Full Text Available Good goat nutrition is fundamental to the success and sustainability of dairy goat farming in terms of economics, goat health, high quality products, and minimizing environmental impact.
Rodrigo de Souza
Full Text Available Peripartum is a critical period for dairy goats, as dry matter intake (DMI is not enough to supply the energy requirement for foetal growth and subsequent lactation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA to increase dietary energy level of peripartum dairy goats and its effects on nutritive value of diets and milk quality. Twenty multiparous Saanen goats (body weight 63.5±10.3 kg were distributed in a completely randomised design in four treatments at the following dietary energy levels: 2.6 Mcal of metabolisable energy per kg of dry matter (Mcal ME/kg DM - control diet; and 2.7, 2.8, and 2.9 Mcal/kg DM - with added CSFA. Goats were housed in individual stalls and evaluated in the peripartum period, by measuring body weight (BW, DMI, dry matter and nutrient digestibility of diets, blood composition, and milk quality and yield. Increasing dietary energy level to 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM had no effect on BW and did not limit DMI. CSFA supplementation increased intake of total digestible nutrients and did not affect fibre digestion. Blood triglycerides and cholesterol concentration increased with CSFA addition. The treatments had no effect on milk yield and composition; however, CSFA supplementation changed the fatty acid concentration of milk fat, increasing levels of polyunsaturated and essential fatty acids. In conclusion, peripartum dairy goats supplemented with CSFA to increase dietary energy level up to 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM had a greater supply of total digestible nutrients and showed altered fatty acid concentration of milk fat.
Bender, Sophia; Ude, Gracia; Rahmann, Gerold; Aulrich, Karen; Georg, Heiko
In contrast to the increasing demand for dairy goat products in Germany, a market for goat kid meat as a related product does not exist. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a concept for organic goat kid meat production for dairy goat farms. In collaboration with a wholesaler, organic dairy goat farmers and marketing research the experimental part of this study was to find out if cross-breeding of meat-goats could improve meat quality and performance of fattening goat kids togeth...
Escareño, Luis; Salinas-Gonzalez, Homero; Wurzinger, Maria; Iñiguez, Luiz; Sölkner, Johann; Meza-Herrera, Cesar
Goat production concentrated in developing countries (tropics, dry areas), contributes largely to the livelihoods of low and medium income farmers. Farming systems in these areas have evolved to cope with the formidable constraints imposed by harsh natural and economic conditions by adapting integrated crop/livestock production strategies. In Asia, Africa and Latin America, due to its almost exclusive extensive nature, goat production relies mainly on grazing on communal lands that hardly provide the minimum nutrient requirements due to overstocking and degradation. While some of these production systems are becoming semi-intensive, appropriate breeding strategies should be designed to promote conservation and improvement of their unique attributes, such as adaptability, water use efficiency and suitability under harsh climatic conditions. In Europe, dairy goat production is more common around the Mediterranean basin, where it is important from an economic, environmental and sociological perspective to the Mediterranean countries: Spain, France, Italy and Greece. Europe owns only 5.1 % of the world's dairy goat herds, but produces 15.6 % of the world's goat milk; this is the only continent where goat milk has such an economic importance and organization. In developing countries the dairy goat sector requires a systemic approach, whereby nutrition, animal health, breeding, know-how, inputs and technologies must be assembled. This would allow the optimization of natural and local resources and would promote the transition from a risk reduction strategy towards an increased productivity strategy. Such an increase would privilege production efficiency based on clean, green and ethical practices for responsible innovation.
Paulo M Bandarra
Full Text Available Seven out of 25 goats from a southern Brazilian flock developed nutritional fibrous osteodystrophy. Affected animals were younger than 1 year of age and were confined in stalls and fed a concentrate ration containing 1:6 calcium:phosphorus ratio. The remaining flock (35 goats was managed at pasture and showed no disease. Clinical signs were characterized by mandibular and maxillary enlargements, varying degrees of mouth opening and protruding tongue, dyspnea, apart of abnormalities of prehension and mastication. Affected animals had increased seric levels of phosphorus and parathormone, as well as higher alkaline phosphatase activity. Postmortem examination on three succumbed goats revealed bilateral enlargement of the maxilla and mandibula, and loose teeth, apart of multiple incomplete rib fractures in one of them. Severe diffuse proliferation of loose connective tissue surrounded the osteoid trabeculae, many of which were partially or completely non-mineralized. Mineralized osteoid trabeculae showed osteoclasts in the Howship's lacunae.
This review pulls together the results of over 40 research projects and brings us up to date with the latest in thinking on dairy cow nutrition, incorporates the findings of a wide range of organic trials and draws some clear recommendations on appropriate strategies for forage type and management, supplementary feeding, ration formulation and farming systems. It raises important issues around sustainability versus optimum production and highlights future research priorities.
Full Text Available Scientific research on factors causing the reduction of well-being in sheep and goats is rather recent, as are studies of strategies to minimize the adverse effects of environmental challenges and improper management practices on flock welfare. Sheep and goats, considered very rustic animals, are reared prevalently under extensive production systems and are widespread mainly in marginal areas. For these reasons, only few studies on the welfare of these species have been carried out in the past. More recently, the scenario has changed, due to a gradual diffusion of intensive and semi-intensive production systems, especially in dairy sheep and goat breeds, to the growing concern of consumers about the life conditions of farmed animals, and to the issuing of a number of rules and laws on the safety of animal products and well-being of farmed livestock. As a consequence, several research groups have turned their attention to the welfare of sheep and goats. Nevertheless, information on this topic is still scarce. This paper reviews major critical points regarding the endangerment of welfare in farmed sheep and goats. Climatic extremes and seasonal fluctuations in herbage amount and quality are discussed as important causes of the reduction of well-being in extensive production systems, which can impair production efficiency of grazing animals and dramatically affect the welfare and health status of sheep and goats. Space allowance and structures of sheep and goat houses are described as the main potential sources of discomfort for housed flocks, together with inadequate control of micro-environment, and inappropriate milking procedures and human-animal interactions. Recent studies on the impact of high ambient temperature, different ventilation regimes, high stocking densities, reduced airspace and poor litter management on behaviour, immune and endocrine response, and on performance of sheep and goats are discussed. The effects of inadequate milking
Hogerwerf, Lenny; Courcoul, Aurélie; Klinkenberg, Don; Beaudeau, François; Vergu, Elisabeta; Nielen, Mirjam
Between 2007 and 2009, the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source was traced back to dairy goat farms, where abortion storms had been observed since 2005. Since one putative cause of these abortion storms is the intensive husbandry systems in which the goats are kept, the objective of this study was to assess whether these could be explained by herd size, reproductive pattern and other demographic aspects of Dutch dairy goat herds alone. We adapted an existing, fully parameterized simulation model for Q fever transmission in French dairy cattle herds to represent the demographics typical for Dutch dairy goat herds. The original model represents the infection dynamics in a herd of 50 dairy cows after introduction of a single infected animal; the adapted model has 770 dairy goats. For a full comparison, herds of 770 cows and 50 goats were also modeled. The effects of herd size and goat versus cattle demographics on the probability of and time to extinction of the infection, environmental bacterial load and abortion rate were studied by simulation. The abortion storms could not be fully explained by demographics alone. Adequate data were lacking at the moment to attribute the difference to characteristics of the pathogen, host, within-herd environment, or a combination thereof. The probability of extinction was higher in goat herds than in cattle herds of the same size. The environmental contamination was highest within cattle herds, which may be taken into account when enlarging cattle farming systems.
DAIRY PRODUCTION: A NUTRITION INTERVENTION IN A SUGARCANE GROWING AREA IN WESTERN KENYA. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... The influence of dairy production and a select number of household characteristics on the children's nutritional status was evaluated.
Ding, W; Kou, L; Cao, B; Wei, Y
Chemical composition, cholesterol levels, fatty acid profile, meat taste, and quality parameters were evaluated in 48 buck kids from goats of the Guanzhong Dairy breed (Group G) and their crosses (Group F1: 1/2 Boermale symbolx1/2 Guanzhong Dairyfemale symbol; Group F2: 3/4 Boermale symbolx1/4 Guanzhong Dairyfemale symbol; Group F3: 7/8 Boermale symbolx1/8 Guanzhong Dairyfemale symbol) at different ages of slaughter (6, 8 and 10 months). Results indicated that grading hybridization (Pmeat nutritive value. The muscle of hybrid goats had lower crude fat and cholesterol, higher crude protein, and greater proportion of C18:2 and C18:3 than that of Group G at each age. Group F1 goats had better (Pgoats were tenderer and juicier compared to Group G. In all four groups, cholesterol levels increased (Pmeat quality, and the higher ratio of unsaturated to SFA in Group F1 indicate better quality for human consumption. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bauman, Cathy A.; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula
). Using 3-test latent class Bayesian models, true farm-level prevalence was estimated to be 83.0% [95% probability interval (PI): 62.6% to 98.1%] for dairy goats and 66.8% (95% PI: 41.6% to 91.4%) for dairy sheep. The within-farm true prevalence for dairy goats was 35.2% (95% PI: 23.0% to 49......A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to estimate the prevalence of paratuberculosis in the small ruminant dairy industries in Ontario, Canada. Blood and feces were sampled from 580 goats and 397 sheep (lactating and 2 y of age or older) that were randomly selected...... from 29 randomly selected dairy goat herds and 21 convenience -selected dairy sheep flocks. Fecal samples were analyzed using bacterial culture (BD BACTEC MGIT 960) and polymerase chain reaction (Tetracore); serum samples were tested with the Prionics Parachek enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA...
X. P. Yue
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate allele frequencies at the CSN1S2 locus in two Chinese dairy goat breeds and the effects of its variation on dairy goat economic traits. Seven hundred and eight goats from Xinong Saanen (XS, n = 268 and Guanzhong (GZ, N = 440 breeds were selected. The milk samples of 268 XS goats were collected during the middle of lactation, body size parameters (708 goats and daily milk yield (202 goats were registered. The RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism and SSCP (single strand conformation polymorphism were used to detect the polymorphisms in CSN1S2. The Hardy-Weinberg (HW equilibrium and the associations between body size, milk yield and composition and the genotypes were calculated. The results revealed that only A and F CSN1S2 alleles were found in the two Chinese dairy goat breeds. Allelic frequencies of A and F were 0.795, 0.205 and 0.739, 0.261 in Xinong Saanen and Guanzhong population respectively. Xinong Saanen breed was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, while Guanzhong breed deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p<0.05. The association of polymorphism with economic traits indicated that the goats with FF genotype have higher milk fat and total solid concentration than those with AA and AF genotypes (p<0.05.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is a major problem for the sheep industry as it may cause reproduction problems. The importance of T. gondii in Norwegian goat herds is uncertain, but outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in dairy goat farms have been recorded. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of T. gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats by using serology. Findings Goat serum originally collected as part of two nationwide surveillance and control programmes between 2002 and 2008 were examined for T. gondii antibodies by using direct agglutination test. In total, 55 of 73 herds (75% had one or more serologically positive animals, while 377 of 2188 (17% of the individual samples tested positive for T. gondii antibodies. Conclusions This is the first prevalence study of T. gondii infection in Norwegian goats. The results show that Norwegian goat herds are commonly exposed to T. gondii. Nevertheless, the majority of goat herds have a low prevalence of antibody positive animals, which make them vulnerable to infections with T. gondii during the gestation period.
Moreno-Fernández, Jorge; Díaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, Maria J M; Hijano, Silvia; Nestares, Teresa; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada
The aim of this study was to identify the differences between the main macro and micronutrients including proteins, fat, minerals and vitamins in cow and goat dehydrated fermented milks. Fermented goat milk had higher protein and lower ash content. All amino acids (except for Ala), were higher in fermented goat milk than in fermented cow milk. Except for the values of C11:0, C13:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:5, C22:5 and the total quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, all the other fatty acid studied were significantly different in both fermented milks. Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Se were higher in fermented goat milk. Fermented goat milk had lower amounts of folic acid, vitamin E and C, and higher values of vitamin A, D3, B6 and B12. The current study demonstrates the better nutritional characteristics of fermented goat milk, suggesting a potential role of this dairy product as a high nutritional value food.
Härter, C J; Lima, L D; Castagnino, D S; Silva, H O; Figueiredo, F O M; St-Pierre, N R; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A
Mineral requirements of pregnant dairy goats are still not well defined; therefore, we investigated the net Ca, P, Mg, Na and K requirements for pregnancy and for maintenance during pregnancy in two separate experiments. Experiment 1 was performed to estimate the net Ca, P, Mg, Na and K requirements in goats carrying single or twin fetuses from 50 to 140 days of pregnancy (DOP). The net mineral requirements for pregnancy were determined by measuring mineral deposition in gravid uterus and mammary gland after comparative slaughter. In total, 57 dairy goats of two breeds (Oberhasli or Saanen), in their third or fourth parturition, were randomly assigned to groups based on litter size (single or twin) and day of slaughter (50, 80, 110 and 140 DOP) in a fully factorial design. Net mineral accretion for pregnancy did not differ by goat breed. The total daily Ca, P, Mg, Na and K requirements for pregnancy were greatest in goats carrying twins (Pgoat maintenance during pregnancy. In total, 58 dairy goats (Oberhasli and Saanen) carrying twin fetuses were assigned to groups based on slaughter day (80, 110 and 140 DOP) and feed restriction (ad libitum, 20% and 40% feed restriction) in a randomized block design. The net Ca, P and Mg requirements for maintenance did not vary by breed or over the course of pregnancy. The daily net requirements of Ca, P and Mg for maintenance were 60.4, 31.1 and 2.42 mg/kg live BW (LBW), respectively. The daily net Na requirement for maintenance was greater in Saanen goats (11.8 mg/kg LBW) than in Oberhasli goats (8.96 mg/kg LBW; Pgoats throughout their pregnancy.
Six- hundred and thirty (630) apparently normal milk samples from dairy goats in Nyeri district (Kenya) were examined over a three-month period to determine the prevalence of bacterial organisms. Bacteria were isolated in 28.7% of milk samples (181/630) either as a single bacterial organism (92.8%) or mixed bacterial ...
Jimenez-Granda, R.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Arce, C.; Rodriguez-Estevez, V.
Somatic cell count (SCC) in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI), and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cows milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats), prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births), milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking) and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking), seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards. (Author)
Full Text Available Somatic cell count (SCC in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI, and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cow’s milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats, prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births, milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking, seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards.
The aim of this study was to investigate the polymorphism and genetic variation of CSN1S2 in South African dairy goats, using DNA sequencing technology. Sixty dairy goats (20 Saanes, 20 British Alpine, and 20 Toggenburg) and 20 meat-type goats were sequenced with four primers to distinguish among the seven known ...
Leandro Becalete Rizzoni
Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Rizzoni L.B., Gioso M.M., Ribeiro S.D. de A., Ribeiro A.C., Fernandes C.A. de C. & Garcia J.A.D. [Application of cloprostenol in the postpartum period of dairy goats.] Aplicação do cloprostenol sódico no período puerperal de cabras leiteiras. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(2:0183-187, 2014. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade José do Rosário Vellano, Rodovia MG 179, km 0, Alfenas, MG 37130-000, Brasil. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org This study assessed the effects of application of cloprostenol in postpartum dairy goats. We used twenty-nine Anglonubianas goats, divided evenly into two groups: group PGF2a (0.133 mg cloprostenol and control group (0.5 mL of saline (0.9%, both received two doses on days 1 and 4 postpartum. By transrectal ultrasonography on days 1, 4, 10, 16, 22, 28, 34, 40 and 46 after birth, were evaluated uterus and ovaries. The uterine diameter behaved differently between the groups (P 0.05, however there were no ovulations. The cloprostenol during the study period acted beneficially in the process of uterine involution and the expulsion of uterine contents in dairy goats.
Bachelor thesis gives a comprehensive overview of the dairy cow nutrition and assesses the system of nutrition and feeding in relation to milk production. The main part is devoted to the basics of dairy cow nutrition, the main nutrient requirements and composition of feed diets. There was assessed composition of feed rations for the year 2010 in working conditions on the School farm Měšice. The recommendations were designed to improve the nutrition level on the farm on the based data.
Poulsen, Keith P.; Hutchins, Frank T.; McNulty, Chase M.; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W.
The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7–6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0–8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2–44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis. PMID:24591429
Between 2007 and 2009, the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source was traced back to dairy goat farms, where abortion storms caused by Coxiella burnetii had been observed. Intervention measures included vaccination of dairy goats, followed by one-time
Cyrilla, L; Purwanto, B. P; Astuti, D. A; Atabany, A; Sukmawati, A
The objectives of present study were to formulate development strategies for dairy goat' farms that capable of supporting goat's milk agribusiness. Three medium scale dairy goat farms located in Bogor Regency which has population of more than 100 heads and has established more than 10 years were purposively selected for the study. Data were collected during February to May 2014. The design of this study was based on descriptive qualitative approach (rapid appraisal approach). Data were analiz...
Rubio-Martín, Elehazara; García-Escobar, Eva; Ruiz de Adana, Maria-Soledad; Lima-Rubio, Fuensanta; Peláez, Laura; Caracuel, Angel-María; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco-Javier; Soriguer, Federico; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Olveira, Gabriel
The satiating effects of cow dairy have been thoroughly investigated; however, the effects of goat dairy on appetite have not been reported so far. Our study investigates the satiating effect of two breakfasts based on goat or cow dairy and their association with appetite related hormones and metabolic profile. Healthy adults consumed two breakfasts based on goat (G-Breakfast) or cow (C-Breakfast) dairy products. Blood samples were taken and VAS tests were performed at different time points. Blood metabolites were measured and Combined Satiety Index (CSI) and areas under the curves (AUC) were calculated. Desire to eat rating was significantly lower (breakfast & time interaction p cow dairy products, and pointed to a potential association of GLP-1 and triglyceride levels with the mechanisms by which dairy products might affect satiety after the G-Breakfast and C-Breakfast, respectively.
Muri, K; Leine, N; Valle, P S
The Norwegian dairy goat industry has largely succeeded in controlling caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE), caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) and paratuberculosis through a voluntary disease eradication programme called Healthier Goats (HG). The aim of this study was to apply an on-farm welfare assessment protocol to assess the effects of HG on goat welfare. A total of 30 dairy goat farms were visited, of which 15 had completed disease eradication and 15 had not yet started. Three trained observers assessed the welfare on 10 farms each. The welfare assessment protocol comprised both resource-based and animal-based welfare measures, including a preliminary version of qualitative behavioural assessments with five prefixed terms. A total of 20 goats in each herd were randomly selected for observations of human-animal interactions and physical health. The latter included registering abnormalities of eyes, nostrils, ears, skin, lymph nodes, joints, udder, claws and body condition score. For individual-level data, robust clustered logistic regression analyses with farm as cluster variable were conducted to assess the association with disease eradication. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used for comparisons of herd-level data between the two groups. Goats with swollen joints (indicative of CAE) and enlarged lymph nodes (indicative of CLA) were registered on 53% and 93% of the non-HG farms, respectively, but on none of the HG farms. The only other health variables with significantly lower levels in HG herds were skin lesions (P=0.008) and damaged ears due to torn out ear tags (PGoats on HG farms showed less fear of unknown humans (P=0.013), and the qualitative behavioural assessments indicated that the animals in these herds were calmer than in non-HG herds. Significantly more space and lower gas concentrations reflected the upgrading of buildings usually done on HG farms. In conclusion, HG has resulted in some welfare improvements beyond the elimination of infectious diseases
Song, Jun-Ke; Yin, Yan-Ling; Yuan, Ya-Jie; Tang, Huan; Ren, Guan-Jing; Zhang, Hui-Jun; Li, Zi-Xuan; Zhang, Yan-Ming; Zhao, Guang-Hui
Blastocystis is one of the most common parasites inhabiting in small intestines of human and animals. Although its pathogenicity has been remaining controversial, the possibility of zoonotic transmission between human and animals was recognized. The goat was one of the most important economic animals supplying people with cashmere, meat, and dairy products. However, few studies were to investigate Blastocystis infection in goats. A total of 789 faecal specimens of goats (including 362 of dairy, 193 of meat and 234 of cashmere goats) were collected from multiple regions of Shaanxi province in northwestern China to investigate the colonization frequency and subtypes of Blastocystis, and to assess the zoonotic potential of these goats. The respective colonization frequencies of Blastocystis in dairy, meat and cashmere goats were 54.1% (196/362), 40.4% (78/193) and 78.6% (184/234). The prevalence of Blastocystis in pre-weaned (0-2-month) goats was significantly lower than that in goats of other age groups, and the highest colonization was observed in goats of 7-11-month age group. Sequence analysis of Blastocystis positive samples indicated the presence of seven subtypes in these goats, including six known subtypes (STs1, 3, 4, 5, 10, 14) and one possible novel subtype (isolate Sd26), with the subtype 10 as the predominant one. Additionally, zoonotic subtypes were found in dairy (ST1, ST3 and ST5) and cashmere (ST4 and ST5) goats, but not detected in meat goats. These results showed that Blastocystis is highly prevalent, widely distributed and genetically diverse in goats in Shaanxi province, northwestern China, and zoonotic potential of dairy and cashmere goats to transmit Blastocystis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A multiresidue method (LC-MS/MS for determination of wide range of anthelmintics was developed. The method covered benzimidazoles: albendazole (and metabolites, cambendazole, fenbendazol (and metabolites, flubendazole (and metabolites, mebendazole (and metabolites, oxibendazole, thiabendazole (and metabolites, triclabendazole (and metabolites; macrocyclic lactones: abamectin, doramectin, emamectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin, moxidectin; salicylanilides: closantel, ioxynil, nitroxynil, oxyclosamide, niclosamide, rafoxanid and others: clorsulon, derquantel, imidocarb, monepantel (and metabolites, morantel, praziquantel, and pyrantel. The method was used to examine the potential presence of anthelmintics in goat and sheep milk and dairy products from the Polish market. A total of 120 samples of milk, yoghurt, cottage cheese, cream cheese, and curd were analysed. None of the samples were found positive above CCα (1-10 μg/kg except for one cottage cheese in which traces of albendazole sulfone were detected (5.2 ug/kg and confirmed. The results of the study showed negligible anthelmintic residues in the goat and sheep milk and dairy products and confirm their good quality.
Criscioni, P.; Marti, J.V.; Pérez-Baena, I.
tThe objective of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting alfalfa (Medicagosativa) with maralfalfa (Pennisetum sp.) on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methaneemission, and milk performance in dairy goats. Ten Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in latelactation (45.7 ± 2.96 kg...... of body weight [BW]) were selected in a 2-treatment and crossoverdesign experiment where each goat received both treatments in 2 periods. One group offive goats was fed a mixed ration with alfalfa as forage (A diet) and the other diet replacedalfalfa with maralfalfa (M diet) in a forage concentrate ratio...
Pulina, G; Milán, M J; Lavín, M P; Theodoridis, A; Morin, E; Capote, J; Thomas, D L; Francesconi, A H D; Caja, G
Dairy small ruminants account for approximately 21% of all sheep and goats in the world, produce around 3.5% of the world's milk, and are mainly located in subtropical-temperate areas of Asia, Europe, and Africa. Dairy sheep are concentrated around the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions, where their dairy products are typical ingredients of the human diet. Dairy goats are concentrated in low-income, food-deficit countries of the Indian subcontinent, where their products are a key food source, but are also present in high-income, technologically developed countries. This review evaluates the status of the dairy sheep and goat sectors in the world, with special focus on the commercially and technically developed industries in France, Greece, Italy, and Spain (FGIS). Dairy small ruminants account for a minor part of the total agricultural output in France, Italy, and Spain (0.9 to 1.8%) and a larger part in Greece (8.8%). In FGIS, the dairy sheep industry is based on local breeds and crossbreeds raised under semi-intensive and intensive systems and is concentrated in a few regions in these countries. Average flock size varies from small to medium (140 to 333 ewes/farm), and milk yield from low to medium (85 to 216 L/ewe), showing substantial room for improvement. Most sheep milk is sold to industries and processed into traditional cheese types, many of which are Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) cheeses for gourmet and export markets (e.g., Pecorino, Manchego, and Roquefort). By comparing break-even milk price among FGIS countries, we observed the following: (1) most Greek and French dairy sheep farms were unprofitable, with the exception of the intensive Chios farms of Greece; (2) milk price was aligned with cost of production in Italy; and (3) profitable farms coexisted with unprofitable farms in Spain. In FGIS, dairy goat production is based on local breeds raised under more extensive systems than sheep. Compared with sheep, average dairy goat herds are
Robertson, Kimberly; Symes, Wymond; Garnham, Malcolm
The aim of this study was to assess the cradle-to-farm gate carbon footprint of indoor and outdoor dairy goat farming systems in New Zealand, identifying hotspots and discussing variability and methodology. Our study was based on the International Organization for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment, although only results for greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Two functional units were included: tonnes of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) per hectare (ha) and kilograms of CO2e per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The study covered 5 farms, 2 farming systems, and 3yr. Two methods for the calculation of enteric methane emissions were assessed. The Lassey method, as used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory, provided a more robust estimate of emissions from enteric fermentation and was used in the final calculations. The alternative dry matter intake method was shown to overestimate emissions due to use of anecdotal assumptions around actual consumption of feed. Economic allocation was applied to milk and co-products. Scenario analysis was performed on the allocation method, nitrogen content of manure, manure management, and supplementary feed choice. The average carbon footprint for the indoor farms (n=3) was 11.05 t of CO2e/ha and 0.81kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. For the outdoor farms (n=2), the average was 5.38 t of CO2e/ha and 1.03kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The average for all 5 farms was 8.78 t of CO2e/ha and 0.90kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The results showed relatively high variability due to differences in management practices between farms. The 5 farms covered 10% of the total dairy goat farms but may not be representative of an average farm. Methane from enteric fermentation was a major emission source. The use of supplementary feed was highly variable but an important contributor to the carbon footprint. Nitrous oxide can contribute up to 18% of emissions. Indoor goat farming systems produced milk with a significantly higher carbon
Guimarães, Alessandro de Sá; Gouveia, Aurora Maria Guimarães; do Carmo, Filipe Borges; Gouveia, Gabriela Canabrava; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão
Parasitic infection is recognized worldwide as a limiting factor in the production of goats, and various control methods are used to reduce economic losses, often without considering the epidemiology of the parasites. This has led to the development of highly tolerant parasite populations and the presence of chemical residues in the beef and milk. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge of goat farmers about parasitic diseases and to correlate this with the epidemiology of endoparasites and parasite control practices in goat farms in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The analysis was based on a questionnaire applied by trained veterinarians. The sample was homogeneous throughout the state, covering 18.4% (157/853) of municipalities. Eighty-four dairy goat farms in 81 municipalities and 200 properties with beef goats in 76 municipalities were evaluated. The herd size per goat farm ranged from 4 to 57 (average 24) for beef herds and from 2 to 308 (average 63) for dairy farms. The majority of the beef herd production was extensive and semi-extensive (98.5%), while the dairy herds were maintained under intensive farming (98.8%). The mixed production of goats and sheep was reported by 36.5% of beef goat farmers and by 20.2% of dairy goat farmers. Among the beef goats farms on which the technological level was determined, 2.0% were categorized as having high technological level, 34.5% as medium, and 63.5% as low. Of the 84 dairy farms, 30% operated at a high, 47% at a medium, and 23% at a low technological level. The adoption of practices to reduce parasitism, such as the quarantine of animals, treatment of newly arrived animals, regular cleaning of the floor, and technical assistance, was significantly higher on dairy farms than on beef farms. Although 85.7% of dairy farmers and 83% of beef farmers medicate their animals, the treatments were performed without technical criteria, and deworming intervals ranged from 30 to 120 days or more. The
Biogas can be a clean cooking alternative where biomass is the dominant source of cooking energy and where feedstock for anaerobic digestion is available. By substituting woody biomass for energy, biogas may reduce local deforestation. Tanzania has more than 15.6 million goats. Dairy goats of different breeds are ...
Sordillo, L M
Dairy cattle are susceptible to increased incidence and severity of both metabolic and infectious diseases during the periparturient period. A major contributing factor to increased health disorders is alterations in bovine immune mechanisms. Indeed, uncontrolled inflammation is a major contributing factor and a common link among several economically important infectious and metabolic diseases including mastitis, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis. The nutritional status of dairy cows and the metabolism of specific nutrients are critical regulators of immune cell function. There is now a greater appreciation that certain mediators of the immune system can have a reciprocal effect on the metabolism of nutrients. Thus, any disturbances in nutritional or immunological homeostasis can provide deleterious feedback loops that can further enhance health disorders, increase production losses, and decrease the availability of safe and nutritious dairy foods for a growing global population. This review will discuss the complex interactions between nutrient metabolism and immune functions in periparturient dairy cattle. Details of how either deficiencies or overexposure to macro- and micronutrients can contribute to immune dysfunction and the subsequent development of health disorders will be presented. Specifically, the ways in which altered nutrient metabolism and oxidative stress can interact to compromise the immune system in transition cows will be discussed. A better understanding of the linkages between nutrition and immunity may facilitate the design of nutritional regimens that will reduce disease susceptibility in early lactation cows. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive. Results In total, 2,828 goat serum samples from 123 farms were available. Farm prevalence was 43.1% (95%CI: 34.3%-51.8%. Overall goat seroprevalence was 21.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-22.9% and among the 53 positive farms 46.6% (95%CI: 43.8%-49.3%. Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 96 farms and showed that farm location within 8 kilometres proximity from a bulk milk PCR positive farm, location in a municipality with high cattle density (≥ 100 cattle per square kilometre, controlling nuisance animals through covering airspaces, presence of cats or dogs in the goat stable, straw imported from abroad or unknown origin and a herd size above 800 goats were independent risk factors associated with Q fever on farm level. At animal level almost identical risk factors were found, with use of windbreak curtain and artificial insemination as additional risk factors. Conclusion In 2009-2010, the seroprevalence in dairy goats in the Netherlands increased on animal and farm level compared to a previous study in 2008. Risk factors suggest spread from relatively closely located bulk milk-infected small ruminant farms, next to introduction and spread from companion animals, imported straw and use of artificial insemination. In-depth studies investigating the role of artificial insemination and bedding material are needed, while simultaneously general biosecurity measures should be updated, such as avoiding companion animals and vermin entering the stables, next to advice on farm stable constructions on
Schimmer, Barbara; Luttikholt, Saskia; Hautvast, Jeannine L A; Graat, Elisabeth A M; Vellema, Piet; Duynhoven, Yvonne T H P van
The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive. In total, 2,828 goat serum samples from 123 farms were available. Farm prevalence was 43.1% (95%CI: 34.3%-51.8%). Overall goat seroprevalence was 21.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-22.9%) and among the 53 positive farms 46.6% (95%CI: 43.8%-49.3%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 96 farms and showed that farm location within 8 kilometres proximity from a bulk milk PCR positive farm, location in a municipality with high cattle density (≥ 100 cattle per square kilometre), controlling nuisance animals through covering airspaces, presence of cats or dogs in the goat stable, straw imported from abroad or unknown origin and a herd size above 800 goats were independent risk factors associated with Q fever on farm level. At animal level almost identical risk factors were found, with use of windbreak curtain and artificial insemination as additional risk factors. In 2009-2010, the seroprevalence in dairy goats in the Netherlands increased on animal and farm level compared to a previous study in 2008. Risk factors suggest spread from relatively closely located bulk milk-infected small ruminant farms, next to introduction and spread from companion animals, imported straw and use of artificial insemination. In-depth studies investigating the role of artificial insemination and bedding material are needed, while simultaneously general biosecurity measures should be updated, such as avoiding companion animals and vermin entering the stables, next to advice on farm stable constructions on how to prevent introduction and minimize airborne
Background The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive. Results In total, 2,828 goat serum samples from 123 farms were available. Farm prevalence was 43.1% (95%CI: 34.3%-51.8%). Overall goat seroprevalence was 21.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-22.9%) and among the 53 positive farms 46.6% (95%CI: 43.8%-49.3%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 96 farms and showed that farm location within 8 kilometres proximity from a bulk milk PCR positive farm, location in a municipality with high cattle density (≥ 100 cattle per square kilometre), controlling nuisance animals through covering airspaces, presence of cats or dogs in the goat stable, straw imported from abroad or unknown origin and a herd size above 800 goats were independent risk factors associated with Q fever on farm level. At animal level almost identical risk factors were found, with use of windbreak curtain and artificial insemination as additional risk factors. Conclusion In 2009-2010, the seroprevalence in dairy goats in the Netherlands increased on animal and farm level compared to a previous study in 2008. Risk factors suggest spread from relatively closely located bulk milk-infected small ruminant farms, next to introduction and spread from companion animals, imported straw and use of artificial insemination. In-depth studies investigating the role of artificial insemination and bedding material are needed, while simultaneously general biosecurity measures should be updated, such as avoiding companion animals and vermin entering the stables, next to advice on farm stable constructions on how to prevent introduction
Neave, Heather W; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Weary, Daniel M; Zobel, Gosia
Goats are browsers and select vegetation at various heights when foraging. On commercial farms, dairy goats are typically fed from low-level feed bunks. The objective of this study was to determine how feed intake and feeding behavior vary when goats are offered feed at variable heights, with the potential of evaluating the benefits of offering an elevated feeder to dairy goats. Thirteen Saanen X dairy goats were housed in a home pen with a lying area of wood shavings, where they were pre-exposed for 24 d to 3 feeder heights designed to result in differences in head height while feeding: floor level (head lowered relative to body), head level (head level relative to body), and elevated level (head and neck angled upward). Nine groups of 3 goats each were randomly selected and housed for 24 h in a test pen identical to the home pen except that it contained 1 of each of the 3 feeder heights. Each feeder contained ad libitum chopped alfalfa silage and a top-dressed corn-based supplement, refreshed twice daily. Refusals from inside and under each feeder were weighed to calculate intake. Feed intake increased with increasing feeder height (mean ± SE; 0.18, 0.29, and 0.34 ± 0.04 kg of DM/goat for floor-level, head-level, and elevated-level feeders, respectively). Total feeding time did not vary with feeder height, but feeding rate tended to be faster at the elevated-level feeder (14.5 ± 2.1 g of DM/min) compared with head-level (9.2 ± 2.3 g of DM/min) and floor-level (8.9 ± 2.1 g of DM/min) feeders. Goats visited the floor-level feeder (36.4 ± 8.4 visits/goat) less than the head-level (79.4 ± 8.4 visits/goat) and elevated-level (74.8 ± 8.4 visits/goat) feeders. The number of displacements per minute of feeding time (physical removal of another goat from the feeding place) was greater at the elevated-level feeder (0.46 ± 0.06 displacements/min) compared with the floor-level feeder (0.23 ± 0.06 displacements/min) and tended to differ from the head-level feeder (0
Nutrition has an important impact on the reproductive performance of dairy cattle. Energy is the major nutrient required by adult cattle and inadequate energy intake has a detrimental impact on reproductive activity of bovine. Cows under negative energy balance have extended periods of anovulation. Postpartum anestrus, as well as infertility, is magnified by losses of body condition during the early postpartum period. Resumption of ovulatory cycles is associated with energy balance, but s...
Full Text Available Objective This experiment was studied the effects of various levels of crude glycerin (CG in dairy goat diet on daily intake, milk yield, milk composition, some physical properties and some quality changes of goat milk after sterilization. Methods Twelve 75% Saanen dairy goats (body weight = 49±3 kg; days in milk = 60±12 d were randomly assigned in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effects of three experimental diets consisting of 0%, 5%, and 10% CG (dry matter basis which were formulated to meet or exceed the nutrient requirements of goats. Experimental dairy goats were evaluated for feed and milk yield. Milk samples were analyzed for their composition, including fatty acids, casein profile, fat globule size, and color, and were sterilized to evaluate milk heat stability. Results There were no significant differences between 0% and 5% CG treatments infeed. Increasing CG supplementation from 0% to 5% increased milk yield from 2.38±0.12 to 2.64±0.23 kg/goat/d. In addition, milk samples from 5% CG treatment had the highest total solids, fat content and lactose content, and largest fat globule size. Increasing CG to 10% resulted in a decrease in milk fat. After sterilizing at 116°C, F0 = 3 min, goat milk samples from 5% CG treatment had slightly higher sediment content and comparatively higher degree of browning. Conclusion Considering milk yield, milk fat content and quality of sterilized milk, 5% CG supplementation in a total mixed ration has a potential for implementation in dairy goats.
B?e, Knut E; Ehrlenbruch, Rebecca; Andersen, Inger L
Abstract Background Previous studies have reported that the design of the water dispensers can influence the water intake in farm animals. Horses and dairy cows seem to prefer to drink from an open surface whereas sheep and pigs apparently prefer water nipples, probably because of the worse water quality in water bowls. The aim of the present study was to examine the preference of dairy goats for water nipples or water bowls. Methods In each of the two experiments (exp. 1, dry goats, exp. 2 l...
Sardina, Maria Teresa; Tortorici, Lina; Mastrangelo, Salvatore; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Tolone, Marco; Portolano, Baldassare
In livestock, breed assignment may play a key role in the certification of products linked to specific breeds. Traceability of farm animals and authentication of their products can contribute to improve breed profitability and sustainability of animal productions with significant impact on the rural economy of particular geographic areas and on breed and biodiversity conservation. With the goal of developing a breed genetic traceability system for Girgentana dairy products, the aim of this study was to identify specific microsatellite markers able to discriminate among the most important Sicilian dairy goat breeds, in order to detect possible adulteration in Girgentana dairy products. A total of 20 microsatellite markers were analyzed on 338 individual samples from Girgentana, Maltese, and Derivata di Siria goat breeds. Specific microsatellite markers useful for traceability of dairy products were identified. Eight microsatellite markers showed alleles present at the same time in Maltese and Derivata di Siria and absent in Girgentana and, therefore, they were tested on DNA pools of the three breeds. Considering the electropherograms' results, only FCB20, SRCRSP5, and TGLA122 markers were tested on DNA samples extracted from cheeses of Girgentana goat breed. These three microsatellite markers could be applied in a breed genetic traceability system of Girgentana dairy products in order to detect adulteration due to Maltese and Derivata di Siria goat breeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Andersen Inger L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have reported that the design of the water dispensers can influence the water intake in farm animals. Horses and dairy cows seem to prefer to drink from an open surface whereas sheep and pigs apparently prefer water nipples, probably because of the worse water quality in water bowls. The aim of the present study was to examine the preference of dairy goats for water nipples or water bowls. Methods In each of the two experiments (exp. 1, dry goats, exp. 2 lactating goats, 42 dairy goats were allotted into 6 groups of 7 goats. In period 1, the goats had access to a water nipple. In period 2, they had access to a water bowl and in period 3 (preference test they had access to both a water nipple and a water bowl. Water usage and wastage was recorded and water intake (water usage - water wastage was calculated for each group for the two last days of each period. In experiment 2, water samples from each dispenser were analyzed for heterotrophy germs at 22°C, Escherichia coli and turbidity. Results Water usage was higher from water nipples than from water bowls both in experiment 1 (dry goats and experiment 2 (lactating goats. There was however, no difference in water intake from water nipples and water bowls. In the preference test (period 3, the water intake tended to be higher from the water nipple than from the water bowl both for the dry goats (exp. 1 and lactating goats (exp. 2. Especially for the dry goats, the differences between groups were large. Turbidity and heterotrophy germs were much higher in the samples from the water bowls than from the water nipples. Water wastage from the water bowls was negligible compared to the water nipples. From the water nipples the water wastage was 30% and 23% of water usage for the dry and lactating goats respectively. Conclusions We conclude that type of water dispenser (nipple or bowl was probably of minor importance for water intake in goats, but water bowls had a
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of yeast yeast culture (YC and vitamin E (VE supplementation on endotoxin absorption and antioxidant status in lactating dairy goats suffering from heat stress (HS. Three first lactation Saanen dairy goats (body weight 30±1.5 kg were surgically fitted with indwelling catheters in the portal vein, mesenteric vein and carotid artery, and were randomly assigned to a 3×3 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were the basal diet, and the basal diet supplemented with either 100 IU VE or 30 g YC. Goats were kept in temperature and humidity-controlled room at 35°C from 8:00 to 20:00 and at 24°C from 20:00 till the next morning at 8:00. The relative humidity was kept at 55%. HS increased dairy goats’ rectum temperature and respiration frequency (p0.05. Dietary supplementation of VE and YC reduced heat stressed dairy goats’ endotoxin concentration of the carotid artery and portal vein (p<0.01. However, the endotoxin concentration of the YC treatment was higher than that of the VE treatment (p<0.01. Both VE and YC supplementation decreased heat stressed dairy goats’ absorption of endotoxin in portal vein (p<0.01. The endotoxin absorption of YC treatment was higher than the VE treatment (p<0.01. The addition of VE and YC decreased dairy goats’ superoxide dismutase (SOD concentration during HS and the whole experiment period (p<0.01. The addition of VE lowered SOD concentration during thermo-neutral period (p<0.01. Likewise, the addition of VE and YC lowered dairy goats’ malonaldehyde (MDA concentration during HS and the whole experimental period, and the MDA concentration in the VE treatment was lower than the YC treatment (p<0.05. The addition of VE decreased MDA concentration during thermo-neutral period. On the contrast, the addition of VE increased dairy goats total antioxidant potential (TAP concentration during HS, thermo-neutral and the whole experimental period (p<0
Schwarz, D G G; Lima, M C; Barros, M; Valente, F L; Scatamburlo, T M; Rosado, N; Oliveira, C T S A M; Oliveira, L L; Moreira, M A S
Goat farming is a low-cost alternative to dairy production in developing countries. In Brazil, goat production has increased in recent years due in part to the implementation of programs encouraging this activity. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis, a disease that causes chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants, but MAP transmission dynamics are still poorly understood in goats. In a previously published study of our research group, 10 dairy goat farms (467 animals) from Minas Gerais state were analyzed for MAP detection; 2 fecal cultures and 11 milk samples tested positive for MAP by conventional PCR and were confirmed by sequencing. Because no clinical signs were observed over 1 yr of monitoring, we hypothesized that these MAP-positive goats could be passive shedders. Thus, in the present study, 4 positive goats (4/13) from the previous study were purchased and feces and milk samples were collected for evaluation (twice, with an interval of 3 mo between tests) by culture of MAP, IS900 PCR, or both. All analyses were negative for MAP. At the last time point, blood samples were collected for ELISA, the animals were killed, and tissues collected for tissue culture and histopathology. At necropsy, no macroscopic lesions related to paratuberculosis were observed. Similarly, no histological changes were observed and MAP in samples stained by Ziehl-Neelsen was not detected. These animals were characterized as potential passive shedders with upward contamination of the teat canal by MAP. This is the first report of the passive shedding phenomenon in goats in Brazil and it highlights the importance of identifying these animals for control programs and to ensure the quality of dairy products. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Peng, Xian-Qi; Tian, Ge-Ru; Ren, Guan-Jing; Yu, Zheng-Qing; Lok, James Barron; Zhang, Long-Xian; Wang, Xue-Ting; Song, Jun-Ke; Zhao, Guang-Hui
Cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, and giardiasis contribute significantly to the high burden of zoonotic diarrhea worldwide. Goats constitute an important species in animal agriculture by providing cashmere wool, meat, and dairy products for human consumption. However, zoonotic pathogens with the potential to cause morbidity and to degrade production have been reported frequently in goats recently. The present study examined 629 fecal specimens from goats, including 315 cashmere goats, 170 dairy goats and 144 meat goats, in multiple cities of Shaanxi and Henan provinces, northwestern and central China, to investigate the infection rate and species/assemblages/genotypes of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Of these samples, 274 (43.6%) were positive for three zoonotic pathogens, including 80 (12.7%), 104 (16.5%) and 179 (28.5%) for G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi, respectively. Infections with G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi existed in meat, dairy and cashmere goats, with the highest infection rate of each pathogen being observed in meat goats. DNA sequencing of the SSU rRNA gene from 104 Cryptosporidium-positive specimens revealed existence of Cryptosporidium xiaoi, and the zoonotic parasites Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum. Genotyping of G. duodenalis based on the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene identified parasites from zoonotic assemblage A in four cashmere goats and the animal-adapted assemblage E in a group of 76 goats that included cashmere, dairy and meat animals. Polymorphisms in the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer characterized E. bieneusi genotype CHG1 and a novel genotype named as SX1 in both dairy and cashmere goats, genotypes CHS7 and COSI in meat goats, the genotype CHG2 in dairy goats, and the human-pathogenic genotype BEB6 in dairy and meat goats. This is the first detailed study to compare infection rate of the zoonotic protozoan pathogens
Eastridge, M L
Milk yield per cow continues to increase with a slower rate of increase in dry matter intake; thus, efficiency of ruminal fermentation and digestibility of the dietary components are key factors in improving the efficiency of feed use. Over the past 25 yr, at least 2,567 articles relating to ruminant or dairy nutrition have been published in the Journal of Dairy Science. These studies have provided important advancements in improving feed efficiency and animal health by improving quality of feeds, increasing feedstuff and overall diet digestibility, better defining interactions among feedstuffs in diets, identifying alternative feed ingredients, better defining nutrient requirements, and improving efficiency of ruminal fermentation. The publications are vital in continuing to make advancements in providing adequate nutrition to dairy cattle and for facilitating exchange of knowledge among scientists. Forages have been studied more extensively than any other type of feed. Cereal grains continue to be the primary contributors of starch to diets, and thus are very important in meeting the energy needs of dairy cattle. Processing of cereal grains has improved their use. Feeding by-products contributes valuable nutrients to diets and allows feedstuffs to be used that would otherwise be handled as wastes in landfills. Many of these by-products provide a considerable amount of protein, nonforage fiber, fat, and minerals (sometimes a detriment as in the case of P) to diets. The primary feeding system today is the total mixed ration, with still considerable use of the pasture system. Major improvements have occurred in the use of protein, carbohydrates, and fats in diets. Although advancements have been made in feeding practices to minimize the risk of metabolic diseases, the periparturient period continues to present some of the greatest challenges in animal health. Computers are a must today for diet formulation and evaluation, but fewer software programs are developed by
Maia, A L R S; Brandão, F Z; Souza-Fabjan, J M G; Veiga, M O; Balaro, M F A; Facó, O; Fonseca, J F
In Brazil, great milk productivity was achieved after the implementation of a genetic improvement program. However, reproductive efficiency is still far from optimal, possibly due to the high number of undiagnosed disorders that may affect fertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate occurrences of the main reproductive disorders in dairy goats in southeastern Brazil. Data were collected between January 2015 and May 2017 from 23 commercial herds of different breeds, with goats ranging from 8 months to 12 years of age. Transrectal ultrasound exams were performed in 2680 goats. A total of 14.8% of the does showed a disorder in the reproductive tract: hydrometra (10.0%), ovarian follicular cysts (2.3%), gestational loss (1.5%), and hydrosalpinx (1.1%). This was the first study evaluating reproductive disorders in live animals that used a high number of Brazilian dairy goats. Considering that all these diseases affect fertility to different degrees, the performance of transrectal ultrasonography exams twice a year is strongly suggested, in order to guide precocious treatment or discard the animal as soon as possible, thus reducing economic losses in dairy goat farming.
Drackley, J K; Donkin, S S; Reynolds, C K
Fundamental nutrition seeks to describe the complex biochemical reactions involved in assimilation and processing of nutrients by various tissues and organs, and to quantify nutrient movement (flux) through those processes. Over the last 25 yr, considerable progress has been made in increasing our understanding of metabolism in dairy cattle. Major advances have been made at all levels of biological organization, including the whole animal, organ systems, tissues, cells, and molecules. At the whole-animal level, progress has been made in delineating metabolism during late pregnancy and the transition to lactation, as well as in whole-body use of energy-yielding substrates and amino acids for growth in young calves. An explosion of research using multicatheterization techniques has led to better quantitative descriptions of nutrient use by tissues of the portal-drained viscera (digestive tract, pancreas, and associated adipose tissues) and liver. Isolated tissue preparations have provided important information on the interrelationships among glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism in liver, adipose tissue, and mammary gland, as well as the regulation of these pathways during different physiological states. Finally, the last 25 yr has witnessed the birth of "molecular biology" approaches to understanding fundamental nutrition. Although measurements of mRNA abundance for proteins of interest already have provided new insights into regulation of metabolism, the next 25 yr will likely see remarkable advances as these techniques continue to be applied to problems of dairy cattle biology. Integration of the "omics" technologies (functional genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) with measurements of tissue metabolism obtained by other methods is a particularly exciting prospect for the future. The result should be improved animal health and well being, more efficient dairy production, and better models to predict nutritional requirements and provide rations to meet
Moreno-Indias, I.; Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Torres, C.
Ten Majorera dairy goats were divided into two groups in order to observe the effects of the Chlorella pyrenoidosa oral administration on the colostrum and milk quality and on the animals' immune status. Treated animals received 5 g/day of seaweed from 40 days before partum to 40 days after partu...
Safayi, Sina; Theil, Peter Kappel; Hou, Lei
The present study aimed to 1) elucidate whether continuous milking during late gestation in dairy goats negatively affects mammary remodeling and hence milk production in the subsequent lactation, and 2) identify the regulatory factors responsible for changes in cell turnover and angiogenesis in ...
Koop, G.; Werven, van T.; Schuiling, H.J.; Nielen, van M.
The aims of this study were to estimate milk yield (MY) losses associated with subclinical intramammary infection (IMI) in dairy goats and to assess if somatic cell count (SCC) can be used to estimate such MY losses. We used 2 data sets to study these questions. The first data set consisted of 5
Full Text Available Free radical levels can be higher than the level of endogenous antioxidants in the body so thatuncomfortable conditions in the body of dairy goats could happen. To anticipate this uncomfortableconditions will be given feed supplement (FS as source of antioxidants (AOX. FS contain mixturepineapple rind meal and antioxidant minerals (AOXM each 25 ppm Zn and 10 ppm Cu. Thisexperiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feed supplements as antioxidant source on milkquality of dairy goats. Sixteen Etawah dairy goats in the second lactation were used in the experimentthat conducted using randomized block design with 4 treatments and 4 replicates. The treatments wereR0 (grass + concentrate, R1 (R0 + FS containing 0.04 % AOX, R2 (R0 + FS containing 0.06% AOX,R3 (R0 + FS containing 0.08 % AOX. The data collected were analyzed using Anova. The result ofphytochemicals analysis indicated that feed supplement contained flavonoid, polyphenols, sesqiuterpen,mopnoterpen, steroids, quinones and saponins. The results of study showed that there were difference(p<0.05 among treatments on blood and milk cholesterol and milk lactose, but there were no difference(P>0.05 on milk yield, milk fat, milk protein and milk antioxidant. The conclusion of this study was thefeed supplements containing 0.08 AOX produced the best response to milk quality of dairy goats.
Full Text Available Free radical levels can be higher than the level of endogenous antioxidants in the body so that uncomfortable conditions in the body of dairy goats could happen. To anticipate this uncomfortable conditions will be given feed supplement (FS as source of antioxidants (AOX. FS contain mixture pineapple rind meal and antioxidant minerals (AOXM each 25 ppm Zn and 10 ppm Cu. This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feed supplements as antioxidant source on milk quality of dairy goats. Sixteen Etawah dairy goats in the second lactation were used in the experiment that conducted using randomized block design with 4 treatments and 4 replicates. The treatments were R0 (grass + concentrate, R1 (R0 + FS containing 0.04 % AOX, R2 (R0 + FS containing 0.06% AOX, R3 (R0 + FS containing 0.08 % AOX. The data collected were analyzed using Anova. The result of phytochemicals analysis indicated that feed supplement contained flavonoid, polyphenols, sesqiuterpen, mopnoterpen, steroids, quinones and saponins. The results of study showed that there were difference (p0.05 on milk yield, milk fat, milk protein and milk antioxidant. The conclusion of this study was the feed supplements containing 0.08 AOX produced the best response to milk quality of dairy goats.
Palma, Mariana; Alves, Susana P.; Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E
Goat dairy products are an important source of animal protein in the tropics. During the dry season, pasture scarcity leads animals to lose up to 40% of their body weight, a condition known as Seasonal Weight Loss (SWL) that is one of the major constraints in ruminant production. Breeds with high...
Hajj Semaan, E.; Dib, H.; Abi Ramia, R.; Chedid, M.
In order to determine the nutritional value and hygienic quality of Lebanese traditional dairy products, a survey was conducted amongst 43 goat keepers. Chemical (pH, acidity, DM, protein and fat) and microbiological (pathogenic bacteria) analyses were carried out on samples from goat milk products in different regions of Lebanon (8 different products). The main products were labneh darfieh from the South, ambarise from Bekaa, serdalli from Chouf and darfieh cheese from the North. The fermented products (laban, labneh, ambarise, serdalli, darfieh cheese and labneh darfieh) had an average pH of 4.02±1.4 and an average lactic acidity of 2.01% ±1.5. As for the non-fermented products (milk and baladi cheese), the average pH was 6.86±0.26, and the average lactic acidity 0.11%±0.04. The dry matter (DM) rate varied from 9.55% to 42.53% (milk and darfieh cheese respectively) while the rate of protein, calculated on DM basis, showed values between 17.82% (laban from the South) and 34.76% (milk). As for the fat, also calculated on DM basis, a minimum value of 6.57% (serdalli) and a maximum of 52.35% (milk) were recorded. All samples were tested and found free of Salmonella and Listeria. Only baladi cheese showed S. aureus counts (47x10 3 CFU.mL-1) exceeding the standard values. Twenty five percent of the samples were found to be contaminated by fecal coliforms and E. coli, with counts of the latter ranging from 102CFU.mL-1 to 33.88 x 10 3 CFU.mL-1 thus making these products inappropriate for consumption. Fifty eight percent of the samples were contaminated with fecal streptococcus with values exceeding 50 CFU.mL-1. (author)
Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Olalla, Manuel; Giménez-Martínez, Rafael; Bergillos-Meca, Triana; Ruiz-López, María Dolores; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Artacho, Reyes; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel
Goat milk has been reported to possess good nutritional and health-promoting properties. Usually, it must be concentrated before fermented products can be obtained. The aim of this study was to compare physicochemical and nutritional variables among raw (RM), skimmed (SM), and ultrafiltration-concentrated skimmed (UFM) goat milk. The density, acidity, ash, protein, casein, whey protein, Ca, P, Mg, and Zn values were significantly higher in UFM than in RM or SM. Dry extract and fat levels were significantly higher in UFM than in SM, and Mg content was significantly higher in UFM than in RM. Ultrafiltration also increased the solubility of Ca and Mg, changing their distribution in the milk. The higher concentrations of minerals and proteins, especially caseins, increase the nutritional value of UFM, which may therefore be more appropriate for goat milk yogurt manufacturing in comparison to RM or SM. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rasmussen, Alice Neess; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Tauson, Anne-Helene
The role of leptin in development of mammary gland secretory function was studied during the periparturient period in dairy goats. Changes in mammary leptin and leptin receptor (short cytoplasmic form) expression were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and related to changes in milk and plasma leptin...... peak in milk leptin 2 days post-partum needs to be understood. We did not find evidence that milk leptin can be absorbed, and thus play a role in systemic regulation, of the neonatal goat....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis is the most important and costly disease in dairy goat production. Subclinical mastitis is common in goats and is mainly caused by contagious bacteria. Several methods to diagnose subclinical mastitis are available. In this study indirect measurement of somatic cell count (SCC by California Mastitis Test (CMT and direct measurement of SCC using a portable deLaval cell counter (DCC are evaluated. Swedish goat farmers would primarily benefit from diagnostic methods that can be used at the farm. The purpose of the study was to evaluate SCC measured by CMT and DCC as possible markers for intramammary infection (IMI in goats without clinical symptoms of mastitis. Moreover to see how well indirect measurement of SCC (CMT corresponded to direct measurement of SCC (DCC. Method Udder half milk samples were collected once from dairy goats (n = 111, in five different farms in Northern and Central Sweden. Only clinically healthy animals were included in the study. All goats were in mid to late lactation at sampling. Milk samples were analyzed for SCC by CMT and DCC at the farm, and for bacterial growth at the laboratory. Results Intramammary infection, defined as growth of udder pathogens, was found in 39 (18% of the milk samples. No growth was found in 180 (81% samples while 3 (1% samples were contaminated. The most frequently isolated bacterial species was coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS (72% of all isolates, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (23% of all isolates. Somatic cell count measured by DCC was strongly (p = 0.000 associated with bacterial growth. There was also a very strong association between CMT and bacterial growth. CMT 1 was associated with freedom of IMI while CMT ≥2 was associated with IMI. Indirect measurement of SCC by CMT was well correlated with SCC measured by DCC. Conclusions According to the results, SCC measured with CMT or DCC can predict udder infection in goats, and CMT can be used as a
Gelasakis, A I; Angelidis, A S; Giannakou, R; Filioussis, G; Kalamaki, M S; Arsenos, G
The objectives of this study were (1) to record the major pathogens associated with subclinical mastitis (SCM), (2) to calculate their incidence during the milking period, and (3) to estimate the effect of SCM on daily milk yield (DMY) for goats reared under low-input management schemes. Dairy goats (n=590) of Skopelos and indigenous Greek breeds from 4 herds were randomly selected for the study. The study included monthly monitoring, milk yield recording, and bacteriological analyses of milk of individual goats during the course of 2 successive milking periods. Incidence and cumulative incidence were calculated for SCM cases. Moreover, 2 mixed linear regression models were built to assess the effects of (1) SCM and (2) different pathogens isolated from SCM cases, on DMY. The estimated incidence and cumulative incidence of SCM for the first and the second year of the study were 69.5 and 96.4 new cases of SCM/1,000 goat-months, and 24.1 and 31.7%, respectively. A total of 755 milk samples were subjected to microbiological examination, resulting in 661 positive cultures. Coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive staphylococci were isolated from 50.2 and 34.5% of the positive cultures, respectively. The incidence of infections (new infections per 1,000 goat-months) for the first and the second year of the study were 34 and 53 for coagulase-negative staphylococci, 23 and 28 for coagulase-positive staphylococci, 3 and 5 for Streptococcus/Enterococcus spp., and 5.5 and 9.1 for gram-negative bacteria. Goats with SCM had lower DMY when compared with goats without SCM (ca. 47g/d, corresponding to a 5.7% decrease in DMY). In particular, goats with SCM due to coagulase-positive staphylococci infection produced approximately 80g/d less milk (a reduction of ca. 9.7%) compared with uninfected ones, whereas SCM due to gram-negative bacteria resulted in approximately 15% reduction in DMY. Investigating the epidemiology of SCM and its effects on production traits is critical for
Ait-Saidi, A; Caja, G; Carné, S; Salama, A A K; Ghirardi, J J
A total of 24 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in early-midlactation were used to compare the labor time and data collection efficiency of using manual (M) vs. semiautomated (SA) systems for milk recording. Goats were milked once daily in a 2 x 12 parallel platform, with 6 milking units on each side. The M system used visual identification (ID) by large plastic ear tags, on-paper data recording, and data manually uploaded to a computer. The SA system used electronic ID, automatic ID, manual data recording on reader keyboard, and automatic data uploading to computer by Bluetooth connection. Data were collected for groups of 2 x 12 goats for 15 test days of each system during a period of 70 d. Time data were converted to a decimal scale. No difference in milk recording time between M and SA (1.32 +/- 0.03 and 1.34 +/- 0.03 min/goat, respectively) was observed. Time needed for transferring data to the computer was greater for M when compared with SA (0.20 +/- 0.01 and 0.05 +/- 0.01 min/goat). Overall milk recording time was greater in M than in SA (1.52 +/- 0.04 vs. 1.39 +/- 0.04 min/goat), the latter decreasing with operator training. Time for transferring milk recording data to the computer was 4.81 +/- 0.34 and 1.09 +/- 0.10 min for M and SA groups of 24 goats, respectively, but only increased by 0.19 min in SA for each additional 24 goats. No difference in errors of data acquisition was detected between M and SA systems during milk recording (0.6%), but an additional 1.1% error was found in the M system during data uploading. Predicted differences between M and SA increased with the number of goats processed on the test-day. Reduction in labor time cost ranged from euro0.5 to 12.9 (US$0.7 to 17.4) per milk recording, according to number of goats from 24 to 480 goats and accounted for 40% of the electronic ID costs. In conclusion, electronic ID was more efficient for labor costs and resulted in fewer data errors, the benefit being greater with trained operators and
tolerant and nutrient-rich ... to increase income from the animals and from sales of root crops. The methodology applied also addresses ... 1.5 - 2 litres per goat per day as the animal matures. Women control the income earned from milk, which ...
Safayi, Sina; Theil, Peter Kappel; Elbrønd, Vibeke Sødring
Milk production is generally lower but lactation persistency higher in primiparous (PP) than in multiparous (MP) goats. This may be related to differences in development and maintenance of mammary gland function, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The present study aimed to el...
Talita Andrade Ferreira
Full Text Available Data from 2439 goats of the Saanen, Alpine, Anglo Nubian and Toggenburg breeds recorded from 1976 to 2009 by the Association of Goats and Sheep Breeders of Minas Gerais were used in principal component analysis. After consistency of data, six morphological variables (thorax perimeter, body length, withers height, height, width and length of the rump and 12 variables related to breed standard score and fitness (breed characteristic, head, palette and topline, feet and legs, dairy type, body capacity, udder, rear and front ligament, udder texture, teat and final score were analyzed. Based on the magnitude of the eigenvalue (lower than 0.7, eleven variables considered redundant were discarded, resulting in reduced costs of technician labor to evaluate the animals. Maintenance of records on height, length, rump width, breed characteristic, dairy type, front ligament and udder texture is recommended.
Full Text Available Intramammary infection (IMI can adversely affect, in dairy goats, milk quality and milk yield leading to high economical losses. Although somatic cell count (SCC and microbiological tests could be valid approaches to detect IMI, other methods of IMI early detection may be useful to detect infected animals and to improve milk quality. The aim of this study was to test a new multivariate model developed with the fuzzy logic technology and based on the milk EC - acquired on-line for each gland by dedicated sensors - and on new qualitative and quantitative indexes derived from the spectrum of the recorded signals. Results obtained showed that the fuzzy logic model tested could achive better results than those already reached in dairy goat research. Nevertheless, further experiment and more field data could be useful to reach the best possible accuracy that this multivariate approach could show.
Lilenbaum, Walter; Varges, Renato; Medeiros, Luciana; Cordeiro, Ana Gabriela; Cavalcanti, Amanda; Souza, Guilherme N; Richtzenhain, Leonardo; Vasconcellos, Silvio A
Serum samples from 248 adult dairy goats from 13 flocks with lowered fertility farmed in the Rio de Janeiro region of Brazil were examined for Leptospira antibodies by MAT with 24 serovars, cut off 100. A questionnaire was completed for each herd. Antibodies were detected in 20.8% of these goats, mainly to serovar Hardjo. Risk factors associated with seroprevalence to leptospirosis were the frequency of professional veterinary supervision (OR = 2.35), climate (OR = 2.63) and grazing for more than 2h a day. Flock factors as size, type of milking and offering of food supplementation, as well as the location and topography, the type of animal housing or the presence of silos did not significantly affect seroprevalence. We suggest that a successful control program for goat leptospirosis should include a complete investigation of herd management practices, which could influence in the occurrence of the infection.
Smolders, G.; Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Neijenhuis, F.
On five organic dairy cow farms during the period spring 2004/2005 feedstuffs and blood samples were taken 3 times to analyse beta carotene, vitamin D and vitamin E (tocopherols). On 3 organic dairy goat farms feeds and blood samples were taken only in spring 2005. Within types of feeds there are
Full Text Available Dates fruit waste (DFW is a by-product of dates juice industry that contains high energy. So, it is suitable for an energy source in dairy goat ration. This study was conducted to observe the effect of DFW utilization in the ration on energy partition and productivity of lactating dairy goats. The experimental design was randomized block design using 9 primiparous lactating dairy goats. There were three types of ration as treatments used in this study, i.e. R0= 35% forage + 65% concentrate, R1= 35% forage + 55% concentrate + 10% DFW, and R2= 35% forage + 45% concentrate + 20% DFW. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and polynomial orthogonal test. The evaluated variables were dry matter intake (DMI, energy partition including energy intake, digestible and metabolizable energy, fecal and urine energy, energy in methane gas, and energy in milk, milk production and quality. The results showed that the linear decreased of DMI, energy intake, digestible energy, metabolizable energy, and urine energy with the increased of DFW level in the rations. The use of 10% DFW (R1 showed the lowest energy loss through feces and methane gas of all treatments about 1089.57 kcal/head/d and 2.36 kcal/head/d, respectively. The use of DFW did not affect energy retention in milk. The utilization of DFW in ration did not significantly prevent the decline of milk production and milk quality. It can be concluded that DFW can be used as an alternative feed for the lactating dairy goat up to 10% in the ration.
Deng, Huifang; Dam-Deisz, Cecile; Luttikholt, Saskia; Maas, Miriam; Nielen, Mirjam; Swart, Arno; Vellema, Piet; van der Giessen, Joke; Opsteegh, Marieke
Toxoplasma gondii can cause disease in goats, but also has impact on human health through food-borne transmission. Our aims were to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in indoor-housed Dutch dairy goats and to identify the risk factors related to T. gondii seroprevalence. Fifty-two out of ninety approached farmers with indoor-kept goats (58%) participated by answering a standardized questionnaire and contributing 32 goat blood samples each. Serum samples were tested for T. gondii SAG1 antibodies by ELISA and results showed that the frequency distribution of the log10-transformed OD-values fitted well with a binary mixture of a shifted gamma and a shifted reflected gamma distribution. The overall animal seroprevalence was 13.3% (95% CI: 11.7–14.9%), and at least one seropositive animal was found on 61.5% (95% CI: 48.3–74.7%) of the farms. To evaluate potential risk factors on herd level, three modeling strategies (Poisson, negative binomial and zero-inflated) were compared. The negative binomial model fitted the data best with the number of cats (1–4 cats: IR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.1–6.5; > = 5 cats:IR: 14.2, 95% CI: 3.9–51.1) and mean animal age (IR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1–2.1) related to herd positivity. In conclusion, the ELISA test was 100% sensitive and specific based on binary mixture analysis. T. gondii infection is prevalent in indoor housed Dutch dairy goats but at a lower overall animal level seroprevalence than outdoor farmed goats in other European countries, and cat exposure is an important risk factor.
Rocio Teresa García-Balcázar
Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the oxidative stress (OS and its association with performance and serum cortisol in dairy goats under induced (IL and natural lactation (NL. Six goats programmed to be eliminated due to reproductive problems were IL as follows: a days 1-7, estradiol plus progesterone; b days 8-14, estradiol; c days 18-20, flumetasone; d every seven days bovine somatotropin; f on day 21 milking began. Cortisol, antioxidant capacity and Glutathione Peroxidase activity (GHS-Px were determined in serum. During the first two weeks in milk, NL goats had higher cortisol (P0.05. Milk yield/day between groups (NL=2.54+0.2; IL= 2.12+0.2kg and proportion of pregnant goats (NL=100%; IL=83.3% were similar (P>0.05. The treatment was effective as inductor of lactation; besides most of the IL animals became pregnant despite their previous reproductive problems, prolonging their productive life with a natural lactation plus the additional benefit of at least one more kid. Because the antioxidant capacity increased and cortisol decreased in IL goats, apparently their welfare was more adequate than in NL animals.
Gavin, William G; Porter, Catherine A; Hawkins, Nathan; Schofield, Michael J; Pollock, John M
This retrospective analysis and report describes the successful eradication and posteradication surveillance programme for Johne's disease ( Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP)) in a closed herd of dairy goats. In 1994, MAP's presence in the goat herd was first suspected through individual annual serological screening and then subsequently confirmed through faecal culture and histopathology in 1997 when implementation of a more aggressive programme of testing and eradication of the diseased animals began. This programme included frequent serological screening of all adult goats using ELISA and agar gel immunodiffusion assays. Faecal cultures for bacteria were performed on suspect or positive animals and for all goats found dead or euthanased, and tissues were submitted for histopathology and acid-fast staining. Additional disease eradication measures included maintaining a closed herd and minimising faecal-oral transmission of MAP. Following a more aggressive testing regimen and euthanasia of goats with positive faecal culture, the herd was first considered free of MAP in 2003 and has remained free to the present day. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Panneum, S; Rukkwamsuk, T
For preventive and control strategies of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) infection in dairy goats, performance of the available diagnostic tests was described as one of the most important and necessary aspects. The study aimed at evaluating the diagnostic test performance, including PCR, ELISA and viral culture, for CAEV infection in dairy goats in Thailand. Blood samples of 29 dairy goats from five low- to medium-prevalence herds and one very low-prevalence herd were collected for PCR and ELISA methods. The performance of these two diagnostic methods was evaluated by comparing with cytopathic effects (CPE) in the co-cultivation of CAEV and primary synovial cells. Results indicated that sensitivity, specificity were, respectively, 69.6%, 100%, for PCR; and 95.7%, 83.3% for ELISA. The PCR assay tended to have lower sensitivity and higher specificity than ELISA. When multiple tests were applied, parallel testing provided sensitivity and specificity of 98.7% and 83.3%, while series testing showed sensitivity and specificity of 66.6% and 100% respectively. These results indicated that combination of ELISA and PCR provided some advantages and possibly offered optimal methods to detect CAEV-infected goats. Kappa value of the agreement between PCR and ELISA test was 0.34, indicating fair agreement. Regarding the possibility of antigenic variation between CAEV strains used in both PCR and ELISA assays, the actual circulating CAEV strain should be reviewed in order to develop and enhance the diagnostic tests using the CAE viral antigens derived from specific local strains of Thailand.
Sedighi-Vesagh, R; Naserian, A A; Ghaffari, M H; Petit, H V
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pistachio by-products (PBP) on nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in Saanen dairy goats. Nine multiparous lactating Saanen goats (on day 90 post-partum, 45 ± 2/kg BW) were randomly assigned to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with three treatment diets: 1) control diet (alfalfa hay based), 2) 32% PBP and 3) 32% PBP + polyethylene glycol (PEG-4000; 1 g/kg dry matter). Each period lasted 21 days, including 14 day for treatment adaptation and 7 day for data collection. Pistachio by-products significantly decreased (p < 0.01) crude protein (CP) digestibility compared with the control diet (64.4% vs. 58.7%), but PEG addition did not differ for CP digestibility of goats fed 32% PBP + PEG and those fed the two other diets. The digestibility of NDF tended (p = 0.06) to decrease for goats fed PBP compared with those fed the control diet. Yields of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk were not affected by dietary treatments. Compared with the control diet, PBP supplementation appreciably changed the proportions of almost all the milk FA measured; the main effects were decreases (p < 0.01) in FA from 8:0 to 16:0 and increases (p < 0.01) proportions of cis-9, trans-11 18:2 and trans-11 18:1, monounsaturated FA, polyunsaturated FA and long-chain FA. The saturated FA, short-chain FA and medium-chain FA proportions were lower (p < 0.01) in goats fed the two PBP supplemented diet than in those fed the control diet and PEG addition led to intermediate proportions of saturated FA, unsaturated and monounsaturated FA. Inclusion of PBP in the diet decreased (p < 0.01) plasma concentrations of glucose and urea nitrogen compared with the control diet. It was concluded that PBP can be used as forage in the diet of dairy goats without interfering with milk yield. Inclusion of 32% PBP in the diet of dairy goats had beneficial effects on milk FA profile but PEG addition to PBP
Luciano Soares de Lima
Full Text Available The effects of inactive dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae from sugar cane were studied in 18 primiparus Saanen dairy goats (51.07±1.43 on dry matter intake and digestibility, milk production and quality. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design during 90 days (from day 60 of milking. Diets were composed of soybean meal; soybean meal + dry yeast; or dry yeast, as protein sources, and ground corn, mineral supplement and corn silage (40%. Animals fed the dry yeast diet showed lower intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein, ether extract and neutral detergent fiber. Diets did not influence milk yield; however the milk production efficiency (kg of milk produced/kg of crude protein ingested was better in goats fed the dry yeast diet. Acidity, somatic cell counts and milk urea nitrogen values were not affected by treatments. Animals fed the soybean + dry yeast diet had higher fat and total solids than those fed the dry yeast diet. The digestibility of DM, OM and total carbohydrate was lower for soybean only and soybean + dry yeast diets. Total digestible nutrients were higher for dry yeast and soy bean diets than soybean + dry yeast diet. Dry yeast from sugar cane is a good alternative protein source for feeding lactating dairy goats and can be recommended because it maintains the production performance.
Martini, M; Salari, F; Altomonte, I; Rignanese, D; Chessa, S; Gigliotti, C; Caroli, A
Garfagnina goat milk was almost double compared with the literature, whereas the average diameter was lower. Milk coagulation properties were scarce, thus indicating poor cheesemaking aptitude of Garfagnina milk. Selecting haplotypes carrying alleles associated with a higher expression of the specific casein could help improve milk cheesemaking aptitude. Moreover, the rather high frequency of the faint CSN1S1*F allele and the occurrence of CSN2*0 might suggest that Garfagnina goat milk could be used, after an appropriate selection, for direct consumption of milk at low casein content for intolerant human subjects. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Dietary energy level is a limiting factor of milk production mainly in early lactation goats. Energy intake may be increased by incorporation of fat in ration. Currently, rumen protected fat is mainly adopted in goats nutrition, since the several studies have clearly confirmed that supplies of protected fat markedly improved the fat percentage of goat milk (Schmidely and Sauvant, 2001; Chilliard et al., 2003.
Full Text Available Subclinical mastitis in goats causes economic losses and risks to public health. Given the need for research that shows the most isolated staphylococci species and sensibility tests comparing the resistance between coagulase-negative (CNS and positive Staphylococcus (CPS goats with subclinical mastitis, the aim of this study was to identify the microorganisms isolated from milk samples of goats with subclinical mastitis, as well as define the staphylococci species and determine the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. to antimicrobials. To collect samples, tests were performed for mug of black background and California mastitis test (CMT, collecting milk from CMT positive animals. A total of 226 samples from seven herds of dairy goats was collected and forwarded to the laboratory, where they were seeded for the isolation of the microorganism and implementing the antibiotic sensibility test. Of these, 122 samples had bacterial growth and the most isolated staphylococci species were: S. epidermidis (24.55%, S. lugdunensis (15.40% and S. intermedius (13.64%. Samples showed increased resistance to antimicrobials: penicillin (81.8%, oxacillin (60.0% and ampicillin (55.5%. Greater sensitivity to: enrofloxacin (99.1%, erythromycin (98.2%, gentamicin (98.2% and vancomycin (98.2% were observed. The S. epidermidis showed higher antimicrobial resistance to amoxicillin and penicillin than S. lugdunensis and S. intermedius. Similar resistance in vitro between CNS and CPS was observed to most antimicrobials. It is important to control the overuse of antibiotics to prevent the emergence of resistant strains.
Küpper, Julia; Chessa, Stefania; Rignanese, Daniela; Caroli, Anna; Erhardt, Georg
Casein genes have been proved to have an influence on milk properties, and are in addition appropriate for phylogeny studies. A large number of casein polymorphisms exist in goats, making their analysis quite complex. The four casein loci were analyzed by molecular techniques for genetic polymorphism detection in the two dairy goat breeds Bunte Deutsche Edelziege (BDE; n=96), Weisse Deutsche Edelziege (WDE; n=91), and the meat goat breed Buren (n=75). Of the 35 analyzed alleles, 18 were found in BDE, and 17 in Buren goats and WDE. In addition, a new allele was identified at the CSN1S1 locus in the BDE, showing a frequency of 0.05. This variant, named CSN1S1*A', is characterized by a t-->c transversion in intron 9. Linkage disequilibrium was found at the casein haplotype in all three breeds. A total of 30 haplotypes showed frequencies higher than 0.01. In the Buren breed only one haplotype showed a frequency higher than 0.1. The ancestral haplotype B-A-A-B (in the order: CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3) occurred in all three breeds, showing a very high frequency (>0.8) in the Buren.
On request from the European Commission following an application by Dairy Goat Co-operative (NZ) Ltd, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on the suitability of goat milk protein as a source of protein in infant and follow-on formulae....... The Panel considered compositional data of an infant and a follow-on formula made from whole goat milk that retained the natural whey-to-casein ratio of goat milk, data from a double-blind, randomised, controlled, three-centre trial, and a re-analysis of the data of the trial which formed the basis...... of a previous evaluation of the Panel. A study in 200 Australian infants, randomised to receive an infant formula with unmodified goat milk protein or a cow milk formula exclusively for at least four months and thereafter in addition to complementary food until 12 months did not show statistically significant...
Brown, D.L.; Taylor, S.J.
Body composition and D2O dilution kinetics were studied in 15 female goats ranging from 38.0 to 70.1 kg live weight. Infrared spectrophotometric analyses of blood samples drawn during the 4 d following D2O injections were used to estimate D2O space. All does were slaughtered without shrinking and analyzed for dry matter, fat, nitrogen, and ash content. Estimates of D2O space from the late slope of the dilution curve, together with live weight, were used to predict body composition. Conclusions were 1) deuterium oxide space with live body weight accounts for about 90% of the variation in dairy goat empty body fat, empty body nitrogen, and empty body dry matter; 2) less than half the variation in empty body ash is related to live weight and D2O space; and 3) D2O space estimates would be biased by accelerations in water turnover
Montalbano, Maria; Segreto, Roberta; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Mastrangelo, Salvatore; Sardina, Maria Teresa
The study was conducted to develop a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method to quantify casein genetic variants (αs2-, β-, and κ-casein) in milk of homozygous individuals of Girgentana goat breed. For calibration experiments, pure genetic variants were extracted from individual milk samples of animals with known genotypes. The described HPLC approach was precise, accurate and highly suitable for quantification of goat casein genetic variants of homozygous individuals. The amount of each casein per allele was: αs2-casein A = 2.9 ± 0.8 g/L and F = 1.8 ± 0.4 g/L; β-casein C = 3.0 ± 0.8 g/L and C1 = 2.0 ± 0.7 g/L and κ-casein A = 1.6 ± 0.3 g/L and B = 1.1 ± 0.2 g/L. A good correlation was found between the quantities of αs2-casein genetic variants A and F, and β-casein C and C1 with other previously described method. The main important result was obtained for κ-casein because, till now, no data were available on quantification of single genetic variants for this protein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yalcintan, Hulya; Ekiz, Bulent; Ozcan, Mustafa
The aim of the study was to compare the certain carcass and meat quality traits and also fatty acid composition of goat kids from indigenous breeds (Gokceada and Hair Goat) and dairy breeds (Saanen and Maltese). A total 40 male kids from Saanen, Gokceada, Maltese and Hair Goat breeds were collected from commercial farms after weaning. Kids were finished for 56 days with grower concentrate and alfalfa hay in the sheepfold until slaughter. Higher mean values were found for Saanen kids in terms of slaughter weight, hot carcass weight and real dressing compared with Maltese, Hair Goat and Gokceada kids under the same intensive conditions. On the other hand, there were no significant differences between breeds in terms of instrumental meat quality traits, except meat colour. Meat from Gokceada and Hair Goat kids had higher lightness and Hue angle values than Saanen kids after 24 h of blooming. High meat redness values were observed for Saanen kids after 0 and 1 h of blooming. Panellist appreciated cooked meat from Saanen and Maltese kids in overall acceptability. If the fatty acid composition of meat was taken into consideration, kids from Saanen and Gokceada breeds displayed better values, because of the lower ƩSFA percentage and higher desirable fatty acids (C18:0 + ΣMUFA + ΣPUFA) percentage than Maltese and Hair Goat kids. Our results indicate that male kids for Saanen which is dairy breed could be assessable for quality goat meat production.
Keil, Nina M; Pommereau, Marc; Patt, Antonia; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz
maximum reach. Based on these results, the goats' feeding place can be designed to ensure that the animals are able to reach all of the feed in the manger or on the feed table with a relaxed posture, thus avoiding injuries and nonphysiological stress on joints and hooves. A feeding area step up to a maximum of 20 cm need not be taken into account in terms of feeding reach. However, the feed table must be raised at least 10 cm above the standing area to allow the goats to feed in a species-appropriate, relaxed posture. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Daniela Cristina Faria Vieira
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of transglutaminase in dairy drinks made from with goat milk with 45% of serum, and the physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of these drinks within the expiration date of the product. In the first phase, five different levels of transglutaminase (0, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 U/g were evaluated. In the second phase, the drink that had the best sensory acceptability was evaluated for 30 days. It was observed that the dairy drink treated with 0.5 U/g transglutaminase showed higher sensory acceptability in relation to the 7.18 overall impression. The color values of the dairy drink treated with 0.5 U/g showed no significant difference (p<0.05. The values of lactic acid bacteria are established according to the legislation. Results show the feasibility of the use of transglutaminase in dairy drinks.
Adriana Mello de Araújo
Full Text Available Brazilian naturalized goat breeds are adapted to the semiarid conditions prevalent in the Northeast region of the country (which has the largest Brazilian goat heard and represent an as yet uninvestigated source of genetic diversity. Currently, imported goat breeds are crossed with Brazilian naturalized goat breeds, endangering the genetic potential of the naturalized breeds. We used 11 microsatellite markers to determine the genetic diversity among imported (non-naturalized dairy Alpine and Saanen goats and naturalized Brazilian Moxotó goats. We genotyped 292 goats from three herds (one private, one from the University of Minas Gerais and the Moxotó conservation herd from Embrapa Caprinos and found that the general heterozygosity was 0.6952 for Alpine, 0.7043 for Saanen and 0.4984 for Moxotó goats. The number of alleles ranged from 5 (INRA005 to 11 (BM3205, with an average of 7 alleles per locus in the imported breeds and 3.5 alleles per locus in the Moxotó breed. Mean differentiation between populations was higher for herds (F ST S = 0.0768 than for breeds (F ST P = 0.0263, indicating similarity between the imported breeds and the existence of crosses between them. Nei's genetic distance was highest between the Moxotó breed and the imported breeds. These indicate that further studies using these molecular markers would be fruitful.
Campos-Hernández, Eleuterio; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan Carlos; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Saltijeral-Oaxaca, Jorge Antonio; Escalante-Ochoa, Cristina; López-Heydeck, Sandra M; de Oca-Jiménez, Roberto Montes
The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and presence of Chlamydia abortus in Saanen breed female goats from commercial dairy goat farms under intensive production in the municipality of Guanajuato, Mexico. Sera were collected to determine the prevalence of anti-C. abortus IgG antibodies using recombinant enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (rELISA) and cell culture. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to prove the presence of the pathogen in swab samples collected from the vagina and rectum of selected animals. Additionally, foetal tissue samples from a sudden abortion were collected. C. abortus prevalence in female goats of commercial milking farms sampled in Guanajuato, Mexico, was 4.87% (n = 246). Seropositive animals were found in six out of nine (66.6%) dairy goat farms sampled, and prevalence among animals in individual farms ranged between 3.44 and 13.51%. C. abortus was detected using PCR in spleen tissue from the aborted foetus. PCR-based detection, as well as isolation from vaginal and rectal swabs, was not possible in the present study. Isolation through cell culture was also unsuccessful from aborted foetal tissue samples. In conclusion, the results from rELISA and PCR show that C. abortus is present in dairy goat farms in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico.
Koop, G; van Werven, T; Schuiling, H J; Nielen, M
The aims of this study were to estimate milk yield (MY) losses associated with subclinical intramammary infection (IMI) in dairy goats and to assess if somatic cell count (SCC) can be used to estimate such MY losses. We used 2 data sets to study these questions. The first data set consisted of 5 herds. Milk production and SCC were recorded during 1 lactation. From approximately 100 does in each herd, milk samples were collected on 3 occasions during lactation for bacteriological culture. Linear mixed regression was used to estimate the effect of IMI on MY. The second data set consisted of 6 large herds, in which some of the goats had an extended lactation (≥2 yr). Milk yield and SCC data were recorded without bacteriological culture. The data showed that bacterial infection was related to an increase in SCC. Infections with major pathogens were rare and associated with a decreased MY; infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci did not affect MY, whereas infection with Corynebacterium bovis was associated with increased MY. A negative correlation was observed between SCC and MY, but the data suggested that this negative correlation was attenuated rather than caused by IMI. Furthermore, SCC seemed to be affected by MY via a dilution effect. Hypotheses about biological mechanisms behind these observations are discussed. This paper shows that MY losses caused by subclinical udder infections are limited in goats, and that SCC cannot be used to estimate the magnitude of these losses. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Koop, Gerrit; Collar, Carol A.; Toft, Nils
Identification of risk factors for subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy goats should contribute to improved udder health. Intramammary infection may be diagnosed by bacteriological culture or by somatic cell count (SCC) of a milk sample. Both bacteriological culture and SCC are impe......Identification of risk factors for subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy goats should contribute to improved udder health. Intramammary infection may be diagnosed by bacteriological culture or by somatic cell count (SCC) of a milk sample. Both bacteriological culture and SCC...... are imperfect tests, particularly lacking sensitivity, which leads to misclassification and thus to biased estimates of odds ratios in risk factor studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for the true (latent) IMI status of major pathogens in dairy goats. We used Bayesian logistic...... regression models that accounted for imperfect measurement of IMI by both culture and SCC. Udder half milk samples were collected from 530 Dutch and 438 California dairy goats in 10 herds on 3 occasions during lactation. Udder halves were classified as positive or negative for isolation of a major pathogen...
Battini, Monica; Barbieri, Sara; Fioni, Luna; Mattiello, Silvana
This investigation tested the feasibility and validity of indicators of cold and heat stress in dairy goats for on-farm welfare assessment protocols. The study was performed on two intensive dairy farms in Italy. Two different 3-point scale (0-2) scoring systems were applied to assess cold and heat stress. Cold and heat stress scores were visually assessed from outside the pen in the morning, afternoon and evening in January-February, April-May and July 2013 for a total of nine sessions of observations/farm. Temperature (°C), relative humidity (%) and wind speed (km/h) were recorded and Thermal Heat Index (THI) was calculated. The sessions were allocated to three climatic seasons, depending on THI ranges: cold (65). Score 2 was rarely assessed; therefore, scores 1 and 2 were aggregated for statistical analysis. The amount of goats suffering from cold stress was significantly higher in the cold season than in neutral ( P farm feasibility of both indicators: No constraint was found and time required was less than 10 min. Our results show that cold and heat stress scores are valid indicators to detect thermal stress in intensively managed dairy goats. The use of a binary scoring system (presence/absence), merging scores 1 and 2, may be a further refinement to improve the feasibility. This study also allows the prediction of optimal ranges of THI for dairy goat breeds in intensive husbandry systems, setting a comfort zone included into 55 and 70.
Battini, Monica; Barbieri, Sara; Fioni, Luna; Mattiello, Silvana
This investigation tested the feasibility and validity of indicators of cold and heat stress in dairy goats for on-farm welfare assessment protocols. The study was performed on two intensive dairy farms in Italy. Two different 3-point scale (0-2) scoring systems were applied to assess cold and heat stress. Cold and heat stress scores were visually assessed from outside the pen in the morning, afternoon and evening in January-February, April-May and July 2013 for a total of nine sessions of observations/farm. Temperature (°C), relative humidity (%) and wind speed (km/h) were recorded and Thermal Heat Index (THI) was calculated. The sessions were allocated to three climatic seasons, depending on THI ranges: cold (65). Score 2 was rarely assessed; therefore, scores 1 and 2 were aggregated for statistical analysis. The amount of goats suffering from cold stress was significantly higher in the cold season than in neutral (P stress were recorded only in the hot season (P stress scores are valid indicators to detect thermal stress in intensively managed dairy goats. The use of a binary scoring system (presence/absence), merging scores 1 and 2, may be a further refinement to improve the feasibility. This study also allows the prediction of optimal ranges of THI for dairy goat breeds in intensive husbandry systems, setting a comfort zone included into 55 and 70.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules that serve as important post-transcriptional gene expression regulators by targeting messenger RNAs for post-transcriptional endonucleolytic cleavage or translational inhibition. miRNAs play important roles in many biological processes. Extensive high-throughput sequencing studies of miRNAs have been performed in several animal models. However, little is known about the diversity of these regulatory RNAs in goat (Capra hircus, which is one of the most important agricultural animals and the oldest domesticated species raised worldwide. Goats have long been used for their milk, meat, hair (including cashmere, and skins throughout much of the world. RESULTS: In this study, two small RNA libraries were constructed based on dry period and peak lactation dairy goat mammary gland tissues and sequenced using the Illumina-Solexa high-throughput sequencing technology. A total of 346 conserved and 95 novel miRNAs were identified in the dairy goat. miRNAs expression was confirmed by qRT-PCR in nine tissues and in the mammary gland during different stages of lactation. In addition, several candidate miRNAs that may be involved in mammary gland development and lactation were found by comparing the miRNA expression profiles in different tissues and developmental stages of the mammary gland. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals the first miRNAs profile related to the biology of the mammary gland in the dairy goat. The characterization of these miRNAs could contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of lactation physiology and mammary gland development in the dairy goat.
Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl
Corn silages with high propanol concentrations has been suspected to cause reduced feed intake and health problems for dairy cows in the post-pattum transition period. With the increasing use of hetero fermentative inoculants to support corn silage fermentation it is likely that silage concentrat......Corn silages with high propanol concentrations has been suspected to cause reduced feed intake and health problems for dairy cows in the post-pattum transition period. With the increasing use of hetero fermentative inoculants to support corn silage fermentation it is likely that silage...... of alcohols will lead to high alcohol concentrations in peripheral bood for a considerable period. Increased hepatic NEFA uptake in the postpartum transition period may result in even further decreased hepatic capacity for alcohol metabolism making post-partum transition cows especially vulnerable to high...... alcohol intakes. In order to evaluate the impact of alcohol fermentation in corn silages on dairy cow performance, the main purpose of this thesis was first to investigate the concentrations and composition of alcohols in typical field corn silages, and second to study how transition and lactating dairy...
Mokhtarpour, A; Naserian, A A; Pourmollae, F; Ghaffari, M H
A lactation experiment was conducted to determine the influence of addition of pistachio by-products extract (PBE) to alfalfa silage (AS) on performance, rumen fermentation, milk yield and composition, and microbial nitrogen synthesis. Eight multiparous dairy goats (1.8 ± 0.25 kg of milk yield) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to compare two types of AS (supplemented with or without PBE) with two levels of dietary crude protein (14% vs. 16% CP). Dietary treatments were (i) AS with 14% CP of DM diet without PBE (14%CP-PBE), (ii) AS with 14% CP of DM diet with PBE (14%CP + PBE), (iii) AS with 16% CP of DM diet without PBE (16%CP-PBE) and (iv) AS with 16% CP of DM diet with PBE (16%CP + PBE). PBE was sprayed on fresh alfalfa at a ratio of 500 ml/kg alfalfa DM to get the final concentration of 1% tannin as tannic acid equivalent on DM basis. Intake of CP was greater (p pistachio by-products tannins. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Battini, M; Vieira, A; Barbieri, S; Ajuda, I; Stilwell, G; Mattiello, S
This paper reviews animal-based welfare indicators to develop a valid, reliable, and feasible on-farm welfare assessment protocol for dairy goats. The indicators were considered in the light of the 4 accepted principles (good feeding, good housing, good health, appropriate behavior) subdivided into 12 criteria developed by the European Welfare Quality program. We will only examine the practical indicators to be used on-farm, excluding those requiring the use of specific instruments or laboratory analysis and those that are recorded at the slaughterhouse. Body condition score, hair coat condition, and queuing at the feed barrier or at the drinker seem the most promising indicators for the assessment of the "good feeding" principle. As to "good housing," some indicators were considered promising for assessing "comfort around resting" (e.g., resting in contact with a wall) or "thermal comfort" (e.g., panting score for the detection of heat stress and shivering score for the detection of cold stress). Several indicators related to "good health," such as lameness, claw overgrowth, presence of external abscesses, and hair coat condition, were identified. As to the "appropriate behavior" principle, different criteria have been identified: agonistic behavior is largely used as the "expression of social behavior" criterion, but it is often not feasible for on-farm assessment. Latency to first contact and the avoidance distance test can be used as criteria for assessing the quality of the human-animal relationship. Qualitative behavior assessment seems to be a promising indicator for addressing the "positive emotional state" criterion. Promising indicators were identified for most of the considered criteria; however, no valid indicator has been identified for "expression of other behaviors." Interobserver reliability has rarely been assessed and warrants further attention; in contrast, short-term intraobserver reliability is frequently assessed and some studies consider mid
Carillier-Jacquin, Céline; Larroque, Hélène; Robert-Granié, Christèle
Genomic best linear unbiased prediction methods assume that all markers explain the same fraction of the genetic variance and do not account effectively for genes with major effects such as the α s1 casein polymorphism in dairy goats. In this study, we investigated methods to include the available α s1 casein genotype effect in genomic evaluations of French dairy goats. First, the α s1 casein genotype was included as a fixed effect in genomic evaluation models based only on bucks that were genotyped at the α s1 casein locus. Less than 1 % of the females with phenotypes were genotyped at the α s1 casein gene. Thus, to incorporate these female phenotypes in the genomic evaluation, two methods that allowed for this large number of missing α s1 casein genotypes were investigated. Probabilities for each possible α s1 casein genotype were first estimated for each female of unknown genotype based on iterative peeling equations. The second method is based on a multiallelic gene content approach. For each model tested, we used three datasets each divided into a training and a validation set: (1) two-breed population (Alpine + Saanen), (2) Alpine population, and (3) Saanen population. The α s1 casein genotype had a significant effect on milk yield, fat content and protein content. Including an α s1 casein effect in genetic and genomic evaluations based only on male known α s1 casein genotypes improved accuracies (from 6 to 27 %). In genomic evaluations based on all female phenotypes, the gene content approach performed better than the other tested methods but the improvement in accuracy was only slightly better (from 1 to 14 %) than that of a genomic model without the α s1 casein effect. Including the α s1 casein effect in a genomic evaluation model for French dairy goats is possible and useful to improve accuracy. Difficulties in predicting the genotypes for ungenotyped animals limited the improvement in accuracy of the obtained estimated breeding values.
Bauman, Cathy A; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David; Menzies, Paula
The study's objective was to evaluate the ability of fecal culture (FCUL) and fecal PCR (FPCR) to identify dairy goat and dairy sheep shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. A cross-sectional study of the small ruminant populations was performed in Ontario, Canada between October 2010 and August 2011. Twenty-nine dairy goat herds and 21 dairy sheep flocks were visited, and 20 lactating females > two years of age were randomly selected from each farm resulting in 580 goats and 397 sheep participating in the study. Feces were collected per rectum and cultured using the BD BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 system using a standard (49 days) and an extended (240 days) incubation time, and underwent RT-PCR based on the hsp-X gene (Tetracore®). Statistical analysis was performed using a 2-test latent class Bayesian hierarchical model for each species fitted in WinBUGS. Extending the fecal culture incubation time statistically improved FCUL sensitivity from 23.1 % (95 % PI: 15.9-34.1) to 42.7 % (95 % PI: 33.0-54.5) in dairy goats and from 5.8 % (95 % PI: 2.3-12.4) to 19.0 % (95 % PI: 11.9-28.9) in dairy sheep. FPCR demonstrated statistically higher sensitivity than FCUL (49 day incubation) with a sensitivity of 31.9 % (95 % PI: 22.4-43.1) in goats and 42.6 % (95 % PI: 28.8-63.3) in sheep. Fecal culture demonstrates such low sensitivity at the standard incubation time it cannot be recommended as a screening test to detect shedding of MAP in either goats or sheep. Extending the incubation time resulted in improved sensitivity; however, it is still disappointingly low for screening purposes. Fecal PCR should be the screening test of choice in both species; however, it is important to recognize that control programs should not be based on testing alone when they demonstrate such low sensitivity.
Full Text Available Yeast and curcumin of C. xanthorrhiza Roxb could be added into concentrate containingpolyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA to improve milk fatty acid quality of dairy goat. There were fivetreatments (PD0: PUFA- diet with no additive; PDA: PUFA- diet with 3 Asifit tablets; PDY: PUFA- dietwith 5 g yeast; PDC: PUFA- diet with 20 g curcuma powder; and PDM: PUFA- diet with a mixture of 5g yeast and 20 g curcuma powder applied onto 20 dairy goats during late lactation (4.6 ± 0.55 monthsof lactation. The treatments were allocated according to a completely completely randomized blockdesign. Results demonstrated that diet containing PUFA supplemented with 5 g yeast and 20 g curcumawere high in total fatty acid, medium chain fatty acid (MCFA, and long chain fatty acid (LCFA. Milkof goats with this treatment showed high in mono unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA and MUFA; while itwas low in short chain fatty acid (SCFA, n6/n3 ratio, and atherogenicity index. These qualities wereoptimally considered good in terms of healthier product. Therefore, the PUFA- diet with 5 g yeast and20 g curcuma was a reasonable choice to be applied for dairy goat.
Bontje, D M; Backer, J A; Hogerwerf, L; Roest, H I J; van Roermund, H J W
Between 2006 and 2009 the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source of infection was traced back to dairy goat herds with abortion problems due to Q fever. The first aim of control measures taken in these herds was the reduction of human exposure. To analyze Q fever dynamics in goat herds and to study the effect of control measures, a within-herd model of Coxiella burnetii transmission in dairy goat herds was developed. With this individual-based stochastic model we evaluated six control strategies and three herd management styles and studied which strategy leads to a lower Q fever prevalence and/or to disease extinction in a goat herd. Parameter values were based on literature and on experimental work. The model could not be validated with independent data. The results of the epidemiological model were: (1) Vaccination is effective in quickly reducing the prevalence in a dairy goat herd. (2) When taking into account the average time to extinction of the infection and the infection pressure in a goat herd, the most effective control strategy is preventive yearly vaccination, followed by the reactive strategies to vaccinate after an abortion storm or after testing BTM (bulk tank milk) positive. (3) As C. burnetii in dried dust may affect public health, an alternative ranking method is based on the cumulative amount of C. burnetii emitted into the environment (from disease introduction until extinction). Using this criterion, the same control strategies are effective as when based on time to extinction and infection pressure (see 2). (4) As the bulk of pathogen excretion occurs during partus and abortion, culling of pregnant animals during an abortion storm leads to a fast reduction of the amount of C. burnetii emitted into the environment. However, emission is not entirely prevented and Q fever will not be eradicated in the herd by this measure. (5) A search & destroy (i.e. test and cull) method by PCR of individual milk
Kock, M; Thompson, E; Vulliet, P R; Brooks, D L
Pharmacokinetic parameters of methadone were studied in adult dairy goats. Five goats were each given methadone hydrochloride as a single 0.2 mg/kg of body weight dosage by intramuscular (IM) administration. Plasma methadone concentrations were determined for 96 h after dosing. Plasma methadone concentrations after IM administration were best described by an open one-compartment model. Overall elimination half-life (t1/2) was 1.38 h. Peak plasma concentrations were reached 0.25 h after dosing, and the actual plasma concentration averaged 37.8 ng/ml (SD = 12.76) at that time. The data obtained from this study suggest that plasma concentrations, similar to those that are analgesic in humans, can be achieved after IM administration of methadone at a dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg of body weight. In addition, these plasma concentrations can be maintained for up to 3 h after a single injection and, therefore, may provide satisfactory analgesia for such period.
Paterna, A; Sánchez, A; Gómez-Martín, A; Corrales, J C; De la Fe, C; Contreras, A; Amores, J
This study examined the susceptibility to several antimicrobials of 28 isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae obtained from goats in a region (southeastern Spain) where contagious agalactia is endemic. For each isolate, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against 12 antimicrobials of the quinolone, macrolide, aminoglycoside, and tetracycline families was determined. The antimicrobials with the lowest MIC were enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tylosin, and doxycycline, all with MIC90 (concentration at which growth of 90% of the isolates is inhibited) <1 µg/mL. Norfloxacin (a quinolone) showed a wide MIC range (0.1-12.8 µg/mL), suggesting a resistance mechanism toward this antimicrobial that was not elicited by enrofloxacin or ciprofloxacin (the other quinolones tested). Erythromycin showed the highest MIC90 such that its use against Mycoplasma agalactiae is not recommended. Finally, Mycoplasma agalactiae isolates obtained from goat herds with clinical symptoms of contagious agalactia featured higher MIC90 and MIC50 (concentration at which growth of 50% of the isolates is inhibited) values for many of the antimicrobials compared with isolates from asymptomatic animals. The relationship between the extensive use of antimicrobials in herds with clinical contagious agalactia and variations in MIC requires further study. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The relationship between the quality of goat milk and the feeding management in organic farms located in the Veneto Region was evaluated. Five organic dairy goat farms with Alpine and Saanen breeds were considered. Samples of bulk milk and feeds were collected monthly and analysed for chemical composition. Milk fatty acids profile was also determined. All data were submitted by ANCOVA analysis using breed (B, time of sampling (ST and B x ST as fixed effects and dry matter intake (DMI, dietary concentrations of crude protein (CPc, NDF (NDFc, starch (starchc, and use of grazing as linear covariates. Milk urea N was positively affected by DMI (r=3.64; P<0.05 and negatively by starchc (r=-5.91; P<0.05 and total bacterial count increased significantly (P<0.05 with the increase of CPc and starchc. DMI affected positively the milk fatty acid (FA profile by increasing of PUFA (P<0.01, n-3 (P<0.001 and n-6 (P<0.05 acids and decreasing of SFA (P<0.05 levels in milk. Opposite effects on FA profile were observed by CPc, NDFc and starchc. The use of grazing only caused a significant increase (P<0.05 in the content of CLA in milk.
Beresford, N.A.; Mayes, R.W.; MacEachern, P.J.; Dodd, B.A.; Lamb, C.S.
In the event of a nuclear accident the radiation dose to human populations arising from radiostrontium ingested as contaminated milk is a major cause of concern. We report a study to determine if calcium alginate incorporated into the diet can be used as an effective countermeasure to reduce radiostrontium transfer to the milk of dairy goats. When Ca-alginate was included into a pelleted ration at 5% dry weight the transfer of radiostrontium to the milk of the goats was reduced by approximately 50%. No effects on diet palatability or the absorption of iron or calcium were observed. Ca-alginate was readily fermentable and hence its potential binding capacity is likely to be reduced in ruminants compared to monogastrics. The Ca-alginate also supplied additional calcium to the diet in an amount which may explain the observed reduction in radiostrontium transfer to milk. Therefore, currently, we cannot be certain if the effect we observed was due to alginate or calcium. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)
Filioussis, George; Theodoridis, Alexandros; Papadopoulos, Dimitrios; Gelasakis, Athanasios I; Vouraki, Sotiria; Bramis, George; Arsenos, Georgios
Coxiella burnetii is an obligatory intracellular bacterial pathogen causing the zoonotic disease Q fever. The most common reservoirs of C. burnetii are wild mammals, birds and ticks. Pregnant domestic ruminants infected with this bacterium are also a major source of human infection. The serological prevalence of C. burnetii in goats and sheep diagnosed with adverse pregnancy outcomes was assessed by undertaking a survey on 800 dairy goats and 800 dairy ewes reared in four different regions of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace, Thessaly, and Peloponnese). A stratified sampling was carried out, taking also as a criterion the age of the animals. Serum antibodies were analyzed by a commercial ELISA according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Generally, there was a statistically significantly higher serological prevalence of C. burnetii (14.4%) in goats compared to sheep (8%). Serological prevalence was higher in adults (15.5% in goats and 8.5% in sheep) compared to yearlings (7.4% in goats and 4.6% in sheep). The prevalence increased significantly with age only in goats. Finally, all animals reared in Peloponnese had a prevalence significantly higher (21% in goats and 18% in sheep) than animals reared in the other three regions. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report that associates C. burnetii with reproductive disturbances of domestic ruminants in Greece. However, considering the importance of coxiellosis for public health, further investigations are required on its epidemiology regarding abortion, premature delivery, stillbirth and weak offspring in small ruminants, as well as in other domestic and wild animal species.
Loor, Juan J; Bionaz, Massimo; Drackley, James K
Microarray development changed the way biologists approach the holistic study of cells and tissues. In dairy cattle biosciences, the application of omics technology, from spotted microarrays to next-generation sequencing and proteomics, has grown steadily during the past 10 years. Omics has found application in fields such as dairy cattle nutritional physiology, reproduction, and immunology. Generating biologically meaningful data from omics studies relies on bioinformatics tools. Both are key components of the systems physiology toolbox, which allows study of the interactions between a condition (e.g., nutrition, physiological state) with tissue gene/protein expression and the associated changes in biological functions. The nature of physiologic and metabolic adaptations in dairy cattle at any stage of the life cycle is multifaceted, involves multiple tissues, and is dynamic, e.g., the transition from late-pregnancy to lactation. Application of integrative systems physiology in periparturient dairy cattle has already advanced knowledge of the simultaneous functional adaptations in liver, adipose, and mammary tissue.
Full Text Available Abstract Mastitis is still one of the three main diseases that affects the profitability of dairy farmers. Despite the implementation of the five-point mastitis control programme in the early 1970 s, the incidence in the UK has not reduced dramatically over the past 10 years. A review of the scientific literature indicates that there is a link between nutrition and mastitis in the dairy cow. The major impact of nutrition on udder health is via suppression of the immune system. Cows in negative energy balance are at a higher risk of ketosis and clinical ketosis is associated with a two-fold increase in the risk of clinical mastitis. Trace minerals and vitamins that can affect udder health are selenium and vitamin E, copper, zinc, and vitamin A and β-carotene.
Elisângela Maria Nunes da Silva
Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Silva E.M.N., Souza B.B., Silva G.A., Alcântara M.D.B., Cunha M.G.G. & Marques B.A.A. [Avaluation of the adaptability of dairy goats with help of thermographic precision in the semiarid brazilian.] Avaliação da adaptabilidade de caprinos leiteiros com auxílio da precisão termográfica no semiárido brasileiro. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinaria, 36(2:231-237, 2014. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Rodovia Patos-Teixeira, Km 01, Jatobá, Patos, PB 58708-110, Brasil. E-mail: email@example.com The present study aimed to evaluate the adaptability of dairy goats with help of thermographic precision in the semiarid brazilian. Thirty-six female goats were used in the study, mean age 2.5 years old and mean weight of 45 kg, all of them pure-bred, lactating and not pregnant, distributed in a completely randomized design, in a factorial outline 2 x 2; two genotypes (Anglo Nubian and Alpine vs two shifts (morning and afternoon with 18 repetitions. Analysis of variance showed that the shift had significant effect (P0.05. Also, there was no significant interaction between breed and shift. Regarding the parameters: respiratory rate (RR and surface temperature of the muzzle of cinnamon there was significant effect of breed and shift and significant interaction between breed and shift (P<0.05. Positive correlations between physiological parameters and room temperature and negative correlation between thermal gradients and more parameters. The Anglo Nubian breed had become more adapted to the semi-arid environmental conditions representing a good alternative for breeding programs. The Alpine breed increased respiratory effort required to dissipate heat and maintain homeothermy, proving to be more demanding regarding system creation and management in the semi-arid climatic conditions.
Serrano Reina, José Antonio; Nestares Pleguezuelo, Teresa; Muñoz Alférez, Ma José; Díaz Castro, Javier; López Aliaga, Ma Inmaculada
in spite of the high incidence/prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and the beneficial effects derived from the consumption of goat milk, scarce is known about the recovery of the anemia following a balanced diet accompanied by the intake of goat milk of goat. The aim of the current study is to assess, in rats with experimentally induced nutritional iron deficiency anemia, the effects of goat or cow milk-based diets, supplied during 30 days, on the recovery of the anemia and the efficiency of regeneration of the hemoglobin. 40 male Wistar albino rats newly weaned were divided at random in two experimental groups and they were fed ad libitum for 40 days with AIN-93G diet, either with normal iron content (control group, 45 mg/kg diet), or low iron content (anaemic group, 5 mg/kg diet). Samples of blood form the caudal vein were collected for the hematologic control of the anemia. Later, both experimental groups (control and iron deficient) were fed for 30 days with goat or cow milk- based diets. After finishing the experimental period and previous anesthesia the animals were withdrawn by canulation of the abdominal aorta, and the obtained blood was gathered in tubes with EDTA as anticoagulant for the later determination of hematologic parameters and the efficiency of regeneration of the hemoglobin. after the consumption of a diet with low iron content during 40 days, the rats were anaemic, with a concentration of hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum ferritin and low transferrin (p hemoglobin was higher in control and anaemic rats fed goat milk-based diet in comparison with those fed cow milk-based diet (p hemoglobin, and to the best nutritive utilization of iron in the animals that consumed the goat milk-based diet thanks to the excellent nutritional characteristics of this type of milk. the consumption during 30 days of goat or cow milk-based diets favors the recovery of the iron deficiency anemia, especially with the goat
Dam, van J.T.P.
In a series of experiments the interaction between nutrition and energy- and nitrogen metabolism of West African Dwarf goats, infected with trypanosomes was studied. Animals were injected with trypanosomes, and feed intake, energy and nitrogen balance and blood metabolites and hormones were measured
Feeding supplemental Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) leaf meal pellets has been shown to reduce the effects of infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) and coccidia (Eimeria spp.) in sheep and goats, but effects on nutritional status of parasitized small ruminants are unclear. A 14...
Background Anecdotal reports and a few scientific publications suggest that flyovers of helicopters at low altitude may elicit fear- or anxiety-related behavioral reactions in grazing feral and farm animals. We investigated the behavioral and physiological stress reactions of five individually housed dairy goats to different acoustic and visual stimuli from helicopters and to combinations of these stimuli under controlled environmental (indoor) conditions. The visual stimuli were helicopter animations projected on a large screen in front of the enclosures of the goats. Acoustic and visual stimuli of a tractor were also presented. On the final day of the study the goats were exposed to two flyovers (altitude 50 m and 75 m) of a Chinook helicopter while grazing in a pasture. Salivary cortisol, behavior, and heart rate of the goats were registered before, during and after stimulus presentations. Results The goats reacted alert to the visual and/or acoustic stimuli that were presented in their room. They raised their heads and turned their ears forward in the direction of the stimuli. There was no statistically reliable rise of the average velocity of moving of the goats in their enclosure and no increase of the duration of moving during presentation of the stimuli. Also there was no increase in heart rate or salivary cortisol concentration during the indoor test sessions. Surprisingly, no physiological and behavioral stress responses were observed during the flyover of a Chinook at 50 m, which produced a peak noise of 110 dB. Conclusions We conclude that the behavior and physiology of goats are unaffected by brief episodes of intense, adverse visual and acoustic stimulation such as the sight and noise of overflying helicopters. The absence of a physiological stress response and of elevated emotional reactivity of goats subjected to helicopter stimuli is discussed in relation to the design and testing schedule of this study. PMID:21496239
Full Text Available Traditional farming practices include the use of local agricultural by-products in the diet of ruminants. Artichoke harvesting and transformation yield high amounts of by-products that, if properly used, may reduce farming costs and the environmental impact of farming. The present study tests the inclusion of silages from artichoke by-products (plant and outer bracts in the diet of dairy goats (0%, 12.5% and 25% inclusion on the technological and sensory properties of milk during a five-month study. Milk composition, color, stability, coagulation and fermentation properties remained unaffected by diet changes. Panelists were not able to differentiate among yogurts obtained from those milks by discriminant triangular sensory tests. Silages of artichoke by-products can be included in isoproteic and isoenergetic diets for dairy goats, up to a 25% (feed dry matter, without negatively affecting milk technological and sensory properties whereas reducing feeding costs.
El-Tarabany, Mahmoud S; El-Tarabany, Akram A; Atta, Mostafa A
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of thermal stress on milk production and physiological traits of Baladi goats under subtropical Egyptian conditions. Sixty dairy Baladi goats were exposed to three different levels of temperature-humidity index (THI), including low (less than 70), moderate (over 70 and up to 80), and high levels (over 80). The influence of THI on the milk composition and physiological, hematological, and biochemical traits was investigated. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were significantly greater at the higher THI than at low and moderate THI (p = 0.016 and 0.002, respectively). Baladi goats had decreased daily milk yield in a rate of 27.3 and 19.3 % at high THI level, compared with low and moderate THI, respectively (p = 0.031). On the contrary, no significant differences have been reported in protein, fat, and total solids percentages at different THI levels. Total leucocyte count, serum glucose, and total protein were significantly reduced at high THI in comparison with low and moderate THI levels (p = 0.043, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively). However, dairy goats maintained relatively stable estimates for erythrocytes count, hemoglobin, serum triglycerides, cholesterol, catalase, total antioxidant capacity, and triiodothyronine at different THI levels. Our results indicate that dairy Baladi goats can tolerate THI levels up to 80; however, variable reduction in milk yield and few biochemical (serum total protein and glucose) and hematological (leucocytes count) parameters have been reported at a THI level higher than 80.
Ondiek, J.O.; Tuitoek, J.K.; Abdulrazak, S.A.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of dairy goats supplemented with fodder based diets. Six lactating does of Saanen, Toggenburg and Saanen X Toggenburg breed types weighing 46 + or - 7.1 at late stage of lactation were allocated to three dietary treatments in a double 3*3 Latin square design to examine the value of leucaena and gliricidia forages as nitrogen sources in supplementing Rhodes grass hay. Three supplements: Leucaena-based (L), gliricidia-based (G) or commercial concentrate (C) were used. Voluntary feed intake, milk yield, milk composition and live weight changes were measured. Total dry matter intake (DMI) was significantly higher in group G than C (1385 vs 1331 g day -1 ). Hay DMI was higher in G (835 g d -1 than L or C (789, 782 g day -1 , respectively). Diets had no effect on milk yield, crude protein or butterfat content. Total solid was higher in L than C while that of G was intermediate (15.7, 14.7, 13.7%). Weight changes were least affected although resulted in positive gain (11 g day -1 ) while the others lost (-13,-19 g day -, for L and C respectively). In the digestibility trial 6 female goats weighing 22.3 kg (sd 1.1), were allocated to the three treatments in a completely randomised block design where each goat received a different supplement in each of two periods. Thee were no differences in nutrient digestibility except for DM, which was in C compared to the other treatments (615, 622, 720 g-kg for L, G and C, respectively). It si concluded that fodder based supplement compared well with the commercial concentrate in supporting milk yield and body weight gain of dairy goats. Therefore, locally available tree fodders can be incorporated in supplement diets and utilized without any detrimental effects to substitute the expensive concentrates to improve the performance of dairy goats
Valencia, J.; Zarco, L.; Ducoing, A.; Murcia, C.; Navarro, H.
The objective of this work was to characterize the anoestrous season of Criollo and Granadina goats kept on a constant nutritional level to determine the time of year when ovarian activity ceases, the duration and depth of anoestrus, and the time at which these animals start cycling again. A sample of 19 Criollo and 11 Granadina goats were fed oat hay, concentrate and mineral salts to cover 100% of their nutritional requirements. All animals were adult, non-pregnant and non-lactating and were kept isolated from the males for the duration of the study. Blood samples, taken from all animals twice a week from November 1986 to July 1987 into heparinized tubes, were kept refrigerated until centrifugation for harvest of plasma and then frozen until assayed. Ovarian activity was monitored from the circulating levels of progesterone determined by the FAO/IAEA solid phase radioimmunoassay kit. Concentrations above 1 ng/mL were considered indicative of the presence of a functional corpus luteum and reproductive activity. The majority of the Criollo goats were cycling during November and December, ovarian activity decreasing gradually during February; from March to May most of the goats ceased to ovulate but ovarian activity resumed again in June or July; thus anoestrus was only evident during the spring. In contrast, Granadina goats had a longer and deeper anoestrus; 54% of these animals never showed significant increases in progesterone above basal levels during the period under study (November to July). The short anoestrous season of the Criollo goats and the weak inhibition of ovarian activity during this period suggest that these animals have a greater reproductive potential than the Granadina goats. (author). 21 refs, 7 figs
Theonys Diógenes Freitas
Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to conduct an epidemiological study and identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease in dairy goats within the semiarid region of Paraíba State. The study was done during the period of March 2009 to July 2011, during which 727 female goats from 86 flocks from the city of Monteiro, Paraíba were investigated. For the serological diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map infection indirect ELISA tests (screening and confirmatory were performed. Of the 727 animals used six (0.82% were seropositive at the confirmatory test after screening, and of the 86 flocks six (6.97% presented at least one seropositive animal. In positive flocks the frequency of reactive animals ranged from 5.26% to 16.60%. Risk factors identified were production system (weaning and reproduction (odds ratio = 36.0; 95% CI = 2.6 –486.1; p < 0,001 and absence of technical infrastructure (odds ratio = 54.0; 95% CI = 4.5 –642.9; p < 0,001. It was concluded that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is present in dairy goat flocks in the region; however, its influence on decrease productivity as well as the risk of transmission to humans through animal products must totally evaluated. Based on the analysis of risk factors, improvements are recommended for the technical infrastructure and the management of breeding goats.
Santos, J E P; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S; Lima, F S; Greco, L F; Staples, C R; Thatcher, W W
The establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in lactating dairy cows is a complex biological event that is influenced by a multitude of factors, from the reproductive biology of the cow to managerial aspects of the dairy farm. It is often mentioned in the scientific literature that fertility in dairy cows has declined concurrent with major advances in milk production. Some of this decline is attributed to the negative genetic correlation between milk production and reproduction. In the United States, yearly production per cow has increased steadily at a rate of 1.3% in the last decade and it is likely that this trend will continue in the years to come. At this rate, the average cow in the United States will be producing over 14 tons of milk per year in 2050 and technologies will have to be developed to allow these cows to reproduce to maintain the sustainability of dairy production. Despite high production, it is not uncommon for dairy herds with rolling herd averages for milk yield above 11,000 kg to overcome the challenges of reproduction and obtain satisfactory reproductive performance. Among other things, those herds have been able to mitigate some of the mechanisms that suppress reproduction in dairy cows such as extended postpartum anovulatory period, poor estrous detection, low pregnancy per insemination and, to a lesser extent, the high pregnancy loss. The success of those farms comes from an integrated approach to fertility that includes adequate cow comfort, elaborated transition cow management and nutrition, aggressive postpartum health monitoring program with preventative and curative measures to mitigate the negative effects of diseases on reproduction, and a sound reproductive program that includes manipulation of the ovarian cycle to allow for increased insemination rate. More recently, introduction of fertility traits in selection programs have created new opportunities for improved reproduction without neglecting economically important production
Nguyen, Thiet; Chaiyabutr, Narongsak; Chanpongsang, Somchai; Thammacharoen, Sumpun
This study aimed to determine the effect of dietary cation and anion difference (DCAD) on milk production and body fluid distribution in lactating dairy goats. Ten dairy goats were selected and divided into two groups, five animals each. Animals received either control DCAD (control, 22.81 mEq/100 g dry matter (DM)) or high DCAD (DCAD, 39.08 mEq/100 g DM). The results indicated that rectal temperature (Tr), respiration rate, milk yield and compositions did not differ between groups. But the percentage change of Tr from the DCAD group was lower than the control group between 09.00 and 13.00 hours. DM intake tended to increase in the DCAD group. Dairy goats in the DCAD group drank more water, but urinary excretion and plasma antidiuretic hormone concentration remained unchanged. Apparent water balance was higher from the DCAD group over 24 h. There was no effect of DCAD on plasma and blood volumes, but tended to increase in extracellular fluid and thereby increased total body water. The present results indicate that animals supplemented with high DCAD increase their total body water and apparent water balance. These results have contributed to the process of adaptation for evaporative cooling and would be useful in slowing down the elevation in Tr. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Full Text Available Intramammary infection affects the quality and quantity of dairy goat milk. Health status (HS and milk quality can be monitored by electrical conductivity (EC. The aim of the study was to determine the detection potential of EC when measured on-line on a daily basis and compared with readings from previous milkings. Milk yields (MYs were investigated with the same approach. To evaluate these relative traits, a multivariate model based on fuzzy logic technology – which provided interesting results in cows – was used. Two foremilk samples from 8 healthy Saanen goats were measured daily over the course of six months. Bacteriological tests and somatic cells counts were used to define the HS. On-line EC measurements for each gland and MYs were also considered. Predicted deviations of EC and MY were calculated using a moving-average model and entered in the fuzzy logic model. The reported accuracy has a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 69%. Conclusions show that fuzzy logic is an interesting approach for dairy goats, since it offered better accuracy than other methods previously published. Nevertheless, specificity was lower than in dairy cows, probably due to the lack of a significant decrease of MY in diseased glands. Still, results show that the detection of the HS characteristics with EC is improved, when measured on-line, daily and compared with the readings from previous milkings.
Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne; Moyes, Kasey
not seem to be improved. Earlier reviews have covered critical periods such as the transition period in the cow and its influence on health and immune function, the interplay between the endocrine system and the immune system and nutrition and immune function. Knowledge on these topics is crucial for our......) on immune function, and to give perspectives for prevention of diseases in the dairy cow through nutrition. To a large extent, the health problems during the periparturient period relate to cows having difficulty in adapting to the nutrient needs for lactation. This may result in PI, a situation where...... the regulatory mechanisms are insufficient for the animals to function optimally leading to a high risk of a complex of digestive, metabolic and infectious problems. The risk of infectious diseases will be increased if the immune competence is reduced. Nutrition plays a pivotal role in the immune response...
Dennis, T S; Unruh-Snyder, L J; Neary, M K; Nennich, T D
Mixed livestock grazing can offer an alternative management system for rearing dairy replacement heifers (Bos taurus). A 2-yr study was conducted during 2009 (yr 1) and 2010 (yr 2) to determine the effects of co-grazing Holstein heifers under rotational stocking with Boer × Kiko goats on animal performance, pasture DM yield, and botanical composition. Each year, 24 heifers (134 ± 6 d of age and 147.4 ± 31.2 kg BW in yr 1; 166 ± 11 d of age and 168.0 ± 27.6 kg BW in yr 2) and 6 goats (2 yr old and 39.7 ± 16.2 kg BW in yr 1; 1 yr old and 33.7 ± 7.4 kg BW in yr 2) were divided into 6 paddocks with 4 heifers and 2 goats, where applicable, per group. Low endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) pastures were used to evaluate 2 grazing strategies (heifers grazed alone [HO] or heifers co-grazed with goats [HG]). In addition, 6 goats were assigned to 2 paddocks and grazed alone (GO) each year to estimate goat pasture forage intake and compare Haemonchus contortus infection to co-grazed goats. Forage samples were taken monthly to assess DM yield and botanical composition. Samples collected for botanical composition were manually sorted into grass, legume, and weed species. Forage DMI was estimated using a rising plate meter before and after grazing. Heifer BW at the conclusion of yr 1 and yr 2 did not differ between HO and HG (P = 0.40 and P = 0.12, respectively). Likewise, overall ADG did not differ between HO and HG, averaging 0.65 kg/d and 0.63 kg/d over both grazing seasons (P = 0.70). Grazing strategy did not affect forage or total DMI in yr 1; however, HO consumed 2.3 kg/d more forage DM than HG (P pastures (P dairy heifers can be co-grazed with goats without negative effects on ADG or feed efficiency.
Sharifi, M; Bashtani, M; Naserian, A A; Farhangfar, H
This study was conducted to examine the effect of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seed (DPS) on the performance, ruminal fermentation, antioxidant status and milk fatty acid (FA) profile of dairy goats. Eight multiparous Saanen dairy goats, averaging 97 ± 7 days in milk (DIM) and 2150 ± 130 g of milk production, were used in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design. Experimental diets contained 0% (control), 6% (DPS6), 12% (DPS12) and 18% (DPS18) of DPS. Dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and the composition and digestibility of the dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and crude protein (CP) were not affected by the diets. Adding DPS to the diet increased linearly total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in milk and blood (p content in milk and blood. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the blood, ruminal pH, NH 3 -N, ruminal total volatile fatty acid (VFA), acetate, butyrate, isovalerate and valeric acid concentration had no significant effect among the diets. The propionate acid concentration decreased linearly as DPS was added to the diet, and DPS18 had minimum propionate acid concentration (p < 0.05). The inclusion of DPS18 to diets increased linearly the proportion of C18:0 (compared to control) as well as cis-18:1, trans-18:1 (compared to control and DPS6) and decreased C14:1 (compared to control) in milk fat (p < 0.05). The concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in DPS18 was higher than other diets (p = 0.04). The results of this study implied that replacing DPS with a part of dairy goats' ration had no negative effects on the performance of the animals and could also improve the antioxidant activity and increase the concentration of CLA in their milk. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Taylan-Ozkan, Aysegul; Yasa-Duru, Sibel; Usluca, Selma; Lysen, Colleen; Ye, Jianbin; Roellig, Dawn M; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua
Molecular characterizations of Cryptosporidium spp. in ruminants reared under traditional animal management systems are scarce and studies conducted thus far have revealed largely an absence of the pathogenic and zoonotic species Cryptosporidium parvum in pre-weaned animals. In this study, we examined Cryptosporidium species and subtype distribution in free-range pre-weaned dairy calves and goat kids with diarrhea. Cryptosporidium-positive specimens from pre-weaned calves on 10 farms and goat kids on 4 farms in Ankara, Balikesir, Corum, Kirikkale, and Kirsehir Provinces, Turkey were genotyped by PCR-restriction length polymorphism analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene, which identified C. parvum in 27 calves and 9 goat kids and Cryptosporidium ryanae in 1 calf. Among the C. parvum isolates successfully subtyped by DNA sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene, three subtypes were detected in calves, including IIaA13G2R1 (20/23), IIdA18G1 (2/23), and IIdA20G1b (1/23), and four subtypes were detected in goat kids, including IIaA13G2R1 (3/8), IIaA15G1R1 (2/8), IIdA22G1 (2/8), and IIdA18G1 (1/8). Data of the study suggest that dairy calves reared in a traditional cow-calf system in Turkey are mainly infected with a C. parvum subtype rarely seen elsewhere, whereas goat kids are infected with diverse subtypes. As all five C. parvum subtypes found in this study are known human pathogens, pre-weaned farm animals could play a potential role in the transmission of human cryptosporidiosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Song, W; Zhu, H; Li, M; Li, N; Wu, J; Mu, H; Yao, X; Han, W; Liu, W; Hua, J
Previous studies have shown that promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger (PLZF) is a spermatogonia-specific transcription factor in the testis, required to regulate self-renewal and maintenance of the spermatogonia stem cell. Up to now, expression and function of PLZF in the goat testis has not been known. The objectives of this study were to investigate PLZF expression pattern in the dairy goat and its effect on male goat germline stem cell (mGSC) self-renewal and differentiation. Testis development and expression patterns of PLZF in the dairy goat were analysed by haematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Furthermore, effects of PLZF overexpression on mGSC self-renewal and differentiation were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR (QRT-PCR), immunofluorescence and BrdU incorporation assay. Promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger was essential for dairy goat testis development and expression of several proliferation and pluripotency-associated proteins including OCT4, C-MYC were upregulated by PLZF overexpression. The study demonstrated that PLZF played a key role in maintaining self-renewal of mGSCs and its overexpression enhanced expression of proliferation-associated genes. Promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger could function in the dairy goat as well as in other species in maintaining self-renewal of germline stem cells and this study provides a model to study the mechanism on self-renewal and differentiation of mGSCs in livestock. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Within the European AWIN project, a protocol for assessing dairy goats’ welfareon the farm was developed. Starting from a literature review, a prototype includinganimal-based indicators covering four welfare principles and 12 welfare criteria was set up.The prototype was tested in 60 farms for validity, reliability, and feasibility. After testing theprototype, a two-level assessment protocol was proposed in order to increase acceptabilityamong stakeholders. The first level offers a more general overview of the welfare status,based on group assessment of a few indicators (e.g., hair coat condition, latency to thefirst contact test, severe lameness, Qualitative Behavior Assessment, with no or minimalhandling of goats and short assessment time required. The second level starts if welfareAnimals 2015, 5 935problems are encountered in the first level and adds a comprehensive and detailed individualevaluation (e.g., Body Condition Score, udder asymmetry, overgrown claws, supported byan effective sampling strategy. The assessment can be carried out using the AWIN Goatapp. The app results in a clear visual output, which provides positive feedback on welfareconditions in comparison with a benchmark of a reference population. The protocol maybe a valuable tool for both veterinarians and technicians and a self-assessment instrumentfor farmers.
Dec 24, 2016 ... variation for αs2-casein in the South African goat populations ... of Pretoria's experimental farm (Saanens) and commercial goat farms in the provinces of Gauteng. (Toggenburg), North West (British Alpine and Toggenburg), ...
Ingvartsen, K L; Moyes, K
The large increase in milk yield and the structural changes in the dairy industry have caused major changes in the housing, feeding and management of the dairy cow. However, while large improvements have occurred in production and efficiency, the disease incidence, based on veterinary records, does not seem to be improved. Earlier reviews have covered critical periods such as the transition period in the cow and its influence on health and immune function, the interplay between the endocrine system and the immune system and nutrition and immune function. Knowledge on these topics is crucial for our understanding of disease risk and our effort to develop health and welfare improving strategies, including proactive management for preventing diseases and reducing the severity of diseases. To build onto this the main purpose of this review will therefore be on the effect of physiological imbalance (PI) on immune function, and to give perspectives for prevention of diseases in the dairy cow through nutrition. To a large extent, the health problems during the periparturient period relate to cows having difficulty in adapting to the nutrient needs for lactation. This may result in PI, a situation where the regulatory mechanisms are insufficient for the animals to function optimally leading to a high risk of a complex of digestive, metabolic and infectious problems. The risk of infectious diseases will be increased if the immune competence is reduced. Nutrition plays a pivotal role in the immune response and the effect of nutrition may be directly through nutrients or indirectly by metabolites, for example, in situations with PI. This review discusses the complex relationships between metabolic status and immune function and how these complex interactions increase the risk of disease during early lactation. A special focus will be placed on the major energetic fuels currently known to be used by immune cells (i.e. glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, beta
Nivea Regina de Oliveira Felisberto
Full Text Available Diets formulated with protein sources presenting different resistance to ruminal degradation were compared by evaluating ruminal parameters, production and microbial efficiency and nutrients flow to the omasum in goats. Eight rumen cannulated non-lactating, non-pregnant goats were distributed in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with two replicates. Treatments consisted of four diets where different sources of plant protein accounted for the major protein source named soybean meal, source of higher ruminal degradability, and three other sources of higher resistance of degradation: roasted soybean, corn gluten meal, and cottonseed cake. Amounts of rumen protein were similar among rations; however, flows of dry matter, protein and non-fiber carbohydrate to omasum were higher for diets with protein source with reduced rumen degradation rate. Higher values of rumen ammonia were obtained by using ration with soybean meal as major source of protein. Higher values of pH were obtained for rations with roasted soybean e cottonseed cake. Regarding kinetic of transit, similar values were found among rations. Diets with protein sources presenting reduced ruminal degradation increase nutrients flow to the omasum in goats and alter digestive parameters such as pH and ammonia without compromising bacteria growth and efficiency, which grants their use for dairy goats with similar efficiency to rations using more degradable sources of protein.
Knupp, L S; Veloso, C M; Marcondes, M I; Silveira, T S; Silva, A L; Souza, N O; Knupp, S N R; Cannas, A
The aim of this study was to analyze the economic viability of producing dairy goat kids fed liquid diets in alternative of goat milk and slaughtered at two different ages. Forty-eight male newborn Saanen and Alpine kids were selected and allocated to four groups using a completely randomized factorial design: goat milk (GM), cow milk (CM), commercial milk replacer (CMR) and fermented cow colostrum (FC). Each group was then divided into two groups: slaughter at 60 and 90 days of age. The animals received Tifton hay and concentrate ad libitum. The values of total costs of liquid and solid feed plus labor, income and average gross margin were calculated. The data were then analyzed using the Monte Carlo techniques with the @Risk 5.5 software, with 1000 iterations of the variables being studied through the model. The kids fed GM and CMR generated negative profitability values when slaughtered at 60 days (US$ -16.4 and US$ -2.17, respectively) and also at 90 days (US$ -30.8 and US$ -0.18, respectively). The risk analysis showed that there is a 98% probability that profitability would be negative when GM is used. In this regard, CM and FC presented low risk when the kids were slaughtered at 60 days (8.5% and 21.2%, respectively) and an even lower risk when animals were slaughtered at 90 days (5.2% and 3.8%, respectively). The kids fed CM and slaughtered at 90 days presented the highest average gross income (US$ 67.88) and also average gross margin (US$ 18.43/animal). For the 60-day rearing regime to be economically viable, the CMR cost should not exceed 11.47% of the animal-selling price. This implies that the replacer cannot cost more than US$ 0.39 and 0.43/kg for the 60- and 90-day feeding regimes, respectively. The sensitivity analysis showed that the variables with the greatest impact on the final model's results were animal selling price, liquid diet cost, final weight at slaughter and labor. In conclusion, the production of male dairy goat kids can be economically
Ni Made Suci Sukmawati
Full Text Available Methanogenesis in the rumen is thought to represent 2-12% loss of energy intake. The energy loss as methane can decrease animal productivity and feed efficiency. In addition, methane is potentially involves in global warming that affects the atmosphere adversely. A research to improve PE dairy goat productivity and reduce enteric methane emission by supplementation of calliandra and complete rumen modifier (CRM was conducted for 6 months. In this experiment 20 PE dairy goats were divided into five blocks according to body weight. The experimental design used was a randomized block design that consisted of four treatments, A. Elephant grass 50% + concentrate 50% (control, B. Elephant grass 40% + concentrate 40% + calliandra 20%, C. Elephant grass 50% + concentrate 48% + CRM 2% and D. Elephant grass 40% + concentrate 38% + calliandra 20% + CRM 2%. Data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and Duncan test. The result showed that calliandra and CRM did not affect nutrient consumption, except that protein consumption increased (P < 0.05 in calliandra treatments (B and D. Nutrient digestibility increased in CRM (C treatment, while other treatments did not differ from control. CRM also increased total bacteria (36.84%, milk production (67.21%, milk fat (25.0%, and reduced enteric methane production (65.71%. The improvement of milk production in CRM treatment (C was followed by better feed efficiency than other treatments. In conclusion, CRM was more effective than calliandra in improving milk production of PE dairy goats and reduced enteric methane emission, but its effectivity was reduced in combination with calliandra.
Poshiwa, X.; Tigere, A.; Ngongoni, N.T.; Manyuchi, B.; Chakoma, C.
An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of plane of nutrition on purine derivative excretion and to develop a set of model equations that relate intake to the purine derivative (PD) excretion in sheep and goats. Four male Sabi sheep and four male Small-East African goats (four months old) were used. The trial was a 4 x 4 Latin square cross-over design to examine the response of PD excretion to feed intake. The four diets consisted of star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) hay fed ad libitum, and at 85, 70 or 55% of ad libitum. Total PD excretion increased with the increase in feed intake for both sheep and goats. However, the increase did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05). The model equations relating digestible organic matter intake (X) to PD excretion (Y) were Y = 2.97 X + 0.15 (R 2 =0.72) and Y = 5.86 X - 0.33 (R 2 =0.99) for sheep and goats respectively. (author)
Vouraki, Sotiria; Gelasakis, Athanasios I; Alexandri, Panoraia; Boukouvala, Evridiki; Ekateriniadou, Loukia V; Banos, Georgios; Arsenos, Georgios
Polymorphisms at PRNP gene locus have been associated with resistance against classical scrapie in goats. Genetic selection on this gene within appropriate breeding programs may contribute to the control of the disease. The present study characterized the genetic profile of codons 146, 211 and 222 in three dairy goat breeds in Greece. A total of 766 dairy goats from seven farms were used. Animals belonged to two indigenous Greek, Eghoria (n = 264) and Skopelos (n = 287) and a foreign breed, Damascus (n = 215). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples from individual animals. Polymorphisms were detected in these codons using Real-Time PCR analysis and four different Custom TaqMan® SNP Genotyping Assays. Genotypic, allelic and haplotypic frequencies were calculated based on individual animal genotypes. Chi-square tests were used to examine Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium state and compare genotypic distribution across breeds. Genetic distances among the three breeds, and between these and 30 breeds reared in other countries were estimated based on haplotypic frequencies using fixation index FST with Arlequin v3.1 software; a Neighbor-Joining tree was created using PHYLIP package v3.695. Level of statistical significance was set at P = 0.01. All scrapie resistance-associated alleles (146S, 146D, 211Q and 222K) were detected in the studied population. Significant frequency differences were observed between the indigenous Greek and Damascus breeds. Alleles 222K and 146S had the highest frequency in the two indigenous and the Damascus breed, respectively (ca. 6.0%). The studied breeds shared similar haplotypic frequencies with most South Italian and Turkish breeds but differed significantly from North-Western European, Far East and some USA goat breeds. Results suggest there is adequate variation in the PRNP gene locus to support breeding programs for enhanced scrapie resistance in goats reared in Greece. Genetic comparisons among goat breeds indicate that separate
Naserian, A A; Staples, C R; Ghaffari, M H
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pistachio skins (PiS) as a replacement of wheat bran on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolites of dairy Saanen goats. Eight multiparous lactating Saanen goats (55 ± 7.2 days post-partum, 45 ± 2 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatments arranged in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were 1) 0 g/kg PiS and 210 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (0PiS), 2) 70 g/kg PiS and 140 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (7PiS), 3) 140 g/kg PiS and 70 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (14PiS) and 4) 210 g/kg PiS and 0 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (21PiS). The trial consisted of four 21-day periods, each composed of 14 days adaptation and 7 days data collection. Dry matter intake (p < 0.05) and crude protein digestibility (p < 0.01) increased linearly with increasing PiS proportions in the diet. Increasing the proportion of PiS in the diet caused a quadratic increase in apparent digestibility of dry matter (p < 0.05), and tended (p = 0.05) to increase quadratically organic matter, and ether extract digestibility. Replacing wheat bran with PiS in the diet had no effects on milk yield, whereas milk fat concentration increased linearly (p < 0.01) with increasing inclusion of PiS in the diet. As the dietary proportion of PiS increased, ruminal pH tended (p = 0.07) to increase linearly, whereas ammonia-N concentration declined in the rumen. Plasma concentrations of glucose and BUN remained unaffected, whereas triglycerides (p < 0.05) and cholesterol (p < 0.01) concentrations increased linearly with increasing inclusion of PiS in the diet. It was concluded that PiS based on local ingredients can successfully replace wheat bran in diets of dairy goats without detrimental effects on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell
Fauziyyah, F.; Panunggal, B.; Afifah, D. N.; Rustanti, N.; Anjani, G.
Goat milk kefir fortified with vitamin D3 is expected to benefit individual with insulin resistance. Different vitamin D3 fortification time allegedly effect microbiological characteristic and nutrition quality of goat milk kefir due to its microbial growth curve, thus this study aimed to analyze those parameters. This study was an experimental research. This study contains five treatments (vitamin D3 fortification at 0, 6, 12, 18, or 24 hours of fermentation) and a group of control. Total lactic acid bacteria, vitamin D3, protein level, fat contain, crude fiber, viscosity, and pH was analyzed by Total Plate Count, spectrophotometry, Bradford method, Babcock method, gravimetric analysis, Ostwald method, and pH meter respectively. Time of vitamin D3 fortification significantly effect vitamin D3 content (p=0,021), fat content (p=0,001), crude fiber (p=0,0001), viscosity (p=0,010), and total lactic acid bacteria (p=0,048). The highest vitamin D3 content was found on the group fortified at 6 hours of fermentation. All treatment groups has lower fat content and crude fiber content than control group. Total LAB in all group meet the Codex standard (≥ 107 CFU/ml). Control group and fortification group at 24 hours of fermentation have higher viscosity than other groups. There was no significant difference found in goat milk kefir protein level (p=0,262) and pH (p=0,056) despite the difference of fortification time. Vitamin D3 fortification time effect vitamin D3 content, fat content, crude fiber, viscosity, and total lactic acid bacteria of goat milk kefir, but did not effect protein content and pH of goat milk kefir.
Leegwater, P.; Ngolo, J.; Hoorweg, J.C.
The objectives of this study on dairy development in Kilifi District, Kenya, are, first, to assess the importance of - small-scale - intensive dairy farming as promoted by the Ministry of Livestock through the National Dairy Development Programme (DDP) compared with other types of small-scale dairy
Martínez Marín, A.L.; Núñez Sánchez, N.; Garzón Sigler, A. I.; Peña Blanco, F.; Fuente, M.A. de la
A meta-regression of the effects of the amount of plant lipids consumed by dairy goats on the contents of some milk fat fatty acids (FA) was carried out. Fourteen peer-reviewed published papers reporting 17 experiments were used in the study. Those experiments compared control diets without added fat with diets that included plant lipids rich in unsaturated FA, summing up to 64 treatments. The results showed that increasing daily intake of plant lipids linearly reduced the contents of all medium chain saturated FA in milk fat. Moreover, it was observed that the longer the chain of the milk saturated FA, the greater the negative effect of the plant lipid intake on their contents. On the other hand, the contents of stearic acid and the sum of oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids in milk fat linearly increased as daily plant lipid intake rose. The results obtained corroborate previous reports on the effects of feeding dairy goats with increasing amounts of unsaturated plant lipids on milk FA profile. (Author)
Full Text Available Six hundred and thirty clinically-normal milk samples from dairy goat flocks comprising a mixed population of German Alpine, Toggenburg, Saanen and Galla crosses were exam-ined over a 3-month period to determine the prevalence of bacterial organisms. Bacteria were isolated in 28.7 % of the milk samples (181/630 either singly (92.8 % or in combination (7.2 %. The most prevalent bacterial organisms were Staphylococcus spp. (60.3 %, followed by Micrococcus spp. (17.7 %, Acinetobacter spp. (5 %, Actinomyces spp. (5% and Streptococcus spp. (1.1 %. The Staphylococcus spp. were mainly coagulase negative (64.3 %. Coagulase-- negative staphylococci and coagulase-positive staphylococci accounted for 37.5 % and 22.7 % respectively of the total bacteria isolated. The isolation of bacteria, some of which are important in clinical and subclinical mastitis, in apparently normal caprine milk, indicates that particular attention should be given to the management of these dairy goat flocks in order to avoid the development of cases of clinical mastitis.
Bontje, D.M.; Backer, J.A.; Roest, H.I.J.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Roermund, van H.J.W.
To analyse the disease dynamics in goat herds and to study the effect of control measures, a Q fever transmission model was developed by CVI. With such a model we can study questions like ‘What strategy can lower the incidence of Q fever in goats or even lead to disease extinction?’ and ‘Is
Full Text Available In the last decades many researches were made to change the milk product food’s composition. The production of better fat-compound milk and dairy products became a goal in the name of health conscious nutrition. Our researches were motivated by non-adequate milk fat’s compound. With the optimal supplement of the feed can be increased the proportion of the polyunsaturated fatty acids and can decreased the unsaturated fatty acids. The object of our experiment to study the effect of natural-based feed additives, such as oilseeds (whole linseed, extruded linseed, whole rapeseed on the fatty acid composition of milk fat. Further information was gained about of oilseeds in specific amounts to be fitted into technology of an intensive dairy farm in practice. The feed supplements were whole, untreated rapeseed and linseed and cold extruded linseed as a part of total mixed ration. The level of the processing of feed supplements affected the fatty acid composition of milk fat. The effect of full fat linseed feed supplement was more significant than that of the cold extruded linseed, in the increase of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, with special regard to the increase of the α-linolenic acid proportion. Out of the full fat oilseeds the feeding of full fat rapeseed did not result in a considerable change in the fatty acid composition of milk fat. After applying full fat linseed as feed supplement, the proportion of α-linolenic acid, a conjugated linoleic acid, an eicosadienoic acid and a docosapentaenoic acid increased in the fatty acid composition of milk fat, while the concentration of many saturated fatty acids reduced
Poddar, Kavita H; Hosig, Kathy W; Anderson-Bill, Eileen S; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M; Duncan, Susan E
Dairy intake by college students is markedly lower than recommendations. Interventions to improve dairy intake based on Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) have potential to successfully change behavior by improving mediators that influence dietary choices. We aimed to use SCT to improve social support, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, self-regulation, and behavior related to dairy intake in college students. We conducted a randomized nutrition education intervention. Participants included 211 college students (mean age 20.2 ± 0.1 years; 63% women and 37% men) recruited from a university campus. Participants in the intervention group (n=107) and comparison group (n=104) received an 8-week dairy intake or stress management intervention, respectively, via electronic mail. Data collection included dairy intake from 7-day food records and SCT variables from questionnaires administered during January 2008 and April 2008. Changes in dairy intake and SCT variables (ie, social support, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and self-regulation). Multivariate analysis of covariance, with age and sex as covariates (Peducation via electronic mail based on an SCT model improved total dairy intake and self-regulation. Participants reported increased dairy intake and better use of self-regulation strategies. Future interventions should focus on benefits of consuming low-fat vs higher-fat dairy foods. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McNamara, J P
The role of the dairy cow is to help provide high-quality protein and other nutrients for humans. We must select and manage cows with the goal of reaching the greatest possible efficiency for any given environment. We have increased efficiency tremendously over the years, yet the variation in productive and reproductive efficiency among animals is still quite large. In part this is because of a lack of full integration of genetic, nutritional, and reproductive biology into management decisions. However, integration across these disciplines is increasing as biological research findings show more specific control points at which genetics, nutrition, and reproduction interact. An ordered systems biology approach that focuses on why and how cells regulate energy and N use and on how and why organs interact by endocrine and neurocrine mechanisms will speed improvements in efficiency. More sophisticated dairy managers will demand better information to improve the efficiency of their animals. Using genetic improvement and proper animal management to improve milk productive and reproductive efficiency requires a deeper understanding of metabolic processes during the transition period. Using existing metabolic models, we can design experiments specifically to integrate new data from transcriptional arrays into models that describe nutrient use in farm animals. A systems modeling approach can help focus our research to make faster and large advances in efficiency and show directly how this can be applied on the farms.
Brasil, Luciana; Queiroz, Angela; Silva, Josevan; Bezerra, Taliana; Arcanjo, Narciza; Magnani, Marciane; Souza, Evandro; Madruga, Marta
Goat "sarapatel" is a product made from blood and viscera. For the first time, the microbiological and nutritional quality of "sarapatel" samples (n=48) sold under different conditions (in street markets, butcher shops, and supermarkets under refrigeration, frozen or at room temperature) was evaluated. Goat "sarapatel" is a nutritive food, with each 100 g providing, on average, 72 g of moisture, 2 g of ash, 18 g of protein, 9 g of lipids, 2 g of carbohydrates, 282 mg of cholesterol, and high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids and essential amino acids. The analysis of the "sarapatel" samples shows that none of them contain Salmonella spp. or L. monocytogenes. High counts (>104) of total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, and sulfite-reducing Clostridium were detected, and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was found in 31.25% of samples. The storage conditions evaluated (refrigeration, frozen or at room temperature) did not affect the physicochemical quality of the "sarapatel"; however, the unsatisfactory microbiological quality indicates that it is necessary to improve the health-sanitary aspects of the processing and sale of this product.
Toral, P G; Bernard, L; Belenguer, A; Rouel, J; Hervás, G; Chilliard, Y; Frutos, P
affected by the experimental diets (e.g., Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Succinivibrionaceae in the bovine, and Pseudobutryrivibrio, Clostridium cluster IV, Prevotella, and Veillonellaceae in the caprine), which hindered the assignation of bacterial populations to particular BH steps or pathways. Furthermore, most relevant variations in microbial groups corresponded to as yet uncultured bacteria and suggest that these microorganisms may play a predominant role in the ruminal lipid metabolism in both cows and goats. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nguyen Bao, Khanh Le; Sandjaja, Sandjaja; Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Huu, Chinh Nguyen; Sumedi, Edith; Aini, Jamil Nor; Senaprom, Sayamon; Deurenberg, Paul; Bragt, Marjolijn; Khouw, Ilse
Despite a major decrease in undernutrition worldwide over the last 25 years, underweight and stunting in children still persist as public health issues especially in Africa and Asia. Adequate nutrition is one of the key factors for healthy growth and development of children. In this study, the associations between dairy consumption and nutritional status in the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS) were investigated. National representative data of 12,376 children in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam aged between 1 and 12 years were pooled, representing nearly 88 million children in this age category. It was found that the prevalence of stunting and underweight was lower in children who consumed dairy on a daily basis (10.0% and 12.0%, respectively) compared to children who did not use dairy (21.4% and 18.0%, respectively) ( p diet plays an important role in growth and supports a healthy vitamin A and vitamin D status.
Diakoua, Anastasia; Anastasia, Diakou; Papadopoulos, Elias; Elias, Papadopoulos; Panousis, Nikolaos; Nikolaos, Panousis; Karatzias, Charilaos; Charilaos, Karatzias; Giadinis, Nektarios; Nektarios, Giadinis
Toxoplasma and Neospora infections are important causes of abortions and economic losses in animal production. Mixed stock farming of sheep and goats is a common practice in Mediterranean countries and could serve as a suitable model for the evaluation of differences between the two animal species regarding parasitic infections. In order to investigate the seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum among flocks of small ruminants in Greece and to evaluate any prevalence difference between sheep and goats kept in mixed flocks, 833 sera samples (458 sheep and 375 goats) from 50 mixed flocks in different areas of the country were examined by ELISA for the detection of specific antibodies. Specific IgG against T. gondii were detected in 53.71% and 61.3% and against N. caninum in 16.8% and 6.9% of the sheep and goats, respectively. Goats had higher Toxoplasma seroprevalence than sheep (pgoats (pgoats that are kept together in mixed flocks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
de Souza, Priscila Teixeira; Salles, Maria Gorete Flores; da Costa, Antônio Nélson Lima; Carneiro, Hilton Alexandre Vidal; de Souza, Leonardo Peres; Rondina, Davide; de Araújo, Airton Alencar
The aim of this work was to determine the adaptability of Saanen and ½Saanen × ½Anglo-Nubian (½S½AN) goats bred in tropical climates. The study included 30 goats, 15 Saanen and 15 ½S½AN. The data was collected during the rainy and dry seasons. During the whole experimental period, the environment variables were recorded, as well as rectal temperature (RT), superficial temperature (ST), respiratory rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) and milk production (MP). The adaptability coefficient (AC) was calculated for both genotypes. The averages were evaluated by ANOVA at 5 % probability. There was a genotype and period of year effect, as well as the interaction genotype × period of year. Pearson's simple correlation analysis was then carried out between milk production and physiological and environment variables. There was a statistical difference ( p goats, regardless of the season. MP was greater in the dry season ( p goats. Under the conditions of the present study, it is concluded that the goats were influenced by climatic factors, where the rainy period was more likely to cause thermal stress in the animals.
Cheng, Jianbo; Huang, Shuai; Fan, Caiyun; Zheng, Nan; Zhang, Yangdong; Li, Songli; Wang, Jiaqi
The purposes of this study were to investigate the systemic and characteristic metabolites in the serum of dairy goats induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure and to further understand the endogenous metabolic alterations induced by it. A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomic approach was used to analyse the metabolic alterations in dairy goats that were induced by low doses of AFB1 (50 µg/kg DM). We found that AFB1 exposure caused significant elevations of glucose, citrate, acetate, acetoacetate, betaine, and glycine yet caused reductions of lactate, ketone bodies (acetate, β-hydroxybutyrate), amino acids (citrulline, leucine/isoleucine, valine, creatine) and cell membrane structures (choline, lipoprotein, N-acetyl glycoproteins) in the serum. These data indicated that AFB1 caused endogenous metabolic changes in various metabolic pathways, including cell membrane-associated metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycolysis, lipids, and amino acid metabolism. These findings provide both a comprehensive insight into the metabolic aspects of AFB1-induced adverse effects on dairy goats and a method for monitoring dairy animals exposed to low doses of AFB1.
Full Text Available Mastitis is a major disease in dairy cows resulting in significant economic losses. In vitro works suggest that ruminants peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ can aid in improving the response to mastitis and can control milk fat synthesis. The objectives of the present experiment were to test if treatment with the putative PPARγ agonist 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD improves (1 the response to subclinical mastitis and (2 milk fat production. Lactating goats received daily injections of 8 mg/kg BW of TZD or saline for 3 weeks. After one week of TZD injection, half of the goats in each group received intramammary infusion of Strep. uberis or saline in both halves for a total of 4 groups (n=6/group. TZD treatment did not affect milk fat but had positive effect on milk somatic cells count, blood nonesterified fatty acids, inflammatory markers, and liver function. TZD significantly increased myeloperoxidase but did not affect leukocytes phagocytosis or insulin. TZD increased adipocytes size and had minor effect on expression of PPARγ target genes in mammary epithelial cells but not in adipose tissue. Overall, TZD ameliorated the response to intramammary infection but the effect on milk fat synthesis and expression of related transcripts was less than expected.
Ceglie, Letizia; Guerrini, Eulalia; Rampazzo, Erika; Barberio, Antonio; Tilburg, Jeroen J H C; Hagen, Ferry; Lucchese, Laura; Zuliani, Federica; Marangon, Stefano; Natale, Alda
Q fever is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii), an obligate intracellular bacterium. In ruminants, shedding into the environment mainly occurs during parturition or abortion, but the bacterium is shed also in milk, vaginal mucus, stools and urine. In Italy few surveys have been conducted and reported seroprevalence values ranged between 10% and 60%, even if few human cases have been described. Genotyping of bacteria is crucial for enhancing diagnostic methods and for epidemiological surveillance. The objective of this study was to investigate genotypic differences of C. burnetii genotypes directly in 34 samples, collected during a 3-years survey among 11 dairy cattle and 11 goat farms in the north-eastern part of Italy using a 6-locus multiple loci variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) method. The samples analysed included 13 bulk tank milk (BTM), 6 individual milk, 11 vaginal swabs and 4 foetal spleens. MLVA-type 2 was determined as the most prevalent in cattle in this study. C. burnetii strains circulating in the studied cattle population are very similar to genotypes previously described, while genotypes from goats showed an important variability. Further investigation are needed to understand the reason of this pattern. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Rodney, R M; Celi, P; Scott, W; Breinhild, K; Santos, J E P; Lean, I J
production was associated with longer time to pregnancy. Increased intake of some AA, particularly threonine and lysine, were associated with a longer calving to pregnancy interval. It is clear nutritional management around calving can influence reproductive success. The importance of dietary fats and increased energy and protein balances in early lactation for improved fertility outcomes is supported and suggests that starch and sugars may have different effects on the proportion of cows that are pregnant to AI. This work also highlighted a need for further focused field studies exploring the roles of specific fatty acids, AA, phosphorus, and carbohydrates on reproduction. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Torres, Alexandr; Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Morales-delaNuez, Antonio
Goats in Canary Islands are milked once a day by tradition, but in most countries with high technology on farms, goats are milked twice a day, which is known to improve milk yield. Therefore it is important to know whether the increase of milking frequency can improve the production without impai...... was returned to X2 and X1. Finally, quantitative analysis showed an increase in intensities of milk protein bands from X1 to X2, but the intensities of casein bands (αS1-CN, αS2-CN, β-CN, κ-CN) and major whey proteins (α-La, β-Lg) decreased from X2 to X3.......Goats in Canary Islands are milked once a day by tradition, but in most countries with high technology on farms, goats are milked twice a day, which is known to improve milk yield. Therefore it is important to know whether the increase of milking frequency can improve the production without...... impairing milk quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the short term effects of three milking frequencies on milk yield, milk composition, somatic cell count (SCC) and milk protein profile in dairy goats traditionally milked once a day. Twelve Majorera goats in early lactation (48±4 d...
Simon P Ginting
Full Text Available The availability of forages is a critical factor that determine the sustainability of the animal-plantation production system. In this typical production system, cover crops could be an important sources of forages to support the animal production. The study is aimed to evaluate the nutritional quality (chemical compositions, intake, digestibility and N balances of herbaceous legumes namely Arachis pintoi and Arachis glabrata having potential for used as alternative cover crops in plantation. Centerocema pubescens, a conventional cover crops used in plantation, was used as control. Twenty-one mature male goats (16-18 kg were used in this experiment. The animals were put in individual metabolism cages, divided into three groups (7 animal per group based on the body weight, and were randomly allocated into one of the three forages. The experiment was run in a Completely Randomized Design. The animals were allocated to an adaptation period for 14 days, followed by intake measurement for 5 days and fecal and urine collection for the next 7 days. During the fecal and urine collection forages were offered at 90% of the maximum intake. Chemical analyses showed that the DM and OM contents were relatively equal among the forages, but the crude protein content of C. pubescens (23.56% are relatively higher than those of A. pintoi (16.94% or of A. glabrata (15.19% The fiber (NDF content was also relatively higher in C. pubescens (59.37% than in A. pintoi (16.94% or A. glabrata (41.50%. The forage intake was highest (P0.05 between goats fed A. pintoi (466 g/d or A. glabrata (453 g/d. A similar trend was seen when intake was expressed as % BW (3.80, 3.50 and 3.40, respectively or as g/kg BW0.75 (42.4, 39.5 and 38.4, respectively. The digestion coeficient of DM (81.3% or OM (83.5% were highest (P0.05 between A. glabrata (71.9 and 73.2%, respectively and C. pubescens (73.7 and 74.2%, respectively. The trends were the same with the digestion coeficient of ADF
Ennis, M.E. Jr.
Radionuclide transfer coefficients of Tc to cows milk, goats milk, poultry meat, and eggs were determined. The mean cow milk transfer coefficients of /sup 99m/Tc and /sup 95m/Tc, administered as pertechnetate (TcO 4 - ), were 2.3 x 10 -5 and 1.4 x 10 -4 day/liter, respectively. The goat milk transfer coefficients of /sup 99m/Tc, /sup 95m/Tc, and 99 Tc, administered as pertechnetate (TcO 4 - ), were 1.5 x 10 -4 , 8.5 x 10 -4 , and 1.1 x 10 -2 day/liter, respectively. The differences between the goat milk transfer coefficients of the three isotopes were significant (p 4 - in the same goats. Egg (contents) and poultry meat transfer coefficients of Tc, administered as /sup 95m/TcO 4 - , were 3.0 day/kg and 3.3 x 10 -2 day/kg, respectively
McGuffey, R K
The first issue of the Journal of Dairy Science in 1917 opened with the text of the speech by Raymond A. Pearson, president of the Iowa State College of Agriculture, at the dedication of the new dairy building at the University of Nebraska (J. Dairy Sci. 1:4-18, 1917). Fittingly, this was the birth of a new research facility and more importantly, the beginning of a new journal devoted to the sciences of milk production and manufacture of products from milk. Metabolic modifiers of dairy cow metabolism enhance, change, or interfere with normal metabolic processes in the ruminant digestive tract or alter postabsorption partitioning of nutrients among body tissues. Papers on metabolic modifiers became more frequent in the journal around 1950. Dairy farming changed radically between 1955 and 1965. Changes in housing and feeding moved more cows outside, and cows and heifers in all stages of lactation, including the dry period, were fed as a single group. Rations became wetter with the shift to corn silage as the major forage in many rations. Liberal grain feeding met the requirements of high-producing cows and increased production per cow but introduced new challenges; for example, managing and feeding cows as a group. These changes led to the introduction of new strategies that identified and expanded the use of metabolic modifiers. Research was directed at characterizing the new problems for the dairy cow created by group feeding. Metabolic modifiers went beyond feeding the cow and included environmental and housing factors and additives to reduce the incidence and severity of many new conditions and pathologies. New collaborations began among dairy cattle specialties that broadened our understanding of the workings of the cow. The Journal of Dairy Science then and now plays an enormously important role in dissemination of the findings of dairy scientists worldwide that address existing and new technologies. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association
McLaren, A; Mucha, S; Mrode, R; Coffey, M; Conington, J
Conformation traits are of interest to many dairy goat breeders not only as descriptive traits in their own right, but also because of their influence on production, longevity, and profitability. If these traits are to be considered for inclusion in future dairy goat breeding programs, relationships between them and production traits such as milk yield must be considered. With the increased use of regression models to estimate genetic parameters, an opportunity now exists to investigate correlations between conformation traits and milk yield throughout lactation in more detail. The aims of this study were therefore to (1) estimate genetic parameters for conformation traits in a population of crossbred dairy goats, (2) estimate correlations between all conformation traits, and (3) assess the relationship between conformation traits and milk yield throughout lactation. No information on milk composition was available. Data were collected from goats based on 2 commercial goat farms during August and September in 2013 and 2014. Ten conformation traits, relating to udder, teat, leg, and feet characteristics, were scored on a linear scale (1-9). The overall data set comprised data available for 4,229 goats, all in their first lactation. The population of goats used in the study was created using random crossings between 3 breeds: British Alpine, Saanen, and Toggenburg. In each generation, the best performing animals were selected for breeding, leading to the formation of a synthetic breed. The pedigree file used in the analyses contained sire and dam information for a total of 30,139 individuals. The models fitted relevant fixed and random effects. Heritability estimates for the conformation traits were low to moderate, ranging from 0.02 to 0.38. A range of positive and negative phenotypic and genetic correlations between the traits were observed, with the highest correlations found between udder depth and udder attachment (0.78), teat angle and teat placement (0
Schoder, Dagmar; Melzner, Daniela; Schmalwieser, Alois; Zangana, Abdoulla; Winter, Petra; Wagner, Martin
The aim of this study was to determine the transmission routs of Listeria spp. in dairy farms manufacturing fresh cheese made from ovine and caprine raw milk and to evaluate the impact of Listeria monocytogenes mastitis on raw milk contamination. Overall, 5,799 samples, including 835 environmental samples, 230 milk and milk product samples, and 4,734 aseptic half-udder foremilk samples were collected from 53 dairy farms in the dairy intensive area of Lower Austria. Farms were selected for the study because raw milk was processed to cheese that was sold directly to consumers. A total of 153 samples were positive for Listeria spp., yielding an overall prevalence of 2.6%; L. monocytogenes was found in 0.9% of the samples. Bulk tank milk, cheese, and half-udder samples were negative for Listeria spp. Because none of the sheep and goats tested positive from udder samples, L. monocytogenes mastitis was excluded as a significant source of raw milk contamination. L. monocytogenes was detected at 30.2% of all inspected farms. Swab samples from working boots and fecal samples had a significantly higher overall prevalence (P < 0.001) of L. monocytogenes (15.7 and 13.0%, respectively) than did swab samples from the milk processing environment (7.9%). A significant correlation was found between the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the animal and in the milk processing environment and the silage feeding practices. Isolation of L. monocytogenes was three to seven times more likely from farms where silage was fed to animals throughout the year than from farms where silage was not fed to the animals.
Rajkumar, V; Das, Arun K; Verma, Arun K
An attempt was made through the present study to develop meat based functional food by incorporating almond nut at two different 2.5 and 5 % (Formulation 1 and 2) levels and observe its impact on the different quality attributes against control goat meat nuggets. Almond improved (P Product with 2.5 % almond had higher (P products, whereas expressible water was lower. Emulsion and products pH values increased with the addition of almond. Emulsion and products with almond had higher (P products did not differ significantly. Percent SFAs decreased (P products. Almond incorporation can be a very good approach to enhance nutritional profile of the meat products without affecting acceptability.
Danieli, P P; Ronchi, B
Recent reports on livestock environmental impact based on life cycle assessment (LCA) did not fully consider the case of the dairy goat. Assignment of an environmental impact (e.g. global warming potential) to a specific product needs to be related to the appropriate 'unitary amount' or functional unit (FU). For milk, the energy content may provide a common basis for a definition of the FU. To date, no ad hoc formulations for the FU of goat milk have been proposed. For these reasons, this study aimed to develop and test one or more predictive models (DPMs) for the gross energy (GE) content of goat milk, based on published compositional data, such as fat (F), protein, total solids (TS), solid non-fat matter (SNF), lactose (Lac) and ash. The DPMs were developed, selected and tested using a linear regression approach, as a meta-analysis (i.e. meta-regression) was not applicable. However, in the final stage, a control procedure for spurious findings was carried out using a Monte Carlo permutation test. Because several published predictive models (PPMs) for GE in cow milk and goat milk were found in the literature, they were tested on the same data set with which the DPMs were developed. The best-performing DPMs and PPMs were compared directly with a subset of the individual data retrieved from the literature. Overall, the paucity of direct measurements of the GE in goat milk was a limiting factor in collecting data from the literature; thus, only a small data set (n=26) was established, even though it was considered sufficiently representative of milks from different goat breeds. The three best PPMs based on F alone gave more biased estimates of the GE content of the goat milk than the three new DPMs based on F, F and SNF and F and TS, respectively. Accordingly, three different formulations of FU are proposed, depending on the availability of data including both F and TS (or F and SNF) or F alone. Even though several metrics can be used in defining the FU for milk to
Sardaro, Ruggiero; Pieragostini, Elisa; Rubino, Giuseppe; Petazzi, Ferruccio
A recent study on paratubercolosis in semi-extensive dairy sheep and goat farms in Apulia revealed a flock positivity of 60.5% and a seroprevalence of 3.0% for sheep and 14.5% for goat, with peaks of 50%. In such a context, providing detailed economic information is crucial for the implementation of a suitable control plan. In this paper we investigated the impact of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) on profit efficiency of the Apulian dairy sheep and goat farms. Empirical results through a stochastic frontier model showed that the uninfected farms had a mean level of profit efficiency of 84%, which dropped to 64% in the presence of paratubercolosis as it negatively affected the productivity of feeding, veterinary and labour factors. Structural, managerial and production aspects were involved in the greater inefficiency of the infected farms compared to the uninfected ones: lower experience and schooling of farmers, no access to credit, fewer family members (women in particular) participating in the farming activities, high density of animals per hectare, small flocks, high number of goats in mixed flocks, no confinement practices for young and purchased animals and no pasture rotation. Hence, targeted interventions on these factors by decision makers can ensure effectiveness and efficiency to veterinary and economic action plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liesegang, A; Risteli, J; Wanner, M
The goal of the present study was to compare mobilization rate of calcium (Ca) from bone in pregnant and lactating goats and sheep. Blood samples were collected from goats and sheep monthly during pregnancy and at 1, 2, and 4 weeks postpartum (pp) and monthly during lactation until 6 months after parturition. Total bone mineral content (BMC) and total bone mineral density (BMD) were quantified using peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the same intervals as the blood was taken. Bone resorption was assessed by immunoassays quantitating two epitopes of the carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP, CTX). Bone formation was estimated by quantifying serum osteocalcin (OC) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bAP). In addition, Ca and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25-VITD) concentrations were determined in serum. Mean ICTP and CTX concentrations of both animal species increased the first week after parturition. By the second week pp, the concentrations of both markers had decreased toward early gestation levels. In contrast, mean OC concentrations continually decreased until the 1st week pp. By the 2nd week pp, the mean concentrations of OC started to increase again. Mean bAP activities decreased during gestation and reached a nadir in the first week pp in goats and 4 weeks pp in sheep. Afterwards, mean bAP activities increased again in goats and sheep. 1,25-VITD concentrations peaked the first week pp and returned to early gestation values thereafter. Total BMC and BMD decreased from the 4th month of pregnancy until the 1st week pp in both species. Afterwards, BMC increased throughout the first month pp in goats and the first 3 months pp in sheep. BMD levels of sheep and goats returned to prepartum levels during lactation. The resorptive phase of bone remodeling is accelerated at parturition and in early lactation and is uncoupled from the process of bone formation. This allows the animal to achieve Ca homeostasis at the expense of bone. Increased
Dijkstra, Frederika; van der Hoek, Wim; Wijers, Nancy; Schimmer, Barbara; Rietveld, Ariene; Wijkmans, Clementine J; Vellema, Piet; Schneeberger, Peter M
We describe the Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands with emphasis on the epidemiological characteristics of acute Q fever patients and the association with veterinary factors. Data from 3264 notifications for acute Q fever in the period from 2007 through 2009 were analysed. The patients most affected were men, smokers and persons aged 40–60 years. Pneumonia was the most common clinical presentation (62% in 2007 and 2008). Only 3.2% of the patients were working in the agriculture sector and 0.5% in the meat-processing industry including abattoirs. Dairy goat farms with Coxiella burnetii-induced abortion waves were mainly located in the same area where human cases occurred. Airborne transmission of contaminated dust particles from commercial dairy goat farms in densely populated areas has probably caused this epidemic. In 2010, there was a sharp decline in the number of notified cases following the implementation of control measures on dairy goat and sheep farms such as vaccination, hygiene measures and culling of pregnant animals on infected farms. In combination with a rise in the human population with antibodies against C. burnetii, these have most likely ended the outbreak. Development of chronic Q fever in infected patients remains an important problem for years to come.
Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues Silva
Full Text Available t The aim of this survey was to determine the prevalence of anti-pestivirus antibodies in dairy goats from the semiarid region of the Paraíba state, Northeastern Brazil, as well as to identify risk factors associated with the flock-level prevalence. A total of 1,092 dairy goats from 110 flocks randomly selected in the county of Monteiro, Paraíba state, during March 2009 to March 2010, were used. In each selected flock a epidemiological questionnaire was applied to verify the occurrence of possible factors that could be associated with the flock-level prevalence. For the serological diagnosis of Pestivirus infection the serum neutralization test, using the BVDV-1 NADL strain, was carried out. Flock-level prevalence was 6.36% (95% CI = 2.60% – 12.67% and animal-level prevalence was 0.82% (95% CI = 0.38% – 1.56%. Not to perform vermifugation (odds ratio = 10.49; p = 0.035 and to perform navel cut and disinfection (odds ratio = 12.73; p = 0.034 were identified as risk factors. These results indicate viral circulation in dairy goats in the semiarid region of the Paraíba state.
Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Li, Mao; Shi, Liguang; Huang, Xianzhou; Guan, Song
This study assessed the effects of different nutrition levels of diets on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Hainan black goat. Twenty-four goats were divided into six diet treatments, which consisted of two levels of crude protein (CP; 15 and 17 %) and three levels of digestive energy (DE; 11.72, 12.55, and 13.39 MJ/kg). The results revealed that 17 % CP significantly (P 0.05) on carcass characteristics of the goats. The mRNA expression levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 in muscle tissues increased with increasing CP and DE levels (P < 0.05).
Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P
The objective of this trial was to study the interaction between the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) and feeding level to test if milk performance or milk fatty acid (FA) profile are affected by the interaction between CLA and feeding level. Twenty-four dairy goats were used in an 8-wk trial with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental ration that contained corn silage, beet pulp, barley, and a commercial concentrate. During the third week, goats were assigned into blocks of 2 goats according to their dry matter intake (DMI), raw milk yield, and fat yield. Each block was randomly allocated to control (45 g of Ca salt of palm oil/d) or CLA treatment. Within each block, one goat was fed to cover 100% (FL100) of the calculated energy requirements and the other was fed 85% of the DMI of the first goat (FL85). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 3, 5, and 7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduced milk fat content and fat yield by 17 and 19%, respectively, independent of the feeding level. It reduced both the secretion of milk FA synthesized de novo, and those taken up from the blood. No interaction between CLA and feeding level was observed on milk secretion of any group of FA. The CLA supplementation had no effect on DMI, milk yield, protein, and lactose yields but it improved calculated net energy for lactation balance. Goats fed the FL100 × CLA diet tended to have the highest DMI and protein yield. The interaction between CLA and feeding level was not significant for any other variables. Compared with the goats fed FL100, those fed FL85 had lower DMI, lower net energy for lactation balance, and lower digestible protein in the intestine balance. The body weight; milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; and fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents in milk were not affected by
Ventura-Cordero, J; González-Pech, P G; Jaimez-Rodriguez, P R; Ortiz-Ocampo, G I; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Torres-Acosta, J F J
Previous cafeteria studies suggested that a moderate natural gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection did not modify the resource selection of adult Criollo goats towards tannin-rich plants compared with worm-free goats. A higher infection with Haemonchus contortus could trigger a change in the resource selection behaviour towards tannin-rich foliage. Alternatively, goats might select plant species solely to meet their nutritional requirements. A cafeteria study investigated the effect of a high artificial infection with H. contortus on the feed resource selection of goats. Adult Criollo goats (37.5±4.8 kg BW) with browsing experience were distributed in two groups: the infected group (IG) with six animals artificially infected with H. contortus (6000 L3/animal); and the non-infected group (NIG) with six animals maintained worm-free. The experiment included two 5-day periods with additional 5-day adaptation period. In the first period, animals were offered foliage of five plant species with a decreasing gradient of condensed tannins (CT) (Mimosa bahamensis, Gymnopodium floribundum, Havardia albicans, Acacia pennatula, Lysiloma latisiliqum), and three plant species with negligible CT content (Leucaena leucocephala, Piscidia piscipula and Brosimum alicastrum). In the second period the foliage of B. alicastrum was withdrawn. A grain-based concentrate feed was offered daily at 1% BW in DM basis. Dry matter and nutrient intake was determined. Foliage selection of each experimental group was determined using the Chesson selection index. The H. contortus egg count per gram of faeces (EPG) was determined for infected goats twice daily. Chesson index showed a similar pattern of foliage selection on periods 1 and 2. Mean EPG of goats in IG was 2028±259 EPG during period 1 and 1 293±198 EPG during period 2 (P>0.05). During period 1, the selection pattern was highest for B. alicastrum (tannin-free), followed by a tannin-rich plant (M. bahamensis). These two plants remained
Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Shi, Liguang; Li, Mao; Huang, Xianzhou; Guan, Song
The present study investigated the effects of the nutritional levels of diets on meat quality and related gene expression in Hainan black goat. Twenty-four goats were divided into six dietary treatments and were fed a concentrate-based diet with two levels of crude protein (CP) (15% or 17%) and three levels of digestive energy (DE) (11.72, 12.55 or 13.39 MJ/kg DM) for 90 days. Goats fed the concentrate-based diet with 17% CP had significantly (P meat quality and expression levels of genes associated with meat quality in Hainan black goats. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Bergillos-Meca, Triana; Giménez-Martínez, Rafael; Sánchez-Hernández, Silvia; Olalla-Herrera, Manuel
The benefits of goat milk, fermented milks, and probiotics for the humans are well documented. In this study, a novel fermented goat milk was manufactured with the putative probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum C4 together with L. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus . Ultrafiltration was chosen as the skimmed milk concentration method because it produced the best viscosity and syneresis and a high casein content. The viability rate of all bacterial strains was >10⁷ cfu/mL, even after 5 weeks of storage or after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, which is especially important for exertion of the probiotic strain functionalities. This fermented milk is also a good source of nutrients, having a low lactose and fat content, high protein proportion, and good mineral concentration. According to these data and the overall acceptability described by panelists, this fermented milk is a healthy dairy product comparable with commercially available fermented milks.
Cériac, S; Jayles, C; Arquet, R; Feuillet, D; Félicité, Y; Archimède, H; Bambou, J-C
Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) remains the most important pathogenic constraint of small ruminant production worldwide. The improvement of the host immune response against GIN though breeding for improved animal resistance, vaccination and nutritional supplementation appear as very promising methods. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of four nutritional status differing in protein and energy levels (Hay: 5.1 MJ/Kg of dry matter (DM) and 7.6% of crude protein (CP), Ban: 8.3 MJ/Kg of DM and 7.5% of CP, Soy: 7.6 MJ/Kg of DM and 17.3% of CP, BS: 12.7 MJ/Kg of DM and 7.4% of CP) on the haematological disturbances due to Haemonchus contortus infection in Creole kid goats. No significant effect of the nutritional status was observed for faecal egg count (FEC) but the experimental infection induced haematological disturbances whose intensity and lengthening were dependent on the nutritional status. A transient marked regenerative macrocytic hypochromic anaemia as revealed by a decrease of packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cells (RBC) and hemoglobin and an increase of reticulocytes was observed in all infected groups except Hay. In this latter, the anaemia settled until the end of the experiment. Furthermore, H. contortus induced a thrombocytopenia significantly more pronounced in the group under the lowest nutritional status in term of protein (Hay and Ban). A principal component analysis revealed that the variables that discriminated the nutritional status were the average daily gain (ADG) and the PCV, considered as measures of the level of resilience to H. contortus infection. Moreover, the variables that discriminated infected and non-infected animals were mostly related to the biology of RBC (i.e. size and hemoglobin content) and they were correlated with FEC. The severity and the lengthening of the regenerative anaemia and the thrombocytopenia induced by H. contortus have been affected by the nutritional status. The protein enriched
Tzanidakis, Nikolaos; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Claerebout, Edwin; Ehsan, Amimul; Voutzourakis, Nikolaos; Kostopoulou, Despoina; Stijn, Casaert; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geurden, Thomas
Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are gastro-intestinal protozoa known to infect small ruminants. Both protozoa are also considered as a potential public health concern. The objective of this study was to determine their prevalence in lambs and goat kids kept under common Mediterranean dairy husbandry systems and to identify the species and genotypes infecting these small ruminants. In total, 684 faecal samples (429 from lambs and 255 from goat kids) were collected on 21 farms in Greece and examined using a quantitative immunofluorescence assay. G. duodenalis was detected in 37.3% of the lambs and 40.4% of the goat kids. On all but one of the farms G. duodenalis was detected. Most samples were typed as a mono-infection with G. duodenalis assemblage E, both on the β-giardin gene and the triose phosphate isomerase gene. Only 10% of samples were typed as mixed assemblage A and E infections. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 5.1% in lambs and 7.1% in goat kids. In total, 8 out of the 14 farms with a sheep flock and 7 out of the 14 farms with a goat flock were positive. Cryptosporidium parvum (subtype IId), C. ubiquitum and C. xiaoi were identified, the latter especially in goat kids. In conclusion, the results of the present study illustrate that G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. occur frequently on both sheep and goats farms. The prevalence of zoonotic genotypes or species was low, indicating a limited but existing risk for zoonotic infections. PMID:25187088
Nassul S Kabunga
Full Text Available The promotion of livestock production is widely believed to support enhanced diet quality and child nutrition, but the empirical evidence for this causal linkage remains narrow and ambiguous. This study examines whether adoption of improved dairy cow breeds is linked to farm-level outcomes that translate into household-level benefits including improved child nutrition outcomes in Uganda. Using nationwide data from Uganda's National Panel Survey, propensity score matching is used to create an unbiased counterfactual, based on observed characteristics, to assess the net impacts of improved dairy cow adoption. All estimates were tested for robustness and sensitivity to variations in observable and unobservable confounders. Results based on the matched samples showed that households adopting improved dairy cows significantly increased milk yield-by over 200% on average. This resulted in higher milk sales and milk intakes, demonstrating the potential of this agricultural technology to both integrate households into modern value chains and increase households' access to animal source foods. Use of improved dairy cows increased household food expenditures by about 16%. Although undernutrition was widely prevalent in the study sample and in matched households, the adoption of improved dairy cows was associated with lower child stunting in adopter household. In scale terms, results also showed that holding larger farms tends to support adoption, but that this also stimulates the household's ability to achieve gains from adoption, which can translate into enhanced nutrition.
Salah, N; Sauvant, D; Archimède, H
The objective of the study was to update energy and protein requirements of growing sheep, goats and cattle in warm areas through a meta-analysis study of 590 publications. Requirements were expressed on metabolic live weight (MLW=LW0.75) and LW1 basis. The maintenance requirements for energy were 542.64 and 631.26 kJ ME/kg LW0.75 for small ruminants and cattle, respectively, and the difference was significant (Ptropical climate appeared to have higher ME requirements for maintenance relative to live weight (LW) compared with temperate climate ones and cattle. Maintenance requirements for protein were estimated via two approaches. For these two methods, the data in which retained nitrogen (RN) was used cover the same range of variability of observations. The regression of digestible CP intake (DCPI, g/kg LW0.75) against RN (g/kg LW0.75) indicated that DCP requirements are significantly higher in sheep (3.36 g/kg LW0.75) than in goats (2.38 g/kg LW0.75), with cattle intermediate (2.81 g/kg LW0.75), without any significant difference in the quantity of DCPI/g retained CP (RCP) (40.43). Regressing metabolisable protein (MP) or minimal digestible protein in the intestine (PDImin) against RCP showed that there was no difference between species and genotypes, neither for the intercept (maintenance=3.51 g/kg LW0.75 for sheep and goat v. 4.35 for cattle) nor for the slope (growth=0.60 g MP/g RCP). The regression of DCP against ADG showed that DCP requirements did not differ among species or genotypes. These new feeding standards are derived from a wider range of nutritional conditions compared with existing feeding standards as they are based on a larger database. The standards seem to be more appropriate for ruminants in warm and tropical climates around the world.
Bimbo, Francesco; Bonanno, Alessandro; Nocella, Giuseppe; Viscecchia, Rosaria; Nardone, Gianluca; Devitiis, De Biagia; Carlucci, Domenico
This systematic literature review collects and summarizes research on consumer acceptance and preferences for nutrition-modified and functional dairy products, to reconcile, and expand upon, the findings of previous studies. We find that female consumers show high acceptance for some functional
Ismail, Magdy Mohamed; Hamad, Mohamed Farid; Elraghy, Esraa Mohamed
Stirred yogurt manufactured using probiotic culture which usually called Rayeb milk in the Middle East region is one of the most important functional fermented milk products. To increase the health and functionality properties to this product, some ingredients like fruits, cereal, and whey protein are used in production. This study was carried out to prepare functional Rayeb milk from goat's milk, barley flour (15%) and honey (4%) mixtures using ABT culture. Also, vanilla and cocoa powder were used as flavorings. Adding barley flour and honey to goat's milk increased curd tension and water-holding capacity and decreased coagulation time and susceptibility to syneresis. The values of carbohydrate, total solids, dietary fiber, ash, total protein, water soluble nitrogen, total volatile fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic acids, and antioxidant activity were higher in Rayeb milk supplemented with barley flour and honey than control. The viabilities of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Chr. Hansen's Lab A/S) increased in fortified Rayeb milk. The recommended level of 10 7 cfu g -1 of bifidobacteria as a probiotic was exceeded for these samples. Addition of vanilla (0.1%) or cocoa powder (0.5%) improved the sensory properties of fortified Rayeb milk.
Full Text Available The influence of rumen-protected choline and vitamin E administration on status of folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin E and selected liver components was studied on 4 groups of 12 periparturient dairy goats: control, CTR; choline supplemented, RPC; vitamin E, VITE; choline and vitamin E, RPCE. Plasma folate did not differ between groups, except at parturition when RPC and RPCE goats had higher folate levels than CTR and VITE animals. Neither RPC nor vitamin E affected vitamin B12 plasma concentrations, while a time effect was observed after the third week of lactation, when B12 levels in each group started to increase. Alpha-tocopherol supplementation was associated with increased plasma a-tocopherol in the VITE and RPCE compared to the CRT and RPC groups, while RPC supplementation did not affect a-tocopherol levels in both RPC and RPCE groups compared to CTR and VITE ones. In control and RPC goats liver total lipid did not differ, while DNA contents and their ratio, were respectively higher and lower in RPC supplemented animals. Overall these results suggest that greater choline availability seems to be essential for optimising metabolic health and methyl group status, in dairy ruminants.
Gökdal, Özdal; Özuǧur, Ali Kemali; Eren, Vadullah; Atay, Okan
The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibilities of using individual birth weight of kids as weaning criteria in Saanen and Alpine goats under intensive conditions. A total of 24 does and their 40 kids were divided to weaning groups when the kids reached three (X3) or four times (X4) of their individual birth weights. The experiment design was a 2×2 factorial design with two weaning stages (X3 vs X4) and two breeds (S: Saanen and A: Alpine). The averages of weaning age of the SX3, AX3, SX4 and AX4 kids were determined as 42.75, 42.21, 53.15 and 65.81 days, respectively. The weaning groups and the interaction between weaning and breed had significant effects (Pgoats under intensive conditions.
Fernando B. Lopes
Full Text Available Brazil has high climate, soil and environmental diversity, as well as distinct socioeconomic and political realities, what results in differences among the political administrative regions of the country. The objective of this study was to determine spatial distribution of the physical, climatic and socioeconomic aspects that best characterize the production of dairy goats in Brazil. Production indices of milk per goat, goat production, milk production, as well as temperature range, mean temperature, precipitation, normalized difference vegetation index, relative humidity, altitude, agricultural farms; farms with native pasture, farms with good quality pasture, farms with water resources, farms that receive technical guidance, family farming properties, non-familiar farms and the human development index were evaluated. The multivariate analyses were carried out to spatialize climatic, physical and socioeconomic variables and so differenciate the Brazilian States and Regions. The highest yields of milk and goat production were observed in the Northeast. The Southeast Region had the second highest production of milk, followed by the South, Midwest and North. Multivariate analysis revealed distinctions between clusters of political-administrative regions of Brazil. The climatic variables were most important to discriminate between regions of Brazil. Therefore, it is necessary to implement animal breeding programs to meet the needs of each region.
Martínez Marín, A L; Gómez-Cortés, P; Carrión Pardo, D; Núñez Sánchez, N; Gómez Castro, G; Juárez, M; Pérez Alba, L; Pérez Hernández, M; de la Fuente, M A
A crossover experiment was designed to compare the effects of 2 ways of feeding linseed oil on milk fat fatty acid (FA) composition. Ten lactating goats, trained to keep competent their inborn reticular groove reflex, received a daily dose of linseed oil (38 g/d) either with their solid (concentrate) feed (CON) or emulsified in skim milk and bottle-fed (BOT). Two groups of 5 goats received alternative and successively each of the treatments in two 15-d periods. α-Linolenic acid in milk fat rose up to 13.7% in the BOT versus 1.34% in the CON treatment. The n-6 to n-3 FA ratio was significantly reduced in goats receiving bottle-fed linseed oil (1.49 vs. 0.49). Contents of rumen biohydrogenation intermediates of dietary unsaturated FA were high in milk fat of goats under the CON treatment but low in those in the BOT treatment. These results point to a clear rumen bypass of the bottle-fed linseed oil. This strategy allows obtaining milk fat naturally very rich in n-3 FA and very low in trans FA. Translating this approach into practical farm conditions could enable farmers to produce milk enriched in specific FA. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Consuming a balanced diet, such as the food groups represented on MyPlate, is key to improving health disparities. Despite the best of intentions, however, the dietary guidelines can be culturally challenging, particularly when it comes to dairy consumption. Many African and Hispanic Americans avoid milk and dairy products—key contributors of three shortfall nutrients (calcium, potassium and vitamin D—because many people in these populations believe they are lactose intolerant. However, avoiding dairy can have significant health effects. An emerging body of evidence suggests that yogurt and other dairy products may help support reduced risk of heart disease, hypertension, obesity, and type 2 diabetes—conditions that disproportionately impact people of color. For this reason, the National Medical Association and the National Hispanic Medical Association issued a joint consensus statement recommending African Americans consume three to four servings of low-fat dairy every day. Cultured dairy products could play an important role in addressing these recommendations. Because of the presence of lactase-producing cultures, yogurt is often a more easily digestible alternative to milk, and thus more palatable to people who experience symptoms of lactose intolerance. This was a key factor cited in the final rule to include yogurt in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Behluli, Behlul; Musliu, Arben; Sherifi, Kurtesh; Youngs, Curtis R.; Rexhepi, Agim
The aim of the present study was to identify nutritional risk factors for the occurrence of displaced abomasum (DA) in Holstein dairy cattle raised in regions with highly variable nutritional management. Feeding program data were collected from 30 dairy farms throughout Kosovo via use of a standardized questionnaire, and an AgriNIR™ Analyser was used to analyze the nutrient composition of forage (hay, corn silage) fed to cattle on those farms. A diagnosis of DA was made via auscultation/percu...
Song, Wencong; Mu, Hailong; Wu, Jiang; Liao, Mingzhi; Zhu, Haijing; Zheng, Liming; He, Xin; Niu, Bowen; Zhai, Yuanxin; Bai, Chunling; Lei, Anmin; Li, Guangpeng; Hua, Jinlian
The balance between the self-renewal and differentiation of male germline stem cells (mGSCs) is critical for the initiation and maintenance of mammalian spermatogenesis. The promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF), a zinc finger protein, is a critical factor for maintaining the self-renewal of mGSCs, so, evaluation of the PLZF pathway in mGSCs may provide a deeper insight into mammalian spermatogenesis. miRNA was also an important regulating factor for the self-renewal and differentiation of mGSCs; however, there is currently no data indicating that which miRNA regulate the self-renewal and differentiation of mGSCs via PLZF. Here, we predicted the prospective miRNA targeting to PLZF using the online Bioinformatics database-Targetscan, and performed an analysis of the dual-luciferase recombinant vector, psiCHCEKTM-2-PLZF-3'UTR. miR-544 mimics (miR-544m), miR-544 inhibitors (miR-544i), Control (NC, scrambled oligonucleotides transfection), pPLZF-IRES2-EGFP or PLZF siRNA were transfected into mGSCs; the cells proliferation was evaluated by BRDU incorporation assay and flow cytometry, and the mGSC marker, GFRa1, PLZF, KIT, DAZL, and VASA expression were analyzed by RT-qPCR, immunofluorescence and Western blot. The results showed that miR-544 regulates dairy goat male germline stem cell self-renewal via targeting PLZF. Our study identifies a new regulatory pathway for PLZF and expands upon the PLZF regulatory network in mGSCs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available To estimate the effect of microencapsulated fish oil on blood metabolites, rumen and blood plasma fatty acids concentrations twelve Sannan dairy goats with 30 ± 5 days in milk (DIM were allocated to 3 treatments in a 3×2 change over design with 2 periods of 30 days. Treatments were: 1 the control (without fish oil, 2 microencapsulated fish oil (2% fish oil capsulated in 6% treated whey protein concentrate, 3 fish oil (2% fish oil and 6% whey protein concentrate. Concentration of C18:0 in the rumen for microencapsulated fish oil decreased significantly in comparison with the control. The same manner was observed in goat’s blood plasma for microencapsulated fish oil. Microencapsulated fish oil led to a significant increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids concentration, hence concentration of C18:3, C20:5 EPA, C22:5 DPA and C22:6 DHA as a source of ω3 fatty acids increased 10, 20, 10 and 13 folds in comparison with the control and 10, 20, 2 and 2.5 folds in comparison with the fish oil treatment, respectively. HDL concentration in protected fish oil was significantly higher than that for the control and unprotected fish oil treatments. It seems that fish oil supplementation caused significant changes in blood fatty acids composition of ruminants as well as ω3 fatty acids in their products. Significant increase of ω3 fatty acids in blood plasma of microencapsulated fish oil treatment showed the protective effect of capsulation against rumen microbial biohydrogenation.
Full Text Available Background: Obesity and cardiovascular heart diseases are growing problems in the United States. This is partially due to the consumption of the primary red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E and can be utilized as a binder in meat and meat products. Methods: Goat meat/beef sausages were formulated to contain either 50/50, 75/25 or 100/0 percent goat meat/beef, with either no added rice bran (NRB or 3 percent stabilized rice bran (RB. Proximate analysis, fatty acids, -tocopherol and cholesterol concentrations of the six cooked formulations were determined. The six sausage formulations were compared in a consumer acceptability taste test. Results: The fat concentration of the NRB and RB formulations decreased linearly with increasing percentages of goat meat (p < 0.001. The sum of the saturated fatty acids decreased linearly with increasing percentages of goat meat (p < 0.01. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid and conjugated linoleic acid concentrations increased linearly (p < 0.05 with increasing percentages of goat meat in both the NRB and RB sausage formulations. The α-tocopherol concentration of the NRB formulations did not change across the goat meat percentages, but in the RB formulations it increased linearly with increasing percentages of goat meat (p < 0.001. The cholesterol concentration decreased linearly with increasing percentages of goat meat in both the NRB and RB formulations (p <0.01, < 0.05 respectively. The tasters preferred the NRB with higher goat meat percentage to the RB formulations. Conclusions: The NRB and RB sausage formulations with higher percentages of goat meat had higher concentrations of -tocopherol, CLA (18:2 cis 9 Trans 11, total n-3, total PUFA, total n-3/total n-6 ratio, and a lower cholesterol concentration. The RB sausage formulations with higher
Tsiplakou, Eleni; Kotrotsios, Vaios; Hadjigeorgiou, Ioannis; Zervas, George
The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference in chemical composition and particularly in fatty acid (FA) profile, with emphasis on cis-9, trans-11 CLA, of milk obtained from conventional and organic dairy sheep and goats farms under the farming conditions practiced in Greece. Four dairy sheep and four dairy goat farms, representing common conventional production systems and another four dairy sheep and four dairy goat farms, organically certified, representing organic production and feeding systems were selected from all over Greece. One hundred and sixty two individual milk samples were collected from those farms in January-February 2009, about three months after parturition. The milk samples were analyzed for their main chemical constituents and their FA profile. The results showed that the production system affected milk chemical composition: in particular fat content was lower in the organic sheep and goats milk compared with the corresponding conventional. Milk from organic sheep had higher content in MUFA, PUFA, alpha-LNA, cis-9, trans-11 CLA, and omega-3 FA, whereas in milk from organic goats alpha-LNA and omega-3 FA content was higher than that in conventional one. These differences are, mainly, attributed to different feeding practices used by the two production systems. The results of this study show that the organic milk produced under the farming conditions practiced in Greece has higher nutritional value, due to its FA profile, compared with the respective conventional milk.
Krupa-Kozak, Urszula; Bączek, Natalia; Rosell, Cristina M.
Effect of dairy proteins on gluten-free dough behavior, and nutritional and technological properties of gluten-free bread was evaluated. Experimental doughs, containing dairy powders, showed low consistency. Obtained gluten-free breads were rich in proteins, and, regarding the energy value delivered by proteins, they could be considered as a source of proteins or high in proteins. Applied dairy proteins affected the technological properties of experimental breads causing a significant (p bread with beneficial effects on technological and nutritional properties. PMID:24241213
Cristina M. Rosell
Full Text Available Effect of dairy proteins on gluten-free dough behavior, and nutritional and technological properties of gluten-free bread was evaluated. Experimental doughs, containing dairy powders, showed low consistency. Obtained gluten-free breads were rich in proteins, and, regarding the energy value delivered by proteins, they could be considered as a source of proteins or high in proteins. Applied dairy proteins affected the technological properties of experimental breads causing a significant (p < 0.05 increase of the specific volume, crust darkening, and crumb lightness, depending on the dairy supplementation level, rather than the protein type. Dairy proteins incorporated at a 12% level, significantly (p < 0.05 decreased the hardness; nevertheless, the highest amount of proteins tested led to the opposite effect. These results indicate that milk proteins tested could be successfully added to gluten-free bread with beneficial effects on technological and nutritional properties.
Nguyen, Hanh T H; Afsar, Saeedeh; Day, Li
Goat and sheep milks have long been used to produce a range of dairy products due to their nutritional value and health benefits. Information about the microstructure and rheology of goat and sheep yoghurts, however, is scarce. In this study, the microstructure, texture and rheological properties of cow, goat and sheep yoghurts were investigated and compared. The results show that a longer fermentation and gelation time was required for goat yoghurt with a lower storage modulus compared to cow and sheep yoghurts. Cooling resulted in an increase in the storage modulus at different magnitudes for cow, goat and sheep yoghurts. Goat yoghurt had a smaller particle size and a softer gel, which is linked with a more porous microstructure. The results obtained here demonstrate the effect of different milk types on the properties of yoghurts and provide a better understanding into the link between the microstructure and physical properties of the product. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Werner, Louise Bruun; Flysjö, Anna; Tholstrup, Tine
Dairy products are important in a healthy diet due to their high nutritional value; they are, however, associated with relatively large greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) per kg product. When discussing the need to reduce the GHGE caused by the food system, it is crucial to consider the nutritional value of alternative food choices. The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of dairy products in overall nutrition and to clarify the effects of dietary choices on GHGE, and to combine nutritional value and GHGE data. We created eight dietary scenarios with different quantity of dairy products using data from the Danish National Dietary Survey (1995-2006). Nutrient composition and GHGE data for 71 highly consumed foods were used to estimate GHGE and nutritional status for each dietary scenario. An index was used to estimate nutrient density in relation to nutritional recommendation and climate impact for solid food items; high index values were those with the highest nutrient density scores in relation to the GHGE. The high-dairy scenario resulted in 27% higher protein, 13% higher vitamin D; 55% higher calcium; 48% higher riboflavin; and 18% higher selenium than the non-dairy scenario. There was a significant correlation between changes in calcium and changes in vitamin D, selenium, and riboflavin content (P=0.0001) throughout all of the diets. The estimated GHGE for the dietary scenario with average-dairy consumption was 4,631 g CO2e/day. When optimizing a diet with regard to sustainability, it is crucial to account for the nutritional value and not solely focus on impact per kg product. Excluding dairy products from the diet does not necessarily mitigate climate change but in contrast may have nutritional consequences.
Louise Bruun Werner
Full Text Available Background: Dairy products are important in a healthy diet due to their high nutritional value; they are, however, associated with relatively large greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE per kg product. When discussing the need to reduce the GHGE caused by the food system, it is crucial to consider the nutritional value of alternative food choices. Objective: The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of dairy products in overall nutrition and to clarify the effects of dietary choices on GHGE, and to combine nutritional value and GHGE data. Methods: We created eight dietary scenarios with different quantity of dairy products using data from the Danish National Dietary Survey (1995–2006. Nutrient composition and GHGE data for 71 highly consumed foods were used to estimate GHGE and nutritional status for each dietary scenario. An index was used to estimate nutrient density in relation to nutritional recommendation and climate impact for solid food items; high index values were those with the highest nutrient density scores in relation to the GHGE. Results: The high-dairy scenario resulted in 27% higher protein, 13% higher vitamin D; 55% higher calcium; 48% higher riboflavin; and 18% higher selenium than the non-dairy scenario. There was a significant correlation between changes in calcium and changes in vitamin D, selenium, and riboflavin content (P=0.0001 throughout all of the diets. The estimated GHGE for the dietary scenario with average-dairy consumption was 4,631 g CO2e/day. Conclusions: When optimizing a diet with regard to sustainability, it is crucial to account for the nutritional value and not solely focus on impact per kg product. Excluding dairy products from the diet does not necessarily mitigate climate change but in contrast may have nutritional consequences.
Dianti, EP; Anjani, G.; Afifah, DN; Rustanti, N.; Panunggal, B.
Goat milk kefir fortified vitamin B12 and vitamin D3 can be an alternative to improve insulin resistance. Fortification of vitamin B12 and vitamin D3 could affect the balance of complex ecosystems of bacteria and yeasts in goat milk kefir. We analyzed the nutritional quality and microbiology of goat milk kefir during storage. This experiment was done with completely randomized design consisted of five treatments, ie storage day 0, 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 15th. Vitamin B12, vitamin D3, protein were analyzed using spectrophotometric, fat using babcock method, total lactic acid bacteria using total plate count, pH with pH meter, and viscosity using ostwald method. During 15 days in refrigerated storage, there was no significant difference (p>0,05) of vitamin B12 concentration, protein, fat, and viscosity of kefir. Storage time of the final product caused the decrease of vitamin D3 concentration between day 9 and 15 (p=0,038), pH (p=0,023), and total lactic acid of kefir (p=0,0001). Total lactic acid bacteria increased until 9 days of storage (6161 ± 1.296x107cfu / ml), but decreased to 24% on day 15 (150 ±7.78x107cfu/ml). pH kefir tends to fluctuate during storage with the highest pH value of 4,38 on day-3, and lowest 4.13 on day-9.
Ji, Zhibin; Liu, Zhaohua; Chao, Tianle; Hou, Lei; Fan, Rui; He, Rongyan; Wang, Guizhi; Wang, Jianmin
In recent years, studies related to the expression profiles of miRNAs in the dairy goat mammary gland were performed, but regulatory mechanisms in the physiological environment and the dynamic homeostasis of mammary gland development and lactation are not clear. In the present study, sequencing data analysis of early and late lactation uncovered a total of 1,487 unique miRNAs, including 45 novel miRNA candidates and 1,442 known and conserved miRNAs, of which 758 miRNAs were co-expressed and 378 differentially expressed with P pathways. Additionally, 18 predicted target genes of 214 miRNAs were directly annotated in mammary gland development and used to construct regulatory networks based on GO annotation and the KEGG pathway. The expression levels of seven known miRNAs and three novel miRNAs were examined using quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that miRNAs might play important roles in early and late lactation during dairy goat mammary gland development, which will be helpful to obtain a better understanding of the genetic control of mammary gland lactation and development.
Evvyernie, D.; Tjakradidjaja, A. S.; Permana, I. G.; Toharmat, T.; Insani, A.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the potency of noni juice extract waste (Morinda citrifolia L.) and pineapple industrial wastes (Ananas comosus L. Merr) as an energy supplement in dairy goat ration through in vitro study. This study used a complete randomized design with 5 treatments and 3 rumen fluid groups. The treatments were R0 as control (60% Napier grass (NG) + 40% concentrate), R1 (45% NG + 15% noni juice extract waste + 40% concentrate) + R2 (45% NG + 15% noni juice extract waste ammoniated + 40% concentrate), R3 (45% NG + 15% pineapple peel + 40% concentrate), and R4 (45% NG + 15% pineapple crown + 40% concentrate). The variables were totalbacterial population, protozoal population, fermentation characteristic (total VFA and NH3 concentration), and digestibility (dry matter and organic matter).Data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and differences among treatments were determined by orthogonal contrast.The results showed that total VFA concentration was significant increased (Ppineapple peel (R3). The average increasing of total VFA concentration was 74% compared to control. As conclusions, 15% pineapple peel or 15% noni juice extract waste can use as an energy supplement by replacing 25% of napier grass in lactating dairy goat ration.
Carlos Javier Fernandez
Full Text Available Betaine is a natural occurring compound with methyl donor properties which is increasingly being used in animal feeding. Betaine, an oxidative product of choline is able to replace methionine in some physiologically important body processes. The subject of this work was to study the effect of betaine added to the diet on milk production and blood metabolites on Murciano-Granadina dairy goats. Sixty lactating goats were selected from a commercial Murciano-Granadina goat herd (EXCAMUR S.L. located in Murcia Region (Spain. Goats were selected from a 250 goats herd, taken into account the age, stage of lactation (2.5 as average, live weight (36 kg as average and type of birth (2 kids. Two homogenous groups of 30 goats were made and fed with 1.5 kg of compound feed and 1 kg of alfalfa hay per day and goat. Goats were fed twice a day and water was provided ad libitum. Both groups received the same diet but for the second group the diet was supplemented with 4 gâˆ™kg-1 betaine (betaine anhydrous, Danisco Animal Nutrition. The feeds, presented in pellets, were formulated in based on recommendations of INRA (2007. The experimental period was 6 months and the experimental diets were provided 15 days before parturition. The herd was machine milked once at day. Chemical composition, milk production and blood metabolites of each goat were recorded and analyzed at the end of the trial. Variance analysis and means comparison were carried out using the general lineal model procedure and Tukey test for mean comparison. Goats fed with betaine diet had higher milk fat than goats fed control diet (4.8 vs. 5.2 % for control and betaine respectively; P
Angora goat, tables of nutritional requirements (NRC, 1981) have been derived by ..... may fall as low as 0.38%/min in diabetic cows (Kaneko,. 1989). The diagnostic ... dependent on glucose oxidation via the pentose-phosphate pathway in ...
Mahouachi, M; Atti, N; Hajji, H
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of spineless cactus incorporation in food of dairy goats and growing kids on milk production and composition and on kid's growth and meat characteristics. Two experiments were conducted on Tunisian local goats. In the first, 30 females were divided into two groups; goats of Control group were reared on grazing pasture receiving indoor 0.5 kg of hay and 0.4 kg of concentrate. Goats for the second group (Cac-FL) were kept in feedlot and fed cactus ad libitum more 0.5 kg of hay and 0.4 kg of concentrate. In the second experiment, 14 kids were divided into 2 groups receiving 600 g of hay. The Control group received ad libitum a concentrate containing 130 g crude protein (CP) per kg of dry matter. The second group received cactus ad-libitum plus the half concentrate quantity of control one with 260 g CP/kg DM (Cactus). The daily milk production averaged 485 ml for Control group and 407 ml for Cac-FL one. The milk fat content was significantly higher for Control than Cac-FL group. In the second experiment, animals in Control and Cactus groups had similar growth rate. Carcass fat was significantly lower in Cactus than in the Control group. Cactus in the diet was associated with more C18:2 and conjugated linoleic acid as well as a higher proportion of PUFA than Control ones.
Hempstead, Melissa N; Waas, Joseph R; Stewart, Mairi; Cave, Vanessa M; Sutherland, Mhairi A
We evaluated alternatives to cautery disbudding of goat kids using physiological measures of immediate and longer-term pain. Fifty Saanen doe kids were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatments (n = 10/treatment): (1) cautery disbudding (CAUT), (2) caustic paste disbudding (CASP), (3) liquid nitrogen disbudding (CRYO), (4) clove oil injected into the horn bud (CLOV), or (5) sham disbudding (SHAM). Serum cortisol and haptoglobin concentrations were measured from blood samples collected immediately before treatment (baseline) and at 15, 30, 60, and 120 min and then again at 6 and 24 h post-treatment. An infrared thermography camera was used to take images of the horn buds 24 h pre- and 24, 48, and 72 h post-treatment to measure skin temperature. Body weight was measured daily for 1 wk to assess weight change post-treatment. Images of the horn buds were taken at d 1, 2, and 7 and at 6 wk post-treatment to assess tissue damage and wound healing. Mean cortisol concentrations were elevated in CASP kids 1 h post-treatment relative to CAUT kids. Cortisol concentrations of CRYO kids were higher than those of CAUT kids 30 min post-treatment; concentrations for CLOV kids were similar to CAUT kids post-treatment. Mean haptoglobin concentrations were similar across treatments over time; however, CLOV kids had higher concentrations at 24 h post-treatment than all other treatments. Skin temperatures of CASP and CLOV kids were elevated relative to CAUT kids at all time points post-treatment, and all disbudded kids had skin temperatures above those of SHAM kids at 72 h post-treatment. Treatment did not influence weight gain. The CAUT kids had large, open wounds exposing bone; small scabs were still evident 6 wk post-treatment. The CASP kids had red and open, raw wounds that generated large eschars, apparent for up to 6 wk. The CRYO kids had closed, dry wounds initially, but over time lesions appeared that caused open wounds; small scabs were present 6 wk post-treatment. The CLOV kids
Schwab, Charles G; Broderick, Glen A
Considerable progress has been made in understanding the protein and amino acid (AA) nutrition of dairy cows. The chemistry of feed crude protein (CP) appears to be well understood, as is the mechanism of ruminal protein degradation by rumen bacteria and protozoa. It has been shown that ammonia released from AA degradation in the rumen is used for bacterial protein formation and that urea can be a useful N supplement when lower protein diets are fed. It is now well documented that adequate rumen ammonia levels must be maintained for maximal synthesis of microbial protein and that a deficiency of rumen-degradable protein can decrease microbial protein synthesis, fiber digestibility, and feed intake. Rumen-synthesized microbial protein accounts for most of the CP flowing to the small intestine and is considered a high-quality protein for dairy cows because of apparent high digestibility and good AA composition. Much attention has been given to evaluating different methods to quantify ruminal protein degradation and escape and for measuring ruminal outflows of microbial protein and rumen-undegraded feed protein. The methods and accompanying results are used to determine the nutritional value of protein supplements and to develop nutritional models and evaluate their predictive ability. Lysine, methionine, and histidine have been identified most often as the most-limiting amino acids, with rumen-protected forms of lysine and methionine available for ration supplementation. Guidelines for protein feeding have evolved from simple feeding standards for dietary CP to more complex nutrition models that are designed to predict supplies and requirements for rumen ammonia and peptides and intestinally absorbable AA. The industry awaits more robust and mechanistic models for predicting supplies and requirements of rumen-available N and absorbed AA. Such models will be useful in allowing for feeding lower protein diets and increased efficiency of microbial protein synthesis
... Cattle and Meat Production Dairy Cattle and Dairy Farming Horses Insects and Entomology Poultry and Poultry Production Sheep, Goats, and Small Ruminants Swine Education and Outreach Agricultural ...
Tatiana E. Borovik
Full Text Available Fermented dairy products have a high nutritional and biological value and functional properties beneficial to human health; they are very diverse and have a long history. Fermentation of milk is a complex technological, physical and biochemical process that occurs under the influence of two enzymes of lactic acid bacteria — -galactosidase and lactate dehydrogenase. Requirements for biological properties of starter microorganisms and fermentation technology are strictly regulated. Based on the starter cultures used, we can single out fermented dairy products of lactic acid and mixed (lactic acid and alcohol fermentation. There are adapted, partially adapted and non-adapted cultured milk products for children, some of which are enriched with pro- and prebiotics to enhance functional properties. The article provides information about one of the first Russian non-adapted fermented milk products for infants enriched with inulin, fruit and cereals.
Full Text Available Among calcium sensitive caseins, β-casein is the most abundant in goat milk, representing up to 50% of total casein content. The goat β-casein locus has been widely investigated and at least ten alleles have been identified in different goat breeds. The aim of this work was to investigate the polymorphisms of β-casein gene in Girgentana dairy goat breed in order to assess the genotype distribution and evaluate how frequencies have changed during the last 10 years, as genotype is known to influence technological and nutritional milk properties. Sequencing analysis and alignment of the obtained sequences of β-casein exon 7, showed the presence of C, C1, and A strong alleles, and 0' null allele, with frequencies of 0.597, 0.326, 0.023, and 0.054, respectively. Seven genotypic classes were found in Girgentana goat breed and the most frequent genotype was CC1 (0.423 followed by CC (0.326, C1C1 (0.110, and C0' (0.096. No AA nor 0'0' homozygous individuals were found. The presence of strong alleles at CSN2 gene in Girgentana goat breed could be useful for the production of milk with high protein content and good cheese-making properties. Moreover, food business operators should consider the possibility of reviving interest in Girgentana goat milk using weak and null genotypes at CSN2 locus to make peculiar food products, such as drinking milk.
Full Text Available Winter grazing provides a useful means for increasing the proportion of grazed herbage in the annual diet of dairy cows. This season is characterized by low herbage growth rate, low herbage allowance, and low herbage intake and hence greater needs for supplements to supply the requirements of lactating dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of herbage allowance (HA offered to autumn calving dairy cows grazing winter herbage on milk production, nutritional status, and grazing behavior. The study took 63 d using 32 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Prior to experimental treatment, milk production averaged 20.2 ± 1.7 kg d-1, body weight was 503 ± 19 kg, and days in milking were 103 ± 6. Experimental animals were randomly assigned to two treatments according to HA offered above ground level: low (17 kg DM cow-1 d-1 vs. high HA (25 kg DM cow¹ d¹. All cows were supplemented with grass silage supplying daily 6.25 and 4.6 kg DM of concentrate (concentrate commercial plus high corn moisture. Decreasing HA influenced positively milk production (+25%, milk protein (+20 kg, and milk fat (+17 kg per hectare; however no effects on milk production per cow or energy metabolic status were observed in the cows. In conclusion, a low HA showed to be the most significant influencing factor on milk and milk solids production per hectare in dairy cows grazing restricted winter and supplemented with grass silage and concentrate; but no effect on the milk production per cow was found.
Medeiros, Andréa Dantas de; Andrade, Milena de Medeiros Clementino; Vítor, Ricardo Wagner de Almeida; Andrade-Neto, Valter Ferreira de
Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which is the main causative agent of abortion in small ruminants. Goats are among the animals that are most susceptible to this protozoon, and the disease that it causes leads to significant economic losses and has implications for public health, since presence of the parasite in products of goat origin is one of the main sources of human infection. Because of the significant economic impact, there is an urgent need to study the prevalence of T. gondii infection among goats in Sertão do Cabugi, which is the largest goat-producing region in Rio Grande do Norte. In the present study, the ELISA assay was used to test 244 serum samples from nine farms, located in four different municipalities in the Sertão do Cabugi region, which is an important goat-rearing region. The results showed that the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was 47.1% and that there was a significant association between positivity and the variables of age (≥ 34 months), location (Lajes, Angicos and Afonso Bezerra) and farm (all the farms). The avidity test was applied to all the 115 ELISA-positive samples to distinguish between acute and chronic infection. One hundred and three samples (89.6%) displayed high-avidity antibodies, thus indicating that most of the animals presented chronic infection, with a consequent great impact on the development of the goat production system and a risk to human health.
Andréa Dantas de Medeiros
Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which is the main causative agent of abortion in small ruminants. Goats are among the animals that are most susceptible to this protozoon, and the disease that it causes leads to significant economic losses and has implications for public health, since presence of the parasite in products of goat origin is one of the main sources of human infection. Because of the significant economic impact, there is an urgent need to study the prevalence of T. gondii infection among goats in Sertão do Cabugi, which is the largest goat-producing region in Rio Grande do Norte. In the present study, the ELISA assay was used to test 244 serum samples from nine farms, located in four different municipalities in the Sertão do Cabugi region, which is an important goat-rearing region. The results showed that the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was 47.1% and that there was a significant association between positivity and the variables of age (≥ 34 months, location (Lajes, Angicos and Afonso Bezerra and farm (all the farms. The avidity test was applied to all the 115 ELISA-positive samples to distinguish between acute and chronic infection. One hundred and three samples (89.6% displayed high-avidity antibodies, thus indicating that most of the animals presented chronic infection, with a consequent great impact on the development of the goat production system and a risk to human health.
Yavuz Topcu; Mehmet Toparlak; Muhlis Macit
The aim of the study is to evaluate all the factors determining the milk production and yield decisions with regard to the nutrition and feeding programs affecting the integrated management strategies on the success of the dairy farms with culture breed cattle under the pasture-based and indoor barn-based production systems. For these aims, data obtained from the individual interviews conducted at the dairy farms with 100 culture breed cattle were used for Principal Component and Multiple Reg...
Aldi Fernandes de Souza França
Full Text Available
Pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum is an annual summer forage that grows in India and some African countries, used for human and animal feeding. Due to its high nutritive value it can be used for grain production and forage. Because of its physiologic characteristics, pearl millet is adapted to the soil and climate conditions of Brazilian cerrados region. This trial was conducted with the aim of evaluating the use of pearl millet (grain + ears to dairy goat feeding. Sixteen dairy goat females were alloted in a Latin square design and submitted to four levels of substitution of millet ear corn for pearl millet. The percentual levels of substitution used were 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% that correspond to treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The results, obtained in terms of average of milk production in a period of six days, were: 4.471, 4.621, 4.911 and 4.771 for treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. It was not observed any statistical difference between treatments with the use of Tukey test at the probability level of 5%.
KEY-WORDS: Pearl millet; dairy goat; feeding.
O milheto (Pennisetum americanum (L Leeke se constitui em uma forrageira anual de verão muito utilizada na Índia e em alguns países da África, tanto para alimentação humana como animal. Apresenta alto valor nutritivo, podendo ser utilizada para a produção de grãos ou de forragens. Por suas características fisiológicas se adapta muito bem às condições edafoclimáticas dos cerrados. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o
Liméa, L; Alexandre, G; Berthelot, V
The effects of a concentrate diet on growth, carcass fat, and fatty acid (FA) composition of muscle (supraspinatus), perirenal, and intermuscular adipose tissues of Creole goats (n = 32) were evaluated. Goats were fed a tropical green forage Digitaria decumbens ad libitum with no concentrate (G0) or 1 of 3 levels of concentrate: 140 (G100), 240 (G200), and 340 g•d(-1) (G300), respectively. Goats were slaughtered according to the standard procedure at the commercial BW (22 to 24 kg of BW). Goats fed the concentrate diets (G100, G200, and G300) had greater ADG (P 0.05). Increased concentrate supplementation did not affect (P > 0.05) the proportion of MUFA in all tissues and had very little effect on SFA in perirenal tissue, but increased the PUFA proportion in muscle (P < 0.05). The major effect of feeding increased concentrate was an increase in n-6 PUFA proportions in all tissues (P < 0.001) and, surprisingly, a decrease in n-3 PUFA (P < 0.001). Focusing on FA, which are supposed to have a beneficial or an adverse effect on human health, feeding increased concentrate did not increase the content of any cholesterol-increasing SFA in meat, but increased the n-6/n-3 ratio above 4 when more than 240 g of concentrate was fed per day.
Full Text Available Milk production is largely related to the shape of the lactation curve. Key elements of the lactation pattern are peak yield, which is the maximum daily yield reached during lactation, and lactation persistency, which is the medium rate of milk yield decrease after the lactation peak. The ideal lactation curve should have a reasonably high peak and a flat trend afterwards. A more persistent lactation is desirable because it is related to better animal health and reduction of feeding costs. Effective strategies to improve lactation persistency require a deep understanding of the main factors that affect this trait, including genetics, hormonal status and administration, udder morphology, seasonal changes, management, animal health (e.g. mastitis, stress and nutrition. This review covers the effects of non-nutritional factors on lactation persistency in dairy sheep.
Westwood, C T; Bramley, E; Lean, I J
Lameness of dairy cattle fed predominantly on pasture is increasingly recognised as one of the most costly disease conditions affecting dairy herds in New Zealand and Australia. Numerous risk factors are involved in the aetiology of claw lameness, including environment and factors associated with the conformation of individual cows. The role of nutrition requires further definition. Australasian pastures are characterised by low levels of fibre and effective fibre, rapid rates of fibre degradation, high water content, and high concentrations of rumen degradable protein during the autumn, winter and spring months. Relationships between high-quality vegetative pastures and ruminal acidosis may increase the risk of laminitis, particularly where pasture is supplemented with grains or other feeds containing significant amounts of starch. This article reviews the incidence, prevalence and pathophysiology of ruminal acidosis and laminitis and considers mechanisms by which acidosis may occur in pasture-fed cows. Techniques for diagnosing ruminal acidosis are reviewed, and practical strategies to avoid it are proposed. Currently, there is little information on the incidence and prevalence of ruminal acidosis and laminitis in pasture-fed cattle. The evidence gathered in this review suggests that ruminal acidosis and laminitis should be considered in the aetiology of lameness in pasture-fed dairy herds.
Santos, Bruna Parapinski; Souza, Fernando Nogueira; Blagitz, Maiara Garcia; Batista, Camila Freitas; Bertagnon, Heloísa Godoi; Diniz, Soraia Araújo; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Haddad, João Paulo Amaral; Della Libera, Alice Maria Melville Paiva
The exact influence of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection on blood and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) and monocyte/macrophages of goats remains unclear. Thus, the present study sought to explore the blood and milk PMNL and monocyte/macrophage functions in naturally CAEV-infected goats. The present study used 18 healthy Saanen goats that were segregated according to sera test outcomes into serologically CAEV negative (n=8; 14 halves) and positive (n=10; 14 halves) groups. All milk samples from mammary halves with milk bacteriologically positive outcomes, somatic cell count ≥2×10 6 cellsmL -1 , and abnormal secretions in the strip cup test were excluded. We evaluated the percentage of blood and milk PMNLs and monocyte/macrophages, the viability of PMNLs and monocyte/macrophages, the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the nonopsonized phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by flow cytometry. In the present study, a higher percentage of milk macrophages (CD14 + ) and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes undergoing late apoptosis or necrosis (Annexin-V + /Propidium iodide + ) was observed in CAEV-infected goats; we did not find any further alterations in blood and milk PMNL and monocyte/macrophage functions. Thus, regarding our results, the goats naturally infected with CAEV did not reveal pronounced dysfunctions in blood and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lérias, Joana R; Peña, Raquel; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Capote, Juan; Castro, Noemí; Argüello, Anastasio; Araújo, Susana S; Saco, Yolanda; Bassols, Anna; Almeida, André M
Feed restriction, and seasonal weight loss (SWL), are major setbacks for animal production in the tropics and the Mediterranean. They may be solved through the use of autochthonous breeds particularly well adapted to SWL. It is therefore of major importance to determine markers of tolerance to feed restriction of putative use in animal selection. Two indigenous breeds from the Canary Islands, Palmera and Majorera, are commonly used by dairy goat farmers and, interestingly, have different phenotype characteristics albeit with a common ancestry. Indeed, Majorera is well adapted to feed restriction whereas the Palmera is susceptible to feed restriction. In addition, regardless of their importance in dairy production, there are only a limited number of reports relating to these breeds and, to the best of our knowledge, there is no description of their blood metabolite standard values under control conditions or as affected by feed restriction. In this study we analysed the blood metabolite profiles in Majorera and Palmera goats aiming to establish the differential responses to feed restriction between the two breeds and to characterise their metabolite standard values under control conditions. We observed significant differences in creatinine, urea, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), cholesterol, IGF-1 and T3 due to underfeeding. Furthermore, a PCA analysis, revealed that animals submitted to undernutrition could be distinguished from the control groups, with the formation of three separate clusters (Palmera individuals after 22 d of subnutrition (PE22); Majorera individuals after 22 d of subnutrition (ME22) and animals assigned to control conditions (MC0, MC22, PC0 and PC22)), highlighting different responses of the two breeds to undernutrition.
Elwakeel Eman A
Full Text Available Abstract Little information is available about the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal, which is produced by expansion of soybeans prior to solvent extraction of the oil. During processing, expanded soybean meal is subjected to additional heat, which might increase the concentration of ruminally undegraded protein. Processing of soybeans with heat during oil extraction could affect lysine availability by increasing ruminally undegraded protein or by impairing intestinal digestion. Our objective was to compare solvent and expanded soybeans with regard to chemical composition and nutritive value for dairy cattle. Samples of expanded soybean meal (n = 14 and solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 5 were obtained from People's Republic of China to study effects of the expansion process on nutritive value for dairy cattle. Solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 2 and mechanically extracted (heated soybean meal (n = 2 from the United States served as references for comparison. Samples were analyzed for crude fat, long-chain fatty acids, crude protein, amino acids, chemically available lysine, in situ ruminal protein degradation, and in vitro intestinal digestibility. No differences were found between solvent-extracted soybean meals from China and expanded soybean meals from China for crude fat, crude protein, amino acids, or chemically available lysine. In situ disappearance of nitrogen, ruminally undegraded protein content, and in vitro intestinal digestion of the ruminally undegraded protein were generally similar between solvent-extracted soybean meals made in China and expanded soybean meals made in China; variation among soybean meals was small. Results indicate that the additional heat from the expansion process was not great enough to affect the nutritive value of soybean meal protein for ruminants. Although expansion may improve the oil extraction process, the impact on the resulting soybean meal is minimal and does not require consideration
Full Text Available Groundnut-cake (GNC, Soybean-meal (SBM and cottonseed-cake (CSC are expensive protein sources for ruminants. This study examined the feeding value of unconventional protein source of Tephrosia candida seed (TCS in WAD goats. Four diets were formulated using GNC, SBM, CSC and TCS protein sources and fed to WAD goats to monitor intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization. Effects of feeding the diets as supplements on weight gain of grazing goats were also investigated. Results showed the dry matter intake (DMI of the concentrate made from the conventional protein were not significantly different (mean = 101.0 g/d but depressed in TCS diets (66.11 g/d. Crude protein intake (CPI, g/d from TCS (16.67 was higher (P < 0.05 than that of GNC (16.55 but was inferior to the CPI of both CSC (25.56 and SBM (19.72 diets. Intake of NDF (38.21 – 51.08 g/d and ADF (17.84 – 28.97 varied (P < 0.05 and followed the trend observed for CPI. Apparent digestibility of CP (% was higher (P < 0.05 in TCS (63.05 than values for both the SBM (58.2 and CSC (42.79 diets, but not the GNC (63.78. The best digested NDF (53.36% and ADF (53.93% were from GNC and TCS diets respectively. N-balance (g/d and retention (% compared favourably in TCS (1.42 and 53.2 with those of SBM (1.69 and 51.9 and GNC (1.41 and 53.2 but were significantly least (P < 0.05 in CSC diet (1.34 and 32.6. Weight gain of grazing goats was highest (27.38 g/day and lowest (7.74 g/day in goats fed TCS and SBM respectively. Tephrosia candida seed can be used as a protein source ingredient as performance of goats on it was comparable to those of expensive GNC, SBM and CSC.
Salama, A A K; Caja, G; Such, X
from wk 2 of lactation. Average milk yields for wk 4 and 8 were 1.76 and 2.24 L/d, for goats milked 1x and 2x, respectively. For each half udder, cisternal area was measured by ultrasonography and cisternal milk was measured by machine milking after i.v. injection of an OT receptor blocking agent...... multiparous goats at all milking intervals. Cisternal recoil was studied in a sample of multiparous goats milked 1x (n = 4) and 2x (n = 4) by scanning cisterns by ultrasonography at 0, 5, 15, and 30 min after an OT challenge for each milking interval. Cisternal area increased after OT injection for the 8...
Full Text Available Speaking in terms of the general relationship between nutrition and reproduction, many different aspects are more or less involved depending on geographical areas, species, production systems, technological levels etc. There are deficiency conditions: energy, proteins, vitamins and minerals; but also some excesses (namely protein and few minerals or toxic substances such as micotoxins or plant compounds (i.e. phyto-oestrogens. Their relevance is different in the intensive systems for better feeds and relative easiness to create appropriate diets. Nevertheless, intensification does not reduce the nutritional risks for livestock reproduction for several reasons: namely, a suspected higher susceptibility of high genetic merit cows to the usual stresses. There is also a new risk: metabolic stress (e.g. negative energy balance. The latter is particularly relevant when early lactation and new pregnancy are close (as in dairy cows, however, of great importance are also oxidative stress and disease stress (pro-inflammatory cytokines. In dairy cows, inflammatory phenomena around calving - when an immune response occurs in spite of clinical symptoms are missing - are significantly related to a lower pregnancy rate. A possible explanation can be seen in the pro-inflammatory cytokines, which modify liver synthesis and seem to impair energy balance thereby reducing feed intake and increasing energy expenditure. This suggests that in order to improve fertility not only better feeding mecahnisms, but any husbandry tool that can reduce diseases and health disorders are needed.
Rousset, Elodie; Berri, Mustapha; Durand, Benoit; Dufour, Philippe; Prigent, Myriam; Delcroix, Thibault; Touratier, Anne; Rodolakis, Annie
Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterium largely carried by ruminants and shed into milk, vaginal mucus, and feces. The main potential hazard to humans and animals is due to shedding of bacteria that can then persist in the environment and be aerosolized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate shedding after an outbreak of Q fever abortion in goat herds and to assess the relationship with the occurrence of abortions and antibody responses. Aborting and nonaborting goats were monitored by PCR for C. burnetii shedding 15 and 30 days after the abortion episodes. PCR analysis of all samples showed that 70% (n = 50) of the aborting and 53% (n = 70) of the nonaborting goats were positive. C. burnetii was shed into vaginal mucus, feces, and milk of 44%, 21%, and 38%, respectively, of goats that aborted and 27%, 20%, and 31%, respectively, of goats that delivered normally. Statistical comparison of these shedding results did not reveal any difference between these two groups. PCR results obtained for the vaginal and fecal routes were concordant in 81% of cases, whereas those for milk correlated with only 49% of cases with either vaginal or fecal shedding status. Serological analysis, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and complement fixation tests, showed that at least 24% of the seronegative goats shed bacteria. Positive vaginal and fecal shedding, unlike positive milk shedding, was observed more often in animals that were weakly positive or negative by ELISA or IFA. Two opposite shedding trends were thus apparent for the milk and vaginal-fecal routes. Moreover, this study showed that a nonnegligible proportion of seronegative animals that delivered normally could excrete C. burnetii.
Regadas Filho, J G L; Tedeschi, L O; Cannas, A; Vieira, R A M; Rodrigues, M T
The first objective of this research was to assess the ability of the Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS) mechanistic model to predict metabolizable energy intake (MEI) and milk yield (MY) when using a heterogeneous fiber pool scenario (GnG1), compared with a traditional, homogeneous scenario (G1). The second objective was to evaluate an alternative approach to estimating the dry matter intake (DMI) of goats to be used in the SRNS model. The GnG1 scenario considers an age-dependent fractional transference rate for fiber particles from the first ruminal fiber pool (raft) to an escapable pool (λr), and that this second ruminal fiber pool (i.e., escapable pool) follows an age-independent fractional escape rate for fiber particles (ke). Scenario G1 adopted only a single fractional passage rate (kp). All parameters were estimated individually by using equations published in the literature, except for 2 passage rate equations in the G1 scenario: 1 developed with sheep data (G1-S) and another developed with goat data (G1-G). The alternative approach to estimating DMI was based on an optimization process using a series of dietary constraints. The DMI, MEI, and MY estimated for the GnG1 and G1 scenarios were compared with the results of an independent dataset (n=327) that contained information regarding DMI, MEI, MY, and milk and dietary compositions. The evaluation of the scenarios was performed using the coefficient of determination (R(2)) between the observed and predicted values, mean bias (MB), bias correction factor (Cb), and concordance correlation coefficient. The MEI estimated by the GnG1 scenario yielded precise and accurate values (R(2) = 082; MB = 0.21 Mcal/d; Cb = 0.98) similar to those of the G1-S (R(2) = 0.85; MB = 0.10 Mcal/d; Cb=0.99) and G1-G (R(2) = 0.84; MB = 0.18 Mcal/d; Cb = 0.98) scenarios. The results were also similar for the MY, but a substantial MB was found as follows: GnG1 (R(2) = 0.74; MB = 0.70 kg/d; Cb = 0.79), G1-S (R(2) = 0.71; MB = 0
Lopes, L S; Martins, S R; Chizzotti, M L; Busato, K C; Oliveira, I M; Machado Neto, O R; Paulino, P V R; Lanna, D P D; Ladeira, M M
This study evaluated the effect of feed restriction and goat genotype on meat quality. Three genotypes (Brazilian native breed Canindé; Brazilian native breed Moxotó; and F1 Boer crossbred animals obtained by crossing Boer bucks with local breed does) and three different feeding regimens (ad libitum fed, AL; restricted fed at 75% of the ad libitum, R.75; or restricted fed at 50% of the average ad libitum intake, R.50) were used. There was no difference (P>0.05) in chemical composition, total and soluble collagen, and shear force of the Longissimus lumborum muscle among genotypes. However, AL had greater amounts of soluble collagen and crude protein in the muscle (P0.05) was observed for the myofibrillar fragmentation index. The goat genotype presented few differences in their fatty acid profiles. However, goats fed ad libitum had a more favorable fatty acid profile for human health with greater concentrations of oleic acid, unsaturated fatty acids, and conjugated linoleic acid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In the light of recent findings in sheep nutrition and behaviour, the diets of grazing dairy sheep should be based on forages encompassing a variety of complementary nutritional values and containing moderate levels of complementary plant secondary metabolites, until recently regarded as "anti-nutritional". In lactating sheep, pastures of tannin-containing legumes like sulla (Hedysarum coronarium and chicory (Cichorium intybus can be integrated with annual grasses for establishing sustainable artificial pastures under rainfed conditions. Diets based on these forages, while ensuring high milking performance, can mitigate the unbalance of CP to energy ratio of grazing sheep. By grazing sulla and annual or Italian ryegrass (50:50 by area as spatially conterminal monocultures or in timely sequence (complementary grazing sheep eat more and perform better than by grazing the ryegrass pasture only. Concentrate supplementation of lactating sheep should be preferably based on fibrous sources (soyhulls or beet pulps, particularly from mid-lactation onwards and when supplementation levels are high. Milk urea concentration is confirmedly a useful monitoring tool to balance protein nutrition and curb the waste of N at animal and system level.
Using the same CIDR up to three times for estrus synchronization and artificial insemination in dairy goats - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i3.10120 Using the same CIDR up to three times for estrus synchronization and artificial insemination in dairy goats - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i3.10120
Samara Rodrigues Martins
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of reusing a controlled internal drug release (CIDR device for up to three times in the reproductive performance of dairy goats raised in the semi-arid zone of northeastern Brazil. Forty-five goats were allocated into three hormone treatments, as follows: CIDR1x, treated with new CIDR during nine days. Two days prior to device removal, injections of 75 µg d-cloprostenol and 300 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG were administrated. For the other treatments, the same hormone protocol was used, differing only by the use of the same CIDR for a second time in CIDR2x and for a third time in CIDR3x. The interval from device removal to the onset of estrus (13.3 ± 1.1h vs. 13.8 ± 2.6h vs. 13.3 ± 1.4h, as well as estrus duration (33.6 ± 7.3h vs. 29.6 ± 3.2h vs. 32.8 ± 4.5h, did not differ (p > 0.05 among groups CIDR1x, CIDR2x and CIDR3x, respectively. All synchronized females were found to be in estrus. The overall fertility and prolificacy after artificial insemination were 82.2% and 1.9 kids, respectively, without significant difference (p > 0.05 among treatments. The use of the same CIDR for up to three times was effective using 9-day estrus synchronization protocols in dairy goats.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of reusing a controlled internal drug release (CIDR device for up to three times in the reproductive performance of dairy goats raised in the semi-arid zone of northeastern Brazil. Forty-five goats were allocated into three hormone treatments, as follows: CIDR1x, treated with new CIDR during nine days. Two days prior to device removal, injections of 75 µg d-cloprostenol and 300 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG were administrated. For the other treatments, the same hormone protocol was used, differing only by the use of the same CIDR for a second time in CIDR2x and for a third time in CIDR3x. The interval from device removal to the onset
Agriculture production on smallholder farms of Kenya has continued to decline despite years of agriculture research by the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI). Farmers to access agricultural technologies resulting from poor coverage mainly attributed this to a low ability by regular extension and use of inappropriate mechanisms for transferring proven technologies. The evolvement of the Agricultural Technology and Information Response Initiative (ATIRI) in KARI in 2002 was aimed at catalyzing delivery of Impact- oriented agricultural technologies to the beneficiaries at grass-root levels on a demand-driven basis. The basic hypothesis was that both the demand for technologies and their adoption would be enhanced. The Manyatta Dairy Goat-keeping Self-help Group (MDGSG) in Embu was among the initial community-based organization (CBO) facilitated within the framework of ATIRI concept to acquire various technologies aimed at improving dairy goat productivity. Following the demand for suitable forages, the scale of planting as well as skills and knowledge of forage utilization practices significantly increased after 1.5 years. In particular, fodder trees (Calliandra calothyrsus and Leucaena trichandra) and dual-purpose sweet potato recorded the highest expansion of 500 and 1300% respectively. The mean daily milk yield per head recorded in 1996 was 0.8 compared to 2.5 lt. by 2002. The relative number of goats per household in 2002 (5.7 heads) was also significantly higher than the one recorded in 1996 (1.5 heads). These changes were generally attributed to improve feeding especially from the period 2000 when the ATIRI activities started resulting in faster growth rate and improved reproductive efficiency. The major indication to adoption of technologies is the opportunity it created for farmers to increase cash income from either sale of animals or manure. The approach to involve farmers has shown tremendous potential for scaling up technology transfer since over
Roche, James F
The cause of low fertility in dairy cows is multifactorial. Poor nutrition during the dry and early postpartum periods results in reduced glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and low LH pulse frequency with concomitant increases in beta-hydroxy butyrate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and triacylglycerol. Cows must mobilize large lipid, but also some protein reserves, with a consequent increased incidence of such metabolic disorders as hypocalcaemia, acidosis, ketosis, fatty liver and displaced abomasums. The occurrence of milk fever and ketosis affects uterine contractions, delays calving and increases the risk of retained foetal membranes (RFM) and endometritis. The nutritional risk factors that cause RFM are hypocalcaemia, high body condition score (BCS) at calving and deficiencies in Vitamin E and selenium. The risk factors for endometritis are hypocalcaemia, RFM, high triacylglycerol and NEFA. Thus, metabolic disorders predispose cows to gynaecological disorders, thereby reducing reproductive efficiency. Cows that are overconditioned at calving or those that lose excess body weight are more likely to have a prolonged interval to first oestrus, thereby prolonging days open. Nutritionally induced postpartum anoestrus is characterized by turnover of dominant follicles incapable of producing sufficient oestradiol to induce ovulation due to reduced LH pulse frequency. High nutrition can also increase metabolic clearance rate of steroid hormones such as progesterone or oestradiol. Lower concentrations of oestradiol on the day of oestrus are highly correlated with the occurrence of suboestrus, thereby making the detection of oestrus in high yielding cows even more difficult. Nutrition also affects conception rate (CR) to AI. Cows that develop hypocalcaemia, ketosis, acidosis or displaced abomasums have lower CRs and take longer to become pregnant. Excessive loss of BCS and excess protein content of the ration can reduce CR while supplemental fats
Johnson, J.E.; Ward, G.M.; Ennis, M.E. Jr.; Boamah, K.N.
The diet-milk transfer coefficient, Fm (Bq L-1 output in milk divided by Bq d-1 intake to the animal) was studied for eight radionuclides that previously had been given little attention. The Fm values for cows and goats, respectively, were: 2.3 x 10(-5) and 1.5 x 10(-4) for /sup 99m/Tc, 1.4 x 10(-4) and 8.5 x 10(-4) for /sup 95m/Tc, 1.1 x 10(-2) for 99 Tc (goats only); 1.7 x 10(-3) and 9 x 10(-3) for 99 Mo; 4.8 x 10(-4) and 4.4 x 10(-3) for /sup 123m/Te; 4.8 x 10(-4) and 4.6 x 10(-3) for 133 Ba; 5.5 x 10(-7) and 5.5 x 10(-6) for 95 Zr; and 4.1 x 10(-7) and 6.4 x 10(-6) for 95 Nb. The goat/cow transfer coefficient ratios for milk were approximately 10, but the goat/cow ratios for meat varied by three orders of magnitude
Hogerwerf, L.; Koop, G.; Klinkenberg, D.; Roest, H.J.; Vellema, P.; Nielen, M.
A major human Q fever epidemic occurred in The Netherlands during 2007–2009. In response, all pregnant goats from infected herds were culled before the 2010 kidding season without individual testing. The aim of this study was to assess whether high risk animals from recently infected naive herds can
Hogerwerf, Lenny; Koop, Gerrit; Klinkenberg, Don; Roest, Hendrik I J; Vellema, Piet; Nielen, Mirjam
A major human Q fever epidemic occurred in The Netherlands during 2007-2009. In response, all pregnant goats from infected herds were culled before the 2010 kidding season without individual testing. The aim of this study was to assess whether high risk animals from recently infected naive herds can
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to evaluate all the factors determining the milk production and yield decisions with regard to the nutrition and feeding programs affecting the integrated management strategies on the success of the dairy farms with culture breed cattle under the pasture-based and indoor barn-based production systems. For these aims, data obtained from the individual interviews conducted at the dairy farms with 100 culture breed cattle were used for Principal Component and Multiple Regression Analyses. The results of the study highlighted that while there were linear positive relationships among liquid assets of farms value, concentrate feed and fodder intake of dairy cattle, milk sale price, forage crop support, additional feeding and their types at pasture and milk yields per dairy cattle at the dairy farms; there were inverse relationships among hay intake of dairy cattle, lactation period, pasture planning, culture breed cattle support and those. The farmers could increase the successes of the dairy farms by increasing the technical and economic effectiveness under the integrated management pattern approaches at those with culture breed cattle.
Osaer, S.; Goossens, B.
The main breeds of sheep and goats in The Gambia, the Djallonke sheep and West African Dwarf goats are trypanotolerant. The Djallonke sheep, however, have a higher degree of trypanotolerance than the WAD goats. This trait is genetically linked although the mechanism of trypanotolerance is different
Muleme, Michael; Stenos, John; Vincent, Gemma; Wilks, Colin R; Devlin, Joanne M; Campbell, Angus; Cameron, Alexander; Stevenson, Mark A; Graves, Stephen; Firestone, Simon M
Coxiella burnetii may cause reproduction disorders in pregnant animals but subclinical infection in other animals. Unrecognised disease may delay implementation of control interventions, resulting in transmission of infection to other livestock and to humans. Seroreactivity to C. burnetii phase-specific antigens, is routinely used to interpret the course of human Q fever. This approach could be similarly useful in identifying new and existing infections in livestock herds to help describe risk factors or production losses associated with the infections and the implementation of disease-control interventions. This study aimed to elucidate the dynamics of C. burnetii infections using seroreactivity to phase-specific antigens and to examine the impact of infection on milk yield in goats in an endemically-infected farm that was associated with a Q fever outbreak in Australia. Seroreactivity pre- and post-partum and milk yield were studied in 164 goats (86 nulliparous and 78 parous). Post-partum, the seroprevalence of antibodies to C. burnetti increased from 4.7% to 31.4% throughout goats' first kiddings and from 47.4% to 55.1% in goats kidding for the second or greater time. Of 123 goats that were seronegative pre-partum, 26.8% seroconverted over the three-month peri-partum period, highlighting the importance of controlling infection throughout this time. The risk of seroconversion was comparable in first or later kidders, suggesting constant risk irrespective of parity. No loss in milk production associated with seroconversion to phase 2 was observed within the first nine weeks of lactation. However, seroconversion to only phase 1 was associated with extra 0.276L of milk per day (95% Confidence Interval: 0.010, 0.543; P=0.042), which warrants further investigation to ascertain whether or not the association is causal. Further studies on seroreactivity and milk production over longer periods are required, as milk production loss caused by C. burnetti may be an
Beever, David E
Average dairy herd fertility is declining, with more serves per successful conception, extended calving intervals and increased culling due to failure to rebreed, all adding significant costs to milk production. Genetics, management and nutrition have all contributed to this decline in fertility; the paper focuses primarily on nutritional issues. The extent of body condition loss after calving and its possible impact on fertility is considered, with evidence that this phenomenon is common in many herds irrespective of average milk yields. Body tissue mobilisation after calving increases the flux of non-esterified fatty acids to the liver and pathways of fatty acid metabolism are considered. Particular attention is given to the effects of high plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels on fat accumulation in liver cells and possible impacts on nitrogen and glucose metabolism. Current nutritional practices with early lactation cows which aim to stimulate milk yield and peak milk production but have been shown to exacerbate body condition loss, are reviewed. The paper also considers cow health issues during the peri-parturient period and how these may affect milk yield and fertility. It is concluded that current feeding practices for dry cows, with the provision of increasing amounts of the lactation ration during the Close-up period to accustom the rumen microbes and offset the expected reduction in feed intake as pregnancy reaches term, have largely failed to overcome peri-parturient health problems, excessive body condition loss after calving or declining fertility. From an examination of the energy and protein requirements of dry cows, it is suggested that current Close-up feeding practices can lead to luxury intakes of nutrients that can increase fat deposition in the viscera and the liver. Under such conditions, metabolism of nutrients by the cow may be compromised. In contrast, limited feeding throughout the whole dry period has been shown to prevent many of the
Hogerwerf, Lenny; Koop, Gerrit; Klinkenberg, Don; Roest, Hendrik I J; Vellema, Piet; Nielen, Mirjam
A major human Q fever epidemic occurred in The Netherlands during 2007-2009. In response, all pregnant goats from infected herds were culled before the 2010 kidding season without individual testing. The aim of this study was to assess whether high risk animals from recently infected naive herds can be identified by diagnostic testing. Samples of uterine fluid, milk and vaginal mucus from 203 euthanized pregnant goats were tested by PCR or ELISA. The results suggest that testing followed by culling of only the high risk animals is not a feasible method for protecting public health, mainly due to the low specificity of the tests and variability between herds. The risk of massive bacterial shedding during abortion or parturition can only be prevented by removal of all pregnant animals from naive recently infected herds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rousset, Elodie; Berri, Mustapha; Durand, Benoit; Dufour, Philippe; Prigent, Myriam; Delcroix, Thibault; Touratier, Anne; Rodolakis, Annie
Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterium largely carried by ruminants and shed into milk, vaginal mucus, and feces. The main potential hazard to humans and animals is due to shedding of bacteria that can then persist in the environment and be aerosolized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate shedding after an outbreak of Q fever abortion in goat herds and to assess the relationship with the occurrence of abortions and antibody responses. Aborting and nonaborting goa...
Martemucci, Giovanni; D'Alessandro, Angela Gabriella
There is an increasing focus on diet as a tool to maintain human health and prevent disease. Milk and milk products of ruminants are important source of fat and saturated fatty acids, which are not considered to be very favourable to human health, but are valuable sources of nutrients including bioactive fatty acids (FA), vitamins, and minerals, which can promote positive health effects. The nutritional characteristics of milk and dairy products are related to their composition, which depends on the source species, and varies due to numerous factors, among which the animal diet is the most important. An improvement in milk FA composition and other micronutrients can be reached through an animal feeding strategy. Natural pasture-based farming systems increase microconstituents that are beneficial to human health (CLA, PUFAs, n-3 FAs, antioxidants, vitamins A and E, and Se) and volatile compounds (flavour, and terpenes) in milk and cheese. There are still uncertainties about the health benefits of various milk FAs and other compounds; deep and extensive long-term clinical studies with humans are needed. The contamination of milk and dairy products by heavy metals or dioxins has dramatic negative consequences for human and livestock health and necessitates very urgent consideration and intervention.
Mulligan, F J; O'Grady, L; Rice, D A; Doherty, M L
This paper presents a practical, on-farm approach for the monitoring and prevention of production disease in dairy cattle. This integrated approach, should be used in an interdisciplinary way by farmers, veterinarians, nutrition advisors and other relevant professionals for the improvement of animal health and welfare and producer profitability. The key areas that form the basis for this approach are body condition score management, negative energy balance, hypocalcaemia, rumen health and trace element status. Monitoring criteria are described for each of these key areas, which when considered collectively, will facilitate the assessment of dairy cow health with regard to clinical and subclinical disease. The criteria, which are informed by published scientific literature, are based on farm management and environmental factors, clinical data, milk production records, dietary analysis, and assessment of blood and liver concentrations of various metabolites or trace elements. The aim is to review the efficacy of production disease control measures currently in place, and if necessary to modify them or formulate new ones.
Ernstoff, Alexi; Fulgoni III, Victor; Heller, Martin
Although essential to understand the overall health impact of a food or diet, nutrition is not usually considered in food-related life cycle assessments (LCAs). As a case study to demonstrate comparing environmental and nutritional health impacts we investigate United States dairy consumption....... Nutritional impacts, interpreted from disease burden epidemiology, are compared to health impacts from more tradi-tional impacts (e.g. due to exposure to particulate matter emissions across the life cycle) considered in LCAs. After accounting for the present consumption, data relating dairy intake to public...... to environmental impacts suggesting the need for investigat-ing the balance between dietary public health advantages and disadvantages in comparison to environmental impacts....
Núñez-Sánchez, N; Martínez-Marín, A L; Polvillo, O; Fernández-Cabanás, V M; Carrizosa, J; Urrutia, B; Serradilla, J M
Milk fatty acid (FA) composition is important for the goat dairy industry because of its influence on cheese properties and human health. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the feasibility of NIRS reflectance (oven-dried milk using the DESIR method) and transflectance (liquid milk) analysis to predict milk FA profile and groups of fats in milk samples from individual goats. NIRS analysis of milk samples allowed to estimate FA contents and their ratios and indexes in fat with high precision and accuracy. In general, transflectance analysis gave better or similar results than reflectance mode. Interestingly, NIRS analysis allowed direct prediction of the Atherogenicity and Thrombogenicity indexes, which are useful for the interpretation of the nutritional value of goat milk. Therefore, the calibrations obtained in the present work confirm the viability of NIRS as a fast, reliable and effective analytical method to provide nutritional information of milk samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full text: The interaction between nutrition and reproductive activity has been described in both wild and farm animals. The lactating cow is one of the very best examples of this interaction. During lactation, the length of time spent in negative energy balance around parturition seems to be an important factor controlling the delay to return to breeding after parturition. The mechanism by which nutrition regulates the reproductive system is not fully understood in lactating dairy cows or indeed in any other situation in ruminants or mammals in general. However, to be effective, a nutritional signal should ultimately act on at least one of the 3 regulatory sites in the reproductive axis - the brain, the pituitary gland and the gonads. Nutrition is likely to involve metabolic signals that could act directly on one of these targets or it could interfere with other regulatory mechanisms such as the feedback by gonadal steroids on gonadotrophin secretion. In this presentation, we will use examples from laboratory rodents and ruminants, and from dairy cattle where they are available, to examine how IGF-1 and leptin, amongst several other blood metabolites and metabolic hormones, could be part of the link between nutrition and reproduction in the postpartum dairy cow. A number of studies have proposed a role for IGF-1 in the control of postpartum anoestrus and the framework of the current hypothesis will be presented. The role of leptin is still not clear for ruminants in general, but especially in cattle, because leptin was only recently discovered (about 6 years ago) and because a reliable radioimmunoassay for bovine leptin only became available since 1999. The possibilities and restrictions of a role for leptin in the control of reproduction by nutrition will be discussed. To conclude, we will examine the use of these two hormones as potential indicators of the adequacy of nutritional status for reproductive function and we will introduce insulin as another
Vieira, A; Battini, M; Can, E; Mattiello, S; Stilwell, G
This study was conducted within the context of the Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN) project and the underlying scientific motivation for the development of the study was the scarcity of data regarding inter-observer reliability (IOR) of welfare indicators, particularly given the importance of reliability as a further step for developing on-farm welfare assessment protocols. The objective of this study is therefore to evaluate IOR of animal-based indicators (at group and individual-level) of the AWIN welfare assessment protocol (prototype) for dairy goats. In the design of the study, two pairs of observers, one in Portugal and another in Italy, visited 10 farms each and applied the AWIN prototype protocol. Farms in both countries were visited between January and March 2014, and all the observers received the same training before the farm visits were initiated. Data collected during farm visits, and analysed in this study, include group-level and individual-level observations. The results of our study allow us to conclude that most of the group-level indicators presented the highest IOR level ('substantial', 0.85 to 0.99) in both field studies, pointing to a usable set of animal-based welfare indicators that were therefore included in the first level of the final AWIN welfare assessment protocol for dairy goats. Inter-observer reliability of individual-level indicators was lower, but the majority of them still reached 'fair to good' (0.41 to 0.75) and 'excellent' (0.76 to 1) levels. In the paper we explore reasons for the differences found in IOR between the group and individual-level indicators, including how the number of individual-level indicators to be assessed on each animal and the restraining method may have affected the results. Furthermore, we discuss the differences found in the IOR of individual-level indicators in both countries: the Portuguese pair of observers reached a higher level of IOR, when compared with the Italian observers. We argue how the
Sahlu, T; Dawson, L J; Gipson, T A; Hart, S P; Merkel, R C; Puchala, R; Wang, Z; Zeng, S; Goetsch, A L
Goat research in the United States has increased but at a rate less than that in production. Research on goat meat includes nutritional quality, packaging, color, sensory characteristics, and preslaughter management. Goat skins have value for leather, but quality of goat leather has not been extensively studied. Research in the production, quality, antibiotic residues, and sensory characteristics of goat milk and its products has aided development of the US dairy goat industry. Limited progress has been made in genetic improvement of milk or meat production. There is need to explore applications of genomics and proteomics and improve consistency in texture and functionality of goat cheeses. New goat meat and milk products are needed to increase demand and meet the diverse tastes of the American public. Despite research progress in control of mohair and cashmere growth, erratic prices and sale of raw materials have contributed to further declines in US production. Innovative and cooperative ventures are needed for profit sharing up to the consumer level. Internal parasites pose the greatest challenge to goat production in humid areas largely because of anthelmintic resistance. Study of alternative controls is required, including immunity enhancement via nutrition, vaccination, pasture management such as co-grazing with cattle, and genetic resistance. Similarly, the importance of health management is increasing related in part to a lack of effective vaccines for many diseases. Nutrition research should address requirements for vitamins and minerals, efficiencies of protein utilization, adjusting energy requirements for nutritional plane, acclimatization, and grazing conditions, feed intake prediction, and management practices for rapid-growth production systems. Moreover, efficient technology transfer methods are needed to disseminate current knowledge and that gained in future research.
Wilson, Meghan L; McCoski, Sarah R; Geiger, Adam J; Akers, R Michael; Johnson, Sally E; Ealy, Alan D
Uterine gland development occurs after birth in cattle and other mammals. The timeline of gland development has been described in various species, but little is known about how postnatal diet influences uterine gland development. This is especially concerning in dairy heifers, where a variety of milk replacer and whole milk nutrition options exist. Little work also exists in cattle to describe how early exposure to steroids influences reproductive tract and uterine gland development. The objective of this work was to determine the effects of early postnatal plane of nutrition and estrogen supplementation on uterine gland development in calves. In both studies, Holstein heifer calves were assigned to restricted milk replacer (R-MR) or enhanced milk replacer (EH-MR) diets. In study 1, calves (R-MR, n = 6; EH-MR, n = 5) were euthanized at 8 wk. In study 2, calves were weaned at 8 wk and administered estradiol (R-MR, n = 6; EH-MR, n = 6) or placebo (R-MR, n = 6; EH-MR, n = 5) for an additional 14 d before euthanasia. Average daily gain and final body weight was greater in both studies in heifers fed the enhanced diet. At 8 wk, EH-MR calves had a greater number of glands and a smaller average gland size, but total gland area was not different from the R-MR group. At 10 wk, uterine gland number and size were not affected by diet or estrogen. Expression profiles of several paracrine mediators of gland development were examined. Increases in transcript abundance for IGF1 and IGFBP3 and a decrease in abundance of WNT7A were detected in calves fed the enhanced diet at 8 wk of age. Plane of nutrition did not affect transcript profiles at 10 wk of age, but estradiol supplementation decreased MET and WNT7A transcript abundance. To conclude, heifer calves on a restricted diet exhibited a uterine morphology and transcript profile suggestive of delayed uterine gland development. These changes appear to be corrected by wk 10 of life. Also, this work provides evidence supporting the
Hogerweg, R.; Brom, Van den R.; Roest, H.I.J.; Bouma, A.; Vellema, P.; Pieterse, M.; Dercksen, D.; Nielen, M.
Recently, the number of human Q fever cases in the Netherlands increased dramatically. In response to this increase, dairy goats and dairy sheep were vaccinated against Coxiella burnetii. All pregnant dairy goats and dairy sheep in herds positive for Q fever were culled. We identified the effect of
Seo, S; Larkin, D M; Loor, J J
The recently sequenced cattle (Bos taurus) genome unraveled the unique genomic features of the species and provided the molecular basis for applying a systemic approach to systematically link genomic information to metabolic traits. Comparative analysis has identified a variety of evolutionary adaptive features in the cattle genome, such as an expansion of the gene families related to the rumen function, large number of chromosomal rearrangements affecting regulation of genes for lactation, and chromosomal rearrangements that are associated with segmental duplications and copy number variations. Metabolic reconstruction of the cattle genome has revealed that core metabolic pathways are highly conserved among mammals although five metabolic genes are deleted or highly diverged and seven metabolic genes are present in duplicate in the cattle genome compared to their human counter parts. The evolutionary loss and gain of metabolic genes in the cattle genome may reflect metabolic adaptations of cattle. Metabolic reconstruction also provides a platform for better understanding of metabolic regulation in cattle and ruminants. A substantial body of transcriptomics data from dairy and beef cattle under different nutritional management and across different stages of growth and lactation are already available and will aid in linking the genome with metabolism and nutritional physiology of cattle. Application of cattle genomics has great potential for future development of nutritional strategies to improve efficiency and sustainability of beef and milk production. One of the biggest challenges is to integrate genomic and phenotypic data and interpret them in a biological and practical platform. Systems biology, a holistic and systemic approach, will be very useful in overcoming this challenge.
Horaci Jaqueline Silva de Souza Ribeiro
Full Text Available This literature review had as objectives to describe the goats milk composition and its utilization in human feed. Due its good nutritional value, good digestibility and acceptability, and a low allergenic potential, the goat’s milk has been recommended for children, elderly and convalescent persons. However, it cannot be recommended to every child allergic to cow’s milk, because in some cases, serious threat to life can also occur with goat’s milk.Esta revisão de literatura teve como objetivo descrever a composição e a utilização do leite de cabra na alimentação humana. Por seu alto valor nutricional, boa digestibilidade, boa aceitação e um baixo potencial alergênico, o leite de cabra tem sido recomendado para crianças, pessoas idosas e convalescentes. Porém, o leite de cabra não pode ser recomendado indistintamente para todas as crianças alérgicas ao leite de vaca, pois a sua utilização pode causar, em alguns casos, sérios danos à saúde das mesmas.
Irena Colić Barić
Full Text Available Besides traditional nutrients, milk and dairy products contain some health promoting components. The aim of this study was to detect the frequency and preferences among dairy products in school children according to age and gender. The subjects were 234 healthy children at age 10-11 years and 14-15 years from two primary schools in Zagreb. Number of participants was well balanced according to age and gender. Dietary data were collected using specially designed food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. By additional questionnaire some anthropometric parameters as well as food preferences, attitudes and nutrition knowledge on milk and dairy products were collected. According to the results the intake of milk is significantly different (p< 0.05 to gender but not to age. 91 % children consume milk, 2.3 cups/day in average. Soft drinks, fruit juices, beverages and similar drinks are consumed more often than milk. Pudding and ice cream had the highest frequency among dairy products consumed. Milk and dairy frequency intake according to age and gender are still not significantly different. Children mostly consume fresh milk (68.7%. Girls at age 14-15 years consume light milk ( ≤1.6 % fat more than younger children and boys at the same age. 86 % of children is well informed about nutritional facts linked to milk and dairy products and they are mostly educate by parents. Among anthropometric parameters a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 was observed in height with regard to gender, only among older children, and for both height and, weight and body mass indeks (BMI with regard to age.
Áurea Marcela de Souza Pereira
Full Text Available The effects of Lactobacillus casei BGP93 used as adjunct culture on the physicochemical, textural and sensory characteristics of a dairy beverage processed with goat Coalho cheese whey powder and Streptococcus thermophilus TA-40 as starter (ST-LC beverage were investigated in comparison to a control product (ST beverage without L. casei. No significant differences were observed between the ST and ST-LC trials concerning the acidification pattern throughout the fermentation process (P>0.05. Post-acidification was also not observed for both trials since their pH values were maintained stable, without significant differences during 21 days at 4 ± 1 °C. This pH stability reinforced the maintenance of firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and viscosity index without significant differences between the sampling periods throughout the whole storage in both trials, and also that no significant difference was verified between the ST and ST-LC beverages in the sensory evaluation (P>0.05.
Safayi, S.; Nielsen, M. O.
amino acid supply is suboptimal. Goats were fed a basal diet deficient in energy (90% of requirements) and protein (80% of requirements), and were randomly allocated to 4 treatments in a balanced 4 x 4 Latin square design. The treatments consisted of 4-d continuous intravenous infusions of isoosmotic...... and close to significantly by ACE, but not by GLU treatment. GLU reduced milk protein percentage compared to all other treatments. High milk protein yields on EM and ACE treatments were associated with higher arterial AVD for acetate and oxygen (not significant for ACE), and higher AVD also for beta......In the present experiment we aimed to study, if milk synthesis is more sensitive toward deficiency in supply of amino acids in early (EL) versus late lactation (LL), and if energy yielding substrates in the form of acetate (but not glucose) can contribute to sustain milk (protein) synthesis, when...
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and test a new fuzzy logic model for monitoring the udder health status (HS of goats. The model evaluated, as input variables, the milk electrical conductivity (EC signal, acquired on-line for each gland by a dedicated sensor, the bandwidth length and the frequency and amplitude of the first main peak of the Fourier frequency spectrum of the recorded milk EC signal. Two foremilk gland samples were collected from eight Saanen goats for six months at morning milking (lactation stages (LS: 0–60 Days In Milking (DIM; 61–120 DIM; 121–180 DIM, for a total of 5592 samples. Bacteriological analyses and somatic cell counts (SCC were used to define the HS of the glands. With negative bacteriological analyses and SCC < 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as healthy. When bacteriological analyses were positive or showed a SCC > 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as not healthy (NH. For each EC signal, an estimated EC value was calculated and a relative deviation was obtained. Furthermore, the Fourier frequency spectrum was evaluated and bandwidth length, frequency and amplitude of the first main peak were identified. Before using these indexes as input variables of the fuzzy logic model a linear mixed-effects model was developed to evaluate the acquired data considering the HS, LS and LS × HS as explanatory variables. Results showed that performance of a fuzzy logic model, in the monitoring of mammary gland HS, could be improved by the use of EC indexes derived from the Fourier frequency spectra of gland milk EC signals recorded by on-line EC sensors.
Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Silvestre, F T; Kim, I H; Staples, C R
Increasing reproductive performance of post-partum lactating dairy cows is a multi-factorial challenge involving disciplines of production medicine, nutrition, physiology and herd management. Systems of programmed timed insemination have been fine-tuned to achieve pregnancy per artificial inseminations (AI) approximating 45%. Systems have optimized follicle development, integrated follicle development with timing of induced corpus luteum regression and fine-tuned sequential timing of induced ovulation and AI. Use of programmes for insemination have identified occurrence of anovulatory ovarian status, body condition, uterine health and seasonal summer stress as factors contributing to reduced herd fertility. Furthermore, programmes of timed insemination provide a platform to evaluate efficacy of nutritional and herd health systems targeted to the transition and post-partum periods. The homeorhetic periparturient period, as cows deal with decreases in dry matter intake, results in a negative energy balance and is associated with a period of immunosuppression. Cows that transition well will cycle earlier and have a greater risk of becoming pregnant earlier post-partum. The innate arms of the immune system (acute and adaptive) are suppressed during the periparturient period. Cows experiencing the sequential complex of disorders such as dystocia, puerperal metritis, metritis, endometritis and subclinical endometritis are subsequently less fertile. Targeted strategies of providing specific nutraceuticals that provide pro- and anti-inflammatory effects, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g., linoleic, eicosapentaenoic/docosahexaenoic, conjugated linoleic acid), sequential glycogenic and lipogenic enrichment of diets, and organic selenium appear to differentially regulate and improve the immune and reproductive systems to benefit an earlier restoration of ovarian activity and increased fertility. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Rodrigo Soares Mainardi
Full Text Available Foi colhido um total de 442 soros em rebanhos caprinos de sete regiões do Estado de São Paulo e testados para anticorpos contra Toxoplasma gondii pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta. Em todos os rebanhos, foram encontrados caprinos reagentes, totalizando 64 (14,5% animais com sorologia positiva em diferentes capris.Four hundred forty-two serum samples were collected from dairy goats in seven regions of São Paulo State. These were tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. Sixty-four (14,5% serologically positive animals were found from all these goat farms studied.
Giger-Reverdin, S; Rigalma, K; Desnoyers, M; Sauvant, D; Duvaux-Ponter, C
This work aimed first to compare 2 diets differing in their percentage of concentrate [low (LO): 30% concentrate vs. High (HI): 60% concentrate] by measuring simultaneously feeding behavior, rumen parameters, blood and plasma parameters, and milk yield and composition in 8 mid-lactation goats. The second aim was to study the interrelationships between these variables and to analyze the between-animal variability to better understand the between-animal differences in acidosis susceptibility. All of the animals received the 2 diets ad libitum as total mixed ration according to a crossover design of two 4-wk periods. Mean daily DMI was similar between the 2 diets but the variability was higher for the HI than for the LO diet. Goats produced more milk when fed the HI diet compared with the LO diet but with a lower fat:protein ratio (0.81 vs. 0.99). They ate more rapidly the HI than the LO diet but stopped eating sooner after the afternoon feed allowance, and spent less time chewing. The increase in concentrate percentage modified rumen parameters: the pH and acetate:propionate ratio decreased and total VFA, ammonia, and soluble carbohydrate concentrations increased. Hematocrit, plasma NEFA, and blood K and Ca concentrations decreased but glycemia and uremia increased. Other parameters were not modified: milk fat content, blood pH, and bicarbonate and Na concentrations. A large between-animal variability was detected for all the measured parameters, especially for feeding behavior, with important consequences on rumen and blood parameters. This work confirmed the effects of a high percentage of concentrate on feeding behavior, rumen and blood parameters, and milk production, and some known relationships such as the positive link between rumen pH and chewing index. It also pointed out other relationships between parameters seldom measured at the same time, such as rumen redox potential or blood pH and chewing index, or the negative link between blood and rumen pH. When
Alam, M.R.; Kabir, A.K.M.A.; Amin, M.R.; McNeill, D.M.
Albizia procera (Albizia) is widely planted in Bangladesh for timber and the leaves are also used as forage. In the dry season the leaves are less palatable than in the wet season and this may be a consequence of an excessive content of tannin. Albizia foliage was collected in the wet (June) and dry (January) seasons from six agro-ecological zones across Bangladesh and chemical composition, for tannins in particular, was determined. Variation in the tannin content across the six zones proved to be minimal. However, the concentration of tannins was almost two-fold higher in the dry compared to the wet season. To assess the potential for deactivating the tannins in Albizia so as to improve its nutritive value, leaves were treated with alkali (either calcium hydroxide or potassium carbonate) or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Alkali treatment reduced the concentrations of extractable tannin by as much as 92%. The ability of calcium hydroxide to deactivate tannin was then tested in vivo. Young goats, fed a basal diet of hay and wheat bran, were allocated to 4 equal groups (n = 4 per group) and supplemented with fresh Albizia foliage (at 300 g/kg of the diet) that was either untreated, or treated with either PEG, calcium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide + PEG. The supplements were fed daily for 9 weeks to allow the effects of chemical treatment on intake and growth rate to be defined. In vivo digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, and microbial N supply were measured over the 5th week. Intakes of feed dry matter (DM) and the digestibility of DM were similar across treatments (mean intake 32 g/(kg LW day), mean DM digestibility 0.63). However, both the PEG and the PEG + calcium hydroxide treatments, compared to the control and calcium hydroxide only treatments, increased N digestibility (0.72, 0.70 versus 0.60, 0.61), N retention (0.43, 0.48 mg N/mg versus 0.26, 0.27 mg N/mg N intake), and microbial N supply (23.7, 21.4 g/day versus 14.2, 12.4 g/day). These increases translated
Alam, M.R. [Department of Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh (Bangladesh)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Kabir, A.K.M.A.; Amin, M.R. [Department of Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh (Bangladesh); McNeill, D.M. [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW (Australia)
Albizia procera (Albizia) is widely planted in Bangladesh for timber and the leaves are also used as forage. In the dry season the leaves are less palatable than in the wet season and this may be a consequence of an excessive content of tannin. Albizia foliage was collected in the wet (June) and dry (January) seasons from six agro-ecological zones across Bangladesh and chemical composition, for tannins in particular, was determined. Variation in the tannin content across the six zones proved to be minimal. However, the concentration of tannins was almost two-fold higher in the dry compared to the wet season. To assess the potential for deactivating the tannins in Albizia so as to improve its nutritive value, leaves were treated with alkali (either calcium hydroxide or potassium carbonate) or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Alkali treatment reduced the concentrations of extractable tannin by as much as 92%. The ability of calcium hydroxide to deactivate tannin was then tested in vivo. Young goats, fed a basal diet of hay and wheat bran, were allocated to 4 equal groups (n = 4 per group) and supplemented with fresh Albizia foliage (at 300 g/kg of the diet) that was either untreated, or treated with either PEG, calcium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide + PEG. The supplements were fed daily for 9 weeks to allow the effects of chemical treatment on intake and growth rate to be defined. In vivo digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, and microbial N supply were measured over the 5th week. Intakes of feed dry matter (DM) and the digestibility of DM were similar across treatments (mean intake 32 g/(kg LW day), mean DM digestibility 0.63). However, both the PEG and the PEG + calcium hydroxide treatments, compared to the control and calcium hydroxide only treatments, increased N digestibility (0.72, 0.70 versus 0.60, 0.61), N retention (0.43, 0.48 mg N/mg versus 0.26, 0.27 mg N/mg N intake), and microbial N supply (23.7, 21.4 g/day versus 14.2, 12.4 g/day). These increases translated
EbnAli, A; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Mahdavi, A H; Malekkhahi, M; Mirzaei, M; Pezeshki, A; Ghaffari, M H
The potential effect of dietary forage supplementation on the performance and rumen development in dairy calves is well established. However, limited research has been directed to the comparative effects of forage offering methods on calf performance. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of forage provision methods (total mixed ration or free choice) on the performance, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and nutritional behaviour in newborn calves. Forty-five Holstein dairy calves (3 days of age and 41 ± 2 kg of body weight) were assigned to the following three groups (n = 15): (i) starter without forage provision (CON), (ii) starter supplemented with 10% alfalfa hay (AH) as a total mixed ration (AH-TMR) and (iii) starter and AH as a free-choice provision (AH-FC) for a period of 70 days. All the calves were offered 5 l of milk/day from day 3 to 50, and 2.5 l/day from day 50 until weaning on day 56. Dry matter intake (DMI) was greater (p forage tended (p = 0.08) to increase crude protein digestibility and overall volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations in the rumen. No differences were observed among the treatments at the time spent on standing, lying, eating and performing non-nutritive oral behaviours. Compared to CON calves, animals in the AH-TMR treatment spent more time (p forage supplementation in both forage offering methods increased total DMI, ruminal pH and ruminating time in dairy calves. Hence, there is no benefit in the free-choice provision of AH in dairy calves. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Fernandes, C C L; Aguiar, L H; Calderón, C E M; Silva, A M; Alves, J P M; Rossetto, R; Bertolini, L R; Bertolini, M; Rondina, D
Changes in the nutritional plan have been shown to affect oocyte quality, crucial to oocyte donors animals used in cloning. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of diets with increasing nutritional levels (maintenance diet=M; 1.3M; 1.6M; 1.9M) fed to goats for four weeks on follicular fluid composition, gene expression and oocyte competence used to cloning in goats. Donor females were superovulated for the retrieval of matured oocytes and physical measurements reported. After four weeks, groups receiving diets above maintenance increased thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue and body weight, with higher values in 1.9M Group (Pdiet did not affect the expression of GDF9, BMP15, and BAX genes in oocytes, but BCL2 and apoptotic index were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the 1.3M and 1.6M groups than the other groups. Following the transfer of cloned embryos, one fetus was born live of a twin pregnancy in the 1.9M Group. The association between energy intake and oocyte quality suggests better nutritional use by oocytes when the maximum flow was used (1.9M), but the optimal feeding level in cloning still needs refinement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Carpio, A; Bonilla-Valverde, D; Arce, C; Rodríguez-Estévez, V; Sánchez-Rodríguez, M; Arce, L; Valcárcel, M
Organic producers, traders, and consumers must address 2 issues related to milk: authentication of the production system and nutritional differentiation. The presence of hippuric acid (HA) in goat milk samples has been proposed as a possible marker to differentiate the feeding regimen of goats. The objective of this work is to check the hypothesis that HA could be a marker for the type of feeding regimen of goats by studying the influence of production system (conventional or organic) and feeding regimen (with or without grazing fodder). With this purpose, commercial cow and goat milk samples (n=27) and raw goat milk samples (n=185; collected from different breeds, localizations, and dates) were analyzed. Samples were grouped according to breed, feeding regimen, production system, and origin to compare HA content by ANOVA and honestly significant difference Tukey test at a confidence level of ≥95%. Hippuric acid content was obtained by analyzing milk samples with capillary electrophoresis. This method was validated by analyzing part of the samples with HPLC as a reference technique. Sixty-nine raw goat milk samples (of the total 158 samples analyzed in this work) were quantified by capillary electrophoresis. In these samples, the lowest average content for HA was 7±3 mg/L. This value corresponds to a group of conventional raw milk samples from goats fed with compound feed. The highest value of this group was 28±10 mg/L, corresponding to goats fed compound feed plus grass. Conversely, for organic raw goat milk samples, the highest concentration was 67±14 mg/L, which corresponds to goats fed grass. By contrast, the lowest value of this organic group was 26±10 mg/L, which belongs to goats fed organic compounds. Notice that the highest HA average content was found in samples from grazing animals corresponding to the organic group. This result suggests that HA is a good marker to determine the type of goats feeding regimen; a high content of HA represents a diet
Rafael Camargo do Amaral
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of covering methods on the nutritive value of corn silage and performance of dairy cows. Whole-plant corn was harvested at 340 g/kg of dry matter (DM and ensiled for 135 d in horizontal silos covered with one of the following methods: oxygen barrier film (45-µm thick + white-on-black polyethylene film (200-µm thick over the oxygen barrier film (OB+WB; white-on-black polyethylene film (200-µm thick (WB; black polyethylene film (200-µm thick (B; or recycled black polyethylene film (200-µm thick covered with a layer of 10 cm of sugarcane bagasse (RB+SB. Nutrient composition, fermentation profile, and yeast and mold counts in edible silages were similar across treatments. Silage temperature during the storage period was 24.6, 28.7, 28.4 and 33.1 °C for RB+SB, OB+WB, WB and B, respectively, and the proportion of spoiled silage ranged from 28.7 (for the RB+SB treatment to 74.2 g/kg DM (for the B treatment. Dry matter intake was similar across treatments and averaged 21.9 kg/d. Milk production was higher for cows fed corn silage covered with RB+SB (34.4 kg/d compared with those fed corn silage covered with B (30.4 kg/d, resulting in higher feed efficiency for RB+SB treatment. Silages covered with OB+WB and WB had intermediate values. In vivo digestibility of organic matter was higher for cows fed corn silage covered with RB+SB compared with those fed corn silage covered with WB and B, but were similar to those fed corn silage covered with OB+WB. The utilization of oxygen barrier films and the protection of polyethylene film with sugarcane bagasse are effective strategies to increase the recovery of digestible nutrients and, consequently, to enhance production efficiency of lactating dairy cows.
Kuria, S.G; Karue, C.N
A study on the nutritional characteristics of Indigofera spinosa and Duosperma eremophilum dwarf shrubs was carried out in Southwest Marsabit district of Kenya to establish the digestibility intake by goats and their chemical composition for management purposes. The value of Leucaena leucocephala seeds as protein supplement for goats was also tested where three levels, 0 (control), 50 and 100 g/goat/day were used. Intake and digestibility of the shrubs were assessed by difference and conventional methods respectively. Proximate analysis and Van Soest fibre analysis were done for chemical composition. Goats on l. spinosa had 330+ or -34. 5 g/day Dry Matter Intake (DMI) while those on D. eremophilum had 175+or-89.0 g/day. Dry Matter of l. spinosa was 40.3+or-2.9 % digestible while that of D. eremophilum was 45.0+or-6.6 % digestible. Indigofera spinosa contained 8.8 % Crude Protein (CP), 55.4 % Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF) and 4.1 KCal/gDM energy compared to 7.6 % CP, 29.3 % Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDP) and 3.1 KCal/gDM energy for D. eremophililum. In reference to the controls, DMI increased by 124g and 55g for D. eremophilum and I. spinosa respectively for every 50g increase in L. lecocephala seeds for l. spinosa. From the results it was concluded that in terms of intake, digestibility and CP, both shrubs are medium quality. Leucaena leucocephala seeds are rich in CP (26.0%) and increased both DMI and DMD for the shrubs. It is thus suitable for use as protein supplement in small ruminant feeding especially during the dry season when it will increase intake and digestibility of the shrubs
Full Text Available Contentious issues in calf rearing include milk feeding practices and single versus group housing. The current study was performed on a high producing 170 Holstein cow dairy farm, to investigate the impact of nutrition and housing on growth and reproduction. Heifer calves (n = 100 were allocated in birth order to one of two commonly used management strategies. All calves received 3-4 litres of dam specific colostrum within 6 hours of birth. Group A calves were group housed from birth and fed milk replacer (MR ad libitum via a computerised machine utilising a single teat, with weaning commencing at 63 days of age. Group R calves were initially housed in individual pens and received 2.5 litres of MR twice daily via a bucket until 21 days of age when they were group housed and fed 3 litres of MR twice daily via a group trough with weaning commencing at 56 days. From 12 weeks of age onwards, calves in both dietary groups were subject to common nutritional and husbandry protocols. All breeding of heifers was via artificial insemination with no hormonal intervention. Calves were weighed, body condition scored and morphometric measures recorded weekly up till 12 weeks of age then monthly until conception. Pre-weaning growth rates (kg/day were significantly higher in Group A calves compared to Group R (0.89, 95% CI 0.86-0.93 vs 0.57, 95% CI 0.54-0.6 kg/day P 0.050 in any of the mean values of measured reproductive parameters, multivariable Cox regression suggested that there was a weak trend (P = 0.072 for Group A animals to achieve first service earlier than their Group R counterparts (62.6 weeks versus 65.3 weeks. Irrespective of dietary group, the hazard for achievement of all measured reproductive parameters, apart from time to puberty, was 20-40% less for heifers borne from multiparous dams compared to heifers from primiparous dams.
Curtis, G; McGregor Argo, C; Jones, D; Grove-White, D
Contentious issues in calf rearing include milk feeding practices and single versus group housing. The current study was performed on a high producing 170 Holstein cow dairy farm, to investigate the impact of nutrition and housing on growth and reproduction. Heifer calves (n = 100) were allocated in birth order to one of two commonly used management strategies. All calves received 3-4 litres of dam specific colostrum within 6 hours of birth. Group A calves were group housed from birth and fed milk replacer (MR) ad libitum via a computerised machine utilising a single teat, with weaning commencing at 63 days of age. Group R calves were initially housed in individual pens and received 2.5 litres of MR twice daily via a bucket until 21 days of age when they were group housed and fed 3 litres of MR twice daily via a group trough with weaning commencing at 56 days. From 12 weeks of age onwards, calves in both dietary groups were subject to common nutritional and husbandry protocols. All breeding of heifers was via artificial insemination with no hormonal intervention. Calves were weighed, body condition scored and morphometric measures recorded weekly up till 12 weeks of age then monthly until conception. Pre-weaning growth rates (kg/day) were significantly higher in Group A calves compared to Group R (0.89, 95% CI 0.86-0.93 vs 0.57, 95% CI 0.54-0.6 kg/day P 0.050) in any of the mean values of measured reproductive parameters, multivariable Cox regression suggested that there was a weak trend (P = 0.072) for Group A animals to achieve first service earlier than their Group R counterparts (62.6 weeks versus 65.3 weeks). Irrespective of dietary group, the hazard for achievement of all measured reproductive parameters, apart from time to puberty, was 20-40% less for heifers borne from multiparous dams compared to heifers from primiparous dams.
Technologies like improved breeds of dairy cows and improved forages have the potential to significantly increase dairy cow productivity and farmers' profits in developing countries. However, adoption of such technologies has been low in Ethiopia, despite numerous efforts to disseminate the
Nitrogen (N) excreted in urine by dairy cows can be potentially transformed to ammonia (NH3) and emitted to the atmosphere. Dairy production contributes to NH3 emission, which can create human respiratory problems and odor issues, reduces manure quality, and is an indirect source of nitrous oxide (N...
Weiss, W P
Mineral and vitamin nutrition of dairy cows was studied before the first volume of the Journal of Dairy Science was published and is still actively researched today. The initial studies on mineral nutrition of dairy cows were simple balance experiments (although the methods available at the time for measuring minerals were anything but simple). Output of Ca and P in feces, urine, and milk was subtracted from intake of Ca and P, and if values were negative it was often assumed that cows were lacking in the particular mineral. As analytical methods improved, more minerals were found to be required by dairy cows, and blood and tissue concentrations became primary response variables. Those measures often were poorly related to cow health, leading to the use of disease prevalence and immune function as a measure of mineral adequacy. As data were generated, mineral requirements became more accurate and included more sources of variation. In addition to milk yield and body weight inputs, bioavailability coefficients of minerals from different sources are used to formulate diets that can meet the needs of the cow without excessive excretion of minerals in manure, which negatively affects the environment. Milk, or more accurately the lack of milk in human diets, was central to the discovery of vitamins, but research into vitamin nutrition of cows developed slowly. For many decades bioassays were the only available method for measuring vitamin concentrations, which greatly limited research. The history of vitamin nutrition mirrors that of mineral nutrition. Among the first experiments conducted on vitamin nutrition of cows were those examining the factors affecting vitamin concentrations of milk. This was followed by determining the amount of vitamins needed to prevent deficiency diseases, which evolved into research to determine the amount of vitamins required to promote overall good health. The majority of research was conducted on vitamins A, D, and E because these
Szilagyi, Andrew; Galiatsatos, Polymnia; Xue, Xiaoqing
Relationships between inflammatory bowel disease and lactose containing foods remain controversial and poorly defined regarding symptoms, nutritional outcomes, and epidemiologic associations for lactose maldigestion. A literature review was performed using Pub Med, Cochrane library and individual references, to extract data on lactose maldigestion prevalence in inflammatory bowel diseases. A meta-analysis was done using selected articles, to determine odds ratios of maldigestion. Information was collected about symptoms, impact on pattern of dairy food consumption, as well as the effects of dairy foods on the course of inflammatory bowel diseases. A total of 1022 articles were evaluated, 35 articles were retained and 5 studies were added from review articles. Of these 17 were included in meta-analysis which showed overall increased lactose maldigestion in both diseases. However increased risk on sub analysis was only found in Crohn's in patients with small bowel involvement. Nine additional studies were reviewed for symptoms, with variable outcomes due to confounding between lactose intolerance and lactose maldigestion. Fourteen studies were evaluated for dairy food effects. There was a suggestion that dairy foods may protect against inflammatory bowel disease. Nutritional consequences of dairy restrictions might impact adversely on bone and colonic complications. Lactose maldigestion in inflammatory bowel disease is dependent on ethnic makeup of the population and usually not disease. No bias of increased disease prevalence was noted between lactase genotypes. Intolerance symptoms depend on several parameters besides lactose maldigestion. Dairy foods may decrease risks of inflammatory bowel disease. Dairy restrictions may adversely affect disease outcome.
Smialowska, A; Matia-Merino, L; Carr, A J
We isolated goat phosphopeptides via calcium and ethanol precipitation from a caseinate digest and investigated their feasibility as an iron-fortification ingredient in nutritional foods. Goat tryptic-digested phosphopeptides could bind 54.37 ± 0.50 mg of Fe/g of protein compared with goat milk, which could bind 3.83 ± 0.01 mg of Fe/g of protein, indicating that isolation did increase iron binding. However, the >13-fold increase in iron binding was only partly explained by the increased concentration of phosphoserine-rich residues in the isolated fraction: we observed a 77% increase in serine residue content and a 5.9-fold increase in phosphorus in the goat peptide isolate compared with the starting caseinate material. We investigated the effect of potential industrial processing conditions (including heating, cooling, holding time, and processing order) on iron binding by the tryptic-digested phosphopeptides. In addition, we tested the effect of ionic strength and the addition of peptides to a milk system to understand how food formulations could affect iron binding. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Friggens, Nic; Disenhaus, C; Petit, H V
for the dairy producer. In this study we focus on understanding the overall biological phenomena associated with nutritional sub-fertility rather than the underlying multiplicity of physiological interactions (already described in a number of recent studies). These phenomena are important because they represent...... the natural adaptations of the animal for dealing with variations in the nutritional environment. They can also be used to monitor and modulate reproductive performance on-farm. There is an underlying trade-off between two aspects of reproduction: investment in the viability of the current calf and investment...... embryos, which are of poorer quality, than do non-lactating cows. The same applies to high- compared to medium-genetic merit cows. Another important biological property is the adaptive use of body reserves in support of reproduction. Orchestrated endocrine changes in pregnancy and lactation facilitate...
Full Text Available In the highlands of Central Mexico a surplus of different forages is observed during the rainy season particularly weeds, which grow in maize fields. Weeds are widely used by farmers to feed dairy cattle. The objective of the present work was to determine the nutritive value of weeds, their content of secondary metabolites, and their effect on in vitro fermentation kinetics when included (at different levels of inclusion in a diet based on maize straw. The present study was carried out in two regions of the Toluca valley from August to October 2007. A split plot design was used to evaluate the variables associated with the nutritive value and a randomized design was employed to evaluate the content of secondary metabolites in the different weed species. Significant differences (P
Gerold Hartmut Rahmann
Full Text Available Organic farming has emerged from its niche. This holds true for organic goat milk, yoghurt and cheese as well. Particularly in the EU many dairy goat farms have converted or want to convert towards organic farming to profit from the positive image and the good prices for milk (+100% in Western Europe and Alpine regions. High performance dairy goats demand excellent feedstuffs, a sound environment and top management. It was not clear how organic farming can fulfil these demands. The restrictive factors influencing the productivity of the animals in organic farming are as follows: limited concentrate feeding (
Nkarthe Guerra Araújo
Full Text Available This research aimed to develop and evaluate the acceptance and intention to purchase two dairy beverages formulations prepared with fermented umbus, goat serum and goat milk in order to add greater economic value to the three raw materials. The treatments consisted of the variation in serum concentrations goat (28,5% and 44% and goat milk (44% and 28,5%, respectively. The pulp has previously been analyzed and showed 15,21mg/100g of ascorbic acid. The fermented dairy beverages showed microbiological characteristics within the established by the legislation. It was found that there was no significant difference (p > 0,05 for color attributes, flavor and consistency of both, however, the flavor attributes and global acceptance have been significantly affected. The formulation with 28,5% of goat serum and 44% goat milk had the best average from 10 days, and acceptances up to 25 days of storage.
Full Text Available Prospective studies have consistently reported lower colorectal cancer risks associated with higher intakes of total dairy products, total milk and dietary calcium. However, less is known about whether the inverse associations vary for individual dairy products with differing fat contents.In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, we investigated the associations between intakes of total milk and milk subtypes (whole-fat, semi-skimmed and skimmed, yoghurt, cheese, and dietary calcium with colorectal cancer risk amongst 477,122 men and women. Dietary questionnaires were administered at baseline. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for relevant confounding variables.During the mean 11 years of follow-up, 4,513 incident cases of colorectal cancer occurred. After multivariable adjustments, total milk consumption was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR per 200 g/day 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89-0.98. Similar inverse associations were observed for whole-fat (HR per 200 g/day 0.90, 95% CI: 0.82-0.99 and skimmed milk (HR per 200 g/day 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79-1.02 in the multivariable models. Inverse associations were observed for cheese and yoghurt in the categorical models; although in the linear models, these associations were non-significant. Dietary calcium was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR per 200 mg/day 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91-0.99; this association was limited to dairy sources of calcium only (HR per 200 mg/day 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91-0.99, with no association observed for non-dairy calcium sources (HR per 200 mg/day 1.00, 95% CI: 0.81-1.24.Our results strengthen the evidence for a possible protective role of dairy products on colorectal cancer risk. The inverse associations we observed did not differ by the fat content of the dairy products considered.
Full Text Available Information on nutritive value of locally available feed ingredients is scarce, therefore the study conducted in the laboratory of the Department “General Animal Husbandry” of the State Agrarian University of Moldova, was aimed at determining the chemical composition and nutrient content of various feeds and fodder species commonly used in the diets of dairy cow sraised in the University farm. Fodder samples, proceeding from different agricultural and ecological zones of the Republic of Moldova, were analyzed for their content of total moisture, dry matter, crude protein, fat, fiber, ash and NFE quantity and the data were compared with those available in the specialized literature. The comparative analysis showed differences in the content of a number of nutrients and large fluctuations were observed in terms of the level of oat nutrition units, energetic nutrition units and metabolizable energy contentin comparison with the data contained in normative references and used in the calculation of the nutritional value of feed and diets.
Wina, E.; Tangendjaja, B.; Susana, I.W.R.
Acacia villosa, a thornless shrub legume, has potential as a feed supplement for ruminants if anti-nutritional factors, especially tannins, can be overcome. The effects of chopping and soaking the leaves on the amounts of tannin in the extracting solution and that left in the recovered leaves were studied. The tannin and non-tannin phenolics were solubilized in the extracting solution and the amount was increased with the soaking time. Soaking in calcium hydroxide solution, hydrochloric acid or water removed 41-76% of tannin and total phenolics removed from the recovered leaves. Soaking of the leaves also removed fermentable materials and reduced the gas production. In the first of two digestibility experiments, three groups of goats received one of these diets, those were: (1) sugar cane tops: unsoaked Acacia leaves (7:3), (2) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) and (3) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) + 100 g/day of cassava flour. Live weight of goats was measured every 2 weeks and a large increase in average daily gain was obtained for goats fed diet containing water soaked leaves and cassava flour (71 g/day) compared to those fed diet containing unsoaked leaves and water soaked leaves (38.9 and 44.7 g/day, respectively) (P 0.05) found in intake or digestibility between unsoaked and soaked leaves. In conclusion, soaking reduced tannin in Acacia leaves, improved digestibility and intake of Acacia leaves. In the presence of cassava flour, soaking improved average daily gain. Diets supplemented with water soaked Acacia leaves probably also need an energy supplement and cassava flour is one of the feed ingredients that is satisfactory. (author)
Oseguera Montiel, D.
Smallholder Mexican farmers are embedded in an adverse context, due to neoliberal globalization policies, which threatens their livelihoods, and has caused an unprecedented surge of migration to the US. Keeping goats is one strategy to diversify livelihoods. Goat husbandry is dairy oriented and
Full Text Available Objective This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of supplementation with soybean or canola oil on milk production and the composition of long chain fatty acids as well as weight changes in the goats and their kids. Methods Thirty nine mulitparous crossed Alpine×Nubian goats (initial body weight [BW] 43.5±1.7 kg from the day of parturition were assigned to the treatments: grazing control (n = 15; grazing plus 20 mL/goat/d of supplemental soybean oil (n = 12; and grazing plus 20 mL/goat/d of supplemental canola oil (n = 12 from November 26, 2014 to March 7, 2015. The planned contrasts were: CI (control vs supplemented with oils; CII (soybean vs canola oil to compare the treatment effects. Results The vegetable oil supplementation reduced weight losses in lactating goats (CI: −0.060 vs 0.090 kg/d; p = 0.03 but did not improve milk production or affect kids’ growth. The content of C4, C6, C8, C10, C11, C14, and C18:1n9t in the milk was increased (p<0.05 with respect to control. However, C12, C14, C16, C18, C18:1n9c, C18:2n6c, and C18:3n3 were reduced (p<0.05 in supplemented goats. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA was increased (p<0.05 in goats supplemented with oils compared to the control group. Conclusion Supplementation with 20 mL/d of soybean or canola oil did not affect milk production or kids’ performance; however, it increased CLA concentration and reduced the reduced weight losses in lactating goats.
Lerma-Reyes, Israel; Mendoza-Martínez, German D; Rojo-Rubio, Rolado; Mejia, Mario; García-Lopez, J C; Lee-Rangel, Héctor A
This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of supplementation with soybean or canola oil on milk production and the composition of long chain fatty acids as well as weight changes in the goats and their kids. Thirty nine mulitparous crossed Alpine×Nubian goats (initial body weight [BW] 43.5±1.7 kg) from the day of parturition were assigned to the treatments: grazing control (n = 15); grazing plus 20 mL/goat/d of supplemental soybean oil (n = 12); and grazing plus 20 mL/goat/d of supplemental canola oil (n = 12) from November 26, 2014 to March 7, 2015. The planned contrasts were: CI (control vs supplemented with oils); CII (soybean vs canola oil) to compare the treatment effects. The vegetable oil supplementation reduced weight losses in lactating goats (CI: -0.060 vs 0.090 kg/d; p = 0.03) but did not improve milk production or affect kids' growth. The content of C4, C6, C8, C10, C11, C14, and C18:1n9t in the milk was increased (poils compared to the control group. Supplementation with 20 mL/d of soybean or canola oil did not affect milk production or kids' performance; however, it increased CLA concentration and reduced the reduced weight losses in lactating goats.
Silva, Francyeli Araújo; de Oliveira, Maria Elieidy Gomes; de Figueirêdo, Rossana Maria Feitosa; Sampaio, Karoliny Brito; de Souza, Evandro Leite; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; Pintado, Maria Manuela Estevez; Ramos do Egypto Queiroga, Rita de Cássia
Goat milk is an attractive food because of its nutritional properties, easy digestibility and hypoallergenicity. Goat milk yogurt is an appropriate matrix for the inclusion of new ingredients such as probiotic cultures, fruit and its derivatives. Grapes are rich in polyphenols and recognized for their health benefits. The aim of this study was to improve the quality characteristics of probiotic goat milk yogurt by the addition of an Isabel grape (Vitis labrusca L.) preparation (IGP). For this, the influence of the addition of IGP on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of goat milk yogurt containing the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-05 was evaluated during 28 days of refrigerated storage (5 ± 0.5 °C). Four yogurt formulations were prepared, each varying in the added IGP amount, as follows: Y0 (not containing IGP), YG15 (containing 15 g per 100 mL of IGP), YG20 (containing 20 g per 100 mL of IGP), and YG25 (containing 25 g per 100 mL of IGP). All formulations showed probiotic counts ranging from 7 to 8 log CFU mL -1 over the assessed storage period. The addition of 20 g per 100 mL of IGP affected positively the colour, viscosity, and sensory acceptance of the yogurt formulations. The production of goat milk yogurt containing L. acidophilus LA-05 and IGP is an option for developing a new goat dairy product with added value due to the inclusion of components with potential functional properties.
Taylor, Jared D; Rodenburg, Merel; Snider, Timothy A
Calf scours is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the dairy industry. Effective treatments are needed to minimize death, maximize welfare, and maintain growth and productivity. The objective of this trial was to compare the efficacy of a commercially available nutritional supplement (Diaque, Boehringer-Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, MO) and i.v. lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) in rehydrating, preventing acidemia, and correcting electrolyte imbalances in an experimental model for calf scours. Twenty-four colostrum-fed suckling dairy calves were used in a modified crossover design. An osmotic diarrhea was induced by orally feeding commercial milk replacer modified with high level of sucrose to create a hypertonic milk solution, and administering oral hydrochlorothiazide and spironolactone for 48 h. The intention was to create a challenge sufficient to result in moderately dehydrated, standing calves without producing severe depression or loss of suckle. The efficacy of i.v. fluid therapy and a commercial nutritional supplement were subsequently compared for reversing the effects of the diarrheal disease. Treatment A consisted of administering the nutritional supplement according to label directions (100 g in 1.9 L of warm water, 3 times a day), and treatment B consisted of i.v. LRS (2 L, once a day). Clinical signs and laboratory results were obtained once daily by a blinded observer. The induction method was effective in creating the desired effect, as demonstrated by weight loss and subjective health and hydration scores. Both treatment groups experienced increases in body weight, base excess, and bicarbonate, and decreases in total protein and packed cell volume following treatment. Both i.v. LRS and Diaque are effective methods to correct hypovolemia and control derangements in acid-base status in calves with diarrhea and dehydration. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the
Bougouin, Adeline; Leytem, April; Dijkstra, Jan; Dungan, Robert S.; Kebreab, Ermias
Nitrogen excreted in dairy manure can be potentially transformed and emitted as NH3, which can create livestock and human respiratory problems and be an indirect source of N2O. The objectives of this study were to: (i) investigate environmental factors influencing
Ceballos, Laura Sanz; Morales, Eva Ramos; Martínez, Luis Pérez; Extremera, Francisca Gil; Sampelayo, M Remedios Sanz
Consumption of whole milk and related dairy products has decreased considerably as a result of negative aspects associated with the consumption of saturated fats. The main difference between the composition of goat milk and cow milk concerns the composition of the fat, that of goat milk containing a larger proportion of medium-chain triglycerides. The metabolic utilization of these compounds is fundamentally oriented towards their use as sources of energy, and they may even contribute to the synthesis of proteins. This study was carried out, using 40 rats at weaning, in order to determine whether, on the basis of their fat and protein composition, there is any difference between the nutritional utilization of the N and the energy from goat and cow milk. Eight animals were killed on arrival at the laboratory, and the rest were divided into four groups of eight animals and killed at the end of the experiment. Each group was given a different diet: diet 1 contained fat and protein from goat milk; diet 2 had fat from cow milk and protein from goat milk; diet 3 had fat from goat milk and protein from cow milk; diet 4 had fat and protein from cow milk. The animals were allowed to feed ad libitum for 30 d and a balance assay was performed during the final 7 d to determine N and energy utilization. At the same time and by the comparative slaughter method, the protein and fat deposition for each group was established. It was concluded that goat milk protein is more digestible than that of cow milk. Moreover, the metabolic utilization of digestible N was found to be dependent on the sources of both the protein and the fat in the diet; a higher degree of utilization was recorded for the digestible N obtained using diets with protein or fat from goat milk. Consumption of diets with goat milk fat led to a lower level of thermogenesis associated with protein oxidation and a higher one for that associated with fat oxidation, which in turn implied a protein-sparing effect of the
Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Jensen, Bent Borg; Jensen, Karin Hjelholt
bacterial disease outbreaks in piglets, the use of antibiotics at subtherapeutic concentrations has been banned in the European Union because of the increasing prevalence of resistance to antibiotics in pigs. The removal of in-feed antibiotics from piglet diets has negative economic consequences...... as it dramatically increases the rate of morbidity and mortality due to ETEC as well as the use of antibiotics for therapeutic purposes. Other than subtherapeutic antibiotics, zinc oxide (ZnO) has been reported to ameliorate and/or prevent the development of PWD in piglets, but its excretion may have negative...... impacts on the environment. Thus, other alternatives that can control ETEC infections in piglets postweaning will be of great advantage. A number of nutritional strategies have been proposed as alternative means of preventing ETEC infections, of which feeding dairy-based products to piglets could be one...
Friggens, N C; Disenhaus, C; Petit, H V
There has been a significant decline in the reproductive performance of dairy cattle in recent decades. Cows, take longer time to return to the oestrus after calving, have poorer conception rates, and show fewer signs of oestrus. Achieving good reproductive performance is an increasing challenge for the dairy producer. In this study we focus on understanding the overall biological phenomena associated with nutritional sub-fertility rather than the underlying multiplicity of physiological interactions (already described in a number of recent studies). These phenomena are important because they represent the natural adaptations of the animal for dealing with variations in the nutritional environment. They can also be used to monitor and modulate reproductive performance on-farm. There is an underlying trade-off between two aspects of reproduction: investment in the viability of the current calf and investment in future offspring. As the investment in, and viability of, the current calf is related to maternal milk production, we can expect that level of milk production per se has effects on subsequent reproductive performance (investment in future offspring). Lactating cows have a lower proportion of viable embryos, which are of poorer quality, than do non-lactating cows. The same applies to high- compared to medium-genetic merit cows. Another important biological property is the adaptive use of body reserves in support of reproduction. Orchestrated endocrine changes in pregnancy and lactation facilitate the deposition of body lipid during pregnancy and mobilisation in early lactation. When the cow fails to accumulate the reserves she needs to safeguard reproduction she delays committing to further reproductive investment. But how does the cow 'know' that she is failing in energy terms? We argue that the cow does this by 'monitoring' both the body fat mobilisation and body fatness. Excessive body fat mobilisation indicates that current conditions are worse than
Ceï, W; Salah, N; Paut, C; Dumoulin, P-J; Arquet, R; Félicité, Y; Alexandre, G; Archimède, H; Bambou, J-C
In small ruminants, the response against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections is influenced not only by the host genotype and the physiological stage but also by environmental factors, particularly the nutritional status at the time of infection. In this study we evaluated the long-term effect and the interaction between the host species and the nutritional history on the response to GIN infection in two animal models differing in their phenotypic growth and their level of GIN resistance: Black Belly sheep and Creole goats. Lambs and kids were subjected to three distinct nutritional conditions at weaning: low dietary conditions (100% of the theoretical energy requirement for maintenance, corresponding to 548v. 484KJ/Kg BW(0.75) for lambs and kids respectively and 6% of crude protein, CP), medium dietary conditions (150% of the theoretical energy requirement for maintenance and 13% CP) and high dietary conditions (200% of the theoretical energy requirement for maintenance and 20% CP). This 3-months period was followed by a 1-month period on the medium dietary conditions for all the animals before an experimental Haemonchus contortus infection. We monitored the impact of the nutritional history (nutritional condition after weaning), on the intensity of the GIN infection by measuring individual faecal egg counts (FEC), growth rate (ADG), blood eosinophil counts and other pathophysiological parameters. The FEC, growth rate and blood eosinophil counts were significantly affected by the nutritional history in lambs but not in kids. The lowest FEC was found for lambs placed in high dietary conditions, however during the same period body weight loss was observed in this group. In low dietary conditions, kids were more resistant than lambs and the ADG was higher in lambs. However, the anaemia and the level of serum pepsinogen, marker of the abomasal mucosa integrity, were higher in kids. Our data suggest that the impact of the post-weaning nutritional history on the
Full Text Available The effect of quantity of nutrients on rumen fermentation and the level of metabolic markers in blood serum were simultaneously analysed in groups of dairy cows 21 days before and 21 days after parturition with aim to diagnose disorders in milk production in the transition period of dairy cows. Results of analysis of health disorders confirmed the following: low energy concentration in the diet insufficiently saturated with fibrous carbohydrates, followed with rapid change to concentrate type of diet after delivery resulted in insufficient adaptation of the rumen metabolism before and after rapid transition to production feeding rations after calving; the level indicative of acidification of the rumen environment. Investigation of intermediary metabolism confirmed pre- and post-partum lipomobilization, with increased values of NEFA in 68 % and 54 % of animals respectively, with liver load manifestation in 37 % and 69 % of animals, respectively.
Risk factors associated with the occurrence of gastrointestinal helminths in dairy goats kept in grazing systemFatores de riscos associados à ocorrência de helmintos gastrintestinais em cabras leiteiras mantidas em sistema de pastejo
Adivaldo Henrique Fonseca
Full Text Available Infection due to the gastrointestinal nematodes can negatively interact with the productive performance of dairy goats, and in some cases can induce mortality in the flocks. The objective was to study the influence of season, parturition order, postpartum, lactation and breed standard on the population of helminths in dairy goats. 31 goats were used, with 15 Saanen and 16 F1 (½ Boer + ½ Saanen. Of these, 13 were from the 1st lactation and 18 from the 2nd or more lactations. The highest fecal egg counts occurred during the summer and spring, with FEC in Saanen higher (p Infecção por nematóides gastrointestinais pode interagir negativamente com a performace produtiva de cabras de leite, e em alguns casos induzir a mortalidade em rebanhos. Objetivou-se conhecer a influência da estação do ano, ordem de parto, periparto, lactação e padrão racial sobre a população de helmintos em cabras leiteiras. Foram utilizadas 31 cabras, sendo 15 Saanen e 16 F1 (½ Saanen + ½ Bôer. Destas, 13 eram de 1º lactação e 18 de 2º ou mais lactações. As maiores contagens de OPG ocorreram no verão e primavera, sendo o OPG dos animais Saanen superior (p < 0,01 ao dos F1 (½ Saanen + ½ Bôer. Os animais de 1º lactação apresentaram OPG superior (p < 0,004 ao dos animais de 2º ou mais lactação. Durante o periparto as maiores contagem de OPG para os dois padrões raciais foram na semana do parto (p < 0,05, seguida pelo pós-parto e pré-parto. No periparto as cabras Saanen apresentaram OPG superior (p < 0,02 aos F1 e as primíparas (p < 0,008 em relação as pluríparas. Animais F1 são resistentes a helmintos quando comparado a animais Saanen, demonstrando que o cruzamento de raças resistentes com raças de alta produção é uma alternativa viável para aumentar a produtividade sem comprometer a estabilidade parasitaria do rebanho. O periparto constitui fator de risco associado á ocorrência de helmintos gastrintestinais, especialmente em cabras
Benyoucef, M.T.; Nekkal, T.; Khelili, A.; Khelili, R.; Nefafa, S.
This work aims to improve reproduction and milk production of Friesian dairy cows used under the environmental conditions of the Mitidja Plain (Central region of Algeria) by analyzing the quality of feeding and studying the resumption of ovarian activity of cows after calving. The first phase of the study started during 1995/96, by surveying a sample of 47 livestock farms in the Mitidja area in order to identify available feed resources and husbandry practices and to record data on reproduction parameters, individual body weights, body condition score and milk production. Ovarian activity was monitored by radioimmunoassay of progesterone in blood and milk samples collected twice a week, after 15 days post-partum. The second phase was conducted in 1996 and 1997 in two dairy farms. Data were collected on the same parameters of reproduction and production. During the second year, the results of dairy herds were better than those in the first year. That was probably due to monitoring provided by the research project. (author)
In order to exploit the productive potential of milk producing animal, supplementation is a prerequisite. However due to low purchasing power of most small scale dairy farmers some farmers use what is locally available as supplements of Mondia whytei, maize germ, lucerne and dairy meal were fed to dual purpose lactating goats in a completely randomised design. The basal diet was Rhodes grass hay. Chemical composition of feeds was done. Crude protein, CP in Mondia leaves was 187 g kg -1 DM while calcium was 69.1 g kg -1 DM. Mondia whytei is a plant which mainly grows in forests and has many valuable uses including its use as a livestock feed. It has been claimed that when farmers in western Kenya feed Mondia roots to their lactating cows there is an increase in milk production. It is against this background that this work was undertaken to compare the potential of Mondia whytei roots and leaves with other conventional feed supplements. Response to Mondia roots was quite low. There was no significant difference in rumen pH levels over time between treatments. It is recommended that more work be done on Mondia whytei to determine its potential as a feed supplement and to continue monitoring its use on-farm including its feeding methods used by farmers in western Kenya
Lima Miguel S
Full Text Available Abstract Pregnancy toxaemia is one of the most common diseases affecting small ruminants in the last month of gestation. Nearly 80% of the foetal growth occurs in the last 6 weeks of gestation. Fat goats and goats carrying twins and triplets are at greater risk. Pregnancy toxaemia is characterized by metabolic acidosis, hypoglycaemia and ketonaemia and a very high mortality rate. In our study five does with pregnancy toxaemia showed a marked hyperglycaemia (12.4 ± 5.4 mmol/L. Although our findings are based on a small population sample (10 goats, we nonetheless postulate that hyperglycaemia could be explained by the death of the foetuses. Caesarian surgery was performed on four of the five does with hyperglycaemia (HG does. In the fifth, kidding was induced. In this group, two does had two dead foetuses, two had three dead foetuses and one does had four foetuses, only one of which was alive. Caesarian surgery was performed on all five does with hypoglycaemia (LG does. Four does of the LG group had three foetuses and one had two foetuses, all alive. The HG doe had lower rectal temperatures, lower sodium and higher urea nitrogen (BUN in the blood when compared with the LG does. As the condition of affected does may deteriorate quickly, the results of the present study suggest that in the last days of pregnancy goats with pregnancy toxaemia and concurrent hypoglycaemia should be considered for caesarian surgery.
Khan, N.A.; Habib, G.; Ullah, G.
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of leaves from Grewia oppositifolia (G. oppositifolia) and Ziziphus mauritiana (Z. mauritiana) as a crude protein (CP) supplements to low quality diets of goats in Pakistan. Chemical composition and CP degradability of the tree leaves were
Lin, Xian-Zi; Luo, Jun; Zhang, Li-Ping; Wang, Wei; Shi, Heng-Bo; Zhu, Jiang-Jiang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a well-defined group of small RNAs containing about 22 nucleotides, participate in various biological metabolic processes. miR-27a is a miRNA that is known to regulate fat synthesis and differentiation in preadipocyte cells. However, little is known regarding the role that miR-27a plays in regulating goat milk fat synthesis. In this study, we determined the miR-27a expression profile in goat mammary gland and found that miR-27a expression was correlated with the lactation cycle. Additionally, prolactin promoted miR-27a expression in goat mammary gland epithelial cells. Further functional analysis showed that over-expression of miR-27a down-regulated triglyceride accumulation and decreased the ratio of unsaturated/saturated fatty acid in mammary gland epithelial cells. miR-27a also significantly affected mRNA expression related to milk fat metabolism. Specifically, over-expression of miR-27a reduced gene mRNA expression associated with triglyceride synthesis by suppressing PPARγ protein levels. This study provides the first experimental evidence that miR-27a regulates triglyceride synthesis in goat mammary gland epithelial cells and improves our understanding about the importance of miRNAs in milk fat synthesis. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wina, E. [Research Institute for Animal Production, Bogor (Indonesia)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Tangendjaja, B.; Susana, I.W.R. [Research Institute for Animal Production, Bogor (Indonesia)
Acacia villosa, a thornless shrub legume, has potential as a feed supplement for ruminants if anti-nutritional factors, especially tannins, can be overcome. The effects of chopping and soaking the leaves on the amounts of tannin in the extracting solution and that left in the recovered leaves were studied. The tannin and non-tannin phenolics were solubilized in the extracting solution and the amount was increased with the soaking time. Soaking in calcium hydroxide solution, hydrochloric acid or water removed 41-76% of tannin and total phenolics removed from the recovered leaves. Soaking of the leaves also removed fermentable materials and reduced the gas production. In the first of two digestibility experiments, three groups of goats received one of these diets, those were: (1) sugar cane tops: unsoaked Acacia leaves (7:3), (2) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) and (3) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) + 100 g/day of cassava flour. Live weight of goats was measured every 2 weeks and a large increase in average daily gain was obtained for goats fed diet containing water soaked leaves and cassava flour (71 g/day) compared to those fed diet containing unsoaked leaves and water soaked leaves (38.9 and 44.7 g/day, respectively) (P < 0.05). In the second digestibility experiment, the three diets were: (1) sugar cane tops: unsoaked Acacia (7:3), (2) sugar cane tops water soaked Acacia (7:3), (3) sugar cane tops: calcium hydroxide soaked Acacia (7:3). A supplement of 100 g/day of cassava flour was added to each of these three diets. In both digestibility experiments, soaking improved intake and digestibility of Acacia leaves, and cassava flour increased the intake, but when all the diets contained cassava flour, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) found in intake or digestibility between unsoaked and soaked leaves. In conclusion, soaking reduced tannin in Acacia leaves, improved digestibility and intake of Acacia leaves. In the
Lohakare, J D; Südekum, K-H; Pattanaik, A K
This review focuses on the nutritional effects from birth until age at first calving on growth, mammary developmental changes, and first-lactation milk yield in heifer calves. The advancement in the genetic potential and the nutritional requirements of the animals has hastened the growth rate. Genetic selection for high milk yield has suggested higher growth capacity and hence increasing nutritional inputs are required. Rapid rearing by feeding high energy or high concentrate diets not only reduces the age of sexual maturity but also lowers the time period of attaining the age of first calving. However, high energy diets may cause undesirable fat deposition thereby affecting future milk yield potential. Discrepancies exist whether overfed or overweight heifers at puberty can influence the mammary development and future milk yield potential and performance. The data on post-pubertal nutritional management suggested that body weight at calving and post-pubertal growth rate is important in first lactation milk yield. There is a continuous research need for strategic feeding that accelerates growth of dairy heifers without reduction in subsequent production. Nutritional management from birth, across puberty and during pregnancy is critical for mammary growth and for producing a successful cow. This review will mostly highlight studies carried out on dairy breeds and possible available opportunities to manipulate nutritional status from birth until age at first calving.
Full Text Available The diets fed to growing animals are very important to ensure that young animals have the proper nutrients available for growth. When feeding dairy heifers, a farmer’s goal is to feed a very digestible diet that will provide nutrients to keep dairy heifers healthy and allow them to grow faster, while spending less money on feed. The objective of this study was to determine whether feeding heifers diets containing dry or ensiled forage (haylage improved digestibility. Our hypothesis was that incorporating hay into the diet of 16-week-old dairy heifers would provide a more digestible source of nutrients. For this study, 12 heifers were randomly assigned to treatments, with 6 heifers fed hay-based diets and the other 6 heifers fed haylage-based diets. The heifers were housed in individual pens and fed individually on a daily basis for 8 days. Fecal samples were collected during the last 3 days of the feeding period. The fecal collection was achieved by collecting fecal samples from individual heifers every 6 hours over a 3-day period. Digestibility of the diets and nutrients were determined using chromic oxide as an external marker. In order to determine the digestibility of haylage or hay diets fed to the heifers, the percent of chromic oxide in feed was compared to the percent of chromic oxide in feces. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF of the feeds and feces was determined using the Ankom Fiber Analysis System. Data were analyzed using the Proc Mixed procedure of the Statistical Analysis System. The dry matter digestibility of the diets were similar between treatments (P = 0.19 and was 68.4% for the hay diet and 66.6% for the haylage diet. The NDF digestibility was also similar between diets (P = 0.21 with an NDF digestibility of 68.4% for hay and 66.1% for haylage diets. In summary, feeding dairy heifers hay-based diets did not significantly improve either the dry matter or NDF digestibility of the diets.
Jayaprakash, G; Sathiyabarathi, M; Robert, M Arokia; Tamilmani, T
Choline is a vitamin-like substance it has multi-function in animal production, reproduction, and health. The transition period is most crucial stage in lactation cycle of dairy cows due to its association with negative hormonal and energy balances. Unfortunately, unprotected choline easily degrades in the rumen; therefore, choline added to the diet in a rumen-protected form. The use of rumen-protected choline (RPC) is a preventive measurement for the fatty liver syndrome and ketosis; may improve milk production as well as milk composition and reproduction parameters. This review summarizes the effectiveness of RPC on animal production, health, and reproduction.
Gonzalez, N; Carmenate, C; Pedroso, R; Perez, L O; Alvarez, T R; Gonzalez, N; Felipe, N; Bravo, M [Centro de Investigaciones para el Mejoramiento Animal, Havana (Cuba)
Goats from 2-5 years old in 15 herds of four breeds, (Saanen, Nubian, Toggenburg and Alpine), were used in three experiments to determine reproductive behaviour (Experiment 1), metabolic profile (Experiment 2) and fertility of induced and synchronized oestrus (Experiment 3). Season, breed and physiological status were significant factors affecting reproductive behaviour and metabolic status (P<0.05). The principal causes of infertility in induced oestrus were failures in conception, early embryonic mortality and anovulatory oestrus. The herds had long intervals from birth to first insemination (306-458 days) and to first pregnancy (471-511 days), and low fertility (14-31%). The breeding patter was similar to breeds in temperate zones. Energy and mineral imbalances were found. Further research is necessary to improve reproductive performance of these breeds under tropical conditions. (author). 25 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs.
. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of C. burnetii in bulk milk samples from dairy goat herds in Fars, Ghom, Kerman, Khuzestan and Yazd provinces, Iran. In this study, 296 bulk milk samples from 89 dairy goat ...
Full Text Available This research has been conducted in order to determine the habits of feed and nutrition in dairy farming organizations, and how the education level of farmers and the number of animals affected these habits. The data that obtained from 324 randomly chosen dairy farms around the city by the means of the survey comprised the material of research. Crosstabb analysis was applied to the obtained data using SPSS 20.0 package program. The most commonly used roughage combination in organizations was knotgrass and straw. It has been founded that the rate of using the this combination was 50% in primary education level, 27.2% in secondary education level and 35.1% in high school and higher education level. The ratio of breeders who have less animals using this combination was 50%. The rate declined to 25.5% with the increase in the number of animals. The number of animals affected the roughage combination considerably (P<0.01.Concentrate usage changed according to the education level. The ratio of using 4-6 kg concentrate was 48.5% in organizations with primary education level. This declined to 43.8% in secondary education level, and 38.9% in high school and higher education levels. So, there was a reverse relation in 7-9 kg feed usage: as education level increases the rate of using concentrate increases. The feed crop production in organizations has been affected by the number of animals considerably. While the rate of feed crop production was 44.9% in organizations which have less than five animals, this rate increased up to 74.5% with the rise in the number of animals. The education level of breeders (P<0.05 and the number of animals (P<0.01 affected the use of silage in organizations substantially.
Seyyed Ehsan Ghiasi
Full Text Available Introduction Oxidative stress is metabolic and physiologic status caused by imbalance between free radical production and antioxidant defense of body. In some physiological status such as rapid growth, parturition, disease and high production rate that imbalance would occur. High producing dairy animals are suspected to oxidative stress and require to antioxidant supplementation. Negative energy balance in early lactation force the nutrition specialist to apply oil and high NFC diet to exceed the requirement of high producing dairy animals such as Holstein cows and Saanen goats. In recent years, the attention to the use of herbal or organic antioxidant in animal nutrition has increased. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of feeding oxidized soybean oil (OSO plus pomegranate seed (PS as a natural antioxidant, on metabolism and physiology of Preparturient Saanen Goats. Materials and Methods Eighteen Saanen dairy goats with initial body weight of 47 ± 9 kg were assigned to three dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with repeated measurements for 21 days before anticipated parturition. Experimental treatments including: 1 base diet and 4% fresh soybean oil (FSO, 2 base diet and 4% oxidized soybean oil (DM basis respectively, and 3 base diet plus 4% OSO and 8% Pomegranate seed (OSO-PS. After 2 weeks of feeding trial diets, goats were sampled for blood, rumen liquor, faeces and urine for measuring parameters of blood glucose, BHBA, lipid and nitrogen profile, rumen liquor ammonia nitrogen, urine pH and volume, faeces qualitative and quantitative variables and other responses such as nutrients digestibility. The GLM procedure of SAS software v.9.2 were used for statistical analysis. Initial body weight and metabolic variables were used as covariate in the model. Results and discussion All nutrients digestibility, Ruminal ammonia nitrogen and voluntary feed intake were decreased by OSO (p
Poddar, Kavita H; Hosig, Kathy W; Anderson, Eileen S; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M; Duncan, Susan E
Dairy consumption declines substantially during young adulthood. Interventions that incorporate theory-based nutrition education can provide insight into factors associated with dietary choices. The aim of this experimental study was to improve outcome expectations, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and behavior related to dairy intake in college students using social cognitive theory. Students (n=294) enrolled in a personal health class were randomized to intervention (n=148) or comparison group (n=146). The 5-week intervention (March 2006 to April 2006) was conducted using an online course system; components included e-mail messages, posted information, and behavior checklists with tailored feedback. Multivariate analysis of covariance with age and sex as covariates (Pself-regulatory strategies (P=0.038) and self-efficacy for consuming three servings/day of dairy products (P=0.049), but not in outcome expectations or consumption of dairy products. A Web-based intervention designed to change dairy intake in college students was effective in modifying some social cognitive theory constructs; strategies that positively impact outcome expectations and social support through online interventions require further development. Copyright © 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Hae-Jeung; Cho, Jang-ik; Lee, Hye-Seung H; Kim, Cho-il; Cho, Eunyoung
The possible effects of dairy product intake against obesity have been suggested in animal studies; however, the association is still not well established in epidemiological studies. Few studies in Asian countries with relatively low intake of dairy products exist. We investigated the association between dairy products and calcium intake and obesity in Korean population with relatively low intake of dairy products. Our study population consisted of adults (n = 7173) aged 19-64 among participants of the 2007, 2008 and 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who had not made any attempt of intentional weight loss. Dietary intake data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall were used. Dairy products included milk and yogurt in the FFQ. Obesity was defined as BMI≥25 kg/m². Higher frequency of dairy product intake was associated with a reduced prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.45-0.89 for ≥2 times/day vs. ≤1 time/month; p for trend = 0.003) using the intake data from FFQ. Similarly, high frequency of milk or yogurt intake had an inverse association with obesity. The association between milk and yogurt intake and obesity was similar when the intake from 24-hour recall was examined. Higher calcium intake from dairy products as well as total dietary calcium intake was associated with a decreased prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.71-0.98 for highest vs. lowest quintile of dairy calcium intake; p for trend = 0.02, OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.64-0.94 for highest vs. lowest quintile of total calcium intake; p for trend = 0.04). The associations appeared to be stronger in women than in men. These results suggest that high consumption of dairy products is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and that calcium in dairy products may be one of the components contributing to the association. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to replicate our findings.
Full Text Available Transhumance is the seasonal movement of herds between different summer and winter pastures. The main reason of practice of this farming system is the need for a more efficient exploitation of vegetation to meet the nutritional needs of the reared animals. The aim of this paper is to investigate nutritional management practices of transhumant herds in the region of Sterea Ellada. In the analysis, emphasis is given in the calculation of the coverage of nutritional needs of the reared animals by supplementary feed, translated as Metabolized energy (ME, Digestible Crude Protein (DGP and Dry Matter (DM. Nutritional management is studied in four basic productive stages of ewes and dams. All necessary data were collected from a sample of 140 transhumant herders, via an exhaustive questionnaire that covered all aspects of the production of the farms and managerial practices. Data were subsequently analyzed with descriptive statistic methods. Analysis reveals that grazing tends to be the main nutritional source as approximately 30-50% of the needs of the reared animals on lowlands and more than 90% on uplands is considered to be covered by grazing
Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva
Full Text Available The aimed of this article is to measure risk factors on health and milk production on organic and conventional dairy goats in Brazil. Two experimental groups (organic and conventional were evaluated simultaneously. The study design was completely randomized. The organic herd consisted of 25 goats and 15 kids. In the conventional production system, a dairy herd comprising 40 goats and 20 kids participated in the study. Data on milk production and health management were available from January 2007 to December 2009. The abortion rate in the conventional system was 5% (2/40 whereas in organic system no abortion was diagnosed (0/25. The mortality rate at weaning in the conventional system was 5% (2/40 and in the organic system was 8% (2/25. Milk production was lower (2.20 kg/day in organic than conventional system (2.66 kg/day. Goats and kids in organic farm had a higher FEC (386±104 and 900±204, respectively (p O objetivo do artigo foi mensurar os fatores de risco referentes ao manejo sanitário e a produção entre cabras leiteiras sob sistema orgânico e convencional. Dois grupos experimentais (orgânico e convencional foram conduzidos simultaneamente. O desenho do estudo foi o inteiramente casualizado. O rebanho orgânico consistiu de 25 cabras e 15 cabritos e o sistema convencional por 40 cabras e 20 cabritos. Os parâmetros produtivos e sanitários foram monitorados entre janeiro de 2007 a dezembro de 2009. No sistema convencional, houve uma taxa de aborto de 5% (2/40, enquanto que no sistema orgânico nenhum aborto foi diagnosticado (0/25. A taxa de mortalidade ao desmame no sistema convencional foi de 5% (2/40 e no sistema orgânico foi de 8% (2/25. A produção de leite média diária por cabra no rebanho leiteiro orgânico (2,20 kg/dia foi mais baixa do que a do rebanho convencional (2,66 kg/dia. Os resultados indicaram que as cabras e cabritos mantidos em fazenda orgânica (386±104 e 900±204, respectivamente apresentaram maiores
Iancu Ramona Maria
Full Text Available The main goal of the present essay is to improve the degree of information through more efficient labeling of the alimentary products. The observation method has been used for the establishment of the offer of milk and dairy products class on the Romanian market during 2013, and the investigation stage consisted of data collection from labels and their graphical interpretation. The 3 concern groups regarding the classification of the chosen products have been: Any special storage conditions and/or conditions of use, % of Saturated fat specified on product and % of Salt specified on product. The label of the products has to offer the consumer the necessary, sufficient, veritable and easy to compare information, which will allow them to chose their alimentary product according to their exigency, financial possibilities, to know the eventual risks they may be subject to, so that they will not be mislead.
Full Text Available Feed composition is one of the most influential factors affecting fatty acid profile of milk products. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of linseed oil and linseed extrudate supplementation on fatty acid composition of goat prebiotic and probiotic yogurt drinks. Thirty six White Shorthaired dairy goats at the beginning of their third lactation period were divided into two experimental and one control group, each comprising twelve animals. Goats in the experimental groups were given either 55 mL/day of linseed oil or 120 g/day of linseed extrudate over a three week period. The results suggest that feed supplementation with linseed oil and linseed extrudate caused considerable changes in fatty acid profile of goat yoghurt drinks. The most important nutritional change which was observed was increased n-3 fatty acid content (P<0.001 and decreased saturated fatty acid content (P<0.001. α-linolenic acid was significantly elevated (P<0.001 in both groups (in particular in goats which feed was supplemented with linseed oil.
Escalante, H; Castro, L; Amaya, M P; Jaimes, L; Jaimes-Estévez, J
Cheese whey (CW) is the main waste generated in the cheesemaking process and has high organic matter content and acidity. Therefore, CW disposal is a challenge for small to medium enterprises (SMEs) in the dairy industry that do not have any type of treatment plant. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive process for solving this problem. The aim of this research was to determine the biomethane and struvite precipitation potentials of CW from four dairy SMEs. First, changes in CW properties (organic matter and pH) were evaluated. Second, biomethane and struvite potentials were assessed using cattle slurry as inoculum. The organic matter in CW varied from 40 to 65gVS/kg, 65 to 140g COD/L, and 2 to 10g/L for VFAs depending on the sampling time and type of sample. The pH of the CW samples ranged from 3 to 6.5. In the anaerobic biodegradability analysis, methane yields reached 0.51 to 0.60L CH 4 /g VS added , which represented electrical and caloric potentials of 54 and 108kWh/m 3 for CW, respectively. Organic matter removal in all experiments was above 83%. Moreover, anaerobic digestates presented NH 4 + /PO 4 3- molar ratios between 2.6 and 4.0, which are adequate for struvite precipitation with potential production of 8.5-10.4g struvite/L CW. Finally, the use of biogas as energetic supplement and struvite as soil fertilizer, represents economics saves of US$ 6.91/m 3 CW and US$ 5.75/m 3 CW in therms of electricity and fertilizer use, respectively. The energetic, agricultural and economic potentials, evidence that AD process is a feasible alternative for cheese whey treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Liliana Machado Ribeiro da Silva
Full Text Available Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species is a major form of intestinal infection affecting intensively and semi-intensively reared goats. The province of Alentejo is the main goat-producing area in Portugal. Therefore, all 15 Serpentina goat farms in Alentejo were analyzed regarding the occurrence and diversity of Eimeria species. Fecal samples obtained from 144 animals (52.1% dairy goats, 47.9% pre-pubertal goats were examined using the modified McMaster technique to determine the number of oocysts per gram of feces. Eimeria spp. oocysts were present in 98.61% of the fecal samples and, overall, nine different Eimeria species were identified. The most prevalent species were E. ninakohlyakimovae (88% and E. arloingi (85%, followed by E. alijevi (63% and E. caprovina(63%. The average number of oocysts shed was significantly lower in dairy goats than in pre-adult animals. Astonishingly, no clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed in any of the animals examined, even though they were shedding high numbers of oocysts and were infected with highly pathogenic species. Thus, implementation of routine diagnostic investigation of the occurrence and diversity of caprine Eimeria species may be a useful tool for determination and better understanding of their potential economic impact on goat herds in southern Portugal.
Mauricio Pase Quatrin
Full Text Available In the south of Brazil, one of the major limitations to milk production is the low forage availability during autumn and early winter. The use of dual-purpose wheat genotypes is one alternative to minimize the impact of low forage availability in addition to produce grains. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the nutritional value of two dual-purpose wheat genotypes (BRS Tarumã and BRS Umbu. Structural composition and forage nitrogen uptake were evaluated. The nutritional value of the forage was analyzed for mineral matter (MM, organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, crude protein (CP, total digestible nutrients (TDN, in situ organic matter digestibility (ISOMD and in situ dry matter digestibility (ISDMD. Differences in NDF (49.03 vs. 46.44%, CP (24.4 vs. 27.4%, ISOMD (83.53 vs. 85.45%, ISDMD (83.59 vs. 86.65% and TDN (75.37 vs. 78.39 for BRS Umbu and BRS Tarumã genotypes were detected, respectively. The BRS Umbu genotype had a lower leaf blade proportion and forage nitrogen uptake. The dual-purpose wheat genotype BRS Tarumã was superior in nutritive value.
Alberto Magno Fernandes
Full Text Available A nutritional analysis of Tanzania grass (Megathyrsus maximus Jacquin cv. Tanzânia was conducted. Pasture was managed in a rotational grazing system with a 30-day resting period, three days of paddock occupation and two grazing cycles. Ten Holstein × Zebu crossbred cows were kept within a 2-ha area divided into 11 paddocks ha-1. Cows were fed 2 kg of corn meal daily and performance was evaluated by weighing the animals every 14 days and by recording milk production twice a day. Nutritional composition of the Tanzania grass was determined from forage (extrusa samples collected by esophageal fistulae from two animals. The nutritive value of Tanzania grass was estimated according to a modification of the CNCPS evaluation model. Tanzania grass supplemented with 2 kg of corn meal supplied 33.2% more net energy for lactation than required by the animals to produce 13.7 kg of milk day-1. Nevertheless, the amount of metabolizable protein met the daily protein requirement of the animals. Although the model used in the study requires adjustments, Tanzania grass has the potential to produce milk in a rotational grazing system.
Butler, S T
The efficiency of milk production in pasture-based systems is heavily influenced by calving pattern, necessitating excellent reproductive performance in a short-breeding season. Where grazed pasture is the major component of the diet, cows are underfed relative to their intake potential. The cow responds by reducing milk output, but fertility is generally better than high intake confinement systems that achieve greater milk production per cow. A number of studies have identified body condition score (BCS) measurements that are related to likelihood of both submission and conception. Blood metabolites and metabolic hormones linked to fertility outcomes are now well characterized. In general, fertility variables have favourable associations with circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin and IGF-1 and unfavourable associations with non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate and endogenous growth hormone. Nutritional strategies to impact these metabolic indicators have been utilized, but effects on herd fertility are inconsistent. Simply supplementing cows with additional energy in the form of standard concentrates does not appear to have a pronounced effect on fertility. Energy from additional concentrates fed during lactation is preferentially partitioned towards extra milk production rather than BCS repletion. The higher the genetic merit for milk production, the greater the partitioning of additional nutrients to the mammary gland. This review outlines the unique nutritional challenges of pasture-based systems, the role of specific metabolic hormones and metabolites in regulating reproductive function, and nutritional strategies to improve herd fertility.
Drapeau, Vicky; Savard, Mathieu; Gallant, Annette; Nadeau, Luc; Gagnon, Jocelyn
Most Canadian children do not meet daily recommendations for consumption of vegetables and fruits (V/F) and dairy products (DP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Team Nutriathlon on V/F and DP consumption of children. Participants were 404 children from grades 5 and 6 (intervention group [IG] N = 242, control group [CG] N = 162). Teams of children were guided to increase their consumption and variety of V/F and DP over an 8-week period. Daily servings of V/F and DP were compared between groups at 4 time points: baseline (week 0), during (week 6), immediately after (week 9 or 10), and a follow-up 10 weeks after (week 20) the intervention. During and after the program and at follow-up, children in the IG consumed more servings of V/F and DP compared to the CG (group × time, p .05). Team Nutriathlon is an innovative school-based nutrition program that can help to increase the V/F and DP consumption of children. © 2016, American School Health Association.
Full Text Available In order to determine the safety of milk produced by smallholder dairy goat farms, a farm-based research study was conducted on commercial dairy goat farms to compare the microbiological quality of milk produced using 3 different types of dairy goat production systems (intensive, semi-intensive and extensive. A survey of dairy goat farms in and around Pretoria carried out by means of a questionnaire revealed that most of the smallholder dairy goat farms surveyed used an extensive type of production system. The method of milking varied with the type of production system, i.e. machine milking; bucket system machine milking and hand-milking, respectively. Udder half milk samples (n=270 were analysed, of which 31.1 % were infected with bacteria. The lowest intra-mammary infection was found amongst goats in the herd under the extensive system (13.3 %, compared with 43.3 % and 36.7 % infection rates under the intensive and semi-intensive production systems, respectively. Staphylococcus intermedius (coagulase positive, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans (both coagulase negative, were the most common cause of intramammary infection with a prevalence of 85.7 % of the infected udder halves. The remaining 14.3 % of the infection was due to Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteriology of bulk milk samples on the other hand, showed that raw milk obtained by the bucket system milking machine had the lowest total bacterial count (16 450 colony forming units (CFU/mℓ compared to that by pipeline milking machine (36 300 CFU/mℓ or handmilking (48 000 CFU/mℓ. No significant relationship was found between the somatic cell counts (SCC and presence of bacterial infection in goat milk. In comparison with the herds under the other 2 production systems, it was shown that dairy goat farming under the extensive production system, where hand-milking was used, can be adequate for the production of safe raw goat milk.
Wagner C. Lima
Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a resistência de nematódeos a alguns anti-helmínticos em rebanhos caprinos no Cariri Paraibano. Foram utilizados 144 animais no período seco e 120 animais no período chuvoso, fêmeas com idade acima de oito meses de vida e lactantes, distribuídos em 4 grupos: Grupo I não tratado, Grupo II tratado com albendazole a 10%, Grupo III tratado com ivermectina a 1% e Grupo IV tratado com fosfato de levamisole a 18,8%, nas doses recomendadas pelos fabricantes. Para avaliar a resistência, aplicou-se o teste de redução na contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (RCOF e o cultivo de larvas de helmintos. As amostras fecais foram coletadas no dia do tratamento (dia base e 7, 14 e 21 dias após o tratamento. No grupo tratado com Albendazole, observaram-se eficácias de 61%, 11% e 24% no período seco e de 55%, 14% e 12% no período chuvoso, aos 7, 14, e 21 dias, respectivamente. No grupo tratado com Ivermectina, a eficácia foi de 14%, 70% e 66% para o período seco, e de 76%, 34% e 71% para o período chuvoso, aos 7, 14 e 21 dias, respectivamente. O grupo tratado com fosfato de Levamisole apresentou percentuais de eficácia de 89%, 79% e 73% no período seco e de 76%, 69% e 67% no período chuvoso, aos 7, 14 e 21 dias, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos indicam que os nematódeos gastrintestinais de alguns rebanhos caprinos no Cariri Paraibano não são sensíveis aos princípios ativos Albendazole, Levamisole e Ivermectina. Durante o período de estudo foi identificada a presença de parasitas dos gêneros Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum e Strongyloides.The aim of this paper was to evaluate the resistance of nematodes to some anthelmintics in dairy goats in Cariri Paraibano, Brazil. A total of 144 female goats, over 8 months of age, were used in the dry season and 120 ones during the rainy season, divided into four groups: Group I untreated, Group II treated with albendazole 10%, Group III treated with ivermectin
Greter, A M; Kitts, B L; Devries, T J
The objectives of this study were to examine the behavioral effects of providing limit-fed dairy heifers an increased amount of feed bunk space compared with recommended feed bunk allowance, and to determine if the effects of provision of extra bunk space would be comparable to those seen when limit-fed heifers are provided a low-nutritive feedstuff. Twelve Holstein dairy heifers (381.1 ± 44.8 d of age, 417.3 ± 47.9 kg), divided into groups of 4, were exposed to each of 3 treatments using a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 7-d periods. The treatments were (1) 0.68 m of feed bunk space/heifer (TMR-0.68), (2) 0.34 m of feed bunk space/heifer (TMR-0.34), and (3) 0.34 m of feed bunk space/heifer with an additional 0.34 m of feed bunk space available for free-choice straw (TMR-S). The total mixed ration was fed once daily at a restricted level (1.83% of body weight) and contained (dry matter basis) 19.9% alfalfa/grass haylage, 20.1% corn silage, 49.6% high-moisture corn, and 10.4% protein supplement. Group dry matter intake (DMI) was recorded daily. Behavior at the feed bunk was recorded for the last 4 d of each treatment period. Due to the provision of straw, DMI was highest on the TMR-S treatment compared with the other treatments (9.4 vs. 7.8 kg/d). Heifers spent the most time feeding when on the TMR-S treatment (147.7 min/d), with no difference in feeding time between the limit-fed TMR treatments (64.5 min/d). Within the TMR-S treatment, feeding time on the straw was 76.9 min/d; thus, the rate of consumption of only the TMR was similar across all treatments. Unrewarded time at the feed bunk (when no feed was present) did not differ between treatments. Heifers did not differ in competitive behavior when on the limit-fed TMR treatments (13.1 displacements/heifer per day). However, while on the TMR-S treatment, heifers displaced each other more frequently (23.8 displacements/heifer per day) than while on the other 2 treatments. Overall, results suggest that neither
van Empel, Mireille JM; Makkar, Harinder PS; Dijkstra, Jan
Increased future demand of animal products as well as competition between food, feed and fuel, require efficient utilization of feed resources to strengthen environmental, economic and social sustainability of livestock systems. The objective of this review is to summarize current knowledge...... on precision feeding (PF) and the relevance of PF approaches in dairy cattle production systems in developing countries. The concept of PF aims at achieving balanced nutrition (matching animal requirements with nutrient supply, preferably from locally available feed resources) to improve animal productivity...... and to reduce both the cost of production and environmental pollution. In addition to the supply of proper amounts of nutrients to the dairy cow using various methodologies and tools, approaches that enhance overall nutrient digestion and availability to the animal are also discussed as an integral part of PF...
Bremmer, D R; Trower, S L; Bertics, S J; Besong, S A; Bernabucci, U; Grummer, R R
RNA compared to cells incubated with insulin or glucagon during the depletion period. Results suggest that hepatic MTP mRNA may be affected by TG accumulation, insulin, and glucagon in vitro. However, hepatic MTP activity and mass are not affected by nutritional status of nonlactating dairy cows, TG accumulation in vitro, or insulin and glucagon in vitro.
Millward, D Joe; Garnett, Tara
Legally-binding legislation is now in place to ensure major reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the UK. Reductions in intakes of meat and dairy products, which account for approximately 40% of food-related emissions, are an inevitable policy option. The present paper assesses, as far as is possible, the risk to nutritional status of such a policy in the context of the part played by these foods in overall health and well-being and their contribution to nutritional status for the major nutrients that they supply. Although meat may contribute to saturated fat intakes and a higher BMI, moderate meat consumption within generally-healthy population groups has no measurable influence on morbidity or mortality. However, high consumption of red and processed meat has been associated with increased risk of colo-rectal cancer and recent advice is to reduce intakes to a maximum of 70 g/d. Such reductions in meat and haem-Fe intake are unlikely to influence Fe status in functional terms. However, overall protein intakes would probably fall, with the potential for intakes to be less than current requirements for the elderly. Whether it is detrimental to health is uncertain and controversial. Zn intakes are also likely to fall, raising questions about child growth that are currently unanswerable. Milk and dairy products, currently specifically recommended for young children and pregnant women, provide 30-40% of dietary Ca, iodine, vitamin B12 and riboflavin. Population groups with low milk intakes generally show low intakes and poor status for each of these nutrients. Taken together it would appear that the reductions in meat and dairy foods, which are necessary to limit environmental damage, do pose serious nutritional challenges for some key nutrients. These challenges can be met, however, by improved public health advice on alternative dietary sources and by increasing food fortification.
Schoenberg, K M; Ehrhardt, R M; Overton, T R
. 3,957 μIU/mL × 60 min). During the fed-state HEC, circulating concentrations of NEFA were 21% below basal for cows fed the HP diet and 62% below basal for cows fed the LP diet; during feed deprivation, NEFA were 79 and 59% below basal for the HP and LP diets, respectively (diet × HEC). Cows that are fed below energy requirements or are feed deprived have slower clearance of glucose and greater NEFA responses to glucose challenge. Additionally, feed deprivation had a large effect on insulin secretion. Overall, effects of feed deprivation were larger than effects of plane of nutrition. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cardona, Samir Julián Calvo; Cadavid, Henry Cardona; Corrales, Juan David; Munilla, Sebastián; Cantet, Rodolfo J C; Rogberg-Muñoz, Andrés
The κ-casein (CSN-3) and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) genes are extensively polymorphic in ruminants. Several association studies have estimated the effects of polymorphisms in these genes on milk yield, milk composition, and cheese-manufacturing properties. Usually, these results are based on production integrated over the lactation curve or on cross-sectional studies at specific days in milk (DIM). However, as differential expression of milk protein genes occurs over lactation, the effect of the polymorphisms may change over time. In this study, we fitted a mixed-effects regression model to test-day records of milk yield and milk quality traits (fat, protein, and total solids yields) from Colombian tropical dairy goats. We used the well-characterized A/B polymorphisms in the CSN-3 and BLG genes. We argued that this approach provided more efficient estimators than cross-sectional designs, given the same number and pattern of observations, and allowed exclusion of between-subject variation from model error. The BLG genotype AA showed a greater performance than the BB genotype for all traits along the whole lactation curve, whereas the heterozygote showed an intermediate performance. We observed no such constant pattern for the CSN-3 gene between the AA homozygote and the heterozygote (the BB genotype was absent from the sample). The differences among the genotypic effects of the BLG and the CSN-3 polymorphisms were statistically significant during peak and mid lactation (around 40-160 DIM) for the BLG gene and only for mid lactation (80-145 DIM) for the CSN-3 gene. We also estimated the additive and dominant effects of the BLG locus. The locus showed a statistically significant additive behavior along the whole lactation trajectory for all quality traits, whereas for milk yield the effect was not significant at later stages. In turn, we detected a statistically significant dominance effect only for fat yield in the early and peak stages of lactation (at about 1-45 DIM
马燕芬; 杜瑞平; 高民
本试验旨在研究热应激对奶山羊瘤胃黏膜紧密连接蛋白表达的影响。将8只体况良好,体重、年龄、胎次和产奶量相近,处于泌乳中后期的奶山羊随机分为对照组和热应激组,每组4只羊。饲养环境采取人工控温控湿。试验期45 d,在试验30和45 d时,采集瘤胃背囊和腹囊组织,分别采用免疫组化法、实时定量PCR法和蛋白质免疫印迹法检测其闭合蛋白( claudin )、闭锁小带蛋白1( ZO-1)蛋白的结构分布、基因mRNA表达量和蛋白表达量。结果表明：与对照组相比,热应激组(30 d)背囊和腹囊中claudin、ZO-1蛋白的信号强度和表达量均有所下降,而热应激组(45 d)下降更为严重。与对照组相比,热应激组(30 d)背囊和腹囊中claudin、ZO-1基因mRNA表达量均显著下降(P<0.05),而热应激组(45 d)则显著低于热应激组(30 d)(P<0.05)。结果提示,热应激对瘤胃黏膜的结构和完整性的破坏与瘤胃黏膜紧密连接蛋白表达量下降有关。%This study was conducted to study the effects of heat stress ( HS) on expressions of tight junction proteins in ruminal mucosa of dairy goats. Eight healthy dietary goats with similar body weight, age, parity and milk yield at mid to late-locating period were randomly divided into control group and heat stress ( HS ) group with 4 goats in each group. Environmental temperature and humidity during feeding period were artifi-cially controlled. The experiment lasted for 45 days. Knapsack and abdominal sac samples were collected at 30 and 45 days of experiment to determine protein structural distribution, gene mRNA expression levels and pro-tein expression levels of claudin and zonula occluden 1 ( ZO-1 ) using the methods of immunohistochemisty, real-time quantitative PCR and West-bloting, respectively. The results showed as follows: compared with the control group, expression levels and signal intensity of claudin and ZO-1 proteins in knapsack and abdominal in HS
Edizio Santos Junior
Full Text Available A survey was done based on 19 goat shepherds at counties of Centre-highlands, Northern and North-western regions of the Rio de Janeiro State and at the county of Pedra Dourada, Zona da Mata region, State of Minas Gerais. We aimed to characterise the primary sector of the goat milk production chain settled at those regions. Therefore, questionnaires were applied in order to depict profiles of the shepherds, their families, the role of the wife in the activity, the resources available, dependence on income generated by the activity, and how producers administrate their business. Farms were distributed in five strata according to the following daily milk production averages and standard deviations: 8.8 ± 0.9, 15.7 ± 3.9, 22.6 ± 2.7, 34.4 ± 3.4, and 183.8 ± 54.2 L/d. Approximately 42% of the interviewed producers conducted their activities according to a household production model and the income earned was exclusively from the dairy goat husbandry. Sons and daughters performed an important role in the business (27.80%, but most of them (62.73% worked out at non farm activities. The percentage of wives that worked directly in the activity (@47% indicated that it could contribute to gender equity in the rural environment. Most of the production systems (63.16% presented positive gross margins. We have noticed, however, that shepherds perceived only the business gross margin and that the most accurate registries taken were those related to revenues. In general, producers of the higher strata were favoured by their larger production scale, but asymptotic behaviours for costs and amounts invested in animals, equipments and buildings were observed. These characteristics should be considered when policies related to the dairy goat primary sector have to be planned.Realizou-se um levantamento com base em 19 caprinoculturas de municípios das regiões Centro-Serrana, Norte e Noroeste do estado do Rio de Janeiro e do município de Pedra Dourada, regi
Irena Colić Barić
Besides traditional nutrients, milk and dairy products contain some health promoting components. The aim of this study was to detect the frequency and preferences among dairy products in school children according to age and gender. The subjects were 234 healthy children at age 10-11 years and 14-15 years from two primary schools in Zagreb. Number of participants was well balanced according to age and gender. Dietary data were collected using specially designed food frequency questionnaire (FF...
Nov 29, 2010 ... and 150.1 day, respectively, while 2-5 age kidding rate, infertility and litter size were 81 and 81.3%, 11.5 and 0.09% ... Female goats. 27. -. 64. -. Goats in estrous. 25. 92.6. 60. 93.7. Kidding rate. 24. 81. 58. 81.3. Infertility rate. 3. 11.5. 6. 0.09. The goat's single birth. 22. 77.3. 57 .... adequate nutrition for twins.
Persson, Ylva; Larsen, Torben; Nyman, Ann-Kristin
Mastitis is an important disease in dairy goat production. Subclinical mastitis is common in goats and is mainly caused by contagious bacteria. Several methods to diagnose mastitis in goats are available but have not all been investigated in healthy udders and at different stages of lactation....... The purpose of the study was to investigate the variation in some udder health indicators at different stages of lactation in goats without intramammary infection (IMI). The udder health indicators were: somatic cell counts (SCC) measured by DeLaval Cell Counter (DCC) and estimated by California Mastitis Test...... (CMT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, N-acetyl-β-d-glucoseaminidase (NAGase) activity and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity. Milk samples from twenty-four clinically healthy dairy goats were collected on two consecutive days in early, mid and late lactation. At milking, each goat's udder half...
Characterization of Smallholder Sheep and Goat Farming in Bauchi, Northeastern Nigeria. ... Farmers kept more sheep (58.75%) than goats (41.25%). ... Disease occurrence showed that enteritis, foot rot, fracture/ dislocation, helmenthosis, mange/scabies, nutritional disorder, PPR, pneumonia and others having incidence ...
Woolpert, M E; Dann, H M; Cotanch, K W; Melilli, C; Chase, L E; Grant, R J; Barbano, D M
This study investigated the relationship of management practices, dietary characteristics, milk composition, and lactation performance with de novo fatty acid (FA) concentration in bulk tank milk from commercial dairy farms with Holstein, Jersey, and mixed-breed cows. It was hypothesized that farms with higher de novo milk FA concentrations would more commonly use management and nutrition practices known to optimize ruminal conditions that enhance de novo synthesis of milk FA. Farms (n=44) located in Vermont and northeastern New York were selected based on a history of high de novo (HDN; 26.18±0.94g/100g of FA; mean ± standard deviation) or low de novo (LDN; 24.19±1.22g/100g of FA) FA in bulk tank milk. Management practices were assessed during one visit to each farm in March or April, 2014. Total mixed ration samples were collected and analyzed for chemical composition using near infrared spectroscopy. We found no differences in days in milk at the farm level. Yield of milk fat, true protein, and de novo FA per cow per day were higher for HDN versus LDN farms. The HDN farms had lower freestall stocking density (cows/stall) than LDN farms. Additionally, tiestall feeding frequency was higher for HDN than LDN farms. No differences between HDN and LDN farms were detected for dietary dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, starch, or percentage of forage in the diet. However, dietary ether extract was lower for HDN than LDN farms. This research indicates that overcrowded freestalls, reduced feeding frequency, and greater dietary ether extract content are associated with lower de novo FA synthesis and reduced milk fat and true protein yields on commercial dairy farms. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This bachelor thesis titled Nutrition of the transition cow deals with nutrition of dairy cows in peripartum period with regard to prevention of development of metabolic diseases. Anatomy of digestive system and physiology of digestive processes are briefly described. Characteristic of nutrients and of the most common feeds used for nutrition of dairy cattle serves as introduction to formulation of dairy rations. Metabolic diseases caused by inadequate nutrition in transition period are the b...
Full Text Available Objective: To use PCR for the detection of Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii in bulk tank milk samples collected from dairy caprine herds in southeast Iran. Methods: In the present study, 31 goat bulk milk from 31 dairy goat herds were tested for C. burnetii using trans-PCR assay. The animals which their milk samples collected for this study were clinically healthy. Results: In total, 5 of 31 (16.12% goat milk samples were positive. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate clinically healthy dairy goats are important sources of C. burnetii infection in this area.
Hailemariam, Samson; Urge, Mengistu; Menkir, Sissay
The study was conducted to determine the effects of dried foliage of Acacia senegal and Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree supplementations on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth, and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats. Twenty male intact short-eared Somali goat yearlings with an average live weight of 16.2 ± 1.08 (Mean ± SD) were assigned to four treatment groups, which comprised a basal diet of hay alone (T1) and supplementation with the tree foliages. Supplements consisted Neem tree (T2), A. senegal (T3) and the mixture of the two (1:1 ratio; T4) dried foliages. The crude protein (CP) content of Neem tree foliage, A. senegal, and their mixture were 16.92, 17.5 and 17.01 % of dry matter (DM), respectively. Total DM intake and digestibility of DM and organic matter were significantly (P senegal (67 %). The final body weights were higher (P Senegal. An average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher (P senegal (8.3 kg) among the supplemented groups, all of which are higher than the control (4.9 kg). It is concluded that the supplementation with tree foliage, especially with A. senegal tree foliage, on grass hay encouraged a better utilization of nutrients and animal performance as compared to goats fed on a basal diet of grass hay only.
Batra, Payal; Roberts, Susan; Saltzman, Edward; Balan, Ela; Pruzensky, William; Schlossman, Nina
Full text: Food insecurity in Guinea-Bissau is widespread and micronutrient deficiencies are anticipated among vulnerable groups. The objective: to test the efficacy of two Micronutrient-Rich Ready to Use Supplementary Foods (MNR-RUSF) in rural village children aged 6 to 24 months. This study was funded by the United States Department of Agriculture as part of a larger pilot project testing different supplements in pregnant and lactating women and infants and children aged 6-59 months. 411 children were randomly assigned to one of two intervention arms (46 g MNR-RUSF sachets containing 250 kcal/sachet and either 15% or 33% of dairy protein, collected 5 days per week from a supplement distribution center in the village) or to a control (C) group that received no MNR-RUSF. Weight, height and mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), hemoglobin, and retinol-binding protein were measured at baseline and end-line. Randomization to the 33% supplement group was associated with significantly increased visits to the distribution center to collect supplement, as well as higher ratings for product taste and overall acceptability. The 15% supplement improved hemoglobin levels relative to controls (+0.81±1.43 vs. 0.07±1.47, P -2.0 at baseline. This study is the first to examine the effects of supplements containing different amounts of dairy protein in infants and young children in Guinea-Bissau and indicates that, while substitution of provided supplement for home food may have reduced the potential impact of the supplements on weight and height, the nutritional quality of the supplements was high relative to traditional food sources, with the result that both standard and high-dairy containing MNR-RUSF products improved hemoglobin and rates of reported diseases. Furthermore, the supplements containing a higher level of dairy protein had a very high rate of acceptability, leading to increased supplement usage, which, over time, may translate to additional health and cognitive
Cavicchioli, V Q; Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A
Consumption of goat milk has been increasing due to its nutritional characteristics and health benefits. Therefore, assessment of the presence of foodborne pathogens in this product is critical to ensure its safety to consumers. The present study aimed to identify common foodborne pathogens in raw goat milk. Fifty-three samples of raw goat milk from 11 farms were collected and cultured for the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, as well as for enumeration and isolation of coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CPS and CNS, respectively). All samples tested negative for Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes. The CPS counts in raw goat milk samples were predominantly less than 2 log cfu/mL (n=39), and CNS counts were predominantly higher than 3 log cfu/mL (n=42). Based on Staphylococcus counts, 51 isolates were selected (CPS=26; CNS=25) and tested by PCR for the presence of classic enterotoxin-encoding genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, and see). Only 3 isolates (CPS=2, CNS=1) were negative for all enterotoxin-encoding genes tested, and the genotype sec and see was the most frequent (n=16), followed by sea, sec, and see (n=13) and sec (n=13); sed was not detected in any isolate. The frequencies of enterotoxin-encoding genes for CPS and CNS were similar, demonstrating the equivalence of both groups in harboring these virulent markers. These results suggest that Salmonella and L. monocytogenes are not frequent contaminants of raw goat milk, but that Staphylococcus spp. that are capable of producing enterotoxins are prevalent; therefore, consumers of raw goat milk and products made from raw milk are at risk. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zrinka Filipović Dermit
Full Text Available Production of goat milk and its consumption in the world is increasing, and so is the population of goats which increases more than the population of other dairy animals. This is particularly true in countries where goat milk is reflection of the traditional production. Goat’s milk, in addition to the high nutritional value (better digestibility, hypoallergenic, higher buffering capacity, higher pH value is characterized by therapeutic characteristics important for human health. The preference of goat’s milk over cow’s milk is also a higher selenium content, which is essential for the activity of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, also significant in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Goat’s milk in comparison with cow’s, contains more fatty acids, which have beneficial effects on human health, especially the cardiovascular system. Goat’s milk proteins are more digestible than cow’s milk proteins, also an absorption of amino acids are more efficient. The sensitivity of people to α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin of cow’s milk is negligible after replacing cow’s milk with goat’s milk. The objective of this paper is to specify benefits of goat’s milk in regard to cow’s and highlight its therapeutic and nutritional values.
... of States, Districts, and Schools That Required Teaching Nutrition and Dietary Behavior, by School Level 100 80 60 40 20 0 72. ... no comparable variable existed in both survey years. Nutrition Services • 68.6% of schools offered breakfast to students and 63.0% participated ...
Vieira, F V R; Lopes, C N; Cappellozza, B I; Scarpa, A B; Cooke, R F; Vasconcelos, J L M
The objective of this study was to evaluate serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, insulin, and progesterone in nonlactating dairy cows according to nutritional balance and glucose infusion. Ten nonlactating, ovariectomized Gir x Holstein cows were stratified by body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) on d -28 of the study, and randomly assigned to 1) negative nutrient balance (NB) or 2) positive nutrient balance (PB). From d -28 to d 0, cows were allocated according to nutritional treatment (5 cows/treatment) into 2 low-quality pastures with reduced forage availability. However, PB cows individually received, on average, 3 kg/cow per day (as-fed) of a concentrate during the study. All cows had an intravaginal progesterone releasing device inserted on d -14, which remained in cows until the end of the study. Cow BW and BCS were assessed again on d 0. On d 0, cows within nutritional treatment were randomly assigned to receive, in a crossover design containing 2 periods of 24h each, 1) intravenous glucose infusion (GLU; 0.5 g of glucose/kg of BW, as a 5% glucose solution administered, on average, at 32 mL/min over a 3-h period), or 2) intravenous saline infusion (SAL; 0.9% solution infused on average at 32 mL/min over a 3-h period). Prior to the beginning of each period, all cows were fasted for 12h. Blood samples were collected, relative to the beginning of the infusion, at -12 and -11.5h (beginning of fasting), and at -0.5, 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6h. Following the last blood collection of period 1, cows received (PB) or not (NB) concentrate and were returned to their respective pastures. Changes in BCS and BW were greater in NB cows compared with PB cows (-0.60 and -0.25+/-0.090 for BCS, respectively; -22.4 and 1.2+/-6.58 kg for BW, respectively). Cows receiving GLUC had greater glucose concentrations from 0.5 to 3h relative to infusion compared with SAL cows. Insulin concentrations were greater in PB cows assigned to GLUC compared
Maier, Gabriele U; Hoar, Bruce R; Stull, Carolyn L; Kass, Philip H; Villanueva, Veronica; Maas, John
To assess changes in body weight, carcass quality, and fecal pathogen shedding in cull dairy cows fed a high-energy ration for 28 or 56 days prior to slaughter. Randomized clinical trial. 31 adult Holstein dairy cows. Cows were randomly assigned to a control (immediate slaughter) group or a 28-day or 56-day feeding group. Cows in the feeding groups received a high-energy feed and were weighed every 7 days. Carcasses were evaluated by USDA employees. Fecal and blood samples were collected at the start and end of the feeding periods. Body condition score and adjusted preliminary yield grade were significantly increased in both feeding groups, compared with values for the control group; body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, and ribeye area were significantly increased after 56 days, but not after 28 days, compared with values for the control group. Average daily gain and marbling score were significantly lower after feeding for 28 days versus after 56 days. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 shedding in feces decreased from 14% to 5.6%, but this difference was not significant. Cows seropositive for antibodies against bovine leukemia virus that had signs of lymphoma and lame cows had a low average daily gain. Net loss was $71.32/cow and $112.80/cow for the 28-day and 56-day feeding groups, respectively. Feeding market dairy cows improved body condition and carcass quality. Cows seropositive for antibodies against bovine leukemia virus that have signs of lymphoma and lame cows might be poor candidates for reconditioning.
Gilmore, H S; Young, F J; Patterson, D C; Wylie, A R G; Law, R A; Kilpatrick, D J; Elliott, C T; Mayne, C S
Reproductive performance in the high-yielding dairy cow has severely decreased in the last 40 yr. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 4 nutritional strategies in improving the reproductive performance of high-yielding dairy cows. It was hypothesized that offering cows a high-starch ration in early lactation would enhance the onset of luteal activity, and that decreasing the severity of negative energy balance in the early postcalving period would improve reproductive parameters. Nutritional regimens aimed at improving fertility were applied to 96 Holstein-Friesian dairy animals. Upon calving, animals were allocated in a balanced manner to one of 4 dietary treatments. Primiparous animals were balanced according to live weight, body condition score and calving date. Multiparous animals were balanced according to parity, previous lactation milk yield, liveweight, body condition score and calving date. Treatment 1 was based on an industry best practice diet (control) to contain 170 g of crude protein/kg of dry matter. Treatment 2 was an individual cow feeding strategy, whereby the energy balance (EB) of individual animals was managed so as to achieve a predetermined target daily EB profile (±10 MJ/d). Treatment 3 was a high-starch/high-fat combination treatment, whereby an insulinogenic (high-starch) diet was offered in early lactation to encourage cyclicity and followed by a lipogenic (low-starch, high-fat) diet to promote embryo development. Treatment 4 was a low-protein diet, containing 140 g of crude protein/kg of dry matter, supplemented with protected methionine at an inclusion level of 40 g per animal per day. The nutritional strategies implemented in this study had no statistically significant effects on cow fertility measures, which included the onset of luteal activity, conception rate, in-calf rate, and the incidence of atypical cycles. The individual cow feeding strategy improved EB in early lactation but had no benefit on conception
Lee, Hsu-Hsun; Kida, Katsuya; Miura, Ryotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Miyamoto, Akio; Kawashima, Chiho; Haneda, Shingo; Miyake, Yoh-Ichi; Matsui, Motozumi
In peripartum dairy cows, insulin resistance (IR) increases to adjust the direction of energy to lactation after calving. To investigate the effect of prepartum IR on postpartum reproductive performance, the insulin tolerance test (ITT) was applied to 15 cows at 3 weeks (Pre21) and 10 days (Pre10) before the predicted calving date. Blood glucose area under the curve (AUC(glu)) within 120 min after administration of 0.05 IU/kg-BW insulin was calculated. The occurrence of first ovulation, days to first artificial insemination (AI) and first AI conception rate were recorded. Nutritional status postpartum was evaluated by blood chemical analysis. Based on AUC(glu) changes from Pre21 to Pre10, cows were classified into either the AUC-up group (AUC(glu) increase, n=5) or the AUC-down group (AUC(glu) decrease, n=10). There was no difference in the decrease in blood glucose at 30 min after insulin injection between groups, although glucose recovery from 30 to 60 min during the ITT was slow at Pre10 in the AUC-up group. The AUC-up group had a higher number of days to first AI and high glucose, total protein, globulin, γ-glutamyltransferase, triacylglycerol levels and a low albumin-globulin ratio at the 14th day postpartum. The present study infers that prepartum slow glucose recovery rather than insulin sensitivity might increase the potential for subclinical health problems postpartum and thus suppress reproductive performance. During the prepartum transition period, glucose dynamics in the ITT can be considered as a new indicator for the postpartum metabolic status and reproductive performance of dairy cows.
Full Text Available Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health.
Infections caused by the small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) of sheep (maedi visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus) are a serious economical threat to small ruminant farming particularly in the more intensive settings like dairy farms. Revenue is ultimately negatively
Henriksen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Madsen, Jørgen
This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production.......This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production....
... behaviour of consumption of 2–3 servings of dairy daily among nutrition professionals. ... Keywords: dairy intake, nutrition professionals, Theory of Planned Behaviour. Introduction ... reduce the risks for developing NCDs,4–6 even though differences ... subjective norms and perceived behavioural control to consume dairy.
Horny goat weed is an herb. The leaves are used to make medicine. As many as 15 horny goat weed species are known as “yin yang huo” in Chinese medicine. Horny goat weed is used for weak back and knees, ...
Rogério de Paula Lana
Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste experimento, verificar os efeitos da adição de óleo de soja e/ou de extrato etanólico de própolis na alimentação de cabras leiteiras sobre o consumo, a digestibilidade de nutrientes, a produção e composição do leite e alguns parâmetros de fermentação ruminal. Foram utilizadas dezesseis cabras Alpinas (quatro fistuladas no rúmen. Os animais foram alocados em quatro quadrados latinos 4x4, em arranjo fatorial 2x2 dos tratamentos. Foram adicionados ao concentrado 0 ou 120 g de óleo de soja e 0 ou 10 mL de extrato etanólico de própolis/animal/dia (30% p/v de própolis bruta moída em solução alcoólica a 70% em água. As dietas foram isoprotéicas, com 11,5% de PB, e compostas de 67% de silagem de milho e 33% de concentrado à base de fubá de milho e farelo de soja. O óleo de soja reduziu os consumos de matéria seca (%PV e g/kg PV0,75, de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e de carboidratos não-fibrosos; diminuiu a digestibilidade da FDN; aumentou a digestibilidade da PB e do EE e o teor de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT; reduziu a produção e aumentou os percentuais de gordura, proteína e sólidos totais no leite; aumentou o pH; e reduziu a relação acetato:propionato no líquido ruminal. Houve interação entre óleo de soja e extrato etanólico de própolis, de modo que o óleo de soja reduziu os consumos de MS, MO e FDN (em kg/animal/dia somente na presença de própolis e aumentou o consumo de PB na ausência de própolis. O óleo de soja mostrou-se mais efetivo em alterar as variáveis analisadas que o extrato etanólico de própolis.The objective of this experiment was to verify the effects of soybean oil and/or ethanolic extract of propolis, in the diets of dairy goats, on intake, on digestibility of nutrients, on milk production and composition and some ruminal parameters. Sixteen Alpine female goats were used, in which four animals fistulated in the rumen. The animals were allocated in four 4
Full Text Available Milk fat contains a large number of fatty acids (FA and other liposoluble components that exhibit various effects on human health. The present article reviews some of the factors affecting FA, vitamin A and cholesterol concentrations in milk from dairy cow and goat. Milk fat composition is linked to many factors, both intrinsic (animal species, breed, lactation stage and extrinsic (environmental. The effect of animal species on milk fat composition is important, as reflected by higher concentrations of short- and medium-chain FA, vitamin A and cholesterol in goat than in cow milk. In a given ruminant species, the effects linked to breed are significant but limited and they can only be achieved over long periods of time. The lactation stage has an important effect on milk FA composition, mainly linked to body fat mobilisation in early lactation, but it only lasts a few weeks each year. Furthermore, changes in feeding have a marked influence on milk fat composition. Changing the forages in the diet of ruminants, pasture in particular, or supplementing lipids to the diet, represent an efficient mean to modify milk fat composition by decreasing saturated FA and cholesterol, and increasing cis-9,trans-11-CLA and vitamin A. Nutrition therefore constitutes a natural strategy to rapidly modulate milk FA, vitamin A and cholesterol composition, with the overall aim of improving the long-term health of consumers.
Isabel das Neves Oiticica
Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of Fabaceae Flemingia macrophylla (Willd. Kuntze ex Merr. in the diet of lactating dairy goats arranged in a 5 × 5 Latin square. The diets were composed of 40% of concentrate and 60% of roughage, and the dietary treatments were defined by the level of Flemingia hay inclusion (0%, 8%, 16%, 24%, and 32% in the diet dry matter replacing Cynodon dactyloncv. Tifton 85 hay. The diets were isonitrogenous, with 14% crude protein. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility, feeding behavior, and ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen were evaluated. There was no difference in dry matter intake with the inclusion of Flemingia hay in the diet. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and total carbohydrates decreased with the inclusion of Flemingia in the diet. The diet did not change rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration or ruminal pH. There were no differences in the feeding behavior or feed and rumination efficiencies. Flemingia macrophylla can be used up to the level of 32% in the dry matter in diets for lactating goats.
Amanlou, H; Maheri-Sis, N; Bassiri, S; Mirza-Aghazadeh, A; Salamatdust, R; Moosavi, A; Karimi, V
Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight) were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (Pfat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; PMilk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (Pfat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (Pfat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein) sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.
This report contains summarized data on the effects of urea-molasses block (UMB) food supplements in dairy and beef cattle, sheep and goats in Java. In addition to improvements in growth and milk production, UMB supplements cause a significant enhancement of ovulation rate and hence fecundity in sheep and goats. Similar data for dairy cattle are not yet available. 5 tabs
Full Text Available Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (P<0.05 high NEL intakes when compared to control with no fat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; P<0.01 and FCM production (1.05-2.79; P<0.01. Milk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively higher than control. Between fat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (P<0.01 higher than control. Body weight, body weight change and BCS (body condition score of cows, as well as energy balance and energy efficiency were similar between treatments. In conclusion, while there was no significant effect of fat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.
EVALUATION OF MILLET GRAIN (Pennisetun americanum IN SUBSTITUTION TO CORN IN DAIRY GOAT RATIONS AVALIAÇÃO DO GRÃO DE MILHETO (Pennisetum americanum EM SUBSTITUIÇÃO AO MILHO (Zea mays EM RAÇÕES PARA CABRAS EM LACTAÇÃO
Aldi Fernandes de souza França
Full Text Available
The adoption of a system in de cerrado region, specially in the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, increased the millet grain and forage production in this region, because of its high biomass production potential, which is used as a soil covering in this system. Besides increasing the grain production, considered as a wastage, the millet has been tested as an ingredient in feed formulation to production animals. This research was carried out in the goat production section of the Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Goiás, and the aim was to evaluate the substitution of corn by millet grain in the rations formulated to dairy goats. Sixteen alpine dairy goats were distributed in Latin square design and alloted in four treatments with increasing levels of substitution: T1 - 0%; T2 - 33%; T3 - 66%; T4 - 99%. The data collected were analysed in ANOVA system that indicated no significant effects (P> 0.05 on milk production , milk fat (M.G, ash (MM, total dry extract (EST, unfatty dry extract (ESD, acidity (AC and crioscopy (CRIO, except for the milk protein that was linearly affected (P>0.05.
KEY-WORDS: Millet; rations; goats; lactation.
A adoção do sistema de plantio direto na região Centro-Oeste, notadamente nos Estados de Goiás, Mato Grosso e Mato Grosso do Sul, fez com que a cultura do milheto se expandisse na região, tendo em vista o seu alto potencial de produção de biomassa, a qual é utilizada para cobertura morta do solo no referido sistema. Entretanto, além da biomassa, a cultura considerada como um excedente ou subproduto, vem sendo testada na formulação de ração para animais domésticos. O presente trabalho foi conduzido no Setor de Caprinocultura da Escola de Veterinária / UFG, tendo como objetivo avaliar a substitui
Indetie, D.; Wathuta, E.; Indetie, A.; Kinywa, J.; Lukibisi, F.; Musalia, L.; Bebe, B.
The objective of this study was to determine effects of nutrition on milk production and fertility inlactating multiparous Friesian and Sahiwal cows. Forty in-calf cows comprising of 20 Friesians and Sahiwals were selected and upon calving were randomly assigned to 5 dietary groups consisting of concentrate supplementation at the rate of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 kgs fed twice per day after grazing on pasture for 24 weeks postpartum. Each feeding level comprised of 4 Friesians and 4 Sahiwals. Pastures and concentrates were analyzed using proximate analysis. Milk samples were collected weekly to determine composition using infrared spectroscopy while blood was collected bi-weekly to determine progesterone levels using radioimmunoassay. Parameters recorded included milk yield and composition (%fat, %protein, %solids not fat (SNF) and density. Reproductive data included days to beginning of luteal activity (progesterone >3nm/L) and days to 1st insemination. Data was analyzed by GLM of SAS. Feeding levels, breed by feeding levels, parity, weight of cow significantly affected milk yield. Heavier cows produced more milk with a mean increase of 0.2kg for each increase in weight. Feeding level 4 had the highest mean milk yield per week (p<0.05) in both breeds averaging 72.2±4.4 and 43.1±1.7 liters for Friesians and Sahiwals respectively. Breeds differed for days to peak milk production and peak milk yield with Friesians and Sahiwal cows averaging 31.6±6.0 and 42.2±3.8 days to reach peak milk yield, while peak milk yields were 79.5±5.9 and 58.4±2.7 liters respectively. Significant breed differences were also observed for %fat, protein, SNF and density of milk. Sahiwal exhibited better reproductive performance than Friesians. It was observed that 18% of in-calf cows lost their foetus before term and 25% of them never showed heat 120 postpartum. Of these, 15% never showed any luteal activity, while 10% had silent heat. Sahiwals came into heat and started cycling earlier (p<0
Adaptive capability as indicated by behavioral and physiological responses, plasma HSP70 level, and PBMC HSP70 mRNA expression in Osmanabadi goats subjected to combined (heat and nutritional) stressors
Shilja, Shaji; Sejian, V.; Bagath, M.; Mech, A.; David, C. G.; Kurien, E. K.; Varma, Girish; Bhatta, Raghavendra
A study was conducted to assess the impact of heat and nutritional stress simultaneously on the adaptive capability as indicated by behavioral and physiological responses, plasma heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) level, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) HSP70 gene expression in goats. Twenty-four adult Osmanabadi bucks (average body weight (BW) 16.0 kg) were used in the present study. The bucks were divided into four groups viz., C ( n = 6; control), HS ( n = 6; heat stress), NS ( n = 6; nutritional stress), and CS ( n = 6; combined stress). The study was conducted for a period of 45 days. C and HS bucks had ad libitum access to their feed while NS and CS bucks were under restricted feed (30 % intake of C bucks) to induce nutritional stress. The HS and CS bucks were exposed to solar radiation for 6 h a day between 10:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. to induce heat stress. The data was analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance. The standing time differed significantly ( P < 0.01) between ad libitum fed groups (C and HS) and restricted feeding groups (NS and CS). The highest ( P < 0.01) lying time was recorded in the CS group while the lowest in the C and HS groups. The highest ( P < 0.01) drinking frequency was also recorded in the CS group. Water intake recorded was significantly ( P < 0.01) higher in both the HS and CS groups. The highest respiration rate (RR), pulse rate (PR), and rectal temperature (RT) during the afternoon were also recorded in the CS group. Further, skin temperature of the head, flank, and scrotum during the afternoon was also higher ( P < 0.01) in the CS group. In addition, both plasma HSP70 concentration and PBMC HSP70 messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript expression were also significantly ( P < 0.01) higher in the CS group. It can be concluded from this study that when two stressors occur simultaneously, they may have severe impact on adaptive capabilities of Osmanabadi bucks as compared to that would occur individually. Further, the
Meadows, S; Jones-Bitton, A; McEwen, S; Jansen, J; Menzies, P
Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic bacterium, and infection in goats with this bacterium can result in abortion, stillbirth or birth of non-viable kids. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the seroprevalence and risk factors for C. burnetii exposure in Ontario goats. Sera were collected between August 2010 and February 2012, and tested for C. burnetii specific antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IDEXX). Overall, 63.2% (48/76, 95% CI=51.9-73.4) of farms had one or more seropositive goats. A higher farm-level seroprevalence of 78.6% (33/42) was found on dairy goat farms, compared to 44.1% (15/34) on meat goat farms (pgoats were seropositive. Similarly, a higher individual-level seroprevalence was identified for dairy goats (43.7%, 633/1447) compared to meat goats (10.8%, 81/748) (pfarm-level clustering identified risk factors associated with seropositivity (pgoat farms were located in a 5-km radius, goats had 5.6 times (95% CI=1.01-30.8) times the odds of seropositivity compared to those that were not. Relative to goats from farms where all kidding pen hygiene was practiced (adding bedding, removing birth materials and disinfection after kidding), goats from farms which only added bedding and removed birth materials had a higher odds of seropositivity (OR=19.3, 95% CI=1.1-330.4), as did goats from farms which practiced none of these measures (OR=161.0, 95% CI=2.4-10822.2). An interaction term revealed kidding outdoors when there were no swine on farm had a protective effect on seropositivity compared to kidding indoors, or kidding outdoors with swine on the farm. These results can inform strategies to mitigate exposure to C. burnetii in Ontario. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sutton, W.W.; Patzer, R.G.; Mullen, A.A.; Hahn, P.B.; Potter, G.D.
Groups of lactating cows and goats were used to examine americium-241 metabolism in dairy animals. Following either single oral or intravenous nuclide doses, samples of milk, urine, blood, and feces were taken over a 168-hour collection period, and the americium concentrations were determined by gamma counting. Gastrointestinal uptake of americium by cows and goats was estimated to be 0.014 and 0.016% of the oral dose, respectively. The cumulative percentage of oral dose transported to milk and urine was 4.4 x 10 -4 and 1.1 x 10 -3 , respectively, for cows and 5.6 x 10 -4 and 1.2 x 10 -3 , respectively, for goats. Plasma concentrations of americium decreased rapidly following all intravenous injections. The average percentage of injected americium transferred to milk, urine, and feces was 3, 6, and 2%, respectively, for cows, and 2, 4, and 2%, respectively, for goats. In both intravenously dosed groups, approximately 30% of all americium released from the body was found in the urine during the first 24 hours after injection. All animals were sacrificed 8 to 9 days after dosing. Bovine bone retained the greatest fraction of the administered dose followed by liver and kidney. However, liver retained the greatest amount of americium in the goats following both oral and intravenous doses. Comparisons are presented between americium-241 and plutonium-238 transport in dairy cows
Sutton, W.W.; Patzer, R.G.; Mullen, A.A.; Hahn, P.B.; Potter, G.D.
Groups of lactating cows and goats were used to examine americium-241 metabolism in dairy animals. Following either single oral or intravenous nuclide doses, samples of milk, urine, blood, and feces were taken over a 168-hr collection period and the americium concentrations were determined by gamma counting. Gastrointestinal uptake of americium by both cows and goats was estimated to be 0.014% of the respective oral doses. The cumulative percentage of oral dose transported to milk and urine was 4.4 x 10 -4 and 1.1 x 10 -3 respectively for cows and 4.4 x 10 -3 and 1.2 x 10 -3 respectively for goats. The relatively high americium concentrations noted in caprine milk following the oral doses are discussed. Plasma concentrations of americium decreased rapidly following all intravenous injections. The average percentage of injected americium transferred to milk, urine, and feces was 3, 6, and 2% respectively for cows and 2, 4, and 2% respectively for goats. In both intravenously dosed groups, approximately 30% of all americium released from the body was found in the urine during the first 24 hrs after injection. All animals were sacrificed 8 to 9 days after dosing. Bovine bone retained the greatest fraction of the administered dose followed by the liver. However, liver retained the greatest amount of americium in the goats following both oral and intravenous doses. Comparisons are presented between americium-241 and plutonium-238 transport in dairy cows
Feeney, E L; O'Sullivan, A; Nugent, A P; McNulty, B; Walton, J; Flynn, A; Gibney, E R
Studies examining the association between dairy consumption and metabolic health have shown mixed results. This may be due, in part, to the use of different definitions of dairy, and to single types of dairy foods examined in isolation. The objective of the study was to examine associations between dairy food intake and metabolic health, identify patterns of dairy food consumption and determine whether dairy dietary patterns are associated with outcomes of metabolic health, in a cross-sectional survey. A 4-day food diary was used to assess food and beverage consumption, including dairy (defined as milk, cheese, yogurt, cream and butter) in free-living, healthy Irish adults aged 18-90 years (n=1500). Fasting blood samples (n=897) were collected, and anthropometric measurements taken. Differences in metabolic health markers across patterns and tertiles of dairy consumption were tested via analysis of covariance. Patterns of dairy food consumption, of different fat contents, were identified using cluster analysis. Higher (total) dairy was associated with lower body mass index, %body fat, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (Pblood pressure. Similar trends were observed when milk and yogurt intakes were considered separately. Higher cheese consumption was associated with higher C-peptide (Pblood lipid profiles are less favourable when eaten as part of a low-fat high-carbohydrate dietary pattern. More research is needed to better understand this association. Overall, these results suggest that although milk and yogurt consumption is associated with a favourable body phenotype, the blood lipid profiles are less favourable when eaten as part of a low-fat high-carbohydrate dietary pattern. More research is needed to better understand this association.
Rutherfurd, S.M.; Darragh, A.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Prosser, C.G.; Lowry, D.
Goat milk and cow milk are commonly used in infant formula preparations and, as such, understanding the nutritional characteristics of infant formulas made from these milks is important. In this study, a goat milk infant formula was compared with an adapted (whey-enhanced) cow milk infant formula
Donald Kirby; Thomas P. Hanson; Carolyn Hull Sieg
Angora goats have been suggested as biological control agents for leafy spurge, especially in environmentally sensitive or limited access areas. Dietary preferences and dietary nutritive content of herded Angora goats were evaluated over a two-year period in North Dakota. Relative preferences of forages were evaluated by comparing botanical composition of diets as...
Full Text Available Istrian goat is an autochthonous Croatian breed which inhabited Istrian peninsula and was important in milk production and human nutrition, especially for poor people. For centuries Istrian goat was a recognizable heraldic symbol of Istria, but in her real form almost disappeared from the breeding area. The revitalization and reaffirmation of Istrian goat began with several dozen remaining breeding animals, after a decade-long breeding ban. Genetic characterization of the Istrian goat population is necessary for providing insight into the state of genetically preserved structure within population as well as positioning Istrian goats within phylogenetically related breeds. Microsatellite and mtDNA analysis of reproductive individuals of Istrian goat and related breeds, Croatian White goat and Saanen goat was carried out. In the population of Istrian goat, higher allelic variability (nA = 9.7; AR = 7.4 were found as well as significant genetic distance (FST = 0.068 - 0.086 in relation to other two breeds. Such results indicated that Istrian goat constitutes a separate genetic identity. The observed ten haplotype sequences of the D-loop mtDNA also confirm the significant genetic richness of the maternal hereditary component. The observed haplotypes in the population of Istrian goat belong to lineage A. A smaller number of haplotypes shows similarity to the group of “white” goats, indicating traces of earlier limited but targeted crossing of Istrian goats. The genetic profile analysis of Istrian goats indicates a high level of genetic variability and provides guidelines for a long-term conservation program. The preserved genetic and promising potential of milk production of Istrian goat makes a significant basis for her economic reaffirmation. Orientation of the breed towards milk production could be an efficient strategy for its effective preservation.
Cassidy, Lara M; Teasdale, Matthew D; Carolan, Seán; Enright, Ruth; Werner, Raymond; Bradley, Daniel G; Finlay, Emma K; Mattiangeli, Valeria
The domestic goat ( Capra hircus ) plays a key role in global agriculture, being especially prized in regions of marginal pasture. However, the advent of industrialized breeding has seen a dramatic reduction in genetic diversity within commercial populations, while high extinction rates among feral herds have further depleted the reservoir of genetic variation available. Here, we present the first survey of whole mitochondrial genomic variation among the modern and historical goat populations of Britain and Ireland using a combination of mtDNA enrichment and high throughput sequencing. Fifteen historical taxidermy samples, representing the indigenous 'Old Goat' populations of the islands, were sequenced alongside five modern Irish dairy goats and four feral samples from endangered populations in western Ireland. Phylogenetic and network analyses of European mitochondrial variation revealed distinct groupings dominated by historical British and Irish samples, which demonstrate a degree of maternal genetic structure between the goats of insular and continental Europe. Several Irish modern feral samples also fall within these clusters, suggesting continuity between these dwindling populations and the ancestral 'Old Goats' of Ireland and Britain. © 2017 The Author(s).
Ruiz, A; González, J F; Rodríguez, E; Martín, S; Hernández, Y I; Almeida, R; Molina, J M
A survey of Eimeria infections was performed in dairy goats and kids (<6 months old) of six farms from a dry desert area of Gran Canaria Island (Spain). The number of oocysts per gram of faeces (OPG) was determined by a modified McMaster technique over a total of 2,616 individual faecal samples taken from the rectum in monthly intervals. Eimeria oocysts were found in 96.1% of the samples with OPG ranging from 1 x 10(2) to 1.4 x 10(6). Kid goats had significantly (P < 0.001) higher OPG counts (46,496 +/- 5,228) than dairy females (2,225 +/- 287). Eight Eimeria species were identified, with Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae (30.0%), Eimeria arloingi (28.6%) and Eimeria alijevi (20.5%) being the most frequent species followed by Eimeria caprina (9.1%), Eimeria christenseni (4.5%), Eimeria jolchijevi (3.4%), Eimeria caprovina (3.2%) and Eimeria hirci (0.7%). Although significant differences were observed among goat groups and herds, the eight species were present in the six farms in both dairy goats and kids. The intensity of oocysts shedding was related to some factors such as the size of the herd and was further influenced by the prevailing climatic conditions of the area. The highest OPG counts were recorded during the hot season in dairy goats and close to weaning time in kids reared in small farms having no prophylactic treatments against eimeriosis.
Baraza, Elena; Hódar, José A.; Zamora, Regino
The domestic goat, a major herbivore in the Mediterranean basin, has demonstrated a strong ability to adapt its feeding behaviour to the chemical characteristics of food, selecting plants according to their nutritive quality. In this study, we determine some chemical characteristics related to plant nutritional quality and its variability among and within five tree species, these being the main components of the mountain forests of SE Spain, with the aim of determining their influence on food selection by this generalist herbivore. We analyse nitrogen, total phenols, condensed tannins and fibre concentration as an indicator of the nutritive value of the different trees. To determine the preference by the domestic goat, we performed two types of feeding-choice assays, where goats had to select between different species or between branches of the same species but from trees of different nutritional quality. The analysis of the plant nutritional quality showed significant differences in the chemical characteristics between species, and a high variability within species. However, when faced with different tree species, the domestic goat selected some of them but showed striking individual differences between goats. When selecting between trees of the same species, the goats showed no differential selection. This limited effect of chemical plant characteristics, together with the variability in foraging behaviour, resulted in a widespread consumption of diverse plant species, which can potentially modulate the effect of the goat on vegetation composition, and open the way for the conservation of traditional livestock grazing on natural protected areas.
Full Text Available A major risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection is consumption of undercooked meat. Increasing demand for goat meat is likely to promote the role of this animal for human toxoplasmosis. As there are virtually no data on toxoplasmosis in goats in Serbia, we undertook a cross-sectional serological study, including prediction modelling using geographical information systems (GIS. Sera from 431 goats reared in 143 households/farms throughout Serbia, sampled between January 2010 and September 2011, were examined for T. gondii antibodies by a modified agglutination test. Seroprevalence was 73.3% at the individual level and 84.6% at the farm level. Risk factor analysis showed above two-fold higher risk of infection for goats used for all purposes compared to dairy goats (P = 0.012, almost seven-fold higher risk for goats kept as sole species versus those kept with other animals (P = 0.001 and a two-fold lower risk for goats introduced from outside the farm compared to those raised on the farm (P = 0.027. Moreover, households/farms located in centre-eastern Serbia were found to be less often infected than those in northern Serbia (P = 0.004. The risk factor analysis was fully supported by spatial analysis based on a GIS database containing data on origin, serology, land cover, elevation, meteorology and a spatial prediction map based on kriging analysis, which showed western Serbia as the area most likely for finding goats positive for T. gondii and centre-eastern Serbia as the least likely. In addition, rainfall favoured seropositivity, whereas temperature, humidity and elevation did not.
Casas-Valdez, M; Hernández-Contreras, H; Marín-Alvarez, A; Aguila-Ramírez, R N; Hernández-Guerrero, C J; Sánchez-Rodríguez, I; Carrillo-Domínguez, S
The seaweed Sargassum (Sargassaceae) as tropical alternative for goats' feeding. The nutritive value of seaweed (Sargassum spp.) was studied in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Twenty female Nubian goats (43-weeks old) were randomly distributed into two groups of 10 goats each and were housed in individual pens. One group was fed with a control diet and the other with a diet supplemented with 25% of Sargassum spp. Feed and water intake were recorded daily and individually for 60 days. The weight of each goat was recorded every 15 days. The nutritional content of Sargassum spp. was 89% dry mater, 8% crude protein, 31% ash, 2% ether extract, and 39% carbohydrates. Fiber fractions, minerals, vitamins, fatty acids, and antinutritional factors were also determined. There were no significant differences in body weight (8.6 kg control and 9 kg experimental), feed intake (1.3 kg control and 1.6 kg experimental), and feed conversion rate (11.1 control and 12.6 experimental). Water consumption was greater in the goats that ate the Sargassum diet (5.3 1). From these results, Sargassum spp. can be considered as an alternative feedstuff for goats.
Tsartsianidou, V; Triantafillidou, D; Karaiskou, N; Tarantili, P; Triantafillidis, G; Georgakis, E; Triantafyllidis, A
Caseins are widely used for species identification of dairy products. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) of para-κ-casein peptide is used as the official German method for the differentiation between caprine (isoform A) and ovine (isoform B) dairy products, based on their different isoelectric points. The discrimination between Greek goat and ewe dairy products using IEF has, however, been shown to be problematic because of the existence of the ewe isoform in milk from Greek indigenous dairy goats. This could be due to nucleotide polymorphisms within the goat κ-casein gene of Greek indigenous breeds, which alter the isoelectric point of the para-κ-casein peptide and lead to false positive results. Previous DNA analysis of the goat κ-casein gene has shown high levels of polymorphism; however, no such information is available for Greek indigenous dairy goats. Therefore, 87 indigenous dairy goats were sequenced at exon IV of κ-casein gene. In total, 9 polymorphic sites were detected. Three nonsynonymous point mutations were identified, which change the isoelectric point of the goat para-κ-casein peptide so that it appears identical to that of the ewe peptide. Ten composite genotypes were reconstructed and 6 of them included the problematic point mutations. For the verification of genetic results, IEF was carried out. Both goat and ewe patterns appeared in the problematic genotypes. The frequency of these genotypes could be characterized as moderate (0.23) to high (0.60) within Greek indigenous breeds. However, this is not an issue restricted to Greece, as such genotypes have been detected in various non-Greek goat breeds. In conclusion, IEF based on the official German method is certainly inappropriate for ovine and caprine discrimination concerning Greek dairy goat products, and consequently a new method should be established. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bauman, Cathy A; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David
A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to determine the risk factors for dairy goat herds and dairy sheep flocks testing positive for paratuberculosis (PTB) in Ontario, Canada. A questionnaire was administered to 50 producers during a farm visit in which concurrently, 20 randomly selected, lactating animals over the age of 2 years underwent sampling for paratuberculosis testing. Only 1 of 50 farms (2.0%) was closed to animal movement, whereas 96.6% of dairy goat farms and 94.1% of sheep farms purchased livestock from other producers. Only 10.3% of dairy goat, and no dairy sheep farms used artificial insemination. Manure was spread on grazing pastures by 65.5% and 70.6% of dairy goat and dairy sheep farms, respectively. Because of the high true-prevalence of paratuberculosis infection detected, no risk factor analysis could be performed. This study demonstrates that biosecurity practices conducive to transmission of PTB are highly prevalent in Ontario small ruminant dairy farms.
Full Text Available Organic farming has turned into a very important subject who consists in a food production label and it has become very popular. That is because, especially in the EU the majority of the dairy goat farms want or have already applied the organic farming in order to benefit not only from the good price of milk but also from the given positive image. The main issue of this study is the high production of goat milk using organic farming under specific regulations. Therefore, the organic farming is based on a safe environment, 100% organic feedstuffs, healthy animals (by prevention of diseases, natural mating, reduced stress in animal rearing, modern stables and milking equipment. A few feeding rations were established to improve the quantity and quality of goat milk.
Wang Jianchen; Duan Enkui; Huang Qunshan; Hao Zhiming; Wu Hao
Reproductive endocrinology of Saanen dairy goats in China was studied during puberty, pregnancy, parturition and different breeding seasons. The effect of controlled release melatonin (CRM) on ovarian function in the non-breeding season was also evaluated. The average pubertal live weight, age and length of the pubertal oestrous cycle were 10.2 kg, 54.7 days and 8.3 days, respectively. The average length of pregnancy was 150.6 days. Diurnal changes of plasma concentrations of 17β-oestradiol, cortisol and progesterone during pregnancy and parturition are described. The breeding season began in the middle of August for adult Saanen goats. No significant differences were observed in 17β-oestradiol and progesterone concentrations in the milk of goats treated with CRM during June in the non-breeding season. (author). 18 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs
Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Cavicchioli, V Q; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A
Pseudomonas spp. are usually associated with spoilage microflora of dairy products due to their proteolytic potential. This is of particular concern for protein-based products, such as goat milk cheeses and fermented milks. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to characterize the proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from goat milk. Goat milk samples (n=61) were obtained directly from bulk tanks on dairy goat farms (n=12), and subjected to a modified International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocol to determine the number and proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. Isolates (n=82) were obtained, identified by PCR, and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with XbaI macro-restriction. Then, the isolates were subjected to PCR to detect the alkaline protease gene (apr), and phenotypic tests were performed to check proteolytic activity at 7°C, 25°C, and 35°C. Mean Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 2.9 to 4.8 log cfu/mL, and proteolytic Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 1.9 to 4.6 log cfu/mL. All isolates were confirmed to be Pseudomonas spp., and 41 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, which clustered into 5 groups sharing approximately 82% similarity. Thirty-six isolates (46.9%) were positive for the apr gene; and 57 (69.5%) isolates presented proteolytic activity at 7°C, 82 (100%) at 25°C, and 64 (78%) at 35°C. The isolates were distributed ubiquitously in the goat farms, and no relationship among isolates was observed when the goat farms, presence of apr, pulsotypes, and proteolytic activity were taken into account. We demonstrated proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. present in goat milk by phenotypic and genotypic tests and indicated their spoilage potential at distinct temperatures. Based on these findings and the ubiquity of Pseudomonas spp. in goat farm environments, proper monitoring and control of Pseudomonas spp. during production are critical. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association
Sistemas produtivos de caprinocultura leiteira no semiárido paraibano: caracterização, principais limitantes e avaliação de estratégias de intervenção Productive systems of dairy goats in the semiarid of Paraiba: characterization, major limiting factors and evaluation of intervention strategies
, após a adoção de práticas adequadas. Problemas reprodutivos foram relatados por 75% dos proprietários. Em quatro propriedades, as taxas de mortalidade de animais jovens foram maiores do que as aceitáveis (8%. Após análise dos dados, observou-se que a assistência técnica permanente e multidisciplinar pode minimizar os fatores limitantes à caprinocultura leiteira. O estudo demonstrou que os produtores aceitam a implantação de novas tecnologias, desde que estas sejam gradativamente implantadas e adequadas aos sistemas de produção.Through a multidisciplinary study, eight dairy goat farms from the semiarid of Paraíba were studied for a period of two years with the aim to identify the main limiting factors for milk production and to propose and evaluate intervention strategies. A questionnaire was used to obtain information about the farms and their herd management. The forage availabilities were evaluated and proposals were made for correction. The animals were identified to facilitate the zootechnical bookkeeping and the milk production control. The major diseases were diagnosed. Analysis of variance, multiple linear regression and t test were used for data analysis. The average animal numbers in the herds were 53 at the start of the first year, 62 in the end of the year, and 49 in the second year. None herd had a defined breed. In the first year, seven farms had forage deficiency during the dry season, but only two during the rainy season. In the second year, after technical advertisement, six farms still had forage deficiency during the dry season and only two during the rainy season; however in six farms the yearly forage production was adequate and storing fodder during the rainy season would prevent the deficit during drought. The average milk production per goat was 1.19 liters. The most inadequate goat facilities were those used to keep the goat kids. Zootechnical bookkeeping was originally not practiced in any farm at the start of the study, but
Using the same CIDR up to three times for estrus synchronization and artificial insemination in dairy goats = Uso do mesmo CIDR por até três vezes para sincronização do estro e inseminação artificial de cabras leiteiras
Daniel Maia Nogueira
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of reusing a controlled internal drug release (CIDR device for up to three times in the reproductive performance of dairy goats raised in the semi-arid zone of northeastern Brazil. Forty-five goats were allocated into three hormone treatments, as follows: CIDR1x, treated with new CIDR during nine days. Two days prior to device removal, injections of 75 ƒÝg d-cloprostenol and 300 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG were administrated. For the other treatments, thesame hormone protocol was used, differing only by the use of the same CIDR for a second time in CIDR2x and for a third time in CIDR3x. The interval from device removal to the onset of estrus (13.3 „b 1.1h vs. 13.8 „b 2.6h vs. 13.3 „b 1.4h, as well as estrus duration (33.6 „b 7.3h vs. 29.6 „b 3.2h vs. 32.8 „b 4.5h, did not differ (p > 0.05 among groups CIDR1x, CIDR2x and CIDR3x, respectively. All synchronized females were found to be in estrus. The overall fertility and prolificacy after artificial insemination were 82.2% and 1.9 kids, respectively, without significant difference (p > 0.05 among treatments. The use of the same CIDR for up to three times waseffective using 9-day estrus synchronization protocols in dairy goats.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da utilizacao do mesmo dispositivo de liberacao controlada de drogas (CIDR por ate tres vezes sobre odesempenho reprodutivo de cabras leiterias exploradas no semiarido do Nordeste Brasileiro. Foram utilizadas 45 cabras divididas em tres tratamentos de sincronizacao do estro, sendo: CIDR1x, tratadas com CIDR novo durante nove dias. Dois dias antes da retirada do dispositivo, foram aplicados 75 ƒÝg de d-cloprostenol e 300 UI de gonadotrofina corionica equina (eCG. Para os demais tratamentos, foi utilizado o mesmo protocolo hormonal, diferindo apenas pelo uso do mesmo CIDR pela segunda vez no grupo CIDR2x e uso pela terceira vez no grupo CIDR3x. O intervalo entre
Caracterização da mastite subclínica em caprinos produzidos em sistema orgânico no Rio Grande do Sul Characterization of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats herds raised on an organic system in Rio Grande do Sul
Full Text Available O leite e derivados são reconhecidos como veículos de patógenos para humanos, secundário a contaminação pós-ordenha ou de infecções do próprio animal, particularmente na mastite. Foi estudada a ocorrência de mastite e aspectos do manejo em cabras de três propriedades criadas em sistema orgânico. O exame clínico da glândula mamária de 64 cabras em diferentes períodos de lactação, não acusou a presença de mastite clínica. Entretanto, o Califórnia Mastitis Test (CMT identificou 54 (22,7% metades mamárias reagentes (+ ou ++. Foram colhidas 238 amostras de leite, das quais houve isolamento bacteriano em 37 (15,6%. Em apenas oito amostras houve coincidência entre o isolamento bacteriano e o resultado do CMT, indicando sensibilidade de 21,6% para este teste no diagnóstico de mastite subclínica em caprinos. Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (SCN foi o microrganismo mais freqüente (83,8%. O teste de sensibilidade microbiana in vitro revelou resistência das linhagens de SCN ao cotrimoxazol (50%, ampicilina (48,1%, nitrofurantoína (7,7%, cefaclor (7,14% e oxacilina (3,85%. Cefalotina, gentamicina, neomicina, estreptomicina e tetraciclina foram os antimicrobianos mais efetivos frente aos isolados. Não se evidenciou relação entre a ocorrência de mastite subclínica com a raça, a fase de lactação, sistema de ordenha ou qualidade da água utilizada nas propriedades.Milk and derivates are recognized as vehicle of different pathogens for humans. These micoorganisms may manifest as post-milking contamination or as in infections in the animal itself, particularly in mastitis. The aim of present study was characterizes the occurrence of mastitis and management aspects in dairy-goats raised in three farms of organic milk. The correlation between mastitis and goat husbandry was also investigated. The clinical exam of the mammary glands of 64 dairy-goats did not reveal the presence of clinical mastitis. Nevertheless, the California
Hogerwerf, Lenny; van den Brom, René; Roest, Hendrik I J; Bouma, Annemarie; Vellema, Piet; Pieterse, Maarten; Dercksen, Daan; Nielen, Mirjam
Recently, the number of human Q fever cases in the Netherlands increased dramatically. In response to this increase, dairy goats and dairy sheep were vaccinated against Coxiella burnetii. All pregnant dairy goats and dairy sheep in herds positive for Q fever were culled. We identified the effect of vaccination on bacterial shedding by small ruminants. On the day of culling, samples of uterine fluid, vaginal mucus, and milk were obtained from 957 pregnant animals in 13 herds. Prevalence and bacterial load were reduced in vaccinated animals compared with unvaccinated animals. These effects were most pronounced in animals during their first pregnancy. Results indicate that vaccination may reduce bacterial load in the environment and human exposure to C. burnetii.
Sebel, P J; McCrindle, C M E; Webb, E C
The economic impact of different extension messages used was calculated using enterprise budgeting (gross margin analysis). Input data were gleaned from the literature, from participatory appraisals, as well as a field study, spanning 12 months, of small-scale communal goat farming systems in Jericho in the Odi District of North West Province. The number of offspring weaned per annum, as a proportion of does owned, was selected as the desired output for analysis. This study has shown that small-scale communal goat farmers are not adopting or implementing extension messages to improve production capacity. In South Africa the majority of goats are slaughtered in the informal sector. If the informal sector is to be persuaded to market goats commercially through formal channels, then knowledge of the economics of goat farming on communal lands should be provided. The economic aspects of extension messages are probably an important factor in determining acceptance and sustainability yet appear to be seldom investigated. The probable reason for lack of adoption of standard extension messages, which promote improved nutrition, parasite control, vaccination and treatment of goats, was economic. In other words, the so-called 'poor management practices' used by communal farmers appeared to be economically more profitable than the 'good management practices' suggested to increase production. The price of communal goats was not related to their mass. A higher level of inputs would probably have resulted in a heavier kid, however it was established that this would not have influenced the price received as a majority of the goats were slaughtered for ritual purposes where age, colour and sex were more important to the purchaser than body mass. It is standard practice in commercial farming systems to evaluate the economic benefits of all management practices before they are implemented. Production animal veterinarians use veterinary economics to compare different scenarios to
Full Text Available The economic impact of different extension messages used was calculated using enterprise budgeting (gross margin analysis. Input data were gleaned from the literature, from participatory appraisals, as well as a field study, spanning 12 months, of small-scalecommunal goat farming systems in Jericho in the Odi District of NorthWest Province. The number of offspring weaned per annum, as a proportion of does owned, was selected as the desired output for analysis. This study has shown that small-scale communal goat farmers are not adopting or implementing extension messages to improve production capacity. In south Africa the majority of goats are slaughtered in the informal sector. If the informal sector is to be persuaded to market goats commercially through formal channels, then knowledge of the economics of goat farming on communal lands should be provided. The economic aspects of extension messages are probably an important factor in determining acceptance and sustainability yet appear to be seldom investigated. The probable reason for lack of adoption of standard extension messages, which promote improved nutrition, parasite control, vaccination and treatment of goats, was economic. In other words, the so-called 'poor management practices' used by communal farmers appeared to be economically more profitable than the 'good management practices' suggested to increase production. The price of communal goats was not related to their mass. A higher level of inputs would probably have resulted in a heavier kid, however it was established that this would not have influenced the price received as a majority of the goats were slaughtered for ritual purposes where age, colour and sex were more important to the purchaser than body mass. It is standard practice in commercial farming systems to evaluate the economic benefits of all management practices before they are implemented. Production animal veterinarians use veterinary economics to compare different
Alison M Goate is the Samuel & Mae S Ludwig Professor of Genetics in Psychiatry, Professor of Genetics and Professor of Neurology at Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis (MO, USA). Dr Goate studied for her undergraduate degree in biochemistry at the University of Bristol (UK) and received her graduate training at Oxford University (UK). She performed postdoctoral studies with Professor Theodore Puck, Professor Louis Lim and Dr John Hardy before receiving a Royal Society University Research Fellowship to support her independent research program at St Mary's Hospital Medical School in London. In 1991, Dr Goate and colleagues reported the first mutation linked to an inherited form of Alzheimer's disease, in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene on chromosome 21. The mutation was found to be linked to inherited cases of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. In 1992, Dr Goate moved to Washington University as an Associate Professor in Genetics and Psychiatry. Dr Goate and colleagues have since identified mutations in four other genes, including two that cause Alzheimer's disease and two that cause the related dementia frontotemporal dementia. In addition to her work on dementia, Dr Goate's laboratory also studies the genetics of alcohol and nicotine dependence. Dr Goate has received numerous awards including the Potamkin Award from the American Academy of Neurology, the Zenith Award from the Alzheimer's Association, the Senior Investigator Award from the Metropolitan Life Foundation, the St Louis Academy of Science Innovation Award and the Carl and Gerty Cori Faculty Achievement Award at Washington University. Dr Goate has been a member of many scientific Review Boards and currently serves on the Editorial Boards of several journals.
Maia, Alex S C; Nascimento, Sheila T; Nascimento, Carolina C N; Gebremedhin, Kifle G
The effects of air temperature and relative humidity on thermal equilibrium of goats in a tropical region was evaluated. Nine non-pregnant Anglo Nubian nanny goats were used in the study. An indirect calorimeter was designed and developed to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, methane production and water vapour pressure of the air exhaled from goats. Physiological parameters: rectal temperature, skin temperature, hair-coat temperature, expired air temperature and respiratory rate and volume as well as environmental parameters: air temperature, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature were measured. The results show that respiratory and volume rates and latent heat loss did not change significantly for air temperature between 22 and 26°C. In this temperature range, metabolic heat was lost mainly by convection and long-wave radiation. For temperature greater than 30°C, the goats maintained thermal equilibrium mainly by evaporative heat loss. At the higher air temperature, the respiratory and ventilation rates as well as body temperatures were significantly elevated. It can be concluded that for Anglo Nubian goats, the upper limit of air temperature for comfort is around 26°C when the goats are protected from direct solar radiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The AT motif-binding factor (ATBF1 not only interacts with protein inhibitor of activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 (PIAS3 to suppress STAT3 signaling regulating embryo early development and cell differentiation, but is required for early activation of the pituitary specific transcription factor 1 (Pit1 gene (also known as POU1F1 critically affecting mammalian growth and development. The goal of this study was to detect novel nucleotide variations and haplotypes structure of the ATBF1 gene, as well as to test their associations with growth-related traits in goats. Herein, a total of seven novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (SNP 1-7 within this gene were found in two well-known Chinese native goat breeds. Haplotypes structure analysis demonstrated that there were four haplotypes in Hainan black goat while seventeen haplotypes in Xinong Saanen dairy goat, and both breeds only shared one haplotype (hap1. Association testing revealed that the SNP2, SNP5, SNP6, and SNP7 loci were also found to significantly associate with growth-related traits in goats, respectively. Moreover, one diplotype in Xinong Saanen dairy goats significantly linked to growth related traits. These preliminary findings not only would extend the spectrum of genetic variations of the goat ATBF1 gene, but also would contribute to implementing marker-assisted selection in genetics and breeding in goats.
Cais-Sokolińska, Dorota; Pikul, Jan; Wójtowski, Jacek; Danków, Romualda; Teichert, Joanna; Czyżak-Runowska, Grażyna; Bagnicka, Emilia
The composition of bioactive components in dairy products depends on their content in raw milk and the processing conditions. The experimental material consisted of the milk of dairy goats supplemented with 120 g d(-1) per head of false flax cake. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of kefir produced from goat's milk with a higher content of bioactive components resulting from supplementation of the goats' diet with false flax cake. The administration of false flax cake to goats had a positive effect on the fatty acid profile of the raw milk, causing an increase in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 fatty acids. Their increased percentage was detected in the kefir after production as well as after storage. The processing value of the harvested milk did not differ from the qualitative characteristics of milk from goats of the control group. Increasing the proportion of bioactive components in goat's milk did not result in changes in the acidity, texture, colour, flavour, aroma or consistency of the kefir obtained. Milk and kefir obtained after the administration of false flax cake to goats contain bioactive components (PUFA including CLA, n-3 and monoenic trans fatty acids) in significant amounts. Kefir from experimental goat's milk did not differ in quality from kefir made from the milk of the control group. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
This project, supported by IDRC and GAC through the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF), will improve food security and nutrition in Tanzania through an integrated breeding and management program that will increase goat milk and meat production. Researchers will test improved cassava and ...
Subprodutos industriais na ensilagem de capim-elefante para cabras leiteiras: consumo, digestibilidade de nutrientes e produção de leite Industrial by-products in elephant grass silage for dairy goats: intake, nutrient digestibility and milk yield
Jobel Beserra de Oliveira
Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente e a produção do leite em cabras alimentadas com silagens de capim-elefante contendo subprodutos industriais. Utilizaram-se oito cabras da raça Saanen, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos 4 × 4, com 4 períodos de 14 dias (10 dias de adaptação e 4 dias para coleta de dados. Os tratamentos foram: silagem de capim-elefante + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% de farelo de mandioca + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% de casca de café + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% farelo de cacau + concentrado. Os maiores consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, carboidratos totais (CT, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF e nutrientes digestíveis totais foram observados entre os animais alimentados com a silagem contendo farelo de mandioca. As silagens com farelo de mandioca ou casca de café promoveram maior consumo de extrato etéreo. Os maiores valores de digestibilidade da MS, MO, EE e CT foram obtidos na dieta contendo silagem de capim-elefante com farelo de mandioca. O valor de digestibilidade dos CNF foi semelhante entre as dietas contendo silagem de capim-elefante com farelo de mandioca, casca de café e farelo de cacau. A digestibilidade de fibra em detergente neutro e de fibra em detergente ácido foi maior para a silagem sem aditivo, com farelo de mandioca ou farelo de cacau. Entre os subprodutos avaliados, o farelo de mandioca é o que promove maiores consumos, digestibilidades dos nutrientes e produção de leite em cabras alimentadas com silagem de capim-elefante.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the intake, apparent digestibility and the milk yield of goats fed elephant grass silages containing industrial by-products. Eight Saanen breed goats were used, distributed in two 4 × 4 Latin squares, with four 14-day periods (ten days of adaptation and four days for data collection. The treatments were
Sutton, W.W.; Patzer, R.G.; Hahn, P.B.; Potter, G.D.
Lactating cows and goats were used to examine the biological transport of curium-243 in dairy animals. After either single oral or intravenous nuclide doses were administered, samples of milk, urine, blood, and feces were taken over a 144-hr priod, and the curium concentrations were determined by gamma counting. Gastrointestinal uptake of curium was estimated to be 0.02 and 0.006% of the oral dose for cows and goats, respectively. The cumulative percentage of oral dose transported to milk and urine was 4.6 x 10 -4 and 1.9 x 10 -3 , respectively, for a cow and 2.7 x 10 -4 and 1.6 x 10 -4 , respectively, for goats. Plasma concentrations of curium decreased rapidly following all intravenous injections. The average percentage of injected curium transferred to milk, urine, and feces was 2, 8, and 1, respectively, for a cow and 2, 5, and 5, respectively, for goats. All animals were sacrificed one week after dosing. Bovine bone retained the greatest fraction of the administered dose and the next highest was the liver. However, in all three intravenously dosed goats the liver contained the greatest amount of curium. Nuclide deposition in bone and liver was essentially equal for two of the three orally dosed goats while the skeleton contained the most curium in the other animal. Comparisons are presented between curium-243 and americium-241 transport in dairy cows
Aurora Maria Guimarães Gouveia
Full Text Available Minas Gerais is the largest one out of the four states that comprise the southeastern region of Brazil, with the bigest goat herd of this region. The characterization of health aspects of dairy goat husbandry was done in 84 dairy herds in 81 municipalities and 200 beef herds in 70 municipalities in the State of Minas Gerais. A questionnaire was filled out for each herd, requesting data regarding the farm, the herd and the farmer by the veterinarians within the Agriculture and Livestock Institute of Minas Gerais (Instituto Mineiro de Agropecuária – IMA. A data bank was developed in Windows Excel and analyzed using the Epi-Info system. Comparisons of categorical variables were based on Chi-square test. The individual identification of the animals was done at 73.8% of dairy farms and at 7.5% of beef farms, use of quarentine at 15.5% and 4.0%, isolation of sick animals at 30.9% and 11.0%, requisition of sanitary certificate in the acquisition of new animals at 28.6% and 1.5%, regular veterinary monitoring at 52.4% and 1.5%, respectively. The main health problems reported at dairy and beef farms, respectively, were abortion (50.0% and 49.5%, mastitis (41.7% and 19.0%, pneumonia (37.4% and 16.5%, diarrhea (34.5% and 16.5% and caseous lymphadenitis (20.2% and 43.0%.
Leegwater, P.; Hoorweg, J.C.
The growth of the dairy sector as it has occurred in Kilifi and Malindi Districts is one of the few examples of successful agricultural development in the coastal region in the past decades. Between 1985 and 1997 dairy cattle have more than doubled in number. Three livestock systems are described:
Consumo, digestibilidade e produção de cabras leiteiras alimentadas com dietas contendo diferentes fontes de lipídios = Intake, digestibility and milk production of dairy goats fed with different fat sources
Guilherme de Lira Sobral Silva
Full Text Available Foram utilizados 12 animais da raça Saanen, com peso vivo de 35 kg e produção leiteira de 1,2 kg, para avaliação da suplementação lipídica sobre o consumo, digestibilidade, produção e composição do leite e quatro animais fistulados no rúmen para observação do pH. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta-controle e três dietas suplementadas com semente de faveleira, torta de faveleira e caroço de algodão. Os dados foram analisados em quadrados latinos 4 x 4, com três repetições e as análises estatísticas feitas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. A suplementação lipídica diminuiu o consumo de matéria seca e da maioria dos nutrientes, com reflexo sobre a produção e composição do leite de cabras Saanen. A suplementação com torta de faveleira e com caroço de algodão pode ser considerada uma boa alternativa alimentar para cabras Saanen.This study used 12 Saanen goats with BW of 35 kg and daily milkproduction of 1.2 kg, in order to evaluate the effect of fat supplementation on the intake, digestibility and milk yield. Four animals were fistulated in the rumen for pH observation. The treatments consisted of a control diet and three diets supplemented with faveleira seed, faveleira cake and cotton seed. The data were analyzed in 4 x 4 chi squares, with three repetitions and the statistical analyses by Tukey's test at 5% probability. Fat supplementation decreases the intake of dry matter and of most nutrients, affecting milk yield and the composition of Saanen goat milk. Supplementation with faveleira cake and cotton seeds can be considered as an alternative feed for those animals.
Burim N. Ametaj
Full Text Available In this review article we present an overall summary of the role that high-grain/low forage diets have on rumen composition of microbiota and how changes in the diet affect the release of bacterial cell wall components that are toxic to the host. One of these toxic compounds is lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin, a component of the outer membrane of all Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, data are provided that support the concept that endotoxin translocates into the blood circulation and show that rumen endotoxin is associated with multiple perturbations of blood variables related to carbohydrate, lipid, and mineral metabolism. In addition, endotoxin induces a general, nonspecific immune response known as acute phase response. We also pinpoint the fact that high-grain diets are associated with distinct clusters of plasma metabolites and immune variables suggesting that changing cereal grain to forage ratio in the diet is very important for the health of dairy cattle. Furthermore, we provide information that support the concept that endotoxin is involved in multiple metabolic diseases such as fatty liver, milk fever, laminitis, retained placenta, displaced abomasum, and downer cow syndrome. More research is warranted to clarify the mechanisms by which nutrition, microbiota, and endotoxin contribute to development of metabolic diseases in dairy cattle. It is concluded that besides the aforementioned causal agents other compounds generated in the gastrointestinal tract such as lipoteichoic acid or methylated amines might be involved in the etiology of several metabolic diseases.Neste artigo de revisão é apresentado um resumo total do papel que a dieta de alto teor de grãos e baixo teor de forragem tem sobre a composição da microbiota do rúmen e como as mudanças na dieta afetam a liberação de componentes da parede celular bacteriana tóxicos ao hospedeiro. Um destes compostos tóxicos é um lipopolisacarídeo ou endotoxina, um componente da
... dairy product associated with several beneficial nutritional and health effects. ... The results for amino acids showed that the essential and non-essential amino ... proximate composition and nutritional (amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals ...
Anamaria CÃ¢ndido Ribeiro
Full Text Available Capritec is a company devoted to dissemination of technology in the form of courses, consulting, lectures and events for producers, students and technicians involved with goat production. Capritec headquarters are located in EspÃrito Santo do Pinhal, in the state of SÃ£o Paulo, in Southeastern Brazil. In the state of SÃ£o Paulo, dairy goat production is well developed. Meat goat production is more modest, but has increased steadily in recent years. The main objective of Capritec is to transfer technology a to enable interested producers, students, technicians and entrepreneurs to invest in goat production, b to give them the necessary tools to avoid business failures in these enterprises and c to contribute to the development of Brazil goat production. The companyâ€™s owners and collaborators have extensive experience with goats in the areas of animal production, reproduction and food processing. Between 2003 and 2006, 58 extension courses were offered, attended by 422 participants. The courses themes were goat production for beginners (4 courses, meat goat Â production (9 courses, dairy goat production (5 courses, goat milk processing into cheese (12 courses, yoghurt, ice cream and sweets from goat milk (1 course, cosmetics from goat milk (2 courses, artificial insemination (7 courses, ultrasonography (2 courses, semen quality examination and fresh semen processing (2 courses, general handling practices (7 courses, preparation and economical evaluation of projects (6 courses, and goat health (2 courses. Courses emphasize practical hands-on activities and are taught in small groups. Women were in the minority, accounting for 23.51% of course participants, whereas men accounted for 71.49%. Between 2003 and 2006, 4 extension workshops were organized, attended by 826 participants. After each event, the participants were invited to answer a questionnaire, to mention the strengths and weaknesses of the course, and to score and give
Efeito da suplementação de lipídios sobre a digestibilidade e os parâmetros da fermentação ruminal em cabras leiteiras Effect of lipid supplementation on digestibility and ruminal metabolism in dairy goats
Márcia Maria Cândido da Silva
Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da inclusão de óleo de soja (OS, sais de cálcio de ácidos graxos de cadeia longa (SC e grão de soja (GS na dieta sobre o consumo, as digestibilidades total e ruminal dos nutrientes, os parâmetros ruminais e a produção e eficiência de produção de proteína microbiana em cabras. Foram utilizadas oito cabras não-gestantes e não-lactantes, fistuladas no rúmen, distribuídas em delineamento experimental em quadrado latino 4 x 4, com duas repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro dietas, sendo uma controle (C, isenta de lipídio suplementar, e as demais, adicionadas de um dos suplementos testados, contribuindo com 4,5% de EE suplementar (6,5% na dieta total. A suplementação lipídica não alterou o consumo de MS. Os coeficientes das digestibilidades total e ruminal do EE nas dietas com suplementos lipídicos foram superiores aos da dieta controle. Maior tempo de retenção de partículas sólidas foi obtido com o uso de grão de soja como suplemento. Os tratamentos não influenciaram o pH, a síntese e a eficiência de proteína microbiana, mas reduziram a concentração de amônia no rúmen. A suplementação com lipídios no nível de 4,5% pode ser utilizada de modo eficiente em dietas para caprinos.Eight non-pregnant, non-lactating dairy goats fitted with ruminal cannulas were assigned to two replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares to evaluate the effects of lipid supplementation on intake, total tract and ruminal digestibility of nutrients, ruminal metabolism, and microbial protein synthesis. Animals were fed a control diet (no fat supplementation; 2.0% ether extract or a diet supplemented (4.5% of added ether extract with soybean oil (SO, calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CS or whole soybean grain (WS. No significant differences were observed for dry matter intake among diets. Apparent total tract and ruminal digestibilities of ether extract were greater on diets containing fat supplements than on the
Koop, Gerrit; Islam, Md Nurul; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Khatun, Momena; Ferdous, Jinnat; Sayeed, Md Abu; Islam, Shariful; Ahaduzzaman, Md; Akter, Sazeda; Mannan, Abdul; Hassan, Mohammad Mahmudul; Dissanayake, Ravi; Hoque, Md Ahasanul
Bangladesh has a large population of goats, which contribute to the income, nutrition and welfare of the households of many families. Mastitis in goats has a low incidence, but is often very severe, making veterinary care necessary. The aim of this study was to identify seasonality and risk factors
Full text: The objectives of this presentation are to consider some of the factors concerned in the application of technical change to small-scale dairying and the adoption of change by farmers. The presentation will consider (1) the motives of the small-scale dairy farmer, (2) the small-scale dairy farmer's own perceptions of his problems and needs, (3) how farmers deal with the two fundamental technologies implicit in dairy farming, feeding their animals and getting their cows in calf, and (4) dissemination routes most favoured by small scale dairy farmers. The geographical focus of the presentation is East Africa, a region associated with considerable progress and success in small-scale dairying (Kenya) as well as dairying projects in their early development (Tanzania). The concerns of small-scale farmers have been characterised; thus the farmers have multiple objectives, their households have low capacity to bear risk, their livestock enterprises are often integrated with cropping activities, and their livestock are often expected to be multi-functional. Some of the expected implications for small-scale dairy farmers are that: (1) inputs (including feed) are low and therefore milk yields are expected to be low; (2) inputs are often matched to output so that a reduction in milk price results in a reduction in concentrate allowance for the cows; (3) the use of time and cash are optimised, implying that priority will not be given to cattle if other farm enterprises seem financially more attractive. Perhaps not surprisingly, attitudes and systems vary within the farming community, allowing sub-groups of small-scale dairy farmers to be identified and defined. Thus some farmers emerge as more specialist or entrepreneurial than others, prepared to make greater investment in return for higher outputs. Attitudes and activities also differ according to location. Small-scale farmers close to urban centres may well have off-farm employment, diverting their attention from
Seroconversion and seroreactivity patterns of dairy goats naturally exposed to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in Brazil Soroconversão e sororeatividade de cabras leiteiras naturalmente expostas ao virus da artrite-encefalite caprina no Brasil
Roberto Soares Castro
Full Text Available A labelled avidin-biotin ELISA (lab-ELISA using repeated serum samples of goats showed a progressive seroconversion with higher seroconversion rate at the period going from the beginning of the breeding up to the last half of lactation (35.0%, compared to that recorded at the beginning of breeding (17.8%(pForam realizados exames sorológicos em cabras leiteiras, utilizando-se ELISA marcado com avidina-biotina (LAB-ELISA. Esses exames mostraram soroconversão progressiva, com uma taxa maior entre os animais a partir do início da reprodução até a última metade da lactação (35% comparada à observada nos animais até o início da reprodução (17,8%(p<0,05. Além disso, o padrão de sororeatividade das amostras colhidas a cada 30-40 dias, durante 12 meses, avaliado pelo LAB-ELISA, foi caracterizado por alta variabilidade individual. Não foi observada sororeversão, e títulos mais altos foram obtidos mais no grupo constituído por animais que entraram em lactação (n=6, média de títulos=913,4 do que no grupo constituído por animais que cruzaram, mas não conceberam (n=4, média de títulos=261,2(p<0,01.
Gonzalez-Martinez, A.; Herrera, M.; Luque, M.; Rodero, E.
The aim of this study was to examine the possible influence of farming systems, based on the morpho structure of 1,571 female goats drawn from 40 flocks containing seven Spanish breeds (Blanca Andaluza, Blanca Celtiberica, Negra Serrana, Pirenaica, Payoya, Murciano-Granadina and Malaguena) raised under four different farming systems. Analysis of morphometric variables showed that the morphostructure of native Spanish goat breeds was linked to the farming system used and thus to the production purpose. The morphostructure of grazing breeds may be more influenced by natural selection within the physical environment and less by human selection. That of stall-fed breeds, by contrast, reflects intense artificial selection aimed at achieving a highly-productive dairy type. For this reason, morphological evaluation systems used in breeding programmes for meat or dual-purpose goat breeds farmed extensively or semiextensively should be specific, and should reflect the influence of the environment in which these goats are farmed. (Author)
Pereira, R A G; Oliveira, C J B; Medeiros, A N; Costa, R G; Bomfim, M A D; Queiroga, R C R E
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of castor and licuri palm oils supplemented to milking goats on the physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of milk. A double Latin square experimental design (5x5) using 10 confined crossbred Moxotó-Alpine goats was performed according to the following treatments: nonsupplemented (control), 3% castor oil, 5% castor oil, 3% licuri oil, and 5% licuri oil. Oils in each treatment were supplemented in the dry matter. Castor oil supplementation reduced the fat content and increased the lactose and density of milk. Considering the sensory analysis, a lower acceptability was observed for milk from goats supplemented with castor oil. On the other hand, licuri oil supplementation led to higher acceptability scores for flavor and odor of goat milk. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Marshall, C.L.; Weinstock, D.; Kramer, R.W.; Bagley, R.S.
An adult goat was examined because of behavioral changes and circling. Results of neurologic examination, CSF analysis, hematologic evaluation, and computed tomography of the brain were suggestive of an intra-axial mass. The goat was euthanatized because of worsening neurologic condition and poor prognosis. Necropsy revealed a large mass in the right cerebral hemisphere and caudal brain herniation through the foramen magnum. The mass was diagnosed as a glioma, with oligodendrocyte differentiation. Results of immunohistochemical evaluation were compatible with a malignant, poorly differentiated tumor
Stuhr, T; Aulrich, K; Barth, K
At present the analysis of somatic cell count (SCC) used for the detection of intramammary infections (IMI) in bovine milk is also recommended for goat milk, but due to the various factors influencing SCC it allows only limited conclusions on the udder health of goats. The research on enzyme...... activity in milk appears to show promise in finding an approach with more suitable indicators of the early detection of IMI in goats. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the influence of goat udder infection status on different milk enzyme activities and SCC throughout early lactation....... A total of 60 dairy goats were sampled at weekly intervals over a period of 6 weeks after kidding and the bacteriological status, milk SCC and the activity of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), β-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of udder halves were analysed. Infections with minor...
Leroy, Jo L M R; Valckx, Sara D M; Jordaens, Lies; De Bie, Jessie; Desmet, Karolien L J; Van Hoeck, Veerle; Britt, Jack H; Marei, Waleed F; Bols, Peter E J
Although fragmented and sometimes inconsistent, the proof of a vital link between the importance of the physiological status of the mother and her subsequent reproductive success is building up. High-yielding dairy cows are suffering from a substantial decline in fertility outcome over past decades. For many years, this decrease in reproductive output has correctly been considered multifactorial, with factors including farm management, feed ratios, breed and genetics and, last, but not least, ever-rising milk production. Because the problem is complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach, it is hard to formulate straightforward conclusions leading to improvements on the 'work floor'. However, based on remarkable similarities on the preimplantation reproductive side between cattle and humans, there is a growing tendency to consider the dairy cow's negative energy balance and accompanying fat mobilisation as an interesting model to study the impact of maternal metabolic disorders on human fertility and, more specifically, on oocyte and preimplantation embryo quality. Considering the mutual interest of human and animal scientists studying common reproductive problems, this review has several aims. First, we briefly introduce the 'dairy cow case' by describing the state of the art of research into metabolic imbalances and their possible effects on dairy cow reproduction. Second, we try to define relevant in vitro models that can clarify certain mechanisms by which aberrant metabolite levels may influence embryonic health. We report on recent advances in the assessment of embryo metabolism and meantime critically elaborate on advantages and major limitations of in vitro models used so far. Finally, we discuss hurdles to be overcome to successfully translate the scientific data to the field.
Jan 4, 2010 ... are a decreased fibre intake and increased intakes of total protein and animal protein ... has implemented various national nutrition and primary health- .... fish, chicken, dried beans, legumes, peas and soy, 4) the dairy group,.
..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of...
Ibáñez, Carla; Criscioni, Patricia; Arriaga, Haritz; Merino, Pilar; Espinós, Francisco Juan; Fernández, Carlos
The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting dietary barley grain with orange pulp or soybean hulls on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methane emission and milk performance in dairy goats. Twelve Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in midlactation were selected and divided into three groups based on similar body weight (42.1 ± 1.2 kg) and milk yield (2.16 ± 0.060 kg/goat/day). The experiment was conducted in an incomplete crossover design where one group of four goats was fed a mixed ration of barley grain (BRL), another group of four goats replaced barley grain with orange pulp (OP) and the last group of four goats with soybean hulls (SH). After adaptation to diets, the goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages and intake, faeces, urine and milk were recorded and analysed. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded by a mobile open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. Dry matter intake was similar for all three groups (2.03 kg/d, on average). No influence of the diet was observed for energy balance and the efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for milk production was 0.61. The OP and SH diets showed greater (P goats than BRL suggest a negative impact of these diets on rumen bacterial metabolism; probably linked to the lower nitrogen supply of diet OP to synthesize microbial protein and greater content of fat in diet SH. Replacement of cereal grain with fibrous by-products did not increased enteric methane emissions (54.7 L/goat per day, on average). Therefore, lactating goats could utilize dry orange pulp and soybean hulls diets with no detrimental effect on milk performance.
At the request of the Government of Indonesia, an IAEA expert undertook a three-week mission from 18 June 1989 to 7 July 1989 at the Centre for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation (PAIR/BATAN), National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta, within the framework of a project entitled: ''Assessment of molasses/multi-nutrient blocks for ruminants in Indonesia (with emphasis on small-farm holders)'' (INS/88/013 - 11.66 - Agricultural Production). The project involves field evaluations of supplementation strategies at a number of provinces and is backed by controlled laboratory studies at PAIR/BATAN. Recent field studies confirm the potential for improved production from goats, sheep, dairy cattle and buffaloes in response to supplementation. The increased production is justified by cost/benefit analysis but further improvements should be possible when least cost supplements are devised for local conditions. The Expert worked closely with the leader of the group in the Animal Nutrition and Production Section, Dr. C. Hendratno, and her staff to interpret, summarize and report on results of recently completed, existing field studies; to initiate new field studies in different provinces of Java; to develop nuclear and other techniques for use in planned intensive laboratory studies aimed at identifying the ingredients in urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks that are responsible for their success as supplements for goats, dairy cattle and buffaloes in a number of locations in Java. (author)
Alyssa N Malone
Full Text Available Johne's disease is an infectious chronic inflammatory bowel disease in ruminants. The key factor for the management of this disease is an early positive diagnosis. Unfortunately, most diagnostics detect animals with Johne's disease in the clinical stage with positive serology and/or positive fecal cultures. However, for effective management of the disease within herds, it is important to detect infected animals as early as possible. This might only be possible with the help of parameters not specific for Johne's disease but that give an early indication for chronic infections such as weight development. Here we report our findings on the development of total body weight and weight gain during the first six months of goats experimentally infected to induce Johne's disease. Twenty dairy goat kids age 2 to 5 days were included in this study. Goats were divided into two groups: a negative control group and a positive infected group. The weight was obtained weekly throughout the study. Goats of the positive group were infected at the age of seven weeks. We detected significant changes in weight gain and total body weight as early as one week after infection. Differences are significant throughout the six month time period. Weight as a non-specific parameter should be used to monitor infection especially in studies on Johne's disease using the goat model. Our study suggests that goats with Johne's disease have a reduced weight gain and reduced weight when compared with healthy goats of the same age.
Hichem Ben Salem
Full Text Available Small ruminant production is the main source of income of farmers living in arid and semiarid regions. Sheep and goats raised in these areas are generally confronted with severe nutritional deficits during food scarcity period which exacerbate disease and health problems and consequently low productive and reproductive performances. These areas are characterized by rainfall seasonality and scarcity resulting in a low fodder potential. Therefore, native rangelands are degrading due to overgrazing, high stocking rates and mismanagement. Options to improve small ruminant-based production systems include i innovative technologies targeting the increase of feed resources availability, rumen manipulation using natural compounds to boost microbial activity, improving diets' quality, alleviation of feeding cost, and better control of livestock watering. Although this paper is focussing on the benefits from these technical options, we should bear in mind that i the organization of local institutions for better adoption of these technologies and for protecting the main natural resources (rangelands and water and ii the participatory approach involving all partners concerned with the improvement of farmer's income and livelihood are key tools for promoting livestock sector in the target areas. A set of simple, inexpensive and environmentally friendly options that could ameliorate small ruminant production in the semiarid regions are discussed in this paper.A produção de pequenos ruminantes é a principal fonte de renda dos agricultores que vivem em regiões áridas e semiáridas. Ovinos e caprinos criados nessas áreas geralmente enfrentam severas deficiências nutricionais durante o período de escassez de alimentos, que comprometem a sua saúde e, conseqüentemente, resultam em baixo desempenho produtivo e reprodutivo. Estas áreas são caracterizadas pela sazonalidade e escassez das chuvas, que resultam em baixo potencial forrageiro. Além disso, as
Peter R. Mount
Researchers at Tuskegee University have joined together to study the impact of grazing Angora goats on kudzu (Pueraria lobata). A pilot project funded by the Southern Forest Experiment Station of the USDA Forest Service was started in 1990. The problem was to find an environmentally acceptable way to control and eradicate kudzu in forest situations...
Summarizes Brock Cole's novel for young adolescents: "The Goats." Provides discussion questions and classroom activities in language arts, drama, research; mathematics, creative writing, similes; and presents an annotated bibliography of fiction for young adolescents dealing with runaways, self-reliance, family, friendship, courage, overweight,…
Romero, G; Panzalis, R; Ruegg, P
The aim of this paper was to study the relationship between milk flow emission variables recorded during milking of dairy goats with variables related to milking routine, goat physiology, milking parameters and milking machine characteristics, to determine the variables affecting milking performance and help the goat industry pinpoint farm and milking practices that improve milking performance. In total, 19 farms were visited once during the evening milking. Milking parameters (vacuum level (VL), pulsation ratio and pulsation rate, vacuum drop), milk emission flow variables (milking time, milk yield, maximum milk flow (MMF), average milk flow (AVMF), time until 500 g/min milk flow is established (TS500)), doe characteristics of 8 to 10 goats/farm (breed, days in milk and parity), milking practices (overmilking, overstripping, pre-lag time) and milking machine characteristics (line height, presence of claw) were recorded on every farm. The relationships between recorded variables and farm were analysed by a one-way ANOVA analysis. The relationships of milk yield, MMF, milking time and TS500 with goat physiology, milking routine, milking parameters and milking machine design were analysed using a linear mixed model, considering the farm as the random effect. Farm was significant (Pfarms, being similar to those recommended in scientific studies. Few milking parameters and milking machine characteristics affected the tested variables: average vacuum level only showed tendency on MMF, and milk pipeline height on TS500. Milk yield (MY) was mainly affected by parity, as the interaction of days in milk with parity was also significant. Milking time was mainly affected by milk yield and breed. Also significant were parity, the interaction of days in milk with parity and overstripping, whereas overmilking showed a slight tendency. We concluded that most of the studied variables were mainly related to goat physiology characteristics, as the effects of milking parameters and
Luiz Gonzaga Pego de Macedo
Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento com cabras Saanen, primíparas, pesando em média, 50 kg, alojadas em baias individuais de 3 m², objetivando avaliar a substituição da proteína do farelo de soja (FS pela proteína da farinha de glúten de milho (FGM, na produção e composição do leite, consumo voluntário e níveis de uréia plasmática. O delineamento experimental foi o triplo quadrado latino 4x4, com quatro períodos de 21 dias, sendo 14 dias de adaptação à dieta e sete dias para colheita das amostras. As cabras foram alimentadas e ordenhadas pela manhã e tarde. Os níveis de substituição estudados foram 0, 10, 30 e 50% de FGM (base na proteína bruta. A substituição do farelo de soja pela farinha de glúten de milho não afetou o consumo (kg/dia e %PV de matéria seca, proteína bruta e fibra em detergente ácido, mas houve efeito quadrático, para o consumo de fibra em detergente neutro (kg/dia e % PV. Houve efeito sobre os níveis de uréia plasmática (UP, que foram inferiores para os menores níveis de substituição, sendo os maiores valores de UP observados para o tratamento que possuía somente FS. A produção de leite decresceu linearmente com a inclusão da farinha de glúten de milho. Os níveis de substituição resultaram em decréscimos lineares na produção de gordura (kg/dia, no teor de gordura do leite (% e no teor de sólidos totais. Houve efeito quadrático para produção de lactose (kg/dia, observando-se o menor valor estimado para o nível de substituição de 31,6%. Não foi observado efeito sobre a produção de proteína bruta no leite, cujo valor médio foi de 0,083 kg/dia. Os teores de proteina bruta, lactose e sólidos totais não sofreram efeito dos níveis de substituição, sendo os valores médios percentuais de 2,98; 4,35 e 11,51%, respectivamente.It was carried out an experiment with goats Saanen, on the first lactation, with 50 kg of body weight, housed in individual stalls of 3 m², to evaluate
Full Text Available Animal fat and vegetable oils are generally added to livestock diets to increase energy density. Unlike other ruminants, goats can tolerate more than 6% dietary fat. Feeding a diet containing soybean oil (SO, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA to goats can change the milk fat composition, thereby modifying the nutritional quality of the milk. PUFA such as linoleic acids are considered healthier fats since they have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases in humans. Eighteen dairy goats (3 - 4 yr.; BW = 40 kg; 9 Saanen and 9 Alpine in late lactation were used in an experiment to determine the effect of high PUFA (12% soybean oil; 12% SO on feed intake, milk composition and fatty acid profile. Does were group fed once a day (2 pens per treatment a 16% CP and 3.5 Mcal DE/kg diets containing either 6 or 12% SO for 24 d. Feed intake was recorded daily during the trial and milk yield was recorded from d-10 to d-24. Milk samples were collected 3 times a week and analyzed for protein, fat, lactose, and total solids. Milk fat was extracted and prepared for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME. The FAMEs were analyzed using a gas chromatography (GC unit, fitted with a 60 m x 0.25 mm i.d. fused silica SP 2380 (Sigma-Aldrich capillary column. The data were analyzed using MIXED procedures in SAS as a completely randomized design with repeated measures. Dietary treatments did not affect (P > 0.05 pen feed intake, milk yield or milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and total solids. Diet containing 12% SO decreased (P < 0.05 the proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA; C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C16:0 and increased (P < 0.01 the proportions of monounsaturated fat (MUFA; C18:1n9; C18:1t, and the predominant PUFA, linoleic acid (C18:2n6. The results indicate that goats consuming diet with 12% SO (high PUFA in late lactation produced milk with higher proportions of PUFA and MUFA and lower proportions of SFA compared to 6% SO.
Full Text Available Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR is one of the important methods for investigating the changes in mRNA expression levels in cells and tissues. Selection of the proper reference genes is very important when calibrating the results of real-time quantitative PCR. Studies on the selection of reference genes in goat tissues are limited, despite the economic importance of their meat and dairy products. We used real-time quantitative PCR to detect the expression levels of eight reference gene candidates (18S, TBP, HMBS, YWHAZ, ACTB, HPRT1, GAPDH and EEF1A2 in ten tissues types sourced from Boer goats. The optimal reference gene combination was selected according to the results determined by geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper software packages. The analyses showed that tissue is an important variability factor in genes expression stability. When all tissues were considered, 18S, TBP and HMBS is the optimal reference combination for calibrating quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression from goat tissues. Dividing data set by tissues, ACTB was the most stable in stomach, small intestine and ovary, 18S in heart and spleen, HMBS in uterus and lung, TBP in liver, HPRT1 in kidney and GAPDH in muscle. Overall, this study provided valuable information about the goat reference genes that can be used in order to perform a proper normalisation when relative quantification by qRT-PCR studies is undertaken.
Brandao, Mariana P.; de Carvalho dos Anjos, Virgílio; Bell., Maria José V.
Milk powder is an international dairy commodity. Goat and cow milk powders are significant sources of nutrients and the investigation of the authenticity and classification of milk powder is particularly important. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to distinguish chemical composition and structure modifications could assist develop a portable and non-destructive methodology to perform milk powder classification and determine composition. This study goal is to differentiate milk powder samples from cows and goats using fluorescence lifetimes. The samples were excited at 315 nm and the fluorescence intensity decay registered at 468 nm. We observed fluorescence lifetimes of 1.5 ± 0.3, 6.4 ± 0.4 and 18.7 ± 2.5 ns for goat milk powder; and 1.7 ± 0.3, 6.9 ± 0.2 and 29.9 ± 1.6 ns for cow's milk powder. We discriminate goat and cow powder milk by analysis of variance using Fisher's method. In addition, we employed quadratic discriminant analysis to differentiate the milk samples with accuracy of 100%. Our results suggest that time-resolved fluorescence can provide a new method to the analysis of powder milk and its composition.
Dairy goat husbandry amongst the household agriculture: herd and economic indexes from a case study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil A caprinocultura leiteira na agricultura familiar: índices zootécnicos e econômicos de um estudo de caso no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
Ricardo Augusto Mendonça Vieira
Full Text Available Two dairy goat systems conducted according to the household model were evaluated in terms of income generation. An enterprise budget analysis was performed using data collected from August, 2004, to July, 2005. Farms named A and B were smallholdings and raised Saanem goats intensively. Herd indexes, incomes, taxes, fuel, energy, concentrates, opportunity costs and interest in capital were computed. Net present value and internal rate of return were estimated to appreciate the business appeal in terms of income generation. Herd indexes were mostly affected by management decisions interfering on the amounts and time-trends related to milk production. Seasonal variation was reduced at unit B due to heat induction, a decision not shared by farmer A. The daily body weight gain of doelings after weaning (89 and 76 g/d for A and B was low if compared to current recommendations. Average records of lactation (441 and 606 L/doe and fertility (86.95% and 85.71% were amongst the literature range. Daily tasks related to unit B consumed 5 hours and 55 minutes for an average milk production of 40.9 L/d, whereas 8 hours and 16 minutes on average were daily spent at unit A in order to produce 32.2 L/d. Unit B presented a total production cost (R$ 0.79548/L lower than unit A (R$ 1.50239/L, but operated profitably. Unit A presented a positive gross margin (R$ 0.284/L, but operated unprofitably. The income generated on B was equivalent to a monthly salary of R$ 732.96 (US$ 278.52, a competitive income compared to the Brazilian minimum wage of R$ 300.00 (US$ 114.00 paid monthly. These results corroborate the hypothesis that the dairy goat husbandry fits adequately to the household production model and generates income competitively.Dois sistemas de produção de caprinos leiteiros praticados de acordo com o modelo familiar foram avaliados quanto à geração de renda. Um teste para verificação de viabilidade econômica do empreendimento foi executado utilizando
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine possible relationship between milk urea and fertility of dairy cows using field data. This study also evaluated the influence of environmental factors on milk urea (MU and the relationship between MU and daily milk yield, milk fat and protein percentage. The data were collected at 11 dairy farms in the Vojvodina region. Reproductive dana and MU measurements were obtained from cows that calved between June 2013 and October 2015 and had a successful conception after calving. Statistical data processing was carried out by applying General Linear Model procedure, Statistics 13. Parity, calving season, season of milk control and farm were included in the models as fixed effects. Significant differences in MU concentrations were observed between farms (P<0.01, seasons (P<0.01 and parity (P<0.05. Highly significant (P<0.01 positive relationships were found between MU concentration and milk yield, fat and protein percentage and days open. Cows with MU levels below 10 mg dL-1 had the lowest day open interval (135.59 days and cows with MU higher than 35 mg dL-1 had the longest days open interval (163.18 days. The cows with the lowest mean MU values (< 10 mg dL-1, had the shortest days open interval (72.62 days, but cows with mean MU values between 20.01-25.00 mg dL-1 had the longest days open interval (161.78 days. Results of this study indicate that increased MU levels appear to have a negative effect on dairy cow fertility.
Full Text Available Ettawa Grade (PE are potentially developed goats to produce milk and meat. Milk is food of animal that is rich in nutrients, but it is a perishable food easily contaminated by microorganisms. Contaminated pathogenic bacteria in milk can decrease the quality and has an organoleptic effect on milk, as well as endangers human health. Milk contaminated with bacteria antimicrobial resistance (AMR in which is resistant to antibiotics, may adversely affect the response to treatment with antibiotics in humans when suffering from infectious diseases and using antibiotics in therapy. In this study Ettawa Grade's samples of fresh milk and other dairy products were taken from some of the goat farms in Yogyakarta Sleman district. The samples were tested for the presence of pathogenic bacteria and for its resistance to several kinds of antibiotics. In this study 35 Ettawa Grade's samples of fresh milk and other dairy products (fresh milk, milk powder, ice cream, and yoghurt were taken from some of the goat farms in Sleman district-Yogyakarta. The samples were tested for the presence of pathogenic bacteria and for its resistance to several kinds of antibiotics. The result of the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in goat fresh milk and other dairy products was 15% Escherichia coli and had multi resistance to multiple antibiotics, namely ampicillin, colistin sulphate, cefixime, kanamycin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline and sulfonamide.
María Laura Gos
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in goats from two Argentinean provinces raised under different management conditions. A total of 2922 serum samples from adult goats of Córdoba (n=2187 and Buenos Aires provinces (n= 735, Argentina, were assayed by indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT, cut-off 1:100 for antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum. Seroprevalence was 40.8% (CI 39.0%-42.6% and 5.5% (CI 4.7%-6.4% for T. gondii and N. caninum, respectively. The seropositivity for both infections was higher in goats from dairy farms, resulting as follows: for T. gondii 32.7% (CI 30.8%-34.8% in extensive farms and 59.3% (CI 56.1%-62.6% in dairy farms and for N. caninum 4.1% (CI 3.2%-4.9% in extensive farms and 8.8% (CI 6.9%-10.7% in dairy farms. This is the first extensive seroepidemiology investigation for T. gondii and N. caninum in goats in Argentina.
Carolan, Seán; Enright, Ruth; Werner, Raymond; Bradley, Daniel G.; Finlay, Emma K.; Mattiangeli, Valeria
The domestic goat (Capra hircus) plays a key role in global agriculture, being especially prized in regions of marginal pasture. However, the advent of industrialized breeding has seen a dramatic reduction in genetic diversity within commercial populations, while high extinction rates among feral herds have further depleted the reservoir of genetic variation available. Here, we present the first survey of whole mitochondrial genomic variation among the modern and historical goat populations of Britain and Ireland using a combination of mtDNA enrichment and high throughput sequencing. Fifteen historical taxidermy samples, representing the indigenous ‘Old Goat’ populations of the islands, were sequenced alongside five modern Irish dairy goats and four feral samples from endangered populations in western Ireland. Phylogenetic and network analyses of European mitochondrial variation revealed distinct groupings dominated by historical British and Irish samples, which demonstrate a degree of maternal genetic structure between the goats of insular and continental Europe. Several Irish modern feral samples also fall within these clusters, suggesting continuity between these dwindling populations and the ancestral ‘Old Goats’ of Ireland and Britain. PMID:28250207
Lee, Hsu-Hsun; Kida, Katsuya; Miura, Ryotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Miyamoto, Akio; Kawashima, Chiho; Haneda, Shingo; Miyake, Yoh-ichi; Matsui, Motozumi
In peripartum dairy cows, insulin resistance (IR) increases to adjust the direction of energy to lactation after calving. To investigate the effect of prepartum IR on postpartum reproductive performance, the insulin tolerance test (ITT) was applied to 15 cows at 3 weeks (Pre21) and 10 days (Pre10) before the predicted calving date. Blood glucose area under the curve (AUCglu) within 120 min after administration of 0.05 IU/kg-BW insulin was calculated. The occurrence of first ovulation, days to...
Full Text Available Some of the objectives to be achieved in this research is to describe the attack profile of subclinical mastitis on Etawah Crossbreed Goats (ECG in some smallholder farms, to identify risk factors that contribute to subclinical mastitis attacks and to compile a strategic plan to develop Good Dairy Farming Parctices (GDFP in Batu. The data were gathered by interviewing smallholder farmer and direct observation in the three farms goats in Batu (Bumiaji, Pesanggrahan, Temas and Beji village. California Mastitis Test (CMT is used to detect subclinical mastitis on 51 ECG lactation belonging to farmer. Risk factors Identification of subclinical mastitis conducted by Spearman correlation analysis. All of smallholder compared with GDFP concept using gap analysis. Meanwhile, the strategic development plan of GDFP in Batu was done by the Root Caused analysis. The results showed that 100% subclinical mastitis attacks occurred on three dairy goats farms in Batu City with the level 31-80% percentage of attacks. This subclinical mastitis attacks positively correlated with milk production (p <0.01. The risk factors of subclinical mastitis partly because of the environment (p<0.01, milking procedure (p <0.01 and health management (p <0.01 were not right. The strategic plan to develop GDFP in Batu City are Increase knowledge and awareness of farmers about how to implement good dairy farming practices on Etawah Crossbreed farm, particularly in the benefits of clean environmental, handling and using goat manure, the benefits of sanitation and disinfection of udder, the effect of milking frequency on udder health and the urgency of separation between healthy and sick goats. Keywords: Good dairy farming practices, risk factors, subclinical mastitis
A nutrition mathematical model to account for dietary supply and requirements of energy and nutrients for domesticated small ruminants: the development and evaluation of the Small Ruminant Nutrition System
Luis Orlindo Tedeschi
Full Text Available A mechanistic model that predicts nutrient requirements and biological values of feeds for sheep (Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System; CNCPS-S was expanded to include goats and the name was changed to the Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS. The SRNS uses animal and environmental factors to predict metabolizable energy (ME and protein, and Ca and P requirements. Requirements for goats in the SRNS are predicted based on the equations developed for CNCPS-S, modified to account for specific requirements of goats, including maintenance, lactation, and pregnancy requirements, and body reserves. Feed biological values are predicted based on carbohydrate and protein fractions and their ruminal fermentation rates, forage, concentrate and liquid passage rates, and microbial growth. The evaluation of the SRNS for sheep using published papers (19 treatment means indicated no mean bias (MB; 1.1 g/100 g and low root mean square prediction error (RMSPE; 3.6 g/100g when predicting dietary organic matter digestibility for diets not deficient in ruminal nitrogen. The SRNS accurately predicted gains and losses of shrunk body weight (SBW of adult sheep (15 treatment means; MB = 5.8 g/d and RMSPE = 30 g/d when diets were not deficient in ruminal nitrogen. The SRNS for sheep had MB varying from -34 to 1 g/d and RSME varying from 37 to 56 g/d when predicting average daily gain (ADG of growing lambs (42 treatment means. The evaluation of the SRNS for goats based on literature data showed accurate predictions for ADG of kids (31 treatment means; RMSEP = 32.5 g/d; r2= 0.85; concordance correlation coefficient, CCC, = 0.91, daily ME intake (21 treatment means; RMSEP = 0.24 Mcal/d g/d; r2 = 0.99; CCC = 0.99, and energy balance (21 treatment means; RMSEP = 0.20 Mcal/d g/d; r2 = 0.87; CCC = 0.90 of goats. In conclusion, the SRNS for sheep can accurately predict dietary organic matter digestibility, ADG of growing lambs and changes in SBW of mature sheep. The SRNS
Padrão Nictemeral do pH Ruminal e Comportamento Alimentar de Cabras Leiteiras Alimentadas com Dietas Contendo Diferentes Relações Volumoso: Concentrado Nictemeral Pattern of Ruminal pH and Feeding Behavior of Dairy Goats Fed Diets with Different Roughage to Concentrate Ratio
André Luigi Gonçalves
Full Text Available Os objetivos do presente estudo foram a caracterização do padrão nictemeral do pH ruminal e a avaliação do comportamento alimentar de cabras leiteiras alimentadas com dietas compostas por diferentes relações volumoso:concentrado. Foram utilizadas cinco cabras, com peso médio de 58 kg, não-lactantes, não-gestantes, fistuladas no rúmen, em cinco períodos experimentais. Cada animal foi observado em cada um dos cinco tratamentos, que consistiram das relações volumoso:concentrado de 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60 e 20:80, em um delineamento em quadrado latino 5×5. As dietas foram fornecidas a cada 6 horas, buscando amenizar a variação dos níveis de pH ruminal, durante o período de 24 horas, para todos os tratamentos. Após a adaptação dos animais às dietas experimentais, estes foram observados por um período de 48 horas, no qual foi mensurado o pH ruminal a cada hora, bem como em outro período de mesma duração, em que se observou o comportamento a cada 10 minutos. Foi constatado que o nível de concentrado crescente resultou em decréscimo sobre o pH, cujos valores decresceram mais drasticamente em níveis acima de 60%. Observou-se também o efeito de tratamento sobre tempo de alimentação, ruminação e ócio. O tempo de alimentação foi maior para as dietas contendo valores acima de 60% de volumoso. A dieta contendo 100% de volumoso apresentou maior tempo de ruminação e menor ócio, seguida das dietas contendo 80 e 60% de volumoso, enquanto aquelas contendo 40 e 20% apresentaram menor tempo de ruminação e maior ócio.The objectives of the present study were to characterize nictemeral pattern of ruminal pH and feed behavior of dairy goats fed diets presenting different ratios of roughage:concentrate. Five non pregnant non lactating goats, ruminally cannulated, and averaging 58 kg were used during the five experimental periods. A 5x5 Latin square was used to evaluate five treatments consisted of roughage to concentrate
I Ketut Sutama
Full Text Available Although Etawah Crossbred (PE goat is considered to be dual purpose (meat and milk goat, it is mainly raised for meat production. Since early 1990, there has been a growing interest of the farmer in some places to raise PE goat for milk production without sacrificing its role to produce kids for meat. The average birth weight of PE kids varied widely (2.8 – 5 kg, resulted in a high variation in weaning weight (9 – 14 kg. A high pre-weaning mortality of 10 – 50% was a major source of lost in goat production in Indonesia, partly due to low birth weight and/or miss mothering ability. Young female PE goat reached puberty at 8 – 12 months of age and at body weight of about 18 – 22 kg or about 53 – 60% of mature body weight. Gestation length varied between 142 – 156 days, and first post partum estrous occurred at 3 – 5 months after parturition took place, resulted in 8 – 10 months of kidding intervals. Lactation period lasted for 5 – 8 months with total milk yield of 177 – 203 kg/lactation (average 0.85 kg/day. Although milk yield of PE goat was not as high as milk yield of some other dairy goats, the ability of PE goat to cope with harsh local environment, particularly climate and feed conditions, was an advantage. Therefore, raising PE goat would still be an important part of farmer activities in the rural areas in Indonesia.
Costa, Marion P; Monteiro, Maria Lucia G; Frasao, Beatriz S; Silva, Vitor L M; Rodrigues, Bruna L; Chiappini, Claudete C J; Conte-Junior, Carlos A
Although the demand for goat milk products has been growing, they have lower consumer acceptability than products derived from cow milk. However, the addition of cupuassu pulp can be used to improve the formulation of these products. For this reason, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of new goat milk yogurt manufactured with cupuassu pulp on physicochemical properties, consumers' perceptions, and overall consumer acceptance. In addition, the effect of antioxidant health information on consumer acceptance and purchase intention of cupuassu goat milk yogurts was evaluated. The results demonstrated a positive expectation regarding linking and familiarity to goat milk products and products with cupuassu pulp. The pH, total phenolic content, lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity were potentially affected by the addition of cupuassu, with the highest concentration of cupuassu (10%) exhibiting the greatest changes in parameters. Based on principal component analysis, partial least squares regression, and just-about-right and penalty analysis, the addition of cupuassu pulp improved some sensory attributes of goat milk yogurt, such as cupuassu aroma, cupuassu flavor, yellow color, consistency, and viscosity, which positively influenced product acceptance. In addition, antioxidant health information increased the acceptance and purchase intention of cupuassu goat milk yogurts. Taking into account the parameters investigated in this study, the best scoring formulation was goat milk yogurt with 10% cupuassu pulp. Our results suggest that cupuassu pulp can be considered a potential ingredient to improve the sensory and texture properties of goat milk yogurt. Furthermore, the antioxidant health information could be a sensory strategy to increase the acceptance of cupuassu goat milk yogurts. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The rite included in Leviticus 16 belongs to penitential rites of purification. It may be a reminiscence of antic religious medical-magic rites, practiced in multiple regions of ancient world. The rites contained the idea of substitution, “magic elimination.” Sending the goat represents rejection of anything that should not and can not exist among the people of Israel. The desert as an “infertile” place, the theological idea of separating the good from the evil as well as the ancient idea of substitution point at the theology of penance expressed in the rite of separation. The text of Leviticus 16 applies the term sa‘ir for the goat. The same term is also applied in priestly text to describe demons relating to the misshapen form of Israel religion. There is an undoubted connection with the idea of Convenant that constitutes the basic background and point of reference for the rite of Leviticus 16.
Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out to determine the optimum selenium-vitamin E injection level to maintain acceptable blood selenium (Se status of does and kids, as well as to determine the relation of that status to mortality rates in kids. In experiment 1, 238 goats were assigned to one of three groups during the mating period: A1-control, A2- 0.06mgSe+0.8IU vitE/kgBW and A3-0.125mgSe+1.7IU vitE/kgBW. No differences (P>.05 for fertility and prolificacy were observed among the groups. Blood Se concentration did not differ among Se-vit E groups and control group before injection, and both groups showed Se deficient condition. There was a trend (PForam conduzidos três experimentos para determinar a quantidade ótima da injeção de selênio-vitamina E (Se-vit E para manter o nível aceitável do status de selênio no sangue de cabras e cabritos e determinar essa relação com o status sobre a taxa de mortalidade de cabritos. No primeiro experimento, 238 cabras foram usados em um dos três grupos durante o período do acasalamento: A1- controle, A2- 0,06mgSe+0,8UI vit E/kg de peso-vivo e A3- 0,125mgSe+1,7UI vitE/kg de peso-vivo. Não houve diferenças (P>0,05 entre os grupos para fertilidade e prolificidade. A concentração de Se no sangue não foi diferente entre os grupos que receberam Se-vit E e o controle antes da injeção e ambos os grupos mostravam deficiência de Se. Sessenta dias pós-tratamento houve tendência (P<0,05; 32% de aumentar o nível de Se no sangue e não houve diferença entre os grupos A2 e controle. Houve diferença significativa (P<0,05; 103% entre os grupos A1 e A2 e o grupo A3. No segundo experimento, 48 cabras foram divididas em quatro grupos: B1- controle, B2- 0,125mgSe+1,7UI vitE/kg de peso-vivo, B3- 0,25mgSe+3,4UI vitE/kg de peso-vivo e B4- 0,31mgSe+4,2UI vitE/kg de peso-vivo. O grupo B4 alcançou a concentração mais alta no terceiro mês depois da injeção (0,11ppm e diminuiu depois de 100 dias, quando o valor
Bondietti, E.A.; Garten, C.T. Jr.
The purpose of this research was to compare the behaviour of 131 I (Tsub(1/2)=8.0d) and sup(95m)Tc (Tsub(1/2)=61d), which were sprayed on to pasture that was subsequently grazed by a herd of dairy goats. The transfer of 131 I to goats milk was about 5600 times more than that of sup(95m)Tc after 5 d of grazing contaminated pasture. Most of the difference appeared to be explained by a progressive immobilisation of technetium on vegetation, which occurred during the first few days of the experiment. (UK)
goat is reputable mainly for its adaptability and resistance to diseases and parasites (Barry & Godke, 2001). It is, however ... the various nutritional and metabolic disorders (Daramola et al., 2005) in goats. The discovered .... Biochemical and haematological measurements in beef cattle in Mendoza plain rangelands ...
Nutritionally-related blood metabolites and faecal egg counts in indigenous Nguni goats of South Africa. ... It, therefore, is imperative to put measures in place to counteract the drop in any of these parameters, with season, if productivity of the indigenous goats is to be maintained. Further studies are required to determine the ...
Abdel-Moein, Khaled A; Hamza, Dalia A
The current study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of human pathogenic Clostridium botulinum in the feces of dairy animals. Fecal samples were collected from 203 apparently healthy dairy animals (50 cattle, 50 buffaloes, 52 sheep, 51 goats). Samples were cultured to recover C. botulinum while human pathogenic C. botulinum strains were identified after screening of all C. botulinum isolates for the presence of genes that encode toxins type A, B, E, F. The overall prevalence of C. botulinum was 18.7% whereas human pathogenic C. botulinum strains (only type A) were isolated from six animals at the rates of 2, 2, 5.8, and 2% for cattle, buffaloes, sheep, and goats, respectively. High fecal carriage rates of C. botulinum among apparently healthy dairy animals especially type A alarm both veterinary and public health communities for a potential role which may be played by dairy animals in the epidemiology of such pathogen.
Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L.J.A.
The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms,
de Oliveira Moraes, Gláucia Sabrine; de Souza, Evaristo Jorge Oliveira; Véras, Antonia Sherlânea Chaves; de Paula Almeida, Marina; da Cunha, Márcio Vieira; Torres, Thaysa Rodrigues; da Silva, Camila Sousa; Pereira, Gerfesson Felipe Cavalcanti
The objective of the present study to assess the effects of mesquite pod addition replacing corn (0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g/kg in the dry matter basis) on nutrient intake, animal performance, feeding behavior, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, and microbial protein synthesis. Twenty-five Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers at 219 ± 22 kg initial body weight and 18 months of age were used. The experiment lasted 84 days, divided into three periods of 28 days. A completely randomized design was used, and data were submitted to analysis using PROC GLM for analysis of variance and PROC REG for regression analysis using the software Statistical Analysis Systems version 9.1. Experimental diets were composed of Tifton 85 hay, soybean meal, ground corn, mesquite pod meal, and mineral salt. Samples of food offered were collected during the last 3 days of each period, and the leftovers were collected daily, with samples bulked per week. At the end of each 28-day period, the remaining animals were weighed to determine total weight gain and average daily gain. The assessment of behavioral patterns was performed through instantaneous scans in 5-min intervals for three consecutive 12-h days. A single urine sample from each animal was collected on the last day of each collection period at about 4 h after the first feeding. The replacement of corn by mesquite pod meal did not significantly influence treatments regarding nutrients intake, animal performance, and feeding behavior. Retained and consumed nitrogen ratio did not statistically differ between replacement levels. Likewise, there were no statistical differences regarding microbial protein synthesis and efficiency between replacement levels. Mesquite pod meal can be used in Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers' diet with total corn replacement.
Reproductive efficiency of dairy cows is influenced by different factors including gene, season, age, production system, nutrition, management, environment and ... parity and body condition didn't show significant (P>0.05) effect on abortion ...
1 Dairy Management Inc., 10255 West Higgins Road, Suite 900, Rosemont, 60018, IL, USA. 2 Nutrition ... as consuming the recommended servings from each food group ...... database analyses for various food and beverage companies and.
Animal health management practices in zero grazing dairy units in Arusha City, Tanzania. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... findings, majority (84.6%) of the cow's enclosures were of poor hygiene.
Henrique Rocha de Medeiros
Full Text Available The PRONAF is a government program that subsidies the credit for investment to smallholder farming and improves the social development in Brazil. This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of increasing the value of credit for investment used for the PRONAF farmers in semiarid areas, and their impact on the income and labor in the smallholder farming production systems. Economic data of dairy and meat goat systems of PRONAF farmes in ";;;;;Rio Grande do Norte";;;;;, Brazil was used. The limits of the model were the credit for investment, maximum number of animals in the system and the labor time. The current value of credit for investment (US$2,850.00 was increased by 25%, 50% and 100% and its impact in the farm incomeÂ analizedÂ when considering milk and meat production. The maximum number of animals in the system was estimated by multiplying the carrying capacity (1.5 heads/ha/year plus the average pasture areas of PRONAF farms (35 ha. The maximum labor time available for work was 12 hours/day. This mathematical model was solved using linear programming with LINDO(R Software. When the credit for investment was expanded in 25% and 50%, the income of the system increased to 22% and 41%, respectively. It happened because the value of the credit allowed also enhance the number of dairy goats in the system. However, this income was not enough to use and pay more than 5 hours/day in dairy goat system activities. By raising the credit for investment up to 100% it would increase the income of the system around 81%. It happened because the number of dairy goats went up to 83% and the dairy production was had better results than meat production. The system with more dairy goats enough incme to pay the farmer labor (7 hours/day and during the other five gÂ¿hours could develop another activity. Therefore, the results of the analysis indicated that an increase in the credit for investment in small goat farms in semi-ard areas in Brazil
Gursel, A; Gursoy, A; Anli, E A K; Budak, S O; Aydemir, S; Durlu-Ozkaya, F
Goat milk yogurts were manufactured with the fortification of 2% (wt/vol) skim goat milk powder (SGMP), sodium caseinate (NaCn), whey protein concentrate (WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI), or yogurt texture improver (YTI). Yogurts were characterized based on compositional, microbiological, and textural properties; volatile flavor components (with gas chromatography); and sensory analyses during storage (21d at 5 °C). Compared with goat milk yogurt made by using SGMP, the other goat milk yogurt variants had higher protein content and lower acidity values. Goat milk yogurts with NaCn and WPC, in particular, had better physical characteristics. Using WPI caused the hardest structure in yogurt, leading to higher syneresis values. Acetaldehyde and ethanol formation increased with the incorporation of WPI, WPC, or YTI to yogurt milk. The tyrosine value especially was higher in the samples with NaCn and YTI than in the samples with WPC and WPI. Counts of Streptococcus thermophilus were higher than the counts of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, possibly due to a stimulatory effect of milk protein-based ingredients other than SGMP on the growth of S. thermophilus. Yogurt with NaCn was the best accepted among the yogurts. For the parameters used, milk protein-based products such as NaCn or WPC have promising features as suitable ingredients for goat milk yogurt manufacture. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Blood, Charles L.; Link, Martin
Based on the activities of the real Window Rock weaver, Glenmae, and her goat, Geraldine, this illustrated story incorporates authentic details relative to the Navajo art of rug weaving and is designed for children aged four to eight. Capitalizing on the humor inherent in Geraldine's point of view, the story centers on the goat's observation of…
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means comminuted...
Effects of nutritional supplementation and genotype on milk production and fertility of lactating dairy ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... The objective of this study was to determine effects of nutrition on milk production and ...
Vailati-Riboni, M; Kanwal, M; Bulgari, O; Meier, S; Priest, N V; Burke, C R; Kay, J K; McDougall, S; Mitchell, M D; Walker, C G; Crookenden, M; Heiser, A; Roche, J R; Loor, J J
Recent studies demonstrating a higher incidence of metabolic disorders after calving have challenged the management practice of increasing dietary energy density during the last ~3 wk prepartum. Despite our knowledge at the whole-animal level, the tissue-level mechanisms that are altered in response to feeding management prepartum remain unclear. Our hypothesis was that prepartum body condition score (BCS), in combination with feeding management, plays a central role in the peripartum changes associated with energy balance and inflammatory state. Twenty-eight mid-lactation grazing dairy cows of mixed age and breed were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatment groups in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: 2 prepartum BCS categories (4.0 and 5.0, based on a 10-point scale; BCS4, BCS5) obtained via differential feeding management during late-lactation, and 2 levels of energy intake during the 3 wk preceding calving (75 and 125% of estimated requirements). Subcutaneous adipose tissue was harvested via biopsy at -1, 1, and 4 wk relative to parturition. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression of targets related to fatty acid metabolism (lipogenesis, lipolysis), adipokine synthesis, and inflammation. Both prepartum BCS and feeding management had a significant effect on mRNA and miRNA expression throughout the peripartum period. Overfed BCS5 cows had the greatest prepartum expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and an overall greater expression of leptin (LEP); BCS5 was also associated with greater overall adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), whereas overfeeding upregulated expression of proadipogenic miRNA. Higher postpartum expression of chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) and the cytokines interleukin 6 (IL6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was detected in overfed BCS5 cows. Feed-restricted BCS4 cows had the highest overall interleukin 1 (IL1B) expression. Prepartum feed restriction
Jia, Ru; Chen, Han; Chen, Hui; Ding, Wu
The effect of fermentation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on the product quality of goat milk yogurt using traditional yogurt starter was studied through single-factor experiments and orthogonal experiments. The optimum fermentation condition was evaluated by the titratable acidity of goat milk yogurt, water-retaining capability, sensory score, and texture properties; the fatty acids of the fermented goat milk were determined by a gas chromatograph. Results indicate that high product quality of goat milk yogurt can be obtained and the content of short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids can be decreased significantly when amount of sugar added was 7%, inoculation amount was 3%, the ratio of 3 lactic acid bacteria--Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, and L. rhamnosus GG--was 1:1:3, and fermentation temperature was 42°C. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Fuxin; Wang, Zhaoxia; Lei, Feiyan; Wang, Bini; Jiang, Shuaiming; Peng, Qiannan; Zhang, Jiachao; Shao, Yuyu
goat milk. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise
Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus) in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e., distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance) and activity budgets (e.g., resting, feeding, social activities) were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period). The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation.
Full Text Available Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e., distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance and activity budgets (e.g., resting, feeding, social activities were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period. The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation.
Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise
Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus) in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e. distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance) and activity budgets (e.g. resting, feeding, social activities) were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period). The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation. PMID:26657240
Vacca, G M; Paschino, P; Dettori, M L; Bergamaschi, M; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bittante, G; Pazzola, M
Dairy goat farming is practiced worldwide, within a range of different farming systems. Here we investigated the effects of environmental factors and morphology on milk traits of the Sardinian goat population. Sardinian goats are currently reared in Sardinia (Italy) in a low-input context, similar to many goat farming systems, especially in developing countries. Milk and morphological traits from 1,050 Sardinian goats from 42 farms were recorded. We observed a high variability regarding morphological traits, such as coat color, ear length and direction, horn presence, and udder shape. Such variability derived partly from the unplanned repeated crossbreeding of the native Sardinian goats with exotic breeds, especially Maltese goats. The farms located in the mountains were characterized by the traditional farming system and the lowest percentage of crossbred goats. Explanatory factors analysis was used to summarize the interrelated measured milk variables. The explanatory factor related to fat, protein, and energy content of milk (the "Quality" latent variable) explained about 30% of the variance of the whole data set of measured milk traits followed by the "Hygiene" (19%), "Production" (19%), and "Acidity" (11%) factors. The "Quality" and "Hygiene" factors were not affected by any of the farm classification items, whereas "Production" and "Acidity" were affected only by altitude and size of herds, respectively, indicating the adaptation of the local goat population to different environmental conditions. The use of latent explanatory factor analysis allowed us to clearly explain the large variability of milk traits, revealing that the Sardinian goat population cannot be divided into subpopulations based on milk attitude The factors, properly integrated with genetic data, may be useful tools in future selection programs.
Full Text Available Feed resources are the major constraint in increasing goat production in the village. The main constraints to goat raising are related to feeds (i the high cost of transport of crop residues and grass to the homesteads, (ii the low nutritive value of feeds used, particularly in the dry period. This research was design to evaluate goat productivity and economic efficiency of goat farming under application of feed technology production system in Peranakan Etawah goat farmer group of Gumelar Banyumas Central Java. All farmers were taken as respondents using census methods. On farm research with participative focused group discussion, indepth interview, and farm observation. Descriptive analysis and independent t test methods were used to analyze the data. Results of this study showed that there was a significant improvement goat productivity on production system with the application of feed technology. Body weight at weaning, survival rate till weaning, and doe productivity were increased 7%, 2% and 5%, respectively. There was no evidence of significant different of farmers income and economic efficiency before and after the applied feed technology (P>0.05. The calculation was based on cash flow. Before application, farmers income per year and economic efficiency were Rp14.404.520,00 and 1.21, then insignificantly improve into Rp16.487.100,00 and 1.27, respectively. (Animal Production 11(3: 202-208 (2009 Key Words: Livestock production system, Peranakan Etawah goat, feed technology aplication, productivity and economic efficiency
Hekmat, Sharareh; Koba, Lesia
Much has been published on the nutritional and health benefits of fermented dairy products, especially those containing probiotic microorganisms. However, consumers may not be familiar with the term "fermented dairy products," and therefore may not take full advantage of them. University students' knowledge and consumption patterns of fermented dairy products were assessed. University students (n=223) completed a survey consisting of a section on demographics and another on knowledge and consumption patterns. The majority of respondents (62%) were not familiar with the term "fermented dairy products." Most respondents consumed yogourt a few times a week (40%) or a few times a month (30%). Almost all respondents (92%) were unable to identify the difference between regular and probiotic yogourt. Most respondents (93%) had not heard of acidophilus milk, but the majority (65%) would be willing to try it. Most respondents were unsure whether sour cream (65%), yogourt beverages (74%), and cheddar cheese (61%) were fermented dairy products. Sixty percent of respondents never consumed yogourt drinks. Education is needed about fermented dairy products, especially probiotics, and their nutritional and health benefits. Such education may increase their acceptability and consumption.
Full Text Available In the past 20 years the study of goat caseins genetic polymorphisms received a considerable research interest. In particular the researches were focused on CSN1S1 locus which is the most polymorphic, 17 alleles being known so far. These alleles are associated with four different levels of protein synthesis, affecting significantly goat milk quality and its technological properties. In this context the present review is describing recent literature data at international and national level, which allow the understanding of goat milk quality variation in relation with its physical-chemical characteristics, milk protein genetic polymorphisms and physiological factors. We also describe the current stage of researches concerning the use of milk protein polymorphisms in identifying possible adulterations from dairy industry and also studies on milk allergenic potency.
Nektarios D. Giadinis
Full Text Available A case of sarcoptic mange affecting almost all the animals of a dairy goat herd is described. This pruritic skin disease led progressively to high mortality and dramatic drop of milk yield. The lesions of the affected goats were typical of a chronic and generalized-diffuse sarcoptic mange. Diagnosis was confirmed by skin scrapings and histopathology in which many mites were demonstrated. All surviving goats were treated with injectable moxidectin solution 1% (CYDECTIN-Fort Dodge at the dose of 0.2 mg/kg, applied every 15 days for four times, subcutaneously. Although pruritus had decreased soon after the first treatment, a satisfactory healing of cutaneous lesions was witnessed 6 weeks after the beginning of moxidectin trial. Parasitological cure was achieved in all affected animals by the end of the trial. In the four monthly followups, no evidence of sarcoptic mange could be found.
Comunian, R; Paba, A; Dupré, I; Daga, E S; Scintu, M F
Antibiotics are widely used for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes in dairy animals. The presence of residual antibiotics in milk could cause potentially serious problems in human health and have technological implication in the manufacturing of dairy products. The aim of this study was to evaluate Delvotest Accelerator (DSM Food Specialties, Delft, the Netherlands), a new system for a fully automated microbial test to detect antibiotic residues in ewe and goat milk. Forty-three samples of raw, whole, refrigerated bulk-tank milk samples (22 of ewe milk and 21 of goat milk) were analyzed during the whole lactation period. Four concentrations of 4 antibiotics were diluted in milk: penicillin G at 1, 2, 3, and 4 μg/L; sulfadiazine at 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/L; tetracycline at 50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/L; and gentamicin at 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/L. The detection limit of the Delvotest Accelerator was calculated as the range of antibiotic concentrations within which 95% of positive result lie. The range of detection limit of penicillin G and sulfadiazine was easily detected by Delvotest Accelerator at or below the European Union maximum residue limits, both for ewe and goat milk samples. In contrast, the system showed a lower ability to detect tetracycline and gentamicin both for ewe and goat milk samples. Very low percentages of false-positive outcomes were obtained. Lactation phase did not seem to be a crucial factor affecting the ability of the Delvotest Accelerator to detect spiked milk samples. A higher detection ability was observed for goat milk samples compared with ewe milk samples. A negative correlation between the percentage of positive milk samples detected and milk fat, protein, and lactose contents was observed for gentamicin only. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Werf, H.J. van der
Sheep and goats are often kept in low input production systems, often at subsistence levels. In such systems, the uptake of effective commercial breeding programmes is limited, let alone the uptake of more advanced technologies such as those needed for marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, effective breeding programmes exist in a number of countries, the largest ones in Australia and New Zealand aiming for genetic improvement of meat and wool characteristics as well as disease resistance and fecundity. Advances have been made in sheep gene mapping with the marker map consisting of more than 1 200 microsatellites, and a virtual genome sequence together with a very dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map are expected within a year. Significant research efforts into quantitative trait loci (QTL) are under way and a number of commercial sheep gene tests have already become available, mainly for single gene effects but some for muscularity and disease resistance. Gene mapping in goats is much less advanced with mainly some activity in dairy goats. Integration of genotypic information into commercial genetic evaluation and optimal selection strategies is a challenge that deserves more development. (author)
Full Text Available Fluid goat milk submitted to thermal treatment has interesting nutritional properties and a potential expanding market. The present study was aimed to conduct fatty acids profile characterisation of goat milk placed on market. Forty-nine fluid milk samples were collected: 12 pasteurised, 12 pasteurised at high temperature, 11 ultrahigh temperature (UHT whole milk and 14 UHT semi-skimmed milk. Milk samples were collected at retail level from 7 different companies and from different production batches. After extraction and methilation, fatty acids (FAs profile was determined on each sample using a gas chromatograph with flame ionisation detector (GC-FID with high-polarity capillary column. The concentration (g/100mL of saturated fatty acids (SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, trans fatty acids (t-FAs, and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA was determined. N-6/n-3 ratio, atherogenic index (AI and thrombogenic index (TI were also assessed. Fluid goat milk lipid profile was characterised by SFAs (68.4% of total FAs, PUFAs (5.3%, MUFAs (21.3%, t-FAs (3.6% and CLA (0.8%. The most represented fatty acids were: 16:0 (24.5%, 9cis-18:1 (18.2%, 18:0 (9.6%, 14:0 (9.5%, 10:0 (9.3% and 12:0 (4.5%. Nutritional indices were 2.8-6.8 for n-6/n-3 ratio; 2.3-2.9 for AI; and 2.7-3.2 for TI. Milk produced by small scale plants, with no milk fat standardisation, showed greater differences in fatty acid profile as compared to industrial plants milk. Large scale production is characterised by commingled bulk tank milk of different origins and then is more homogeneous. The whole goat milk supply chain should be controlled to obtain milk with fatty acids of high nutritional value.
Schoenberg, K M; Overton, T R
Specific mechanisms by which dry period dietary energy affects transition cow metabolism have been intensively investigated but those of thiazolidinedione (TZD) administration have not. We hypothesized that effects of both are mediated via changes in insulin, glucose, or fatty acid metabolism. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of the insulin-sensitizing agent TZD and dietary energy level on glucose and fatty acid metabolism during late gestation in dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein cows (n=32) approximately 50 d before expected calving date were dried-off and assigned to 1 of 2 dietary energy levels for 3 wk (high: 1.52 Mcal/kg of NE(L), or low: 1.34 Mcal/kg of NE(L)) and treated daily during the final 14 d with 4.0 mg of TZD/kg of body weight (BW) or saline in a completely randomized design. Cows fed the low energy diet had lower dry matter intake (12.8 vs. 16.1 kg/d) and higher plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations (103.3 vs. 82.4 μEq/L) compared with cows fed the high energy diet. Cows administered TZD had higher plasma glucose concentrations (62.5 vs. 59.6 mg/dL) than saline controls and cows fed the high energy diet had higher plasma insulin concentrations (35.1 vs. 25.3 μU/mL) compared with those fed the low energy diet. After 2 wk of TZD treatment, all cows were subjected to an intravenous glucose tolerance test (GTT; 0.25 g of dextrose/kg of BW) followed 110 min later by an insulin challenge (IC; 1.0 μg of insulin/kg of BW). Differences in plasma glucose response to GTT were minimal based on diet; however, cows fed the low energy diet had more negative NEFA areas under the curve (AUC; -4,838 vs. -2,137 μEq/L × min over 90 min) and greater rates of NEFA decrease (1.35 vs. 0.63%/min) during GTT, suggesting differential responses of tissue glucose and fatty acid metabolism in response to dietary energy level. During IC, the TZD-treated cows tended to have more negative glucose AUC (-45.0 vs. -12.1mg/dL × min
Aeberhard, K; Bruckmaier, R M; Kuepfer, U; Blum, J W
Twenty-nine pairs of high-yielding dairy cows (HC; > or = 45 kg/day reached at least once during lactation) and corresponding control cows (CC; with milk yields representing the average yield of the herds) were examined on 29 Swiss farms from March 1995 to September 1996. The hypotheses were tested that there are differences in feed intake, body-conformation traits, body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), fertility status and disease incidence between HC and CC cows. Cows were studied 2 weeks before and at 5, 9, 13, 17 and 40 weeks post-partum. HC cows produced more energy-corrected milk (ECM) than CC cows (10,670 +/- 321 kg in 293 +/- 5 days and 8385 +/- 283 kg in 294 +/- 4 days, respectively; P cows (46.2 +/- 1.1 and 36.2 +/- 1.0 kg ECM/day, respectively; P cows (7.6 +/- 0.5 and 5.7 +/- 0.5 kg/day, respectively) and dry matter intakes (measured in week 5 of lactation over 3 days on six farms) were greater in HC than in CC cows (24.0 +/- 1.1 and 20.3 +/- 1.1 kg/day, respectively; P cows were taller than CC cows (wither heights 143.3 +/- 0.8 and 140.1 +/- 0.8 cm, respectively; P cows was greater than in CC cows throughout the study, differences and decreases of BW during lactation were not significant. BCS at the end of pregnancy and decrements during lactation were similar in HC and CC cows. Fertility parameters were similar in HC and CC cows. Incidences of mastitis, claw and feet problems, hypocalcemia/downer cow syndrome, ovarian cysts and abortions were similar in HC and CC cows, but there were more indigestion problems in HC than in CC cows.
Shima Shaigan nia
Conclusions: To our best knowledge the present study is the first prevalence report of Salmonella spp., Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in raw sheep and goat samples in Iran. Consumption of pasteurized milk and dairy products can reduce the risk of salmonellosis.
KEYWORDS: Permanent Incisors; Carcass; Matebele Goats. INTRODUCTION ... Africa's goat population increased by ... local farmers to maximize on pricing of their goats. The ..... goats of Northern Mexico: Part 1- The effects of body weight on ...
Fracture risk is determined by bone mass, geometry, and microstructure, which result from peak bone mass (the amount attained at the end of pubertal growth) and from the amount of bone lost subsequently. Nutritional intakes are an important environmental factor that influence both bone mass accumulation during childhood and adolescence and bone loss that occurs in later life. Bone growth is influenced by dietary intake, particularly of calcium and protein. Adequate dietary calcium and protein are essential to achieve optimal peak bone mass during skeletal growth and to prevent bone loss in the elderly. Dairy products are rich in nutrients that are essential for good bone health, including calcium, protein, vitamin D, potassium, phosphorus, and other micronutrients and macronutrients. Studies supporting the beneficial effects of milk or dairy products on bone health show a significant inverse association between dairy food intake and bone turnover markers and a positive association with bone mineral content. Fortified dairy products induce more favorable changes in biochemical indexes of bone metabolism than does calcium supplementation alone. The associations between the consumption of dairy products and the risk of hip fracture are less well established, although yogurt intake shows a weakly positive protective trend for hip fracture. By consuming 3 servings of dairy products per day, the recommended daily intakes of nutrients essential for good bone health may be readily achieved. Dairy products could therefore improve bone health and reduce the risk of fractures in later life.
... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion...
Full Text Available A screening survey of the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 was carried out on 265 samples of cheese made from cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, sheep-goat milk collected in the Apulia region (Southern Italy. Selected samples included unripened, medium and long-term ripened cheeses. AFM1 was found in 16.6% of the analyzed samples. The highest positive incidence was for medium and long-term ripened cheeses, especially those made from sheep-goat milk, while buffalo cheeses tested consistently negative. Our results show that the level of contamination by AFM1 in dairy products from Apulia Region are lower than in other Italian and European regions. Moreover, it is important to underline that a common European norm concerning the AFM1 threshold limits for dairy products is still lacking.
The nutrition of dairy cattle in relation to milk production forms an integral part of bigger businesses with livestock farming. This Bachelor thesis introduces a division of dairy cattle to categories according to the milk production and the number of days during the dry period at the same time. Furthermore, the nutrients needed for the milk production are mentioned. For individual nutrients, there are the standards of individual fodder and needs of the dairy cows in relation to their weight...
Sbihi, H. M.
Full Text Available Goat milk is the second most prevalent edible milk in Saudi Arabia and is one of the most prominently produced milks in the world. Few studies have focused on the physicochemical properties of goat milk fat (GMF. Samples of Saudi Aradi goat milk were obtained during the spring dairy season to determine the physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of the GMF. The physicochemical properties of Saudi Aradi GMF were as follows: iodine value, 23.2 g of I2·100 g−1 of fat; saponification value, 213.2 mg KOH·g−1 of fat; refractive index (25 °C, 1.4583; unsaponifiable matter, 0.54%; acidity, 0.52%; and peroxide value, 2.07 meq O2·kg−1 of fat. α-Tocopherol was the major tocol (70.9%, followed by β-tocopherol (22.02%. GMF had significant contents of polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA (6.16%, conjugated linolenic acid (0.36%, saturated FA (67.04% and branched FA (1.98%. The thermal profiles of the Saudi Aradi GMF samples were examined using a thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Saudi Aradi GMF showed some absorbance in the UV-C range. This study demonstrated that the milk fat from the Saudi goat has physically and chemically favorable properties, as well as good nutritional properties, as a source of essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamin E.La leche de cabra es la segunda leche comestible predominante en Arabia Saudí y es una de las leches de mayor producción en el mundo. Pocos estudios se han centrado en las propiedades físico-químicas de la grasa de leche de cabra (GLC. Muestras de leche de cabra Arabia Saudí fueron obtenidas durante la temporada de mayor producción lechera, durante la primavera, y se determinaron sus características físico- químicas y la composición de ácidos grasos de la GLC. Las propiedades fisicoquímicas determinadas de la GLC de Arabia Aradi fueron las siguientes: índice de yodo, 23,2 g de I2·100 g−1 de grasa; índice de saponificación: 213
Full Text Available Abstract. Studies were conducted to establish the influence of the values of β-hydroxybutyric acid (ВНВА and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA in the blood on the assessment of body condition score (BCS of goats with subclinical ketosis (SCK. A total of 113 dairy goats with yearly milk yield of 680 L, in their 2nd to 3rd lactation and average body weight 50-60 кg were included in the study. The goats were divided in three groups: І group (n=27 – pregnant (from pre-partum days 15 to 0; ІІ group (n=28 – recently kidded (from postpartum days 0 to 15 and ІІІ group (n=58 – lactating (from postpartum days 30 to 45. It was established that the quantity of BHBA in goats from control groups I, II and III were between 0.17±0.11 mmol/l and 0.56±0.11 mmol/l. In goats from the three groups with SCK signs, blood BHBA was statistically significantly elevated vs control goats – from 0.88±0.11 mmol/l to 1.2±0.42 mmol/l (р<0.001. Blood ВНВА <0.8 mmol/l in goats are indicative a good transition from pregnancy to lactation, whereas an amount between 0.8 mmol/l and 1.6 mmol /l are indicative of the SCK. Blood BHBA concentrations indicative for clinical ketosis were not established in goats from the three groups (ВНВА <1.6 mmol/l. The body condition scores (BCS of goats from the control groups was within the reference range – 2.45±0.3 – 2.85±0.2, whereas in goats with SCK – declines of varying degrees of reliability. In goats from the three groups with SCK signs, blood NEFA was statistically significantly elevated vs control groups.
Consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes em cabras Moxotó recebendo dietas com diferentes níveis de feno de maniçoba Intake and digestibility of nutrients in Moxotó dairy goats fed diets with different Maniçoba hay levels
Marcos Jácome de Araújo
Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a utilização do feno de maniçoba (Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg. em diferentes níveis (30, 40, 50 e 60% sobre os consumos e as digestibilidades de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, energia bruta (EB, extrato etéreo (EE, carboidratos totais (CT, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e os consumos de água e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT. Utilizaram-se oito cabras da raça Moxotó, multíparas, com aproximadamente 60 dias de lactação, pesando 44,26 ± 4,23 kg, em delineamento quadrado latino duplo 4 × 4, com quatro tratamentos, quatro períodos e quatro animais. Cada período teve duração de 15 dias (10 de adaptação dos animais às dietas e 5 para coleta de dados. Utilizou-se a fibra em detergente ácido indigestível (FDAi como indicador interno para estimativa da produção de matéria seca fecal. A utilização do feno de maniçoba nos níveis de 30, 40, 50 e 60% nas dietas para cabras em lactação não alterou os consumos de MS, MO, PB, EE, MM e CT. Os consumos de CNF, NDT e água diminuíram linearmente com o aumento no nível de feno de maniçoba nas dietas, enquanto os de FDN e FDA (kg/dia, %PC e g/kg0,75 aumentaram linearmente. A digestibilidade aparente de MS, MO, PB, EE, CT, CNF, EB e FDA reduziu linearmente, enquanto a da FDN não se alterou com o aumento dos níveis de feno na dieta.This research was conducted with the objective of evaluating the use of different Maniçoba hay (Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg levels (30, 40, 50 and 60% on intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, gross energy (GE, ether extract (EE, total carbohydrates (TCHT, non fiber carbohydrates (NFC, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, water intake (WI, besides total digestible nutrients intake (TDNI. Eight multiparous Moxotó dairy goats with initial
Malcolm D. Riley
Full Text Available The cross-sectional 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey collected detailed dietary information from a representative sample of more than 4400 children by 24-h dietary recall. Dairy food intake by Australian children is substantially lower than recommendations, and decreases as a percentage of energy intake as children grow older. Children aged 2 to 16 years are, on average, 2.3 times more likely to have a dairy food at the first daily occasion of eating, than at the second occasion. For children who consumed any dairy food at the first occasion of eating, the total daily intake of dairy foods was 129% (95% CI 120%–138% greater than for children who did not consume a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. Their dairy food intake for the rest of the day following the first occasion of eating was also greater by 29% (95% CI 21%–37%. Younger age group, male sex, location of eating being at home or in a residence and starting the first occasion of eating from 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. are all jointly associated with having a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. A simple strategy to increase Australian children’s intake from the dairy and alternatives food group may be to make sure that the first occasion of eating each day includes a dairy food or a nutritional equivalent.
Romero, Juan J; Zarate, Miguel A; Ogunade, Ibukun M; Arriola, Kathy G; Adesogan, Adegbola T
Examine the effects of supplementing bahiagrass hay (BG) with potentially anthelmintic quantities of hays of perennial peanut (PEA) or sericea lespedeza (LES) or seeds of velvet bean ( Mucuna pruriens L.; MUC) or papaya (PAP) on the intake and nutritive value (Experiment 1), and the performance and parasite burden (Experiment 2) of goats. In Experiment 1, 38 male goats (27.4±5.7 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to each of 5 treatments: i) BG alone and BG plus; ii) PEA; iii) LES; iv) MUC; and v) PAP. Goats were fed for ad libitum consumption and adapted to the diets for 14 d followed by 7 d of measurement. The PEA, LES, MUC (50%, 50%, and 10% of the diet dry matter [DM], respectively), and PAP (forced-fed at 10 g/d) were fed at rates that would elicit anthelmintic effects. In Experiment 2, goats remained in the same treatments but were allocated to 15 pens (3 pens per treatment) from d 22 to 63. All goats were infected with parasites by grazing an infected bahiagrass pasture from 0800 to 1500 h daily and then returned to the pens. Dry matter intake tended to be greater in goats fed PEA and LES than those fed BG (757 and 745 vs 612 g/d, respectively). Digestibility of DM (59.5% vs 54.9%) and organic matter (60.8% vs 56.0%) were greater in goats fed MUC vs BG, respectively. In Experiment 2, feeding PAP, LES, and PEA to goats reduced nematode fecal egg counts by 72%, 52%, and 32%, reduced abomasal adult worm counts by 78%, 52%, and 42%, and decreased plasma haptoglobin concentrations by 42%, 40%, and 45% relative to feeding BG alone, respectively. Supplementation with PEA, LES, and PAP decreased the parasite burden of goats but did not increase their performance. PAP was the most effective anthelmintic supplement.
Full Text Available Goat's milk, considered a substitute for cow's milk, has a high nutritional value. However, goat's milk contains various allergens, predominantly β-lactoglobulin (BLG. In this study, we employed the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target the BLG locus in goat fibroblasts for sgRNA optimization and generate BLG knock-out goats through co-injection of Cas9 mRNA and small guide RNAs (sgRNAs into goat embryos at the one-cell stage. We firstly tested sgRNA editing efficiencies in goat fibroblast cells, and approximately 8.00%-9.09% of the cells were modified in single sgRNA-guided targeting experiment. Among the kids, the genome-targeting efficiencies of single sgRNA were 12.5% (10 ng/μL sg1 and 0% (10 ng/μL sg2 and efficiencies of dual sgRNAs were 25.0% (25 ng/μL sg2+sg3 group and 28.6% (50 ng/μL sg2+sg3 group. Relative expression of BLG in BLG knock-out goat mammary glands significantly (p < 0.01 decreased as well as other milk protein coding genes, such as CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN2, CSN3 and LALBA (p < 0.05. As expected, BLG protein had been abolished in the milk of the BLG knock-out goat. In addition, most of the targeted kids were chimeric (3/4, and their various body tissues were edited simultaneously. Our study thus provides a basis for optimizing the quality of goat milk, which can be applied to biomedical and agricultural research.
Objective Examine the effects of supplementing bahiagrass hay (BG) with potentially anthelmintic quantities of hays of perennial peanut (PEA) or sericea lespedeza (LES) or seeds of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens L.; MUC) or papaya (PAP) on the intake and nutritive value (Experiment 1), and the performance and parasite burden (Experiment 2) of goats. Methods In Experiment 1, 38 male goats (27.4±5.7 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to each of 5 treatments: i) BG alone and BG plus; ii) PEA; iii) LES; iv) MUC; and v) PAP. Goats were fed for ad libitum consumption and adapted to the diets for 14 d followed by 7 d of measurement. The PEA, LES, MUC (50%, 50%, and 10% of the diet dry matter [DM], respectively), and PAP (forced-fed at 10 g/d) were fed at rates that would elicit anthelmintic effects. In Experiment 2, goats remained in the same treatments but were allocated to 15 pens (3 pens per treatment) from d 22 to 63. All goats were infected with parasites by grazing an infected bahiagrass pasture from 0800 to 1500 h daily and then returned to the pens. Results Dry matter intake tended to be greater in goats fed PEA and LES than those fed BG (757 and 745 vs 612 g/d, respectively). Digestibility of DM (59.5% vs 54.9%) and organic matter (60.8% vs 56.0%) were greater in goats fed MUC vs BG, respectively. In Experiment 2, feeding PAP, LES, and PEA to goats reduced nematode fecal egg counts by 72%, 52%, and 32%, reduced abomasal adult worm counts by 78%, 52%, and 42%, and decreased plasma haptoglobin concentrations by 42%, 40%, and 45% relative to feeding BG alone, respectively. Conclusion Supplementation with PEA, LES, and PAP decreased the parasite burden of goats but did not increase their performance. PAP was the most effective anthelmintic supplement. PMID:28728358
Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.
Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters
Song, Hui; Li, Hui; Huang, Mingrui; Xu, Dan; Wang, Ziyu; Wang, Feng
Using of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) could improve production traits and disease resistance by improving the efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. However, robust ESCs have not been established from domestic ungulates. In the present study, we generated goat induced pluripotent stem cells (giPSCs) and transgenic cloned dairy goat induced pluripotent stem cells (tgiPSCs) from dairy goat fibroblasts (gFs) and transgenic cloned dairy goat fibroblasts (tgFs), respectively, using lentiviruses that contained hOCT4, hSOX2, hMYC, and hKLF4 without chemical compounds. The giPSCs and tgiPSCs expressed endogenous pluripotent markers, including OCT4, SOX2, MYC, KLF4, and NANOG. Moreover, they were able to maintain a normal karyotype and differentiate into derivatives from all three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. Using SCNT, tgFs and tgiPSCs were used as donor cells to produce embryos, which were named tgF-Embryos and tgiPSC-Embryos. The fusion rates and cleavage rates had no significant differences between tgF-Embryos and tgiPSC-Embryos. However, the expression of IGF-2, which is an important gene associated with embryonic development, was significantly lower in tgiPSC-Embryos than in tgF-Embryos and was not significantly different from vivo-Embryos.
Milk production is generally lower, but lactation persistency higher in primiparous (PP) than multiparous (MP) ruminants. This may be related to differences in development and maintenance of mammary gland function, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Furthermore, milk productio...
5 mai 2016 ... Les femmes du Sahel obtiennent de meilleurs rendements de leurs cultures. Moins d'engrais et rendements plus élevés pour les agricultrices du Sahel. Voir davantageLes femmes du Sahel obtiennent de meilleurs rendements de leurs cultures ...
May 5, 2016 ... Female heads of households and women in male-headed ... of milk, and make joint and independent decisions on overall management. ... Bringing benefits of chickpea to more men and women farmers in southern Ethiopia.
Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.
When doing mission analysis and design of an imaging system in orbit around the Earth, answering the fundamental question of imaging performance requires an understanding of the image products that will be produced by the imaging system. GOATS software represents a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric image projections. Unique features of the software include function modularity, a standard MATLAB interface, easy-to-understand first-principles-based analysis, and the ability to perform geometric image projections of framing type imaging systems. The software modules are created for maximum analysis utility, and can all be used independently for many varied analysis tasks, or used in conjunction with other orbit analysis tools.
Cugno, Graziano; Parreira, José R; Ferlizza, Enea; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Carneiro, Mariana; Renaut, Jenny; Castro, Noemí; Arguello, Anastasio; Capote, Juan; Campos, Alexandre M O; Almeida, André M
Seasonal weight loss (SWL) is the most important limitation to animal production in the Tropical and Mediterranean regions, conditioning producer's incomes and the nutritional status of rural communities. It is of importance to produce strategies to oppose adverse effects of SWL. Breeds that have evolved in harsh climates have acquired tolerance to SWL through selection. Most of the factors determining such ability are related to changes in biochemical pathways as affected by SWL. In this