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Sample records for dairy cows supplemented

  1. Reproductive performance by dairy cows fed supplemental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical metabolic disorders and clinical puerperal complications were not affected by chromium methionine supplementation. The results of this experiment showed that chromium methionine supplementation in multiparous dairy cows diet may improve their reproductive performance in transition period. Key words: Dairy ...

  2. Mastitis and oxidative stress in vitamin E supplemented dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The research described in this thesis evaluated the effect of vitamin E supplementation under field conditions on the udder health of Dutch dairy cows. Additionally, it investigated the mechanism by which vitamin E influenced oxidative stress, especially during the dry period. Moreover, it

  3. Microelement Supplementation in Dairy Cows by Mineral Lick

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    Štěpán Krys

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to verify the option of providing microelement supplementation to dairy cows in the dry period through supplemented mineral lick, and then to compare the content of microelements in the blood, colostrum and milk. The experiment was carried out on a farm with Czech Fleckvieh dairy cows. We formed an experimental group (E, supplied with mineral lick ad libitum enhanced with organic forms of microelements (Se, Zn, Cu, Mn for four to five weeks before parturition and 1 week after parturition. The control group (C did not receive any mineral lick. The use of mineral lick by cows was very uneven, its total consumption oscillated between 0 to 250 g of lick per animal per day. Lick feeding did not result in evidential increase of concentrations of monitored microelements in the cows’ blood, colostrum and milk. Only a tendency to increased concentrations of Se and Cu in the blood of group E of cows was observed; the average Se concentration increased by 60 μg l-1 (Cu by 9 μmol l-1, whereas in group C, Se increased only by 30 μg l-1 (Cu by 6 μg l-1. The concentration of microelements in colostrum after parturition dropped quickly. Significant drops were determined for Se, Cu and Zn on the first (for Mn on the second day after parturition. Selenium concentration in the first colostrum was 5 times higher than in milk, Cu concentration 3 times higher, Zn concentration 4 times higher and Mn concentration 1.3 times higher.

  4. Milk yield and reproductive performance of dairy heifers and cows supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine productive and fertility responses of Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows to supplementation with extruded linseed and soybean as sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Supplementation had a positive effect on profitability, with significant increases in milk yield in supplemented cows, but not in heifers. Treatments had no effect on milk fat content, but higher milk protein contents were observed with supplementation. A higher conception rate was found for supplemented heifers, but not for cows. Fat sources containing PUFAs are recommended for dairy cattle supplementation, since they improve fertility in heifers and milk yield in cows.

  5. Selenium (Se) supplementation on the Se status of dairy cows in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selenium (Se) supplementation on the Se status of dairy cows in the Midlands of KwaZulu-Natal. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... Accepting that a concentration of >200 ng/mL blood indicates an adequate Se intake, the recorded concentrations suggest that the cows were deficient to marginally deficient in Se.

  6. Dietary Protected Feed Supplement to Increase Milk Production and Quality of Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, A.; Handayanta, E.; Widayati, D. T.; Putro, P. P.; Kustono

    2017-04-01

    The efforts to improve and optimize productivity of dairy cows require sufficient availability of nutrients, especially high energy in the early period of lactation. Increasing energy intake in dairy cows can be conducted by increasing the density of energy. The research aimed to evaluate dietary protected feed supplement on milk production and quality, including: fat, protein, and lactose content of Friesian Holstein dairy cow milk. Protected feed supplement was produced from sardine fish oil, through saponification and microencapsulation protection methods. The experiment consists of two treatments i.e. P0: basal diet (control) and P1: basal diet + 3 % protected feed supplement. Each treatment was repeated 15 times. Data were analyzed by independent samples t-test analysis. Results showed that supplementation of protected sardine fish oil had no effect on lactose content, but increased milk yield production (pmilk fat content (p<0.05), and protein content (p<0.05).

  7. Milk production responses to different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auldist, M J; Marett, L C; Greenwood, J S; Wright, M M; Hannah, M; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2016-01-01

    for all feeding strategies, but the decline was most marked for the control cows. Milk protein concentration increased for all groups as the amount of supplement increased, but was greater for FGM, PMRL, and PMRH cows than control cows. It is concluded that when supplements are fed to grazing dairy cows, inclusion of corn grain and canola meal can increase milk production even at similar metabolizable energy intakes, and that it does not matter whether these supplements are fed as a PMR or in the parlor and paddock. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of supplementing crossbt·ed lactating dairy cows fed elephant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    b) The optimal level of a concentrate supplement for cross- bred lactating dairy cows fed elephant grass-lab lab hay as a basal diets and its effects on milk yield and milk composition. The study comprised of two feeding experiments. Experiment 1. Effect of supplementing elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) with Lablab.

  9. Ingestive behavior of pastured crossbred dairy cows offered different supplement types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Aline Medeiros de Paula; Silva, Dulciene Karla de Andrade; Ferreira, Marcelo de Andrade; Veras, Antonia Sherlânea Chaves; Ferreira, Geane Dias Gonçalves; Vigoderis, Ricardo Brauer; Arcanjo, Helton Gregory Santos; Silva, Jarbas Miguel; de Almeida, Josimar Santos; Fotius, Anna Christine Alencar; Farias, Glébio de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different supplements on the behavior variables of crossbred dairy cows that were in pasture that comprised two 4 × 4 Latin squares (four periods, four treatments, and four animals). Each experimental period lasted 15 days (10 days to adapt animals to treatments and 5 days for data collection). The animals were supplemented twice a day, with different forage (corn silage and cactus pear) and concentrate sources (soy mea + wheat meal + corn meal + cotton seed together and soy meal as a single constituent of the concentrate). A significant difference (p ingestive behavior of crossbred dairy cows.

  10. Reevaluation of vitamin E supplementation of dairy cows: bioavailability, animal health and milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, I

    2012-09-01

    Although vitamin E has been known as an essential nutrient for almost 80 years, we are far from a complete understanding of all the aspects related to bioavailability and its effects on health and milk quality in dairy cows. Vitamin E is a generic descriptor for two families of lipid-soluble compounds, the tocopherols and the tocotrienols, of which α-tocopherol has the highest biological activity. Commercially available α-tocopherol supplements for dairy cows contain either the natural RRR form or the synthetic (all-rac) form, which contains all the eight possible stereoisomers (four possessing the 2R and four possessing the 2S configuration) in equimolar amounts. Recent data clearly suggest that an almost complete discrimination against the 2S isomers occurs in dairy cows. Thus, 1 g of the all-rac form is essentially equivalent to 0.5 g of the RRR form. With respect to the effect of vitamin E supplementation of dairy cows on health and milk quality, the majority of published studies suggests that vitamin E supplementation at the level 1000 to 4000 IU/cow per day during the dry period reduces both the frequency of intramammary infection and that of clinical mastitis and improves milk quality, as shown by a reduction in the levels of somatic cell count (SCC)/ml in milk, decreased plasmin activity and increased oxidative stability of milk. However, a recent study from the Netherlands suggested that vitamin E supplementation at the 3000 IU/cow per day level during the dry period when combined with high levels of plasma vitamin E at dry-off (>14.5 μmol/l) increases the incidence of mastitis. Data from previously unpublished survey studies and those from published vitamin E feeding trials, in which high levels of blood vitamin E were observed, were reanalyzed. All farms selected for the analysis implemented oral administration of vitamin E at the 3000 IU/cow per day level throughout or during the late dry period (4 weeks before the expected day of parturition). Dairy

  11. Effects of supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid on reproduction of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinedino, Letícia D P; Honda, Paula M; Souza, Letícia R L; Lock, Adam L; Boland, Maurice P; Staples, Charles R; Thatcher, William W; Santos, José E P

    2017-05-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of supplementing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich algae on reproduction of dairy cows. Holstein cows were assigned randomly to either a control ( n  = 373) or the same diet supplemented daily with 100 g/cow of an algae product containing 10% DHA (algae, n  = 366) from 27 to 147 days postpartum. Measurements included yields of milk and milk components, fatty acids (FA) profiles in milk fat and plasma phospholipids, resumption of ovulation by 57 days postpartum, pregnancy per artificial insemination (AI) and expression of interferon-stimulated genes in leukocytes. Feeding algae increased resumption of estrous cyclicity (77.6 vs 65.9%) and pregnancy at first AI (47.6 vs 32.8%) in primiparous cows. Algae increased pregnancy per AI in all AI in both primiparous and multiparous cows (41.6 vs 30.7%), which reduced days to pregnancy by 22 days (102 vs 124 days) compared with control cows. Pregnant cows fed algae had greater expression of RTP4 in blood leukocytes compared with those in pregnant control cows. Feeding algae increased the incorporation of DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid, conjugated linoleic acid isomers cis -9 trans -11, trans -10 cis -12 and total n-3 FA in phospholipids in plasma and milk fat. Yields of milk and true protein increased by 1.1 kg/day and 30 g/day respectively, whereas fat yield decreased 40 g/day in algae compared with that in control. Supplementing DHA-rich algae altered the FA composition of lipid fractions and improved reproduction in dairy cows. The benefits on reproduction might be mediated by enhanced embryo development based on changes in interferon-stimulated gene expression. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  12. Effect of oral supplementation of bamboo grass leaves extract on cellular immune function in dairy cows

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    Hiromichi Ohtsuka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta glucans extracted from bamboo (Sasa sensanensis grass leaves are known to have an immune-modulatory effect in animals. These glucans have been used for the treatment of diseases such as viral infections, inflammation, and cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immuno-modulatory effect of SanSTAGETM (pure compounds obtained from the bamboo grass leaves; 25% of bamboo grass extract and 75% of dextrin on peripheral blood leukocyte population and mRNA expression of immune related molecules of 20 dairy cows. Ten cows were orally administered 30 mg/kg/day of SanSTAGETM for first two weeks; the other 10 cows were control without supplementation. The blood samples were collected in tubes containing dipotassium-EDTA for analysis of leukocyte population, and in tubes containing heparin for analysis of cytokine production. Cows supplemented with SanSTAGETM showed an increased number of CD8+ T cells and expression of perforin (cytotoxicity factor to virally infected cells and MX-2 (anti-virus factor. The study describes for the first time that oral administration of supplement extracted from Kumaizasa bamboo grass leaves affects cellar immune function of dairy cows, and can be recommended as part of diet for prevention of infectious diseases.

  13. Effect of grass dry matter intake and fat supplementation on progesterone metabolism in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, I A; Dewhurst, R J; Evans, A C O; Lonergan, P; Butler, S T

    2012-09-01

    Progesterone (P4) metabolism in dairy cattle can be manipulated by alterations in dry matter intake and diet composition. Our objectives were to determine the effects of grazing allowance and fat supplementation on P4 metabolism in lactating dairy cows. Forty mid- to late-lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a completely randomized block design, with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were assigned to receive 1 of 2 pasture allowances (ad libitum allowance [AL], 9.5 kg dry matter per day, or restricted allowance [R] 7 kg dry matter per day) and 1 of 2 fat supplementation treatments (750 g per day saturated fat [F] or no fat supplement [NF]). All cows received an additional 4 kg per day of concentrate. Grass dry matter intake (GDMI) was measured 5 wk after the initiation of dietary treatment. Cows were treated with prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF(2α)) to eliminate the endogenous source of P4, and two intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices (CIDR) were inserted into each cow for a period of 8 days. Regular blood samples were taken before and after the removal of the intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices, and analyzed for P4 concentrations. The half-life (t½) and metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of P4 was calculated for each cow. There was no effect of GDMI or fat supplementation on the t½ or MCR of P4. There was a tendency for an interaction between GDMI and fat supplementation on the t½ of P4; cows on the restricted-F diet tended to have a longer P4 t½ than cows on the ad libitum-F diet. It was concluded that greater alterations in GDMI than achieved in the current study are required to change P4 metabolism. A combination of fat supplementation and restricted feeding slows P4 clearance, which may have beneficial implications for fertility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Supplemental Dietary Fat and Processed Barley Grain on Performance of Lactating Dairy Cow

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    Y.A Alijoo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of barley grain processing and source of supplemental fat on performance of lactating dairy cows were studied in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods and a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Eight Holstein cows with mean body weight (BW of 572 ± 71 kg and 45 ± 10 days in milk were allocated to 4 dietary treatments including 1 ground barley with cottonseed 2 pelleted barley with cottonseed 3 ground barley with canola seed 4 pelleted barley with canola seed. The nitrogen intake and fecal N were higher in cows fed ground barley in comparison with those fed pelleted barley. Source of supplemental fat or barley processing had no effect on milk fat and milk protein contents. Milk SNF yield was higher in cows fed canola as supplemental fat source and ground barley (P < 0.05. Milk yield was affected by method of barley grain processing and was 0.64 to 1.9 kg/d higher in cows fed ground barley compared with those fed pelleted barley (P = 0.04. Plasma concentrations of glucose, NEFA, BHBA, cholesterol, triglycerides and blood urea nitrogen were similar in all treatments. Dry matter intake was affected by barley grain processing. The cows fed ground barley consuming 1.15 to 2.18 kg/d more DM compared with those fed pelleted barley (P = 0.04.Total tract digestibilities of DM, crude fat, ADF, NDF and OM were not affected by the barley grain processing as well as source of oilseed. The results indicated that interactions between barley grain processing and source of supplemental dietary fat can improve the performance of lactating dairy cows, However, more detailed studies are required

  15. Kinematic gait analysis and lactation performance in dairy cows fed a diet supplemented with zinc, manganese, copper and cobalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Ito, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Kii; Matsushima, Yuki; Watanabe, Izumi; Watanabe, Yutaka; Abiko, Keima; Kamada, Toshihiko; Sato, Kan

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated how supplementation of the diet of dairy cows with trace minerals (zinc, manganese, copper and cobalt) affected kinematic gait parameters and lactation performance. Eight Holstein cows were divided into two groups, with each group receiving a different dietary treatment (control diet, or control diet supplemented with trace minerals) in a two-period crossover design. Kinematic gait parameters were calculated by using image analysis software. Compared to cows fed the control diet, cows that received the trace mineral-supplemented diet exhibited significantly increased walking and stepping rates, and had a shorter stance duration. Feed intake and milk production increased in cows fed the trace mineral-supplemented diet compared with control groups. The plasma manganese concentration was not different in control and experimental cows. In contrast, cobalt was only detected in the plasma of cows fed the supplemented diet. These results provide the first evidence that trace mineral supplementation of the diet of dairy cows affects locomotion, and that the associated gait changes can be detected by using kinematic gait analysis. Moreover, trace mineral supplementation improved milk production and only minimally altered blood and physiological parameters in dairy cows. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Effects of feeding betaine-containing liquid supplement to transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, A P A; Bernard, J K; Guo, J-R; Weng, X-S; Emanuele, S; Davis, R; Dahl, G E; Tao, S

    2017-02-01

    Betaine is a natural compound found in sugar beets that serves as a methyl donor and organic osmolyte when fed to animals. The objective was to evaluate the effect of feeding betaine-containing molasses on performance of transition dairy cows during late summer in 2 trials. In early September, cows were randomly assigned to betaine (BET) or control (CON) groups either shortly after dry off (trial 1; n = 10 per treatment) or 24 d before calving (trial 2; n = 8 per treatment) based on parity and previous mature equivalent milk yield. Cows were fed common diets supplemented either with a liquid supplement made of molasses from sugar cane and condensed beet solubles containing betaine [BET, 89.1 g/kg of dry matter (DM)] or a sugar cane molasses-based liquid supplement without betaine (CON) until 8 wk postpartum. The liquid supplements had similar nutrient contents and were fed at a rate of 1.1 and 1.4 kg DM/d for pre- and postpartum cows, respectively. Starting at their entry in the studies, cows were housed in the same freestall barn without a cooling system. After calving, all cows were housed in the same barn cooled by misters and fans and milked thrice daily. Intake was recorded daily and body weight and body condition score were assessed every 2 wk. Milk yield was recorded at each milking and composition was analyzed weekly. Blood samples were collected weekly from a subset of cows to assess concentrations of metabolites and AA. No treatment effects were apparent for DM intake and body weight in the prepartum and postpartum periods. For cows enrolled at dry off, BET supported higher milk yield (45.1 vs. 41.9 kg/d) and fat content (4.78 vs. 4.34%) and elevated plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate in early lactation compared to CON. However, no differences were observed for milk yield, most milk component contents and yields, and blood metabolites between treatments for cows enrolled during the close-up period. Compared to cows

  17. Effect of dietary supplementation of rutin on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation and metabolism in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, K; Guo, X D; Tu, Y; Zhang, N F; Ma, T; Diao, Q Y

    2015-12-01

    The effect of long-term dietary supplementation with rutin on the lactation performance, ruminal fermentation and metabolism of dairy cows were investigated in this study. Twenty multiparous Chinese Holstein cows were randomly divided into four groups, and each was offered a basal diet supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3.0 or 4.5 mg rutin/kg of diet. The milk yield of the cows receiving 3.0 and 4.5 mg rutin/kg was higher than that of the control group, and the milk yield was increased by 10.06% and 3.37% (p cows supplemented with 0 or 3.0 mg rutin/kg of diet were used to investigate the effect of rutin supplementation on blood metabolites and hormone levels. Compared with the control group, the serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration of the 3.0 mg rutin/kg group is significantly decreased (p cows with permanent rumen fistula and duodenal cannulae were attributed in a self-control design to investigate the peak occurrence of rutin and quercetin in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract, ruminal fermentation and microbial population in dairy cows. The cows supplemented with 3.0 mg rutin/kg in the diet differed from the control period. Samples of rumen fluid, duodenal fluid and blood were collected at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 h after morning feeding. Compared to the control group, the pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, number and protein content of rumen protozoa and blood urea nitrogen were lower, but the concentration of total volatile fatty acid (TVFA), microbial crude protein (MCP) and serum lysozyme content were higher for the cows fed the rutin diets. The addition of 3.0 mg rutin/kg to diets for a long term tended to increase the milk yield and improve the metabolism and digestibility of the dairy cows. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Responses to dry season supplementation by dairy cows on the highland zones of Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasambainarivo, J.H.; Razafindraibe, H.; Rabehanitriniony, M.; Rasoloarison, R.; Rafalimanantsoa, E.; Barsona, M.R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Three feeding trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of different feed supplements on the productivity of dairy cows. The trials were conducted in 49 farms located in the Highland zones of Madagascar and comprised of 143 crossbred cows. Milk yield was recorded daily and live weight was measured at the beginning and end of each experiment. Progesterone concentration was measured in milk samples taken regularly for investigating post partum ovarian function. Milk production estimates were evaluated through regression analysis. The daily consumption of 0.6 kg urea-molasses minerals blocks (UMMB) resulted in an additional 30 to 55% milk production during the dry season. The nature of the supplemental feeds had no major effect on the onset of ovarian activity, which ranged from 28 to 95 days after calving. An economic analysis showed that the use of UMMB in addition to the usual concentrates was profitable to the dairy farmers. (author)

  19. Propylene glycol energy supplementation during peripartal period in dairy cows and reproduction efficiency parameters

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    Vakanjac Slobodanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the impact of two energy supplements based on propylene glycol in dairy cows diet on ovarian and follicular morphology, conception, insemination index and length of service period. A total number of 60 Holstein Friesian dairy cows, parity between 2-8, with an average milk production of 7000 kg/305 days of lactation were divided into three experimental groups (20 dairy cows per group. The first group of dairy cows was supplemented daily with "Energy-plus" (O1 group; 200 mL propylene-glycol supplement and the second group was supplemented with "Ketal" (O2 group; 160 mL propylene-glycol supplement, two weeks before partus until 30 days post partum. The third experimental group were non supplemented dairy cows (O3, control group. Ultrasound examination of the reproductive system using real time echo camera Falco VET 100 (ESAOTE PieMedical, Holland, B-shaped scan with linear-array endorectal 5-8 MHz probe was conducted on every animal starting from day 40 postpartum. The diameters of the ovaries (left and right and of the dominant follicle(s were recorded. Ultrasound testing was repeated on day 50 and 60 postpartum only in cows which in the meantime were not inseminated. Reproduction efficiency parameters (conception rate, number of inseminations and length of service period were recorded individually. The statistical significance of the differences between groups was tested using ANOVA with LSD test at the level of significance p<0.05, chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (the length of service period. There was no significant impact of the propylene glycol supplementation on the ovarian and follicular morphology at the first ultrasound examination. At the second ultrasound examination there was a significant difference between left ovarian dominant follicle diameter in the control and supplemented dairy cows (1.67±0.53 vs 1.12±0.29 and 1.11±0.35 cm, p<0.05, O3 vs O1 and O2, respectively. The

  20. Metabolism of early-lactation dairy cows as affected by dietary starch and monensin supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M M; Yasui, T; Ryan, C M; Pelton, S H; Mechor, G D; Overton, T R

    2015-05-01

    cows fed the LS without MON, with no effect of MON treatment for multiparous cows fed HS. There was no effect of starch or MON treatment on liver capacity to oxidize propionate to CO2, and effects of starch on gluconeogenesis were not significant. Cows fed MON tended to have greater capacity to convert propionate to glucose than CON. Supplementation with MON increased the ratio of glucose to CO2, which indicated that cows fed MON had a greater propensity to convert propionate to glucose. Overall, cows fed more propiogenic diets in early lactation (high starch or monensin) exhibited improved energy metabolism during early lactation. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Supplementing lactating dairy cows fed high-quality pasture with black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) tannin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, W M; Clark, C E F; Clark, D A; Waghorn, G C

    2013-11-01

    A reduction in urinary nitrogen (N) excretion from dairy cows fed pasture containing a high N concentration in the dry matter (DM) will have environmental benefits, because losses to soil water and air by leachate and nitrous oxides (N2O) will be reduced. Condensed tannins (CT) reduce digestion of N, and provision as a dietary additive could have nutritional benefits for production, but the amount required and the responses to different sources of CT on milk production have not been defined. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of supplementation with CT extracted from black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) on milk production and faecal N concentration by lactating dairy cows grazing a vegetative Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)-based pasture. In one experiment, CT was administered as a drench, twice daily, to 38 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows assigned to four treatments; control (CONT, 0 g/day), low CT (LCT, 111 g/day), medium CT (MCT, 222 g/day) and high CT (HCT, 444 g/day), grazing as a single group. The CT supplementation affected milk yield (P milk yield as CT concentration increased from about 0.6 to about 2.9% of dietary DM. Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) decreased at MCT and HCT levels of supplementation (P milk fat, CP and lactose percentage were not affected by CT supplementation. The CT supplementation increased N concentration in faeces for LCT and MCT treatments (P milking, it reduced the acceptability relative to pellets without CT, and tended to lower milk production from 25.4 to 24.5 kg/day, although the decline was not significant (P > 0.05). The diet of cows fed pellets with CT contained about 1.2% CT in the DM but neither milk constituents nor MUN were affected by CT-supplemented grain (P > 0.05). These findings demonstrate beneficial effects for production of low concentrations (c. 0.6% DM) of CT from black wattle when given to cows grazing pasture with an N concentration of 3.8%, and suggest a diversion of N from urine, but

  2. Effect of phytase supplementation on rumen fermentation characteristics and phosphorus balance in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Winter

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exogenous phytase on rumen fermentation characteristics, the phosphorus (P-flow at the duodenum and the P-balance in lactating dairy cows. For this purpose ruminal and duodenally fistulated cows were assigned to one of three dietary treatments: high P (HP diet (n=7 provided a total of 45 g/d of P, archived by a supplementation of dicalcium phosphate to the diet; low P (LP diet (n=5 provided 34 g/d of P without supplementation; LP+phytase (LP+PHY diet (n=5 provided 34 g/d of P supplemented with an exogenous phytase. Dry matter intake and milk yield were recorded daily. In the first week of a sampling period Pbalance was determined. Samples of ruminal fluid were taken and duodenal chyme was collected in the second sampling week. Ruminal pH and the concentration of volatile fatty acids were not different between the treatments. The HP-group shows a higher P-flow at the duodenum than other groups. No differences in apparent total tract P-digestibility were found between the treatments. The P-balance in the HP-group (2.6 g/d was higher compared to the LP (-3.2 g/d and LP+PHY (-3.0 g/d group. Overall, phytase supplementation had no effect on P-digestibility in lactating dairy cows.

  3. Modification of the feeding behavior of dairy cows through live yeast supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, T J; Chevaux, E

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the feeding behavior of dairy cows is modified through live yeast supplementation. Twelve lactating Holstein dairy cows (2 primiparous and 10 multiparous) were individually exposed, in a replicated crossover design, to each of 2 treatment diets (over 35-d periods): (1) a control TMR and (2) a control TMR plus 1 × 10(10) cfu/head per day of live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077; Levucell SC20; Lallemand Animal Nutrition, Montreal, QC, Canada). Milk production, feeding, and rumination behavior were electronically monitored for each animal for the last 7 d of each treatment period. Milk samples were collected for the last 6 d of each period for milk component analysis. Dry matter intake (28.3 kg/d), eating time (229.3 min/d), and rate (0.14 kg of dry matter/min) were similar between treatments. With yeast supplementation, meal criteria (minimum intermeal interval) were shorter (20.0 vs. 25.8 min), translating to cows tending to have more meals (9.0 vs. 7.8 meals/d), which tended to be smaller in size (3.4 vs. 3.8 kg/meal). Yeast-supplemented cows also tended to ruminate longer (570.3 vs. 544.9 min/d). Milk yield (45.8 kg/d) and efficiency of production (1.64 kg of milk/kg of dry matter intake) were similar between treatments. A tendency for higher milk fat percent (3.71 vs. 3.55%) and yield (1.70 vs. 1.63 kg/d) was observed when cows were supplemented with yeast. No differences in milk fatty acid composition were observed, with the exception of a tendency for a greater concentration of 18:2 cis-9,cis-12 fatty acid (2.71 vs. 2.48% of total fatty acids) with yeast supplementation. Yeast-supplemented cows had lower mean ruminal temperature (38.4 vs. 38.5 °C) and spent less time with rumen temperature above 39.0 °C (353.1 vs. 366.9 min/d), potentially indicating improved rumen pH conditions. Overall, the results show that live yeast supplementation tended to improve meal patterns and rumination, rumen

  4. Meta-analysis of progesterone supplementation during timed artificial insemination programs in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisinotto, R S; Lean, I J; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2015-04-01

    A systematic review of the literature was performed with the objective to evaluate the effects of progesterone supplementation using a single intravaginal insert during timed artificial insemination (AI) programs on fertility in lactating dairy cows. A total of 25 randomized controlled studies including 8,285 supplemented cows and 8,398 untreated controls were included in the meta-analysis. Information regarding the presence of corpus luteum (CL) at the initiation of the synchronization protocol was available for 6,883 supplemented cows and 6,879 untreated controls in 21 experiments. Studies were classified based on service number (first AI vs. resynchronized AI), use of presynchronization (yes vs. no), and insemination of cows in estrus during the synchronization protocol (inseminated in estrus and timed AI vs. timed AI only). Reproductive outcomes of interest were pregnancy per AI (P/AI) measured on d 32 (27 to 42) and 60 (41 to 71) after AI, and pregnancy loss between d 32 and 60 of gestation. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted and treatment effect was summarized into a pooled risk ratio with the Knapp-Hartung modification (RRK+H). The effect of moderator variables was assessed using meta-regression analyses. Progesterone supplementation increased the risk of pregnancy on d 32 [RRK+H = 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.14] and 60 after AI (RRK+H = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.03-1.17). The benefit of progesterone supplementation was observed mainly in cows lacking a CL at the initiation of the timed AI program (d 60: RRK+H = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.07-1.30) rather than those with CL (d 60: RRK+H = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.99-1.12). Progesterone supplementation benefited P/AI in studies in which all cows were inseminated at timed AI (d 60: RRK+H = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.10-1.29), but not in studies in which cows could be inseminated in estrus during the timed AI program (d 60: RRK+H = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.92-1.16). Progesterone supplementation tended to reduce the risk of

  5. Energy and tannin extract supplementation for dairy cows on annual winter pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Pansard Alves

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy supplementation can increase the consumption of metabolizable energy and substrate for microbial growth, while condensed tannins aid in increasing the duodenal flow of foodborne metabolizable proteins. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of energy supplementation and the inclusion of tannin extract (TE from Acacia mearnsii (Weibull Black, Tanac S. A., Montenegro, Brazil on the production performance of dairy cows grazing on winter pastures. Nine multiparous Holstein cows in mid lactation were distributed in a 3 × 3 Latin square experimental design over three periods of 28 days (21 adaptation and 7 sampling. The treatments were: without supplementation (WS, supplementation with 4 kg of corn grain (CG, and corn grain + 80 g of tannin extract (TE. The dry matter (DM intake from pastures was similar among treatments, but the consumption of DM of the supplement was higher in the CG treatment than that in the TE treatment. The total DM intake was higher for the supplemented animals (17.3 kg?day-1 than that for the unsupplemented animals (14.9 kg?day-1 and in the TE treatment (17.7 kg?day-1 than in the CG treatment (16.7 kg day-1. Milk production increased from the unsupplemented to the supplemented animals (20.9 to 23.5 kg, respectively, while the content of urea N in the milk decreased (12.6 to 10.5 mg?100 mL-1, respectively. There were no differences in milk production or content of milk urea N between the CG and TE treatments. Energy supplementation is a tool for improving the nutritional profile and the performance of dairy cows in mid lactation grazing on annual winter pastures, while tannin extract aids in improving the energy balance.

  6. Do different cow types respond differently to a reduction on concentrate supplementation in an Alpine low-input dairy system?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Marco; Steinwidder, Andreas; Pfister, Rupert

    2014-01-01

    Forage based low-input dairy systems include a certain risk of a temporary undersupply with nutrients and energy. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the productive, reproductive and metabolic response of two different dairy cow types to a reduction of concentrate supplement...

  7. Effect of Supplemental Feeding with Glycerol or Propylene Glycol in Early Lactation on the Fertility of Swedish Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Gustafsson, H; Frössling, J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol (GLY) or propylene glycol (PG) during early lactation on the fertility of Swedish dairy cows. Within 17 commercial dairy herds, 798 cows were randomized to three groups that were daily fed supplements......-parametric survival models (Cox proportional hazards models) controlling for the effect of parity, breed, calving season, milk yield and the clustering effect of herd. There was no difference in time to FLA between the cows in group C and in group GLY or PG. No differences in time to FAI or in time to CON were found...... between cows in group PG and group C. However, cows in the GLY group tended to get their FAI later compared with cows in the control group but without at subsequent delaying of time to CON....

  8. Impact of cow strain and concentrate supplementation on grazing behaviour, milk yield and metabolic state of dairy cows in an organic pasture-based feeding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heublein, C; Dohme-Meier, F; Südekum, K-H; Bruckmaier, R M; Thanner, S; Schori, F

    2017-07-01

    As ruminants are able to digest fibre efficiently and assuming that competition for feed v. food use would intensify in the future, cereals and other field crops should primarily be destined to cover the dietary needs of humans and monogastric animals such as poultry and pigs. Farming systems with a reduced or absent concentrate supplementation, as postulated by organic agriculture associations, require adapted dairy cows. The aim of this experiment was to examine the impact of concentrate supplementation on milk production, grazing and rumination behaviour, feed intake, physical activity and blood traits with two Holstein-Friesian cow strains and to conclude the consequences for sustainable and organic farming. The experiment was a cross-over study and took place on an organic farm in Switzerland. In all, 12 Swiss Holstein-Friesian (HCH) cows and 12 New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (HNZ) cows, which were paired according to lactation number, days in milk and age for primiparous cows, were used. All cows grazed full time and were supplemented either with 6 kg/day of a commercial, organic cereal-grain mix or received no supplement. After an adaptation period of 21 days, a measurement period of 7 days followed, where milk yield and composition, pasture dry matter intake estimated with the n-alkane double-indicator technique, physical activity based on pedometer measurements, grazing behaviour recorded by automatic jaw movement recorder and blood samples were investigated. Non-supplemented cows had a lower milk yield and supplemented HCH cows produced more milk than supplemented HNZ cows. Grazing time and physical activity were greater for non-supplemented cows. Supplementation had no effect on rumination behaviour, but HNZ cows spent longer ruminating compared with HCH cows. Pasture dry matter intake decreased with the concentrate supplementation. Results of blood analysis did not indicate a strong negative energy balance for either non-supplemented or supplemented cows

  9. EFFECT OF PROTEIN UNDEGRADED SUPPLEMENTATION ON PRODUCTION AND COMPOSITION OF MILK IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Widyobroto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to examine the effect of undegraded protein supplementation on nutrientsintake, production and milk composition in dairy cows. The purpose of this research was to provideinformation on the undegraded protein supplementation to increase milk production and composition indairy cows. The research was conducted for 3 months in Boyolali-Central Java. The study used 20lactation cows (<3 months of lactation, aged 3 to 3.5 years with body weight from 350 to 400 kg. Thecows were then randomly divided into 2 groups of ten based on their body weight, milk production,lactation period and age. The first group (control and the second group (treated, both were fed dietbased on NRC (1987. The second group was added undegraded protein (UDP of 30 g/l milk that mixedby concentrate. The observed variables were dry matter intake (DM, organic matter (OM, crudeprotein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, milk production and milk composition including fat, proteinand solid non fat (SNF. Data obtained were examined by t-test.The results showed that intake of DM, OM, and the NDF of treated and control groups were notdifferent (9.57; 8.49; 4.98 vs 9.44; 8.38; 5.40 kg/cow/d, respectively; however, protein intake of treatedgroup was higher (P<0.01 than that of the control group (1097 vs. 1210g/cow/d. Milk production ofcows receiving UDP supplementation tended to be higher than that in the control group (+ 1:45kg/cow/d. Although they tended to be lower in fat (4.13 vs. 3.88%, protein (2.45 vs. 2.27% and SNF(7.26 vs. 6.94%, but protein and fat production were higher for cows receiving UDP supplementation(366 each; 214 vs. 330; 196g/cow/d. It can be concluded that UDP supplementation increased milk, fatproduction and milk protein but it tended to reduce the level of fat, protein and SNF milk.

  10. Supplementation with partially hydrogenated oil in grazing dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, G F; Gagliostro, G A; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I

    2002-03-01

    the digestion of pasture fiber. The addition of energy in the form of partially hydrogenated fat to early lactation dairy cows fed primarily on pasture increased the yield of fat-corrected milk and milk fat content when it represented about 11% of the total metabolizable energy requirement of cows, without affecting milk protein content. The partial hydrogenation of a byproduct of the oil industry apparently prevented detrimental effects of fat supplementation on ruminal digestion.

  11. Persistency of methane mitigation by dietary nitrate supplementation in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Newbold, J.R.; Hulshof, R.B.A.; Perdok, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    Feeding nitrate to dairy cows may lower ruminal methane production by competing for reducing equivalents with methanogenesis. Twenty lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (33.2±6.0 kg of milk/d; 104±58 d in milk at the start of the experiment) were fed a total mixed ration (corn silage-based;

  12. Yeast product supplementation modulated feeding behavior and metabolism in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, K; Liang, T; Muckey, M B; Mendonça, L G D; Hulbert, L E; Elrod, C C; Bradford, B J

    2015-01-01

    Yeast supplementation has been shown to increase feed intake and production in some studies with early lactation dairy cows, but the mechanisms underlying such an effect remain unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of supplementing a yeast product derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on production, feeding behavior, and metabolism in cows during the transition to lactation. Forty multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by expected calving date and randomly assigned within block to 1 of 4 treatments (n=10) from 21 d before expected calving to 42 d postpartum. Rations were top-dressed with a yeast culture plus enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast (YC-EHY; Celmanax, Vi-COR Inc., Mason City, IA) at the rate of 0, 30, 60, or 90g/d throughout the experiment. Dry matter and water intake, feeding behavior, and milk production were monitored. Plasma samples collected on -21, -7, 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d relative to calving were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, and nonesterified fatty acids. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures over time. Pre- or postpartum dry matter intake and water intake did not differ among treatments. Quadratic dose effects were observed for prepartum feeding behavior, reflecting decreased meal size, meal length, and intermeal interval, and increased meal frequency for cows received 30 and 60g/d of YC-EHY. Postpartum feeding behavior was unaffected by treatments. Milk yields were not affected (45.3, 42.6, 47.8, and 46.7kg/d for 0, 30, 60, and 90g/d, respectively) by treatments. Tendencies for increased percentages of milk fat, protein, and lactose were detected for cows receiving YC-EHY. Supplementing YC-EHY increased plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and tended to decrease (quadratic dose effect) glucose but did not affect nonesterified fatty acids. Yeast product supplementation during the transition period did not affect milk production and dry matter intake but modulated feeding behavior and metabolism

  13. Diurnal behavior of dairy cows on alfalfa pastures supplemented with corn silage and concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Peres Netto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal ingestive behavior of dairy cows on alfalfa pastures supplemented with corn silage and concentrate was evaluated. Sixteen Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation were used in a randomized block design. The treatments were partial replacement of corn silage for limited alfalfa grazing time (LGT or unlimited grazing time (UGT. Rotational alfalfa grazing was used and the amount of concentrate fed was the same in both treatments. Behavioral activities observed were time spent grazing, rumination and idleness, during four days, from 8:00 AM to 7:00 PM. From 2:00 to 5:00 PM grazing was intermittent and short-lasting on UGT, whereas on LGT grazing activity was longer than UGT in the morning and at the end of the afternoon. Restriction in available grazing time clearly influenced the distribution of time spent with grazing, rumination and idleness throughout the day. However, this effect was not observed in the total time spent in these activities.

  14. Methane production and digestion of different physical forms of rapeseed as fat supplements in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Maike; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of the physical form of rapeseed fat on methane (CH4) mitigation properties, feed digestion, and rumen fermentation. Four lactating ruminal-, duodenal-, and ileal-cannulated Danish Holstein dairy cows (143 d in milk, milk yield of 34.3 kg) were...... in open-circuit respiration chambers. Additional fat reduced the CH4 production per kilogram of dry matter intake and as a proportion of the gross energy intake by 11 and 14%, respectively. Neither the total tract nor the rumen digestibility of organic matter (OM) or neutral detergent fiber were....... The rumen ammonia concentration was not affected by the ration. The milk and energy-corrected milk yields were unaffected by the fat supplementation. In conclusion, rapeseed is an appropriate fat source to reduce the enteric CH4 production without affecting neutral detergent fiber digestion or milk...

  15. Productive and metabolic response to two levels of corn silage supplementation in grazing dairy cows in early lactation during autumn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Morales

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. silage (CS is a nutritious food that can be used as a supplement in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of supplementation with two amounts of CS on milk production and composition, live weight and body condition, as well as on some blood indicators for energy and protein metabolism on dairy cows in early lactation and grazing low mass pasture during autumn. The study was carried out in 40 Holstein Friesian cows over 57 d. Prior to experimental treatment, milk production and days of lactation averaged 24.1 ± 2.8 kg d-1 and 62 ± 14 d, respectively. The dietary treatments consisted of two levels of supplementation with CS; 4.5 and 9 kg DM cow-1 d-1 (treatments LCS and HCS, respectively. Additionally, all the cows received a pasture allowance of 21 and 3 kg DM cow-1 d-1 of concentrate. Milk composition was determined using infrared spectrophotometry, while blood indicators were obtained using an autoanalyzer. There were not differences between treatments regarding milk production or composition, total DM or energy intake. Herbage and protein intake was higher for LCS treatment (P < 0.001. Increasing supplementation decreased (P < 0.001 daily weight gain but did not affect body condition. Plasma concentrations of βOH-butyrate were lower (P = 0.038 for the LCS treatment; while urea concentrations were higher (P = 0.003, with no differences for non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations. Supplementation with 4.5 kg d-1 of CS was sufficient to meet the production requirements of the cows.

  16. Effects of selenium-rich yeast supplementation on the plasma progesterone levels of postpartum dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hachiro Kamada

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The effects of the pre- and postpartum supplementation of cows with Se on their plasma P4 concentrations after calving were investigated. Methods Thirty-four Holstein cows were used to investigate the effects of dietary selenium supplementation on the postpartum recovery of the luteal function in cows. Selenium-rich yeast (containing 300 ppm selenium was mixed with total mixed ration fed to 17 pregnant cows from 30 days before they were due to calve (10 g yeast daily to 100 days after calving (20 g yeast daily. The control cows (n = 17 were fed the same amount of ordinary yeast. The cows’ plasma progesterone concentrations were determined every two days using an enzyme immunoassay after calving. Results Feed intake (total digestive nutrient, crude protein, milk production, body weight and the biochemical properties of blood plasma did not differ between the two groups; however, the plasma selenium concentrations of the supplemented animals were significantly greater than those of the controls at and after calving. The postpartum plasma progesterone concentrations of the selenium-yeast-supplemented group increased earlier than those of the control group. Moreover, during the estrus cycle after the 3rd ovulation or ovulation with estrus between 60 to 80 days after calving, the selenium-supplemented cows exhibited greater progesterone concentrations than the control cows. Conclusion Selenium supplementation promotes the postpartum progesterone production of cows.

  17. Effect of type and level of supplement on performance of dairy cows grazing on alpine pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Piasentier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out on 32 dairy cows (average yield 21.9 ± 2.7 kg/d grazing on summer alpine pasture, in  order to examine the effect of two types of supplement - Starchy (42% of cereal and Fibrous (41% of beet pulp - both  provided at two different levels - Low (1 kg of supplement per 5.0 kg of energy corrected milk (ECM and High (1 kg of  supplement per 3.3 kg of ECM - on herbage intake, milk yield and quality. The supplement was distributed twice a day,  during milking, at a constant level throughout the experiment (July and August, as calculated according to the daily milk  yield in a one-week preliminary period. Meteorological measurements, herbage quality and availability, herbage intake,  animal body condition score (BCS, milk yield, chemical and rheological traits were determined. The herbage intake was  higher (11.9 kg organic matter (OM/d with the Fibrous supplement at Low level. Even if the supplementation covered up  to one third of the total intake of OM, none of the experimental groups increased BCS, and the Starchy-Low group showed  a decrease in BCS significantly different from zero. The increase in the level of supplementation (from 3.5 to 5.0 kg OM/d  in Low and High groups, respectively improved the ECM yield by an average of 1.2 kg/d (P  changes in the chemical composition of the milk, while the supplement type had no significant effects on either milk yield  or composition. The mean coagulation properties were better with the Fibrous supplement as compared to the Starchy one  – rennet clotting time (r: 16’24’’ vs 19’15’’ (P20: 5’03’’ vs 6’45’’ (n.s., gel firmness (a30:  26.1 mm vs 20.8 mm (P

  18. Inorganic zinc supplementation modulates heat shock and immune response in heat stressed peripheral blood mononuclear cells of periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Aasif Ahmad; Aggarwal, Anjali; B, Indu; Aarif, Ovais

    2017-06-01

    Thermal stress in India is one of the major constraints affecting dairy cattle productivity. Every attempt should be made to ameliorate the heat and calving related stress in high producing dairy cows for higher economic returns. In the current study, inorganic zinc was tried to alleviate the adverse effects of thermal stress in periparturient cows. Twelve cows, six each of Sahiwal and Karan Fries (KF) in their second parity with confirmed pregnancy were chosen for the experiment. The blood samples were collected periparturiently on three occasions viz. -21, 0 and +21 days relative to calving. The in vitro study was conducted after isolating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from whole blood. The cultured PBMC were subjected to three different levels of exposures viz. 37°C as control, 42°C to induce thermal stress and 42°C + zinc to ameliorate the adverse effects of high temperature. Heat shock lead to a significant (PZinc treatment to thermally stressed PBMC caused a fall in the HSP concentration in both the breeds during periparturient period. Moreover, heat stress increased significantly (Pzinc supplementation to PBMC. IL-6 levels decreased periparturiently. Heat and calving related stress caused a fall in the IL-12 levels which increased significantly (Pzinc supplementation. These findings suggest that zinc supplementation attenuates the HSP response and augments immunity in PBMC of periparturient dairy cows. The study could help to alleviate the heat stress and potentiate immunity by providing mineral supplements in periparturient dairy cattle habituating tropics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Supplementing dairy steers and organically managed dairy cows with synthetic vitamin D3 is unnecessary at pasture during exposure to summer sunlight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Lindqvist, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    with only their endogenous production of D3 from summer sunlight as a source of D3. To examine the impact of supplemental synthetic D3 from the feed on the D3 status of dairy cattle in organic production in Nordic countries, 20 high-yielding dairy cows and 30 dairy steers were divided into two groups: one......Use of synthetic feed additives, including synthetic vitamin D3 (D3) in the feed for cows and other ruminants, is not consistent with the international principles of organic farming. If dairy farmers wish to produce in accordance with the organic principles, production animals would be left...... supplemented with synthetic D3 in the feed and one not supplemented with synthetic D3. Vitamin D3 status of the animals was assessed by measuring the concentration of the liver-derived 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3) in plasma. Results showed that 25OHD3 concentration in plasma from dairy cattle as well as from...

  20. Progesterone supplementation during the time of pregnancy recognition after artificial insemination improves conception rates in high-producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ispierto, I; López-Helguera, I; Serrano-Pérez, B; Paso, V; Tuono, T; Ramon, A; Mur-Novales, R; Tutusaus, J; López-Gatius, F

    2016-04-15

    This study examines the possible effects of progesterone (P4) supplementation during the time of pregnancy recognition, from Days 15 to 17 post-artificial insemination (AI), on reproductive performance in high-producing dairy cows. Cows in their 15th day post-AI were alternately assigned to a control, no-treatment group (C: n = 257) or treatment group (P4: n = 287) on a weekly rotational basis according to the chronologic order of their gynecologic visit. On the basis of the odds ratio, the interaction treatment × previous placenta retention had a significant effect (P = 0.02) on conception rate. Thus, cows in P4 that had not suffered a retained placenta were 1.6 times more likely to conceive 28 to 34 days post-AI than the remaining cows. In nonpregnant cows, treatment had no effect on subsequent return to estrus or AI interval and neither were any effects of treatment observed on twin pregnancy and early fetal loss rates. The results of this study demonstrate the efficacy of P4 supplementations during the time of pregnancy recognition after AI in cows without a clinical history of placenta retention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pengaruh Penggunaan High Quality Feed Supplement terhadap Konsumsi dan Kecernaan Nutrien Sapi Perah Awal Laktasi (The Effect of High Quality Feed Supplement Addition on the Nutrient Consumption and Digestibility of Early Lactating Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriyani Astuti

    2012-02-01

    (73.11%, and K (70.69% on BETN. The conclusion was that the addition of HQFS of first lactation dairy cow would increase nutrient consumption and crude protein and nitrogen-free extract digestibility. (Key words: High quality feed supplement, Dairy cow, Consumption, Digestibility

  2. Production responses of Holstein dairy cows when fed supplemental fat containing saturated free fatty acids: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping Hu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplemental fat containing saturated free fatty acids (FA on milk performance of Holstein dairy cows. Methods A database was developed from 21 studies published between 1991 and 2016 that included 502 dairy cows and a total of 29 to 30 comparisons between dietary treatment and control without fat supplementation. Only saturated free FA (>80% of total FA was considered as the supplemental fat. Concentration of the supplemental fat was not higher than 3.5% of diet dry matter (DM. Dairy cows were offered total mixed ration, and fed individually. Statistical analysis was conducted using random- or mixed-effects models with Metafor package in R. Results Sub-group analysis showed that there were no differences in studies between randomized block design and Latin square/crossover design for dry matter intake (DMI and milk production responses to the supplemental fat (all response variables, p≥0.344. The supplemental fat across all studies improved milk yield, milk fat concentration and yield, and milk protein yield by 1.684 kg/d (p<0.001, 0.095 percent unit (p = 0.003, 0.072 kg/d (p<0.001, and 0.036 kg/d (p<0.001, respectively, but tended to decrease milk protein concentration (mean difference = −0.022 percent unit; p = 0.063 while DMI (mean difference = 0.061 kg/d; p = 0.768 remained unchanged. The assessment of heterogeneity suggested that no substantial heterogeneity occurred among all studies for DMI and milk production responses to the supplemental fat (all response variables, I2≤24.1%; p≥0.166. Conclusion The effects of saturated free FA were quantitatively evaluated. Higher milk production and yields of milk fat and protein, with DMI remaining unchanged, indicated that saturated free FA, supplemented at ≤3.5% dietary DM from commercially available fat sources, likely improved the efficiency of milk production. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to assess the

  3. Production performance and milk fatty acids profile in grazing dairy cows offered ground corn or liquid molasses as the sole supplemental nonstructural carbohydrate source

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of corn meal or liquid molasses fed as the sole supplemental nonstructural carbohydrate source on milk yield and composition, milk fatty acids, and N use efficiency in grazing dairy cows. Ten multiparous organically-certified Jersey cows averagi...

  4. Effect of Zinc Methionine or Zinc Sulfate Supplementation on Milk Production and Composition of Milk in Lactating Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobhanirad, Saeid; Carlson, Dorthe; Kashani, Reza Bahari

    2010-01-01

    Eighteen lactating dairy cows were used to compare the effects of organic and inorganic Zn supplements on milk production and chemical composition of milk. Animals received three diets in a randomized block design: basal diet with no supplemental Zn (control, 42 mg Zn/kg), basal diet plus 500 mg...... Zn/kg of dry matter (DM) as zinc sulfate monohydrate (ZnS) and basal diet plus 500 mg Zn/kg of DM as zinc methionine (ZnM). Results showed that milk and fat-corrected milk yield in dairy cows were not significantly affected by Zn source although a numerical increase was observed. The percentages of protein......, lactose, fat, solid nonfat, total solid, and density of milk were not significantly different between treatments. However, dairy cows that received ZnM tended to produce more milk and fat-corrected milk with a lower somatic cell count as compared to controls. The zinc concentration in milk in the Zn...

  5. Productive and Economic Responses in Grazing Dairy Cows to Grain Supplementation on Family Farms in the South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Pinheiro Machado Filho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pasture-based dairy production has been a major source of income for most family farms in the south of Brazil. Increasing milk prices have spurred an increase in grain supplementation, which has been poorly implemented, resulting in low levels of efficiency. To evaluate the consequences of supplementation on milk production and composition, grazing behavior and economic return, the widely used grain management system (CC-commercial concentrate, containing 21% CP, offered at 1 kg per 3.7 L of milk was compared with an energy supplement (GC-ground corn, with 9.5% CP, offered at 0.4% of live weight. Ten Holstein cows were paired into two groups, and subjected to the two treatments in a crossover design. The cows remained in the same grazing group, and the grain supplement was offered individually at milking time and consumed completely. Each experimental period lasted 14 days, with 10 days for diet adaptation and four days for data collection; individual milk production and samples were collected to determine levels of fat, protein, lactose, carotenoids, vitamin A and N-urea. Grazing behavior was observed (scans every 5 min in the first 4 h after the morning milking, and chemical composition of hand plucked samples of forage were measured. The cost of the supplement and profitability per treatment were calculated. Cows supplemented with GC consumed herbage with higher crude protein (CP: 16.23 vs. 14.62%; p < 0.05, had higher biting rate (44.21 vs. 39.54 bites/min; p < 0.03 and grazing time (22.20 vs. 20.55 scans; p < 0.05 than when receiving CC. There were no differences in milk composition between treatments (p > 0.05. However, higher concentrations of β-carotene and total carotenoids were detected in the milk of cows at 70–164 days of lactation, compared to <70 days of lactation (p < 0.05. Milk production was higher (13.19 vs. 11.59 kg/day; p < 0.05 when cows consumed CC, but resulted in lower profitability compared to GC (US$ 4.39 vs. US$ 4

  6. Effects of supplementing glycerol and soybean oil in drinking water on feed and water intake, energy balance, and production performance of periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, V R; Odongo, N E; Cant, J P; Swanson, K C; McBride, B W

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing glycerol and soybean oil in drinking water on feed and water intake, calculated energy balance, and production performance of periparturient dairy cows. Ninety multiparous Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) no nutrients supplemented in the drinking water (control); 2) 20 g/L of glycerin supplemented in the drinking water (glycerol); and 3) 10 g/L of soybean oil supplemented in the drinking water (SBO). The trial lasted from 7 d prepartum to 7 d postpartum. Cows were offered a close-up and milking cow TMR for ad libitum intake, pre- and postpartum, respectively. The dry matter intake of cows supplemented with glycerol and SBO was lower than for the control cows throughout the experimental period but not different from each other. Water intake for the control cows was greater than the average for the glycerol and SBO cows prepartum, and greater than for SBO cows but similar to that of glycerol cows postpartum. Glycerol cows consumed more water than SBO cows. There were no differences in energy intake and energy balance of the cows pre- and postpartum. Serum triacylglycerol concentration for glycerol cows was lower than for the control and SBO cows prepartum and was lower than for the SBO cows postpartum. There were no differences in the serum nonesterified fatty acids and glucose concentrations throughout the experiment. There were no differences in the serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations at parturition, but serum BHBA concentration of the glycerol cows was greater than for control and SBO cows during the prepartum period. However, during the postpartum period, serum BHBA concentrations of the control cows were greater than for glycerol and SBO cows. There were no differences in calf birth weights or milk yield and composition. Although the glucogenic property of glycerol supplemented in the drinking water at 20 g/L may not have been sufficient to

  7. Short communication: Chemical composition, fatty acid composition, and sensory characteristics of Chanco cheese from dairy cows supplemented with soybean and hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E; Fehrmann-Cartes, K; Íñiguez-González, G; Toro-Mujica, P; Garnsworthy, P C

    2015-01-01

    Lipid supplements can be used to alter fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy products. For Chanco cheese, however, little information is available concerning effects of lipid supplements on sensorial properties. The objective of this study was to examine effects of supplementation of dairy cow diets with soybean (SO) and hydrogenated vegetable (HVO) oils on chemical and FA composition of milk and cheese and sensory characteristics of cheese. Nine multiparous Holstein cows averaging 169±24d in milk at the beginning of the study were used in a replicated (n=3) 3×3 Latin square design that included 3 periods of 21d. All cows received a basal diet formulated with a 56:44 forage:concentrate ratio. Dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet (control; no fat supplement), and the basal diet supplemented with SO (unrefined oil; 500g/d per cow) and HVO (manufactured from palm oil; 500g/d per cow). Milk fat yield was lower with HVO compared with control and SO. Cheese chemical composition and sensory profile were not affected by dietary treatment. Vaccenic (C18:1 trans-11) and oleic (C18:1 cis-9) acids were higher for SO than for control and HVO. Compared with control and HVO, SO decreased saturated FA and increased monounsaturated FA. The thrombogenic index of milk and cheese produced when cows were fed SO was lower than when cows were fed on control and HVO. The outcome of this study showed that, compared with control and HVO, supplementing dairy cow diets with SO improves milk and cheese FA profile without detrimental effects on the chemical composition of milk and cheese and the sensory characteristics of cheese. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of supplementing condensed tannin extract on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dschaak, C M; Williams, C M; Holt, M S; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Min, B R

    2011-05-01

    A lactation experiment was conducted to determine the influence of quebracho condensed tannin extract (CTE) on ruminal fermentation and lactational performance of dairy cows. The cows were fed a high forage (HF) or a low forage (LF) diet with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 59:41 or 41:59 on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows (62 ± 8.8 d in milk) were used. The design of the experiment was a double 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, and each period lasted 21 d (14 d of treatment adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling). Four dietary treatments were tested: HF without CTE, HF with CTE (HF+CTE), LF without CTE, and LF with CTE (LF+CTE). Commercial quebracho CTE was added to the HF+CTE and the LF+CTE at a rate of 3% of dietary DM. Intake of DM averaged 26.7 kg/d across treatments, and supplementing CTE decreased intakes of DM and nutrients regardless of forage level. Digestibilities of DM and nutrients were not affected by CTE supplementation. Milk yield averaged 35.3 kg/d across treatments, and yields of milk and milk component were not influenced by CTE supplementation. Negative effects of CTE supplementation on feed intake resulted in increased feed efficiency (milk yield/DM intake). Although concentration of milk urea N (MUN) decreased by supplementing CTE in the diets, efficiency of N use for milk N was not affected by CTE supplementation. Feeding the LF diet decreased ruminal pH (mean of 6.47 and 6.33 in HF and LF, respectively). However, supplementation of CTE in the diets did not influence ruminal pH. Supplementing CTE decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration regardless of level of forage. With CTE supplementation, molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and butyrate increased in the HF diet, but not in the LF diet, resulting in interactions between forage level and CTE supplementation. Concentration of ammonia-N tended to decrease with supplementation of

  9. Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, J M; Frandsen, A M; Thilsing-Hansen, T

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor serum and urine biochemical changes in dairy cows during and after oral administration of a synthetic sodium aluminium-silicate (zeolite A). A prospective longitudinal study involving four non-pregnant and non-lactating cows was chosen. Cows were...

  10. Dairy cow nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Tame, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This review pulls together the results of over 40 research projects and brings us up to date with the latest in thinking on dairy cow nutrition, incorporates the findings of a wide range of organic trials and draws some clear recommendations on appropriate strategies for forage type and management, supplementary feeding, ration formulation and farming systems. It raises important issues around sustainability versus optimum production and highlights future research priorities.

  11. Effects of extruded linseed dietary supplementation on milk yield, milk quality and lipid metabolism of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Brogna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Italian Friesian dairy cows were used in an experimental trial to study the effects of extruded linseed dietary supplementation on milk production, milk quality and fatty acid (FA percentages of milk fat and total plasma lipids and plasma phospholipids. Control cows were fed a corn silage based total mixed ration (TMR while treated animals also received 700g/head/d of extruded linseed supplementation. Feed intake was similar between groups. Milk yields was tendentially greater for cows fed extruded linseed. Milk urea content (P<0.05 were reduced by treatment. Results showed a significant increase n-3 FA concentration (particularly alpha linolenic acid and a significant reduction of n-6/n-3 FA ratio in milk fat, total plasma lipids and plasma phospholipids (P<0.001; moreover a reduction trend (P<0.1 of arachidonic acid concentrations was observed in milk fat, total plasma lipids and plasma phospholipids. At last, treatment enhanced milk fat conjugated linoleic acid (CLA percentage (P<0.05.

  12. Analysis of pasture supplementation strategies by means of a mechanistic model of ruminal digestion and metabolism in the dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J P; Auldist, M J; Marett, L C; Moate, P J; Wales, W J

    2017-02-01

    Effective pasture supplementation is critical to the efficiency of resource management in milk production. We understand a great deal about ruminal and metabolic processes in dairy cattle that control efficiency but we need to improve our ability to predict effects of practical feeding strategies based on the basic biological processes of the cow. Therefore, a large-scale pasture supplementation study was used to explore the details of both practical management and the underlying biological principles and processes involved. This included a multiple lactation study coupled with shorter-term experiments that tested the type and rate of supplementation. Basal supplementation strategies were (1) pasture allowance [14 kg of dry matter (DM)/d per cow] supplemented with milled barley grain fed twice daily in the milking parlor and pasture silage provided in the paddock; the ratio of grain:forage fed as supplement was 0.75:0.25 (control; DM basis); (2) the same pasture allowance plus the same amounts of milled barley grain and pasture silage, but the supplements were mixed and chopped before being fed immediately after each milking; and (3) the same pasture allowance and offered a partial mixed ration comprising barley (25%) and corn grain (30% of DM), corn silage (20% of DM), and alfalfa hay (25% of DM) after each milking. In late lactation (227 d in milk), a short-term experiment was done feeding the same pasture allowances but with the 3 supplements offered at 6, 8, 10, and 12 kg of DM/d for an 11-d measurement period following adaptation to the diet to each of the 3 long-term supplementation groups. Production responses were recorded and ruminal volatile fatty acids (VFA) and pH were measured in a subset of animals. Model descriptions of yields of milk and milk constituents as well as mean concentrations of ruminal fluid VFA and ruminal fluid pH were compared with measured values resulting when dairy cows were fed 12 different pasture-based diets with different levels

  13. The effect of different physical forms of rapeseed as a fat supplement on the activity of some enzymes in the duodenal chyme of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moharerry, A.; Brask, Maike; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2014-01-01

    Studies on nutritional regulation of digestive enzymes in ruminants are scarce. Fat supplementation of diets for dairy cows changes the supply of nutrients for absorption and transport. The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of the physical form of rapeseed (Brassica napus) fat...

  14. Effect of Different Levels of Organic Acids Supplementation on Feed Intake, Milk Yield and Milk composition of Dairy Cows during Thermal Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahn, S.; Ali, A.; Mobashar, M.; Inam, M.; Ahmed, I.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, Mubarak; Khan, H.

    2013-01-01

    In many developing countries in the tropics, thermal stress results in lower feed intake, changes in energy metabolism, alterations in endocrine profiles of dairy cows which lead to animal health problems and production losses. Supplementation of organic acids can reduce the toxic metabolites and

  15. Achieving high milk production performance at grass with minimal concentrate supplementation with spring-calving dairy cows: actual performance compared to simulated performance

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donovan, M.; Ruelle, Elodie; Coughlan, F.; Delaby, Luc

    2015-01-01

    The aim of high-profitability grazing systems is to produce milk efficiency from grazed pasture. There is very limited information available on the milk production capacity of dairy cows offered a grass-only diet for the main part of her lactation. In this study, spring-calving dairy cows were managed to achieve high milk production levels throughout the grazing season without supplementation. The calving date of the herd was 12 April; the herd had access to grass as they calved a...

  16. Selective dry cow treatment in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpenzeel, C.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the dairy industry, udder health is associated with mastitis management, of which blanket dry cow treatment has been an important part for decades. To prevent the udder from new intramammary infections during the dry period, the use of blanket dry cow treatment has been advocated for more than 50

  17. Effects of a six-week intraduodenal supplementation with quercetin on liver lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in peripartal dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoldt, A-K; Mielenz, M; Nürnberg, G; Sauerwein, H; Esatbeyoglu, T; Wagner, A E; Rimbach, G; Starke, A; Wolffram, S; Metges, C C

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible effects of quercetin (Q) on liver lipid metabolism and antioxidative status in periparturient dairy cows. The periparturient period is associated with enormous metabolic changes for dairy cows. Energy needs for incipient lactation are too high to be balanced by feed intake, leading to negative energy balance and body fat mobilization. It has been estimated that this leads to the development of fatty liver in about 50% of cows, which are at high risk for disease. Furthermore, the antioxidative status of these cows may be impaired. Quercetin is a plant flavonoid having hepatoprotective and antioxidative potential and the ability to reduce liver lipid accumulation in monogastric animals. Little information is available in regard to these effects in ruminants. To prevent microbial Q degradation in the rumen, Q was administered via a duodenal fistula to improve systemic availability. Five cows of the Q-treated group received, daily, 100 mg of quercetin dehydrate/kg BW in a 0.9% sodium chloride solution from d -20 until d 20 relative to calving, whereas 5 control (CTR) cows received only a sodium chloride solution. Blood samples were taken weekly and liver biopsies were performed in wk -4, -2, and 3 relative to calving. Cows treated with Q showed a tendency ( = 0.082) for lower liver fat content compared with CTR cows. Liver glycogen, glutathione concentrations, and relative mRNA abundance of genes related to hepatic lipid metabolism and antioxidative status as well as parameters of antioxidative status in plasma were not affected ( > 0.1) by Q supplementation. In conclusion, liver fat content in dairy cows tended to be reduced by Q supplementation, but potential underlying mechanisms remain unclear because analyzed parameters related to hepatic lipid metabolism and antioxidative defense were not altered by Q supplementation.

  18. Effects of forage type and extruded linseed supplementation on methane production and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, K M; Humphries, D J; Kirton, P; Kliem, K E; Givens, D I; Reynolds, C K

    2015-06-01

    Replacing dietary grass silage (GS) with maize silage (MS) and dietary fat supplements may reduce milk concentration of specific saturated fatty acids (SFA) and can reduce methane production by dairy cows. The present study investigated the effect of feeding an extruded linseed supplement on milk fatty acid (FA) composition and methane production of lactating dairy cows, and whether basal forage type, in diets formulated for similar neutral detergent fiber and starch, altered the response to the extruded linseed supplement. Four mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows were fed diets as total mixed rations, containing either high proportions of MS or GS, both with or without extruded linseed supplement, in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 28-d periods. Diets contained 500 g of forage/kg of dry matter (DM) containing MS and GS in proportions (DM basis) of either 75:25 or 25:75 for high MS or high GS diets, respectively. Extruded linseed supplement (275 g/kg ether extract, DM basis) was included in treatment diets at 50 g/kg of DM. Milk yields, DM intake, milk composition, and methane production were measured at the end of each experimental period when cows were housed in respiration chambers. Whereas DM intake was higher for the MS-based diet, forage type and extruded linseed had no significant effect on milk yield, milk fat, protein, or lactose concentration, methane production, or methane per kilogram of DM intake or milk yield. Total milk fat SFA concentrations were lower with MS compared with GS-based diets (65.4 vs. 68.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and with extruded linseed compared with no extruded linseed (65.2 vs. 68.6 g/100 g of FA, respectively), and these effects were additive. Concentrations of total trans FA were higher with MS compared with GS-based diets (7.0 vs. 5.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and when extruded linseed was fed (6.8 vs. 5. 6g/100 g of FA, respectively). Total n-3 FA were higher when extruded linseed was fed compared with no

  19. Effect of farm and simulated laboratory cold environmental conditions on the performance and physiological responses of lactating dairy cows supplemented with bovine somatotropin (BST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, B. A.; Johnson, H. D.; Li, R.; Collier, R. J.

    1990-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bovine somatotropin (BST) supplementation in twelve lactating dairy cows maintained in cold environmental conditions. Six cows were injected daily with 25 mg of BST; the other six were injected with a control vehicle. Cows were maintained under standard dairy management during mid-winter for 30 days. Milk production was recorded twice daily, and blood samples were taken weekly. Animals were then transferred to environmentally controlled chambers and exposed to cycling thermoneutral (15° to 20° C) and cycling cold (-5° to +5° C) temperatures for 10 days in a split-reversal design. Milk production, feed and water intake, body weights and rectal temperatures were monitored. Blood samples were taken on days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 10 of each period and analyzed for plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), cortisol, insulin and prolactin. Under farm conditions, BST-treated cows produced 11% more milk than control-treated cows and in environmentally controlled chambers produced 17.4% more milk. No differences due to BST in feed or water intake, body weights or rectal temperatures were found under laboratory conditions. Plasma T3 and insulin increased due to BST treatment while no effect was found on cortisol, prolactin or T4. The results showed that the benefits of BST supplementation in lactating dairy cows were achieved under cold environmental conditions.

  20. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  1. Supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol of dairy cows in early lactation - Effects on metabolic status, body condition, and milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Frössling, J; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol to dairy cows in early lactation on metabolic status, body condition and milk yield. In total, 673 newly calved cows from 12 commercial Swedish dairy herds were randomized to daily...... score (BCS) and heart girth (HG) were obtained at approximately 2 and 5 wk pp and at time of first insemination. The effects of supplemental feeding with GLY or PG on the plasma concentrations of glucose, NEFA, BHBA, insulin, and IGF-1, and BCS, HG, and occurrence of disease were analyzed....... No differences in BCS or HG or in plasma concentrations of glucose, BHBA, NEFA, or IGF-1 were found between the control group and any of the treatment groups. Cows in the GLY group had lower plasma insulin concentrations during DIM 0 to 63 compared with group CON, but no difference in insulin was found between...

  2. Effect of different levels of mangosteen peel powder supplement on the performance of dairy cows fed concentrate containing yeast fermented cassava chip protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyorach, Sineenart; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) peel powder (MSP) supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and milk production in lactating dairy cows fed a concentrate containing yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP). Four crossbred dairy cows (50 % Holstein-Friesian and 50 % Thai native breed) in mid-lactation, 404 ± 50.0 kg of body weight and 90 ± 5 day in milk with daily milk production of 9 ± 2.0 kg/day, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to receive 4 dietary treatments. The treatments were different levels of MSP supplementation at 0, 100, 200, and 300 g/head/day. Rice straw was used as a roughage source and fed ad libitum to all cows, and concentrate containing YEFECAP at 200 g/kg concentrate was offered corresponding to concentrate to milk yield ratio at 1:2. Results revealed that feed intake, apparent nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH and temperature, and total volatile fatty acid were not significantly affected by MSP supplementation (P > 0.05). However, increasing levels of MSP supplementation increased molar proportion of propionate while ammonia-nitrogen, acetate, and acetate to propionate ratio were decreased (P fermentation efficiency, milk production and protein content, and economical return of lactating dairy cows fed on rice straw.

  3. Effects of Prepartum Dietary Energy Level and Nicotinic Acid Supplementation on Immunological, Hematological and Biochemical Parameters of Periparturient Dairy Cows Differing in Parity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reka Tienken

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The periparturient period is critical according to health, productivity and profitability. As this period is fundamental for the success of the lactation period, the interest in improving periparturient health by dietary supplements increased in recent years. The present study investigated the effects of feeding nicotinic acid (NA combined with varying dietary energy densities on immunological, hematological and biochemical parameters of periparturient cows differing in parity. Thirty-six multiparous and 20 primiparous dairy cows were enrolled in the study 42 days before expected parturition date until 100 days postpartum with the half of the cows being supplemented with 24 g of NA/d. After parturition a diet with 30% concentrate was fed to all cows which was followed by different concentrate escalation strategies. Dietary NA supplementation was ceased on day 24 postpartum. Dietary NA increased (P = 0.010 serum nicotinamide concentrations (mean of 3.35 ± 1.65 µg/mL, whereas NA could not be detected. Present data emphasize that periparturient cows are faced with major physiological challenges and that both parity-groups have different prerequisites to adapt to those changes irrespective of NA supplementation. The overfeeding of energy to cows which were similar in body condition score had only minor effects on periparturient immune system function and the metabolism of those cows.

  4. Comparison of ruminal lipid metabolism in dairy cows and goats fed diets supplemented with starch, plant oil, or fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Bernard, L; Belenguer, A; Rouel, J; Hervás, G; Chilliard, Y; Frutos, P

    2016-01-01

    Direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression (MFD) in the bovine reveals relevant species-by-diet interactions in ruminal lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer potential mechanisms responsible for differences in the rumen microbial biohydrogenation (BH) due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5.3% sunflower oil and additional starch (+38%; SOS) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 25-d experimental periods. On the last day of each period, fatty acid composition (by gas chromatography) and bacterial community (by terminal-RFLP), as well as fermentation characteristics, were measured in rumen fluid samples. Results showed significant differences in the response of cows and goats to dietary treatments, although variations in some fermentation parameters (e.g., decreases in the acetate-to-propionate ratio due to FO or SOS) were similar in both species. Main alterations in ruminal BH pathways potentially responsible for MFD on the SOS diet (i.e., the shift from trans-11 to trans-10 18:1 and related increases in trans-10,cis-12 18:2) tended to be more pronounced in cows, which is consistent with an associated MFD only in this species. However, changes linked to FO-induced MFD (e.g., decreases in 18:0 and increases in total trans-18:1) were stronger in caprine rumen fluid, which may explain their unexpected susceptibility (although less marked than in bovine) to the negative effect of FO on milk fat content. Altogether, these results suggest that distinct ruminal mechanisms lead to each type of diet-induced MFD and confirm a pronounced interaction with species. With regard to microbiota, differences between cows and goats in the composition of the rumen bacterial community might be behind the disparity in the microorganisms

  5. Effects of a 6-wk intraduodenal supplementation with quercetin on energy metabolism and indicators of liver damage in periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoldt, Ann-Kathrin; Derno, Michael; Nürnberg, Gerd; Weitzel, Joachim M; Otten, Winfried; Starke, Alexander; Wolffram, Siegfried; Metges, Cornelia C

    2015-07-01

    Periparturient dairy cows experience metabolic challenges that result in a negative energy balance (EB) and a range of postpartum health problems. To compensate for the negative EB, cows mobilize fatty acids from adipose tissues, which can lead to fatty liver disease, a periparturient metabolic disorder. Flavonoids, such as quercetin (Q), are polyphenolic substances found in all higher plants and have hepatoprotective potential and the ability to prevent or reduce lipid accumulation in the liver. In ruminants, few studies on the metabolic effects of Q are available, and thus this study was conducted to determine whether Q has beneficial effects on EB, lipid metabolism, and hepatoprotective effects in periparturient dairy cows. Quercetin was supplemented intraduodenally to circumvent Q degradation in the rumen. Cows (n=10) with duodenal fistulas were monitored for 7wk. Beginning 3wk before expected calving, 5 cows were treated with 100mg of quercetin dihydrate per kilogram of body weight daily in a 0.9% sodium chloride solution for a total period of 6wk, whereas the control cows received only the sodium chloride solution. The plasma flavonoid levels were higher in the Q-treated cows than in the control cows. A tendency for higher postpartum (pp) than antepartum (ap) plasma flavonoid levels was observed in the Q-treated cows than in the controls, which was potentially caused by a reduced capacity to metabolize Q. However, the metabolic status of the Q-treated cows did not differ from that of the control cows. The pp increases in plasma aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities were less in the Q-treated cows than in the control cows. The Q had no effect on energy expenditures, but from ap to pp the cows had a slight decline in respiratory quotients. Irrespective of the treatment group, the oxidation of fat peaked after calving, suggesting that the increase occurred because of an increased supply of fatty acids from lipomobilization. In

  6. Influence of selenium and vitamin e supplementation during pregnancy on udder health and milk quality in dairy cows at parturition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Zigo

    2017-01-01

    group. Parenteral supplementation of selenium and vitamin E during pregnancy had no impact on their transmission into the milk and on the presence of bacterial agents in raw milk obtained from dairy cows diagnosed with mastitis. 

  7. The effect of high and low levels of supplementation on milk production, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and milk protein fractions in late-lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M; O'Donovan, M; Murphy, J P; Fleming, C; Kennedy, E; Lewis, E

    2015-08-01

    To fill the feed deficit in the autumn/late lactation period in a seasonal grazing system, supplementation is required. This study aimed to investigate the use of baled grass silage or concentrate as supplementation to grazing dairy cows in late lactation. Eighty-four grass-based spring-calving dairy cows, averaging 212d in milk, were allocated to 1 of 6 treatments [high grass allowance (HG), low grass allowance (LG), grass with a low concentrate allocation (GCL), grass with a low grass silage allocation (GSL), grass with a high concentrate allocation (GCH), and grass with a high grass silage allocation (GSH)] to measure the effects of using baled grass silage or concentrate as supplements to grazed grass. Effects on intake, milk yield, milk composition and N fractions, and N utilization efficiency were measured. Treatments HG and LG received 17 and 14kg of dry matter (DM) grass/cow per d, respectively. Treatments GCL and GSL were offered 14kg of DM grass/cow per d and 3kg of DM of supplementation/cow per d. Treatments GCH and GSH were offered 11kg of DM grass/cow per d and 6kg of DM of supplementation/cow per d. Milk yield was greatest in the GCH treatment and milk solids yield was greatest in both concentrate-supplemented treatments. The HG and LG treatments excreted a greater quantity of N as a proportion of N intake than the supplemented treatments. The HG treatment also excreted the greatest total quantity of N. This indicates an improvement in N utilization efficiency when supplementation is offered compared with grazing only. Offering 6kg of DM of either grass silage or concentrate as supplementation decreased milk true protein concentration compared with offering a grass-only diet. This suggests that increasing the proportion of supplementation relative to grass may negatively affect milk processability, which is associated with milk true protein concentration. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  8. Influence of feeding supplements of almond hulls and ensiled citrus pulp on the milk production, milk composition, and methane emissions of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S R O; Chaves, A V; Deighton, M H; Jacobs, J L; Hannah, M C; Ribaux, B E; Morris, G L; Wales, W J; Moate, P J

    2018-03-01

    Almond hulls and citrus pulp have been fed to dairy cows with variable responses for milk production, but no information exists on their effect on enteric methane emissions. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with either almond hulls or ensiled citrus pulp on the milk yield, milk composition, and enteric methane emissions of dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in mid lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets over a 28-d experiment. Twelve cows received a control (CON) diet, 10 cows a diet containing almond hulls (ALH), and 10 cows a diet containing ensiled citrus pulp (CIT). All cows were offered 6.0 kg of dry matter (DM)/d of crushed corn, 2.0 kg of DM/d of cold-pressed canola, and 0.2 kg of DM/d of a mineral mix. In addition, cows fed the CON diet were offered 14.5 kg of DM/d of alfalfa cubes; cows fed the ALH diet were offered 10.5 kg of DM/d of alfalfa cubes and 4.0 kg of DM/d of almond hulls; and cows on the CIT diet were offered 11.5 kg of DM/d of alfalfa cubes and 3.0 kg of DM/d of ensiled citrus pulp. Milk yield was measured daily and milk composition was measured on 4 d of each week. Individual cow methane emissions were measured by a sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique on d 24 to 28 of the experiment. The mean milk yield of cows fed the CON diet (27.4 kg/d) was greater than the mean milk yield of cows fed the ALH diet (24.6 kg/cow per day), whereas the mean milk yield of cows fed the CIT diet (26.2 kg/cow per day) was not different from the mean milk yield from cows fed the other 2 diets. Dietary treatment did not influence the concentrations of milk fat, protein, and lactose or fat yields, but the mean protein yield from cows fed the CON diet (0.87 kg/d) was greater than that from cows fed the ALH diet (0.78 kg/d) but not different to those fed the CIT diet (0.85 kg/d). In general, we found no differences in the proportion of individual fatty acids in milk. The mean pH of ruminal fluid from cows offered the CON diet was not

  9. Continuous lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Torben Gosvig; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Andersen, Jens Bech

    2008-01-01

    function may be achievable in continuously milked high-yielding dairy cows as a result of the genetic selection for lactation performance and hence longevity of mammary epithelial cells. The milk production and mammary nutrient uptake in response to omission of the dry period for cows with an expected peak...... milk yield higher than 45 kg/d were studied in 28 Holstein dairy cows managed without bovine somatotropin. Performance and metabolic parameters were followed in late gestation and in the following early lactation. Fourteen cows were milked continuously throughout late gestation, and another 14 dairy...... cows experienced a 7-wk prepartum dry period. Continuous milking during the prepartum period reduced milk production in the following early lactation period by >20%. The reduced milk production could not be readily ascribed to inefficiency of the mechanisms responsible for nutrient uptake...

  10. Effects of dietary protein concentration and coconut oil supplementation on nitrogen utilization and production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N; Heyler, K S; Cassidy, T W; Long, M; Corl, B A; Karnati, S K R

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of metabolizable protein (MP) deficiency and coconut oil supplementation on N utilization and production in lactating dairy cows. The hypothesis of the study was that a decrease in ruminal protozoal counts with coconut oil would increase microbial protein synthesis in the rumen, thus compensating for potential MP deficiency. The experiment was conducted for 10 wk with 36 cows (13 primiparous and 23 multiparous), including 6 ruminally cannulated cows. The experimental period, 6 wk, was preceded by 2-wk adaptation and 2-wk covariate periods. Cows were blocked by parity, days in milk, milk yield, and rumen cannulation and randomly assigned to one of the following diets: a diet with a positive MP balance (+44 g/d) and 16.7% dietary crude protein (CP) concentration (AMP); a diet deficient in MP (-156 g/d) and 14.8% CP concentration (DMP); or DMP supplemented with approximately 500 g of coconut oil/head per day (DMPCO). Ruminal ammonia tended to be greater and plasma urea N (20.1, 12.8, and 13.1 mg/dL, for AMP, DMP, and DMPCO diets, respectively) and milk urea N (12.5, 8.3, and 9.5mg/dL, respectively) were greater for AMP compared with DMP and DMPCO. The DMPCO diet decreased total protozoa counts (by 60%) compared with DMP, but had no effect on the methanogens profile in the rumen. Total tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and CP was decreased by DMP compared with AMP. Fiber digestibility was lower for both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP. Urinary N excretion was decreased (by 37%) by both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP. The DMP and DMPCO diets resulted in greater milk N efficiency compared with AMP (32.0 and 35.1 vs. 27.6%, respectively). Milk yield was decreased by both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP (36.2, 34.4, and 39.3 kg/d, respectively) and coconut oil supplementation suppressed feed intake and caused milk fat depression. Coconut oil supplementation decreased short-chain fatty acid (C4:0, C6:0, and

  11. Effects of Different Level and Source of Sulfur Supplement in Close-up diets of Dairy Cows on Blood Metabolites, Colostrums Composition and Liver Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Manidari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 24 maltiparous Holstein dairy cows were allocated in a completely randomized design to study the effects of different level and source of sulfur supplement in close-up diets on blood metabolites, colostrums composition and liver performance. The mean body weight of the cows was 687.9 kg and the mean days until expected calving date was 21.8 d. The first treatment (T1 has contained 0.21% sulfur (DM basis, the second treatment (T2 has contained 0.41% sulfur which supplied entirely through magnesium sulfate and the third treatment (T3 has contained 0.41% sulfur which supplied through a combination of magnesium sulfate and an organic source of sulfur (Mepran. The DMI for pre-calving (P < 0.001 was affected by treatments and T2 showed the lowest DMI among treatments. Colostrums yield, protein, DM and ash significantly decreased in inorganic sulfur supplemented treatment (P < 0.05. Among the blood metabolites, calcium, copper and glucose were decreased in T2 compared with two other treatments (P < 0.05. However, BHBA, NEFA and urea were increased in T2 (P < 0.05. Urine pH was affected with different treatments (P < 0.0001. The both liver enzymes (i.e. AST and CPK were increased supplementing inorganic sulfur showing that inorganic sulfur has potential to decrease liver performance in dairy cows. The results of the present study indicate that although magnesium sulfate (inorganic source has negative effect on dairy cow health and performance, a combination of magnesium sulfate and organic source of sulfur could have positive effects on dry matter intake, blood metabolites and liver health in dairy cows.

  12. Effect of protein concentrate supplementation on the composition of amino acids in milk from dairy cows in an organic farming system

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    Pavel Horký

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our experiment examined the effect of feeding a protein concentrate supplement on the composition of amino acids in milk from dairy cows managed in an organic farming system. The experiment included two groups of cows. Animals in both groups received an identical basic feed ration composed of maize silage, clover-grass haylage from the first cutting, grass haylage from the first cutting, winter wheat and spring barley. The first group of dairy cows (n = 10 served as a control without the addition of protein concentrate to the feed ration. The second experimental group (n = 10 received in addition to the basic feed ration a protein concentrate composed of soybean, sunflower and linseed cakes at rate 1 kg per head per day. The experiment lasted 30 days. Milk analysed for amino acid content was sampled at 10-day intervals. Addition of the protein concentrate significantly increased milk contents of aspartic acid, proline, threonine, glycine, alanine and glutamic acid. A significant decrease of valine also was recorded in milk from the experimental group. The results of our experiment show that a protein concentrate supplement can affect concentrations of some amino acids in milk from dairy cows

  13. Effects of fat supplementations on milk production and composition, ruminal and plasma parameters of dairy cows

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    L. Bailoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects on milk yield and quality caused by the same amount (325 g/d/cow of lipids provided by 3 different fat sources (hydrogenate palm fat, HF; calcium salt palm fat, CaSF; full-fat toasted soybean, TS, top dressed to a common total mixed ration, were investigated. Supplementations did not affect feed intake and milk yield, but markedly changed the acidic profile of milk fat. CaSF and TS significantly increased the proportions of unsaturated fatty acids of milk fat with respect to control and to HF. The 3 fat sources did not affect the concentrations of ammonia and VFA of rumen fluid. TS only slightly increased (P<0.10 plasma urea content because of a higher dietary protein supply, with respect to the other treatments. The use of a low amount of toasted and cracked full fat soybean seem to be interesting to increase the energy concentration of diets in replacement to commercial fat products and it can be use to modify the milk fat quality increasing the fraction with benefit effects on human health.

  14. Effect of corn silage particle size and supplemental hay on rumen pH and feed preference by dairy cows fed high-starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmicikewycz, A D; Heinrichs, A J

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of corn silage particle size and supplemental hay on rumen pH and feed preference in lactating dairy cows experiencing a bout of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). In this study, 12 lactating (8 ruminally cannulated), multiparous Holstein cows averaging 91±40d in milk and weighing 695±95kg (mean ± SD) were randomly assigned to a replicated 4×4 Latin square. During each of the four 21-d periods, animals were offered 1 of 4 diets that were chemically similar but varied in corn silage particle size and supplemental second cutting orchardgrass hay: short corn silage total mixed ration (TMR; ST); short corn silage TMR with 5.6% supplemental hay (SH); long corn silage TMR (L); and long corn silage TMR with 5.6% supplemental hay (LH). Cows were allowed to adapt to this feeding scheme for 14d, and cannulated cows were then subjected to a rumen challenge to induce a bout of SARA by restricting feed before the challenge and providing 4kg of ground wheat via the rumen cannula. Although baseline pH was low, the SARA challenge lowered ruminal pH further for all cows regardless of diet. Daily average rumen pH decreased from 5.44 and 5.45 to 5.33 and 5.38 for ST and SH, respectively, and from 5.64 and 5.54 to 5.47 and 5.39 for L and LH, respectively, from baseline to challenge phase. Following the rumen challenge, rumen concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and valerate increased. Decreasing corn silage particle size significantly increased TMR and total DMI during all phases of the model. Feeding short corn silage TMR increased milk, protein, and lactose yields. Cows fed supplemental hay had increased fat yield and protein concentration in the milk and responded minimally to the effects of particle size selection when challenged with SARA. Cows consuming short corn silage TMR changed feed preference for longer forage particles during the course of the SARA challenge. During the recovery phase, however

  15. Milk Production, Milk Composition, Live Weight Change and Milk Fatty Acid Composition in Lactating Dairy Cows in Response to Whole Linseed Supplementation

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    Wisitiporn Suksombat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of whole linseed supplementation on performances and milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows. Thirty six Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked by milking days first and then stratified random balanced for milk yields and body weight into three groups of 12 cows each. The control group received 300 g of palm oil. The second group was supplemented with 344 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed plus 150 g of palm oil and the third group was supplemented with 688 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed. All cows also received ad libitum grass silage (Brachiaria ruziziensis, had free access to clean water and were individually housed in a free-stall unit and individually fed according to treatments. Residual feeds were collected on 2 consecutive days weekly and at the end of the experiment. Feed samples were pooled to make representative samples for proximate and detergent analyses. Daily milk yields were recorded. Milk samples were collected on 2 consecutive days weekly. Live weights were recorded at the start and at the end of the experiment. Milk samples were taken on d 56 of the experiment and subjected to milk fatty acid composition. The results showed no statistical significant differences in intakes, live weight change, milk yields and milk compositions, however, C18:1, C18:3 and unsaturated FAs were increased while saturated FAs were reduced by whole linseed supplementation. It is recommended that the addition of 300 g/d oil from whole linseed could be beneficial to lactating dairy cows in early lactation.

  16. Supplementation with Ca salts of soybean oil interacts with concentrate level in grazing dairy cows: intake, ingestive behavior, and ruminal parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Fernanda Lopes; Batistel, Fernanda; de Souza, Jonas; Chagas, Lucas Jado; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the associative effects of concentrate levels and Ca salts of soybean oil (CSSO) supplementation on performance and ruminal parameters of mid-lactation dairy cows grazing on tropical pasture. Twenty-four Jersey × Holstein cows were used in a randomized block design and assigned to four treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Factors evaluated were concentrate levels (low, 3 kg/day vs. high, 7 kg/day of concentrate) and CSSO supplementation (without CSSO vs. with 250 g CSSO cow/day). All cows grazed on elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cameroon) and received the supplemental treatments for a 90-day period. The high concentrate level decreased forage intake and grazing time. In addition, the high concentrate level increased rumen propionate concentration and microbial synthesis and tended to decrease ammonia-N compared with low concentrate level. The addition of CSSO tended to decrease valerate, isobutyrate, isovalerate, and microbial synthesis. In conclusion, feeding CSSO for mid lactating cows grazing on tropical pasture had negative effects on rumen function. In contrast, CSSO supplementation tended to interact with concentrate level and increased energy intake when fed at low concentrate level. Feeding the high level of concentrate was an effective strategy to increase energy intake and microbial synthesis and improve N utilization.

  17. Evaluation and validation of an automatic jaw movement recorder (RumiWatch) for ingestive and rumination behaviors of dairy cows during grazing and supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombach, M; Münger, A; Niederhauser, J; Südekum, K-H; Schori, F

    2018-03-01

    Observation of ingestive and rumination behaviors of dairy cows may assist in detecting diseases, controlling reproductive status, and estimating intake. However, direct observation of cows on pasture is time consuming and can be difficult to realize. Consequently, different systems have been developed to automatically record behavioral characteristics; among them is the RumiWatch System (RWS; Itin and Hoch GmbH, Liestal, Switzerland). Until now, the RWS has not been thoroughly validated under grazing conditions. The aim of the current study was to validate the RWS, against direct observation, in measuring ingestive and rumination behaviors of dairy cows during grazing and supplementation in the barn. A further objective was to examine whether it is possible to refine the algorithm used by the evaluation software RumiWatch Converter 0.7.3.2 to improve the accuracy of the RWS. The data were collected from an experiment carried out with 18 lactating Holstein cows in a crossover block design including 3 treatments and 3 measuring periods. All cows grazed night and day, 19 h/d, and were either unsupplemented or supplemented, with chopped whole-plant corn silage, or chopped whole-plant corn silage mixed with a protein concentrate. During the measuring periods, cows were equipped with the RumiWatch Halter, and their ingestive and rumination behaviors were recorded concurrently by the RumiWatch Halter and by direct observation (690 × 10 min). Comparison of concurrently measured data shows that the RWS detected jaw movements reliably, but classification errors occurred. A low relative prediction error of ≤0.10 for the number of rumination boluses, rumination chews, and total eating chews was found. A high relative prediction error of >0.10 was found for the number of prehension bites and time spent in prehension and eating. Both converter versions performed equally well in differentiating ingestive and rumination behaviors when cows were supplemented in the barn or when

  18. Effects of dietary CLA supplementation, parity and different concentrate levels before calving on immunoglobulin G1, G2 and M concentrations in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, Melanie; Horn, Jana; Hussen, Jamal; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Scharf, Maria; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Bostedt, Hartwig; Breves, Gerhard

    2017-10-01

    Peripartal dairy cows exhibit a higher susceptibility for infectious diseases, which might be linked to the negative energy balance occurring at the onset of lactation. A dietary supplementation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) may reduce milk fat yield and subsequently lower the energy deficit. The utilization of immunoglobulins (Ig) for colostrogenesis might impair humoral immunity in peripartal dairy cows; therefore this study investigated the effects of a CLA supplement, parity and different dietary energy levels on plasma and colostrum IgG1, IgG2 and IgM levels in dairy cows and their calves. Blood samples were collected from 64 cows from 21days before until 56days after parturition and colostrum samples for the first 3days of lactation. Plasma immunoglobulin concentrations of 19 calves were determined before colostrum uptake. Neither plasma IgG1, nor IgG2 levels were affected by CLA or dietary energy level. However, immunoglobulin levels were affected by parity. Heifers possessed the lowest IgG1 concentrations. IgG2 concentrations were highest in cows with 2 lactations prior to parturition and in heifers after parturition. Plasma IgM levels were characterized by a sharp decrease 3days prior to parturition and were scarcely affected by the feeding regimen or parity. Generally, immunoglobulin levels appear to be mostly independent from the peripartal energy balance of the cows and are not influenced by dietary CLA. However, pronounced differences among parities for IgG1 and IgG2 were revealed which should be further evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of supplementing Acacia mearnsii tannin extract on dairy cow dry matter intake, milk production, and methane emission in a tropical pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tiago Pansard; Dall-Orsoletta, Aline Cristina; Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique Mendonça Nunes

    2017-12-01

    The study assessed the effect of Acacia mearnsii tannin extract supplementation grazing dairy cows on dry matter (DM) intake, enteric methane (CH 4 ) emission, and performance. Twelve Holstein cows were divided into two groups and subjected to two treatments that consisted of millet pasture (Pennisetum glaucum L.) plus supplementation with 6 kg of concentrate (750-g/kg ground corn and 250-g/kg soybean meal) including or excluding 120-g tannin extract. The trial design was a double reversal using three periods of 28 days each, with 21 days for the adaption period, and 7 days for sample collection. Herbage intake was measured using the n-alkane technique, and daily CH 4 emission was measured with the sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas technique. Individual total DM intake (mean = 17.1 kg/day), herbage DM intake (mean = 11.8 kg/day), and milk production (mean = 19.2 kg/day) were similar between treatments. CH 4 emission significantly decreased (32%, P milk production, methane emission tended to decrease in tannin-supplemented animals. Supplementing dairy cows grazing a millet pasture with 120-g tannin extract reduced daily CH 4 emission without affecting animal performance.

  20. Dairy cow monitoring by RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Stankovski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cows identification and monitoring on small cattle farms are usually based on the utilization of barcode technology. This kind of identification technology is unsuitable for dairy cows milking and feeding process automation. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology is a better solution in this case. This paper describes the research and implementation of the milking cycle´s automated monitoring with the use of RFID tags conducted on a small cattle farm in the Republic of Serbia. This solution is based on RFID system which consists of two parts. First part includes control box, two Ultra High Frequency (UHF RFID readers operating at frequency of 915 MHz and RFID tags glued onto the dairy cow ear labels. Second part includes software modules for acquisition and collecting data from RFID tags to build up an archive due to supervision and analysis of the milking cycle. Reading accuracy of RFID system in the observed period was 99.8 % in average. A group of dairy cows having a settled milking cycle within an interval of 12h ± 5 % had a 1.5 % better yield and a 0.08 better quality in comparison with a group of dairy cows having a milking cycle variance higher than 20 %. RFID system implemented in described way can be easily integrated into a new or existing farm management system in order to have better production results which depend on several factors including settled milking cycles.

  1. Simulation of milk production by dairy cows fed sugarcane top-based diets with locally available supplements under Indian condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behera, U.K.; Kebreab, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Assis, A.G.; France, J.

    2005-01-01

    A model of sugarcane digestion was applied to indicate the suitability of various locally available supplements for enhancing milk production of Indian crossbred dairy cattle. Milk production was calculated according to simulated energy, lipogenic, glucogenic and aminogenic substrate availability.

  2. Milk production, peripartal liver triglyceride concentration and plasma metabolites of dairy cows fed diets supplemented with calcium soaps or hydrogenated triglycerides of palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcagi, Roland G; Gaál, Tibor; Ribiczey, Piroska; Huszenicza, Gyula; Husvéth, Ferenc

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the study was to test the effect of rumen-inert fat supplements of different chemical forms or containing different unsaturated/saturated (U/S) fatty acid contents on milk production, milk composition and liver and blood metabolic variables of high-yielding dairy cows in the peripartal period. Thirty Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were divided into three equal groups and fed a corn silage-based diet, without fat supplementation (control) or supplemented with 11.75 MJ NEl per day of calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (CAS; U/S=61/39) or with 11.75 MJ NEl per day of hydrogenated palm oil triglyceride (HTG; U/S=6/94). Each diet was fed from 25+/-2 d prior to the expected calving to 100+/-5 d post partum. Compared with the control, both CAS and HTG supplementation resulted in an increase of the average milk yield. Milk fat content and fat-corrected milk yield were higher in the HTG group but lower in the CAS group than in the control group. In all groups liver triglyceride concentrations (TGL) increased from 15 d prepartum to 5 d post partum, and then decreased thereafter. At 5 d TGL was lower in the HTG group than control or CAS cows. No significant differences were detected in TGL among dietary treatments at 15 d prepartum and 25 d post partum. Higher plasma glucose and insulin and lower non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations and aspartate aminotransferase activity were measured in the HTG group than in the control or CAS groups at 5 d or 25 d post partum. Our results show that HTG may provide a better energy supply for high-yielding dairy cows in negative energy balance than CAS around calving.

  3. Dairy cow responses to graded levels of rapeseed and soya bean expeller supplementation on a red clover/grass silage-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, M; Kuoppala, K; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A

    2015-12-01

    The effects of rapeseed and soya bean expeller (SBE) supplementation on digestion and milk production responses in dairy cows were investigated in an incomplete Latin square design using five cows and four 3-week periods. The experimental diets consisted of five concentrate treatments fed at a rate of 9 kg/day: a mixture of barley and oats, which was replaced with rapeseed or SBE at two levels (CP concentration (g/kg dry matter (DM)) of 130 for the control concentrate and 180 and 230 for the two protein supplemented levels). A mixture of grass and red clover silage (1:1) was fed ad libitum and it had a CP concentration of 157 g/kg DM. Supply of nutrients to the lower tract was measured using the omasal canal sampling technique, and total digestion from total faecal collection. Protein supplementation increased omasal canal amino acid (AA) flows and plasma concentrations of AA, and was also reflected as increased milk production. However, N use efficiency (NUE) decreased with increased protein supplementation. Rapeseed expeller (RSE) tended to increase silage DM intake and elicited higher milk production responses compared with SBE and also resulted in a higher NUE. The differences between the protein supplements in nitrogen metabolism were relatively small, for example, there were no differences in the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis or omasal canal flows of nitrogenous components between them, but plasma methionine concentration was lower for soya bean-fed cows at the high CP level in particular. The lower milk protein production responses to SBE than to RSE supplementation were at least partly caused by increased silage DM and by the lower methionine supply, which may further have been amplified by the use of red clover in the basal diet. Although feed intake, diet digestion, AA supply and milk production were all consistently improved by protein supplementation, there was a simultaneous decrease in NUE. In the current study, the milk protein production

  4. Effect of fat supplementation and stage of lactation on methane production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Lene; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2015-01-01

    treatments: Control (CON), CON supplemented with whole cracked rapeseed (WCR), CON supplemented with vegetable rumen protected fat (Lipmix 40/60, Lipitec, NLM Vantinge Aps, Ringe, Denmark) (RPF), and RPF supplemented with HMBi (MetaSmart, Adisseo, France) (RPFA). All diets contained maize silage (230 g...

  5. Utilization of Bioslurry on Maize Hydroponic Fodder as a Corn Silage Supplement on Nutrient Digestibility and Milk Production of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Nugroho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to study the effect of addition of 7% DM maize hydroponic fodder (MHF in corn silage on digestibility and milk production of dairy cows. The experiment used a completely randomized block design with two treatments, and four replications. The treatments were dairy cows fed with grass (Pennisetum purpureum, corn silage, and concentrate (R0, and dairy cows fed with grass (P. purpureum, corn silage, concentrate, and MHF (R1. This research used eight dairy cows with initial average milk production of 13.01±2.96 L/d. MHF was produced in a hydroponic system using bioslurry as a fertilizer enriched with mineral fertilizer. Variables observed were chemical composition of bioslurry, nutrient content of ration, daily dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, Total Digestible Nutrient (TDN, and Digestible Energy (DE. Data were analyzed with ANOVA, except for milk production using ANCOVA. Supplementation of MHF resulted a higher total dry matter intake on R1 than R0 (P<0.05, 12.99±0.063 kg/head/d, and 11.98±0.295 kg/head/d, respectively. The digestibility of nutrients were not affected by the addition of MHF. Energy consumption in R1 was also higher than R0 (P<0.05, 49.95±0.36 Mkal/kg, and 46.11±0.54 Mkal/kg, respectively. Supplementation of MHF also increased nitrogen consumption, R1 was higher than R0 (P<0.05, 318.3±2.3 g/head/d, and 295.9±3.5 g/head/d, respectively, and could maintain the persistency of milk production at the end of lactation. It can be concluded that supplementation of MHF in corn silage can increase dry matter intake, energy consumption, and nitrogen consumption, also can maintain nutrient digestibility and maintain persistency of milk production during late lactation of dairy cows.

  6. Effects of supplementing mid-lactation dairy cows with seaweed and vitamin E on plasma and milk α-tocopherol and antibody response to immunization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidane, A; Nesheim, I L; Larsen, H J S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current experiment was to compare the effects of supplementing mid-lactation dairy cows with all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate (SyntvE), RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate (NatvE) or seaweed meal (Seaweed) in the presence of a Control group (no supplemental vitamin E or seaweed...... with NatvE than SyntvE. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that vitamin E, regardless of its form, will provide an improved adaptive immune response to immunization than the Control diet, and cows supplemented with Seaweed meal would produce better adaptive immune response following immunization than cows......-tocopherol concentrations were higher in NatvE and SyntvE groups than in the other two groups. The RRR-α-tocopherol stereoisomer was the predominant form (>0·86), in both plasma and milk, whereas the remaining part was largely made up of the other three 2R stereoisomers (RRS, RSR and RSS). In cows fed the Control, Seaweed...

  7. Effects of increased supplementation of n-3 fatty acids to transition dairy cows on performance and fatty acid profile in plasma, adipose tissue, and milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachut, M; Arieli, A; Lehrer, H; Livshitz, L; Yakoby, S; Moallem, U

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding an increased amount of extruded flaxseed with high proportions of n-3 fatty acids (FA) to transition dairy cows on performance, energy balance, and FA composition in plasma, adipose tissue, and milk fat. Multiparous Israeli-Holstein dry cows (n = 44) at 256 d of pregnancy were assigned to 2 treatments: (1) control cows were fed prepartum a dry-cow diet and postpartum a lactating-cow diet that consisted of 5.8% ether extracts; and (2) extruded flaxseed (EF) cows were supplemented prepartum with 1 kg of extruded flaxseed (7.9% dry matter)/cow per d, and postpartum were fed a diet containing 9.2% of the same supplement. The EF supplement was fed until 100 d in milk. On average, each pre- and postpartum EF cow consumed 160.9 and 376.2g of C18:3n-3/d, respectively. Postpartum dry matter intake was 3.8% higher in the EF cows. Milk production was 6.4% higher and fat content was 0.4% U lower in the EF group than in the controls, with no differences in fat and protein yields. Energy balance in the EF cows was more positive than in the controls; however, no differences were observed in concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and glucose in plasma. Compared with controls, EF cows had greater proportions of C18:3n-3 in plasma and adipose tissue. The proportion of n-3 FA in milk fat was 3.7-fold higher in the EF cows, and the n-6:n-3 ratio was decreased from 8.3 in controls to 2.3 in the EF cows. Within-group tests revealed that the C18:3n-3 content in milk fat in the EF cows was negatively correlated with milk fat percentage (r = -0.91) and yield (r = -0.89). However, no decrease in de novo synthesis of less than 16-carbon FA was found in the EF group, whereas C16:0 yields were markedly decreased. It appears that the enrichment of C18:3n-3 in milk fat was limited to approximately 2%, and the potential for increasing this n-3 FA in milk is higher for cows with lower milk fat contents. In conclusion, feeding

  8. Teat Condition in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, F.

    2004-01-01

    The dairy cow's teat is the first line of defence against mastitis pathogens. The milking process may affect the teat's condition, increasing the risk of mastitis. It is well-proven that teat-ends with severe erosions or broken skin will have an increased risk of mastitis. However, more common

  9. Teat condition in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    The dairy cow's teat is the first line of defence against mastitis pathogens. The milking process may affect the teat's condition, increasing the risk of mastitis. It is well-proven that teat-ends with severe erosions or broken skin will have an increased risk of mastitis. However, more common

  10. Dry season supplementation of dairy cows with urea molasses mineral blocks and molasses-urea mix in the Morogoro region in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaizier, J.C.B.; McBride, B.W.; Nkya, R.; Shem, M.N.; Urio, N.A.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of supplementation with urea molasses mineral blocks and molasses-urea mix during and immediately prior to the dry season on the production of dairy cows were studied on-station and on small holder peri-urban farms near Morogoro, Tanzania. Supplementation of on-station cows receiving ad libitum grass hay and 6 kg/d of maize bran with urea molasses mineral blocks (UMMB), increased milk production from 6.7 L/d to 11.2 L/d (P <0.05) and dry matter intake from 10.1 kg/d to 12.0 kg/d (P <0.05), but did not significantly affect milk composition, intake of hay and live weight change. This increase in milk yield is mainly explained by increased intakes of energy and nitrogen. Supplementation with the molasses urea mix increased daily milk yield from 6.7 L/d to 8.8 L/d (P <0.05), but did not significantly affect the other measured production parameters. The on-farm supplementation with blocks increased daily milk yield by 1.7 L/d in the dry season (P <0.01). This supplementation did not increase milk yields prior to the dry season, since quality forage was still available. Taking the production costs into account, supplementation with the blocks and supplementation with molasses mix was cost effective if milk yields increased by 0.7 L/d. (author)

  11. Effects of propylene glycol supplementation on blood indicators of hepatic function, body condition score, milk fat-protein concentration and reproductive performance of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Ionuţ Borş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of propylene glycol on metabolic variables of hepatic function, body condition score, milk fat-protein concentration and reproductive performance of dairy cows after ending administration. Postparturient dairy cows (n = 200 of Holstein Friesian breed were divided into two groups of 100 individuals. The experimental group received during days 0-7 post partum an oral daily dose of 600 ml of propylene glycol; the control group was without any supplement. The hepatic enzymes, glucose, cholesterol and serum albumin were measured on days 10-15, 45-50 and 70 post partum. Reproduction indicators of dairy cows were calculated from the farm recording data and the milk data record from a regular dairy control (days 10, 20, 30, and 50 post partum. Animals that received propylene glycol in the first 7 days post partum had reduced activities of aspartate transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transferase, elevated cholesterol concentration (P 0.05 and low milk fat percentage (P P 0.05. Our results suggest that some blood indicators of hepatic function, milk fat concentration and calving to first oestrus interval can be improved for 70 days post partum by the use of propylene glycol drenching in the first 7 days post partum. The beneficial effect of this treatment could be evaluated by easily available data, which can be used by practitioners in the field to analyze fertility problems in dairy herds and more exactly to examine whether metabolic stress, among other factors, is involved in the fertility problem.

  12. Comparison of enriched palmitic acid and calcium salts of palm fatty acids distillate fat supplements on milk production and metabolic profiles of high-producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, D E; Ying, Y; Harvatine, K J

    2014-09-01

    A variable response to fat supplementation has been reported in dairy cows, which may be due to cow production level, environmental conditions, or diet characteristics. In the present experiment, the effect of a high palmitic acid supplement was investigated relative to a conventional Ca salts of palm fatty acids (Ca-FA) supplement in 16 high-producing Holstein cows (46.6±12.4kg of milk/d) arranged in a crossover design with 14-d periods. The experiment was conducted in a non-heat-stress season with 29.5% neutral detergent fiber diets. Treatments were (1) high palmitic acid (PA) supplement fed as free FA [1.9% of dry matter (DM); 84.8% C16:0] and (2) Ca-FA supplement (2.3% of DM; 47.7% C16:0, 35.9% C18:1, and 8.4% C18:2). The PA supplement tended to increase DM intake, and increased the yields of milk and energy-corrected milk. Additionally, PA increased the yields of milk fat, protein, and lactose, whereas milk concentrations of these components were not affected. The yields of milk de novo and 16-C FA were increased by PA compared with Ca-FA (7 and 20%, respectively), whereas the yield of preformed FA was higher in Ca-FA. A reduction in milk fat concentration of de novo and 16-C FA and a marginal elevation in trans-10 C18:1 in Ca-FA is indicative of altered ruminal biohydrogenation and increased risk of milk fat depression. No effect of treatment on plasma insulin was observed. A treatment by time interaction was detected for plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), which tended to be higher in Ca-FA than in PA before feeding. Overall, the palmitic acid supplement improved production performance in high-producing cows while posing a lower risk for milk fat depression compared with a supplement higher in unsaturated FA. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation Parameters, and Production Performance in Response to Dietary Grain Source and Oil Supplement of Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Kargar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction High-producing dairy cows require large amounts of concentrates that are rich in energy and crude protein to meet their nutrient requirements. Cereal grains and oil supplements are commonly used for increasing energy density of diets fed to high-producing dairy cows. Dietary grain source (barley vs. corn and oil supplement (soybean- vs. fish oil resulted in varied dry matter intake and milk production responses in different research studies based on effects on nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation characteristics. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine the effects of, and interactions between, grain source and oil supplement on the feed intake, rumen fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility and lactational performance of Holstein cows. Materials and Methods Eight lactating multiparous Holstein cows (parity = 3.3 ± 1.3 and days in milk = 77 ± 22.1; mean ± SD, were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 25-d periods. Each experimental period consisted of an 18-d diet adaptation period and a 7-d collection period. Cows within a square were assigned randomly to dietary treatments. Cows were blocked into 2 squares of 4 cows each based upon milk production, and days in milk, and within blocks were assigned to 1 of the 4 experimental diets with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: 1 BF = barley-based diet supplemented with fish oil at 2% of dietary DM, 2 BS = barley-based diet supplemented with soybean oil at 2% of dietary DM, 3 CF = corn-based diet supplemented with fish oil at 2% of dietary DM, and 4 CS = corn-based diet supplemented with soybean oil at 2% of dietary DM. The TMR amounts offered and refused were measured daily for each cow and DMI determined daily for each cow. Cows were milked three times daily at 0200, 1000, and 1800 h in a herringbone milking parlor. Milk yield for all cows was recorded and sampled at each milking during the last 7 d of each period. Milk samples were

  14. Effects of chromium propionate supplementation during the periparturient period and early lactation on metabolism, performance, and cytological endometritis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, T; McArt, J A A; Ryan, C M; Gilbert, R O; Nydam, D V; Valdez, F; Griswold, K E; Overton, T R

    2014-10-01

    Multiparous Holstein cows (n=61) were used to determine the effects of chromium propionate (Cr-Pro) supplementation during the periparturient period and early lactation on metabolism, performance, and the incidence of cytological endometritis (CE). After a 1-wk preliminary period, cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 treatments from 21 d before expected calving through 63 d postpartum: (1) control (n=31) and (2) Cr-Pro (n=30) administered by daily topdress at a rate of 8 mg/d of Cr. A tendency was detected for increased dry matter intake (DMI) during the prepartum period for cows fed Cr-Pro. Moreover, cows fed Cr-Pro tended to have lower plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids during the prepartum period. However, effects of Cr-Pro supplementation on postpartum DMI and milk yield were not significant. Cows fed Cr-Pro tended to have higher urea N concentrations in milk. An interaction of treatment and day existed during the postpartum period, such that cows fed Cr-Pro had lower plasma glucose concentrations within the first day postpartum compared with controls. Plasma haptoglobin concentration was not affected by treatment during the postpartum period. Blood neutrophil glycogen concentrations were not affected by treatment when sampled at either 7 d postpartum or on one day between 40 and 60 d (48 d ± 0.44 standard error) postpartum. Evaluation of endometrial cytology by low volume lavage at 7 d postpartum (first lavage) and on one day between 40 and 60 d (second lavage) postpartum revealed that cows fed Cr-Pro tended to have a higher percentage of neutrophils at first lavage and decreased incidence of CE as assessed at second lavage. In conclusion, supplementation with Cr-Pro resulted in trends for increased DMI and lower plasma nonesterified fatty acids prepartum. Postpartum production and energy metabolism were not affected by treatment; however, Cr-Pro supplementation tended to affect the postpartum influx of neutrophils into the uterus and

  15. Replacement policies for dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Relund; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper a hierarchical Markov decision processes (MDP) with finite state and action space was formulated for the dairy cow replacement problem with stage lengths of 1 d. Bayesian updating was used to predict the performance of each cow in the herd and economic decisions were based...... on the prediction. The model can be used to assist the farmer in replacement decisions on a daily basis and is based on daily milk yield measurements that are available in modern milking systems. This talk will present the results of the paper and discuss directions for further research....

  16. Illumina Sequencing Approach to Characterize Thiamine Metabolism Related Bacteria and the Impacts of Thiamine Supplementation on Ruminal Microbiota in Dairy Cows Fed High-Grain Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Pan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The requirements of thiamine in adult ruminants are mainly met by ruminal bacterial synthesis, and thiamine deficiencies will occur when dairy cows overfed with high grain diet. However, there is limited knowledge with regard to the ruminal thiamine synthesis bacteria, and whether thiamine deficiency is related to the altered bacterial community by high grain diet is still unclear. To explore thiamine synthesis bacteria and the response of ruminal microbiota to high grain feeding and thiamine supplementation, six rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were randomly assigned into a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design trial. Three treatments were control diet (CON, 20% dietary starch, DM basis, high grain diet (HG, 33.2% dietary starch, DM basis and high grain diet supplemented with 180 mg thiamine/kg DMI (HG+T. On day 21 of each period, rumen content samples were collected at 3 h postfeeding. Ruminal thiamine concentration was detected by high performance liquid chromatography. The microbiota composition was determined using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Cows receiving thiamine supplementation had greater ruminal pH value, acetate and thiamine content in the rumen. Principal coordinate analysis and similarity analysis indicated that HG feeding and thiamine supplementation caused a strong shift in bacterial composition and structure in the rumen. At the genus level, compared with CON group, the relative abundances of 19 genera were significantly changed by HG feeding. Thiamine supplementation increased the abundance of cellulolytic bacteria including Bacteroides, Ruminococcus 1, Pyramidobacter, Succinivibrio, and Ruminobacter, and their increases enhanced the fiber degradation and ruminal acetate production in HG+T group. Christensenellaceae R7, Lachnospira, Succiniclasticum, and Ruminococcaceae NK4A214 exhibited a negative response to thiamine supplementation. Moreover, correlation analysis revealed that ruminal thiamine concentration was

  17. On-farm evaluation of the effect of coffee pulp supplementation on milk yield and dry matter intake of dairy cows grazing tropical grasses in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza-Beltrán, Paulina; Estrada-Flores, Julieta G; Martínez-Campos, Angel R; Estrada-López, Isael; Rayas-Amor, Adolfo A; Yong-Angel, Gilberto; Figueroa-Medina, Marisol; Nova, Francisca Avilés; Castelán-Ortega, Octavio A

    2012-02-01

    Tropical grasses are the primary nutrient resource for cattle production in the tropics, and they provide low-cost nutrients to cattle. However, its production is constrained by seasonal changes and quality; hence, appropriate usage of relatively inexpensive agricultural by-products is important to profitable livestock production. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing coffee pulp to dairy cows grazing tropical grasses on milk yield and forage intake. Four multiparous crossed Holstein-Brown Swiss-Zebu cows of similar weight and milk yield were used. The effect of 10%, 15% and 20% inclusion of coffee pulp in dairy concentrates on milk yield and forage intake was analysed using a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Results showed that there were no significant effects (P > 0.05) in grass dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition body weight and body condition score due to the inclusion of coffee pulp in the dairy concentrates. It is concluded that coffee pulp can be included at levels of 20% in the concentrate without compromising significantly (P > 0.05) milk yield, milk composition and grass dry matter intake. It also was concluded that cost of concentrate is reduced in 20% by the inclusion of coffee pulp.

  18. Effect of strategies regarding concentrate supplementation and day-time grazing on N utilization at both field and dairy cow level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Peter; Søegaard, Karen; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2008-01-01

    N utilization at cow and field level was examined over two grazing periods of 30 days with 64 Holstein dairy cows. At cow and field level the effect of sward type (diploid vs. tetraploid perennial ryegrass, both mixed with white clover) and compressed sward height (6 vs. 10 cm) was examined....

  19. Effect of Cassava Hay and Rice Bran Oil Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Milk Yield and Milk Composition in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lunsin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH and rice bran oil (RBO on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1 control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C, (T2 Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH, (T3 Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO, and (T4 Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO. The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH2 (purchased as hydrated lime in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05. Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05. In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05 F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production

  20. Effect of cassava hay and rice bran oil supplementation on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsin, R; Wanapat, M; Rowlinson, P

    2012-10-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production

  1. Digestible NDF is selectively retained in the rumen of dairy cows compared to indigestible NDF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    2007-01-01

    Data was compiled from four experiments (60 observations) with fistulated dairy cows. Different forages were fed ad libitum as the only feed or supplemented with a fixed amount of concentrate.......Data was compiled from four experiments (60 observations) with fistulated dairy cows. Different forages were fed ad libitum as the only feed or supplemented with a fixed amount of concentrate....

  2. Determination of digestibility of different forages in dairy cows using indigestible NDF as marker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    2007-01-01

    Four 4 x 4 Latin square experiments were conducted with four cannulated dairy cows. Eight forages were fed ad libitum or supplemented with concentrate.......Four 4 x 4 Latin square experiments were conducted with four cannulated dairy cows. Eight forages were fed ad libitum or supplemented with concentrate....

  3. Evaluation of blood metabolites in dairy cows grazing under two pasture allowances and supplemented with corn silage under restricted grazing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Morales

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of management tools - daily pasture allowance and corn silage supplementation - during periods of forage shortage on the metabolism of dairy cows grazing low-mass pasture in temperate regions. Forty lactating Holstein cows were used during an experimental period of seventy days (April 15 to June 23, 2012. Blood metabolites and milk production were determined in fall-calving dairy cows grazing under two daily pasture allowances (PA (moderate, 17 kg vs. high, 25 kg dry matter (DM and supplemented with corn silage (CS (low, 4.5 kg vs. high, 9.0 kg DM. All cows received 3 kg DM of concentrate. Plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, and urea were determined using an automated spectrophotometer, and milk production was electronically measured at each milking time during the trial. The experimental design was completely randomized using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The increase in daily PA decreased plasma concentrations of BHBA (0.91±0.36 vs. 1.12±0.43 mmol L−1, provided an increase in milk yield (23.18±3.26 vs. 21.99±3.37 kg d−1, and did not modify the concentrations of NEFA and urea. The increased CS supplementation increased mildly the plasma concentrations of BHBA (1.07±0.36 vs. 0.96±0.44 mmol L−1 and NEFA (92.77±54.14 vs. 92.77±55.31 µmol L−1, and decreased the concentrations of urea (4.08±1.40 vs. 4.64±1.30 mmol L−1, but did not change milk production. The positive effect of increasing PA was associated with a high herbage intake, while the lack of response to increasing CS supplementation was attributed to a high substitution of pasture intake (0.9 kg DM pasture/kg DM CS. Low corn silage supplementation is recommended.

  4. Effects of pasture versus confinement and marine oil supplementation on the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in mammary, liver, and adipose tissues of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahmani, P; Glover, K E; Fredeen, A H

    2014-07-01

    Research was conducted to evaluate the effects of management system (MS), marine lipid supplementation (LS), and their interaction on the relative mRNA abundance of 11 genes involved in lipid synthesis in mammary, liver, and subcutaneous adipose tissues in lactating dairy cows. These genes included those involved in FA uptake (LPL), de novo FA synthesis (ACACA, FASN), FA desaturation (SCD1, FADS1, FADS2), and transcriptional regulation of lipogenesis (SREBF1, SCAP, INSIG1, THRSP, and PPARG). Forty-eight peripartal Holstein cows were blocked by parity and predicted calving date and assigned to either a pasture (n=23) or confinement (n=25) system. Within each system, cows were allocated randomly (7-9 cows per treatment) to a control (no oil supplement) or 1 of 2 isolipidic (200 g/d) supplements, fish oil (FO) or microalgae (MA), for 125 ± 5 d starting 30 d precalving. The experiment was conducted as a split-plot design, with MS being the whole plot treatment and LS as the subplot treatment. At 100 ± 2 DIM, 4 cows from each treatment combination (24 cows in total) were euthanized and tissue samples were collected for gene expression analysis. No interactions between MS and LS were observed regarding any of the variables measured in this study. Milk production (34.0 vs. 40.1 kg/d), milk fat (1.10 vs. 1.41 kg/d), protein (0.95 vs. 1.22 kg/d), and lactose (1.56 vs. 1.86 kg/d) were lower for pasture compared with confinement. The effect of LS on milk production and milk composition (yields and contents) was significant only for milk fat content that was reduced with MA compared with FO (3.00 vs. 3.40%) and the control (3.56%). The mammary mRNA abundance of PPARG (-32%) and FASN (-29%) was lower in grazing compared with confined cows, which was accompanied by reduced (-43%) secretion of de novo synthesized fatty acids in milk. Grazing was associated with reduced expression of ACACA (-48%), FASN (-48%), and THRSP (-53%) in subcutaneous adipose tissues, which was

  5. Managing variations in dairy cow nutrient supply under grazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyraud, J L; Delagarde, R

    2013-03-01

    Grazed pasture, which is the cheapest source of nutrients for dairy cows, should form the basis of profitable and low-input animal production systems. Management of high-producing dairy cows at pasture is thus a major challenge in most countries. The objective of the present paper is to review the factors that can affect nutrient supply for grazing dairy cows in order to point out areas with scope for improvement on managing variations in nutrient supply to achieve high animal performance while maintaining efficient pasture utilisation per hectare (ha). Reviewing the range in animal requirements, intake capacity and pasture nutritive values shows that high-producing cows cannot satisfy their energy requirements from grazing alone and favourable to unfavourable situations for grazing dairy cows may be classified according to pasture quality and availability. Predictive models also enable calculation of supplementation levels required to meet energy requirements in all situations. Solutions to maintain acceptable level of production per cow and high output per ha are discussed. Strategies of concentrate supplementation and increasing use of legumes in mixed swards are the most promising. It is concluded that although high-producing cow cannot express their potential milk production at grazing, there is scope to improve animal performance at grazing given recent developments in our understanding of factors influencing forage intake and digestion of grazed forages.

  6. Effect of linoleic acid and dietary vitamin E supplementation on sustained conjugated linoleic acid production in milk fat from dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell-Megaro, A M; Capper, J L; Weiss, W P; Bauman, D E

    2012-12-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; cis-9,trans-11 18:2), a bioactive fatty acid (FA) found in milk and dairy products, has potential human health benefits due to its anticarcinogenic and antiatherogenic properties. Conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in milk fat can be markedly increased by dietary manipulation; however, high levels of CLA are difficult to sustain as rumen biohydrogenation shifts and milk fat depression (MFD) is often induced. Our objective was to feed a typical Northeastern corn-based diet and investigate whether vitamin E and soybean oil supplementation would sustain an enhanced milk fat CLA content while avoiding MFD. Holstein cows (n=48) were assigned to a completely randomized block design with repeated measures for 28 d and received 1 of 4 dietary treatments: (1) control (CON), (2) 10,000 IU of vitamin E/d (VE), (3) 2.5% soybean oil (SO), and (4) 2.5% soybean oil plus 10,000 IU of vitamin E/d (SO-VE). A 2-wk pretreatment control diet served as the covariate. Milk fat percentage was reduced by both high-oil diets (3.53, 3.56, 2.94, and 2.92% for CON, VE, SO, and SO-VE), whereas milk yield increased significantly for the SO-VE diet only, thus partially mitigating MFD by oil feeding. Milk protein percentage was higher for cows fed the SO diet (3.04, 3.05, 3.28, and 3.03% for CON, VE, SO, and SO-VE), implying that nutrient partitioning or ruminal supply of microbial protein was altered in response to the reduction in milk fat. Milk fat concentration of CLA more than doubled in cows fed the diets supplemented with soybean oil, with concurrent increases in trans-10 18:1 and trans-11 18:1 FA. Moreover, milk fat from cows fed the 2 soybean oil diets had 39.1% less de novo synthesized FA and 33.8% more long-chain preformed FA, and vitamin E had no effect on milk fat composition. Overall, dietary supplements of soybean oil caused a reduction in milk fat percentage and a shift in FA composition characteristic of MFD. Supplementing diets with vitamin E

  7. Brief of requirements of the dairy cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.M.R.; Ursinus, W.W.; Schepers, F.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Dixhoorn, van I.D.E.

    2009-01-01

    This report lists the brief of requirements of the dairy cow, based on her needs (also listed). The BoR indicates the actor’s needs with regards to the animal husbandry system. BoR of the main actors are incorporated in the redesign of a dairy husbandry system in the project Cow Power

  8. Phosphorus and the dairy cow

    OpenAIRE

    Ekelund, Adrienne

    2003-01-01

    The general aim of the present work was to investigate phosphorus balance in the dairy cow, with reference to the amount and source of phosphorus. Furthermore, biochemical bone markers were used to study the bone turnover during the lactation and dry period. Phosphorus is located in every cell of the body and has more known functions than any other mineral element in the animal body. Phosphorus is also an important constituent of milk, and is therefore required in large amounts in a high yiel...

  9. Feces composition and manure derived methane yield from dairy cows: Influence of diet with focus on fat supplement and roughage type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Moset, Verónica; Brask, Maike; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Lund, Peter

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dairy cow diets on feces composition and methane (CH4) potential from manure with emphasis on fat level and roughage type and compare these results with the corresponding enteric CH4 emission. In experiment 1 six different diets, divided into two fat levels (low and high) and three different roughage types (early cut grass silage, late cut grass silage and maize silage), were used. The high fat level was achieved by adding crushed rapeseed. In experiment 2, the influence of increasing the fat level by using three different types of rapeseed: rapeseed cake, whole seed and rapeseed oil against a low fat ration with no rapeseed fat supplementation was studied. The diet and fat level had a significant influence on feces composition and CH4 yield. In general, ultimate CH4 yields (B0) were 8-9% higher than the present international default values for diets without extra fat and in feces from diets with extra fat supply the yield was 25-31% higher. It was possible to predict the B0 value from feed and feces characteristics; in fact, the best correlation was obtained by including both feed and feces characteristics. Addition of crude fat to diets to dairy cows reduced enteric CH4 emission but at the same time increased CH4 potential from feces both in terms of organic matter in feces and dry matter intake which might lead to increasing emissions unless proper manure handling such as anaerobic digestion is included. Without subsequent anaerobic digestion to produce energy the positive effect achieved at cow level could be counteracted by increasing manure emissions.

  10. Changes in lipid metabolism and β-adrenergic response of adipose tissues of periparturient dairy cows affected by an energy-dense diet and nicotinic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenéz, Á; Tienken, R; Locher, L; Meyer, U; Rizk, A; Rehage, J; Dänicke, S; Huber, K

    2015-08-01

    Dairy cattle will mobilize large amounts of body fat during early lactation as an effect of decreased lipogenesis and increased lipolysis. Regulation of lipid metabolism involves fatty acid synthesis from acetate and β-adrenergic-stimulated phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and perilipin in adipocytes. Although basic mechanisms of mobilizing fat storage in transition cows are understood, we lack a sufficiently detailed understanding to declare the exact regulatory network of these in a broad range of dairy cattle. The objective of the present study was to quantify 1) protein abundance of fatty acid synthase (FAS), 2) extent of phosphorylation of HSL and perilipin in vivo, and 3) β-adrenergic stimulated lipolytic response of adipose tissues in vitro at different stages of the periparturient period. We fed 20 German Holstein cows an energy-dense or an energetically adequate diet prepartum and 0 or 24 g/d nicotinic acid (NA) supplementation. Biopsy samples of subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissue were obtained at d 42 prepartum (d -42) and at d 1, 21, and 100 postpartum (d +1, d +21, d +100, respectively). To assess β-adrenergic response, tissue samples were incubated with 1 μ isoproterenol for 90 min at 37°C. The NEFA and glycerol release, as well as HSL and perilipin phosphorylation, was measured as indicators of in vitro stimulated lipolysis. In addition, protein expression of FAS and extent of HSL and perilipin phosphorylation were measured in fresh, nonincubated samples. There was no effect of dietary energy density or NA on the observed variables. The extent of HSL and perilipin phosphorylation under isoproterenol stimulation was strongly correlated with the release of NEFA and glycerol, consistent with the functional link between β-adrenergic-stimulated protein phosphorylation and lipolysis. In the nonincubated samples, FAS protein expression was decreased at d +1 and d +21, whereas HSL and perilipin phosphorylation increased

  11. Effect of niacin supplementation on digestibility, nitrogen utilisation and milk and blood variables in lactating dairy cows fed a diet with a negative rumen nitrogen balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann, Martina; Lebzien, Peter; Hüther, Liane; Döll, Susanne; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to determine if a niacin supplementation of 6 g/d to lactating dairy cow diets can compensate negative effects of a rumen nitrogen balance (RNB) deficit. A total of nine ruminally and duodenally fistulated lactating multiparous German Holstein cows were successively assigned to one of three diets consisting of 10 kg maize silage (dry matter [DM] basis) and 7 kg DM concentrate: Diet RNB- (n = 6) with energy and utilisable crude protein at the duodenum (uCP) according to the average requirement of the animals but with a negative RNB (-0.41 g N/MJ metabolisable energy [ME]); Diet RNB0 (n = 7) with energy, uCP and a RNB (0.08 g N/MJ ME) according to the average requirement of the animals and, finally, Diet NA (n = 5), which was the same diet as RNB-, but supplemented with 6 g niacin/d. Samples of milk were taken on two consecutive days, blood samples were taken on one day pre- and post-feeding and faeces and urine were collected completely over five consecutive days. The negative RNB reduced milk and blood urea content and apparent total tract digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). Also N excretion with urine, the total N excreted with urine and faeces and the N balance were reduced when the RNB was negative. Supplementation of niacin elevated plasma glucose concentration after feeding and the N balance increased. Supplementing the diet with a negative RNB with niacin led to a more efficient use of dietary N thereby avoiding the negative effects of the negative RNB on the digestibility of DM, OM and NDF.

  12. Effect of unsaturated fatty acid supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid profile in dairy cows fed a high fibre diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Segato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA supplement on productive performance, physiochemical properties and fatty acid (FA profile of milk, was investigated in lactating dairy cows fed with high fibre diets. According to a cross-over design, twelve cows were assigned to two experimental settings characterized by different FA profiles. Cows received a high fibre diet (~42% NDF on DM basis supplemented with soybean based mixtures with these FA compositions: 92.0% of saturated FA (SFA, 2.8% of monounsaturated FA (MUFA and 5.2% of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA in the control diet (C-diet; 19.1% of SFA, 20.9% of MUFA and 60.0% of PUFA in the experimental diet (E-diet. The E-diet did not affect dry matter intake nor milk yield. Milk composition and coagulation traits resulted similar between treatments, except for the lactose level, which was lower in the E-diet (5.0 vs 4.8%; P<0.05 and the freezing point (-0.546 vs -0.535 °C; P<0.05. As respects the milk FA profile, the E-diet significantly increased the percentage of UFA because of their greater amount in the ration; however the “transfer” of UFA in milk was limited by the high level of FA biohydrogenation (BH at the ruminal level. UFA showed low values of carry over in milk (67.5 vs 39.7%; P<0.001 due to the saturation process; on the contrary SFA had a threefold increment (124 vs 323%; P<0.001, mostly due to a peak in the production of stearic acid. In this study, the percentage of CLA in milk (0.50 vs 0.62%; P<0.05 was quite low for both diets, if compared with other studies, and this was probably due to a low vaccenic acid supply at duodenal level.

  13. Feeding Dairy Cows to Increase Performance on Rhodes Grass Ley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irungu, K.R.G.; Mbugua, P.N.

    1999-01-01

    Majority of dairy farmers in Kenya produce milk from cows fed on roughage. The cow performance follows seasonal variability in quality and quantity of roughage. The objective of the current study was to increase cow performance and maintain productivity of a rhodes grass (chloris gayana) ley. Twenty-four Freisian cows in their second to third lactation were strip grazed on fertilized irrigated Rhodes grass at a stocking rate of 0.034 ha per cow. Four dietary groups of six cows were allocated to one of our diets. one group got no dairy meal while the other three groups were supplemented at a 1kg of dairy meal per 10, 5 and 2.5 kg of 4% fat corrected milk dairy. this amount to 0, 386, 750 and 1542 kg dairy meal (89.4%, DM, 93.7 OM, 16.8, CP and CF) during the lactation. during the 43 - week lactation, records on pasture nutrient yield, nutrient intake, milk yield, liveweight, reproduction and subsequent calf birth weight were collected. The Rhodes grass ley produced 20.7 (ranging from 16.7 to 28.7) t of dry matter (DM) per hectare and cows harvested 16.0 (12.0 to 24.0) t during the 43 weeks.The Rhodes grass contained 32.1, 87.7, 10.8, and 32.3% DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) respectively. Mean stubble of 4.7 (3.9 to 6.0) t DM per hectare was left at pasture. Feeding dairy meals significantly increased (P 0.05) affect batter fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintained (P > 0.05) cow liveweight and increased (P < 0.05) calf birth weight from 32.7 to 37.2 kg. Feeding dairy meal did not affect oestrus cycling. Extreme supplementation, 1542 kg dairy meal, decreased (P < 0.05) fertility. Insemination per conception and calving interval increased (P < 0.05) from 1.5 to 3.5 and 522 days. The findings in the current study show that pasture yield can be increased by over 590% dry matter from 3.5 t obtained from natural pasture containing Kikuyu and Star grasses. The Rhodes grass yield can be increased to 232% of national average yield of 1300

  14. Effect of peripartum dietary energy supplementation on thyroid hormones, insulin-like growth factor-i and its binding proteins in early lactation dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirovski Danijela

    2012-01-01

    three examined postpartum periods, but the difference was significant only on day 60 after parturition (p<0.01, respectively. Concentrations of total protein and albumin were significantly higher in GLY compared to the control group in all three examined periods after parturition. Based on these results it can be concluded that peripartum dietary energy supplementation prevent cows' exposure to severe negative energy balance, preserves synthetic activity of hepatocytes and consequently has a positive impact on milk production and reproductive performances in dairy cows.

  15. Plant oil supplements reduce methane emissions and improve milk fatty acid composition in dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets without affecting milk yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, A R; Tapio, I; Vilkki, J; Shingfield, K J; Leskinen, H

    2018-02-01

    Four lipid supplements varying in chain length or degree of unsaturation were examined for their effects on milk yield and composition, ruminal CH 4 emissions, rumen fermentation, nutrient utilization, and microbial ecology in lactating dairy cows. Five Nordic Red cows fitted with rumen cannulas were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square with five 28-d periods. Treatments comprised total mixed rations based on grass silage with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 60:40 supplemented with no lipid (CO) or 50 g/kg of diet dry matter (DM) of myristic acid (MA), rapeseed oil (RO), safflower oil (SO), or linseed oil (LO). Feeding MA resulted in the lowest DM intake, and feeding RO reduced DM intake compared with CO. Feeding MA reduced the yields of milk, milk constituents, and energy-corrected milk. Plant oils did not influence yields of milk and milk constituents, but reduced milk protein content compared with CO. Treatments had no effect on rumen fermentation characteristics, other than an increase in ammonia-N concentration due to feeding MA, RO, and SO compared with CO. Lipid supplements reduced daily ruminal CH 4 emission; however, the response was to some extent a result of lower feed intake. Lipids modified microbial community structure without affecting total counts of bacteria, archaea, and ciliate protozoa. Dietary treatments had no effect on the apparent total tract digestibility of organic matter, fiber, and gross energy. Treatments did not affect either energy secreted in milk as a proportion of energy intake or efficiency of dietary N utilization. All lipids lowered de novo fatty acid synthesis in the mammary gland. Plant oils increased proportions of milk fat 18:0, cis 18:1, trans and monounsaturated fatty acids, and decreased saturated fatty acids compared with CO and MA. Both SO and LO increased the proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids, total conjugated linolenic acid, and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid. Feeding MA clearly increased the Δ 9

  16. Fatty Acid Profile of Milk and Cheese from Dairy Cows Supplemented a Diet with Palm Kernel Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ronaldo; Faria, Mario; Silva, Raimundo; Bezerra, Leilson; Carvalho, Gleidson; Pinheiro, Alyson; Simionato, Juliana; Leão, André

    2015-08-24

    Lipid supplements (oilseeds vegetables) are included in ruminant diet to increase its energy density and improve fatty acid composition of milk and consequently of fresh cheese. Milk and cheeses were evaluated from crossbred Holstein × Zebu, fed diets enriched with 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% inclusion levels of palm kernel cake in concentrated supplement, which were supplied daily (3.0 kg). Milk and fresh cheese (p = 0.001) fatty acids C12:0 exhibited quadratic negative values. Milk fatty acids C13:0, C20:0, C18:2t10c12, and C20:2n-6 presented positive quadratic values. The milk C18:2n-6 decreased linearly and in fresh cheese exhibited an increasing linear effect (p = 0.016). However, the fatty acids grouped in milk fat were not affected. The medium-chain fatty acids varied negatively and quadratically (p = 0.045). There was no effect on milk and fresh cheese chemical composition (p > 0.05). The milk fat was increased (p = 0.0065) quadratically (minimum point of 24.7%). Thus, the addition of palm kernel cake to cow diets negatively altered the fatty acid profile, it raises the percentage of lauric (C12) and tridecanoic (C13) acids fat which is not beneficial to human health from a nutraceutical perspective, although it did not influence the atherogenicity index.

  17. Detection of Subclinical Ketosis in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zhang, Guowen Liu1, Hongbin Wang, Xiaobing Li1 and Zhe Wang1*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ketosis is a common metabolic disorder frequently observed in dairy cows during the early lactation period. It is characterized by increased levels of ketone bodies in the blood, urine, and milk. Subclinical ketosis (SCK in dairy cattle is an excess level of circulating ketone bodies in the absence of clinical signs of ketosis. Usually, detection of SCK is carried out by testing the ketone concentrations in blood, urine, and milk. Here, This review overview the detection methods for SCK in dairy cows, including cowside and laboratory tests.

  18. Effects of forage type, forage to concentrate ratio, and crushed linseed supplementation on milk fatty acid profile in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.; Johansson, B.E.O.; Taweel, H.Z.H.; Murphy, M.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of an increasing proportion of crushed linseed (CL) in combination with varying forage type (grass or corn silage) and forage to concentrate ratio (F:C), and their interactions on milk fatty acid (FA) profile of high-producing dairy cows was studied using a 3-factor Box-Behnken design.

  19. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  20. Effect of dietary starch concentration and fish oil supplementation on milk yield and composition, diet digestibility, and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirondini, M; Colombini, S; Mele, M; Malagutti, L; Rapetti, L; Galassi, G; Crovetto, G M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different starch concentrations and fish oil (FO) supplementation on lactation performance, in vivo total-tract nutrient digestibility, N balance, and methane (CH4) emissions in lactating dairy cows. The experiment was conducted as a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement: 2 concentrations of dietary starch [low vs. high: 23.7 and 27.7% on a dry matter (DM) basis; neutral detergent fiber/starch ratios: 1.47 and 1.12], the presence or absence of FO supplement (0.80% on a DM basis), and their interaction were evaluated. Four Italian Friesian cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets in 4 consecutive 26-d periods: (1) low starch (LS), (2) low starch plus FO (LSO), (3) high starch (HS), and (4) high starch plus FO (HSO). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage, alfalfa and meadow hays). The starch concentration was balanced using different proportions of corn meal and soybean hulls. The cows were housed in metabolic stalls inside open-circuit respiration chambers to allow measurement of CH4 emission and the collection of separate urine and feces. No differences among treatments were observed for DM intake. We observed a trend for FO to increase milk yield: 29.2 and 27.5kg/d, on average, for diets with and without FO, respectively. Milk fat was affected by the interaction between dietary starch and FO: milk fat decreased only in the HSO diet. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) was affected by the interaction between starch and FO, with a positive effect of FO on the LS diet. Fish oil supplementation decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio of milk polyunsaturated fatty acids. High-starch diets negatively influenced all digestibility parameters measured except starch, whereas FO improved neutral detergent fiber digestibility (41.9 vs. 46.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively, and ether extract digestibility (53.7 vs. 67.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively). We observed

  1. Behaviour of dairy cows under modern housing and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, H.K.

    1991-01-01

    The results of behavioural studies of dairy cows' behaviour under some modern housing and management conditions are presented. Social dominance in dairy cows is studied and methods to describe social dominance are discussed. The lying behaviour of dairy cows is studied under various

  2. Cell wall and yeast culture supplementation on prepartum dairy cows and its effects on colostrum quality and immune status of calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Campos-Granados

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at a private dairy farm located in Santa Rosa de Oreamuno, Cartago Province. Thirty prepartum Jersey cows and their calves were used in a completely randomized design with 2 treatments of 15 repetitions each. Treatments were: first, unsupplemented control; and second, daily supplement from 21 days prepartum with 40 g of cell wall and yeast culture. The concentration of total immunoglobulins of colostrum was quantified, giving average values of 90.06±23.74 mg.ml-1 for the control group and 105.94±17.59 mg.ml-1 for the supplemented (p<0.05. The concentration of total serum protein in the blood serum of calves was quantified, giving average values of 8.57±1.27 g.dl-1 for the control group and 8.24±1.26 g.dl-1 for the supplemented (p>0.05. The daily weight gain, weekly growth expressed as height at the withers, solid diet daily intake and feed conversion of calves during the first 8 weeks were quantified, obtaining average values of solid diet intake of 985.17±8.51 g and 977.51±5.74 g (p>0.05, daily gain of 382.86±1.20 g and 410.94±51.22 g (p>0.05, weekly growth of 1.45±0.33 cm and 1.70±0.31 cm (p>0,05 and feed conversion of 2.57±0.11 and 2.38±0.09 (p>0.05, for the control group and supplemented, respectively. In conclusion, supplementation with cell wall and yeast culture had an enhancing effect on concentration of total immunoglobulins in colostrum and an improving effect on the health of calves, reflected in lower incidence of respiratory and digestive tract diseases.

  3. Grape marc reduces methane emissions when fed to dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Torok, V A; Hannah, M C; Ribaux, B E; Tavendale, M H; Eckard, R J; Jacobs, J L; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J

    2014-01-01

    Grape marc (the skins, seeds, stalk, and stems remaining after grapes have been pressed to make wine) is currently a by-product used as a feed supplement by the dairy and beef industries. Grape marc contains condensed tannins and has high concentrations of crude fat; both these substances can reduce enteric methane (CH4) production when fed to ruminants. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with either dried, pelleted grape marc or ensiled grape marc on yield and composition of milk, enteric CH4 emissions, and ruminal microbiota in dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in late lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets: a control (CON) diet; a diet containing dried, pelleted grape marc (DGM); and a diet containing ensiled grape marc (EGM). The diet offered to cows in the CON group contained 14.0kg of alfalfa hay dry matter (DM)/d and 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d. Diets offered to cows in the DGM and EGM groups contained 9.0kg of alfalfa hay DM/d, 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d, and 5.0kg of dried or ensiled grape marc DM/d, respectively. These diets were offered individually to cows for 18d. Individual cow feed intake and milk yield were measured daily and milk composition measured on 4d/wk. Individual cow CH4 emissions were measured by the SF6 tracer technique on 2d at the end of the experiment. Ruminal bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protozoan communities were quantified on the last day of the experiment. Cows offered the CON, DGM, and EGM diets, ate 95, 98, and 96%, respectively, of the DM offered. The mean milk yield of cows fed the EGM diet was 12.8kg/cow per day and was less than that of cows fed either the CON diet (14.6kg/cow per day) or the DGM diet (15.4kg/cow per day). Feeding DGM and EGM diets was associated with decreased milk fat yields, lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids, and enhanced concentrations of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular cis-9,trans-11 linoleic acid. The mean CH4 emissions were

  4. Automated behaviour monitoring in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.; Verhoeven, P.H.F.M.; Hogewerf, P.H.; Ipema, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Acceleration sensors in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) were used to monitor the behaviour of dairy cows. The data processing from 3D acceleration into behaviour classification (lying, standing or walking) was based on a two-steps method: first the distinction between lying and standing/walking was

  5. Silage alcohols in dairy cow nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    Corn silages with high propanol concentrations has been suspected to cause reduced feed intake and health problems for dairy cows in the post-pattum transition period. With the increasing use of hetero fermentative inoculants to support corn silage fermentation it is likely that silage concentrat...

  6. Short communication: Effects of prill size of a palmitic acid-enriched fat supplement on the yield of milk and milk components, and nutrient digestibility of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, J; Garver, J L; Preseault, C L; Lock, A L

    2017-01-01

    The objective of our experiment was to evaluate the effects of prill size of a palmitic acid-enriched fatty acid supplement (PA; 85% C16:0) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and production responses of dairy cows. Twenty-four primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows were assigned based on parity and production level to replicated 4×4 Latin squares balanced for carryover effects with 21-d periods. Treatments were a control diet (no added PA), or 2.0% PA added as a small prill size (PA-SM; 284±12.4µm), a medium prill size (PA-MD; 325±14.7µm), or a large prill size (PA-LG; 600±17.4µm) supplement. Overall, PA treatments increased milk fat content (4.25 vs. 3.99%), milk fat yield (1.48 vs. 1.39kg/d), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (39.2 vs. 37.7kg/d), and improved feed efficiency (fat-corrected milk:dry matter intake; 1.51 vs. 1.42) compared with control. Compared with control, PA treatments did not affect dry matter intake, body weight, body condition score, or yields of milk, protein, and lactose. The PA treatments increased neutral detergent fiber digestibility (44.8 vs. 42.4%) and reduced the digestibility of 16-carbon fatty acids (72.3 vs. 79.1%) and total fatty acids (76.6 vs. 80.3%). Compared with control, PA treatments reduced the contents of de novo synthesized milk fatty acids (23.0 vs. 25.8g/100g of fatty acids) and preformed milk fatty acids (36.3 vs. 39.1g/100g of fatty acids), but did not affect their yields. In contrast, PA treatments increased the content (40.8 vs. 35.1g/100g of fatty acids) and yield (570 vs. 436g/d) of 16-carbon milk fatty acids compared with control. The PA prill size had no effect on dry matter intake, yield of milk and milk components, or feed efficiency. However, PA-LG tended to increase milk fat content compared with PA-SM (4.28 vs. 4.22%), and it increased 16-carbon fatty acid digestibility compared with PA-MD (74.2 vs. 71.0%) and PA-SM (74.2 vs. 71.7%). Additionally, PA-LG increased total fatty acid digestibility compared

  7. Fats for lactating dairy cows | Smith | South African Journal of Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fat provides essential fatty acids and a concentrated source of energy for dairy cows. The energetic efficiency of milk production is therefore also improved. Of the numerous fat sources that are available, oilseeds, especially cottonseed, probably offer the best opportunity of supplementing fat in dairy diets. It also seems ...

  8. WASmith The genetic potential of dairy cows has increased to such

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fat provides essential fatty acids and a concentrated source of energy for dairy cows. The energetic efficiency of milk production is therefore also improved. Of the numerous fat sources that are available, oilseeds, especially cottonseed, probably offer the best opportunity of supplementing fat in dairy diets. It also seems ...

  9. Extended lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2008-01-01

    Twelve spring-calving and twelve winter-calving cows were managed for extended lactation cycles of 18-months duration, with the former group then completing a second extended lactation. Half of the cows were fed according to standard management practice for the herd; the other half received suppl...... interventions, the results lend support to the economic arguments in favour of extended lactation cycles. The likely welfare benefits of extended lactation are also discussed....

  10. Effects of energy density in close-up diets and postpartum supplementation of extruded full-fat soybean on lactation performance and metabolic and hormonal status of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Su, Huawei; Wang, Fuwei; Cao, Zhijun; Li, Shengli

    2015-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of energy density (ED) in the close-up period and supplementation of extruded full-fat soybean (ESB) during the first 4 wk after parturition on intake, body weight (BW), metabolic status, and performance of dairy cows. Fifty-seven Chinese Holstein cows with similar parity, previous 305-d milk yield, and expected calving date were dried off at -60 d relative to parturition and fed the standard herd dry-cow diet until -21 d relative to parturition. Energy density at low (LED, 1.25 Mcal/kg), medium (MED, 1.41 Mcal/kg) or high (HED, 1.55 Mcal/kg) levels of the close-up diets and postpartum supplementation of ESB at 0 kg/d (control, CON) or 1.5 kg/d (TRT) were used in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. All cows received the same CON diet from wk 5 to wk 8. As ED increased in the close-up diet, cows had higher dry matter intake and gained more BW and body condition score, and consequently were in improved energy balance status during the prepartum period, but lost more BW and more body condition score during the first 8 wk of lactation. Compared with LED cows, HED cows had higher blood concentrations of insulin and glucose, and lower nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) prepartum, but had lower insulin concentration, higher leptin concentration and tended to have higher NEFA concentration postpartum. Milk production was not affected by the prepartum ED, although HED cows produced approximately 2 kg/d less milk than MED and LED cows during early lactation. Postpartum ESB supplementation elevated blood glucagon concentration regardless of prepartum ED during the first 4 wk of lactation. Interactive effects between prepartum ED and postpartum ESB supplementation were observed in blood concentrations of insulin, NEFA, bilirubin, total protein, albumin, and globulin. During early lactation, TRT decreased globulin concentrations in MED cows, and reduced NEFA and bilirubin concentrations in HED cows. Compared with CON, TRT cows

  11. Euthanasia of Danish dairy cows evaluated in two questionnaire surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Peter; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2008-01-01

    a random sample of 196 Danish dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow to the Danish Cattle Database in 2002 and 196 dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow in 2006. Our objectives were to evaluate the proportion of euthanized cows, changes in the behaviour of farmers regarding euthanasia of cows over...... the years and possible reasons for these changes. Results It seems that the threshold for euthanasia of cows among farmers has changed. Farmers generally reported a lower threshold for euthanasia compared to 5-10 years ago. Conclusions The threshold for euthanasia of cows has, according to the dairy farmers...

  12. Factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cow in Algeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2017-01-11

    Jan 11, 2017 ... first artificial insemination (MG1; n = 62 dairy cows), cows presenting clinical mastitis between the first artificial insemination ... study clearly indicate that, clinical mastitis decreases reproductive performance of dairy cows. Key words: ... shift towards higher production per animal, inadequate nutrition, poor ...

  13. Dairy farmers' attitudes and intentions towards improving dairy cow foot health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Hogeveen, H.; Garforth, C.J.; Stassen, E.N.

    2013-01-01

    Dairy cow foot health is a subject of concern because it is considered to be the most important welfare problem in dairy farming and causes economic losses for the farmer. In order to improve dairy cow foot health it is important to take into account the attitude and intention of dairy farmers. In

  14. Effects of long-term supplementation of dairy cow diets with rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on performance, metabolic parameters and fatty acid profile in milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappritz, Julia; Meyer, Ulrich; Kramer, Ronny; Weber, Eva-Maria; Jahreis, Gerhard; Rehage, Jürgen; Flachowsky, Gerhard; Dänicke, Sven

    2011-04-01

    The supplementation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) to the rations of dairy cows represents an opportunity to reduce the content of milk fat. Therefore, CLA have the potential beneficial effect of reducing energy requirements of the early lactating cow. The present study aimed at the examination of long-term and posttreatment effects of dietary CLA intake on performance, variables of energy metabolism-like plasma levels of non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and fatty acid profile in milk fat. Forty-six pregnant German Holstein cows were assigned to one of three dietary treatments: (1) 100 g/ d of control fat supplement (CON), (2) 50 g/d of control fat supplement and 50 g/ d of CLA supplement (CLA-1) and (3) 100 g/d of CLA supplement (CLA-2). The lipid-encapsulated CLA supplement consisted of approximately 10% of trans-10, cis-12 CLA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA each. The experiment started 1 d after calving and continued for about 38 weeks, divided into a supplementation (26 weeks) and a depletion period (12 weeks). Over the first 7 weeks of treatment, 11 and 16% reductions in dry matter intake compared to control were observed for the cows fed CLA-1 and CLA-2 supplements respectively. Consequently, the calculated energy balance for these two CLA groups was lower compared to the control. Plasma levels of NEFA and BHB remained unaffected. Later in lactation the highest CLA supplementation resulted in a reduction of milk fat content of 0.7%. However, no reduction in milk fat yield, and accordingly no milk fat depression (MFD), could be shown. The trans-10, cis-12 CLA in milk fat increased with increasing dietary CLA supplementation in a dose-dependent manner. The proportion of C16 in milk fat was decreased by the highest CLA supplementation. With the exception of an increase in plasma glucose level in the CLA-2 group, no post-treatment effects were observed. Overall, under the conditions of the present study no improvement in the

  15. Milk production, grazing behavior and nutritional status of dairy cows grazing two herbage allowances during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ruiz-Albarran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter grazing provides a useful means for increasing the proportion of grazed herbage in the annual diet of dairy cows. This season is characterized by low herbage growth rate, low herbage allowance, and low herbage intake and hence greater needs for supplements to supply the requirements of lactating dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of herbage allowance (HA offered to autumn calving dairy cows grazing winter herbage on milk production, nutritional status, and grazing behavior. The study took 63 d using 32 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Prior to experimental treatment, milk production averaged 20.2 ± 1.7 kg d-1, body weight was 503 ± 19 kg, and days in milking were 103 ± 6. Experimental animals were randomly assigned to two treatments according to HA offered above ground level: low (17 kg DM cow-1 d-1 vs. high HA (25 kg DM cow¹ d¹. All cows were supplemented with grass silage supplying daily 6.25 and 4.6 kg DM of concentrate (concentrate commercial plus high corn moisture. Decreasing HA influenced positively milk production (+25%, milk protein (+20 kg, and milk fat (+17 kg per hectare; however no effects on milk production per cow or energy metabolic status were observed in the cows. In conclusion, a low HA showed to be the most significant influencing factor on milk and milk solids production per hectare in dairy cows grazing restricted winter and supplemented with grass silage and concentrate; but no effect on the milk production per cow was found.

  16. Nutrition and fertility in dairy cow

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition has an important impact on the reproductive performance of dairy cattle. Energy is the major nutrient required by adult cattle and inadequate energy intake has a detrimental impact on reproductive activity of bovine. Cows under negative energy balance have extended periods of anovulation. Postpartum anestrus, as well as infertility, is magnified by losses of body condition during the early postpartum period. Resumption of ovulatory cycles is associated with energy balance, but s...

  17. Enteric methane production, digestibility and rumen fermentation in dairy cows fed different forages with and without rapeseed fat supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Maike; Lund, Peter; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2013-01-01

    chambers. Additional fat reduced the gross energy (GE) lost as CH4 from 6.3 to 5.8% of GE intake, independent of forage species and quality. Energy loss as CH4 constituted 6.1, 6.7 and 5.4% of GE intake for early grass silage, late grass silage and maize silage, respectively. However......The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of forage species (grass or maize) and the maturity stage of grass on enteric methane (CH4) production, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation, and to study possible interactions with cracked rapeseed as fat source. Six lactating...... were supplemented with either low fat concentrate or high fat concentrate. The dietary fat concentration in the high fat diets was approximately 60 g/kg DM. Diurnal samples of duodenal and ileal digesta and feces were compiled. The CH4 production was measured for four days in open-circuit respiration...

  18. Effects of rutin and buckwheat seeds on energy metabolism and methane production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoldt, Ann-Kathrin; Derno, Michael; Das, Gürbüz; Weitzel, Joachim M; Wolffram, Siegfried; Metges, Cornelia C

    2016-03-01

    Flavonoids are secondary plant metabolites with several health promoting effects. As dairy cows often suffer from metabolic imbalance and health problems, interest is growing in health improvements by plant substances such as flavonoids. Our group has recently shown that the flavonoids quercetin and rutin (a glucorhamnoside of quercetin) are bioavailable in cows when given via a duodenal fistula or orally, respectively, affect glucose metabolism, and have beneficial effects on liver health. Furthermore, flavonoids may reduce rumen methane production in vitro through their antibacterial properties. To test the hypothesis that rutin has effects on energy metabolism, methane production, and production performance in dairy cows, we fed rutin trihydrate at a dose of 100mg/kg of body weight to a group of 7 lactating dairy cows for 2 wk in a crossover design. In a second experiment, 2 cows were fed the same ration but were supplemented with buckwheat seeds (Fagopyrum tartaricum), providing rutin at a dose comparable to the first experiment. Two other cows receiving barley supplements were used as controls in a change-over mode. Blood samples were taken weekly and respiration measurements were performed at the end of each treatment. Supplementation of pure rutin, but not of rutin contained in buckwheat seeds, increased the plasma quercetin content. Methane production and milk yield and composition were not affected by rutin treatment in either form. Plasma glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, and albumin were increased by pure rutin treatment, indicating a possible metabolic effect of rutin on energy metabolism of dairy cows. In addition, we did not show that in vivo ruminal methane production was reduced by rutin. In conclusion, we could not confirm earlier reports on in vitro methane reduction by rutin supplementation in dairy cows in established lactation. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. In situ provision of drinking water to grazing dairy cows improves milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglierina, M M; Bonadeo, N; Ornstein, A M; Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2018-01-01

    To determine the effect of providing water within the area grazed by dairy cows on milk yield and quality, compared to requiring cows to walk to a distant water trough, on a dairy farm in the Pampa region of Argentina during summer. Holstein dairy cows were allocated to two herds with similar parity, days in milk and milk production. They were grazed in one paddock that was divided in two, with a fixed water trough at one end. Cows were moved twice daily to grazing plots within the paddock. Control cows (n=66) could only access water from the fixed trough, whereas supplemented cows (n=67) also received water from a mobile trough within the grazing plot. Milk production of each cow, and water consumption of the two herds were measured daily over 62 days. Milk composition for each herd was determined weekly from Days 18 to 60 of the study, and grazing behaviour was observed between 08:00 and 16:00 hours on Days 11-15, 19-22 and 39-43. Over the 62 days of the study, supplemented cows produced 1.39 (SE 0.11) L/cow/day more milk than Control cows (p=0.027). Estimated mean daily water intake was 50.4 (SE 2.1) L/cow/day for supplemented cows and 58.2 (SE 2.7) L/cow/day for Control cows (p=0.004). Percentage total solids in milk was higher for supplemented (12.5 (SE 0.06)%) than Control (12.4 (SE 0.04)%) cows (p=0.047). During the periods of behavioural observation, a higher percentage of cows in the water supplemented than the Control herd were observed in the grazing area (p=0.012). This preliminary study demonstrated that provision of water to dairy cows within the grazing plot was beneficial for milk production and composition, and may be associated with longer periods spent within the grazing area, during hot weather in the Pampa region of Argentina.

  20. Associations between Forkhead Box O1 (FoxO1 Expression and Indicators of Hepatic Glucose Production in Transition Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asako Kinoshita

    Full Text Available Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1 is a transcription factor which promotes hepatic glucose production (HGP by up-regulating the transcription of gluconeogenic enzymes in monogastric species. The activity of FoxO1 is inhibited by insulin-induced phosphorylation. The aims of the present study were to find associations between FoxO1 expression and variables associated with HGP as affected by feeding regimen in dairy cows during the transition period. Twenty one healthy German Holstein cows were allocated to four groups (LC-CON, HC-CON, LC-NA with 5 cows/group and HC-NA with 6 cows/group, respectively. Cows received 0 (LC-CON and HC-CON or 24 (LC-NA and HC-NA g/d nicotinic acid with high (HC or low (LC concentrate proportion from -42 days (-41.8 + 4.8; mean + standard deviation relative to expected calving date (d-42 to d24. Liver biopsy was taken at d-42, 1, 21, and 100. The total protein expression of FoxO1 (tFoxO1 and the extent of phosphorylation of FoxO1 at serine 256 (pFoxO1 were analysed semiquantitatively by Western Blotting. The expression of hepatic mRNA of FoxO1 and seven genes associated with HGP was measured by real-time RT-PCR. Mixed model and Pearson's correlation were used for statistical evaluation with the level of significance at P<0.05. No dietary effect was observed either on feed intake, energy balance, or on the concentration of blood metabolites. Neither time nor diet affected the expression of FoxO1 total protein and mRNA. A NA × concentrate interaction was found in pFoxO1. However, no corresponding dietary effect was found in the mRNA expression of investigated genes. Different patterns of correlations between FoxO1-related variables and investigated indicators for HGP were found at d21 and 100. The results indicated that the regulation of HGP did not take place on the levels of mRNA and protein expression and the phosphorylation of FoxO1 in dairy cows in early lactation.

  1. The effect of zeolite on oxidant/antioxidant status in healthy dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudai Ipek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary zeolite (clinoptilolite supplementation on the oxidative/antioxidative status on plasma in healthy dairy cows. Twenty dairy cows were divided into two groups of 10. Control group was fed the basal ration for 60 days. Zeolite group was fed the basal ration supplemented with 2.5% zeolite daily. To evaluate the oxidative and antioxidative status comprehensively, indicators such as total oxidant status, oxidative stress index, total antioxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide, total free sulphhydryl groups, ceruloplasmin concentrations, arylesterase, paraoxonase-1 and catalase activities were measured in plasma. Lipid hydroperoxide concentration was significantly (P 2O2 Eq/l by zeolite supplementation. However, no significant effect was observed on the antioxidant and other oxidant indicators. In conclusion, although zeolite decreased the lipid hydroperoxide concentration, it cannot further strengthen antioxidant defense system in healthy dairy cows.

  2. Effects of toasting blue lupins, soybeans or barley as supplement for high-yielding organic dairy cows fed grass-clover silage ad libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Lund, Peter; Kristensen, Troels

    2008-01-01

    The effect of toasted supplement on milk production was examined in three experiments on an organic study farm during the winter 2004/2005. Three types of iso-energetic supplement feed, toasted or untreated, were examined in each experiment, with an untreated cereal mixture as control. The supple......The effect of toasted supplement on milk production was examined in three experiments on an organic study farm during the winter 2004/2005. Three types of iso-energetic supplement feed, toasted or untreated, were examined in each experiment, with an untreated cereal mixture as control....... The supplement under investigation was: lupins in experiment 1, barley in experiment 2 and soybeans in experiment 3. The same forage mixture of grass-clover silage (84% of DM), grass pellets (11% of DM) and straw (5% of DM) was fed ad libitum in all the experiments. Toasting decreased effective rumen protein...... of soybeans did not affect milk protein content. ECM yield was significantly higher (P = 0.002) for cows fed toasted soybeans than for cows fed untreated soybeans (28.1 versus 26.4 kg ECM) whereas there was no significant effect on ECM yield from toasting lupins or barley. It can be concluded...

  3. Parâmetros sanguíneos de vacas leiteiras suplementadas com diferentes fontes de gordura Blood parameters of dairy cows supplemented with different fat sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Esler de Freitas Júnior

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a utilização de diferentes fontes de gordura nas rações de vacas em lactação e seus efeitos sobre o consumo de matéria seca e as concentrações dos parâmetros sangüíneos. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas da raça Holandês, agrupadas em três quadrados latinos balanceados 4x4 e alimentadas com as seguintes rações: 1 controle; 2 óleo de soja refinado; 3 grão de soja in natura; e 4 sais de cálcio de ácidos graxos (Megalac-E. As concentrações de colesterol total, colesterol, lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL e colesterol de alta densidade (HDL foram maiores (PThis study was carried out to evaluate the use of different fat sources in dairy cows rations and its effects on dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, and blood parameter. Twelve Holstein cows were allocated in three balanced latin square 4x4, and fed with the following rations: 1 Control, with 2.5%; 2 Refined soybean oil; 3 Whole soybean; and 4, Calcium salts of fatty acids (Megalac-E. The concentrations of total cholesterol and lipoprotein low density (LDL were higher (P<0.05 for cows that received rations with fat sources, which also causes increased (P<0.05 e concentration of high density lipoprotein (HDL. The concentrations of urea and blood urea nitrogen were similar among the rations, except for the diet containing calcium salts of fatty acids, which showed lower (P<0.05. The dry matter intake was lower (P<0.05 in cows that received calcium salts in the rations. The animals that received a diet containing whole soybeans as a source of fat had lower (P<0.05 yield milk when compared to other rations used. The use of fat sources in dairy cows rations influenced the blood parameters, especially for parameters related to lipidogram.

  4. Modelling of ammonia emissions from dairy cow houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteny, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    Dairy cow husbandry contributes to environmental acidification through the emission of ammonia. In-depth knowledge on the processes and variable factors that play a role in the emission of ammonia from dairy cow houses benefits the production of emission data, the development of low

  5. Biomarkers and mechanisms of natural disease resistance in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altena, van S.E.C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to define and test biomarkers for disease resistance in dairy cows and to determine the underlying mechanism in natural disease resistance. The health status of the cows is an important issue in dairy farming. Due to the mandatory reduction in the use of antibiotics,

  6. Energy metabolism of dairy cows fed on grass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinenberg, M.H.; Honing, Y. van der; Agnew, R.E.; Yan, T.; Vuuren, A.M. van; Valk, H.

    2002-01-01

    Production performance of grass-fed dairy cows is often lower than expected from the estimated energy supply. To explain the overestimation of the energy content of grass for dairy cows, data from energy balance trials from three different laboratories (Wageningen, Lelystad and Hillsborough) were

  7. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in dairy cows in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in dairy cows in subtropical southern China. ... Dairy cows with the history of 5 pregnancies had the highest seroprevalence (33.3%). However, no statistically significant association was found between M. bovis infection and age or number of pregnancies (p > 0.05). All the ...

  8. Sickness behavior in dairy cows during Escherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Røntved, Christine Maria; Sørensen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    -recorded on 5 consecutive days, d −2 to +2 after challenge when the cows were not disturbed by humans. The behavior of the animals was compared among all days. Infection with E. coli altered the behavior of the dairy cows. Time spent feeding was lower in the initial 24 h after infection compared......The consequences of mastitis in terms of dairy cow behavior are relatively unknown. Future assessment of dairy cow welfare during mastitis will be facilitated by knowledge about the potential of mastitis to induce sickness behavior. Our aim was to examine behavior of dairy cows in the period from 2...... d before (d −2 and −1) to 3 d (d 0, 1, and 2) after experimental intramammary challenge with Escherichia coli. Effects of experimentally induced mastitis on behavior were examined in 20 primiparous Danish Holstein-Friesian cows, all 3 to 6 wk after calving and kept in tie stalls. After evening...

  9. Eliminative behaviour of dairy cows at pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whistance, Lindsay Kay; Sinclair, Liam A.; Arney, David Richard

    2011-01-01

    Despite a strong avoidance of grazing near dung patches, cattle have traditionally been considered not to avoid bodily contact with faeces, regardless of any risk of disease. Little is understood of the behaviour of pasture-kept dairy cows at the time of defaecation and therefore, the eliminative...... behaviour of 40 Holstein-Friesian cows was observed at pasture for6 heach day between morning and afternoon milking for a total of24 h. Lying (l), standing (s) and walking (w) behaviours were recorded pre, during and post-elimination. Sequences of 3–6 changes in these behaviours were recorded if expressed...... observed events (uppercase letters denote behaviour during defaecation). In all recorded events, 383 stood and 54 walked whilst defaecating (P

  10. Body Temperature Versus Microclimate Selection in Heat Stressed Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the thermoregulatory responses of unrestrained heat-stressed dairy cows within a freestall environment using fan and spray configurations for cooling cows while lying or standing. An experimental treatment sprayed individual cows lying in freestalls from ...

  11. producing dairy cows fed conventional forages, wheat straw

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chewing activity, metabolic profile and performance of high- producing dairy cows fed conventional forages, wheat straw or rice straw. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... Twelve lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated (n = 4) 3 × 3 Latin square design experiment with three periods of 21 days. Cows were ...

  12. Effects of anionic salts supplementation on blood pH and mineral status, energy metabolism, reproduction and production in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Hesam A; Mohri, Mehrdad; Farzaneh, Nima; Nemati, Hadi; Nejhad, Shima Vahidi

    2010-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of a pre-partum diet with lower than recommended (DCAD=-82 mEq/kg of dietary DM) amounts of anionic salts on metabolism, health, reproductive performance and milk production in dairy cows. Sixty Holstein multiparous cows were enrolled 21 days prior to expected calving date. The animals were randomly assigned to receive one of two rations: 30 cows received anionic ration [-82 mEq (NA+K-Cl-S)/kg of DM] for 21 d to parturition and the other group (n=30) were fed a usual dry period ration (+192 mEq/kg of DM). Serum samples obtained at days -21, +3 and +21 relative to calving were analyzed for beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose, calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, chloride, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Urine pH declined from 8.4 at 21 d before calving (pre-treatment) to 6.2 at day 7 pre-partum in the treatment group. Repeated-measure mixed model analysis indicated that the concentrations of Ca were significantly increased and creatinine, and AST were significantly decreased by lowering DCAD. The concentrations of BHBA, NEFA and glucose were not affected by treatment. The incidence of milk fever and culling were 5 and 11 times higher in the control group in comparison with the treatment group, respectively. The intervals from calving to first breeding and to pregnancy were not influenced by treatment. There was no group effect on average daily milk yield or fat percentage. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Bacillus subtilis natto on milk production, rumen fermentation and ruminal microbiome of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, P; Wang, J Q; Deng, L F

    2013-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of Bacillus subtilis natto, which was initially isolated from fermented soybeans on milk production, rumen fermentation and ruminal microbiome in dairy cows. In Experiment 1, 36 early lactation Chinese Holstein dairy cows (56 ± 23 days in milk) were randomly assigned to three groups: Control, cows were fed total mixed ration (TMR); BSNLOW, TMR plus 0.5 × 1011 colony-forming units (cfu) of B. subtilis natto/cow per day; and BSNHIGH, TMR plus 1.0 × 1011 cfu of B. subtilis natto/cow per day. During the 70-day treatment period, daily milk production and daily milk composition were determined in individual cows. The results showed that supplementing dairy cows with 0.5 × 1011 and 1.0 × 1011 cfu of B. subtilis natto linearly increased (P dairy cows were fed the basal diet from 1 to 7 days (pre-trial period) and rumen samples were collected on days 6 and 7; the same cows then were fed 1.0 × 1011 cfu/day B. subtilis natto from days 8 to 21 (trial period) and rumen samples were collected on days 20 and 21. B. subtilis natto was discontinued from days 22 to 28 (post-trial period) and rumen samples were collected on days 27 and 28. Compared with the pre- and post-periods, ruminal pH decreased by 2.7% to 3.0% during the trial period (P probiotic for dairy cows.

  14. Measures to improve dairy cow foot health: consequences for farmer income and dairy cow welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijnis, M R N; Hogeveen, H; Stassen, E N

    2013-01-01

    Dairy farming in western countries with cubicle housing is an efficient way of dairy farming. Though, a disadvantage is the high prevalence and incidence of foot disorders (clinical and subclinical), which cause high economic losses and also seriously impair the welfare of dairy cattle. To point out the importance of reducing the amount and severity of foot disorders, advice to farmers should include information about the scale of the problem and the consequences in terms of economics and animal welfare. To provide support in making decisions on implementing intervention measures, insight into costs and benefits of different measures should be available. The objective of this study, therefore, is to provide more insight into the costs and benefits, for farmer and cow, of different intervention measures to improve dairy cow foot health. Intervention measures were modeled when they were applicable on a dairy farm with cubicle housing and when sufficient information was available in literature. Net costs were calculated as the difference between the costs of the measure and the economic benefits resulting from the measure. Welfare benefits were calculated as well. Cost-effective measures are: improving lying surface (mattress and bedding, €7 and €1/cow per year, respectively), reducing stocking density (break even) and performing additional foot trimming (€1/cow per year). Simultaneously, these measures have a relative high welfare benefit. Labor costs play an important role in the cost-effectiveness of labor-intensive measures. More insight into cost-effectiveness and welfare benefits of intervention measures can help to prioritize when choosing between intervention measures.

  15. Diagnosis of pregnancy in dairy cows based on the progesterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnant cows, correctly classifying 98,0% of all cases (98,9% of pregnant cows and 97,1% of non-pregnant cows), when the discriminating level for progesterone was set at 5 ng/ml milk. At the same level of progeste- rone this function correctly classified 94,4% of all cases belonging to a different sample of dairy cows. This.

  16. Short communication: Effect of antioxidant supplementation on milk production, milk fat synthesis, and milk fatty acids in dairy cows when fed a diet designed to cause milk fat depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerman, J P; Preseault, C L; Kraft, J; Dann, H M; Lock, A L

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a blend of synthetic antioxidants on the yield of milk and milk components and milk fatty acid composition in dairy cows fed a diet designed to cause milk fat depression (MFD). We hypothesized that supplementing a synthetic antioxidant to diets with a high rumen unsaturated fatty acid load (RUFAL) would decrease the severity of MFD. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows (163 ± 47 d in milk), in a crossover design with two 21-d periods, were fed a corn silage and grass silage-based diet containing 15% distillers grains. The diet contained 34% neutral detergent fiber, 18% crude protein, 26% starch, and 4.3% total fatty acids (dry matter basis). Cows were fed the diet without supplementation (control; CON) or supplemented with 0.02% (dry matter basis) of a synthetic antioxidant (AOX; Agrado Plus, Novus International Inc., St. Charles, MO). Dry matter intake and milk yields were recorded daily. Milk samples were collected at the start of the study for baseline values and the end of each period (d 20-21) and analyzed for milk components and fatty acid composition. Dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by treatment and averaged 25.9 and 50.2 kg/d, respectively. Similarly, we observed no effect of treatment on yields of fat, protein, lactose, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, feed efficiency, body weight, or body condition score. Milk fat concentration and yield were both reduced by the high RUFAL diets. We observed a tendency for AOX to increase the concentration of milk fat and decrease the concentration of milk protein. Yields of de novo and preformed fatty acids were not affected by treatment, although we detected a trend for a slight increase in the yield of 16-carbon fatty acid for AOX compared with CON. Treatment had only minor effects on individual milk fatty acids, except for the concentration and yield of linoleic acid, which were over 90% higher for AOX compared with CON. In conclusion, milk fat

  17. The effects of high levels of rumen degradable protein on rumen pH and histamine concentrations in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilachai, R.; Schonewille, J.T.; Thamrongyoswittayakul, C.; Aiumlamai, S.; Wachirapakom, C.; Everts, H.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the supplementation of crude protein (CP) results in rumen acidosis and increased histamine concentrations in dairy cows. Six ruminally fistulated, non-pregnant dry cows were fed three experimental rations in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square

  18. Dietary Nitrate for Methane Mitigation Leads to Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Brask, Maike

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate supplements to cattle diets can reduce enteric CH4 emissions. However, if NO3- metabolism stimulates N2O emissions, this will reduce the effectiveness of dietary NO3- for CH4 mitigation. We quantified N2O emissions as part of a dairy cow feeding experiment where urea was substituted...

  19. Milk Yield and Quality of Crossbred Dairy Cows Fed with Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    composition of 50:50 Boran-Freisian crossbred dairy cows fed a basal diet of napier grass (Penissetium ... appropriate options to produce quality feed supplements in the tropics. Many cultivated forage .... Chemical composition and in-vitro dry matter digestibility of napier grass, natural pasture hay, vetch (Vicia dasycarpa) ...

  20. Euthanasia of Danish dairy cows evaluated in two questionnaire surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen Jan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality risk in Danish dairy cows has more than doubled since 1990 (from 2% in 1990 to 5% in 2005. Until now, registrations about dead cows in the Danish Cattle Database have not included information about whether the cow died unassisted or was euthanized. Methods We interviewed a random sample of 196 Danish dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow to the Danish Cattle Database in 2002 and 196 dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow in 2006. Our objectives were to evaluate the proportion of euthanized cows, changes in the behaviour of farmers regarding euthanasia of cows over the years and possible reasons for these changes. Results It seems that the threshold for euthanasia of cows among farmers has changed. Farmers generally reported a lower threshold for euthanasia compared to 5–10 years ago. Conclusion The threshold for euthanasia of cows has, according to the dairy farmers, become lower. This might have positive impacts on animal welfare as more seriously ill cows are euthanized in the herds and not put through a period of suffering associated with disease and treatment or transported to a slaughterhouse in poor condition.

  1. Robotic milking of dairy cows: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Maculan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An innovative technology that currently tries to gain market share are milking robots. Despite the high costs, robotic milking may produce benefits for the farmer and for animals submitted to this system. The objective of this study was to perform a literature review on the use of robotic milking of dairy cows, addressing aspects such as implementation and functioning of the system and effect on milking frequency, milk production and composition, somatic cell count, mastitis, reproduction, and animal welfare. The results showed that the programming of the robot depends on the number of animals to be milked daily and on the milking frequency adopted in each batch. The implementation of the system mainly depends on the site where the facilities will be built and already existing structures on the farm. The milking frequency is higher for high-producing cows and at the beginning of lactation and is influenced by the palatability of the concentrate offered at the time of milking. Frequencies higher than three times per day reduce total milk fat production and increase the concentration of free fatty acids. The incidence of mastitis and somatic cell count tend to increase in the first three months after implementation of the system. After the second year, udder health tends to improve, normalizing mastitis incidence and somatic cell count. Reproduction of the cows is not affected if dry matter intake compensates the higher energy expenditure required for higher milk productions. Robotic milking improves cow welfare since the animals voluntarily turn to the robot when they feel discomfort.

  2. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heravi Mosavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  3. Effect of different levels of concentrate supplement on the reproductive performance of dairy cows maintained to pasture / Effect of different levels of concentrate supplement on the reproductive performance of dairy cows maintained to pasture Efeito de diferentes níveis de suplementação concentrada sobre o desempenho reprodutivo de vacas leiteiras mantidas a pasto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vasconcelos Schroeder

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effects of different levels of concentrate supplement in the pre and post-parturition periods on the reproductive performance of dairy cow. 54 cows in a completely randomized design, distributed in x factorial arrangement, being treatments, periods and 9 repetitions for treatment, were used. The treatments with different levels of concentrate supplement (in dry basis in the pre-parturition periods (PRE, were: PRE1 = 0% of body weight (BW; PRE = 0.5% of BW; PRE = 1.0% of BW; and in the post-parturition (POS, were: POS1 = 1kg for each .5 kg of produced milk; POS = 1kg for each .0kg of produced milk and POS = 1kg for each 1.5kg of produced milk, above 6 kg of milk a day. The ultrasonography evaluation and body score were evaluated every seven days. 0 animals presented estrus and 1 animals became pregnant in the evaluated period. The average interval between parturition-first estrus was of 53.13 days, varying from 19 to 105 days. The amount of animals that entered in the estrus in the 1 0 days of evaluation increased with the post parturition supplementation level, being of , 4 and 7 animals for the treatments 1, and , respectively. For the conception, the only treatment in that all the animals became pregnant, was the treatment PRE and POS . There was higher number of conceptions among the animals that received treatment and , so much in the pre as in the post-parturition, in relation to animals that received the treatment 1. The increasing supplement level in the treatments pre and postparturition caused lineal decrease of the number of weeks for beginning of follicular activity (BFA and beginning of follicular growth (BFG. There was negative correlation among BFA (-0. 4, BFG (-0. 1 and body score to the parturition. It can be concluded that the increasing supplement level in the pre and post-parturition treatments, increases the amount of animals that manifest estrus and become

  4. Enteric and manure-derived methane emissions and biogas yield of slurry from dairy cows fed grass silage or maize silage with and without supplementation of rapeseed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    to parity and days in milk. Two diets were based on maize silage with (MS+) or without (MS−) supplementation of crushed rapeseed, and the third diet was based on late cut grass silage without supplementation of crushed rapeseed (GS−). Dry matter intake, milk yield and composition were measured. Enteric......The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different dietary strategies on milk production and composition, enteric CH4 emissions, slurry storage losses of CH4 and total emissions of CH4 with and without biogas production. Fifty-four cows were allocated to three diets according......±standard deviation) was 25.3±2.5, 26.8±3.3 and 29.0±4.2 L CH4/kg ECM if manure was stored at 10 °C, 15 °C or 20 °C, respectively. When the slurry was digested in a laboratory scale biogas plant, the lowest total CH4 emissions per kg ECM were observed for MS+ (20.5 L CH4/ECM) and the highest for GS− (24.3 L CH4/ECM...

  5. Evaluation of fertility traits of Friesian X Bunaji dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data from 13 primaparous and 47 multiparous Friesian-Bunaji (F1) crossbred cows were used to evaluate the reproductive performance of Friesian x Bunaji dairy cows. Four fertility traits; days to first insemination (DFI), days open (DO), Non-return rate 56 days after first insemination (NRR56) and numbers of insemination ...

  6. Reduction of slaughter value of paratuberculosis-infected dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudahl, Anne Braad; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) on slaughter weight and slaughter value of dairy cows. Two datasets were analyzed: 1) recordings from 1,031 cows in herds in a pilot-study to control MAP infections; and 2) record...

  7. Dairy cows with prolonged calving seek additional isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2017-01-01

    and management practices that better align with the motivations of the cow. This study examined dairy cow preferences for individual calving pens by offering 3 different levels of isolation (tall and narrow, low and wide, and tall and wide) by analyzing the association between precalving behavior, choice...... that interactions between motivation for isolation seeking and calving behavior exist....

  8. A model to estimate insulin sensitivity in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtenius Kjell

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Impairment of the insulin regulation of energy metabolism is considered to be an etiologic key component for metabolic disturbances. Methods for studies of insulin sensitivity thus are highly topical. There are clear indications that reduced insulin sensitivity contributes to the metabolic disturbances that occurs especially among obese lactating cows. Direct measurements of insulin sensitivity are laborious and not suitable for epidemiological studies. We have therefore adopted an indirect method originally developed for humans to estimate insulin sensitivity in dairy cows. The method, "Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index" (RQUICKI is based on plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin and free fatty acids (FFA and it generates good and linear correlations with different estimates of insulin sensitivity in human populations. We hypothesized that the RQUICKI method could be used as an index of insulin function in lactating dairy cows. We calculated RQUICKI in 237 apparently healthy dairy cows from 20 commercial herds. All cows included were in their first 15 weeks of lactation. RQUICKI was not affected by the homeorhetic adaptations in energy metabolism that occurred during the first 15 weeks of lactation. In a cohort of 24 experimental cows fed in order to obtain different body condition at parturition RQUICKI was lower in early lactation in cows with a high body condition score suggesting disturbed insulin function in obese cows. The results indicate that RQUICKI might be used to identify lactating cows with disturbed insulin function.

  9. Bovine Mastitis in Dairy Cows in Mekele, Northern Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2007 to April 2008 on Holstein and Holstein-Zebu cross breds lactating dairy cows in and around Mekele to determine the prevalence, major risk factors and major bacterial pathogens of bovine mastitis in the study area. Simple random sampling of dairy herds, clinical ...

  10. Performance of Crossbred Dairy Cows Suitable for Smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    of F1 crossbred cows to produce and develop improved dairy cattle breed at on station and back up the on farm ... Adequate information was generated through selection to maintain superior genotype for further ... The crossbred dairy technology was verified and demonstrated in the central highlands and was found to be.

  11. Status of vitamins E and A and β-carotene and health in organic dairy cows fed a diet without synthetic vitamins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, B; Persson Waller, K; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic vitamin supplementation is not consistent with organic production, so it is important to investigate whether dairy cows can maintain their health and production without synthetic vitamins being added to their diet. In basic dairy cow diets, provitamin A (β-carotene) and vitamin E...... are mainly found in pasture and in grass and legume silages, but the concentrations are highly variable. This study compared the vitamin status and health of cows without synthetic vitamin supplementation (NSV group) with control cows (CON group) fed synthetic vitamins according to Swedish recommendations...... (600 IU of vitamin E and 80,000 IU of vitamin A per cow per day) to investigate whether dairy cows can fulfill their requirements of vitamins A and E without supplementation with synthetic vitamins. Vitamin concentrations in blood plasma and milk, health, fertility, milk yield, and milk composition...

  12. Effect of different feeding strategies on lactation performance of Holstein and Normande dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaby, L; Faverdin, P; Michel, G; Disenhaus, C; Peyraud, J L

    2009-06-01

    The dairy farming systems of Western Europe are based on a simple feeding system composed of grazed and preserved grass, maize silage and concentrates in variable proportions. There is, nevertheless, a great diversity of feeding strategies between dairy farms. Over 5 years, we studied the direct and delayed effects of four feeding strategies on the lactation and reproduction performances of Holstein and Normande dairy cows. The four feeding strategies (denoted Hh, Hl, Lh and Ll) correspond to two total mixed rations applied in winter from calving to turnout (maize silage with 30% concentrate or grass silage with 15% concentrate), which were subsequently crossed with two levels of concentrate supplementation at grazing to 210 days. Each year, 72 dairy cows managed in grouped winter calving were assigned to the four strategies. Finally, the results of 325 lactations and 295 inseminated cows were analysed. The four strategies resulted in considerable variation in nutrient intake and, in particular, in differences in concentrates consumed, with values of 1407, 1026, 773 and 392 kg dry matter per cow for strategies Hh, Lh, Hl and Ll, respectively. Total milk production (7567, 7015, 6720 and 6238 kg per cow for treatments Hh, Lh, Hl and Ll, respectively), milk fat content (39.0, 37.1, 40.3 and 38.5 g/kg, respectively), milk protein content (33.0, 31.8, 33.1 and 31.6 g/kg, respectively), and the character of the lactation and body condition curves were all highly sensitive to the strategies applied. While no significant interaction was detected on total lactation yield, the Holstein cows reacted more dramatically to each dietary change at each period, compared with the Normande cows. Winter feeding did not affect the production of milk at pasture whereas, at pasture, the milk from the cows of the H groups in winter was higher in milk fat and protein content. Reproduction performance was unaffected by feeding strategy. The Holstein cows, well fed and producing the most

  13. Partial replacement of corn grain by hydrogenated oil in grazing dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salado, E E; Gagliostro, G A; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I

    2004-05-01

    Thirty-six grazing dairy cows were used to determine milk production and composition, and dry matter and energy intake when corn grain was partially replaced by hydrogenated oil in the concentrate. Four additional cows, each fitted with a ruminal cannula, were used in a crossover design to evaluate effects of supplemental fat on rumen environment and pasture digestion. All cows grazed mixed pastures with an herbage allowance of 30 kg dry matter/cow per day. The control group was fed a concentrate containing corn grain (4.49 kg dry matter/cow per day) and fishmeal (0.37 kg dry matter/cow per day), whereas the other group (fat) received a concentrate containing corn grain (2.87 kg dry matter/cow per day), fishmeal (0.37 kg dry matter/cow per day) and fat (0.7 kg dry matter/cow per day). The fat was obtained by hydrogenation of vegetable oils (melting point 58 to 60 degrees C, 30.3% C16:0, 34.9% C18:0, 21.8% C18:1, 3.3% C18:2). Supplemental fat increased milk production (control = 23.7 vs. fat = 25.0 kg/cow per day), fat-corrected milk (control = 22.5 vs. fat = 24.5 kg/cow per day), milk fat content (control = 3.64% vs. fat = 3.86%) and yields of milk fat (control = 0.86 vs. fat = 0.97 kg/cow per day) and protein (control = 0.74 vs. fat = 0.78 kg/cow per day). Milk percentages of protein, lactose, casein, cholesterol, and urea nitrogen were not affected. Pasture DMI and total DMI of pasture and concentrate and estimated energy intake were unchanged. No differences in loss of body weight or body condition score were detected. Plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, somatotropin, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor were not affected by supplemental fat. Concentrations of plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol were increased by supplemented fat, and no changes in plasma glucose and urea nitrogen were observed. The acetate-to-propionate ratio was higher in rumen fluid of cows that consumed fat (fat = 3.39 vs. control = 3.27). In situ pasture NDF

  14. Oestrus Detection in Dairy Cows Using Likelihood Ratio Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi; Björgvinssin, Trausti; Blanke, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    were identified for the ensemble and for the individual cows. A diurnal filter was adapted to remove the daily variation of the individual. Change detection algorithms were designed for the actual probability densities, which were Rayleigh distributed with individual parameters for each cow....... A generalized likelihood ratio algorithm was derived for the compensated activity signal and detection algorithm was tested on 2323 days of activity, which contained 42 oestruses on 12 cows in total. The application of statistical change detection methods is a new approach for detecting oestrus in dairy cows...... and the results are shown to outperform earlier approaches in respect to combined statistics of false alarms and missed detections...

  15. Effects of Feeding Garlic and Juniper Berry Essential Oils on Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhu Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs from plant extracts have been reported to have an antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Several of the gram-positive bacteria are involved in ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids (FAs, thus suggesting that feeding EOs could lower biohydrogenation of FA because of a decrease in the number of bacteria involved in that process. As a result, milk FA profiles are expected to be modified. In addition, monensin was approved as an antibiotic to be fed in dairy cattle, and it was reported that dairy cows supplemented with monensin produced milk containing higher concentration of 18:1 t10 and 18:1 t11. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two EOs (garlic and juniper berry oils and monensin on FA profiles of milk fat. Four ruminally fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake a total mixed ration without supplementation (control, or supplemented with monensin (330 mg/head per day, garlic oil (5 g/head per day, or juniper berry oil (2 g/head per day. The FA composition of saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated was not affected by supplementation of EO and monensin. However, proportion of conjugated linoleic acid trans 10, cis 12 (CLA t10, c12 was higher ( P < 0.05 for cows fed EO or monensin than for control cows. Supplementation of monensin increased ( P < 0.05 the proportion of total trans FA compared with the control. These results indicate that supplementation of the dairy cow diet with garlic or juniper berry EO or monensin had the potential to increase the proportion of CLA t10, c12 in milk fat with minimal overall effects on FA of milk fat. The results also confirm the increase of 18:1 t10 in milk fat by feeding monensin to dairy cows.

  16. Association between liver failure and hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity in dairy cows with follicular cysts

    OpenAIRE

    TANEMURA, Kouichi; OHTAKI, Tadatoshi; KUWAHARA, Yasushi; TSUMAGARI, Shigehisa

    2016-01-01

    Uridine 5?-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) liver activity was measured using estradiol-17? as a substrate in dairy cows with follicular cysts. The activity was significantly lower than that in dairy cows with normal estrous cycles (P

  17. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Purup, Stig

    2012-01-01

    interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley...... silage with red clover or long-term ley silage with white clover, and the effects of supplementation with α-tocopherol were also tested. High concentrations of formononetin and biochanin A were found in all silage mixtures with red clover. The milk concentration of equol was highest for cows on the 2-cut....... Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone...

  18. Using Ovsynch protocol versus Cosynch protocol in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Valeriu Caraba

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As a research on the reproductive physiology and endocrinology surrounding the estrous cycle in dairy cattle has been compiled, several estrous synchronization programs have been developed for use with dairy cows. These include several programs that facilitate the mass breeding of all animals at a predetermined time (timed-AI rather than the detection of estrus. We studied on 15 dary cows which were synchronized by Ovsynch and Cosynch programs. The estrus response for cows in Ovsynch protocol was of 63%. Pregnancy per insemination at 60 days was of 25%. Estrus response for cow in Cosynch protocol was of 57%. Pregnancy per insemination at 60 days was of 57%. Synchronization of ovulation using Ovsynch protocols can provide an effective way to manage reproduction in lactating dairy cows by eliminating the need for estrus detection. These are really efficient management programs for TAI of dairy cows that are able to reduce both the labour costs and the extra handling to daily estrus detection and AI.

  19. Monitoring feeding behaviour of dairy cows using accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Mattachini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring cow behaviour has become increasingly important in understanding the nutrition, production, management of the well being, and overall health of dairy cows. Methods of assessing behavioural activity have changed in recent years, favouring automatic recording techniques. Traditional methods to measure behaviour, such as direct observation or time-lapse video, are labour-intensive and time-consuming. Automated recording devices have become increasingly common to measure behaviour accurately. Thus, the development of automated monitoring systems that can continuously and accurately quantify feeding behaviour are required for efficient monitoring and control of modern and automated dairy farms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible use of a 3D accelerometer to record feeding behaviour of dairy cows. Feeding behaviour (feeding time and number of visits to the manger of 12 lactating dairy cows was recorded for approximately 3 h with 3D-accelerometer data loggers (HOBO Pendant G logger. The sensors were positioned in the high part of the neck to monitor head movements. Behaviour was simultaneously recorded using visual observation as a reference. Linear regression analysis between the measurement methods showed that the recorded feeding time (R2=0.90, n=12, P<0.001 was closely related to visual observations. In contrast, the number of visits was inadequately recorded by the 3D-accelerometer, showing a poor relationship with visual observations (R2=0.31, n=12, P<0.06. Results suggest that the use of accelerometer sensors can be a reliable and suitable technology for monitoring feeding behaviour of individual dairy cows in free stall housing. However, further research is necessary to develop an appropriate device able to detect and recognise the movements connected with the head movement during feeding. Such a device could be part of an automatic livestock management tool for the efficient monitoring and control of comfort and

  20. Metabolic and immunological changes in transition dairy cows: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankhade, Pratik Ramesh; Manimaran, A.; Kumaresan, A.; Jeyakumar, S.; Ramesha, K. P.; Sejian, V.; Rajendran, D.; Varghese, Minu Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Smooth transition from pregnancy to lactation is important for high productive and reproductive performance during later postpartum period in dairy animals. On the other hand, the poor transition often leads to huge economic loss to dairy farmers due to compromised production and reproduction. Therefore, understanding the causes and consequence of metabolic changes during the transition period is very important for postpartum health management. In this review, metabolic changes with reference to negative energy balance in transition cow and its effect on health and reproduction during the later postpartum period in dairy animals are discussed besides the role of metabolic inflammation in postpartum performance in dairy animals. PMID:29263601

  1. Recording and analysis of locomotion in dairy cows with 3D accelerometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.; Lammers, R.J.H.; Pompe, J.C.A.M.; Ipema, A.H.; Hogewerf, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    An automated method for lameness detection can be an alternative for detection by regular observations. Accelerometers attached to a leg of the dairy cow can be used to record the locomotion of a dairy cow. In an experiment the 3D acceleration of the right hind leg during walking of three dairy cows

  2. Herbage intake and behavioural adaptation of grazing dairy cows by restricting time at pasture under two feeding regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, E; Delagarde, R; Delaby, L

    2008-09-01

    The time at pasture of dairy cows is often restricted in the context of extending the grazing season in autumn or at the end of winter. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effects of a restriction of time at pasture on milk production, herbage intake and feeding behaviour in dairy cows according to feeding regime. The four treatments consisted of 4 h or 8 h of time at pasture per day tested under two feeding regimes combining rate of supplementation and herbage allowance: either a high rate of supplementation (10 kg dry matter (DM) of a maize silage-soya bean meal mixture in the ratio 87 : 13 on a % DM basis) with a low herbage allowance (6 kg DM/cow per day above 5 cm), or a low rate of supplementation (5 kg DM of the same supplement) with a high herbage allowance (11 kg DM/cow per day). The study was carried out according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design with four 2-week periods, with 48 mid-lactation Holstein cows. The cows in the 4-h treatment had access to pasture from 0900 h to 1300 h and those in the 8-h treatment from 0900 h to 1700 h. The supplement was given at 1830 h. When time at pasture was reduced from 8 h to 4 h per day, herbage intake decreased (9.9 v. 8.1 kg DM, P grazing time (327 v. 209 min, P grazing (0.68 v. 0.87, P grazing when receiving the low-supplement feeding regime. In conclusion, we showed that reducing time at pasture from 8 to 4 h for cows receiving 5 to 10 kg DM of a maize silage-based supplement decreased moderately milk production and herbage intake, because of the capacity for behavioural adaptation by the grazing dairy cows.

  3. Contemporary aspects in assessment of protein needs in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubić Goran

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of meeting protein needs in dairy cows is to provide sufficient degradable proteins, which are optimally used in the rumen, to provide the required level of productivity with a minimal amount of crude protein in the diet. The new concept, shown in this paper, which expresses protein value as metabolic, enables better protein balancing in dairy cows than before. The nutritive value of metabolic protein in dairy cows depends on essential amino acid composition of protein and their contribution to total essential amino acids. The improvement of protein utilization efficiency has practical implications. The reason for this is to decrease feeding costs per kilogram of milk or milk protein, the need for more efficient production, higher milk protein yield and to allow other nutrients in the diet to prove their influence on the increase of production.

  4. Effects of alternative protein sources on rumen microbes and productivity of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metha Wanapat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of various protein sources on digestibility, rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in dairy cows. Four Holstein Friesian native crossbred cows in early lactating were randomly assigned according to a 4x4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments containing different protein sources in concentrate diets were soybean meal (SBM, cassava hay (CH, Leucaena leucocephala (LL and yeast-fermented cassava chips (YEFECAP, with ad libitum intake of urea-treated rice straw. Digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and ADF was not different among treatments (P>0.05 while CP digestibility was highest (P<0.05 in CH and YEFECAP supplemented groups. Ruminal NH3-N and BUN concentrations varied among protein sources and were highest in SBM and LL fed groups (P<0.05. Ruminal total volatile fatty acid (VFA and propionic acid were found highest in cows receiving CH and YEFECAP (P<0.05. Ruminal fungi, proteolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were highest when YEFECAP was supplemented. Milk fat and milk protein were significantly increased (P<0.05 in cows fed with CH and YEFECAP. Based on this study, it was concluded that providing CH or YEFECAP as protein source in concentrate diets could improve rumen fermentation and milk production in lactating dairy cows fed on rice straw.

  5. Specific fatty acids as metabolic modulators in the dairy cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.A. Pires

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent developments on the utilization of specific fatty acids to modulate bovine energy metabolism, with emphasis on the periparturient dairy cow. A number of experiments have assessed the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on bovine hepatic energy metabolism using in vitro and in vivo models. Treatment of hepatocytes with specific fatty acids altered energy metabolism in vitro. For example, linolenic acid seemed to decrease hepatocyte triacylglycerol accumulation. This effect was confirmed in vivo, using parenteral infusions of emulsions derived from different fat sources to feed-restricted non-lactating cows. Additionally, polyunsaturated fatty acids can increase whole body response to insulin, potentially enhancing antilipolytic effects of insulin and muscle protein anabolism in the bovine. There is limited literature on the effects of feeding fat sources rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as fish oil and linseed oil, on metabolism of periparturient dairy cows. Available research has yielded conflicting results which need further clarification. On the other hand, specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid consistently induce milk fat depression and are able to decrease energy export in milk by periparturient dairy cows. Nonetheless, research is still needed to assess whether these effects will ultimately benefit productivity and health status of periparturient dairy cows. Limitations of available methods to protect fatty acids from ruminal biohydrogenation are also addressed.

  6. Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, A-K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, T W; Larsen, T; Emanuelson, U

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if and how cow factors and intramammary infection (IMI) are associated with 4 different udder-health indicators in dairy cows as a first step in investigating whether the diagnostic performance of these indicators can be improved. The investigated indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days in milk from the sampled test milking) were collected from the Swedish milk-recording scheme. Of the sampled cows 485 were considered IMI negative and were used in multivariable mixed-effect linear regression models to investigate associations between cow factors and the udder-health indicators. A second modeling including all cows, both IMI negative and IMI positive (256 cows), was also performed. The results showed that all udder-health indicators were affected by cow factors but that different cow factors were associated with different indicators. Intramammary-infection status was significantly associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing that LDH, NAGase, and AP are more affected than SCC by cow factors. The IMI status explained 23% of the variation in SCC in the model with all cows but only 7% of the variation in

  7. Effects of alfalfa flavonoids on the production performance, immune system, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshun Zhan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to examine the effects of alfalfa flavonoids on the production performance, immunity, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows. Methods The experiments employed four primiparous Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas, and used a 4×4 Latin square design. Cattle were fed total mixed ration supplemented with 0 (control group, Con, 20, 60, or 100 mg of alfalfa flavonoids extract (AFE per kg of dairy cow body weight (BW. Results The feed intake of the group receiving 60 mg/kg BW of AFE were significantly higher (p<0.05 than that of the group receiving 100 mg/kg BW. Milk yields and the fat, protein and lactose of milk were unaffected by AFE, while the total solids content of milk reduced (p = 0.05 linearly as AFE supplementation was increased. The somatic cell count of milk in group receiving 60 mg/kg BW of AFE was significantly lower (p<0.05 than that of the control group. Apparent total-tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and crude protein showed a tendency to increase (0.05supplementation. The lymphocyte count and the proportion of lymphocytes decreased (p = 0.03 linearly, whereas the proportion of neutrophil granulocytes increased (p = 0.01 linearly with increasing levels of dietary AFE supplementation. The valeric acid/total volatile fatty acid (TVFA ratio was increased (p = 0.01 linearly with increasing of the level of AFE supplementation, the other ruminal fermentation parameters were not affected by AFE supplementation. Relative levels of the rumen microbe Ruminococcus flavefaciens tended to decrease (p = 0.09 quadratically, whereas those of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens showed a tendency to increase (p = 0.07 quadratically in response to AFE supplementation

  8. Skin injuries on the body and thigh of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Gröhn, Y.T.; Thysen, Iver

    1994-01-01

    An epidemiological study was conducted in 18 dairy herds with the objective to characterize those groups of cows where skin injuries to the body and thighs occurred most frequently. Data were analyzed with multivariable logistic regression. The epidemiologic patterns were different in first...... depending on month of calving (significant interaction). Injuries occurred most frequently among high yielding cows. Severe reproductive, metabolic, and/or infectious diseases were associated with injuries. In later lactations some degree of injury occurred among 13.4% of 832 cows in lactations 2 to 9 where...... and later lactations. In first lactation some degree of injury occurred among 7.7% of 1793 cows. For most cows occurrence of sole ulcer was positively associated with injury while occurrence of heel horn erosion was negatively associated with injury. The association between injury and body weight differed...

  9. e-Cow: an animal model that predicts herbage intake, milk yield and live weight change in dairy cows grazing temperate pastures, with and without supplementary feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudracco, J; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Holmes, C W; Comeron, E A; Macdonald, K A; Barry, T N; Friggens, N C

    2012-06-01

    This animal simulation model, named e-Cow, represents a single dairy cow at grazing. The model integrates algorithms from three previously published models: a model that predicts herbage dry matter (DM) intake by grazing dairy cows, a mammary gland model that predicts potential milk yield and a body lipid model that predicts genetically driven live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS). Both nutritional and genetic drives are accounted for in the prediction of energy intake and its partitioning. The main inputs are herbage allowance (HA; kg DM offered/cow per day), metabolisable energy and NDF concentrations in herbage and supplements, supplements offered (kg DM/cow per day), type of pasture (ryegrass or lucerne), days in milk, days pregnant, lactation number, BCS and LW at calving, breed or strain of cow and genetic merit, that is, potential yields of milk, fat and protein. Separate equations are used to predict herbage intake, depending on the cutting heights at which HA is expressed. The e-Cow model is written in Visual Basic programming language within Microsoft Excel®. The model predicts whole-lactation performance of dairy cows on a daily basis, and the main outputs are the daily and annual DM intake, milk yield and changes in BCS and LW. In the e-Cow model, neither herbage DM intake nor milk yield or LW change are needed as inputs; instead, they are predicted by the e-Cow model. The e-Cow model was validated against experimental data for Holstein-Friesian cows with both North American (NA) and New Zealand (NZ) genetics grazing ryegrass-based pastures, with or without supplementary feeding and for three complete lactations, divided into weekly periods. The model was able to predict animal performance with satisfactory accuracy, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.81, 0.76 and 0.62 for herbage DM intake, milk yield and LW change, respectively. Simulations performed with the model showed that it is sensitive to genotype by feeding environment

  10. Factors affecting the reproductive potential of dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folman, Y.; Rosenberg, M.; Kaim, M.

    1990-01-01

    Various factors that affect fertility were examined in high yielding dairy cows. In cows treated for the synchronization of oestrous cycles, manifestation of oestrus following synchronization treatment was affected by the body condition score in the winter; 74% of the cows had a low score. Primiparous cows that were thin or fat had a low conception rate. The conception rate of multiparous cows with different body condition scores did not differ in the winter. However, in the summer, thin, medium-low, medium-high and fat cows had a conception rate of 15, 36, 48 and 27%, respectively (P 4 ) levels five days before the first post-partum AI affected conception rates. Primiparous cows with low (≤2 ng/mL), medium (2.1-4.0 ng/mL) and high (≥4.1 ng/mL) P 4 levels had a conception rate of 28, 17 and 61%, respectively (P 4 had a conception rate of 25, 46 and 52%, respectively (P<0.02). Cows in their fifth or later lactation that were fed straw as their sole roughage had a conception rate of 23% and a 120 day pregnancy rate of 23%. Cows of the same parities that were fed hay had a conception rate of 50% (P<0.05) and a pregnancy rate of 80% (P<0.005). (author). 15 refs, 5 tabs

  11. Circulating Metabolic Profile of High Producing Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar CHALMEH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the metabolic profile based on the concept that the laboratory measurement of certain circulating components is a tool to evaluate metabolic status of dairy cows. Veterinarian also can evaluate the energy input-output relationships by assessing the metabolic profile to prevent and control of negative energy balance, metabolic disorders and nutritional insufficiencies. In the present study, 25 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided to 5 equal groups containing early, mid and late lactation, and far-off and close-up dry. Blood samples were collected from all cows through jugular venipuncture and sera were evaluated for glucose, insulin, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, high, low and very low density lipoproteins (HDL, LDL and VLDL. Insulin levels in mid lactation and close-up dry cows were significantly higher than other groups (P<0.05 and the lowest insulin concentration was detected in far-off dry group. Serum concentrations of NEFA and BHBA in early and mid-lactation and close-up dry cows were significantly higher than late lactation and far-off dry animals (P<0.05. Baseline levels of cholesterol in mid and late lactation were significantly higher than other groups. The level of LDL in mid lactation cows was higher than others significantly, and its value in far-off dry cows was significantly lower than other group (P<0.05. It may be concluded that the detected changes among different groups induce commonly by negative energy balance, lactogenesis and fetal growth in each state. The presented metabolic profile can be considered as a tool to assess the energy balance in dairy cows at different physiologic states. It can be used to evaluate the metabolic situations of herd and manage the metabolic and production disorders.

  12. OmniGen-AF alters rectal temperature (RT) and leukocyte profiles in dairy cows exposed to heat stress (HS) following acute activation of the stress axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differences in the response of OmniGen-AF (OG) supplemented dairy cows to a corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP) or an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge when housed at different temperature-humidity indices (THI) were studied. Holstein cows (n=12; 162±1 days in milk)...

  13. Factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cow in Algeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of clinical mastitis at the beginning of lactation on reproductive performance of dairy cows in Algeria. Calving to first insemination and calving to conception intervals, number of insemination per conception and conception rate at the first artificial insemination were ...

  14. Radiographic features of laminitic claws of dairy cows around Nairobi.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to determine the common radiographic features in laminitic claws from dairy cows using abattoir samples. A total of 192 claws were collected from Wangige slaughter slab and 126 claws from Kiserian abattoir. The claws were examined for gross lesions. Dorso-palmar/dorso-plantar and lateral ...

  15. Progesterone profiles of postpartum dairy cows as an aid to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk progesterone levels were measured on a daily basis for 44 dairy cows from calving to conception in order to use the progesterone profiles in diagnosing and treating reproductive disorders related to the oestrous cycle. Some of the profiles could be used to identify reproductive abnormalities, for example, silent heats ...

  16. The high-producing dairy cow and its reproductive performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobson, H; Smith, Rf; Royal, Md

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that the reproductive performance of dairy cows has declined as milk yields have increased over the last 40 years. Identifying the precise cause(s) of this problem may provide focused solutions. Intensive genetic selection for very high yields has reduced fertility, due mainly...

  17. Recording of dairy cows behaviour with wireless accelerometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.; Bleumer, E.J.B.; Hogewerf, P.H.; Ipema, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    The daily behaviour of dairy cows reflects the health and well-being status. The behaviour can be monitored with accelerometers (used as a tilt sensor to measure the angle) in a wireless sensor network. The angle of a leg reflects the lying or standing behaviour, the angle of the head might reflect

  18. Ketosis in dairy cows: etiologic factors, monitoring, treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Drift, S.G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Ketosis is a metabolic disorder that mainly occurs during the negative energy balance in early-lactation dairy cows. It is characterized by elevated concentrations of ketone bodies in blood (hyperketonemia), urine, and milk. The thesis of Saskia van der Drift covers investigations on etiologic

  19. Skin injuries on the body and thigh of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Gröhn, Y.T.; Thysen, Iver

    1994-01-01

    An epidemiological study was conducted in 18 dairy herds with the objective to characterize those groups of cows where skin injuries to the body and thighs occurred most frequently. Data were analyzed with multivariable logistic regression. The epidemiologic patterns were different in first and l...

  20. Nitrogen and amino acid metabolism in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, S.

    1981-01-01

    For the process of milk production, the dairy cow requires nutrients of which energy supplying nutrients and protein or amino acid supplying nutrients are the most important. Amino acid supplying nutrients have to be absorbed from the small intestine and the research reported in this thesis mainly

  1. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand

  2. Shortening or omitting the dry period in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Juncai

    2016-01-01

    During early lactation, dairy cows typically experience negative energy balance (EB) caused by the high energy requirement for milk yield, which cannot be met by feed intake. Severity of negative EB has been associated with an increased incidence of metabolic disorders and infectious diseases,

  3. Increased serum serotonin improves parturient calcium homeostasis in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Hernandez, Laura L. Hernandez; Weaver, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    Hypocalcemia in dairy cows is caused by the sudden increase in calcium demand by the mammary gland for milk production at the onset of lactation. Serotonin (5-HT) is a key factor for calcium homeostasis, modulating calcium concentration in blood. Therefore, it is hypothesized that administration...

  4. Effects of feeding organic trace minerals on milk production and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cows: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiee, A R; Lean, I J; Stevenson, M A; Socha, M T

    2010-09-01

    The objectives of this meta-analysis were to evaluate the effectiveness of supplementation with the organic trace minerals (OTM; Availa-4 and 4-Plex, Zinpro Corp., Eden Prairie, MN) on milk yield, composition, and component yields and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Twenty research papers and reports on the effects of OTM were considered in this meta-analysis. Criteria for inclusion in the study were information on the form of OTM, an adequate description of randomization, production and reproduction data, and associated measures of variance (SE or SD) and P-values. The OTM increased milk production by 0.93 kg [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.61 to 1.25], milk fat by 0.04 kg (95% CI=0.02 to 0.05), and milk protein by 0.03 kg (95% CI=0.02 to 0.04) per day. Milk SCC was not different in cows supplemented with OTM. All production outcomes except milk solids (yield) and milk SCC were heterogeneous. Meta-regression analysis showed that feeding before calving, feeding for a full lactation after calving, and the use of other supplements increased responses over feeding after calving only, feeding for part of lactation, or not using other supplements, respectively. Supplementation of cows with OTM reduced days open (weighted mean difference=13.5 d) and number of services per conception (weighted mean difference=0.27) in lactating dairy cows. The risk of pregnancy on d 150 of lactation was greater in cows fed OTM (risk ratio=1.07), but OTM had no significant effect on the interval from calving to first service and 21-d pregnancy rate. There was no evidence of heterogeneity for any of the reproductive outcomes evaluated. The results of this meta-analysis showed that organic trace mineral supplementation could improve production and reproduction in lactating dairy cows. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Starch Digestion and Phosphorus Excretion in Lactating Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Guyton, Autumn Deanne

    2002-01-01

    The effects of starch and phosphorus (P) source on P partitioning and ruminal phytase activity were evaluated in eight lactating cows (113 DIM). Four cows were ruminaly cannulated. Cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a duplicated 4x4 Latin square with four, 18-d periods. Diets included dry ground corn (DG) or steam flaked corn (SF), with a no supplemental P (low P diet; 0.34% P) or supplemental purified phytic acid (PA; 0.45% P) to provide additional P from an organic source. Total c...

  6. Effects of Feeding Methylthio Butyric Acid Isopropyl Ester on Postpartum Performance and Metabolism in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Xia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of HMBi on the production performance and metabolism in dairy cows. Thirty multiparous Holstein dairy cows under similar conditions were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments; i Control, a basal diet; ii T1, a basal diet plus HMBi (0 g prepartum and 18 g postpartum; and iii T2, a basal diet plus HMBi (10 g prepartum and 18 g postpartum. Treatments were initiated 21 d before expected calving and continued through 91 d postpartum. HMBi was top-dressed onto the total mixed ration of each cow. Treatments did not affect dry matter intake, plasma urea nitrogen, peak milk yield, days to peak milk yield, nonesterified fatty acid, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamic oxalaetic transaminase, milk fat content, milk protein content, milk lactose content, and milk solid non-fat content. The milk composition yields were increased by the HMBi-supplemented treatment. The T1 and T2 treatments increased the yields of 4% fat-corrected milk yield, milk fat, milk protein, and milk lactose compared with the control. Although there was no difference in the milk composition of the control and T2-treated cows, the T2-treated cows exhibited higher milk fat yield (increased by 74 g/d, lower milk urea nitrogen (reduced by 3.41%, and plasma β-hydroxy butyrate than the control cows. The results indicate that HMBi supplementation to diet has beneficial effects, and that there is no difference between supplementation at prepartum and starting only at parturition.

  7. A necropsy-based descriptive study of dairy cow deaths on a Colorado dairy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, C S; Garry, F B; Lombard, J E; Kidd, J A; Hill, A E; Gould, D H

    2009-05-01

    Increasing levels of dairy cow mortality pose a challenge to the US dairy industry. The industry's current understanding of dairy cow mortality is reliant upon descriptions largely based on producer or veterinary assumptions regarding cause of death without the benefit of detailed postmortem evaluations. A thorough necropsy is a superior tool for establishing a cause of death, except for cases involving euthanasia for traumatic accidents or severe locomotor disorders. Information provided from a necropsy examination would be most valuable if it were categorized and combined with cow health information in a complete postmortem evaluation designed to guide future management decisions. The objective of this study was to describe dairy cow deaths on a Colorado dairy over a 1-yr period and explore classification systems for necropsy findings that might inform management actions aimed at reducing dairy cow mortality. Throughout the study period a thorough necropsy examination was performed on every cow that died. Based upon this examination each death was characterized by a proximate cause (i.e., the most likely immediate cause of the death). Each proximate cause of death was then categorized using 3 alternate schemes founded on generalized etiologic principles and influenced by previous clinical history and treatments. These schemes included the broad categories commonly used for classifying findings within a review of literature related to dairy cow mortality, a diagnostic scheme used within the problem-oriented veterinary medical record, and an analysis focusing on the primary physiologic system derangement for each death. A total of 2,067 cows were enrolled during the study period of which 1,468 cows freshened, 507 cows were sold, and 94 cows died, resulting in a mortality risk of 6.4 deaths per 100 lactations at risk. The distribution of deaths by parity was significantly different from the herd distribution at the end of study with the largest percentage of death

  8. Comparison of lactational and metabolic responses of postpartum dairy heifers and cows fed diets supplemented with corn, calcium stearate and tallow

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Laurie A.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty first-calf heifers and 24 cows in their second or greater lactation were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments from day 15 to day 61 postpartum. Mixed diets consisted of corn silage, alfalfa haylage, orchard grass hay, and a pelleted concentrate. Concentrates were control (C), C + additional corn (H), C + 4% calcium stearate (S), or C + 4% tallow (T). C, S, and T contained 50:50 forage and concentrate dry matter and H contained 40:60.

  9. Milk yield, milk composition, and hepatic lipid metabolism in transition dairy cows fed flaxseed or linola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, R M; Palin, M F; do Prado, I N; Dos Santos, G T; Benchaar, C; Petit, H V

    2016-11-01

    The response of transition dairy cows to dietary supplementation with fat sources of various fatty acid profiles could affect hepatic fat metabolism differently. Twenty-eight Holstein cows were blocked for similar calving date 4wk before expected parturition to compare the effects of feeding sources of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on milk production and composition, plasma metabolites, and liver parameters. Cows within each block were assigned to 1 of 3 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets: control with a source of calcium salts of palm oil (MEG; 1.1 and 2.6% of the dry matter in prepartum and postpartum diets, respectively); n-3 fatty acids supplied as whole flaxseed (WFL; 4.8 and 7.7% of the dry matter in prepartum and postpartum diets, respectively); and n-6 fatty acids supplied as whole linola (WLO; 4.8 and 7.7% of the dry matter in prepartum and postpartum diets, respectively). Diets were fed until wk 14 of lactation. Contrasts of WFL versus WLO and polyunsaturated fatty acids versus MEG were compared. Cows fed polyunsaturated fatty acids increased dry matter intake over time at a greater extent than those fed MEG, which resulted in enhanced energy balance. Cows fed MEG produced more milk compared with those fed polyunsaturated fatty acids, and there was no difference between those fed WFL and WLO. We found no effect on body condition score and body weight. Plasma concentrations of glucose, fatty acids, and BHB were similar among diets. There was no effect of diet on concentration of glycogen and activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the liver. We observed higher concentrations of hepatic lipids and triacylglycerol in cows fed MEG compared with those fed polyunsaturated fatty acids, and no difference between WFL and WLO. Hepatic catalase activity tended to be higher on wk 4 after calving for cows supplemented with WFL compared with those fed WLO. Feeding linoleic and linolenic acids as unprotected oilseeds increased dry matter intake

  10. Behaviour around the time of calving in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate behavioural changes before and after calving in dairy cows in order to describe behavioural signs of imminent calving and of cows’ recovery after calving. Thirty-two multiparous Danish Holstein Frisian cows with an unassisted calving were studied from 96 h...... before until 96 h after calving while housed in individual calving pens. Data on behaviour were obtained via video recordings and accelerometers attached to the cows’ legs. Cows spent less time lying, had more lying bouts and were more active the day before calving as compared to 2–4 days before calving...... throughout the 24 h following birth. Cows spent more time lying on the second day after calving than on the first day after calving. The results show marked behavioural changes during the last 6 h prior to calving and suggest that behavioural changes may be useful indicators of imminent calving. Furthermore...

  11. Heel erosion and other interdigital disorders in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Gröhn, Y.T.; Thysen, Iver

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiologic associations between variables obtainable from dairy cow records and the occurrence of heel erosion, interdigital dermatitis, and interdigital hyperplasia at claw trimmings were estimated with multivariable logistic regression analysis on data from 1170 and 542 cows in lactation 1...... and lactations 2 to 9, respectively. In the 17 herds, heel erosion, interdigital dermatitis, and hyperplasia occurred among 43.8, 4.5, and .9% of cows in lactation 1 and among 69.1, 7.6 and 5.9% of cows in lactations 2 to 9, respectively. Severity of heel erosion increased with parity, and risk increased...... with stage of lactation. Strong seasonal effects were present. Various combinations of veterinary treatments were associated with heel erosion and hyperplasia depending on parity, stage of lactation, and the presence of other claw disorders. In contrast, veterinary treatment had a protective effect...

  12. Milk urea concentration as an indicator of ammonia emission from dairy cow barn under restricted grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duinkerken, van G.; Smits, M.C.J.; Andre, G.; Sebek, L.B.J.; Dijkstra, J.

    2011-01-01

    Bulk milk urea concentration was evaluated to assess its potential as an indicator of ammonia emission from a dairy cow barn in a situation with restricted grazing. An experiment was carried out with a herd of, on average, 52 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The cows were housed in a naturally

  13. Associations of dairy cow behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and risk of elevated somatic cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, T J; Aarnoudse, M G; Barkema, H W; Leslie, K E; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2012-10-01

    Poor dairy cow hygiene has been consistently associated with elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and the risk of subclinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between dairy cow standing and lying behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and the risk of experiencing elevated SCC. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n=69; 86 ± 51 DIM; parity: 2.0 ± 1.2; means ± SD), kept in 1 of 2 groups, were monitored over a 4-mo period. Each group contained 61 ± 1 (mean ± SD) cows over the study period; complete data were obtained from 37 and 32 animals within each respective group. Cows were housed in a sand-bedded, freestall barn with 2 symmetrical pens, each with a free cow traffic automatic milking system. To vary barn hygiene, in 4 consecutive 28-d periods, alley manure scrapers in each of the 2 pens were randomly assigned to frequencies of operation of 3, 6, 12, and 24 times per day. During the last 7 d of each period, cow hygiene (upper leg/flank, lower legs, and udder; scale of 1 = very clean to 4 = very dirty) and stall hygiene (number of 0.15×0.15-m squares contaminated with manure in a 1.20×1.65-m grid) were recorded. Standing and lying behavior of the cows were collected during those days using data loggers. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning and end of each 28-d period. Elevated SCC was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis; incidence of elevated SCC was defined as having a SCC >200,000 cells/mL at the end of each 28-d period, when SCC was cows having poorer hygiene. Poor udder hygiene was associated with poor stall hygiene. Longer lying duration was associated with poor hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Greater premilking standing duration was associated with poor udder hygiene and decreased frequency of lying bouts was associated with poor hygiene of the lower legs. Higher milk yield was associated with poor hygiene of the udder and lower legs; multiparous cows had poorer hygiene of the upper legs

  14. Quercetin decrease somatic cells count in mastitis of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmańczuk, Artur; Hola, Piotr; Milczak, Andrzej; Piech, Tomasz; Kowalski, Cezary; Wojciechowska, Beata; Grabowski, Tomasz

    2018-01-09

    Quercetin is a dietary flavonoid which has an effect on inflammation, angiogenesis and vascular inflammation. In several other flavonoids (e.g. kaempferol, astragalin, alpinetin, baicalein, indirubin), anti-inflammatory mechanism was proven by using mice mastitis model. The aim of the current study was pilot analysis of quercetin tolerability and its impact on somatic cells count (SCC) after multiple intramammary treatment on dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Based on SCC and clinical investigation, 9 dairy cows with clinical mastitis of one quarter were selected for the pilot study. Baseline analysis (hematology, TNFα, SCC) was performed every 24h among all cows three days before the first dose (B1-B3). After the baseline monitoring (B1-B3) eight days treatment (D1-D8) was performed with a high and low dose. Selected blood parameters were analyzed. Starting from D1 to D8, a decrease of SCC in relation to baseline was characterized by declining trend. The presented results allowed the confirmation of the significant influence of quercetin on the reduction of SCC in mastitis in dairy cows after 8days of therapy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivertsen T

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma α-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 μg vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 μg Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

  16. Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma α-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 μg vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 μg Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

  17. Utilization of Tephrosia vogelii in controlling ticks in dairy cows by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of Tephrosia vogelii in controlling ticks on dairy cows among small-scale dairy farmers in Mashonaland Central Province of Zimbabwe. T. vogelii treatment concentrations and Triatix D acaricide dip were randomly administered to 40 dairy cows. The experiment was carried out ...

  18. The Serum Pepsinogen Level of Dairy Cows with Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali HAJIMOHAMMADI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of abomasal mucosal diseases in dairy cows suffering from gastrointestinal disorders is becoming more frequent in modern intensive production. Clinical signs are often non-specific. In this study, 67 dairy cows with gastrointestinal disorders and 9 healthy dairy cows as the control group were used. In order to make a tentative diagnosis, a complete physical examination was performed, and the fecal samples were taken from each cow for the fecal occult blood (FOB and the fecal egg count (FEC. Blood samples were taken from the coccygeal vein for WBC, Hematocrit (PCV evaluations, and serum biochemical analysis. Serum pepsinogen activity and total protein; albumin and globulin were measured using validated standard methods. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. The level of significance was set at P<0.05. A significant increase in serum pepsinogen activity was seen in all the cases of abomasal displacements compared to the control group. Among the abomasal displacement groups a significant increase in serum pepsinogen activity was seen in abomasal displacements with suspected abomasal ulcer in comparison with those without any signs of abomasal ulcer (positive FOB and melena. No considerable differences were observed between WBC, PCV, and total protein and globulin in different gastrointestinal disorders and the control group. In this study, the serum pepsinogen activity in all dairy cows with signs of abomasal ulcer (melena and positive fecal occult blood test was higher than the control group, since all of the cases had negative abomasal parasites; these increases in the signs of abomasal ulcer could predict abomasal ulcer complication in the cases of displacements.

  19. Comparison of the Effects of Goat Dairy and Cow Dairy Based Breakfasts on Satiety, Appetite Hormones, and Metabolic Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Martín, Elehazara; García-Escobar, Eva; Ruiz de Adana, Maria-Soledad; Lima-Rubio, Fuensanta; Peláez, Laura; Caracuel, Angel-María; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco-Javier; Soriguer, Federico; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Olveira, Gabriel

    2017-08-15

    The satiating effects of cow dairy have been thoroughly investigated; however, the effects of goat dairy on appetite have not been reported so far. Our study investigates the satiating effect of two breakfasts based on goat or cow dairy and their association with appetite related hormones and metabolic profile. Healthy adults consumed two breakfasts based on goat (G-Breakfast) or cow (C-Breakfast) dairy products. Blood samples were taken and VAS tests were performed at different time points. Blood metabolites were measured and Combined Satiety Index (CSI) and areas under the curves (AUC) were calculated. Desire to eat rating was significantly lower (breakfast & time interaction p dairy when compared to cow dairy products, and pointed to a potential association of GLP-1 and triglyceride levels with the mechanisms by which dairy products might affect satiety after the G-Breakfast and C-Breakfast, respectively.

  20. Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows Fed Dried Sardines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. AI-Abri

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available To utilize locally available feed resources with livestock production in hot climates, dried sardines were incorporated into diets for lactating dairy cows. Fourteen Holstein and 13 Australian Milk Zebu multiparous cows were used in a 70-day continuous feeding experiment. lsonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing either soybean meal or dried sardines (supplied 40% of dietary crude protein were fed ad - libitum. Comparisons between diets were made during the 7-week experimental period. The experiment was conducted as a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatment, with diet and breed as main factors. Ruminal pH, ammonia N, total and individual volatile fatty acids concentrations were not altered by the feeding of dried sardines. Intakes of dry matter, energy, crude protein, and acid detergent fiber were lower (P0.05 in Holstein cows fed dried sardines than those fed the control diet (16.2 vs 15.1 kg/d. Feeding of dried sardines did not affect milk composition and compositional yields. Milk production was higher (P<0.01 in Holstein than Australian Milk Zebu cows. Effect of diet and breed interaction on milk production was significant (P<0.01 . Potential of feeding marine proteins may be higher for higher milk producers (Holstein than lower producers (Australian Milk Zebu. Reproduction parameters, body condition scores, and heat-stress associated parameters were not affected by the feeding of dried sardines. This study suggests that dried sardines could be incorporated into diets of lactating dairy cows without affecting milk production.

  1. The effect of heat waves on dairy cow mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, A; Felici, A; Esposito, S; Bernabucci, U; Bertocchi, L; Maresca, C; Nardone, A; Lacetera, N

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the mortality of dairy cows during heat waves. Mortality data (46,610 cases) referred to dairy cows older than 24mo that died on a farm from all causes from May 1 to September 30 during a 6-yr period (2002-2007). Weather data were obtained from 12 weather stations located in different areas of Italy. Heat waves were defined for each weather station as a period of at least 3 consecutive days, from May 1 to September 30 (2002-2007), when the daily maximum temperature exceeded the 90th percentile of the reference distribution (1971-2000). Summer days were classified as days in heat wave (HW) or not in heat wave (nHW). Days in HW were numbered to evaluate the relationship between mortality and length of the wave. Finally, the first 3 nHW days after the end of a heat wave were also considered to account for potential prolonged effects. The mortality risk was evaluated using a case-crossover design. A conditional logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for mortality recorded in HW compared with that recorded in nHW days pooled and stratified by duration of exposure, age of cows, and month of occurrence. Dairy cows mortality was greater during HW compared with nHW days. Furthermore, compared with nHW days, the risk of mortality continued to be higher during the 3 d after the end of HW. Mortality increased with the length of the HW. Considering deaths stratified by age, cows up to 28mo were not affected by HW, whereas all the other age categories of older cows (29-60, 61-96, and >96mo) showed a greater mortality when exposed to HW. The risk of death during HW was higher in early summer months. In particular, the highest risk of mortality was observed during June HW. Present results strongly support the implementation of adaptation strategies which may limit heat stress-related impairment of animal welfare and economic losses in dairy cow farm during HW. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science

  2. Behaviour of dairy cows under free or forced cow traffic in a simulated automatic milking system environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauwere, de C.C.K.; Hendriks, M.M.B.; Metz, J.H.M.; Schouten, W.G.P.

    1998-01-01

    The introduction of fully automatic milking systems (AMS) on dairy farms can only succeed if cows visit the system more or less voluntarily, at regular intervals. This can be arranged by either forced or free cow traffic. In the case of forced cow traffic, the AMS is the only route from the lying

  3. Elevated Apoptosis in the Liver of Dairy Cows with Ketosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiliang Du

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Dairy cows with ketosis are characterized by oxidative stress and hepatic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate hepatic oxidative stress and the apoptotic status of ketotic cows, as well as the underlying apoptosis pathway. Methods: The blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT activities and the haptoglobin (HP, serum amyloid A (SAA and serum apoptotic cytokeratin 18 neo-epitope M30 (CK18 M30 concentrations were determined by commercially available kits and ELISA kits, respectively. Liver histology, TUNEL and Oil red O staining were performed in liver tissue samples. TG contents were measured using an enzymatic kit; Caspase 3 assays were carried out using the Caspase 3 activity assay kit; oxidation and antioxidant markers were measured using biochemical kits; apoptosis pathway were determined by qRT-PCR and western blot. Results: Ketotic cows displayed hepatic fat accumulation. The hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA content was significantly increased, but the activities of catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were markedly decreased in ketotic cows compared with control cows, indicating that ketotic cows displayed severe oxidative stress. Significantly higher serum levels of the hepatic damage markers AST, ALT, GGT and GLDH were observed in ketotic cows than in control cows. The blood concentration of the apoptotic marker CK18 M30 and the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the liver of ketotic cows were 1.19- and 2.61-fold, respectively, higher than the values observed in control cows. Besides, Caspase 3 activity was significantly increased in the liver of ketosis cows. Importantly, the levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK were significantly increased but the level of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase1

  4. Elevated Apoptosis in the Liver of Dairy Cows with Ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiliang; Chen, Liang; Huang, Dan; Peng, Zhicheng; Zhao, Chenxu; Zhang, Yuming; Zhu, Yiwei; Wang, Zhe; Li, Xinwei; Liu, Guowen

    2017-01-01

    Dairy cows with ketosis are characterized by oxidative stress and hepatic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate hepatic oxidative stress and the apoptotic status of ketotic cows, as well as the underlying apoptosis pathway. The blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities and the haptoglobin (HP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and serum apoptotic cytokeratin 18 neo-epitope M30 (CK18 M30) concentrations were determined by commercially available kits and ELISA kits, respectively. Liver histology, TUNEL and Oil red O staining were performed in liver tissue samples. TG contents were measured using an enzymatic kit; Caspase 3 assays were carried out using the Caspase 3 activity assay kit; oxidation and antioxidant markers were measured using biochemical kits; apoptosis pathway were determined by qRT-PCR and western blot. Ketotic cows displayed hepatic fat accumulation. The hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly increased, but the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were markedly decreased in ketotic cows compared with control cows, indicating that ketotic cows displayed severe oxidative stress. Significantly higher serum levels of the hepatic damage markers AST, ALT, GGT and GLDH were observed in ketotic cows than in control cows. The blood concentration of the apoptotic marker CK18 M30 and the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the liver of ketotic cows were 1.19- and 2.61-fold, respectively, higher than the values observed in control cows. Besides, Caspase 3 activity was significantly increased in the liver of ketosis cows. Importantly, the levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) were significantly increased but the level of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) was markedly decreased, which

  5. Effects of RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation during the transition period on vitamin status in blood and milk of organic dairy cows during lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, H; Nadeau, E; Persson Waller, K

    2011-01-01

    ) and was supplemented with 0 (C) or 2400 (E) IU of RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate from 3weeks before to 3weeks post calving (PC). In experiment 2, the basal diet contained 29IU of RRR-α-tocopherol/kg DM plus 31 (dry) or 20 (lactating) IU of synthetic vitamin E/kg DM and was supplemented with 0 (C) or 2400 (E) IU of RRR......-α-tocopheryl acetate from 3weeks before to 3weeks PC. Synthetic vitamins A and D also were supplemented in experiment 2. Blood samples were collected at 3weeks before expected calving, at calving, at 3weeks PC and between 5 and 7months PC, while milk samples were collected from colostrum, at 4days PC, at 3weeks PC...... treatments in either plasma or milk later in lactation. High concentrations of α-tocopherol and β-carotene in forage decreased the effect of the E treatment. However, as concentrations of α-tocopherol and β-carotene in forage are difficult to predict vitamin supplementation is recommended, especially around...

  6. Short communication: Cow- and herd-level prevalence of hypoglycemia in hyperketonemic postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc, J; Buczinski, S

    2018-02-07

    The objective of this study was to quantify the prevalence of hypoglycemia in hyperketonemic dairy cows during the early postpartum period. A prospective observational study was conducted in 100 dairy herds selected by convenience. Within all participating herds, 40 cows (or the entire herd if smaller than 40 cows) were enrolled in the study (total of 3,776 enrolled cows). Herds were visited every 2 wk by an animal health technician. Cows were bled from their coccygeal vessels once between 1 and 14 d in milk, and cow-side testing was performed for ketonemia and glycemia using a device validated in cattle (Precision Xtra, Abbott, Mississauga, ON, Canada). Hyperketonemia was defined as β-hydroxybutyrate ≥1.4 mmol/L, and hypoglycemia was defined as glucose ≤2.2 mmol/L. Descriptive statistics were computed at the cow and herd levels. The cow-level prevalence of hyperketonemia, hypoglycemia, and simultaneous hypoglycemia and hyperketonemia was 20.0% (757/3,776), 13.8% (642/3,776), and 6.2% (235/3,776), respectively. Within the subset of hyperketonemic cows only, the prevalence of hypoglycemia was 31.0% (235/757). At the herd level, the median prevalence was 17.5% (minimum: 5.0%, first quartile: 10.0%, third quartile: 22.5%, maximum: 77.5%) for hyperketonemia, 15.0% (minimum: 5.0%, first quartile: 12.5%, third quartile: 20.0%, maximum: 47.5%) for hypoglycemia, and 7.5% (minimum: 2.5%, first quartile: 5.0%, third quartile: 12.5%, maximum: 17.5%) for simultaneous hypoglycemia and hyperketonemia. The herd-level median prevalence of hypoglycemia within the subset of hyperketonemic cows only was 30.6% (minimum: 2.5%, first quartile: 20.0%, third quartile: 39.1%, maximum: 63.0%). The results from this study show that the prevalence of simultaneous hyperketonemia and hypoglycemia is relatively low in the overall early postpartum cow population but also that approximately one third of hyperketonemic cows are hypoglycemic, which might represent an opportunity to improve

  7. THE EFFECTS OF HERBS ON MILK YIELD AND MILK QUALITY OF MASTITIS DAIRY COW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nurdin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcuma mangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milk protein, milk lactosa and mastitis status in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++ were used in the experiment. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcuma zeodharia; D. Curcuma mangga, and E. Curcuma aeruginosa with four replicates per treatment. The collected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and difference between the treatment effects was tested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of herbs significantly increased (P<0.01 milk yield, milk protein, milk lactosa and significantly decreased mastitis status and did not significant affect milk fat.

  8. THE EFFECTS OF HERBS ON MILK YIELD AND MILK QUALITY OF MASTITIS DAIRY COW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nurdin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcumamangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milkprotein, milk lactosa and mastitis status in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++ were used in the experiment. Completely randomizeddesign was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcumazeodharia; D. Curcuma mangga, and E. Curcuma aeruginosa with four replicates per treatment. Thecollected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and difference between the treatment effects wastested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of herbssignificantly increased (P<0.01 milk yield, milk protein, milk lactosa and significantly decreasedmastitis status and did not significant affect milk fat.

  9. Effects of different strategies for feeding supplements on milk production responses in cows grazing a restricted pasture allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auldist, M J; Marett, L C; Greenwood, J S; Hannah, M; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2013-02-01

    variation occurred in ruminal fluid volatile fatty acids and pH, especially in cows fed the largest amounts of supplement. It was concluded that when supplements are fed to grazing dairy cows, a simple mix of grain and pasture silage has no benefit over traditional strategies of feeding grain in the parlor and forage in the paddock. However, yield of milk fat and marginal milk production responses can be greater if the strategy uses an isoenergetic ration that also contains alfalfa hay, corn silage, and corn grain. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reproductive performance of artificially inseminated dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of the study were to generate a reliable field data set and analyze it to determine reproductive parameters/indices. A total of 280 and 400 households keeping 158 and 709 cows and heifers in Rwanda and Tanzania respectively were studied. Reproductive events: dates of heat, AI or NS, service number, sire ...

  11. Enhancing the biomethane potential of liquid dairy cow manure by addition of solid manure fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Israel; Figueroa-González, Ivonne; Miguel, José Ángel; Bonilla-Morte, Luis; Quijano, Guillermo

    2016-12-01

    To assess the effect of adding solid manure fractions on the biomethane potential (BMP) of liquid dairy cow manure and on the biokinetic parameters of the process. The methanogenic potential of liquid dairy cow manure was strongly effected by adding a solid manure fraction. The 90/10 % (w/w) liquid/solid manure fraction mixture was the best substrate for CH 4 production. This substrate mixture improved by 50 % the final CH 4 production per g substrate and decreased the lag time by 220 % relative to the reference BMP test without the addition. Moreover, the addition of 20 % solid manure fraction adversely affected both the final CH 4 production and the maximum methane production rate, while increased the lag time by 400 % compared to the reference BMP test without addition. Liquid dairy cow manure should be supplemented with no more than 10 % of solid manure fraction in order to improve the biomethane potential of this important agro-industrial residue.

  12. Supplementing in the diet of lactating Holstein cows may naturally produce coenzyme Q10-enriched milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Seck Bae

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To examine the effects of Rhodobacter sphaeroides (R. sphaeroides supplementation as a direct-fed microbial (DFM on rumen fermentation in dairy cows and on coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 transition into milk, an in vitro rumen simulation batch culture and an in vivo dairy cow experiment were conducted. Methods The characteristics of in vitro ruminal fermentation were investigated using rumen fluids from six cannulated Holstein dairy cows at 2 h post-afternoon feeding. A control treatment was included in the experiments based on a typified total mixed ration (TMR for lactating dairy cows, which was identical to the one used in the in vivo study, plus R. sphaeroides at 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% TMR dry matter. The in vivo study employed six ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows randomly allotted to either the control TMR (C-TMR treatment or to a diet supplemented with a 0.5% R. sphaeroides culture (S-TMR, dry matter basis ad libitum. The presence of R. sphaeroides was verified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE applied to the bacterial samples obtained from the in vivo study. The concentration of CoQ10 in milk and in the supernatant from the in vitro study was determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Results The results of the in vitro batch culture and DGGE showed that the concentration of CoQ10 significantly increased after 2 h of R. sphaeroides supplementation above 0.1%. When supplemented to the diet of lactating cows at the level of 0.5%, R. sphaeroides did not present any adverse effect on dry matter intake and milk yield. However, the concentration of CoQ10 in milk dramatically increased, with treated cows producing 70.9% more CoQ10 than control cows. Conclusion The CoQ10 concentration in milk increased via the use of a novel DFM, and R. sphaeroides might be used for producing value-added milk and dairy products in the future.

  13. Nutrition and udder health in dairy cows: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Rourke D

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mastitis is still one of the three main diseases that affects the profitability of dairy farmers. Despite the implementation of the five-point mastitis control programme in the early 1970 s, the incidence in the UK has not reduced dramatically over the past 10 years. A review of the scientific literature indicates that there is a link between nutrition and mastitis in the dairy cow. The major impact of nutrition on udder health is via suppression of the immune system. Cows in negative energy balance are at a higher risk of ketosis and clinical ketosis is associated with a two-fold increase in the risk of clinical mastitis. Trace minerals and vitamins that can affect udder health are selenium and vitamin E, copper, zinc, and vitamin A and β-carotene.

  14. Nutrition and udder health in dairy cows: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Mastitis is still one of the three main diseases that affects the profitability of dairy farmers. Despite the implementation of the five-point mastitis control programme in the early 1970 s, the incidence in the UK has not reduced dramatically over the past 10 years. A review of the scientific literature indicates that there is a link between nutrition and mastitis in the dairy cow. The major impact of nutrition on udder health is via suppression of the immune system. Cows in negative energy balance are at a higher risk of ketosis and clinical ketosis is associated with a two-fold increase in the risk of clinical mastitis. Trace minerals and vitamins that can affect udder health are selenium and vitamin E, copper, zinc, and vitamin A and β-carotene. PMID:22082340

  15. Stray voltage and robotic milking of dairy cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenburg, J.; Lang, B. [Ontario Ministry of Agriculture (Canada)

    2009-12-15

    Stray voltage in livestock agriculture is the difference in voltage potential measured between two surfaces that may be contacted simultaneously by an animal. The reactions of animals to mild electric shocks caused by stray voltage have been reported to include behavioural changes, changes in milking characteristics of dairy cows and changes in production performance. It can make cows more reluctant to enter the farm dairy and can induce more frequent dunging and urination in the holding yards or during milking. Milk production may be reduced if avoidance behaviours are severe. This factsheet outlines appropriate testing of a robot site for stray voltage. Correction and prevention options available to reduce or eliminate stray voltage in robotic milking systems, i.e. equipotential plane or slatted floors, are discussed along with advantages and disadvantages of each. The most appropriate solution may depend on the voltage level found, the utility's policies and whether it is new construction or renovation.

  16. The importance of the oxidative status of dairy cattle in the periparturient period: revisiting antioxidant supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, A; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C

    2015-12-01

    Dairy cows are especially vulnerable to health disorders during the transition period, when they shift from late pregnancy to the onset of lactation. Diseases at this stage affect not only the animals' well-being, but also cause a major economic impact in dairy farms, because apart from treatment costs, affected cows will not reach their peak milk-producing capacity. The overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to oxidative stress, which has been identified as an underlying factor of dysfunctional inflammatory responses. Supplementation with vitamins and trace elements attempts to minimize the harmful consequences of excessive ROS production, thereby trying to improve animals' health status and to reduce disease incidence. However, results regarding the effects of supplementing antioxidants on dairy cows' health and performance have been inconsistent, because in most cases, the antioxidant potential of the animals was not assessed beforehand and the nutritional strategy planned accordingly. Therefore, reviewing the physiological and harmful effects of ROS production, along with the different options available for assessing the redox balance in dairy cattle and some of the key findings of different supplementation trials, could bring one step forward the on-farm application of determinations of oxidative status for establishing nutritional strategies early enough in the dry period that could improve transition cow health. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. The influence of protein feed supplements for composition of cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čermák Bohuslav

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments at three experimental groups(each n=9 cows the supplement of protein through extracted soja and AMINOTEK were observed. Average daily milk yield depend on month after calving. (1st x= 28  s´=20,2, 2nd x=35 s=25,6, 3nd x=31 s=26,8. The differences among basic milk nutriments were not statistical significant during experiment. The contents of milk nutriments were decreased at the control group and at the both experiment groups in January. A tendency to higher level of proteins, methionine and cystine  was at the experiment groups. The content of lysine is constant. We observed increase content of oil acid in milk tested dairy cow. These dairy cows were fed by AMINOTEK suplement. The oil acid could be basic component in another non-saturated acid in milk fat (NNKT. Again was find higher delegacy linol acid.

  18. Metabolomic biomarkers correlating with hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Imhasly, Sandro; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Baumann, Sven; von Bergen, Martin; Luch, Andreas; Jungnickel, Harald; Potratz, Sarah; Gerspach, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatic lipidosis or fatty liver disease is a major metabolic disorder of high-producing dairy cows that compromises animal performance and, hence, causes heavy economic losses worldwide. This syndrome, occurring during the critical transition from gestation to early lactation, leads to an impaired health status, decreased milk yield, reduced fertility and shortened lifetime. Because the prevailing clinical chemistry parameters indicate advanced liver damage independently of the u...

  19. Effect of dietary phosphorus content on milk production and phosphorus excretion in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Diming; Liu, Jianxin; Liu, Hongyun; Wu, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) supplementation is costly and can result in excess P excretion. This study investigated the effects of reducing dietary P on milk production and P excretion in dairy cows over a full lactation. Forty-five multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided into 15 blocks according to expected calving date and previous milk yield, and assigned randomly to one of the three dietary treatments: 0.37, 0.47, and 0.57% P (DM basis); these P levels represent the NRC recommendations, Chinese recommendations, and the amount of dietary P commonly fed by Chinese dairy farmers, respectively. Average daily feed intake was calculated from monthly data on feed offered and refused. Milk yields of individual cows were recorded weekly, and milk samples were taken for analysis of protein, fat, solids-not-fat, lactose, and somatic cell count. Blood samples were collected on days -6, -3, 0, 3, 6 relative to calving, and then monthly throughout lactation, and analyzed for P and Ca concentrations. Spot samples of feces and urine were collected for 3 consecutive d during weeks 12, 24, and 36, and P concentrations were analyzed. Reproduction and health data were recorded. Dietary P did not affect dry matter intake or milk yield (P > 0.10). Milk fat content was slightly higher in cows fed 0.37% P than in cows fed 0.47% P (P = 0.05). Serum concentrations of P and Ca did not reflect dietary P content (P > 0.10). Fecal and urinary P both declined linearly (P  0.05). Lowering dietary P from 0.57 to 0.37% did not negatively affect milk production, but did significantly reduce P excretion into environment.

  20. Seasonal and group effects on dairy cow behavior in large yards

    OpenAIRE

    NIKKHAH, Akbar; KOWSAR, Rasool

    2014-01-01

    In mechanized modern dairy facilities with competitive environments, monitoring behavior provides opportunities to manipulate and optimize the nutritional, health, and social status of high-merit cows. The objective of the current study was to determine seasonal and cow group effects on the eating, ruminating, standing, and lying behaviors of dairy cows in large yards. Seasonal data on various behaviors of lactating cows in different production and lactation stages were collected continuously...

  1. Frequency of some acropodium diseases in dairy cows in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research included 520 dairy cows on 64 mini-farms in mountainous Serbian areas, with the goal to acquire an insight on acropodium diseases frequency in dairy cows, as well as distribution of hoof alterations. In 56.25% of farms, animals were kept tied in the stable, while 43.75% were grazing regularly or occasionally. Only 10.94% of farms were free of hoof acropodium alterations. Extremely bad hygienic conditions were noted in 18.75% of farms, where 74.01% of animals had acropodium lesions. Based on clinical analysis of 520 dairy cows, 388 of them were diagnosed with acropodium alternations: overgrown hooves (in 21.91% of animals, shoe-like hooves (7.22%, scissors-like (17.27% and spiral hooves (8.76%. Wounded acropodium skin was diagnosed in 1.8%, interdigital phlegmon in 9.02%, aseptic pododermatitis in 3.61%, digital dermatitis in 4.89%, interdigital dermatitis in 3.09%, hoof ulcer in 3.35%, interdigital blister in 4.89%, hollow hoof wall in 6.18%, horn wall rupture in 0.51%, heel abscess in 3.09%, tendovaginitis in 3.85% and crown joint displacement in 0.26% of animals. We found no pathological lesions of the acropodium in 132 animals (25.38%.

  2. Metabolomic biomarkers correlating with hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhasly, Sandro; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Baumann, Sven; von Bergen, Martin; Luch, Andreas; Jungnickel, Harald; Potratz, Sarah; Gerspach, Christian

    2014-06-02

    Hepatic lipidosis or fatty liver disease is a major metabolic disorder of high-producing dairy cows that compromises animal performance and, hence, causes heavy economic losses worldwide. This syndrome, occurring during the critical transition from gestation to early lactation, leads to an impaired health status, decreased milk yield, reduced fertility and shortened lifetime. Because the prevailing clinical chemistry parameters indicate advanced liver damage independently of the underlying disease, currently, hepatic lipidosis can only be ascertained by liver biopsy. We hypothesized that the condition of fatty liver disease may be accompanied by an altered profile of endogenous metabolites in the blood of affected animals. To identify potential small-molecule biomarkers as a novel diagnostic alternative, the serum samples of diseased dairy cows were subjected to a targeted metabolomics screen by triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. A subsequent multivariate test involving principal component and linear discriminant analyses yielded 29 metabolites (amino acids, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelines) that, in conjunction, were able to distinguish between dairy cows with no hepatic lipidosis and those displaying different stages of the disorder. This proof-of-concept study indicates that metabolomic profiles, including both amino acids and lipids, distinguish hepatic lipidosis from other peripartal disorders and, hence, provide a promising new tool for the diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis. By generating insights into the molecular pathogenesis of hepatic lipidosis, metabolomics studies may also facilitate the prevention of this syndrome.

  3. Modeling heat loss from the udder of a dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, Kifle G; Wu, Binxin

    2016-07-01

    A mechanistic model that predicts sensible and latent heat fluxes from the udder of a dairy cow was developed. The prediction of the model was spot validated against measured data from the literature, and the result agreed within 7% of the measured value for the same ambient temperature. A dairy cow can lose a significant amount of heat (388W/m(2)) from the udder. This suggests that the udder could be considered as a heat sink. The temperature profile through the udder tissue (core to skin) approached the core temperature for an air temperature ≥37°C whereas the profile decreased linearly from the core to skin surface for an air temperature less than 37°C. Sensible heat loss was dominant when ambient air temperature was less than 37.5°C but latent heat loss was greater than sensible heat loss when air temperature was ≥37.5°C. The udder could lose a total (sensible + latent) heat flux of 338W/m(2) at an ambient temperature of 35°C and blood-flow rate of 3.2×10(-3)m(3)/(sm(3) tissue). The results of this study suggests that, in time of heat stress, a dairy cow could be cooled by cooling the udder only (e.g., using an evaporative cooling jacket). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. FGF-21: promising biomarker for detecting ketosis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuang; Xu, Qiushi; Chen, Yuanyuan; Yang, Wei; Xia, Cheng; Yu, Hongjiang; Zhu, Kuilin; Shen, Taiyu; Zhang, Ziyang

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the measurement of serum fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21), a protein mainly synthesized by the liver, as a sensitive biomarker for diagnosis of ketosis in dairy cows. Ninety Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 healthy and 30 ketosis cases) were selected and divided into a Ketosis group (K), and a Control group (C). We measured serum FGF-21 and other biochemical parameters by commercial ELISA kits. In a combined population of all 90 cows, we found that serum FGF-21 level was lower (P ketosis. When the β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) level increased over 1.2 mmol/L, the FGF-21 level tended to decline below 300.85 pg/ml. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) for serum FGF-21 for diagnosis of fatty liver was 0.952-0.025 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.904, 1.000] which was higher than the AUC-ROC for glucose (Glc) and other tested parameters. We concluded that FGF-21 could be a diagnostic parameter in the evaluation and auxiliary diagnosis of changes in the energy metabolism state, and serum FGF-21 measurement would have a considerable clinical impact and lead to greater profitability in the dairy industry.

  5. GRAZING BEHAVIOUR OF DAIRY COWS ON MOUNTAIN FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. VOŘÍŠKOVÁ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The etological observation was provided on a dairy herd (65 Czech Fleckvieh and 51 Holstein cows on a low-input mountain farm during the pasture season (April – October 2008. The milking was provided two-times a day in the stalls. The 24-hours observations were made four-times: in June, July, September and October, in 10- minutes intervals. The cows spent 25 to 38 % of a day on average by feeding and 18 to 22 % on average by moving (stalls – pasture movements took about half of this period. The resting time consisting of chewing was found unsufficient and took 29 % to 40 % of a day on average. Better comfort of cows given by an improved milking technology and a more effective grazing management connected with longer time spent by resting is suggested to achieve higher milk yields on the farm.

  6. Association of claw disorders with subclinical intramammary infections in Egyptian dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refaal, Walid; Mahmmod, Yasser

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Bovine mastitis and lameness are the most common production diseases affecting dairy farms worldwide resulting in huge economic impact and impaired animal welfare. The objective of this field study was to investigate the association of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders...... with the occurrence of subclinical intramammary infections (IMIs) diagnosed by California mastitis test (CMT) in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 dairy cows were included in this field study. Subclinical IMI was diagnosed by CMT on all lactating quarters of cows. A cow...... (pdairy cows in Egypt. The hind limbs are more susceptible to claw...

  7. Indicators of dairy cow transition risks: Metabolic profiling revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Saun, R J

    2016-01-01

    Periparturient disease conditions affecting transition dairy cows have been recognized as a critical contributor to impaired dairy performance and have become a focal point of herd diagnostic investigations. Over the past 40 years use of blood sampling in the form of metabolic profiling has been applied to herd diagnostics with mixed impressions of diagnostic robustness. Research has greatly increased our understanding of underpinning mechanisms related to cow biology, management, environment and their interactions responsible for peripartum diseases. Elevated β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration (> 1.2 mmol/l) within 7-10 days following calving identifies high risk cows for therapeutic intervention. Herd evaluations with 15-25% of first week fresh cows with elevated BHB indicates significant disease risk and productive losses. Elevated peripartal serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) also indicate increased disease risk. This review discusses documented (BHB, NEFA) and other potential analytes using individual or pooled samples useful for disease risk assessment or nutritional status and their application in risk-based or herd screening methods of herd metabolic profiling diagnostics. A pooled sample approach modified from the original Compton Metabolic Profile allows for more economic assessment of multiple analytes, though interpretation and herd-size application may be limited. Pooled samples between 5 and 10 individuals accurately represent arithmetic means of individuals. Most importantly metabolic profiles must be used in concert with other diagnostic metrics of animal and facility evaluations, body condition scoring and ration evaluation to be fully useful in herd evaluations.

  8. Post-partum reproductive performance of the Icelandic dairy cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldon, J.; Olafsson, T.; Thorsteinsson, T.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the studies was to monitor the reproductive performance of Icelandic dairy cow herds with and without histories of fertility problems under normal farming conditions. Artificial inseminations and calvings were recorded, pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal palpation, and progesterone concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay in sequential samples of milk. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals and the concentrations of glucose, urea, calcium and magnesium were determined. Clinical ketosis and low glucose were found in one third of the cows on problem farms. The mean time of first post-partum ovulation was 49 days for cows with ketosis, compared with 34 days for cows free of ketosis. Cows in the normal herds ovulated considerably later than is reported for many other breeds of dairy cows; however, the time of first post-partum AI, the time of conception and the conception rate were similar to those reported for other breeds. The effects of season and herd were statistically significant for the time of first post-partum ovulation, AI and conception; the effect of area was highly significant for the time of ovulation. Progesterone profiles showed that over 50% of the first post-partum ovarian cycles were short and had low progesterone concentrations. Season had significant effects on the length of the interval from calving to first post-partum ovulation, AI and conception, on the conception rate to first AI and consequently on the number of AIs per conception, and on the blood levels of glucose, urea and calcium. (author). 28 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  9. The effects of supplemental protease enzymes on production variables in lactating Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekin Sucu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to examine the effects of supplemental dietary protease enzymes on production variables in dairy cattle. Ninety-six multiparous lactating Holstein cows (624±62 kg body weight and 154±104 days in milk were blocked according to parity, days in milk, and previous milk production and randomly assigned to a control total mix ration (TMR or a TMR containing a blend of supplemental protease enzymes (PE; 4 g/cow/d in a crossover design with two 21-day experimental periods. Daily pen milk yield and dry matter intake (DMI were recorded and milk composition from all cows was determined on d 15, 17, 19 and 21 of each period. There was no treatment effect on milk yield (37.6 kg/d, but supplemental PE-fed cows consumed less DMI (P<0.05 compared to controls and therefore tended to have improved feed efficiency (P=0.06. Feeding supplemental PE decreased blood urea nitrogen (P<0.05 compared to the control cows. However, feeding PE had no effect on milk fat and protein content but tended (P=0.08 to increase milk lactose concentration and tended (P=0.10 to decrease milk urea nitrogen levels and somatic cell score. Results indicate that supplemental PE may enhance production efficiency and improve parameters of nitrogen status.

  10. Fish meal supplementation to early lactation Jersey cows grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This trial was conducted to test the hypothesis that early lactation cows grazing ryegrass pasture and receiving maize and mineral supplementation could respond to additional supplementation with a protein source such as fish meal. Multiparous Jersey cows in early to mid lactation that grazed annual ryegrass pasture in ...

  11. Supplementation of dairy weaners grazing tropical pastures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tropical pastures for growth of dairy replacement heifers, and to assess the need for ... restricted by intake of digestible nutrients. Tropical pastures ... 1983, 13(l). Table 1 Effect of rnaize or maize plus cotton seed meal on the growth of weaner calves. Level. Wean wt wean ro ll0 kg ll0- 130 kg. Wean ro 130 kg. Supplements.

  12. Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in grazing Irish dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Luke; Doherty, Michael L; Mulligan, Finbar J

    2008-04-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a significant production disease of dairy cattle. Previous concerns have been raised over the occurrence of SARA in pasture-fed dairy cattle and the potential consequences of laminitis and lameness. Highly digestible perennial rye grass contains high concentrations of rapidly fermentable carbohydrate and low concentrations of physical effective fibre that may result in SARA. This study conducted a point prevalence survey of rumen health status in grazing Irish dairy cattle fed predominantly perennial rye grass-based pasture. The survey assessed rumen fluid, animal health status, milk production data and pasture composition. A total of 144 cows between 80 and 150 days in milk were sampled on 12 farms. Eleven percent of cows were classified as affected with SARA (pH 5.8). The study showed that low rumen pH is prevalent in grazing Irish dairy cattle consuming perennial rye grass-based pasture and raises concerns regarding effective pasture utilisation and possible consequences for animal health.

  13. Effects of hydroxy trace minerals on oxidative metabolism, cytological endometritis, and performance of transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, T; Ryan, C M; Gilbert, R O; Perryman, K R; Overton, T R

    2014-01-01

    Multiparous Holstein cows (n=60) were used to determine effects of supplementing hydroxy forms of Zn, Cu, and Mn compared with 2 other common supplementation strategies on oxidative metabolism, cytological endometritis, and performance of transition cows. After a 1-wk pretreatment period, cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 dietary treatments from 21 d before expected calving through 84 d postcalving. Dietary treatments administered by daily top-dressing included (1) inorganic sulfate forms of Zn, Cu, and Mn (ITM); (2) a blend (75:25) of sulfates and organic complexes of Zn, Cu, and Mn (ITM/OTM); and (3) hydroxy trace minerals (HTM) of Zn, Cu, and Mn. The resulting dietary concentrations of supplemental Zn, Cu, and Mn were similar among treatments and averaged 40, 10, and 27 mg/kg, respectively, before calving and 59, 15, and 40 mg/kg, respectively, after calving. Total concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Mn averaged 80, 16, and 62 mg/kg during the prepartum period and 102, 23, and 75 mg/kg, respectively, during the postpartum period. Overall, effects of treatment on milk yield and milk composition were not significant. Cows fed HTM during the prepartum period had higher body weight (BW) than those fed ITM during the prepartum period and had higher BW during the postpartum period than those fed the other treatments; however, BW change, body condition score, and body condition score change were not affected by treatment. Plasma total antioxidant capacity was lower in cows fed HTM than ITM but was not different from cows fed ITM/OTM. Cows fed HTM tended to have lower concentrations of plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances than those fed ITM during the whole study period, but plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were not different between HTM and ITM/OTM. Plasma haptoglobin was lower in cows fed HTM than ITM/OTM at 1 wk postpartum. Endometrial cytology 7d postcalving and cytological endometritis as assessed on 1d between 40 and 60 d postcalving was not

  14. A new nordic structure evaluation system for diets fed to dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Peder; Nadeau, E.; Randby, Å.T.

    2010-01-01

    The overall aim was to establish a model for predicting chewing index (CI) values for ranking the fibrousnesses of feeds fed to dairy cows within the Nordic Chewing index system. The CI values are predicted as the sum of the eating (EI) and ruminating time index (RI) values. The EI values......EI/kRI ratios were parameterized as the mean eating (mETf), mean ruminating time (mRTf) per intake of forage NDF (NDFIf) and themETf/mRTf ratio by a Meta analysis of 75 published values from cattle fed three types of unchopped forages with or without supplementation with concentrates. The intake of NDF from...

  15. Measures to improve dairy cow foot health: consequences for farmer income and dairy cow welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Hogeveen, H.; Stassen, E.N.

    2013-01-01

    Dairy farming in western countries with cubicle housing is an efficient way of dairy farming. Though, a disadvantage is the high prevalence and incidence of foot disorders (clinical and subclinical), which cause high economic losses and also seriously impair the welfare of dairy cattle. To point out

  16. Effects of feeding dry glycerol on milk production, nutrients digestibility and blood components in primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafilzadeh, F.; Piri, V.; Karami-Shabankareh, H.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucogenic property of glycerol supplementation in the dairy cow’s diet. Sixty primiparous cows (control, n=30, and glycerol supplemented, n=30) were used to measure milk yield and components, blood hormone and metabolite profiles, and body condition score. Feed intake and apparent total-tract digestibility were also measured using 10 primiparous cows (control, n=5, and glycerol supplemented, n=5). Dry glycerol was top dressed at 250 g/day/cow from parturition to 21 days postpartum. Average feed intake, milk yield and components were not affected by glycerol supplementation. Apparent total–tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were not influenced by dry glycerol supplementation, but lipid digestibility was greater (p=0.01) in cows fed glycerol. The serum concentration of glucose and insulin tended to be higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p=0.1; p=0.06, respectively). While, serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were not affected. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1 to 5 after calving (p=0.09). The glucogenic effect of glycerol did not affect milk yield during the first 3 weeks of lactation. However, daily milk yield during the 13 weeks recording period was higher in the glycerol-supplemented cows (28.5 vs. 30.3 kg, p<0.001). Percentages of cows cycling at the planned breeding date was greater (p=0.01) for cows fed dry glycerol. The results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply could be useful in saving body reserves and improving energy balance of primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period. (Author)

  17. Feeding toasted field beans to dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, K.F.; Kjeldsen, A.M.; Askegaard, M.

    2013-01-01

    Toasting field beans can improve the protein quality of field beans markedly. In the feed demonstrations carried out in Project EcoProtein testing a new method of toasting with a drum dryer, showed, however, only reduced effect on the protein quality due to a lower than optimal temperature. The toasted field beans were fed in two organic dairy herds, replacing a part of the concentrates in the ration in a cross-over design. Preliminary results showed no milk yield difference in herd 1, but a ...

  18. Modeling conductive cooling for thermally stressed dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, Kifle G; Wu, Binxin; Perano, K

    2016-02-01

    Conductive cooling, which is based on direct contact between a cow lying down and a cooled surface (water mattress, or any other heat exchanger embedded under the bedding), allows heat transfer from the cow to the cooled surface, and thus alleviate heat stress of the cow. Conductive cooling is a novel technology that has the potential to reduce the consumption of energy and water in cooling dairy cows compared to some current practices. A three-dimensional conduction model that simulates cooling thermally-stressed dairy cows was developed. The model used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method to characterize the air-flow field surrounding the animal model. The flow field was obtained by solving the continuity and the momentum equations. The heat exchange between the animal and the cooled water mattress as well as between the animal and ambient air was determined by solving the energy equation. The relative humidity was characterized using the species transport equation. The conduction 3-D model was validated against experimental temperature data and the agreement was very good (average error is 4.4% and the range is 1.9-8.3%) for a mesh size of 1117202. Sensitivity analyses were conducted between heat losses (sensible and latent) with respect to air temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, and level of wetness of skin surface to determine which of the parameters affect heat flux more than others. Heat flux was more sensitive to air temperature and level of wetness of the skin surface and less sensitive to relative humidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Purup, S; Hansen-Møller, J; Martinsson, K; Steinshamn, H; Gustavsson, A-M

    2012-08-01

    Phytoestrogens are hormone-like substances in plants that can substantially influence human health (positively or negatively), and when fed to dairy cows are partly transferred to their milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of varying the botanical composition and regrowth interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley silage with red clover or long-term ley silage with white clover, and the effects of supplementation with α-tocopherol were also tested. High concentrations of formononetin and biochanin A were found in all silage mixtures with red clover. The milk concentration of equol was highest for cows on the 2-cut red clover-grass silage diet (1,494 μg/kg of milk). Because of the metabolism of biochanin A, genistein, and prunetin, their concentrations in milk and the apparent recovery were low. Coumestrol was detected in only short-term and long-term ley silage mixtures, and its milk concentration was low. Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone concentration than the other diets (226 μg/kg of milk). Lengthening the regrowth interval increased the intake of secoisolariciresinol and decreased the recovery of lignans. Feeding long-term ley silage resulted in higher milk lignan concentrations but lower milk isoflavone concentrations than feeding short-term ley silage. The apparent recovery of all phytoestrogens except prunetin was highest on the 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet. No effect of α-tocopherol supplementation

  20. Mineral supplementation in Tunisian smallholder dairy farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekhis, J.; Kouki-Chebbi, K.; Dhaouadi, B.; Khlif, K.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to determine the effects of supplementation of di-calcium-phosphate in the form of blocks in late pregnancy (2 months before calving), on production and reproduction parameters of dairy cattle in smallholder farms. The experiment covered 63 animals in 20 smallholder farms, divided into control and supplemented groups. Results showed that mineral supplementation had a significant effect on calf weight, milk fat content and reproduction parameters. Calves born to cattle supplemented with di-calcium-phosphate were heavier by 1.67 kg than those in the control group. Similarly, the average milk fat content in the supplemented group was 5.6 g/L (P 0.05). (author)

  1. Behaviour of Dairy Cows, Useful Indicator in Assessing Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Cristina Andronie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to establish the manner in which the flooring type may influence the welfare levelsin dairy cows by assessment of laminitis incidence and animals’ behaviour. 42 dairy cows were grouped based on theshelter floor surface: concrete with straw bedding, asphalted concrete with straw bedding and concrete plus shavings.The behaviour was assessed through direct observation and laminitis incidence was established by numericalassessment of locomotion prior or following milking.The results have indicated an increase of laminitis incidence by 15-25 % in B and C lot and was absent in A lot. Thelarge number of diseases was recorded on concrete floors with shavings bedding (53%. The behavioural displays ofthe cows suffering from laminitis were different from the healthy ones, as their resting behaviour outside the stallswas more prevalent (17.6% compared to 8.8% while the feeding behaviour was less present (10.1% compared to14.7%. Likewise, the socializing behaviour was more active in these animals, compared to the healthycows.

  2. Urea in sugarcane-based diets for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Magno Ferreira Santiago

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of adding four levels (0, 4, 8 and 12 g/kg, as fed of a mixture (9:1 of urea and ammonium sulfate (UAs to sugarcane on feed intake and digestibility, productive performance and metabolism of nitrogen compounds of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (12.6±0.5 kg/d of milk, 225±90 days in milk were distributed in three 4 × 4 Latin squares, receiving diets with the same amount of nitrogen (125 g crude protein/kg of dry matter. Concentrate feed was supplied at a ratio of 1 kg for each 3 kg of milk produced. The sugarcane presented 21.9 ºBrix. The level of UAs did not affect intake, total digestibility of diet components, milk production or milk components. Increasing UAs level linearly increased concentration of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN, urinary excretion of nitrogen and contribution of non-urea nitrogen in the urinary excretion and linearly reduced milk production/urinary excretion of nitrogen ratio. In spite of the linear increase of PUN with increased urea, the maximum value observed (14.31 mg/dL was below the threshold value of 20 mg/dL, above which reproductive function may be compromised. In diets with sugarcane for dairy cows with production below 15 kg/day, the UAs level may be raised from 0 to 12 g/kg natural matter without impairing performance.

  3. Design and calibration of chambers for the measurement of housed dairy cow gaseous emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increased global demand for milk and other dairy products over the past decade has heightened concerns about potential for increased environmental impacts. Accurate measurement of gas emissions from dairy cows is essential to assess the effect of cow diets and other management practices on both ...

  4. How well does pasture meet the nutrient needs of dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little research has evaluated the nutritional content of pastures relative to nutrient needs of grazing dairy cows. We conducted a study to determine how frequently pastures in the northeastern U.S. met nutrient requirements of lactating dairy cows and to describe a sample of the feeding strategies ...

  5. Characterization of Dutch dairy farms using sensor systems for cow management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W; Hogeveen, H

    To improve cow management in large dairy herds, sensors have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. Recently, the number of dairy farms using sensor systems has increased. It is not known, however, to what extent sensor systems are

  6. Characterization of Dutch dairy farms using sensor systems for cow management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.

    2015-01-01

    To improve cow management in large dairy herds, sensors have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. Recently, the number of dairy farms using sensor systems has increased. It is not known, however, to what extent sensor systems are

  7. Cow's health and farmer's attitude towards the culling decision in dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaudeau, F.

    1995-01-01

    The study described in this thesis focusses on the health related culling decision in dairy cows, with special attention to the role of farmer's attitude in this process. This thesis is composed of four parts. In the first part, the associations between diseases and culling in dairy cows

  8. Effect of dry period length on rumen adaption in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goselink, R.M.A.; Schonewille, J.T.; Duinkerken, van G.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of length of dry period on rumen papillae dimensions of dairy cows around parturition. Twelve rumen-cannulated Holstein dairy cows were assigned to a dry period length of 60 (G60), 30 (G30) or 0 (G0) days. The experiment started 60 d before

  9. Prevalence and Clinico-Pathology of Ketosis in Dairy Cows in Tigray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation to study the prevalence and clinico-pathology of ketosis in dairy cows was undertaken from November 2007 to May 2008 at Kalamino, Agazi and Mekelle University dairy farms in and around Mekelle town of Tigray region of Ethiopia. Recently- calved cows were screened for ketosis by subjecting urine and ...

  10. Effects of perennial ryegrass cultivars on milk yield and nitrogen utilization in grazing dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, B.M.; Taweel, H.Z.; Smit, H.J.; Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of 4 diploid perennial ryegrass cultivars that differed in water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) concentrations on milk yield and nitrogen (N) utilization in dairy cows were evaluated in a 2-yr grazing experiment. Twelve lactating dairy cows were assigned to 1 cultivar for a 2-wk period in a

  11. Effects of perennial ryegrass cultivars on intake, digestibility, and milk yield in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, B.M.; Taweel, H.Z.; Smit, H.J.; Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of 8 diploid perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cultivars on dry matter (DM) intake, DM digestibility, and milk yield (MY) of dairy cows were evaluated in the summer of 2000 and 2001. Each summer, herbage was harvested daily and stall-fed to 12 dairy cows during six 2-wk periods. Six

  12. Milk progesterone on day 5 following insemination in the dairy cow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the importance of progesterone on the fertility of lactating dairy cows, the factors that affect post ovulatory progesterone concentration are still unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with the post ovulatory progesterone rise following 1st insemination in lactating dairy cows.

  13. Pre- and postpartum effects of starch and fat in dairy cows: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These periparturient biological improvements in dairy cows showed real benefits such as fewer postpartum health complications (e.g. milk fever, ketosis, mastitis, metritis), decreased body condition loss and improved reproductive axis in the subsequent lactation. Adding dietary starch and/or fat to diets of dairy cows ...

  14. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: Grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Dairy cows, Perennial ryegrass, Rumen fill, Clearance, Degradation, Grazing behaviour.In temperate environments, perennial ryegrass is the most widely used species for feeding dairy cows. That is because of its high productivity, palatability, digestibility and nutritive

  15. Lactation performance and serum biochemistry of dairy cows fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... ISSN 1684–5315 © 2011 Academic Journals. Full Length ... This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental chromium on performance and blood serum biochemistry of dairy ... Serum biochemistry concentrations (serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, and cortisol and insulin ...

  16. Metritis in dairy cows: risk factors and reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, M J; Magnasco, R P; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M; Risco, C A; de la Sota, R L

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the risk factors for metritis, its effects on milk yield and on reproductive performance, and the efficacy of ceftiofur therapy in Holstein dairy cows. Cows (n=303) from a commercial dairy herd in Argentina were studied. Cows were scored for body condition, and blood samples were collected on d -14, 7, 21, 31, 41, and 50 relative to parturition. Cows having a watery, purulent, or brown, and fetid vaginal discharge (VD) and rectal temperature ≤ 39.2°C were diagnosed as having clinical metritis, and those having a similar VD and rectal temperature >39.2°C were diagnosed as having puerperal metritis. Both clinical and puerperal metritis cows were randomly assigned to control (no treatment) or ceftiofur group (2.2mg/kg×3 consecutive days). Cure was declared if clear VD was observed at 21 d in milk (DIM). Blood samples were analyzed for nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, and blood urea nitrogen using commercial kits, and for insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin, and leptin by RIA. Data were analyzed with PROC MIXED, GENMOD, PHREG, and LIFETEST from SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The risk for metritis increased with dystocia, retained fetal membranes, and dead calf [AOR (adjusted odds ratio)=2.58, 95% CI: 1.189-5.559], and as prepartum nonesterified fatty acids levels increased (AOR=1.001, 95% CI: 0.999-1.002). Conversely, risk decreased as prepartum insulin-like growth factor-1 increased (AOR=0.65, 95% CI: 0.349-1.219). Cows having either clinical or puerperal metritis produced less milk by 90 DIM than did healthy cows (2,236 ± 172 vs. 2,367 ± 77 vs. 2,647 ± 82 kg, respectively). Cows with puerperal metritis had lower risk for pregnancy by 100 DIM (AOR=0.189, 95% CI: 0.070-0.479) and a lower hazard rate for pregnancy by 150 DIM (hazard rate: 0.753, 95% CI: 0.621-0.911), and took longer to get pregnant (129 vs. 111 vs. 109 d, for puerperal metritis, clinical metritis, and healthy cows, respectively

  17. Seasonal heat stress: Clinical implications and hormone treatments for the fertility of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rensis, F; Garcia-Ispierto, I; López-Gatius, F

    2015-09-15

    Heat stress has consequences on both the physiology and reproductive performance of cows, but the most dramatic effect for dairy producers is the decrease produced in fertility. The effects of heat stress on fertility include an increased number of days open, reduced conception rate, and larger number of cows suffering different types of anestrus. Once becomes pregnant, heat stress affects also the reproductive success of the cow through its direct effects on the ovary, uterus, gametes, embryo, and early fetus. This article reviews current knowledge of the effects of heat stress on fertility in dairy cows and the hormonal strategies used to mitigate these effects at the farm level. Administration of GnRH at the moment of artificial insemination can improve the conception rate. Breeding synchronization protocols for fixed-time insemination may reduce the calving conception interval and the number of services per conception. Progesterone-based protocols seem resolve better the reproductive disorders related to a hot environment (anestrus) than GnRH-based protocols. The use of combinations of GnRH, eCG, and hCG in progesterone-based protocols can improve results. Progesterone supplementation during the late embryonic and/or early fetal period would be useful in curtailing pregnancy losses, mainly in single pregnancies, whereas a more positive effect of treatment with GnRH than progesterone has been found in twin pregnancies. Melatonin therapy is emerging as a promising strategy to improve the natural reproductive performance of cows suffering conditions of heat stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Replacing cows' with sheep's dairy fat lowers plasma cholesterol concentration in participants consuming dairy fat-rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeaff, C M; Williscroft, K; Mann, J; Chisholm, A

    2004-02-01

    To determine the effects on plasma cholesterol concentration of replacing cows' dairy fat with sheep's dairy fat. Randomised crossover dietary intervention. General community, Dunedin, New Zealand. Volunteer sample of 41 healthy adults with initial plasma cholesterol concentration between 4.8 and 7.8 mmol/l. Participants were asked to follow a self-selected low-fat background diet throughout the study to which, during each of the 2, 3-week dairy diets, they were asked to add sheep's or cows' dairy products. Energy and nutrient intakes, plasma triacylglycerol fatty acids, and plasma cholesterol. Energy and nutrient intakes on the sheep-dairy and cow-dairy diets were very similar, with total, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat contributing 34, 18-19, 9, and 3% of total energy intake, respectively. Participants consumed approximately 50 g/day of dairy fat on each diet. Replacing cows' with sheep's dairy fat led to a 0.33 (0.11-0.56, 95% CI) mmol/l decrease (6%) in plasma total cholesterol concentration, from 5.53 (0.90, s.d.) to 5.20 (0.90) mmol/l. Plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was 0.18 (0.02-0.33) mmol/l lower on the sheep-dairy diet as was the concentration of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, 0.11 (0.02-0.20) mmol/l. The LDL to HDL cholesterol ratio at the end of the sheep-dairy diet, 2.91 (1.10), was not significantly different (P>0.05) from the cow-dairy diet, 2.73 (0.83). Within the context of a diet high in dairy fat (50 g/day), replacing cows' milk fat with sheep's milk fat leads to a small reduction in plasma cholesterol concentration, but no change in the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol.

  19. Production performance of dairy cows after the dietary addition of clinoptilolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Casini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clays are frequently proposed for the addition to dairy cattle diets to reduce the transfer of mycotoxins in milk. This study  examined the effect of the addition of Clinoptilolite to the diet of lactating dairy cows on milk production and milk com-  position. Thirty-two lactating Holstein cows (average lactation length: 142 d were blocked according to milk production,  parity, and days of lactation for assignment to one of two dietary treatments: control diet; control diet + Clinoptilolite,  200g/d. The control diet was based on corn and alfalfa silages, hay and concentrates, and did not contain aflatoxins above  the safe level. The experimental period lasted 76 days. The Clinoptilolite supplementation did not affect milk yield and  milk composition other than urea contents. The urea level in milk was negatively affected by Clinoptilolite addition (con-  trol group 29.7 mg/100 ml vs Clinoptilolite group 31.3 mg/100ml. The dietary addition of Clinoptilolite did not change  pH, ammonia content and VFA molar percentages in the rumen. No dietary effect on mineral contents of blood plasma  (Na, K, Zn, and Ca was observed. In case of clinoptilolite use in dairy cattle feeding, scarce negative effect on milk pro-  duction and quality are expected. 

  20. Effect of Biosaf in dairy buffalo cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Larbier

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Biosaf is a thermostable live yeast concentrate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain Sc47. The trial was carried out on 35 buffalo cows subdivided in 3 groups: Group A (Control with farm standard diet; Group B (with the same diet, added with 6g Biosaf/day; Group C (with the same diet, added with 60g Biosaf/day. The trial started within the first month from calving (1st month of lactation up to the 8th month of lactation. The mean values for milk production during 8 months of trial are 8.95, 8.95 and 8.91 liters/d, respectively in Group A, B and C, without significant differences among groups. The protein percentage increased in groups receiving Biosaf. The effect was significant (P<0.05 in Group B and C at the 4th, 5th and 8th month of lactation in comparison to Control Group and in Group B at 4th month of lactation in comparison to Control Group: this indicates that Biosaf integration really increases milk protein and consequently mozzarella yield.

  1. Herd health and management of dairy cow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćaǧlayan, Alper; Yüca, Songül

    2016-04-01

    Herd management requires multidisciplinary practices including animal feeding, gynecology, artificial insemination, immunology, and similar topics. Animal feeding is the most delicate subject as the fodder expense is 70% of the farm cost and as nearly all of the metabolic diseases arising out as health problem are because of misfeeding. However, a business organization's being able to maintain making profit will be possible by taking a healthy calf from breeding herd every year. For this reason, precision registrations of birth and artificial insemination, following-up pregnant state of animals, and making the other animals pregnant as soon as possible should be primary aim. It should not be forgotten that diarrhea and pneumonia in calves are among the most frequently witnessed infection related health problems. Mastitis, metritis and foot diseases take an important place in mature cows. These diseases can be minimized by vaccinations that are done properly and in suitable time, in-service training of staffs, making shelters suitable for animals welfare, and improving the hygienic conditions.

  2. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, E.; Rousing, T.; Thomsen, P. T.

    2013-01-01

    Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been...... studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality (R......) inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than...

  3. The influence of Borna disease viral infection on dairy cow reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Katsuro; Ando, Tatsuya; Koiwa, Masateru

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the influence of Borna disease virus (BDV) infection on the clinical state of dairy cows. Sera from 149 cows were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting detect antibodies to the BDV-nucleoprotein antigen. Among 149 investigated cows, 25 (16.8%) showed a positive reaction to BDV antigen. No significant difference existed in milk production or medical history between seropositive and seronegative cows. Although the estrus cycle appeared normal even in the seropositive cows, the frequency of artificial insemination and calving-to-conception intervals significantly increased in seropositive cows. Therefore, fertilization failure was recognized in the BDV-antibody positive cows.

  4. New approaches, development, and improvement of methodologies for the assessment of B-vitamin requirements in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane L. Girard

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies on B-vitamin requirements of cattle, conducted more than 60 years ago, concluded that mature ruminants do not require B-vitamin supplements because the amounts of vitamins provided by the diet and synthesized by the ruminal microflora were sufficient to prevent emergence of deficiency symptoms. As a result, the impact of subclinical deficiency on maintenance of normal and efficient metabolism has been disregarded and very little research effort has been devoted at defining dairy cow requirements for B vitamins. However, emergence of deficiency symptoms is the last stage of the deficiency; deficiency appears as soon as the supply is inferior to the needs, leading to a loss of metabolic efficiency. As B vitamins play critical roles in carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism, it is likely that the demand for these cofactors increases with milk yield. Reports over the last two decades of beneficial effects of B-vitamin supplementation, such as thiamin, niacin, biotin, folic acid, and vitamin B12, suggested that, under some conditions, the need for B vitamins exceeds the supply from the diet and the synthesis by rumen microbes, leading to sub-optimal milk production and metabolic efficiency. However, responses to B-vitamin supplementation are highly variable. The major challenge faced by studies on B-vitamin requirements of dairy cows is the very limited knowledge on dietary factors driving the fate of B vitamins in rumen. This knowledge is essential to identify the conditions under which the dairy cow could benefit from B-vitamin supplements. The present review aims to describe the present state of knowledge on B-vitamin requirements of dairy cows as well as some of the major problems that need to be overcome to progress in this research field.

  5. Oxidant and Antioxidants During the Transition Period in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Rushdi Abd Ellah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The transition from pregnancy to parturition is associated with metabolic and physiological changes. Oxidative stress is increased in late pregnancy and continue to be higher after parturition, which represent a challenge for the dairy cows to defend the increased free radicals by using the available antioxidants. This review discussed the process of free radical release, the development of oxidative stress and evaluation of the animal health during the transition period and threw the light on different methods used to assess oxidative stress and antioxidants therapy.

  6. Studies on quantity and composition of dairy cow excreta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschke, H.

    1982-01-01

    After feeding a lactating dairy cow a day ration completely enriched with 15 N, the quantities of feces and urine were registered over a period of ten days and put into proportion to the animal mass. The fecal dry matter was put into proportion to the dry matter of the fodder by means of 15 N analysis the N excretion with the excreta was determined concerning quantity and time. Selected feces and urine charges were used to produce a slurry model. The content of nutritive elements of the initial components and of the organic fertilizer are discussed. (author)

  7. Detection of Oestrus and Lameness in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi

    This thesis describes studies conducted on the subject of detecting oestrus and lameness in dairy cows. The studies comprise methods of statistical change detection and model based diagnosis, respectively. In the case of statistical change detection the development of algorithms for a decision...... used for diagnosis are chosen to represent the behaviours. A quantized system description is used as a diagnostic model. This technique is based on automata theory. The methods are in most cases specified to take into account parameters specific to the differences between production systems...

  8. Precursors for liver gluconeogenesis in periparturient dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2013-01-01

    The review is based on a compiled data set from studies quantifying liver release of glucose concomitant with uptake of amino acids (AA) and other glucogenic precursors in periparturient dairy cows. It has become dogma that AAs are significant contributors to liver gluconeogenesis in early....... The quantitative data on liver metabolism of AA do not support the hypothesis that the rapid post partum increase in net liver release of glucose is supported by increased utilisation of AA for gluconeogenesis. Only alanine is likely to contribute to liver release of glucose through its role in the inter...

  9. Risk factors associated with on-farm mortality in Swedish dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvåsen, K.; Jansson Mörk, M.; Dohoo, I. R.

    2014-01-01

    Dairy cow mortality (unassisted death and euthanasia) has increased, worldwide and in Sweden. On-farm mortality indicates suboptimal herd health or welfare and causes financial loss for the dairy producer. The objective of this study was to identify cow-level risk factors associated with on......). The effects of potential risk factors on on-farm cow mortality were analysed using a Weibull proportional hazard model with a gamma distributed frailty effect common to cows within herd. The event of interest (failure) was euthanasia or unassisted death. An observation was right censored if the cow...

  10. Reactions of dairy cows during the operation of a robotic slat cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stülpner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During manure removal, robotic slat cleaners move in close proximity to dairy cows. The present study investigated the influence of a robotic cleaner on the animals by video recording and analysing their reactions. As most important influence factors concerning individual animal reactions, the small proportion of 8 % of marked reactions by cows to the slat robot as well as the actual distance between the cows and the slat robot, indicated a good adaption of dairy cows to the equipment. Observation of the complete herd of cows demonstrated that animals increased their movement from lying area to feeding area while the robotic slat cleaner was operating.

  11. The Relationship of Cow Comfort and Flooring to Lameness Disorders in Dairy Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Marcia I

    2017-07-01

    Cow comfort and flooring contribute to lameness incidence in dairy herds. The trigger factors for lameness can all be exacerbated by poor cow comfort. Reduced cow comfort influences lameness incidence by increasing the risk for development of new cases and the time it takes for a cow to recover. Reduction in resting time will increase the cow's exposure to hard flooring surfaces. Many factors are associated with lameness prevalence. Housing and management factors should be optimized to reduce lameness incidence on dairy farms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A review of the impact of housing on dairy cow behaviour, health and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips, C.J.C.; Beerda, B.; Knierim, U.; Waiblinger, S.; Lidfors, L.; Krohn, C.C.; Canali, E.; Valk, H.; Veissier, I.; Hopster, H.

    2013-01-01

    Housing dairy cows offers the possibility to control many aspects of their lives, including accurate rationing, which is especially important for high yielding cows, and rapid health care. In addition, some parasitic diseases are largely controlled by removing cows from pasture. However, housing

  13. Behavioural adaptation to a short or no dry period with associated management in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.; Hoeij, van R.J.; Tolkamp, B.J.; Haskell, M.J.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    From calving, dairy cows are typically milked for about a year, and subsequently managed to have a non-lactating or ‘dry period’ (DP) before next calving. However, the use of a DP may reduce cow welfare because typical DP management involves the cow changing groups and ration. Also, the DP results

  14. Social interactions of dairy cows introduced postpartally to a separated barn section - pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, Elke; Nielsen, Tine Rousing; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis of reduced social activity of early lactating dairy cows when transferred postpartally to a separated barn section (S, group size 9.3 SD 2.1) vs. to a barn section of the main lactating herd (H, group size 130.1 SD 57.9) was tested. Social interactions of 12 cows in S and 14 cows...

  15. The effect of floor surface on dairy cow immune function and locomotion score

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluated the effect of 2 dairy cow housing systems on cow locomotion, leukocyte activity and expression of genes associated with lameness, during the dry and peri-parturient period. Cows were assigned to free-stall housing with either rubber (RUB; n=13) or concrete (CON; n=14) at the feed...

  16. The milk quality and feasebility analysis of loose housing dairy cows - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Janžekovič

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was technological and economical analysis of free range cow breeding. The case study analyzed two different systems of holstein-friesian dairy cows breeding. The model total costs enterprise budget was developed for evaluation of economic feasibility of loose housing dairy cows in comparison with tied cow breeding system. Computer supported calculation enabled estimation of the most important economical parameters (net return, total cost, and coefficient of economics. Results obtained show that (at observed input parameters loose housing system is economically feasible, if there is a minimum of 41 dairy cows with an average milk production of 8610 kg per cow. It was also established that cows need approximately 6 months to fully adapt to the loose housing system.

  17. Regulation of Nutritional Metabolism in Transition Dairy Cows: Energy Homeostasis and Health in Response to Post-Ruminal Choline and Methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feifei; Cao, Yangchun; Cai, Chuanjiang; Li, Shengxiang; Yu, Chao; Yao, Junhu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) and rumen-protected choline (RPC) on energy balance, postpartum lactation performance, antioxidant capacity and immune response in transition dairy cows. Forty-eight multiparous transition cows were matched and divided into four groups: control, 15 g/d RPC, 15 g/d RPM or 15 g/d RPC + 15 g/d RPM. Diet samples were collected daily before feeding, and blood samples were collected weekly from the jugular vein before morning feeding from 21 days prepartum to 21 days postpartum. Postpartum dry matter intake (DMI) was increased by both additives (P cows were improved after parturition (P cows. The results demonstrated that dietary supplementation with RPC and RPM promoted energy balance by increasing postpartal DMI and regulating hepatic lipid metabolism, improved postpartum lactation performance and enhanced antioxidant capacity and immune function of transition dairy cows.

  18. Main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Abeni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarise the main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows. Intensive farming systems are considered, both from a structural and a managerial point of view, for their constraints that may limit animal welfare: possible physical activity; acceptable interactions with humans and other animals; feeding and watering, protection from climate, parasites, and diseases. The dairy farms managed according to the organic rules do not always guarantee, per se, better welfare conditions; organic or low input dairy farming needs to consider the right interaction among cattle breed and herd management, focusing on the actual quality of feedstuffs meet face cow requirements. The considered structural aspects evidence how special care must be given to the rest area (straw yard or cubicle; to the floors that should be not too hard or abrasive and not slippery; to the cubicle bedding material to ensure hygiene, softness, and dryness; to the feeding (and watering area to reduce conflicts; to a microclimate control system, to avoid heat stress during summer time. The importance of proper management for animal welfare is evidenced for buildings and equipment, to have clean and comfortable stables and well functioning milking machines; nutritive and storage quality of feeds; diet suitability (energy, protein, physically efficient fibre, buffers etc., in the different phases of a dairy cow’s life (dry period, close-up, transition, and lactation; feed distribution (frequency and time, and 24h availability. Special attention has to be paid to the social aspects, regarding both animal competition (stocking density, group size, and human/animal interactions (methods of management and manipulation. The interaction between welfare and health requires special attention. Poor welfare can cause immune depression, thus increasing the risk of disease. In turn, any disease that causes an inflammatory response may determine depression

  19. Effects of niacin supplementation on the insulin resistance in Holstein cows during early lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talija Hristovska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance in early lactation includes low glucose concentration, low insulin release and responsiveness and high lipolysis. Niacin is important antilipolytic agent and leads to increase glucose and insulin concentration. The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of niacin on the insulin resistance in cows during early lactation using the difference of value and regression analysis between blood non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA, glucose and insulin concentrations, revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and glucose-to-insulin ratio. Niacin supplementation led to a decrease of NEFA concentration and an increase of glucose and insulin concentrations during the first three weeks after calving. Cows in the niacin group which were more resistant to insulin showed higher concentrations of non-esterified fatty acid in comparison with more sensitive cows from the same group, but still lower than the control. The regression analyses suggest the following characteristics of cows supplemented with niacin in comparison with the control group: the insulin response to glucose was more intense; the antilipolytic effect of insulin was lower; insulin efficiency expressed as glucose-to-insulin ratio increase with a decrease in NEFA. The metabolic changes due to niacin supplementation showed a dual influence on the insulin resistance in dairy cows during early lactation: decreased NEFA concentrations led to a decrease in the insulin resistance (due to an increase in insulin efficiency and insulin sensitivity index, but increased concentrations of insulin and glucose possibly caused an increase in the insulin resistance in dairy cows (due to lower insulin sensitivity index and possibly lower antilipolytic effects of insulin.

  20. Effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines, AMP-activated protein kinase, and heat shock signal molecules in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Li; Cheng, Jian-bo; Shi, Bao-lu; Yang, Hong-jian; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jia-qi

    2015-06-01

    Heat stress affects feed intake, milk production, and endocrine status in dairy cows. The temperature-humidity index (THI) is employed as an index to evaluate the degree of heat stress in dairy cows. However, it is difficult to ascertain whether THI is the most appropriate measurement of heat stress in dairy cows. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and heat shock signal molecules (heat shock transcription factor (HSF) and heat shock proteins (HSP)) in dairy cows and to research biomarkers to be used for better understanding the meaning of THI as a bioclimatic index. To achieve these objectives, two experiments were performed. The first experiment: eighteen lactating Holstein dairy cows were used. The treatments were: heat stress (HS, THI average=81.7, n=9) and cooling (CL, THI average=53.4, n=9). Samples of HS were obtained on August 16, 2013, and samples of CL were collected on April 7, 2014 in natural conditions. The second experiment: HS treatment cows (n=9) from the first experiment were fed for 8 weeks from August 16, 2013 to October 12, 2013. Samples for moderate heat stress, mild heat stress, and no heat stress were obtained, respectively, according to the physical alterations of the THI. Results showed that heat stress significantly increased the serum adiponectin, AMPK, HSF, HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90 (Pstressed dairy cows. When heat stress treatment lasted 8 weeks, a higher expression of HSF and HSP70 was observed under moderate heat stress. Serum HSF and HSP70 are sensitive and accurate in heat stress and they could be potential indicators of animal response to heat stress. We recommend serum HSF and HSP70 as meaningful biomarkers to supplement the THI and evaluate moderate heat stress in dairy cows in the future.

  1. Daily eating activity of dairy cows from 3D accelerometer data and RFID signals: prediction by random forests and detection of sick cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldager, Leslie; Gildbjerg, Lars Bilde; Voss, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Feed intake is very important for dairy cows and deviation from normal eating behaviour may predict a cow that needs treatment. We used video recordings of dairy cows at the Danish Cattle Research Centre (DKC) combined with data from a neck-collar mounted 3D accelerometer and RFID device from...

  2. Estratégias na suplementação de vacas leiteiras no semi-árido do Brasil Strategies for the supplementation of dairy cows in the Brazilian semi-arid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Andrade Ferreira

    2009-07-01

    of Bahia, Sergipe, Alagoas, Pernambuco, Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte, Ceará, and Piauí States, and 45 counties from southeastern Maranhão State. Population is mainly concentrated in rural areas and the major occupation is agriculture and livestock production. Dairy production is one of the few options in these areas, mainly in northeast Brazil, where the feeding systems are based on cultivated forage crops and use of native vegetation, predominately the "Caatinga". These aspects give seasonal characteristics for the production on this region. Inadequate amount and distribution of rainfall in this region presenting strong spatial and seasonal variability and prolonged dry periods practically determines the need for supplementation feeding for dairy cows for production systems located in the semi-arid region. Thus, supplementation has been based on the use of forage resources adapted to the drought, by-products, residues from local agro-industry, and on concentrate feeding. Farmers are also using different options trying to reduce costs without losing productivity during the dry periods. Production systems such as "CBL" (Caatinga-Buffel Grass-Leucaena and "Gloria System" have been proposed aiming to alleviate the adversities. In addition to these systems, the utilization of agro industrial by-products, crop residues, and native forage resources are important options. In this aspect, the forage cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. deserves special attention for its great adaptation, nutritive value, and productivity in the region.

  3. Dairy cow breed interacts with stocking rate in temperate pasture-based dairy production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaans, O K; Macdonald, K A; Lancaster, J A S; Bryant, A M; Roche, J R

    2018-05-01

    Economic optimum stocking rates for grazing dairy systems have been defined by accounting for the pasture production potential of the farm [t of dry matter (DM)/ha], the amount of feed imported from outside the farm (t of DM/ha), and the size of the cow (kg). These variables were combined into the comparative stocking rate [CSR; kg of body weight (BW)/t of feed DM available] measure. However, CSR assumes no effect of cow genetics beyond BW, and there is increasing evidence of within-breed differences in residual feed intake and between-breed differences in the gross efficiency with which cows use metabolizable energy for milk production. A multiyear production system experiment was established to determine whether Jersey (J) and Holstein-Friesian (HF) breeds performed similarly at the same CSR. Fifty-nine J cows and 51 HF cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 CSR in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement; systems were designed to have a CSR of either 80 or 100 kg of BW/t of feed DM (J-CSR80, J-CSR100, HF-CSR80, and HF-CSR100 treatment groups). Data were analyzed for consistency of farmlet response over years using ANOVA procedures, with year and farmlet as fixed effects and the interaction of farmlet with year as a random effect. The collated biological data and financial data extracted from a national economic database were used to model the financial performance for the different breed and CSR treatments. On average, annual and individual season pasture DM production was greater for the J farmlets and was less in the CSR100 treatment; however, the effect of CSR was primarily driven by a large decline in pasture DM production in the HF-CSR100 treatment (breed × CSR interaction). This interaction in feed availability resulted in a breed × CSR interaction for the per-cow and per-hectare milk production variables, with HF cows producing more milk and milk components per cow in the CSR80 treatment but the same amount as the J cows in the CSR100 treatment. On a per

  4. Dietary effects of linseed on fatty acid composition of milk and on liver, adipose and mammary gland metabolism of periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, N; Zom, R L G; Widjaja, H C A; van Wikselaar, P G; Weurding, R E; Goselink, R M A; van Baal, J; Smits, M A; van Vuuren, A M

    2013-05-01

    During the transition period in dairy cows, drastic adaptations within and between key tissues and cell types occur in a coordinated manner to support late gestation, the synthesis of large quantities of milk and metabolic homoeostasis. The start of lactation coincides with an increase of triacylglycerols in the liver, which has been associated with several economically important diseases in dairy cows (i.e. hepatic lipidiosis, mastitis). The polyunsaturated fatty acids have been used to improve liver metabolism and immune function in the mammary gland. Therefore, the effects of dietary linseed supplementation on milk quality and liver, adipose and mammary gland metabolism of periparturient dairy cows were studied in 14 cows that were randomly assigned to control or linseed supplementation. Animals were treated from 3 weeks antepartum until 6 weeks post-partum. Linseed did not modify dry matter intake, but increased milk yield and lactose yield, and decreased milk fat concentration, which coincided with lower proportion of C16 and higher proportions of stearic acid, conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in milk fat. Linseed supplementation did not significantly change the expression of key lipid metabolism genes in liver and adipose tissues, except of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) in liver, which was increased in cows supplemented with linseed, suggesting that more glucose was secreted and probably available for lactose synthesis compared with cows fed control diet. Large adaptations of transcription occurred in the mammary gland when dairy cows were supplemented with linseed. The main affected functional modules were related to energy metabolism, cell proliferation and remodelling, as well as the immune system response. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Thermal radiation absorbed by dairy cows in pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Guilhermino, Magda Maria; de Morais, Débora Andréia E Façanha

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present paper was to assess a method for estimating the thermal radiation absorbed by dairy cows (0.875 Holstein-0.125 Guzerath) on pasture. A field test was conducted with 472 crossbred dairy cows in three locations of a tropical region. The following environmental data were collected: air temperature, partial vapour pressure, wind speed, black globe temperature, ground surface temperature and solar radiation. Average total radiation absorbed by animals was calculated as R(abs) = 640.0 +/- 3.1 W .m(-2). Absorbed short-wave radiation (solar direct, diffuse and reflected) averaged 297.9 +/- 2.7 W m(-2); long wave (from the sky and from terrestrial surfaces) averaged 342.1 +/- 1.5 W m(-2). It was suggested that a new environmental measurement, the effective radiant heat load (ERHL), could be used to assess the effective mean radiant temperature (T*(mr)). Average T*(mr) was 101.4 +/- 1.2 degrees C, in contrast to the usual mean radiant temperature, T(mr) = 65.1 +/- 0.5 degrees C. Estimates of T*(mr) were considered as more reliable than those of T (mr) in evaluating the thermal environment in the open field, because T (mr) is almost totally associated only with long wave radiation.

  6. Modeling environmental transmission of MAP infection in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Kokum R; Eda, Shigetoshi; Lenhart, Suzanne

    2017-08-01

    Johne's disease is caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis(MAP). It is a chronic, progressive, and inflammatory disease which has a long incubation period. One main problem with the disease is the reduction of milk production in infected dairy cows. In our study we develop a system of ordinary differential equations to describe the dynamics of MAP infection in a dairy farm. This model includes the progression of the disease and the age structure of the cows. To investigate the effect of persistence of this bacteria on the farm on transmission in our model, we include environmental compartments, representing the pathogen input in an explicit way. The effect of indirect transmission from the bacteria in the environment and the culling of high-shedding adults can be seen in the numerical simulations. Since culling usually only happens once a year, we include a novel feature in the simulations with a discrete action of removing high-shedding adults once a year. We conclude that with culling of high shedders even at a high rate, the infection will persist in the modeled farm setting.

  7. Reducing dietary protein in dairy cow diets: implications for nitrogen utilization, milk production, welfare and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, K D; Garnsworthy, P C; Mann, G E; Sinclair, L A

    2014-02-01

    In light of increasing global protein prices and with the need to reduce environmental impact of contemporary systems of milk production, the current review seeks to assess the feasibility of reducing levels of dietary CP in dairy cow diets. At CP levels between 140 and 220 g/kg DM there is a strong positive relationship between CP concentration and dry matter intake (DMI). However, such effects are modest and reductions in DMI when dietary CP is below 180 g/kg DM can be at least partially offset by improving the digestibility and amino acid profile of the undegradable protein (UDP) component of the diet or by increasing rumen fermentable energy. Level and balance of intestinally absorbable amino acids, in particular methionine and lysine, may become limiting at lower CP concentrations. In general the amino acid composition of microbial protein is superior to that of UDP, so that dietary strategies that aim to promote microbial protein synthesis in the rumen may go some way to correcting for amino acid imbalances in low CP diets. For example, reducing the level of NDF, while increasing the proportion of starch, can lead to improvements in nitrogen (N) utilisation as great as that achieved by reducing dietary CP to below 150 g/kg. A systematic review and meta-analysis of responses to rumen protected forms of methionine and lysine was conducted for early/mid lactation cows fed diets containing ⩽150 g CP/kg DM. This analysis revealed a small but significant (P=0.002) increase in milk protein yield when cows were supplemented with these rumen protected amino acids. Variation in milk and milk protein yield responses between studies was not random but due to differences in diet composition between studies. Cows fed low CP diets can respond to supplemental methionine and lysine so long as DMI is not limiting, metabolisable protein (MP) is not grossly deficient and other amino acids such as histidine and leucine do not become rate limiting. Whereas excess dietary protein

  8. Effect of Plants Containing Secondary Compounds with Palm Oil on Feed Intake, Digestibility, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Microbial Population in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Anantasook

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rain tree pod meal with palm oil supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and microbial populations in dairy cows. Four, multiparous early-lactation Holstein-Friesian crossbred (75% lactating dairy cows with an initial body weight (BW of 405±40 kg and 36±8 DIM were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4×4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were un-supplementation (control, supplementation with rain tree pod meal (RPM at 60 g/kg, supplementation with palm oil (PO at 20 g/kg, and supplementation with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO, of total dry matter intake. The cows were offered concentrates, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM, respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effects on feed intake and ruminal pH and BUN at any times of sampling (p>0.05. However, RPM supplementation resulted in lower crude protein digestibility, NH3-N concentration and number of proteolytic bacteria. It resulted in greater allantoin absorption and microbial crude protein (p<0.05. In addition, dairy cows showed a higher efficiency of microbial N supply (EMNS in both RPM and RPO treatments. Moreover, NDF digestibility and cellulolytic bacteria numbers were highest in RPO supplementation (p<0.05 while, supplementation with RPM and/or PO decreased the protozoa population in dairy cows. Based on this study, supplementation with RPM and/or PO in diets could improve fiber digestibility, microbial protein synthesis in terms of quantity and efficiency and microbial populations in dairy cows.

  9. Predicting manure volatile solid output of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appuhamy, J A D R N; Moraes, L E; Wagner-Riddle, C; Casper, D P; Kebreab, E

    2018-01-01

    Organic matter (OM) in livestock manure consisting of biodegradable and nonbiodegradable fractions is known as volatile solids (VS). According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 2 guidelines, methane produced by stored manure is determined based on VS. However, only biodegradable OM generates methane production. Therefore, estimates of biodegradable VS (dVS; dVS = VS - lignin) would yield better estimates of methane emissions from manure. The objective of the study was to develop mathematical models for estimating VS and dVS outputs of lactating dairy cows. Dry matter intake, dietary nutrient contents, milk yield and composition, body weight, and days in milk were used as potential predictor variables. Multicollinearity, model simplicity, and random study effects were taken into account during model development that used 857 VS and dVS measurements made on individual cows (kg/cow per day) from 43 metabolic trials conducted at the USDA Energy and Metabolism laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland. The new models and the IPCC Tier 2 model were evaluated with an independent data set including 209 VS and dVS measurements (kg/cow per day) from 2 metabolic trials conducted at the University of California, Davis. Organic matter intake (kg/d) and dietary crude protein and neutral detergent fiber contents (% of dry matter) were significantly associated with VS. A new model including these variables fitted best to data. When evaluated with independent data, the new model had a root mean squared prediction error as a percentage of average observed value (RMSPE) of 12.5%. Mean and slope biases were negligible at IPCC Tier 2 model had a RMSPE of 13.7% and a notable mean bias for VS to be overpredicted by 0.4 kg/cow per day. A separate model including OM intake as well as dietary crude protein and neutral detergent fiber contents as predictor variables fitted best to dVS data and performed well on independent data (RMSPE = 12.7%). The Cornell Net

  10. Lateralized behaviour as indicator of affective state in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, Sarah; Mendl, Michael T; Barrett, David C; Murrell, Joanna C; Whay, Helen R

    2017-01-01

    In humans, there is evidence that sensory processing of novel or threatening stimuli is right hemisphere dominated, especially in people experiencing negative affective states. There is also evidence for similar lateralization in a number of non-human animal species. Here we investigate whether this is also the case in domestic cattle that may experience long-term negative states due to commonly occurring conditions such as lameness. Health and welfare implications associated with pain in lame cows are a major concern in dairy farming. Behavioural tests combining animal behaviour and cognition could make a meaningful contribution to our understanding of disease-related changes in sensory processing in animals, and consequently enhance their welfare. We presented 216 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows with three different unfamiliar objects which were placed either bilaterally (e.g. two yellow party balloons, two black/white checkerboards) or hung centrally (a Kong™) within a familiar area. Cows were individually exposed to the objects on three consecutive days, and their viewing preference/eye use, exploration behaviour/nostril use, and stop position during approach was assessed. Mobility (lameness) was repeatedly scored during the testing period. Overall, a bias to view the right rather than the left object was found at initial presentation of the bilateral objects. More cows also explored the right object rather than the left object with their nose. There was a trend for cows appearing hesitant in approaching the objects by stopping at a distance to them, to then explore the left object rather than the right. In contrast, cows that approached the objects directly had a greater tendency to contact the right object. No significant preference in right or left eye/nostril use was found when cows explored the centrally-located object. We found no relationship between lameness and lateralized behaviour. Nevertheless, observed trends suggesting that lateralized

  11. Lateralized behaviour as indicator of affective state in dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kappel

    Full Text Available In humans, there is evidence that sensory processing of novel or threatening stimuli is right hemisphere dominated, especially in people experiencing negative affective states. There is also evidence for similar lateralization in a number of non-human animal species. Here we investigate whether this is also the case in domestic cattle that may experience long-term negative states due to commonly occurring conditions such as lameness. Health and welfare implications associated with pain in lame cows are a major concern in dairy farming. Behavioural tests combining animal behaviour and cognition could make a meaningful contribution to our understanding of disease-related changes in sensory processing in animals, and consequently enhance their welfare. We presented 216 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows with three different unfamiliar objects which were placed either bilaterally (e.g. two yellow party balloons, two black/white checkerboards or hung centrally (a Kong™ within a familiar area. Cows were individually exposed to the objects on three consecutive days, and their viewing preference/eye use, exploration behaviour/nostril use, and stop position during approach was assessed. Mobility (lameness was repeatedly scored during the testing period. Overall, a bias to view the right rather than the left object was found at initial presentation of the bilateral objects. More cows also explored the right object rather than the left object with their nose. There was a trend for cows appearing hesitant in approaching the objects by stopping at a distance to them, to then explore the left object rather than the right. In contrast, cows that approached the objects directly had a greater tendency to contact the right object. No significant preference in right or left eye/nostril use was found when cows explored the centrally-located object. We found no relationship between lameness and lateralized behaviour. Nevertheless, observed trends suggesting that

  12. Fluoride Concentration in Water, Cow Milk and Cow Urine from Smallholder Dairy Farms in Kiambu- Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gikunju, J.K.; Maitho, T.E.; Kyule, M.N.; Mitema, E.S.; Mugera, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Kiambu district is situated in central part of Kenya. most of the available land is suitable for agricultural use. majority of the farmers are small scale or subsistence farmers and they are involve in a variety of livestock activities e.g. dairy production, pig production and others in combination or as separate operations. excessive fluoride ingestion can cause specific dental and skeletal lesions and in severe cases adversely influence the health and productivity performance of domestic animals.therefore a study was designed to investigate the levels of flouride in urine, milk and water samples from small scale dairy farms in Kiambu. Water, cow urine and milk samples were collected in clean plastic containers from 84 small scale farms belonging to 6 dairy farmers co-operative societies (DFCs). The DFCs in this study were Kiambaa, Lari, Nderi, Kikuyu, Chania and Limuru. The fluoride concentration in water milk and urine were analysed using the potentiometric method of fluoride ion specific electrode. overall urine contained the highest fluoride concentration while milk contained the lowest fluoride levels. Fluoride levels in water, milk and urine were significantly different, (P>0.05). The mean fluoride concentration in water from all societies was 0.29 ppm while the mean fluoride concentration in milk 0.05 ppm. urine samples had the highest fluoride concentration, (1.5 ppm). The cooperative specific mean fluoride concentrations arranged in descending order were as follow: Nderi (2.8 ppm), Kikuyu (2.4 ppm), Kiambaa(1.9 ppm), Chania (1.6 ppm), Limuru (1.3 ppm) and Lari (1.0 ppm). The maximum fluoride concentration encountered in water in this study was 3.4 ppm, however adverse productivity has been reported in dairy animals consuming as low as 2.15 ppm in drinking water. The mean milk production in in kilograms per day per cow ranged from 2.5 to 6.9 when all six dairy co-operative societies were taken into consideration. this is far below the expected production

  13. Behavioral changes in freestall-housed dairy cows with naturally occurring clinical mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner; Herskin, Mette S

    2015-01-01

    Dairy cows exhibit classic signs of sickness behavior during mastitis. However, knowledge about the consequences of naturally occurring mastitis in freestall-housed dairy cows, milked in automatic milking systems, is lacking. The aim of the present study was to describe the behavior of dairy cows...... after diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of mastitis. In the days before and after antibiotic treatment, the milking behavior, feeding, and activity were examined in 30 mastitic and 30 control Danish Holstein-Friesian cows kept in freestalls and milked by an automatic milking system. Sickness behavior...... was evident in the mastitic dairy cows and local clinical signs in the udder as well as behavioral changes persisted beyond the 3 d of antibiotic treatment. In the days before diagnosis and treatment, feed intake was reduced compared with the control animals. Although reduced by the antibiotic treatment...

  14. H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Based Plasma Metabolic Profiling of Dairy Cows with Fatty Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Xu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver is a common metabolic disorder of dairy cows during the transition period. Historically, the diagnosis of fatty liver has involved liver biopsy, biochemical or histological examination of liver specimens, and ultrasonographic imaging of the liver. However, more convenient and noninvasive methods would be beneficial for the diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows. The plasma metabolic profiles of dairy cows with fatty liver and normal (control cows were investigated to identify new biomarkers using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. Compared with the control group, the primary differences in the fatty liver group included increases in β-hydroxybutyric acid, acetone, glycine, valine, trimethylamine-N-oxide, citrulline, and isobutyrate, and decreases in alanine, asparagine, glucose, γ-aminobutyric acid glycerol, and creatinine. This analysis revealed a global profile of endogenous metabolites, which may present potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows.

  15. Serum calcium and magnesium level in dairy cows at calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Pulimeno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk fever and hypocalcaemia are post-partum metabolic diseases affecting about 6% of dairy cows and are due to a fail of the homeostatic metabolism regulating the calcium blood level around 9 and 10mg/100mL. The calcium drainage to the mammary gland along with the reduced capacity of the animal to mobilize calcium from bone reserve lead to a drop of the calcium blood level under 5-6mg/100mL with paresis like clinical symptoms known as milk fever. The incidence of the clinical milk fever is low, however the occurrence of mild hypocalcaemia (subclinical could be as high as 15- 20% within few days after calving, particularly in multiparous cows. The hypocalcaemia status as for the reduced bone calcium mobilization and intestinal absorption leads to reduced feed intake and make it a good start for ketosis, retained placenta, displaced abomasums and mastitis problems (Beede, 1991. The acid-base balance of the cow in the late pregnancy is determinant for hypocalcaemia............

  16. Association between liver failure and hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity in dairy cows with follicular cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanemura, Kouichi; Ohtaki, Tadatoshi; Kuwahara, Yasushi; Tsumagari, Shigehisa

    2017-01-20

    Uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) liver activity was measured using estradiol-17β as a substrate in dairy cows with follicular cysts. The activity was significantly lower than that in dairy cows with normal estrous cycles (Pcows with follicular cysts, and liver UGT activity was lower than that in cows with normal estrus cycles. In addition, the liver UGT activity was significantly lower in dairy cows with follicular cysts without liver disorders than in dairy cows with normal estrous cycles. Therefore, the cows were divided into those with low, middle and high liver UGT activities, and liver disorder complication rates were investigated. The complication rate was significantly higher in the low- (78.1%) than in the middle- (22.2%) and high-level (8.3%) groups, suggesting that liver disorders are closely associated with the development of follicular cysts in dairy cows and that steroid hormone metabolism is delayed because of reduced liver UGT activity, resulting in follicular cyst formation. We conclude that reduced estradiol-17β glucuronidation in the liver and liver disorders are associated with follicular cyst occurrence in dairy cows.

  17. Lactation performance and digestibility of forages and diets in dairy cows fed a hemicellulose extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, K J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Anderson, J L; Ranathunga, S D; Patton, R S; Abdullah, M

    2012-06-01

    and fraction B of DM and NDF increased with treatment. The rate of disappearance for DM (8.03 vs. 11.04%), NDF (6.30 vs. 10.28%), and ADF (5.52 vs. 9.19%) increased for the alfalfa hay in rumens of treated cows. For the total mixed ration, the disappearance of the A fraction of NDF and ADF increased for cows fed the TRT diet. Supplementing diets of lactating dairy cows with an HE has beneficial effects on fiber degradation characteristics and provides opportunities for improving animal performance. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of rumen-protected choline supplementation on liver and adipose gene expression during the transition period in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goselink, R.M.A.; Baal, van J.; Widjaja, H.C.A.; Dekker, R.A.; Zom, R.L.G.; Veth, M.J.; Vuuren, van A.M.

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that supplementation of rumen-protected choline (RPC) reduces the hepatic triacylglycerol concentration in periparturient dairy cows during early lactation. Here, we investigated the effect of RPC on the transcript levels of lipid metabolism-related genes in liver and adipose

  19. Winter supplementation of ground whole flaxseed impacts milk fatty acid composition on organic dairy farms in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate supplementation of ground whole flaxseed to organic dairy cows during the non-grazing season to maintain levels of beneficial fatty acid concentrations in milk typically observed during the grazing season. During the winters of 2013-14 and 2014-15, 9 organ...

  20. Update on human health concerns of recombinant bovine somatotropin use in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, R J; Bauman, D E

    2014-04-01

    The 20 yr of commercial use of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) in the United States provide the backdrop for reviewing the outcome of use on human health issues by the upcoming 78th meeting of the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives. These results and further advancements in scientific knowledge indicate there are no new human health issues related to the use of rbST by the dairy industry. Use of rbST has no effect on the micro- and macrocomposition of milk. Also, no evidence exists that rbST use has increased human exposure to antibiotic residues in milk. Concerns that IGF-I present in milk could have biological effects on humans have been allayed by studies showing that oral consumption of IGF-I by humans has little or no biological activity. Additionally, concentrations of IGF-I in digestive tract fluids of humans far exceed any IGF-I consumed when drinking milk. Furthermore, chronic supplementation of cows with rbST does not increase concentrations of milk IGF-I outside the range typically observed for effects of farm, parity, or stage of lactation. Use of rbST has not affected expression of retroviruses in cattle or posed an increased risk to human health from retroviruses in cattle. Furthermore, risk for development of type 1 or type 2 diabetes has not increased in children or adults consuming milk and dairy products from rbST-supplemented cows. Overall, milk and dairy products provide essential nutrients and related benefits in health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases.

  1. Extruded pea (Pisum sativum as alternative to soybean protein for dairy cows feeding in organic Alpine farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the use of extruded pea as an alternative to soybean in the protein feeding of dairy cattle raised in organic Alpine farms. The research was carried out in a commercial organic dairy farm located in the Province of Trento (Northern Italy and it considered two separate periods of cows’ lactation: early and late lactation. According to the traditional management practice of alpine dairy herds with the seasonal calving of the cows in early winter, the former period was carried out during the cold season when cows were housed indoors, while the latter period started after the transfer of the entire herd to an alpine pasture for the summer grazing. In both periods, 16 cows of Rendena breed were equally assigned to 2 experimental groups. The dietary forage (meadow hay in early lactation or pasture in late lactation was supplemented to one group of cows with a Control concentrate in which soybean expeller, sunflower expeller and wheat bran were the main protein feeds. Soybean proteins were replaced by extruded peas in the Soy-free concentrate given to the other group of cows. The daily amount of concentrate was adjusted to the individual milk yield on a weekly basis adopting ratios of 0.360 and 0.125 kg of DM per kg of milk in early and late lactation periods, respectively. Cows receiving Soy-free concentrate showed a higher milk yield than the Control cows in both lactation periods (18.7 vs 17.5 kg/d in early lactation and 9.3 vs 8.6 kg/d on pasture, respectively. Milk fat and protein were not affected by the diet at any stage of lactation, while a higher concentration of milk urea was observed in milk samples taken from Soy-free cows in both periods of the study. This result could have been promoted by the higher soluble fraction of extruded pea proteins in comparison to that of soybean expeller. Cows feeding behaviour was monitored only in the early lactation period and despite of the different amount of concentrate consumed by

  2. An electrochemical immunosensor for detecting progesterone in milk from dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ling; Yang, Wei; Xia, Cheng; Xu, Chuang; Zhang, Hongyou

    2018-01-01

    In this study, an electrochemical immunosensor for milk progesterone produced by dairy cows was developed. Using the immunosensor, milk progesterone levels in healthy estrus dairy cows was found to range from 1 to 6 ng/mL 20 days after estrus. There were high levels of progesterone in the milk from cows with prolonged luteal phase and luteal cysts, which ranged from 15 to 28 and 19 to 29 ng/mL, respectively. Cows with inactive ovaries also showed low milk progesterone levels of 1-8 ng/mL, but...

  3. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil; Munksgaard, Lene; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding or into frees......The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding...

  4. Milk yield, feed efficiency and metabolic profiles in Jersey and Holstein cows assigned to different fat supplementation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Lene; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Lund, Peter

    2015-01-01

    , compared to their lowest recorded weight after calving. Subsequently, the cows were randomly assigned to one of the four treatments until the end of lactation. There was no effect of feeding strategy on DM intake during week 9–40 of lactation. Fat supplemented rations (WCR; RPF) increased yield of milk......The study aimed to analyse the combined effect of lactation stage and fat supplementation. Either protected or unprotected fat was fed to dairy cows to quantify effects on dry matter intake (DMI), mammary nutrient uptake, energy corrected milk (ECM) yield, milk composition, and energy, N and feed...... and 1.77%, 4.29%, 4.59%, and 4.63% FA of DM for CON, WCR, RPF and RPFA, respectively. All cows were offered the same concentrate in the automatic milking system in addition to the mixed rations. After calving, cows were fed CON until they had gained 11 kg (Jersey) or 15 kg (Holstein) body weight...

  5. Dairy cow handling facilities and the perception of Beef Quality Assurance on Colorado dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A E; Olea-Popelka, F J; Grandin, T; Woerner, D R; Roman-Muniz, I N

    2014-02-01

    A survey was conducted on Colorado dairies to assess attitudes and practices regarding Dairy Beef Quality Assurance (DBQA). The objectives were to (1) assess the need for a new handling facility that would allow all injections to be administered via DBQA standards; (2) establish if Colorado dairy producers are concerned with DBQA; and (3) assess differences in responses between dairy owners and herdsmen. Of the 95 dairies contacted, 20 (21%) agreed to participate, with a median herd size of 1,178. When asked to rank the following 7 traits--efficiency, animal safety, human safety, ease of animal handling, ease of operation, inject per Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) procedures, and cost--in order of priority when designing a new handling facility, human and animal safety were ranked highest in priority (first or second) by the majority of participants, with ease of animal handling and efficiency ranked next. Interestingly, the administration of injections per BQA standards was ranked sixth or seventh by most participants. Respondents estimated the average annual income from the sale of cull cows to be 4.6% of all dairy income, with 50% receiving at least one carcass discount or condemnation in the past 12 mo. Although almost all of the participating dairy farmers stated that the preferred injection site for medications was the neck region, a significant number admitted to using alternate injection sites. In contrast, no difference was found between responses regarding the preferred and actual location for intravenous injections. Although most participating producers are aware of BQA injection guidelines, they perceive efficiency as more important, which could result in injections being administered in locations not promoted by BQA. Dairy owners and herdsmen disagreed in whether or not workers had been injured in the animal handling area in the last 12 mo. Handling facilities that allow for an efficient and safe way to administer drugs according to BQA guidelines and

  6. Staphylococcus aureus entrance into the dairy chain: Tracking S. aureus from dairy cow to cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Kümmel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. 1176 quarter milk (QM samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294 and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS. Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing, dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day fourteen of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires effective clearance strategies and hygienic

  7. Reproductive status following artificial insemination and factors affecting conception rate in dairy cows in smallholder production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, Y.; Zaini, N.; Wan Zahari, W.M.

    2007-01-01

    A survey was conducted to evaluate the reproductive status following artificial insemination (AI) and factors affecting conception rate (CR) in dairy cows under the smallholder production system, using the concentration of progesterone (P4) in milk samples taken on the day of AI (Sample 1), day 10-12 after AI (Sample 2) and day 22-24 after AI (Sample 3). The survey involved 115 cows in 33 farms. A follow-up study was carried out on four farms with interventions to improve record keeping, feed supplementation, heat detection and timely pregnancy diagnosis. Based on Sample 1 (n = 115), 93% of the cows had low P4 and were likely to have been in or close to oestrus at AI. Based on Samples 1 and 2 (n = 107), 85% of the cows had ovulatory oestrus. Based on all three samples (n = 59), 54.2% of the cows appeared to have conceived, 18.6% had either non-fertilization or early embryonic mortality and 18.6% had late embryonic mortality, luteal cyst or a persistent corpus luteum. The incidence of AI on pregnant animals was 1.7% and on those in doubtful reproductive status was 6.8%. The overall CR was 35.5% from 121 inseminations done on 115 cows. Mean intervals from calving to first AI (n = 77) and to conception (n = 43) were 90.7 and 113.6 days, respectively. The effects of level of milk production, lactation state and site of semen deposition on CR were significant (p 0.05) but CR tended to be lower in first parity cows and in cows with excessive body condition. The CR was also lower in farms that practice AI only in the afternoon, in farms where relatively less time was spent on dairy activities and in those farms practicing grazing and supplementation with concentrate only, as compared to those providing additional roughage supplementation. CR tended to be higher when AI was carried out by technicians with longer formal training. The survey showed that there was a high occurrence of ovulatory oestrus in cows under the smallholder production system but the CR obtained was

  8. Effect of Feeding on Hindgut Fermentation and Microbiota of Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Song

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Bacillus subtilis natto on hindgut fermentation and microbiota of early lactation Holstein dairy cows was investigated in this study. Thirty-six Holstein dairy cows in early lactation were randomly allocated to three groups: no B. subtilis natto as the control group, B. subtilis natto with 0.5×1011 cfu as DMF1 group and B. subtilis natto with 1.0×1011 cfu as DMF2 group. After 14 days of adaptation period, the formal experiment was started and lasted for 63 days. Fecal samples were collected directly from the rectum of each animal on the morning at the end of eighth week and placed into sterile plastic bags. The pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration were determined and fecal bacteria DNA was extracted and analyzed by DGGE. The results showed that the addition of B. subtilus natto at either treatment level resulted in a decrease in fecal NH3-N concentration but had no effect on fecal pH and VFA. The DGGE profile revealed that B. subtilis natto affected the population of fecal bacteria. The diversity index of Shannon-Wiener in DFM1 decreased significantly compared to the control. Fecal Alistipes sp., Clostridium sp., Roseospira sp., beta proteobacterium were decreased and Bifidobacterium was increased after supplementing with B. subtilis natto. This study demonstrated that B. subtilis natto had a tendency to change fecal microbiota balance.

  9. Associations of herd- and cow-level factors, cow lying behavior, and risk of elevated somatic cell count in free-stall housed lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, M E Alexandrea; Meijer, Karin M A; Barkema, Herman W; Leslie, Kenneth E; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Devries, Trevor J

    2013-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the risk of intramammary infection in dairy cows is related to lying patterns. The objectives of this study were to quantify the standing and lying behavior of dairy cows milked 3×/d, determine the cow- and herd-level factors associated with these behaviors, and relate these findings to the risk of an elevated somatic cell count (SCC). Five commercial free-stall dairy herds in Eastern Ontario, milking 3×/d, were enrolled in a longitudinal study. Forty Holstein-Friesian cows/herd were randomly selected as focal animals based on days in milk (cow SCC was recorded at the beginning of each period and end of the final period. Elevated SCC (eSCC) was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis. A new incident eSCC was defined as an individual cow that started the period with a SCC cows for hygiene and lameness. Throughout the course of the study, cows averaged 11.2h/d of lying time, split into 8.6 lying bouts/d that were on average 84.6 min in length. Later lactation cows had longer daily lying times that were split into fewer lying bouts of longer duration than cows earlier in lactation. Lame cows had longer daily lying times and lying bout durations than non-lame cows. Cows with greater milk yield had lower lying times than lower producing cows. Average post-milking standing time across the study herds was 103 min. Manipulation of feed (feed delivery or push-up) by the stockperson, in the hour before milking or shortly thereafter, resulted in the longest post-milking standing times. Over the study period, 48 new eSCC were detected, resulting in a mean herd incidence rate of 0.91 eSCC/cow-year at risk for all study herds. A non-linear relationship between post-milking standing time and eSCC incidence was found; compared to those cows that lie down cows that lie down for the first time >90 min after milking had a lower risk of acquiring a new eSCC. The risk of experiencing an eSCC was also increased in multiparous cows, and in those cows

  10. Effect of ambient temperature and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on water and electrolyte balances in dry and lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelil-Arfa, H; Faverdin, P; Boudon, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the interaction between 2 constant ambient temperatures [thermoneutrality (TN; 15°C) and high temperature (HT; 28°C)] and 2 levels of Na bicarbonate supplementation [calculated to provide diet Na contents of 0.20%DM (Na-) and 0.50%DM (Na+)] on water partitioning in dairy cows. Treatments were compared on 4 dry and 4mid-lactation Holstein cows according to 2 Latin squares (1 for each physiological stage) over the course of 4 periods of 15d. Diets consisted of a total mixed ration based on maize silage. Dry cows were restricted to their protein and energy requirements, whereas lactating cows were fed ad libitum. The daily average temperature-humidity index was 59.4 for TN and 73.2 for HT. Lactating and dry cows had higher vaginal temperatures at HT than at TN, but the increase was more pronounced in lactating cows (+1.05 vs. +0.12°C for vaginal temperature, respectively). Dry matter intake (DMI) of lactating cows decreased by 2.3kg/d at HT. Free water intake (FWI) and estimated volume of water lost to evaporation increased at HT in both lactating and dry cows; no interactions were observed between temperature and physiological stage. When expressed as a proportion of DMI, the increase in evaporation that occurred with increasing temperature was completely compensated for by an increase in FWI for both physiological stages. The urinary water excretion increased slightly at HT in lactating cows but not in dry cows, which may be related to the low chloride content of the offered diet. High Na supplementation increased DMI slightly in lactating cows, but milk yield was not affected. Sodium supplementation did not limit the decrease in DMI observed in lactating cows at HT; this observation is likely due to the high diet electrolyte balance of the offered diets. Sodium supplementation increased FWI in lactating cows and urinary flow in both physiological states. The interaction between ambient temperature and Na

  11. Comparison of Various Indices of Energy Metabolism in Recumbent and Healthy Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Hugues; Detilleux, Johann; Lebreton, Pascal; Garnier, Catherine; Bonvoisin, Marie; Rollin, Frederic; Sandersen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Downer cow syndrome (DCS) is often diagnosed in dairy cattle during the early post-partum period. The etiology of this condition is not completely understood, as it can be related to the energetic or electrolyte metabolism, as well as to infectious diseases or to trauma. The aim of this study is to compare energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity indices and various biochemical parameters between recumbent and healthy dairy cows. A prospective study has been undertaken on 361 recumbent and 80 healthy Holstein cows. Plasmatic glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) were assayed in all cows in order to calculate the insulin sensitivity indices but also minerals (Calcium, Phosphorous and Magnesium), thyroxin and creatine kinase. Body Condition Scores (BCS) was assessed. Significant differences in NEFA, and the glucose and insulin sensitivity indices ("Homeostasis Model Assessment" HOMA, "Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index" RQUICKI, RQUICKI-BHB) were observed between healthy and recumbent cows in the early post-parturient period indicating disturbances of glucose and insulin homeostasis in the recumbent cows. In the same manner, mineral concentrations were significantly different between healthy and recumbent cows. Glucose, insulin NEFA, and HOMA, were different between early post-partum downer cows and the DCS-affected cows later in lactation. Results indicate disturbances in energy homeostasis in DCS-affected dairy cows. Further research should determine a prognostic value of the indices in cows suffering from recumbency of metabolic origin.

  12. Comparison of Various Indices of Energy Metabolism in Recumbent and Healthy Dairy Cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Guyot

    Full Text Available Downer cow syndrome (DCS is often diagnosed in dairy cattle during the early post-partum period. The etiology of this condition is not completely understood, as it can be related to the energetic or electrolyte metabolism, as well as to infectious diseases or to trauma.The aim of this study is to compare energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity indices and various biochemical parameters between recumbent and healthy dairy cows.A prospective study has been undertaken on 361 recumbent and 80 healthy Holstein cows.Plasmatic glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB were assayed in all cows in order to calculate the insulin sensitivity indices but also minerals (Calcium, Phosphorous and Magnesium, thyroxin and creatine kinase. Body Condition Scores (BCS was assessed.Significant differences in NEFA, and the glucose and insulin sensitivity indices ("Homeostasis Model Assessment" HOMA, "Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index" RQUICKI, RQUICKI-BHB were observed between healthy and recumbent cows in the early post-parturient period indicating disturbances of glucose and insulin homeostasis in the recumbent cows. In the same manner, mineral concentrations were significantly different between healthy and recumbent cows. Glucose, insulin NEFA, and HOMA, were different between early post-partum downer cows and the DCS-affected cows later in lactation.Results indicate disturbances in energy homeostasis in DCS-affected dairy cows. Further research should determine a prognostic value of the indices in cows suffering from recumbency of metabolic origin.

  13. Effect of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin on postpartum metabolism and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R A; Silveira, P A S; Montagner, P; Schneider, A; Schmitt, E; Rabassa, V R; Pfeifer, L F M; Del Pino, F A B; Pulga, M E; Corrêa, M N

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin (BTPC) supplementation on plasma metabolites and milk production in postpartum dairy cows. A total of fifty-two Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive either: (1) 10 ml of saline (NaCl 0.9%, control group); (2) 1000 mg of butaphosphan and 0.5 mg of cyanocobalamin (BTPC1 group); and (3) 2000 mg of butaphosphan and 1.0 mg of cyanocobalamin (BTPC2 group). All cows received injections every 5 days from calving to 20 days in milk (DIM). Blood samples were collected every 15 days from calving until 75 DIM to determine serum concentration of glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), cholesterol, urea, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), aminotransferase aspartate (AST) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT). The body condition score (BCS) and milk production were evaluated from calving until 90 DIM. Increasing doses of BTPC caused a linear reduction in plasma concentrations of NEFA and cholesterol. Supplementation of BTPC also reduced concentrations of BHB but it did not differ between the two treatment doses. Milk yield and milk protein had a linear increase with increasing doses of BTPC. A quadratic effect was detected for milk fat and total milk solids according to treatment dose, and BTPC1 had the lowest mean values. Concentrations of glucose, urea, P, Mg, AST, GGT, milk lactose and BCS were not affected by treatment. These results indicate that injections of BTPC during the early postpartum period can reduce NEFA and BHB concentrations and increase milk production in Holstein cows.

  14. Supply of nutrients and productive responses in dairy cows given diets based on restrictively fermented silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. HUHTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to review research which has evaluated the feeding of dairy cows with diets containing large proportions of grass silage. In Finland, milk production systems evolved are based on the use of restrictively fermented silages. Higher potential yields, smaller production risks than with cereal grains, short grazing period and high digestibility of grasses grown in northern latitudes have facilitated this development. Factors affecting nutrient supply from these diets are discussed. Digestibility is determined mainly by the stage of maturity at harvesting and it is not markedly affected by the level of energy and protein supplementation. Intake of grass silage is influenced both by digestibility and fermentation characteristics. Efficiency of microbial synthesis is high in animals given diets based on restrictively fermented silage but rumen fermentation pattern is characterised by low molar proportions of propionate. Production responses to additional concentrate are relatively small, especially when the amount of concentrate exceeds 10 kg day-1. High substitution of silage dry matter (DM, negative associative effects on digestion and partitioning of energy towards body tissues account for small production responses. Protein supplementation has consistently increased milk protein yield but responses do not appear to be related to the level of milk production, silage crude protein content, amount of concentrate or stage of lactation. The new protein evaluation system provides an accurate prediction of protein yield with the typical Finnish dairy cow diets. The high slopes (ca. 0.5 between protein supply and milk protein yield within experiments suggest that protein supply is suboptimal and protein supplements are used with a high efficiency.;

  15. Alfalfa Protein Concentrate as a Less Ruminally Degradable Protein Source for High-Producing Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Lu

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 105-day continuous feeding trial to compare soybean meal (SBM and alfalfa protein concentrate (APC as supplemental protein sources for high-producing dairy cows. Dairy cows with an average milk production of 35.2 kg/day were paired and randomly assigned to one of the treatments. A double reversal design was employed With 35 days per period. The comparison between treatments was made during the last 21 days of each period. Experimental diets, containing 60% corn silage and 10% alfalfa hay, were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isoenergetic (crude protein. 15.6%; net energy tor lactation, 1.60 Mcal/kg DM. Fifty percent of dietary nitrogen was provided by test proteins. Animals were fed four times daily. Chromie oxide boluses, 50 g/day were used to estimate digestion coefficients. Ruminal protein degradability in viva (% and in situ(%were 56.8, 68.3 and 47.3. 35.3 for SBM and APC, respectively. Dry matter intake (kg/day was 19.1 and 18.6 for cows fed SBM and APC. respectively. Rummal parameters cows fed SBM vs APC were, pH. 6.6 vs 6.7, ammonia nitrogen(mg/dI 10.8 vs 6.2(p less than 0.01; total volatile fatty acids (mM, 86.3 VS 84.6(P LESS THAN 0.05, acetate (% , 50.8 vs 64.9 (p less than 0.01; propionate dry matter , 65.3 vs 61.8; crude protein . 67.6 vs 61.1 (P less than 0.05 neutral detergent fiber , 51.1 vs 52.5 ; acid detergent fiber, 47.7 vs 49.0 . A slightly higher (P more than 0.05 amount of milk was produced by cows fed APC(28.6+_ 3.5 vs 28.2+- 3.8 kg/day. Each additional gramof undergradable intake protein provided by APC continued to a 5- gram increase in 4% fat-corrected milk production.

  16. Performance and Metabolism of Dairy Cows Fed Bean Seeds (Vicia faba with Different Levels of Anti-Nutritional Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Melicharová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of selected bean cultivars with different levels of anti-nutritional substances on performance and metabolism of dairy cows. In the current twelve-week-long study, 32 dairy cows at 3 to 6 weeks after parturition were divided into four groups. Diets were balanced to have an analogical content of crude protein and energy. Experimental groups (MI, ME, MET were mixed to the milking concentrate consisting of 20% bean seeds (MI - MISTRAL cultivar with a low content of anti-nutritional substances; ME - MERKUR cultivar with high content of anti-nutritional substances; MET - MERKUR cultivar with technologically reduced the amount of anti-nutritional substances. Clinical evaluation of dairy cows’ health and feed intake showed no negative effect of the bean supplementations. Energy, nitrogen and mineral metabolisms were not impaired either. No significant differences were found between groups in milk performance (daily milk yield, protein and lactose production during the study. On the basis of these results, the bean can be used in 20% in the milking concentrate of dairy cattle. Health risks associated with anti-nutritional content of the native bean are not significant for high-producing dairy cattle.

  17. Evaluation of a Lameness Scoring System for Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, P T; Munksgaard, L; Tøgersen, F A

    2008-01-01

    Lameness is a major problem in dairy production both in terms of reduced production and compromised animal welfare. A 5-point lameness scoring system was developed based on previously published systems, but optimized for use under field conditions. The scoring system included the words "in most...... cases" in the descriptions of the clinical signs evaluated. This was done to avoid a situation in which cows might not fit into any of the categories. Additionally, a number of clinical signs used in other lameness scoring systems, considered of less importance in relation to lameness, were not included....... Only clinical signs were included that could easily be assessed within a few seconds from a distance. The scoring system was evaluated with intra-and interobserver agreement using kappa statistics. The evaluation was done before and after training 5 observers. Weighted kappa values ranged from 0...

  18. Mammary Epithelial Cell Hierarchy in the Dairy Cow Throughout Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perruchot, Marie-Hélène; Arévalo-Turrubiarte, Magdalena; Dufreneix, Florence; Finot, Laurence; Lollivier, Vanessa; Chanat, Eric; Mayeur, Frédérique; Dessauge, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    The plasticity of the mammary gland relies on adult mammary stem cells (MaSCs) and their progenitors, which give rise to various populations of mammary epithelial cells (MECs). To face global challenges, an in-depth characterization of milk-producing animal mammary gland plasticity is required, to select more sustainable and robust dairy cows. The identification and characterization of MaSC and their progenitors will also provide innovative tools in veterinary/human medicine regarding mammary tissue damage (carcinogenesis, bacterial infections). This study aimed to determine the dynamics of mammary cell populations throughout a lactation cycle. Using mammary biopsies from primiparous lactating dairy cows at 30, 90, 150, and 250 days of lactation, we phenotyped cell populations by flow cytometry. To investigate cell lineages, we used specific cell-surface markers, including CD49f, CD24, EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule), and CD10. Two cell populations linked to milk production were identified: CD49f(+)/EpCAM(-) (y = 0.88x + 4.42, R(2) = 0.36, P < 0.05) and CD49f(-)/EpCAM(-) (y = -1.15x + 92.44, R(2) = 0.51, P < 0.05) cells. Combining immunostaining analysis, flow cytometry, daily milk production data, and statistical approaches, we defined a stem cell population (CD24(+)/CD49f(+)) and four progenitor cell populations that include bipotent luminal progenitors (CD24(-)/CD49f(+)), lumino-alveolar progenitors (CD24(-)/EpCAM(+)), myoepithelial progenitors (CD24(+)/CD10(-)), and lumino-ductal progenitors (CD49f(-)/EpCAM(+)). Interestingly, we found that the bipotent luminal progenitors (CD24(-)/CD49f(+)) decreased significantly (P < 0.05) during lactation. This study provides the first results of mammary cell lineage, allowing insight into mammary cell plasticity during lactation.

  19. Stereotypical behaviour at high yielding dairy cows farms - "tongue rolling"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović Radiša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine if there was a connection between stereotypical behaviour of high yielding dairy cows breeds and values of biochemical blood parameters. The investigation was carried out in august at loose-housing type of farms, in 30 heads of cattle from four groups: drying (15 to 7 days before calving, puerperium (up to 40 days after calving, early lactation (up to 120 days after calving and late lactation (200 to 300 days after calving. Assessment of stereotypical behaviour (tongue rolling was carried out by the method of careful observation of all the tested animals 2 to 4 hours after morning feeding. Blood samples were taken by puncture of jugular vein from 8 cows out of each animal group. In these blood samples there was determined the concentration of glucose, beta hydroxy-butyric acid (BHBA, total protein (TP, albumin, urea, total bilirubin (TBI, Ca, P, and Mg as well as AST and ALT activities. During the period up to 40 days after calving (puerperium, behavioral disorder in the form of „tongue rolling“ was found out in 4 out of 30 observed animals (13.33%. Average concentrations of all the tested blood parameters during the drying period as well as in early and late lactation were within physiological values for cattle. During puerperium there were found significantly lower values of glycaemia, proteinemia, albuminemia, uremia and magnesiemia in regard to antepartal values (p<0.05, where the values of glycaemia and magnesiemia were below the physiological limit. A the same time, in this group of cows the values of TBI and AST activities were higher than physiological values. Frequent appearance of „tongue rolling“ phenomenon only among cows in the group with deviation of biochemical parameters values, points out to a possible connection between the stereotypical behaviour and biochemical composition of blood. It seems that hypomagnesiemia could be a significant etiopathogenetic factor causing the

  20. Detection and levels of aflatoxin M₁ in raw milk of dairy cows from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detection and levels of aflatoxin M₁ in raw milk of dairy cows from selected small scale and commercial farms in Harare, Zimbabwe. Rachel J. Stewart, Oswin Choga, Blessing Chiriseri, Davies M. Pfukenyi ...

  1. The economic effects of whole-herd versus selective anthelmintic treatment strategies in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlier, J.; Levecke, B.; Devleesschauwer, B.; Vercruysse, J.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Current control practices against gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy cows rely strongly on anthelmintic use. To reduce the development of anthelmintic resistance or disposition of drug residues in the environment, novel control approaches are currently proposed that target anthelmintic treatment to

  2. Red blood cell phosphate concentration and osmotic resistance during dietary phosphate depletion in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünberg, W; Mol, J A; Teske, E

    BACKGROUND: Hypophosphatemia in early lactating dairy cows has been implicated as primary cause for postparturient hemoglobinuria in cattle. Decreased availability of phosphorus has been proposed to reduce adenosine triphosphate synthesis of erythrocytes and thereby reduce osmotic resistance of

  3. Forages from intensively managed and semi-natural grasslands in the diet of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinenberg, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords : Intensively managed grass, semi-natural grasslands, forage species, dairy cows, in vivo digestibility, feed degradation, energy metabolism, milk production, ruminant nutrition, rumen fermentation, rumen kinetics, voluntary intake, feed

  4. Development of a Bilingual Training Tool to Train Dairy Workers on the Prevention and Management of Non-Ambulatory Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Muniz, Ivette N.; Van Metre, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Dairy cows at risk of becoming non-ambulatory or downers represent economic losses and animal well-being issues for the dairy industry. Colorado State University researchers and Extension faculty collaborated with Colorado's dairy industry to create a training tool for the early identification and management of cows at risk of becoming downers on…

  5. Short term post-partum heat stress in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuquay, J. W.; Chapin, L. T.; Brown, W. H.

    1980-06-01

    Since many dairy cows calve during late summer, the objective was to determine if heat stress immediately post-partum would (1) alter metabolism, thus, increasing susceptibility to metabolic disorders, (2) affect lactation and/or (3) affect reproduction. Forty four cows, calving during late summer, were paired with one member of each pair stressed (HS) for the first 10 post-partum days in a hot barn. Controls (CC) were kept in a cooled section of the barn. Plasma drawn weekly for 7 weeks was analyzed in an autoanalyzer for calcium, inor. phosphorus, protein, glucose and cholesterol and by radioimmunoassay for cortisol and progesterone. Ovaries and uteri were palpated weekly. Rectal temperatures were significant higher for HS during the first 10 post-partum days. No significant effects on plasma constituents were observed during the 10-day treatment period. For the 7-week period, glucose and cholesterol were lower in HS, as were cyclic peaks of progesterone and cortisol. Both calcium and inorganic phosphorus remained clinically low for the 7 weeks, but no treatment effects were seen. Uteri of HS involuted more rapidly than the CC. Treatment did not affect reproductive efficiency. Lactation milk yields did not differ, but milk fat percent was lower in HS. Heat stress immediately post-partum altered lipid metabolism, but the animal's compensatory mechanisms prevented reduction in milk production or reproductive efficiency.

  6. The influence of cow and management factors on reproductive performance of Irish seasonal calving dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Elizabeth A; Crowe, Mark A; Beltman, Marijke E; More, Simon J

    2013-09-01

    Herd management record analysis facilitates accurate assessment of the current herd reproductive status; a crucial decision making tool to implement effective change. To determine the relative importance of cow and management factors on reproductive indices in moderate-yielding Irish seasonal-calving dairy herds, breeding records of 1173 cows were collected from 10 seasonal calving herds between 2007 and 2009. Backward-stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis was utilised to determine the effect of cow factors including parity, calving timing, days post partum, heat detection accuracy and herd factors including herd size and heat detection efficiency on key reproductive indices. Mean farm six-week pregnancy and end of season not-in-calf rate were 46% (range 14-72%) and 22% (range 3-40%), respectively. Oestrous detection efficiency (Pcow parity were not associated (P>0.05) with either outcome when factors including existing calving pattern and heat detection accuracy and efficiency were accounted for. The existing spread in calving pattern, heat detection quality and length of voluntary waiting period were the most influential factors that reduced fertility performance in seasonal-calving herds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of feeding a Moringa oleifera rachis and twig preparation to dairy cows on their milk production and fatty acid composition, and plasma antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Si, Bingwen; Deng, Kaidong; Tu, Yan; Zhou, Chaolong; Diao, Qiyu

    2018-01-01

    We determined how supplementing the diet of lactating, multiparous Holstein dairy cows with a preparation of Moringa oleifera rachises and twigs affected their milk production and quality and the levels of plasma antioxidants. We found that milk yield increased in cows receiving the 6% (w/w) moringa supplement compared with that of the control. Addition of the moringa supplement increased the concentration of milk fat and decreased the somatic cell count in the milk. However, protein, glucose and total solid and urea nitrogen concentrations in the milk were the same for all treatments. The concentration of glutathione peroxidase increased for cows fed the moringa supplement compared with the control. The percentages of total unsaturated fatty acids, mono-unsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid increased in the milk of cows fed the moringa supplement compared with those of the controls. Addition of the moringa supplement into the diet of lactating multiparous cows improved milk production and health status and modified milk fatty acid profile positively. The results suggested that moringa supplement could be used as a diet supplement for producing high quality and healthier milk. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Oestrus Detection in Dairy Cows using Automata Modelling and Diagnosis Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi; Caponetti, Fabio; Blanke, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    -balance as a biologically inspired quantity describing how much the cow has been resting for a preceding period. A dynamic lying-balance model is identified from real data and the lying balance is used as input, together with lying/standing sensor measurements. Using different automata models for oestrus and non......This paper addresses detection of oestrus in dairy cows using automata-based modelling and diagnosis. Measuring lying/standing behaviour of the cows by a sensor attached to the cows hindleg, lying/standing behaviour is modelled as a stochastic automaton. The paper introduces a cow's lying...

  9. Effect of lactation on energy metabolism in dairy cows from different categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrov Dine

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was determination of the energy status of Holstein-Friesian cows in three dairy farms in our country. For that purpose, blood samples were taken from three different farms with similar diet for dairy cows. Blood samples were taken from clinically healthy cows, from 2nd to 7th lactation. Several biochemical parameters were measured for determination of the energy status: glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutirate (BHB, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol. Total of N=378 samples were taken from multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from all categories. Cows were divided into three main groups. The group 1 was formed of dry cows, and it was divided into two subgroups: “far from calving” (n=64 and “close up to calving” (n=62. The animals in the group 2 - early lactation cows, were divided into three subgroups as follows: up to 14 days after calving (n=66, up to 60 days after calving (n=63 and up to 100 days after calving (n=62. The group 3 was with cows that were in middle lactation, more than 100 days after calving (n=61. Biochemical parameters were analyzed with standard colorimetric methods, using Sentinel and Randox reagents, on photometer Stat Fax 3300 (Awareness Technology Inc.. These results have shown that dairy cows developed hypoglycemia and early lipolysis (high level of serum NEFA and BHB, during the dry period. The obtained results confirm the ability of the dairy cows for adaptation in various hysiological stages of lactation, but the actual system of feeding does not allow them to achieve their genetic potential. Finally, the evident health problems, occurring as a result of managerial and nutritional errors on the dairy farms, defined as “production diseases” are the most serious cause for decreased production effects.

  10. Digital dermatitis of the accessory digits of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso A. Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This report characterizes the digital dermatitis (DD lesions in the accessory digits of dairy cows and presents data on the applied therapy. Fifteen Holstein cattle with DD affecting the accessory digits of the hindlimbs from four dairy farms with previous history of DD were evaluated. Lesions were excised, the wounds were sutured, and a topical application of oxytetracycline powder covered by bandaging was associated with a single parenteral administration of long acting oxytetracycline IM (20mg/kg. Tissue samples were obtained for histopathology and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM. Lesions from all the animals were recuperated 15 days after surgical procedure. Overal, most DD lesions were papillomatous epidermal projections or wartlike verrucous lesions. Histopathologically, samples revealed hyperplasia of epidermis with hyperkeratosis, several mitoses in the stratum basale and elongated rete ridges in the superficial and middle dermis. TEM revealed long, thin spirochete-like bacteria. Morphologic features of lesions and its response to therapy were comparable to those described for DD.

  11. THE UTILIZATION OF THE COMPLETE RUMEN MODIFIER ON DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Thalib

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the use of Complete Rumen Modifier (CRM to improve dairy cowproductivity and to mitigate enteric methane production has been conducted. Sixteen lactating dairycows were distributed into 4 groups by using compelete randomized design (CRD. Group I (Controlfed by basal diet consisted of elephant grass and concentrate 7.5 kg/hd/dy (CP 16% and TDN 70%,Group II (Pro. Woodii fed by basal diet + probiotic Woodii, Group III (Pro.Noterae fed by basal diet +probiotic Noterae; Group IV (CRM-Noterae fed by basal diet + CRM + Pro.Noterae. Measurementswere conducted on body weight gain, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, milk and methaneproduction. Results showed that CRM-Noterae increased ADG by 72% (1.29 vs 0.75 kg and improvedFCR (9.2 vs 15.6. Probiotic noterae as single treatment or combined with CRM increased fat and totalsolid content of milk from 3.18% and 10.58% in control group to become 3.91%; 11.31% and 3.55%;11.02%, respectively. The lowest methane production was recorded in Group IV. The combination ofCRM and Noterae reduced percentage of methane production by 14%. It is concluded that combinationof CRM and Noterae can improve dairy cow performance and decrease methane production. ProbioticNoterae improved milk quality.

  12. Clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy cows: incidence and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Cabal, M. A.; Yaici, S.; Alenda, R.

    2008-07-01

    Clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy herds has been studied. Since April 2005 up to December 2006, in 25 Spanish herds 1,054 cases registered were available. Aims were to determine mastitis incidence and factors of risk, to analyze whether yield production has been affected, and to quantify mastitis costs along 2006. The 25% lactations were infected at least once with average recurrence of 1.64. Descriptive analysis showed that 29% of cases occurred within the first month after calving. Primiparous showed higher mastitis frequency at early and late lactation while in multiparous cases number was progressively decreasing since the first month. Multiparous were statistically more liable to mastitis than primiparous. Mastitis did not show effect on yield production. Mastitis costs included treatment products and discarded milk. Individual daily production at each case onset was estimated by using monthly official milking records. An average mastitis case cost was 73.93, cheaper in primiparous than in multiparous because of lower milk production. Average discarded milk represented 74% of total cost per case. Mastitis costs were 117 per infected cow and lactation. Then, annual economic losses due to mastitis were 3,190 per average herd, showing the concern of producers on selecting resistant animals as well as the importance of the implementation of systematic recording for clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy farms. Additional key words: genetic selection, udder health. (Author) 28 refs.

  13. Metabolic responses and "omics" technologies for elucidating the effects of heat stress in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Li; Zhao, Shengguo; Tian, He; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Yangdong; Li, Songli; Yang, Hongjian; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2017-06-01

    Heat stress (HS) negatively affects various industries that rely on animal husbandry, particularly the dairy industry. A better understanding of metabolic responses in HS dairy cows is necessary to elucidate the physiological mechanisms of HS and offer a new perspective for future research. In this paper, we review the current knowledge of responses of body metabolism (lipid, carbohydrate, and protein), endocrine profiles, and bovine mammary epithelial cells during HS. Furthermore, we summarize the metabolomics and proteomics data that have revealed the metabolite profiles and differentially expressed proteins that are a feature of HS in dairy cows. Analysis of metabolic changes and "omics" data demonstrated that HS is characterized by reduced lipolysis, increased glycolysis, and catabolism of amino acids in dairy cows. Here, analysis of the impairment of immune function during HS and of the inflammation that arises after long-term HS might suggest new strategies to ameliorate the effects of HS in dairy production.

  14. A 100-Year Review: From ascorbic acid to zinc-Mineral and vitamin nutrition of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W P

    2017-12-01

    vitamins have a dietary requirement, and clinical and marginal deficiencies became common as diets for cows changed from pasture and full exposure to the sun to stored forage and limited sun exposure. As researchers learned new functions of fat-soluble vitamins, requirements generally increased over time. Diets generally contain substantial amounts of B vitamins, and rumen bacteria can synthesize large quantities of many B vitamins; hence, research on water-soluble vitamins lagged behind. We now know that supplementation of specific water-soluble vitamins can enhance cow health and increase milk production in certain situations. Additional research is needed to define specific requirements for many water-soluble vitamins. Both mineral and vitamin research is hampered by the lack of sensitive biomarkers of status, but advanced molecular techniques may provide measures that respond to altered supply of minerals and vitamins and that are related to health or productive responses of the cow. The overall importance of proper mineral and vitamin nutrition is known, but as we discover new and more diverse functions, better supplementation strategies should lead to even better cow health and higher production. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of thermal environment on daily milk yield of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metodija Trajchev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of environmental air temperatures on the milk production of dairy cows. Therefore, the experiment was carried out at the height of summer (from 15th of June to 15th of September in three small family dairy farms and one commercial dairy farm. In total, 51 dairy cows from the black-white breed were subjected to the study. The season of research was divided into three periods: the period before the hot season, the period of the hot season and the period after the hot season. In each period there were three test days selected that were used for recording the air temperature inside and outside the barns and cow’s daily milk yield. Unvaried associations between the test day milk yield of cows and independent environmental and cow factors were done using the linear mixed model for repeated measurements. The statistical model showed that the farm management system and the hot season of the year had significant infl uence on daily milk yield per cow at the level of p<0.001. The test day per periods of the season when milk control was performed and the average test day environmental temperature showed statistically significant influence on daily milk yield per cow at level p<0.01. The present results revealed that environmental air temperatures contributes to considerable loss in the milk production of dairy cows.

  16. The Design and Experiment of the Track-Type Equipment for Feeding Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping LI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As one of the effective ways of reducing the cost and increase the revenue, feeding dairy cows with individual precision in quantity could further develop the production potential of high- yield dairy cows and improve the milk yield of every dairy cow. Therefore, based on three kinds of technologies of radio frequency identification technology, wireless transmission technology and infrared technology and grounded on the foundation of previous studies, this thesis has completed the track- type equipment for feeding dairy cows with individual precision in quantity. The equipment takes the computer as the information management platform, adopts the singly chip microcomputer as the control platform, uses the wireless module and U disk to conduct the transmission of individual feeding data of dairy cows and guides the whole process with the track. This kind of equipment could advance automatically, identify and feed dairy cows precisely during the feeding process. This thesis also designs the matching feeding technology of the equipment, and accomplishes the test of feeding outside the cowshed, which takes “TMR + precise feeding with concentrated feed” as the feeding model, so that the feeding process could be more effective and further steady.

  17. Role of nutrition in ethiopathogenesis of health disturbances of dairy cows in periparturient period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovec Zlatan J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The goals of high producing dairy cow nutrition are to provide good health and condition of animals, normal 300-day long lactation, more lactation cycle during exploitation, maximal amount of milk yield with optimal chemical contents, as well as bringing healthy and vital veal once a year. Nutrients metabolism disturbances in dairy cows mostly expressed in periparturient period due to higher demands needed for fetus growth and development, as well as for requirements for lactation. Energy metabolism disorder in dairy cows mostly appeared as kethosis complicated with liver fatty acid accumulation that firstly caused fatty infiltration and later fatty degeneration of hepatocytes. Besides energy, in this period changes of mineral status are very common as consequences of higher mineral deposition in skeleton of fetus, and secretion via milk by beginning of the lactation. Mineral metabolism disorder in dairy cows, firstly calcium, mostly appeared as paresis and paralysis. Dairy cows peripartal metabolic disturbances are very dependent and caused among themselves commonly leading to mutual appearance. That’s why the meal for high producing dairy cow in periparturient period have to be optimal balanced not only according to amount of some nutrients, but their relationship, as well as their influences on metabolic pathways and homeostasis.

  18. Effects of supplementation with a phytobiotics-rich herbal mixture on performance, udder health, and metabolic status of Holstein cows with various levels of milk somatic cell counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemzadeh-Cigari, F; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kadivar, M; Riasi, A; Zebeli, Q

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary supplementation of a novel phytobiotics-rich herbal mixture (PRHM) on feed intake, performance, udder health, ruminal fermentation, and plasma metabolites in cows with moderate or high somatic cell counts (SCC) in the milk. Twenty-four Holstein dairy cows (117 ± 26 d in milk and 46.3 ± 4.7 kg of milk/d at the start of the experiment) were blocked by parity and days in milk and split into 2 groups, based on SCC in the milk; 12 cows were with moderate SCC (260,000cows had high levels of SCC (>500,000 cells/mL) in the milk. Within each SCC group, cows were blocked by milk yield and parity, and were randomly assigned to 2 different feeding regimens. Half of the cows in each SCC group (n=6) were supplemented with PRHM (185 g/cow per day, providing 12.4 g of phenolic compounds per day), and the other half (n=6) were not supplemented in their diets. The experiment lasted 36 d, whereby the first 24 d were used for adaptation to the diets and the last 12 d for sampling. Data showed that supplementation of PRHM decreased somatic cell score in the milk, indicating improved udder health of cows with high initial SCC, but not in cows with moderate SCC. Also, cows supplemented with PRHM consumed more feed DM, produced greater amounts of milk, and showed an improvement of feed utilization efficiency. However, these cows also lost more back-fat thickness during the experiment. Supplementation of PRHM increased fat- and energy-corrected milk yields in cows with high initial SCC, but not in cows with moderate SCC. Supplementation of PRHM decreased milk fat content, whereas other milk components were not affected by PRHM feeding. The PRHM supplementation decreased the acetate-to-propionate ratio in the rumen fluid, but increased β-hydroxybutyrate and cholesterol concentration in the plasma, irrespective of the initial SCC level in the milk. Other plasma metabolites and liver enzymes were not affected by PRHM supplementation. Apparent

  19. Investigating locomotion of dairy cows by use of high speed cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, A H; Drevemo, S

    1997-05-01

    The longterm influence of management systems on the locomotion of 17 dairy cows was investigated by high speed cinematography (100 frames/s) and kinematic analysis. Angular patterns and hoof trajectories of the left fore- and hindlimbs are presented and statistics made of occurring minimum and maximum angles. At the recording, 3 cows had been kept in tie-stalls (TI) and 6 cows in cubicles (CI) for a consecutive time of about 2.5 years while 8 cows had been kept on grass for about 3 months. Four of the grazing cows had earlier been kept in cubicles (CG) and 4 in tie-stalls (TG) during earlier off grazing seasons together with TI and CI cows. The CI cows had a smaller maximum angle of the elbow joint compared to TI, TG and CG cows. The hock joint angle of the CI cows was less flexed during the stance phase than in TI and CG cows while the minimum angle during the swing phase was greater in the TI and CI cows compared to TG and CG cows. Pastured cows (TG and CG) had a less pronounced flexion of the fetlock joint angle during the stance compared to cows kept indoors (TI and CI). The results suggest that slatted floor and lack of exercise during summer grazing may affect locomotion. This is indicated by restrictions in the movements of the elbow and hock joints and in less fetlock joint flexion at full support.

  20. Improved knowledge about Conception Rates Influences the Decision to Stop Insemination in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Vries, de A.; Jorritsma, R.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2012-01-01

    The conception rate in dairy cows is dependent on a number of cow factors such as days in milk and insemination number. Unfortunately, some of these factors were not accounted for in optimal insemination and replacement decision models. By using wrong estimates of the conception rate, the calculated

  1. Heat treated soybeans in the nutrition of high producing dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this research was to study the effect of rations containing full-fat extruded soybeans or fat-extracted heat treated soybean meal, in the nutrition of dairy cows during the period of middle lactation. The study was carried out with two groups of 15 Holstein cows. The animal's health was controlled on the ...

  2. Evaluation of energy balance of Friesian x Bunaji dairy cows using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potentials of using milk composition as indicators of energy balance (EB) in dairy cows were evaluated. Milk composition traits (milk protein, fat and lactose percentages) from thirteen (13) primiparous and 47 multiparous (F1) Friesian x Bunaji cows were studied. The milk composition was analyzed weekly from 4 to 300 ...

  3. Circulating blood metabolites in early-lactation dairy cows fed canola or soybean meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    A successful transition from pregnancy to lactation is imperative for dairy cows to maximize milk production potential. Altering the dietary protein source can change the availability of energy to the cow. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of crude protein (CP) source canol...

  4. Effect of silage maize hybrid (dry down vs. stay green) on dairy cow performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.L.G.; Schooten, van H.A.; Laar, van H.

    2008-01-01

    A randomized block design experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two contrasting silage maize hybrids (DD: dry down vs. SG: stay green) harvested at 33% dry matter (DM) on in situ degradation and dairy cow performance. Thirty-eight Red-HF cows were assigned to two silage treatments and

  5. Sewerage overflows put production and fertility of dairy cows at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G.A.L.; Bree, de J.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Spoelstra, S.F.

    1999-01-01

    More than 50% of the diary farmers in the Netherlands use surface water as the main source of drinking water for their cows during the grazing season. The quality of this water may be affected by discharges from sewerage overflows, but possible effects on health of dairy cows have not been

  6. Assessing circumstances and causes of dairy cow death in Italian dairy farms through a veterinary practice survey (2013-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, Francesca; Angelucci, Alessandra; Lorenzi, Valentina; Bolzoni, Luca; Bertocchi, Luigi

    2017-02-01

    A questionnaire survey about on farm dairy cow mortality was carried out among veterinary practitioners in Italy between January 2013 and May 2014. The study aimed at investigating the main circumstances of death in dairy cows (euthanasia, emergency slaughter or unassisted death), the primary causes and the risk factors of death. Out of 251 dead cows involved (across 137 farms), 54.6% died assisted and 45.4% were found dead. The main causes of death were metabolic/digestive disorders (22.3%) and mastitis/udder problems (17.1%), while in 14.7% of all cases, reasons of death were unknown. From the univariable generalised linear mixed models, dry cows showed a significantly higher odds to die unassisted compared to lactating cows (OR=3.2); dry cows also had higher odds of dying from unknown reasons (OR=11.7). Season was not significantly related to the risk of dying unassisted and for unknown reasons, but during the summer (characterised by hot and muggy weather in Northern Italy) cows died mostly for problems at calving. 54.2% of cows died during the first 30days in milk (DIM). Half of the multiparous cows that died, died in the first 29.5 DIM, while half of the primiparous cows that died, died in the first 50 DIM. Results pointed out that, especially in dry cows, around calving and during the summer, some failure in management practices and daily inspections may occur. Improvements should be done in monitoring activities and in recognising early symptoms of diseases among stockperson. In addition, in case of diagnosed diseases with poor prognosis, euthanasia procedures should be implemented to prevent cows from dying unassisted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dairy Cows Productivity and Socio-Economic Profile of Dairy Smallholder’s Communities in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyobroto, B. P.; Rochijan; Noviandi, C. T.; Astuti, A.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this field questionnaire survey was to describe the dairy cow productivity and socio-economic profile of dairy cattle farmers in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta smallholder farming communities which have been targeted dairy development policy. The study was conducted on 190 Friesian Holstein (FH) cows maintained under smallholder’s management system in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A total of 83 farmers were randomly selected and interviewed with structured questionnaire to assess the socio-economic dairy farmer and productivity performance of dairy cows. The number of dairy productivity performance within the normal. Shortages as well as high cost of feed, occurrence of disease, scarce information about feeding and high medicament cost were the main constraints which might have contributed considerably to delayed age at first service, late age at first calving, long calving interval, short lactation length and low milk production. Therefore, strategies designed to solve the existing problem should be important by involving all stakeholders in the formulation and implementation of improvement strategiesor dairy development policy was being implemented and necessary respect to environmental factors affecting agricultural activities such as a constraint on land use and access to water resources.

  8. Effects of a combination of plant bioactive lipid compounds and biotin compared with monensin on body condition, energy metabolism and milk performance in transition dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Janis; Deiner, Carolin; Patra, Amlan K.; Immig, Irmgard; Starke, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a combination of plant bioactive lipid compounds (also termed ‘essential oils’) and biotin (PBLC+B) could decrease the mobilization of body reserves and ketosis incidence in postpartum dairy cows. We compared non-supplemented control (CON) cows with cows receiving monensin (MON) as a controlled-release capsule at d -21, and with cows receiving PBLC+B from day (d) -21 before calving until calving (Phase 1) and further until d 37 after calving (Phase 2), followed by PBLC+B discontinuation from d 38 to d 58 (Phase 3). The PBLC+B cows had higher body weight and higher back fat thickness than CON cows and lesser body weight change than MON and CON cows in Phase 3. Body condition score was not different among groups. Milk protein concentration tended to be higher on the first herd test day in PBLC+B vs. CON cows. Milk fat concentration tended to be highest in PBLC+B cows throughout Phases 2 and 3, with significantly higher values in PBLC+B vs. MON cows on the second herd test day. Yields of energy-corrected milk were higher in PBLC+B vs. CON and MON cows in Phase 2 and higher in PBLC+B and MON cows vs. CON cows in Phase 3. The incidence of subclinical ketosis was 83%, 61% and 50% in CON, PBLC+B and MON cows, respectively, with lower mean β-hydroxybutyrate values in MON than in PBLC+B cows in Phase 1 prepartum. The serum triglyceride concentration was higher in PBLC+B vs. CON cows on d 37. No differences were observed in serum glucose, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, cholesterol and bilirubin concentrations. Aspartate transaminase and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase but not glutamate dehydrogenase activities tended to be highest in MON and lowest in PBLC+B in Phase 2. We conclude that PBLC+B prevent body weight loss after parturition and are associated with similar ketosis incidence and partly higher yields of energy-corrected milk compared to MON supplementation of dairy cows. PMID:29584764

  9. Bovine mastitis prevalence and associated risk factors in dairy cows in Nyagatare District, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraguha, Blaise; Hamudikuwanda, Humphrey; Mushonga, Borden

    2015-07-14

    In response to farmer requests after milk from their herds was rejected by processors due to poor quality, a study was carried out from April to October 2011 to determine the prevalence of sub clinical mastitis, associated risk factors and causative micro-organisms. Samples were collected from 195 dairy cows on 23 randomly selected dairy farms delivering milk to Isangano, Kirebe and Nyagatare milk collection centres in Nyagatare District, Rwanda. The Draminski Mastitis Detector was used to detect sub clinical mastitis in individual cows based on milk electrical conductivity changes. Risk factors for mastitis that were evaluated included teat-end condition, cow dirtiness, breed, parity, age and stage of lactation. Relationships of these factors with mastitis status were determined using Chi-square analysis, and relative importance as causes of mastitis was assessed using logistic regression. Samples from 16 sub clinical mastitis positive dairy cows were analysed to identify causative micro-organisms using Dairy Quality Control Inspection analytical kits. Sub clinical mastitis prevalence was 52% across the farms. It was higher with increases in, amongst other risk factors, teat-end damage severity, cow dirtiness, and level of pure dairy breed genetics. The risk factors considered accounted for 62% of mastitis prevalence; teat-end condition alone accounted for 30%. Most of the mastitis cases (87.5%) were caused by coliform bacteria. Considering that farmers are upgrading their local Ankole cows to cross-breed dairy cows that are more susceptible to mastitis, results from this study indicate the need to dip the teats of cows in sanitisers, improve cow hygiene, and introduce mastitis prevention and control programmes.

  10. Measurement methods to assess methane production of individual dairy cows in a barn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mitigation of methane production from dairy cows is critical to reduce the dairy industry’s contribution to the production of greenhouse gases. None of current used methane measurement methods are flawless and application of the methods is limited to assess the

  11. Measurement methods to assess methane production of individual dairy cows in a barn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract

    Mitigation of methane production from dairy cows is critical to reduce the dairy industry’s contribution to the production of greenhouse gases. None of current used methane measurement methods are flawless and application of the methods is limited to assess the

  12. Oestrus Detection in Dairy Cows from Activity and Lying Data using on-line Individual Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2011-01-01

    Automated monitoring and detection of oestrus in dairy cows is attractive for reasons of economy in dairy farming. While high performance detection has been shown possible using high-priced progesterone measurements, detection results were less reliable when only low-cost sensor data were availab...

  13. Incidence and risk factors of milk fever among cross-bred dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted on 206 cross-bred dairy cows in different dairy herds in Khartoum State, Sudan, during the period from March 2003 to June 2004 to determine the prevalence and incidence rate of milk fever (MF) based on clinical and laboratory diagnosis, and to recognize the risk factors associated with the ...

  14. Lipids in herbage : their fate in the rumen of dairy cows and implications for milk quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elgersma, A.; Tamminga, S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter describes the fatty-acid profile of lipids in milk and herbage normally included in dairy diets. The next section deals with the possible effects of forage management on lipid intake in dairy cows. Then a detailed account is given of the fate of fatty acids in the rumen, showing that

  15. The effects of legume seeds on the lactation performance of dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ramin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to study if locally produced organic legume seeds as protein supplement could improve the performance of dairy cows. The experiment was a cyclic change over design were the control diet consisted of grass silage and barley (60:40 on a dry matter (DM basis. Barley was replaced with rapeseed expeller (RSE, or isonitrogenous supplements of peas, untreated field beans (UFB, heat-treated FB (TFB or a lower level of TFB (TFB-low that provided the same dietary metabolizable protein concentrations as of UFB. None of the legume protein supplementations had effect on DM intake (DMI neither on energy corrected milk yield compared to control. The RSE treatment increased milk (24.8 vs. 23.6 kg d-1 and protein yield (913 vs. 863 g d-1 compared to other protein supplements. Heat-treated FB had no effect on DMI, milk or protein yield compared to UFB. Only RSE resulted in improvements in dairy cows performance in relation to the control diet.

  16. Effects of Prepartum Monensin Feeding on Energy Metabolism and Reproductive Performance of Postpartum High-Producing Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Changizi Mohammadi, Abbas Rowshan Ghasrodashti1, Amin Tamadon2,3 and Mohammad Amin Behzadi4*

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effects of monensin in preparturient diet on postpartum milk production, energy metabolism, and reproductive performance of Holstein dairy cows. Forty Holstein dairy cows on close-up period were randomly divided into monensin treated (300 mg/day in close-up ration, top dress and control groups. Body condition score (BCS was estimated three weeks before and three weeks after calving. Milk production and milk fat percentage were recorded in both groups within 3 weeks postpartum. Blood samples were collected from five randomly selected cows of each group three weeks after calving. Serum concentrations of insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I, insulin, glucose, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA were measured. Calving to the first observed estrus interval and calving to conception interval were compared between two groups. The results of the experiment showed that loss of BCS (P=0.3, increase of milk production (P=0.9, and milk fat percentage (P>0.05 were not significantly different between two groups during the period of study. In addition, mean serum glucose concentration (P=0.001 and serum insulin concentration (P=0.01 in monensin group were significantly higher than control cows in the first week postpartum. Moreover, serum BHBA concentration did not significantly change in monensin group. Serum IGF-I concentration in monensin group was significantly higher than control group in three weeks postpartum (P<0.01. The present study indicated that monensin treatment decreased calving to the first observed estrus interval (P=0.05 and calving to conception interval (P=0.002. In conclusion, supplementing the close-up ration can increase postpartum serum IGF-I concentration and prevent the increase of serum BHBA concentration. These may result in enhancement reproductive performance of high-producing dairy cows.

  17. Evaluation of dairy cows intake behavior grazing Brachiaria brizantha fed different levels of concentrate at diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Bacelar Lima Mendes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective with this research was to evaluate the dairy cows intake behavior grazing Brachiaria brizantha submitted to different levels of concentrate supplementation in the diet. Used 16 lactating cows ½ Holstein x ½ Zebu, with an average of 80 ±10.14 days of lactation and body weight of 454.7 ± 54.51 kg. The animals were distributed in four treatments, using a 4x4 Latin square. The evaluation of behavior was done every ten minutes, during 24 hours on the 16th day of period. We used analysis of variance and regression probability of 0.05. The time spent grazing, ruminating and other activities, the numbers of grazing, ruminating, of bites per day and chews per cake, the grazing times, total power and total chewing, bit rate, time to swallow; time per bolus ruminated; chewing speed and power efficiency for NDF were not altered by increased levels of concentrate. The time of trough, the trough period, the bit size, the chews time for bolus, feeding efficiency for DM, NFC, and TDN and rumination efficiency linearly increased. Periods of rumination, deglutition bits, number of rumination chews per day, decreased linearly with increasing levels of concentrate. Significant quadratic effect of concentrate level on the number of periods in other activities and over time on other activities. Supplementation with 33.8% concentrate in the diet of cows grazing not promote changes in the activity of grazing, ruminating and other activities, but increases the time of trough. The increase in concentrate diet improves the efficiencies of feeding and rumination

  18. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers’ grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season. PMID

  19. Alterations of Innate Immunity Reactants in Transition Dairy Cows before Clinical Signs of Lameness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanshi; Hailemariam, Dagnachew; Dervishi, Elda; Deng, Qilan; Goldansaz, Seyed A.; Dunn, Suzanna M.; Ametaj, Burim N.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Lameness is prevalent in dairy cows and early diagnosis and timely treatment of the disease can lower animal suffering, improve recovery rate, increase longevity, and minimize cow loss. However, there are no indications of disease until it appears clinically, and presently the only approach to deal with the sick cow is intensive treatment or culling. The results suggest that lameness affected serum concentrations of the several parameters related to innate immunity and carbohydrate metabolism that might be used to monitor health status of transition dairy cows in the near future. Abstract The objectives of this study were to evaluate metabolic and innate immunity alterations in the blood of transition dairy cows before, during, and after diagnosis of lameness during periparturient period. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vain once per week before morning feeding from 100 multiparous Holstein dairy cows during −8, −4, disease diagnosis, and +4 weeks (wks) relative to parturition. Six healthy cows (CON) and six cows that showed clinical signs of lameness were selected for intensive serum analyses. Concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), lactate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured in serum by ELISA or colorimetric methods. Health status, DMI, rectal temperature, milk yield, and milk composition also were monitored for each cow during the whole experimental period. Results showed that cows affected by lameness had greater concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA in the serum vs. CON cows. Concentrations of TNF tended to be greater in cows with lameness compared with CON. In addition, there was a health status (Hs) by time (week) interaction for IL-1, TNF, and Hp in lameness cows vs. CON ones. Enhanced serum concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA at −8 and

  20. Effect of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen environment, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Gunun, P

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows. Four multiparous early-lactating dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian cross-bred, 75%) with an initial body weight (BW) of 405 ± 40 kg and 36 ± 8 day in milk were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were unsupplemented (control), supplemented with rain tree pod (S. saman) meal (RPM) at 60 g/kg, supplemented with palm oil (PO) at 20 g/kg, and supplemented with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO), of total dry matter (DM) intake. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effect on ruminal pH, blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen concentration (p > 0.05). However, supplementation with RPM resulted in lower ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) concentration (p milk production increased while acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, methane production, methanogens and protozoal population decreased with RPM and/or PO supplementation. Furthermore, addition of PO and RPO in the diets increased milk fat while supplementation of RPM resulted in greater milk protein and Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers (p milk yield, content of milk protein and milk fat. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Studies on hepatic lipidosis and coinciding health and fertility problems of high-producing dairy cows using the "Utrecht fatty liver model of dairy cows". A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, M J H; Wensing, T

    2006-09-01

    Fatty liver or hepatic lipidosis is a major metabolic disorder of high-producing dairy cows that occurs rather frequently in early lactation and is associated with decreased health, production and fertility. A background section of the review explores reasons why high-producing dairy cows are prone to develop fatty liver post partum. Hepatic lipidosis and coinciding health and fertility problems seriously endanger profitability and longevity of the dairy cow. Results from a great number of earlier epidemiological and clinical studies made it clear that a different approach was needed for elucidation of pathogenesis and etiology of this complex of health problems. There was a need for an adequate animal model in which hepatic lipidosis and production, health and fertility problems could be provoked under controlled conditions. It was hypothesized that overconditioning ante partum and feed restriction post partum might induce lipolysis in adipose tissue and triacylglycerol accumulation in the liver following calving. This consideration formed the basis for the experiments, which resulted in the "Utrecht fatty liver model of dairy cows". In this model, post partum triacylglycerol-lipidosis as well as the whole complex of health and fertility problems are induced under well-controlled conditions. The experimental protocol based on this hypothesis produced in all cases (10 feeding trials with over 150 dairy cattle) the intended result, i.e. all experimental cows developed post partum higher hepatic triacylglycerol concentrations than did control cows. The model was evaluated in biochemical, clinical pathology, immunological, clinical and fertility terms. It turned out that in this model, post partum triacylglycerol-lipidosis as well as the whole complex of health and fertility problems were induced under well-controlled conditions.

  2. Comparative composition, diversity, and abundance of oligosaccharides in early lactation milk from commercial dairy and beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sischo, William M.; Short, Diana M.; Geissler, Mareen; Bunyatratchata, Apichaya; Barile, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Prebiotics are nondigestible dietary ingredients, usually oligosaccharides (OS), that provide a health benefit to the host by directly modulating the gut microbiota. Although there is some information describing OS content in dairy-source milk, no information is available to describe the OS content of beef-source milk. Given the different trait emphasis between dairy and beef for milk production and calf survivability, it is plausible that OS composition, diversity, and abundance differ between production types. The goal of this study was to compare OS in milk from commercial dairy and beef cows in early lactation. Early-lactation multiparous cows (5–12 d in milk) from 5 commercial Holstein dairy herds and 5 Angus or Angus hybrid beef herds were sampled once. Milk was obtained from each enrolled cow and frozen on the farm. Subsequently, each milk sample was assessed for total solids, pH, and OS content and relative abundance. Oligosaccharide diversity and abundance within and between samples was transformed through principal component analysis to reduce data complexity. Factors from principal component analysis were used to create similarity clusters, which were subsequently used in a multivariate logistic regression. In total, 30 OS were identified in early-lactation cow milk, including 21 distinct OS and 9 isomers with unique retention times. The majority of OS detected in the milk samples were present in all individual samples regardless of production type. Two clusters described distribution patterns of OS for the study sample; when median OS abundance was compared between the 2 clusters, we found that overall OS relative abundance was consistently greater in the cluster dominated by beef cows. For several of the structures, including those with known prebiotic effect, the difference in abundance was 2- to 4-fold greater in the beef-dominated cluster. Assuming that beef OS content in milk is the gold standard for cattle, it is likely that preweaning dairy

  3. Effects of mineral salt supplement on enteric methane emissions, ruminal fermentation and methanogen community of lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Liu, Chong; Chen, Yongxing; Shi, Rongguang; Cheng, Zhenhua; Dong, Hongmin

    2017-08-01

    We evaluated the effects of mineral salt supplement on enteric methane emissions, ruminal fermentation and methanogen community of dairy cows over a whole lactation period. Ten Holstein cows fed a total mixed ration (TMR) diet were randomly allocated into two groups, one supplied with mineral salts as the treatment group and the other as the control group. The methane measurement showed that the ingestion of mineral salts lowered enteric methane emissions significantly (P methane emissions by mineral salt intake could be attributed to decreased density of methanogenic archaea and that fluctuations in methane emission over the lactation period might be related to Methanobrevibacter diversity. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Short communication: Association of lying behavior and subclinical ketosis in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, E I; LeBlanc, S J; McBride, B W; Duffield, T F; DeVries, T J

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the association of lying behavior and subclinical ketosis (SCK) in transition dairy cows. A total of 339 dairy cows (107 primiparous and 232 multiparous) on 4 commercial dairy farms were monitored for lying behavior and SCK from 14d before calving until 28 d after calving. Lying time, frequency of lying bouts, and average lying bout length were measured using automated data loggers 24h/d. Cows were tested for SCK 1×/wk by taking a blood sample and analyzing for β-hydroxybutyrate; cows with β-hydroxybutyrate ≥1.2mmol/L postpartum were considered to have SCK. Cases of retained placenta, metritis, milk fever, or mastitis during the study period were recorded and cows were categorized into 1 of 4 groups: healthy (HLT) cows had no SCK or any other health problem (n=139); cows treated for at least 1 health issue other than SCK (n=50); SCK (HYK) cows with no other health problems during transition (n=97); or subclinically ketotic plus (HYK+) cows that had SCK and 1 or more other health problems (n=53). Daily lying time was summarized by week and comparisons were made between HLT, HYK, and HYK+, respectively. We found no difference among health categories in lying time, bout frequency, or bout length fromwk -2 towk +4 relative to calving for first-lactation cows. Differences in lying time for multiparous cows were seen inwk +1, when HYK+ cows spent 92±24.0 min/d more time lying down than HLT cows, and duringwk +3 and +4 when HYK cows spent 44±16.7 and 41±18.9 min/d, respectively, more time lying down than HLT cows. Increased odds of HYK+ were found to be associated with higher parity, longer dry period, and greater stall stocking density inwk -1 and longer lying time duringwk +1. When comparing HYK to HLT cows, the same variables were associated with odds of SCK; however, lying time was not retained in the final model. These results suggest that monitoring lying time may contribute to identifying multiparous cows

  5. Effect of physical activity on cardiac autonomic function of dairy cows on commercial dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kézér, Fruzsina Luca; Tőzsér, János; Bakony, Mikolt; Szenci, Ottó; Jurkovich, Viktor; Kovács, Levente

    2017-11-01

    Interbeat interval data were collected from 219 Holstein cows in 2 smaller-scale farms and 3 larger-scale farms to investigate the effects of posture (standing vs. lying), rumination (rumination vs. no rumination) and feeding on baseline values of heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters reflecting vagal and sympathetic activity. A General Linear Model was used for detecting factors (parity, milking technology, herd size) having possible effects on HRV calculated for undisturbed lying posture. Basal values of cardiac parameters were also compared between larger and smaller-scale farms. Neither parity nor milking technology affected HRV parameters. Sympathetic activity increased in the order of lying, ruminating when lying, standing, ruminating when standing and feeding on both sizes of farms. Vagal activity decreased in that order in both lower- and larger-scale farms. Rumination caused an increase in HR and a decrease in vagal tone in both lower- and larger-scale farms and an increase in sympathetic activity during lying in both farm sizes. Basal vagal activity was lower in larger-scale farms compared to smaller-scale farms, while greater sympathetic activity was found in cows housed on larger-scale farms. Our findings demonstrate that reference values of HRV parameters in lactating dairy cows cannot be generally defined for Holstein cattle as they are affected by physical activity and herd size. Higher HR and sympathetic activity at rest in larger-scale farms compared to farms with lower cow population might be associated with higher levels of social stress and therefore should be considered as a potential welfare concern.

  6. Feeding saponin-containing Yucca schidigera and Quillaja saponaria to decrease enteric methane production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtshausen, L; Chaves, A V; Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M; McAllister, T A; Odongo, N E; Cheeke, P R; Benchaar, C

    2009-06-01

    An experiment was conducted in vitro to determine whether the addition of saponin-containing Yucca schidigera or Quillaja saponaria reduces methane production without impairing ruminal fermentation or fiber digestion. A slightly lower dose of saponin was then fed to lactating dairy cows to evaluate effects on ruminal fermentation, methane production, total-tract nutrient digestibility, and milk production and composition. A 24-h batch culture in vitro incubation was conducted in a completely randomized design with a control (no additive, CON) and 3 doses of either saponin source [15, 30, and 45 g/kg of substrate dry matter (DM)] using buffered ruminal fluid from 3 dairy cows. The in vivo study was conducted as a crossover design with 2 groups of cows, 3 treatments, and three 28-d periods. Six ruminally cannulated cows were used in group 1 and 6 intact cows in group 2 (627 +/- 55 kg of body weight and 155 +/- 28 d in milk). The treatments were 1) early lactation total mixed ration, no additive (control; CON); 2) CON diet supplemented with whole-plant Y. schidigera powder at 10 g/kg of DM (YS); and 3) CON diet supplemented with whole-plant Q. saponaria powder at 10 g/kg of DM (QS). Methane production was measured in environmental chambers and with the sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) tracer technique. In vitro, increasing levels of both saponin sources decreased methane concentration in the headspace and increased the proportion of propionate in the buffered rumen fluid. Concentration of ammonia-N, acetate proportion, and the acetate:propionate ratio in the buffered rumen fluid as well as 24-h digestible neutral detergent fiber were reduced compared with the CON treatment. Medium and high saponin levels decreased DM digestibility compared with the CON treatment. A lower feeding rate of both saponin sources (10 g/kg of DM) was used in vivo in an attempt to avoid potentially negative effects of higher saponin levels on feed digestibility. Feeding saponin did not affect milk

  7. Use of monosodium glutamate by-product in cow diet on performance of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padunglerk, Achira; Prasanpanich, Somkiert; Kongmun, Phongthorn

    2017-01-01

    Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were monosodium glutamate by-product (MSGB) replacement for soybean meal in concentrate at four levels: MSGB replacement at 0, 20, 40 and 60%, respectively. Pangola hay was given on an ad libitum basis. It was found that total dry matter intake, concentrate intake, pangola hay intake and all apparent digestibilities were not different among treatments. Ammonia nitrogen concentration in the rumen at 4 h post-feeding was significantly different, in which the 0% treatment had the highest (P < 0.05) while the 20% treatment had the lowest. Milk fat percentage was the highest (P < 0.05) in the 0% treatment. MSGB replacement at 40% and 60% were shown to be the lowest (P < 0.05) feed cost for milk production, and profitability of milk production was the highest (P < 0.05) for the 60% treatment. Based on this experiment, it could be concluded that MSGB replacement for soybean meal at 20-60% in the feed for dairy cows presented no negative effects on their performances. In addition, it could decrease feed cost 2.9-17.3% and increase milk production profit up to 33.3% in the 60% treatment. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Milk production, intake, digestion, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of cows supplemented with by-products from the biodiesel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga Neto, Severino; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sá; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Viégas, Júlio; do Nascimento, Nilton Guedes; de Freitas Neto, Marcondes Dias

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestion, blood parameters, and feeding behavior of crossbred dairy cows (Holstein × Gir) managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 and provided supplementation with groundnut cake, sunflower cake, or palm kernel cake (to replace soybean meal). Sixteen cows were randomly assigned in a Latin square design with four treatments and four experimental periods. The consumption of nutrients from the pasture did not vary between experimental treatments. Cows receiving the palm kernel cake supplement had a reduced crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrate, and total digestible nutrient intake and an increase in the average consumption of ether extract. There was also a reduction in the digestibility of dry matter. The inclusion of supplements in the diet did not influence the average time spent eating, ruminating, or resting. The mean values of respiratory and heart rates showed thermal comfort during the trial period. There was a reduction in blood urea nitrogen with palm kernel cake supplementation, and the values of total protein, albumin, and glucose were also significantly different with this supplement. It is recommended that cakes of groundnut cake and sunflower cake seed be used for a total replacement of soybean meal supplements for lactating cows, but the use of palm kernel cake is not recommended.

  9. Invited review: palmitic and stearic acid metabolism in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loften, J R; Linn, J G; Drackley, J K; Jenkins, T C; Soderholm, C G; Kertz, A F

    2014-01-01

    Energy is the most limiting nutritional component in diets for high-producing dairy cows. Palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids have unique and specific functions in lactating dairy cows beyond a ubiquitous energy source. This review delineates their metabolism and usage in lactating dairy cows from diet to milk production. Palmitic acid is the fatty acid (FA) found in the greatest quantity in milk fat. Dietary sources of C16:0 generally increase milk fat yield and are used as an energy source for milk production and replenishing body weight loss during periods of negative energy balance. Stearic acid is the most abundant FA available to the dairy cow and is used to a greater extent for milk production and energy balance than C16:0. However, C18:0 is also intimately involved in milk fat production. Quantifying the transfer of each FA from diet into milk fat is complicated by de novo synthesis of C16:0 and desaturation of C18:0 to oleic acid in the mammary gland. In addition, incorporation of both FA into milk fat appears to be limited by the cow's requirement to maintain fluidity of milk, which requires a balance between saturated and unsaturated FA. Oleic acid is the second most abundant FA in milk fat and likely the main unsaturated FA involved in regulating fluidity of milk. Because the mammary gland can desaturate C18:0 to oleic acid, C18:0 appears to have a more prominent role in milk production than C16:0. To understand metabolism and utilization of these FA in lactating dairy cows, we reviewed production and milk fat synthesis studies. Additional and longer lactation studies on feeding both FA to lactating dairy cows are required to better delineate their roles in optimizing milk production and milk FA composition and yield. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Oxidative stress and imbalance of mineral metabolism contribute to lameness in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue-Jun; Wang, Xin-Yu; Wang, Jun-Hong; Wang, Zhen-Yong; Wang, Lin; Wang, Zhong-Hua

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate correlations between oxidative stress, metabolism of mineral elements, and lameness in dairy cows. Forty multiparous Chinese Holstein dairy cows were selected and divided into two groups (healthy vs lame, n = 20) by gait score. The experiment lasted for 60 days and samples of hair, blood, and hoof were collected at days 0, 30, and 60 of experiment period, individually. Compared with healthy cows, elevation of MDA, CTX-II, COMP levels, and GSSG/GSH ratio together with depletion of SOD and MT levels in the serum were revealed in lame cows. Simultaneously, significant decreased contents of Zn, Cu, and Mn in the serum, hair, and hoof samples were shown in lame cows, but there was no obvious difference in contents of P, Mg, and Ca (except hoof Ca) in the serum, hair, and hoof between healthy and lame cows. In addition, histological examination and the hardness test demonstrated a poor hoof quality in lame cows. In summary, oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of lameness caused by imbalance of nutrients (especially selective minerals promoting healthy hoof growth) in dairy cows.

  11. Gait of dairy cows on floors with different slipperiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telezhenko, E; Magnusson, M; Bergsten, C

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the slip resistance of different types of solid flooring in cattle housing using a range of technical tests and gait analysis. Dynamic and static coefficient of friction, skid resistance, and abrasiveness were tested on concrete flooring with a smooth finish, a grooved pattern, or a tamped pattern, acid-resistant mastic asphalt, soft rubber mats, and a worn slatted concrete floor. Coefficients of friction and skid resistance were tested under clean and slurry-soiled conditions. Linear kinematic variables were assessed in 40 cows with trackway measurements after the cows passed over the floors in a straight walk. All gait variables were assessed as deviations from those obtained on the slatted concrete floor, which was used as a baseline. The coefficient of friction tests divided the floors into 3 categories: concrete flooring, which had a low coefficient of friction (0.29-0.41); mastic asphalt flooring, which had medium values (0.38-0.45); and rubber mats, which had high values (0.49-0.57). The highest abrasion (g/10 m) was on the asphalt flooring (4.48), and the concrete flooring with a tamped pattern had significantly higher abrasiveness (2.77) than the other concrete floors (1.26-1.60). Lowest values on the skid-resistance tests (dry/wet) were for smooth concrete (79/35) and mastic asphalt (65/47), especially with a slurry layer on the surface. Gait analysis mainly differentiated floors with higher friction and abrasion by longer strides and better tracking. Step asymmetry was lower on floors with high skid-resistance values. The most secure cow gait, in almost every aspect, was observed on soft rubber mats. Relationships between gait variables and physical floor characteristics ranged from average to weak (partial correlations 0.54-0.16). Thus, none of the physical characteristics alone was informative enough to characterize slip resistance. With reference to gait analysis, the abrasiveness of the hard surfaces was more informative than the

  12. Vitamin D3 synthesis in the entire skin surface of dairy cows despite hair coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2010-01-01

    How hair-coated animals such as dairy cows synthesize endogenous vitamin D3 during exposure to summer sunlight has been unclear since vitamin D3 and its relation to sunlight was discovered. The fur of fur-bearing animals is thought to be comparable to clothing in humans, which prevents vitamin D3...... produce the vitamin. To test different scenarios, 16 Danish Holstein dairy cows were subjected to 4 degrees of coverage of their bodies with fabric that prevented vitamin D3 synthesis in the covered skin areas. The treatments were horse blanket (cows fitted with horse blankets), udder cover (cows fitted...... inversely correlated to the body surface area covered. These results are consistent with findings in humans, wherein the vitamin D3 status of different individuals was inversely proportional to the amount of clothing worn during exposure to artificial sunlight. Hence, it appears that human clothing and cow...

  13. A herd health approach to dairy cow nutrition and production diseases of the transition cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, F J; O'Grady, L; Rice, D A; Doherty, M L

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents a practical, on-farm approach for the monitoring and prevention of production disease in dairy cattle. This integrated approach, should be used in an interdisciplinary way by farmers, veterinarians, nutrition advisors and other relevant professionals for the improvement of animal health and welfare and producer profitability. The key areas that form the basis for this approach are body condition score management, negative energy balance, hypocalcaemia, rumen health and trace element status. Monitoring criteria are described for each of these key areas, which when considered collectively, will facilitate the assessment of dairy cow health with regard to clinical and subclinical disease. The criteria, which are informed by published scientific literature, are based on farm management and environmental factors, clinical data, milk production records, dietary analysis, and assessment of blood and liver concentrations of various metabolites or trace elements. The aim is to review the efficacy of production disease control measures currently in place, and if necessary to modify them or formulate new ones.

  14. Invited review: Learning from the future-A vision for dairy farms and cows in 2067.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, J H; Cushman, R A; Dechow, C D; Dobson, H; Humblot, P; Hutjens, M F; Jones, G A; Ruegg, P S; Sheldon, I M; Stevenson, J S

    2018-02-28

    The worldwide population in 2067 will reach 10.4 billion with 81% residing in Africa or Asia. Arable land available for food production will decrease to 0.15 ha per person. Temperature will increase in tropical and temperate zones, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, and this will push growing seasons and dairy farming away from arid areas and into more northern latitudes. Dairy consumption will increase because it provides essential nutrients more efficiently than many other agricultural systems. Dairy farming will become modernized in developing countries and milk production per cow will increase, doubling in countries with advanced dairying systems. Profitability of dairy farms will be the key to their sustainability. Genetic improvements will include emphasis on the coding genome and associated noncoding epigenome of cattle, and on microbiomes of dairy cattle and farmsteads. Farm sizes will increase and there will be greater lateral integration of housing and management of dairy cattle of different ages and production stages. Integrated sensors, robotics, and automation will replace much of the manual labor on farms. Managing the epigenome and microbiome will become part of routine herd management. Innovations in dairy facilities will improve the health of cows and permit expression of natural behaviors. Herds will be viewed as superorganisms, and studies of herds as observational units will lead to improvements in productivity, health, and well-being of dairy cattle, and improve the agroecology and sustainability of dairy farms. Dairy farmers in 2067 will meet the world's needs for essential nutrients by adopting technologies and practices that provide improved cow health and longevity, profitable dairy farms, and sustainable agriculture. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The acute effect of addition of nitrate on in vitro and in vivo methane emission in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Peter; Dahl, R.; Yang, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    production increased again when nitrate supplementation was stopped. A similar effect was found when relating CH4 to carbon dioxide, and to DM intake. Addition of nitrate was followed by increased hydrogen production, which decreased again when nitrate was stopped. Nitrate addition did not affect in vitro......The effects of a 24-h administration of a ration high in nitrate (20 g/kg DM) on DM intake and enteric gas production in lactating dairy cows as well as the effect of different doses of nitrate on in vitro fermentation were studied. Nitrate reduced in vivo methane (CH4) production by 31%, and CH4...

  16. Serum zinc concentration of dairy cow supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with and without hoof lesions / Concentração do zinco sérico em vacas leiteiras suplementadas com Saccharomyces cerevisiae, portadoras ou não de lesões podais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Vianna

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate bovine serum zinc concentration in animals with and without hoof lesions, supplemented or not with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an organic zinc source. The supplementation was carried out during 180 days. Forty-five Holstein cows were randomly chosen from a dairy herd of 189 lactating cows. The animals were distributed in three groups. In G1, 20 heifers with foot lesions were fed a diet supplemented with S. cerevisae. In G2, 10 heifers without hoof lesions were fed a diet with supplementation. In G3, 15 heifers with hoof lesions were fed a diet without supplementation. Serum samples were collected on day 0, 90 and 180, after the beginning of the experiment. Serum zinc concentration was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The results showed there not to be an increase significant serum of zinc among the groups, and in the animals inside of the group 1 (G1 it happened an increase (P Com o objetivo de determinar as concentrações de zinco no soro de bovinos com e sem lesões podais, suplementados ou não com Saccharomyces cerevisiae, como fonte de zinco orgânico, por 180 dias, foram selecionadas e examinadas 45 vacas holandesas pretas e brancas, escolhidas aleatoriamente em um rebanho de 189 vacas em lactação. Os animais foram distribuídos em três grupos, sendo grupo 1 (G1 composto por 20 vacas com lesões podais e suplementadas, grupo 2 (G2 10 animais sem lesões e com suplementação, e grupo 3 (G3 15 animais com lesões e sem suplementação. Amostras de soro foram coletadas no momento inicial (dia zero, 90 e 180 dias após início do experimento, sendo as concentrações determinadas por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Os resultados demonstram não haver um aumento sérico significativo de zinco entre os grupos, sendo que nos animais dentro do grupo 1 (G1 ocorreu um aumento (P < 0,01 da concentração de zinco (0,84 para 1,16µg/mL. A suplementação oral de zinco org

  17. Expression and detection of estrus in dairy cows: the role of new technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, P M; Carvalho, P D; Giordano, J O; Valenza, A; Lopes, G; Amundson, M C

    2014-05-01

    Despite the widespread adoption of hormonal synchronization protocols that allow for timed artificial insemination (AI), detection of estrus plays an important role in the reproductive management program on most dairies in the United States. Increased physical activity is a secondary sign of estrus in dairy cattle, and a new generation of electronic systems that continuously monitor physical activity to predict timing of AI have been developed and marketed to the dairy industry. A variety of management and physiologic challenges inhibit detection of behavioral estrus on farms, but the prevalence of anouvular cows near the end of the voluntary waiting period is particularly problematic. Only 70% of lactating Holstein cows were detected in estrus when using an activity monitoring system, with the remaining 20% of cows classified as anovular and 10% ovulating without showing signs of activity. Mean time of AI in relation to ovulation based on the activity monitoring system was acceptable for most of the cows with increased activity, however, variability in the duration of estrus and timing of AI in relation to ovulation could result in poor pregnancy outcomes in some cows. Use of a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol for submission of cows for first AI has been widely adopted by dairies in the United States, and a combined approach in which AI based on activity is followed by submission of cows not detected with activity to timed AI after synchronization of ovulation may be an effective strategy for submission of cows to first AI. Based on a field trial on a large commercial dairy in the United States, the activity monitoring system detected 70% of cows with increased activity after the second PGF2α injection of a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol, however, cows inseminated to increased activity had fewer pregnancies per AI (P/AI) compared with cows with increased activity after the second PGF2α injection that received timed AI after completing the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol. Based on

  18. Replacing grass silage with pea-barley intercrop silage in the feeding of the dairy cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. PURSIAINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of replacing wilted grass silage (GS with pea-barley intercrop silage (PBS on feed intake, diet digestibility and milk production was studied with 8 multiparous Ayrshire-cows in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. Proportion of PBS was 0 (PBS0, 33 (PBS33, 67 (PBS67 or 100 (PBS100 % of silage dry matter (DM. The DM content was 559 and 255 g kg-1 for GS and PBS. Crude protein content was 131 and 170 g kg-1 DM, respectively. Pea-barley silage was more extensively fermented than GS with total fermentation acid content of 120 vs. 12 g kg-1 DM. Silage was fed for ad libitum intake and supplemented with on the average 13 kg concentrate per day. Silage DM intake was 9.2 (PBS0, 9.7 (PBS33, 9.0 (PBS67 and 7.1 (PBS100 kg per day (Pquadr. < 0.05. The energy corrected milk yield [30.3 (PBS0, 29.8 (PBS33, 30.3 (PBS67, 31.3 (PBS100 kg per day] was not significantly affected by the treatment. Milk protein concentration decreased linearly (P < 0.05 in response to feeding PBS. It is concluded that PBS can replace up to two thirds of wilted, moderate quality GS in the feeding of dairy cows because in this experiment pure pea-barley silage reduced silage intake.

  19. An Immunogenomics Approach to Understanding Periparturient Immunosuppression and Mastitis Susceptibility in Dairy Cows*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sipkovsky SS

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies comparing in vivo and in vitro functional capacities of leukocytes from non-parturient and periparturient dairy cows have provided substantial evidence that systemic and local mammary immune defenses are deficient around parturition. This evidence has lead to the reasonable hypothesis that immune deficiency underlies the heightened mastitis susceptibility of periparturient cows. Nutrition and vaccine studies substantiate this hypothesis, showing that dietary antioxidant supplementation and rigorous immunization regimes can bolster innate and humoral immunity to the point that mastitis severity and time for return to normal milk production are reduced. However, completely effective resolution of this significant production disease has not been achieved because so little is understood about its complex etiology. In particular, we possess almost no knowledge of how or why immune cells responding to parturient physiology end up with deficient functional capacities. Fluctuations in reproductive steroid hormones and chronic shifts in neuroendocrine hormones with roles in nutrient partitioning and appetite control may affect the expression of critical leukocyte genes in periparturient dairy cows. A thorough understanding of leukocyte biology during periparturition would seem a critical goal for future development of effective mastitis prevention strategies. Recently, our group has begun to use cDNA microarray technology to explore bovine leukocyte RNA for global gene expression changes occurring around parturition. We are working within the context of a hypothesis that the physiology of parturition negatively affects expression of critical genes in blood leukocytes. In the current study we initiated hypothesis testing using leukocyte RNA from a high producing Holstein cow collected at 14 days prepartum and 6 hours postpartum to interrogate a cDNA microarray spotted with >700 cDNAs representing unique bovine leukocyte genes. This analysis

  20. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finnish dairy cows: changes during recent decades and impact of cow and herd factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiitiö, Heidi; Vakkamäki, Johanna; Simojoki, Heli; Autio, Tiina; Junnila, Jouni; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Pyörälä, Satu

    2017-04-20

    The dairy industry has undergone substantial structural changes as intensive farming has developed during recent decades. Mastitis continues to be the most common production disease of dairy cows. Nationwide surveys of mastitis prevalence are useful in monitoring udder health of dairy herds and to study the impact of structural changes on the dairy industry. This survey on bovine subclinical mastitis was the first based on cow composite milk somatic cell count (SCC) data from the Finnish national health monitoring and milk recording database. A cow with composite milk SCC ≥200,000 cells/ml in at least one of the four test milkings during the year was considered to have subclinical mastitis and a cow with composite milk SCC ≥200,000 cells/ml in three or in all four test milkings during the year to have chronic subclinical mastitis. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and chronic subclinical mastitis in Finland in 1991, 2001 and 2010 and to investigate cow and herd factors associated with elevated SCC. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finland decreased over recent decades from 22.3% (1991) and 20.1% (2001) to 19.0% (2010). Prevalence of chronic subclinical mastitis was 20.4% in 1991, 15.5% in 2001 and 16.1% in 2010. The most significant cow and herd factors associated with subclinical mastitis or high milk SCC were increasing parity, Holstein breed, free-stalls with an automatic milking system and organic production. Milk SCC were highest from July to September. Main factors associated with chronic mastitis were increasing parity and Holstein breed. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finland decreased over recent decades, the greatest change taking place during the first decade of the study. Prevalence of chronic subclinical mastitis significantly decreased from 1991. The most significant factors associated with both types of mastitis were increasing parity and Holstein breed, and for subclinical mastitis also

  1. Lateralization of behavior in dairy cows in response to conspecifics and novel persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C J C; Oevermans, H; Syrett, K L; Jespersen, A Y; Pearce, G P

    2015-04-01

    The right brain hemisphere, connected to the left eye, coordinates fight and flight behaviors in a wide variety of vertebrate species. We investigated whether left eye vision predominates in dairy cows' interactions with other cows and humans, and whether dominance status affects the extent of visual lateralization. Although we found no overall lateralization of eye use to view other cows during interactions, cows that were submissive in an interaction were more likely to use their left eye to view a dominant animal. Both subordinate and older cows were more likely to use their left eye to view other cattle during interactions. Cows that predominantly used their left eye during aggressive interactions were more likely to use their left eye to view a person in unfamiliar clothing in the middle of a track by passing them on the right side. However, a person in familiar clothing was viewed predominantly with the right eye when they passed mainly on the left side. Cows predominantly using their left eyes in cow-to-cow interactions showed more overt responses to restraint in a crush compared with cows who predominantly used their right eyes during interactions (crush scores: left eye users 7.9, right eye users 6.4, standard error of the difference=0.72). Thus, interactions between 2 cows and between cows and people were visually lateralized, with losing and subordinate cows being more likely to use their left eyes to view winning and dominant cattle and unfamiliar humans. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Herd-level and contextual factors influencing dairy cow mortality in France in 2005 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboisson, D; Cahuzac, E; Sans, P; Allaire, G

    2011-04-01

    Dairy cow mortality causes financial loss and is increasing over time; it indicates suboptimal herd health or welfare. To describe the herd-level and contextual factors affecting cow mortality, the French National Bovine Dataset Identification was used to create dairy, beef, or fattening units within farms, for 2005 and 2006. Mortality rate (MO-RA, outcome variable) and most variables were calculated at the unit level, whereas contextual variables were defined at the municipality level [cattle density, inhabitant density, agricultural land always with grass on overall agricultural land (ALWG/OAL)]. The localization (11 dairy production areas, representative of the farming systems) was also included. The statistical analysis was performed with a probit regression model (MO-RA=0 or>0) and with a linear model corrected by the Heckman method for bias sample selection. For 2005 and 2006, 3.8 and 3.7 million dairy cow-years, 101,445 and 96,954 dairy units, and 141,677 and 143,424 deaths were recorded, respectively. Over one-third of the units had no dairy cow mortality in 2005 or 2006. Overall MO-RA was 3.7 and 3.8% for 2005 and 2006, respectively. Restricted MO-RA (farms without death excluded) was 5.8% for 2005 and 2006. The correlation of MO-RA among units between the 2 yr was 0.25. The same effects and close estimate values were reported for 2005 and 2006 with both models. Mortality rate was positively associated with the number of cow-years, having a beef unit in addition to a dairy unit, the proportion of purchased cows, the proportion of first-calving cows, the average calving interval, being a Milk Control Program member, inhabitant density, not being in dairy production area Grand-Ouest, and ALWG/OAL. Negative associations were reported for breed other than Holstein, being a Good Breeding Practices member, having a calving peak in autumn, culling rate, and municipal cattle density. This study reports an average mortality rate for the French dairy cows. It

  3. Identification of diagnostic biomarkers and metabolic pathway shifts of heat-stressed lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, He; Wang, Weiyu; Zheng, Nan; Cheng, Jianbo; Li, Songli; Zhang, Yangdong; Wang, Jiaqi

    2015-07-01

    Controlling heat stress (HS) is a global challenge for the dairy industry. However, simple and reliable biomarkers that aid the diagnoses of HS-induced metabolic disorders have not yet been identified. In this work, an integrated metabolomic and lipidomic approach using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and ultra-fast LC-MS was employed to investigate the discrimination of plasma metabolic profiles between HS-free and HS lactating dairy cows. Targeted detection using LC-MS in multiple reaction monitoring mode was used to verify the reliability of the metabolites as biomarker candidates. Overall, 41 metabolites were identified as candidates for lactating dairy cows exposed to HS, among which 13 metabolites, including trimethylamine, glucose, lactate, betaine, creatine, pyruvate, acetoacetate, acetone, β-hydroxybutyrate, C16 sphinganine, lysophosphatidylcholine (18:0), phosphatidylcholine (16:0/14:0), and arachidonic acid, had high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing HS status, and are likely to be the potential biomarkers of HS dairy cows. All of these potentially diagnostic biomarkers were involved in carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, or gut microbiome-derived metabolism, indicating that HS affected the metabolic pathways in lactating dairy cows. Further research is warranted to evaluate these biomarkers in practical applications and to elucidate the physiological mechanisms of HS-induced metabolic disorders. Heat stress (HS) annually causes huge losses to global dairy industry, including animal performance decrease, metabolic disorder and health problem. So far, physiological mechanisms underlying HS of dairy cows still remain elusive. To our best knowledge, this is the first attempt to elucidate the HS-induced metabolic disorders of dairy cows using integrated (1)H NMR and LC-MS-based metabolic study. The results not only provided potential diagnostic biomarkers for HS lactating dairy cows, but also significantly explored the related physiological mechanisms

  4. Effects of intramuscular injections of folic acid, vitamin B12, or both, on lactational performance and energy status of multiparous dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplessis, M; Lapierre, H; Pellerin, D; Laforest, J-P; Girard, C L

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to gain understanding on changes in energy partitioning when folic acid and vitamin B 12 supplements, alone or combined, were given by weekly intramuscular injections from 3 wk before the expected calving date until 7 wk postpartum. Twenty-four multiparous cows were assigned to 6 blocks of 4 cows each according to previous 305-d lactation yield to either 0 or 320 mg of folic acid and 0 or 10 mg of vitamin B 12 in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Plasma concentration of folates was increased by folic acid supplement, and this increase was greater with the combined supplement. Vitamin B 12 supplement increased plasma concentration of vitamin B 12 . Even though postpartum energy balance was similar among treatments, postpartum body condition score was higher for cows receiving folic acid supplement compared with cows that did not. Milk yield of cows receiving folic acid supplement reached a plateau earlier than for cows that did not. Fat and protein, as well as total solid concentrations and yields, were unaffected by treatments. Postpartum plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin were higher and postpartum plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids was lower for cows that received weekly folic acid supplement compared with cows that did not. Plasma concentration of methylmalonic acid was low and unaffected by treatments, suggesting that vitamin B 12 supply was not limiting, even for unsupplemented cows. Postpartum plasma concentrations of Cys, His, Phe, and Tyr were increased, whereas plasma concentration of Gly was decreased, by folic acid supplement. In the present study, supplementary folic acid altered energy partitioning in early lactation as suggested by similar milk total solid yield and postpartum energy balance, lower plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration and body condition score losses, and higher plasma glucose and insulin concentrations for cows receiving folic acid supplement compared with cows that

  5. Does ownership of improved dairy cow breeds improve child nutrition? A pathway analysis for Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabunga, Nassul S; Ghosh, Shibani; Webb, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The promotion of livestock production is widely believed to support enhanced diet quality and child nutrition, but the empirical evidence for this causal linkage remains narrow and ambiguous. This study examines whether adoption of improved dairy cow breeds is linked to farm-level outcomes that translate into household-level benefits including improved child nutrition outcomes in Uganda. Using nationwide data from Uganda's National Panel Survey, propensity score matching is used to create an unbiased counterfactual, based on observed characteristics, to assess the net impacts of improved dairy cow adoption. All estimates were tested for robustness and sensitivity to variations in observable and unobservable confounders. Results based on the matched samples showed that households adopting improved dairy cows significantly increased milk yield-by over 200% on average. This resulted in higher milk sales and milk intakes, demonstrating the potential of this agricultural technology to both integrate households into modern value chains and increase households' access to animal source foods. Use of improved dairy cows increased household food expenditures by about 16%. Although undernutrition was widely prevalent in the study sample and in matched households, the adoption of improved dairy cows was associated with lower child stunting in adopter household. In scale terms, results also showed that holding larger farms tends to support adoption, but that this also stimulates the household's ability to achieve gains from adoption, which can translate into enhanced nutrition.

  6. Effects of glucose on lactose synthesis in mammary epithelial cells from dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ye; Sun, Xiaoxu; Hou, Xiaoming; Qu, Bo; Gao, Xuejun; Li, Qingzhang

    2016-05-26

    Lactose, as the primary osmotic component in milk, is the major determinant of milk volume. Glucose is the primary precursor of lactose. However, the effect of glucose on lactose synthesis in dairy cow mammary glands and the mechanism governing this process are poorly understood. Here we showed that glucose has the ability to induce lactose synthesis in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells, as well as increase cell viability and proliferation. A concentration of 12 mM glucose was the optimum concentration to induce cell growth and lactose synthesis in cultured dairy cow mammary epithelial cells. In vitro, 12 mM glucose enhanced lactose content, along with the expression of genes involved in glucose transportation and the lactose biosynthesis pathway, including GLUT1, SLC35A2, SLC35B1, HK2, β4GalT-I, and AKT1. In addition, we found that AKT1 knockdown inhibited cell growth and lactose synthesis as well as expression of GLUT1, SLC35A2, SLC35B1, HK2, and β4GalT-I. Glucose induces cell growth and lactose synthesis in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells. Protein kinase B alpha acts as a regulator of metabolism in dairy cow mammary gland to mediate the effects of glucose on lactose synthesis.

  7. Mastitis vaccines in dairy cows: Recent developments and recommendations of application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Bani Ismail

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review article was to summarize the most recent clinical field trials that have been published evaluating the use of different types of vaccines against mastitis pathogens in dairy cows. Mastitis is one of the most common and economically important diseases in dairy cows in the world. The disease is considered an important welfare issue facing the dairy industry in addition to the loss of production and premature removal or death of affected cows. Losses are also related to high cost of veterinary medicines and the cost of unsalable milk of treated cows. Mastitis can be caused by either contagious or environmental pathogens both of which are best prevented rather than treated. In addition to the application of best management practices in the parlor during milking, vaccination against common udder pathogens is widely practiced in many dairy farms to prevent or reduce the severity of clinical mastitis. In this review, the most recent clinical field studies that evaluated the use of different types of vaccines in dairy cows are summarized.

  8. Does ownership of improved dairy cow breeds improve child nutrition? A pathway analysis for Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassul S Kabunga

    Full Text Available The promotion of livestock production is widely believed to support enhanced diet quality and child nutrition, but the empirical evidence for this causal linkage remains narrow and ambiguous. This study examines whether adoption of improved dairy cow breeds is linked to farm-level outcomes that translate into household-level benefits including improved child nutrition outcomes in Uganda. Using nationwide data from Uganda's National Panel Survey, propensity score matching is used to create an unbiased counterfactual, based on observed characteristics, to assess the net impacts of improved dairy cow adoption. All estimates were tested for robustness and sensitivity to variations in observable and unobservable confounders. Results based on the matched samples showed that households adopting improved dairy cows significantly increased milk yield-by over 200% on average. This resulted in higher milk sales and milk intakes, demonstrating the potential of this agricultural technology to both integrate households into modern value chains and increase households' access to animal source foods. Use of improved dairy cows increased household food expenditures by about 16%. Although undernutrition was widely prevalent in the study sample and in matched households, the adoption of improved dairy cows was associated with lower child stunting in adopter household. In scale terms, results also showed that holding larger farms tends to support adoption, but that this also stimulates the household's ability to achieve gains from adoption, which can translate into enhanced nutrition.

  9. Transfer efficiency of melamine from feed to milk in lactating dairy cows fed with different doses of melamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, J S; Wang, J Q; Wei, H Y; Bu, D P; Sun, P; Zhou, L Y

    2010-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the transfer efficiency of melamine (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine) from feed to milk of lactating cows fed with different doses of melamine. Twenty-four China Holstein dairy cows were divided into 2 blocks according to milk yield (block 1 and block 2 for low- and high-producing cows). Cows of block 1 or block 2 each were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design and each treatment had 6 cows. The cows of treatments 1 to 4 were dosed with melamine at 0 (control), 90 (treatment 1), 270 (treatment 2), and 450 (treatment 3) mg/d per cow, respectively. The trial lasted 19 d. During the first 13 d, cows were fed melamine at the respective treatment levels, and the last 6 d was the clearance period after melamine was withdrawn. The results indicated that the levels of melamine used did not affect milk yield or composition. The mean milk melamine concentration increased during the initial 3 d after melamine feeding in all the melamine-supplemented groups, and then fluctuated slightly over the remaining 10 d of melamine feeding. No melamine was detected in the milk of any groups on d 4 of the clearance period. Milk melamine concentration measured between 3 to 13 d was significantly affected by melamine feeding doses, but was not influenced by milk yield. The transfer efficiency of melamine from feed to milk was not affected by melamine doses (0.95, 0.70, and 0.66% for treatments 1, 2, and 3, respectively), but was linearly related with milk yield (0.56% for block 1 and 0.95% for block 2, R(2)=0.80). The milk melamine concentration was linearly related with melamine intake (R(2)=0.84). The present study demonstrated that when the daily intake of melamine exceeds 312.7mg/cow, the milk should not be used to produce infant formula powder. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Seasonal and parity effects on ghrelin levels throughout the estrous cycle in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Hen; Ofer, Lior; Elbaz, Michal; Kaim, Moshe; Shinder, Dima; Gershon, Eran

    2016-09-01

    In dairy cows, heat stress depresses appetite, leading to decreased food intake, a negative energy balance, and modifies ghrelin levels. Ghrelin is a gut-brain peptide with two major forms: acylated, with an O-n-octanoylated serine in position 3, and nonacylated. To date, the effect of heat stress and estrous cycle on ghrelin secretion in dairy cows has not been studied. We characterized ghrelin secretion during the estrous cycle in each, the winter and the summer seasons. We further examined the effects of parity on ghrelin secretion. Blood was collected from 10 primiparous or multiparous Israeli-Holstein dairy cows throughout the estrous cycle, in both, the hot and cold seasons. The levels of acylated and total ghrelin were measured in the blood samples. We found that both acylated and total ghrelin levels during heat stress were lower than their respective levels in the winter in both, primiparous and multiparous cows. No differences in acylated and total ghrelin levels were found between primiparous and multiparous cows in both seasons. We further found that in multiparous but not primiparous cows acylated ghrelin secretion oscillated during the estrous cycle in both seasons. Its levels peaked on the last days of the first follicular wave and on the days before and during ovulation. Interestingly, we found that elevated acylated ghrelin levels correlated with conception success and increased total ghrelin levels were associated with successful conception from first insemination. Our data is the first to demonstrate seasonal variation in ghrelin secretion. This study provides evidence for the yet unfamiliar link between heat stress, ghrelin and fertility. Increased circulating acylated ghrelin may contribute to improved fertility in dairy cows. It further raises the possibility of a link between ghrelin levels and successful inseminations. Further research is required to determine the effects of ghrelin on dairy cow performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc

  11. Central genomic regulation of the expression of oestrous behaviour in dairy cows: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelders, H; van der Lende, T; Kommadath, A; te Pas, M F W; Smits, M A; Kaal, L M T E

    2014-05-01

    The expression of oestrous behaviour in Holstein Friesian dairy cows has progressively decreased over the past 50 years. Reduced oestrus expression is one of the factors contributing to the current suboptimal reproductive efficiency in dairy farming. Variation between and within cows in the expression of oestrous behaviour is associated with variation in peripheral blood oestradiol concentrations during oestrus. In addition, there is evidence for a priming role of progesterone for the full display of oestrous behaviour. A higher rate of metabolic clearance of ovarian steroids could be one of the factors leading to lower peripheral blood concentrations of oestradiol and progesterone in high-producing dairy cows. Oestradiol acts on the brain by genomic, non-genomic and growth factor-dependent mechanisms. A firm base of understanding of the ovarian steroid-driven central genomic regulation of female sexual behaviour has been obtained from studies on rodents. These studies have resulted in the definition of five modules of oestradiol-activated genes in the brain, referred to as the GAPPS modules. In a recent series of studies, gene expression in the anterior pituitary and four brain areas (amygdala, hippocampus, dorsal hypothalamus and ventral hypothalamus) in oestrous and luteal phase cows, respectively, has been measured, and the relation with oestrous behaviour of these cows was analysed. These studies identified a number of genes of which the expression was associated with the intensity of oestrous behaviour. These genes could be grouped according to the GAPPS modules, suggesting close similarity of the regulation of oestrous behaviour in cows and female sexual behaviour in rodents. A better understanding of the central genomic regulation of the expression of oestrous behaviour in dairy cows may in due time contribute to improved (genomic) selection strategies for appropriate oestrus expression in high-producing dairy cows.

  12. Effect of feed forage particle size and dietary urea on excretion of phosphorus in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puggaard, Liselotte; Lund, Peter; Sehested, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Thirty six multiparous Danish Holstein cows, 222 days from calving with a standard deviation (±) of 102 days, 627±7 kg of body weight, and 32±3 kg/d energy corrected milk were used to investigate the effect of forage particle size (FPS) and dietary urea supplementation on excretion of phosphorus (P...... of grass hay was reduced to a theoretical particle size of 3 mm, as compared to 40–60 mm in CONTROL and LOW-N. Rations were fed for ad libitum intake for 16 d and balance trials were conducted on d 15 and 16. Indigestible neutral detergent fiber was used as an internal marker to estimate fecal output...... and total tract digestibilities. The obtained negative P balances confirmed that dairy cows were fed below P requirement, indicating that treatment effects on fecal P excretion mainly originated from variations in IL. Fecal P excretion was not reduced with reduced forage particle size despite reduction...

  13. Plasma metabolic profiling of dairy cows affected with clinical ketosis using LC/MS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Xu, C; Xia, C; Zhang, Hy; Sun, Lw; Gao, Y

    2014-01-01

    Ketosis in dairy cattle is an important metabolic disorder. Currently, the plasma metabolic profile of ketosis as determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has not been reported. To investigate plasma metabolic profiles from cows with clinical ketosis in comparison to control cows. Twenty Holstein dairy cows were divided into two groups based on clinical signs and plasma β-hydroxybutyric acid and glucose concentrations 7-21 days postpartum: clinical ketosis and control cows. Plasma metabolic profiles were analyzed using LC/MS. Data were processed using principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Compared to control cows, the levels of valine, glycine, glycocholic, tetradecenoic acid, and palmitoleic acid increased significantly in clinical ketosis. On the other hand, the levels of arginine, aminobutyric acid, leucine/isoleucine, tryptophan, creatinine, lysine, norcotinine, and undecanoic acid decreased markedly. Our results showed that the metabolic changes in cows with clinical ketosis involve complex metabolic networks and signal transduction. These results are important for future studies elucidating the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and prevention of clinical ketosis in dairy cows.

  14. Metabolomics analysis reveals large effect of roughage types on rumen microbial metabolic profile in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S; Zhao, J; Bu, D; Sun, P; Wang, J; Dong, Z

    2014-07-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the effect of diets with different types of roughage on the ruminal microbial metabolite profile in dairy cows. Holstein dairy cows were fed a diet containing either corn stover (CS group) or a mixture of alfalfa hay, Leymus chinensis hay and corn silage (MF group) at 0700 and 1900 h daily. Rumen fluid was sampled from each cow through a ruminal cannula at 0630 and 1030 h, and the mixed ruminal fluid from 3 day in each cow was analysed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A multivariate analysis revealed a significant difference between the ruminal metabolome of the CS and MF groups at both time points. The MF group had higher levels of acetate, valerate, hydrocinnamate and methylamine and lower levels of glucose, glycine, propionate and isovalerate than those in the CS group. Our results showed that different types of roughages can significantly influence the ruminal microbial metabolome, especially with regard to organic acids, amines and amino acids. The microbial metabolites in the rumen provide nutritional precursors that are critical for general health and milk production in dairy cows. However, studies of the effect of diet on ruminal microbial metabolism are scant. In our current study, we analysed the ruminal microbial metabolite profile of cows fed different types of roughage. We found that the ruminal microbial metabolite profile of cows fed a mixed-roughage diet differed significantly from that of cows fed a single type of roughage. Certain metabolites, such as acetate, hydrocinnamate and methylamine, were closely correlated with specific types of roughage. Our findings provide insight into the effects of different roughages on ruminal microbial fermentation in dairy cows. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Isolating the cow-specific part of residual energy intake in lactating dairy cows using random regressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, A; Friggens, N C; Berry, D P; Faverdin, P

    2017-12-11

    The ability to properly assess and accurately phenotype true differences in feed efficiency among dairy cows is key to the development of breeding programs for improving feed efficiency. The variability among individuals in feed efficiency is commonly characterised by the residual intake approach. Residual feed intake is represented by the residuals of a linear regression of intake on the corresponding quantities of the biological functions that consume (or release) energy. However, the residuals include both, model fitting and measurement errors as well as any variability in cow efficiency. The objective of this study was to isolate the individual animal variability in feed efficiency from the residual component. Two separate models were fitted, in one the standard residual energy intake (REI) was calculated as the residual of a multiple linear regression of lactation average net energy intake (NEI) on lactation average milk energy output, average metabolic BW, as well as lactation loss and gain of body condition score. In the other, a linear mixed model was used to simultaneously fit fixed linear regressions and random cow levels on the biological traits and intercept using fortnight repeated measures for the variables. This method split the predicted NEI in two parts: one quantifying the population mean intercept and coefficients, and one quantifying cow-specific deviations in the intercept and coefficients. The cow-specific part of predicted NEI was assumed to isolate true differences in feed efficiency among cows. NEI and associated energy expenditure phenotypes were available for the first 17 fortnights of lactation from 119 Holstein cows; all fed a constant energy-rich diet. Mixed models fitting cow-specific intercept and coefficients to different combinations of the aforementioned energy expenditure traits, calculated on a fortnightly basis, were compared. The variance of REI estimated with the lactation average model represented only 8% of the variance of

  16. Temporal changes in plasma concentrations of hormones and metabolites in pasture-fed dairy cows during extended lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marett, L C; Auldist, M J; Grainger, C; Wales, W J; Blache, D; Macmillan, K L; Leury, B J

    2011-10-01

    This experiment measured variations in plasma concentrations of metabolic hormones and metabolites in cows undergoing extended lactations of up to 670 d at 2 planes of nutrition. Thirty-seven Holstein-Friesian cows that calved in late winter were selected for varying milk yield and then managed for a lactation of 670 d by delaying breeding until approximately 450 d in milk (DIM). Cows grazed fresh pasture supplemented with pasture silage or hay and crushed wheat or triticale grain. Dietary intake was reduced by approximately 1.8 kg (dry matter) grain/cow per day for 19 of the cows from 300 DIM until the end of lactation to assess the effect of restricted energy intake on the persistency of milk production. Samples of blood were collected monthly from each cow to measure plasma concentrations of selected hormones and metabolites. Dietary restriction beyond 300 DIM reduced yields of milk, protein, and fat, but did not alter the proportion of cows reaching the 670-d lactation target. Dietary restriction had no effect on cow BW or plasma concentrations of any hormones or metabolites. Overall, blood plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I, leptin, and glucose were elevated from 301 to 600 DIM compared with 0 to 300 DIM, whereas concentrations of growth hormone and nonesterified fatty acids were lower after 300 DIM. Plasma concentrations of insulin and prolactin were unaffected by stage of lactation, but prolactin concentrations increased during summer. These changes were consistent with a decrease in milk yield and an increase in the partitioning of nutrients to body tissue gain, primarily adipose tissue, throughout the later stages of the extended lactation. Cows that continued milking beyond 600 DIM had increased plasma concentrations of growth hormone and decreased concentrations of glucose and leptin compared with cows that milked milk production at the expense of body tissue gain throughout the extended lactation period in cows with greater lactation

  17. Feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid affects enteric methane production and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.; Hatew, B.; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, Jan

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study potential interaction between the effects of feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) on enteric CH4 production and performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped into 7 blocks of 4

  18. Alteration of gene expression in mammary gland tissue of dairy cows in response to dietary unsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mach Casellas, N.; Jacobs, A.A.A.; Kruijt, L.; Baal, van J.; Smits, M.C.J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of unprotected dietary unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) from different plant oils on gene expression in the mammary gland of grazing dairy cows. Milk composition and gene expression in the mammary gland tissue were evaluated in grazing dairy cows

  19. Identification of predictive biomarkers of disease state in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, D; Mandal, R; Saleem, F; Dunn, S M; Wishart, D S; Ametaj, B N

    2014-05-01

    In dairy cows, periparturient disease states, such as metritis, mastitis, and laminitis, are leading to increasingly significant economic losses for the dairy industry. Treatments for these pathologies are often expensive, ineffective, or not cost-efficient, leading to production losses, high veterinary bills, or early culling of the cows. Early diagnosis or detection of these conditions before they manifest themselves could lower their incidence, level of morbidity, and the associated economic losses. In an effort to identify predictive biomarkers for postpartum or periparturient disease states in dairy cows, we undertook a cross-sectional and longitudinal metabolomics study to look at plasma metabolite levels of dairy cows during the transition period, before and after becoming ill with postpartum diseases. Specifically we employed a targeted quantitative metabolomics approach that uses direct flow injection mass spectrometry to track the metabolite changes in 120 different plasma metabolites. Blood plasma samples were collected from 12 dairy cows at 4 time points during the transition period (-4 and -1 wk before and 1 and 4 wk after parturition). Out of the 12 cows studied, 6 developed multiple periparturient disorders in the postcalving period, whereas the other 6 remained healthy during the entire experimental period. Multivariate data analysis (principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis) revealed a clear separation between healthy controls and diseased cows at all 4 time points. This analysis allowed us to identify several metabolites most responsible for separating the 2 groups, especially before parturition and the start of any postpartum disease. Three metabolites, carnitine, propionyl carnitine, and lysophosphatidylcholine acyl C14:0, were significantly elevated in diseased cows as compared with healthy controls as early as 4 wk before parturition, whereas 2 metabolites, phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C42:4 and

  20. Effectiveness of rubber seed oil and flaxseed oil to enhance the α-linolenic acid content in milk from dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Y; Gao, S T; Ma, L; Zhu, Y X; Wang, J Q; Zhang, J M; Xu, J C; Bu, D P

    2016-07-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate effect of rubber seed oil compared with flaxseed oil when fed alone or in combination on milk yield, milk composition, and α-linolenic acid (ALA) concentration in milk of dairy cows. Forty-eight mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments according to a completely randomized design. Cows were fed a basal diet (control; CON) or a basal diet supplemented with 4% rubber seed oil (RO), 4% flaxseed oil (FO), or 2% rubber seed oil plus 2% flaxseed oil (RFO) on a dry matter basis for 9 wk. Feed intake, milk protein percentage, and milk fat levels did not differ between the treatments. Cows fed the RO, FO, or RFO treatments had a higher milk yield than the CON group (up to 10.5% more), whereas milk fat percentages decreased. Compared with the CON, milk concentration of ALA was substantially higher in cows receiving RO or RFO, and was doubled in cows receiving FO. The ALA yield (g/d) increased by 31.0, 70.3, and 33.4% in milk from cows fed RO, FO, or RFO, respectively, compared with the CON. Both C18:1 trans-11 (vaccenic acid) and C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 (conjugated linoleic acid; CLA) levels were higher in cows fed added flaxseed or rubber seed oil. The CLA yield (g/d) increased by 336, 492, and 484% in cows fed RO, FO, or RFO, respectively, compared with the CON. The increase in vaccenic acid, ALA, and CLA was greater in cows fed RFO than in cows fed RO alone. Compared with the CON, the milk fat from cows fed any of the dietary supplements had a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids; conversely, the saturated fatty acids levels in milk fat were 30.5% lower. Insulin and growth hormones were not affected by dietary treatments; however, we noted an increase in both cholesterol and nonesterified fatty acids levels in the RO, FO, or RFO treatments. These results indicate that rubber seed oil and flaxseed oil will increase milk

  1. Exploring relationships between Dairy Herd Improvement monitors of performance and the Transition Cow Index in Wisconsin dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, K K; Bennett, T B; Nordlund, K V; Döpfer, D; Cook, N B

    2016-09-01

    Transition cow management has been tracked via the Transition Cow Index (TCI; AgSource Cooperative Services, Verona, WI) since 2006. Transition Cow Index was developed to measure the difference between actual and predicted milk yield at first test day to evaluate the relative success of the transition period program. This project aimed to assess TCI in relation to all commonly used Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) metrics available through AgSource Cooperative Services. Regression analysis was used to isolate variables that were relevant to TCI, and then principal components analysis and network analysis were used to determine the relative strength and relatedness among variables. Finally, cluster analysis was used to segregate herds based on similarity of relevant variables. The DHI data were obtained from 2,131 Wisconsin dairy herds with test-day mean ≥30 cows, which were tested ≥10 times throughout the 2014 calendar year. The original list of 940 DHI variables was reduced through expert-driven selection and regression analysis to 23 variables. The K-means cluster analysis produced 5 distinct clusters. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the 23 variables per cluster grouping. Using principal components analysis, cluster analysis, and network analysis, 4 parameters were isolated as most relevant to TCI; these were energy-corrected milk, 3 measures of intramammary infection (dry cow cure rate, linear somatic cell count score in primiparous cows, and new infection rate), peak ratio, and days in milk at peak milk production. These variables together with cow and newborn calf survival measures form a group of metrics that can be used to assist in the evaluation of overall transition period performance. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Oriental theileriosis in dairy cows causes a significant milk production loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Oriental theileriosis is a tick-borne, protozoan disease of cattle caused by members of the Theileria orientalis-complex. Recent outbreaks of this disease in eastern Australia have caused major concerns to the dairy and beef farming communities, but there are no published studies of the economic impact of this disease. On a farm in Victoria, Australia, we assessed whether oriental theileriosis has an impact on milk production and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Methods Blood samples collected from all 662 cows on the farm were tested using an established molecular test. For individual cows, milk production and reproductive performance data were collected. A clinical assessment of individual cows was performed. Based on clinical findings and molecular test results, the following groups of cows were classified: group 1, with cardinal clinical signs of oriental theileriosis and molecular test-positive for T. orientalis; group 2, with mild or suspected signs of theileriosis and test-positive; group 3, with no clinical signs and test-positive; and group 4, with no clinical signs and test-negative. Milk production and reproductive performance data for groups 1, 2 and 3 were each compared with those for group 4 using linear and logistic regression analyses, respectively. Results At 100 days of lactation, group 1 cows produced significantly less milk (288 l; P = 0.001), milk fat (16.8 kg; P cows produced significantly less milk (624 l; P = 0.004), milk fat (42.9 kg; P cows. Group 2 cows also produced significantly less milk fat (21.2 kg; P = 0.033) at this lactation point. No statistically significant difference in reproductive performance was found upon pairwise comparisons of groups 1–3 with group 4 cows. Conclusions The present findings demonstrate that clinical oriental theileriosis can cause significant milk production losses in dairy cattle. PMID:24552213

  3. Milk Chemical Composition of Dairy Cows Fed Rations Containing Protected Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Fermented Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudibya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to investigate the effect of ration containing protected omega-3 and fermented rice bran on chemical composition of dairy milk. The research employed 10 female PFH dairy cows of 2-4 years old with body weight 300-375 kg. The research was assigned in randomized complete block design. The treatment consisted of P0= control ration, P1= P0 + 20% fermented rice bran, P2= P1 + 4% soya bean oil, P3= P1 + 4% protected tuna fish oil and P4= P1 + 4% protected lemuru fish oil. The results showed that the effects of fish oil supplementation in the rations significantly (P<0.01 decreased feed consumption, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, lipids, and saturated fatty acids. Meanwhile, it increased milk production, content of high density lipoprotein, omega-3, omega-6 and unsaturated fatty acids in the dairy cows milk. It is concluded that the inclusion of 4% protected fish oil in the rations can produce healthy milk by decreasing milk cholesterol and increasing omega-3 fatty acids content.

  4. Sward and milk production response to early turnout of dairy cows to pasture in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. VIRKAJÄRVI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The timing of turnout is an important factor affecting the grazing management of dairy cows. However,its consequences are not well known in the short grazing season of northern Europe. Thus, the effect of the turnout date of dairy cows to pasture on sward regrowth, herbage mass production and milk production was studied in two experiments,1a grazing trial with 16 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows and 2a plot trial where the treatments simulated the grazing trial.The treatments were early turnout (1 Juneand normal turnout (6 June.Early turnout decreased the annual herbage mass (HM production in the plot trial (P =0.005,but due to a higher average organic matter (OMdigestibility (P 0.05. Although early turnout had no effect on milk yields it meant easier management of pastures.;

  5. A Robust Statistical Model to Predict the Future Value of the Milk Production of Dairy Cows Using Herd Recording Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2017-01-01

    The future value of an individual dairy cow depends greatly on its projected milk yield. In developed countries with developed dairy industry infrastructures, facilities exist to record individual cow production and reproduction outcomes consistently and accurately. Accurate prediction...... of the future value of a dairy cow requires further detailed knowledge of the costs associated with feed, management practices, production systems, and disease. Here, we present a method to predict the future value of the milk production of a dairy cow based on herd recording data only. The method consists...... of several steps to evaluate lifetime milk production and individual cow somatic cell counts and to finally predict the average production for each day that the cow is alive. Herd recording data from 610 Danish Holstein herds were used to train and test a model predicting milk production (including factors...

  6. Track way distance and cover as risk factors for lameness in Danish dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, Elke; Thomsen, Peter Thorup; Rousing, Tine

    2014-01-01

    analysis with a multi-level model structure. The probability for lameness did not change with track distance but increased with no (odds 4.0 times higher) or only partly prepared (odds 3.8 times higher) cover compared to prepared cover. In conclusion, we found that having a cover on the track way......This study investigates the effect of length and cover of track ways between barn and pasture on lameness in Danish dairy cows. We hypothesised that short track distances would be associated with a lower lameness probability of dairy cows compared to longer distances and that track ways...... for their lameness status. The cows were further clinically examined for claw conformation and hock integument. Information on breed and parity per cow and size per herd was extracted from a national data base. Track way distance ranged from 0 to 700 m and was categorised as (1)

  7. Short communication: Concentrations of the mammalian lignan enterolactone in preovulatory follicles and the correlation with intrafollicular estradiol in dairy cows fed extruded flaxseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachut, Maya

    2015-12-01

    Flaxseed is a rich source of lignans that can be metabolized to the mammalian lignan enterolactone (EL), which may elicit weak estrogenic or antiestrogenic effects. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of feeding an extruded flaxseed supplement to dairy cows on concentrations of EL in plasma and preovulatory follicles and the association with intrafollicular estradiol (E2). Twenty-four multiparous 256-d-pregnant Israeli Holstein cows were fed either a standard diet both pre- and postpartum (control; n=12) or provided with an extruded flaxseed supplement (n=12), at 7.9 and 9.2% of dry matter, pre- and postpartum, respectively. Follicular fluid (FF) aspirations were conducted at 84±16 d in lactation as follows: 7 to 8 d following behavioral estrus, cows were injected with prostaglandin F2α and 48h later follicles >7mm were aspirated. Follicles were regarded as preovulatory when the E2-to-progesterone ratio was >1. Plasma EL concentrations were not different between treatment groups; however, concentrations of EL in FF of preovulatory follicles were 1.7 times higher in extruded flaxseed-supplemented cows than in control. Across-treatment analysis revealed a positive correlation between concentrations of EL in plasma and in FF. In addition, intrafollicular EL concentrations were positively correlated with E2 concentrations (r=0.50), and with the intrafollicular E2-to-progesterone ratio. In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows with extruded flaxseed increased EL concentrations in preovulatory follicles. Intrafollicular EL was correlated with E2 concentrations; therefore, the possible effects of EL from flaxseed on follicular steroidogenesis should be considered. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bile composition, plasma lipids and oxidative hepatic damage induced by calcium supplementation; effects of goat or cow milk consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, María J M; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada; Nestares, Teresa; Sánchez-Alcover, Ana; Campos, Margarita S

    2013-05-01

    Calcium-fortified foods, especially milk and dairy products are recommended to be consumed daily for groups in risk of nutritional deficiency, including children, young adults, menopausal women, pregnant women and the elderly, however Ca-supplementation promotes gallstone formation because Ca is a nucleating factor. The objective of the current study was to assess the influence of cow or goat milk-based diets, either normal or Ca-supplemented, on bile composition, biochemical parameters and hepatic antioxidant status. Weanling male rats were randomly divided into six groups, fed standard, goat or cow milk-based diets, either with normal Ca content (5.0 g/kg), or Ca-supplemented (10.0 g/kg), for 2 weeks. Bile cholesterol concentration and output was higher in rats fed goat milk in comparison with those fed with standard and cow-milk-based diet. Ca-supplementation increased lithogenic index with the standard and cow-milk based diets, this change was not observed with the goat milk diet. Activities of plasma transaminases were also lower in the animals fed Ca-supplemented goat milk, in comparison with the other diets assayed. In general, Ca-supplement in the diet led to an increase in the hepatic oxidative damage, with an increase in the activities of all the antioxidant enzymes studied in the standard and cow milk diet, but not with goat milk. The habitual consumption of goat milk has positive effects on the plasma lipid profile, biliary composition and hepatic antioxidant defence. In addition, under our experimental conditions, Ca-supplementation of this type of milk does not increase the lithogenic index, or hepatic oxidative damage.

  9. Short communication: Calving site selection of multiparous, group-housed dairy cows is influenced by site of a previous calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Nielsen, B.L.; Herskin, Mette S.

    2017-01-01

    A calving cow and her newborn calf appear to have an attracting effect on periparturient cows, which may potentially influence the functionality of future motivation-based calving pen designs. In this pilot study we examined whether calving site selection of group-housed Holstein dairy cows...

  10. Impact of dietary starch concentration formulated with two types of corn silage on methane and ammonia emissions in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) emissions of lactating dairy cows fed different starch level and corn silage type. After the completion of an 8-wk production study, 48 Holstein cows were allocated to 1 of 4 air-flow controlled chambers (2 cows/chamber) for...

  11. Frequency of cardiac arrhythmias in high and low- yielding dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Jafari Dehkordi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiography (ECG may be used to recognize cardiac disorders. Levels of milk production may change the serum electrolytes which its imbalance has a role in cardiac arrhythmia. Fifty high yielding and fifty low yielding Holstein dairy cows were used in this study. Electrocardiography was recorded by base-apex lead and blood samples were collected from jugular vein for measurement of serum elements such as sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorous, iron and magnesium. Cardiac dysrhythmias were detected more frequent in low yielding Holstein cows (62.00% compared to high yielding Holstein cows (46.00%. The cardiac dysrhythmias that were observed in low yielding Holstein cows included sinus arrhythmia (34.70%, wandering pacemaker (22.45 %, bradycardia (18.37%, tachycardia (10.20%, atrial premature beat (2.04%, sinoatrial block (2.04%, atrial fibrillation (8.16% and atrial tachycardia (2.04%. The cardiac dysrhythmias were observed in high yielding Holstein cows including, sinus arrhythmia (86.95% and wandering pacemaker (13.05%. Also, notched P wave was observed to be 30% and 14% in high- and low- yielding Holstein cows respectively. The serum calcium concentration of low yielding Holstein cows was significantly lower than that of high yielding Holstein cows. There was not any detectable significant difference in other serum elements between high- and low- yielding Holstein cows. Based on the result of present study, could be concluded that low serum concentration of calcium results to more frequent dysrhythmias in low yielding Holstein cows.

  12. Evaluation of intravenous regional anaesthesia and four-point nerve block efficacy in the distal hind limb of dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Yavari, S.; Khraim, N.; Szura, G.; Starke, A.; Engelke, E.; Pfarrer, C.; Hopster, K.; Schmicke, M.; Kehler, W.; Heppelmann, M.; Kästner, S. B. R.; Rehage, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Intravenous regional anaesthesia (IVRA) and hindfoot four-point nerve block anaesthesia (NBA) are recommended for local anaesthesia (LA) in the distal limb of dairy cows. Two studies were conducted to compare the efficacy, time until onset and stress responses to IVRA and NBA in dairy cows. In the first cross-over designed study, eight healthy unsedated German Holstein cows, restrained in lateral recumbency (LR) on a surgical tipping table, were treated with IVRA and NBA using proc...

  13. Cross-infection between cats and cows: Origin and control of Streptococcus canis mastitis in a dairy herd

    OpenAIRE

    Tikofsky, L L; Zadoks, R N

    2005-01-01

    Group G streptococci in animals usually belong to the species Streptococcus canis and are most commonly found in dogs and cats. Occasionally, Strep. canis is detected in milk from dairy cows. An outbreak of Strep. canis mastitis in a dairy herd is described. Based on results from bacterial culture and ribotyping, a cat with chronic sinusitis was the most likely source of the outbreak. Subsequent cow-to-cow transmission of Strep. canis was facilitated by poor udder health management, including...

  14. Coagulation Tests and Selected Biochemical Analytes in Dairy Cows with Hepatic Lipidosis

    OpenAIRE

    S. Padilla-Arellanes; F. Constantino-Casas; L. Núnez-Ochoa; J. Doubek; C. Vega-Murguia; J. Bouda

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the values and changes in conventional and optimised clotting tests, as well as in selected biochemical analytes during hepatic lipidosis in postpartum dairy cows. Ten healthy and ten Holstein cows with hepatic lipidosis were selected based upon clinical history, clinical examination, liver biopsy, flotation test and histological analysis of hepatic tissue. Prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) were determined in non-diluted and dil...

  15. Influence of the physiological state on infestation by Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; Rangel, Charles Passos; de Azevedo Baêta, Bruna; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of physiological state, season, breed, number of lactations, dairy productivity, and stocking rate on infestation by Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cows. Two hundred cows were selected through proportional representative sampling at the Seropédica Experimental Station (Pesagro-Rio), Brazil. Fully or partially engorged R. microplus females measuring between 4.5 and 8.0mm were counted on the right side of each animal. The tick infestation prevalence data were analyzed in relation to the risk factors, using multiple logistic regression. Associations between prevalence and its possible influencing determinants were measured using odds ratios. The average tick count of cows during the peripartum and lactation periods was significantly higher (pGirolando animals (5/8 zebuine×3/8 taurine). Primiparous cows (p<0.05) had significantly heavier infestations than multiparous cows. Dairy production showed a positive correlation with tick infestation (p<0.03; OR=2.94), such that the most productive animals were the most parasitized ones. Animals kept at high densities were significantly more heavily infested (p<0.05, OR=6.32) than animals kept at low density. First-lactation and high-productivity taurine animals were more vulnerable to R. microplus, thus comprising a high-risk group in dairy herds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. A REVIEW ON ACID BASE STATUS IN DAIRY COWS: IMPLICATIONS OF DIETARY CATION-ANION BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Afzaal, M. Nisa, M. A. Khan and M. Sarwar

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The acid base status of a dairy cow is maintained within a narrow range. The key mechanisms involving blood, cells and lungs, perform this function. Although other minerals have an impact on acid base metabolism, the minerals used in dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB namely sodium (Na, potassium (K and chloride (Cl have the greatest effect. Hence, acid base status implicates other biological functions of dairy cows. Low DCAB prepartum reduces the incidence of milk fever and increases the productivity by simmering down the severity of hypocalcaemia. High DCAB diets have proved to increase dry mater and water intake and production and to mitigate the effects of heat stress.

  17. Proteomic analysis of physiological function response to hot summer in liver from lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiangjun; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zijun; Zhao, Huiling; Huang, Dongwei; Cheng, Guanglong; Yang, Yongxin

    2017-04-01

    Lactation performance of dairy cattle is susceptible to heat stress. The liver is one of the most crucial organs affected by high temperature in dairy cows. However, the physiological adaption by the liver to hot summer conditions has not been well elucidated in lactating dairy cows. In the present study, proteomic analysis of the liver in dairy cows in spring and hot summer was performed using a label-free method. In total, 127 differentially expressed proteins were identified; most of the upregulated proteins were involved in protein metabolic processes and responses to stimuli, whereas most of the downregulated proteins were related to oxidation-reduction. Pathway analysis indicated that 3 upregulated heat stress proteins (HSP90α, HSP90β, and endoplasmin) were enriched in the NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, whereas several downregulated NADH dehydrogenase proteins were involved in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. The protein-protein interaction network indicated that several upregulated HSPs (HSP90α, HSP90β, and GRP78) were involved in more interactions than other proteins and were thus considered as central hub nodes. Our findings provide novel insights into the physiological adaption of liver function in lactating dairy cows to natural high temperature. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Invited review: Environmental enrichment of dairy cows and calves in indoor housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, R; Whay, H R; Klement, E; Nicol, C J

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of farmers are choosing to keep their cows indoors throughout the year. Indoor housing of cows allows farmers to provide high-yielding individuals with a nutritionally balanced diet fit for their needs, and it has important welfare benefits for both cows and their calves, such as protection from predators, parasites, and exposure to extreme weather conditions. However, it also confronts cows and calves with a wide range of environmental challenges. These include abiotic environmental sources of stress (e.g., exposure to loud and aversive sound) and confinement-specific stressors (e.g., restricted movement and maintenance in abnormal social groups). Cows and calves that live indoors are also faced with the challenge of occupying long periods with a limited range of possible behavioral patterns. Environmental enrichment can improve biological functioning (measured as increased lifetime reproductive success, increased inclusive fitness, or a correlate of these such as improved health), help animals to cope with stressors in their surroundings, reduce frustration, increase the fulfillment of behavioral needs, and promote more positive affective states. Here, we review recent findings on the effect of social, occupational, physical, sensory, and nutritional enrichment on dairy cows and calves, and we assess the appropriateness and practicality of implementing different enrichment practices on commercial dairy farms. Some of the enrichment methods reviewed here may also be applied to those more extensive cattle-raising systems, where similar challenges occur. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. EFFECTS OF RUMEN PROTECTED METHIONINE AND VITAMIN B12 ON RBC PARAMETERS OF DAIRY COWS IN EARLY LACTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Safarkhanlou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of rumen-protected methionine and vitamin B12 as well as their interactions on the parameters of red blood cells of dairy cows in early lactation, 16 Holstein cows in early lactation in experiment with randomized complete block design with the 2×2 factorial arrangement used for 42 days. In this experiment, there were four treatments, which in each treatment is placed two cows primi-parous and two cows multi-parous. Treatments included: 1 The group receiving the basal diet, 2 The group receiving the basal diet with vitamin B12 injections, 3 The group receiving the basal diet with rumen-protected methionine, 4 The group receiving the basal diet with vitamin B12 injections and rumen-protected methionine. The results showed that in the use of vitamin B12 and rumen-protected methionine, there is no significant difference between the experimental groups in the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin levels and blood hematocrit. Mean corpuscular (cell volume and mean corpuscular (cell hemoglobin did increase with vitamin B12 supplementation. In a general conclusion, it seems that increasing MCV and MCH may result in improvement in oxygenation and in turn lead to improvement on dry matter intake and milk production.

  20. The role of oxidative stress and inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of mastitis in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Turk, Romana; Koledić, Matea; Maćešić, Nino; Benić, Miroslav; Dobranić, Vesna; Đuričić, Dražen; Cvetnić, Luka; Samardžija, Marko

    2017-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most frequent diseases of dairy cows throughout the world, therefore it causes the greatest economic losses in dairy cattle industry. These losses are reflected through: reduced milk production, increased costs of medication and the other animal health services, reduced fertility, early culling of animals and the value of discarded milk. Mastitis is also important from the aspects of public health, milk processing and animal welfare. In the pathogenesis of mastitis the ...

  1. Reproductive and Lactation Performance of Crossbreed Dairy Cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For several years, Ethiopia ranked first in cattle population in Africa. However, the dairy industry is not as developed as that of East African countries including Ethiopia. This study was conducted to assess the reproductive and lactation performance and factors affecting crossbreed dairy cattle in intensive dairy farm in ...

  2. Extension of raw milk quality through supplementation of hydrocyanic acid from fresh cassava peel in dairy cattle diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreena Srisaikham

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects on the extension of raw milk quality through supplementation of hydrocyanic acid (HCN levels from fresh cassava peel (FCPe in dairy cattle diet by increasing the milk thiocyanate (SCN concentration and lactoperoxidase (LP activity. The sample was twenty-four Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows, averaging 87±31 days in milk (DIM, 13.4±2.9 kg of milk and 397±52 kg body weight (BW. All cows were fed the control diet with 6.5 kg/d of 21% crude protein (CP concentrate and ad libitum grass silage (GS. The treatments groups were as follows: 1 the control diet for the 1st group, the 2nd group received the control diet supplemented with 400 g/d of FCPe (75 ppm HCN and the 3rd group received the control diet supplemented with 800 g/d of FCPe (150 ppm HCN. The results showed that 800 g/h/d FCPe enhanced the efficiency of LP activity in raw milk to reduce total bacterial count (TBC and coliform count (CC; therefore, 400 g/h/d FCPe can be used in the concentrate for lactating dairy cows.

  3. Fresh-cow handling practices and methods for identification of health disorders on 45 dairy farms in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espadamala, A; Pallarés, P; Lago, A; Silva-Del-Río, N

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe fresh-cow handling practices and techniques used during fresh cow evaluations to identify postpartum health disorders on 45 dairy farms in California ranging from 450 to 9,500 cows. Fresh cow practices were surveyed regarding (a) grouping and housing, (b) scheduling and work organization, (c) screening for health disorders, and (d) physical examination methods. Information was collected based on cow-side observations and responses from fresh cow evaluators. Cows were housed in the fresh cow pen for 3 to 14 (20%), 15 to 30 (49%), or >31 (31%) d in milk. Fresh cow evaluations were performed daily (78%), 6 times a week (11%), 2 to 5 times a week (9%), or were not routinely performed (2%). There was significant correlation between the duration of fresh cow evaluations and the number of cows housed in the fresh pen. Across all farms, the duration of evaluations ranged from 5 to 240 min, with an average of 16 s spent per cow. During fresh cow checks, evaluators always looked for abnormal vaginal discharge, retained fetal membranes, and down cows. Dairies evaluated appetite based on rumen fill (11%), reduction of feed in the feed bunk (20%), rumination sensors (2%), or a combination of these (29%). Milk yield was evaluated based on udder fill at fresh cow checks (40%), milk flow during milking (11%), milk yield records collected by milk meters (2%), or a combination of udder fill and milk meters (5%). Depressed attitude was evaluated on 64% of the dairies. Health-monitoring exams for early detection of metritis were implemented on 42% of the dairies based on rectal examination (13%), rectal temperature (22%), or both (7%). Dairies implementing health-monitoring exams took longer to perform fresh cow evaluations. Physical examination methods such as rectal examination, auscultation, rectal temperature evaluation, and cow-side ketosis tests were used on 76, 67, 38, and 9% of dairies, respectively. Across dairies, we found large

  4. Effect of dietary vegetable oils on the fatty acid profile of plasma lipoproteins in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Íñiguez-González, Gonzalo; Cancino-Padilla, Nathaly

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of dietary supplementation of soybean oil (SO) and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) on the transport of fatty acids (FA) within plasma lipoproteins in lactating and non-lactating cows. Three lactating and three non-lactating Holstein cows were...

  5. Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymann, A K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner

    2014-01-01

    in milk from the sampled test milking) were collected from the Swedish milk-recording scheme. Of the sampled cows 485 were considered IMI negative and were used in multivariable mixed-effect linear regression models to investigate associations between cow factors and the udder-health indicators. A second...... modeling including all cows, both IMI negative and IMI positive (256 cows), was also performed. The results showed that all udder-health indicators were affected by cow factors but that different cow factors were associated with different indicators. Intramammary-infection status was significantly...... associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing...

  6. Effect of dietary vegetable oils on the fatty acid profile of plasma lipoproteins in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Íñiguez-González, Gonzalo; Cancino-Padilla, Nathaly; Loor, Juan J; Garnsworthy, Philip C

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of dietary supplementation of soybean oil (SO) and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) on the transport of fatty acids (FA) within plasma lipoproteins in lactating and non-lactating cows. Three lactating and three non-lactating Holstein cows were used in two different 3 × 3 Latin square experiments that included three periods of 21 d. Dietary treatments for lactating cows consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (500 g/d per cow) or HPO (500 g/d per cow). For non-lactating cows, dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (170 g/d per cow) or HPO (170 g/d per cow). Compared with the control and SO diet, HPO addition increased (p < 0.05) the concentration of C16:0, C18:0, C18:2cis-9,12, C18:3cis-9,12,15 and total saturated and polyunsaturated FA in the plasma of lactating cows. In non-lactating cows, the SO addition increased the plasma concentration of C18:1trans-11. In lactating cows, concentrations of C16:0, C18:0 and total saturated FA were increased (p < 0.05) by HPO addition in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Total saturated FA were increased (p < 0.05) by HPO in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). In non-lactating cows, the concentration of C18:0 was increased (p < 0.05) by HPO in HDL, whereas C18:1trans-11 was increased (p < 0.05) by SO in the low-density lipoprotein. Overall, it was found that distribution and transport of FA within the bovine plasma lipoproteins may be influenced by chain length and degree of unsaturation of dietary lipids. Also, the distribution of individual FA isomers such as C18:1trans-11 and C18:2cis-9,trans-11 may vary depending on the physiological state of the cow (lactating or non-lactating), and are increased in plasma (lactating cows) and the HDL (non-lactating cows) when cows are fed SO.

  7. Test accuracy of metabolic indicators in predicting decreased fertility in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Gustafsson, H; Svensson, C

    2012-01-01

    results and fertility parameters were investigated using logistic regression. The NEFA and BHBA tests for ANEST and DFAI had the highest combined Se and Sp and were thus evaluated further. Cut-off values with Sp around 80% were used in this step to provide a reasonable number of test-positive cows...... was low when metabolic indicators measured as single values in early lactation were used to predict fertility in dairy cows, but accuracy was influenced by cow-level factors such as parity. The prevalence of the target condition (in this case, decreased fertility) also influences test usefulness...

  8. The development of a model for the prediction of feed intake and energy partitioning in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Balancing the supply of on-farm grown forages with the production targets of the dairy herd is a crucial aspect of the management of a dairy farm. Models which provides a rapid insight of the impact of the ration, feed quality and feeding management on feed intake and performance of dairy cows

  9. Effect of biotin and pantothenic acid on performance and concentrations of avidin-binding substances in blood and milk of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gonzalo; Brown, Alston N; Teets, Christy L

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesized that pantothenic acid reduces the absorption of biotin in lactating dairy cows. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the plausible interaction between biotin and pantothenic acid on production performance and concentration of avidin-binding substances (ABS), an indicator of biotin concentration, in blood and milk of lactating dairy cows. Eight primiparous and 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diet sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 18-d periods. Cows were housed in a freestall barn and fed once daily (0730 h) by means of a Calan gate system (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH). Treatments consisted of a control diet that contained no B-vitamins, a biotin diet that contained 0.87 mg of biotin per kilogram of dry matter (DM), a pantothenic acid diet that contained 21 mg of pantothenic acid per kilogram of DM, and a biotin plus pantothenic acid diet that contained 0.87 mg of biotin and 21 mg of calcium pantothenic acid per kilogram of DM. Four different concentrates were prepared in a commercial feed mill. These concentrates were mixed with corn silage and grass hay and delivered ad libitum as a total mixed ration. Biotin supplementation did not affect DM intake, milk yield, or milk fat, protein, lactose, and milk-urea-nitrogen concentrations. Fat, protein, and lactose yields were not affected by treatments. The fat-to-protein ratio was Biotin supplementation did not increase the concentration of ABS in plasma. The supplementation of pantothenic acid did not affect the concentration of ABS in plasma when either supplemented alone or in combination with biotin. Biotin supplementation increased the concentration of ABS in milk relative to control. Contrary to our hypothesis, the supplementation of pantothenic acid did not decrease the concentration of ABS in milk relative to the control. When cows were supplemented with both biotin and pantothenic acid, the concentration of ABS in milk was similar

  10. Sole ulcers in dairy cattle associations with season, cow characteristics, disease, and production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Gröhn, Y.T.; Thysen, Iver

    1991-01-01

    foot or more than one foot occurred in 20.0 and 29.7% of cows in lactation 1 and in 23.5 and 24.7% of cows in lactations 2 to 9. The analysis revealed several complicated interactions. Trimming or calving in summer to fall was strongly associated with sole ulcer. Trimming later than 1 to 2 mo after...... calving was positively associated with sole ulcer depending on milk yield, body weight, or season of calving. If lactation 1 cows were treated for disease (limb, metabolic, digestive, or severe reproductive disorders), sole ulcer in more than one foot occurred earlier in lactation. Milk yield in early......Epidemiological associations, expressed as odds ratios between variables obtained from dairy cow records and sole ulcer occurrence at claw trimmings were estimated with logistic regression analysis on data from 2204 and 1124 cows in lactation 1 and lactations 2 to 9, respectively. Sole ulcer in one...

  11. Association of rumination time with subclinical ketosis in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, E I; LeBlanc, S J; McBride, B W; Duffield, T F; DeVries, T J

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the relationship between rumination and subclinical ketosis (SCK) in transition dairy cows. A study was conducted on 4 commercial dairy farms in eastern Ontario, Canada. A total of 339 Holstein dairy cows (107 primiparous and 232 multiparous) were monitored for rumination activity and SCK from 14 d before calving until 28 d after calving. Rumination was recorded daily using an automated monitoring system. A blood sample was taken from the coccygeal vein of each cow for measurement of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) once weekly throughout the 6-wk observation period. Cows with BHB ≥1.2mmol/L in any of the 4 postpartum samples were considered to have SCK. Cases of retained placenta, metritis, milk fever, or mastitis during the study period were also recorded. Cows were categorized into 1 of 4 groups: healthy cows (HLT) that had no SCK or any other recorded health problem (n=139); cows treated for at least one health issue other than SCK (HLT+; n=50); cows with SCK (hyperketonemia; HYK) with no other health problems during transition (n=97); or cows (HYK+) that had SCK and one or more other health problems (n=53). Daily rumination time was summarized by week and comparisons were made between HLT and HYK and HYK+. From 2 wk before calving (wk -2) to 4 wk after calving (wk +4), there was no difference in rumination time (409±9.8min/d) among HLT, HYK, and HYK+ cows in their first lactation. Multiparous cows in HLT spent an average of 459±11.3min/d ruminating from wk -2 to wk +4. Multiparous HYK cows ruminated 25±12.8min/d less than HLT cows, whereas HYK+ cows ruminated 44±15.6min/d less than HLT cows. The largest differences in rumination time between HLT and HYK+ cows were seen during wk -1, +1, and +2, when HYK+ cows ruminated 48±17.2, 73±16.0, and 65±19.4min/d less than HLT cows, respectively. In multiparous cows, increased odds of HYK were associated with greater milk yield in the previous lactation, greater loss of

  12. Extended lactations may improve cow health, productivity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from organic dairy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Jesper Overgård; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    The concept of extended lactation is a break with the tradition of getting one calf per cow per year that should improve cow health, increase productivity and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission per kg milk produced in high-yield organic dairy herds. These effects are achieved through fewer...... calvings per year and hence a production of fewer replacement heifers, which, in combination with fewer days dry per cow per year, will reduce the annual herd requirement for feed. Total herd feed use is a major determinant of GHG emission at farm gate. However, these effects also rely on the assumption...... calves and fewer culled cows will be available for sale. An on-going project at Aarhus University aims at characterising those cows that can maintain milk production through an extended lactation, and it aims at estimating the overall herd effect of this concept on farm profitability and GHG emission per...

  13. The Behavioural Manifestations of Dairy Cows in Relation to the Management System Feeding Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav Šoch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to obtain data and formulate knowledge about the behavioural manifestations of dairy cows in relation to the management system of feeding regime on the farm, where Holstein cows are bred. The observations took place on the 13 and 14 August, 2014, when the cows were observed for 24 hours continuously. The ethogram records were recorded after 1 minute and physical activity of cows, periods of rest, ruminating, eating, drinking, defecation, urination and comfort and social behaviour. Cows are herded for milking 3 times a day. It was found  that within 24 hours dairy cows spend on average 10 hours by lying, 8 hours by ruminating, 20 minutes by drinking, 6 hours by eating, they defecate 14 times, urinate 6 times and walk about 430 meters. They are also scratching, licking each other and tail swiping (comfort behaviour within 24 hours. The observations of the responses to serving food indicate that cows actively react to the passage of the food vehicle, not the passage of a piling-up tractor.

  14. Molecular characteristics, antibiogram and prevalence of multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDRSA isolated from milk obtained from culled dairy cows and from cows with acute clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Bani Ismail

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: MRSA carrying the mecA gene were isolated from mastitic milk from dairy cows in Jordan for the first time. MRSA may pose a potential health risk to the public, farm workers and veterinarians.

  15. Raw, extruded and expanded pea (Pisum sativum in dairy cows diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the nutritive value of raw, extruded or expanded peas relative to soybean meal in lactating dairy cows feeding. Twenty four Italian Holstein cows (8 primiparous and 16 pluriparous, 604 ± 109 kg body weight, 34.5 ± 2.5 kg/d milk yield, were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments in a 4x4 Latin square arrangement with periods of four weeks and washout period of seven days. Diets were fed ad libitum(5% orts. The bulk of the base diet on a dry matter basis was corn silage (31.2%, alfalfa hay (16.7%, grass hay (4.1%, protein supplement (10.3%, whole cotton seed (8.5%, corn and barley mix (24.9%, soybean meal (3.4% and calcium soap (0.9%. The pea (2.5 kg/cow/day partially replaced the soybean meal and totally replaced the barley meal of the base diet. The unprocessed or differently processed pea did not affect the dry matter intake. The extruded pea group had a 3.2% increase (P< 0.05 of the milk yield compared to the control group. When estimated as contrast analysis, the technological treatment (extruded or expanded on peas did not modify the milk yield and composition. Among pea diets, animal fed the extruded pea had the higher (P< 0.05 milk protein content, although not different than that of the control group. The rumen acetate was reduced (P< 0.05 and the butyrate and valerate were increased (P< 0.05 in animals fed extruded pea compared to the control. No differences were observed among feeding groups on blood parameters except for the cholesterol level higher (P< 0.05 in animals fed the expanded pea diet. There were no effects of diets on milk rennet coagulation characteris- tics. Results support the partial substitution of soybean meal and the total substitution of barley meal with peas in diets for lactating cows with no negative effects on milk yield and composition.

  16. Low cortisol levels in blood from dairy cows with ketosis: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, Kristina B; Ljungvall, Orjan A; Jones, Bernt V

    2010-05-20

    An elevated plasma glucose concentration has been considered to be a potential risk factor in the pathogenesis of left-displaced abomasums (DA). Therefore the present study was performed to investigate if spontaneous disease (parturient paresis, metritis, ketosis etc) in dairy cows results in elevated concentrations of glucose and cortisol in blood as cortisol is the major regulator of glucose in ruminants. Cortisol, insulin, beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), non esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and serum calcium were analyzed in blood serum and glucose, in whole blood, from 57 spontaneously diseased cows collected at different farms. The cows were grouped according to the disease; parturient paresis, recumbent for other reasons, mastitis, metritis, ketosis, inappetance and others. No elevated concentrations of cortisol or glucose were found in cows with metritis and mastitis but both cortisol and glucose were elevated in cows stressed by recumbency. Cows with ketonemia (BHBA > 1.5 mmol/l) did not have low concentration of glucose in blood but significantly low levels of cortisol. Some of these cows even had cortisol concentrations below the detection limit of the analysing method (ketosis, recommending glucocorticoids, insulin etc. However further studies of this problem are needed to understand why cows with ketosis have low levels of cortisol and normal levels of glucose. To what extent elevated cortisol and glucose levels in hypocalcemic and recumbent cows are involved in the ethiology and /or the pathogenesis of DA also will need further research.

  17. Effect of condensed tannins in rations of lactating dairy cows on production variables and nitrogen use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, K; Pries, M; Tholen, E; Schmithausen, A J; Büscher, W; Südekum, K-H

    2018-01-08

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplemented condensed tannins (CT) from the bark of the Black Wattle tree (Acacia mearnsii) on production variables and N use efficiency in high yielding dairy cows. A feeding trial with 96 lactating German Holstein cows was conducted for a total of 169 days, divided into four periods. The animals were allotted to two groups (control (CON) and experimental (EXP) group) according to milk yield in previous lactation, days in milk (98), number of lactations and BW. The trial started and finished with a period (period 1 and 4) where both groups received the same ration (total-mixed ration based on grass and maize silage, ensiled sugar beet pulp, lucerne hay, mineral premix and concentrate, calculated for 37 kg energy-corrected milk). In between, the ration of EXP cows was supplemented with 1% (CT1, period 2) and 3% of dry matter (DM) (CT3, period 3) of a commercial A. mearnsii extract (containing 0.203 g CT/g DM) which was mixed into the concentrate. In period 3, samples of urine and faeces were collected from 10 cows of each group and analyzed to estimate N excretion. Except for a tendency for a reduced milk urea concentration with CT1, there was no difference between groups in period 2 (CON v. CT1; P>0.05). The CT3 significantly reduced (Pmilk protein yield, the apparent N efficiency (kg milk N/k feed N) and milk urea concentration; but total milk yield and energy-corrected milk yield were not affected by treatment. Furthermore, as estimated from 10 cows per group and using urinary K as a marker to estimate the daily amount of urine voided, CT3 caused a minor shift of N compounds from urine to faeces, as urea-N in urine was reduced, whereas the N concentration in faeces increased. As an improvement in productivity was not achieved and N use efficiency was decreased by adding the CT product it can be concluded that under current circumstances the use in high yielding dairy cows is not advantageous.

  18. A validation of technologies monitoring dairy cow feeding, ruminating, and lying behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, M R; Chang, Y M; Tsai, I C; Wadsworth, B A; Bewley, J M

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate commercially available precision dairy technologies against direct visual observations of feeding, rumination, and lying behaviors. Primiparous (n=24) and multiparous (n=24) lactating Holstein dairy cattle (mean ± standard deviation; 223.4±117.8 d in milk, producing 29.2±8.2kg of milk/d) were fitted with 6 different triaxial accelerometer technologies evaluating cow behaviors at or before freshening. The AfiAct Pedometer Plus (Afimilk, Kibbutz Afikim, Israel) was used to monitor lying time. The CowManager SensOor (Agis, Harmelen, Netherlands) monitored rumination and feeding time. The HOBO Data Logger (HOBO Pendant G Acceleration Data Logger, Onset Computer Corp., Pocasset, MA) monitored lying time. The CowAlert IceQube (IceRobotics Ltd., Edinburgh, Scotland) monitored lying time. The Smartbow (Smartbow GmbH, Jutogasse, Austria) monitored rumination time. The Track A Cow (ENGS, Rosh Pina, Israel) monitored lying time and time spent around feeding areas for the calculation of feeding time. Over 8 d, 6 cows per day were visually observed for feeding, rumination, and lying behaviors for 2 h after morning and evening milking. The time of day was recorded when each behavior began and ended. These times were used to generate the length of time behaviors were visually observed. Pearson correlations (r; calculated using the CORR procedure of SAS Version 9.3, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC), and concordance correlations (CCC; calculated using the epiR package of R version 3.1.0, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) evaluated association between visual observations and technology-recorded behaviors. Visually recorded feeding behaviors were moderately correlated with the CowManager SensOor (r=0.88, CCC=0.82) and Track A Cow (r=0.93, CCC=0.79) monitors. Visually recorded rumination behaviors were strongly correlated with the Smartbow (r=0.97, CCC=0.96), and weakly correlated with the CowManager SensOor (r=0

  19. A Robust Statistical Model to Predict the Future Value of the Milk Production of Dairy Cows Using Herd Recording Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2017-01-01

    of the future value of a dairy cow requires further detailed knowledge of the costs associated with feed, management practices, production systems, and disease. Here, we present a method to predict the future value of the milk production of a dairy cow based on herd recording data only. The method consists......The future value of an individual dairy cow depends greatly on its projected milk yield. In developed countries with developed dairy industry infrastructures, facilities exist to record individual cow production and reproduction outcomes consistently and accurately. Accurate prediction...... of somatic cell count. We conclude that estimates of future average production can be used on a day-to-day basis to rank cows for culling, or can be implemented in simulation models of within-herd disease spread to make operational decisions, such as culling versus treatment. An advantage of the approach...

  20. Dairy cow preferences for soft or hard flooring when standing or walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telezhenko, E; Lidfors, L; Bergsten, C

    2007-08-01

    Concrete is the most commonly used alley flooring in confined dairy herds because of its qualities of construction and ease of cleaning. Nevertheless, the hardness, abrasiveness, and slipperiness of concrete floors have adverse effects on animal well-being and health, and yielding rubber flooring is becoming popular as a way of improving the flooring conditions on walkways. The aim of this study was to investigate preferences of dairy cows for rubber compared with concrete flooring under the conditions of a commercial dairy farm. The study was conducted in an organic dairy herd with free-stall housing. Floor preference was tested on groups of standing cows in a 120-m2 holding pen before milking, and 1 yr later on a 12- x 3-m walkway. The holding pen and the walkway were divided lengthwise into 2 identical sections. Two types of solid rubber mats (soft and extra soft) were tested against solid concrete in the holding pen. Slatted and solid rubber mats were tested against slatted concrete in the walkway. Each floor type was tested over 4 d on the left side and 4 d on the right side of the holding pen and the walkway, respectively. Concrete flooring on both sides of the sections was tested as a control before the testing of different section materials. All observations of the distribution of cows in the sections were made from video recordings captured in association with the afternoon milking. The number of cows on each section was recorded approximately every 7 min in the holding pen, and continuously on the walkway. A significantly higher proportion of cows stood on the side with the soft and extra soft rubber mats (65.1 +/- 2.7 and 69.3 +/- 2.6%, respectively, mean +/- SEM) compared with the control distribution when only the solid concrete was available (50.9 +/- 3.9%). A significantly higher proportion of nonlame cows walked exclusively on the side with the slatted (64.5 +/- 5.4%, d 4) or solid rubber mats (68.2 +/- 5.1%, d 4) compared with controls (28.9 +/- 4

  1. Replacing dietary soybean meal with canola meal improves production and efficiency of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Glen A; Faciola, Antonio P; Armentano, Louis E

    2015-08-01

    Previous research suggested that crude protein (CP) from canola meal (CM) was used more efficiently than CP from solvent soybean meal (SBM) by lactating dairy cows. We tested whether dietary CP content influenced relative effectiveness of equal supplemental CP from either CM or SBM. Fifty lactating Holstein cows were blocked by parity and days in milk into 10 squares (2 squares with ruminal cannulas) in a replicated 5×5 Latin square trial. Five squares were fed: (1) low (14.5-14.8%) CP with SBM, (2) low CP with CM, (3) low CP with SBM plus CM, (4) high (16.4-16.7%) CP with SBM, and (5) high CP with CM; the other 5 squares were fed the same diets except with rumen-protected Met plus Lys (RPML) added as Mepron (Degussa Corp., Kennesaw, GA) and AminoShure-L (Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY), which were assumed to provide 8g/d of absorbed dl-Met and 12g/d of absorbed l-Lys. Diets contained [dry matter (DM) basis] 40% corn silage, 26% alfalfa silage, 14 to 23% corn grain, 2.4% mineral-vitamin premixes, and 29 to 33% neutral detergent fiber. Periods were 3wk (total 15wk), and data from the last week of each period were analyzed using the Mixed procedures of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The only effects of RPML were increased DM intake and milk urea N (MUN) and urinary N excretion and trends for decreased milk lactose and solids-not-fat concentrations and milk-N:N intake; no significant RPML × protein source interactions were detected. Higher dietary CP increased milk fat yield and tended to increase milk yield but also elevated MUN, urine volume, urinary N excretion, ruminal concentrations of ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA), lowered milk lactose concentration and milk-N:N intake, and had no effect on milk true protein yield. Feeding CM instead of SBM increased feed intake, yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, and true protein, and milk-N:N intake, tended to increase fat and lactose yields, and reduced MUN, urine volume, and urinary N

  2. Laryngeal obstruction caused by lymphoma in an adult dairy cow

    OpenAIRE

    Lardé, Hélène; Nichols, Sylvain; Babkine, Marie; Chénier, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    A Holstein cow was presented for inspiratory dyspnea. Endoscopic evaluation revealed swollen arytenoids and a presumptive diagnosis of bilateral arytenoidal chondritis was made. A partial arytenoidectomy was performed, the right arytenoid was submitted for histopathology, and a diagnosis of laryngeal lymphoma was made. Due to the poor prognosis, the cow was euthanized.

  3. Derivation of standard lactation curves for South African dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African cows displayed more variation in yields compared to those of Holstein cows in the Netherlands and Ireland. Season of calving had a pronounced effect on the shape of the Standard Lactation Curve, while the combination of calving age and lactation affected both the shape and level of the curves. Expected ...

  4. Herbage intake of dairy cows in mixed sequential grazing with breeding ewes as followers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Rosales, Juan Daniel; Améndola-Massiotti, Ricardo Daniel; Burgueño-Ferreira, Juan Andrés; Ramírez-Valverde, Rodolfo; Topete-Pelayo, Pedro; Huerta-Bravo, Maximino

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that mixed sequential grazing of dairy cows and breeding ewes is beneficial. During the seasons of spring-summer 2013 and autumn-winter 2013-2014, 12 (spring-summer) and 16 (autumn-winter) Holstein Friesian cows and 24 gestating (spring-summer) and lactating (autumn-winter) Pelibuey ewes grazed on six (spring-summer) and nine (autumn-winter) paddocks of alfalfa and orchard grass mixed pastures. The treatments "single species cow grazing" (CowG) and "mixed sequential grazing with ewes as followers of cows" (MixG) were evaluated, under a completely randomized design with two replicates per paddock. Herbage mass on offer (HO) and residual herbage mass (RH) were estimated by cutting samples. The estimate of herbage intake (HI) of cows was based on the use of internal and external markers; the apparent HI of ewes was calculated as the difference between HO (RH of cows) and RH. Even though HO was higher in CowG, the HI of cows was higher in MixG during spring-summer and similar in both treatments during autumn-winter, implying that in MixG the effects on the cows HI of higher alfalfa proportion and herbage accumulation rate evolving from lower residual herbage mass in the previous cycle counteracted that of a higher HO in CowG. The HI of ewes was sufficient to enable satisfactory performance as breeding ewes. Thus, the benefits of mixed sequential grazing arose from higher herbage accumulation, positive changes in botanical composition, and the achievement of sheep production without negative effects on the herbage intake of cows.

  5. Optimal replacement policies for dairy cows based on daily yield measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Relund; Jørgensen, Erik; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2010-01-01

    describes the first step of developing an MDP model that can be integrated into a modern herd management system. A hierarchical MDP was formulated for the dairy cow replacement problem with stage lengths of 1 d. It can be used to assist the farmer in replacement decisions on a daily basis and is based...

  6. Effects of different intervention strategies on the incidence of papillomatous digital dermatitis in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhauer, M.; Doepfer, D.; Boer, de J.; Schaik, van G.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of four different intervention strategies on the incidence of severe lesions of digital dermatitis in an experimental dairy herd were compared with the effects of a control strategy consisting of walking the cows twice through a footbath containing 4 per cent formaldehyde on one day a

  7. Noninvasive detection of hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows with calibrated ultrasonographic image analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starke, A.; Haudum, A.; Weijers, G.; Herzog, K.; Wohlsein, P.; Beyerbach, M.; Korte, C.L. de; Thijssen, J.M.; Rehage, J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to test the accuracy of calibrated digital analysis of ultrasonographic hepatic images for diagnosing fatty liver in dairy cows. Digital analysis was performed by means of a novel method, computer-aided ultrasound diagnosis (CAUS), previously published by the authors. This method implies

  8. Host-rumen microbe interactions may be leveraged to improve the productivity of dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cattle rumen serves as a digestive bioreactor for the dairy cow, yet our knowledge of the microbial contents, ecology, and host selection within the rumen is only precursory. This is despite the knowledge that the volatile fatty acids (VFA) and microbial crude protein (MCP) produced by rumen mic...

  9. Cellular Mechanisms in Regulating Mammary Cell Turnover During Lactation and Dry Period in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, J V; Theil, P K; Sørensen, M T

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in regulating mammary cell turnover during the pregnancy-lactaion cycle in dairy cows are unclear. The objective of present experiment was to describe expression of genes encoding proteins known to be involved in pathways regulating mammary cell proliferation, apoptosis...

  10. Gene expression patterns in anterior pituitary associated with quantitative measure of oestrous behaviour in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommadath, A.; Mulder, H.A.; Wit, de A.A.C.; Woelders, H.; Smits, M.A.; Beerda, B.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Frijters, A.C.J.; Pas, te M.F.W.

    2010-01-01

    Intensive selection for high milk yield in dairy cows has raised production levels substantially but at the cost of reduced fertility, which manifests in different ways including reduced expression of oestrous behaviour. The genomic regulation of oestrous behaviour in bovines remains largely

  11. Displacement of the abomasum in dairy cows: risk factors and pre-clinical alterations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winden, Stefanus Cornelis Leonardus van

    2002-01-01

    Displacement of the abomasum (DA) in dairy cows is a disorder described since the fifties of the previous century. Since then, a considerable amount of research concerning DA is conducted. The normal, healthy abomasum is positioned in the ventral part of the abdominal cavity. As a result of

  12. Heat Stress in Tunisia: Effects on dairy cows and potential means ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tunisia has a Mediterranean climate characterized by high ambient temperatures for a long period. Thus, one of the challenges to dairy producers is heat stress. The objectives of this work were to characterize the environmental conditions to which Holstein cows are exposed in Tunisia using the Temperature Humidity ...

  13. A prediction equation for enteric methane emission from dairy cows for use in NorFor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N I; Volden, H; Åkerlind, M

    2013-01-01

    A data-set with 47 treatment means (N = 211) was compiled from research institutions in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden in order to develop a prediction equation for enteric methane (CH4) emissions from dairy cows. The aim was to implement the equation in the Nordic feed evaluation system Nor...

  14. Identification of novel pathways in pathogenesis of ketosis in dairy cows via iTRAQ/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Shi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To identify novel pathways involved in the pathogenesis of ketosis, an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation/mass spectrometry was used to define differences in protein expression profiles between healthy dairy cows and those with clinical or subclinical ketosis.

  15. The impact of subclinical ketosis in dairy cows on greenhouse gas emissions of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, P.F.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the impact of subclinical ketosis (SCK) and related diseases in dairy cows on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of milk production. A dynamic stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model was developed and combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) to quantify the impact of SCK

  16. On the influence of the alternation of two different cooling systems on dairy cow daily activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona M.C. Porto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the causes that influence cow welfare, heat stress induced by microclimatic conditions is one of the most relevant and many studies have investigated the efficacy of different cooling systems on animal health status. Nevertheless, the direct influence of the cooling systems on possible modifications of dairy cow behaviour has been addressed in a few studies and the related results were affected by the presence of a paddock, which gave a refuge from hot temperature. Since an alteration of the daily time budget spent by dairy cows in their usual activities can be associated with changes in their health status, this study investigated the effects of the alternation of two different cooling systems on lying, standing, and feeding behaviour of a group of dairy cows bred in a free-stall dairy house where animals had no access to a paddock. The barn was equipped with a fogging system associated with forced ventilation installed in the resting area and a sprinkler system associated with forced ventilation installed in the feeding area. The two systems were activated alternately. The results demonstrated that the management of the two cooling systems affected the analysed behaviours. Though the activation of the cooling system installed in the resting area encouraged the decubitus of animals in the stalls, the activation of that one of the feeding alley could not be able to influence the standing behaviour and had only a moderate positive influence on the feeding activity.

  17. Protein biomarker-based screening for detection of recombinant bovine somatotropin abuse in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, S.K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) is a 22 kDa proteohormone, which can be used to increase milk production in dairy cows. It has been marketed since 1994 and while its use in food production is approved in several countries, such as the US, it is banned in the EU since 2000. To enforce the ban

  18. Pre- and postpartum effects of starch and fat in dairy cows: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alain Useni

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... metritis), decreased body condition loss and improved reproductive axis in the subsequent lactation. Adding ... However, studies on the pre- and postpartum effects of starch- or fat-based diets on dairy cow reproduction parameters are ...... Effects of feeding intensity during the dry period: 1. Feed intake ...

  19. Cultivar effects of perennial ryegrass on herbage intake by grazing dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Perennial ryegrass is the most abundant grass species in temperate climates. An increased herbage intake of dairy cows by breeding new cultivars could have a large potential impact on agriculture. The effects of cultivars on sward structure, nutritive value, physical characteristics and disease

  20. Factors affecting energy and nitrogen efficiency of dairy cows: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuong, H.N.; Friggens, N.C.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Schmidely, P.

    2013-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to explore the correlation between energy and nitrogen efficiency of dairy cows, and to study nutritional and animal factors that influence these efficiencies, as well as their relationship. Treatment mean values were extracted from 68 peer-reviewed studies, including

  1. An attempt to define the sodium requirements of lactating dairy cows in a tropical environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiangtum, W.; Yawongsa, A.; Schonewille, J.T.; Rukkwamsuk, T.; Yuangklang, C.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lactating dairy cattle in the tropics may require more sodium (Na) owing to the hot and humid climatic conditions. It is unknown whether the current recommendations on Na for lactating cows can be quantitatively used in tropical countries. This study attempted to define the Na

  2. Alternatives to linear analysis of energy balance data from lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebreab, E.; France, J.; Agnew, R.E.; Yan, T.; Dhanoa, M.S.; Dijkstra, J.; Beever, D.E.; Reynolds, C.K.

    2003-01-01

    The current energy requirements system used in the United Kingdom for lactating dairy cows utilizes key parameters such as metabolizable energy intake (MEI) at maintenance (MEm), the efficiency of utilization of MEI for 1) maintenance, 2) milk production (k(l)), 3) growth (k(g)), and the efficiency

  3. A short communication on complete maize silage diets for dairy cows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A short communication on complete maize silage diets for dairy cows. H.E. Smit. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  4. Nutritive value of maize silage in relation to dairy cow performance and milk quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Nazir A; Yu, Peiqiang; Ali, Mubarak; Cone, John W; Hendriks, Wouter H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298620936

    Maize silage has become the major forage component in the ration of dairy cows over the last few decades. This review provides information on the mean content and variability in chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) profile and ensiling quality of maize silages, and discusses the major factors which

  5. The impact of subclinical ketosis in dairy cows on greenhouse gas emissions of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, P.F.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the impact of subclinical ketosis (SCK) and related diseases in dairy cows on greenhouse gas
    (GHG) emissions of milk production. A dynamic stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model was developed and combined
    with life cycle assessment (LCA) to quantify the impact

  6. Feed intake and energy utilization in dairy cows of different breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbroek, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    Improvement of nutrition of dairy cows and improvement of the genetic capacity for milk production aim to improve the efficiency of converting feed into milk. This efficiency can be expressed as the ratio between energy in milk and Net Energy intake (defined as the b