objective of this study was therefore to provide a general overview of the most important preventive measures which are currently being used on these farms. In March 2011, an online survey with 75 questions was sent to 2'285 randomly selected Swiss dairy farmers. Response rate by question ranged from 35 to 53 %. Within this study, answers were compared between dairy farms with a tie-stall (n = 739) and farms with a free-stall (n = 458). Homeopathic treatments were used by 51 % of the dairy farmers and antibiotic dry cow treatments by 94 %. Farmers with a tie-stall tended to carry out more prophylactic treatments against external parasites, vaccinated their cows more frequently against Clostridium chauvoei and Moraxella bovis, and carried out claw trimming more frequently than dairy farmers with a free-stall. A higher proportion of dairy farmers with a free-stall had a written feeding plan, carried out regular feed analysis, wore an apron and rubber gloves during milking, and carried out post milking teat disinfection more frequently than dairy farmers with a tie-stall. The data collected in this survey could assist in improving future dairy health communication campaigns in Switzerland.

  7. Health and safety challenges associated with immigrant dairy workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rosecrance

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Faced with increasing industrialization, high demands on production, and decreasing domestic participation in the labor force, dairy producers are employing an immigrant workforce to help meet operational demands. There is little data regarding the number of immigrant workers in the dairy industry, but the trend of hiring immigrant workers in some of the world’s highest producing countries is increasing. There are many challenges associated with managing immigrant workers includinghow to effectively train this workforce about safe and efficient work methods. Methods: Ethnographic methods from the anthropology field served as the primary tool to identify barriers and facilitators of safe work practices in large-herd dairy operations in the United States. Following the weeklong emersion by the research anthropologist at a selected dairy, focus groups were organized at three large-herd dairies. All focus group conversations were tape recorded, transcribed and translated into English. The focus group transcripts were coded for specific themes related to issues that participants felt were barriers or facilitators of worker health and safety. Results: Twenty-two Latino workers 18 to 58 years of age participated in the three focus groups conducted at one Colorado and two South Dakota dairies. Six major themes relating to barriers and facilitators of worker health and safety were identified and included: communication, integration owner and worker cultures, work organization, leadership, support for animal health, and attention to safety culture within the organization. Conclusions: Although not often considered by agricultural engineers, an anthropological perspective to challenges involving an immigrant workforce may assist with improved work methods and safe work practices. Through this approach, agricultural engineers may better understand the cultural challenges and complexities facing the dairy industry. Successful integration of immigrant

  8. Selenium status in cattle herds in Wallonia (Belgium: overview and health management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef Mehdi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Monitoring was performed in order to determine the Selenium (Se status of cattle herds in different agricultural areas in Wallonia (Belgium. Materials and Methods: The study included 114 heifers and 184 cows (82 dairy and 102 beef cows from 66 cattle farms situated in Wallonia. The Se status was assessed by measuring the glutathion peroxydase in red cells and converting it to the equivalent Se blood content. Results: The average blood concentrations of Se were very low. The Ardennes region was an area where the lowest Se status was recorded. The highest levels of Se in dairy cows and beef cows were recorded respectively in the limoneuse region and Famenne areas. The Se content in beef herds was lower compared with that of dairy herds (35 vs. 56 μg/L, p<0.01. Conclusion: On average over all the regions, 87% of animals were classified as deficient and only 13% of the animals were classified as adequate. The heifers from both dairy and beef herds in Wallonia exhibited a deficiency in Se classified as moderate to severe. The beef herds showed larger deficiencies compared with the dairy herds. Selenium deficiency can be prevented by ensuring adequate supplementation of deficient animals in Se deficient regions. An increased consumption of vitamin-mineral supplements, the use of Se-enriched fertilizers and ingredients containing high levels of Se can help to reduce or correct deficiencies recorded in cattle herds in Wallonia.

  9. Milk quality assurance programmes for paratuberculosis: stochastic simulation of within-herd infection dynamics and economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, M.F.; Roermund, van H.J.W.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2005-01-01

    A bulk milk quality assurance programme for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) in dairy herds was simulated. Herds were certified as `low-Map bulk milk¿ if, with a certain probability, the concentration of Map in bulk milk did not exceed a maximum acceptable concentration (MAC). The M

  10. Veterinarian awareness of farmer goals and attitudes to herd health management in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, M.; Woudenbergh, van B.; Boender, M.; Kremer, W.; Werven, van T.; Hogeveen, H.

    2013-01-01

    In providing advice on herd health, veterinarians need to be aware of farmers' goals and priorities. To determine the level of awareness, 29 veterinarians from 15 practices completed questionnaires during visits to dairy farms within the scope of veterinary herd health management (VHHM) programmes.

  11. Incidence and risk factors of milk fever among cross-bred dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cross-bred dairy cows in different dairy herds in Khartoum State, Sudan, during the period from March 2003 to ... The disease was studied based on clinical signs and laboratory examinations of serum calcium, phosphorus and magnesium.

  12. Relationship between the pre- and postpartum body condition scores and periparturient indices and fertility in high-yielding dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefańska Barbara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body condition score (BCS determined on the dry-off day, calving day, and in the first month of lactation, its changes during the dry period and early lactation, and periparturient indices and fertility in high-producing dairy cows. Material and Methods: The experiment was conducted in two herds: A and B, located in Western Poland. The studies were conducted on 116 and 108 Polish Holstein-Friesian dairy cows respectively, with an average milk yield of >10 000 kg/305-day lactation. The experiment included the dry period (-56 d to the calving day, the calving day, and early lactation (from +1 to +56 d. The experimental factor was BCS (0 to 5-point scale. The BCS was performed by one person on day -56, on parturition day (in the first 12 h after calving and on day 30 of lactation. Results: A decrease in BCS (≥-0.25 in herd A during the dry period accelerated the planned calving period by 7.3 d. In the group of cows with BCS 3.50 in the first month of lactation (30 d resulted in the extension of uterine involution period (56 d. Improvement of BCS during the dry period shortened the anoestrus (60 d in herd A and the period of insemination service (60 d in herd B. However, in this group (IM BCS ≥ 0.25 of cows the day of the highest artificial insemination index (2.50 in herd B was analysed. Conclusion: The body condition on the dry-off day and at calving, as well as its deterioration in the first month of lactation, have a considerable effect on fertility indices in dairy cows, thus confirming the advisability of its regular monitoring during routine operations connected with the management of a dairy cattle herd.

  13. Invited review: Sustainability of the US dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Keyserlingk, M A G; Martin, N P; Kebreab, E; Knowlton, K F; Grant, R J; Stephenson, M; Sniffen, C J; Harner, J P; Wright, A D; Smith, S I

    2013-09-01

    The US dairy industry has realized tremendous improvements in efficiencies and milk production since the 1940s. During this time, farm and total cow numbers have decreased and average herd size has increased. This intensification, combined with the shift to a largely urban public, has resulted in increased scrutiny of the dairy industry by social and environmental movements and increased concern regarding the dairy industry's sustainability. In response to these concerns, a group of scientists specializing in animal welfare, nutrient management, greenhouse gas emissions, animal science, agronomy, agricultural engineering, microbiology, and economics undertook a critical review of the US dairy industry. Although the US dairy system was identified as having significant strengths, the consensus was that the current structure of the industry lacks the resilience to adapt to changing social and environmental landscapes. We identified several factors affecting the sustainability of the US dairy industry, including climate change, rapid scientific and technological innovation, globalization, integration of societal values, and multidisciplinary research initiatives. Specific challenges include the westward migration of milk production in the United States (which is at odds with projected reductions in precipitation and associated limitations in water availability for cattle and crops), and the growing divide between industry practices and public perceptions, resulting in less public trust. Addressing these issues will require improved alignment between industry practices and societal values, based upon leadership from within the industry and sustained engagement with other interested participants, including researchers, consumers, and the general public.

  14. Fatores de risco associados à alta contagem de células somáticas do leite do tanque em rebanhos leiteiros da Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais Risk factors associated with high bulk milk somatic cell count in dairy herds from Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.N. Souza

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Características do rebanho e práticas de manejo associadas à contagem de células somáticas do leite do tanque (CCSLT foram estudadas em 175 rebanhos envolvidos em programas de acompanhamento entre junho de 2000 e dezembro de 2001. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de aplicação de questionários. Os rebanhos foram classificados em dois grupos de acordo com a média geométrica de seis CCSLT mensais, consecutivas, tendo como referência o valor de 500.000 células/ml. Os métodos estatísticos utilizados foram a análise exploratória dos dados e os modelos logísticos de regressão. Procedimentos relacionados ao controle e à prevenção de mastite foram adotados por pequeno número de rebanhos. O tipo de ordenha (manual, mecânica canalizada e balde-ao-pé, a idade média dos rebanhos, o local de ordenha e a realização de exames dos primeiros jatos de leite não foram associados à alta CCSLT. Os fatores associados à alta CCSLT foram a não adoção de linha de ordenha, a alimentação durante a ordenha e a ausência de anti-sepsia dos tetos após a ordenha.Herd features and management practices associated with high bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC were studied in 175 dairy herds enrolled on BMSCC programs. Herds data were obtained from June/2000 to December/2001 by questionnaires application. Herds were classified according to the geometric mean of six consecutive BMSCC records. Exploratory analysis and logistic regression models were the statistical analysis applied. Procedures about mastitis control and prevention were adopted in a few herds. Type of milking (machine or hand milking, herd age, milking place (milking parlour, pen, corral and strip test practice (first streams of milk were not associated with high BMSCC. Factors associated with high BMSCC were the following: do not milk clinical mastitic cows at the end of milking, feeding cows at milking and absence of post milking teat disinfection.

  15. Danish dairy farmers' perception of biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Erling; Jakobsen, Esben B

    2011-05-01

    To implement biosecurity measures at farm-level is a motivational challenge to dairy farmers as emerging diseases and their consequences largely are unpredictable. One of the reasons for this challenge is that outcomes are more likely to benefit society than the individual farmer. From the individual farmer's point of view the impacts of zoonotic risk, international trade and welfare concerns appear less obvious than the direct costs at farm-level. Consequently, a social dilemma may arise where collective interests are at odds with private interests. To improve biosecurity at farm-level farmers must be motivated to change behavior in the 'right' direction which could provide selfish farmers with unintended possibilities to exploit the level of biosecurity provided by other dairy farmers' collective actions. Farmers' perception of risk of disease introduction into a dairy herd was explored by means of Q-methodology. Participating farmers owned very large dairy herds and were selected for this study because Danish legislation since 2008 has required that larger farms develop and implement a farm specific biosecurity plan. However, a year from introduction of this requirement, none of the participating farmers had developed a biosecurity plan. Farmers' perception of biosecurity could meaningfully be described by four families of perspectives, labeled: cooperatives; confused; defectors, and introvert. Interestingly, all families of perspectives agreed that sourcing of animals from established dealers represented the highest risk to biosecurity at farm-level. Farmers and policy-makers are faced with important questions about biosecurity at farm-level related to the sanctioning system within the contextual framework of social dilemmas. To solve these challenges we propose the development of a market-mediated system to (1) reduce the risk of free-riders, and (2) provide farmers with incentives to improve biosecurity at farm-level.

  16. Cooperative membership and dairy performance among smallholders in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chagwiza, Clarietta; Muradian, Roldan; Ruben, Ruerd

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of cooperative membership among dairy producers in Selale, Ethiopia. We selected ten impact indicators: proportion of dairy income to total household income, total dairy income, proportion of crossbreed cows to the total number of cows in the herd (indicator of tech

  17. Cooperative membership and dairy performance among smallholders in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chagwiza, C.; Muradian Sarache, R.P.; Ruben, R.

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of cooperative membership among dairy producers in Selale, Ethiopia. We selected ten impact indicators: proportion of dairy income to total household income, total dairy income, proportion of crossbreed cows to the total number of cows in the herd (indicator of technol

  18. Factores asociados a la presentación de cojeras en 50 rebaños lecheros de la X Región, Chile Factors associated to lameness in 50 dairy herds in the Xth Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Hettich

    2007-01-01

    tierra o piedras, ausencia de pediluvios vs presencia de pediluviosThe aim of this study was to determine the risk factors related to the prevalence of foot lesions in 50 dairy farms in three provinces (Valdivia, Osorno and Llanquihue of the Xth Region, Chile. Each farm was visited once between April and July, 2004. During each visit, all lactating cows were observed during locomotion. In those cows showing a degree of lameness, all four feet were examined. The degree of lameness was scored in scale of 1 (slightly lame to 4 (very lame. Data were recorded in an individual recording sheet for each cow. All the facilities and paddocks where the cows were kept were inspected during each visit. A questionnaire was handed to the manager or the owner of the farm. All the data recorded and the answers to the questionnaire were introduced in an Excel spread sheet as numerical variables and analyzed using the statistical program SPSS 8.0. Risk factors for the four more prevalent causes of lameness were determined using a logistic regression model. The associated factors for an increase of the prevalence in the dairy herds were determined with a multivariable linear regression model. A total of 7501 dairy cows were observed, with 641 of them being diagnosed with some degree of lameness. Cows with three or more lactations were 3.8 times more likely to develop chronic lesions of the hooves and cows with two lactations were 2 times more likely to develop overgrowth of the sole, compared with other lactations. German Red-pied cows were 1.7 times more likely to have white line lesions and 2 times more wall lesions than other breeds. Three risk factors related to lameness were identified: i changing the diet 25 days prior to calving vs changing the diet nearer to calving date or not changing the diet, ii concrete roads vs gravel and mud roads, iii the absence of a footbath versus the presence of a footbath

  19. A nitrogen index for improving nutrient management within commercial Mexican dairy operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy farm operations in Mexico are contributing to large, negative environmental impacts across some regions. These regions are traditionally dominated by large concentrations of dairy animals and intensive operations. Some of these dairy forage systems receive extremely large manure inputs and add...

  20. Housing and management factors associated with indicators of dairy cattle welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, M; Bokkers, E A M; van Reenen, C G; Engel, B; van Schaik, G; Dijkstra, T; de Boer, I J M

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of potential synergies and trade-offs between housing and management factors for different aspects of animal welfare is essential for farmers who aim to improve the level of welfare in their herds. The aim of this research was to identify and compare housing and management factors associated with prevalence of lameness, prevalence of lesions or swellings, prevalence of dirty hindquarters, and frequency of displacements (social behavior) in dairy herds in free-stall housing. Seven observers collected data regarding housing and management characteristics of 179 Dutch dairy herds (herd size: 22-211 cows) in free-stall housing during winter. Lame cows, cows with lesions or swellings, and cows with dirty hindquarters were counted and occurrence of displacements was recorded during 120 min of observation. For each of the four welfare indicators, housing and management factors associated with the welfare indicator were selected in a succession of logistic or log-linear regression analyses. Prevalence of lameness was associated with surface of the lying area, summer pasturing, herd biosecurity status, and far-off and close-up dry cow groups (Pfloor scraping frequency, herd size, and the proportion cows to stalls (Pconcrete, and in herds with summer pasturing (OR=0.68 and 0.41, CI=0.51-0.90 and 0.27-0.61), compared with zero-grazing. Deep bedding in stalls was negatively associated with prevalence of dirty hindquarters (OR=0.50, CI=0.29-0.86), compared with hard mats. It was concluded that some aspects of housing and management are common protective factors for prevalence of lameness, lesions or swellings, and dirty hindquarters, but not for frequency of displacements.