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Sample records for dairy fresh cheese

  1. Important vectors for Listeria monocytogenes transmission at farm dairies manufacturing fresh sheep and goat cheese from raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoder, Dagmar; Melzner, Daniela; Schmalwieser, Alois; Zangana, Abdoulla; Winter, Petra; Wagner, Martin

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the transmission routs of Listeria spp. in dairy farms manufacturing fresh cheese made from ovine and caprine raw milk and to evaluate the impact of Listeria monocytogenes mastitis on raw milk contamination. Overall, 5,799 samples, including 835 environmental samples, 230 milk and milk product samples, and 4,734 aseptic half-udder foremilk samples were collected from 53 dairy farms in the dairy intensive area of Lower Austria. Farms were selected for the study because raw milk was processed to cheese that was sold directly to consumers. A total of 153 samples were positive for Listeria spp., yielding an overall prevalence of 2.6%; L. monocytogenes was found in 0.9% of the samples. Bulk tank milk, cheese, and half-udder samples were negative for Listeria spp. Because none of the sheep and goats tested positive from udder samples, L. monocytogenes mastitis was excluded as a significant source of raw milk contamination. L. monocytogenes was detected at 30.2% of all inspected farms. Swab samples from working boots and fecal samples had a significantly higher overall prevalence (P < 0.001) of L. monocytogenes (15.7 and 13.0%, respectively) than did swab samples from the milk processing environment (7.9%). A significant correlation was found between the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the animal and in the milk processing environment and the silage feeding practices. Isolation of L. monocytogenes was three to seven times more likely from farms where silage was fed to animals throughout the year than from farms where silage was not fed to the animals.

  2. Characterization of a processed cheese spread produced from fresh cheese (quesito antioqueño

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    Edinson Eliecer Bejarano Toro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Processed products are made from mixes of fresh and ripened cheeses; the use of cheeses with a short shelf-life in the development of processed cheeses is an alternative for the dairy industry. A processed cheese spread was made using only a soft and fatty fresh cheese that had been stored for 25 days. The primary materials were the fresh cheese, water, and emulsifying salts (sodium citrate (E-331 and sodium phosphate (E-450, using a STEPHAN® Universal Machine (UMSK 24E with indirect vapor injection and equipped with rasping and cutting blades. The resulting cheese (A was compared with a commercial cheese (B for compositional, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics. The cheeses were similar except for the fat in dry matter (FDM, with values of 54.50% and 47.21%, respectively. Sensorially, there were significant differences (P0.05. Cheese A provided, in mg per 100 g of product, 935.823 for phenylalanine, 1003.070 for isoleucine, 2041.420 for leucine, 475.337 for methionine, 119.300 for tryptophan, and 758.347 for valine. Producing processed cheeses with only fresh cheese is possible, resulting in a product that is similar to others that are currently on the market with typical characteristics that are accepted by consumers.

  3. Addition of whey protein to fresh cheese.

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    José Rafael Arce-Méndez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work has been conducted in order to assess the effect of adding whey protein (WP to fresh cheese. The yield, proximal chemical composition, tryptophan content,and texture and consumer sensorial acceptance were obtained. The study was conducted at a cheese factory located in San Carlos, Costa Rica, in 2011. The protein obtained from whey was added during the cheese manufacturing process, before adding the microbial rennet; and four enrichment levels were evaluated, including one control. The supplemented cheese showed an acceptance rating between 6.8 and 7.1. Products with 75 and 120 g of added whey protein per kilogram of milk showed no significant differences versus non-supplemented cheese, while the preference towards the cheese with 150 g WP/kg was less than that of the control (p<0.05. A cluster analysis revealed the existence of two consumer groups: one, accounting for 65% of the members of the panel, whose preference was unaffected by the protein supplemented; and, the other group where the added protein affected their liking negatively. Adding whey protein to the cheese resulted in a significant increase in yield and in the protein-to-water ratio, as well as a reduction in fat content (p<0.05. Nevertheless, there were structural changes in the cheese that caused the reduction of certain texture properties, generating changes in their sensory properties that reduced the preference of a representative group of consumers towards the product.

  4. Derived Demand for Fresh Cheese Products Imported into Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Christou, Andreas P.; Kilmer, Richard L.; Stearns, James A.; Feleke, Shiferaw T.; Ge, Jiaoju

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this article is to estimate the derived demand for imported fresh cheese products into Japan when fresh cheese import data are disaggregated by source country of production. We provide empirical measures of the sensitivity of demand to changes in total imports, own-price, and cross-prices among exporting countries for fresh cheese. Japan's derived demand for U.S. fresh cheese products is perfectly inelastic. Thus, the import demand competition among importing countries should...

  5. Evaluation of microbial survival post-incidence on fresh Mozzarella cheese.

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    Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Irish, David A; Brothersen, Carl; McMahon, Donald J

    2012-12-01

    Commercial fresh Mozzarella cheese is made by direct acidification and is stored dry or in water without salt addition. The cheese has a shelf life of 6 wk, but usually develops an off-flavor and loses textural integrity by 4 wk, potentially due to the lack of salt and high moisture that allow the outgrowth of undesirable bacteria. To understand how microbial incidence affects cheese quality and how incident pathogen-related bacteria are limited by salt level during refrigerated storage, we made fresh Mozzarella cheese with high (2%) and low (0.5%) salt. The high-salt cheese was packaged and stored dry. The low-salt cheese was packaged and stored either dry or in 0.5% salt brine. One portion of cheeses was evaluated for surviving incident microbes by aerobic plate counts, coliform counts, and psychrophilic bacterial counts, of which coliforms and psychrophiles were not detected over 9 wk. Aerobic plate counts remained at 100 to 300 cfu/g up to 2 wk but increased by 1,000- to 10,000-fold between 4 and 6 wk at all salt levels and storage conditions. Other portions of cheeses were inoculated with either Escherichia coli or Enterococcus faecalis, both of which increased by 100-fold over 90 d of storage. Interestingly, E. coli added to the cheese brine first grew in the brine by 100-fold before attaching to the cheese, whereas Ent. faecalis attached to the cheese within 24h and grew only on the cheese. We conclude that incident bacteria, even from similar environments, may attach to cheese curd and survive differently in fresh Mozzarella cheese than in brine. Overall, 2% salt was insufficient to control bacterial growth, and slow-growing, cold- and salt-tolerant bacteria may survive and spoil fresh Mozzarella cheese. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The properties and acceptability of fresh cheese produced using the mixture probiotic culture

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    Rajka Božanić

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation and production of dairy food with probiotic cultures isincreasing due to its health and nutritive benefits. In this paper the probiotic fresh cheese was produced from skim milk samples with 0,1% fat (A and 1,0% fat (B. Fermentation of skim milk samples was conducted at 40°C by 2% addition of DVS-ABT4 mixture probiotic cultures inoculum with selected bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium ssp. and Streptococcus thermophilus and without rennet addition. After milk coagulation (about 7-9 hours, the curd was gently cut and drained overnight. Produced of skim milk cheese samples (A had approximately 23.4% total solids, 1.8% fat in total solids and yield about 24.5% (w/v, while the low fat cheese samples (B had 26.2% total solids, 16.2% fat in total solids and yield about 27.3% (w/v. The skim milk cheeses (A had higher protein and mineral matter content compared to low fat cheeses (B. All samples of probiotic fresh cheese were a like to traditional fresh cheese according to general appearance and consistency. However, they had slightly lower aroma and acidity, expecially skim milk cheese samples (A. Better sensory properties had low fat cheesesamples (B during total time of storage (14 days. Acceptability of probiotic fresh cheese was evalueted by hedonic scale from 63 consumers. Statistic shows that all samples were 100% desirable, but average score for skim milk cheese (A was some lower (x = 7.33 than average score (x = 8.11 for low fat cheese (B. Variance analysis also shows that there is significantly important difference (p= 0,05 between analysed fresh cheese samples

  7. 21 CFR 133.102 - Asiago fresh and asiago soft cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Asiago fresh and asiago soft cheese. 133.102... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.102 Asiago fresh and asiago soft cheese. (a) Asiago fresh cheese...

  8. Iron bioavailability from fresh cheese fortified with iron-enriched yeast.

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    Sabatier, Magalie; Egli, Ines; Hurrell, Richard; Hoppler, Mathias; Gysler, Christof; Georgeon, Sandrine; Mukherje, Rajat; Richon, Pierre-Alain; Vigo, Mario; Foman, Jasmin Tajeri; Zeder, Christophe; Schaffer-Lequart, Christelle

    2017-06-01

    An iron-enriched yeast able to lyse at body temperature was developed for iron fortification of chilled dairy products. The aim was to evaluate iron (Fe) absorption from iron-enriched yeast or ferrous sulfate added to fresh cheese. Two stable isotope studies with a crossover design were conducted in 32 young women. Fe absorption from fresh cheese fortified with iron-enriched yeast (2.5 mg 58 Fe) was compared to that from ferrous sulfate (2.5 mg 57 Fe) when ingested with fresh cheese alone or with fresh cheese consumed with bread and butter. Iron absorption was determined based on erythrocyte incorporation of isotopic labels 14 days after consumption of the last test meal. Geometric mean fractional iron absorption from fresh cheese fortified with iron-enriched yeast consumed alone was significantly lower than from the cheese fortified with FeSO 4 (20.5 vs. 28.7 %; p = 0.0007). When the fresh cheese was consumed with bread and butter, iron absorption from both fortificants decreased to 6.9 % from the iron-enriched yeast compared to 8.4 % from ferrous sulfate. The relative bioavailability of the iron-enriched yeast compared to ferrous sulfate was 0.72 for the cheese consumed alone and 0.82 for cheese consumed with bread and butter (p = 0.157). Iron from iron-enriched yeast was 72-82 % as well absorbed as ferrous sulfate indicating that the yeast lysed during digestion and released its iron.

  9. Use of a miniature laboratory fresh cheese model for investigating antimicrobial activities.

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    Van Tassell, M L; Ibarra-Sánchez, L A; Takhar, S R; Amaya-Llano, S L; Miller, M J

    2015-12-01

    Hispanic-style fresh cheeses, such as queso fresco, have relatively low salt content, high water activity, and near neutral pH, which predisposes them to growth of Listeria monocytogenes. Biosafety constraints limit the incorporation of L. monocytogenes into cheeses manufactured via traditional methods in challenge studies, so few have focused on in situ testing of novel antimicrobials in fresh cheeses. We have developed a modular, miniaturized laboratory-scale queso fresco model for testing the incorporation of novel antilisterials. We have demonstrated the assessment of the antilisterials nisin and ferulic acid, alone and in combination, at various levels. Our results support the inhibitory effects of ferulic acid in cheese, against both L. monocytogenes and its common surrogate Listeria innocua, and we provide preliminary evaluation of its consumer acceptability. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparison of fresh, pasta filata, and aged Hispanic cheeses using sensory, chemical, functional, and microbiological assessments.

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    Jimenez-Maroto, L A; Lopez-Hernandez, A; Borneman, D L; Rankin, S A

    2016-04-01

    Anecdotal information suggests that some Hispanic consumers may consider US-made Hispanic cheeses as having a general lack of authenticity compared with those made in their countries of origin. To characterize the potential differences, samples of fresh, pasta filata, and aged Hispanic cheeses were acquired from both the United States (total n=39) and countries of origin (total n=30) purchased from Mexico, Central America (Costa Rica and El Salvador), and the Caribbean (Puerto Rico). The proximate composition, microbial counts, melt profile, and sensory characteristics were evaluated and compared in country-of-origin cheeses and the US-made counterparts. The presence of Listeria spp. was confirmed for 1 Mexican aged cheese sample and 6 cheese samples from Central America (3 fresh, 2 pasta filata, and 1 aged). The chemical composition, melt profile, and sensory characteristics of fresh and pasta filata US Hispanic cheeses were not significantly different from their Mexican counterparts. Likewise, the chemical composition and melt profile of US aged Hispanic cheeses was not significantly different from the aged Mexican cheeses, but sensory characteristics varied among all aged cheeses. These results demonstrate the similarities and differences among US fresh, pasta filata, and aged Hispanic cheeses relative to their counterparts made in the countries of origin. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Occurrence of foodborne pathogens and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus in cheese produced on farm-dairies.

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    Rosengren, Asa; Fabricius, Ane; Guss, Bengt; Sylvén, Susanne; Lindqvist, Roland

    2010-12-15

    The objective of this study was to address knowledge gaps identified in an earlier risk assessment of Staphylococcus aureus and raw milk cheese. A survey of fresh and short-time ripened cheeses produced on farm-dairies in Sweden was conducted to investigate the occurrence and levels of S. aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, to characterize S. aureus isolates with special emphasis on enterotoxin genes, antibiotic resistance, bio-typing and genetic variation, and to collect information related to production practices. In general, the hygienic quality of farm-dairy cheeses appeared to be of an acceptable microbiological quality, e.g. L. monocytogenes and staphylococcal enterotoxin were not detected in cheese samples. However, E. coli and enterotoxigenic S. aureus were frequently found in raw milk cheeses and sometimes at levels that are of concern, especially in fresh cheese. Interestingly, levels in raw milk fresh cheese were significantly lower when starter cultures were used. Up to five S. aureus colonies per cheese, if possible, were characterized and about 70% of isolates carried one or more enterotoxin genes, most common were sec and sea. The Ovine biotype (73%) was most common among isolates from goat milk cheese and the Human biotype (60%) from cow milk cheese. Of all isolates, 39% showed decreased susceptibility to penicillin, but the proportion of isolates from cows' cheese (66%) compared to isolates from goats' cheese (27%) was significantly higher. S. aureus isolates with different properties were detected in cheese from the same farm and, sometimes even the same cheese. Isolates with the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)-pattern were detected on geographically distant dairies. This indicates that multiple sources and routes of contamination are important. To improve the safety of these products efforts to raise awareness of the importance of hygiene barriers and raw milk quality as well as improved process control can be

  12. Sensory analysis and species-specific PCR detect bovine milk adulteration of frescal (fresh) goat cheese.

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    Golinelli, L P; Carvalho, A C; Casaes, R S; Lopes, C S C; Deliza, R; Paschoalin, V M F; Silva, J T

    2014-11-01

    The Brazilian market for dairy products made from goat milk is increasing despite the seasonality of production and naturally small milk production per animal, factors that result in high-priced products and encourage fraud. In Brazil, no official analytical method exists for detecting adulteration of goat dairy products with cow milk. The aim of this study was to design a strategy to investigate the adulteration of frescal (fresh) goat cheeses available in the Rio de Janeiro retail market, combining analysis of cheese composition and the perception of adulteration by consumers. Commercial goat cheeses were tested by using a duplex PCR assay previously designed to authenticate cheeses, by targeting the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA genes of both species simultaneously. The PCR test was able to detect 0.5% (vol/vol) cow milk added during goat cheese formulation. The analysis of 20 locally produced goat cheeses (20 lots of 4 brands) showed that all were adulterated with cow milk, even though the labels did not indicate the addition of cow milk. To estimate the ability of consumers to perceive the fraudulent addition of cow milk, a triangle test was performed, in which cheeses formulated with several different proportions of goat and cow milk were offered to 102 regular consumers of cheese. Detection threshold analysis indicated that almost half of the consumers were able to perceive adulteration at 10% (vol/vol) cow milk. Effective actions must be implemented to regulate the market for goat dairy products in Brazil, considering the rights and choices of consumers with respect to their particular requirements for diet and health, preference, and cost. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The properties and acceptability of fresh cheese produced using the mixture probiotic culture

    OpenAIRE

    Rajka Božanić; Ljubica Tratnik; Ida Drgalić

    2002-01-01

    Investigation and production of dairy food with probiotic cultures isincreasing due to its health and nutritive benefits. In this paper the probiotic fresh cheese was produced from skim milk samples with 0,1% fat (A) and 1,0% fat (B). Fermentation of skim milk samples was conducted at 40°C by 2% addition of DVS-ABT4 mixture probiotic cultures inoculum with selected bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium ssp. and Streptococcus thermophilus) and without rennet addition. After milk...

  14. Hot topic: Antilisterial activity by endolysin PlyP100 in fresh cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tassell, Maxwell L; Ibarra-Sánchez, Luis A; Hoepker, Garrett P; Miller, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    Our objective was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of a Listeria bacteriophage endolysin that may address limitations of current antilisterial processes for fresh cheeses. Listeria monocytogenes is highly problematic in the manufacture and processing of ready-to-eat foods due to its environmental persistence and its ability to grow under refrigerated storage. Special care must be taken to prevent listerial contamination during the production of fresh cheeses, as their delicate flavor and texture are incompatible with many of the antimicrobial processes and additives commonly used for other foods. Bacteriophage-derived cell wall hydrolytic enzymes, known as endolysins, comprise one possible intervention that may not suffer from the high strain specificity of their parent bacteriophages or the development of resistant strains. We recombinantly expressed endolysin PlyP100 and compared its lytic activity in vitro across several environmental parameters and target organisms, then incorporated it into a fresh cheese model challenged with a cocktail of L. monocytogenes. We show that PlyP100 demonstrates optimal activity under pH and salt concentrations consistent with a low-acid food matrix such as fresh cheese. Furthermore, we show that PlyP100 exhibits target specificity for gram-positive organisms with directly crosslinked peptidoglycan and displays considerable inhibitory activity against L. monocytogenes in fresh cheese for at least 4 wk under refrigerated storage. As PlyP100 demonstrates considerable promise for preventing the propagation of L. monocytogenes in fresh cheeses, this novel preservation method could help safeguard consumer health and the market expansion of an otherwise high-risk food with few other viable preservatives. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of Minas fresh cheese made with goat milk, cow milk, or a mixture of both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Ana, A M S; Bezerril, F F; Madruga, M S; Batista, A S M; Magnani, M; Souza, E L; Queiroga, R C R E

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess and compare the nutritional, technological, and sensory characteristics of Minas fresh cheese made with goat milk, cow milk, or a mixture of the two stored in cold conditions for 21d. The yield and centesimal composition of the cheeses were not affected by the type of milk used in their preparation. Reductions were observed in the moisture content, pH, proteolysis index, and instrumental hardness; moreover, increases were observed in the syneresis, acidity index, and depth of proteolysis index in all cheeses. The percentages of caprylic, capric, oleic, and linoleic fatty acids were higher in goat milk cheese and cheese made with a mixture of goat and cow milk compared with cow milk cheese, and a sensory evaluation revealed differences in color, flavor, and aroma between the cheeses. The preparation of Minas fresh cheese with a mixture of goat and cow milk can be a viable alternative for dairy products in the market that can be characterized as high-quality products that meet consumer demands. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Production of fresh probiotic cheese with addition of transglutaminase

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    Vinka Radošević

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the influence of probiotic culture Lactobacillus acidophilus and enzyme transglutaminase (TG on quality and sensory properties of autochthonous fresh cheese from Zagreb region. Fresh, unpasteurized, skimmed milk was inoculated with TG at different temperatures and activation time (8 h at 11 ºC and 4 h at 25 ºC. Inactivation of the enzyme was carried out during the process of pasteurization (65ºC/30 min. The milk for fresh cheese production was further inoculated with mesophilic culture of lactic acid bacteria MM101 and probiotic strain Lactobacillus acidophilus LAC-1. Besides the trial samples with addition of TG and probiotic bacteria, control samples without addition of TG and probiotic were produced, as well as the samples without addition of TG but with probiotic bacteria addition. Samples of fresh cheese produced with addition of TG, especially in which TG was active at 11 ºC, had greater weight then samples produced without the enzyme addition. Therefore, their yield was also greater then yield of cheese produced without the addition of the enzyme. Furthermore, the samples of fresh cheese produced with addition of TG have shown lesser syneresis than other samples during 10 days of storage at 10 ºC. The same samples also had the best sensory properties. Metabolic activity of mesophilic culture MM101 and probiotic culture L. acidophilus LAC-1 has resulted in better taste and odour of fresh cheese. The viable cell number of probiotic strain L. acidophilus LAC-1 in prepared samples was around 5 x 106 cells/g after 10 days of storage at 10 ºC, which is higher than the minimal dose required for 27 probiotic products. Addition of transgultaminase contributed to better consistency and general appearance of produced fresh cheese.

  17. Acceptance and storage of fresh cheese made with essential oils

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    Joelmir Grassi Presente

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the acceptance and conservation of Minas fresh cheese with essential oils added of oregano and ginger in its formulation. The quality of the milk used as raw material was evaluated for pH, acidity, alizarol, total solids, density, and total microbial load. The cheeses produced were characterized as pH, acidity, moisture, lipids, proteins and ashes. The cheeses were also evaluated by sensorial affective tests using hedonic and attitude scales, in order to determine the acceptance and purchase intention by judges. The count of total aerobic mesophilic microorganisms was used to estimate the shelf-life of cheeses. The milk used as raw material is presented within the quality standards required by legislation. The cheeses made with essential oils showed pH and acidity around 6.9 and 0.87%, respectively, 57.6% moisture, 31.3% lipids, 11.4% protein and 0.9% ash. The cheese added essential oil of oregano and the control cheese were those given by the judges the best values for acceptance (7.5 and 7.6, respectively and purchase intention (4.2 and 4.4 respectively. Regarding the estimated shelf-life, the cheeses added essential oil of oregano and ginger had lower overall microbial load values compared to the control (no oil and mixed (two oils addition, presented counts values with up 106 UFC/g only from the 28th day of storage.

  18. Characterization and Application of Autochthonous Starter Cultures for Fresh Cheese Production

    OpenAIRE

    Andreja Leboš Pavunc; Blaženka Kos; Ksenija Uroić; Marijana Blažić; Jagoda Šušković; Jasna Beganović

    2012-01-01

    The use of commercial starter cultures in fresh cheese production from pasteurized milk results in the loss of typical characteristics of artisan fresh cheese due to the replacement of complex native microbiota with a defined starter culture. Hence, the aim of this research is to isolate and characterize dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in artisan fresh cheese and to evaluate their capacity as autochthonous starter cultures for fresh cheese production. Fifteen most prevalent Gram-positive,...

  19. Protein Profile of Fresh Cheese with Lime Juice as Acidifier

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    Purwadi Purwadi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A researh about the making of fresh cheese used lime juice as an acidifier compared to citric acid has been done. The research was aimed to learn the potency of lime juice as acidifier in the making fresh cheese and to know about its protein profile. The experiment was designed by completely randomized design. Those treatments were : A1 = the use of lime juice 0.5 % (v/v, A2 = the use of citric acid 0.05 % (w/v and A3 = the use of 0.25 % lime juice + citric acid 0,025 %. Variation of those acidification treatment didn’t show any defference on protein profile of fresh cheese, which showed by 8 benz of three treatment with have molecule wheight 17.14; 20.51; 27.92; 36.22; 44.05; 50.11; 53.45, and 102.32 Kda, respectively. The result of the using lime juice, citric acid, and both combination relatively proved same profile. Keywords : protein profile, fresh cheese, lime juice, acidifier

  20. Effect of whey concentration on protein recovery in fresh ovine ricotta cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, E; Pes, M; Falchi, G; Pagnozzi, D; Furesi, S; Fiori, M; Roggio, T; Addis, M F; Pirisi, A

    2014-01-01

    Ricotta cheese, particularly the ovine type, is a typical Italian dairy product obtained by heat-coagulation of the proteins in whey. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of whey protein concentration, obtained by ultrafiltration, on yield of fresh ovine ricotta cheese. Ricotta cheeses were obtained by thermocoagulation of mixtures with protein content of 1.56, 3.10, 4.16, and 7.09g/100g from the mixing of skim whey and ultrafiltered skim whey. A fat-to-protein ratio of 1.1 (wt/wt) was obtained for all mixtures by adding fresh cream. The initial mixtures, as well as the final ricotta cheeses, were analyzed for their composition and by SDS-PAGE. Protein bands were quantified by QuantityOne software (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA) and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Significant differences in the composition of the ricotta cheese were observed depending on protein concentration. Particularly, ricotta cheese resulting from the mixture containing 7.09g/100g of protein presented higher moisture (72.88±1.50g/100g) and protein (10.18±0.45g/100g) contents than that prepared from the mixture with 1.56g/100g of protein (69.52±1.75 and 6.70±0.85g/100g, respectively), and fat content was lower in this sample (12.20±1.60g/100g) compared with the other treatments, with mean values between 15.72 and 20.50g/100g. Each protein fraction presented a different behavior during thermocoagulation. In particular, the recovery of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin in the cheese increased as their content increased in the mixtures. It was concluded that concentrating ovine rennet whey improved the extent of heat-induced protein aggregation during the thermal coagulation process. This resulted in a better recovery of each protein fraction in the product, and in a consequent increase of ricotta cheese yield. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Consumers’ attitude and opinion towards different types of fresh cheese: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    BARROS, Cássia Pereira de; ROSENTHAL, Amauri; WALTER, Eduardo Henrique Miranda; DELIZA, Rosires

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fresh cheese stands out for its tradition and widespread consumption in Brazil. However, there is a lack of information on motivation towards the consumption of available fresh cheeses in the Brazilian market. Focus group sessions were used to explore consumers’ attitude and opinion about fresh cheese. Products with different characteristics were used to stimulate discussion among participants including cheese with “no added salt”, the claim “contains probiotic microorganisms” and pr...

  2. Consumers’ attitude and opinion towards different types of fresh cheese: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    BARROS,Cássia Pereira de; ROSENTHAL,Amauri; WALTER,Eduardo Henrique Miranda; DELIZA,Rosires

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fresh cheese stands out for its tradition and widespread consumption in Brazil. However, there is a lack of information on motivation towards the consumption of available fresh cheeses in the Brazilian market. Focus group sessions were used to explore consumers’ attitude and opinion about fresh cheese. Products with different characteristics were used to stimulate discussion among participants including cheese with “no added salt”, the claim “contains probioti...

  3. The evolution of chemical and microbiological properties of fresh goat milk cheese during its shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masotti, F; Battelli, G; De Noni, I

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the changes in chemical and microbiological properties of fresh goat milk cheese stored in an open deck refrigerated display cabinet (6 ± 2°C) or in a dark cold room (4 ± 1°C). The effects of partial-vacuum packaging and fluorescent lighting were studied during the cheese shelf life (45 d) and 15 d after. Storage conditions did not affect the pH values (4.3), whereas a slight decrease in moisture (ca. 1%) and in water activity (cheese packaged in the presence of air and stored in a lighted cabinet. The proteolytic trend was also studied through capillary zone electrophoresis by monitoring the degradation of the main casein fractions and the formation of new peptides. In particular, 2 indices, based on peak area ratio of new-formed peptides and casein fractions were related to cheese age. Lipolysis, measured by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry of volatile fatty acids, was unaffected by air or light and did not proceed through storage. As expected, hexanal formed mainly in cheeses stored under light and packaged in air. Evaluation of sensorial quality, performed using a hedonic scale, showed significantly lower scores of cheeses kept under light compared with those kept in the dark, both at 45 and 60 d storage. Overall, the microbiological and chemical results suggested that the shelf life of soft goat milk cheese would be extended from 45 to 60 d. Such conclusion was supported also by the sensory quality evaluation. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Some Properties of Fresh and Ripened Herby Cheese, a Traditional Variety Produced in Turkey

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    Zekai Tarakçi; Yusuf Tunçtürk; Hayri Coskun

    2004-01-01

    Herby cheese (Otlu peynir) is widely produced and consumed in eastern parts of Turkey, and is generally made from sheep milk. The objectives of this study were to determine some properties of fresh and ripened herby cheese samples. Samples (20 fresh and 20 ripened) of herby cheese were collected from retail markets in Van, and analysed chemically and biochemically. Higher levels of dry matter, salt, fat and titratable acidity (%) were found in ripened cheeses. Also lipolysis and protein degra...

  5. Probiotic Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Croatian Fresh Soft Cheese and Serbian White Pickled Cheese

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    Ksenija Uroić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to gain insight into the probiotic potential of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from artisanal fresh soft and white pickled cheeses. Eleven out of 86 LAB isolates from traditionally produced artisanal fresh soft and white pickled cheeses which survived the most rigorous simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions and did not show resistance to antibiotics were subjected to further evaluation for functional probiotic properties. The ability of the examined strains to assimilate cholesterol in the presence of bile salts was strain dependent, with the highest percentage of cholesterol assimilated by strain Lactobacillus brevis BGGO7-28 possessing S-layer proteins on its cell surface. The growth of strains with mannitol or lactulose as the only carbon source was better than with fructooligosaccharides (FOS and inulin as prebiotic substrates, which should be considered in the production of synbiotics. Moreover, the results demonstrated that the strains were highly adhesive to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells and to a lesser extent to HT29-MTX cells, with the exception of strain Lb. brevis BGGO7-28, which showed similar percentage of adhesion to both cell lines. This strain was the only one with the acidic cell surface, while other examined strains have the cell surfaces with electron donor and basic properties. In addition, all selected strains decreased the proliferation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT cells, suggesting possible immunomodulatory potential of the isolates. Finally, the number of viable cells in dry active preparations after lyophilisation depended on the lyoprotectant used (inulin, FOS or skimmed milk, as well as on the strain subjected to lyophilisation. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study demonstrate that particular dairy LAB isolates exhibit strain-specific probiotic properties. Thus, they could be further examined as part of mixed autochthonous starter cultures for

  6. Manufacture of low-sodium Minas fresh cheese: effect of the partial replacement of sodium chloride with potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A P; Cruz, A G; Cadena, R S; Celeghini, R M S; Faria, J A F; Bolini, H M A; Pollonio, M A R; Granato, D

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the effect of sodium reduction by partial substitution of sodium chloride (NaCl) with potassium chloride (KCl) on the manufacture of Minas fresh cheese during 21 d of refrigerated storage. Four treatments of low-sodium Minas fresh cheese were manufactured, with partial replacement of NaCl by KCl at 0, 25, 50, and 75% (wt/wt), respectively. The cheeses showed differences in the content of moisture, ash, protein, salt, and lipid contents, as well as on the extent of proteolysis and hardness throughout the storage period. However, no difference was observed among treatments within each storage day tested. The partial substitution of NaCl by KCl decreased up to 51.8% the sodium concentration of the cheeses produced. The consumer test indicated that it is possible to manufacture a low-sodium Minas fresh cheese that is acceptable to consumers by partial substitution of NaCl by KCl at 25% (wt/wt) in the salting step. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bioavailability of stabilised ferrous gluconate with glycine in fresh cheese matrix: a novel iron compound for food fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Fernando; Boccio, José; Salgueiro, María; Olivares, Manuel; Carmuega, Esteban; Weill, Ricardo; Marque, Sebastien; Frereux, Marine; Noirt, Florence

    2013-03-01

    Iron fortification of foods continues to be one of the preferred ways of improving the iron status of the population. Dairy product is a common product in the diet; therefore, it is a plausible vehicle for iron fortification. This study aims to investigate the bioavailability of ferrous gluconate stabilised with glycine (FGSG) in a fresh cheese fortified with zinc. The iron bioavailability of fresh cheese fortified with either FGSG and with or without zinc and FGSG in aqueous solution and a water solution of ferrous ascorbate (reference dose) was studied using double radio iron ((55)Fe and (59)Fe) erythrocyte incorporation in 15 male subjects. All subjects presented with normal values for iron status parameters. The geometric mean of iron bioavailability for the water solution of FGSG was 38.2 %, adjusted to 40 % from reference doses (N.S.). Iron bioavailability in fresh cheese fortified with Ca and Zn was 15.4 % and was 23.1 % without Zn, adjusted to 40 % from reference doses (N.S.). The results of the present study show that the novel iron compound ferrous gluconate stabilised with glycine in a fresh cheese matrix is a good source of iron and can be used in iron fortification programmes.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus entrance into the dairy chain: Tracking S. aureus from dairy cow to cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Kümmel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. 1176 quarter milk (QM samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294 and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS. Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing, dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day fourteen of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires effective clearance strategies and hygienic

  9. An outbreak of Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus associated with consumption of fresh goat cheese

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    Hakkinen Marjaana

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus is a rare infection in humans associated with contact with horses or consumption of unpasteurized milk products. On October 23, 2003, the National Public Health Institute was alerted that within one week three persons had been admitted to Tampere University Central Hospital (TaYS because of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus septicaemia. All had consumed fresh goat cheese produced in a small-scale dairy located on a farm. We conducted an investigation to determine the source and the extent of the outbreak. Methods Cases were identified from the National Infectious Disease Register. Cases were persons with S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolated from a normally sterile site who had illness onset 15.9-31.10.2003. All cases were telephone interviewed by using a standard questionnaire and clinical information was extracted from patient charts. Environmental and food specimens included throat swabs from two persons working in the dairy, milk from goats and raw milk tank, cheeses made of unpasteurized milk, vaginal samples of goats, and borehole well water. The isolates were characterized by ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Results Seven persons met the case definition; six had septicaemia and one had purulent arthritis. Five were women; the median age was 70 years (range 54–93. None of the cases were immunocompromized and none died. Six cases were identified in TaYS, and one in another university hospital in southern Finland. All had eaten goat cheese produced on the implicated farm. S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated from throat swabs, fresh goat cheese, milk tank, and vaginal samples of one goat. All human and environmental strains were indistinguishable by ribotyping and PFGE. Conclusion The outbreak was caused by goat cheese produced from unpasteurized milk. Outbreaks caused by S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus may not be detected if streptococcal strains are only

  10. Characterization and Application of Autochthonous Starter Cultures for Fresh Cheese Production

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    Andreja Leboš Pavunc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of commercial starter cultures in fresh cheese production from pasteurized milk results in the loss of typical characteristics of artisan fresh cheese due to the replacement of complex native microbiota with a defined starter culture. Hence, the aim of this research is to isolate and characterize dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB in artisan fresh cheese and to evaluate their capacity as autochthonous starter cultures for fresh cheese production. Fifteen most prevalent Gram-positive, catalase-negative and asporogenous bacterial strains were selected for a more detailed characterization. Eleven lactic acid bacterial strains were determined to be homofermentative cocci and four heterofermentative lactobacilli. Further phenotypic and genotypic analyses revealed that those were two different LAB strains with high acidifying and proteolytic activity, identified as Lactobacillus fermentum A8 and Enterococcus faecium A7. These two autochthonous strains, alone or in combination with commercial starter, were used to produce different types of fresh cheese, which were evaluated by a panel. Conventional culturing, isolation, identification and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE procedures, applied to the total fresh cheese DNA extracts, were employed to define and monitor the viability of the introduced LAB strains and their effect on the final product characteristics. Production of fresh cheese using a combination of commercial starter culture and selected autochthonous strains resulted in improved sensorial properties, which were more similar to the ones of spontaneously fermented fresh cheese than to those of cheese produced with only starter culture or selected strains. After 10 days of storage, that cheese retained the best sensorial properties in comparison with all other types of cheese. The presence of inoculated autochthonous and starter cultures and their identification was demonstrated by DGGE analysis. The obtained

  11. Characterization and Application of Antilisterial Enterocins on Model Fresh Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Susana C; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Silva, Célia C G

    2017-08-01

    Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from an artisanal cheese were selected based on enterocin production against Listeria monocytogenes. The strains formed biofilms and presented high hydrophobic character and good autoaggregation and coaggregation capacity with L. monocytogenes. Strains L3A21M3 and L3B1K3 presented high survival under gastrointestinal conditions, were able to adhere to human intestinal cells (Caco-2 and HT-29), and blocked the adhesion and invasion of L. monocytogenes. The antilisterial activity of enterocins was not affected by pH (2 to 12), heating (100°C), and chemical and surfactant agents. However, strains L3A21M3 and L3A21M8 produced thermolabile enterocins, which were also sensible to extreme pH values. Enterocins exhibited a bacteriostatic mode of action against L. monocytogenes, and maximum production was observed during the stationary phase. Common enterocin structural genes were not detected by PCR amplification with specific primers, although an exhaustive screening was not performed. The enterocin produced by the L3B1K3 strain was purified and applied to model cheeses contaminated with L. monocytogenes. This enterocin reduced survival of L. monocytogenes on fresh cheeses in a dose-dependent manner. The highest dose tested (2,048 arbitrary units per g of cheese) was effective in reducing the pathogen counts to undetectable values throughout storage (6 to 72 h). These results suggest that these strains have great potential to be used as biopreservatives in the food industry and also as probiotics, with the potential to prevent L. monocytogenes gastrointestinal infection.

  12. Consumers’ attitude and opinion towards different types of fresh cheese: an exploratory study

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    Cássia Pereira de BARROS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fresh cheese stands out for its tradition and widespread consumption in Brazil. However, there is a lack of information on motivation towards the consumption of available fresh cheeses in the Brazilian market. Focus group sessions were used to explore consumers’ attitude and opinion about fresh cheese. Products with different characteristics were used to stimulate discussion among participants including cheese with “no added salt”, the claim “contains probiotic microorganisms” and products processed with goat milk. The salt content played an important role on the consumer intention to purchase of fresh cheese. Participants stated that they would consume cheese without salt only by following a medical prescription. However, the subjects declared that they would buy reduced salt cheese if such reduction would not compromise the flavor. The meaning of the claim “contains probiotic microorganisms” was often declared as unknown during the discussion. However, they would buy a probiotic product. In addition, it was mentioned that a premium price would be paid for such functional cheese. Participants declared that would buy goat cheese. Nevertheless, to pay a higher price over the conventional one was a controversial and debatable issue among consumers. Results revealed important implications for the development of marketing strategies for fresh cheese.

  13. The inhibitory activity of Lactic acid bacteria isolated from fresh cow cheese

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    Nevijo Zdolec

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria are the constituent part of milk microbial flora that could influence the safety of dairy products due production of organic acids, hydrogen peroxide, carbon dioxide and bacteriocins. Taking this in consideration, the objective of this study was to investigate the composition of lactic acid bacteria population in fresh cow cheeses taken from local markets, as well as their antimicrobial capacity. Lactic acid bacteria counts were determined according to ISO 1524:1998 method, biochemical determination using API 50 CHL system, and inhibitory activity against L. monocytogenes NCTC 10527 by agar well diffusion assay. Lactic acid bacteria count in fresh cow cheeses (n=10 ranged from 5.87 to 8.38 log10 CFU g-1. Among 52 MRS isolates collected, 61.54 % were assigned to the Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis species, 23.07 % Lactobacillus helveticus, 11.54 % Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris and 3.85 % Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides. Antilisterial activity was found in 18 isolates.

  14. Some Properties of Fresh and Ripened Herby Cheese, a Traditional Variety Produced in Turkey

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    Zekai Tarakçi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Herby cheese (Otlu peynir is widely produced and consumed in eastern parts of Turkey, and is generally made from sheep milk. The objectives of this study were to determine some properties of fresh and ripened herby cheese samples. Samples (20 fresh and 20 ripened of herby cheese were collected from retail markets in Van, and analysed chemically and biochemically. Higher levels of dry matter, salt, fat and titratable acidity (% were found in ripened cheeses. Also lipolysis and protein degradation were higher in ripened herby cheese samples than in fresh samples. Urea-polyacrylamide gel electropherograms of ripened cheese samples showed that higher degradation of αs-casein than of β-casein occurred.

  15. Listeriosis outbreak caused by Latin-style fresh cheese, Bizkaia, Spain, August 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, V; Escudero, Jm; Rodriguez, Jl; Muniozguren, N; Uribarri, J; Saez, D; Vazquez, J

    2012-10-18

    Two cases of laboratory-confirmed listeriosis were detected in Bizkaia, Spain, at the end of August. The epidemiological investigation indicated that these two cases were associated with the consumption of Latin-style fresh cheese made from pasteurised milk in Portugal. Different batches of the same cheese were analysed and confirmed as contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. The product was withdrawn from the market and the population was advised not to consume this kind of cheese.

  16. Environmental assessment of Ultra-High Pressure Homogenisation for milk and fresh cheese production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsasina, Lucia; Pizzol, Massimo; Smetana, Sergiy

    2015-01-01

    Temperature (UHT) treatment and, at the same time, to lower energy consumptions through the combination of pasteurisation and homogenisation in a single process. Furthermore, the use of UHPH treated milk for the production of fresh cheese has been proven to increase shelf life days and increase yield...... This study provides an LCA of UHPH and UHT processing of milk and fresh cheese production from processing to end-of-life....

  17. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh cheese using protective lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, M C; Silva, C C G; Ribeiro, S C; Dapkevicius, M L N E; Rosa, H J D

    2014-11-17

    In the past years, there has been a particular focus on the application of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in controlling the growth of pathogenic bacteria in foods. The aim of this study was to select LAB strains with antimicrobial activity, previously isolated from a traditional Azorean artisanal cheese (Pico cheese), in order to identify those with the greatest potential in reducing Listeria monocytogenes in fresh cheese. Eight bacteriocin producer strains identified as Lactococcus lactis (1) and Enterococcus faecalis (7) were tested. In general, the bacteriocin-producing strains presented a moderate growth in fresh cheese at refrigeration temperatures (4 °C), increasing one log count in three days. They exhibited slow acidification capacity, despite the increased production of lactic acid displayed by some strains after 24h. Bacteriocin activity was only detected in the whey of fresh cheese inoculated with two Enterococcus strains, but all cheeses made with bacteriocin-producing strains inhibited L. monocytogenes growth in the agar diffusion bioassay. No significant differences were found in overall sensory evaluation made by a non-trained panel of 50-52 tasters using the isolates as adjunct culture in fresh cheese, with the exception of one Enterococcus strain. To test the effect of in situ bacteriocin production against L. monocytogenes, fresh cheese was made from pasteurized cows' milk inoculated with bacteriocin-producing LAB and artificially contaminated with approximately 10(6) CFU/mL of L. monocytogenes. The numbers of L. monocytogenes were monitored during storage of fresh cheese at refrigeration temperature (4 °C) for up to 15 days. All strains controlled the growth of L. monocytogenes, although some Enterococcus were more effective in reducing the pathogen counts. After 7 days, this reduction was of approximately 4 log units compared to the positive control. In comparison, an increase of 4 log CFU/mL in pathogen numbers was

  18. Detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins in sheep cheese and dairy desserts by multiplex PCR technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertas, Nurhan; Gonulalan, Zafer; Yildirim, Yeliz; Kum, Erhan

    2010-08-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) genes in sheep cheese and dairy dessert samples by multiplex PCR (mPCR) technique. A total of 150 samples were analyzed consisting of 50 dairy dessert samples and 100 sheep cheese. Coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS) were found in 86 (57.3%) out of 150 analyzed samples. S. aureus were isolated from 60 (60%), 26 (52%) of sheep cheese and from of dairy desserts, respectively. Five suspected colonies were tested from each sheep cheese and dairy dessert samples for phenotypic and genotypic characterizations. A total of 430 isolates from the 86 positive samples were investigated in this study. Eighty (18.6%) isolates were characterized as S. aureus. The enterotoxin genes (sea, seb, sec, sed) were found in 13 (3.02%) out of 80 isolates. From cheese isolates, sea, seb and sed were detected in 5 (1.6%), 2 (0.6%), 1 (0.3%), respectively. From dairy dessert isolates, sea, sec and sed were detected in 3 (2.3%), 1 (0.76%), 1 (0.76%), respectively. The presence of SEs was identified in 12 (2.8%) out of 80 isolates by using ELISA technique. It was determined that these SEs had a distribution of 7 (1.6%) SEA, 2 (0.46%) SEB, 1 (0.23%) SEC, and 2 (0.46%) SED. SEs were found in 7 (2.3%) cheese and 5 (3.8%) dairy dessert isolates. In conclusion, S.aureus and their SEs were found to be present in sheep cheese and dairy desserts in this study. It is emphasized that the presence of S. aureus and their SEs genes in sheep cheese and dairy desserts may be regarded as a potential risk for human health. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a Potential Probiotic Fresh Cheese Using Two Lactobacillus salivarius Strains Isolated from Human Milk

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    Nivia Cárdenas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheeses have been proposed as a good alternative to other fermented milk products for the delivery of probiotic bacteria to the consumer. The objective of this study was to assess the survival of two Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CECT5713 and PS2 isolated from human milk during production and storage of fresh cheese for 28 days at 4°C. The effect of such strains on the volatile compounds profile, texture, and other sensorial properties, including an overall consumer acceptance, was also investigated. Both L. salivarius strains remained viable in the cheeses throughout the storage period and a significant reduction in their viable counts was only observed after 21 days. Globally, the addition of the L. salivarius strains did not change significantly neither the chemical composition of the cheese nor texture parameters after the storage period, although cheeses manufactured with L. salivarius CECT5713 presented significantly higher values of hardness. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of experimental cheeses, and some L. salivarius-associated differences could be identified. All cheeses presented good results of acceptance after the sensory evaluation. Consequently, our results indicated that fresh cheese can be a good vehicle for the two L. salivarius strains analyzed in this study.

  20. Development of a potential probiotic fresh cheese using two Lactobacillus salivarius strains isolated from human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Nivia; Calzada, Javier; Peirotén, Angela; Jiménez, Esther; Escudero, Rosa; Rodríguez, Juan M; Medina, Margarita; Fernández, Leónides

    2014-01-01

    Cheeses have been proposed as a good alternative to other fermented milk products for the delivery of probiotic bacteria to the consumer. The objective of this study was to assess the survival of two Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CECT5713 and PS2) isolated from human milk during production and storage of fresh cheese for 28 days at 4°C. The effect of such strains on the volatile compounds profile, texture, and other sensorial properties, including an overall consumer acceptance, was also investigated. Both L. salivarius strains remained viable in the cheeses throughout the storage period and a significant reduction in their viable counts was only observed after 21 days. Globally, the addition of the L. salivarius strains did not change significantly neither the chemical composition of the cheese nor texture parameters after the storage period, although cheeses manufactured with L. salivarius CECT5713 presented significantly higher values of hardness. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of experimental cheeses, and some L. salivarius-associated differences could be identified. All cheeses presented good results of acceptance after the sensory evaluation. Consequently, our results indicated that fresh cheese can be a good vehicle for the two L. salivarius strains analyzed in this study.

  1. Short communication: Latin-style fresh cheese enhances lactic acid bacteria survival but not Listeria monocytogenes resistance under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C C G; Domingos-Lopes, M F P; Magalhães, V A F; Freitas, D A S R; Coelho, M C; Rosa, H J D; Dapkevicius, M L N E

    2015-07-01

    Different studies in humans have provided evidence about the health benefits of probiotics. However, most probiotic strains do not maintain good viability in the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In the present study, Latin-style fresh cheese produced with potential probiotic bacteria was tested to evaluate this cheese type as a food carrier for the delivery of viable microorganisms after exposure to simulated GIT conditions. The resistance of 28 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains and Listeria monocytogenes upon exposure to acidic conditions (pH 2.5) and bile and pancreatic enzymes (0.3% of bile salts and 0.1% of pancreatin) was evaluated in vitro. When compared with fresh cultures, fresh cheese greatly improved LAB survival to simulated GIT conditions, as no loss of viability was observed in either acidic conditions (pH 2.5) or bile salts and pancreatin environment over a 3-h period. In opposition, L. monocytogenes did not survive after 1h under acidic conditions. These data demonstrated that Latin-style fresh cheese could play an important role in probiotic protection against gastrointestinal juices, enhancing delivery within the gut and thereby maximizing potential health benefits of LAB. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: Application in the control of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh Minas-type goat cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N. Furtado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen frequently found in dairy products. Its control in fresh cheeses is difficult, due to the psychrotrophic properties and salt tolerance. Bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB with proven in vitro antilisterial activity can be an innovative technological approach but their application needs to be evaluated by means of in situ tests. In this study, a novel bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis strain (Lc. lactis DF4Mi, isolated from raw goat milk, was tested for control of growth of L. monocytogenes in artificially contaminated fresh Minas type goat cheese during storage under refrigeration. A bacteriostatic effect was achieved, and counts after 10 days were 3 log lower than in control cheeses with no added LAB. However, this effect did not differ significantly from that obtained with a non-bacteriocinogenic Lc. lactis strain. Addition of nisin (12.5 mg/kg caused a rapid decrease in the number of viable L. monocytogenes in the cheeses, suggesting that further studies with the purified bacteriocin DF4Mi may open new possibilities for this strain as biopreservative in dairy products.

  3. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: Application in the control of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh Minas-type goat cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Danielle N; Todorov, Svetoslav D; Landgraf, Mariza; Destro, Maria T; Franco, Bernadette D G M

    2015-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen frequently found in dairy products. Its control in fresh cheeses is difficult, due to the psychrotrophic properties and salt tolerance. Bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with proven in vitro antilisterial activity can be an innovative technological approach but their application needs to be evaluated by means of in situ tests. In this study, a novel bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis strain ( Lc . lactis DF4Mi), isolated from raw goat milk, was tested for control of growth of L. monocytogenes in artificially contaminated fresh Minas type goat cheese during storage under refrigeration. A bacteriostatic effect was achieved, and counts after 10 days were 3 log lower than in control cheeses with no added LAB. However, this effect did not differ significantly from that obtained with a non-bacteriocinogenic Lc. lactis strain. Addition of nisin (12.5 mg/kg) caused a rapid decrease in the number of viable L. monocytogenes in the cheeses, suggesting that further studies with the purified bacteriocin DF4Mi may open new possibilities for this strain as biopreservative in dairy products.

  4. Children preferences of coloured fresh cheese prepared during an educational laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Tesini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Choices among young consumers are mainly driven by food preferences; in particular, a connection between appearance and acceptance of food has been highlighted, together with a general lack of knowledge of food processing. For these reasons, educational activities are important to increase scientific knowledge and awareness. The cheese-making educational laboratory described herein involved children, adolescents, and their parents/teachers in the preparation of fresh and naturally-coloured cheeses. At the end of the activity, both the colour preference and possible relation between preference and colour of cheese prepared were investigated administering a short questionnaire.

  5. Listeria monocytogenes and other contaminants in fresh cheese and cream from Zagreb city area domestic production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Markov

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine whether the cream cheese and cream that are produced in the traditional manner at home and are free to sale on Zagreb markets, meet microbiological requirements for foodstuffs (OG 46/94, 20/01, 40/01. Particular attention is given to research of bacteria Listeria monocytogenes presence in these foods, because of its exceptional hazards to human health. It was found that a majority of 64 (53 % from a total of 120 studied dairy products samples were contaminated with microbial pathogens, of which 16 % are waste in the cream cheese, and 37 % in cream samples. 39 samples of cheese and 50 samples of cream did not fulfil the conditions prescribed by the Croatian Guidelines, primarily due to the contamination with yeasts and moulds. In 10 cheese and cream samples where L. monocytogenes is proven by classical microbiological methods, PCR method confirmed L. monocytogenes in only one cream sample.

  6. Preparation of fresh cheese from caprine milk as a model for the reduction of allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Katagiri, Mitsuaki; Fujita, Masaru; Yamato, Masayuki

    2009-06-01

    Fresh cheese was prepared from caprine milk by isoelectric precipitation as a model experiment for reducing the allergenicity of milk. After acidic precipitation of casein, the beta-lactoglobulin content in curd was determined by ELISA using monoclonal antibody (MAb-beta209). The beta-lactoglobulin content was very high in the fresh cheese obtained from heat-treated (85 degrees C) bovine or caprine milk, while that obtained from untreated milk contained none of this protein. Taking it into account that caprine milk has only a small amount of alpha(s1)-casein, one of the major bovine milk allergens, the caprine fresh cheese sterilized after processing by precipitation may be useful as a protein source of low allergenicity.

  7. Dairy fat in cheese raises LDL cholesterol less than that in butter in mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestel, P J; Chronopulos, A; Cehun, M

    2005-09-01

    To determine whether dairy fat in cheese raises low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol as much as in butter, since epidemiology suggests a different impact on cardiovascular disease. A randomised crossover trial testing the daily consumption of 40 g dairy fat as butter or as matured cheddar cheese, each of 4 weeks duration, was preceded by and separated by 2-week periods when dietary fat was less saturated. Free-living volunteers. A total of 14 men and five women of mean age 56+/-8 y, with mean total cholesterol of 5.6+/-0.8 mmol/l. Plasma cholesterol, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), triacylglycerol and glucose. Saturated fat intake was significantly lower during the run-in than during the cheese and butter periods. Mean lipid values did not differ significantly between the cheese and run-in periods, but total cholesterol and LDL-C were significantly higher with butter: total cholesterol (mmol/l): butter 6.1+/-0.7; run-in 5.6+/-0.8 (P cheese 5.8+/-0.6 (P > 0.05); median LDL-C (mmol/l): butter 3.9 (3.5-4.1) vs run-in 3.4 (3.0-4.1) (P cheese 3.7 (3.3-3.9) (P > 0.05). Among 13 subjects whose initial LDL-C was >4 mmol/l, the difference between butter (4.4+/-0.3 mmol/l) and cheese (3.9+/-0.3 mmol/l) was significant (P = 0.014). HDL-C was highest with butter and triacylglycerol with cheese (neither was significant). A total of 40 g dairy fat eaten daily for 4 weeks as butter, but not as cheese, raised total and LDL cholesterol significantly compared with a diet containing significantly less saturated fat. Dietary advice regarding cheese consumption may require modification.

  8. Survival of Brucella abortus aqpX mutant in fresh and ripened cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rodríguez, María Del Rosario; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén; Arellano-Reynoso, Beatriz; García-Lobo, Juan M; Gimeno, Miquel; Palomares-Reséndiz, Erika G; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the survival of a Brucella abortus aqpX mutant during the elaboration and conservation of fresh and ripened cheeses at 4 °C and 24 °C. The pH values and water activity were monitored for each type of cheese. The fresh cheese was elaborated with raw milk inoculated with 6×10⁸ colony-forming units (CFU)/mL each of parental and mutant strain. Ripening cheeses were elaborated with both raw and pasteurized milk and inoculated with 12×10⁸ CFU/mL each of parental and mutant strains. In fresh cheese, survival was observed during elaboration and conservation for 7 days at 4 °C in mutant and parental strains. The number of survivors of the mutant strain was 10 times lower compared with the parental strain at pH 5 and a(w) of 0.930. In the cheese elaborated with raw milk and ripened at 24 °C, both strains survived until day 17 at pH 4.0 and a(w) of 0.89. However, when the cheese was elaborated with pasteurized milk, the parental strain survived until day 31 of ripening, and the mutant strain survived 24 days at pH 4 and a(w) of 0.886. The survival of the mutant strain showed a diminution of one logarithm during elaboration and ripening of cheese as compared with the parental strain. When the cheese was elaborated with raw milk and ripened at 4 °C, survival of the parental strain was 24 days, whereas the mutant strain survived only 17 days (pH 5 and a(w) 0.90). Regarding the cheese elaborated with pasteurized milk and maturated at 4 °C, both strains survived 31 days (pH 5 and a(w) 0.90), with the same survival diminution during elaboration and ripening. Our results show that in both types of cheese, the mutated aqpX strain survived 10 times less than the parental strain, which shows that the aqpX gene can be related to the survival of Brucella abortus in this type of cheese.

  9. A cross-cultural segmentation of western Balkan consumers: focus on preferences toward traditional fresh cow cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Georges; Amblard, Corinne; Thiel, Elise; Zaouche-Laniau, Martine; Stojanović, Zaklina; Pohar, Jure; Butigan, Ružica; Cvetković, Miljan; Mugosa, Boban; Kendrovski, Vladimir; Mora, Cristina; Barjolle, Dominique

    2013-11-01

    Western Balkan countries (WBCs) have a long-standing culinary tradition. The promotion of traditional foods may be a tool for coping with modernisation trends in such transition economies. This paper explores consumer preferences toward food in this region, focusing on a traditional fresh cow cheese locally called 'Mladi Sir'. This product was quoted in all the preliminary focus groups as a common traditional product present in the six WBCs studied: Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia. After a literature review investigating the concept of traditional food in WBCs and the implementation of focus groups, a survey including a conjoint analysis on preferences for fresh cow cheese was carried out in 2011 to collect data from 1200 respondents. Four clusters of consumers were identified: one focused more on the local origin; one oriented more toward the scale of production (on-farm and small dairy); the third favouring low prices and the fourth preferring high prices and industrial products. Policy makers and the supply chain could take these differences in consumer preferences regarding traditional food products into account in order to develop specific strategies. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. SENSORY EVALUATION OF FRESH CHEESE TASTE WITH THE ADDITION OF OREGANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the sensory characteristics, especially the taste of fresh cheese with the addition of oregano. The oregano was added in the form of leachate and in the form of essences. From the methods of sensory analysis, the Time-Intensity method was selected and used for evaluation of taste of product. The samples of produced fresh cheeses were evaluated after 24 hours and vacuum-packed samples of cheeses were evaluated after 7 days storage under refrigeration. From the obtained results we can state, that in the samples with the addition of oregano leachate, were observed significant changes in taste perception of oregano after 7 days of storage compared with the results of sensory evaluation after 24 hours. In the case of application of the addition of oregano essence, significant differences were not perceived by assessors between samples of cheese after 24 hours and after 7 days storage. Thus, the essence seems to be the acceptable possibility of its use in the manufacture of fresh cheeses in comparison with the addition of the leachate.doi:10.5219/176

  11. Inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badr, Hesham M., E-mail: heshambadr_aea@yahoo.co.uk [Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Research Center, Abou Zaabal, P.O. Box 13759 Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-11-15

    The effectiveness of gamma irradiation on the inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese that prepared from artificially inoculated milk samples was studied. Irradiation at dose of 2 kGy was sufficient for the complete inactivation of these mycobacteria as they were not detected in the treated samples during storage at 4{+-}1 {sup o}C for 15 days. Moreover, irradiation of cheese samples, that were prepared from un-inoculated milk, at this effective dose had no significant effects on their gross composition and contents from riboflavin, niacin and pantothenic acid, while significant decreases in vitamin A and thiamin were observed. In addition, irradiation of cheese samples had no significant effects on their pH and nitrogen fractions contents, except for the contents of ammonia, which showed a slight, but significant, increases due to irradiation. The analysis of cheese fats indicated that irradiation treatment induced significant increase in their oxidation parameters and contents from free fatty acids; however, the observed increases were relatively low. On the other hand, irradiation of cheese samples induced no significant alterations on their sensory properties. Thus, irradiation dose of 2 kGy can be effectively applied to ensure the safety of soft cheese with regards to these harmful mycobacteria. - Highlights: > We examined the effectiveness of gamma irradiation on inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese. > Irradiation at dose of 2 kGy was sufficient for complete inactivation of these mycobacteria. > Irradiation of cheese samples induced no significant alterations on their sensory properties.

  12. Inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badr, Hesham M.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of gamma irradiation on the inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese that prepared from artificially inoculated milk samples was studied. Irradiation at dose of 2 kGy was sufficient for the complete inactivation of these mycobacteria as they were not detected in the treated samples during storage at 4±1 o C for 15 days. Moreover, irradiation of cheese samples, that were prepared from un-inoculated milk, at this effective dose had no significant effects on their gross composition and contents from riboflavin, niacin and pantothenic acid, while significant decreases in vitamin A and thiamin were observed. In addition, irradiation of cheese samples had no significant effects on their pH and nitrogen fractions contents, except for the contents of ammonia, which showed a slight, but significant, increases due to irradiation. The analysis of cheese fats indicated that irradiation treatment induced significant increase in their oxidation parameters and contents from free fatty acids; however, the observed increases were relatively low. On the other hand, irradiation of cheese samples induced no significant alterations on their sensory properties. Thus, irradiation dose of 2 kGy can be effectively applied to ensure the safety of soft cheese with regards to these harmful mycobacteria. - Highlights: → We examined the effectiveness of gamma irradiation on inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese. → Irradiation at dose of 2 kGy was sufficient for complete inactivation of these mycobacteria. → Irradiation of cheese samples induced no significant alterations on their sensory properties.

  13. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by PCR in fresh cheese from local markets in Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Suárez, Ana Laura; Estrada-Chávez, Yessica; Zúñiga-Estrada, Armidá; Lopez-Rincón, Gonzálo; Hernández, David Ulises Miranda; Padilla-Ramírez, Francisco Javier; Estrada-Chávez, Ciro

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacterial DNA in samples extracted from fresh cheeses; 95 samples of fresh cheese were obtained from municipal markets in the state of Hidalgo, in central Mexico, and were analyzed in triplicate. The exogenous control for the amplification was the mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b (cyt-b). M. tuberculosis complex DNA was detected by nested-PCR amplification of a fragment of the mpb70 gene in six samples, four of which were obtained from regions with enzootic bovine tuberculosis. These results suggest that cheeses prepared with raw milk contaminated with M. bovis are being sold and consumed by humans, which may cause tuberculosis.

  14. Segmentation of Parmigiano Reggiano dairies according to cheese-making technology and relationships with the aspect of the cheese curd surface at the moment of its extraction from the cheese vat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucchetti, G; Gatti, M; Nocetti, M; Reverberi, P; Bianchi, A; Galati, F; Petroni, A

    2014-03-01

    Parmigiano Reggiano cheese dairies develop specific cheese-making strategies to adapt the variable characteristics of raw, not standardized milk to the final goal of obtaining cheese consistent with the standard. Analyzing 1,175 cheese-making reports from 30 out of 383 dairies associated with the Parmigiano Reggiano Consortium in 2010 and 2011, 4 groups of Parmigiano Reggiano dairies using specific cheese-making technologies were discriminated by means of multiple linear discriminant analysis. Cheese makers manage cheese-making practices to obtain curd with different roughness properties, classified according to jargon words such as "rigata" and "giusta" or synonyms, because they believe that the roughness of the cheese curd surface immediately after the extraction from the vat is associated with different whey-draining properties and to the final outcome of the cheese. The aspect of the surfaces of the curds produced by the 4 groups of dairies was different according to the technology applied by each group. Cutting of the coagulum when it is still soft for a longer time and faster cooking of the cheese curd grains were associated with a less rough appearance of the surface of the curd, whereas under the opposite conditions, cutting the coagulum when it is firm for a shorter time, led to a curd with a rougher surface. These findings partially support the traditional feeling of Parmigiano Reggiano cheese makers, who consider the curd surface aspect one of the main drivers for their technological choices; to date, however, no data are provided about correlation between the aspect of the curd and the quality of the ripened cheese. If a sufficiently strong correlation could be demonstrated by the future development of the research, the operational effectiveness of Parmigiano Reggiano dairies will be able to largely benefit from the availability of sound and early process markers. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  15. Selection of dairy culture and changes of Podravec cheese acidity during production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The selection and characteristics of dairy culture play a basic role in all types of cheese production process. The most important characteristic is acidification ability i.e. lactic acid formation, which regulates manufacturing and maturing conditions of cheese, thus affecting its organoleptic characteristics as well. In this work the results on control of acidity increase in Podravec cheeseproduction are presented. In the production process, a technical culture as well as identical frozen and concentrated culture, with and without auxiliary Streptococcus thermophilus for direct milk inoculation, were used. It was established that the acidity, expressed as pH value, is more intensively developed in cheeses produced with culture for direct inoculation. This was especially evident in the first phases of production i.e. before cheese salting. During salting the acidity of cheeses, in both cases, was almoust identical. Cheeses produced with identical frozen culture and auxiliary Streptococcus thermophilus culture had more pronounced acidity before salting and lower after salting in comparison with cheeses with the mentioned two cultures. Organoleptic and other characteristics of mature cheeses were identical.

  16. Ultra-high pressure homogenisation of milk: technological aspects of cheese-making and microbial shelf life of a starter-free fresh cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Anna; Ferragut, Victoria; Quevedo, Joan Miquel; Guamis, Buenaventura; Trujillo, Antonio-José

    2012-05-01

    Fresh cheeses from pasteurised (80 °C for 15 s), homogenised-pasteurised (15 + 3 MPa at 60 °C; 80 °C for 15 s) or ultra-high pressure homogenised milks (300 MPa and inlet temperature of 30 °C) were produced in order to evaluate different technological aspects during cheese-making and to study their microbial shelf life. Although the coagulation properties of milk were enhanced by ultra-high pressure homogenisation (UHPH), the cheese-making properties were somewhat altered; both conventional homogenisation and UHPH of milk provoked some difficulties at cutting the curd due to crumbling and improper curd matting due to poor cohesion of the grains. Cheese-milk obtained by UHPH showed a higher microbiological quality than milk obtained by conventional treatments. Starter-free fresh cheeses made from UHPH-treated milk showed less syneresis during storage and longer microbiological shelf-life than those from conventionally treated milk samples.

  17. Application of bacteriocinogenic Enterococcus mundtii CRL35 and Enterococcus faecium ST88Ch in the control of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh Minas cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera Pingitore, Esteban; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Sesma, Fernando; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo

    2012-10-01

    Several strains of Enterococcus spp. are capable of producing bacteriocins with antimicrobial activity against important bacterial pathogens in dairy products. In this study, the bacteriocins produced by two Enterococcus strains (Enterococcus mundtii CRL35 and Enterococcus faecium ST88Ch), isolated from cheeses, were characterized and tested for their capability to control growth of Listeria monocytogenes 426 in experimentally contaminated fresh Minas cheese during refrigerated storage. Both strains were active against a variety of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms and bacteriocin absorption to various L. monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19443 and Lactobacillus sakei ATCC 15521 varied according to the strain and the testing conditions (pH, temperature, presence of salts and surfactants). Growth of L. monocytogenes 426 was inhibited in cheeses containing E. mundtii CRL35 up to 12 days at 8 °C, evidencing a bacteriostatic effect. E. faecium ST88Ch was less effective, as the bacteriostatic affect occurred only after 6 days at 8 °C. In cheeses containing nisin (12.5 mg/kg), less than one log reduction was observed. This research underlines the potential application of E. mundtii CRL35 in the control of L. monocytogenes in Minas cheese. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Advances in the understanding of dairy and cheese flavors: symposium introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunick, Michael H; Gummalla, Sanjay

    2014-06-25

    A symposium titled "Advances in the Understanding of Dairy and Cheese Flavors" was held in September 2013 at the American Chemical Society's 246th National Meeting in Indianapolis, IN, USA. The symposium, which was sponsored by the Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, was to discuss the state of the art in the detection and quantitation of flavor in dairy products. The authors of two of the presentations have been selected to expand on their talks by submitting full papers about their research.

  19. Inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese by gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Hesham M.

    2011-11-01

    The effectiveness of gamma irradiation on the inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in fresh soft cheese that prepared from artificially inoculated milk samples was studied. Irradiation at dose of 2 kGy was sufficient for the complete inactivation of these mycobacteria as they were not detected in the treated samples during storage at 4±1 °C for 15 days. Moreover, irradiation of cheese samples, that were prepared from un-inoculated milk, at this effective dose had no significant effects on their gross composition and contents from riboflavin, niacin and pantothenic acid, while significant decreases in vitamin A and thiamin were observed. In addition, irradiation of cheese samples had no significant effects on their pH and nitrogen fractions contents, except for the contents of ammonia, which showed a slight, but significant, increases due to irradiation. The analysis of cheese fats indicated that irradiation treatment induced significant increase in their oxidation parameters and contents from free fatty acids; however, the observed increases were relatively low. On the other hand, irradiation of cheese samples induced no significant alterations on their sensory properties. Thus, irradiation dose of 2 kGy can be effectively applied to ensure the safety of soft cheese with regards to these harmful mycobacteria.

  20. Lipolysis and proteolysis profiles of fresh artisanal goat cheese made with raw milk with 3 different fat contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Macías, D; Morales-Delanuez, A; Moreno-Indias, I; Hernández-Castellano, L E; Mendoza-Grimón, V; Castro, N; Argüello, A

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the proteolysis and lipolysis profiles in goat cheese made in the Canary Islands (Spain) using raw milk with 3 different fat contents (0.5, 1.5, and 5%) and ripened for 1, 7, 14, and 28 d. β-Casein was the most abundant protein in all cheeses and at all ripening times. Quantitative analysis showed a general decrease in caseins as ripening progressed, and degradation rates were higher for α(S1)-casein than for β-casein and α(S2)-casein. Furthermore, the degradation rate during the experimental time decreased with lower fat contents. The α(S2)-casein and α(S1)-casein levels that remained in full-fat and reduced-fat cheeses were less than those in low-fat cheese. In contrast, β-casein also showed degradation along with ripening, but differences in degradation among the 3 cheese types were not significant at 28 d. The degradation products increased with the ripening time in all cheeses, but they were higher in full-fat cheese than in reduced-fat and low-fat cheeses. The free fatty acid concentration per 100g of cheese was higher in full-fat cheese than in reduced- and low-fat cheese; however, when the results were expressed as milligrams of free fatty acids per gram of fat in cheese, then lipolysis occurred more rapidly in low-fat cheese than in reduced- and full-fat cheeses. These results may explain the atypical texture and off-flavors found in low-fat goat cheeses, likely the main causes of non-acceptance. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of common packaging materials in the probiotic fresh cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Iličić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the application of common packaging materials polypropylene (PP and polystyrene (PS in the probiotic fresh cheese production packaging. Probiotic and traditional cheeses were produced from milk with standardized milk fat content of 2.3 g/100 g including the application of two cultures (probiotic and traditional. The samples were packed in the PP and PS cups and stored at 4 ºC for 30 days. The observed permeability of gases through the two applied packaging materials was significantly different. Cheese samples were analysed for microbiological properties whereby lactic acid bacteria, Bifidobacterium sp. and aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB were determined. Packaging materials showed no significant effect on the content of ascorbic acid which is known to be sensitive to the presence of oxygen.

  2. Bioavailability of calcium of fresh cheeses, enteral food and mineral water. A study with stable calcium isotopes in young adult women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokkum, W. van; Guéronnière, V. dela; Schaafsma, G.; Bouley, C.; Luten, J.; Latgé, C.

    1996-01-01

    True fractional Ca absorption from six foods was measured in twelve normal healthy women, aged 20-29 years. The tested foods were commercially available fresh cheese, fresh cheese prepared by new technology and rich in Ca, similar cheese with added Fe, enteral food, mineral water alone and combined

  3. THE VARIATION OF SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS FROM FRESH COW CHEESE CREAM TYPE WITH ADDED AROMATIC PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANA DIACONESCU

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent advanced studies in the field of cheese fabrication technology include, amongother, the usage of aromatic plants and spices as a mean of improving theorganoleptic properties and as a mean of decreasing the lipidic peroxidationphenomenon. For this purpose, three types of fresh cow cheese produced by S.C.Marion Invest Trade 94 SRL, experimentally added with dill, savory and rosemary,were comparatively studied from a chemical point of view (pH, acidity, humidity, ashand a biochemical point of view(raw fat, total proteins, total cholesterol, acidphosphatase’s enzymatic activity, superoxide dismutase’s enzymatic activity, calciumcontent.From a chemical point of view, no significant differences appeared between the creamcheese types analyzed, excepting the pH( lower in the cheeses with dill and rosemaryFrom a biochemical point of view, two phenomenon can be observed: a significantdecrease of the acidic phosphatase activity in the cheeses with added dill androsemary ( positively correlating with the pH value and decreased values of the SODactivity in all cheese types.

  4. Production and characterization of a functional Iranian white brined cheese by replacement of dairy fat with vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achachlouei, B Fathi; Hesari, J; Damirchi, S Azadmard; Peighambardoust, Sh; Esmaiili, M; Alijani, S

    2013-10-01

    Full-fat cheese usually contains high amounts of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, which may have negative health effects. In this study, full-fat white brined cheese, as a control sample, and experimental cheeses with olive and canola oils (T1, white brined cheese containing 50% canola oil, T2, white brined cheese containing 50% olive oil, T3, white brined cheese containing 100% canola oil and T4, white brined cheese containing 100% olive oil) were prepared from bovine milk. Physicochemical properties, lipolysis, proteolysis patterns and sensorial properties in the prepared samples were determined during 80 days of storage at 20-day intervals. Cheese incorporating vegetable oils showed lower amounts of saturated fatty acids and higher amounts of unsaturated fatty acids compared with the full-fat cheese (control) samples. Moisture, pH, lipolysis value, as assessed by the acid-degree value, and proteolysis values (pH 4.6 SN/TN% and NPN/TN%) significantly (p cheese incorporating with vegetable oils were different from those of full-fat cheese samples. White brined cheese containing olive and canola oils (100% fat substitution) received better sensory scores compared to other samples. The results showed that it is possible to replace dairy fat with olive and canola oils, which can lead to produce a new healthy and functional white brined cheese.

  5. Life cycle assessment of cheese production process in a small-sized dairy industry in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hudson Carlos Maia; Maranduba, Henrique Leonardo; de Almeida Neto, José Adolfo; Rodrigues, Luciano Brito

    2017-02-01

    Current research identifies, analyzes, and suggests improvements for minimizing environmental impacts in the manufacture of cheese using the life cycle assessment. Data collection and development of the inventory were performed in a small-sized dairy industry in Brazil. A cradle-to-gate approach was conducted based on the primary data from cheese production and secondary data from databases. The ReCiPe method was used for the impact assessment, considering the categories climate change, ozone depletion, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, water depletion, and fossil depletion. A sensitivity analysis was performed including evaluations of different fuels for generating thermal energy, strategies for cleaning of dairy plant and utensils, variations in the way of cheese production based on the fat content, and production percentage changes. The results showed that the skimmed milk and thermal energy productions, electricity usage, and water consumptions were the main elementary flows. The pallet residues showed the best to be used as fuel for thermal energy. Detergent combinations did not influence the impact categories. There was a direct relationship between fat content range (20 to 30%) and the contribution in six impact categories. Changes from 20% in cheese allocation factor influenced the impact assessment results. LCA allowed identifying the main elementary flow of cheese production, providing valuable information with the potential to verify opportunities for on-site improvements.

  6. Short communication: Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw milk fresh cheese in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Fanny C; García-López, María-Luisa; Santos, Jesús A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was the characterization of a collection of 8 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates, obtained from samples of fresh cheese (Doble Crema) produced from raw cow milk in small dairies in Colombia. All the isolates harbored the mecA and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes, presented with SCCmec type IV, and belonged to multilocus sequence type 8 and spa type 024. Seven isolates presented 3 closely related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles. Three of them carried the staphylococcal enterotoxin B gene. The isolates were resistant to cefoxitin, oxacillin, penicillin, and ampicillin and susceptible to all non-β-lactams antibiotics tested, with minimum inhibitory concentration values for oxacillin of 4 to 8mg/L. The isolates belonged to the community-acquired MRSA group, suggesting a human source of contamination. The risk of human infection by MRSA via contaminated foods is considered low, but contaminated food commodities can contribute to the worldwide dissemination of clones of community-acquired MRSA. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The comparison of fatty acid and cholesterol profile on fresh and mozarella cheese made by pampangan buffalo milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizqiati, H.; Nurwantoro; Mulyani, S.

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the composition of fatty acid and cholesterol profile of Fresh and Mozarella Cheese from Pampangan Buffalo Milk. Material of this reseach was Pampangan buffalo milk and Mozarella cheese made from buffalo milk. Fatty acids composition were analyzed by [1] method. Result showed the major saturated fatty acid found in milk and Mozzarella cheese Pampangan buffalo milk were palmitic, stearic and miristic acid while the unsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid. The total amount of fatty acid in Mozarella cheese was lower than those in Pampangan buffalo milk.

  8. Distribution of Penicillium commune isolates in cheese dairies mapped using secondary metabolite profiles, morphotypes, RAPD and AFLP fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Flemming; Nielsen, A.B.; Skouboe, P.

    2003-01-01

    In an 8-year study of the diversity and distribution of Penicillium commune contaminants in two different cheese dairies, swab and air samples were taken from the production plants, the processing environment and contaminated cheeses. A total of 321 Penicillium commune isolates were characterized...

  9. Inhibitory substances production by Lactobacillus plantarum ST16Pa cultured in hydrolyzed cheese whey supplemented with soybean flour and their antimicrobial efficiency as biopreservatives on fresh chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Sabo, Sabrina; Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; Domínguez, José Manuel; de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro

    2017-09-01

    Cheese whey, the main byproduct of the dairy industry, is one of the most worrisome types of industrial waste, not only because of its abundant annual global production but also because it is a notable source of environmental pollution. However, cheese whey can serve as a raw material for the production of biocomposites. In this context, in this study, we assayed the production of a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) and lactate by culturing Lactobacillus plantarum ST16Pa in hydrolyzed fresh cheese whey. The process was improved by studying the enzymatic hydrolysis of cheese whey as well as its supplementation with soybean flour under microaerophilic or anaerobic conditions. Thus, the highest values of BLIS (7367.23 arbitrary units [AU]/mL) and lactate yield (Y lactate/lactose =1.39g/g) were achieved after addition of 10g/L soybean flour in microaerophilia. These conditions were successfully scaled up in a bioreactor because during complete anaerobiosis at 150rpm, L. plantarum ST16Pa attained considerable cell growth (3.14g/L), lactate concentration (14.33g/L), and BLIS activity (8082.56AU/mL). In addition, the cell-free supernatant resulting from this bioprocess showed high biopreservative efficiency in chicken breast fillets artificially contaminated with Enterococcus faecium 711 during 7days of refrigerated storage, thus indicating the potential use of this BLIS as a biopreservative in the food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Screening of antibiotics and chemical analysis of penicillin residue in fresh milk and traditional dairy products in Oyo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Olufemi Olatoye

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: There are global public health and economic concerns on chemical residues in food of animal origin. The use of antibiotics in dairy cattle for the treatment of diseases such as mastitis has contributed to the presence of residues in dairy products. Penicillin residues as low as 1 ppb can lead to allergic reactions and shift of resistance patterns in microbial population as well as interfere with the processing of several dairy products. Antibiotic monitoring is an essential quality control measure in safe milk production. This study was aimed at determining antibiotic residue contamination and the level of penicillin in dairy products from Fulani cattle herds in Oyo State. Materials and Methods: The presence of antibiotic residues in 328 samples of fresh milk, 180 local cheese (wara, and 90 fermented milk (nono from Southwest, Nigeria were determined using Premi® test kit (R-Biopharm AG, Germany followed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of penicillin-G residue. Results: Antibiotic residues were obtained in 40.8%, 24.4% and 62.3% fresh milk, wara and nono, respectively. Penicillin-G residue was also detected in 41.1% fresh milk, 40.2% nono and 24.4% wara at mean concentrations of 15.22±0.61, 8.24±0.50 and 7.6±0.60 μg/L with 39.3%, 36.7% and 21.1%, respectively, containing penicillin residue above recommended Codex maximum residue limit (MRL of 5 μg/L in dairy. There was no significant difference between the mean penicillin residues in all the dairy products in this study. Conclusion: The results are of food safety concern since the bulk of the samples and substantial quantities of dairy products in Oyo state contained violative levels of antibiotic residues including penicillin residues in concentrations above the MRL. This could be due to indiscriminate and unregulated administration of antibiotics to dairy cattle. Regulatory control of antibiotic use, rapid screening of milk and dairy farmers

  11. Retrospective study on the hygienic quality of fresh ricotta cheeses produced in Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Scatassa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out to investigate the microbiological profile of Sicilian ewes’ ricotta cheeses during fifteen years of investigations (2002-2016. The samples were collected between those conferred to the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia (IZSSi Adelmo Mirri, Palermo (Italy, by the competent authority during official control, by food business operator in HACCP systems and in research projects. Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS were found only in some samples. Bacillus cereus was detected in c.a. 16% of samples but the level of contaminations did not reach the threshold that leads to significant toxin production. Pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. and Brucella spp. were never detected. Furthermore, a total of 47 of lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains were identified at species level by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene, resulting in the identification of 10 species belonging to four genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Leuconostoc, commonly employed as starter and non starter cultures in different traditional cheese. Results of this study highlighted an improvement of the hygienic conditions of the Sicilian ewes’ ricotta cheeses during the last ten years of investigation. This observation was confirmed from reduction of undesired microorganisms such as Enterobacteriaceae, E.coli and CPS, used to define the process hygiene criteria. However, in order to improve the final quality of this product are needed further strategy such as the dairy makers training, with the aim to apply a good hygienic practices during the production.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus in fresh sheep cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta Amatiste

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs are aromatic oily liquids extracted from different parts of specific plants, well known especially for their aromatic and antibacterial properties. Nowadays, EOs are exploited in the food sector mainly for their aromatic properties. Thanks to their antimicrobial activity, however, they could also be used as additives to increase the safety and the shelf-life of food products. Aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of Thymus vulgaris L. oil and of Origanum vulgare L. oil against Staphylococcus aureus both in vitro and on fresh cheese, and to determine whether the use of EOs can modify the microbiological and/or chemical-physical properties of the products. The antimicrobial activity against S. aureus in vitro was assessed by preparation of the aromatogram (diffusion in agar test, minimum inhibitory concentration test and minimum bactericidal concentration assessment. Raw sheep milk was experimentally contaminated with a strain of S. aureus ATCC 25922 and was used to produce three types of fresh cheese: without EOs, with thyme and oregano EOs (both EOs at a concentration of 1:1000. The samples were analysed on the day of production, after three and seven days. The results obtained from the tests showed that the concentration of S. aureus and the counts of lactic flora remained unchanged for all types of cheese. Even the chemical-physical parameters were constant. The results of inhibition tests on the cheese disagree with those relating to the in vitro tests. Most likely this is due to the ability of EOs to disperse in the lipids the food: the higher the fat content is, the lower the oil fraction will be able to exert the antimicrobial activity.

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils Against Staphylococcus aureus in Fresh Sheep Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatiste, Simonetta; Sagrafoli, Daniele; Giacinti, Giuseppina; Rosa, Giulia; Carfora, Virginia; Marri, Nicla; Tammaro, Andreana; Bovi, Emanuela; Rosati, Remo

    2014-08-28

    Essential oils (EOs) are aromatic oily liquids extracted from different parts of specific plants, well known especially for their aromatic and antibacterial properties. Nowadays, EOs are exploited in the food sector mainly for their aromatic properties. Thanks to their antimicrobial activity, however, they could also be used as additives to increase the safety and the shelf-life of food products. Aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of Thymus vulgaris L. oil and of Origanum vulgare L. oil against Staphylococcus aureus both in vitro and on fresh cheese, and to determine whether the use of EOs can modify the microbiological and/or chemical-physical properties of the products. The antimicrobial activity against S. aureus in vitro was assessed by preparation of the aromatogram (diffusion in agar test), minimum inhibitory concentration test and minimum bactericidal concentration assessment. Raw sheep milk was experimentally contaminated with a strain of S. aureus ATCC 25922 and was used to produce three types of fresh cheese: without EOs, with thyme and oregano EOs (both EOs at a concentration of 1:1000). The samples were analysed on the day of production, after three and seven days. The results obtained from the tests showed that the concentration of S. aureus and the counts of lactic flora remained unchanged for all types of cheese. Even the chemical-physical parameters were constant. The results of inhibition tests on the cheese disagree with those relating to the in vitro tests. Most likely this is due to the ability of EOs to disperse in the lipids the food: the higher the fat content is, the lower the oil fraction will be able to exert the antimicrobial activity.

  14. Fresh cheese as a vehicle for polyunsaturated fatty acids integration: effect on physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Bello, Barbara; Torri, Luisa; Piochi, Maria; Bertolino, Marta; Zeppa, Giuseppe

    2017-11-01

    Five different vegetable oils were used in the production of fresh cheese to increase the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly α-linolenic acid (ALA), the most important omega-3 fatty acid of vegetable origin. Physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of functionalized cheeses were evaluated after 1 and 3 days of ripening at 4 °C while the consumer appreciation was evaluated in the final product at 3 days of ripening. After 3 days, the cheeses with Camelina sativa and Echium plantagineum oils added exhibited the highest retention of PUFAs (mostly ALA) compared to those with flaxseed, raspberry and blackcurrant oils. The addition of oil showed little effects on physico-chemical characteristics and also consumers' evaluation highlighted that all of the fresh cheeses were considered acceptable although those with flaxseed and raspberry oils were the most appreciated.

  15. Dynamics of staphylococcal enterotoxin production in model experiments simulating the fresh cheese environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Necidová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of internal factors (pH, NaCl and external factors (temperature, incubation time on the ability of Staphylococcus aureus to grow and to produce staphylococcal enterotoxins SEA, SEB, and SEC. The fresh cheese environment was modelled in Brain Heart Infusion Broth media and food matrices (pasteurized milk from retail outlets by internal and external factors (pH = 4.5 and 5.5, 2% NaCl, and t = 8 °C and 15 °C. The counts of enterotoxigenic strains of S. aureus at baseline, i.e. at the time of inoculation of model samples, corresponded to those encountered in the production of fresh cheeses as a result of post-pasteurization contamination. Enumeration of S. aureus was performed in accordance with EN ISO 6888-1, using agar medium. Staphylococcal enterotoxins were detected by the enzyme-linked fluorescence assay. The pH (4.5 and refrigeration temperature (8 °C used prevented S. aureus from achieving the critical count of 105 cfu·ml-1 specified in Commission Regulation (EC No. 2073/2005. The highest rates of enterotoxin production were recorded for enterotoxin A. The growth curves of S. aureus derived from model experiments were compared with the growth curve generated by a predictive microbiology program - Pathogen Modelling Program. The results of this study proved the Pathogen Modelling Program to be suitable for use in the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points system in the process of the fresh cheese production to help manufacturers prevent the growth of S. aureus and enterotoxin production.

  16. Derivation of multivariate indices of milk composition, coagulation properties, and individual cheese yield in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, M G; Serdino, J; Gaspa, G; Urgeghe, P; Ibba, I; Contu, M; Fresi, P; Macciotta, N P P

    2016-06-01

    Milk composition and its technological properties are traits of interest for the dairy sheep industry because almost all milk produced is processed into cheese. However, several variables define milk technological properties and a complex correlation pattern exists among them. In the present work, we measured milk composition, coagulation properties, and individual cheese yields in a sample of 991 Sarda breed ewes in 47 flocks. The work aimed to study the correlation pattern among measured variables and to obtain new synthetic indicators of milk composition and cheese-making properties. Multivariate factor analysis was carried out on individual measures of milk coagulation parameters; cheese yield; fat, protein, and lactose percentages; somatic cell score; casein percentage; NaCl content; pH; and freezing point. Four factors that were able to explain about 76% of the original variance were extracted. They were clearly interpretable: the first was associated with composition and cheese yield, the second with udder health status, the third with coagulation, and the fourth with curd characteristics. Factor scores were then analyzed by using a mixed linear model that included the fixed effect of parity, lambing month, and lactation stage, and the random effect of flock-test date. The patterns of factor scores along lactation stages were coherent with their technical meaning. A relevant effect of flock-test date was detected, especially on the 2 factors related to milk coagulation properties. Results of the present study suggest the existence of a simpler latent structure that regulates relationships between variables defining milk composition and coagulation properties in sheep. Heritability estimates for the 4 extracted factors were from low to moderate, suggesting potential use of these new variables as breeding goals. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic parameters of cheese yield and curd nutrient recovery or whey loss traits predicted using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, A; Albera, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Ferragina, A; Bittante, G

    2015-07-01

    Cheese yield is the most important technological parameter in the dairy industry in many countries. The aim of this study was to infer (co)variance components for cheese yields (CY) and nutrient recoveries in curd (REC) predicted using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows. A total of 311,354 FTIR spectra representing the test-day records of 29,208 dairy cows (Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental) from 654 herds, collected over a 3-yr period, were available for the study. The traits of interest for each cow consisted of 3 cheese yield traits (%CY: fresh curd, curd total solids, and curd water as a percent of the weight of the processed milk), 4 curd nutrient recovery traits (REC: fat, protein, total solids, and the energy of the curd as a percent of the same nutrient in the processed milk), and 3 daily cheese production traits (daily fresh curd, total solids, and the water of the curd per cow). Calibration equations (freely available upon request to the corresponding author) were used to predict individual test-day observations for these traits. The (co)variance components were estimated for the CY, REC, milk production, and milk composition traits via a set of 4-trait analyses within each breed. All analyses were performed using REML and linear animal models. The heritabilities of the %CY were always higher for Holstein and Brown Swiss cows (0.22 to 0.33) compared with Simmental cows (0.14 to 0.18). In general, the fresh cheese yield (%CYCURD) showed genetic variation and heritability estimates that were slightly higher than those of its components, %CYSOLIDS and %CYWATER. The parameter RECPROTEIN was the most heritable trait in all the 3 breeds, with values ranging from 0.32 to 0.41. Our estimation of the genetic relationships of the CY and REC with milk production and composition revealed that the current selection strategies used in dairy cattle are expected

  18. [Epidemic outbreak of 81 cases of brucellosis following the consumption of fresh cheese without pasteurization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell Monsalve, J; Rullán, J V; Peiró Callizo, E F; Nieto-Sandoval Alcolea, A

    1996-01-01

    In spite of the great effort that has been made in recent years in Castilla-La Mancha to control brucelosis, a lack of awareness on the part of producers and consumers leads to major epidemic outbreak, such as the one described below. A description of the outbreak is described and a study is conducted of cases and controls to determine the factors which are responsible for the epidemic. Unadjusted and adjusted Odds Ratios (O.R.) are obtained together with their confidence intervals, for the main epidemiological factors studied. A total of 81 cases of brucelosis were recorded in a period of 25 weeks. All the cases occurred in the same borough or were in some way linked to it. In the case and controls study no differences were found with regard to age, sex, contact with livestock or the consumption of pasteurised milk or cheese. A strong link was established between the illness and the consumption of home-made cottage cheese prepared by a small-scale producer in the borough, (O.R. = 311.9; C.I. = 95% = 41.48-12735)., whose livestock turned out to be infected with Brucella Mellitensis. This outbreak showed that in Spain, there is a risk of contracting brucelosis by consuming non-pasteurised dairy products, particularly cheese, when these are not subjected to the normal sanitary and health controls. The benefits of epidemiological research in the search for cases and determining the factors responsible for the outbreak are also demonstrated. An intensification of controls, the cleansing of the herds and flocks and health education in general, are suitable instruments for controlling this zoonosis in Spain.

  19. Compositional and biochemical changes during cold storage of starter-free fresh cheeses made from ultra-high-pressure homogenised milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, A; Juan, B; Trujillo, A J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of using ultra-high pressure homogenisation (UHPH) on the composition and biochemistry of starter-free fresh cheeses and to monitor their evolution during cold storage as an alternative to conventional treatments applied in the production of fresh cheese such as conventional pasteurisation and homogenisation-pasteurisation. Although both homogenisation treatments increased cheese moisture content, cheeses from UHPH-treated milk showed lower moisture loss during storage than those from conventionally homogenised-pasteurised milk. Lipolysis and proteolysis levels in cheeses from UHPH-treated milk were lower than those from conventionally treated milk samples. Although, oxidation was found to be the major drawback, in general terms, high quality starter-free fresh cheeses were obtained from UHPH-treated milk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A rapid procedure for detecting noroviruses from cheese and fresh lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumian, Tulio Machado; Leite, José Paulo G; Marin, Victor Augustus; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are recognized as the most common agents of outbreaks of food-borne viral gastroenteritis and the efficiency of different methods for detection of NoVs from food matrices have been tested in several laboratories worldwide. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid and sensitive method for recovery of NoVs by using a filtration concentration method followed by PCR amplification for detection of NoVs from cheese and fresh lettuce. Experimentally, a fecal suspension containing different number of NoVs copies was spiked in the food surface and extracted by a direct elution using a Stomacher apparatus. An Ozone-Safe solvent Vertrel XF treatment was included for cheese samples for removing particulate matter. The watery phase was collected and the viral concentration was performed by the adsorption-elution method using negatively charged membranes with inorganic solvents in a Stericup and afterwards ultrafiltered using a Centriprep Concentrator 50 to obtain a final volume of 2ml. RNA isolation was carried out with the QIAamp Viral RNA Mini Kit available commercially and reverse transcription was carried out with a Pd(N6) random primer. Real time quantitative PCR (TaqMan) and qualitative PCR were used for molecular detection of NoVs. The recovery rate of NoVs ranged from 5.2 to 72.3% in lettuce and from 6 to 56.3% in cheese. The results indicate that this method is suitable for detection of NoVs contamination in food and will help establish the cause and source of NoVs outbreaks of food-borne illness.

  1. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Cheese Using Chitosan-Grafted Lactic Acid Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N. Sandoval

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A chitosan from biologically obtained chitin was successfully grafted with d,l-lactic acid (LA in aqueous media using p-toluenesulfonic acid as catalyst to obtain a non-toxic, biodegradable packaging material that was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, water vapor permeability, and relative humidity (RH losses. Additionally, the grafting in chitosan with LA produced films with improved mechanical properties. This material successfully extended the shelf life of fresh cheese and inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes during 14 days at 4 °C and 22% RH, whereby inoculated samples with chitosan-g-LA packaging presented full bacterial inhibition. The results were compared to control samples and commercial low-density polyethylene packaging.

  2. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Cheese Using Chitosan-Grafted Lactic Acid Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Laura N; López, Monserrat; Montes-Díaz, Elizabeth; Espadín, Andres; Tecante, Alberto; Gimeno, Miquel; Shirai, Keiko

    2016-04-08

    A chitosan from biologically obtained chitin was successfully grafted with d,l-lactic acid (LA) in aqueous media using p-toluenesulfonic acid as catalyst to obtain a non-toxic, biodegradable packaging material that was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, water vapor permeability, and relative humidity (RH) losses. Additionally, the grafting in chitosan with LA produced films with improved mechanical properties. This material successfully extended the shelf life of fresh cheese and inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes during 14 days at 4 °C and 22% RH, whereby inoculated samples with chitosan-g-LA packaging presented full bacterial inhibition. The results were compared to control samples and commercial low-density polyethylene packaging.

  3. Influence of partial replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride in Minas fresh cheese of sheep’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalana Cecília Hanauer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The sheep’s milk has high contents of fat, protein and minerals in relation to the cow’s milk and is suitable for the production of cheeses, as the Minas fresh. The production of this cheese includes the salting, by offering important functions for this product. The salting is performed by adding sodium chloride (NaCl, however in excess this salt may be harmful to consumer health. Then, it was evaluated the development of tree formulations of Minas fresh cheese sheep’s milk (100% NaCl – QA; 75% NaCl and 25% potassium chloride (KCl – QB; 50% NaCl and 50% KCl – QC and they were evaluated by physical-chemical, microbiological and sensorial analyzes. A partial replacement of NaCl by KCl did not influence the moisture, protein and ash contents, pH and water activity of the cheeses. Furthermore, a 50% substitution of NaCl by KCl enabled to obtain a cheese with reduced sodium content in relation to the standard with 100% NaCl. The sensorial analysis showed that the substitution of 50% (QC and 25% (QB of NaCl by KCl did not show significant for the overall acceptance index, however, the use of KCl was perceived by the evaluators, since the formulations QB and QC differed significantly from the standard (QA. However, in the multiple comparison test there was no significant difference between the samples. Thus, the results indicated that a partial replacement of NaCl by KCl can be performed at Minas fresh cheese from sheep’smilk.

  4. Effect of Abalone Hydrolysates Encapsulated by Double Emulsion on the Physicochemical and Sensorial Properties of Fresh Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, HeeJeong; Kim, Soo-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Choi, Mi-Jung

    2017-01-01

    The intake of dietary salt through food now exceeds current nutritional recommendations and is thought to have negative effects on human health, such as the increasing prevalence of hypertension. This study was performed to investigate whether W 1 /O/W 2 double emulsions can be used to enhance the saltiness of cheese without increasing the salt content (W 1 is distilled water or 1% abalone hydrolysate, and W 2 is 1% NaCl or 1% abalone hydrolysate + 1% NaCl solution). We also investigated the effect of adding abalone hydrolysate to the double emulsion as a saltiness enhancer. The cheeses were physico-chemically evaluated to determine curd yield, pH value, moisture content, color, texture, salt release rate, and sensory properties. No significant differences were observed in curd yield, pH value, moisture content, lightness, or redness between the cheeses made with and without the double emulsion. However, in the evaluation of salt release rate, fresh cheese made with double emulsion (W 1 = distilled water, W 2 = 1% NaCl + 1% abalone hydrolysate) was detected earlier than the control or the other treatments. In the sensory evaluation, fresh cheese made with the double emulsion showed higher scores for saltiness and overall preference than the control or the other treatments. We concluded that abalone hydrolysate encapsulated in a double emulsion (W 1 is water and W 2 is abalone hydrolysate and NaCl solution) could enhance the saltiness of fresh cheese while maintaining the same salt concentration, without altering its physical properties.

  5. Fatty Acid Profile of Milk and Cheese from Dairy Cows Supplemented a Diet with Palm Kernel Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ronaldo; Faria, Mario; Silva, Raimundo; Bezerra, Leilson; Carvalho, Gleidson; Pinheiro, Alyson; Simionato, Juliana; Leão, André

    2015-08-24

    Lipid supplements (oilseeds vegetables) are included in ruminant diet to increase its energy density and improve fatty acid composition of milk and consequently of fresh cheese. Milk and cheeses were evaluated from crossbred Holstein × Zebu, fed diets enriched with 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% inclusion levels of palm kernel cake in concentrated supplement, which were supplied daily (3.0 kg). Milk and fresh cheese (p = 0.001) fatty acids C12:0 exhibited quadratic negative values. Milk fatty acids C13:0, C20:0, C18:2t10c12, and C20:2n-6 presented positive quadratic values. The milk C18:2n-6 decreased linearly and in fresh cheese exhibited an increasing linear effect (p = 0.016). However, the fatty acids grouped in milk fat were not affected. The medium-chain fatty acids varied negatively and quadratically (p = 0.045). There was no effect on milk and fresh cheese chemical composition (p > 0.05). The milk fat was increased (p = 0.0065) quadratically (minimum point of 24.7%). Thus, the addition of palm kernel cake to cow diets negatively altered the fatty acid profile, it raises the percentage of lauric (C12) and tridecanoic (C13) acids fat which is not beneficial to human health from a nutraceutical perspective, although it did not influence the atherogenicity index.

  6. Production of fresh Cheddar cheese curds with controlled postacidification and enhanced flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Gelais, D; Lessard, J; Champagne, C P; Vuillemard, J-C

    2009-05-01

    Cheddar cheese in curd form is very popular in eastern Canada. It is retailed immediately after cheese manufacturing and can be maintained at room temperature for 24 h to provide better texture and mouthfeel. Subsequently, the cheese curds must be stored at 4 degrees C. The shelf life is generally 3 d. In this study, Cheddar cheese curds were produced by adding a high diacetyl flavor-producing strain (Lactococcus diacetylactis) to a thermophilic-based starter. The objective was to achieve both postacidification stability to increase the shelf life and enhanced flavor. The addition of L. diacetylactis increased processing time but did not affect cheese composition or the evolution of proteolysis and texture. During cheese manufacturing, streptococci became the dominant microflora in all cheeses, whereas populations of Lactococcus cremoris and L. diacetylactis decreased. During cheese storage, viable counts of L. diacetylactis and Streptococcus thermophilus increased but the counts of L. cremoris decreased. During cheese manufacturing and storage, the concentrations of lactic acid and diacetyl increased rapidly in cheeses produced with L. diacetylactis. Citric acid and galactose contents remained high in cheese made without L. diacetylactis. Sensory evaluation indicated that cheeses containing the L. diacetylactis strain were more flavorful and also had less sourness and could be stored at 4 degrees C for up to 7 d.

  7. Isolation of cultivable thermophilic lactic acid bacteria from cheeses made with mesophilic starter and molecular comparison with dairy-related Lactobacillus helveticus strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Elisabeth Penderup; Ardö, Ylva Margareta; Vogensen, Finn Kvist

    2009-01-01

    was identical to the rep-PCR profile of the Lact. helveticus adjunct culture used in the specific cheese, but their pulsed field gel electrophoresis profiles differed slightly. Conclusion: It was possible to isolate cultivable thermophilic bacteria from ripened cheeses manufactured with mesophilic starter...... and thermophilic adjunct cultures by using an enumeration step. Significance and Impact of the Study: Isolation of cultivable thermophilic bacteria from ripened cheeses made with mesophilic starters offers an original source for new dairy-relevant cultures....

  8. Cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Lucey, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    The initial step in the manufacture of most cheese varieties involves enzymatic hydrolysis of one of the milk proteins, κ-casein. The enzyme involved is called rennet. During the primary stage, κ-casein is cleaved by rennet at the Phe105–Met106 bond, resulting in a reduction in both the net...

  9. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Arcobacter species in cow milk, water buffalo milk and fresh village cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilmen, Simten; Vural, Aydin; Erkan, Mehmet Emin; Yildirim, Ibrahim Halil

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the presence of Arcobacter spp. was examined in cow milk (n=50), water buffalo (WB) milk (n=50) and fresh village cheese (n=50) samples. The 16S rDNA-RFLP method was used for the identification of Arcobacter spp. The disc diffusion method was used to investigate the susceptibility of all strains identified to 18 different antimicrobial substances. The most commonly isolated Arcobacter species were found to be Arcobacter butzleri (38.89%), Arcobacter cryaerophilus (22.23%) and Arcobacter skirrowii (11.12%) in cow milk; A. cryaerophilus (33.33%), Arcobacter cibarius (20.83%) and A. butzleri (12.50%) in WB milk; and A. skirrowii (28.57%), A. butzleri (21.43%) and A. cryaerophilus (14.29%) in fresh village cheese. This is the first study to identify the presence of Arcobacter nitrofigilis, Arcobacter cloacae, Arcobacter halophilus, Arcobacter bivalviorum and A. cibarius species in analyzed samples. It was found that all of the A. cryaerophilus (n:16) isolates were resistant to cefoperazone, cloxacillin and penicillin G; all of the A. skirrowii (n:12) and A. butzleri (n:10) isolates were resistant to cefoperazone, tetracycline, ampicillin, erythromycin, cloxacillin and penicillin G. It was concluded that cow milk, WB milk and fresh village cheese samples are an important source of Arcobacter species and pose a risk to public health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of four single fresh forages on volatile organic compound (VOC content and profile and sensory properties of goat Caciotta cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Fedele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the trial was to evaluate the effect of fresh single-species herbage on the VOC and sensory properties of cheese, in order to individuate specific descriptors linked to the use of fresh herbage in pureness. Two groups of Siriana housed goats were fed alternately with 2 grasses: Avena sativa (AS and Lolium perenne (LP and 2 legumes: Medicago sativa (MS and Trifolium incarnatum (TI in pureness. The milk was processed as Caciotta cheese and ripened for 20 days. The VOC analyses (by GC-MS showed the highest VOC total content in AS cheeses (226.55a.u., where alcohols was the dominant class; the lowest value (79.96a.u. was found in TI cheeses, and the dominant class was hydrocarbons. The panel test (for colour, odour, taste and final acceptability showed that cheeses from grasses’ groups were described with astringent and blue taste, those from legumes with acidic, bitter and light goaty taste. All cheeses showed goaty taste, except LP cheeses. Grasses’ cheeses showed higher final acceptability than those from legumes. The results showed that each meadow’s species, with its specific content of secondary metabolites, at specific phenological stage, was able to characterise the derived cheese products at sensorial level.

  11. Distribution of Penicillium commune isolates in cheese dairies mapped using secondary metabolite profiles, morphotypes, RAPD and AFLP fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Flemming; Nielsen, A.B.; Skouboe, P.

    2003-01-01

    ) and amplified fragment length polymorphism, (AFLP). For a sub-set of 272 P. commune isolates RAPD analysis generated 33 RAPD groups whereas AFLP profiling revealed 55 AFLP groups. This study conclusively showed that the discriminatory power of AFLP was high compared to RAPD and that AFLP fingerprinting matched...... morphotyping, P. commune isolates with identical profiles using all four typing techniques were interpreted as closely related isolates with a common origin and the distribution of these isolates in the processing environment indicated possible contamination points in the cheese dairies. The coating process...... and unpacking of cheeses with growth of P. commune seemed to cause the contamination problems. Several identical P. commune isolates remained present in the processing environment for more than 7 years in both dairies....

  12. [Evaluation of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection and identification of Listeria monocytogens in fresh cheese coming from the metropolitan area of San José, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Maria Laura; Chaves, Carolina; Solano, Gabriela

    2010-12-01

    Food borne diseases are very important worldwide and their frequency is still high despite the different efforts focused in diminishing their morbidity and mortality. Listeria monocytogenes is one of the agents associated in this kind of diseases. In the lactic industry, this bacteria is important since raw milks as well as dairy products have been associated in outbreaks, being fresh cheese one of the most vulnerable products to the contamination with this bacteria. The traditional identification of the bacteria is done by a laborious, time consuming and low sensitive technique and the polymerase chain reaction may allow more precise and exact results in shorter time. For this reason the objective of the present study was to optimize the procedure to determine the sensitivity and specificity limits for the detection of L. monocytogenes from fresh cheese and the predictive value of the test. In order to achieve this objective, 76 pasteurized cheese samples were evaluated (45 samples were artificially inoculated at the lab and 31 were used as negative controls). The validation of the technique was done in 50 samples of non pasteurized fresh cheese. Traditional culture isolation was performed according to the methodology described in Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods. PCR reaction for the detection of L. monocytogenes was based on the methodology described by Poutou,using primers characteristic of the genus and the listeriolisine O gene that is specie's specific. The optimal incubation period determined for the selective enrichment broth was of 48h, and a 100% sensitivity, specificity, predictive value (positive and negative) were obtained by PCR. The technique validation showed the specificity ofthe test in the detection of only the L. monocytogenes species, and not other genus or species that may appear in food matrixes or in food environments.

  13. Effect of dairy calcium from cheese and milk on fecal fat excretion, blood lipids, and appetite in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soerensen, Karina V; Thorning, Tanja K; Astrup, Arne; Kristensen, Mette; Lorenzen, Janne K

    2014-05-01

    Calcium from different dairy sources might affect blood lipids and fecal fat excretion differently because of differences in the food matrix and nutritional composition. We investigated whether milk- and cheese-based diets with similar calcium contents affect a saturated fatty acid-induced increase in blood lipids differently. Fifteen healthy, young men participated in a randomized 3 × 2-wk crossover study in which the following 3 isocaloric diets that were similar in fat contents and compositions were compared: control diet [nondairy diet (~500 mg Ca/d)], milk diet [semiskimmed milk-based diet (1700 mg Ca/d)], and cheese diet [semihard cow-cheese-based diet (1700 mg Ca/d)]. Blood was drawn before and after each period, and feces were collected for 5 d during each period. Saturated fatty acid-induced increases in total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were lower with the milk diet (mean ± SD: 0.57 ± 0.13 and 0.53 ± 0.11 mmol/L, respectively) (P milk (5.2 ± 0.4 g/d) and cheese (5.7 ± 0.4 g/d) diets than with the control diet (3.9 ± 0.3 g/d) (P cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipid ratios did not differ. Compared with the control diet, milk- and cheese-based diets attenuated saturated fatty acid-induced increases in total and LDL cholesterol and resulted in increased fecal fat excretion; however, effects of milk and cheese did not differ. Because the diets contained similar amounts of saturated fat, similar increases in total and LDL cholesterol could be expected; however, both milk and cheese attenuated these responses, which seem to be explained by their calcium contents. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01317251.

  14. Effect of lupine as cheese base substitution on technological and nutritional properties of processed cheese analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Rezik Azab; Salama, Wafaa Mohammed; Farahat, Azza Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Healthy foods have been met with marked success in the last two decades. Lupine flours, protein concentrates, and isolates can be applied as a substance for enriching different kinds of food systems such as bakery products, lupine pasta, ice cream, milk substitutes. Imitation processed cheese is made from mixtures of dairy and/or non dairy proteins and fat/oils and is variously labeled analogue, artificial, extruded, synthetic and/or filled. Processed cheese can be formulated using different types of cheese with different degree of maturation, flavorings, emulsifying, salts, and/or several ingredients of non-dairy components. Non-dairy ingredients have been used in processed cheese for many dietary and economic reasons. In this study, lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA). Matured Ras cheese (3 months old) was manufactured using fresh cow milk. Soft cheese curd was manufactured using fresh buffalo skim milk. Emulsifying salts S9s and Unsalted butter were used. Lupine termis paste was prepared by soaking the seeds in tap water for week with changing the water daily, and then boiled in water for 2 hrs, cooled and peeled. The peeled seeds were minced, blended to get very fine paste and kept frozen until used. Lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA). The obtained PCA were analysed when fresh and during storage up to 3 months at 5±2°C for chemical composition, physical and sensory properties. The histopathological effect of lupines on alloxan diabetic albino rats and nutritional parameters were also investigated. Incorporation of lupine paste in PCA increased the ash and protein contents while meltability and penetration values of resultant products were decreased. Adding lupine in PSA formula had relatively increased the oil index and firmness of products. Feeding rats a balanced diet containing processed cheese

  15. Energy and Carbon Impact of Precision Livestock Farming Technologies Implementation in the Milk Chain: From Dairy Farm to Cheese Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Todde

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Precision Livestock Farming (PLF is being developed in livestock farms to relieve the human workload and to help farmers to optimize production and management procedure. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the consequences in energy intensity and the related carbon impact, from dairy farm to cheese factory, due to the implementation of a real-time milk analysis and separation (AfiMilk MCS in milking parlors. The research carried out involved three conventional dairy farms, the collection and delivery of milk from dairy farms to cheese factory and the processing line of a traditional soft cheese into a dairy factory. The AfiMilk MCS system installed in the milking parlors allowed to obtain a large number of information related to the quantity and quality of milk from each individual cow and to separate milk with two different composition (one with high coagulation properties and the other one with low coagulation properties, with different percentage of separation. Due to the presence of an additional milkline and the AfiMilk MCS components, the energy requirements and the related environmental impact at farm level were slightly higher, among 1.1% and 4.4%. The logistic of milk collection was also significantly reorganized in view of the collection of two separate type of milk, hence, it leads an increment of 44% of the energy requirements. The logistic of milk collection and delivery represents the process which the highest incidence in energy consumption occurred after the installation of the PLF technology. Thanks to the availability of milk with high coagulation properties, the dairy plant, produced traditional soft cheese avoiding the standardization of the formula, as a result, the energy uses decreased about 44%, while considering the whole chain, the emissions of carbon dioxide was reduced by 69%. In this study, the application of advance technologies in milking parlors modified not only the on-farm management but mainly the

  16. [Sanitary and technologic evaluation of the rural processing of fresh goat cheese in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, L; Sierra, C

    1988-12-01

    A sanitary and technological diagnosis of the goat cheese rural process was carried out. The purpose was to obtain more information for the planning of a program aimed to the improvement of this small agroindustry. Samples of milk, curdle, dry abomasum, rennet, water and cheese of 10% of the small industries of two rural villages in two agricultural seasons, were taken. Moreover, dilutions of the utensils and goat udders were prepared. The samples were subjected to microbiological analysis of mesophilic aerobic bacteria count, most probable number of total and fecal coliforms, and detection of Staphylococcus aureus coagulase (+), Salmonella typhi and Brucella melitensis. Proximate chemical analysis and determinations of sodium chloride and titratible acidity in milk, cheese, dry abomasum and rennet, were carried out. Goat milk was also subjected to analysis of density. It was found that significant sanitary failures are present during th whole goat cheese process, although the highest bacteria contamination occurred at the milking, curdling and filling stages. These are characterized by excessive handling and absolute lack of hygiene. The pathogen B. melitensis was absent; therefore the causes of poisoning were attributed to the toxin produced by S. aureus and to the significant count of fecal coliforms found in the goat cheese. Even though the goats are fed under a poor feeding system, the milk presented a normal physical and chemical composition. Nevertheless, protein and fat matter losses occur during cheese preparation, as a result of handling practices and lack of process control.

  17. Determination of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs in Milk and Fresh Cheese Based on the Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Di Persio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A biosensor for rapid determination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs is described based on the inhibition of cyclooxygenase enzyme (both isoforms by NSAIDs. The results show the full validity of the method, which has also been optimized by comparing the inhibition of two enzyme isoforms, COX-1 and COX-2, in the presence of different tested pharmaceutical drugs (diclofenac, naproxen, ibuprofen, tolmetin. Also, recovery trials were performed in milk and fresh cheese adulterated with known quantities of NSAIDs, always obtaining recovery values >88 %.

  18. Short communication: Chemical composition, fatty acid composition, and sensory characteristics of Chanco cheese from dairy cows supplemented with soybean and hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E; Fehrmann-Cartes, K; Íñiguez-González, G; Toro-Mujica, P; Garnsworthy, P C

    2015-01-01

    Lipid supplements can be used to alter fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy products. For Chanco cheese, however, little information is available concerning effects of lipid supplements on sensorial properties. The objective of this study was to examine effects of supplementation of dairy cow diets with soybean (SO) and hydrogenated vegetable (HVO) oils on chemical and FA composition of milk and cheese and sensory characteristics of cheese. Nine multiparous Holstein cows averaging 169±24d in milk at the beginning of the study were used in a replicated (n=3) 3×3 Latin square design that included 3 periods of 21d. All cows received a basal diet formulated with a 56:44 forage:concentrate ratio. Dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet (control; no fat supplement), and the basal diet supplemented with SO (unrefined oil; 500g/d per cow) and HVO (manufactured from palm oil; 500g/d per cow). Milk fat yield was lower with HVO compared with control and SO. Cheese chemical composition and sensory profile were not affected by dietary treatment. Vaccenic (C18:1 trans-11) and oleic (C18:1 cis-9) acids were higher for SO than for control and HVO. Compared with control and HVO, SO decreased saturated FA and increased monounsaturated FA. The thrombogenic index of milk and cheese produced when cows were fed SO was lower than when cows were fed on control and HVO. The outcome of this study showed that, compared with control and HVO, supplementing dairy cow diets with SO improves milk and cheese FA profile without detrimental effects on the chemical composition of milk and cheese and the sensory characteristics of cheese. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Changes in quality of fresh cheese using dressing with and withouth probiotic culture during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Flimelová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate selected chemical, microbiological and sensorial quality parameters in cheeses without (C, with addition of probiotic culture (E1 and with addition of probiotic culture and inulin (E2. These samples were analysed during 15 days of storage at cooling temperature (7 ± 2 °C. No significant differences (P > 0.05 were observed in the physico-chemical parameters (content of dry matter, fat, sodium chloride and water activity by comparing of analysed samples. Titratable acidity values in the samples increased proportionally by time of their storage. Higher increase of titratable acidity was recorded in E1 and E2 samples compared with C sample. Significant difference (P st day following the cheese production, whereas the highest values were found in E2 sample during the whole period of storage. Significant difference (P st day following the cheese production. Results of titratable acidity were confirmed by pH values. In all samples, counts of lactic acid bacteria exceed value of 106 CFU g−1 during whole period of storage. Number of microorganisms rose till 6th day of storage. After 15 days of storage, higher microbial numbers were detected in C cheese sample compared with cheese samples E1 and E2. Additions of probiotic culture as well as inulin were positively perceived by assessors till 10th day of storage. Overall, assessors described the samples as unsuitable for consummation after 15 days of storage in term of their taste and smell.

  20. 21 CFR 133.108 - Brick cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brick cheese. 133.108 Section 133.108 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.108 Brick cheese. (a) Description. (1) Brick cheese is the food prepared from dairy...

  1. Mexican unpasteurised fresh cheeses are contaminated with Salmonella spp., non-O157 Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli and potential uropathogenic E. coli strains: A public health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Hernandez, Rosa; Contreras-Rodriguez, Araceli; Hernandez-Velez, Rosa; Perez-Martinez, Iza; Lopez-Merino, Ahide; Zaidi, Mussaret B; Estrada-Garcia, Teresa

    2016-11-21

    Fresh cheeses are a main garnish of Mexican food. Consumption of artisanal fresh cheeses is very common and most of them are made from unpasteurised cow milk. A total of 52 fresh unpasteurised cheeses of five different types were purchased from a variety of suppliers from Tabasco, Mexico. Using the most probable number method, 67% and 63% of samples were positive for faecal coliforms and E. coli, respectively; revealing their low microbiological quality. General hygienic conditions and practices of traditional cheese manufacturers were poor; most establishments had unclean cement floors, all lacked windows and doors screens, and none of the food-handlers wore aprons, surgical masks or bouffant caps. After analysing all E. coli isolates (121 strains) for the presence of 26 virulence genes, results showed that 9 (17%) samples were contaminated with diarrheagenic E. coli strains, 8 harboured non-O157 Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC), and one sample contained both STEC and diffusely adherent E. coli strains. All STEC strains carried the stx1 gene. Potential uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains were isolated from 15 (29%) samples; the most frequent gene combination was fimA-agn43. Two samples were contaminated with Salmonella. The results demonstrated that unpasteurised fresh cheeses produced in Tabasco are of poor microbiological quality and may frequently harbour foodborne pathogens. Food safety authorities in Mexico need to conduct more rigorous surveillance of fresh cheeses. Furthermore, simple and inexpensive measures as establishing programs emphasizing good hand milking practices and hygienic manufacturing procedures may have a major effect on improving the microbiological quality of these food items. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbial Quality of and Biochemical Changes in Fresh Soft, Acid-Curd Xinotyri Cheese Made from Raw or Pasteurized Goat’s Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasioula-Margari, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Summary The microbiological quality of and changes in the main physicochemical parameters, together with the evolution of proteolysis, lipolysis and volatile profiles of soft Xinotyri, a traditional Greek acid-curd cheese (pH≈4.4, moisture 65%, salt 1%) made from raw (RMC) or pasteurized (PMC) goat’s milk without starters, were evaluated during aerobic storage at 4 oC for 60 days. No statistically significant differences between the total nitrogen (TN) and nitrogen fraction (% of TN) contents, the degradation of intact αs- or β-caseins, total free amino acid (FAA) contents, and the ratio of hydrophilic and hydrophobic peptides in the water-soluble fraction of RMC and PMC were found. Threonine, alanine and lysine were the principal FAAs. Oleic, palmitic, capric and caprylic acids, and ethyl hexonate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, ethanol, 3-methyl butanol, phenyl ethyl alcohol and acetone were the most abundant free fatty acids and volatile compounds, respectively. Cheese lipolysis evolved slowly at 4 oC, and milk pasteurization had no significant effect on it. Mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were predominant in fresh cheese samples. PMC samples had significantly lower levels of enterococci and enterobacteria than RMC samples, while yeasts grew at similar levels during storage at 4 oC. All cheese samples (25 g) were free of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. Coagulase-
-positive staphylococci exceeded the 5-log safety threshold in fresh RMC samples, whereas they were suppressed (fresh soft Xinotyri cheese. PMID:29540984

  3. Effects of different dairy ingredients on the rheological behaviour and stability of hot cheese emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelimu, Abulimiti; Felix da Silva, Denise; Geng, Xiaolu

    2017-01-01

    The influence of sodium caseinate (SC), butter milk powder (BMP) and their combinations on particle size, rheological properties, emulsion stability and microstructure of hot cheese emulsions made from mixtures of Cheddar and soft white cheese was studied. All emulsions exhibited shear...

  4. Monitoring of biogenic amines in cheeses manufactured at small-scale farms and in fermented dairy products in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buňková, Leona; Adamcová, Gabriela; Hudcová, Kateřina; Velichová, Helena; Pachlová, Vendula; Lorencová, Eva; Buňka, František

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was the monitoring of six biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, putrescine, and cadaverine) and two polyamines (spermidine and spermine) in 112 samples of dairy products purchased in the Czech Republic, namely in 55 cheeses made in small-scale farms and in 57 fermented dairy products. The products were tested at the end of their shelf-life period. Neither tryptamine nor phenylethylamine was detected in the monitored samples; histamine was found only in four cheese samples containing up to 25mg/kg. The contents of spermine and spermidine were low and did not exceed the values of 35 mg/kg. Significant amounts of tyramine, putrescine, and cadaverine occurred especially in cheeses produced from ewe's milk or in long-term ripened cheeses. In about 10% of the tested cheeses, the total concentration of all the monitored biogenic amines and polyamines exceeded the level of 200mg/kg, which can be considered toxicologically significant. In fermented dairy products, the tested biogenic amines occurred in relatively low amounts (generally up to 30 mg/kg) that are regarded safe for the consumer's health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fresh-cow handling practices and methods for identification of health disorders on 45 dairy farms in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espadamala, A; Pallarés, P; Lago, A; Silva-Del-Río, N

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe fresh-cow handling practices and techniques used during fresh cow evaluations to identify postpartum health disorders on 45 dairy farms in California ranging from 450 to 9,500 cows. Fresh cow practices were surveyed regarding (a) grouping and housing, (b) scheduling and work organization, (c) screening for health disorders, and (d) physical examination methods. Information was collected based on cow-side observations and responses from fresh cow evaluators. Cows were housed in the fresh cow pen for 3 to 14 (20%), 15 to 30 (49%), or >31 (31%) d in milk. Fresh cow evaluations were performed daily (78%), 6 times a week (11%), 2 to 5 times a week (9%), or were not routinely performed (2%). There was significant correlation between the duration of fresh cow evaluations and the number of cows housed in the fresh pen. Across all farms, the duration of evaluations ranged from 5 to 240 min, with an average of 16 s spent per cow. During fresh cow checks, evaluators always looked for abnormal vaginal discharge, retained fetal membranes, and down cows. Dairies evaluated appetite based on rumen fill (11%), reduction of feed in the feed bunk (20%), rumination sensors (2%), or a combination of these (29%). Milk yield was evaluated based on udder fill at fresh cow checks (40%), milk flow during milking (11%), milk yield records collected by milk meters (2%), or a combination of udder fill and milk meters (5%). Depressed attitude was evaluated on 64% of the dairies. Health-monitoring exams for early detection of metritis were implemented on 42% of the dairies based on rectal examination (13%), rectal temperature (22%), or both (7%). Dairies implementing health-monitoring exams took longer to perform fresh cow evaluations. Physical examination methods such as rectal examination, auscultation, rectal temperature evaluation, and cow-side ketosis tests were used on 76, 67, 38, and 9% of dairies, respectively. Across dairies, we found large

  6. Effect of feeding buckwheat and chicory silages on fatty acid profile and cheese-making properties of milk from dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälber, Tasja; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2013-02-01

    Fresh buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) had been shown to have the potential to improve certain milk quality traits when fed as forages to dairy cows. However, the process of ensiling might alter these properties. In the present study, two silages, prepared from mixtures of buckwheat or chicory and ryegrass, were compared with pure ryegrass silage (Lolium multiflorum) by feeding to 3 × 6 late-lactating cows. The dietary dry matter proportions realised for buckwheat and chicory were 0.46 and 0.34 accounting also for 2 kg/d of concentrate. Data and samples were collected from days 10 to 15 of treatment feeding. Buckwheat silage was richest in condensed tannins. Proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and α-linoleic acid in total fatty acids (FA) were highest in the ryegrass silage. Feed intake, milk yield and milk gross composition did not differ among the groups. Feeding buckwheat resulted in the highest milk fat concentrations (g/kg) of linoleic acid (15.7) and total PUFA (40.5; both P milk fat was similar across treatments, but its apparent recovery in milk relative to the amounts ingested was highest with buckwheat. The same was true for the occurrence of FA biohydrogenation products in milk relative to α-linolenic acid intake. Recovery of dietary linoleic acid in milk remained unaffected. Feeding buckwheat silage shortened rennet coagulation time by 26% and tended (P milk and to contribute to improved cheese-making properties.

  7. Selection of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria from goat dairies and their addition to evaluate the inhibition of Salmonella typhi in artisanal cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Iris da Silva; de Souza, Jane Viana; Ramos, Cintia Lacerda; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Francesca Silva

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to select autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with probiotic and functional properties from goat dairies and test their addition to artisanal cheese for the inhibition of Salmonella typhi. In vitro tests, including survival in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), auto- and co-aggregation, the hemolytic test, DNase activity, antimicrobial susceptibility, antibacterial activity, tolerance to NaCl and exopolysaccharide (EPS), gas and diacetyl production were conducted for sixty isolates. Based on these tests, four LAB isolates (UNIVASF CAP 16, 45, 84 and 279) were selected and identified. Additional tests, such as production of lactic and citric acids by UNIVASF CAP isolates were performed in addition to assays of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), β-galactosidase and decarboxylase activity. The four selected LAB produced high lactic acid (>17 g/L) and low citric acid (0.2 g/L) concentrations. All selected strains showed BSH and β-galactosidase activity and none showed decarboxylase activity. Three goat cheeses (1, 2 and control) were produced and evaluated for the inhibitory action of selected LAB against Salmonella typhi. The cheese inoculated with LAB (cheese 2) decreased 0.38 log10 CFU/g of S. Typhy population while in the cheese without LAB inoculation (cheese 1) the pathogen population increased by 0.29 log units. Further, the pH value increased linearly over time, by 0.004 units per day in cheese 1. In the cheese 2, the pH value decreased linearly over time, by 0.066 units per day. The cocktail containing selected Lactobacillus strains with potential probiotic and technological properties showed antibacterial activity against S. typhi in vitro and in artisanal goat cheese. Thus, goat milk is important source of potential probiotic LAB which may be used to inhibit the growth of Salmonella population in cheese goat, contributing to safety and functional value of the product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A comparison for acid production, proteolysis, autolysis and inhibitory properties of lactic acid bacteria from fresh and mature Feta PDO Greek cheese, made at three different mountainous areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozoudi, Despina; Kotzamanidis, Charalambos; Hatzikamari, Magdalini; Tzanetakis, Nikolaos; Menexes, George; Litopoulou-Tzanetaki, Evanthia

    2015-05-04

    Isolates of NSLAB were obtained from fresh (58 isolates) and mature (38) Feta cheese made at household level in three different mountainous areas, in order to study the effect of the area of production on NSLAB composition and their technological characteristics. Results obtained by SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins indicated that the microflora of the fresh cheese was composed of either lactococci (areas 1, 2), or lactococci and enterococci (area 3). The NSLAB microflora of mature cheese was composed almost entirely of lactobacilli species, differing according to the area of production. Species allocation by the SDS-PAGE method was confirmed by sequencing representative strains. Lactococci of cheese made in area 1 exhibited a narrow spectrum of antibacterial activity compared to isolates from areas 2 and 3, while for lactobacilli from all three areas a similar spectrum was noticed. Lactococci from area 2 exhibited higher (Pautolysis at pH5.1. Mean acidifying activity of lactobacilli after 6h was for strains of area 3>2=1. The strains from areas 1 and 3 degraded preferentially αs-CN, while a clear preference towards β-CN was noticed for strains of area 2; their mean proteolytic activity was for strains of area 1 higher (Pautolysis allowed the distinction of lactococci according to their derivation area enabling the selection of appropriate strains as starters for cheese production in each area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sugar cane fresh or ensiled with or without bacterial additive in diets for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeruzia Vitória Moreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of using fresh sugar cane, sugar cane silage with or without Lactobacillus buchneri, and burnt sugar cane silage with or without L. buchneri on ingestive behavior, nitrogen balance and synthesis of microbial nitrogen compounds of dairy cows. Five ¾ Holstein x Gir crossbred cows, assigned to a 5 x 5 Latin square design, were given diets with a 60:40 forage: concentrate ratio on a dry matter basis, to meet an average body weight of 550 kg and production of 15 kg of milk per day. The treatment with fresh sugar cane showed higher values (p 0.05 the nitrogen intake and balance, but led to a greater (p 0.05, and showed an average value of 204.32 g microbial crude protein kg-1 total digestible nutrients.

  10. Enumeration of coagulase and thermonuclease-positive Staphylococcus spp. in raw milk and fresh soft cheese: an evaluation of Baird-Parker agar, Rabbit Plasma Fibrinogen agar and the Petrifilm Staph Express count system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viçosa, Gabriela Nogueira; Moraes, Paula Mendonça; Yamazi, Anderson Keizo; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2010-06-01

    Staphylococcus spp. are microorganisms that are naturally present in milk and dairy products and are often associated with food-borne diseases outbreaks due to the ability of some strains to produce thermostable enterotoxins. This ability is usually associated with coagulase and thermonuclease production, characteristics that are considered in the microbiological analyses for the control of such microorganisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the culture media and the methodologies used for the enumeration of coagulase and thermonuclease-positive Staphylococcus spp. in raw milk and fresh soft cheese. Samples of artificially contaminated milk (with coagulase-positive Staphylococcus reference strains) and samples of naturally contaminated raw milk and cheese were submitted for enumeration in Baird-Parker agar (BP), Rabbit Plasma Fibrinogen agar (RPFA) and in the Petrifilm Staph Express count system (STX). No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between the mean counts obtained in all of the evaluated culture media. RPFA and STX had good correlation indices between the total and typical colony counts as well as with coagulase and the thermonuclease-positive colony counts. Thus, there is a better association between coagulase and thermonuclease production to typical colony morphology developed on these culture media, leading to more accurate and reliable results than with BP, which demonstrated lower correlation indices between these counts. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mycobacterium africanum and nontuberculous mycobacteria from fresh milk of pastoral cattle and soft cheese in Oyo State--implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agada, C A; Adesokan, H K; Igwe, D; Cadmus, S I B

    2014-12-01

    Milk and.milk products from cattle in tuberculosis endemic countries like Nigeria where pasteurization is not enforced could be a source of health concerns to the consumers. We assessed randomly selected fresh milk from pastoral cattle, cheese samples and sour milk (nono) for the presence of Mycobacterium species through cultural isolation, Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA)-hsp65. Out of 269 fresh milk, 295 cheese and 150 sour milk samples screened; 8.30%, 0.34% and 0.00%, respectively were positive for Mycobacterium species. Molecular characterization revealed three M. africanum (fresh milk = 2; cheese = 1) and a high prevalence of Non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM; 89.29%) from fresh milk comprising M. gordonae (n = 12), M. fortuitum (n = 4), M. senegalense (n = 7) and M. avium (n = 1). The isolation of M. africanum and NTM species from this study is a matter of public health concern considering the practice of pooling milk from different animals and the consumption of unpasteurized milk which characterize most pastoral communities in Nigeria. Given the predominance of NTM in this study, their potential to cause disease in humans should not be ignored. Urgent measures should also be taken to integrate molecular techniques that will differentiate NTM from members of the M. tuberculosis complex in the epidemiology of tuberculosis in order to avoid misdiagnosis in humans and thereby protect public health.

  12. Physical, chemical and texture characteristics of Aro cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, M.L.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, Mexico’s total annual production of cheese was 375,181 tons. Cheese is widely consumed among all socioeconomic groups, and the decision to purchase this product is based on income, with a wide variety of cheeses, brands, and styles available. The fresco cheese is the most popular type and is mostly produced according to traditional or artisanal methods in small family businesses, and small and medium-sized enterprises. It is made with the milk of the producers' livestock, giving it an added value. In Mexico, however, there is not enough scientific information related to the characterization of various dairy products of artisanal production, for example, Aro cheese. The aim of the present study was to define the physical, chemical, and rheological characteristics of the Aro cheese that is commercialized in Teotitlán de Flores Magón, Oaxaca, Mexico. Twenty-four samples of Aro cheese were collected in four establishments with high sales in Teotitlán de Flores Magón, Oaxaca, for analysis physical (Diameter, weight, height and color, chemical (pH, acidity, aw, chlorides, moisture, ashes, protein and fat, and texture (hardness, springiness, adhesiveness and cohesiveness. No difference was found in weight, diameter, height, and color (L* and b*. However, differences in hardness and cohesiveness were found. Although Aro cheese is characterized as an enzymatically coagulated cheese, pH values of 5.82 to 6.08 were recorded, and the data relating to moisture, protein, fat, and chlorides are similar to other Mexican fresh cheeses. The cheese of Aro that is commercialized in Teotitlán de Flores Magón, presents similar physical, chemical and texture characteristics to other fresh cheeses of artisanal production.

  13. Microbial Quality of and Biochemical Changes in Fresh Soft, Acid-Curd Xinotyri Cheese Made from Raw or Pasteurized Goat's Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Eleni C; Bontinis, Thomas G; Tasioula-Margari, Maria; Samelis, John

    2017-12-01

    The microbiological quality of and changes in the main physicochemical parameters, together with the evolution of proteolysis, lipolysis and volatile profiles of soft Xinotyri, a traditional Greek acid-curd cheese (pH≈4.4, moisture 65%, salt 1%) made from raw (RMC) or pasteurized (PMC) goat's milk without starters, were evaluated during aerobic storage at 4 o C for 60 days. No statistically significant differences between the total nitrogen (TN) and nitrogen fraction (% of TN) contents, the degradation of intact α s - or β-caseins, total free amino acid (FAA) contents, and the ratio of hydrophilic and hydrophobic peptides in the water-soluble fraction of RMC and PMC were found. Threonine, alanine and lysine were the principal FAAs. Oleic, palmitic, capric and caprylic acids, and ethyl hexonate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, ethanol, 3-methyl butanol, phenyl ethyl alcohol and acetone were the most abundant free fatty acids and volatile compounds, respectively. Cheese lipolysis evolved slowly at 4 o C, and milk pasteurization had no significant effect on it. Mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were predominant in fresh cheese samples. PMC samples had significantly lower levels of enterococci and enterobacteria than RMC samples, while yeasts grew at similar levels during storage at 4 o C. All cheese samples (25 g) were free of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes . Coagulase-
-positive staphylococci exceeded the 5-log safety threshold in fresh RMC samples, whereas they were suppressed (pasteurization of raw goat milk's and utilization of commercially defined or natural mesophilic LAB starters are recommended for standardizing the biochemical, microbial and safety qualities of fresh soft Xinotyri cheese.

  14. Microbial Quality of and Biochemical Changes in Fresh Soft, Acid-Curd Xinotyri Cheese Made from Raw or Pasteurized Goat’s Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni C. Pappa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological quality of and changes in the main physicochemical parameters, together with the evolution of proteolysis, lipolysis and volatile profiles of soft Xinotyri, a traditional Greek acid-curd cheese (pH≈4.4, moisture 65 %, salt 1 % made from raw (RMC or pasteurized (PMC goat’s milk without starters, were evaluated during aerobic storage at 4 °C for 60 days. No statistically significant differences between the total nitrogen (TN and nitrogen fraction (% of TN contents, the degradation of intact αs- or β-caseins, total free amino acid (FAA contents, and the ratio of hydrophilic and hydrophobic peptides in the water-soluble fraction of RMC and PMC were found. Threonine, alanine and lysine were the principal FAAs. Oleic, palmitic, capric and caprylic acids, and ethyl hexonate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, ethanol, 3-methyl butanol, phenyl ethyl alcohol and acetone were the most abundant free fatty acids and volatile compounds, respectively. Cheese lipolysis evolved slowly at 4 °C, and milk pasteurization had no significant effect on it. Mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB were predominant in fresh cheese samples. PMC samples had significantly lower levels of enterococci and enterobacteria than RMC samples, while yeasts grew at similar levels during storage at 4 °C. All cheese samples (25 g were free of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. Coagulase-positive staphylococci exceeded the 5-log safety threshold in fresh RMC samples, whereas they were suppressed (<100 CFU/g in all PMC samples. Consequently, pasteurization of raw goat milk’s and utilization of commercially defined or natural mesophilic LAB starters are recommended for standardizing the biochemical, microbial and safety qualities of fresh soft Xinotyri cheese.

  15. Effect of a probiotic mixed culture on texture profile and sensory performance of Minas fresh cheese in comparison with the traditional products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buriti, Flávia C A; Okazaki, Tania Y; Alegro, João H A; Saad, Susana M I

    2007-06-01

    The effect of a mixed probiotic culture on instrumental texture, and on sensorial and related properties of Minas fresh cheese during refrigerated storage was investigated. Three cheese-making trials were prepared: T1, with the traditional type O starter culture (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis + L. lactis subsp. cremoris), T2 with only lactic acid and T3, with lactic acid and the probiotic ABT culture (Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 + Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 + Streptococcus thermophilus). Instrumental texture profile analysis and related properties were monitored during storage for up to 21 days. Lb. acidophilus and B. animalis were present in high levels throughout storage of cheeses T3, above 6 log cfu.g(-1), threshold required for probiotic activity, and stimulation of the La-5 growth was observed. Cheeses with added probiotic ABT culture, as well as those made adding lactic acid only, showed to be less brittle and with more favorable sensorial features, due to higher pH values. Results indicated that the use of probiotic ABT culture complementary to lactic acid for the purpose of substituting the type O (Lc. lactis subsp. lactis + Lc. lactis subsp. cremoris) culture, traditionally employed for Minas cheese production, is advantageous.

  16. Listeria monocytogenes contamination in dairy plants: evaluation of Listeria monocytogenes environmental contamination in two cheese-making plants using sheeps milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Ibba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes harbouring niches established in the processing plant support post-process contamination of dairy products made from pasteurised or thermised milk. The present study investigated L. monocytogenes environmental contamination in two sheep’s milk cheese-making plants. Persistence of contamination in the area at higher risk was also investigated. During a one-year survey 7 samplings were carried out in each dairy plant, along the production lines of Pecorino Romano and ricotta salata cheese. A total of 613 environmental samples collected from food contact and non-food contact surfaces were analysed according to ISO 11290-1:2005 standard method. Identification of the isolated strains was carried out by polymerase chain reaction. L. monocytogenes prevalence was 23.2% in dairy A and 13.1% in dairy B, respectively. The higher prevalence rate was found in the following areas: salting, products washing, packaging, ricotta salata storage and Pecorino Romano ripening rooms. L. monocytogenes was never found in the cheese-making area. The probability of observing samples positive for the presence of L. monocytogenes was asso- ciated with dairy plant, sampling area and the period of cheese-making (P<0.001. The greater persistence of contamination over time was observed in the washing, salting, and Pecorino Romano ripening areas. The control of persistent environmental contamination relies on the identification of L. monocytogenes niches within the processing environment and the prevention of harborage sites formation. The importance of strict cleaning and sanitising procedure in controlling L. monocytogenes environmental contamination is confirmed by the lower level of contamination observed after these procedures were correctly implemented.

  17. Microbial diversity in raw milk and traditional fermented dairy products (Hurood cheese and Jueke) from Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M L; Hou, H M; Teng, X X; Zhu, Y L; Hao, H S; Zhang, G L

    2017-03-08

    Hurood cheese (HC) and Jueke (Jk) are 2 traditional fermented dairy products produced from raw milk (RM) in the Inner Mongolia region of China. They have a long history of production and consumption. The microbial compositions of RM, HC, and Jk vary greatly, and are influenced by their geographical origins and unique processing methods. In this study, 2 batches of RM, HC, and Jk samples were collected (April and August 2015) from the Zhenglan Banner, a region located in the southern part of Inner Mongolian belonging to the Xilingol league prefecture. The bacterial and fungal diversities of the samples were determined by 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis, respectively. A total of 112 bacterial and 30 fungal sequences were identified, with Firmicutes and Ascomycota being the predominant phyla for bacteria and fungi, respectively. Lactococcus and Lactobacillus were identified as the main bacterial genera, whereas Kluyveromyces was the predominant fungus identified in the 3 dairy products. Different bacterial and fungal compositions were observed in RM, HC, and Jk samples collected at different times. These results suggested that time of production may be an important factor influencing the microbial diversity present in RM, HC, and Jk.

  18. Influence of the calf presence during milking on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, lipolysis and cheese composition in Salers cows during winter and grazing seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozma, A; Martin, B; Cirié, C; Verdier-Metz, I; Agabriel, J; Ferlay, A

    2017-10-01

    The milking of Salers cows requires the presence of the calf. The removal of the calf would simplify the milking routine, but it could also modify the milk yield and the milk and cheese composition. Therefore, the aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of calf presence during milking during sampling period (winter or grazing periods), on dairy performance, milk fatty acid (FA) composition, lipolysis and cheese yield and composition. Nine and 8 Salers lactating cows were milked in the presence (CP) or absence (CA) of their calves respectively. During winter, the cows were fed a hay-based diet and then they only grazed a grassland pasture. Calf presence during milking increased milk yield and milk 16:0 concentration and decreased milk fat content and milk total odd- and branched-chain FA (OBCFA) concentrations. Calf presence only increased initial lipolysis in milk collected during the winter season. Milk from CP cows compared to CA cows resulted in a lower cheese yield and ripened cheeses with lower fat content. Milk from the grazing season had lower saturated medium-chain FA and OBCFA concentrations and higher 18:0, cis-9-18:1, trans-11-18:1 and cis-9, trans-11-CLA concentrations than that from the winter season. Initial milk lipolysis was higher in the winter than in the grazing season. These variations could be due to seasonal changes in the basal diet. Furthermore, the effect of calf presence during milking on milk fat composition was lower than that on dairy performance, cheese yield and composition. Removing the calf during the milking of Salers cows seems feasible without a decrease in milked milk, and with a positive effect on cheese yield and fat content, under the condition that we are able to select cows having the capacity to be milked easily without the calf. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Pathway-based genome-wide association analysis of milk coagulation properties, curd firmness, cheese yield, and curd nutrient recovery in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadousis, C; Pegolo, S; Rosa, G J M; Gianola, D; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2017-02-01

    It is becoming common to complement genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with gene-set enrichment analysis to deepen the understanding of the biological pathways affecting quantitative traits. Our objective was to conduct a gene ontology and pathway-based analysis to identify possible biological mechanisms involved in the regulation of bovine milk technological traits: coagulation properties, curd firmness modeling, individual cheese yield (CY), and milk nutrient recovery into the curd (REC) or whey loss traits. Results from 2 previous GWAS studies using 1,011 cows genotyped for 50k single nucleotide polymorphisms were used. Overall, the phenotypes analyzed consisted of 3 traditional milk coagulation property measures [RCT: rennet coagulation time defined as the time (min) from addition of enzyme to the beginning of coagulation; k 20 : the interval (min) from RCT to the time at which a curd firmness of 20 mm is attained; a 30 : a measure of the extent of curd firmness (mm) 30 min after coagulant addition], 6 curd firmness modeling traits [RCT eq : RCT estimated through the CF equation (min); CF P : potential asymptotic curd firmness (mm); k CF : curd-firming rate constant (% × min -1 ); k SR : syneresis rate constant (% × min -1 ); CF max : maximum curd firmness (mm); and t max : time to CF max (min)], 3 individual CY-related traits expressing the weight of fresh curd (%CY CURD ), curd solids (%CY SOLIDS ), and curd moisture (%CY WATER ) as a percentage of weight of milk processed and 4 milk nutrient and energy recoveries in the curd (REC FAT , REC PROTEIN , REC SOLIDS , and REC ENERGY calculated as the % ratio between the nutrient in curd and the corresponding nutrient in processed milk), milk pH, and protein percentage. Each trait was analyzed separately. In total, 13,269 annotated genes were used in the analysis. The Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway databases were queried for enrichment analyses. Overall, 21 Gene Ontology and

  20. Inactivation of pathogens during aerobic composting of fresh and aged dairy manure and different carbon amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Liao, Jean; Jiang, Xiuping; Doyle, Michael P

    2014-11-01

    Two separate studies were conducted to address the condition and the type of feedstocks used during composting of dairy manure. In each study, physical (temperature), chemical (ammonia, volatile acids, and pH), and biological (Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7) parameters were monitored during composting in bioreactors to assess the degree to which they were affected by the experimental variables and, ultimately, the ability of the chemical and physical parameters to predict the fate of pathogens during composting. Compost mixtures that contained either aged dairy manure or pine needles had reduced heat generation; therefore, pathogen reduction took longer than if fresh manure or carbon amendments of wheat straw or peanut hulls were used. Based on regression models derived from these results, ammonia concentration, in addition to heat, were the primary factors affecting the degree of pathogen inactivation in compost mixtures formulated to an initial carbon-nitrogen (C:N) ratio of 40:1, whereas, the pH of the compost mixture along with the amount of heat exposure were most influential in compost mixtures formulated to an initial C:N ratio of 30:1. Further studies are needed to validate these models so that additional criteria in addition to time and temperature can be used to evaluate the microbiological safety of composted manures.

  1. Short communication: survey of fresh cow management practices of dairy cattle on small and large commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuwieser, W; Iwersen, M; Gossellin, J; Drillich, M

    2010-03-01

    The objective was to conduct a survey of current fresh cow management practices that have an effect on health and diseases postpartum considering different herd sizes of commercial dairy farms. A mail survey regarding aspects of the fresh cow program including general management issues, calving, diseases, and veterinary service was conducted utilizing a convenience sample. A total of 429 survey forms were returned (12.0% response rate) and could be used for final analysis. Only 21.6% of the farms had a designated fresh cow pen. Almost every farm executed some type of fresh cow examination. Only 18.5% of farm managers documented the observations. Most of the dairy managers used more or less subjective criteria such as general appearance (97.0%) and appetite (69.7%). Only a minority of the responding dairy managers monitored their fresh cows using objective (fever 33.6%) or semiquantitative measures (subclinical ketosis 2.8%; body condition score 36.4%). On most farms, the veterinarian visited the herd only if needed (72.6%). Most cases of retained fetal membranes were treated by manual removal (72.3%) and antibiotic pills (89.5%). Several challenges and opportunities were identified to improve cow management practices.

  2. Intake of milk, but not total dairy, yogurt, or cheese, is negatively associated with the clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Sandra; Moreira, Pedro; Moreira, Carla; Mota, Jorge; Moreira-Silva, Isabel; Santos, Paula-Clara; Santos, Rute

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported an inverse association between dairy product consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults, but this relation is relatively unexplored in adolescents. We hypothesized that a higher dairy product intake is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk factor clustering in adolescents. To test this hypothesis, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 494 adolescents aged 15 to 18 years from the Azorean Archipelago, Portugal. We measured fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, body fat, and cardiorespiratory fitness. We also calculated homeostatic model assessment and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. For each one of these variables, a z score was computed using age and sex. A cardiometabolic risk score (CMRS) was constructed by summing up the z scores of all individual risk factors. High risk was considered to exist when an individual had at least 1 SD from this score. Diet was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire, and the intake of total dairy (included milk, yogurt, and cheese), milk, yogurt, and cheese was categorized as low (equal to or below the median of the total sample) or "appropriate" (above the median of the total sample).The association between dairy product intake and CMRS was evaluated using separate logistic regression, and the results were adjusted for confounders. Adolescents with high milk intake had lower CMRS, compared with those with low intake (10.6% vs 18.1%, P = .018). Adolescents with appropriate milk intake were less likely to have high CMRS than those with low milk intake (odds ratio, 0.531; 95% confidence interval, 0.302-0.931). No association was found between CMRS and total dairy, yogurt, and cheese intake. Only milk intake seems to be inversely related to CMRS in adolescents. © 2013.

  3. Outbreaks Attributed to Cheese: Differences Between Outbreaks Caused by Unpasteurized and Pasteurized Dairy Products, United States, 1998–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, L. Hannah; Mungai, Elisabeth; Behravesh, Casey Barton

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The interstate commerce of unpasteurized fluid milk, also known as raw milk, is illegal in the United States, and intrastate sales are regulated independently by each state. However, U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations allow the interstate sale of certain types of cheeses made from unpasteurized milk if specific aging requirements are met. We describe characteristics of these outbreaks, including differences between outbreaks linked to cheese made from pasteurized or unpasteurized milk. Methods We reviewed reports of outbreaks submitted to the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System during 1998–2011 in which cheese was implicated as the vehicle. We describe characteristics of these outbreaks, including differences between outbreaks linked to cheese made from pasteurized versus unpasteurized milk. Results During 1998–2011, 90 outbreaks attributed to cheese were reported; 38 (42%) were due to cheese made with unpasteurized milk, 44 (49%) to cheese made with pasteurized milk, and the pasteurization status was not reported for the other eight (9%). The most common cheese–pathogen pairs were unpasteurized queso fresco or other Mexican-style cheese and Salmonella (10 outbreaks), and pasteurized queso fresco or other Mexican-style cheese and Listeria (6 outbreaks). The cheese was imported from Mexico in 38% of outbreaks caused by cheese made with unpasteurized milk. In at least five outbreaks, all due to cheese made from unpasteurized milk, the outbreak report noted that the cheese was produced or sold illegally. Outbreaks caused by cheese made from pasteurized milk occurred most commonly (64%) in restaurant, delis, or banquet settings where cross-contamination was the most common contributing factor. Conclusions In addition to using pasteurized milk to make cheese, interventions to improve the safety of cheese include limiting illegal importation of cheese, strict sanitation and microbiologic monitoring in cheese-making facilities, and

  4. Lactic acid microbiota identification in water, raw milk, endogenous starter culture, and fresh Minas artisanal cheese from the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil during the dry and rainy seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, R D; Oliveira, L G; Sant'Anna, F M; Luiz, L M P; Sandes, S H C; Silva, C I F; Silva, A M; Nunes, A C; Penna, C F A M; Souza, M R

    2016-08-01

    Minas artisanal cheese, produced in the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil, is made from raw milk and endogenous starter cultures. Although this cheese is of great historical and socioeconomic importance, little information is available about its microbiological and physical-chemical qualities, or about its beneficial microbiota. This work was aimed at evaluating the qualities of the cheese and the components used for its production, comparing samples collected during the dry and rainy seasons. We also conducted molecular identification and isolated 50 samples of lactic acid bacteria from cheese (n=21), water (n=3), raw milk (n=9), and endogenous starter culture (n=17). The microbiological quality of the cheese, water, raw milk, and endogenous starter culture was lower during the rainy period, given the higher counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and total and thermotolerant coliforms. Enterococcus faecalis was the lactic acid bacteria isolated most frequently (42.86%) in cheese samples, followed by Lactococcus lactis (28.57%) and Lactobacillus plantarum (14.29%). Lactobacillus brevis (5.88%), Enterococcus pseudoavium (5.88%), Enterococcus durans (5.88%), and Aerococcus viridans (5.88%) were isolated from endogenous starter cultures and are described for the first time in the literature. The lactic acid bacteria identified in the analyzed cheeses may inhibit undesirable microbiota and contribute to the safety and flavor of the cheese, but this needs to be evaluated in future research. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Biogenic amines in smear and mould-ripened cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Pleva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was the monitoring of six biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, putrescine, and cadaverine and two polyamines (spermidine and spermine in 30 samples of dairy products purchased in the Czech Republic, namely in 15 samples of mould-ripened cheeses and in 15 samples of smear-ripened cheeses. A further goal was the microbiological analysis of the individual samples of cheeses (total count of microorganisms, number of enterobacteria, enterococci, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds. The monitored biogenic amines were analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. The amount of enterobacteria in fresh cheese exceeded 105 CFU.g‑1. In smear-ripened cheese flavourless (Romadur type, the amount was >103 CFU.g-1 and 104-105 CFU.g-1 in smear-ripened cheese with flavour. Biogenic amines were observed in two groups of blue cheeses (white veined cheese and blue veined cheese and smear-ripened cheeses. In both groups, there is a possibility of the presence of biogenic amines because the number of microorganisms and concentration of free amino acids increase during ripening. In ten samples of soft smear-ripening acid cheese and in smear-ripened cheese, the total content of biogenic amines were 22-1000 mg.kg-1 and in 5 samples of these cheeses, it was in range 1000-6000 mg.kg-1. The total amount of biogenic amines in the blue cheeses were in range 40-600 mg.kg-1. The presense of the tyramine was observed in the all analysed cheeses. The tyramine producing strains generated more than 900 mg.kg-1 of this biogenic amine. The production of tryptamine in the analysed cheeses was not proved by this study. The results of this study show that biogenic amines and polyamines are common in cheese. However, in some cases, they can pose a significant health danger for consumers. Any legislative control authority does not monitor them, as they are secondary metabolites even

  6. Effects of spray-drying conditions on the chemical, physical, and sensory properties of cheese powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Nurcan; Erbay, Zafer; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

    2015-05-01

    Dairy powders are produced to increase the shelf life of fresh dairy products and for use as flavoring agents. In this study, 24 cheese powders produced under 7 different conditions were used to investigate the effects of spray-drying parameters (e.g., inlet air temperature, atomization pressure, and outlet air temperature) on the quality of white cheese powder. Composition, color, physical properties, reconstitution, and sensory characteristics of white cheese powders were determined. The results revealed that the white cheese powders produced in this study had low moisture content ratios and water activity values. High outlet air temperatures caused browning and enhanced Maillard reactions. Additionally, high outlet air temperatures increased wettability and dispersibility and decreased the solubility of white cheese powders. Free fat content was positively correlated with inlet air temperature and negatively correlated with outlet air temperature and atomization pressure. Sensory analyses revealed that white cheese powder samples had acceptable sensory characteristics with the exception of the sample produced at an outlet air temperature of 100°C, which had high scores for scorched flavor and color and low scores for cheese flavor. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of lead and cadmium contaminations in UF-Cheese and yoghurt produced in Esfahan and GolpayeganPegah Dairy Processing Establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Jaberi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Milk is a complicated liquid that contains necessary components for the growth of mammalian neonate. Milk can get polluted by heavy metals such as lead and cadmium. In this study, the concentrations of lead and cadmium were measured in 12 yoghurt and 12 UF cheese samples produced in each of the Isfahan and Golpayegan-Pegah Dairy Processing Establishments. The samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry by furnace according to AOAC instruction. According to the results, lead concentrations (Mean ± SD in yoghurt and UF cheese samples produced in Isfahan and Golpayegan-Pegah were estimated at 54.96 ± 35.21, 61.65 ± 19.62, 105.38 ± 59.09, 141.94 ± 63.44 μg/Kg, respectively. In the case of cadmium, the concentrations were determined as 19.03 ± 1.23, 16.84 ± 8.08, 53.79 ± 19.29, 37.67 ± 22.58 μg/Kg, respectively. Results revealed a significant difference (P≥0.05 in lead and cadmium concentrations among the cheese samples of the two Dairy Processing Establishments. However, lead and cadmium concentrations in all samples were within the international approved limit (200 ppb.

  8. Probiotic cheese attenuates exercise-induced immune suppression in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollo, P C B; Cruz, A G; Morato, P N; Moura, C S; Carvalho-Silva, L B; Oliveira, C A F; Faria, J A F; Amaya-Farfan, J

    2012-07-01

    Intense physical activity results in a substantial volume of stress and hence a significant probability of immunosuppression in athletes, with milk proteins being, perhaps, the most recommended protein supplements. Consumption of a probiotic cheese can attenuate immune suppression induced by exhausting exercise in rats. A popular Brazilian fresh cheese (Minas Frescal cheese) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LA14 and Bifidobacterium longum BL05 was fed for 2wk to adult Wistar rats, which then were brought to exhaustion on the treadmill. Two hours after exhaustion, the rats were killed and material was collected for the determination of serum uric acid, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol fraction, total protein, triacylglycerols, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and blood cell (monocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil, and leukocyte) counts. Exercise was efficient in reducing lymphocyte counts, irrespective of the type of ingested cheese, but the decrease in the group fed the probiotic cheese was 22% compared with 48% in the animals fed regular cheese. Monocyte counts were unaltered in the rats fed probiotic cheese compared with a significant decrease in the rats fed the regular cheese. Most importantly, ingestion of the probiotic cheese resulted in a >100% increase in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a 50% decrease in triacylglycerols. We conclude that probiotic Minas Frescal cheese may be a viable alternative to enhance the immune system and could be used to prevent infections, particularly those related to the physical overexertion of athletes. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Plasmid Complement of the Cheese Isolate Lactococcus garvieae IPLA 31405 Revealed Adaptation to the Dairy Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez, Ana Belén; Mayo, Baltasar

    2015-01-01

    Lactococcus garvieae is a lactic acid bacterium found in raw-milk dairy products as well as a range of aquatic and terrestrial environments. The plasmids in L. garvieae have received little attention compared to those of dairy Lactococcus lactis, in which the genes carried by these extrachromosomal elements are considered of adaptive value. The present work reports the sequencing and analysis of the plasmid complement of L. garvieae IPLA 31405, a strain isolated from a traditional, Spanish, starter-free cheese made from raw-milk. It consists of pLG9 and pLG42, of 9,124 and 42,240 nucleotides, respectively. Based on sequence and structural homology in the putative origin of replication (ori) region, pLG9 and pLG42 are predicted to replicate via a theta mechanism. Real-time, quantitative PCR showed the number of copies per chromosome equivalent of pLG9 and pLG42 to be around two and five, respectively. Sequence analysis identified eight complete open reading frames (orfs) in pLG9 and 36 in pLG42; these were organized into functional modules or cassettes containing different numbers of genes. These modules were flanked by complete or interrupted insertion sequence (IS)-like elements. Among the modules of pLG42 was a gene cluster encoding specific components of a phosphoenolpyruvate-phosphotransferase (PEP-PTS) system, including a phospho-β-galacosidase. The cluster showed a complete nucleotide identity respect to that in plasmids of L. lactis. Loss of pLG42 showed this to be involved in lactose assimilation. In the same plasmid, an operon encoding a type I restriction/modification (R/M) system was also identified. The specificity of this R/M system might be broadened by different R/M specificity subunits detected in pLG9 and in the bacterial chromosome. However, challenges of L. garvieae IPLA 31405 against L. lactis phages proved that the R/M system was not involved in phage resistance. Together, these results support the hypothesis that, as in L. lactis, pLG42

  10. The Plasmid Complement of the Cheese Isolate Lactococcus garvieae IPLA 31405 Revealed Adaptation to the Dairy Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén Flórez

    Full Text Available Lactococcus garvieae is a lactic acid bacterium found in raw-milk dairy products as well as a range of aquatic and terrestrial environments. The plasmids in L. garvieae have received little attention compared to those of dairy Lactococcus lactis, in which the genes carried by these extrachromosomal elements are considered of adaptive value. The present work reports the sequencing and analysis of the plasmid complement of L. garvieae IPLA 31405, a strain isolated from a traditional, Spanish, starter-free cheese made from raw-milk. It consists of pLG9 and pLG42, of 9,124 and 42,240 nucleotides, respectively. Based on sequence and structural homology in the putative origin of replication (ori region, pLG9 and pLG42 are predicted to replicate via a theta mechanism. Real-time, quantitative PCR showed the number of copies per chromosome equivalent of pLG9 and pLG42 to be around two and five, respectively. Sequence analysis identified eight complete open reading frames (orfs in pLG9 and 36 in pLG42; these were organized into functional modules or cassettes containing different numbers of genes. These modules were flanked by complete or interrupted insertion sequence (IS-like elements. Among the modules of pLG42 was a gene cluster encoding specific components of a phosphoenolpyruvate-phosphotransferase (PEP-PTS system, including a phospho-β-galacosidase. The cluster showed a complete nucleotide identity respect to that in plasmids of L. lactis. Loss of pLG42 showed this to be involved in lactose assimilation. In the same plasmid, an operon encoding a type I restriction/modification (R/M system was also identified. The specificity of this R/M system might be broadened by different R/M specificity subunits detected in pLG9 and in the bacterial chromosome. However, challenges of L. garvieae IPLA 31405 against L. lactis phages proved that the R/M system was not involved in phage resistance. Together, these results support the hypothesis that, as in L

  11. Use of used vs. fresh cheese brines and the effect of pH and salt concentration on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Bjørn C T; Heir, Even; Lindstedt, Bjørn-Arne; Møretrø, Trond; Langsrud, Solveig

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how the use of fresh cheese brines compared with used brines and various combinations of pH and NaCl concentrations affected the survival of Listeria monocytogenes. Cheese brines from five Norwegian small scale cheese producers were analysed and showed great variations in pH (4·54-6·01) and NaCl concentrations (14·1-26·9 %). The survival of five strains of List. monocytogenes (two clinical isolates, two food isolates and one animal isolate) in four different cheese brines (three used and one fresh) was investigated. Results showed significant differences in survival both depending on the strains and the brines. Strains of human outbreak listeriosis cases showed greater ability to survive in the brines compared with food isolates and a List. monocytogenes reference strain (1-2 log10 difference after 200 d). All strains showed highest survival in the freshly prepared brine compared with the used brines. Molecular typing by multiple locus variable number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) showed that there were no detectable alterations in the examined variable number tandem repeats of the genome in five strains after 200 d storage in any of the salt brines. Combined effects of pH (4·5, 5·25 and 6·0) and NaCl (15, 20 and 25 %) in fresh, filter sterilised brines on the survival of List. monocytogenes were examined and results showed that pathogen populations decreased over time in all brines. Death rates at any given NaCl concentration were highest at low pH (4·5) and death rates at any given pH were highest at low NaCl concentrations (15 %). In conclusion, the use of used brines reduced the survival of List. monocytogenes and a combination of low pH (4·5) and low salt concentrations (15 %) decreased the risk of List. monocytogenes survival compared with higher pH (5·25 or 6·0) and higher NaCl concentrations (20 or 25 %).

  12. When cheese gets the blues: Pseudomonas fluorescens as the causative agent of cheese spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N H; Murphy, S C; Ralyea, R D; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2011-06-01

    A bacterial contamination of fresh, low-acid cheese that resulted in production of a blue fluorescent pigment on the surface of the cheese was determined to be caused by Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar IV, a gram-negative bacteria that produces a blue, nondiffusible pigment as well as the soluble pigment pyoverdin, which fluoresces under UV light. Ten isolates collected from contaminated cheese and environmental samples were initially identified as P. fluorescens using 16S rDNA sequencing, but only 8 of the isolates produced blue pigment and fluoresced under UV light when re-inoculated onto fresh, low-acid cheese. The Biolog Metabolic Fingerprint system (Biolog Inc., Hayward, CA) and the Analytical Profile Index (BioMerieux Vitek Inc., Hazelwood, MO) for nonenteric gram-negative species as well as EcoRI ribotyping did not differentiate between the isolates that produced blue color and those that did not. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis with the enzyme XbaI was able to distinguish between the isolates that produced pigment and those that did not and allowed for identification of a specific environmental site (i.e., an overhead cheese vat agitator system) as the likely source of product contamination. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Feeding Moringa oleifera fresh or ensiled to dairy cows--effects on milk yield and milk flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendieta-Araica, Bryan; Spörndly, Eva; Reyes-Sánchez, Nadir; Spörndly, Rolf

    2011-06-01

    Moringa oleifera, either fresh or ensiled, was compared with Elephant grass as a main feedstuff for dairy cows. To test the effects feed had on milk yield, milk composition, ration digestibility, and the organoleptic characteristics of milk, six lactating dairy cows were used in a Changeover 3 × 3 Latin Square experiment, replicated twice. With equal intake of metabolizable energy the intake of protein and fiber differed (p ensiled Moringa had higher digestibility (P < 0.05) of both protein and fiber. With the exception of DM digestibility, no digestibility differences were found between fresh Moringa and Moringa silage treatments. Milk yield did not differ between any of the treatments and averaged 13.7 kg cow day(-1). Milk composition was similar among all treatments. Milk from the fresh Moringa treatment, however, had a grassy flavor and aroma, significantly different from the other two treatments, even though it was normal in color and appearance. No organoleptic differences were found between milk from the control treatment and the Moringa silage treatment. The conclusion is that Moringa silage can be fed to dairy cows in large quantities to produce the same quantity and quality of milk as traditional diets.

  14. Mexican chihuahua cheese: sensory profiles of young cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hekken, D L; Drake, M A; Corral, F J Molina; Prieto, V M Guerrero; Gardea, A A

    2006-10-01

    Sensory profiles of fresh semihard Chihuahua cheese produced in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua were developed to characterize the flavors and textures of this traditionally made Hispanic-style cheese. Multiple allotments of Chihuahua cheese, 9 brands made with raw milk (RM) and 5 brands made with pasteurized milk (PM), were obtained within 3 d of manufacture from 12 different cheese plants throughout Chihuahua, México. Cheeses were shipped overnight to Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania, and flavor analyses were conducted within 14 to 18 d after manufacture. Four brands (2 RM and 2 PM cheeses) were then selected and multiple allotments were shipped at 3 distinct seasons over a 1-yr period for evaluation of flavor and texture. Microbial analysis was conducted prior to testing to ensure product safety. Descriptive analyses of cheese flavors and textures were conducted with panelists trained to use a universal or product-specific Spectrum intensity scale, respectively. Sensory profiles of cheeses varied among the different manufacturers. The most prominent flavor attributes were salty, sour, diacetyl, cooked, whey, bitter, and milk-fat. The RM cheeses had more intense sour, bitter, and prickle scores than the PM cheeses. Many cheese texture attributes were similar, but RM cheeses were perceived as softer than PM cheeses. As the demand for Hispanic-style cheeses increases, defining and understanding the sensory attributes of traditionally made Mexican cheeses provides guidance to cheese manufacturers as new ways are explored to improve the production and shelf life of the cheeses.

  15. High COD wastewater treatment in an aerobic SBR: treatment of effluent from a small farm goat's cheese dairy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrijos, M; Sousbie, P h; Moletta, R; Delgenes, J P

    2004-01-01

    In France, small goat's cheese dairies using traditional craft methods often have no profitable solution for dealing with the whey byproduct of their cheesemaking activity: it is usually mixed with the cleaning wastewater which, in the absence of other possibilities, is then discharged directly into the environment. The volume of such wastewater is small but it has a high COD of around 12-15 g/L. An aerobic SBR was proposed as a method for treating the mixture of wastewater and whey and the first installation was set up on a farm with 170 goats. Its operations were monitored for 7.5 months, particularly in order to measure any excess volume of sludge and to check that such excess remained within acceptable limits, given the high COD of the effluent requiring treatment. The results obtained show that the treated wastewater was of excellent quality, well within the most rigorous discharge norms. With this type of wastewater, excess sludge was produced in only very low amounts with 0.2 g of SS/g of COD. Moreover, the sludge proved to be quick settling which made it possible to: i) maintain a high level of SS in the reactor (up to 15 g/L); ii) withdraw sludge with concentrations reaching 30 g/L after 2 hours of settling. This resulted in a low volume of excess sludge (less than 5% of treated volume), making such aerobic biological treatment in an SBR competitive when compared to the straightforward spreading of all the wastewater.

  16. Testing the suitability of different high-performance liquid chromatographic methods to determine aflatoxin M1 in a soft fresh Italian cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, T M P; Marinoni, L; Barzaghi, S; Cremonesi, K; Monti, L

    2011-07-22

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a toxic undesirable compound in milk. AFM1 affinity for caseins causes a concentration effect during milk process for dairy transformation. In spite of this, no official method of analysis, nor maximum tolerance level for aflatoxin M1 in cheese have been established. Thus, the aim of this work was to test the suitability of different HPLC methods for the AFM1 quantification in soft cheese samples at three different contamination levels (low, medium and high, at respectively nearly 30, 100 and 250 ng/kg). Nine participants were selected among Italian laboratories accredited by the Italian accreditation body (ACCREDIA) for HPLC toxin analysis. They were asked to analyze samples applying the method routinely used. The different applied methods were compared, and precision and accuracy parameters were evaluated. The main differences among HPLC procedures were registered at the level of extraction step. The use of an enzymatic digestion for the extraction of the toxin from cheese seemed to be particularly advantageous and the use of immunoaffinity columns seemed to be determinant for the improvement of sensitivity at low contamination levels. In general, the applied methods well discriminated the 3 levels of contamination, even though they performed better at the medium and high concentration levels (100 and 250 ng/kg) than at the low one (30 ng/kg). In fact relative standard deviation for reproducibility at low level was higher (60.1%) than the same value at medium and high levels (22.8% and 28.9%, respectively). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. BEBIDA FERMENTADA DE SUERO DE QUESO FRESCO INOCULADA CON Lactobacillus casei FERMENTED FRESH CHEESE MILKWHEY BEVERAGE INOCULATED WITH Lactobacillus casei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita María Londoño Uribe

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo por objetivo desarrollar una bebida fermentada de suero de queso fresco inoculada con Lactobacillus casei, a la cual se le evaluó la viabilidad del microorganismo, utilizando medios de cultivo selectivos, bajo condiciones anaeróbicas y, luego, se procedió a verificar su resistencia a los ácidos gástricos y sales biliares, simulando así, las condiciones del tracto gastrointestinal de los humanos. Para verificar la supervivencia durante el período de almacenamiento (21 días, la cepa, se caracterizó morfológica y bioquímicamente. Adicionalmente, se llevó a cabo la prueba de aceptabilidad, evaluando la bebida con 80 jueces. Se realizaron análisis físico-químicos, microbiológicos y sensoriales, a la materia prima y al producto elaborado, acorde a las normas vigentes en Colombia. La bebida fue saborizada con pulpa de maracuyá (Passi flora edulis. Se obtuvieron recuentos de viabilidad a pH 2,0, en agar MRS de 5,38∙10(7ufc∙g-1 y 1,3∙10(6ufc∙g-1 y en agar M17 de 6,96∙10(7ufc∙g-1 y de 1,16∙10(6ufc∙g-1, en los días 1 y 21, respectivamente. A pH 7,0, en agar MRS, se registraron valores de 3,37 ∙10(7ufc∙g-1 y 1.56 ∙10(6ufc∙g-1 y en agar M17 de 8,85∙10(7ufc∙g-1 y de 1,82∙10(6ufc∙g-1, en los días 1 y 21, respectivamente. La bebida desarrollada, tuvo una aceptación de “me gusta”, y presentó una vida de anaquel de hasta 21 días.The objective of this research was to develop a fermented fresh cheese milkwhey beverage inoculated with Lactobacillus casei, to which the viability of microorganism was evaluated using selective cultivation means under anaerobic conditions and then it was verified its biliary resistance to gastric acids and salts, simulating this way, the conditions of gastrointestinal tract of humans. To verify the survival during the period of storage (21 days, the stump was characterized morphological and bio-chemically. Additionally the test of acceptability was carried out

  18. Condições de processamento e comercialização de queijo-de-minas frescal Conditions of production and distribution of minas fresh cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Rocha

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a evolução da contaminação microbiana de queijo-de-minas frescal durante sua vida de prateleira e a padronização e qualidade de sete marcas (A a G de queijo (3 a 4 lotes de cada, adquiridas em supermercados de São Paulo. Os parâmetros determinados incluíram contagens de Staphylococcus spp., coliformes, Escherichia coli e bactérias láticas, pH, umidade e dureza instrumental, após 7, 14 e 21 dias de fabricação dos queijos. Avaliou-se, também, o comportamento da população de coliformes e E. coli durante o processamento de queijo-de-minas frescal com leite pasteurizado e cru. As contagens mais elevadas de Staphylococcus spp., coliformes e E. coli detectadas foram, respectivamente, 7,83 (B, 8,02 (B e 7,83 log UFC/g (C. Todas as marcas, exceto a F, apresentaram índices de contaminação acima do recomendável. Seis das sete marcas apresentaram-se impróprias para o consumo já aos sete dias de fabricação. As populações de coliformes e de E. coli dos queijos preparados no laboratório aumentaram 2,5 ciclos log durante o processamento com leite pasteurizado e 4,5 ciclos log (coliformes e 5 ciclos log (E. coli em queijo fabricado com leite cru. Uma reavaliação das condições de fabricação, distribuição, comercialização e prazo de validade de queijo-de-minas frescal é necessária.Microbial contamination of minas fresh cheese during its shelf-life and general aspects of quality and standardization of seven different trademarks (A to G, purchased in grocery stores in São Paulo, were investigated. For this purpose, counts of Staphylococcus spp., coliforms, Escherichia coli, and lactic acid bacteria, besides pH, moisture, and instrumental measurement of hardness were determined 7, 14 and 21 days after cheese production. The variation of coliforms and E. coli counts during the production of cheeses from pasteurized and raw milk was also evaluated. The highest counts of Staphylococcus spp., coliforms and E. coli

  19. A field study to determine the prevalence, dairy herd management systems, and fresh cow clinical conditions associated with ketosis in western European dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Anna C; Vertenten, Geert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, major management systems, and fresh cow clinical conditions associated with ketosis in western European dairy herds. A total of 131 dairies were enrolled in Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom during 2011 to 2012. A milk-based test for ketones (Keto-Test; Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co. Ltd., Nagoya, Japan; distributed by Elanco Animal Health, Antwerp, Belgium) was used for screening cows between d 7 and 21 after calving and ketosis was defined as a Keto-Test ≥100µmol/L. Study cows were observed for clinical disease up to 35d postcalving. Multivariate analysis (generalized estimating equation logistic regression) was performed to determine country, farm, management, feed, and cow factors associated with ketosis and to determine associations between ketosis and fresh cow diseases. Thirty-nine percent of the cows were classified as having ketosis. The herd average of ketosis was 43% in Germany, 53% in France, 31% in Italy, 46% in the Netherlands, and 31% in the United Kingdom. Of the 131 farms, 112 (85%) had 25% or more of their fresh cows resulting as positive for ketosis. Clinical ketosis was not reported in most farms and the highest level of clinical ketosis reported was 23%. The risks of ketosis were significantly lower in Italy and the United Kingdom compared with France, the Netherlands, and Germany. Larger herd size was associated with a decreased risk of ketosis. The farms that fed partially mixed rations had 1.5 times higher odds of ketosis than those that fed total mixed rations. Cows that calved in April to June had the highest odds of ketosis, with about twice as high odds compared with cows that calved in July to September. The cows that calved in January to March tended to have 1.5 times higher risk of ketosis compared with cows that calved in July to September. The odds of ketosis in parity 2 and parity 3 to 7 was significantly higher (1.5 and 2.8 times higher

  20. Effect of high-pressure treatment of ewe raw milk curd at 200 and 300 MPa on characteristics of Hispánico cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, R; Picon, A; Gaya, P; Fernández-García, E; Nuñez, M

    2012-07-01

    Hispánico cheese is a semihard variety made from a mixture of cow and ewe milks. Production of ewe milk declines in summer and autumn. To surmount the seasonal shortage of ewe milk and prevent the inactivation of milk enzymes by pasteurization, curd made in spring from ewe raw milk was pressurized at 200 and 300 MPa and stored frozen for 4 mo. Thawed ewe milk curds were added to fresh curd made from pasteurized cow milk for the manufacture of experimental Hispánico cheeses. Control cheese was made from a mixture of pasteurized cow and ewe milk in the same proportions as those used for experimental cheeses. Experimental cheeses exhibited lower dry matter content, higher aminopeptidase activity and total free amino acid concentration, and higher levels of acetic and propionic acids, aldehydes, alcohols, and esters compared with control cheese. In contrast, the concentration of total free fatty acids and ketones and the levels of textural parameters were significantly higher in control cheese. The use of ewe raw milk curd pressurized at 200 and 300 MPa, stored frozen and thawed for Hispánico cheese manufacture, was generally beneficial for cheese characteristics and increased cheese yield because of the lower dry matter content of experimental cheeses. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cheese consumption and prevalence of overweight and obesity in a Basque adult population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría-Lertxundi, Iker; Rocandio Pablo, Ana; Arroyo-Izaga, Marta

    2014-02-01

    Studies have reported a negative association between dairy product consumption and weight status. However, not as much research has focused on cheese; therefore, the aim of this study was to study the association between cheese intake and overweight and obesity in a representative Basque adult population. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was obtained from a random sample of 1081 adults (530 males and 551 females, 17-96 years old). Cheese consumption data were expressed as g/1000 kcal/day. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was higher in men (55.1%) than in women (35.4%) (p fresh and processed cheese demonstrated a higher prevalence of excess weight, compared with those with higher consumption. The confounding variables selected in multivariate analysis were: occupational status and age in both genders; and place of residence in men. In conclusion, negative associations were found between consumption of some types of cheese and overweight and obesity in this population.

  2. From milk to cheese: Evolution of flavor fingerprint of milk, cream, curd, whey, ricotta, scotta, and ripened cheese obtained during summer Alpine pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, M; Bittante, G

    2018-02-14

    The role of each step of cheese and ricotta making in development of flavor of cheese and other dairy products is not yet well known. The objectives of this study were to characterize volatile organic compounds (VOC) in cheese and ricotta making with bulk milk from cows grazing in a highland area and to evaluate their evolution in the various dairy products and by-products obtained during the production processes. A group of 148 cows was grazed day and night on pasture from June to September. A total of 7 cheese-making sessions were carried out using the bulk milk collected every 2 wk during summer pasturing according to the artisanal procedure used for Malga cheese production. All milks, products, and by-products were sampled, and the VOC content of milk, cream, whey, ricotta, scotta (residual liquid), fresh cheeses, and cheeses ripened for 6 and 12 mo was determined by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Forty-nine compounds were identified belonging to the following chemical families: alcohols (13), aldehydes (9), esters (8), free fatty acids (6), ketones (5), lactones (2), sulfurs (2), terpenes (2), phenol (1), and benzene (1). The results showed that the amounts of VOC in the various dairy products differed significantly. Comparisons between the VOC of 4 types of milk (whole evening, skim evening, whole morning, mixed in the vat) showed that the skimming process had the greatest effect, with about half of all the VOC analyzed affected, followed by time of milking (evening milking vs. morning milking) and mixing (skim evening milk mixed with whole morning milk). In general, among fresh products, cream had higher contents of fatty acids, sulfurs, and terpene volatile compounds than fresh cheese and ricotta, whereas ricotta showed a very high VOC amount compared with fresh cheese, probably due to its high processing temperature. The effects of the progressive nutrient depletion in milk during processing were investigated by comparing

  3. Trace elements content in cheese, cream and butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bilandžić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements were determined in five types of cheese, cream and butter using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. In cheese samples trace elements were measured as follows (mg/kg: Al 0.01-3.93, Co<0.005, Cr 0.005-1.66, Li 0.008-0.056, Mn 0.068-5.37, Mo 0.003-0.225, Ni 0.01-0.163 and Sr 0.085-3.49. There were significant differences considering the concentrations of Mn, Cr and Al (p<0.01, all among the analysed dairy products. There were no significant differences in Sr, Mo, Ni and Li levels among products. The highest levels were found in following products (mg/kg: 4.23 Mn in semi-hard fat cheese, 2.43 Sr in cream cheese, 0.18 Mo in cream, 0.14 Ni and 0.028 Li in melted cheese, 1.13 Cr and 3.87 Al in butter. The trace element con¬centrations measured in cheeses and butter varied compared to the literature data. Concentrations of Al, Cr, Mn and Mo found in cheeses and Mn and Ni in butter were in line with contents reported in other countries. These results may demonstrate differences in production processes between countries. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs calculated for Cr, Mn, Mo and Ni in cheeses showed a low contribution (0.59-3.38 % to the reference values for the permitted daily exposure (PDE for these elements. However, the high contribution of Al concentrations (56 and 124 % to PTWI (provisional maximum tolerable daily intake calculated in fresh and melted cheese may pose a health risk to consumers.

  4. Desenvolvimento experimental de queijo fresco de leite da espécie bubalina Experimental development of a fresh cheese from buffalo’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Maria YUNES

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um queijo fresco, utilizando como matéria prima o leite de búfala, na tentativa de introduzir esta rica fonte de proteína no hábito alimentar do brasileiro. Foram realizados experimentos buscando estabelecer o valor ideal de alguns parâmetros fundamentais do processamento de queijos (cloreto de cálcio, coalho e tempo de salga: teor de cloreto de sódio, combinando-os entre si. O leite e os queijos resultantes dos experimentos foram caracterizados físico-químicamente. Em média, a composição química do queijo foi: gordura 21,40; proteína 12,68; extrato seco 40,36; cinzas 3,13; umidade 58,77 e rendimento 29,25. A análise sensorial mostrou que os queijos elaborados encontravam-se dentro dos padrões aceitáveis de qualidade para os atributos de intensidade de sabor, sabor salgado, consistência e sabor amargo. A aceitabilidade geral dos queijos obtidos foi considerada satisfatória e os resultados mostraram quais fatores devem ser considerados mais importantes, permitindo delinear futuros processos para obter produtos de maior qualidade.The main objective of this work, was to develop a fresh cheese using buffalo’s milk, as the main raw material, in attempt to introduce this proteins rich source in the brazilian’s alimentary habits. Several experiments were done to establish the optimum values for fundamental cheesemaking parameters (calcium cloride, rennet and salting time: sodium cloride value, and combinations. Physical and chemical characteristics of the milk and the resulting cheese were described. The cheese’s average composition was: fat 21,50%; protein12,68%; dry extract 40,36%; ash 3,13%; moisture 58,77%; with a yield of 29,25%. Sensory analysis showed that the buffalo cheese was within quality standards for flavor intensity, saltness, consistency and bitterness. The general acceptance of the cheeses was satisfactory . The results showed which factors should be considered

  5. Comparison of susceptibility to antibiotics of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from fresh cheeses and clinical samples from the Area Metropolitana and evaluation of the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in the same foodstuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedra Ramirez, Hiryna

    2014-01-01

    60 samples of fresh cheeses were analyzed from the central markets of Alajuela, Heredia, Cartago and San Jose. Staphylococcus aureus, total coliform and thermotolerant counts were performed, as well as Escherichia coli by the NMP technique. The presence of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated in 25 g of cheese. The confirmatory identification and sensitivity profile of S. aureus strains were obtained using the Vitek system. L. monocytogenes were identified by means of biochemical tests. The statistical package Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and Excell were used to analyze the data. The presence of fecal contamination was identified as well as S. aureus in fresh cheeses from the four provinces studied. The comparative analysis of S. aureus antibiotic susceptibility profiles from clinical specimens and cheeses, for the majority of antibiotics under study was able to determine that the sensitivity patterns shown have been different. The clinical strains of origin could be observed with a pattern of multiresistance more marked than the strains of alimentary origin. The presence of L. monocytogenes was identified in an important percentage of cheese samples. (author) [es

  6. Evaluation of some microbiological and chemical parameters of Campania buffalo ricotta cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M.I. Montone

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fresh ricotta (whey cheese, owing to its technological characteristics and intrinsic parameters (pH and aw, is an excellent substrate for the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. On 19 July 2010, Campania buffalo ricotta cheese was assigned to the register of Protected Designations of Origin (PDO by the European Commission, with EC Reg. 634/2010. It is mainly produced in the provinces of Caserta and Salerno around the rivers Garigliano and Volturno, the plain of the river Sele and the area of Cilento. This article reports the results of a 9-month monitoring (from May 2014 to January 2015 of ricotta samples aiming at evaluate the microbial status of some cheese factories, since ricotta is considered particularly suitable to judge the hygienic level of the dairy establishments. Four dairies were selected for sampling according to their different structural characteristics and the adequacy of both their premises and equipment.

  7. Extension of raw milk quality through supplementation of hydrocyanic acid from fresh cassava peel in dairy cattle diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreena Srisaikham

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects on the extension of raw milk quality through supplementation of hydrocyanic acid (HCN levels from fresh cassava peel (FCPe in dairy cattle diet by increasing the milk thiocyanate (SCN concentration and lactoperoxidase (LP activity. The sample was twenty-four Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows, averaging 87±31 days in milk (DIM, 13.4±2.9 kg of milk and 397±52 kg body weight (BW. All cows were fed the control diet with 6.5 kg/d of 21% crude protein (CP concentrate and ad libitum grass silage (GS. The treatments groups were as follows: 1 the control diet for the 1st group, the 2nd group received the control diet supplemented with 400 g/d of FCPe (75 ppm HCN and the 3rd group received the control diet supplemented with 800 g/d of FCPe (150 ppm HCN. The results showed that 800 g/h/d FCPe enhanced the efficiency of LP activity in raw milk to reduce total bacterial count (TBC and coliform count (CC; therefore, 400 g/h/d FCPe can be used in the concentrate for lactating dairy cows.

  8. Method to assess the carbon footprint at product level in the dairy industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria; Thrane, Mikkel; Hermansen, John Erik

    2014-01-01

    associated with raw milk are allocated based on a weighted fat and protein content (1:1.4). Data from the dairy company Arla Foods give 1.1, 8.1, 6.5, 7.4 and 1.2 kg carbon dioxide equivalents per kg of fresh dairy product, butter and butter blend, cheese, milk powder and whey based product, and other...

  9. KEEPING QUALITY OF A FRESH STRINGY CHESE. APPLICATION OF TRADITIONAL METHODS AND ANALYSIS WITH A SMART NOSE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Conte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was applied to samples of a fresh stringy cheese from bovine, ewe and goat milk obtained from a small dairy in Siciliy. Cheese samples, vacuum packaged and without package, were stored at 5±1°C and evaluated from 0 to 15 days. Keeping quality was studied using evaluated with a SMart Nose System (SN and by a Solid Phase Micro Extraction.Gas Chromatography (SPME/GCMS procedure. The obtained data allowed to give a shelf life of 10 days for packaged cheese; a 3 days period was considered for non packaged samples. The study of volatiles by SPME-GC/MS gave a useful information about samples profile; nevertheless the results were not related to cheese durability. The evaluation of the odour profile by SN allowed an objective and rapid measurement of volatiles that can be easily related to the shelf life for routine quality control of cheese.

  10. Effect of dairy calcium from cheese and milk on fecal fat excretion, blood lipids, and appetite in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karina Vejrum; Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Calcium from different dairy sources might affect blood lipids and fecal fat excretion differently because of differences in the food matrix and nutritional composition.......Calcium from different dairy sources might affect blood lipids and fecal fat excretion differently because of differences in the food matrix and nutritional composition....

  11. Detailed fatty acid profile of milk, cheese, ricotta and by products, from cows grazing summer highland pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Matteo; Bittante, Giovanni

    2017-08-01

    In this research two-dimensional GC was used to analyse, for the first time, the detailed fatty acid (FA) profiles of 11 dairy matrices: raw milk (evening whole, evening partially skimmed, morning whole, and vat milk), cream, fresh cheese, whey, ricotta, scotta, 6- and 12-month-ripened cheeses, obtained across artisanal cheese- and ricotta-making trials carried out during the summer period while cows were on highland pastures. Samples were collected during 7 cheese- and ricotta-making procedures carried out at 2-week intervals from bulk milk to study possible differences in the transfer and modification of FA. Compared with morning milk, evening milk had fewer de novo synthetised FA. The detailed FA profile of partially skimmed milk differed little from that of evening whole milk before skimming, but the cream obtained differed from partially skimmed milk and from fresh cheese in about half the FA, due mainly to higher contents of all de novo FA, and lower contents of n-3 and n-6 FA. Fresh cheese and whey had similar FA profiles. The ricotta manufacturing process affected the partition of FA between ricotta and scotta, the FA profile of the latter differing in terms of groups and individual FA from the former, whereas ricotta and fresh cheese had similar composition of FA. In general, there was an increase in medium-chain saturated FA, and a decrease in many polyunsaturated FA during the first 6 months of ripening, but not during the second 6 months. Two-dimensional GC yielded a very detailed and informative FA profile on all the 11 dairy products and by-products analysed.

  12. Characterization of a Panela cheese with added probiotics and fava bean starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, M C; Van Tassell, M L; Martínez-Bustos, F; Singh, M; Castaño-Tostado, E; Amaya-Llano, S L; Miller, M J

    2012-06-01

    Of 20 Lactobacillus and 8 Bifidobacterium species examined, only Bifidobacterium breve ATCC 15700 was able to ferment starch from fava beans. Bifidobacterium breve ATCC 15700 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 were selected as probiotics for use in fresh-style Panela cheese. Two types of fresh cheese (with and without 3% fava bean starch) were manufactured with 3 combinations of probiotics: L. rhamnosus GG only, B. breve only, or both L. rhamnosus GG and B. breve. During 4 wk of storage at 4°C, the addition of fava bean starch to the cheese was not found to cause significant differences in the viability of either probiotic strain. However, the microstructure and texture of Panela cheese were altered, resulting in a much softer product. A sensory panel showed that the presence of added fava bean starch in Panela cheese was less desirable to consumers, whereas probiotic supplementation had no effect on perceived taste or appearance. Panela cheese could be a suitable food for inclusion of probiotic bacteria. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Production of "spun" cheese (mozzarella): application of the methodology of pre-mapping discomfort and/or risks in the dairy products craft industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiore, E

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe in detail the rules of application of the method of pre-mapping discomfort and/or risks (i.e. identification of sources of risk present in the production process) in craft industries of the dairy products sector and "spun" cheese "pasta filata" (mozzarella) production. Application of the method proposed by Colombini et al. allowed identification of the main risks for workers in the dairy products trade. These risks mainly concern the muscular-skeletal apparatus (load handling, repetitive movements, pulling and pushing movements, posture) but are also due to uncomfortable microclimatic conditions and particular work organization. A more detailed study of the risk due to biomechanical overload of the upper limbs was made by applying the OCRA mini-checklist, a new tool available that was validated in comparison with the classic OCRA checklist. In addition, administration of the questionnaire on upper limb and spinal disorders, proposed by the EPM Research Unit, albeit with reservations considering the very limited sample size, showed a positive prevalence of shoulder disorders and the presence of minor disorders mainly of the lumbar spine.

  14. Fate of Shiga toxin-producing and generic Escherichia coli during production and ripening of semihard raw milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, S; Hoffmann, W; Bockelmann, W; Hummerjohann, J; Stephan, R; Hammer, P

    2013-02-01

    The fate of 5 different Escherichia coli strains, including 3 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains, was analyzed during the production and ripening of semihard raw milk cheese. The strains, which were previously isolated from raw milk cheese, were spiked into raw milk before cheese production at 2 different levels (approximately 10(1) and 10(3) cfu/mL, respectively). Two cheese types were produced, which differed in cooking temperatures (40 and 46°C). The cheeses were sampled during manufacture and the 16-wk ripening period. An increase in E. coli counts of approximately 3.5 log(10) cfu/g occurred from raw milk to fresh cheese at d 1, which was attributed to a concentration effect during cheese production and growth of the strains. During ripening over 16 wk, a slow, continuous decrease was observed for all strains. However, significant differences were found between the E. coli strains at the applied spiking levels, whereas the inactivation was similar in the 2 different cheese types. The 2 generic E. coli strains survived at higher counts than did the 3 STEC strains. Nevertheless, only 1 of the 3 STEC strains showed significantly weaker survival at both spiking levels and in both cheese types. Six of 16 cheeses made from raw milk at a low spiking level contained more than 10 cfu/g of STEC at the end of the 16-wk ripening process. After enrichment, STEC were detected in almost all cheeses at both spiking levels. Particularly because of the low infectious dose of highly pathogenic STEC, even low colony counts in raw milk cheese are a matter of concern. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of small ruminant lentivirus infection on cheese yield in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, Dorota; Czopowicz, Michał; Bagnicka, Emilia; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Strzałkowska, Nina; Kaba, Jarosław

    2015-02-01

    Three-year cohort study was carried out to investigate the influence of small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection on cheese yield in goats. For this purpose records of milk yield, milk composition and cheese yield were collected in a dairy goat herd. Cheese yield was recorded as the amount of fresh cheese obtained from 1 kg milk. All goats were serologically tested for SRLV infection twice a year. The analysis included 247 records in total (71 for seropositive and 176 from seronegative individuals) and was carried out with the use of the four-level hierarchical linear model (α = 0·05). SRLV infection proved to be a statistically significant independent factor reducing cheese yield (P = 0·013)--when other covariates were held constant cheese yield was reduced by 4·6 g per each 1 kg milk in an infected goat compared with an uninfected goat. Other statistically significant covariates positively associated with cheese yield were protein contents, fat contents and the 3rd stage of lactation (P < 0·001 for all).

  16. Sensory and microbiological evaluation of traditional ovine ricotta cheese in modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Mancuso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ovine ricotta cheese is a traditional Sicilian dairy product characterised by high humidity and a short shelf life (2-4 days when refrigerated. The increasing demand for fresh food has prompted manufacturers to develop special packaging techniques, such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, that can extend the shelf life and maintain the organoleptic characteristics of ovine ricotta cheese. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the shelf life of fresh MAP-packed ovine ricotta cheese by monitoring the microbiological, chemical, physical and organoleptic characteristics of the product. Samples of a single batch were packed in MAP or vacuum packed and stored at 4°C for 24 and 7 days, respectively. Water activity, pH, physicochemical parameters and microbiological characteristics were examined. A sensory panel rated the product’s main organoleptic characteristics (colour, odour, flavour and texture. Results showed that MAP controlled the development of any unwanted microflora, but did not affect the development of intrinsic lactic floras or chemical parameters. Sensory analysis revealed that overall the MAP-packed ricotta remained acceptable for up to 15 days of storage. The vacuum-packed ricotta cheese, however, showed a progressive deterioration in organoleptic characteristics from day 5 onward and therefore had a shorter shelf life. In conclusion, the ability of MAP to extend the shelf life of a traditional regional product (such as fresh ovine ricotta cheese guarantees consumers a quality product and provides opportunities for manufacturers to expand their markets beyond national boundaries.

  17. Anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure in a single continuously stirred tank reactor process: Limits in co-substrate ratios and organic loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Carlos; Muñoz, Noelia; Rico, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure was investigated with the aim of determining the treatment limits in terms of the cheese whey fraction in feed and the organic loading rate. The results of a continuous stirred tank reactor that was operated with a hydraulic retention time of 15.6 days showed that the co-digestion process was possible with a cheese whey fraction as high as 85% in the feed. The efficiency of the process was similar within the range of the 15-85% cheese whey fraction. To study the effect of the increasing loading rate, the HRT was progressively shortened with the 65% cheese whey fraction in the feed. The reactor efficiency dropped as the HRT decreased but enabled a stable operation over 8.7 days of HRT. At these operating conditions, a volumetric methane production rate of 1.37 m(3) CH4 m(-3) d(-1) was achieved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to predict cheese yield and nutrient recovery or whey loss traits from unprocessed bovine milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragina, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2013-01-01

    Cheese yield is an important technological trait in the dairy industry in many countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis of fresh unprocessed milk samples for predicting cheese yield and nutrient recovery traits. A total of 1,264 model cheeses were obtained from 1,500-mL milk samples collected from individual Brown Swiss cows. Individual measurements of 7 new cheese yield-related traits were obtained from the laboratory cheese-making procedure, including the fresh cheese yield, total solid cheese yield, and the water retained in curd, all as a percentage of the processed milk, and nutrient recovery (fat, protein, total solids, and energy) in the curd as a percentage of the same nutrient contained in the milk. All individual milk samples were analyzed using a MilkoScan FT6000 over the spectral range from 5,000 to 900 wavenumber × cm(-1). Two spectral acquisitions were carried out for each sample and the results were averaged before data analysis. Different chemometric models were fitted and compared with the aim of improving the accuracy of the calibration equations for predicting these traits. The most accurate predictions were obtained for total solid cheese yield and fresh cheese yield, which exhibited coefficients of determination between the predicted and measured values in cross-validation (1-VR) of 0.95 and 0.83, respectively. A less favorable result was obtained for water retained in curd (1-VR=0.65). Promising results were obtained for recovered protein (1-VR=0.81), total solids (1-VR=0.86), and energy (1-VR=0.76), whereas recovered fat exhibited a low accuracy (1-VR=0.41). As FTIR spectroscopy is a rapid, cheap, high-throughput technique that is already used to collect standard milk recording data, these FTIR calibrations for cheese yield and nutrient recovery highlight additional potential applications of the technique in the dairy industry, especially for monitoring cheese

  19. Detection of aflatoxin M1 in milk, cheese and sour cream samples from Costa Rica using enzyme-assisted extraction and HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarría, Guadalupe; Granados-Chinchilla, Fabio; Alfaro-Cascante, Margarita; Molina, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic fungal metabolites, which can be found in feed. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is excreted into milk when ruminants ingest aflatoxin B1 contaminated feedstuffs. Due to its carcinogenic potential, contamination of milk and dairy products with AFM1 may pose a risk for consumers. Hence, it is considered a public health concern. In this survey, the level of AFM1 contamination of dairy products marketed in Costa Rica was determined by enzyme-assisted extraction, immunoaffinity clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a fluorescent detector (HPLC-FLD) in fluid milk (n = 70), fresh cheese (n = 70) and sour cream (n = 70) collected at local convenience stores and supermarkets. AFM1 concentrations in milk and fresh cheese ranged from 19 to 629 ng/L and from 31 to 276 ng/L, with mean values of 136 ng/L and 74 ng/L, respectively, whereas none of the sour cream samples analysed tested positive for this aflatoxin. In 30 milk samples, and 10 cheese samples, AFM1 concentrations surpassed threshold concentrations as established by the European Commission. Thus, sour cream and - to a lesser extent - cheese manufacturing seems to reduce the amount of AFM1 present in milk, possibly due to fraction redistribution or microbiological degradation. The survey results reveal improper quality control procedures in the Costa Rican dairy industry. Therefore, a surveillance programme for dairy products in our country is recommended.

  20. Proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry: A high-throughput and innovative method to study the influence of dairy system and cow characteristics on the volatile compound fingerprint of cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, M; Biasioli, F; Cappellin, L; Cecchinato, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cornu, A; Gasperi, F; Martin, B; Bittante, G

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of dairy system and individual cow-related factors on the volatile fingerprint of a large number of individual model cheeses analyzed by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS). A total of 1,075 model cheeses were produced using milk samples collected from individual Brown Swiss cows reared in 72 herds located in mountainous areas of Trento province (Italy). The herds belonged to 5 main dairy systems ranging from traditional to modern and the cows presented different daily milk yields (24.6±7.9kg × d(-1)), stages of lactation (199±138 d in milk), and parities (2.7±1.8). The PTR-ToF-MS revealed 619 peaks, of which the 240 most intense were analyzed, and 61 of these were tentatively attributed to relevant volatile organic compounds on the basis of their fragmentation patterns and data from the literature. Principal component analysis was used to convert the multiple responses characterizing the PTR-ToF-MS spectra into 5 synthetic variables representing 62% of the total information. These principal components were related to groups of volatile compounds tentatively attributed to different peaks and used to investigate the relationship of the volatile compound profile obtained by PTR-ToF-MS to animal and farm characteristics. Lactation stage is related to 4 principal components which brought together 52.9% of the total variance and 57.9% of the area of analyzed peaks. In particular, 2 principal components were positively related to peaks tentatively attributed to aldehydes and ketones and negatively related to alcohols, esters, and acids, which displayed a linear increase during lactation. The second principal component was affected by dairy system; it was higher in the modern system in which cows received total mixed rations. The third principal component was positively related to daily milk production. In summary, we report the first application of this innovative, high

  1. A survey of bacteria found in Belgian dairy farm products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N'Guessan, E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Due to the potential hazards caused by pathogenic bacteria, farm dairy production remains a challenge from the point of view of food safety. As part of a public program to support farm diversification and short food supply chains, farm dairy product samples including yogurt, ice cream, raw-milk butter and cheese samples were collected from 318 Walloon farm producers between 2006 and 2014. Objectives. Investigation of the microbiological quality of the Belgian dairy products using the guidelines provided by the European food safety standards. Method. The samples were collected within the framework of the self-checking regulation. In accordance with the European Regulation EC 2073/2005, microbiological analyses were performed to detect and count Enterobacteriaceae, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Results. Even when results met the microbiological safety standards, hygienic indicator microorganisms like E. coli and S. aureus exceeded the defined limits in 35% and 4% of butter and cheese samples, respectively. Unsatisfactory levels observed for soft cheeses remained higher (10% and 2% for S. aureus and L. monocytogenes respectively than those observed for pressed cheeses (3% and 1% and fresh cheeses (3% and 0% (P ≥ 0.05. Furthermore, the percentages of samples outside legal limits were not significantly higher in the summer months than in winter months for all mentioned bacteria. Conclusions. This survey showed that most farm dairy products investigated were microbiologically safe. However, high levels of hygiene indicators (e.g., E. coli in some products, like butter, remind us of applying good hygienic practices at every stage of the dairy production process to ensure consumer safety.

  2. Green cheese: partial life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and energy intensity of integrated dairy production and bioenergy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Villegas, H A; Passos-Fonseca, T H; Reinemann, D J; Armentano, L E; Wattiaux, M A; Cabrera, V E; Norman, J M; Larson, R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of integrating dairy and bioenergy systems on land use, net energy intensity (NEI), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A reference dairy farm system representative of Wisconsin was compared with a system that produces dairy and bioenergy products. This integrated system investigates the effects at the farm level when the cow diet and manure management practices are varied. The diets evaluated were supplemented with varying amounts of dry distillers grains with solubles and soybean meal and were balanced with different types of forages. The manure-management scenarios included manure land application, which is the most common manure disposal method in Wisconsin, and manure anaerobic digestion (AD) to produce biogas. A partial life cycle assessment from cradle to farm gate was conducted, where the system boundaries were expanded to include the production of biofuels in the analysis and the environmental burdens between milk and bioenergy products were partitioned by system expansion. Milk was considered the primary product and the functional unit, with ethanol, biodiesel, and biogas considered co-products. The production of the co-products was scaled according to milk production to meet the dietary requirements of each selected dairy ration. Results indicated that land use was 1.6 m2, NEI was 3.86 MJ, and GHG emissions were 1.02 kg of CO2-equivalents per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) for the reference system. Within the integrated dairy and bioenergy system, diet scenarios that maximize dry distillers grains with solubles and implement AD had the largest reduction of GHG emissions and NEI, but the greatest increase in land use compared with the reference system. Average land use ranged from 1.68 to 2.01 m2/kg of FPCM; NEI ranged from -5.62 to -0.73 MJ/kg of FPCM; and GHG emissions ranged from 0.63 to 0.77 kg of CO2-equivalents/kg of FPCM. The AD contributed 65% of the NEI and 77% of the GHG

  3. A decision-making tool to determine economic feasibility and break-even prices for artisan cheese operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Catherine A; Bouma, Andrea; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth

    2015-12-01

    Artisan cheese makers lack access to valid economic data to help them evaluate business opportunities and make important business decisions such as determining cheese pricing structure. The objective of this study was to utilize an economic model to evaluate the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return, and payback period for artisan cheese production at different annual production volumes. The model was also used to determine the minimum retail price necessary to ensure positive NPV for 5 different cheese types produced at 4 different production volumes. Milk type, cheese yield, and aging time all affected variable costs. However, aged cheeses required additional investment for aging space (which needs to be larger for longer aging times), as did lower yield cheeses (by requiring larger-volume equipment for pasteurization and milk handling). As the volume of milk required increased, switching from vat pasteurization to high-temperature, short-time pasteurization was necessary for low-yield cheeses before being required for high-yield cheeses, which causes an additional increase in investment costs. Because of these differences, high-moisture, fresh cow milk cheeses can be sold for about half the price of hard, aged goat milk cheeses at the largest production volume or for about two-thirds the price at the lowest production volume examined. For example, for the given model assumptions, at an annual production of 13,608kg of cheese (30,000 lb), a fresh cow milk mozzarella should be sold at a minimum retail price of $27.29/kg ($12.38/lb), whereas a goat milk Gouda needs a minimum retail price of $49.54/kg ($22.47/lb). Artisan cheese makers should carefully evaluate annual production volumes. Although larger production volumes decrease average fixed cost and improve production efficiency, production can reach volumes where it becomes necessary to sell through distributors. Because distributors might pay as little as 35% of retail price, the retail price needs

  4. Evaluation physicochemical, microbiological and sensory of Minas frescal goat milk cheese developed for direct acidification and lactic acid fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keily Alves de Moura Oliveira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the direct acidification by lactic acid and indirect, by adding of the mesophilic starter culture type O (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis e Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, the physicochemical properties, microbiological and sensory product. Two formulations of Minas Frescal cheese were prepared by acidification with lactic acid and acidification with mesophilic type O culture and evaluated for microbiological quality: the psychrotrophic count, aerobic mesophilic and thermotolerant Coliforms and Salmonella sp. The physicochemical analyzes were performed determination of fat, ash, moisture, acidity in lactic acid and pH. The physical and chemical changes were evaluated in the Minas fresh cheese during the 14-day storage period, and analyzed its acceptability and purchase intent through sensory analysis. The results revealed that the Minas fresh cheese formulations presented in good sanitary conditions and of consumption. The physico-chemical parameters of fat, ash and moisture of the Minas fresh cheeses do not differ significantly (p < 0.05. The cheese obtained by direct acidification by lactic acid showed the lowest values of count total lactic bacteria and acidity in acid lactic, higher pH and greater sensory acceptance and purchase intent differing cheese obtained by lactic fermentation. The results show that the form of acidification affects the product characteristics and consumer acceptability. The use of goat milk for the production of fresh cheese mines shows potential for the dairy industry and adds value to the product and becomes an alternative product to consumers allergic to cow’s milk.

  5. The quality of processed cheeses and cheese analogues the same brand domestic and foreign production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Bezeková

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Processed cheeses belong to Slovakia favorite dairy products. Processed cheeses are made from natural cheeses. In recent years the trend is to replace natural cheeses with other raw materials of non-dairy nature. The composition of the processed cheese analogues is not in many countries defined by legislation. The objective of this study was to determine and compare chemical properties (fat, dry matter, fat in dry matter, NaCl two samples of processed cheeses (C, D - Veselá krava and two samples cheese analogues (A, B - Kiri the same brand domestic and foreign production. The evaluated was taste of processed cheeses and cheese analogues, too. Chemical analysis and sensory analysis were repeated four times. The results of chemical analysis shows that all rated samples processed cheeses made on Slovakia fulfilled demands declared (dry matter and fat in dry matter as producers provided on the label. The most commonly fluctuate content of NaCl from 1 to 1.24 g.100g-1. The higher coefficient of variation in the determination of NaCl (3.88% was found in processed cheeses made in France. Processed cheese and cheese analogues made in France had not specified parameters for dry matter and fat in dry matter on the label. For production cheese analogues Kiri made in Slovakia was used different raw material than Kiri made in France. The taste of products was determined by descriptors - salty, slightly sweet, milky, buttery-creamy, fatty, sour, bitter, and unknown. The interesting that Kiri made in Slovakia had stronger milky and buttery-creamy taste than cheese analogue Kiri made in France. Significant differences were found in the slighty sweet taste of processed cheeses, the most points won processed cheese Veselá krava made in Slovakia.

  6. Research on some factors influencing acid and exopolysaccharide produced by dairy propionibacterium strains isolated from traditional homemade Turkish cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darilmaz, Derya Onal; Gumustekin, Yesim

    2012-05-01

    In this study, a total of 32 isolated strains and 5 reference strains of dairy propionibacteria were analyzed for acid and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production in skim milk and yeast extract-lactate broth (YEL) media in order to investigate the physiological background and preservative role of acid and EPS. The effects of final culture pH and optical density on acid and EPS production were also determined. On average, all strains produced more acid and reached lower final pH values in skim milk than in YEL medium. While the correlations obtained between the acid produced by propionibacterium strains and their final culture pH in skim milk medium were significant (P Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii and P. freudenreichii subsp. freudenreichii strains produced higher amounts of propionic and acetic acids than did Propionibacterium jensenii in YEL medium. The acid produced by these strains may be used as a preservative in the food industry for replacement or reduction of the increasing use of chemical additives. The EPS production by propionibacterium strains during growth in YEL medium was 72 to 168 mg/liter, while in skim milk it was 94 to 359 mg/liter. The monomer compositions of the EPSs formed by the six selected dairy propionibacteria strains were analyzed. The EPSs may have applications as food grade additives and viscosity-stabilizing agents.

  7. Genetic parameters estimate for milk and mozzarella cheese yield, fat and protein percentage in dairy buffaloes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tonhati

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was analyze the (covariance components and genetic and phenotypic relationships in the following traits: accumulated milk yield at 270 days (MY270, observed until 305 days of lactation; accumulated milk yield at 270 days (MY270/ A and at 305 days (MY305, observed until 335 days of lactation; mozzarella cheese yield (MCY and fat (FP and protein (PP percentage, observed until 335 days of lactation. The (covariance components were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood methodology in analyses single, two and three-traits using animal models. Heritability estimated for MY270, MY270/A, MY305, MCY, FP and PP were 0.22; 0.24, 0.25, 0.14, 0.29 and 0.40 respectively. The genetic correlations between MCY and the variables MY270, MY270/A, MY305, PP and FP was: 0.85; 1.00; 0.89; 0.14 and 0.06, respectively. This way, the selection for the production of milk in long period should increase MCY. However, in the search of animals that produce milk with quality, the genetic parameters suggest that another index should be composed allying these studied traits.

  8. Screening of antibiotics and chemical analysis of penicillin residue in fresh milk and traditional dairy products in Oyo state, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olatoye, Isaac Olufemi; Daniel, Oluwayemisi Folashade; Ishola, Sunday Ayobami

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: There are global public health and economic concerns on chemical residues in food of animal origin. The use of antibiotics in dairy cattle for the treatment of diseases such as mastitis has contributed to the presence of residues in dairy products. Penicillin residues as low as 1 ppb can lead to allergic reactions and shift of resistance patterns in microbial population as well as interfere with the processing of several dairy products. Antibiotic monitoring is an essentia...

  9. Minas-type fresh cheese developed from buffalo milk with addition of L. acidophilus Desenvolvimento de queijo minas frescal de leite de búfala com adição de L. acidophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Marcatti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Effective incorporation of a probiotic into foods requires the culture to remain viable all along processing and storage, without adverse alterations to sensory characteristics. The objective of this work was developing Minas-type fresh cheese with probiotic properties from buffalo milk. Four batches of Minas-type fresh cheese were prepared using buffalo milk: batch T1 in which neither culture nor lactic acid added; batch T3 in which only lactic acid added; batches T2 and T4 , both added of Lactobacillus acidophilus LAC 4, but T4 was also acidified. Resulting cheeses were evaluated for probiotic culture stability, texture profile, sensory acceptance, and changes in pH. The T4 probiotic cheese presented hardness, gumminess, and chewiness significantly lower than the other treatments. However, values for springiness and cohesiveness did not differ between all cheeses, and no sensory differences (p > 0.05 were found between treatments for texture, taste, and overall acceptance. The addition of probiotic to the acidified cheese (T4 yielded best aroma. The populations of L. acidophilus were greater than 10(6 CFU g-1 after 28 days of storage all products. Minas-type fresh cheese from buffalo milk is a suitable food for the delivery of L. acidophilus, since the culture remained viable during the shelf life of the products and did not negative affect analysed parameters.Para incorporação efetiva de probióticos em alimentos é imprescindível que a cultura mantenha-se viável durante todo o processamento e a estocagem e que não ocorram alterações adversas nas características sensoriais do produto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver queijo Minas frescal com propriedades probióticas a partir do leite de búfala. Foram avaliados quatro tratamentos (T1 a T4, sendo T1 e T3 controles, sem e com acidificação, respectivamente em T2 e T4 foram adicionados da cultura probiótica Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC 4, porém T4 foi também acidificado

  10. Artisanal cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artisanal cheese, which is handmade in small batches, differs from mass-produced cheese because of the milk and procedures used. Artisanal cheese is made from the milk of pasture-fed cows, sheep, or goats instead of conventionally-fed cows, and is affected by plants eaten, stage of lactation, and s...

  11. Cheese and cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, the effect of dairy products on cardiovascular risk is a topic with much debate and conflicting results. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the existing literature regarding the effect of cheese intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies included...

  12. Action of lactoferrin on the multiplication of Lactobacillus casei in vitro and in Minas fresh cheeseAtividade antimicrobiana; Atividade biológica; Queijo; Probióticos; Produtos lácteos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Casale Aragon-Alegro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the activity of lactoferrin on the multiplication of probiotic Lactobacillus casei in vitro and in Minas fresh cheese. Growth curves of L. casei in BHI broth containing 1 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL of lactoferrin were performed. Additionally, Minas fresh cheeses added of L. casei (control and added of L. casei and lactoferrin (2 mg/g and 4 mg/g were produced and stored at 5°C during 28 days. Cheeses were analyzed for pH, titratable acidity and enumeration of L. casei and psychotropic microorganisms in days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 and for the centesimal composition in day 1. The experiment was repeated three times, and data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test at 5% significance level. When tested in vitro, L. casei multiplication was stimulated by lactoferrin at a concentration of 2 mg/mL, but this activity has not been verified in the cheese, even in that added by lactoferrin at 4 mg/g. Psychotropic population in the cheeses added by lactoferrin did not differ from control cheese (P>0.05, demonstrating that no antimicrobial activity occurred in the products. More studies should be performed to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of lactoferrin in foods, since they have more variables that may affect the activity of this protein when comparing to in vitro tests.O presente estudo avaliou a atividade da lactoferrina sobre a multiplicação de Lactobacillus casei probiótico in vitro e no queijo Minas frescal. As curvas de crescimento de L. casei em caldo BHI contendo lactoferrina nas concentrações de 1 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL foram construídas. Adicionalmente, os queijos Minas frescal contendo somente L. casei (controle e L. casei e a lactoferrina (2 mg/g e 4 mg/g foram produzidos e armazenados a 5°C durante 28 dias. Foram realizadas as análises de pH, acidez livre titulável e enumeração de L. casei e microrganismos psicrotróficos no dia 1 (dia da produção e após 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias de armazenamento. Além disso, no dia 1, foram

  13. Improved Properties and Microbiological Safety of Novel Cottage Cheese Containing Spices

    OpenAIRE

    Josipović, Renata; Knežević, Zvonimira Medverec; Frece, Jadranka; Markov, Ksenija; Kazazić, Snježana; Mrvčić, Jasna

    2015-01-01

    The study focuses on developing novel cott age cheese containing spices with acceptable sensory properties, increased biological value and extended shelf life. Thirty types of cheese with added fresh or dried parsley, dill, pepper, garlic and rosemary were produced. Characterisation of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of spices and cheese samples were evaluated. The cheese containing fresh pepper and fresh and dried herbs showed excellent sensory properties,...

  14. Microbial Quality of and Biochemical Changes in Fresh Soft, Acid-Curd Xinotyri Cheese Made from Raw or Pasteurized Goat’s Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Eleni C. Pappa; Thomas G. Bontinis; Maria Tasioula-Margari; John Samelis

    2017-01-01

    The microbiological quality of and changes in the main physicochemical parameters, together with the evolution of proteolysis, lipolysis and volatile profiles of soft Xinotyri, a traditional Greek acid-curd cheese (pH≈4.4, moisture 65 %, salt 1 %) made from raw (RMC) or pasteurized (PMC) goat’s milk without starters, were evaluated during aerobic storage at 4 °C for 60 days. No statistically significant differences between the total nitrogen (TN) and nitrogen fraction (% of TN) contents, the ...

  15. Fortification of Cheddar cheese with vitamin D does not alter cheese flavor perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, B; Brothersen, C; McMahon, D J

    2011-07-01

    Currently, dietary guidelines for vitamin D consumption are under review, considering new information that >50% of the US population is vitamin D deficient, and may lead to a recommendation of a higher dietary intake of this vitamin. Vitamin D fortification of cheese aims to improve the current availability of fortified dairy foods beyond liquid milk. However, cheese is susceptible to undesirable flavor changes during long-term cheese ripening, and cheese bacteria and enzymes may degrade added vitamins. To test the retention of vitamin D(3) in Cheddar cheese curd, cheese milk was fortified initially during manufacture at a level of 150 IU/serving, using commercial sources that contained vitamin D(3) in powder, oil, or emulsion form, with and without homogenization of the fortified milk. When fortification was done directly to the cheese milk, we found that more than 80% vitamin D(3) was retained in cheese curd, irrespective of homogenization or form of fortification. Further, Cheddar cheese was fortified with the emulsion form of vitamin D(3) directly in cheese milk at 200 and 400 IU/serving to test stability and flavor changes. Vitamin D(3) fortified in this manner was stable for up to 9 mo in Cheddar cheese. Consumer acceptance and descriptive analysis of flavor profiles of cheese were also conducted and showed that vitamin D(3) fortified cheeses were equally liked by consumers, and cheese taste and flavor remained unaltered with vitamin D(3) addition even after aging for 9 mo. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Formation of acrylamide in cheese bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Sobrinho, Luis Gualberto De Andrade; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    . In contrast, acrylamide was not observed in Pao de queijo a traditional Brazilian bread product made from fermented cassava flour, fresh eggs and a mixture of Brazilian Gouda type cheese and Mozzarella cheese pointing towards a role of eggs in protection against acrylamide formation....

  17. Evaluation of Natural Food Preservatives in Domestic and Imported Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Young; Han, Noori; Kim, Sun-Young; Yoo, Mi-Young; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In milk and milk products, a number of organic acids naturally occur. We investigated the contents of some naturally occurred food preservatives (sorbic acid, benzoic acid, propionic acid, nitrite, and nitrate) contained in domestic and imported cheeses to establish the standard for the allowable range of food preservatives content in cheese. 8 kinds of domestic precheeses (n=104), 16 kinds of domestic cured cheeses (n=204) and 40 kinds of imported cheeses (n=74) were collected. Each domestic cheese was aged for a suitable number of months and stored for 2 mon at 5℃ and 10℃. No preservatives were detected in domestic soft and fresh cheeses, except cream cheese. In case of semi-hard cheeses, 2-5 mg/kg of benzoic acid was detected after 1-2 mon of aging. In imported cheeses, only benzoic acid and propionic acid were detected. The average benzoic acid and propionic acid contents in semi-hard cheese were 8.73 mg/kg and 18.78 mg/kg, respectively. Specifically, 1.16 mg/kg and 6.80 mg/kg of benzoic acid and propionic acid, respectively, were contained in soft cheese, 3.27 mg/kg and 2.84 mg/kg, respectively, in fresh cheese, 1.87 mg/kg and not detected, respectively, in hard cheese, and 2.07 mg/kg and 182.26 mg/kg, respectively, in blended processed cheese.

  18. Infectivity of cysts of the ME-49 Toxoplasma gondii strain in bovine milk and homemade cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiramoto RM

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Analyze the infectivity and storage resistance of cysts of the ME-49 strain of Toxoplasma gondii in artificially infected bovine milk and homemade fresh cheese. METHODS: Pasteurized bovine milk was infected with 10 cysts/ml of the ME-49 strain of T.gondii and inoculated in different groups of mice, immediately or after storage at 4ºC for 5, 10 and 20 days. Homemade fresh cheese was prepared with artificially infected milk, and also tested in groups of mice, using the same storage process. Infection was identified by the presence of cysts in the brain or serological testing in challenged mice after 5 weeks, confirmed by Western Blot and histology. RESULTS: The infectivity of cysts of the ME-49 strain of T.gondii was maintained in the milk even after storage for 20 days at refrigerator temperatures. Cysts were also able to survive the production process of homemade fresh cheese and storage for a period of 10 days in the same conditions. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrated that milk and dairy products could be an important source of T.gondii in human contamination, reinforcing the importance of milk pasteurization before any processing or ingestion.

  19. bomasa for Cheese

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'The .~1uc{ywa~· conducted to investigate the activity and storage stability of crude pepsin extractfor use ~ rennet . substitute in cheese processing. The conditio,!s.tested were; regions of the abom~a, fresh versus dry abomasa; drying methods; maceration temPeratures (3re, 24~2ff>C Or 1 ~5"C).' 1,1U1Ceration pH 1-6 for 6 ...

  20. Production of farmstead lactose-free Pecorino di Osilo and ricotta cheeses from sheep’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Pulinas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work was aimed to define and validate farmstead production of lactose- free Pecorino di Osilo cheese, fresh ricotta cheese, and salted and smoked ricotta cheese (Ricotta mustia. The enzymatic activity of the commercial preparation containing lactase (1.1 g/mL, preliminarily tested using a spectrophotometric titration, showed activity equal to 4950±40 neutral lactase unit/g. The amount of lactase required to obtain the lactose-free milk was then established in triplicate laboratory trials, by adding the enzyme at concentrations of 0.7, 0.9 and 1.1 g/L in flasks containing 160 mL of raw sheep’s milk. Samples were incubated under conditions expected during milk storage and cheese-making. The residual lactose content in milk was determined by enzymatic method. The addition of lactase at concentration of 1.1 g/L of milk reduced the lactose concentration below the limit of detection (LOD of 0.06 g/L. The procedure was validated at a dairy farm, using three different batches of bulk raw sheep’s lactose-free milk that were transformed into Pecorino di Osilo cheese. The resulting whey was used to produce fresh ricotta and Ricotta mustia cheese. Raw milk and whey samples were always below lactose detection limit. The residual lactose was measured in Pecorino di Osilo cheese, after 24 hours and 30 days from production; in fresh ricotta cheese, after 48 hours; in Ricotta mustia cheese after 7 days. The determination of lactose content in cheese samples was conducted by a gas chromatography- flame ionization detection method, which showed a LOD and limit of quantification respectively of 1.8 and 5.6 mg/kg for cheese, and 1.35 and 4.2 mg/kg for both ricotta cheeses. The lactose concentration was always below the relevant LOD values in all samples. The mean concentration of galactose and glucose were respectively 13,000±2000 and 11,000±2000 mg/kg in fresh Pecorino di Osilo, 1100±300 and 1200±300 mg/kg in fresh ricotta, and 950±400 and 750

  1. Formation of acrylamide in cheese bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Sobrinho, Luis Gualberto De Andrade; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    of cheese added, and addition of 23.7 g cheese resulted in 958 ppb acrylamide. For an o/w rapeseed oil emulsion as a food model heated under conditions similar to those persisting inside bread during baking, it was further shown that acrylamide formation also occurred in absence of reducing sugars....... In contrast, acrylamide was not observed in Pao de queijo a traditional Brazilian bread product made from fermented cassava flour, fresh eggs and a mixture of Brazilian Gouda type cheese and Mozzarella cheese pointing towards a role of eggs in protection against acrylamide formation....

  2. The inhibitory effect of Penicillium camemberti and Geotruchum candidum on the associated funga of white mould cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Marianne; Nielsen, P.V.

    2005-01-01

    The diameter of pinpoint inoculated cheese contaminates (Cladosporium herbarum, Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium caseifulvum and Penicillium commune), isolated from either the dairy environment or directly from cheese, were inoculated 24 h after inoculation of the secondary starters to simulat...

  3. Milk and cheese fatty acid composition in sheep fed Mediterranean forages with reference to conjugated linoleic acid cis-9,trans-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, M; Cabiddu, A; Pinna, G; Decandia, M; Piredda, G; Pirisi, A; Molle, G

    2005-10-01

    Two experiments were undertaken to evaluate the effect on milk and cheese fatty acid composition of feeding different fresh forages to dairy sheep both in winter (experiment 1, growing stage of the forages, early lactating ewes) and in spring (experiment 2, reproduction stage of the forages, midlactating ewes). Four forage species were compared: annual ryegrass (RY, Lolium rigidum Gaudin), sulla (SU, Hedysarum coronarium L.), burr medic (BM, Medicago polymorpha L.), and a daisy forb (CH, Chrysanthemum coronarium L.). The forages were cut twice daily and offered ad libitum to 4 replicate groups of Sarda dairy sheep (groups RY, SU, BM, and CH). The CH forage was particularly rich in linoleic acid in both periods, whereas BM and SU forages were rich in linolenic acid in winter and spring, respectively. Milk fatty acid composition was affected by the forage in both experiments. Milk conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid contents were higher in CH and BM groups (winter) and CH group (spring) than in the other groups. No differences were observed when comparing fatty acid profile between milk, 1-d-old cheeses, and 60-d-old cheeses within experimental groups, suggesting that the fatty acid recovery rates during cheese making and ripening were not affected by the feeding regimens. After stepwise discriminant analyses of the pooled data, the milks and cheeses sourced in the different feeding regimens differed among them. Based on these results, we conclude that it is possible to manipulate the fatty acid profile of sheep dairy produce to maximize the content of beneficial fatty acids by the use of appropriate fresh forage-based regimens.

  4. Production and chemical composition of Istria and Pag whey cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Antunac

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Istria and Pag curd are specific products that are mostly consumed fresh made in coastal areas and on islands. Curd is a sort of soft cheese. Due to its structure, it is very healthy. It has a high nutritional value which is the result of a great amount of proteins that are easy to digest and have a high level of utilization. The aim of this study was to describe the technological process of production, to determine the chemical structure and to suggest the value of standardization on the basis of sensory evaluation. The total of 28 curd samples were physically and chemically analyzed according to standard and accredited scientific methods. Statistical data analysis was carried out by using the procedures of Microsoft Office Excel (2007. According to water content in cheese, Istria and Pag curd belongs to a group of soft cheeses. On average the water content in Istrian curd was 56.62 %, and in Pag curd was 63.03 %. Istrian curd showed higher values of the fat content (28.9 % and the fat in a dry matter (64.47 % than Pag curd (23.25 % and 59.65 %. The sensory quality of Istrian curd was not as homogenous as of Pag curd. Based on the research results, it can be concluded that the physical and chemical structure of Istria and Pag curd was uneven, which is understandable if the production terms and conditions and the way of draining the curd are taken into account. The description of technological process of production and the understanding of physical and chemical structure of the curd, represent the significant contribution to the research and knowledge of domestic dairy products, which certainly should not be neglected in our dairy industry. In any case, these products deserve the experts full attention.

  5. Breed of cow and herd productivity affect milk nutrient recovery in curd, and cheese yield, efficiency and daily production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Gasparotto, V; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2018-02-01

    Little is known about cheese-making efficiency at the individual cow level, so our objective was to study the effects of herd productivity, individual herd within productivity class and breed of cow within herd by producing, then analyzing, 508 model cheeses from the milk of 508 cows of six different breeds reared in 41 multi-breed herds classified into two productivity classes (high v. low). For each cow we obtained six milk composition traits; four milk nutrient (fat, protein, solids and energy) recovery traits (REC) in curd; three actual % cheese yield traits (%CY); two theoretical %CYs (fresh cheese and cheese solids) calculated from milk composition; two overall cheese-making efficiencies (% ratio of actual to theoretical %CYs); daily milk yield (dMY); and three actual daily cheese yield traits (dCY). The aforementioned phenotypes were analyzed using a mixed model which included the fixed effects of herd productivity, parity, days in milk (DIM) and breed; the random effects were the water bath, vat, herd and residual. Cows reared in high-productivity herds yielded more milk with higher nutrient contents and more cheese per day, had greater theoretical %CY, and lower cheese-making efficiency than low-productivity herds, but there were no differences between them in terms of REC traits. Individual herd within productivity class was an intermediate source of total variation in REC, %CY and efficiency traits (10.0% to 17.2%), and a major source of variation in milk yield and dCY traits (43.1% to 46.3%). Parity of cows was an important source of variation for productivity traits, whereas DIM affected almost all traits. Breed within herd greatly affected all traits. Holsteins produced more milk, but Brown Swiss cows produced milk with higher actual and theoretical %CYs and cheese-making efficiency, so that the two large-framed breeds had the same dCY. Compared with the two large-framed breeds, the small Jersey cows produced much less milk, but with greater actual

  6. Milk and dairy products: a unique micronutrient combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2011-10-01

    Milk and dairy products contain micronutrients such as minerals and vitamins, which contribute to multiple and different vital functions in the organism. The mineral fraction is composed of macroelements (Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, and Cl) and oligoelements (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se). From a physicochemical point of view, the chemical forms, the associations with other ions or organic molecules, and the location of macroelements such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, and Cl in milk are relatively well described and understood. Thus, it is admitted that these macroelements are differently distributed into aqueous and micellar phases of milk, depending on their nature. K, Na, and Cl ions are essentially in the aqueous phase, whereas Ca, P, and Mg are partly bound to the casein micelles. About one third of the Ca, half of the P, and two thirds of the Mg are located in the aqueous phase of milk. Dairy products are more or less rich in these different minerals. In cheeses, mineral content depends mainly on their processing. The Ca content is strongly related to the acidification step. Moreover, if acidification is associated with the draining step, the Ca content in the cheese will be reduced. Thus, the Ca content varies in the following increasing order: milks/fermented milks/fresh cheeses butter). The hydrophilic vitamins are in the aqueous phase of milk. For one part of these vitamins, the concentrations described in the literature are not always homogenous and sometimes not in accordance between them; these discrepancies are due to the difficulty of the sample preparation and the use of appropriate methods for their quantification. However, there is no doubt of the significant contribution of milk and dairy products to the intake of vitamins. Milk and dairy are considered essential sources for vitamins. Key teaching points: Milk and dairy products are unique micronutrient combinations with recognized health benefits. The concentration, chemical forms, and location of different minerals are

  7. Comparison of SPME Methods for Determining Volatile Compounds in Milk, Cheese, and Whey Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Tunick

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS are commonly used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile compounds in various dairy products, but conditions have to be adjusted to maximize release while not generating new compounds that are absent in the original sample. Queso Fresco, a fresh non-melting cheese, may be heated at 60 °C for 30 min; in contrast, compounds are produced in milk when exposed to light and elevated temperatures, so milk samples are heated as little as possible. Products such as dehydrated whey protein are more stable and can be exposed to longer periods (60 min of warming at lower temperature (40 °C without decomposition, allowing for capture and analysis of many minor components. The techniques for determining the volatiles in dairy products by SPME and GC-MS have to be optimized to produce reliable results with minimal modifications and analysis times.

  8. Determination of volatile fractions in raw milk and ripened cheese by means of GC-MS. Results of a survey performed in the marginal area between Italy and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Stefanon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile fractions of milk and their evolution in ripened cheese were studied using purge and trap extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS. Eighteen samples of raw milk and cheese ripened for 70 days were collected in 2 consecutive years from dairy farms located in the border area between Italy and Slovenia. Twenty one volatile compounds not detected in the fresh milk used for cheese manufacturing, belonging mainly to the class of esters and alcohols, were found, while 8 compounds detected in milk were not found in cheese after 70 days of ripening. In cheese the majority of compounds increased significantly, even though the variations differed between the classes of volatile compounds. Concentration of alcohols, in particular ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-pentanol, increased considerably, while the content of ketones and terpenes was characterized by a significant, although small, rise that was largely related to a quantitative variation of only few compounds. Also esters, despite the high number of volatile compounds of new formation, showed a lower increase of concentration than that observed for the alcohols. Concentration of aldehydes, hydrocarbons and sulphur compounds remained unchanged, despite relevant variations involving the individual chemical compounds. Significant differences were also observed between the dairy product of the two countries, mainly for the concentration of volatile compounds belonging to the classes of alcohols, ketones and esters.

  9. Consumption of Iron-Fortified Cheese and Lipid Peroxidation in Females

    OpenAIRE

    Giunti, Gene J.

    1994-01-01

    Dairy products are important sources of calcium and other nutrients but are a poor source of dietary iron. Cheese comprises a substantial portion of dairy food consumption and has been determined an appropriate medium for iron-fortification. However, iron may promote the potentially harmful process in food and biological systems known as lipid peroxidation. Therefore, the safety of consuming iron-fortified cheese was examined. Commercial-scale batches of Cheddar cheese were iron-fortified ...

  10. Soil microbial activities and solid-state {sup 1}3 CNMR to asses organic matter transformation in a reed-bed under cheese-dairy farm effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnet, A. M.; Prudent, P.; Ziarelli, F.; Domeizel, M.; Gros, R.

    2009-07-01

    In this study, we described the soil microbial activities involved in a small dairy effluent purification using a reed filter under a Mediterranean climate. We tested whether certain enzyme activities used as bio indicators of dairy waste degradation ({beta}-galactosidase and protease), vary through time which might influence organic matter degradation and to test whether specific microbial communities were selected at the contact of the effluent using community level catabolic profiles (CLCPs). (Author)

  11. Proteolysis, lipolysis, volatile compounds, texture, and flavor of Hispánico cheese made using frozen ewe milk curds pressed for different times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picon, A; Gaya, P; Fernández-García, E; Rivas-Cañedo, A; Avila, M; Nuñez, M

    2010-07-01

    Hispánico cheese is manufactured in Spain from a mixture of cow and ewe milk. Production of ewe milk varies throughout the year, with a peak in spring and a valley in summer and autumn. To overcome this seasonal shortage, curd from spring ewe milk may be frozen and used for cheese manufacture some months later. In the present work, ewe milk curds pressed for 15, 60, or 120 min were held at -24 degrees C for 4 mo, thawed, cut to 1-mm pieces, and mixed with fresh cow milk curd for the manufacture of experimental Hispánico cheeses. Control cheese was made from a mixture of pasteurized cow and ewe milk in the same (80:20) proportion. Cheeses, made in duplicate experiments, were analyzed throughout a 60-d ripening period. No significant differences between cheeses were found for lactic acid bacteria counts, dry matter content, hydrophilic peptides, 47 out of 68 vol.tile compounds, texture, and flavor characteristics. On the other hand, differences of minor practical significance between experimental and control cheeses, unrelated to the use of frozen ewe milk curd or the pressing time of ewe milk curd, were found for pH value, aminopeptidase activity, proteolysis, hydrophobic peptides, free amino acids, free fatty acids, and the remaining 21 vol.tile compounds. It may be concluded that the use of frozen ewe milk curd in the manufacture of Hispánico cheese does not alter its main characteristics. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Preliminary Study on the Effect of Fermented Cheese Whey on Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella Goldcoast Populations Inoculated onto Fresh Organic Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria I S; Lima, Ana I; Monteiro, Sara A V S; Ferreira, Ricardo M S B; Pedroso, Laurentina; Sousa, Isabel; Ferreira, Maria A S S

    2016-08-01

    Cheese whey fermented by an industrial starter consortium of lactic acid bacteria was evaluated for its antibacterial capacity to control a selection of pathogenic bacteria. For their relevance on outbreak reports related to vegetable consumption, this selection included Listeria monocytogenes, serotype 4b, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella Goldcoast. Organically grown lettuce was inoculated with an inoculum level of ∼10(7) colony-forming unit (CFU)/mL and was left for about 1 h in a safety cabinet before washing with a perceptual solution of 75:25 (v/v) fermented whey in water, for 1 and 10 min. Cells of pathogens recovered were then counted and their number compared with that obtained for a similar treatment, but using a chlorine solution at 110 ppm. Results show that both treatments, either with chlorine or fermented whey, were able to significantly reduce (p < 0.05) the number of bacteria, in a range of 1.15-2.00 and 1.59-2.34 CFU/g, respectively, regarding the bacteria tested. Results suggest that the use of fermented whey may be as effective as the solution of chlorine used in industrial processes in reducing the pathogens under study (best efficacy shown for Salmonella), with the advantage of avoiding health risks arising from the formation of carcinogenic toxic chlorine derivates.

  13. Cheese Classification, Characterization, and Categorization: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almena-Aliste, Montserrat; Mietton, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    Cheese is one of the most fascinating, complex, and diverse foods enjoyed today. Three elements constitute the cheese ecosystem: ripening agents, consisting of enzymes and microorganisms; the composition of the fresh cheese; and the environmental conditions during aging. These factors determine and define not only the sensory quality of the final cheese product but also the vast diversity of cheeses produced worldwide. How we define and categorize cheese is a complicated matter. There are various approaches to cheese classification, and a global approach for classification and characterization is needed. We review current cheese classification schemes and the limitations inherent in each of the schemes described. While some classification schemes are based on microbiological criteria, others rely on descriptions of the technologies used for cheese production. The goal of this review is to present an overview of comprehensive and practical integrative classification models in order to better describe cheese diversity and the fundamental differences within cheeses, as well as to connect fundamental technological, microbiological, chemical, and sensory characteristics to contribute to an overall characterization of the main families of cheese, including the expanding world of American artisanal cheeses.

  14. Traditional Indonesian dairy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surono, Ingrid S

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia is the largest archipelago blessed with one of the richest mega-biodiversities and also home to one of the most diverse cuisines and traditional fermented foods. There are 3 types of traditional dairy foods, namely the butter-like product minyak samin; yogurt-like product dadih; and cheese-like products dali or bagot in horbo, dangke, litsusu, and cologanti, which reflect the culture of dairy product consumption in Indonesia.

  15. Production of Cheese Kaçkavall from Cows Milk at Milk Industries in Kosova

    OpenAIRE

    , Shukri Maxhuni

    2016-01-01

    Milk processing in Kaçkavall cheese takes very important place in productivity of dairy, in the same time takes very important roll in domestic economy as well as nutritive for humankind. This study is done to research the technology for production of Kaçkaval cheese, (This types of cheese is classified to hard group of cheeses) with a little milk to produce 1kg cheese (Until now we need 10 liters of milk to produce 1 kg. of this kind of cheese), after research and analyses of physical-chemic...

  16. The Microfloras of Traditional Greek Cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litopoulou-Tzanetaki, Evanthia; Tzanetakis, Nikolaos

    2014-02-01

    Many traditional cheeses are made in Greece. Some of them are, in fact, types of the same cheese variety, whether or not they have different cheesemaking technologies, but are known by different local names. Twenty of them have been granted protected designation of origin status. In the 8th century BCE, Homer described a cheese thought to be the ancestor of feta, the main cheese manufactured in Greece from the ancient times until today. Meanwhile, various cheese types evolved through the centuries, and almost every area in Greece has its own cheesemaking tradition. Some cheese varieties are local, handcrafted products whose production has been handed down from generation to generation, and without interest in their continued production, these varieties will disappear. Other local varieties are made at small factories from pasteurized milk and commercial rennet and starter and are very different from the traditional versions. However, some milk producers still make their cheeses at home or at small dairies from raw milk, without any starter, or sometimes from thermized milk, with traditional yogurt as the starter. Their cheeses are the basis for the information presented in this review.

  17. Probiotic Delivery through Fermentation: Dairy vs. Non-Dairy Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Chaminda Senaka Ranadheera; Janak K. Vidanarachchi; Ramon Silva Rocha; Adriano G. Cruz; Said Ajlouni

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, mainly through the process of replacing or including beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Fermented dairy foods such as yogurt, fermented milk and cheese are the major vehicle in delivering probiotics, and probiotic delivery have been traditionally associated with these fermented dairy foods. Additionally, many other non-dairy probiotic products and non-food form ...

  18. Demonstration of the effective performance of a combined enrichment/real-time PCR method targeting the prfA gene of Listeria monocytogenes by testing fresh naturally contaminated acid curd cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmanith, P; Mester, P; Wagner, M; Schoder, D

    2010-10-01

    A rapid real-time PCR-based method for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes was applied to the examination of 44 Quargel cheese samples from a recent outbreak in Austria and compared to the standard method according to ISO-16140. The combined enrichment/real-time PCR method amplifying the prfA locus was performed according to [Rossmanith et al.(2006) Res Microbiol, 157, 763-771]. Qualitative and quantitative examination of the samples was performed according to the standard method ISO-11290. Comparison of the combined enrichment/real-time PCR method with ISO-11290 resulted in 100% relative accuracy, 100% relative sensitivity and 100% relative specificity. A previously published study describing the validation of the method, including samples after storage at -80 degrees C, resulted in lower performance values. In contrast, the samples were stored at +4 degrees C in this study. The results of this study indicate an effect of storage, thus masking the true performance of the method. The results of this study are discussed together with the previously published data to demonstrate the excellent qualities of this rapid (fresh specimens stored at +4 degrees C.

  19. Modified atmospheric conditions controlling fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1997-01-01

    a competitive advantage over other fungi in moist conditions with high carbon dioxide levels, such as inside a roquefort cheese or in gas tight grain storage. The key to success in food packaging is to recognise the food ecosystem, as it enables us to identify which micro......Effective control of fungal growth on cheese under storage conditions is of great concern for the dairy industry. Therefore we designed a research project together with the Danish dairy industry on modelling fungal growth on cheese as affected by the combined effect of storage conditions (O2 and CO...

  20. Artisanal Sonoran cheese (Cocido cheese): an exploration of its production process, chemical composition and microbiological quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-González, Paúl F; Heredia-Castro, Priscilia Y; Méndez-Romero, José I; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Reyes-Díaz, Ricardo; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aarón F

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore and document the production process of artisanal Cocido cheese and to determine its chemical composition and microbiological quality, considering samples from six dairies and four retailers. Cocido cheese is a semi-hard (506-555 g kg -1 of moisture), medium fat (178.3-219.1 g kg -1 ), pasta filata-type cheese made from raw whole cow's milk. The production process is not standardized and therefore the chemical and microbiological components of the sampled cheeses varied. Indicator microorganisms significantly decreased (P cheese. Salmonella spp. were not found during the production process, and both Listeria monocytogenes and staphylococcal enterotoxin were absent in the final cheeses. This study provides more information on one of the most popular artisanal cheeses with high cultural value and economic impact in northwestern Mexico. In view of the foregoing, good manufacturing practices need to be implemented for the manufacture of Cocido cheese. Also, it is of utmost importance to make sure that the heat treatment applied for cooking the curd ensures a phosphatase-negative test, otherwise it would be necessary to pasteurize milk. Nevertheless, since Cocido cheese is a non-ripened, high-moisture product, it is a highly perishable product that could present a health risk if not properly handled. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Volatile compounds of functional dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iličić Mirela D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds, affecting flavour of traditional and probiotic fresh cheese, were determined. Functional dairy product-fresh cheese was produced from milk of 2.5% fat content and milk of 4.2% fat content, under the semi-industrial conditions. The traditional starter culture Flora Danica (FD and a combination of probiotic starter ABT-1 and FD (ABT-1:FD=1:1 were applied as starters. The volatile fractions were isolated by employing the combined simultaneous distillation-extraction technique (SDE. The compounds were identified by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS and quantified by using standard procedure. Following 19 compounds have been identified: 8 hydrocarbons (decane, undecane, tridecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, hexadecane, octadecane and 2, 6, 10, 14-tetramethyl hexadecane; 6 ketones (2-heptanone, 2-nonanone, 2- undecanone, 2-pentadecanone, 2-heptadecanone and 2-tridecanone; 3 aldehydes (nonanal, tetradecanal and hexadecanal; 1 fatty acid (decanoic acid and disulfide, bis (1-methylethyl. The highest levels were associated with hexadecanal, 2-pentadecanone, 2-tridecanone, and 2-undecanone in all examined samples, regardless to the starter culture and type of milk used. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46009

  2. Textura instrumental e avaliação sensorial de queijo fresco cremoso simbiótico: implicações da adição de Lactobacillus paracasei e inulina Influence of Lactobacillus paracasei and inulin on instrumental texture and sensory evaluation of fresh cream cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Carolina Alonso Buriti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da adição do probiótico Lactobacillus paracasei e da fibra prebiótica inulina sobre o perfil de textura e as características sensoriais de queijo fresco cremoso. Três tratamentos de queijo fresco cremoso foram preparados em quintuplicata, em escala piloto, todos suplementados com uma cultura starter de Streptococcus thermophilus (T1, T2 e T3. L. paracasei subsp. paracasei foi adicionado em T1 e T2. Inulina foi adicionada em T2. O perfil de textura instrumental foi determinado após 1, 7, 14 e 21 dias de armazenamento. A análise sensorial foi conduzida aos 7 dias de armazenamento dos queijos. A presença de Lactobacillus paracasei nos queijos T1 e T2 e de inulina em T2 não alterou significativamente o perfil de textura (p>0,05. Os queijos T1 apresentaram a menor preferência na análise sensorial e diferiram significativamente de T2 e T3 (p0,05. A adição de inulina ao queijo fresco cremoso produzido com a suplementação de uma cepa potencialmente probiótica de Lactobacillus paracasei resultou em um produto com características adequadas e com propriedades funcionais agregadas.The influence of the addition of a potential probiotic culture of Lactobacillus paracasei and of the prebiotic fiber inulin on the texture profile and on the sensory evaluation of probiotic and synbiotic fresh cream-cheeses was monitored. Three cheese-making trials were prepared in quintuplicate, all supplemented with a Streptococcus thermophilus starter culture (T1, T2 and T3. L. paracasei subsp. paracasei was added to T1 and T2, and inulin, to T2. The instrumental texture profile was determined after 1, 7, 14 and 21 days of storage of the cheeses. Sensory evaluation was performed after 7 days of storage. The presence of Lactobacillus paracasei in cheeses T1 and T2 and of inulin in cheeses T2 did not alter the texture profile significantly. Cheeses T1 were the least preferred in the sensory evaluation and differed significantly from T2 and T3

  3. Packaging conditions hindering fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Haasum, Iben

    1997-01-01

    Fungal contamination is one of the most important quality deteriorating factors on cheese. During the last 5 years we have studied in detail the underlying factors controlling these unwanted processes in a collaborative project financed by the Danish Dairy Board and the Ministry of Agriculture. R...

  4. Using Bacteriocins in Milk and Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Güneş Altuntaş

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by bacteria are ribosomally synthesed and antimicrobial peptides. Lots of strains of bacteria can produce bacteriocin. There are lots of researchs on using bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB which are known as safe (GRAS in foods. With this respect bacteriocin experiments have been generally in meat and dairy products where can become spoilage easily. It is allowed to use nisin in cheese a dairy product, and with cheese the experiments about using nisin, pediocin, lacticin, variacin etc. are going on the other dairy products. In this review some experiments on using bacteriocins and their results on milk and dairy products are reported.

  5. Factors affecting consumers' preferences for and purchasing decisions regarding pasteurized and raw milk specialty cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, A; Durham, C; Meunier-Goddik, L

    2011-10-01

    Eight hundred ninety consumers at a local food festival were surveyed about their specialty cheese purchasing behavior and asked to taste and rate, through nonforced choice preference, 1 of 4 cheese pairs (Cheddar and Gouda) made from pasteurized and raw milks. The purpose of the survey was to examine consumers' responses to information on the safety of raw milk cheeses. The associated consumer test provided information about specialty cheese consumers' preferences and purchasing behavior. Half of the consumers tested were provided with cheese pairs that were identified as being made from unpasteurized and pasteurized milk. The other half evaluated samples that were identified only with random 3-digit codes. Overall, more consumers preferred the raw milk cheeses than the pasteurized milk cheeses. A larger portion of consumers indicated preferences for the raw milk cheese when the cheeses were labeled and thus they knew which samples were made from raw milk. Most of the consumers tested considered the raw milk cheeses to be less safe or did not know if raw milk cheeses were less safe. After being informed that the raw milk cheeses were produced by a process approved by the FDA (i.e., 60-d ripening), most consumers with concerns stated that they believed raw milk cheeses to be safe. When marketing cheese made from raw milk, producers should inform consumers that raw milk cheese is produced by an FDA-approved process. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors affecting variation of different measures of cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery from an individual model cheese-manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; De Marchi, M; Bittante, G

    2013-01-01

    Cheese yield (CY) is the most important technological trait of milk, because cheese-making uses a very high proportion of the milk produced worldwide. Few studies have been carried out at the level of individual milk-producing animals due to a scarcity of appropriate procedures for model-cheese production, the complexity of cheese-making, and the frequent use of the fat and protein (or casein) contents of milk as a proxy for cheese yield. Here, we report a high-throughput cheese manufacturing process that mimics all phases of cheese-making, uses 1.5-L samples of milk from individual animals, and allows the simultaneous processing of 15 samples per run. Milk samples were heated (35°C for 40 min), inoculated with starter culture (90 min), mixed with rennet (51.2 international milk-clotting units/L of milk), and recorded for gelation time. Curds were cut twice (10 and 15 min after gelation), separated from the whey, drained (for 30 min), pressed (3 times, 20 min each, with the wheel turned each time), salted in brine (for 60 min), weighed, and sampled. Whey was collected, weighed, and sampled. Milk, curd, and whey samples were analyzed for pH, total solids, fat content, and protein content, and energy content was estimated. Three measures of percentage cheese yield (%CY) were calculated: %CY(CURD), %CY(SOLIDS), and %CY(WATER), representing the ratios between the weight of fresh curd, the total solids of the curd, and the water content of the curd, respectively, and the weight of the milk processed. In addition, 3 measures of daily cheese yield (dCY, kg/d) were defined, considering the daily milk yield. Three measures of nutrient recovery (REC) were computed: REC(FAT), REC(PROTEIN), and REC(SOLIDS), which represented the ratio between the weights of the fat, protein, and total solids in the curd, respectively, and the corresponding components in the milk. Energy recovery, REC(ENERGY), represented the energy content of the cheese compared with that in the milk. This

  7. Effect of temperature, pH, and water activity on Mucor spp. growth on synthetic medium, cheese analog and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Sardin, Stéphanie; Rigalma, Karim; Coroller, Louis; Jany, Jean-Luc; Coton, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    The Mucor genus includes a large number of ubiquitous fungal species. In the dairy environment, some of them play a technological role providing typical organoleptic qualities to some cheeses while others can cause spoilage. In this study, we compared the effect of relevant abiotic factors for cheese production on the growth of six strains representative of dairy technological and contaminant species as well as of a non cheese related strain (plant endophyte). Growth kinetics were determined for each strain in function of temperature, water activity and pH on synthetic Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), and secondary models were fitted to calculate the corresponding specific cardinal values. Using these values and growth kinetics acquired at 15 °C on cheese agar medium (CA) along with three different cheese types, optimal growth rates (μopt) were estimated and consequently used to establish a predictive model. Contrarily to contaminant strains, technological strains showed higher μopt on cheese matrices than on PDA. Interestingly, lag times of the endophyte strain were strongly extended on cheese related matrices. This study offers a relevant predictive model of growth that may be used for better cheese production control but also raises the question of adaptation of some Mucor strains to the cheese. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pasture quality and cheese traceability index of Ragusano PDO cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venera Copani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Iblei plateau (Sicily, Southern Italy the native dairy cattle breed Modicana during the spring season grazes exclusively on natural pastures for the production of the Ragusano protected denomination of origin cheese. Along the grazing season, herbage undergoes to changes on protein, fibre and moisture content, affecting quality parameters such as plant carotenoids concentration, involved in the colour and nutritional characteristics of dairy products and potential biomarkers for authenticating fed green pasture-based diets. The aim of this work was to assess whether the cheese traceability index, based on the carotenoids spectra data elaboration, could be related to seasonal variations of floral composition and pasture quality. Four herbage and cheese samples were collected every two weeks in two representative farms of this area, from March to May 2013. Pasture characteristics as pastoral vegetation composition and pastoral value were analysed using the methodology developed for pastoral resources studies. Traceability index showed a significant positive correlation with pasture moisture and crude protein content (r=0.729* and 0.853**, respectively, while it was negatively correlated with fibre content (r=–0.719*.

  9. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort to......, cheese and yogurt, can be important components of an overall healthy dietary pattern. Systematic examination of the effects of dietary patterns that include regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt on human health is warranted....

  10. Bioconversion of Cheese Waste (Whey)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-03-11

    The US dairy industry produces 67 billion pounds of cheese whey annually. A waste by-product of cheese production, whey consists of water, milk sugar (lactose), casein (protein), and salts amounting to about 7% total solids. Ultrafiltration is used to concentrate cheese whey into a protein-rich foodstuff; however, it too produces a waste stream, known as ''whey permeate,'' (rejected water, lactose, and salts from the membrane). Whey permeate contains about 4.5% lactose and requires treatment to reduce the high BOD (biological oxygen demand) before disposal. Ab Initio, a small business with strong chemistry and dairy processing background, desired help in developing methods for bioconversion of whey permeate lactose into lactic acid. Lactic acid is an organic acid primarily used as an acidulant in the food industry. More recently it has been used to produce polylactic acid, a biodegradable polymer and as a new method to treat meat carcasses to combat E. coli bacteria. Conversion of whey permeate to lactic acid is environmentally sound because it produces a valued product from an otherwise waste stream. FM&T has expertise in bioconversion processes and analytical techniques necessary to characterize biomass functions. The necessary engineering and analytical services for pilot biomass monitoring, process development, and purification of crude lactic acid were available at this facility.

  11. Bioconversion of Cheese Waste (Whey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-01-01

    The US dairy industry produces 67 billion pounds of cheese whey annually. A waste by-product of cheese production, whey consists of water, milk sugar (lactose), casein (protein), and salts amounting to about 7% total solids. Ultrafiltration is used to concentrate cheese whey into a protein-rich foodstuff; however, it too produces a waste stream, known as ''whey permeate,'' (rejected water, lactose, and salts from the membrane). Whey permeate contains about 4.5% lactose and requires treatment to reduce the high BOD (biological oxygen demand) before disposal. Ab Initio, a small business with strong chemistry and dairy processing background, desired help in developing methods for bioconversion of whey permeate lactose into lactic acid. Lactic acid is an organic acid primarily used as an acidulant in the food industry. More recently it has been used to produce polylactic acid, a biodegradable polymer and as a new method to treat meat carcasses to combat E. coli bacteria. Conversion of whey permeate to lactic acid is environmentally sound because it produces a valued product from an otherwise waste stream. FM and T has expertise in bioconversion processes and analytical techniques necessary to characterize biomass functions. The necessary engineering and analytical services for pilot biomass monitoring, process development, and purification of crude lactic acid were available at this facility

  12. Composition and sensory profiling of probiotic Scamorza ewe milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Braghieri, A; Sevi, A; Napolitano, F

    2013-05-01

    quantitative vocabulary for sensory analysis and reference frame for assessor training also established in this study should be implemented to systematically monitor the quality of this new typology of ewe milk cheese. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 21 CFR 133.155 - Mozzarella cheese and scamorza cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mozzarella cheese and scamorza cheese. 133.155... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.155 Mozzarella cheese and scamorza cheese. (a) Description. (1...

  14. Domestic cooked cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The research results of sensory properties, chemical and microbiological quality of domestic cooked cheese, which is produced around Bjelovar region, are presented in this paper.Domestic cooked cheese is Croatian autochthonous cheese produced in wider north-western region of Croatia (Bilogora, Lika, Banovina, Gorski Kotar and around Zagreb, and therefore should be registered as Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO and/or Protected Geographical Indication (PGI. Sensory properties, chemical and microbiological analyses were performed on 16 samples (7 non-smoked and 9 smoked cheeses. All cheese samples were produced according to tradition. Significant unevenness was determined in sensory, chemical and microbiological quality. Domestic cooked cheese can be classified as soft cheese according to dry matter content, and as semi-hard cheese according to water content in non fat cheese matter. According to fat content in dry matter, domestic cooked cheese can be classified as fat cheese. Standardization elements are proposed.

  15. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in European cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Dalgaard, Paw

    2017-01-01

    Both in Europe and worldwide cheese has caused important outbreaks of listeriosis and can be a vehicle for transmission of Listeria monocytogenes to consumers. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted using scientific literature and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reports...... to summarize available data on the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in different types of cheeses produced in Europe. Meta-analysis models were used to estimate mean prevalence of the pathogen and to compare prevalence among types of cheeses (fresh, ripened, veined, smear and brined) and cheeses produced using.......5-1.1%). The prevalence differed among types of cheeses including fresh (0.8%; CI: 0.3-1.9%), ripened (2.0%; CI: 0.8-4.9%), veined (2.4%; CI: 0.9-6.3%), smear (5.1%; CI: 1.9-13.1%) and brined (11.8%; CI: 3.5-33.3%). Mean prevalence of L. monocytogenes in soft/semi-soft cheeses were not significantly different (P > 0...

  16. Identification of yeasts and coryneform bacteria from the surface microflora of brick cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Stauber, N; Scherer, S; Seiler, H

    1997-02-01

    Coryneform bacteria and yeasts of 21 brick cheeses from six German dairies, produced by using undefined ripening cultures, were identified. Arthrobacter nicotianae, Brevibacterium linens, Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, Corynebacterium variabilis and Rhodococcus fascians were found in significant numbers. Out of 148 coryneform isolates 36 could not be identified at the species level. With the exception of a large rennet cheese, the coryneform microflora of rennet and acid cured cheeses were similar, but the cheeses had clearly different yeast populations. Debaryomyces hansenii and Galactomyces geotrichum prevailed in rennet cheeses while Kluyveromyces marxianus and Pichia membranaefaciens were the main species found in acid cured cheese. The dominance of Yarrowia lipolytica probably indicates an improper yeast population, resulting in poor cheese quality. Some of the species identified are potential candidates for designing a defined ripening culture for rennet red smear cheese.

  17. Comparative inhibitory effects of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and mesophilic starter co-culture in cheese-mimicking models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Rayssa Julliane; de Souza, Geanny Targino; Honório, Vanessa Gonçalves; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; Maganani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we assessed the effects of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil (TVEO) on Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic bacteria frequently associated with fresh or low-ripened cheeses (e.g., Brazilian coalho cheese), and on a starter co-culture comprising Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris, which are commonly used for the production of different cheeses. To measure these effects, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and assessed bacterial cell viability over time in (coalho) cheese-based broth and in a semi-solid (coalho) cheese model at 10 °C. The MIC for TVEO was 2.5 μL/mL against S. aureus and L. monocytogenes, while the MIC was 1.25 μL/mL against the starter co-culture. The TVEO (5 and 2.5 μL/mL) sharply reduced the viable counts of all assayed bacteria in cheese broth over 24 h; although, at 5 μL/mL, TVEO more severely affected the viability of the starter co-culture compared with pathogenic bacteria. The addition of 1.25 μL/g of TVEO in the semi-solid cheese model did not reduce the viable counts of all assayed bacteria. At 2.5 μL/g, TVEO slightly decreased the viable counts of S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and Lactococcus spp. in the semi-solid cheese model over 72 h. The final counts of Lactococcus spp. in a semi-solid cheese model containing 2.5 μL/mL TVEO were lower than those of pathogenic bacteria under the same conditions. These results suggest that the doses of TVEO used to control pathogenic bacteria in fermented dairy products, especially in low-ripened cheeses, should be cautiously considered for potential negative effects on the growth and survival of starter cultures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Physicochemical Quality of Traditional Burduf Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pop

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the assessmentof the quality control of raw milk and traditional burduf cheese obtained fromcow milk mixed with 10% sheep milk. Appreciation of the integrity and freshness assessmentof milk (cow and sheep was tested by physico-chemical analysis.On theshelf-live were determined the physico-chemical parameters in cheese samples. Theantibiotics residues were tested of the milk samples with portable analyser,model Rosa Charm Reader. Theresults of physico-chemical determinations for the milk and cheese samples werewithin the maximum permissible by data legislation. Regardingthe content of antibiotics, the results were negative both for cow milk and forsheep milk. The sensorycharacteristics of burduf cheese are influenced by the different types of milk.

  19. Dairy Intake and Coronary Heart Disease or Stroke – a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalmeijer, G.W.; Struijk, E.A.; Schouw, van der Y.T.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between total dairy intake and dairy subtypes (high-fat dairy, low-fat dairy, milk and milk products, cheese and fermented dairy) with incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. METHODS: EPIC-NL is a prospective cohort study among 33,625

  20. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential of milks, yoghurts, fermented milks and cheeses: a narrative review of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony; Rock, Edmond

    2017-10-02

    The antioxidant potential (AP) is an important nutritional property of foods, as increased oxidative stress is involved in most diet-related chronic diseases. In dairy products, the protein fraction contains antioxidant activity, especially casein. Other antioxidants include: antioxidant enzymes; lactoferrin; conjugated linoleic acid; coenzyme Q10; vitamins C, E, A and D3; equol; uric acid; carotenoids; and mineral activators of antioxidant enzymes. The AP of dairy products has been extensively studied in vitro, with few studies in animals and human subjects. Available in vivo studies greatly differ in their design and objectives. Overall, on a 100 g fresh weight-basis, AP of dairy products is close to that of grain-based foods and vegetable or fruit juices. Among dairy products, cheeses present the highest AP due to their higher protein content. AP of milk increases during digestion by up to 2·5 times because of released antioxidant peptides. AP of casein is linked to specific amino acids, whereas β-lactoglobulin thiol groups play a major role in the AP of whey. Thermal treatments such as ultra-high temperature processing have no clear effect on the AP of milk. Raw fat-rich milks have higher AP than less fat-rich milk, because of lipophilic antioxidants. Probiotic yoghurts and fermented milks have higher AP than conventional yoghurt and milk because proteolysis by probiotics releases antioxidant peptides. Among the probiotics, Lactobacillus casei/acidophilus leads to the highest AP. The data are insufficient for cheese, but fermentation-based changes appear to make a positive impact on AP. In conclusion, AP might participate in the reported dairy product-protective effects against some chronic diseases.

  1. A 100-Year Review: Cheese production and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M E

    2017-12-01

    In the beginning, cheese making in the United States was all art, but embracing science and technology was necessary to make progress in producing a higher quality cheese. Traditional cheese making could not keep up with the demand for cheese, and the development of the factory system was necessary. Cheese quality suffered because of poor-quality milk, but 3 major innovations changed that: refrigeration, commercial starters, and the use of pasteurized milk for cheese making. Although by all accounts cold storage improved cheese quality, it was the improvement of milk quality, pasteurization of milk, and the use of reliable cultures for fermentation that had the biggest effect. Together with use of purified commercial cultures, pasteurization enabled cheese production to be conducted on a fixed time schedule. Fundamental research on the genetics of starter bacteria greatly increased the reliability of fermentation, which in turn made automation feasible. Demand for functionality, machinability, application in baking, and more emphasis on nutritional aspects (low fat and low sodium) of cheese took us back to the fundamental principles of cheese making and resulted in renewed vigor for scientific investigations into the chemical, microbiological, and enzymatic changes that occur during cheese making and ripening. As milk production increased, cheese factories needed to become more efficient. Membrane concentration and separation of milk offered a solution and greatly enhanced plant capacity. Full implementation of membrane processing and use of its full potential have yet to be achieved. Implementation of new technologies, the science of cheese making, and the development of further advances will require highly trained personnel at both the academic and industrial levels. This will be a great challenge to address and overcome. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of parmesan cheese production from local cow milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliwarga, Lienda; Christianti, Elisabeth Novi; Lazarus, Chrisella

    2017-05-01

    Parmesan cheese is one of the dairy products which is used in various foods, such as pasta, bakery product, and pizza. It has a hard texture due to aging process for at least two years. Long aging period inhibited the production of parmesan cheese while consumer demands were increasing gradually. This research was conducted to figure out the effect of starter culture and rennet dose to the production of parmesan cheese. This research consists of (1) pasteurization of 1,500 ml milk at 73°C; and (2) main cheese making process that comprised of fermentation process and the addition of rennet. In latter stage, milk was converted into curd. Variations were made for the dose of bacteria culture and rennet. Both variables correlated to the fermentation time and characteristics of the produced cheese. The analysis of the produced cheese during testing stage included measured protein and cheese yield, whey pH, water activity, and moisture content. Moreover, an organoleptic test was done in a qualitative manner. The results showed that the dose of bacteria culture has a significant effect to the fermentation time, protein yield, and cheese yield. Meanwhile, rennet dose significantly affected cheese yield, pH of whey, and water activity. The highest protein yield (93.1%) was obtained at 0.6 ml of culture and 0.5 ml of rennet while the maximum cheese yield (6.81%) was achieved at 0.4 ml of culture and 0.1 ml of rennet. The water activity of produced cheeses was lower compared to the water activity of common parmesan cheese (ca. 0.6). For the organoleptic test, 0.4 ml of bacterial culture and 0.5 ml of rennet produced the most preferred cheese flavor compared to other variations.

  3. CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICAS E QUÍMICAS DE BEBIDAS LÁCTEAS FERMENTADAS E PREPARADAS COM SORO DE QUEIJO MINAS FRESCAL PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FERMENTED DAIRY BEVERAGES USING MINAS CHEESE WHEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila Emílio de ALMEIDA

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa procurou-se verificar as características físicas e químicas de bebidas lácteas preparadas com três concentrações de soro de queijo Minas Frescal (30, 40 e 50%, empregando-se dois tipos de culturas lácticas: uma tradicional para iogurte (YC-180 contendo cepas mistas de Streptococcus salivarus subsp. thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis e Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus e outra (ABY-1 contendo cepas mistas de Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus acidophillus, Bifidobacteria e Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus. Constatou-se que as bebidas lácteas apresentaram diferença estatística no tempo zero para os teores de gordura e de extrato seco. À medida em que se elevou a proporção de soro em relação ao leite, os teores de gordura e de extrato seco diminuíram. O teor de proteína também diminuiu à medida em que se aumentou o teor de soro nas bebidas lácteas, embora a diferença não tenha sido tão acentuada quanto as observadas para os teores de gordura e de extrato seco. Em relação à lactose, não se constatou diferença entre os tratamentos. Os teores de soro não influenciaram o índice de proteólise das bebidas lácteas. Verificou-se todavia que as bebidas elaboradas com a cultura probiótica ABY-1 apresentaram valores superiores para proteólise quando comparadas às bebidas elaboradas com as culturas YC-180. As bebidas lácteas elaboradas com 30% de soro apresentaram maiores valores para viscosidade. As bebidas elaboradas com a cultura YC-180 apresentaram valores superiores para viscosidade durante o período de armazenamento.This research studies the physical and chemical characteristics of dairy beverages formulated with three different concentrations (30, 40 and 50 % of Minas cheese whey, using two kinds of dairy cultures: the traditional yogurt (YC--180 culture, holding mixed strains of Streptococcus salivarus subsp. thermophilus, Lactobacillus

  4. Comparison of intrinsic and extrinsic tracer methods for estimating calcium bioavailability to rats from dairy foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchowski, M.S.; Sowizral, K.C.; Lengemann, F.W.; Van Campen, D.; Miller, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Dairy products doubly labeled with 45Ca and 47Ca were used to evaluate an extrinsic labeling procedure for calcium bioavailability determination. Nonfat milk, yogurt, and fresh cheese curd were prepared from caprine milk that was intrinsically labeled with 45Ca. The products were then labeled extrinsically with 47Ca and administered to rats by gavage. The 47Ca to 45Ca ratio in bone and teeth averaged about 1.00 with either milk, yogurt, or CaCl2, but the ratio was about 1.04 when dosed with cheese curd. Ca absorption, determined by whole-body counting of 47Ca, was lower (P less than 0.05) in cheese curd (59%) than in either milk (69%), yogurt (72%), or CaCl2 (72%). Expressed as percent of dose, the absorption of 47Ca was highly correlated with bone 47Ca (r = 0.973) and with bone 45Ca (r = 0.946). Correlation between tibia 47Ca and tibia 45Ca was r = 0.923. For the dairy products tested, our results indicated that extrinsic 47Ca was absorbed similarly to intrinsic 45Ca. Moreover, the percent of radioactive dose retained in bone appears to be a valid indicator of relative bioavailability of food Ca

  5. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie; Dalgaard, Paw

    2014-10-01

    Four mathematical models were developed and validated for simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures and Listeria monocytogenes, during chilled storage of cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acid and the interaction between these environmental factors. Growth models were developed by combining new and existing cardinal parameter values. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameters (μref at 25°C) were fitted to a total of 52 growth rates from cottage cheese to improve model performance. The inhibiting effect of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures on growth of L. monocytogenes was efficiently modelled using the Jameson approach. The new models appropriately predicted the maximum population density of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese. The developed models were successfully validated by using 25 growth rates for L. monocytogenes, 17 growth rates for lactic acid bacteria and a total of 26 growth curves for simultaneous growth of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. These data were used in combination with bias- and accuracy factors and with the concept of acceptable simulation zone. Evaluation of predicted growth rates of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing resulted in bias-factors (Bf) of 1.07-1.10 with corresponding accuracy factor (Af) values of 1.11 to 1.22. Lactic acid bacteria from added starter culture were on average predicted to grow 16% faster than observed (Bf of 1.16 and Af of 1.32) and growth of the diacetyl producing aroma culture was on average predicted 9% slower than observed (Bf of 0.91 and Af of 1.17). The acceptable simulation zone method showed the new models to successfully predict maximum population density of L. monocytogenes when growing together with lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. 11 of 13 simulations of L

  6. Differential impact of the cheese matrix on the postprandial lipid response: a randomized, crossover, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin-Chartier, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, André J; Maltais-Giguère, Julie; Charest, Amélie; Guinot, Léa; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Labrie, Steve; Britten, Michel; Lamarche, Benoît; Turgeon, Sylvie L; Couture, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    Background: In a simulated gastrointestinal environment, the cheese matrix modulates dairy fat digestion. However, to our knowledge, the impact of the cheese matrix on postprandial lipemia in humans has not yet been evaluated. Objective: In healthy subjects, we compared the impact of dairy fat provided from firm cheese, soft cream cheese, and butter on the postprandial response at 4 h and on the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of plasma triglycerides. Design: Forty-three healthy subjects were recruited to this randomized, crossover, controlled trial. In random order at intervals of 14 d and after a 12-h fast, subjects ingested 33 g fat from a firm cheese (young cheddar), a soft cream cheese (cream cheese), or butter (control) incorporated into standardized meals that were matched for macronutrient content. Plasma concentrations of triglycerides were measured immediately before the meal and 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after the meal. Results: Cheddar cheese, cream cheese, and butter induced similar increases in triglyceride concentrations at 4 h (change from baseline: +59%, +59%, and +62%, respectively; P = 0.9). No difference in the triglyceride iAUC 0-8 h ( P -meal = 0.9) was observed between the 3 meals. However, at 2 h, the triglyceride response caused by the cream cheese (change from baseline: +44%) was significantly greater than that induced by butter (change from baseline: +24%; P = 0.002) and cheddar cheese (change from baseline: +16%; P = 0.0004). At 6 h, the triglyceride response induced by cream cheese was significantly attenuated compared with that induced by cheddar cheese (change from baseline: +14% compared with +42%; P = 0.0004). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the cheese matrix modulates the impact of dairy fat on postprandial lipemia in healthy subjects. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02623790. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Identification and molecular phylogeny of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates from Minas Frescal cheese in southeastern Brazil: Superantigenic toxin production and antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaes Nunes, Raquel Soares; Pires de Souza, Camilla; Pereira, Karen Signori; Del Aguila, Eduardo Mere; Flosi Paschoalin, Vânia Margaret

    2016-04-01

    Minas Frescal is a typical Brazilian fresh cheese and one of the most popular dairy products in the country. This white soft, semiskimmed, nonripened cheese with high moisture content is obtained by enzymatic coagulation of cow milk using calf rennet or coagulants, usually in industrial dairy plants, but is also manufactured in small farms. Contamination of Minas Frescal by several staphylococci has been frequently reported. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) strains are maybe the most harmful, as they are able to produce heat-stable enterotoxins with super antigenic activities in food matrices, especially in dairy products such as soft cheeses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of CNS strains in Minas Frescal marketed in southeastern Brazil concerning the risk of staphylococci food poisoning by the consumption of improperly manufactured cheese and the possibility of these food matrices being a reservoir of staphylococcal resistance to antimicrobials. Ten distinct CNS strains were found in 6 cheeses from distinct brands. The most frequent species were Staphylococcus saprophyticus (40%), Staphylococcus xylosus (30%), Staphylococcus sciuri (20%), and Staphylococcus piscifermentans (10%). Three strains were identified to the Staphylococcus genera. Three major species groups composed of 3 refined clusters were grouped by phylogenetic analyses with similarities over to 90%. All CNS strains carried multiple enterotoxin genes, with high incidence of sea and seb (90 and 70%, respectively), followed by sec/see, seh/sei, and sed with intermediate incidence (60, 50, and 40%, respectively), and, finally, seg/selk/selq/selr and selu with the lowest incidence (20 and 10%, respectively). Real-time reverse transcription PCR and ELISA assays confirmed the enteroxigenic character of the CNS strains, which expressed and produced the enterotoxins in vitro. The CNS strains showed multiresistance to antimicrobial agents such as β-lactams, vancomycin, and

  8. Physicochemical properties of Scamorza ewe milk cheese manufactured with different probiotic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Ruggieri, D; Napolitano, F; Sevi, A

    2013-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to produce functional Scamorza cheese from Gentile di Puglia ewe milk by incorporating probiotic strains into the cheese matrix and to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of Scamorza ewe milk cheese. Gentile di Puglia ewe bulk milk was used for Scamorza cheese production. Cheeses were denoted S-CO for control Scamorza cheese, S-BB for Scamorza cheese made using a mix of Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium lactis, and S-LA for Scamorza cheese made using Lactobacillus acidophilus as probiotic strain. Cheeses were analyzed at 1, 7, and 15 d of ripening. Probiotic cell recovery in cheese was 7.55 ± 0.07 log10 cfu/g and 9.09 ± 0.04 log10 cfu/g in S-LA and S-BB cheese, respectively; probiotic cheeses also displayed the highest levels of lactic microflora. Reverse-phase HPLC chromatograms of the water-soluble nitrogen fraction showed a more complex profile in S-BB, with distinctive peaks in the early-eluting zone. The matured Scamorza cheese containing the mix of B. longum and B. lactis was characterized by significantly higher levels of Gln, Ser, Arg, Ile, and Leu, whereas cheese containing Lb. acidophilus was characterized by higher levels of Tyr and Met. Total FFA content was the highest in S-LA, intermediate in S-BB, and the lowest in S-CO cheese; in particular, Scamorza cheese containing Lb. acidophilus showed the highest level of vaccenic acid, oleic acid, and total conjugated linoleic acid. Probiotic bacteria survived through the technological phases of pasta filata cheese production, maintained their specific metabolic pathways, and conferred functional properties to Scamorza ewe milk cheese. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Case of contamination by Listeria monocytogenes in mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Greco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Following a Listeria monocytogenes detection in a mozzarella cheese sampled at a dairy plant in Lazio Region, further investigations have been conducted both by the competent Authority and the food business operatordairy factory (as a part of dairy factory HACCP control. In total, 90 dairy products, 7 brine and 64 environmental samples have been tested. The prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes was 24.4% in mozzarella cheese, and 9.4% in environmental samples, while brines were all negatives. Forty-seven strains of L. monocytogenes have been isolated, all belonging to 4b/4e serotype. In 12 of these, the macrorestriction profile has been determined by means of pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The profiles obtained with AscI enzyme showed a 100% similarity while those obtained with ApaI a 96.78% similarity. These characteristics of the isolated strains jointly with the production process of mozzarella cheese has allowed to hypothesise an environmental contamination.

  10. Characterization of major and trace minerals, fatty acid composition, and cholesterol content of Protected Designation of Origin cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuelian, C L; Currò, S; Penasa, M; Cassandro, M; De Marchi, M

    2017-05-01

    Cheese provides essential nutrients for human nutrition and health, such as minerals and fatty acids (FA). Its composition varies according to milk origin (e.g., species and breed), rearing conditions (e.g., feeding and management), and cheese-making technology (e.g., coagulation process, addition of salt, ripening period). In recent years, cheese production has increased worldwide. Italy is one of the main producers and exporters of cheese. This study aimed to describe mineral, FA, and cholesterol content of 133 samples from 18 commercial cheeses from 4 dairy species (buffalo, cow, goat, and sheep) and from 3 classes of moisture content (hard, 45%). Mineral concentrations of cheese samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, and FA and cholesterol contents were determined by gas chromatography. Moisture and species had a significant effect on almost all traits: the highest levels of Na, Ca, and Fe were found in cheeses made from sheep milk; the greatest level of Cu was found in cow milk cheese, the lowest amount of K was found in buffalo milk cheese, and the lowest amount of Zn was found in goat cheeses. In all samples, Cr and Pb were not detected (below the level of detection). In general, total fat, protein, and minerals significantly increased when the moisture decreased. Buffalo and goat cheeses had the highest saturated FA content, and sheep cheeses showed the highest content of unsaturated and polyunsaturated FA, conjugated linoleic acid, and n-3 FA. Goat and sheep cheeses achieved higher proportions of minor FA than did cow and buffalo cheeses. Buffalo cheese exhibited the lowest cholesterol level. Our results confirm that cheese mineral content is mainly affected by the cheese-making process, whereas FA profile mainly reflects the FA composition of the source milk. This study allowed the characterization of mineral and FA composition and cholesterol content and revealed large variability among different commercial

  11. Application of low intensity ultrasonics to cheese manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito, J; Carcel, J A; Gonzalez, R; Mulet, A

    2002-05-01

    Ultrasound has been used to non-destructively assess the quality of many foods such as meat, fish, vegetables and dairy products. This paper addresses the applications of low intensity ultrasonics in the cheese manufacturing processes and highlights the areas where ultrasonics could be successfully implemented in the future. The decrease of ultrasonic attenuation during the renneting process can be used to determine the optimum cut time for cheese making. The ultrasonic velocity increases during maturation for those types of cheese that become harder during this manufacturing stage, thus being an indicator of the maturity degree. Moreover, ultrasonic measurements could be linked to sensory parameters. From the ultrasonic velocity measurements at two different temperatures, it is possible to assess cheese composition, thus allowing an improvement in the quality and uniformity of cheese commercialization. In addition, in pulse-echo mode it is possible to detect cracked pieces due to abnormal fermentations and also to assess the distance of the crack from the surface.

  12. Microbial ecology of artisanal italian cheese: Molecular microbial characterization by culture-independent method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, E.; Scarpellini, M.; Franzatti, L.; Dioguardi, L.

    2009-01-01

    Present study will treat the next topics: ecology of the natural and man made environments and functional diversity of bacteria. The microbial communities in artisanal goat cheeses produced in mountain pastures (typical farms) in Piemonte mountain (North of Italy) change a lot during precessing and ripening time. Moreover cheese microbial ecosystems are different in each small dairy because adventitious microflora can come from the environment and contamination the milk before the cheese making process and the product during manufacture and ripening. (Author)

  13. Extra Cheese, Please! Mozzarella's Journey from Cow to Pizza [and] Teaching Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Chris

    This book traces Annabelle the dairy cow's milk from the farm to the top of a Friday night pizza. The book relates that when Annabelle gives birth to her calf she also begins to produce milk; the milk is then processed into cheese, and from the cheese, pizza is made (recipe included). The book features color photographs of the entire process which…

  14. Thermus and the Pink Discoloration Defect in Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Daniel J; Daly, David; O'Sullivan, Orla; Burdikova, Zuzana; Vana, Rostislav; Beresford, Tom P; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; McSweeney, Paul L H; Giblin, Linda; Sheehan, Jeremiah J; Cotter, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    A DNA sequencing-based strategy was applied to study the microbiology of Continental-type cheeses with a pink discoloration defect. The basis for this phenomenon has remained elusive, despite decades of research. The bacterial composition of cheese containing the defect was compared to that of control cheese using 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing as well as quantitative PCR (qPCR). Throughout, it was apparent that Thermus , a carotenoid-producing genus, was present at higher levels in defect-associated cheeses than in control cheeses. Prompted by this finding and data confirming the pink discoloration to be associated with the presence of a carotenoid, a culture-based approach was employed, and Thermus thermophilus was successfully cultured from defect-containing cheeses. The link between Thermus and the pinking phenomenon was then established through the cheese defect equivalent of Koch's postulates when the defect was recreated by the reintroduction of a T. thermophilus isolate to a test cheese during the manufacturing process. IMPORTANCE Pink discoloration in cheese is a defect affecting many cheeses throughout the world, leading to significant financial loss for the dairy industry. Despite decades of research, the cause of this defect has remained elusive. The advent of high-throughput, next-generation sequencing has revolutionized the field of food microbiology and, with respect to this study, provided a means of testing a possible microbial basis for this defect. In this study, a combined 16S rRNA, whole-genome sequencing, and quantitative PCR approach was taken. This resulted in the identification of Thermus , a carotenoid-producing thermophile, in defect-associated cheeses and the recreation of the problem in cheeses to which Thermus was added. This finding has the potential to lead to new strategies to eliminate this defect, and our method represents an approach that can be employed to investigate the role of microbes in other food defects

  15. Prevalence and Characterization of Listeria Species in Domestic and Industrial Cheeses of Isfahan Region

    OpenAIRE

    Zamani-Zadeh, M; Sheikh-Zeinoddin, M; Soleimanian-Zad, S

    2011-01-01

    Background: Listeria monocytogenes is of major concern to the food industry in general and the dairy industry in particular. Little is known about incidence of this pathogenic bacterium in dairy products in Iran. Methods: A survey was made from 23 September 2006 to 22 June 2007 for Listeria species in ninety samples of traditional and industrial cheeses, in milk and surface where the cheeses were manufactured from unpasteurized raw milk in the province of Isfahan (Iran). Results: Listeria mur...

  16. Parmigiano Reggiano cheese and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampaloni, Barbara; Bartolini, Elisa; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2011-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease characterized by loss of bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, which leads to a consequent increase in the risk of skeletal fractures. Diet awakes a critical interest in osteoporosis, because it is one of the few determinants that can be safely modified. A healthy well balanced nutrition can play an important role in prevention and pathogenesis of osteoporosis, but also in support of a pharmacological therapy. Numerous evidences have already established that dietary calcium, proteins and vitamin D are essential nutrients for achieved peak bone mass and maintaining skeletal health.Dairy products, by providing both calcium and proteins, represent the optimal source of highly bioavailable nutrients for bone health. Among dairy foods in particular cheese results one of the major source of calcium in the adults western diet and also in the Italian adults diet.Parmigiano Reggiano cheese is an homemade Italian food whose denomination "Protected Designation of Origin" is linked to an artisanal manufacturing process in limited geographic area of Northern Italy and is an optimal source of essential nutrients for acquisition and maintenance of bone health. Parmigiano Reggiano is a cheese easy digested, for the presence of ready to use proteins and lipids, lactose free, rich in calcium, with possible prebiotic and probiotic effect. On the basis of its nutritional characteristics and of its easy digestibility Parmigiano Reggiano cheese is recommended in all feeding age groups.

  17. Importance of the fat content within the cheese-matrix for blood lipid profile, faecal fat excretion, and gut microbiome in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja K.; Raben, Anne; Bendsen, Nathalie T.

    2016-01-01

    higher faecal fat excretion. Faecal energy excretion was only higher in REG, and this correlated with a lower microbiome Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio. In conclusion, dairy fat consumed as cheese or butter caused different metabolic effects. Differences between reduced-fat cheese+butter and butter...... were less pronounced than differences between regular-fat cheese and butter, suggesting an impact of the dairy matrix....

  18. Estudo de custo-rendimento do precessamento de queijos tipo minas frescal com derivado de soja e diferentes agentes coagulantes Study of cost and yield of minas like fresh cheese produced with added fat freee soybean hydro-soluble extract powder with curd formed by different coagulants agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Neves-Souza

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de alimentos é uma constante nas indústrias, nas universidades e nos institutos de pesquisa visando otimizar processamentos, agregar diferentes ingredientes em produtos já existentes, entre outros fatores. Após o desenvolvimento de um produto, informações adicionais podem ser obtidas pela determinação do rendimento e do custo do produto final. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o rendimento e o custo de queijos Minas frescal tradicionais e adicionados de extrato hidrossolúvel de soja desengordurado (EHS processados com coalho bovino e com coagulante microbiano (Aspergillus niger var. awamori. A introdução de 8% do EHS (em relação ao teor de sólidos totais do leite no queijo Minas frescal processado com coalho bovino proporcionou rendimento em gramas de sólidos totais por litro de leite (g ST/L superior de 16,67% em relação ao queijo Minas frescal tradicional processado com o mesmo coalho. O queijo tipo Minas frescal processado com coagulante microbiano e com 8% de EHS apresentou rendimento (g ST/L superior de 16,54%, quando comparado ao seu tradicional. O custo das formulações-base (kg de queijo/100L de leite processadas com coalho bovino e com coagulante microbiano foi US$ 36,75 e US$ 37,50, respectivamente, ao passo que os queijos tradicionais processados com os mesmos agentes coagulantes apresentaram custo equivalente a US$ 35,12 e US$ 35,36.Food products development occur in industries, universities and research centers with the aim of optimizing processes, to include different ingredients to existing products or for other reasons. After developing a product, additional information may be obtained by determining yield and cost of the final product. The objective of this research was to estimate yield and cost of traditional Minas fresh cheese and those produced with added fat free soybean hydro-soluble extract powder (SEP, with curd formed by rennet or microbial coagulant (Aspergillus niger var

  19. Cheese / Eero Epner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Epner, Eero, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    Fotoajakirjast "Cheese". Fotograafia uurimisest, fotoajaloo läbikirjutatusest Eestis. Samas "Cheese'i" toimetaja Tiit Lepp ajakirja erainitsiatiivil väljaandmisest, Eesti Kultuurkapitali ebapiisavast ja määramatust toetusest

  20. Sensory and protein profiles of Mexican Chihuahua cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Moushumi; Nuñez, Alberto; Van Hekken, Diane L; Renye, John A

    2014-11-01

    Native microflora in raw milk cheeses, including the Mexican variety Queso Chihuahua, contribute to flavor development through degradation of milk proteins. The effects of proteolysis were studied in four different brands of Mexican Queso Chihuahua made from raw milk. All of the cheeses were analyzed for chemical and sensory characteristics. Sensory testing revealed that the fresh cheeses elicited flavors of young, basic cheeses, with slight bitter notes. Analysis by gel electrophoresis and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) revealed that the Queseria Blumen (X) and Queseria Super Fino (Z) cheeses show little protein degradation over time while the Queseria America (W) and Queseria Lago Grande (Y) samples are degraded extensively when aged at 4 °C for 8 weeks. Analysis of the mixture of water-soluble cheese proteins by mass spectrometry revealed the presence of short, hydrophobic peptides in quantities correlating with bitterness. All cheese samples contained enterococcal strains known to produce enterocins. The W and Y cheese samples had the highest number of bacteria and exhibited greater protein degradation than that observed for the X and Z cheeses.

  1. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTINI PANGASTUTI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estikomah SA, Sutarno, Pangastuti A 2010. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 1-6. Cheese is dairy product resulted from fermented milk in which the fermentation process can be done by lactic acid bacteria or fungus. Rhizopus oryzae is able to produce lactic acid, protease and lipase. The ripening process changes the taste and texture. The purpose of this study is ripening to improve the quality of inoculated cheese R. oryzae. In this research the ripening was conducted the concentration variation of temperature (5oC, 10oC, 15oC, and time (7 days, 14 days. The procedure of research consisted of two steps, namely un-ripened cheese preparation followed by ripening cheese preparation. Cheese produced in this study analyzed the value of pH, fat content, protein content, amino acid levels and identification of microbe with ANOVA then followed by DMRT at 5% level of significance. Data results were analyzed with the like’s nonparametric statistical test, followed by Fridman Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (WSRT at 5% level significance. The results showed that the preferred ripened cheese panelist was at a temperature of 15oC for 14 days. Ripening conditions affect pH, fat content, protein content and do not affect the levels of amino acids that formed ripened cheese. The best quality ripened cheese i.e. at a temperature of 15°C for 14 days, had a pH value of 4.40, the highest protein content of 9.78%, and fat content of 35.02%. The results of identified microbe in un-ripened cheese and ripened cheese include Enterococcus hirae (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus sp.

  2. Nonstarter lactic acid bacteria volatilomes produced using cheese components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgarbi, E; Lazzi, C; Tabanelli, G; Gatti, M; Neviani, E; Gardini, F

    2013-07-01

    In long-ripened cheese, flavor formation occurs during ripening. The metabolism of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) leads to the production of different compounds that contribute to the flavor of cheese. The contribution of LAB to the formation of cheese flavor has previously been studied. However, the specific nonstarter LAB (NSLAB) metabolic reactions in ripened cheese that lead to the formation of flavor compounds remain unclear. In ripened cheese, the nutrient sources available include small peptides or amino acids, citrate, lactate, free fatty acids, and starter LAB cell lysis products. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of NSLAB to produce volatile flavor compounds by using an in vitro system that used only the nutrients available in ripened cheese as the energy source. Moreover, the potential contribution of the NSLAB volatilome on total cheese flavor is discussed. For this purpose, the production of volatile compounds on cheese-based medium (CBM) and on starter LAB lysed cell medium (LCM) by 2 Lactobacillus casei and 2 Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains, previously isolated from ripened Parmigiano Reggiano cheese, was investigated. The generated volatile compounds were analyzed with head-space gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Overall, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, and acids were the most abundant compounds produced. Differences in volatilome production were found between NSLAB grown in LCM and CBM. The catabolic metabolism of amino acids and fatty acids were required for NSLAB growth on LCM. Conversely, pyruvate metabolism was the main catabolic pathway that supported growth of NSLAB in CBM. This study can be considered a first step toward a better understanding of how microbiota involved in the long ripening of cheese may contribute to the development of cheese flavor. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. How cheese is processed

    Science.gov (United States)

    This column continues the theme of "How Is It Processed?" with a focus on cheese. A fun fact is that it takes 10 pounds of milk to make one pound of cheese. Production of cheese is described in this column, as well as the effects of processing on the final properties of this popular food....

  4. The science of cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    The book describes the science of cheese in everyday language. The first chapters cover milk, mammals, and principles of cheesemaking and aging, along with lactose intolerance and raw milk cheese. Succeeding chapters deal with a category of cheese along with a class of compounds associated with it...

  5. Comparative study of flavor in cholesterol-removed Gouda cheese and Gouda cheese during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H J; Ganesan, P; Lee, S J; Kwak, H S

    2013-04-01

    This study was performed to compare the flavor compounds of cholesterol-removed Gouda cheese (CRGC) and those of Gouda cheese (control) during ripening. The CRGC was made using milk treated with cross-linked β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method was used to extract flavor compounds from Gouda cheese. In both CRGC and control cheese, 31 flavor compounds were identified, including 6 free fatty acids, 5 esters, 5 ketones, 1 aldehyde, 3 lactones, 5 alcohols, and 6 miscellaneous compounds. Free fatty acids were the most abundant flavor compounds quantified in CRGC and control cheese. In the early stage of ripening, concentrations of flavor compounds in CRGC and control cheese were 16.42 and 10.38 mg/kg, respectively. At 6 mo, they increased to 40.90 and 67.89 mg/kg, respectively. A group of esters was the second abundant flavor compound in CRGC and control cheese. At the initial stage of ripening, total concentrations of esters were 12.94 (CRGC) and 10.95 mg/kg (control) and they increased to 22.73 (CRGC) and 27.68 mg/kg (control). Total concentrations of ketones were 1.96 (CRGC) and 6.49 mg/kg (control) at the initial stage of ripening. After 6 mo of ripening, total concentrations reached 11.32 (CRGC) and 52.43 mg/kg (control). In the case of the lactones, at the early stage of ripening, total concentrations of CRGC and control cheese were 0.63 and 0.84mg/kg, respectively, and then increased to 1.73 (CRGC) and 3.25mg/kg (control) at the end of ripening. Based on the results of this study, the flavor compounds of CRGC and control showed slightly different profiles during ripening. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of homogenization on the properties and microstructure of Mozzarella cheese from buffalo milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Gawad, Mona A M; Ahmed, Nawal S; El-Abd, M M; Abd El-Rafee, S

    2012-04-02

    The name pasta filata refers to a unique plasticizing and texturing treatments of the fresh curd in hot water that imparts to the finished cheese its characteristic fibrous structure and melting properties. Mozzarella cheese made from standardized homogenized and non-homogenized buffalo milk with 3 and 1.5%fat. The effect of homogenization on rheological, microstructure and sensory evaluation was carried out. Fresh raw buffalo milk and starter cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus were used. The coagulants were calf rennet powder (HA-LA). Standardized buffalo milk was homogenized at 25 kg/cm2 pressure after heating to 60°C using homogenizer. Milk and cheese were analysed. Microstructure of the cheese samples was investigated either with an application of transmission or scanning electron microscope. Statistical analyses were applied on the obtained data. Soluble nitrogen total volatile free fatty acids, soluble tyrosine and tryptophan increased with using homogenized milk and also, increased with relatively decrease in case of homogenized Mozzarella cheese. Meltability of Mozzarella cheese increased with increasing the fat content and storage period and decrease with homogenization. Mozzarella cheese firmness increased with homogenization and also, increased with progressing of storage period. Flavour score, appearance and total score of Mozzarella cheese increased with homogenization and storage period progress, while body and texture score decreased with homogenization and increased with storage period progress. Microstructure of Mozzarella cheese showed the low fat cheese tends to be harder, more crumbly and less smooth than normal. Curd granule junctions were prominent in non-homogenized milk cheese. Homogenization of milk cheese caused changes in the microstructure of the Mozzarella cheese. Microstructure studies of cheese revealed that cheese made from homogenized milk is smoother and has a finer texture than

  7. Fermented dairy food and CVD risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsell, Linda C

    2015-04-01

    Fermented dairy foods such as yoghurt and cheese are commonly found in the Mediterranean diet. Recent landmark research has confirmed the effect of the Mediterranean diet on reducing the CVD risk, but the relative contributions of fermented dairy foods have not been fully articulated. The present study provides a review of the relationship between fermented dairy foods consumption and CVD risk in the context of the whole diet. Studies show that people who eat healthier diets may be more likely to consume yoghurt, so there is a challenge in attributing separate effects to yoghurt. Analyses from large population studies list yoghurt as the food most negatively associated with the risk of weight gain (a problem that may lead to CVD). There is some suggestion that fermented dairy foods consumption (yoghurt or cheese) may be associated with reduced inflammatory biomarkers associated with the development of CVD. Dietary trials suggest that cheese may not have the same effect on raising LDL-cholesterol levels as butter with the same saturated fat content. The same might be stated for yoghurt. The use of different probiotic cultures and other aspects of study design remain a problem for research. Nevertheless, population studies from a range of countries have shown that a reduced risk of CVD occurs with the consumption of fermented dairy foods. A combination of evidence is necessary, and more research is always valuable, but indications remain that fermented dairy foods such as cheese and yoghurt are integral to diets that are protective against CVD.

  8. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used for...

  9. Proteolysis during ripening of Manchego cheese made from raw or pasteurized ewes' milk. Seasonal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaya, Pilar; Sánchez, Carmen; Nuñez, Manuel; Fernández-García, Estrella

    2005-08-01

    Changes in nitrogen compounds during ripening of 40 batches of Manchego cheese made from raw milk (24 batches) or pasteurized milk (16 batches) at five different dairies throughout the year were investigated. After ripening for six months, degradation of p-kappa- and beta-caseins was more intense in raw milk cheese and degradation of alpha(s2)-casein in pasteurized milk cheese. Milk pasteurization had no significant effect on breakdown of alpha(s1)-casein. Hydrophobic peptide content did not differ between raw and pasteurized milk cheese, whereas hydrophilic peptide content was higher in raw milk cheese. There were no significant differences between seasons for residual caseins, but hydrophobic peptides were at a higher level in cheese made in autumn and winter and hydrophilic peptides in cheese made in winter and spring. Raw milk cheese had a higher content of total free amino acids and of most individual free amino acids than pasteurized milk cheese. The relative percentages of the individual free amino acids were significantly different for raw milk and pasteurized milk cheeses. The relative percentages of Lys and lie increased, while those of Val, Leu and Phe decreased during ripening. There were also seasonal variations within the relative percentages of free amino acids. In raw milk cheeses, Asp and Cys were relatively more abundant in those made in autumn, Glu and Arg in cheeses made in winter, and Lys and Ile in cheeses made in spring and summer. Biogenic amines were detected only in raw milk cheese, with the highest levels of histamine, tryptamine and tyramine in cheeses made in spring, winter and spring, respectively.

  10. Accelerated ripening of Caciocavallo Pugliese cheese with attenuated adjuncts of selected nonstarter lactobacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cagno, R; De Pasquale, I; De Angelis, M; Gobbetti, M

    2012-09-01

    The nonstarter lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum CC3M8, Lactobacillus paracasei CC3M35, and Lactobacillus casei LC01, previously isolated from aged Caciocavallo Pugliese cheese or used in cheesemaking, were used as adjunct cultures (AC) or attenuated (by sonication treatment) adjunct cultures (AAC) for the manufacture of Caciocavallo Pugliese cheese on an industrial scale. Preliminary studies on the kinetics of growth and acidification and activities of several enzymes of AAC were characterized in vitro. As shown by the fluorescence determination of live versus dead or damaged cells and other phenotype features, attenuation resulted in a portion of the cells being damaged and a portion of the cells being capable of growing with time. Compared with the control cheese (without adjunct cultures) and the cheese with AAC, the addition of AC resulted in a lower pH after manufacture, which altered the gross composition of the cheese. As shown by plate count and confirmed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA-PCR, the 3 species of nonstarter lactobacilli persisted during ripening but the number of cultivable cells varied between AC and AAC. Slight differences were found between cheeses regarding primary proteolysis. The major differences between cheeses were the accumulation of free amino acids and the activity levels of several enzymes, which were highest in the Caciocavallo Pugliese cheeses made with the addition of AAC. As shown by triangle test, the sensory properties of the cheese made with AAC at 45 d did not differ from those of the control Caciocavallo Pugliese cheese at 60 d of ripening. In contrast, the cheese made with AC at 45 d differed from both the Caciocavallo Pugliese cheese without adjuncts and the cheese made with AAC. Attenuated adjunct cultures are suitable for accelerating the ripening of Caciocavallo Pugliese cheese without modifying the main features of the traditional cheese. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association

  11. Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool. Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Flapper, Joris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kramer, Klaas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop a computer-based benchmarking and energy and water savings tool (BEST-Dairy) for use in the California dairy industry – including four dairy processes – cheese, fluid milk, butter, and milk powder.

  12. Probiotic Cheese Attenuates Exercise-induced Immune Suppression In Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lollo P.C.B.; Cruz A.G.; Morato P.N.; Moura C.S.; Carvalho-Silva L.B.; Oliveira C.A.F.; Faria J.A.F.; Amaya-Farfan J.

    2012-01-01

    Intense physical activity results in a substantial volume of stress and hence a significant probability of immunosuppression in athletes, with milk proteins being, perhaps, the most recommended protein supplements. Consumption of a probiotic cheese can attenuate immune suppression induced by exhausting exercise in rats. A popular Brazilian fresh cheese (Minas Frescal cheese) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LA14 and Bifidobacterium longum BL05 was fed for 2 wk to adult Wistar rats, which ...

  13. Moldy Cheese: Is It Unsafe to Eat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition and healthy eating If a piece of cheese has mold growing on it, should I throw the cheese away? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. Soft cheeses, such as cottage cheese, cream cheese and ricotta ...

  14. BEHAVIOUR OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN FRESH SAUCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Grassi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ready to use fresh sauces are among Ready to Eat foods for which producers need to respect the 100 UFC/g limit for the presence of L. monocytogenes. In the current research a Challenge test was performed on fresh mushroom and cheese sauces. Both were placed at two storage temperatures and the L. monocytogenes potential growth (d was evaluated. Only cheese sauce stored at 8°C showed a δ> 0,5 log10 UFC/g. However, considering the limited initial contamination it can be excluded that the product could reach 100 UFC/g by the expiration date.

  15. Detection and viability of Lactococcus lactis throughout cheese ripening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Ruggirello

    Full Text Available Recent evidences highlighted the presence of Lactococcus lactis during late cheese ripening. For this reason, the role of this microorganism, well known as dairy starter, should be reconsidered throughout cheese manufacturing and ripening. Thus, the main objective of this study was to develop a RT-qPCR protocol for the detection, quantification and determination of the viability of L. lactis in ripened cheese samples by direct analysis of microbial nucleic acids. Standard curves were constructed for the specific quantification of L. lactis in cheese matrices and good results in terms of selectivity, correlation coefficient and efficiency were obtained. Thirty-three ripened cheeses were analyzed and, on the basis of RNA analysis, twelve samples showed 106 to 108 CFU of L. lactis per gram of product, thirteen from 103 to 105 CFU/g, and in eight cheeses, L. lactis was not detected. Traditional plating on M17 medium led to loads ranging from 105 to 109 CFU/g, including the cheese samples where no L. lactis was found by RT-qPCR. From these cheeses, none of the colonies isolated on M17 medium was identified as L. lactis species. These data could be interpreted as a lack of selectivity of M17 medium where colony growth is not always related to lactococcal species. At the same time, the absence or low abundance of L. lactis isolates on M17 medium from cheese where L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR support the hypothesis that L. lactis starter populations are mainly present in viable but not culturable state during ripening and, for this reason, culture-dependent methods have to be supplemented with direct analysis of cheese.

  16. Detection and Viability of Lactococcus lactis throughout Cheese Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocolin, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidences highlighted the presence of Lactococcus lactis during late cheese ripening. For this reason, the role of this microorganism, well known as dairy starter, should be reconsidered throughout cheese manufacturing and ripening. Thus, the main objective of this study was to develop a RT-qPCR protocol for the detection, quantification and determination of the viability of L. lactis in ripened cheese samples by direct analysis of microbial nucleic acids. Standard curves were constructed for the specific quantification of L. lactis in cheese matrices and good results in terms of selectivity, correlation coefficient and efficiency were obtained. Thirty-three ripened cheeses were analyzed and, on the basis of RNA analysis, twelve samples showed 106 to 108 CFU of L. lactis per gram of product, thirteen from 103 to 105 CFU/g, and in eight cheeses, L. lactis was not detected. Traditional plating on M17 medium led to loads ranging from 105 to 109 CFU/g, including the cheese samples where no L. lactis was found by RT-qPCR. From these cheeses, none of the colonies isolated on M17 medium was identified as L. lactis species. These data could be interpreted as a lack of selectivity of M17 medium where colony growth is not always related to lactococcal species. At the same time, the absence or low abundance of L. lactis isolates on M17 medium from cheese where L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR support the hypothesis that L. lactis starter populations are mainly present in viable but not culturable state during ripening and, for this reason, culture-dependent methods have to be supplemented with direct analysis of cheese. PMID:25503474

  17. Dairy Propionibacteria: Versatile Probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabah, Houem; Rosa do Carmo, Fillipe Luiz; Jan, Gwénaël

    2017-05-13

    Dairy propionibacteria are used as cheese ripening starters, as biopreservative and as beneficial additives, in the food industry. The main species, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, is known as GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe, USA, FDA). In addition to another dairy species, Propionibacterium acidipropionici, they are included in QPS (Qualified Presumption of Safety) list. Additional to their well-known technological application, dairy propionibacteria increasingly attract attention for their promising probiotic properties. The purpose of this review is to summarize the probiotic characteristics of dairy propionibacteria reported by the updated literature. Indeed, they meet the selection criteria for probiotic bacteria, such as the ability to endure digestive stressing conditions and to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells. This is a prerequisite to bacterial persistence within the gut. The reported beneficial effects are ranked according to property's type: microbiota modulation, immunomodulation, and cancer modulation. The proposed molecular mechanisms are discussed. Dairy propionibacteria are described as producers of nutraceuticals and beneficial metabolites that are responsible for their versatile probiotic attributes include short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), conjugated fatty acids, surface proteins, and 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphtoic acid (DHNA). These metabolites possess beneficial properties and their production depends on the strain and on the growth medium. The choice of the fermented food matrix may thus determine the probiotic properties of the ingested product. This review approaches dairy propionibacteria, with an interest in both technological abilities and probiotic attributes.

  18. Effect of flaxseed supplementation rate and processing on the production, fatty acid profile, and texture of milk, butter, and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeffner, S P; Qu, Y; Just, J; Quezada, N; Ramsing, E; Keller, M; Cherian, G; Goddick, L; Bobe, G

    2013-02-01

    Health and nutrition professionals advise consumers to limit consumption of saturated fatty acids and increase the consumption of foods rich in n-3 fatty acids. Researchers have previously reported that feeding extruded flaxseed, which is high in C18:3n-3, improves the fatty acid profile of milk and dairy products to less saturated fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3. Fat concentrations in milk and butter decreased when cows were fed higher concentrations of extruded flaxseed. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal rate of flaxseed supplementation for improving the fatty acid profile without decreasing production characteristics of milk and dairy products. By using a double 5 × 5 Latin square design, 10 mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows were fed extruded (0, 0.91, 1.81, and 2.72 kg/d) and ground (1.81 kg/d) flaxseed as a top dressing for 2-wk periods each. At the end of each 2-wk treatment period, milk and serum samples were taken. Milk was subsequently manufactured into butter and fresh Mozzarella cheese. Increasing supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed improved the fatty acid profile of milk, butter, and cheese gradually to less saturated and atherogenic fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3 by increasing concentrations of C18:3n-3 in serum. The less saturated fatty acid profile was associated with decreased hardness and adhesiveness of refrigerated butter, which likely cause improved spreadability. Supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed did not affect dry matter intake of the total mixed ration, milk composition, and production of milk, butter, or cheese. Flaxseed processing did not affect production, fatty acid profile of milk, or texture of butter and cheese. Feeding up to 2.72 kg/d of extruded flaxseed to mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows may improve nutritional and functional properties of milk fat without compromising production parameters. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. Effect of cheese consumption on blood lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysisi of randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, de J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Ding, E.L.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Cheese may affect lipids and lipoproteins differently than other high-fat dairy foods. Objective: The present systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate randomized controlled trials that examined the effect of cheese consumption compared with another food product on blood

  20. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed...... with 13% energy from cheese or butter. Results After 6 weeks of intervention cheese resulted in higher amounts of calcium excreted in feces compared to butter. However, no difference was observed in fecal bile acid output despite lower serum total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations observed...... with cheese intake. Conclusion We were not able to confirm the hypothesis that calcium from cheese increases the excretion of fecal bile acids. Therefore, the mechanisms responsible for the lowering of cholesterol concentrations with cheese compared to butter intake remains unresolved....

  1. Managing a sustainable and resilient cheese supply chain for the dynamic market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Quan; Krikke, Harold; Pawar, K.S.; Tsai, K.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Cheese has a long production time, but is as perishable as other fresh food. If it is not delivered to customers in time, it does not have value any more. Any product shortage causes customers to seek alternative sources. To manage a sustainable and resilient cheese supply chain for the

  2. MICROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF DAIRY PRODUCTS COMMERCIALIZED IN VITÓRIA DA CONQUISTA - BAHIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Cabral Pinto da Fonseca

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the microbiological quality and prevalence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in pasteurized milk, cheese and butter. This is a cross-sectional study, conducted in the city of da Conquista, Bahia Vitoria, whose samples were randomly selected in open market without inspection record in a dairy region and county supermarkets with state inspection record and federal. The samples were collected between the period May-August 2015 were determined physicochemical parameters temperature and acidity and performed microbiological testing for E. coli, Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes. A total of 42 samples was evaluated. The amounts recorded temperature and acidity of all samples were found above permitted by law. Microbiological analysis showed that 54.8% (23/42 of the samples showed up unfit for human consumption and were classified as "unacceptable". It was not detected the presence of pathogenic micro-organisms L. monocytogenes and Salmonella in any of the samples. 14.3% of the samples was found the presence of E. coli (curd cheese, butter and fresh cheese. The results of this work show critical hygienic conditions in milk and related products that can endanger the health of consumers. Good Manufacturing and Handling Practices play a key role in the quality of these products is ensured. Thus, the continuing education for producers and handlers milk products is necessary

  3. Influence of fish oil alone or in combination with hydrogenated palm oil on sensory characteristics and fatty acid composition of bovine cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Íñiguez-González, Gonzalo; Fehrmann-Cartes, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of fish oil (FO) alone or in combination with hydrogenated palm oil (FOPO) on the fatty acid (FA) profile of milk and cheese from dairy cows, and the sensory characteristics of cheese. Nine Holstein cows (173...... treatments than with control. Compared with control and FOPO, FO treatment increased VA and DHA content in milk and cheese. In conclusion, supplementation of dairy cow diets with FO alone or in combination with hydrogenated palm oil can enhance the FA profile of milk and cheese without deleterious effects...

  4. Fate of Salmonella enterica in a mixed ingredient salad containing lettuce, cheddar cheese, and cooked chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Federica; De Cesare, Alessandra; Manfreda, Gerardo; Bach, Susan; Delaquis, Pascal

    2015-03-01

    Food service and retail sectors offer consumers a variety of mixed ingredient salads that contain fresh-cut vegetables and other ingredients such as fruits, nuts, cereals, dairy products, cooked seafood, cooked meat, cured meats, or dairy products obtained from external suppliers. Little is known about the behavior of enteric bacterial pathogens in mixed ingredient salads. A model system was developed to examine the fate of Salmonella enterica (inoculum consisting of S. enterica serovars Agona, Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Brandenberg, and Kentucky) on the surface of romaine lettuce tissues incubated alone and in direct contact with Cheddar cheese or cooked chicken. S. enterica survived but did not grow on lettuce tissues incubated alone or in contact with Cheddar cheese for 6 days at either 6 or 14°C. In contrast, populations increased from 2.01 ± 0.22 to 9.26 ± 0.22 CFU/cm(2) when lettuce washed in water was incubated in contact with cooked chicken at 14°C. Populations on lettuce leaves were reduced to 1.28 ± 0.14 CFU/cm(2) by washing with a chlorine solution (70 ppm of free chlorine) but increased to 8.45 ± 0.22 CFU/cm(2) after 6 days at 14°C. Experimentation with a commercial product in which one third of the fresh-cut romaine lettuce was replaced with inoculated lettuce revealed that S. enterica populations increased by 4 log CFU/g during storage for 3 days at 14°C. These findings indicate that rapid growth of bacterial enteric pathogens may occur in mixed ingredient salads; therefore, strict temperature control during the manufacture, distribution, handling, and storage of these products is critical.

  5. Antioxidant activity and nutrient release from polyphenol-enriched cheese in a simulated gastrointestinal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Sophie; Langlois, Ariane; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2016-03-01

    Green tea polyphenols are recognized for their antioxidant properties and their effects on lipid digestion kinetics. Polyphenols are sensitive to degradation in the intestinal environment. Interactions with dairy proteins could modulate the stability and biological activity of polyphenols during digestion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the release of nutrients (polyphenols, fatty acids and peptides) and the antioxidant activity in polyphenol-enriched cheese containing different levels of calcium in a simulated gastrointestinal environment. The relationship between cheese matrix texture, matrix degradation and nutrient release during digestion was also studied. Green tea extract was added to milk at 0% or 0.1%, and cheeses were produced on a laboratory scale. The level of available calcium was adjusted to low (Ca(low)), regular (Ca(reg)) or high (Ca(high)) during the salting step of the cheese-making process. Cheeses were subjected to simulated digestion. The rate and extent of fatty acid release were 21% lower for Ca(low) cheese than for Ca(reg) and Ca(high) cheeses. The greater adhesiveness of Ca(low) cheese, which resulted in lower rates of matrix degradation and proteolysis, contributed to the reduced rate of lipolysis. The presence of green tea extract in cheese reduced the release of free fatty acids at the end of digestion by 7%. The addition of green tea extract increased cheese hardness but did not influence matrix degradation or proteolysis profiles. The formation of complexes between tea polyphenols and proteins within the cheese matrix resulted in a more than twofold increase in polyphenol recovery in the intestinal phase compared with the control (tea polyphenol extract incubated with polyphenol-free cheese). Antioxidant activity was 14% higher in the digest from polyphenol-enriched cheese than in the control. These results suggest that cheese is an effective matrix for the controlled release of nutrients and for the protection of green

  6. Effects of supercritical fluid extraction pressure on chemical composition, microbial population, polar lipid profile, and microstructure of goat cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Macías, D; Laubscher, A; Castro, N; Argüello, A; Jiménez-Flores, R

    2013-03-01

    The consumer trend for healthier food choices and preferences for low-fat products has increased the interest in low-fat cheese and nutraceutical dairy products. However, consumer preference is still for delicious food. Low- and reduced-fat cheeses are not completely accepted because of their unappealing properties compared with full-fat cheeses. The method reported here provides another option to the conventional cheese-making process to obtain lower fat cheese. Using CO(2) as a supercritical fluid offers an alternative to reduce fat in cheese after ripening, while maintaining the initial characteristics and flavor. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of pressure (10, 20, 30, and 40 × 10(6) Pa) of supercritical CO(2) on the amount of fat extracted, microbial population, polar lipid profile, and microstructure of 2 varieties of goat cheese: Majorero, a protected denomination of origin cheese from Spain, and goat Gouda-type cheese. The amount of fat was reduced 50 to 57% and 48 to 55% for Majorero and goat Gouda-type cheeses, respectively. Higher contents (on a fat basis) of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine were found in Majorero cheese compared with control and goat Gouda-type cheeses. The microbial population was reduced after supercritical fluid extraction in both cheeses, and the lethality was higher as pressure increased in Majorero cheese, most noticeably on lactococcus and lactobacillus bacteria. The Gouda-type cheese did not contain any lactobacilli. Micrographs obtained from confocal laser scanning microscopy showed a more open matrix and whey pockets in the Majorero control cheese. This could explain the ease of extracting fat and reducing the microbial counts in this cheese after treatment with supercritical CO(2). Supercritical fluid extraction with CO(2) has great potential in the dairy industry and in commercial applications. The Majorero cheese obtained after the supercritical fluid extraction treatment was an excellent

  7. A survey of dairy production practices in the derived Savannah of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study revealed that the main dairying activities are milking of cattle, processing and marketing of dairy products. The most preferred dairy products are wara (local cheese), ghee and butter. Marketing was done exclusively by self or in combination with intermediaries ("middlemen"). Main reasons for engagement in ...

  8. Processing Challenges and Opportunities of Camel Dairy Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berhe, Tesfemariam; Seifu, Eyassu; Ipsen, Richard

    2017-01-01

    to bovine milk. Nonetheless, the relative composition, distribution, and the molecular structure of the milk components are reported to be different. Consequently, manufacturing of camel dairy products such as cheese, yoghurt, or butter using the same technology as for dairy products from bovine milk can...

  9. Analysis of dominant lactic acid bacteria from artisanal raw milk cheeses produced on the mountain Stara Planina, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begovic Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Serbian cheese production has a long history and generates products with rich flavor profiles. To enable the industrial manufacture of these home-made Serbian cheeses, the lactic acid bacteria present in them needs to be characterized. Five fresh white cheeses made from raw cow’s milk without commercial starter cultures were collected from households on the mountain Stara Planina, Serbia. According to phenotypical and molecular analysis, 262 isolated Lwere found to belong to Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc or Enterococcus. The unique bacterial composition of each cheese indicates that the preservation of household industry is the way to maintain production of distinct cheeses.

  10. Experimental effect of ozone upon the microbial flora of commercially produced dairy fermented products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, A; Plessas, S; Kourkoutas, Y; Stefanis, C; Vavias, S; Voidarou, C; Mantzourani, I; Bezirtzoglou, E

    2017-04-04

    Ozone was used to control spoilage microorganisms during the manufacturing of dairy products. Ozone stream was applied onto the surface of freshly filled yoghurt cups just before storage for curd development in order to prevent cross contamination from spoilage airborne microorganisms. Accordingly, brine solution was bubbled with ozone for various periods of time and used for ripening of white (feta type) cheese. Both products were subjected to a continuous monitoring of microbial load and also tested for their sensorial properties. In ozonated yoghurt samples there was a reduction in mould counts of approximately 0.6Logcfu/g (25.1%) by the end of the monitoring period in relation to the control samples. In white cheese ripened with ozonated brine (1.3mg/L O 3 , NaCl 5%) it seems that ozone treatment during the two months of observation reduced some of the mould load but without offering any advantages over the use of traditional brine (NaCl 7%). However, some sensorial alterations were observed, probably due to the organic load in the brine which deactivates ozone in early stages of application. It is concluded that, if the factors of time and concentration of ozone are configured properly, ozonation could be a promising approach safeguarding the production of some dairy products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved Properties and Microbiological Safety of Novel Cottage Cheese Containing Spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josipović, Renata; Knežević, Zvonimira Medverec; Frece, Jadranka; Markov, Ksenija; Kazazić, Snježana; Mrvčić, Jasna

    2015-12-01

    The study focuses on developing novel cottage cheese containing spices with acceptable sensory properties, increased biological value and extended shelf life. Thirty types of cheese with added fresh or dried parsley, dill, pepper, garlic and rosemary were produced. Characterisation of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of spices and cheese samples were evaluated. The cheese containing fresh pepper and fresh and dried herbs showed excellent sensory properties, with the best results obtained with fresh sweet red pepper. Dry rosemary had the highest antioxidant and antibacterial activity due to high mass fractions of caffeic and rosmarinic acids as well as high mass fractions of flavones and phenolic diterpenes. The plant extracts examined in vitro and in situ effectively reduce numbers of foodborne pathogens like Salmonella typhimurium , Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes , and therefore have potential as natural preservatives and antioxidants.

  12. Improved Properties and Microbiological Safety of Novel Cottage Cheese Containing Spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Zvonimira Medverec; Frece, Jadranka; Markov, Ksenija; Kazazić, Snježana; Mrvčić, Jasna

    2015-01-01

    Summary The study focuses on developing novel cottage cheese containing spices with acceptable sensory properties, increased biological value and extended shelf life. Thirty types of cheese with added fresh or dried parsley, dill, pepper, garlic and rosemary were produced. Characterisation of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of spices and cheese samples were evaluated. The cheese containing fresh pepper and fresh and dried herbs showed excellent sensory properties, with the best results obtained with fresh sweet red pepper. Dry rosemary had the highest antioxidant and antibacterial activity due to high mass fractions of caffeic and rosmarinic acids as well as high mass fractions of flavones and phenolic diterpenes. The plant extracts examined in vitro and in situ effectively reduce numbers of foodborne pathogens like Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, and therefore have potential as natural preservatives and antioxidants. PMID:27904380

  13. Improved Properties and Microbiological Safety of Novel Cottage Cheese Containing Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonimira Medverec Knežević

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on developing novel cott age cheese containing spices with acceptable sensory properties, increased biological value and extended shelf life. Thirty types of cheese with added fresh or dried parsley, dill, pepper, garlic and rosemary were produced. Characterisation of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of spices and cheese samples were evaluated. The cheese containing fresh pepper and fresh and dried herbs showed excellent sensory properties, with the best results obtained with fresh sweet red pepper. Dry rosemary had the highest antioxidant and antibacterial activity due to high mass fractions of caffeic and rosmarinic acids as well as high mass fractions of flavones and phenolic diterpenes. The plant extracts examined in vitro and in situ effectively reduce numbers of foodborne pathogens like Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, and therefore have potential as natural preservatives and antioxidants.

  14. Temperature and relative humidity influence the ripening descriptors of Camembert-type cheeses throughout ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq-Perlat, M-N; Sicard, M; Perrot, N; Trelea, I C; Picque, D; Corrieu, G

    2015-02-01

    Ripening descriptors are the main factors that determine consumers' preferences of soft cheeses. Six descriptors were defined to represent the sensory changes in Camembert cheeses: Penicillium camemberti appearance, cheese odor and rind color, creamy underrind thickness and consistency, and core hardness. To evaluate the effects of the main process parameters on these descriptors, Camembert cheeses were ripened under different temperatures (8, 12, and 16°C) and relative humidity (RH; 88, 92, and 98%). The sensory descriptors were highly dependent on the temperature and RH used throughout ripening in a ripening chamber. All sensory descriptor changes could be explained by microorganism growth, pH, carbon substrate metabolism, and cheese moisture, as well as by microbial enzymatic activities. On d 40, at 8°C and 88% RH, all sensory descriptors scored the worst: the cheese was too dry, its odor and its color were similar to those of the unripe cheese, the underrind was driest, and the core was hardest. At 16°C and 98% RH, the odor was strongly ammonia and the color was dark brown, and the creamy underrind represented the entire thickness of the cheese but was completely runny, descriptors indicative of an over ripened cheese. Statistical analysis showed that the best ripening conditions to achieve an optimum balance between cheese sensory qualities and marketability were 13±1°C and 94±1% RH. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The changes of flavour and aroma active compounds content during production of Edam cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vítová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the problem of flavour of Edam cheeses, i.e. natural hard cheese with low heat curd. The cheese samples were produced in dairy MILTRA B, Ltd., Městečko Trnávka.A number of volatile substances contribute to flavour of cheese including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, fatty acids, esters, lactones, terpenes etc. The development of these components during production was monitored in chosen Edam cheese (fat 30% w/w using headspace-SPME-GC method. The samples were taken from cheesemilk up to technologically ripe cheese. In total 37 various organic compounds belonging to five chemical groups were identified in milk and cheese samples. Their total content increased during production. The first increase was observed after pressing and then especially in last part of ripening. Ethanol (185.8 ± 15.85 mg.kg−1, acetoin (97.7 ± 3.78 mg.kg−1, 2-methylpropanol (71.2 ± 5.23 mg.kg−1, acetic acid (54.4 ± 1.70 mg.kg−1 and acetaldehyde (36.4 ± 10.17 mg.kg−1 were the most abundant in ripened cheeses. The flavour and other organoleptic properties (appearance, texture of Edam cheese samples were also sensorially evaluated during ripening. The five point ordinal scale and profile tests were used for evaluation. The sensory quality was improved during ripening, until the final marked flavour characteristic for these cheese types.

  16. 21 CFR 133.128 - Cottage cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cottage cheese. 133.128 Section 133.128 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.128 Cottage cheese. (a) Cottage cheese is the soft uncured cheese prepared by mixing cottage...

  17. 21 CFR 133.133 - Cream cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cream cheese. 133.133 Section 133.133 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.133 Cream cheese. (a) Description. (1) Cream cheese is the soft, uncured cheese prepared by...

  18. One approach in using multivariate statistical process control in analyzing cheese quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Djekic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to investigate possibility of using multivariate statistical process control in analysing cheese quality parameters. Two cheese types (white brined cheeses and soft cheese from ultra-filtered milk were selected and analysed for several quality parameters such as dry matter, milk fat, protein contents, pH, NaCl, fat in dry matter and moisture in non-fat solids. The obtained results showed significant variations for most of the quality characteristics which were examined among the two types of cheese. The only stable parameter in both types of cheese was moisture in non-fat solids. All of the other cheese quality characteristics were characterized above or below control limits for most of the samples. Such results indicated a high instability and variations within cheese production. Although the use of statistical process control is not mandatory in the dairy industry, it might provide benefits to organizations in improving quality control of dairy products.

  19. Mexican Queso Chihuahua: functional properties of aging cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D W; Van Hekken, D L; Tunick, M H; Tomasula, P M; Molina-Corral, F J; Gardea, A A

    2011-09-01

    cheeses. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Can the development and autolysis of lactic acid bacteria influence the cheese volatile fraction? The case of Grana Padano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzi, Camilla; Povolo, Milena; Locci, Francesco; Bernini, Valentina; Neviani, Erasmo; Gatti, Monica

    2016-09-16

    In this study, the relationship between the dynamics of the growth and lysis of lactic acid bacteria in Grana Padano cheese and the formation of the volatile flavor compounds during cheese ripening was investigated. The microbial dynamics of Grana Padano cheeses that were produced in two different dairies were followed during ripening. The total and cultivable lactic microflora, community composition as determined by length heterogeneity-PCR (LH-PCR), and extent of bacterial lysis using an intracellular enzymatic activity assay were compared among cheeses after 2, 6 and 13months of ripening in two dairies. The evolution of whole and lysed microbiota was different between the two dairies. In dairy 2, the number of total cells was higher than that in dairy 1 in all samples, and the number of cells that lysed during ripening was lower. In addition, at the beginning of ripening (2months), the community structure of the cheese from dairy 2 was more complex and was composed of starter lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii) and NSLAB, possibly arising from raw milk, including Lactobacillus rhamnosus/Lactobacillus casei and Pediococcus acidilactici. On the other hand, the cheese from dairy 1 that ripened for 2months was mainly composed of the SLAB L. helveticus and L. delbrueckii. An evaluation of the free-DNA fraction through LH-PCR identified those species that had a high degree of lysis. Data on the dynamics of bacterial growth and lysis were evaluated with respect to the volatile profile and the organic acid content of the two cheeses after 13months of ripening, producing very different results. Cheese from dairy 1 showed a higher content of free fatty acids, particularly those deriving from milk fat lipolysis, benzaldehyde and organic acids, such as pGlu and citric. In contrast, cheese from dairy 2 had a greater amount of ketones, alcohols, hydrocarbons, acetic acid and propionic acid. Based on these results, we can conclude that

  1. Diversity and enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus spp. associated with domiati cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharoud, Walid M; Spano, Giuseppe

    2008-12-01

    A total of 87 samples of fresh and stored Domiati cheese (an Egyptian soft cheese) were examined for the presence of Staphylococcus spp. Fifteen Staphylococcus isolates identified as S. aureus (2 isolates), S. xylosus (4), S. caprae (4), and S. chromogenes (5) were recovered from 15 cheese samples. The S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin, and one isolate was also resistant to tetracycline. S. aureus isolates harbored classical staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes (sea and seb) and recently characterized SE-like genes (selg, seli, selm, and selo). One S. aureus isolate contained a single SE gene (sea), whereas another isolate contained five SE genes (seb, selg, seli, selm, and selo). These results suggest that Domiati cheese is a source for various Staphylococcus species, including S. aureus strains that could be enterotoxigenic.

  2. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from cheese manufacturing plants in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barancelli, Giovana V; Camargo, Tarsila M; Gagliardi, Natália G; Porto, Ernani; Souza, Roberto A; Campioni, Fabio; Falcão, Juliana P; Hofer, Ernesto; Cruz, Adriano G; Oliveira, Carlos A F

    2014-03-03

    This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese and in the environment of three small-scale dairy plants (A, B, C) located in the Northern region state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to characterize the isolates using conventional serotyping and PFGE. A total of 393 samples were collected and analyzed from October 2008 to September 2009. From these, 136 came from dairy plant A, where only L. seeligeri was isolated. In dairy plant B, 136 samples were analyzed, and L. innocua, L. seeligeri and L. welshimeri were isolated together with L. monocytogenes. In dairy plant C, 121 samples were analyzed, and L. monocytogenes and L. innocua were isolated. Cheese from dairy plants B and C were contaminated with Listeria spp, with L. innocua being found in Minas frescal cheese from both dairy plants, and L. innocua and L. monocytogenes in Prato cheese from dairy plant C. A total of 85 L. monocytogenes isolates were classified in 3 serotypes: 1/2b, 1/2c, and 4b, with predominance of serotype 4b in both dairy plants. The 85 isolates found in the dairy plants were characterized by genomic macrorestriction using ApaI and AscI with Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Macrorestriction yielded 30 different pulsotypes. The presence of indistinguishable profiles repeatedly isolated during a 12-month period indicated the persistence of L. monocytogenes in dairy plants B and C, which were more than 100 km away from each other. Brine used in dairy plant C contained more than one L. monocytogenes lineage. The routes of contamination were identified in plants B and C, and highlighted the importance of using molecular techniques and serotyping to track L. monocytogenes sources of contamination, distribution, and routes of contamination in dairy plants, and to develop improved control strategies for L. monocytogenes in dairy plants and dairy products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Holstein Friesian and Brown Swiss breeds on quality of milk and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, M; Bittante, G; Dal Zotto, R; Dalvit, C; Cassandro, M

    2008-10-01

    In Italy, more than 75% of milk is used for cheese making. For this reason, milk composition and coagulation traits and cheese quality represent the most important tools for the economic development of the dairy sector. In particular, cheese quality varies in relation to cheese-making technology and breed of cow. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 3 types of milk, originating from Holstein-Friesian (HF), Brown Swiss (BS), and mixed of both breeds, on vat milk characteristics, cheese yield, and quality in 3 different typical Italian cheese-making conditions (Casolet, Vezzena, and Grana Trentino). One hundred forty-four cows (66 HF and 78 BS) were involved, and a total of 24 vats of milk were evaluated. At maturity, 30, 21, and 16 wheels of Casolet, Vezzena, and Grana Trentino cheese were analyzed. Brown Swiss cows yielded 9% less milk per day than HF cows, but milk showed greater contents of protein, casein, titratable acidity, and better rennet coagulation time and curd firmness than HF milk. The chemical composition and cholesterol content of the 3 types of cheese were similar between breeds, whereas the cheese made with BS milk showed greater contents of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Cheese made with BS milk had greater b* (yellow component) than HF. Cheese yield, recorded at different ripening times, demonstrated that BS milk yielded more cheese than HF. Mixed milk showed values, on average, intermediate to HF and BS milk characteristics, and this trend was confirmed in cheese yield at different ripening times.

  4. Microbiota of Minas cheese as influenced by the nisin producer Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis GLc05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Luana Martins; Dal Bello, Barbara; Belviso, Simona; Zeppa, Giuseppe; Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes de; Cocolin, Luca; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2015-12-02

    Minas cheese is a popular dairy product in Brazil that is traditionally produced using raw or pasteurized cow milk. This study proposed an alternative production of Minas cheese using raw goat milk added of a nisin producer Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis GLc05. An in situ investigation was carried on to evaluate the interactions between the L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 and the autochthonous microbiota of a Minas cheese during the ripening; production of biogenic amines (BAs) was assessed as a safety aspect. Minas cheese was produced in two treatments (A, by adding L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05, and B, without adding this strain), in three independent repetitions (R1, R2, and R3). Culture dependent (direct plating) and independent (rep-PCR and PCR-DGGE) methods were employed to characterize the microbiota and to assess the possible interferences caused by L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05. BA amounts were measured using HPLC. A significant decrease in coagulase-positive cocci was observed in the cheeses produced by adding L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 (cheese A). The rep-PCR and PCR-DGGE highlighted the differences in the microbiota of both cheeses, separating them into two different clusters. Lactococcus sp. was found as the main microorganism in both cheeses, and the microbiota of cheese A presented a higher number of species. High concentrations of tyramine were found in both cheeses and, at specific ripening times, the BA amounts in cheese B were significantly higher than in cheese A (pcheese and by controlling the growth of coagulase-positive cocci. L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 influenced also the production of BA determining that their amounts in the cheeses were maintained at acceptable levels for human consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Aflatoxin M1 in samples of "minas" cheese commercialized in the city of Belo Horizonte - Minas Gerais/Brazil Aflotoxina M1 em amostras de queijo "minas" comercializada na cidade de Belo Horizonte - Minas Gerais/ Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme PRADO

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk products such as cheeses may be contaminated by aflatoxin M1 when dairy cattle have consumed feeds contaminated with aflatoxin B1. Samples of "Minas" cheeses (fresh, canastra and standard were collected by the Inspection Service in the Mercado Central in Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais - Brazil. A purified extract was obtained by extraction with dichloromethane followed by a washing with n-hexane and immunoaffinity column purification. The quantification of aflatoxin M1 was done by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC using a fluorescence detector. Recoveries were about 75%. In 56 of the 75 samples (74.7%, the presence of aflatoxin M1 was detected in concentrations ranging between 0.02 and 6.92ng/g of cheese. In the positive cases ( > or = 0.02ng/g the mean contamination level of aflatoxin M1 was 0.08ng/g in fresh cheese, 0.36ng/g in canastra cheese and 0.62ng/g in standard cheese. No aflatoxin M1 maximum tolerance level in cheese has been established in Brazil.Produtos derivados de leite, como queijo, podem estar contaminados com aflatoxina M1 quando o gado leiteiro consome ração contaminada com aflatoxina B1. Amostras de queijo "Minas" ( frescal, canastra e padrão foram coletados pela Vigilância Sanitária de Minas Gerais - Brasil. Foi obtido um extrato purificado através de extração com diclorometano, seguido de lavagem com n-hexano e purificação em coluna de imunoafinidade. A quantificação da aflatoxina M1 foi feita por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE usando detetor de fluorescência. Os valores de recuperação foram em torno de 75%. A presença de aflatoxina M1 foi detectada em 56 das 75 amostras (74,7% e a faixa de concentração observada foi 0,02 a 6,92ng/g de queijo. Dentre os valores positivos ( > ou = 0,02ng/g a média de contaminação de aflatoxina M1 foi 0,08ng/g para queijo frescal, 0,36ng/g para queijo canastra e 0,62ng/g para queijo padrão. O Brasil não apresenta nível de toler

  6. Metabolomics investigation to shed light on cheese as a possible piece in the French paradox puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hong; Yde, Christian C; Clausen, Morten R; Kristensen, Mette; Lorenzen, Janne; Astrup, Arne; Bertram, Hanne C

    2015-03-18

    An NMR-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate the differentiation between subjects consuming cheese or milk and to elucidate the potential link to an effect on blood cholesterol level. Fifteen healthy young men participated in a full crossover study during which they consumed three isocaloric diets with similar fat contents that were either (i) high in milk, (ii) high in cheese with equal amounts of dairy calcium, or (iii) a control diet for 14 days. Urine and feces samples were collected and analyzed by NMR-based metabolomics. Cheese and milk consumption decreased urinary choline and TMAO levels and increased fecal excretion of acetate, propionate, and lipid. Compared with milk intake, cheese consumption significantly reduced urinary citrate, creatine, and creatinine levels and significantly increased the microbiota-related metabolites butyrate, hippurate, and malonate. Correlation analyses indicated that microbial and lipid metabolism could be involved in the dairy-induced effects on blood cholesterol level.

  7. Studies of 90Sr presence in milk and commercial dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruk, M.; Solecki, J.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article was to present the studies of radiological level of some commercial dairy products in Mazovian, Kuyavian-Pomeranian and Lublin regions. They were carried out for 27 commercial dairy products such as two specimens of lean cottage cheese, three specimens of cottage cheese containing a limited percentage of fat, three specimens of fat cottage cheese, three specimens of milk containing 3.2% of fat, three specimens of milk containing 2.0% of fat, two specimens of sour cream containing 12% of fat, three specimens of sour cream containing 18% of fat, one specimen of 30% whipping cream, two specimens of homogenized (strawberry and vanilla) cheese, three specimens of hard rennet cheese, one specimen of powdered milk, one specimen of goat milk. For the given commercial dairy products there were calculated effective doses (?Sv) obtained after consumption of 1 kg contaminated product for different age groups. (author)

  8. An overview on the presence of cyclopropane fatty acids in milk and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiani, Augusta; Marseglia, Angela; Palla, Gerardo

    2014-08-06

    A survey was carried out to determine the presence of cyclopropane fatty acids (CPFA) in various dairy products. CPFA such as lactobacillic acid and dihydrosterculic acid are components of bacterial membranes and have been recently detected in milk from cows fed with maize silage. In this paper about 200 dairy samples comprising cow, sheep, and goat milk, cheese, yogurt/fermented milk, and butter were analyzed. Results showed that cow milks were generally positive to CPFA (0.014-0.105% of total fatty acids), while goat, yak, and sheep milks were negative. Experimental yogurt and fermented milks showed the same CPFA content of the starting milk. Positive to CPFA were also the majority of samples of commercial butter and cheeses, except some PDO cheeses as Parmigiano-Reggiano and Fontina, cheeses from mountain regions, and goat and sheep cheeses. These data suggest that the presence of CPFA in dairy products could be used as a marker of silage feeding.

  9. Biogas yield from Sicilian kitchen waste and cheese whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Comparetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the chemical composition of kitchen waste and cheese whey, as well as the biogas yield obtained from the Anaerobic Digestion (AD tests of these two raw materials. Since the separated waste collection is performed in the town of Marineo (Palermo, a sample of kitchen waste, different from food industry one and included in the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW, was collected from the mass stored at the households of this town. Moreover, a sample of cheese whey was collected in a Sicilian mini dairy plant, where sheep milk is processed. This investigation was carried out inside laboratory digesters of Aleksandras Stulginskis University (Lithuania. Total Solids (TS resulted 15.6% in kitchen waste and 6% in cheese whey, while both the raw materials showed a high content of organic matter, 91.1% and 79.1%, respectively. The biogas yield resulted 104.6 l kg–1 from kitchen waste and 30.6 l kg–1 from cheese whey. The biogas yield from TS resulted 672.6 l kg–1 using kitchen waste and 384.7 l kg–1 using cheese whey. The biogas yield from Volatile Solids (VS resulted 738.9 l kg–1 using kitchen waste and 410.3 l kg–1 using cheese whey.

  10. The effect of extrinsic attributes on liking of cottage cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, E M; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2016-01-01

    Preference mapping studies with cottage cheese have demonstrated that cottage cheese liking is influenced by flavor, texture, curd size, and dressing content. However, extrinsic factors such as package, label claims, and brand name may also influence liking and have not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of package attributes and brand on the liking of cottage cheese. A conjoint survey with Kano analysis (n=460) was conducted to explore the effect of extrinsic attributes (brand, label claim, milkfat content, and price) on liking. Following the survey, 150 consumers evaluated intrinsic attributes of 7 cottage cheeses with and without brand information in a 2-d crossover design. Results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Milkfat content and price had the highest influence on liking by conjoint analysis. Cottage cheese with 2% milkfat and a low price was preferred. Specific label claims such as "excellent source of calcium (>10%)" were more attractive to consumers than "low sodium" or "extra creamy." Branding influenced overall liking and purchase intent for cottage cheeses to differing degrees. For national brands, acceptance scores were enhanced in the presence of the brand. An all-natural claim was more appealing than organic by conjoint analysis and this result was also confirmed with consumer acceptance testing. Findings from this study can help manufacturers, as well as food marketers, better target their products and brands with attributes that drive consumer choice. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Short communication: characterization of microflora in Mexican Chihuahua cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renye, J A; Somkuti, G A; Van Hekken, D L; Guerrero Prieto, V M

    2011-07-01

    This work was performed to identify the bacterial species present in 10 Chihuahua cheeses obtained from commercial producers in Mexico using 16S rRNA gene analysis. As expected, some of the agar media initially used for isolation were not very selective, supporting the growth of several unrelated bacterial species. Sequence analysis identified potential pathogens, including Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, in all raw milk samples and 2 pasteurized milk samples. Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis were identified in 9 and 6 samples, respectively, and would serve as acidifying agents during cheese production. Lactobacilli were identified in all cheeses, with the most prevalent being Lactobacillus plantarum identified in 7 raw milk and 1 pasteurized milk cheeses. Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Streptococcus macedonicus were identified in 4 raw milk cheeses and both were present in all pasteurized milk samples, suggesting that they may play a role in the development of traditional Chihuahua cheese attributes. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Serrano Cheese: a cultural, quality and legal view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Nardi Pretto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Serrano cheese is an artisanal product, from the region of Campos de Cima da Serra in the state of Rio Grande do Sul and from the Planalto Sul in the state of Santa Catarina. Objective: The objective of the present work is to discuss some cultural, legal and food safety aspects related to the quality of serrano cheese, a product made of raw milk. Method: This manuscript carries out a bibliographical review of the serrano cheese, using updated scientific and legal documents, to analyze the production, quality and cultural aspects of this product. Results: Results presented in the literature and current legislation indicate that the production of these cheeses can be safe for commercialization, having as main requirements: adoption of good manufacturing practices, care of the dairy herd and due maturation of the product. Current national legislation indicates that the minimum maturation time should be 60 days. The publication of a law that regulates the production of serrano cheese in Rio Grande do Sul allows it to be matured for a shorter time, if its microbiological safety is assured. Conclusions: Additionally to revisions in the laws for the production and marketing of cheeses such as serrano, legal reviews are essential in the area of science, technology and health surveillance to provide a scientific basis to the improvement of the production of those who live on the commercialization of these products.

  13. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed to test this hypothesis by assessing bile acid and calcium concentrations in fecal samples from humans after intake of cheese and butter. Methods The study was a randomized, 2 × 6 weeks crossover, die...

  14. The production of Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese : the force of an artisanal system in an industrialised world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, de K.

    2000-01-01

    In many respects the Parmigiano-Reggiano production system is a unique dairy system. The processing of 1.35 million tons of milk into a high quality product in 600 small cheese dairies using predominantly artisan production techniques is not found anywhere else in Europe. The high labour

  15. Effects of whey or maltodextrin addition during production on physical quality of white cheese powder during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbay, Zafer; Koca, Nurcan

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing demand for cheese as a food ingredient, especially as a flavoring agent. One of the most important cheese flavoring agents is cheese powder. To obtain an intense cheese flavor, ripened cheese is used as a raw material in cheese powder but this increases production costs. Moreover, use of natural cheese decreases the physical quality of powder because of its high fat content. In this study, we evaluated opportunities to use whey or maltodextrin for improving the physical quality of powders in production of white cheese powder. We produced cheese powders with 3 different formulations-control (CON), whey-added (WACP), and maltodextrin-added (MACP)-and determined the effects of formulation on cheese powder quality. Physical quality parameters such as color, densities, reconstitution properties, free fat content, particle morphology, and sensory characteristics were investigated. The different cheese powders were stored for 12 mo at 20°C and we evaluated the effect of storage on powder quality. Addition of maltodextrin to cheese powder formulations significantly improved their physical quality. The densities and reconstitution properties of cheese powder were increased and free fat content was decreased by use of maltodextrin. The MACP particles were spherical with a uniform distribution and larger particle sizes, whereas CON and WACP particles were wrinkled, irregular shaped with deep surface dents, and variable in size. Although caking was observed in scanning electron micrographs after 12 mo of storage, it was not detected by sensory panelists. The color of cheese powders changed very slowly during storage but browning was detected. The results of this study show that it is possible to use maltodextrin or whey in production of white cheese powder to reduce production costs and improve the physical quality of powders. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. USE OF PROBIOTIC BACTERIA IN THE PRODUCTION OF CHEESE : PROBIOTIC CHEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz GÜRSOY

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of the gastrointestinal microflora with human health have been the subject of considerable debate in recent years. Disruption of the ecologic equilibrium of the normal intestinal flora may result in gastrointestinal diseases. Functional foods, which are used in prevention and treatment of some intestinal diseases, are defined as "foods that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition". Probiotics are constituted an important part of functional foods. Probiotics are live microbial food supplements that beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance. To date, the most popular food delivery systems for probiotic cultures have been fermented milks and yogurts, as well as unfermented milk with cultures added. In an effort to expand the probiotic product range, a small number of researchers and dairy companies have endeavoured to production cheeses, which sustain a high viable count of probiotic cultures. This paper will first outline some of the main aspects about probiotics, cheese microbilogy and probiotic cheese development, and give examples of studies where probiotic microorganisms have been incoorporated into cheese.

  17. Construction of a dairy microbial genome catalog opens new perspectives for the metagenomic analysis of dairy fermented products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Mathieu; Hébert, Agnès; Abraham, Anne-Laure; Rasmussen, Simon; Monnet, Christophe; Pons, Nicolas; Delbès, Céline; Loux, Valentin; Batto, Jean-Michel; Leonard, Pierre; Kennedy, Sean; Ehrlich, Stanislas Dusko; Pop, Mihai; Montel, Marie-Christine; Irlinger, Françoise; Renault, Pierre

    2014-12-13

    Microbial communities of traditional cheeses are complex and insufficiently characterized. The origin, safety and functional role in cheese making of these microbial communities are still not well understood. Metagenomic analysis of these communities by high throughput shotgun sequencing is a promising approach to characterize their genomic and functional profiles. Such analyses, however, critically depend on the availability of appropriate reference genome databases against which the sequencing reads can be aligned. We built a reference genome catalog suitable for short read metagenomic analysis using a low-cost sequencing strategy. We selected 142 bacteria isolated from dairy products belonging to 137 different species and 67 genera, and succeeded to reconstruct the draft genome of 117 of them at a standard or high quality level, including isolates from the genera Kluyvera, Luteococcus and Marinilactibacillus, still missing from public database. To demonstrate the potential of this catalog, we analysed the microbial composition of the surface of two smear cheeses and one blue-veined cheese, and showed that a significant part of the microbiota of these traditional cheeses was composed of microorganisms newly sequenced in our study. Our study provides data, which combined with publicly available genome references, represents the most expansive catalog to date of cheese-associated bacteria. Using this extended dairy catalog, we revealed the presence in traditional cheese of dominant microorganisms not deliberately inoculated, mainly Gram-negative genera such as Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis or Psychrobacter immobilis, that may contribute to the characteristics of cheese produced through traditional methods.

  18. Proteolytic Activity in Reduced-Fat Cheddar Cheese Made with Lactic Acid Bacteria and Camel Chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Mette Winther

    be the need of an extended ripening period to reach a similar cheese structure as in cheeses produced with BC. The aim of this project was to compensate for the lower proteolytic activity in cheese produced with CC compared to BC. Selection of dairy lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for cheese production with high...... for their ability to influence proteolysis and structure during cheese ripening. In an attempt to improve the screening methods and contribute to the development of a new classification system of Latcococcus lactic strains, the peptide profile formed by selected strains after growth in milk was analyzed...... mediated an increase in the total amount of amino acids as well as a shorter structure. A model system, used to study the retention of chymosin in a curd, showed that the retention of CC was less dependent on pH compared to BC, and the retention of CC was higher than BC in the pH interval 6...

  19. Effect of feeding systems on aromatic characteristics of buffalo mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Di Napoli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to evaluated the effect of feeding systems (hay vs ray-grass silage on volatile compounds profiles of mozzarella cheese. Three mozzarella cheese making trials for each experimental group were conducted at our dairy technology laboratory. Mozzarella cheese was manufactured from whole raw water buffalo milk with the addition of natural starter. Volatile compounds were extracted by “purge and trap” system coupled to a gas chromatograph and detected operating with a mass-selective detector (Ciccioli et al., 2004 A total of 84 compounds of the following chemical families were detected: hydrocarbons, fatty acids, esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and terpenes. The data overall indicated difference between the aromatic profiles of mozzarella cheese as consequence of feeding systems. Thus, differences in mozzarella cheese flavour are primarily caused by concentration differences of a common set of flavour compounds, rather than by the occurrence of compounds uniquely associated with a particular feed.

  20. Influence of lamb rennet paste on the lipolytic and sensory profile of Murcia al Vino cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandini, E; Castillo, M; de Renobales, M; Virto, M D; Garrido, M D; Rovira, S; López, M B

    2012-06-01

    The influence of lamb rennet paste (71.1% chymosin, 177 international milk-clotting units/mL, 4.57U/g of lipase activity) during the ripening of Murcia al Vino goat cheese was studied. The aim of this study was to improve the knowledge of the effect of lamb rennet paste on the lipolytic patterns in this type of cheese by reference to the evolution of total and free fatty acids. A sensory analysis was carried out to compare cheeses made with commercial and paste rennet. The rennet paste showed higher lipolytic activity, enhancing the production of short-chain free fatty acids. In addition, the cheese produced with lamb rennet paste had a slightly more bitter and piquant taste, making it an attractive commercial alternative that can be used to develop new varieties of goat cheese. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Time-resolved genetic responses of Lactococcus lactis to a dairy environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachmann, H.; Wilt, de L.; Kleerebezem, M.; Hylckama Vlieg, van J.E.T.

    2010-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is one of main bacterial species found in mixed dairy starter cultures for the production of semi-hard cheese. Despite the appreciation that mixed cultures are essential for the eventual properties of the manufactured cheese the vast majority of studies on L. lactis were carried

  2. Short communication: Sensory profile of raw goat milk cheeses made with artisan kid rennet pastes from commercial-weight animals: alternative to farmhouse goat cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresno, M; Álvarez, S; Díaz, E; Virto, M; de Renobales, M

    2014-10-01

    The loss of traditional kid rennet pastes in the Canary Islands (Spain), as in many other regions, is most likely due to the custom of using abomasa from very young animals killed below desirable commercial weight. In addition, the reasonable price of commercial rennets (CR) has resulted in the loss of typical sensory characteristics for most farmhouse raw goat milk cheeses, placing them at a disadvantage when local and international markets are full of different cheeses, often with aggressive marketing strategies. This paper analyzes the sensory characteristics of raw goat milk cheeses made with rennet pastes prepared from commercial kid abomasa in 2 ways: dried while full of ingested milk [full, commercial, artisan kid rennet (FCKR)], or dried after being emptied of ingested milk and refilled with raw goat milk [empty, commercial, artisan kid rennet (ECKR)]. This latter practice allows the use of empty abomasa, or abomasa with grass, soil, and so on. Sensory profiles of cheeses made with FCKR and ECKR rennets were compared with those made with CR by an expert panel (n=7). The FCKR and ECKR cheeses had similar sensory profiles. Although scores for FCKR cheeses were somewhat higher than for ECKR cheeses, they were in the range found for traditional cheeses made with rennet prepared with abomasa from very young animals. The sensory profile of CR cheeses was very different. Almost 90% of consumer panelists (n=90) preferred cheeses made with the experimental rennet pastes. These results demonstrate the possibility to prepare artisan rennet pastes from commercial-weight kids in an easy way for farmhouse cheese makers using local resources that would otherwise be destroyed in abattoirs. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Structure, Meltability, and Firmness of Process Cheese Containing White Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Kalab, Miloslav; Modler, H. Wayne; Caric, Marijana; Milanovic, Spasenija

    1991-01-01

    White cheese made by coagulating heated milk (90"C) with a 2.5% citric acid solution to pH 5.5 consists of casein particles having a characteristic core-and-shell ultrastructure. The presence of this White cheese in process cheese can be detected by transmission electron microscopy on the basis of the core-and-shell ultrastructure which is stable during cheese processing. White cheese additions may be detected at levels equal to or higher than 8%. White cheese, which does not melt alone wh...

  4. Innovative Caciocavallo cheeses made from a mixture of cow milk with ewe or goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niro, Serena; Fratianni, Alessandra; Tremonte, Patrizio; Sorrentino, Elena; Tipaldi, Luca; Panfili, Gianfranco; Coppola, Raffaele

    2014-03-01

    This study assessed and compared the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial characteristics of Caciocavallo cheeses, made from cow milk and a mixture of cow with ewe or goat milk, during ripening. Different cheese-making trials were carried out on an industrial scale following the standard procedure of pasta filata cheeses, with some modifications. The percentage of the different added milk to cow milk influenced compositional and nutritional characteristics of the innovative products, leading to a satisfactory microbiological and sensorial quality. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical composition and sensory characteristics of Feta cheese fortified with iron and ascorbic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Jalili, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    International audience; AbstractFeta cheese is an excellent source of calcium and protein, but as typical dairy products, it contains very low amount of iron. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of iron fortification on quality of Feta cheese. The cheese samples were made from cow milk and fortified with iron compounds, namely ferrous sulfate (FeSO4), ferric chloride (FeCl3), and microencapsulated ferrous sulfate at level of 80 mg.kg−1 with or without l-ascorbic acid at a...

  6. Short communication: norbixin and bixin partitioning in Cheddar cheese and whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T J; Li, X E; Drake, M A

    2014-01-01

    The Cheddar cheese colorant annatto is present in whey and must be removed by bleaching. Chemical bleaching negatively affects the flavor of dried whey ingredients, which has established a need for a better understanding of the primary colorant in annatto, norbixin, along with cheese color alternatives. The objective of this study was to determine norbixin partitioning in cheese and whey from full-fat and fat-free Cheddar cheese and to determine the viability of bixin, the nonpolar form of norbixin, as an alternative Cheddar cheese colorant. Full-fat and fat-free Cheddar cheeses and wheys were manufactured from colored pasteurized milk. Three norbixin (4% wt/vol) levels (7.5, 15, and 30 mL of annatto/454 kg of milk) were used for full-fat Cheddar cheese manufacture, and 1 norbixin level was evaluated in fat-free Cheddar cheese (15 mL of annatto/454 kg of milk). For bixin incorporation, pasteurized whole milk was cooled to 55 °C, and then 60 mL of bixin/454 kg of milk (3.8% wt/vol bixin) was added and the milk homogenized (single stage, 8 MPa). Milk with no colorant and milk with norbixin at 15 mL/454 kg of milk were processed analogously as controls. No difference was found between the norbixin partition levels of full-fat and fat-free cheese and whey (cheese mean: 79%, whey: 11.2%). In contrast to norbixin recovery (9.3% in whey, 80% in cheese), 1.3% of added bixin to cheese milk was recovered in the homogenized, unseparated cheese whey, concurrent with higher recoveries of bixin in cheese (94.5%). These results indicate that fat content has no effect on norbixin binding or entrapment in Cheddar cheese and that bixin may be a viable alternative colorant to norbixin in the dairy industry. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Improvement in melting and baking properties of low-fat Mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, R; McManus, W R; McMahon, D J

    2011-04-01

    Low-fat cheeses dehydrate too quickly when baked in a forced air convection oven, preventing proper melting on a pizza. To overcome this problem, low-fat Mozzarella cheese was developed in which fat is released onto the cheese surface during baking to prevent excessive dehydration. Low-fat Mozzarella cheese curd was made with target fat contents of 15, 30, 45, and 60 g/kg using direct acidification of the milk to pH 5.9 before renneting. The 4 portions of cheese curd were comminuted and then mixed with sufficient glucono-δ-lactone and melted butter (45, 30, 15, or 0 g/kg, respectively), then pressed into blocks to produce low-fat Mozzarella cheese with about 6% fat and pH 5.2. The cheeses were analyzed after 15, 30, 60, and 120 d of storage at 5°C for melting characteristics, texture, free oil content, dehydration performance, and stretch when baked on a pizza at 250°C for 6 min in a convection oven. Cheeses made with added butter had higher stretchability compared with the control cheese. Melting characteristics also improved in contrast to the control cheese, which remained in the form of shreds during baking and lacked proper melting. The cheeses made with added butter had higher free oil content, which correlated (R2≥0.92) to the amount of butterfat added, and less hardness and gumminess compared with the control low fat cheese. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Acceptance of Santo Giorno cheese typical of the Southwestern region of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimir Andrade Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Santo Giorno cheese, obtained from raw milk and selected autochthonous starters, is emerging as the newest typical food product from the Southwestern region of Paraná, Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acceptance of the cheese with two ripening times of 60 and 180 days, produced in two dairy factories, testing two starters and two preservatives. Subjective sensory evaluation was applied using 129 consumers and hedonic scales for the attributes and for purchasing intent. A questionnaire involving the rate of cheese consumption was also used. The results suggested good reproducibility of the cheese preparation by the dairy factories, with no significant differences between the type of preservative used and the suitability of the two types of starter tested. An inverse relationship between hedonic scores for attributes (appearance, color, odor, texture, flavor and ripening time was observed, except for texture. By applying multinomial logistic regression and a box plot analysis, a significant effect of age on cheese purchasing intent was verified, with a mean acceptance rate of 87.8% for 60 days ageing and 81.8% for 180 days ageing. Results revealed a possible Santo Giorno cheese public of older consumers who had a cheese consuming habit.

  9. Movement as Spatial Practices and Economic Strategies in Cheese Production at Family Farms in Bohinj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Repič

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article explores dairy and cheese production at family farms in Bohinj, their economical and organisational strategies (variations between family and cooperative organisation of farming and the connection of cheese production with different modes of spatial movement. In the past decade, several family farms have started producing cheese and milk products, which is an economic activity closely linked to traditional forms of cooperatives, and pasture rights of agricultural societies. These farms have revitalised traditional forms of cheese production and established new economic strategies, especially through the plurality of their activities – work outside of the farm, tourism, marketing of their products, etc. The article first presents a development of cheese production in Bohinj, changes in family and cooperative farming and explores movement and the meshwork of paths, tracks, roads and places that are fundamental to cheese economy. Further, the article connects different movements, e.g. daily pastures close to the villages, transhumance in mountain pasturelands, selling products in markets, etc. Modes of movement (walk, cattle herding, driving to markets are basic practices behind economic strategies of dairy and cheese farms, as well as organisations and use of space, in particular mountain paths and pasturelands.

  10. Anti-Listeria activity of lactic acid bacteria in two traditional Sicilian cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Scatassa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen frequently found in dairy products, and its growth is difficult to control. Bacteriocinlike inhibitory substances (BLIS, produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB, having proven in vitro anti-Listeria activity, could provide an innovative approach to control L. monocytogenes; however, this application needs to be evaluated in vivo. In this study, twenty LAB strains isolated from different Sicilian dairy environments were tested for control of growth of L. monocytogenes in three different experimental trials. First, raw and UHT milk were inoculated with LAB strains alone, and LAB strains mixed with L. monocytogenes. Second, mini-cheeses containing LAB and/or L. monocytogenes were produced. Third, two traditional Sicilian cheeses inoculated with a multi-strain LAB mixture combined with L. monocytogenes were produced. The addition of BLIS produced by LAB to milk and in mini-cheese production was unable to inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes. However, an anti-Listeria effect was observed in the Pecorino Siciliano cheeses, where, after 15 days of ripening, the cheeses with added LAB had fewer L. monocytogenes compared to the control cheeses with no added LAB, while in the Vastedda della valle del Belìce cheeses, the multi-strain LAB mixture completely prevented the growth of L. monocytogenes.

  11. LACTOBACILLI AND THEIR USAGE POTENTIAL IN PROBIOTIC CHEESE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz GÜRSOY

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB comprise a wide range of genera including species from production of dairy products. One of the most important genera of LAB is Lactobacillus. Species of this genus can be found in gastrointestinal tract and also fermented foods. They are also associated with cheese ripening and flavour as starter and/or adjuct culture or non-strater microflora. Latobacilli are used as probiotics in some countries; most of them are L. acidophilus, L. casei, L. paracasei subsp. paracasei, L. delbrueckii and L. jonhsonii. This paper will first outline biochemical and antimicrobial properties of lactobacilli especially L. casei and L. paracesi subsp. paracasei and their importance for cheese technology. Finally we will discusse use of Lactobacilli as probiotic microorganisms in cheese production by using new literature data.

  12. 21 CFR 133.106 - Blue cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blue cheese. 133.106 Section 133.106 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.106 Blue cheese. (a) Description. (1) Blue cheese is the food prepared by the procedure set...

  13. 21 CFR 133.164 - Nuworld cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuworld cheese. 133.164 Section 133.164 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.164 Nuworld cheese. (a) Description. (1) Nuworld cheese is the food prepared by the...

  14. 21 CFR 133.138 - Edam cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Edam cheese. 133.138 Section 133.138 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.138 Edam cheese. (a) Description. (1) Edam cheese is the food prepared by the procedure set...

  15. 21 CFR 133.118 - Colby cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colby cheese. 133.118 Section 133.118 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.118 Colby cheese. (a) Colby cheese is the food prepared from milk and other ingredients...

  16. 21 CFR 133.141 - Gorgonzola cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gorgonzola cheese. 133.141 Section 133.141 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.141 Gorgonzola cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gorgonzola cheese is the food prepared...

  17. 21 CFR 133.152 - Limburger cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limburger cheese. 133.152 Section 133.152 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.152 Limburger cheese. (a) Description. (1) Limburger cheese is the food prepared by one of...

  18. 21 CFR 133.183 - Romano cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Romano cheese. 133.183 Section 133.183 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.183 Romano cheese. (a) Romano cheese is the food prepared from cow's milk or sheep's milk or...

  19. 21 CFR 133.142 - Gouda cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gouda cheese. 133.142 Section 133.142 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.142 Gouda cheese. Gouda cheese conforms to the definition and standard of identity and...

  20. 21 CFR 133.113 - Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cheddar cheese. 133.113 Section 133.113 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.113 Cheddar cheese. (a) Description. (1) Cheddar cheese is the food prepared by the...

  1. 21 CFR 133.140 - Gammelost cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gammelost cheese. 133.140 Section 133.140 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.140 Gammelost cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gammelost cheese is the food prepared from nonfat...

  2. 21 CFR 133.162 - Neufchatel cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neufchatel cheese. 133.162 Section 133.162 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.162 Neufchatel cheese. (a) Description. (1) Neufchatel cheese is the soft uncured...

  3. 21 CFR 133.149 - Gruyere cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gruyere cheese. 133.149 Section 133.149 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.149 Gruyere cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gruyere cheese is the food prepared by the...

  4. 21 CFR 133.153 - Monterey cheese and monterey jack cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monterey cheese and monterey jack cheese. 133.153... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.153 Monterey cheese and monterey jack cheese. (a) Description...

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions in milk and dairy product chains: Improving the carbon footprint of dairy products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flysjoe, A.M.

    2012-11-01

    The present PhD project has focused on some of the most critical methodological aspects influencing GHG emission estimates of milk and dairy products and how the methodology can be improved. In addition, the Carbon Footprint (CF) for different types of dairy products has been analysed. Based on these results, mitigation options have been identified along the entire dairy value chain. The key methodological challenges analysed in the present study are: estimation of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions, assessment of CO{sub 2} emissions from land use change (LUC), co-product handling, and definition of the functional unit. Estimates of the biogenic emissions CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are associated with large uncertainties due to the complexity and natural variation in biological processes. Accounting for these variations resulted in a {+-}30-50% variation in the CF for milk in Sweden and New Zealand (excluding emissions from LUC). The inclusion of emissions from LUC can drastically affect the CF of dairy products, and different models can even provide contradictory results. Thus, it is suggested that emissions associated with LUC are reported separately and that underlying assumptions are clearly explained. Accounting for the by-product beef is decisive for the CF of milk, and when designing future strategies for the dairy sector, milk and meat production needs to be addressed in an integrated approach. It is shown that an increase in milk yield per cow does not necessarily result in a lower CF of milk, when taking into account the alternative production of the by-product beef. This demonstrates that it is important to investigate interactions between different product chains, i.e. to apply system thinking. The CF of dairy products from Arla Foods analysed in the present study range from: 1.2-5.5 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg fresh dairy products, 7.3-10.9 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg butter and butter blends, 4.5-9.9 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg cheese, and 1.0-17.4 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg milk

  6. Impact of fat reduction on flavor and flavor chemistry of Cheddar cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M A; Miracle, R E; McMahon, D J

    2010-11-01

    results confirm that flavor differences documented between full-fat and reduced-fat cheeses are not due solely to differences in matrix and flavor release but also to distinct differences in ripening biochemistry, which leads to an imbalance of many flavor-contributing compounds. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lactobacillus with probiotic potential from homemade cheese in Azerbijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarad Khanghah, Saeed; Ganbarov, Khudaverdi

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus is believed to be beneficial in human health, thus the search for isolation and identification of friendly human bacteria from traditional fermented foods is important in medicine. One of the dairy products, traditional cheese as a highly-consumed dairy product could be a valuable source of these friendly edible germs. In this research, home-made cheese from Lankaran, Jalil Abad and Salian regions in Azerbaijan was characterized for the presence of Lactobacilli with probiotic potential. The bacterial suspension was enriched and screened for acid and bile resistances. Then, the isolates were subjected to antibiotic resistance and antibacterial effects against convenient pathogenic bacteria. The isolates were identified by 16s rDNA sequencing. The results clearly revealed two probiotics with higher homology to Lactobacillus planetarum and Lactobacillus fermentum. No antibiotic resistance was detected in any of the potentially probiotic lactobacilli isolates in these regions, where people continue to follow a life-style that is largely traditional, with traditional medications.

  8. Biodiversity of Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophages isolated from cheese whey starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Miriam; Bonvini, Barbara; Rossetti, Lia; Meucci, Aurora; Giraffa, Giorgio; Carminati, Domenico

    2015-05-01

    Twenty-one Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophages, 18 isolated from different cheese whey starters and three from CNRZ collection, were phenotypically and genetically characterised. A biodiversity between phages was evidenced both by host range and molecular (RAPD-PCR) typing. A more detailed characterisation of six phages showed similar structural protein profiles and a relevant genetic biodiversity, as shown by restriction enzyme analysis of total DNA. Latent period, burst time and burst size data evidenced that phages were active and virulent. Overall, data highlighted the biodiversity of Lb. helveticus phages isolated from cheese whey starters, which were confirmed to be one of the most common phage contamination source in dairy factories. More research is required to further unravel the ecological role of Lb. helveticus phages and to evaluate their impact on the dairy fermentation processes where whey starter cultures are used.

  9. Assessing the yield, microstructure, and texture properties of miniature Chihuahua-type cheese manufactured with a phospholipase A1 and exopolysaccharide-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trancoso-Reyes, N; Gutiérrez-Méndez, N; Sepulveda, D R; Hernández-Ochoa, L R

    2014-02-01

    Chihuahua cheese or Mennonite cheese is one of the most popular and consumed cheeses in Mexico and by the Hispanic community in the United States. According to local producers the yield of Chihuahua cheese ranges from 9 to 9.5 kg of cheese from 100 kg of milk. Cheese yield is a crucial determinant of profitability in cheese-manufacturing plants; therefore, different methods have been developed to increase it. In this work, a miniature Chihuahua-type cheese model was used to assess the effect of a phospholipase A1 (PL-A1) and exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing bacteria (separately and in combination) on the yield, microstructure, and texture of cheese. Four different cheeses were manufactured: cheese made with PL-A1, cheese made with EPS-producing bacteria, cheese with both PL-A1 and EPS-producing bacteria, and a cheese control without PL-A1 or EPS-producing bacteria. The compositional analysis of cheese was carried out using methods of AOAC International (Washington, DC). The actual yield and moisture-adjusted yield were calculated for all cheese treatments. Texture profile analyses of cheeses were performed using a texture analyzer. Micrographs were obtained by electron scanning microscopy. Fifty panelists carried out sensorial analysis using ranking tests. Incorporation of EPS-producing bacteria in the manufacture of cheese increased the moisture content and water activity. In contrast, the addition of PL-A1 did not increase fat retention or cheese yield. The use of EPS alone improved the cheese yield by increasing water and fat retention, but also caused a negative effect on the texture and flavor of Chihuahua cheese. The use of EPS-producing bacteria in combination with PL-A1 improved the cheese yield and increased the moisture and fat content. The cheeses with the best flavor and texture were those manufactured with PL-A1 and the cheeses manufactured with the combination of PL-A1 and EPS-producing culture. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association

  10. Alternative to decrease cholesterol in sheep milk cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Cortés, P; Viturro, E; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2015-12-01

    The presence of cholesterol in foods is of nutritional interest because high levels of this molecule in human plasma are associated with an increasing risk of cardiovascular disease and nowadays consumers are demanding healthier products. The goal of this experiment was to diminish the cholesterol content of Manchego, the most popular Spanish cheese manufactured from ewes milk. For this purpose three bulk milks coming from dairy ewe fed with 0 (Control), 3 and 6% of linseed supplement on their diet were used. Nine cheeses (3 per bulk milk) were manufactured and ripened for 3 months. Cholesterol of ewes milk cheese from 6% to 12% linseed supplemented diets decreased by 9.6% and 16.1% respectively, therefore supplying a healthier profile. In a second experiment, different sources of unsaturated fatty acids (rich in oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids) were supplemented to dairy ewes and no significant differences were found on cheese cholesterol levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Research regarding accelerated ripening of pasta filata cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Simona Zaharia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of adding exogenous enzymes to pasta filata cheeses was studied as a method of proteolysis' acceleration during ripening.After stretching the curd, before being turned in forms, this was divided into four portions. Three commercial proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes (Accelase® AM250 M, PromodTM215P and LipomodTM166P were added to the first three portions of stretched cheese, and the last one was left without treatment and served as a control. Pasta filata cheese samples were taken periodically, when fresh and after 8, 15, 30 days of ripening, for analysis. The changes in titratable acidity, pH value, dry matter, content ofsalt and moisture, proteic content as well as the dynamics of proteolysis were studied. Examination of the data revealed that the addition of enzymes had nosignificant effect on dry matter, fat, total nitrogen, salt contents of obtained cheeses. The exceptions were the titratable acidity and the content of dry matter, respectively humidity. An intensification of proteolysis in samples with enzymes added, unlike the witness sample, has been observed, the nitrogen components in cheese and the proteolytic index presenting higher values than the witness sample. Thus, different evolutions have been observed, confirming the acceleration of the cheese ripening.

  12. Microstructure of cheese: Processing, technological and microbiological considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Cláudia I.; Gomes, Ana M. P.; Malcata, F. Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Cheese is a classical dairy product, which is strongly judged by its appearance and texture; hence, a renewed interest in its microstructure has been on the rise, as sophisticated techniques of analysis become more and more informative and widely available. Processing parameters that affect microstructure play a dominant role upon the features exhibited by the final product as perceived by the consumer; rational relationships between microstructure (which includes biochem...

  13. Survey of Minas frescal cheese from Southwest Minas Gerais for virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mõnica Hitomi Okura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The soft cheese Minas frescal is one of the most popular cheese in Brazil, which is typically manufactured in small dairy farms under unsatisfactory hygiene conditions. To assess the risk involved in consumption of this cheese, virulence markers were investigated in 330 Escherichia coli strains isolated from 30 Minas frescal cheeses inspected by official government agency (SIF - serviço de inspeção federal, from 50 cheeses not inspected by SIF and 31 cheeses not inspected by SIF with spice added, all of them collected in the southwest of Minas Gerais State. The E. coli isolates were screened for the presence of Shiga toxin-encoding (stx 1 and stx 2, intimin (eae genes and for the presence of (pap, sfa, afa genes related to adhesion in epithelial cells. The only gene detected by PCR was the sfa gene at one isolate. The strains were also screened for resistance to 9 antimicrobial drugs. Predominant resistance was to cephalothin, tetracycline and streptomycin. Multidrug resistance was found among isolates from cheese with SIF (16.6%, cheese without SIF (8.0% and cheese without SIF with spice added (30.0% what is a reason for concern due to the high consumption of raw milk cheese by the Brazilian population.

  14. Characterization of volatiles in Beaten cheeses (bieno sirenje by SPME/GC-MC: Influence of geographical origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulejmani Erhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the volatile profiles of a type of economically important cheeses for the FYR Macedonian dairy sector were characterized. A total of eighteen samples belonged to 6 different geographical regions of Beaten cheese, including cheeses from Kumanovo, Tetovo, Struga, Resen, Veles and Radovish were comparatively studied for their volatile profiles. Sixty two volatile compounds were identified in the cheeses by solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the results are discussed based on their chemical classes (18 esters, 13 ketones, 10 acids, 8 alcohols, 5 terpenes, and 8 miscellaneous compounds. Acids, esters and alcohols were the most abundant classes identified and were highly dependent on the geographical origin of cheeses. Beaten cheese from Struga had the highest levels of carboxylic acids, ketones, alcohols, esters and terpenes. The Beaten cheese from other geographical origin had low levels of volatiles probably from the effect of variable characteristics of used milk and different cheese making process which affects the biochemical processes. The results suggest that each cheese from different geographical regions had different volatiles profile and the manufacturing technique as well as the ripening stage of the cheeses played a major role on the volatile compounds’ distribution.

  15. Transport phenomena in a model cheese: the influence of the charge and shape of solutes on diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J V C; Peixoto, P D S; Lortal, S; Floury, J

    2013-10-01

    During cheese ripening, microorganisms grow as immobilized colonies, metabolizing substrates present in the matrix and generating products from enzymatic reactions. Local factors that limit the rates of diffusion, either within the general cheese matrix or near the colonies, may influence the metabolic activity of the bacteria during ripening, affecting the final quality of the cheese. The objective of this study was to determine the diffusion coefficients of solutes as a function of their different physicochemical characteristics (size, charge, and shape) in an ultrafiltrate (UF) model cheese (based on ultrafiltered milk) to enable better understanding of the ripening mechanisms. Diffusion coefficients of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextrans (4 kDa to 2 MDa) and FITC-labeled dairy proteins (α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and BSA) were measured using the technique of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). This study showed that macromolecules up to 2 MDa and proteins could diffuse through the UF model cheese. The larger FITC-dextrans were not more hindered by the structure of the UF model cheese compared with the smaller ones. Any decrease in the diffusion coefficients of solutes was related only to their hydrodynamic radii. The FITC-dextran diffusion data were fitted to an obstruction model, resulting in a constant obstruction factor (k ~0.42). Diffusion in the model cheese was sensitive to the physicochemical characteristics of the solute. The FITC-dairy proteins studied (rigid and negatively charged molecules) were hindered to a greater degree than the FITC-dextrans (flexible and charge-neutral molecules) in the UF model cheese. The existence of steric and electrostatic interactions between the protein matrix of the UF model cheese and the FITC-dairy proteins could explain the decrease in diffusion compared with FITC-dextrans. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The impact of traditional cheeses and whey on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Blažić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern world proper nutrition is becoming an issue of great importance and more and more effort and means are being channelled into finding a solution to it. Scientific researches in the field of nutrition have shown that high quality foods are not sufficiently present in our diet. The insufficient intake of milk and dairy products leads to protein, calcium, vitamin A and vitamin D deficiency, and thus leads to the development of various diseases and disorders. While in the past milk was considered a complete food that satisfies many nutritive needs in humans, today we can speak about yet another role of dairy products. They are believed to have a preventive role in the development of various diseases. Functional foods are becoming increasingly popular among consumers due to rising consumer health awareness. By introducing functional foods into our standard diet, many nutritional deficiencies in human organisms can be remedied. In today’s food market of functional foods, milk and dairy products are mostly present. Traditional cheeses and whey have high nutritive and health benefits. This paper deals with the nutritive benefits of traditional cheeses and whey, as well as their positive impact on human health. Products like traditional cheeses and whey are, due to their ideal ratio of nutrients, superior to other foods, while the new technological developments and enlarged assortment of foods enriched with high-quality proteins or with reduced levels of fat have made them irreplaceable in the modern diet.

  17. Fatty acid and sensory profiles of Caciocavallo cheese as affected by management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, G; Masucci, F; Napolitano, F; Braghieri, A; Romano, R; Manzo, N; Di Francia, A

    2014-01-01

    The effect of season of the year associated with changes in feeding and management system (pasture-based vs. confinement) on milk and cheese fatty acid profile and on sensory properties of Caciocavallo cheese was evaluated on 3 mountain dairy farms. Each farm used a pasture-based feeding system from April to June and from September to October (PS), and a confinement system for the rest of the year (CS). As a consequence of grazing, PS milk showed higher percentages of C18:3, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, and trans-11 C18:1, and a reduced percentage of C16:0. The fatty acid profile of cheese largely reflected that of the corresponding raw milk from which cheese was made. This led to a significant decrease of atherogenic index in cheeses produced from cows on pasture. Based on sensory analysis, cheese from animals kept on pasture was more yellow and had a lower intensity of butter and smoked odors than did CS cheese. In addition, grazing induced a lower intensity of bitter and a higher intensity of spicy flavors compared with cheese from CS animals. In regard to texture, pasture feeding resulted in higher intensity of friability and graininess. All cheeses performed well in consumer tests; the panel found all samples more than acceptable for overall liking, and for liking according to appearance, taste/flavor, and texture. Overall liking of Caciocavallo cheese, as assessed by slope analysis, was affected primarily by taste/flavor (raw slope k=0.88) and texture (k=0.97), whereas appearance had a lesser effect (k=0.72). The acidic and sensory profiles of cheese were well discriminated, with healthier cheeses produced by grazing cows. Therefore, wider use of pasture should be promoted to accentuate this favorable feature. Based on the specific nutritional and sensory characteristics of mountain Caciocavallo cheese, particularly that obtained from grazing animals, efforts should be made to indicate the quality of this cheese to the consumer and improve product

  18. Probiotic Delivery through Fermentation: Dairy vs. Non-Dairy Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaminda Senaka Ranadheera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, mainly through the process of replacing or including beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Fermented dairy foods such as yogurt, fermented milk and cheese are the major vehicle in delivering probiotics, and probiotic delivery have been traditionally associated with these fermented dairy foods. Additionally, many other non-dairy probiotic products and non-food form such as capsules, pills and tablets are also available and some of these non-food forms are highly popular among the consumers. Certain non-dairy probiotic foods, especially beverages that are non-fermented products, can also play an important role in probiotic delivery. There is an increasing demand for non-dairy probiotic foods (both fermented and non-fermented including fruit and vegetable juices, soy and certain cereal products due to vegetarianism, lactose intolerance and dairy allergies, as well as interest in low cholesterol foods. In this context, this review mainly focus on the different types of probiotic food products including beverages with special reference to their viability followed by a brief account on the applicability of using fermented and non-fermented beverage products in probiotic delivery.

  19. Evaluation of hygienic-sanitary conditions of the minas frescal and mozzarella cheese produced in Morrinhos city -GO Avaliação das condições higiênico-sanitárias do queijo minas frescal e mussarela produzido na cidade de Morrinhos GO

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Carla Carneiro; Rosangela Coelho Quintana

    2007-01-01

    Microbiological analyses were performed in 60 samples of Minas Frescal cheese and 60 samples of Mozzarella cheese. Samples were collected and produced in a dairy factory in Morrinhos-GO from April to September, for quantitative analysis of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Staphylococcus, mold and yeast. Concerning the presence of total coliforms the highest score to Minas Frescal cheese which was impossible to count; on the other hand, to Mozzarella cheese the highest score was 1.7.101 UFC/g...

  20. Start-up and operating costs for artisan cheese companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Andrea; Durham, Catherine A; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Lack of valid economic data for artisan cheese making is a serious impediment to developing a realistic business plan and obtaining financing. The objective of this study was to determine approximate start-up and operating costs for an artisan cheese company. In addition, values are provided for the required size of processing and aging facilities associated with specific production volumes. Following in-depth interviews with existing artisan cheese makers, an economic model was developed to predict costs based on input variables such as production volume, production frequency, cheese types, milk types and cost, labor expenses, and financing. Estimated values for start-up cost for processing and aging facility ranged from $267,248 to $623,874 for annual production volumes of 3,402 kg (7,500 lb) and 27,216 kg (60,000 lb), respectively. First-year production costs ranged from $65,245 to $620,094 for the above-mentioned production volumes. It is likely that high start-up and operating costs remain a significant entry barrier for artisan cheese entrepreneurs. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Transfer of Orally Administered Terpenes in Goat Milk and Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Poulopoulou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationships between terpenes’ intake and their presence in animal tissues (blood and milk as well as in the final product (cheese. Eight dairy goats were divided in two balanced groups, representing control (C and treatment (T group. In T group oral administration of a mixture of terpenes (α-pinene, limonene and β-caryophyllene was applied over a period of 18 d. Cheese was produced, from C and T groups separately, on three time points, twice during the period of terpenes’ oral administration and once after the end of experiment. Terpenes were identified in blood by extraction using petroleum ether and in milk and cheese by the use of solid phase micro-extraction (SPME method, followed by GC-MS analysis. Chemical properties of the milk and the produced cheeses were analyzed and found not differing between the two groups. Limonene and α-pinene were found in all blood and milk samples of the T group after a lag-phase of 3 d, while β-caryophyllene was determined only in few milk samples. Moreover, none of the terpenes were traced in blood and milk of C animals. In cheese, terpenes’ concentrations presented a more complicated pattern implying that terpenes may not be reliable feed tracers. We concluded that monoterpenes can be regarded as potential feed tracers for authentification of goat milk, but further research is required on factors affecting their transfer.

  2. Dairy products and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholstrup, Tine

    2006-02-01

    Although it has often been postulated that the consumption of dairy products is associated with a high risk of coronary heart disease, study results have been conflicting. This review summarizes recent observational and human intervention trial findings on dairy products and cardiovascular disease. Results from more recent observational studies on dairy products and milk disagree. This may be because of the very different methods used combined with several methodological problems. A somewhat surprising beneficial association between the intake of dairy products and the metabolic syndrome was observed in some studies, although not in a single study of elderly women. Milk may have the same cholesterol-raising properties as butter, whereas cheese does not seem to increase plasma cholesterol. Some milk products fermented by specific bacterial strains have been shown to have rather moderate cholesterol-reducing properties. There is also good evidence that certain fermented products (especially by Lactobacillus helveticus) have a mildly decreasing effect on hypertension, probably because of bioactive peptides. When guiding principles such as balance, variety and moderation are stressed, there is no strong evidence that dairy products increase the risk of coronary heart disease in healthy men of all ages or young and middle-aged healthy women. Human studies should investigate the role of dairy products with respect to sex and age by including classic and novel risk markers of coronary heart disease. Specific fermented milks may be beneficial in the future prevention of hypertension. The beneficially neutral effect of cheese on coronary heart disease risk factors should be elucidated further.

  3. Nucleic acid-based approaches to investigate microbial-related cheese quality defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eO Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe microbial profile of cheese is a primary determinant of cheese quality. Microorganisms can contribute to aroma and taste defects, form biogenic amines, cause gas and secondary fermentation defects, and can contribute to cheese pinking and mineral deposition issues. These defects may be as a result of seasonality and the variability in the composition of the milk supplied, variations in cheese processing parameters, as well as the nature and number of the non-starter microorganisms which come from the milk or other environmental sources. Such defects can be responsible for production and product recall costs and thus represent a significant economic burden for the dairy industry worldwide. Traditional non-molecular approaches are often considered biased and have inherently slow turnaround times. Molecular techniques can provide early and rapid detection of defects that result from the presence of specific spoilage microbes and, ultimately, assist in enhancing cheese quality and reducing costs. Here we review the DNA-based methods that are available to detect/quantify spoilage bacteria, and relevant metabolic pathways, in cheeses and, in the process, highlight how these strategies can be employed to improve cheese quality and reduce the associated economic burden on cheese processors.

  4. Production technology and some quality parameters of Njeguši cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Mirecki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization of agricultural production and depopulation of areas that are recognized by traditional products, reached its peak during the last few decades. This represents a significant risk that the technology of traditional agricultural products, especially cheeses, can go into oblivion. Njeguši cheese is one of the famous Montenegrin traditional dairy products which originates from the mountain Lovćen and its peripheral areas. Produced by traditional technology, it belongs to a group of full fat, hard cheeses. Owing to its characteristic, spicy taste and pleasant odour, Njeguši cheese can be compared with some of the most famous hard cheeses. Originally it is made from ewe’s milk, but also, cow’s, goat’s and their mixture in different proportions, are increasingly used, which may be the treat to the originality of Njeguši cheese. The present study offers a description of original Njeguši cheese technology, followed by analysis of the chemical quality of ewe’s milk, cheese and whey. Thereat milk, cheese and whey samples were taken from 5 households located at the place of cheese origin - the Njeguši village. Chemical quality of ewe’s milk, cheese and whey was determined by method of FTIR spectrophotometry. Milk fat in the dry matter and moisture in cheese non-fat basis were mathematically calculated. The average content of milk fat in ewe’s milk was 4.92 %, proteins 4.59 %, lactose 4.14 % and total solids non-fat 9.46 %. Accordingly, the analysed cheeses belonged to full fat, semi-hard cheese due to 51.73 % fat in total solids and 60.07 % moisture in non-fat basis. The only deviation from original technology was shortening of the ripening period. Apart from the main objective - the preservation of the original technology, this study could significantly contribute to the process of protection of origin of Njeguši cheese, because the technology of cheese fulfilled the requirements listed in the National Law on the

  5. [Relationship between primary lactose malabsorption and consumption of dairy products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano Subias, J; Sanz Manrique, N; Villa Elizaga, I; Tormo Carnicé, R

    1993-02-01

    This study was designed to determine the influence of lactose malabsorption on the consumption of dairy products. We studied 157 children and 43 adults. The Breath-hydrogen test was used to define their level of lactose digestion. The prevalence of lactose maldigesters was 12%. We found a large relationship between the consumption of milk and milk products and age. Malabsorbers consumed more fermented dairy products (ripened cheese and yogurt) than did absorbers (p butter, cream cheese and global lactose than the maldigesters (p < 0.05). Lactose intolerance, familiar consumption and geographic origins had little influence on an individual's consumption habits.

  6. The 9-MilCA method as a rapid, partly automated protocol for simultaneously recording milk coagulation, curd firming, syneresis, cheese yield, and curd nutrients recovery or whey loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Stocco, G; Bittante, G

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to propose and test a new laboratory cheesemaking procedure [9-mL milk cheesemaking assessment (9-MilCA)], which records 15 traits related to milk coagulation, curd firming, syneresis, cheese yield, and curd nutrients recovery or whey loss. This procedure involves instruments found in many laboratories (i.e., heaters and lacto-dynamographs), with an easy modification of the sample rack for the insertion of 10-mL glass tubes. Four trials were carried out to test the 9-MilCA procedure. The first trial compared 8 coagulation and curd firming traits obtained using regular or modified sample racks to process milk samples from 60 cows belonging to 5 breeds and 3 farms (480 tests). The obtained patterns exhibited significant but irrelevant between-procedure differences, with better repeatability seen for 9-MilCA. The second trial tested the reproducibility and repeatability of the 7 cheesemaking traits obtained using the 9-MilCA procedure on individual samples from 60 cows tested in duplicate in 2 instruments (232 tests). The method yielded very repeatable outcomes for all 7 tested cheese yield and nutrient recovery traits (repeatability >98%), with the exception of the fresh cheese yield (84%), which was affected by the lower repeatability (67%) of the water retained in the curd. In the third trial (96 tests), we found that using centrifugation in place of curd cooking and draining (as adopted in several published studies) reduced the efficiency of whey separation, overestimated all traits, and worsened the repeatability. The fourth trial compared 9-MilCA with a more complex model cheese-manufacturing process that mimics industry practices, using 1,500-mL milk samples (72 cows, 216 tests). The average results obtained from 9-MilCA were similar to those obtained from the model cheeses, with between-method correlations ranging from 78 to 99%, except for the water retained in the curd (r=54%). Our results indicate that new 9-MilCA method is a

  7. Identification of the risk factors associated with cheese production to implement the hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) system on cheese farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, Conrado; Millán, Rafael; Saavedra, Pedro; Jaber, José Raduán; Raposo, António; Sanjuán, Esther

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate, by statistical analyses, risk factors on cheese farms that can influence the microbial contamination of their products. Various assessment tools, such as cheese production questionnaires, food handlers' knowledge testing, and hygiene assessment system surveys, were used on 39 cheese farms on the island of Gran Canaria, Spain. The microbiological status of 773 raw milk and cheese samples from the cheese farms was assessed by enumerating total viable counts and 4 pathogens: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp. The results revealed that the highest contamination by Staph. aureus (4.39%, >10(5)cfu/mL) was found in milk, and the highest contamination by E. coli (5.18%, >10(3) cfu/mL) was found in cheese. Very few samples (0.52%) were contaminated by L. monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. The factors associated with any tested microorganism were "handling," "knowledge," and "type of milk." Subsequently, multidimensional logistic analysis for contamination by E. coli showed an independent association for factors "cleaning and disinfection test" and "type of milk." The probability of total aerobic contamination of milk increased with lower hygiene assessment system survey scores. These results emphasize the need to apply and maintain good hygiene practices, and to study risk factors to prevent contamination and bacterial growth. Further research is required in other areas with different cheese farm types to reinforce the validity of these results. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Biodiversity of dairy Propionibacterium isolated from dairy farms in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Rosangela; Chuat, Victoria; Madec, Marie-Noelle; Nero, Luis Augusto; Thierry, Anne; Valence, Florence; de Carvalho, Antonio Fernandes

    2015-06-16

    Dairy propionibacteria are used as ripening cultures for the production of Swiss-type cheeses, and some strains have potential for use as probiotics. This study investigated the biodiversity of wild dairy Propionibacteria isolates in dairy farms that produce Swiss-type cheeses in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. RAPD and PFGE were used for molecular typing of strains and MLST was applied for phylogenetic analysis of strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii. The results showed considerable genetic diversity of the wild dairy propionibacteria, since three of the main species were observed to be randomly distributed among the samples collected from different farms in different biotopes (raw milk, sillage, soil and pasture). Isolates from different farms showed distinct genetic profiles, suggesting that each location represented a specific niche. Furthermore, the STs identified for the strains of P. freudenreichii by MLST were not related to any specific origin. The environment of dairy farms and milk production proved to be a reservoir for Propionibacterium strains, which are important for future use as possible starter cultures or probiotics, as well as in the study of prevention of cheese defects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Food preference for milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Derflerová Brázdová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products constitute an important source of energy and nutrients for humans. Food preferences may significantly influence the actual consumption (and thus nutrition of people at the population level. The objective of the present large-scale survey was to specify current preferences for milk and dairy products with regard to age and sex. The study was conducted across the Moravia region, Czech Republic, on a sample of 451 individuals divided into 4 age groups: children, adolescents, young adults, and elderly people. A graphic scale questionnaire was administered, with respondents rating their degree of preference for each food item by drawing a mark on a 35 mm line. Out of the 115 items in the questionnaire, 11 items represented dairy products. Data was analysed by means of a general linear model using IBM SPSS Statistics software. Preference for milk was lower in the elderly group than the other groups (P P < 0.01. The overall preference for dairy products (21.6 was lower than the average preference for all foods on the list (22.5. The cross-sectional study revealed intergenerational differences in preferences for specific dairy products, which were most marked in case of cream, processed cheese, blue cheese, and buttermilk. The knowledge of these differences might help promote more focused action at the community level directed at increasing the overall consumption of dairy products in the population.

  10. Retrospective analysis of a listeria monocytogenes contamination episode in raw milk goat cheese using quantitative microbial risk assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhalle, L; Ellouze, M; Yde, M; Clinquart, A; Daube, G; Korsak, N

    2012-12-01

    In 2005, the Belgian authorities reported a Listeria monocytogenes contamination episode in cheese made from raw goat's milk. The presence of an asymptomatic shedder goat in the herd caused this contamination. On the basis of data collected at the time of the episode, a retrospective study was performed using an exposure assessment model covering the production chain from the milking of goats up to delivery of cheese to the market. Predictive microbiology models were used to simulate the growth of L. monocytogenes during the cheese process in relation with temperature, pH, and water activity. The model showed significant growth of L. monocytogenes during chilling and storage of the milk collected the day before the cheese production (median increase of 2.2 log CFU/ml) and during the addition of starter and rennet to milk (median increase of 1.2 log CFU/ml). The L. monocytogenes concentration in the fresh unripened cheese was estimated to be 3.8 log CFU/g (median). This result is consistent with the number of L. monocytogenes in the fresh cheese (3.6 log CFU/g) reported during the cheese contamination episode. A variance-based method sensitivity analysis identified the most important factors impacting the cheese contamination, and a scenario analysis then evaluated several options for risk mitigation. Thus, by using quantitative microbial risk assessment tools, this study provides reliable information to identify and control critical steps in a local production chain of cheese made from raw goat's milk.

  11. Proteolysis in soft cheese, studied on Meshanger cheese and cheese models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noomen, A.

    1978-01-01

    Enzymes predominantly responsible for the primary degradation of protein in soft cheese and for the related changes in consistency were studied. Reconstructed Noordhollandse Meshanger cheese and preserved simulated soft cheeses of different composition were used as models in the

  12. Draft genome sequences of six listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from dairy products from a processing plant in Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara, M.; D'Erchia, A.M.; Manzari, C.; Minotto, A.; Montagna, C.; Addante, N.; Santagada, G.; Latorre, L.; Pesole, G.; Horner, D.S.; Parisi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Here we announce the draft genome sequences of 6 Listeria monocytogenes strains from ricotta cheese produced in a dairy processing plant located in southern Italy and potentially involved in a multistate outbreak of listeriosis in the United States.

  13. Contamination and Health Risks from Heavy Metals (Cd and Pb and Trace Elements (Cu and Zn in Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Ghafari

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Considering the serious contamination of some brands of butter and cheese by Cu and Pb, a control of heavy metals and trace elements levels during the whole production processing of dairy products must be applied.

  14. Listeriosis Outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada, Caused by Soft Ripened Cheese Contaminated from Environmental Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcott, Lynn; Naus, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Soft ripened cheese (SRC) caused over 130 foodborne illnesses in British Columbia (BC), Canada, during two separate listeriosis outbreaks. Multiple agencies investigated the events that lead to cheese contamination with Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), an environmentally ubiquitous foodborne pathogen. In both outbreaks pasteurized milk and the pasteurization process were ruled out as sources of contamination. In outbreak A, environmental transmission of L.m. likely occurred from farm animals to personnel to culture solutions used during cheese production. In outbreak B, birds were identified as likely contaminating the dairy plant's water supply and cheese during the curd-washing step. Issues noted during outbreak A included the risks of operating a dairy plant in a farm environment, potential for transfer of L.m. from the farm environment to the plant via shared toilet facilities, failure to clean and sanitize culture spray bottles, and cross-contamination during cheese aging. L.m. contamination in outbreak B was traced to wild swallows defecating in the plant's open cistern water reservoir and a multibarrier failure in the water disinfection system. These outbreaks led to enhanced inspection and surveillance of cheese plants, test and release programs for all SRC manufactured in BC, improvements in plant design and prevention programs, and reduced listeriosis incidence. PMID:25918702

  15. Short communication: Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Cheddar-type cheese fortified with Inula britannica extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, N-K; Jeewanthi, R K C; Park, E-H; Paik, H-D

    2016-01-01

    Cheddar-type cheese was fortified with the antioxidant Inula britannica flower extract (IBE). Cheddar-type cheeses manufactured with varying concentrations of IBE (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1% wt/vol) were analyzed during storage at 4°C, 0, 1, 2, and 3 wk after production. Higher IBE concentrations resulted in higher protein and ash contents, with a concomitant decrease in pH, total solid, and fat content relative to the unfortified control cheese. The total phenolic content also increased with IBE concentration, but decreased over longer storage periods. The antioxidant activities of the cheeses, determined as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging activity and ferric thiocyanate assay results, increased proportionally to the total phenolic content. The highest antioxidant effect was observed in the 1% IBE-fortified cheese, showing 79 and 86% antioxidant effects in the DPPH and ferric thiocyanate assays, respectively. At the 1-wk time point, the 5 cheese preparations underwent sensory evaluation for odor, taste, texture, color, and overall quality, determined using a descriptive analysis by a trained panel (n=20). The addition of IBE resulted in some increases in extract odor and taste. Overall, IBE showed good potential as an antioxidant supplement for dairy products. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Listeriosis Outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada, Caused by Soft Ripened Cheese Contaminated from Environmental Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine McIntyre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft ripened cheese (SRC caused over 130 foodborne illnesses in British Columbia (BC, Canada, during two separate listeriosis outbreaks. Multiple agencies investigated the events that lead to cheese contamination with Listeria monocytogenes (L.m., an environmentally ubiquitous foodborne pathogen. In both outbreaks pasteurized milk and the pasteurization process were ruled out as sources of contamination. In outbreak A, environmental transmission of L.m. likely occurred from farm animals to personnel to culture solutions used during cheese production. In outbreak B, birds were identified as likely contaminating the dairy plant’s water supply and cheese during the curd-washing step. Issues noted during outbreak A included the risks of operating a dairy plant in a farm environment, potential for transfer of L.m. from the farm environment to the plant via shared toilet facilities, failure to clean and sanitize culture spray bottles, and cross-contamination during cheese aging. L.m. contamination in outbreak B was traced to wild swallows defecating in the plant’s open cistern water reservoir and a multibarrier failure in the water disinfection system. These outbreaks led to enhanced inspection and surveillance of cheese plants, test and release programs for all SRC manufactured in BC, improvements in plant design and prevention programs, and reduced listeriosis incidence.

  17. Effect of production factors and ripening conditions on the characteristics of Serra cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, Angela C.; Malcata, F. Xavier; Oliveira, Jorge C.

    1997-01-01

    The individual and interactive effects of four production factors (amount of vegetable rennet, temperature of coagulation, pressing and salting of the fresh cheese) and two ripening factors (temperature and relative humidity) on microbiological, physico-chemical, biochemical, textural and sensory characteristics of Serra cheese were simultaneously studied using a 2vi6-1 factorial design. Highly significant effects of salting and ripening relative humidity upon the characteristics of the chees...

  18. Genetic polymorphism of CSN1S2 in South African dairy goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rulien

    2016-12-24

    Dec 24, 2016 ... useful for improved cheese making. The aim of this study was to investigate the polymorphism and genetic variation of CSN1S2 in South African dairy goats, using DNA sequencing technology. Sixty dairy goats (20. Saanes, 20 British Alpine, and 20 Toggenburg) and 20 meat-type goats were sequenced ...

  19. Whole dairy matrix or single nutrients in assessment of health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Bertram, Hanne Christine; Bonjour, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    not support a positive association between intake of dairy products and risk of cardiovascular disease (i.e., stroke and coronary heart disease) and type 2 diabetes. In contrast, fermented dairy products, such as cheese and yogurt, generally show inverse associations. 2) Intervention studies have indicated...

  20. Dairy products and colorectal cancer risk : a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aune, D.; Lau, R.; Chan, D.S.M.; Vieira, R.; Greenwood, D.C.; Kampman, E.; Norat, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of the association between intake of dairy products and colorectal cancer risk have indicated an inverse association with milk, however, the evidence for cheese or other dairy products is inconsistent. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to

  1. Dairy products and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aune, D.; Lau, R.; Chan, D.S.; Vieira, R.; Greenwood, D.C.; Kampman, E.; Norat, T.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies of the association between intake of dairy products and colorectal cancer risk have indicated an inverse association with milk, however, the evidence for cheese or other dairy products is inconsistent. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to

  2. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  3. The heat stress for workers employed in a dairy farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marucci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The italian dairy production is characterized by high heterogeneity. The typology quantitatively more important (80% of national production is represented by cow’s milk cheeses (Grana Padano cheese, string cheese, Parmesan cheese, etc.,while the cheese from buffalo’s milk (especially string cheese such as mozzarella and cheese from sheep and goats represents respectively 4% and 8% of the national dairy production, and are linked to specific regional contexts. Some phases of the cycle of milk processing occur at certain temperatures that not are comfortable for the operator also in relation to possible problems due to thermal shock. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of heat stress on workers operating in a dairy for processing of buffalo milk. The research was conducted at a dairy farm located in the province of Viterbo, Italy, during the spring-summer period. To carry out the research were detected major climatic parameters (air temperature, relative humidity, mean radiant temperature, air velocity and the main parameters of the individual operators (thermal insulation provided by clothing and the energy expenditure required from the work done by employees in the work areas investigated. Subsequently were calculated main indices of heat stress assessment provided by the main technical standards. In particular have been calculated Predicted Mean Vote (PMV and Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD in moderate environments, provided by the UNI EN ISO 7730 and the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT in severe hot environments required by UNI EN 27243. The results show some phases of risk from heat stress and possible solutions to improve the safety of the operators.

  4. The heat stress for workers employed in a dairy farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Marucci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Italian dairy production is characterized by high heterogeneity. The typology quantitatively more important (80% of national production is represented by cow’s milk cheeses (Grana Padano cheese, string cheese, Parmesan cheese, etc., while the cheese from buffalo’s milk (especially string cheese such as mozzarella and cheese from sheep and goats represents respectively 4% and 8% of the national dairy production, and are linked to specific regional contexts. Some phases of the cycle of milk processing occur at certain temperatures that are not comfortable for the workers also in relation to possible problems due to thermal shock. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of heat stress on workers operating in a dairy for processing of buffalo milk. The research was conducted at a dairy farm located in the province of Viterbo, Italy, during the spring-summer period. To carry out the research were detected major climatic parameters (air temperature, relative humidity, mean radiant temperature, air velocity and the main parameters of the individual operators (clothing thermal insulation and the energy expenditure required from the work done by employees. Subsequently, main indices of heat stress assessment provided by the main technical standards were calculated. In particular have been calculated predicted mean vote and predicted percentage of dissatisfied in moderate thermal environments (environments in which the objective, in the design and management phases, is to achieve the thermal comfort, provided by the UNI EN ISO 7730 and the wet bulb globe temperature in severe hot environments (environments in which you must protect the health of workers required by UNI EN ISO 27243. The results show some phases of risk from heat stress especially during times of test in which the internal air temperature exceeds the threshold of 30°C and possible solutions to improve the safety of the operators.

  5. 21 CFR 133.181 - Provolone cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Provolone cheese. 133.181 Section 133.181 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.181 Provolone cheese. (a) Description. (1) Provolone, a pasta filata or stretched curd-type...

  6. Flavour formation by lactic acid bacteria and biochemical flavour profiling of cheese products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, G.; Smit, B.A.; Engels, W.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Flavour development in dairy fermentations, most notably cheeses, results from a series of (bio)chemical processes in which the starter cultures provide the enzymes. Particularly the enzymatic degradation of proteins (caseins) leads to the formation of key-flavour components, which contribute to the

  7. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Salmonella serovars in milk and cheese in Mansoura city, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Hussein El-Baz

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The present study confirms the presence of Salmonella in milk and cheese samples in Mansoura, Egypt, indicating that the dairy products can act as potential sources of Salmonella infection. Thus, appropriate hygienic measures are suggestive for combating Salmonellosis in Egypt. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(1.000: 45-51

  8. Agar hydrogel with silver nanoparticles to prolong the shelf life of Fior di Latte cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incoronato, A L; Conte, A; Buonocore, G G; Del Nobile, M A

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of an antimicrobial packaging system containing active nanoparticles on the quality deterioration of Fior di Latte cheese. To this aim, 3 concentrations of silver montmorillonite embedded in agar were used. The cell loads of spoilage and useful microorganisms were monitored during a refrigerated storage period. Moreover, cheese sensory quality (i.e., odor, color, consistency, and overall quality) was evaluated by means of a panel test. Results showed that the active packaging system markedly increased the shelf life of Fior di Latte cheese, due to the ability of silver cations to control microbial proliferation, without affecting the functional dairy microbiota and the sensory characteristics of the product. The active packaging system developed in this work could be used to prolong the shelf life of Fior di Latte and boost its distribution beyond local market borders. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of standardizing the lactose content of cheesemilk on the properties of low-moisture, part-skim Mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, A C; Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Molitor, M; Jaeggi, J J; Johnson, M E; McSweeney, P L H; Lucey, J A

    2016-10-01

    of softening point during heating, was higher for MLC and LLC cheese at 56 and 84d of ripening. The LLC cheese also had lower blister color and less stretch than MLC and HLC cheese. Adjusting the lactose content of milk while maintaining a constant casein level was a useful technique for controlling cheese pH, which affected the texture, functionality, and sensory properties of low-moisture, part-skim Mozzarella cheese. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF “SA PANEDDA” TRADITIONAL PASTA FILATA CHEESE OF MONTE ACUTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fadda

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Panedda is a traditional Sardinian food product. It is fresh pasta filata cheese made from cow’s milk, either raw or heat treated. The aim of this work was to acquire data on traditional cheesemaking process and microbiological profile of Panedda. In 3 dairies located in Monte Acuto area samples from 2 batches were collected during the whole cheesmaking process. Samples of raw milk, curd, acidified curd, pasta filata, and finished product after 7 and 20 days of ripening were collected and microbiologically analyzed. The results showed good hygienic quality in the finished product at 7 days and a decrease of coliforms, E. coli and coagulase-positive Stafilococci was observed during the further ripening. No pathogenic microorganisms were found in all the samples. Among Lactic Acid Bacteria rod-shaped forms were the most prevalent microflora and Enterococci reached levels of about 6 log cfu/g. The results of this study showed satisfactory hygienic characteristics of Panedda and will be useful to preserve traditional cheesemaking process.

  11. Quality of “urda” obtained after production of montenegrin semi-hard cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojanic Rasovic, M.,

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available "Urda" cheese is one of the dairy products with a long tradition of production in mountainous areas in Montenegro. It is mainly used for its own use, fresh and unsalted, but can be kept for a longer period in “kaca” (vat and consumed as a mature “urda”. Knowing the quality and technology of production of urda is significant regarding its nutritional and biological value, as well as in terms of its standardization, the preservation of traditional technology and the protection of geographic origin. Because of that, we examined the urda production technology in the artisanal conditions as well as the chemical composition of 14 urda samples from different production batches. Production of urda was done in a traditional manner with less modification. The results showed significant variations in the chemical composition of the tested samples. The mean value of dry matter content was 42.85%, fat content 21.74%, protein content 13.66%, salt content 2.67%, fat content in dry matter 50.77%, free fat dry matter content 21.11% and water content in free fat dry matter 49.67%. Due to significant statistical differences in the chemical parameters of investigated urda samples, it can be concluded that standardization of urda quality and technology has to be done.

  12. Evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for the detection ofListeria monocytogenesin dairy food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirloni, Erica; Bernardi, Cristian; Drago, Sandro; Stampone, Giuseppe; Pomilio, Francesco; Cattaneo, Patrizia; Stella, Simone

    2017-10-20

    Objective of the present study was to test the performances of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)-based method for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes , with particular focus on the dairy products. The specificity of the method was evaluated on 42 different Listeria spp. strains from collections, food and environmental samples. 100% (32 of 32) of the L. monocytogenes strains were correctly recognised, and none of other 10 Listeria spp. strains was misidentified. The sensitivity was evaluated on four L. monocytogenes strains from different sources. The instrument was able to detect 10-400 CFU/mL. The ability to detect low initial numbers of L. monocytogenes (0.3-0.7 Log CFU/g) was also evaluated, in duplicate, in pasteurised milk (whole and skimmed) and dairy samples (fresh ricotta, crescenza, mascarpone, mozzarella, cottage cheese, cream cheese, taleggio, gorgonzola). The analysis was performed after 18, 24 and 48 h of incubation, and was coupled with the count of L. monocytogenes in the broth. Microbial loads were insufficient to achieve a positive result after 18 and 24 h in most of the samples; after 48 h, all the products, except taleggio and one gorgonzola sample, were identified as positive; the sensitivity of the method when applied to contaminated dairy foods was about 5 Log CFU/g. The LAMP method tested can be considered a very useful tool, as it is a costeffective and easy-functioning method. The preliminary data obtained should be confirmed with a validation process taking into account different food typologies.

  13. Evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes in dairy food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Tirloni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the present study was to test the performances of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP-based method for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes, with particular focus on the dairy products. The specificity of the method was evaluated on 42 different Listeria spp. strains from collections, food and environmental samples. 100% (32 of 32 of the L. monocytogenes strains were correctly recognised, and none of other 10 Listeria spp. strains was misidentified. The sensitivity was evaluated on four L. monocytogenes strains from different sources. The instrument was able to detect 10-400 CFU/mL. The ability to detect low initial numbers of L. monocytogenes (0.3- 0.7 Log CFU/g was also evaluated, in duplicate, in pasteurised milk (whole and skimmed and dairy samples (fresh ricotta, crescenza, mascarpone, mozzarella, cottage cheese, cream cheese, taleggio, gorgonzola. The analysis was performed after 18, 24 and 48 h of incubation, and was coupled with the count of L. monocytogenes in the broth. Microbial loads were insufficient to achieve a positive result after 18 and 24 h in most of the samples; after 48 h, all the products, except taleggio and one gorgonzola sample, were identified as positive; the sensitivity of the method when applied to contaminated dairy foods was about 5 Log CFU/g. The LAMP method tested can be considered a very useful tool, as it is a costeffective and easy-functioning method. The preliminary data obtained should be confirmed with a validation process taking into account different food typologies.

  14. Modelling and predicting growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in milk and cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Rosshaug, Per Sand

    growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads and shelf-life of chilled cottage cheese and of milk at constant and dynamic storage temperatures. The developed models and the applied methodology is likely to be applicable for shelf-life assessment of other types of fermented or unripened dairy products as well......Mathematical models were developed and evaluated for growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in chilled milk and cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic acid and sorbic acid. A simplified cardinal parameter growth model...... was developed based on growth in broth. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameter (μref at 25 °C) was fitted to a total of 35 growth rates from cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing. Growth rate models for milk and cottage cheese were evaluated by comparison with data from literature and new...

  15. Detection of Adulteration in Italian Mozzarella Cheese Using Mitochondrial DNA Templates as Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bonizzi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of monitoring adulterations of genuine cheeses in the dairy industry, a polymerase chain reaction–based method was developed to detect bovine- specific mitochondrial DNA sequence in Italian water buffalo Mozzarella cheese. DNA was isolated from cheese matrix and governing liquid by organic extractions and kit purifications. Amplifications of a 134-bp fragment were performed with a bovine–specific set of primers designed on the sequence alignment of bovine and buffalo mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I. The specificity of the primers was tested using DNA from the blood of two species (water buffalo and bovine, which are present together in adulterated Italian Mozzarella cheese. This method reliably detected a content of 0.5 % of bovin milk, making it suitable for routine fraud monitoring.

  16. Anti-listeria effects of chitosan-coated nisin-silica liposome on Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, H Y; Wu, J; Li, C Z; Lin, L

    2016-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes poses an increasing challenge to cheese production. To minimize the risk of bacterial contamination, a chitosan-coated nisin-silica liposome was engineered for the present study. We investigated the characteristics of nisin-silica liposomes and the anti-listeria effects of a chitosan-coated nisin-silica liposome on Cheddar cheese. The encapsulation efficiency of nisin in a liposome was sharply increased after it was adsorbed on a silica particle surface. Chitosan-coated nisin-silica liposomes displayed sustained antibacterial activity against L. monocytogenes, without affecting the sensory properties of the cheese. Chitosan-coated nisin-silica liposomes could be a promising active antimicrobial for cheese preservation. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of Oaxaca raw milk cheese microbiota with particular interest in Lactobacillus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Irma; Mateo, Javier; Sandoval, María H; Soto, Sergio; García-Armesto, María R; Castro, José M

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this work was to identify and characterize lactobacilli strains from Mexican Oaxaca cheese. Twenty-seven lactobacilli isolated from Oaxaca cheese were identified at species level by 16S rRNA sequencing. Selected isolates were further characterized by ribotyping. Isolates were screened, among others, by acidifying capacity, antibiotic resistance, and activity against pathogens. Lactobacillus plantarum was predominant in Oaxaca cheese. The intraspecies variability of Lb. plantarum isolates was great. Multiple antibiotic resistances were observed. Eight isolates showed antimicrobial activity against the pathogenic species tested. Four Lb. plantarum strains showing low antibiotic resistance index, antimicrobial activity against enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria innocua stains, amine-negative decarboxylase activity, and resistance to NaCl and bile salt solutions, could be preselected to complete studies focused on designing a culture for use in pasteurized-milk Oaxaca cheese manufacturing. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Short communication: Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus survival and growth in artisanal and industrial ricotta cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, F; Losio, M N; Daminelli, P; Cosciani-Cunico, E; Dalzini, E; Serraino, A

    2015-10-01

    Ricotta cheese is a ready-to-eat product with properties (pH >6.0, aw >0.98-0.99) and moisture content (75-80%) that may pose a risk to public health due to postprocess contamination by several bacterial pathogens, including Arcobacters. The objective of the study was to evaluate the behavior of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus in ricotta cheese during its shelf life assuming postprocessing contamination. Two types of ricotta cheese, artisanal water buffalo (WB) and industrial cow milk ricotta cheese, were experimentally contaminated with A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus and the count was monitored at 2 different temperatures (6°C and 12°C) during shelf life of 5 d for WB cheese and 22 d for industrial ricotta cheese. In WB ricotta cheese the A. butzleri count remained stable during the 5 d of storage at 6°C, whereas a moderate but significant decrease was observed in A. cryaerophilus count. The counts of both species increased when WB ricotta cheese was stored at 12°C. In industrial ricotta cheese stored at 6°C, a significant reduction was observed both in A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus counts during the 22-d storage period; at 12°C storage, a count increase was observed for both Arcobacter species up to d 14 of storage after which the log cfu/g count resulted constant until d 22 of storage. The ability of A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus to survive at 6°C and to grow at 12°C in ricotta cheese has significant food safety implications. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Foci of contamination of Listeria monocytogenes in different cheese processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, G; Magalhães, R; Carneiro, L; Santos, I; Silva, J; Ferreira, V; Hogg, T; Teixeira, P

    2013-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous bacterium widely distributed in the environment that can cause a severe disease in humans when contaminated foods are ingested. Cheese has been implicated in sporadic cases and in outbreaks of listeriosis worldwide. Environmental contamination, in several occasions by persistent strains, has been considered an important source of finished product contamination. The objectives of this research were to (i) evaluate the presence of L. monocytogenes within the factory environments and cheeses of three processing plants, artisanal producer of raw ewe's milk cheeses (APC), small-scale industrial cheese producer (SSI) and industrial cheese producer (ICP) each producing a distinct style of cheese, all with history of contamination by L. monocytogenes (ii) and identify possible sources of contamination using different typing methods (arsenic and cadmium susceptibility, geno-serotyping, PFGE). The presence of markers specific for 3 epidemic clones (ECI-ECIII) of L. monocytogenes was also investigated. Samples were collected from raw milk (n = 179), whey (n = 3), cheese brining solution (n = 7), cheese brine sludge (n = 505), finished product (n = 3016), and environment (n = 2560) during, at least, a four-year period. Listeria monocytogenes was detected in environmental, raw milk and cheese samples, respectively, at 15.4%, 1.1% and 13.6% in APC; at 8.9%, 2.9% and 3.4% in SSI; and at 0%, 21.1% and 0.2% in ICP. Typing of isolates revealed that raw ewe's milk and the dairy plant environment are important sources of contamination, and that some strains persisted for at least four years in the environment. Although cheeses produced in the three plants investigated were never associated with any case or outbreak of listeriosis, some L. monocytogenes belonging to specific PFGE types that caused disease (including putative epidemic clone strains isolated from final products) were found in this study. © 2013.

  20. Cheese and cardiovascular health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of mortality worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a well-known risk factor of CVD which increases after the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Cheese is a dietary product commonly consumed in Western countries and known...

  1. Lipids in cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipids are present in cheese at levels above 20 percent and are analyzed by several techniques. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy are used to examine the microstructure, gas chromatography is employed to look at fatty acid composition, and differential scanning cal...

  2. Contribution of native pasture to the sensory properties of Ragusano cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpino, S; Horne, J; Melilli, C; Licitra, G; Barbano, D M; Van Soest, P J

    2004-02-01

    Ragusano is a Protected Denomination of Origin cheese produced in the Hyblean area of Sicily. Sixteen samples of Ragusano cheese from two different treatments [pasture and total mixed ration (TMR)] were evaluated after 4 and 7 mo of aging. The color of the cheeses produced from milk of cows consuming fresh native pasture plants was much more yellow than cheeses from TMR fed cows (i.e., higher Hunter b value). This was due to transfer of beta-carotene and related compounds from the diet and demonstrated that compounds from native pasture plants changed the sensory characteristics of Ragusano cheese. To avoid a "halo" effect in a trained panel, quantitative descriptive analysis sensory evaluation of these cheeses for odor, taste, consistency, and mouth structure, color differences among cheeses were masked. A unique approach in sensory analysis was developed using sunglasses with lenses designed to block light at the specific wavelengths at which panelists would detect differences in color among samples. Testing was conducted every 2-wk period (15-d increments) with two tests per week using 11 trained panelists. All the panelists tasted all the products. Panelists were able to detect significant differences in the sensory characteristics of cheeses produced from milk of cows consuming native pastures versus TMR even when the color difference was masked.

  3. The effect of raw milk microbial flora on the sensory characteristics of Salers-type cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callon, C; Berdagué, J L; Dufour, E; Montel, M C

    2005-11-01

    The sensory characteristics of Salers Protected Denomination of Origin raw-milk cheeses are linked to the biochemical composition of the raw material (milk) and to the resultant microbial community. To evaluate the influence of the microbial community on sensory characteristics, Salers-type cheeses were manufactured with the same pasteurized milk, reinoculated with 3 different microbial communities from 3 different filtrates from microfiltered milks. Each cheese was subjected to microbial counts (on selective media), biochemical tests, and volatile and sensory component analyses at different times of ripening. Adding different microbial communities to specimens of the same (biochemically identical) pasteurized milk lead to different sensory characteristics of the cheeses. Cheeses with fresh cream, hazelnut, and caramel attributes were opposed to those with fermented cream, chemical, and garlic flavors. The aromatic compounds identified (esters, acids, alcohols, and aldehydes) in these cheeses were quite similar. Nevertheless, one milk was distinguished by a higher content of acetoin, and lower 2-butanone and 3-methylpentanone concentrations. Over the production period of 1 mo, the different cheeses were characterized by the same balance of the microbial population assessed by microbial counts on different media. This was associated with the stability of some sensory attributes describing these cheeses. Nevertheless, there was no linear correlation between microbial flora data and sensory characteristics as measured in this study.

  4. Short communication: Flavor and flavor stability of cheese, rennet, and acid wheys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S; Smith, T J; Drake, M A

    2016-05-01

    Dried whey ingredients are valuable food ingredients but potential whey sources are underutilized. Previous work has established flavor and flavor stability differences in Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys, but little work has compared these whey sources to acid or rennet wheys. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare flavor and flavor stability among cheese, rennet, and acid wheys. Full-fat and fat-free Cheddar, rennet and acid casein, cottage cheese, and Greek yogurt fluid wheys were manufactured in triplicate. Wheys were fat separated and pasteurized followed by compositional analyses and storage at 4°C for 48 h. Volatile compound analysis and descriptive sensory analysis were evaluated on all liquid wheys initially and after 24 and 48 h. Greek yogurt whey contained almost no true protein nitrogen (0.02% wt/vol) whereas other wheys contained 0.58%±0.4% (wt/vol) true protein nitrogen. Solids and fat content were not different between wheys, with the exception of Greek yogurt whey, which was also lower in solids content than the other wheys (5.6 vs. 6.5% wt/vol, respectively). Fresh wheys displayed sweet aromatic and cooked milk flavors. Cheddar wheys were distinguished by diacetyl/buttery flavors, and acid wheys (acid casein, cottage cheese, and Greek yogurt) by sour aromatic flavor. Acid casein whey had a distinct soapy flavor, and acid and Greek yogurt wheys had distinct potato flavor. Both cultured acid wheys contained acetaldehyde flavor. Cardboard flavor increased and sweet aromatic and buttery flavors decreased with storage in all wheys. Volatile compound profiles were also distinct among wheys and changed with storage, consistent with sensory results. Lipid oxidation aldehydes increased in all wheys with storage time. Fat-free Cheddar was more stable than full-fat Cheddar over 48h of storage. Uncultured rennet casein whey was the most stable whey, as exhibited by the lowest increase in lipid oxidation products over time. These results

  5. Concerns about the microbiological quality of traditional raw milk cheeses: a worldwide issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Tirloni

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Six types of unripened raw milk fresh (Robiola, Crescenza, Primo sale and Formaggella and  “pasta filata” cheeses (Mozzarella and Burrata were evaluated for microbiological parameters. No Listeria monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. were detected, but high microbial counts were revealed. Significantly higher Total Viable Counts (TVC and Enterobacteriaceae counts were observed in “fresh cheese” than in “pasta filata” samples. Values > 6 Log CFU/g were found in 81.3% of fresh vs 50% in pasta filata for TVC and 65.6% vs 12.5% for Enterobacteriaceae, respectively. An evident contamination by Escherichia coli, Coagulase-positive Staphylococci and Pseudomonas spp. was detected in all the cheeses: the causes could be the improper hygiene of the artisanal production practices and the permanence of the cheeses on the refrigerated shelves. A careful attention to the respect of the good manufacturing practices is suggested to avoid the presence of initial high bacterial loads.

  6. Interaction of starter cultures and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria in the cheese environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, J; Barzideh, Z; LaPointe, G

    2017-12-20

    The microbiota of ripening cheese is dominated by lactic acid bacteria, which are either added as starters and adjunct cultures or originate from the production and processing environments (nonstarter or NSLAB). After curd formation and pressing, starters reach high numbers, but their viability then decreases due to lactose depletion, salt addition, and low pH and temperature. Starter autolysis releases cellular contents, including nutrients and enzymes, into the cheese matrix. During ripening, NSLAB may attain cell densities up to 8 log cfu per g after 3 to 9 mo. Depending on the species and strain, their metabolic activity may contribute to defects or inconsistency in cheese quality and to the development of typical cheese flavor. The availability of gene and genome sequences has enabled targeted detection of specific cheese microbes and their gene expression over the ripening period. Integrated systems biology is needed to combine the multiple perspectives of post-genomics technologies to elucidate the metabolic interactions among microorganisms. Future research should delve into the variation in cell physiology within the microbial populations, because spatial distribution within the cheese matrix will lead to microenvironments that could affect localized interactions of starters and NSLAB. Microbial community modeling can contribute to improving the efficiency and reduce the cost of food processes such as cheese ripening. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Composition and textural properties of Mozzarella cheese naturally-enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Sevi, Agostino; Marino, Rosaria; Santillo, Antonella; Tateo, Alessandra; Albenzio, Marzia

    2013-08-01

    The effects of adding flaxseed or fish oil to the diet of dairy cows on the chemical and physical profile of Mozzarella cheese production were studied. The experiment involved 24 Friesian cows, divided into 3 groups accordingly fat supplementation: basal diet (CT), diet supplemented with flaxseed (FS) or fish oil (FO). Mozzarella cheeses were manufactured from bulk milk of each group. Bulk milk was analysed for chemical composition and renneting parameters. Mozzarella cheeses were analysed for chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and textural properties. Results suggest that Mozzarella cheese from cows receiving flaxseed supplementation showed a decrease in saturated fatty acids (SFA), an increase in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) compared with control Mozzarella cheese. The increased dietary intake of C18:3 in flaxseed supplemented cows resulted in increased levels of trans-11 C18:1, and of CLA cis-9 trans-11 C18:2, and in low Atherogenic and Trombogenic Indexes. FO Mozzarella cheese showed compositional and textural properties quite similar to CT Mozzarella cheese; however, increased levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in FO Mozzarella were found.

  8. Development of a Probiotic Cheddar Cheese Containing Human-Derived Lactobacillus paracasei Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, G.; Ross, R. P.; Collins, J. K.; Fitzgerald, G.; Stanton, C.

    1998-01-01

    Cheddar cheese was manufactured with either Lactobacillus salivarius NFBC 310, NFBC 321, or NFBC 348 or L. paracasei NFBC 338 or NFBC 364 as the dairy starter adjunct. These five strains had previously been isolated from the human small intestine and have been characterized extensively with respect to their probiotic potential. Enumeration of these strains in mature Cheddar cheese, however, was complicated by the presence of high numbers (>107 CFU/g of cheese) of nonstarter lactic acid bacteria, principally composed of lactobacilli which proliferate as the cheese ripens. Attempts to differentiate the adjunct lactobacilli from the nonstarter lactobacilli based on bile tolerance and growth temperature were unsuccessful. In contrast, the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA method allowed the generation of discrete DNA fingerprints for each strain which were clearly distinguishable from those generated from the natural flora of the cheeses. Using this approach, it was found that both L. paracasei strains grew and sustained high viability in cheese during ripening, while each of the L. salivarius species declined over the ripening period. These data demonstrate that Cheddar cheese can be an effective vehicle for delivery of some probiotic organisms to the consumer. PMID:9603834

  9. The characterization of the most-liked reduced-fat Havarti-type cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritvanen, T; Lilleberg, L; Tupasela, T; Suhonen, U; Eerola, S; Putkonen, T; Peltonen, K

    2010-11-01

    In Finland, official recommendations state that reduced-fat cheese should be used in the everyday diet. Finnish consumers are increasingly willing to consume food with a reduced fat content, and sales of reduced-fat cheeses have been increasing. The consumers who participated in this study (n=153; 17 to 78 yr old) ate reduced-fat cheeses on a weekly basis. They were recruited from supermarket customers living in a metropolitan area in Finland. The object of this study was to determine which kind of reduced-fat Havarti-type cheeses were most liked. The study consisted of a consumer test, sensory descriptive analysis, and chemical analysis of commercial reduced-fat Havarti-type cheeses (n=10). The results of the sensory quantitative descriptive analysis were compared with consumer hedonic ratings by external preference mapping. In addition, information on composition (fat, salt, and free amino acids) was gathered and compared with the hedonic ratings. The preferred sensory properties were a pale appearance, sticky texture, and rich flavor. However, the consumers could be grouped according to their preferences on appearance and consistency. The main attributes contributing to the grouping of consumers were stickiness, hardness, and yellow color. The least preferred cheeses among all Finnish consumers were those with the lowest flavor intensities. The consumers preferred the cheeses with the highest salt content. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN DAIRY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Marchetti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The disease affects cows and other ruminants and causes high economic losses, mainly for dairy production. MAP may also have a role in the development of Crohn’s disease in humans. Infected animals shed viable MAP with milk and faeces and humans may assume MAP via the consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products. Current methods of milk pasteurization are not sufficient to kill all MAP cells present in milk and MAP has been found in raw or pasteurized milk and isolated from cheese. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge about MAP in dairy production. We analyzed studies on milk contamination, effect of pasteurization and methods for identification of MAP that can be applied to dairy products.

  11. Spoilage microorganisms in milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Skelin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Spoilage microorganisms cause changes of primary characteristics and properties of milk and dairy products. The product defects depends on the specific species and number of microorganisms involved in pre- and post- technological processing. Most often, these changes are related to single undesirable sensory characteristic, smell, flavour or conistency. However, in the case of heavier microbial contamination all these undesirable characteristics can occur simultaneously. Besides, even small changes caused by presence of spoilage microorganisms lead to decreased quality of milk and various dairy products. Despite of the importance for the overall quality, the control of spoilage microorganisms for dairy industry is not obligated and therefore, only a few producers control them. Therefore, the present study describes the undesirable effect of spoilage microorganisms on quality of raw, pasteurized and sterilized milk, fermented milk, butter, sour cream and cheeses with the intention to emphasize the importance and significance of their control in the dairy industry.

  12. Reduced-fat Cheddar and Swiss-type cheeses harboring exopolysaccharide-producing probiotic Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, P M; Burdíková, Z; Beresford, T; Auty, M A E; Fitzgerald, G F; Ross, R P; Sheehan, J J; Stanton, C

    2015-12-01

    Exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was previously shown to have promising hypocholesterolemic activity in the atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein-E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) murine model. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of reduced-fat Cheddar and Swiss-type cheeses as functional (carrier) foods for delivery of this probiotic strain. All cheeses were manufactured at pilot-scale (500-L vats) in triplicate, with standard commercially available starters: for Cheddar, Lactococcus lactis; and for Swiss-type cheese, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was used as an adjunct culture during cheese manufacture, at a level of ~10(6) cfu·mL(-1) cheese milk (subsequently present in the cheese curd at>10(7) cfu·g(-1)). The adjunct strain remained viable at >5×10(7) cfu·g(-1) in both Swiss-type and Cheddar cheeses following ripening for 6 mo. Sensory analysis revealed that the presence of the adjunct culture imparted a more appealing appearance in Swiss-type cheese, but had no significant effect on the sensory characteristics of Cheddar cheeses. Moreover, the adjunct culture had no significant effect on cheese composition, proteolysis, pH, or instrumentally quantified textural characteristics of Cheddar cheeses. These data indicate that low-fat Swiss-type and Cheddar cheeses represent suitable food matrices for the delivery of the hypocholesterolemic Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 in an industrial setting. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Emmental Cheese Environment Enhances Propionibacterium freudenreichii Stress Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnaire, Valérie; Jardin, Julien; Rabah, Houem; Briard-Bion, Valérie; Jan, Gwénaël

    2015-01-01

    Dairy propionibacteria are actinomycetales found in various fermented food products. The main species, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, is generally recognized as safe and used both as probiotic and as cheese starter. Its probiotic efficacy tightly depends on its tolerance towards digestive stresses, which can be largely modulated by the ingested delivery vehicle. Indeed, tolerance of this bacterium is enhanced when it is consumed within a fermented dairy product, compared to a dried probiotic preparation. We investigated both stress tolerance and protein neosynthesis upon growth in i) chemically defined or ii) aqueous phase of Emmental cheeses. Although the same final population level was reached in both media, a slower growth and an enhanced survival of CIRM BIA 1 strain of P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii was observed in Emmental juice, compared to chemically defined medium. This was accompanied by differences in substrates used and products released as well as overexpression of various early stress adaptation proteins in Emmental juice, compared to chemically defined medium, implied in protein folding, in aspartate catabolism, in biosynthesis of valine, leucine and isoleucine, in pyruvate metabolism in citrate cycle, in the propionate metabolism, as well as in oxidoreductases. All these changes led to a higher digestive stress tolerance after growth in Emmental juice. Mechanisms of stress adaptation were induced in this environment, in accordance with enhanced survival. This opens perspectives for the use of hard and semi-hard cheeses as delivery vehicle for probiotics with enhanced efficacy.

  14. Emmental Cheese Environment Enhances Propionibacterium freudenreichii Stress Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Gagnaire

    Full Text Available Dairy propionibacteria are actinomycetales found in various fermented food products. The main species, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, is generally recognized as safe and used both as probiotic and as cheese starter. Its probiotic efficacy tightly depends on its tolerance towards digestive stresses, which can be largely modulated by the ingested delivery vehicle. Indeed, tolerance of this bacterium is enhanced when it is consumed within a fermented dairy product, compared to a dried probiotic preparation. We investigated both stress tolerance and protein neosynthesis upon growth in i chemically defined or ii aqueous phase of Emmental cheeses. Although the same final population level was reached in both media, a slower growth and an enhanced survival of CIRM BIA 1 strain of P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii was observed in Emmental juice, compared to chemically defined medium. This was accompanied by differences in substrates used and products released as well as overexpression of various early stress adaptation proteins in Emmental juice, compared to chemically defined medium, implied in protein folding, in aspartate catabolism, in biosynthesis of valine, leucine and isoleucine, in pyruvate metabolism in citrate cycle, in the propionate metabolism, as well as in oxidoreductases. All these changes led to a higher digestive stress tolerance after growth in Emmental juice. Mechanisms of stress adaptation were induced in this environment, in accordance with enhanced survival. This opens perspectives for the use of hard and semi-hard cheeses as delivery vehicle for probiotics with enhanced efficacy.

  15. Autochthonous cheeses of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatan Sarić; Sonja Bijeljac

    2003-01-01

    Despite the migration of people towards cities, autochthonous cheeses in Bosnia and Herzegovina survived. Technologies of these cheeses are simple and adapted to humble mountain limitations. Geographical occasions and rich mountain pastures created a certain participation of ewe's milk cheeses. Communicative isolation of hilly-mountain regions resulted in "closed" cheese production in small households. Autochthonous cheeses in Bosnia and Herzegovina have various origins. Different cheeses are...

  16. Dee Harley: Harley Farms Goat Dairy

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    In the village of Pescadero, forty-five minutes’ drive north of Santa Cruz, Dee Harley runs San Mateo County’s only active dairy. Harley and her staff care for a herd of more than 200 American Alpine goats, crafting the animals’ milk into sought-after cheeses (chevre, feta, ricotta, and fromage blanc) that have consistently garnered awards at national and international competitions. An increasingly popular agritourism destination for denizens of the San Francisco and Monterey Bay Areas, Harle...

  17. Lactobacillus Reuteri: A Newcomer in Dairy Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Klantschitsch, T.; Spillmann, H.; Puhan, Z.

    1996-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri is an inhabitant of the gastrointestinal of humans and animals and has been isolated also from food (sausages, cheese, sour dough). It is suggested that L. reuteri, a dominant heterofermentative Lactobacillus species with unique taits, may interact beneficially in stabilizing the intestinal microflora, thus, having a protective function against pathogenic microorganisms. L. reuteri as a newcomer in dairy technology and products are appearing on the market which are suppl...

  18. Cardiometabolic Effects of Cheese Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev

    In several countries, the dietary guidelines for preventing CVD focus on reducing the intake of saturated fat. A high cheese intake in particular may however not be associated with CVD risk, despite a high content of saturated fat. This could be due to a reduced digestibility of fat in cheese....... The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate how the fat content of the cheese-matrix and the cheese ripening duration affect cardiometabolic risk markers and fecal fat excretion. The thesis is based on three intervention studies, two in pigs and one in humans. The results suggested that fat content...... of cheese-matrix may influence the HDL-cholesterol response, while the ripening duration may affect the level of free fatty acids and insulin in the blood. Furthermore the results showed that a diet with saturated fat in cheese or meat caused a higher HDL-cholesterol, but not LDL-cholesterol, compared...

  19. Tracing and inhibiting growth of Staphylococcus aureus in barbecue cheese production after product recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johler, S; Zurfluh, K; Stephan, R

    2016-05-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most prevalent causes of foodborne intoxication worldwide. It is caused by ingestion of enterotoxins formed by Staphylococcus aureus during growth in the food matrix. Following a recall of barbecue cheese due to the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins in Switzerland in July 2015, we analyzed the production process of the respective dairy. Although most cheese-making processes involve acidification to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria, barbecue cheese has to maintain a pH >6.0 to prevent undesired melting of the cheese. In addition, the dairy decided to retain the traditional manual production process of the barbecue cheese. In this study, therefore, we aimed to (1) trace Staph. aureus along the barbecue cheese production process, and (2) develop a sustainable strategy to inhibit growth of Staph. aureus and decrease the risk of staphylococcal food poisoning without changing the traditional production process. To this end, we traced Staph. aureus in a step-wise blinded process analysis on 4 different production days using spa (Staphylococcus protein A gene) typing, DNA microarray profiling, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. We subsequently selected a new starter culture and used a model cheese production including a challenge test assay to assess its antagonistic effect on Staph. aureus growth, as well as its sensory and technological implications. We detected Staph. aureus in 30% (37/124) of the collected samples taken from the barbecue cheese production at the dairy. This included detection of Staph. aureus in the final product on all 4 production days, either after enrichment or using quantitative detection. We traced 2 enterotoxigenic Staph. aureus strains (t073/CC45 and t282/CC45) colonizing the nasal cavity and the forearms of the cheesemakers to the final product. In the challenge test assay, we were able to show that the new starter culture inhibited growth of Staph. aureus while meeting

  20. Detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese from experimentally infected goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Verma, S K; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Cassinelli, A B; Ying, Y; Kwok, O C H; Tuo, W; Chiesa, O A; Jones, J L

    2014-10-01

    The consumption of unpasteurized goat cheese and goat's milk has been suggested as a risk factor for toxoplasmosis in humans. In the present study, detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese was studied by bioassay in mice (milk) and in cats (cheese). Eight goats were inoculated orally with 300 to 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii strain TgGoatUS26. Milk samples were collected daily up to 30 days postinoculation and bioassayed in mice and cats. For mouse bioassay, 50 ml of milk samples were centrifuged, and the sediment was inoculated subcutaneously into mice. Mice were tested for T. gondii infection by seroconversion and by the demonstration of parasites. By mouse bioassay, T. gondii was detected in milk from all eight goats. The T. gondii excretion in milk was intermittent. For cat bioassay, 400 ml (100 ml or more from each goat) of milk from four goats from 6 to 27 days postinoculation were pooled daily, and cheese was made using rennin. Ten grams of cheese was fed daily to four cats, and cat feces were examined for oocyst shedding. One cat fed cheese shed oocysts 7 to 11 days after consuming cheese. Attempts were made to detect T. gondii DNA in milk of four goats; T. gondii was detected by PCR more consistently, but there was no correlation between detection of viable T. gondii by bioassay in mice and T. gondii DNA by PCR. Results indicate that T. gondii can be excreted in goat's milk and can survive in fresh cheese made by cold-enzyme treatment. To prevent transmission to humans or animals, milk should not be consumed raw. Raw fresh goat cheese made by cold-enzyme treatment of unpasteurized milk also should not be consumed.

  1. Bitter taste – cheese failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste is serous and very often cheese failure in modern cheesemaking process. In this paper the sources and bitter taste development in cheese will be presented. Bitterness in cheese is linked to bitter compounds development during cheese ripening. Most of the bitter compounds come from bitter peptides, the mechanism of theirs development being due to proteasepeptidase system of the cured enzymes and the milk cultures as well as other proteases present in cheese. By the action of curd enzymes, the milk protein - casein - is firstly degraded into high molecular weight compounds possessing no bitter taste. Those compounds are then degraded, by milk protease cultures, to hydrophobic bitter peptides of low molecular weight further degraded, by bacterial endopeptidase during cheese ripening, to bitter peptides and amino acids. In the case when no balance exists, between bitter compounds development and breakdown by lactic acid bacteria peptidase, an accumulation of bitter peptides occurs thus having an influence on cheese bitterness. During cheese ripening naturally occurring milk protease – plasmin, and thermostable proteases of raw milk microflora are also involved in proteolytic process. Fat cheese lipases, initiated by lipase originating from psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk as well as other cheese lipases, are also associated with bitter taste generation. The other sources of bitterness come from the forages, the medicament residues as well as washing and disinfecting agents. In order to eliminate these failures a special care should be taken in milk quality as well as curd and milk culture selection. At this point technological norms and procedures, aimed to maintain the proteolysis balance during cheese ripening, should be adjusted, thus eliminating the bitter taste of the cheese.

  2. The trace metal levels in milk and dairy products consumed in middle Anatolia-Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayar, Ahmet; Sert, Durmuş; Akin, Nihat

    2009-05-01

    In this study, aluminium (Al), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) contents in milk and different dairy product samples were measured. Pb, Cd, As, Al and Se contents in the milk and different dairy products ranged from 0.054 mg/kg (milk powder)-1.100 mg/kg (Kaşar cheese), 0.009 mg/kg (whey powder and yogurt)-0.051 mg/kg (Tulum cheese), 0.010 mg/kg (whey powder)-0.146 mg/kg (butter), 2.848 mg/kg (ice cream)-8.778 (drained yogurt) and n.d. (ice cream, milk and whey powder, yogurt, ayran and Lor cheese)-0.434 mg/kg (Tulum cheese), respectively. The 75% of White and Kaşar cheeses, 50% of Lor and 12.5% of Tulum cheese samples contained higher Pb according to the legal limits established by the Turkish Food Codex and European Communities regulation and 12.5% of Tulum cheese sample contained Cd. It was concluded that Pb contents of milk and dairy products from this region might be highly hazardous to human.

  3. Dairy and functional foods research in the Agricultural Research Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit is the only group in the Agricultural Research Service that is dedicated to solving critical problems in milk utilization and fruit and vegetable byproducts from specialty crops. The many areas of investigation include development of specialty cheese, c...

  4. Perspective of Membrane Technology in Dairy Industry: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pavan; Sharma, Neelesh; Ranjan, Rajeev; Kumar, Sunil; Bhat, Z. F.; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2013-01-01

    Membrane technology has revolutionized the dairy sector. Different types of membranes are used in the industry for various purposes like extending the shelf life of milk without exposure to heat treatment, standardization of the major components of milk for tailoring new products as well increasing yield and quality of the dairy products, and concentrating, fractionation and purification of milk components especially valuable milk proteins in their natural state. In the cheese industry, membranes increase the yield and quality of cheese and control the whey volume, by concentrating the cheese milk. With the advancement of newer technology in membrane processes, it is possible to recover growth factor from whey. With the introduction of superior quality membranes as well as newer technology, the major limitation of membranes, fouling or blockage has been overcome to a greater extent. PMID:25049918

  5. Dairy product intake in relation to glucose regulation indices and risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struijk, E A; Heraclides, A; Witte, D R; Soedamah-Muthu, S S; Geleijnse, J M; Toft, U; Lau, C J

    2013-09-01

    A high intake of dairy has been linked to lower risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The relationship between dairy intake and glucose metabolism is still not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the intake of total dairy and dairy subgroups and T2D and measures of glucose metabolism. A total of 5953 Danish men and women aged 30-60 years without baseline diabetes or cardiovascular diseases were included in this prospective analysis. The dairy intake at baseline was categorised into low-fat dairy, full-fat dairy, milk and milk products, cheese and fermented dairy. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG), HbA1c, insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) and beta-cell function (HOMA2-B) were considered at 5-year follow-up. In the maximally-adjusted model (demographics, lifestyle factors, dietary factors and waist), cheese intake was inversely associated with 2hPG (β = -0.048, 95% CI -0.095; -0.001). Fermented dairy intake was inversely associated with FPG (β = -0.028, 95% CI -0.048; -0.008) and HbA1c (β = -0.016, 95% CI -0.030; -0.001). Total dairy intake and the dairy subgroups were not related to HOMA-IR and HOMA-B in the maximally-adjusted model. Furthermore, there was no significant association between intake of total dairy or any of the dairy subgroups and incidence of T2D. Our data suggest a modest beneficial effect of cheese and fermented dairy on glucose regulation measures; however, this did not translate into a significant association with incident T2D. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of staphylococcal enterotoxins in cheese by immunoenzyme assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most common foodborne diseases resulting from the ingestion of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs preformed in foods by enterotoxigenic strains of coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS, mainly Staphylococcus aureus. The presence of enterotoxigenic strains of coagulase-positive staphylococci in raw milk during the production process leads to the contamination of products and outbreaks of alimentary intoxication. The problem of Staphylococcus aureus in cheese remains significant on a global level. Domestic cheese contaminated with enterotoxigenic staphylococci can result in the formation of enterotoxin, which can produce foodborne illness when the product is ingested. Due to microbiological contamination, microbiological criteria are tools that can be used in assessing the safety and quality of foods. In order to avoid foodborne illness, the Serbian Regulation on General and Special Conditions for Food Hygiene (Official Gazette of RS, No. 72/10 provides microbiological criteria for staphylococcal enterotoxins in dairy products.

  7. Microbiological quality of retail cheeses made from raw, thermized or pasteurized milk in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C L; Rhoades, J R; Sagoo, S K; Harris, J; Greenwood, M; Mithani, V; Grant, K; McLauchlin, J

    2008-04-01

    Two studies of retail fresh, ripened and semi-hard cheeses made from raw, thermized or pasteurized milk were undertaken in the UK during 2004 and 2005 to determine the microbiological quality of these products. Using microbiological criteria in European Commission Recommendations 2004/24/EC and 2005/175/EC, 2% of both raw, thermized (37/1819 samples) and pasteurized (51/2618 samples) milk cheeses were of unsatisfactory quality. Raw or thermized milk cheeses were of unsatisfactory quality due to levels of Staphylococcus aureus at 10(4)cfu g(-1), Escherichia coli at 10(5)cfu g(-1), and/or Listeria monocytogenes at 10(2)cfu g(-1), whereas pasteurized milk cheeses were of unsatisfactory quality due to S. aureus at 10(3)cfu g(-1) and/or E. coli at 10(3)cfu g(-1). Salmonella was not detected in any samples. Cheeses were of unsatisfactory quality more frequently when sampled from premises rated as having little or no confidence in management and control systems, and stored/displayed at above 8 degrees C. Raw or thermized milk cheeses were also more likely to be of unsatisfactory quality when they were unripened types, and pasteurized milk cheeses when they were: semi-hard types; from specialist cheese shops or delicatessens; cut to order. These results emphasize the need for applying and maintaining good hygiene practices throughout the food chain to prevent contamination and/or bacterial growth. Labelling of cheeses with clear information on whether the cheese was prepared from raw milk also requires improvement.

  8. Microbiological quality of white local sheep cheese in Mosul city markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H.A. AL-Hamdany

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The soft white cheese is considered one of the most popular locally manufactured cheese in Iraq, a kind of traditional cheese that is mainly produced from sheep milk. It usually becomes available in the markets of Mosul between the months of February and July. To investigate the microbiological quality, 25 samples of white, soft, un-salted fresh locally produced sheep cheese were collected from the market in Mosul. These cheese samples were examined by the quantity method to determine the total viable bacterial counts (TVC and the total counts of coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria. The minimum, maximum and average results of the aforementioned bacterial counts were 1.0x106, 1.4x103, 1.4x102 CFU g-; 2.9x108, 6.0x107, 12.6x105 CFU g- and 18.0x107, 5.8x106, 3.1x105 CFU g-1, respectively. Corresponding to the ‘International Microbiological Reference Criteria’ for cheese, it could be clear from these results that the samples were highly contaminated. Hence, it can be concluded that the sanitary conditions were inadequate either during the milk production and cheese manufacturing process or throughout their distribution in the local market. Therefore, it is recommended to comply with the public health and sanitary measures during the process of local cheese production. In consequence, it is essential to follow the annual screening of local cheese in terms of bacterial counts to determine the degree of contamination and in order to develop a national standard microbiological criteria and quality control for local cheese.

  9. Effect of milk composition and coagulation traits on Grana Padano cheese yield under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretto, Denis; De Marchi, Massimo; Penasa, Mauro; Cassandro, Martino

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chemical composition, coagulation properties, pH, and titratable acidity (TA, SH°/50 ml) of vat milk on Grana Padano cheese yield (CY) under field conditions. Twelve cheese-making sessions were carried out from February to December 2009 in a dairy cooperative of Grana Padano Consortium (Italy), for a total of 96 vats of milk processed. For each vat, samples of raw milk were collected and analysed for quality traits (fat, protein, and casein contents), pH, TA, and milk coagulation properties (MCP), measured as rennet coagulation time (RCT, min), curd-firming time (k(20), min), and curd firmness (a(30), mm). Cheese yield was expressed as kilograms of cheese per 100 kg milk transformed, and was measured after 2 d of drainage. Fat, protein, and casein contents were positively and strongly correlated with CY (coefficients of correlation, r = 0.72, 0.88, and 0.84, respectively; P Coagulation properties were moderately and significantly (P milk that coagulated earlier and had stronger a(30) was associated to greater CY. Cheese yield was analysed with a model that accounted for fixed effects of cheese-making day, fat and protein content, TA, and a(30). Significance was found for all the effects (P Milk characterised by high values of a(30) resulted in higher CY than milk with low values of a 30, indicating that MCP could be used as indicators of cheese-making efficiency. Future research should investigate the relationships between MCP and quality of cheese, and explore the feasibility of including MCP in multiple component milk pricing system for Grana Padano cheese production.

  10. Does fat in milk, butter and cheese affect blood lipids and cholesterol differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholstrup, Tine; Høy, Carl-Erik; Andersen, Lene Normann; Christensen, Robin D K; Sandström, Brittmarie

    2004-04-01

    To compare the effects of isoenergetic amounts of milk, cheese and butter (adjusted to the same content of lactose and casein) on fasting and postprandial blood lipids and lipoproteins, and on postprandial glucose and insulin response. The experiments were designed to provide 20% of total energy from dairy fat, as either whole milk, mean (+/-SD) 2164 (+/-97) g, butter 93 (+/-4) g, and hard cheese 305 (+/-45) g, which were served to 14 healthy young men for three periods of three weeks each, separated by washout periods, in a randomized, cross-over study with strictly controlled dietary intake. Fasting blood samples were taken at the end of the study periods. Measurements of the postprandial effect of the three different dairy test products (0.7 g of milk fat/kg body weight) were carried out on day 4 of each intervention period. Blood samples were taken before and at 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours following intake of the meals. Fasting LDL cholesterol concentration was significantly higher after butter than cheese diet (p = 0.037), with a borderline significant difference in total cholesterol (p = 0.054) after the experimental periods of three weeks. Postprandial glucose showed a higher response after cheese diet than after milk diet (p = 0.010, diet x time interaction). A different effect of fat in milk and butter could not be confirmed in this study. The moderately lower LDL cholesterol after cheese diet compared to butter diet should be investigated further.

  11. Foodborne Pathogens Prevention and Sensory Attributes Enhancement in Processed Cheese via Flavoring with Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayel, Ahmed A; Hussein, Heba; Sorour, Noha M; El-Tras, Wael F

    2015-12-01

    Cheese contaminations with foodborne bacterial pathogens, and their health outbreaks, are serious worldwide problems that could happen from diverse sources during cheese production or storage. Plants, and their derivatives, were always regarded as the potential natural and safe antimicrobial alternatives for food preservation and improvement. The extracts from many plants, which are commonly used as spices and flavoring agents, were evaluated as antibacterial agents against serious foodborne pathogens, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, using qualitative and quantitative assaying methods. Dairy-based media were also used for evaluating the practical application of plant extracts as antimicrobial agents. Most of the examined plant extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity; the extracts of cinnamon, cloves, garden cress, and lemon grass were the most powerful, either in synthetic or in dairy-based media. Flavoring processed cheese with plant extracts resulted in the enhancement of cheese sensory attributes, for example odor, taste, color, and overall quality, especially in flavored samples with cinnamon, lemon grass, and oregano. It can be concluded that plant extracts are strongly recommended, as powerful and safe antibacterial and flavoring agents, for the preservation and sensory enhancement of processed cheese. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. 21 CFR 133.165 - Parmesan and reggiano cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Parmesan and reggiano cheese. 133.165 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.165 Parmesan and reggiano cheese. (a) Parmesan cheese, reggiano cheese...

  13. Construction of a dairy microbial genome catalog opens new perspectives for the metagenomic analysis of dairy fermented products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Mathieu; Hebert, Agnes; Abraham, Anne-Laure

    2014-01-01

    sequencing is a promising approach to characterize their genomic and functional profiles. Such analyses, however, critically depend on the availability of appropriate reference genome databases against which the sequencing reads can be aligned. Results: We built a reference genome catalog suitable for short...... Kluyvera, Luteococcus and Marinilactibacillus, still missing from public database. To demonstrate the potential of this catalog, we analysed the microbial composition of the surface of two smear cheeses and one blue-veined cheese, and showed that a significant part of the microbiota of these traditional...... cheeses was composed of microorganisms newly sequenced in our study. Conclusions: Our study provides data, which combined with publicly available genome references, represents the most expansive catalog to date of cheese-associated bacteria. Using this extended dairy catalog, we revealed the presence...

  14. Potential of anticlostridial Lactobacillus isolated from cheese to prevent blowing defects in semihard cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Pia; Vogensen,, F. K.; Nielsen, E. W

    2010-01-01

    Five anticlostridial Lactobacillus strains isolated from cheese were selected for a mixed adjunct culture. Cheese with the mixed adjunct culture (experimental) and without (control) was made in triplicate and ripened as vacuum-packed and surface-ripened cheese. Cheese gross composition was similar....... Excessive gas formation occurred only in control cheeses. In contrast to control cheeses, the experimental cheeses were dominated by the added adjunct Lactobacillus strains (repetitive-PCR). Casein breakdown was not influenced, however, the total amount of amino acids and pH was slightly lower...... in the experimental cheeses. Anticlostridial nonstarter Lactobacillus strains have potential as protective adjunct cultures against blowing defects in cheese....

  15. Fresh Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    30 July 2004 This full-resolution (1.5 meters, 5 feet, per pixel) Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a fairly small, fresh meteor impact crater in far southeastern Arabia Terra. The crater's bowl, rim, and ejecta exhibit numerous boulders. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is located near 6.9oS, 317.1oW. Sunlight illuminates the terrain from the left.

  16. Invited review: Microbial evolution in raw-milk, long-ripened cheeses produced using undefined natural whey starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Monica; Bottari, Benedetta; Lazzi, Camilla; Neviani, Erasmo; Mucchetti, Germano

    2014-02-01

    The robustness of the starter culture during cheese fermentation is enhanced by the presence of a rich consortium of microbes. Natural starters are consortia of microbes undoubtedly richer than selected starters. Among natural starters, natural whey starters (NWS) are the most common cultures currently used to produce different varieties of cheeses. Undefined NWS are typically used for Italian cooked, long-ripened, extra-hard, raw milk cheeses, such as Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano. Together with raw milk microbiota, NWS are responsible for most cheese characteristics. The microbial ecology of these 2 cheese varieties is based on a complex interaction among starter lactic acid bacteria (SLAB) and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB), which are characterized by their different abilities to grow in a changing substrate. This review aims to summarize the latest findings on Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano to better understand the dynamics of SLAB, which mainly arise from NWS, and NSLAB, which mainly arise from raw milk, and their possible role in determining the characteristics of these cheeses. The review is presented in 4 main sections. The first summarizes the main microbiological and chemical properties of the ripened cheese as determined by cheese-making process variables, as these variables may affect microbial growth. The second describes the microbiota of raw milk as affected by specific milk treatments, from milking to the filling of the cheese milk vat. The third describes the microbiota of NWS, and the fourth reviews the knowledge available on microbial dynamics from curd to ripened cheese. As the dynamics and functionality of complex undefined NWS is one of the most important areas of focus in current food microbiology research, this review may serve as a good starting point for implementing future studies on microbial diversity and functionality of undefined cheese starter cultures. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association

  17. Higher Dairy Food Intake Is Associated With Higher Spine Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) Bone Measures in the Framingham Study for Men But Not Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, van Laura H.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Hannan, Marian T.; Sahni, Shivani

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies found that dairy foods were associated with higher areal bone mineral density (BMD). However, data on bone geometry or compartment-specific bone density is lacking. In this cross-sectional study, the association of milk, yogurt, cheese, cream, milk+yogurt, and milk+yogurt+cheese

  18. Comprehensive Review of the Impact of Dairy Foods and Dairy Fat on Cardiometabolic Risk123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin-Chartier, Jean-Philippe; Côté, Julie Anne; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Brassard, Didier; Tessier-Grenier, Maude; Desroches, Sophie; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Because regular-fat dairy products are a major source of cholesterol-raising saturated fatty acids (SFAs), current US and Canadian dietary guidelines for cardiovascular health recommend the consumption of low-fat dairy products. Yet, numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have reported rather mixed effects of reduced- and regular-fat dairy consumption on blood lipid concentrations and on many other cardiometabolic disease risk factors, such as blood pressure and inflammation markers. Thus, the focus on low-fat dairy in current dietary guidelines is being challenged, creating confusion within health professional circles and the public. This narrative review provides perspective on the research pertaining to the impact of dairy consumption and dairy fat on traditional and emerging cardiometabolic disease risk factors. This comprehensive assessment of evidence from RCTs suggests that there is no apparent risk of potential harmful effects of dairy consumption, irrespective of the content of dairy fat, on a large array of cardiometabolic variables, including lipid-related risk factors, blood pressure, inflammation, insulin resistance, and vascular function. This suggests that the purported detrimental effects of SFAs on cardiometabolic health may in fact be nullified when they are consumed as part of complex food matrices such as those in cheese and other dairy foods. Thus, the focus on low-fat dairy products in current guidelines apparently is not entirely supported by the existing literature and may need to be revisited on the basis of this evidence. Future studies addressing key research gaps in this area will be extremely informative to better appreciate the impact of dairy food matrices, as well as dairy fat specifically, on cardiometabolic health. PMID:28140322

  19. Bacteriological studies on Limburger cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Erian, A.F.M.

    1969-01-01

    A study has been made of the ripening process of Limburger cheese, including microbiological investigations of the surface flora and chemical analyses of the cheese during the different stages of ripening. The microbial flora was studied both qualitatively and quantitatively. In addition to the

  20. Cheese consumption in relation to cardiovascular risk factors among Iranian adults- IHHP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Asgary, Sedigheh; Roohafza, HamidReza; Gharipour, Mojgan; Sajjadi, Firouzeh; Khalesi, Saman; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2014-06-01

    It is expected that dairy products such as cheeses, which are the main source of cholesterol and saturated fat, may lead to the development or increase the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases; however, the results of different studies are inconsistent. This study was conducted to assess the association between cheese consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in an Iranian adult population. Information from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) was used for this cross-sectional study with a total of 1,752 participants (782 men and 970 women). Weight, height, waist and hip circumference measurement, as well as fasting blood samples were gathered and biochemical assessments were done. To evaluate the dietary intakes of participants a validated food frequency questionnaire, consists of 49 items, was completed by expert technicians. Consumption of cheese was classified as less than 7 times per week and 7-14 times per week. Higher consumption of cheese was associated with higher C-Reactive Protein (CRP), apolipoprotein A and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level but not with fasting blood sugar (FBS), total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG) and apolipoprotein B. Higher consumption of cheese was positively associated with consumption of liquid and solid oil, grain, pulses, fruit, vegetable, meat and dairy, and negatively associated with Global Dietary Index. After control for other potential confounders the association between cheese intake and metabolic syndrome (OR: 0.81; 96%CI: 0.71-0.94), low HDL-C level (OR: 0.87; 96%CI: 0.79-0.96) and dyslipidemia (OR: 0.88; 96%CI: 0.79-0.98) became negatively significant. This study found an inverse association between the frequency of cheese intake and cardiovascular risk factors; however, further prospective studies are required to confirm the present results and to illustrate its mechanisms.

  1. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in European cheeses: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Dalgaard, Paw

    Both in Europe and worldwide cheese has cause important outbreaks of listeriosis and can be a vehicle for transmission of Listeria monocytogenes to consumers. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted using scientific literature and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reports...... to summarize available data on the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in different types of cheeses produced in Europe. Multilevel random-effects meta-analysis models were used to estimate mean prevalence rates of the pathogen and to compare prevalence between types of cheeses (fresh, mould-ripened, ripened, smear.......7-1-2%). The prevalence differed between types of cheeses including fresh (1.4%; CI: 0.6-3.2%), mould-ripened (2.0%; CI: 0.6-6.3%), ripened (2.2%; CI: 0.9-5.6%), smear-ripened (4.8%; CI: 1.5-14.5%) and brined (8.6%; CI: 1.7-34.4%). Mean prevalence of L. monocytogenes in fresh and soft/semi-soft cheeses were...

  2. Improving the Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Goat Cheese by the Addition of Cranberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Apostu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the goat milk cheeses have gained popularity due to the increased interest of consumers in both the tradition of cheesemaking and the sensorial and nutritional value attributed to goat milk. This study aimed to assess and compare the chemical and sensory characteristics of fresh cheese with a mixture of cranberry fruits in different concentrations. The following average values were obtained for the chemical parameters analyzed: pH 4.85 ± 0.155, titratable acidity (°T 150 ± 0,094, dry matter (% 58.33 ± 1.55, and fat (% 27.74 ± 53.24. Sensory evaluation highlighted the influence of the addition of cranberry on the eating quality of goat cheese and its consumer acceptability. Results showed that the goat cheese supplementation with 9% cranberry significantly improves the stability of acidic flavor during storage.

  3. Effects of addition of somatic cells to caprine milk on cheese quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Macías, D.; Morales-delaNuez, Antonio; Torres, A.

    2013-01-01

    Milk quality criteria and limits for somatic cell count (SCC) established in many countries make it difficult to maintain SCC of bulk tank goat milk below the threshold, due to non-infection factors linked to goat physiology. The aim of this study was to objectively verify the effects of SCC...... on fresh caprine milk cheese. Somatic cells were recovered from pooled healthy goat milk, and added to low SCC raw or pasteurised goat milk. Miniature cheeses were made and evaluated after 1 and 7 d. Somatic cells had a major effect on lipolysis, increasing free fatty acids regardless of whether milk...... was raw or pasteurised. The effect of somatic cells on proteolysis was specific for caseins and the effects were different if cheeses are made from raw or pasteurised milk. It is concluded that somatic cells themselves in caprine milk can directly affect some cheese parameters....

  4. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF COXIELLA BURNETII IN CHEESES PRODUCED IN SOUTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.T.R. Proroga

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the presence of Coxiella burnetii in cow, buffalo and small ruminants (sheep and goat cheeses produced in southern Italy has been evaluated with the aim to analyze the risk of infection for consumers. The survey was performed using molecular assays (Real-Time PCR to detect the presence of C. burnetii DNA. The samples have been furthermore tested with specific methods for species identification in milk and dairy products. C. burnetii has been detected in 75% of cow cheese samples, while in small ruminants and buffaloes diary products have been assessed at 45,9% and 23,9% respectively.

  5. Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Barbuti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A screening survey of the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 was carried out on 265 samples of cheese made from cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, sheep-goat milk collected in the Apulia region (Southern Italy. Selected samples included unripened, medium and long-term ripened cheeses. AFM1 was found in 16.6% of the analyzed samples. The highest positive incidence was for medium and long-term ripened cheeses, especially those made from sheep-goat milk, while buffalo cheeses tested consistently negative. Our results show that the level of contamination by AFM1 in dairy products from Apulia Region are lower than in other Italian and European regions. Moreover, it is important to underline that a common European norm concerning the AFM1 threshold limits for dairy products is still lacking.

  6. Manufacture of probiotic Minas Frescal cheese with Lactobacillus casei Zhang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Aline B; Jesus, Vitor F; Silva, Ramon; Almada, Carine N; Esmerino, E A; Cappato, Leandro P; Silva, Marcia C; Raices, Renata S L; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo N; Carvalho, Celio C; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Bolini, Helena M A; Freitas, Monica Q; Cruz, Adriano G

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the addition of Lactobacillus casei Zhang in the manufacture of Minas Frescal cheese was investigated. Minas Frescal cheeses supplemented with probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei Zhang) were produced by enzymatic coagulation and direct acidification and were subjected to physicochemical (pH, proteolysis, lactic acid, and acetic acid), microbiological (probiotic and lactic bacteria counts), and rheological analyses (uniaxial compression and creep test), instrumental color determination (luminosity, yellow intensity, and red intensity) and sensory acceptance test. The addition of L. casei Zhang resulted in low pH values and high proteolysis indexes during storage (from 5.38 to 4.94 and 0.470 to 0.702, respectively). Additionally, the cheese protocol was not a hurdle for growth of L. casei Zhang, as the population reached 8.16 and 9.02 log cfu/g by means of the direct acidification and enzymatic coagulation protocol, respectively, after 21 d of refrigerated storage. The rheology data showed that all samples presented a more viscous-like behavior, which rigidity tended to decrease during storage and lower luminosity values were also observed. Increased consumer acceptance was observed for the control sample produced by direct acidification (7.8), whereas the cheeses containing L. casei Zhang presented lower values for all sensory attributes, especially flavor and overall liking (5.37 and 4.61 for enzymatic coagulation and 5.57 and 4.72 for direct acidification, respectively). Overall, the addition of L. casei Zhang led to changes in all parameters and affected negatively the sensory acceptance. The optimization of L. casei Zhang dosage during the manufacturing of probiotic Minas Frescal cheese should be performed. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. EFFECT OF THE CONSUMPTION OF A CHEESE ENRICHED WITH PROBIOTIC ORGANISMS (BIFIDOBACTERIUM LACTIS BI-07 IN IMPROVING SYMPTOMS OF CONSTIPATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Cassia FAVRETTO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Constipation is a very common symptom in the general population. One way of non-pharmacological treatment of constipation is through the addition of probiotics to food. Obectives The aim of this study was to evaluate de effect of the consumption of a fresh cheese, enriched with Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 on the symptoms of constipated women. Methods A randomized controlled trial, carried out in the Basic Health Units of Guaporé's City – RS/Brazil, between january and may 2012, with 30 constipated women. The patients were randomized into two groups whom received, for 30 days, 30 g of fresh cheese enriched with Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 (n = 15 or regular fresh cheese (n = 15. Constipation symptoms were evaluated according to ROMA III Consensus, before and after the nutritional intervention. Also, data of clinical and anthropometric characteristics of the individuals were collected. Accepted level of significance 5% (P≤0,05. Results The medium age of the studied population was 37,5±14,4 years in the intervention group and 40,8±12,8 years in the control group. After 30 days we observed that the ingestion of fresh cheese enriched with Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 promoted benefic effects on the symptoms of strength to evacuate. Conclusion The consumption of 30g/day of a fresh cheese enriched with Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 has beneficial effects on constipation symptoms.

  8. Effect of the consumption of a cheese enriched with probiotic organisms (Bifidobacterium lactis bi-07) in improving symptoms of constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favretto, Diane Cássia; Pontin, Bruna; Moreira, Thaís Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Constipation is a very common symptom in the general population. One way of non-pharmacological treatment of constipation is through the addition of probiotics to food. The aim of this study was to evaluate de effect of the consumption of a fresh cheese, enriched with Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 on the symptoms of constipated women. A randomized controlled trial, carried out in the Basic Health Units of Guaporé's City - RS/Brazil, between January and May 2012, with 30 constipated women. The patients were randomized into two groups whom received, for 30 days, 30 g of fresh cheese enriched with Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 (n = 15) or regular fresh cheese (n = 15). Constipation symptoms were evaluated according to ROMA III Consensus, before and after the nutritional intervention. Also, data of clinical and anthropometric characteristics of the individuals were collected. Accepted level of significance 5% (P≤0,05). The medium age of the studied population was 37,5±14,4 years in the intervention group and 40,8±12,8 years in the control group. After 30 days we observed that the ingestion of fresh cheese enriched with Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 promoted benefic effects on the symptoms of strength to evacuate. The consumption of 30g/day of a fresh cheese enriched with Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 has beneficial effects on constipation symptoms.

  9. Dairy constituents and neurocognitive health in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfield, David A; Owen, Lauren; Scholey, Andrew B; Pipingas, Andrew; Stough, Con

    2011-07-01

    Age-related cognitive decline (ARCD) and dementia are of increasing concern to an ageing population. In recent years, there has been considerable research focused on effective dietary interventions that may prevent or ameliorate ARCD and dementia. While a number of studies have considered the impact that dairy products may have on physiological health, particularly with regard to the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular health, further research is currently needed in order to establish the impact that dairy products have in the promotion of healthy brain function during ageing. The present review considers the available evidence for the positive effects of dairy products on the metabolic syndrome and glucose regulation, with consideration of the implications for neurocognitive health. A literature search of current (September 2010) meta-analyses/reviews and original research regarding dairy products and cognition was conducted through SCOPUS using the following search terms for dairy consituents: dairy, milk, cheese, yoghurt, probiotics, whey protein, alpha lactalbumin, calcium, B-12, bioactive peptides and colostrinin (CLN). These search terms for dairy products were combined with the following search terms related to cognition and health: cognition, cognitive decline, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, insulin resistance and glucose regulation. Concerns regarding SFA and other fatty acids found in dairy products are also reviewed in relation to different forms of dairy products. The review also considers recent evidence for positive neurocognitive effects associated with bioactive peptides, CLN and proline-rich polypeptides, α-lactalbumin, vitamin B12, calcium and probiotics. Future directions for the extraction and purification of beneficial constituents are also discussed. It is concluded that low-fat dairy products, when consumed regularly as part of a balanced diet, may have a number of beneficial outcomes for neurocognitive health

  10. EXPORT OF CHEESE IN RUSSIA: THE ROLE OF IZSPLV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pellegrino

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Contaminants like heavy metals could remain in milk and its by-products if forage used for ruminant nutrition is contaminated with high levels of these elements. In EU maximum levels (LMRare established only for lead in milk. In Russia limits have been fixed for different heavy metals in milk and dairy products; for this reason exporting countries, including Italy, have to demonstrate the conformity of their products to the expected limits. IZSPLV analysed 18 cheese samples to research lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury. All samples were negative and could be exported toRussia.

  11. Genetic diversity of lactococci and enterococci isolated from home-made Pecorino Sardo ewes' milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannu, L; Paba, A

    2002-01-01

    To assess the intraspecific genetic diversity of lactococci and enterococci isolated from 24-h, 1- and 2-month-old home-made Pecorino Sardo ewes' milk cheese. Two molecular techniques, plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, were used in order to type the isolates at strain level. The present study revealed that the lactococcal and enterococcal microbial populations of home-made Pecorino Sardo cheese were complex, not only 24 h after manufacture, but also after 1 and 2 months of ripening. The genetic diversity at subspecies level ranged from 58 to 80% during the three periods examined. The study also showed that the strains that dominated in the first stage of ripening were not necessarily predominant in the later periods. A high number of strains isolated at 24 h were still present in the mature cheese, but many of the genotypes were only found in the cheese after 1 or 2 months. The results showed a high intraspecific genetic diversity in the natural microbial population colonizing home-made Pecorino Sardo cheese. Two molecular techniques are necessary for a thorough and precise typing at strain level in order to better distinguish between closely related isolates and between isolates that probably belong to the same clonal lineage. The genetic complexity observed in the present study is of particular relevance in the preservation of the natural microflora of traditional Protected Designation of Origin raw milk cheeses, as well as in the selection of new starter strains for the dairy industry.

  12. Exergy analysis of an industrial-scale ultrafiltrated (UF) cheese production plant: a detailed survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Farshid; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Rafiee, Shahin

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a detailed exergy analysis of an industrial-scale ultrafiltrated (UF) cheese production plant was conducted based on actual operational data in order to provide more comprehensive insights into the performance of the whole plant and its main subcomponents. The plant included four main subsystems, i.e., steam generator (I), above-zero refrigeration system (II), Bactocatch-assisted pasteurization line (III), and UF cheese production line (IV). In addition, this analysis was aimed at quantifying the exergy destroyed in processing a known quantity of the UF cheese using the mass allocation method. The specific exergy destruction of the UF cheese production was determined at 2330.42 kJ/kg. The contributions of the subsystems I, II, III, and IV to the specific exergy destruction of the UF cheese production were computed as 1337.67, 386.18, 283.05, and 323.51 kJ/kg, respectively. Additionally, it was observed through the analysis that the steam generation system had the largest contribution to the thermodynamic inefficiency of the UF cheese production, accounting for 57.40 % of the specific exergy destruction. Generally, the outcomes of this survey further manifested the benefits of applying exergy analysis for design, analysis, and optimization of industrial-scale dairy processing plants to achieve the most cost-effective and environmentally-benign production strategies.

  13. Evaluation of Coagulase-Positive Staphylococcus Aureus Contamination in Lighvan Cheese on Retail Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Salehi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, non-sporulated, lack of capsule, immovable, aerobic and anaerobic and able to tolerate high levels of salt (up to 15 percent. Therefore, foods containing salt provides an ideal environment for bacterial growth. It is also one of the most important bacterial born of spoilable food products, especially in dairy products. Lighvan traditional cheese is consumed in many regions of Iran, especially consumption of these cheeses is very high in Tehran which in the manufacture of such cheeses, the unpasteurized and raw milk is used and the sanitary conditions during processing and subsequent storage are low. So, considering the importance of this issue in the release of poisoning, the coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus contamination in Lighvan cheese on Retail Stores was evaluated. Materials and Methods: In order to perform this study, 22 samples of traditional Lighvan cheese were collected randomly from Tehran stores and according to Iran national standards and by using of bird-parker, Cook Meat cultures and coagulase test were evaluated. Results: Total of 22 samples, 14 samples (63/6% were contaminated by S. aureus over standard and 5 (22/7% were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus coagulase positive. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that sanitary conditions should be observed during the production and Use of pasteurized milk in cheese production.

  14. Effect of adjuncts on microbiological and chemical properties of Scamorza cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidone, Angela; Braghieri, Ada; Cioffi, Silvia; Claps, Salvatore; Genovese, Francesco; Morone, Giuseppe; Napolitano, Fabio; Parente, Eugenio

    2015-03-01

    Scamorza is a semi-hard, pasta filata cheese resembling low-moisture Mozzarella cheese, with a short ripening time (cheeses, it was manufactured using 2 types of milk in the current study: 100% Italian Friesian milk (F) or 90% F and 10% Jersey cow milk (mixed, M), and 2 types of starter: Streptococcus thermophilus or S. thermophilus with peptidolytic Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Lactobacillus paracasei strains as adjuncts). The cheeses were ripened for 30d. The adjunct did not significantly affect acid production or growth of the primary starter; 2 of the species used in the adjunct (Lb. paracasei and Lb. helveticus) rapidly colonized the cheese and persisted until the end of ripening, whereas the counts of nonstarter lactic acid bacteria in the control cheese were low until the end of ripening. The use of adjuncts affected pH, microbial composition (as assessed by both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods), total free amino acid content, and volatile profile (measured using an electronic nose), whereas milk type had only a minor effect. Although differences in primary proteolysis were found, they were probably indirect and related to the effects on pH and moisture. We conclude that, even with a short ripening time (30d), use of a peptidolytic adjunct may significantly affect important features of Scamorza and may be used to create a product that is measurably different from competing products. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Proteolysis, lipolysis, volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of Hispánico cheeses made using frozen curd from raw and pasteurized ewe milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Rocío; Picon, Antonia; Gaya, Pilar; Nuñez, Manuel

    2013-02-01

    Hispánico cheese, manufactured from a mixture of cow and ewe milk, is representative of cheese varieties made using milk from more than one animal species in Mediterranean countries. The shortage of ewe milk production in autumn hinders the uniformity of Hispánico cheese composition throughout the year. To surmount this inconvenience of ewe milk seasonality, curds made in spring from raw and pasteurized ewe milk were stored frozen and used four months later for the manufacture of Hispánico cheese. Experimental cheeses were made by mixing fresh curd from pasteurized cow milk with thawed curd from raw or pasteurized ewe milk, and control cheese from a mixture of pasteurized cow and ewe milk in the same proportion. Characteristics of experimental and control cheeses throughout a 60-d ripening period were investigated. On the one hand, the experimental cheese containing frozen curd from raw ewe milk showed the highest counts of staphylococci, Gram-negative bacteria and coliforms, the highest levels of aminopeptidase and esterase activity, and the highest concentrations of free amino acids, free fatty acids, alcohols and esters. On the other, the experimental cheese containing frozen curd from pasteurized ewe milk had concentrations of free amino acids, free fatty acids and volatile compounds similar to those of control cheese, with the only exception being a higher level of ketones. Flavour intensity reached the highest scores in the experimental cheese containing frozen curd from raw ewe milk, followed by the experimental cheese containing frozen curd from pasteurized ewe milk. Flavour quality scores of both experimental cheeses were similar, and lower than those of control cheese.

  16. Systematic Review of the Association between Dairy Product Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular-Related Clinical Outcomes123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin-Chartier, Jean-Philippe; Brassard, Didier; Tessier-Grenier, Maude; Côté, Julie Anne; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Desroches, Sophie; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to determine if dairy product consumption is detrimental, neutral, or beneficial to cardiovascular health and if the recommendation to consume reduced-fat as opposed to regular-fat dairy is evidence-based. A systematic review of meta-analyses of prospective population studies associating dairy consumption with cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, hypertension, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and type 2 diabetes (T2D) was conducted on the basis of the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. Quality of evidence was rated by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation scale. High-quality evidence supports favorable associations between total dairy intake and hypertension risk and between low-fat dairy and yogurt intake and the risk of T2D. Moderate-quality evidence suggests favorable associations between intakes of total dairy, low-fat dairy, cheese, and fermented dairy and the risk of stroke; intakes of low-fat dairy and milk and the risk of hypertension; total dairy and milk consumption and the risk of MetS; and total dairy and cheese and the risk of T2D. High- to moderate-quality evidence supports neutral associations between the consumption of total dairy, cheese, and yogurt and CVD risk; the consumption of any form of dairy, except for fermented, and CAD risk; the consumption of regular- and high-fat dairy, milk, and yogurt and stroke risk; the consumption of regular- and high-fat dairy, cheese, yogurt, and fermented dairy and hypertension risk; and the consumption of regular- and high-fat dairy, milk, and fermented dairy and T2D risk. Data from this systematic review indicate that the consumption of various forms of dairy products shows either favorable or neutral associations with cardiovascular-related clinical outcomes. The review also emphasizes that further research is urgently needed to compare the impact of

  17. Dairy development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, P.; Hoorweg, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    The growth of the dairy sector as it has occurred in Kilifi and Malindi Districts is one of the few examples of successful agricultural development in the coastal region in the past decades. Between 1985 and 1997 dairy cattle have more than doubled in number. Three livestock systems are described:

  18. Caracterização fenotípica pelo antibiograma de cepas de Escherichia coli isoladas de manipuladores, de leite cru e de queijo "Minas Frescal" em um laticínio de Goiás, Brasil Phenotypic characterization by antibiogram of Escherichia coli strains isolated from handlers, raw milk and "Minas Frescal" cheese samples in a dairy process plant in Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Maria Raquel Hidalgo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar fenotipicamente isolados de Escherichia coli a partir de amostras obtidas de mãos e narizes de manipuladores, de leite cru e de queijo Minas Frescal produzidos em um laticínio em Goiás, Brasil, visando a estabelecer uma relação de contaminação entre o manipulador e/ou a matéria-prima e o produto final. Foram coletadas 24 amostras de leite cru e de queijo Minas Frescal, 46 swabs de mãos e 46 de narizes dos manipuladores envolvidos na fabricação do queijo, no período entre março/2004 e fevereiro/2005. As 69 cepas isoladas foram submetidas ao teste de suscetibilidade a seis antimicrobianos (ampicilina, cefalotina, ciprofloxacina, gentamicina, sulfametoxazol trimetoprin e tetraciclina e, a partir deste teste, foi possível agrupá-las em 17 diferentes perfis fenotípicos (A-Q. Somente um perfil fenotípico (E foi semelhante entre cepas de E. coli isoladas, tanto de amostra de queijo (14Qb como de um dos manipuladores (10M1. Tal resultado sugere uma possível contaminação do produto durante a sua manipulação; portanto, apenas neste caso pôde-se estabelecer a origem da E. coli para o queijo. Nas demais situações, não foi possível determinar a fonte da bactéria para o queijo. Conclui-se que o antibiograma não se mostrou um teste eficiente na determinação da fonte de microrganismos para o produto final.The present work aimed to type E. coli strains obtained from handlers hands and noses, raw milk and Minas Frescal cheese produced by a dairy milk processing plant in Goiás, Brazil in order to establish a contamination relationship between the sources of E. coli and cheese. Twenty-four samples were collected from raw milk and Minas Frescal cheese, 46 from hands and 46 from noses of handlers involved in the cheese manufacturing, between March/2004 and February/2005. All 69 E. coli strains isolated were submitted to the susceptibility test for six antimicrobials (ampicillin, cephalothin

  19. Dairy Products and Health: Recent Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunick, Michael H; Van Hekken, Diane L

    2015-11-04

    Milk, cheese, yogurt, and other dairy products have long been known to provide good nutrition. Major healthful contributors to the diets of many people include the protein, minerals, vitamins, and fatty acids present in milk. Recent studies have shown that consumption of dairy products appears to be beneficial in muscle building, lowering blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and preventing tooth decay, diabetes, cancer, and obesity. Additional benefits might be provided by organic milk and by probiotic microorganisms using milk products as a vehicle. New research on dairy products and nutrition will improve our understanding of the connections between these products, the bioactive compounds in them, and their effects on the human body.

  20. Microbial cell-free extracts as sources of enzyme activities to be used for enhancement flavor development of ewe milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calasso, Maria; Mancini, Leonardo; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-09-01

    Freeze-dried cell-free extracts (CFE) from Lactobacillus casei LC01, Weissella cibaria 1XF5, Hafnia alvei Moller ATCC 51815, and Debaryomyces hansenii LCF-558 were used as sources of enzyme activities for conditioning the ripening of ewe milk cheese. Compared with control cheese (CC), CFE did not affect the gross composition and the growth of the main microbial groups of the cheeses. As shown through urea-PAGE electrophoresis of the pH 4.6-soluble nitrogen fraction and the analysis of free AA, the secondary proteolysis of the cheeses with CFE added was markedly differed from that of the CC. Compared with CC, several enzyme activities were higher in the water-soluble extracts from cheeses made with CFE. In agreement, the levels of 49 volatile compounds significantly differentiated CC from the cheeses made with CFE. The level of some alcohols, ketones, sulfur compounds, and furans were the lowest in the CC, whereas most aldehydes were the highest. Each CFE seemed to affect a specific class of chemical compounds (e.g., the CFE from H. alvei ATCC 51815 mainly influenced the synthesis of sulfur compounds). Apart from the microbial source used, the cheeses with the addition of CFE showed higher score for acceptability than the control cheese. Cheese ripening was accelerated or conditioned using CFE as sources of tailored enzyme activities. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Replacement of milk fat by mixed vegetable oils in manufacturing soft cheese treated by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, E.A.; Anwar, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation aimed to study the possibility of substituting milk fat by using blended vegetable oils in manufacturing soft cheese with low salt content, in addition, lo utilize gamma irradiation to prolong the shelf-life of the new manufactured product. Therefore, one hundred (lOOKg) from fresh buffaloes milk containing 5 % milk fal and 3 % salt were divided into tow parts , the first part was used for manufacturing control soft cheese sample (containing milk fat ), while the second part was skimmed, blended with blended vegetable oils and homogenized. The skim homogenized milk containing 5% mixed vegetable oils used for manufacturing soft cheese ( new product filled ). The obtained soft cheese was subjected to 1, 2 and 3 kGy y-irradiation, and stored at refrigerator temperature. During cold storage, the sensory, microbial and chemical properties of control soft cheese and treated one were evaluated. The obtained results indicated that the replacement of milk fat by mixed vegetable oils in the manufacturing soft cheese had no effect on chemical composition and sensory properties except white color and slight oily flavor which have been noticed in treated filled cheese. In addition, irradiation dose of 3 kGy prolonged the shelf-life of treated filled cheese to 42 days compared to 18 days for control sample and scqueiitly, the new product high percentage of iinsaluraled fatly acid and no cholesterol compared with cheese made from natural milk and can be recommended as a healthy food especially for those who need to low or free cholesterol foods

  2. Intake of Dairy Products in Relation to Periodontitis in Older Danish Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit L. Heitmann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study investigates whether calcium intakes from dairy and non-dairy sources, and absolute intakes of various dairy products, are associated with periodontitis. The calcium intake (mg/day of 135 older Danish adults was estimated by a diet history interview and divided into dairy and non-dairy calcium. Dairy food intake (g/day was classified into four groups: milk, cheese, fermented foods and other foods. Periodontitis was defined as the number of teeth with attachment loss ≥3 mm. Intakes of total dairy calcium (Incidence-rate ratio (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.021, calcium from milk (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.025 and fermented foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.03 were inversely and significantly associated with periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education, sucrose intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, vitamin D intake, heart disease, visits to the dentist, use of dental floss and bleeding on probing, but non-dairy calcium, calcium from cheese and other types of dairy food intakes were not. Total dairy foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.003, milk (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.028 and fermented foods intakes (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.029 were associated with reduced risk of periodontitis, but cheese and other dairy foods intakes were not. These results suggest that dairy calcium, particularly from milk and fermented products, may protect against periodontitis. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.

  3. Classification of Pecorino cheeses produced in Italy according to their ripening time and manufacturing technique using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma-García, M J; Gori, A; Cerretani, L; Simó-Alfonso, E F; Caboni, M F

    2010-10-01

    Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, followed by linear discriminant analysis of the spectral data, was used to classify Italian Pecorino cheeses according to their ripening time and manufacturing technique. The Fourier transform infrared spectra of the cheeses were divided into 18 regions and the normalized absorbance peak areas within these regions were used as predictors. Linear discriminant analysis models were constructed to classify Pecorino cheeses according to different ripening stages (hard and semi-hard) or according to their manufacturing technique (fossa and nonfossa cheeses). An excellent resolution was achieved according to both ripening time and manufacturing technique. Also, a final linear discriminant analysis model considering the 3 categories (hard nonfossa, hard fossa, and semi-hard nonfossa) was constructed. A good resolution among the 3 categories was obtained. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Protected designation of cheese origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Antunac

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has completely adopted the EU set up criteria for protection of agricultural products and foodstuffs through the implementation of two Regulations: Quality of the Protected Denomination of Origin and Protected Geographical Indication (NN.80/05 and Traditional Speciality Guaranteed (NN. 127/05. According to the results obtained from the four years research period on the production characteristics of the Pag sheep, milk and the Pag cheese quality, the essential description for certification and quality control of any autochthonous cheese are shown. Additionally, regardless from the arranged criteria for protection, other legal regulations that cheeses have to comply with are also described.

  5. Commercial ripening starter microorganisms inoculated into cheese milk do not successfully establish themselves in the resident microbial ripening consortia of a South german red smear cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerges, Stefanie; Mounier, Jérôme; Rea, Mary C; Gelsomino, Roberto; Heise, Valeska; Beduhn, Rüdiger; Cogan, Timothy M; Vancanneyt, Marc; Scherer, Siegfried

    2008-04-01

    Production of smear-ripened cheese critically depends on the surface growth of multispecies microbial consortia comprising bacteria and yeasts. These microorganisms often originate from the cheese-making facility and, over many years, have developed into rather stable, dairy-specific associations. While commercial smear starters are frequently used, it is unclear to what degree these are able to establish successfully within the resident microbial consortia. Thus, the fate of the smear starters of a German Limburger cheese subjected to the "old-young" smearing technique was investigated during ripening. The cheese milk was supplemented with a commercial smear starter culture containing Debaryomyces hansenii, Galactomyces geotrichum, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, and Brevibacterium aurantiacum. Additionally, the cheese surface was inoculated with an extremely stable in-house microbial consortium. A total of 1,114 yeast and 1,201 bacterial isolates were identified and differentiated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism, random amplified polymorphic DNA, repetitive PCR, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis analyses were used to type selected isolates below the species level. The D. hansenii starter strain was primarily found early in the ripening process. The G. geotrichum starter strain in particular established itself after relocation to a new ripening room. Otherwise, it occurred at low frequencies. The bacterial smear starters could not be reisolated from the cheese surface at all. It is concluded that none of the smear starter strains were able to compete significantly and in a stable fashion against the resident microbial consortia, a result which might have been linked to the method of application. This finding raises the issue of whether addition of starter microorganisms during production of this type of cheese is actually necessary.

  6. Milk and dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Jing; Astrup, Arne; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2017-01-01

    to September 2016. Random-effect meta-analyses with summarised dose-response data were performed for total (high-fat/low-fat) dairy, milk, fermented dairy, cheese and yogurt. Non-linear associations were investigated using the spine models and heterogeneity by subgroup analyses. A total of 29 cohort studies...... (included sour milk products, cheese or yogurt; per 20 g/day) with mortality (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99; I(2) = 94.4%) and CVD risk (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99; I(2) = 87.5%). Further analyses of individual fermented dairy of cheese and yogurt showed cheese to have a 2% lower risk of CVD (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.......95-1.00; I(2) = 82.6%) per 10 g/day, but not yogurt. All of these marginally inverse associations of totally fermented dairy and cheese were attenuated in sensitivity analyses by removing one large Swedish study. This meta-analysis combining data from 29 prospective cohort studies demonstrated neutral...

  7. The effect of dairy products choice on calcium dietary intake in female university students of nutritional faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarek, Dariusz; Głabska, Dominika; Lange, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Dairy products provide the most important source of calcium in a typical human diet, being of particular significance to women. To determine dietary calcium intakes in a group of female students studying human nutrition at a Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW through analysing the selections made of dairy products. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess average consumption of dairy products. Total daily calcium intakes were then estimated by adding the intakes obtained from such dairy products to an average non-dairy calcium value obtained from other foodstuffs and taken to be 250 mg. Varied choices were made of dairy foodstuffs, with most subjects consuming milk, milk beverages, cottage cheese and rennet cheese. Calcium intakes were thus dependent on the dietary assortment of such selected dairy products made. Whenever cheeses were avoided in the diet, then low calcium intakes became more common. When compared to dietary recommendations, calcium intakes in this group of young women were inadequately low especially for those not eating cheese and despite supposedly having sufficient knowledge through studying this subject area.

  8. Fermented dairy products: knowledge and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat, Sharareh; Koba, Lesia

    2006-01-01

    Much has been published on the nutritional and health benefits of fermented dairy products, especially those containing probiotic microorganisms. However, consumers may not be familiar with the term "fermented dairy products," and therefore may not take full advantage of them. University students' knowledge and consumption patterns of fermented dairy products were assessed. University students (n=223) completed a survey consisting of a section on demographics and another on knowledge and consumption patterns. The majority of respondents (62%) were not familiar with the term "fermented dairy products." Most respondents consumed yogourt a few times a week (40%) or a few times a month (30%). Almost all respondents (92%) were unable to identify the difference between regular and probiotic yogourt. Most respondents (93%) had not heard of acidophilus milk, but the majority (65%) would be willing to try it. Most respondents were unsure whether sour cream (65%), yogourt beverages (74%), and cheddar cheese (61%) were fermented dairy products. Sixty percent of respondents never consumed yogourt drinks. Education is needed about fermented dairy products, especially probiotics, and their nutritional and health benefits. Such education may increase their acceptability and consumption.

  9. [Dairy products as source of folates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Marika; Cichosz, Grazyna

    2014-04-01

    Dairy products, especially yoghurts and blue cheeses, are underestimated source of folates in human diet. Though foliates content in dairy products is lower than in vegetables and cereals, nevertheless their bioavailability and stability is much better. High folate stability results from presence of hydro- and lipophylic antioxidants efficiently protecting folates and other bioactive compounds against oxidation processes on synergic way. On the other hand, high bioavailability is a consequence of folic appearing in milk mainly in form of mono glutamates and also of a presence of a protein ready to bind folates (FBP--folic binding protein). FBP makes easier folates transport through cell membranes. Moreover, present in milk sphingolipids and cholesterol stimulate activity of FBP. Mould cheeses and milk fermented beverages contain the highest amount of folates. However, cottage cheese contain considerable amount of folic binding protein. Regular consumption of milk fermented beverages and eating them together with vegetables and fruits rich in folates is a chance to increase covering of folic demand.

  10. SANITARY EVALUATION OF MILK PRODUCTS IN MOUNTAIN DAIRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mioni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available between 2006 and 2007 881 samples of “malga” (little mountain dairies milk products were analysed to estimate their hygienic characteristics. Several samples showed high counts for Escherichia coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci, while Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. were absent in all of the samples; 0,9% of cheese samples, 4,1% of butter samples and 4,7% of “ricotta” samples were positive for Listeria monocytogenes, so as 14,7% of cheese samples for staphylococcal enterotoxins.

  11. Lymphatic fat absorption varies among rats administered dairy products differing in physiochemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruekilde, Maj-Britt; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    , these results demonstrated different lymphatic absorption patterns of fat from dairy products differing in physiochemical properties. Because the fatty acid composition of the dairy products differed only slightly, other factors such as viscosity, type of emulsion, particle size, and likely also protein content......We examined in rats the intestinal absorption of fat from dairy products differing in physiochemical properties. Five dairy products (cream cheese, cream, sour cream, butter, and mixed butter) with minor differences in fatty acid composition were administered by gavage to rats, and lymphatic fat...

  12. Lymphatic fat absorption varies among rats administered dairy products differing in physiochemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruekilde, Maj-Britt; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    We examined in rats the intestinal absorption of fat from dairy products differing in physiochemical properties. Five dairy products (cream cheese, cream, sour cream, butter, and mixed butter) with minor differences in fatty acid composition were administered by gavage to rats, and lymphatic fat......, these results demonstrated different lymphatic absorption patterns of fat from dairy products differing in physiochemical properties. Because the fatty acid composition of the dairy products differed only slightly, other factors such as viscosity, type of emulsion, particle size, and likely also protein content...

  13. Biodiversity and γ-aminobutyric acid production by lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional alpine raw cow's milk cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciosi, Elena; Carafa, Ilaria; Nardin, Tiziana; Schiavon, Silvia; Poznanski, Elisa; Cavazza, Agostino; Larcher, Roberto; Tuohy, Kieran M

    2015-01-01

    "Nostrano-cheeses" are traditional alpine cheeses made from raw cow's milk in Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy. This study identified lactic acid bacteria (LAB) developing during maturation of "Nostrano-cheeses" and evaluated their potential to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an immunologically active compound and neurotransmitter. Cheese samples were collected on six cheese-making days, in three dairy factories located in different areas of Trentino and at different stages of cheese ripening (24 h, 15 days, and 1, 2, 3, 6, and 8 months). A total of 1,059 LAB isolates were screened using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR) and differentiated into 583 clusters. LAB strains from dominant clusters (n = 97) were genetically identified to species level by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. LAB species most frequently isolated were Lactobacillus paracasei, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The 97 dominant clusters were also characterized for their ability in producing GABA by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). About 71% of the dominant bacteria clusters evolving during cheeses ripening were able to produce GABA. Most GABA producers were Lactobacillus paracasei but other GABA producing species included Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. No Enterococcus faecalis or Sc. macedonicus isolates produced GABA. The isolate producing the highest amount of GABA (80.0±2.7 mg/kg) was a Sc. thermophilus.

  14. Preliminary findings on the effect of light-oxidation on Asiago d’allevo vecchio protected designation of origin cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Balzan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Food is exposed to light during processing, packaging, distribution and retail storage, resulting in deterioration of the product quality. Milk and other dairy products are among the most sensitive due to the high content of riboflavin, vitamin B2, which is an efficient photosensitizer for oxidative processes. Photooxidation in cheese induces degradation of nutritional quality such as proteins, lipids, and vitamins. Moreover, it causes formation of off-flavours, off-odours and gradual bleaching. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of light exposition on sliced Asiago d’allevo cheese (lowland vs alpine aerobically packaged stored for 336 h under both fluorescent light and in the dark. Alpine cheese showed higher b* (P<0.001 and a* indexes (P<0.001 and also a higher lipid oxidation (P<0.01 than lowland one. Riboflavin content was significantly higher (P<0.001 in lowland cheese. Cheese samples exposed to the light were significantly lighter (P<0.001 than those exposed in the dark and they also showed a decrease in yellowness (P<0.001 and redness (P<0.001 as well as in riboflavin content (P<0.001. Lipid oxidation did not produce statistically significant change. Storage time significantly affected riboflavin content (P<0.001, TBARs (P<0.001 and cheese colour (P<0.001. Results suggest that light exposition had a pronounced effect on cheese characteristics.

  15. Autoinducer-2 activity produced by bacteria found in smear of surface ripened cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Moslehi Jenabian, Saloomeh; Purrotti, Micol

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial strains of the species Arthrobacter nicotianae, Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, Corynebacterium casei, Microbacterium barkeri, Microbacterium gubbeenense and Staphylococcus equorum subsp. linens, all isolated from the smear of surface ripened cheeses, were found to possess autoinducer-2 (...... increased by dairy-relevant stress conditions, indicates that AI-2 signalling might be important in regulation of microbial succession during ripening of surface ripened cheeses.......Bacterial strains of the species Arthrobacter nicotianae, Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, Corynebacterium casei, Microbacterium barkeri, Microbacterium gubbeenense and Staphylococcus equorum subsp. linens, all isolated from the smear of surface ripened cheeses, were found to possess autoinducer-2 (AI......-2) activity using the Vibrio harveyi (BB170) bioluminescence assay. In contrast, Brevibacterium casei and Brevibacterium linens strains were not found to have AI-2 activity. When exposed to low pH and high NaCl concentrations, AI-2 activities increased between 5.0 and 11.6× for C. casei 44701, M...

  16. 21 CFR 133.116 - Low sodium cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low sodium cheddar cheese. 133.116 Section 133.116... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.116 Low sodium cheddar cheese. Low sodium cheddar cheese is the food...

  17. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the food...

  18. 21 CFR 133.160 - Muenster and munster cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Muenster and munster cheese. 133.160 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.160 Muenster and munster cheese. (a) Description. (1) Muenster cheese...

  19. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the...

  20. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms to...

  1. 21 CFR 133.169 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 133.169 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.169 Pasteurized process cheese. (a)(1) Pasteurized process cheese is...

  2. 21 CFR 133.195 - Swiss and emmentaler cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swiss and emmentaler cheese. 133.195 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.195 Swiss and emmentaler cheese. (a) Description. (1) Swiss cheese...

  3. 21 CFR 133.111 - Caciocavallo siciliano cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Caciocavallo siciliano cheese. 133.111 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.111 Caciocavallo siciliano cheese. (a) Caciocavallo siciliano cheese is...

  4. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms to...

  5. 21 CFR 133.104 - Asiago old cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Asiago old cheese. 133.104 Section 133.104 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.104 Asiago old cheese. Asiago old cheese conforms to the definition and standard of...

  6. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition and...

  7. 21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low sodium colby cheese. 133.121 Section 133.121... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.121 Low sodium colby cheese. Low sodium colby cheese is the food...

  8. Determination of fat, protein, moisture, and salt content of Cheddar cheese using mid-infrared transmittance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolies, Brenda J; Barbano, David M

    2018-02-01

    protein, which suggests that MIR could be an easy and effective way for cheese producers to measure protein to determine protein recovery in cheese making. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Liking of traditional cheese and consumer willingness to pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Braghieri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We review herein the relevance of credence and sensory attributes for cheese liking as a basis for subsequent discussion on attributes related to traditional dairy products such as place of origin, process characteristics, etc. Several studies suggest that place of origin may have a positive impact on consumer evaluation. In addition, protected designation of origin labels generally affects consumers’ purchasing decisions, with a premium price paid for traditional products. Some of the main dimensions of traditional food products are: familiarity of the product, processing through traditional recipes, sensory properties and origins. However, different dimensions can be relevant for consumers of different countries. Southern European regions frequently tend to associate the concept of traditional with broad concepts such as heritage, culture or history; whereas central and northern European regions tend to focus mainly on practical issues such as convenience, health or appropriateness. Sensitivity to traditional cheese attributes may also vary according to different groups of consumers with older, more educated and wealthier subjects showing higher willingness to pay and acceptance levels. Given that sensory properties play a central role in product differentiation, we can conclude that information about credence attributes, if reliable, positively perceived and directed to sensitive groups of consumers, is able to affect consumer liking and willingness to pay for traditional cheese. Thus, it provides a further potential tool for product differentiation to small-scale traditional farms, where husbandry is often based on extensive rearing systems and production costs tend to be higher.

  10. Ewe welfare and ovine milk and cheese quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sevi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Causes of welfare reduction in dairy sheep flocks are presented and their impact on ovine milk and cheese quality is discussed. Attention is focused on climatic extremes, poor housing and milking hygiene, and nutritional imbalance: mechanisms are outlined through which stress-induced reduction of immune function can result in poor milk composition, deteriorated renneting ability of milk and altered proteolysis in cheese during ripening. In particular, the impact is brought out of exposure to high ambient temperature on the nutritional properties of ewe milk, in terms of increased short-chain and saturated fatty acids, and decreased unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio. As well, the relationship is highlighted between ewe welfare and udder health. Especially under poor hygiene conditions the risk of mastitis markedly increases due to reduction of the natural defense mechanisms of the teat and mammary gland and increased number and pathogenicity of the micro-organisms in contact with the entrance of the teat canal. Evidence is provided that rise in milk somatic cell count, in response to bacteria penetration into the udder, can lead to decreased milk yield and altered composition of milk and cheese, due to extensive epithelium secretory cell damage.

  11. Yeasts from autochthonal cheese starters: technological and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetti, A; Carrasco, M; Reinheimer, J; Suárez, V

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this work was to identify 20 yeasts isolated from autochthonal cheese starters and evaluate their technological and functional properties. The capacities of the yeasts to grow at different temperatures, pH, NaCl and lactic acid concentrations as well as the proteolytic and lipolytic activities were studied. Moreover, survival to simulated gastrointestinal digestion, hydrophobicity, antimicrobial activity against pathogens and auto- and co-aggregation abilities were evaluated. The sequentiation of a fragment from the 26S rDNA gene indicated that Kluyveromyces marxianus was the predominant species, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Clavispora lusitaniae, Kluyveromyces lactis and Galactomyces geotrichum. RAPD with primer M13 allowed a good differentiation among strains from the same species. All strains normally grew at pH 4.7-5.5 and temperatures between 15 and 35°C. Most of them tolerated 10% NaCl and 3% lactic acid. Some strains showed proteolytic (eight isolates) and/or lipolytic (four isolates) capacities. All strains evidenced high gastrointestinal resistance, moderate hydrophobicity, intermediate auto-aggregation and variable co-aggregation abilities. No strains inhibited the growth of the pathogens assayed. Some strains from dairy sources showed interesting functional and technological properties. This study has been the first contribution to the identification and characterization of yeasts isolated from autochthonal cheese starters in Argentina. Many strains could be proposed as potential candidates to be used as probiotics and/or as co-starters in cheese productions. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Dairy product intake in relation to glucose regulation indices and risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struijk, E A; Heraclides, A; Witte, Daniel Rinse

    2013-01-01

    and milk products, cheese and fermented dairy. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG), HbA(1c), insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) and beta-cell function (HOMA2-B) were considered at 5-year follow-up. In the maximally-adjusted model (demographics, lifestyle factors, dietary factors and waist......), cheese intake was inversely associated with 2hPG (β = -0.048, 95% CI -0.095; -0.001). Fermented dairy intake was inversely associated with FPG (β = -0.028, 95% CI -0.048; -0.008) and HbA(1c) (β = -0.016, 95% CI -0.030; -0.001). Total dairy intake and the dairy subgroups were not related to HOMA......-IR and HOMA-B in the maximally-adjusted model. Furthermore, there was no significant association between intake of total dairy or any of the dairy subgroups and incidence of T2D. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a modest beneficial effect of cheese and fermented dairy on glucose regulation measures; however...

  13. GENETIC POLYMORPHISM AT THE K-CASEIN LOCUS IN A DAIRY HERD OF ROMANIAN SPOTTED AND BROWN OF MARAMURES BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIE DANIELA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Caseins are a family of milk proteins that exist in several molecular forms and arethe main proteins present in the bovine milk. Genetic variation of these proteins hasbeen associated with the quality and quantity of cheese derived from milk.This study was focused on possibilities to evaluate the frequency of the K-casein Ballele in dairy herds from the Research and Development Station for Bovine RaisingArad in order to have breeding programs that target an increase in the frequency ofthe B allele in the dairy cattle population.In order to differentiate the favorable genotype for superior composition and highercheese yield, we used simple DNA extraction method from fresh blood andtechniques based on DNA analysis, which include polymerase chain reaction andrestriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP methods. Employing thesetechniques we were able to determine the k-casein genotype of all individuals in agiven population under selection, regardless of sex, age or physiological stage.As a result, it is now possible to include information on milk protein genotypes intomarker assisted selection programs and consequently improve response to selection.

  14. GENETIC POLYMORPHISM AT THE K-CASEIN LOCUS IN A DAIRY HERD OF ROMANIAN SPOTTED AND BROWN OF MARAMURES BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA ILIE

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Caseins are a family of milk proteins that exist in several molecular forms and arethe main proteins present in the bovine milk. Genetic variation of these proteins hasbeen associated with the quality and quantity of cheese derived from milk.This study was focused on possibilities to evaluate the frequency of the K-casein Ballele in dairy herds from the Research and Development Station for Bovine RaisingArad in order to have breeding programs that target an increase in the frequency ofthe B allele in the dairy cattle population.In order to differentiate the favorable genotype for superior composition and highercheese yield, we used simple DNA extraction method from fresh blood andtechniques based on DNA analysis, which include polymerase chain reaction andrestriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP methods. Employing thesetechniques we were able to determine the k-casein genotype of all individuals in agiven population under selection, regardless of sex, age or physiological stage.As a result, it is now possible to include information on milk protein genotypes intomarker assisted selection programs and consequently improve response to selection.

  15. Intake of dairy products in relation to periodontitis in older danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda R A; Christensen, Lisa B; Holm-Pedersen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates whether calcium intakes from dairy and non-dairy sources, and absolute intakes of various dairy products, are associated with periodontitis. The calcium intake (mg/day) of 135 older Danish adults was estimated by a diet history interview and divided...... into dairy and non-dairy calcium. Dairy food intake (g/day) was classified into four groups: milk, cheese, fermented foods and other foods. Periodontitis was defined as the number of teeth with attachment loss =3 mm. Intakes of total dairy calcium (Incidence-rate ratio (IRR) = 0.97; p = 0.021), calcium from...... milk (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.025) and fermented foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.03) were inversely and significantly associated with periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education, sucrose intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, vitamin D intake, heart disease, visits to the dentist...

  16. Quality of milk used in informal artisanal production of coalho and butter cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Cristina de Medeiros

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal cheeses such as coalho and butter participate in the socio-cultural identity of people and deserve recognition. Like many artisanal cheeses, it is common to produce coalho and butter cheeses from raw milk. For this reason, it is essential that the raw material from dairies is of good quality to minimize risks to consumers. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of milk in artisanal cheese factories in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Fifty samples were collected from areas that stand out in dairy production in the state. These samples underwent microbiological and physical–chemical analysis, as well as antibiotic residue and fraud searches. Viable strict and facultative mesophilic bacteria were surveyed, in addition to total and thermotolerant coliforms, Salmonella sp., and Staphylococcus aureus; titratable acidity in Dornic degrees, density, cryoscopy, stability to alizarol, and percentages of protein, lactose, and fat contents were also measured, and tests for residues and recurrent fraud in milk were conducted. In general, all samples exceeded the limit established by law for mesophilic bacteria counting; Salmonella sp. was found in one sample. Given this contamination, the acidity of 76% of the samples was higher than allowed by the legislation. Regarding fat and protein parameters, 14% and 10% of the samples were below the required values by the legislation, respectively. Furthermore, there is suspicion of fraud by adding water in 24% of samples. Chlorides were found in 16% and antimicrobial residues in 46% of samples. Therefore, the quality of the milk used in informal artisanal cheese making in the state of Rio Grande do Norte is poor and may pose a risk to consumers, with the loss of quality of coalho and butter cheeses.

  17. Diversity of l-Ieucine catabolism in various microorganisms involved in dairy fermentations, and identification on the rate-controlling step in the formation of the potent flavour component 3-methylbutanal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, B.A.; Engels, W.J.M.; Wouters, J.T.M.; Smit, G.

    2004-01-01

    Various microorganisms, belonging to the genera Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Propionibacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium and Arthrobacter, used in dairy fermentations such as cheese making, were analysed for their potential to convert leucine into

  18. Concentration of nutritional important minerals in Croatian goat and cow milk and some dairy products made of these

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hardi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of the minerals (Ca, Mg and P and trace elements (Zn, Fe were determined in goat and cow’s dairy products. The aim of this work was to determine the concentrations of mentioned minerals and trace elements in fermented dairy products made of goat milk, as well as in East Croatia traditional White Slice goat cheese. Obtained results show that goat milk and dairy products from goat milk had higher concentration of Mg and Fe than these of cow milk. Goat milk and dairy products from goat milk also had higher concentration of P, whereas the concentration of Ca was equally in goat and cow milk. However, significantly lower concentrations of Zn in goat milk and goat milk products were determined. Levels of analyzed major and trace minerals were higher in fermented dairy products and cheeses than in liquid milk. The levels of major and trace minerals in White Slice cheese were greater than those in fermented milk products. High content of phosphorus in White Slice goat cheese than in White Slice cow cheese was determined.

  19. Quantitative microbial risk assessment for Staphylococcus aureus in natural and processed cheese in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heeyoung; Kim, Kyunga; Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Yoon, Yohan

    2015-09-01

    This study quantitatively assessed the microbial risk of Staphylococcus aureus in cheese in Korea. The quantitative microbial risk assessment was carried out for natural and processed cheese from factory to consumption. Hazards for S. aureus in cheese were identified through the literature. For exposure assessment, the levels of S. aureus contamination in cheeses were evaluated, and the growth of S. aureus was predicted by predictive models at the surveyed temperatures, and at the time of cheese processing and distribution. For hazard characterization, a dose-response model for S. aureus was found, and the model was used to estimate the risk of illness. With these data, simulation models were prepared with @RISK (Palisade Corp., Ithaca, NY) to estimate the risk of illness per person per day in risk characterization. Staphylococcus aureus cell counts on cheese samples from factories and markets were below detection limits (0.30-0.45 log cfu/g), and pert distribution showed that the mean temperature at markets was 6.63°C. Exponential model [P=1 - exp(7.64×10(-8) × N), where N=dose] for dose-response was deemed appropriate for hazard characterization. Mean temperature of home storage was 4.02°C (log-logistic distribution). The results of risk characterization for S. aureus in natural and processed cheese showed that the mean values for the probability of illness per person per day were higher in processed cheese (mean: 2.24×10(-9); maximum: 7.97×10(-6)) than in natural cheese (mean: 7.84×10(-10); maximum: 2.32×10(-6)). These results indicate that the risk of S. aureus-related foodborne illness due to cheese consumption can be considered low under the present conditions in Korea. In addition, the developed stochastic risk assessment model in this study can be useful in establishing microbial criteria for S. aureus in cheese. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Quality and safety of artisan cheese produced in the serrana region of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giane Helenita Pontarolo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The serrano artisan cheese produced from raw milk of dairy cattle is a typical product of high-altitude farms in the states of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. However, marketing of the cheeses occurs illegally because they lack the minimum maturation period required for cheese produced from raw milk. The production of artisan cheeses is required to follow strict hygiene standards. This study aimed to test the quality and safety of cheeses that were produced in 31 farms of the Serrana region in Santa Catarina after 14 and 28 days of maturation. Coliform count was measured at 35 °C, and presence of other microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Listeria spp., and Salmonella spp. were also tested. Fat and protein percentages, acidity, salt content, and humidity were also evaluated. Data were subjected to statistical analyses using the SAS® software. After 14 and 28 days of maturation, 74.19% (23/31 and 64.52% (20/31 of samples, respectively, showed higher numbers of coliforms at 35 °C than those permissible by law. Higher than permissible numbers of E. coli were observed in 45.16% (14/31 and 48.39% (15/31 of the samples analyzed after 14 and 28 days of maturation, respectively. Coagulase-positive staphylococci values above 103 CFU/g were observed in 54.84% (17/31 and 51.61% (16/31 of cheese samples after 14 and 28 days of maturation, respectively. Contamination with Salmonella spp. was not detected. However, Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b was isolated in 3.23% (1/31 and 6.45% (2/31 of samples after 14 and 28 days of maturation, respectively. The results of humidity tests classified the cheese samples into three categories: low, medium, and high humidity. Semi fat cheeses were predominant in both maturation periods, although the samples were classified in thin, semi fat, and fat cheeses. The main variations in the compositions of analyzed samples occurred for salt and acidity levels. The maturation process has not proven

  1. Effect of selected Hofmeister salts on textural and rheological properties of nonfat cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankey, J A; Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A

    2011-09-01

    influenced the texture and rheology of nonfat cheese probably by altering the strength of hydrophobic interactions between CN. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of the bacterial microflora in dairy products by temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogier, Jean-Claude; Son, Olivier; Gruss, Alexandra; Tailliez, Patrick; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnes

    2002-08-01

    Numerous microorganisms, including bacteria, yeasts, and molds, are present in cheeses, forming a complex ecosystem. Among these organisms, bacteria are responsible for most of the physicochemical and aromatic transformations that are intrinsic to the cheesemaking process. Identification of the bacteria that constitute the cheese ecosystem is essential for understanding their individual contributions to cheese production. We used temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) to identify different bacterial species present in several dairy products, including members of the genera Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Enterococcus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus. The TTGE technique is based on electrophoretic separation of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragments by using a temperature gradient. It was optimized to reveal differences in the 16S rDNA V3 regions of bacteria with low-G+C-content genomes. Using multiple control strains, we first set up a species database in which each species (or group of species) was characterized by a specific TTGE fingerprint. TTGE was then applied to controlled dairy ecosystems with defined compositions, including liquid (starter), semisolid (home-made fermented milk), and solid (miniature cheese models) matrices. Finally, the potential of TTGE to describe the bacterial microflora of unknown ecosystems was tested with various commercial dairy products. Subspecies, species, or groups of species of lactic acid bacteria were distinguished in dairy samples. In conclusion, TTGE was shown to distinguish bacterial species in vitro, as well as in both liquid and solid dairy products.

  3. Investigation of air bipolar i