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Sample records for dairy cows fed

  1. Lactation performance and serum biochemistry of dairy cows fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... supplementation in multiparous dairy cows diet may improve their milk yield in transition period. Key words: Dairy cow, ... 20 multiparous Holsteins (parity 3) housed in free stalls at the. Esfahan-Kesht farm .... Corn gluten meal.

  2. The use of urea by lactating dairy cows when fed maize silage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of urea by lactating dairy cows when fed maize silage. T.J. Dugmere, A.M. Breden and K.P. Walsh. Department of Agriculture and Water Supply, Natal Region, Pietermaritzburg. Maize silage is relatively high in energy but low in protein for the normal lactational requirements of dairy cows. Three trials were ...

  3. Effect of supplementing crossbt·ed lactating dairy cows fed elephant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of supplementing lactating c.rosshrcd dairy cows fed on elephant grass based diets with labjab hay ... causes a reduction in overall digestibility of herbage dry matter. ..... Selected Topics in animal. Nutrition. ... Working paper No. 99:pp.

  4. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand

  5. OMASAL MORPHOLOGY OF DAIRY COWS FED WITH HIGH OR LOW GRAIN CONTENT DIET PRIOR PARTURITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo de Oliveira Rocha Bhering Santoro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Little is known about the morphological response of the omasum in dairy cows that consume a high-energy diet pre-partum. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a transitional diet with high grain content is able to induce changes in omasum morphology. Six weeks before the expected calving, four Holstein cows were fed a standardization diet, and four weeks before delivery, the cows were fed a diet with high grain content (HGC or low (LGC grain content. After calving, all of the cows were fed a high energy lactation diet. The cows that were fed the HGC diet pre-partum had higher dry matter and nutrient intake than the cows that were fed the LGC diet. The mitotic index of the omasum epithelium was higher than the mitotic index in the rumen, but apparently the response to the diet stimuli was slower. In the cows that were fed the HGC diet, the omasum papillae were taller one week before parturition and two weeks post-partum. Cows that were fed the HGC diet had a thinner epithelium due to thinner non-keratinized layers of the omasum epithelium. We conclude that the omasum mucosa of dairy cows responds to the stimuli of a pre-partum HGC diet, which was indicated by the greater height of the omasum papillae and by the reduced thickness of the omasum epithelium. It seems that the mitotic index responds a little more slowly, but the response to the diet stimuli is stronger in the omasum epithelium than in the rumen.

  6. A new nordic structure evaluation system for diets fed to dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Peder; Nadeau, E.; Volden, H.

    2008-01-01

    on eating, ruminating and total chewing time by cattle fed mainly high forage diets. The EI is proportional with the neutral detergent fibre (NDF) content and a particle size factor (Size_E) of the feed. The RI is proportional with the NDF content, a particle size factor (Size_R) and a hardness factor...... per kg of total DMI is considered to ensure a sufficient intake of physically effective fibre in order to ensure good ruminal fibre digestion and to prevent a low rumen pH, digestive disorders and a low milk fat content in high-yielding dairy cows.......The objective of the Norfor structure system was to establish a model for prediction of eating- (EI), ruminating- (RI) and total chewing index (CI) for feeds and total rations fed to dairy cows. The model was predicted from a Meta analysis of more than 100 published experiments including results...

  7. Variability, stability, and resilience of fecal microbiota in dairy cows fed whole crop corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Minh Thuy; Han, Hongyan; Yu, Zhu; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Nishino, Naoki

    2017-08-01

    The microbiota of whole crop corn silage and feces of silage-fed dairy cows were examined. A total of 18 dairy cow feces were collected from six farms in Japan and China, and high-throughput Illumina sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA genes was performed. Lactobacillaceae were dominant in all silages, followed by Acetobacteraceae, Bacillaceae, and Enterobacteriaceae. In feces, the predominant families were Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Rikenellaceae, and Paraprevotellaceae. Therefore, Lactobacillaceae of corn silage appeared to be eliminated in the gastrointestinal tract. Although fecal microbiota composition was similar in most samples, relative abundances of several families, such as Ruminococcaceae, Christensenellaceae, Turicibacteraceae, and Succinivibrionaceae, varied between farms and countries. In addition to the geographical location, differences in feeding management between total mixed ration feeding and separate feeding appeared to be involved in the variations. Moreover, a cow-to-cow variation for concentrate-associated families was demonstrated at the same farm; two cows showed high abundance of Succinivibrionaceae and Prevotellaceae, whereas another had a high abundance of Porphyromonadaceae. There was a negative correlation between forage-associated Ruminococcaceae and concentrate-associated Succinivibrionaceae and Prevotellaceae in 18 feces samples. Succinivibrionaceae, Prevotellaceae, p-2534-18B5, and Spirochaetaceae were regarded as highly variable taxa in this study. These findings help to improve our understanding of variation and similarity of the fecal microbiota of dairy cows with regard to individuals, farms, and countries. Microbiota of naturally fermented corn silage had no influence on the fecal microbiota of dairy cows.

  8. Health and productivity of dairy cows fed polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett, L.B.; Liu, T.T.; Durst, H.I.; Smith, K.L.; Redman, D.R.

    1987-07-01

    Holstein cows were studied through a complete lactation, a nonlactating period, and 42 days of a subsequent lactation for overt and subtle responses to a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. Dosed cows (n = 4) received consecutive 60-day periods of daily dosing with 10, 100, and 1000 mg of Aroclor 1254. Control cows (n = 6) received daily sham doses. The following were recorded: daily milk production, feed intake, and health observations; weekly body weight, temperature, heart and respiratory rates and rectal palpation; semi-monthly clinical chemistry determinations; and monthly milk fat, microbiological culture of quarter foremilk samples, and composite milk somatic cell counts. Mean daily milk production (22.4 +/- 1.1 vs 24.8 +/- 1.0 kg) and net energy of a complete lactation (1.46 +/- 0.05 vs 1.45 +/- 0.03 Mcal/kg dry matter intake) were not different (p = 0.85) for control and PCB-dosed cows. Milk production during the first 42 days of the subsequent lactation was also similar for control and dosed cows. Occurrences of injuries, dysfunctions, and general infections were not related to polychlorinated biphenyl exposure. Intramammary infections were detected for both lactations with 51 and 32 infections detected in microbiological cultures, respectively, for the control and dosed groups. Environmental pathogens were most frequently isolated from cases of clinically apparent mastitis. The majority of quarter infections detected were due to Corynebacterium bovis. Only one animal (dosed, necropsy revealed left oviduct obstructed) failed to conceive with three to six services required before conception for the other control and dosed cows. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls resulting in maximal residues in milk fat, near 100 micrograms/g, had no apparent effect on health and productivity.

  9. Economic performance of dairy cows fed diets with different levels of oregano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julinessa Silva Oliveira de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the economic viability of using different levels of oregano in diets for lactating cows fed sugar cane. We used 12 crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows assigned to three 4 x 4 Latin squares. The four treatments consisted of different levels of oregano: oregano free-control diet (0% and diets added with 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% oregano. Diets were formulated to meet the requirements for maintenance and milk production of 15 kg day-1. For economic analysis, we employed two economic indicators, net present value and internal rate of return. The total cost per animal and per liter of milk produced has increased with the inclusion of oregano. The inclusion of oregano was not effective for both productivity and profitability, with prices equal to R$ 0.87, 0.97, 1.09, 1.22, and R$ 0.78, 1.03, 1.28, and 1.52 of milk and concentrate, respectively for each level of inclusion. The internal rate of return was more advantageous when not adding oregano in the diet, indicating the viability of using oregano up to 0.8% inclusion to the diet of dairy cows under the conditions of this experiment. The net present value demonstrated that this investment is interesting for all discount rates used in the diet without the addition of oregano, pointing out that, in this treatment, the activity was feasible for any opportunity cost.

  10. Comparison of updates to the Molly cow model to predict methane production from dairy cows fed pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorini, P; Beukes, P C; Hanigan, M D; Waghorn, G; Muetzel, S; McNamara, J P

    2013-08-01

    Molly is a deterministic, mechanistic, dynamic model representing the digestion, metabolism, and production of a dairy cow. This study compared the predictions of enteric methane production from the original version of Molly (MollyOrigin) and 2 new versions of Molly. Updated versions included new ruminal fiber digestive parameters and animal hormonal parameters (Molly84) and a revised version of digestive and ruminal parameters (Molly85), using 3 different ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) stoichiometry constructs to describe the VFA pattern and methane (CH4) production (g of CH4/d). The VFA stoichiometry constructs were the original forage and mixed-diet VFA constructs and a new VFA stoichiometry based on a more recent and larger set of data that includes lactate and valerate production, amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria, as well as protozoal pools. The models' outputs were challenged using data from 16 dairy cattle 26 mo old [standard error of the mean (SEM)=1.7], 82 (SEM=8.7) d in milk, producing 17 (SEM=0.2) kg of milk/d, and fed fresh-cut ryegrass [dry matter intake=12.3 (SEM=0.3) kg of DM/d] in respiration chambers. Mean observed CH4 production was 266±5.6 SEM (g/d). Mean predicted values for CH4 production were 287 and 258 g/d for MollyOrigin without and with the new VFA construct. Model Molly84 predicted 295 and 288 g of CH4/d with and without the new VFA settings. Model Molly85 predicted the same CH4 production (276 g/d) with or without the new VFA construct. The incorporation of the new VFA construct did not consistently reduce the low prediction error across the versions of Molly evaluated in the present study. The improvements in the Molly versions from MollyOrigin to Molly84 to Molly85 resulted in a decrease in mean square prediction error from 8.6 to 8.3 to 4.3% using the forage diet setting. The majority of the mean square prediction error was apportioned to random bias (e.g., 43, 65, and 70% in MollyOrigin, Molly84, and Molly85, respectively, on

  11. Efficacy of controlled-release capsules containing monensin for the prevention of subclinical ketosis in pasture-fed dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, C W R; Young, L; McDougall, S

    2015-09-01

    To determine the effectiveness of intra-rumenal controlled release capsules (CRC) containing 32 g of monensin administered pre-calving to reduce the cumulative incidence of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in mainly pasture-fed dairy cows. Cows (n=837) due to calve in the first 6 weeks of the spring calving period were enrolled from four commercial herds in the Waikato region of New Zealand in a blinded, randomised, negative-controlled field trial. Three weeks before the start of the calving period cows were randomly allocated to receive either no treatment (control) or a single CRC containing monensin and then blood sampled on two occasions, 7 days apart within 12 days following calving for measurement of concentrations of beta hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in blood. Cows were diagnosed with SCK if the concentration of BHBA in blood in either of these samples was ≥1.2 mmol/L. Fewer treated cows were diagnosed with SCK within 12 days post-calving than control cows (144/340 (42.4%) vs. 192/336 (57.1%); p10 days prior to calving reduced the cumulative incidence of SCK of pasture-based dairy cows in commercial dairy herds within 12 days post-calving. Administration pre-calving of an intra-rumenal bolus containing monensin can be considered as one of a range of management options for the control of SCK in early lactation.

  12. Circulating blood metabolites in early-lactation dairy cows fed canola or soybean meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    A successful transition from pregnancy to lactation is imperative for dairy cows to maximize milk production potential. Altering the dietary protein source can change the availability of energy to the cow. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of crude protein (CP) source canol...

  13. Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, J M; Frandsen, A M; Thilsing-Hansen, T

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor serum and urine biochemical changes in dairy cows during and after oral administration of a synthetic sodium aluminium-silicate (zeolite A). A prospective longitudinal study involving four non-pregnant and non-lactating cows was chosen. Cows were......), while cows in the experimental group were fed the basic diet and supplemented with 1 kg zeolite pellets once daily. During the third week (period 3) both groups were fed the basic ration only and observed for any persistent effects after zeolite withdraw. Daily sampling included blood and urine....... Selected physiological parameters were compared between groups during period 2 and 3, whereas mean values from period 1, 2 and 3 were compared within the groups. Zeolite supplementation revealed a significant influence on calcium homeostasis. A slight decrease in serum Ca and in renal excretion of calcium...

  14. Production and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows fed ground field peas with or without ruminally protected lysine and methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Whitehouse, N L; Aragona, K M; Schwab, C S; Reis, S F; Brito, A F

    2017-08-01

    versus FP. However, cows fed FPAA showed decreased concentrations of His and Leu in plasma compared with those fed FP. Overall, compared with the CSBAA diet, feeding FPAA did not negatively affect milk yield and milk protein synthesis. Furthermore, RP-Lys and RP-Met supplementation of the FP diet did not improve milk yield or milk protein synthesis, but decreased urinary urea N excretion. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance evaluation and adaptability of lactating dairy cows fed soybean and its by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria de Vasconcelos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to evaluate the lactation performance and adaptability of confined dairy cows fed diets containing soybean and its by-products, this study used 12 Holsteincows with initial production of 30 kg milk-1 day-1 day-1 in feedlot system distributed in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The experimental period lasted 84 days. The dry matter intake (DMI and meteorological variables were recorded daily. Milk production was measured from the 15th to the 21st day, with milk analysis twice in each period, and physiological variables collected on the 15, 17th and 21st days of each experimental period. The thermal comfort indices and rectal temperature were considered normal, however the respiratory frequency and heart rate were different between the periods. Total milk production and percentage of crude protein were not affected. The thermal environment had influence on the CMS and on the percentage of milk fat in warmer periods, but the mechanism of heat dissipation was efficient for the animals to maintain homeothermy without affecting milk production.

  16. A new nordic structure evaluation system for diets fed to dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Peder; Nadeau, E.; Randby, Å.T.

    2010-01-01

    , and with studies as random effect for ruminating time. The mRTf value per kg forage NDF decreased at increased BW and DNFIf/BW. The mETf value increased at increasing BW and at decreasing DM contents of grass silage. Intake of NDF from rolled barley stimulated ruminating time by 3/4 of the stimuli from DNFIf......The overall aim was to establish a model for predicting chewing index (CI) values for ranking the fibrousnesses of feeds fed to dairy cows within the Nordic Chewing index system. The CI values are predicted as the sum of the eating (EI) and ruminating time index (RI) values. The EI values...... are assumed to be proportional with the NDF content and a particle size factor through the porportionality factor kEI. The RI values are assumed to be proportional with the NDF content, a particle size factor and a hardness factor through the proportionality factor kRI. The kEI, kRI values and the k...

  17. Production performance of lactating dairy cows at pasture fed concentrate supplemented with licuri oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano dos Santos Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimal level of licuri oil to use in the concentrate of lactating dairy cows on pasture, through growth performance, feed conversion and cost of the supplementation. A total of 16 dairy cows, Holstein × Zebu crossbreed, were kept on Tanzania grass pasture. Cows were divided into four Latin squares, 4 × 4, formed by four experimental periods of 21 days, divided into 17 days for adaptation and four days for data collection. Cows received three kg of concentrate per day at the time of milking, and the treatments consisted of four diets containing licuri oil at levels of 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% of the concentrated dry matter. There was a linear increase in the daily milk yield, corrected to 3.5% fat, and an improvement in the feed conversion of the dry matter and neutral detergent fiber with the inclusion of the licuri oil. The optimal level of licuri oil was 1.5% of the concentrated DM for dairy cows on pasture, whose level has the best profit sale of milk, with positive results in the corrected daily milk production and conversion of the feed nutrients.

  18. Effect of concentrate feeding strategy on the performance of dairy cows fed total mixed rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. KHALILI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available concerning the effects of offering additional concentrates with total mixed ration (TMR on milk production. The aim of the present study was to compare TMR representing simplified feeding (TMR1 with TMR combined with a decreasing amount of additional concentrate (TMR2C. Finnish Ayrshire cows (39 were housed in a loose housing barn. TMR1 consisted of a mixed ration of grass silage (0.49 and concentrates (0.51. In TMR2C, the same grass silage and concentrate were mixed in a ratio of 55:45. In TMR2C, cows were offered additional concentrates from automatic feeders differing in composition from the concentrate in TMR1 [6.5 kg d-1 (first 100 days, Phase 1, 3.0 kg d-1 (subsequent 50 days, Phase 2 and no concentrate thereafter (Phase 3]. During the whole experiment (224 days, total consumption of concentrates per cow averaged 2426 kg dry matter (TMR1 and 2414 kg dry matter (TMR2C. There were no significant differences in mean total dry matter, metabolizable energy, crude protein or absorbed amino acid intakes. During Phase 2, total intake of all cows fed TMR2C was one kg lower (P = 0.10 than for cows fed TMR1. This was due to differences in total feed intake of multiparous cows. Average yields (kg d-1 of milk, energy corrected milk, protein, fat and lactose were not significantly different between diets. During Phase 2, primiparous cows tended to produce more energy corrected milk on TMR2C than on TMR1. The results showed that both TMR1 and TMR2C were equal feeding strategies for early lactating cows and cows did not benefit from greater concentrate consumption in early stage of lactation when total consumption of concentrates was similar.;

  19. Nitrogen metabolism and microbial production of dairy cows fed sugarcane and nitrogen compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves,Geógenes da Silva; Pedreira,Marcio dos Santos; Pereira,Mara Lúcia Albuquerque; Santos,Dimas Oliveira; Souza,Dicastro Dias de; Porto Junior,Antonio Ferraz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dairy cow diets containing two different sources of urea on nitrogen metabolism and microbial synthesis. Eight crossbred cows were confined and distributed in two 4x4 Latin: FS - soybean meal (control), conventional urea (UC) 100%; ULL 44 UC = 56% / 44% ULL, ULL 88 UC = 12% / 88% ULL. Diets were offered to animals during 21 days with 14 days of adaptation. The N intake, retained nitrogen balance, nitrogen excretion in milk, urine, feces and ...

  20. Status of vitamins E and A and β-carotene and health in organic dairy cows fed a diet without synthetic vitamins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, B; Persson Waller, K; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2014-01-01

    are mainly found in pasture and in grass and legume silages, but the concentrations are highly variable. This study compared the vitamin status and health of cows without synthetic vitamin supplementation (NSV group) with control cows (CON group) fed synthetic vitamins according to Swedish recommendations......Synthetic vitamin supplementation is not consistent with organic production, so it is important to investigate whether dairy cows can maintain their health and production without synthetic vitamins being added to their diet. In basic dairy cow diets, provitamin A (β-carotene) and vitamin E...... (600 IU of vitamin E and 80,000 IU of vitamin A per cow per day) to investigate whether dairy cows can fulfill their requirements of vitamins A and E without supplementation with synthetic vitamins. Vitamin concentrations in blood plasma and milk, health, fertility, milk yield, and milk composition...

  1. Effects of ruminally degradable starch levels on performance, nitrogen balance, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed low corn-based starch diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobin Luo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective This trial was performed to examine the effects of ruminally degradable starch (RDS levels in total mixed ration (TMR with low corn-based starch on the milk production, whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows. Methods Eight multiparous Holstein cows (body weight [BW]: 717±63 kg; days in milk [DIM]: 169±29 were assigned to a crossover design with two dietary treatments: a diet containing 62.3% ruminally degradable starch (% of total starch, low RDS or 72.1% ruminally degradable starch (% of total starch, high RDS. Changes to the ruminally degradable levels were conducted by using either finely ground corn or steam-flaked corn as the starch component. Results The results showed that dry matter intake, milk yield and composition in dairy cows were not affected by dietary treatments. The concentration of milk urea nitrogen was lower for cows fed high RDS TMR than low RDS TMR. The whole-tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and crude protein decreased, and that of starch increased for cows fed high RDS TMR over those fed low RDS TMR, with no dietary effect on the whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and organic matter. The proportion of urinary N excretion in N intake was lower and that of fecal N excretion in N intake was higher for cows fed high RDS TMR than those fed low RDS TMR. The N secretion in milk and the retention of N were not influenced by the dietary treatments. Total purine derivative was similar in cows fed high RDS TMR and low RDS TMR. Consequently, estimated microbial N flow to the duodenum was similar in cows fed high RDS TMR and low RDS TMR. Conclusion Results of this study show that ruminally degradable starch levels can influence whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows fed low corn-based starch diets, with no influence on performance.

  2. Feed intake and milk production in dairy cows fed different grass and legume species: a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare feed intake, milk production, milk composition and organic matter (OM) digestibility in dairy cows fed different grass and legume species. Data from the literature was collected and different data sets were made to compare families (grasses v. legumes...... tannins in birdsfoot trefoil. None of the included grass species differed in DMI, milk production, milk composition or OM digestibility, indicating that different grass species have the same value for milk production, if OM digestibility is comparable. However, the comparison of different grass species...

  3. Effects of dietary starch and protein levels on milk production and composition of dairy cows fed high concentrate diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Güçlü Sucak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Twenty eight Holstein cows (averaged 41±31.5 and 82±24 days in milk, and 30.4±3.49 and 29.0±2.22 kg/d milk yield were fed a high concentrate diet (70:30 concentrate to forage to examine effects on milk production and composition. The cows were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Factors were starch (14% and 22% and protein (15% and 18%. Wheat straw was used as forage source. The study lasted 6 weeks. Dry matter intake was not affected (P> 0.05 by the dietary treatments in the study. Milk yield increased with increased dietary protein level (P< 0.01. Milk urea nitrogen concentrations were affected by dietary protein and starch levels, but there was no interaction effect. Nitrogen efficiency (Milk N/N intake was decreased by increasing in dietary protein level (P< 0.01. In conclusion, the cows fed total mixed ration (TMR containing low level of wheat straw responded better when dietary protein increased. But, efficiency of N use and N excretion to the environment were worsened. Key words: Dairy cattle, milk composition, protein, starch, wheat straw

  4. Analysis of hepatic transcript profile and plasma lipid profile in early lactating dairy cows fed grape seed and grape marc meal extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Denise K; Winkler, Anne; Koch, Christian; Dusel, Georg; Liebisch, Gerhard; Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus

    2017-03-23

    It was recently reported that dairy cows fed a polyphenol-rich grape seed and grape marc meal extract (GSGME) during the transition period had an increased milk yield, but the underlying reasons remained unclear. As polyphenols exert a broad spectrum of metabolic effects, we hypothesized that feeding of GSGME influences metabolic pathways in the liver which could account for the positive effects of GSGME in dairy cows. In order to identify these pathways, we performed genome-wide transcript profiling in the liver and lipid profiling in plasma of dairy cows fed GSGME during the transition period at 1 week postpartum. Transcriptomic analysis of the liver revealed 207 differentially expressed transcripts, from which 156 were up- and 51 were down-regulated, between cows fed GSGME and control cows. Gene set enrichment analysis of the 155 up-regulated mRNAs showed that the most enriched gene ontology (GO) biological process terms were dealing with cell cycle regulation and the most enriched Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways were p53 signaling and cell cycle. Functional analysis of the 43 down-regulated mRNAs revealed that a great part of these genes are involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) and inflammatory processes. Accordingly, protein folding, response to unfolded protein, unfolded protein binding, chemokine activity and heat shock protein binding were identified as one of the most enriched GO biological process and molecular function terms assigned to the down-regulated genes. In line with the transcriptomics data the plasma concentrations of the acute phase proteins serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin were reduced in cows fed GSGME compared to control cows. Lipidomic analysis of plasma revealed no differences in the concentrations of individual species of major and minor lipid classes between cows fed GSGME and control cows. Analysis of hepatic transcript profile in cows fed GSGME during the

  5. Dairy cows fed on tropical legume forages: effects on milk yield, nutrients use efficiency and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Montoya, J M; García, R A; Ramos, R A; Flores, J M; Alas, E A; Corea, E E

    2018-04-01

    Two trials with multiparous dairy cows were conducted. Experiment 1 tested the effects of increasing forage proportion in the diet (500, 600, and 700 g/kg DM) when a mixed sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and jackbean (Cannavalia ensiformis) silage was used as forage. Experiment 2 studied the substitution of sorghum silage and soybean meal by jackbean silage or fresh cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) forage in the diet. All diets were iso-energetic and iso-proteic. In each experiment, 30 cows were used and separated into three groups. In experiment 1, there were no differences in dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield (MY), or apparent total tract digestibility (aTTd) among the three diets, but milk fat content increased with increasing forage proportion, even though the similar neutral detergent fiber of all diets. Nitrogen use efficiency was highest in the diet containing 600 g forage/kg DM, and some evidence was observed for a better profitability with this forage proportion. In experiment 2, feeding legumes increased DMI despite no effects on aTTd. Milk yield increased in line with DMI, with a larger increase for the fresh cowpea. Nitrogen use efficiency and milk composition were not affected by the diets. The increased MY and lower feed costs increased the economic benefits when feeding legumes, particularly when feeding fresh cowpea. Feeding fresh cowpea or jackbean silage to dairy cows appears to be an alternative to soybean as protein source, ideally at a forage proportions of 600 g/kg DM, without altering milk yield and quality and increasing the farm profitability.

  6. Iodine in raw and pasteurized milk of dairy cows fed different amounts of potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzian, M A

    2011-02-01

    Relation between iodine (I) intake by lactating Holstein cows and iodine concentrations in raw and pasteurized milk were investigated. Four treatment groups with eight cows assigned to each treatment were fed a basal diet containing 0.534 mg I/kg alone or supplemented with potassium iodide at 2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg/kg in 7-week period. Iodine concentrations in raw milk increased with each increase in dietary I from 162.2 ng/ml for basal diet to 534.5, 559.8 and 607.5 ng/ml when 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/kg was fed as potassium iodide (P HTST) pasteurization process reduced I concentration. The mean iodine content found in the milk prior to heating processing was 466.0 ± 205.0 ng/ml, whereas for the processed milk this level was 349.5 ± 172.8 ng/ml. It was concluded that iodine supplementation above of NRC recommendation (0.5 mg/kg diet DM) resulted in significant increases in iodine concentrations in milk, although the effect of heating in HTST pasteurization process on iodine concentration was not negligible.

  7. Performance and metabolite profile of dairy cows fed tropical grasses and concentrates containing crude protein with low or high degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael dos Santos Gomes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ten Holstein-Zebu crossbred cows distributed into two simultaneous Latin squares (5 × 5 as a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement formed by chopped sugarcane or elephant grass silage, both with high or low protein degradability supplements and a corn silage as a control treatment, were compared using orthogonal contrasts. The studied variables were the performance, plasma concentrations of urea-N, glucose, and creatinine, urine-N and milk urea-N, and the nychthemeral variation in NH3-N in the rumen fluid of dairy cows. Nutrient intake, milk production, and milk composition were affected by the treatments. The total mixed ration containing elephant grass silage combined with rumen undegradable protein (RUP provided balanced amounts of carbon and nitrogen in the rumen. This effect may explain the 18% increase in milk yield compared with the other treatments. The diurnal pattern of ruminal NH3-N was interpreted with a sinusoid model. In general, cows fed elephant grass silage exhibited higher concentrations of blood plasma and milk urea-N than animals fed sugarcane. The cows that consumed elephant grass silage with rumen degradable protein concentrate showed a higher milk urea-N compared with animals that consumed elephant grass silage with the RUP concentrate. The use of diets based on corn silage leads to a better use of nitrogen compounds because these diets resulted in lower levels of urea-N in the plasma, urine, and milk at the same level of milk production compared with diets containing elephant grass silage or chopped sugarcane as roughages. In sugarcane-based diets, even greater nitrogen losses in the urine are observed, despite the presence of readily fermentable carbohydrates in the diet.

  8. Evaluation of dairy cows intake behavior grazing Brachiaria brizantha fed different levels of concentrate at diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Bacelar Lima Mendes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective with this research was to evaluate the dairy cows intake behavior grazing Brachiaria brizantha submitted to different levels of concentrate supplementation in the diet. Used 16 lactating cows ½ Holstein x ½ Zebu, with an average of 80 ±10.14 days of lactation and body weight of 454.7 ± 54.51 kg. The animals were distributed in four treatments, using a 4x4 Latin square. The evaluation of behavior was done every ten minutes, during 24 hours on the 16th day of period. We used analysis of variance and regression probability of 0.05. The time spent grazing, ruminating and other activities, the numbers of grazing, ruminating, of bites per day and chews per cake, the grazing times, total power and total chewing, bit rate, time to swallow; time per bolus ruminated; chewing speed and power efficiency for NDF were not altered by increased levels of concentrate. The time of trough, the trough period, the bit size, the chews time for bolus, feeding efficiency for DM, NFC, and TDN and rumination efficiency linearly increased. Periods of rumination, deglutition bits, number of rumination chews per day, decreased linearly with increasing levels of concentrate. Significant quadratic effect of concentrate level on the number of periods in other activities and over time on other activities. Supplementation with 33.8% concentrate in the diet of cows grazing not promote changes in the activity of grazing, ruminating and other activities, but increases the time of trough. The increase in concentrate diet improves the efficiencies of feeding and rumination

  9. Technical note: Nitrogen isotopic fractionation can be used to predict nitrogen-use efficiency in dairy cows fed temperate pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Sheahan, A J; Gibbs, S J; Rius, A G; Kay, J K; Meier, S; Edwards, G R; Dewhurst, R J; Roche, J R

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between nitrogen isotopic fractionation (δ(15)N) and nitrogen-use efficiency (milk nitrogen/nitrogen intake; NUE) in pasture-fed dairy cows supplemented with increasing levels of urea to mimic high rumen degradable protein pastures in spring. Fifteen cows were randomly assigned to freshly cut pasture and either supplemented with 0, 250, or 336 g urea/d. Feed, milk, and plasma were analyzed for δ(15)N, milk and plasma for urea nitrogen concentration, and plasma for ammonia concentration. Treatment effects were tested using ANOVA and relationships between variables were established by linear regression. Lower dry matter intake (P = 0.002) and milk yield (P = 0.002) occurred with the highest urea supplementation (336 g urea/d) compared with the other two treatments. There was a strong linear relationship between milk δ(15)N - feed δ(15)N and NUE: [NUE (%) = 58.9 - 10.17 × milk δ(15)N - feed δ(15)N (‰) (r(2) = 0.83, P < 0.001, SE = 1.67)] and between plasma δ(15)N - feed δ(15)N and NUE: [NUE (%) = 52.4 - 8.61 × plasma δ(15)N - feed δ(15)N (‰) (r(2) = 0.85, P < 0.001, SE = 1.56)] . This study confirmed the potential use of δ(15)N to predict NUE in cows consuming different levels of rumen degradable protein.

  10. Dry matter intake, body condition score, and grazing behavior of nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows fed kale or grass once versus twice daily during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugoho, I; Edwards, G R

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of wintering pregnant, nonlactating dairy cows outdoors on either kale or grass, fed in 1 [11 kg dry matter (DM) of kale or grass + 3 kg DM of baled barley straw offered in the morning] or 2 allocations (5.5 kg DM of kale or grass grazed + 1.5 kg DM of barley straw offered morning and afternoon) per day. The body condition score (BCS) gain over the 47-d winter feeding period was higher for grass-fed (0.5 BCS units) than kale-fed cows (0.3 BCS units), but was unaffected by feeding frequency. Forage DM utilization was higher for kale-fed (97%) than grass-fed cows (76%), leading to higher estimated dry matter intake (DMI) in kale-fed (10.7 kg of DM/cow per day) than grass-fed cows (7.7 kg of DM/cow per day). Forage DM utilization and estimated DMI were not affected by feeding frequency. Prehension bite rate was greater for grass-fed (37.3 bites/min) than kale-fed cows (7.6 bites/min), but more mastication bites were required for kale-fed cows. Cumulative DMI after 2, 3, and 6 h was greater in cows allocated forage once than twice a day and for kale than grass after 3 and 6 h. Mean eating time was greater for cows offered forage once (477 min) than twice (414 min) per day. In conclusion, increasing feeding frequency from once to twice per day decreased the intake rate within the first 6 h after allocation, but did not affect total daily DMI, DM utilization or BCS gain. Thus, moving cows more frequently would not have any significant advantage. It may increase labor requirements, thereby creating a more challenging wintering management than feeding once per day. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Methane production, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen excretion, and milk production of dairy cows fed conventional or brown midrib corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Benchaar, C

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of replacing conventional corn silage (CCS) with brown midrib corn silage (BMCS) in dairy cow diets on enteric CH 4 emission, nutrient intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk production, and N excretion. Sixteen rumen-cannulated lactating cows used in a crossover design (35-d periods) were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (forage:concentrate ratio = 65:35, dry matter basis) based (59% dry matter) on either CCS or BMCS. Dry matter intake and milk yield increased when cows were fed BMCS instead of CCS. Of the milk components, only milk fat content slightly decreased when cows were fed the BMCS-based diet compared with when fed the CCS-based diet (3.81 vs. 3.92%). Compared with CCS, feeding BMCS to cows increased yields of milk protein and milk fat. Ruminal pH, protozoa numbers, total VFA concentration, and molar proportions of acetate and propionate were similar between cows fed BMCS and those fed CCS. Daily enteric CH 4 emission (g/d) was unaffected by dietary treatments, but CH 4 production expressed as a proportion of gross energy intake or on milk yield basis was lower for cows fed the BMCS-based diet than for cows fed the CCS-based diet. A decline in manure N excretion and a shift in N excretion from urine to feces were observed when BMCS replaced CCS in the diet, suggesting reduced potential of manure N volatilization. Results from this study show that improving fiber quality of corn silage in dairy cow diets through using brown midrib trait cultivar can reduce enteric CH 4 emissions as well as potential emissions of NH 3 and N 2 O from manure. However, CH 4 emissions during manure storage may increase due to excretion of degradable OM when BMCS diet is fed, which merits further investigation. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of ruminal lipid metabolism in dairy cows and goats fed diets supplemented with starch, plant oil, or fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Bernard, L; Belenguer, A; Rouel, J; Hervás, G; Chilliard, Y; Frutos, P

    2016-01-01

    Direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression (MFD) in the bovine reveals relevant species-by-diet interactions in ruminal lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer potential mechanisms responsible for differences in the rumen microbial biohydrogenation (BH) due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5.3% sunflower oil and additional starch (+38%; SOS) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 25-d experimental periods. On the last day of each period, fatty acid composition (by gas chromatography) and bacterial community (by terminal-RFLP), as well as fermentation characteristics, were measured in rumen fluid samples. Results showed significant differences in the response of cows and goats to dietary treatments, although variations in some fermentation parameters (e.g., decreases in the acetate-to-propionate ratio due to FO or SOS) were similar in both species. Main alterations in ruminal BH pathways potentially responsible for MFD on the SOS diet (i.e., the shift from trans-11 to trans-10 18:1 and related increases in trans-10,cis-12 18:2) tended to be more pronounced in cows, which is consistent with an associated MFD only in this species. However, changes linked to FO-induced MFD (e.g., decreases in 18:0 and increases in total trans-18:1) were stronger in caprine rumen fluid, which may explain their unexpected susceptibility (although less marked than in bovine) to the negative effect of FO on milk fat content. Altogether, these results suggest that distinct ruminal mechanisms lead to each type of diet-induced MFD and confirm a pronounced interaction with species. With regard to microbiota, differences between cows and goats in the composition of the rumen bacterial community might be behind the disparity in the microorganisms

  13. Effect of different levels of mangosteen peel powder supplement on the performance of dairy cows fed concentrate containing yeast fermented cassava chip protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyorach, Sineenart; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) peel powder (MSP) supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and milk production in lactating dairy cows fed a concentrate containing yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP). Four crossbred dairy cows (50 % Holstein-Friesian and 50 % Thai native breed) in mid-lactation, 404 ± 50.0 kg of body weight and 90 ± 5 day in milk with daily milk production of 9 ± 2.0 kg/day, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to receive 4 dietary treatments. The treatments were different levels of MSP supplementation at 0, 100, 200, and 300 g/head/day. Rice straw was used as a roughage source and fed ad libitum to all cows, and concentrate containing YEFECAP at 200 g/kg concentrate was offered corresponding to concentrate to milk yield ratio at 1:2. Results revealed that feed intake, apparent nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH and temperature, and total volatile fatty acid were not significantly affected by MSP supplementation (P > 0.05). However, increasing levels of MSP supplementation increased molar proportion of propionate while ammonia-nitrogen, acetate, and acetate to propionate ratio were decreased (P fermentation efficiency, milk production and protein content, and economical return of lactating dairy cows fed on rice straw.

  14. Identification of lactic acid bacteria in the feces of dairy cows fed whole crop maize silage to assess the survival of silage bacteria in the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hongyan; Wang, Chao; Li, Yanbing; Yu, Zhu; Xu, Qingfang; Li, Guangpeng; Minh, Tang Thuy; Nishino, Naoki

    2018-01-01

    In order to assess the survival of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in whole crop maize silage in the gut of dairy cows, one representative silage sample and three different feces samples were collected from dairy cows on three dairy farms in Hua Bei, China and three dairy farms in Kyushu, Japan. The composition of the bacterial community was examined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Lactobacillus acetotolerans was detected in all bunker-made maize silage samples, regardless of the dairy farm or sampling region from which they were sourced. A total of eight LAB species were detected in the maize silage samples, of which three (L. acetotolerans, L. pontis and L. casei) appeared to survive digestion. The populations of L. acetotolerans in silage and feces were 10 6-7 and 10 3-4 copies/g, respectively, indicating that, even for the LAB species showing potential survival in the gut, competition in this niche may be harsh and the population may substantially decrease during the digestion process. It may be difficult for silage LAB to survive in the gut of silage-fed dairy cows, because marked decrease in population can take place during the digestion process, even for surviving species. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Shifts in Rumen Fermentation and Microbiota Are Associated with Dissolved Ruminal Hydrogen Concentrations in Lactating Dairy Cows Fed Different Types of Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Wang, Rong; Xie, Tian Yu; Janssen, Peter H; Sun, Xue Zhao; Beauchemin, Karen A; Tan, Zhi Liang; Gao, Min

    2016-09-01

    Different carbohydrates ingested greatly influence rumen fermentation and microbiota and gaseous methane emissions. Dissolved hydrogen concentration is related to rumen fermentation and methane production. We tested the hypothesis that carbohydrates ingested greatly alter the rumen environment in dairy cows, and that dissolved hydrogen concentration is associated with these changes in rumen fermentation and microbiota. Twenty-eight lactating Chinese Holstein dairy cows [aged 4-5 y, body weight 480 ± 37 kg (mean ± SD)] were used in a randomized complete block design to investigate effects of 4 diets differing in forage content (45% compared with 35%) and source (rice straw compared with a mixture of rice straw and corn silage) on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and microbial populations. Feed intake (10.7-12.6 kg/d) and fiber degradation (0.584-0.692) greatly differed (P ≤ 0.05) between cows fed the 4 diets, leading to large differences (P ≤ 0.05) in gaseous methane yield (27.2-37.3 g/kg organic matter digested), dissolved hydrogen (0.258-1.64 μmol/L), rumen fermentation products, and microbiota. Ruminal dissolved hydrogen was negatively correlated (r 0.40; P Ruminal dissolved hydrogen was positively correlated (r = 0.93; P ruminal dissolved hydrogen in lactating dairy cows. An unresolved paradox was that greater dissolved hydrogen was associated with greater numbers of methanogens but with lower gaseous methane emissions. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Effect of source of trace minerals in either forage- or by-product-based diets fed to dairy cows: 2. Apparent absorption and retention of minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, M J; St-Pierre, N R; Weiss, W P

    2017-07-01

    hydroxy minerals with forage diets had greater apparent absorption compared with cows fed sulfate minerals; however, the opposite was observed with the by-product diets. Source of supplemental trace minerals and type of fiber in diets affected availability of Cu and Mn and should be considered in ration formulation. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Enteric methane production, digestibility and rumen fermentation in dairy cows fed different forages with and without rapeseed fat supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Maike; Lund, Peter; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of forage species (grass or maize) and the maturity stage of grass on enteric methane (CH4) production, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation, and to study possible interactions with cracked rapeseed as fat source. Six lactating......, ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulated Holstein dairy cows (206 days in milk, milk yield 25.1 kg) were submitted to an incomplete Latin square design (6 × 4) with six diets and four periods. Two grass silages (early first cut, 361 g aNDFom/kg DM and late first cut, 515 g aNDFom/kg DM) and one maize silage...... grass silage had a higher total tract OM and aNDFom digestibility than late cut grass silage. The present study demonstrates that choice of forage species and harvest time affects CH4 emission from dairy cows, while the CH4 reducing ability of fat does not interact with forage characteristics...

  18. Consumption, nutrient digestibility and lactation performance of dairy cows fed soybeans in different forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria de Vasconcelos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Twelve Holstein cows were given diets containing soybean supplied in different ways in order to identify possible changes in lactation performance and evaluate the economic feasibility of the diets. The diets included: soybean meal only (SM-control; raw soybean (RaS; roasted soybean (RoS and soybean meal plus 5% urea (SMU. The forage consisted of corn silage. We analyzed the dry matter intake, milk production and collected milk samples. To estimate digestibility, we collected six samples of feces over a period of six consecutive days. The intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC did not differ among treatments. On the other hand, crude protein (CP intake was influenced by the diets, and the highest mean values of ether extract (EE were found with the RaS and RoS diets. The intake of total digestible nutrients (TDN was lower in the RaS and RoS diets compared to the control diet. DM, OM, CP, EE, and NDF digestibility were not affected by the different diets, while NFCs were reduced in the RoS diet and TDN decreased with both the RaS and RoS diets. There were also no differences observed across diets for total milk production, production corrected to 3.5% fat, diet efficiency, or milk per kilogram of dry matter and/or crude protein. We conclude that raw and roasted soybeans as well as concentrate plus 5% urea in dry matter may be used instead of soybean meal as feed for high-producing cows, without affecting milk production and composition. We also observed that the SMU diet was the least costly.

  19. Dairy cow nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Tame, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This review pulls together the results of over 40 research projects and brings us up to date with the latest in thinking on dairy cow nutrition, incorporates the findings of a wide range of organic trials and draws some clear recommendations on appropriate strategies for forage type and management, supplementary feeding, ration formulation and farming systems. It raises important issues around sustainability versus optimum production and highlights future research priorities.

  20. Fatty acid profile and composition of milk protein fraction in dairy cows fed long-chain unsaturated fatty acids during the transition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Palma Rennó

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the utilization of different sources of unsaturated long-chain fatty acids in diets for dairy cows during the transition period and early lactation on the milk fatty acid profile and composition of the protein fraction. Thirty-six Holstein cows were divided into three groups, fed the following diets: control (C; soybean oil (SO; and calcium salts of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids (CS. The milk samples utilized for analysis were obtained weekly from parturition to twelve weeks of lactation; each one of the samples originated from two daily milkings. Milk composition and total nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen and non-casein nitrogen levels were analyzed. The cows receiving the diet with calcium salts had lower concentrations of non-protein nitrogen (%CP in milk compared with the animals fed the diet with soybean oil. There was a decrease in concentration of medium-chain fatty acids C12-C16, and a concomitant increase in concentrations of long-chain fatty acids >C18 in milk fat for the animals fed the diets CS and SO when compared with diet C. Soybean oil and CS diets increased milk-fat concentrations of the acids C18: 1 trans-11, C18: 2 cis-9, trans-11 and C18: 2 trans-10 cis-12 in relation to diet C. The utilization of sources of long-chain fatty acids in the diet of dairy cows increases the biological value of milk in early lactation due to higher concentrations of specific fatty acids such as CLA C18: 2cis-9, trans-11.

  1. Nitrogen balance and milk composition of dairy cows fed urea and soybean meal and two protein levels using sugar cane based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Andreucci Conti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of feeding two levels of crude protein (CP (low: 142 g CP/kg DM; and high: 156 g CP/kg DM and two nitrogen sources (soybean meal and urea to dairy cows using sugar cane as forage on microbial protein synthesis, the composition of the milk nitrogen fraction, nitrogen (N balance and blood parameters. Twelve Holstein cows with an average milk yield of 22.0 ± 2.3 kg/day, and with 235 ± 40 days in milk were included in this study. The animals were grouped into three balanced and contemporary 4x4 Latin squares for an experimental period of 21 days. On the 15th day of each period, milk and urine samples were collected for microbial protein synthesis determination. Total excretion of urine (L/day, milk urea nitrogen (MUN and blood urea were higher for the diets with high CP, regardless of the nitrogen source. Nitrogen efficiency was higher for cows fed diets with low CP. Cows in the final third of lactation can be fed diets with reduced CP levels, regardless of the nitrogen source, soybean meal or urea, without influencing the synthesis of microbial protein or the composition of the nitrogen fraction of milk.

  2. Milk Chemical Composition of Dairy Cows Fed Rations Containing Protected Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Fermented Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudibya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to investigate the effect of ration containing protected omega-3 and fermented rice bran on chemical composition of dairy milk. The research employed 10 female PFH dairy cows of 2-4 years old with body weight 300-375 kg. The research was assigned in randomized complete block design. The treatment consisted of P0= control ration, P1= P0 + 20% fermented rice bran, P2= P1 + 4% soya bean oil, P3= P1 + 4% protected tuna fish oil and P4= P1 + 4% protected lemuru fish oil. The results showed that the effects of fish oil supplementation in the rations significantly (P<0.01 decreased feed consumption, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, lipids, and saturated fatty acids. Meanwhile, it increased milk production, content of high density lipoprotein, omega-3, omega-6 and unsaturated fatty acids in the dairy cows milk. It is concluded that the inclusion of 4% protected fish oil in the rations can produce healthy milk by decreasing milk cholesterol and increasing omega-3 fatty acids content.

  3. Selective dry cow treatment in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpenzeel, C.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the dairy industry, udder health is associated with mastitis management, of which blanket dry cow treatment has been an important part for decades. To prevent the udder from new intramammary infections during the dry period, the use of blanket dry cow treatment has been advocated for more than 50

  4. Quantitative analysis of ruminal bacterial populations involved in lipid metabolism in dairy cows fed different vegetable oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.; Cancino-Padilla, N.; Romero, J.

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oils are used to increase energy density of dairy cow diets, although they can provoke changes in rumen bacteria populations and have repercussions on the biohydrogenation process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sources of dietary lipids: soybean oil (SO......, an unsaturated source) and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO, a saturated source) on bacterial populations and the fatty acid profile of ruminal digesta. Three non-lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulae were used in a 3×3 Latin square design with three periods consisting of 21 days. Dietary treatments...... parameters, whereas HPO can increase load of ruminal P. bryantii. Also, results observed in our targeted bacteria may have depended on the saturation degree of dietary oils....

  5. Selective dry cow treatment in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Scherpenzeel, C.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the dairy industry, udder health is associated with mastitis management, of which blanket dry cow treatment has been an important part for decades. To prevent the udder from new intramammary infections during the dry period, the use of blanket dry cow treatment has been advocated for more than 50 years as part of the five-point mastitis prevention program. The goal of dry cow treatment is to reduce the prevalence of intramammary infections by eliminating infections already present at dryin...

  6. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  7. Urea-N recycling in lactating dairy cows fed diets with 2 different levels of dietary crude protein and starch with or without monensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recktenwald, E B; Ross, D A; Fessenden, S W; Wall, C J; Van Amburgh, M E

    2014-03-01

    Rumensin (monensin; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) has been shown to reduce ammonia production and microbial populations in vitro; thus, it would be assumed to reduce ruminal ammonia production and subsequent urea production and consequently affect urea recycling. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of 2 levels of dietary crude protein (CP) and 2 levels of starch, with and without Rumensin on urea-N recycling in lactating dairy cattle. Twelve lactating Holstein dairy cows (107 ± 21 d in milk, 647 kg ± 37 kg of body weight) were fed diets characterized as having high (16.7%) or low (15.3%) CP with or without Rumensin, while dietary starch levels (23 vs. 29%) were varied between 2 feeding periods with at least 7d of adaptation between measurements. Cows assigned to high or low protein and to Rumensin or no Rumensin remained on those treatments to avoid carryover effects. The diets consisted of approximately 40% corn silage, 20% alfalfa hay, and 40% concentrate mix specific to the treatment diets, with 0.5 kg of wheat straw added to the high starch diets to enhance effective fiber intake. The diets were formulated using Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (version 6.1), and the low-protein diets were formulated to be deficient for rumen ammonia to create conditions that should enhance the demand for urea recycling. The high-protein diets were formulated to be positive for both rumen ammonia and metabolizable protein. Rumen fluid, urine, feces, and milk samples were collected before and after a 72-h continuous jugular infusion of (15)N(15)N-urea. Total urine and feces were collected during the urea infusions for N balance measurements. Milk yield and dry matter intake were improved in cows fed the higher level of dietary CP and by Rumensin. Ruminal ammonia and milk and plasma urea nitrogen concentrations corresponded to dietary CP concentration. As has been shown in vitro, Rumensin reduced rumen ammonia concentration by

  8. Effect of source of trace minerals in either forage- or by-product-based diets fed to dairy cows: 1. Production and macronutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, M J; Weiss, W P

    2017-07-01

    Excess rumen-soluble Cu and Zn can alter rumen microbial populations and reduce fiber digestibility. Because of differences in particle size and chemical composition, ruminal and total-tract digestibility of fiber from forage- and by-product-based diets can differ. We hypothesized that, because of differences in mineral solubility, diets with hydroxy rather than sulfate trace minerals would have greater fiber digestibility, but the effect may depend on source of fiber. Eighteen multiparous cows were used in a split-plot replicated Latin square with two 28-d periods to evaluate the effects of Cu, Zn, and Mn source (sulfates or hydroxy; Micronutrients USA LLC, Indianapolis, IN) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) source (forage diet = 26% NDF vs. by-product = 36%) on total-tract nutrient digestibility. During the entire experiment (56 d) cows remained on the same fiber treatment, but source of supplemental trace mineral was different for each 28-d period so that all cows were exposed to both mineral treatments. During each of the two 28-d periods, cows were fed no supplemental Cu, Zn, or Mn for 16 d followed by 12 d of feeding supplemental Cu, Zn, and Mn from either sulfates or hydroxy sources. Supplemental minerals for each of the mineral sources fed provided approximately 10, 35, and 32 mg/kg of supplemental Cu, Zn, and Mn, respectively, for both fiber treatments. Total dietary concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Mn were approximately 19, 65, and 70 mg/kg for the forage diets and 21, 85, and 79 mg/kg for the by-product diets, respectively. Treatment had no effect on dry matter intake (24.2 kg/d) or milk production (34.9 kg/d). Milk fatty acid profiles were altered by fiber source, mineral source, and their interaction. Cows fed the by-product diets had lower dry matter (65.9 vs. 70.2%), organic matter (67.4 vs. 71.7%), and crude protein digestibility (58.8 vs. 62.1%) but greater starch (97.5 vs. 96.3%) and NDF digestibility (50.5 vs. 44.4%) compared with cows fed the

  9. Continuous lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Torben Gosvig; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Andersen, Jens Bech

    2008-01-01

    Reports over the past decade have indicated that normal lactational performance can be achieved in genetically superior and high-producing dairy cows, even when the dry period between 2 lactations is omitted. The hypothesis tested in this experiment was that normal lactogenesis I and metabolic...... function may be achievable in continuously milked high-yielding dairy cows as a result of the genetic selection for lactation performance and hence longevity of mammary epithelial cells. The milk production and mammary nutrient uptake in response to omission of the dry period for cows with an expected peak...... milk yield higher than 45 kg/d were studied in 28 Holstein dairy cows managed without bovine somatotropin. Performance and metabolic parameters were followed in late gestation and in the following early lactation. Fourteen cows were milked continuously throughout late gestation, and another 14 dairy...

  10. Faecal excretion of total and acid extractable phosphorus in dairy cows fed rations with different levels of phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordqvist, Maria; Spörndly, Rolf; Holtenius, Kjell

    2016-03-15

    The phosphorus (P) originating from livestock operations causes eutrophication. Determination of acid extractable P (AEP) in cattle faeces has been proposed as a tool to identify excessive P feeding. The method has not yet been evaluated in controlled studies with cows subjected to individual recording of P intake. Thus the present study focused on investigating the relationship between different P fractions in faeces from cows fed rations with varying P content. The study also investigated whether AEP in faeces could be used to estimate dietary P intake in relation to the P requirement. The results showed that acid extractable P predicted P overfeeding. P fed in excess of requirements was largely excreted as acid extractable P. The unavailable and/or inevitably lost P fractions in the diets were smaller than assumed. This study demonstrates in experimental studies a positive relationship between measured AEP and indirectly calculated regulated P. Any P fed in excess of requirements was largely excreted as AEP. This fraction is thought to be the most mobile P fraction with regard to potential runoff losses. However, the unavailable and/or inevitably lost P fractions in the diets were smaller than assumed. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Productive performance and efficiency of utilization of the diet components in dairy cows fed castor meal treated with calcium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Variz Cobianchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of replacing of 0; 0.33; 0.67 and 1.0 (kg/kg of soybean meal (SBM by undecorticated castor seed meal treated with calcium oxide (CMT - 60 g/kg was evaluated on performance and efficiency of nutrient utilization in dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein and crossbred cows were distributed in four 4 × 4 latin squares. Animals received concentrated feed at a ratio of 1 kg for 3 kg of milk produced, in the natural matter. The diets had the same amount of nitrogen (150.4 g crude protein/kg DM, containing 325.6 g of concentrated feed/kg DM. There was no effect on the serum concentration of transaminase and the animals showed no clinical symptoms of intoxication by ricin. The intake of DM, crude protein (CP and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC reduced from 0.67 replacement of SBM by CMT. The intake of neutral detergent fibers corrected for ash and protein (NDFap increased from 0.33 replacement of SBM with CMT. Although the digestibility of dietary components decreased from 0.33 replacement, the intake of digestible components only reduced from 0.67 replacement. Because of the reduction of digestible energy, the synthesis of microbial CP and the utilization efficiency of rumen-degradable protein for the synthesis of microbial CP reduced with full replacement of SBM by CMT. Milk yield, milk composition, daily variation of body weight and the efficiency of utilization of the nutrients for the synthesis of N in milk reduced from 0.67 replacement of SBM by CMT. Castor seed meal treated with calcium oxide can replace up to 0.33 of SBM (50 g/kg DM diet DM in the diet of dairy cows with an average milk production of 20 kg/day.

  12. Insulin signaling, inflammation, and lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue of transition dairy cows either overfed energy during the prepartum period or fed a controlled-energy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Abuelo, A; Leal Yepes, F A; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J

    2016-08-01

    Adipose tissue mobilization is a hallmark of the transition period in dairy cows. Cows overfed energy during the dry period have higher concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) compared with cows fed a controlled-energy diet prepartum. The reason for an increase in blood NEFA concentrations at the level of adipose tissue in cows overfed energy has not been fully elucidated. One hypothesis is that cows with high BHB concentrations suffer from adipose tissue-specific insulin resistance, leading to higher rates of adipose tissue mobilization in the postpartum period. To test this hypothesis, subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies of cows overfed energy in excess of predicted requirements by 50% in the dry period, and that had high concentrations of blood BHB postpartum (group H; n=12), were used. Findings were compared with results of biopsies from cows fed a controlled-energy diet and with low BHB concentrations postpartum (group C; n=12) to create the biggest contrast in BHB concentrations. Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained before and 60 min after an intravenous glucose challenge (0.25 g/kg of glucose) at 28 and 10 d before expected calving as well as on d 4 and 21 postpartum. Phosphorylation of protein kinase B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and hormone-sensitive lipase was determined before and after glucose infusion by Western blot. Western blot was also used to assess the baseline protein abundance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and insulin receptor β-subunit. In addition, gene expression of fatty acid synthase, adiponectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor α was determined by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Backfat thickness was determined in the thurl area by ultrasonography. Cows in group H showed a greater degree of lipogenesis prepartum, but no differences were found in lipolytic enzyme activity postpartum compared with cows

  13. Rumen-protected lysine, methionine, and histidine increase milk protein yield in dairy cows fed a metabolizable protein-deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N; Cassidy, T W; Heyler, K S; Lapierre, H; Varga, G A; de Veth, M J; Patton, R A; Parys, C

    2012-10-01

    DMI and milk yield in dairy cows. Supplementation of the MP-deficient diet with RPLys and RPMet diminished the difference in DMI and milk yield compared with ADMP and additional supplementation with RPHis eliminated it. As total-tract fiber digestibility was decreased with the DMP diets, but DMI tended to increase with RP AA supplementation, we propose that, similar to monogastric species, AA play a role in DMI regulation in dairy cows. Our data implicate His as a limiting AA in high-producing dairy cows fed corn silage- and alfalfa haylage-based diets, deficient in MP. The MP-deficient diets clearly increased milk N efficiency and decreased dramatically urinary N losses. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Production, composition, and oxidative stability of milk highly enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids from dairy cows fed alfalfa protein concentrate or supplemental vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux, M-C; Gervais, R; Rico, D E; Lebeuf, Y; Chouinard, P Y

    2016-06-01

    Given its elevated content of carotenoids, alfalfa protein concentrates (APC) have the potential to prevent oxidation of milk enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. The effects of feeding APC or supplemental vitamin E on production, composition, and oxidative stability of milk enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids were evaluated using 6 lactating Holstein cows (224±18d in milk) in a replicated 3×3 Latin square (21-d periods, 14d for adaptation). Treatment diets contained (dry matter basis) (1) 9% soybean meal (control, CTL); (2) 9% soybean meal + 300 IU of vitamin E/kg (VitE treatment); or (3) 9% APC (APC treatment). Cows received a continuous abomasal infusion of 450g/d of linseed oil. As a result, milk fat content of cis-9,cis-12 18:2 increased from 1.08±0.13 to 3.9±0.40% (mean ± SD), whereas cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 increased from 0.40±0.04 to 14.27±1.81% during the experimental period compared with the pretrial period. Milk yield tended to be higher for APC (14.7kg/d) compared with CTL (13.4kg/d), and was greater than that for VitE (13.0kg/d). Protein yield was higher in cows fed APC (518g/d) compared with VitE (445g/d) but was not different from that in cows fed CTL (483g/d). These effects resulted in improved milk N efficiency in cows fed APC (26.1% of N intake secreted in milk) compared with CTL (23.0%) and VitE (22.9%). Feeding APC increased milk fat content of lutein (252μg/g) compared with CTL (204μg/g) and VitE (190μg/g). Milk fat content of vitamin E was higher for APC (34.5μg/g) compared with CTL (19.0μg/g) and tended to be lower than that with VitE (44.9μg/g). Redox potential of fresh milk from cows fed APC (152mV) was similar to that of VitE (144mV), but lower than that of CTL (189mV). Treatments had no effect on fresh milk contents of dissolved oxygen (8.1±1.5mg/L), and conjugated diene hydroperoxides (2.7±0.5mmol/L). The concentrations of volatile lipid oxidation products (propanal, hexanal, hept-cis-4-enal, 1-octen-3-one) tended

  15. Integrating spot short-term measurements of carbon emissions and backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate intake in lactating dairy cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Utsumi, S A; Dorich, C D; Brito, A F

    2015-12-01

    dietary backward energy partition calculations (Equations 1 to 5 above) was highest in cows fed for AL (22.5 vs. 20.2kg/d). The resulting R(2) were 0.28 between DMI measured and DMI estimated by gaseous measurements, and 0.36 between DMI measured and DMI predicted by the National Research Council model (2001). Results showed that spot short-term measurements of QCH4 and QCO2 coupled with dietary backward estimations of energy partition underestimated DMI by 7.8%. However, the approach proposed herein was able to significantly discriminate differences in DMI between cows fed for AL or RI. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The particulate passage rate, nutrient composition and fermentation characteristics across gastrointestinal tracts in lactating dairy cows fed three different forage source diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B; Gu, F F; Huang, X B; Liu, J X

    2018-04-19

    This study was conducted to investigate the particulate passage rate, nutrient characteristics and fermentation parameters across the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in lactating dairy cows fed cereal straws in comparison with alfalfa hay. Eighteen multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to one of three experimental diets consisting of 55% concentrate, 15% corn silage and 30% different forage sources as follows (% of dry matter [DM]): (i) 23% alfalfa hay and 7% Chinese wild rye hay (AH); (ii) 30% corn stover (CS); and (iii) 30% rice straw (RS). The Cr-mordanted corn silage-neutral detergent fibre was used to estimate the passage flow at week 14. After 14-week feeding, the animals were slaughtered to collect the gastrointestinal digesta. Dietary forage sources had little effect on the fractional passage rates in the rumen (range from 5.05 to 6.25%/hr) or hindgut (range from 4.49 to 5.24%/hr). Total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration in the caecum was highest, followed by the rumen, colon and rectum, and the lowest in the abomasum and duodenum, indicating that the large intestines, especially caecum, are the important positions for carbohydrate degradation. Greater proportion of propionate and butyrate and lower acetate were found in the AH compared to CS or RS in colon, but higher acetate in abomasum was found in the cows fed CS or RS compared to AH. In conclusion, cereal straw diets did not change the particulate passage rate in the rumen and hindgut which might be mainly due to the similar DM intake among these three diets. Different forage source diets significantly changed VFA proportion in the abomasum and colon, indicating the existence of different digestion or absorption rates in these tracts among the experimental diets. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Intake, digestibility and ruminal parameters of dairy cows fed pelleted diets and treated with lignosulfonate-containing sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francilaine Eloise De Marchi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate intake, in vitro and apparent digestibility and ruminal parameters of Holstein cows that were confined and fed corn silage and concentrate containing: ground sunflower seeds (GS; ground sunflower seeds treated with 5% lignosulfonate (GSL; pelleted sunflower seeds (PS; or ground and pelleted sunflower seeds treated with lignosulfonate (PSL. Four lactating cows with 130±28 days of lactation and body weights of 569±63 kg were used. These animals were distributed in a Latin square design with four diets and four periods of 21 days each. There were no differences in the intakes (% body weight of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, mineral matter (MM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF or acid detergent fiber (ADF. The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF and NFC were similar for all the diets, with a tendency towards decreased CP digestibility for all the pelleted diets (65.79% compared with the non-pelleted diets (69.66%. A negative effect of lignosulfonate was observed for the in vitro digestibility (IVD of DM, and a negative tendency was observed for the IVD of OM. Pelleting decreased the concentration of acetic acid (55.95 × 58.82 mM in rumen fluid. There was no effect of diet on pH (6.17 or ammonia nitrogen concentration (18.19 mg/dL. Pelleting and lignosulfonate do not promote the protective effect of sunflower seed nutrients as expected, and it may be more feasible to provide ground sunflower seed.

  18. Comparison of the impact of six heat-load management strategies on thermal responses and milk production of feed-pad and pasture fed dairy cows in a subtropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, T. M.; Jonsson, N. N.; Mayer, D. G.; Gaughan, J. B.; Ehrlich, W. K.; McGowan, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to hot environments affects milk yield (MY) and milk composition of pasture and feed-pad fed dairy cows in subtropical regions. This study was undertaken during summer to compare MY and physiology of cows exposed to six heat-load management treatments. Seventy-eight Holstein-Friesian cows were blocked by season of calving, parity, milk yield, BW, and milk protein (%) and milk fat (%) measured in 2 weeks prior to the start of the study. Within blocks, cows were randomly allocated to one of the following treatments: open-sided iron roofed day pen adjacent to dairy (CID) + sprinklers (SP); CID only; non-shaded pen adjacent to dairy + SP (NSD + SP); open-sided shade cloth roofed day pen adjacent to dairy (SCD); NSD + sprinkler (sprinkler on for 45 min at 1100 h if mean respiration rate >80 breaths per minute (NSD + WSP) ); open-sided shade cloth roofed structure over feed bunk in paddock + 1 km walk to and from the dairy (SCP + WLK). Sprinklers for CID + SP and NSD + SP cycled 2 min on, 12 min off when ambient temperature >26°C. The highest milk yields were in the CID + SP and CID treatments (23.9 L cow-1 day-1), intermediate for NSD + SP, SCD and SCP + WLK (22.4 L cow-1 day-1), and lowest for NSD + WSP (21.3 L cow-1 day-1) ( P cows in CID + SP showed no decline in MY out to a THI break point value of 83.2, whereas the pooled MY of the other treatments declined when THI >80.7. A combination of iron roof shade plus water sprinkling throughout the day provided the most effective control of heat load.

  19. Supplementation of herbal plants differently modulated metabolic profile, insulin sensitivity, and oxidative stress in transition dairy cows fed various extruded oil seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemzadeh-Cigari, F; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Riasi, A; Taghizadeh, A; Zebeli, Q

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of a mixture of herbal plants (HM) and two sources of unsaturated fatty acids (FA), extruded linseed (LS) and soybean (SB), on metabolic profile, insulin sensitivity, and oxidative status of transition dairy cows. Thirty-two prepartum Holstein cows, blocked by parity and calving day, were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments, in a 2×2 factorial design, starting from 25 days before the expected calving date to 26 days postpartum. The supplementation rates of HM were 150 and 170 g/animal/day at pre- and postpartum, respectively. Blood samples were analyzed for metabolites on day 7.15±1.70 prepartum and on days 1 and 21 postpartum. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (IV-GTT) was conducted on day 25 postpartum. Data showed that cows supplemented with HM had lower serum concentration of NEFA (0.395 vs. 0.602±0.044 mmol/L; Pinsulin ratio (Pcows fed the LS-based diet had greater serum glucose concentration during prepartum (80.7 vs. 71.3±3.32 mg/dL; P=0.06) and postpartum period (86.3 vs. 73.5±3.35 mg/dL; P=0.01), as well as lower NEFA (0.425 vs. 0.572±0.044 mmol/L; P=0.03) and insulin to glucose ratio (Pinsulin-sensitivity check index revealed that supplementing HM in LS-based diet improved insulin sensitivity (0.45 vs. 0.41±0.013; P=0.03) prepartum, whereas after parturition, the HM addition was effective for both oil seeds (0.40 vs. 0.37±0.008; P=0.06) in enhancing insulin sensitivity. Result of IV-GTT indicated that cows fed LS-based diets had higher basal glucose concentration (63.7 vs. 55.7±2.37; mg/dL; P=0.02) and lower glucose area under the curve (995.8 vs. 1529.5±100.7; mg/dL×45 min; Pinsulin resistance, this feeding strategy lowered total antioxidant capacity prepartum (0. 48 vs. 0.55±0.017 nmol/L; Pinsulin response following glucose infusion, although feeding of LS-based diets induced an increased oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of alfalfa germplasm and stage of maturity on digestive process and productive response of dairy cows fed alfalfa hay-based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects on the digestive process and the productive performances of dairy cows fed diets containing alfalfa hay from  different germplasms and maturity were assessed in the present study. Three different lots of first-cut alfalfa hay were  used in the study: the improved variety “Boreal”, harvested at two consecutive maturity stages (early flowering and full  flowering and the ecotype “Vogherese”, at full flowering. Cutting the plant at an earlier stage of maturity improved hay  quality in comparison with the more mature forages (crude protein: 21.4 vs 16.5% DM; P  DM; P  er lignin content for the latter (8.6 vs 8.2% DM; P  tating cows were formulated using an equal amount of corn silage and the maximum inclusion of one of the tested hays  as forage base. The better quality of the early cut hay made it possible to increase its inclusion in the diet up to 44% of  total dietary DM, while the two more mature hays covered only 36% of total DM of the respective diets. According to a  3 x 3 Latin square design, the diets were fed to 3 Italian Brown cows (initial average days in milk 121 ± 24 and milk  yield 20 kg ± 1.3 fitted with ruminal cannula in 3 consecutive periods of 28 d each. Alfalfa stage of maturity and  germplasm did not affect dietary DM intake (average 16 kg/d. Degradability parameters of dietary DM, calculated by in  situ nylon bags technique, showed similar kinetics of rumen disappearance for all diets. No differences were noticed in  the ruminal rate of passage of the solid phase among diets, while the liquid phase showed a slower rate of passage for  the early flowering hay diet. Consistent with the degradation process, the stage of maturity or the alfalfa germplasm did  not affect the rumen fluid data or the in vivo digestibility coefficients of the diets. Milk yield did not show any change due  to either alfalfa maturity or cultivar, while milk protein was lowered when cows received the early cut hay

  1. Insulin resistance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koster, Jenne D; Opsomer, Geert

    2013-07-01

    Glucose is the molecule that drives milk production, and insulin plays a pivotal role in the glucose metabolism of dairy cows. The effect of insulin on the glucose metabolism is regulated by the secretion of insulin by the pancreas and the insulin sensitivity of the skeletal muscles, the adipose tissue, and the liver. Insulin resistance may develop as part of physiologic (pregnancy and lactation) and pathologic processes, which may manifest as decreased insulin sensitivity or decreased insulin responsiveness. A good knowledge of the normal physiology of insulin is needed to measure the in vivo insulin resistance of dairy cows. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Teat condition in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    The dairy cow's teat is the first line of defence against mastitis pathogens. The milking process may affect the teat's condition, increasing the risk of mastitis. It is well-proven that teat-ends with severe erosions or broken skin will have an increased risk of mastitis. However, more common

  3. Teat Condition in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, F.

    2004-01-01

    The dairy cow's teat is the first line of defence against mastitis pathogens. The milking process may affect the teat's condition, increasing the risk of mastitis. It is well-proven that teat-ends with severe erosions or broken skin will have an increased risk of mastitis. However, more common

  4. Coping strategies in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopster, H.

    1998-01-01

    The central aim of this thesis is to investigate whether individual dairy cows display different and coherent patterns of physiological and behavioural stress responses. Such responses enable them to successful adapt in a changing environment.

    In Chapter 1, current

  5. Lipopolysaccharide derived from the rumen down-regulates stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 expression and alters fatty acid composition in the liver of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianle; Tao, Hui; Chang, Guangjun; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Lei; Shen, Xiangzhen

    2015-03-07

    Dairy cows are often fed a high-concentrate diet to meet lactating demands, yet long-term concentrate feeding induces subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and leads to a decrease in milk fat. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase1 (SCD1) participates in fatty acid biosynthesis in the liver of lactating ruminants. Here, we conducted this study to investigate the impact of lipopolysaccharide derived from the rumen on SCD1 expression and on fatty acid composition in the liver of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet. Eight multiparous mid-lactating Holstein cows (455 ± 28 kg) were randomly assigned into two groups in the experiment and were fed a low-concentrate diet (LC) or high-concentrate diet (HC) for 18 weeks. The results showed that the total volatile fatty acids and lactic acid accumulated in the rumen, leading to a decreased rumen pH and elevated lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in the HC group. The long chain fatty acid profile in the rumen and hepatic vein was remarkably altered in the animals fed the HC diet. The triglyceride (TG), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and total cholesterol (TCH) content in the plasma was significantly decreased, whereas plasma glucose and insulin levels were increased. The expression of SCD1 in the liver was significantly down-regulated in the HC group. In regards to transcriptional regulators, the expression of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factors (SREBF1c, SREBF2) and SREBP cleavage activating protein (SCAP) was down-regulated, while peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) was up-regulated. These data indicate that lipopolysaccharide derived from the rumen down-regulates stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 expression and alters fatty acid composition in the liver of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet.

  6. Supplementation of increasing amounts of linseed oil to dairy cows fed total mixed rations: effects on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, and milk fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Romero-Pérez, G A; Chouinard, P Y; Hassanat, F; Eugene, M; Petit, H V; Côrtes, C

    2012-08-01

    The effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation on nutrient digestibility, forage (i.e., timothy hay) in sacco ruminal degradation, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, milk production, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cows was investigated. Four ruminally cannulated, primiparous lactating cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design (28-d periods). They were fed a total mixed ration (50:50 forage:concentrate (F:C) ratio [dry matter (DM) basis] without supplementation (control, CTL), or supplemented (wt/wt; DM basis) with LO at 2, 3, or 4%. Supplementation with LO had no effect on DM intake (19 kg/d) and apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, starch, and gross energy). Ruminal pH, ammonia, and total volatile FA concentrations were not changed by LO supplementation to diets. Extent of changes in volatile FA pattern and effective ruminal degradability of DM of timothy hay were minor. Neither the total numbers nor the genera distribution of protozoa was changed by the addition of increasing amounts of LO to the diet. Milk yield increased linearly (26.1, 27.3, 27.4, and 28.4 kg/d for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO added to the diet increased. Milk fat content was not affected by LO supplementation, whereas milk protein content decreased linearly with increasing amounts of LO in the diet. Milk fat proportions of several intermediates of ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated FA (i.e., trans-10 18:1, trans-11 18:1, cis-9,trans-11 18:2, trans-11,cis-15 18:2, and cis-9,trans-11,cis-15 18:3) increased linearly with LO addition to the diet. The proportion of cis-9,cis-12 18:2 decreased linearly (2.06, 1.99, 1.91, and 1.83% for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO in the diet increased. Milk fat content of cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 increased as the level of LO in the diet increased up to 3% but no further increase was observed when 4% of LO

  7. Udder health of dairy cows fed different dietary energy levels after a short or no dry period without use of dry cow antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeij, van R.J.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Dijkstra, J.; Remmelink, G.J.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2018-01-01

    Reports on the effects of length of dry period (DP) on udder health of cows that were not treated with dry cow antibiotics are scarce. Additionally, the effects of a reduced dietary energy level for cows with a 0-d DP on udder health have not yet been studied. The aims of this study were (1) to

  8. Simulation of milk production by dairy cows fed sugarcane top-based diets with locally available supplements under Indian condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behera, U.K.; Kebreab, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Assis, A.G.; France, J.

    2005-01-01

    A model of sugarcane digestion was applied to indicate the suitability of various locally available supplements for enhancing milk production of Indian crossbred dairy cattle. Milk production was calculated according to simulated energy, lipogenic, glucogenic and aminogenic substrate availability.

  9. Short communication: Evaluation of acid-insoluble ash and indigestible neutral detergent fiber as total-tract digestibility markers in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate acid-insoluble ash (AIA) and indigestible NDF (iNDF) as intrinsic digestibility markers in comparison with total fecal collection (TC) in dairy cows fed corn silage- and alfalfa haylage-based diets. The experiment was part of a larger experiment, which involved 8 Holstein cows [102±28.4 d in milk, 26.4±0.27 kg/d of dry matter (DM) intake, and 43±5.3 kg/d milk yield]. The experimental design was a replicated 4×4 Latin square with the following treatments: metabolizable protein (MP)-adequate diet [15.6% crude protein (CP); high-CP], MP-deficient diet (14.0% CP; low-CP), and 2 other low-CP diets supplemented (top-dressed) with ruminally protected Lys or Lys and Met. Data for the 3 low-CP diets were combined for this analysis. Total feces were collected for 5 consecutive days during each period to estimate total-tract apparent digestibility. Digestibility was also estimated using AIA (digestion with 2 N HCl) and iNDF (12-d ruminal incubation in 25-μm-pore-size bags). Significant diet × digestibility method interactions were observed for fecal output of nutrients and digestibility. Fecal output of nutrients estimated using AIA or iNDF was lower compared with TC and fecal output of DM, organic matter, and CP tended to be higher for iNDF compared with AIA for the high-CP diet. For the low-CP diet, however, fecal output of all nutrients was lower for AIA compared with TC and was higher for iNDF compared with TC. Data from this experiment showed that, compared with TC, AIA underestimated fecal output and overestimated digestibility, particularly evident with the fiber fractions and the protein-deficient diet. Compared with TC, fecal output was overestimated and digestibility of the low-CP diet was underestimated when iNDF was used as a marker, although the magnitude of the difference was smaller compared with that for AIA. In the conditions of the current study, iNDF appeared to be a more reliable digestibility marker

  10. Nitrogen use efficiencies to grow, feed, and recycle manure from the major diet components fed to dairy cows in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crops and livestock transform a general range of 20% to 50% of applied N into product N. Most applied N not transformed into agricultural products is lost to the environment. The objective of this study was to quantify soil N input (fertilizer N, biologically fixed-N) incorporation into dairy cow di...

  11. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products on performance and rumen fermentation and microbiota in dairy cows fed a diet containing low quality forage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Zhu; Zihai Wei; Ningning Xu; Fan Yang; Ilkyu Yoon; Yihua Chung; Jianxin Liu; Jiakun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Background:A possible option to meet the increased demand of forage for dairy industry is to use the agricultural byproducts,such as corn stover.However,nutritional value of crop residues is low and we have been seeking technologies to improve the value.A feeding trial was performed to evaluate the effects of four levels of Soccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP;Original XP;Diamond V) on lactation performance and rumen fermentation in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows fed a diet containing low-quality forage.Eighty dairy cows were randomly assigned into one of four treatments:basal diet supplemented with 0,60,120,or 180 g/d of SCFP per head mixed with 180,120,60,or 0 g of corn meal,respectively.The experiment lasted for 10 wks,with the first 2 weeks for adaptation.Results:Dry matter intake was found to be similar (P > 0.05) among the treatments.There was an increasing trend in milk production (linear,P ≤ 0.10) with the increasing level of SCFP supplementation,with no effects on contents of milk components (P > 0.05).Supplementation of SCFP linearly increased (P < 0.05) the N conversion,without affecting rumen pH and ammonia-N (P > 0.05).Increasing level of SCFP linearly increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of ruminal total volatile fatty acids,acetate,propionate,and butyrate,with no difference in molar proportion of individual acids (P > 0.05).The population of fungi and certain cellulolytic bacteria (Ruminococcus albus,R.flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes)increased linearly (P < 0.05) but those of lactate-utilizing (5elenomonas ruminontium and Megasphaera elsdenii) and lactate-producing bacteria (Streptococcus bovis) decreased linearly (P ≤ 0.01) with increasing level of SCFP.The urinary purine derivatives increased linearly (P < 0.05) in response to SCFP supplementation,indicating that SCFP supplementation may benefit for microbial protein synthesis in the rumen.Conclusions:The SCFP supplementation was effective in

  12. Subclinical ketosis in post-partum dairy cows fed a predominantly pasture-based diet: defining cut-points for diagnosis using concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate in blood and determining prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, C W R; Young, L; McDougall, S

    2015-09-01

    Firstly, to define, in dairy cows in the first 5 weeks post-calving fed a predominantly pasture-based diet, cut-points of concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in blood, above which there were associations with purulent vaginal discharge (PVD), reduced pregnancy rates (PR) and decreased milk production, in order to better define subclinical ketosis (SCK) in such cattle; and secondly, to determine the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for SCK. An observational field study was conducted in 565 cows from 15 spring-calving and predominantly pasture-fed dairy herds in two regions of New Zealand during the 2010- 2011 dairy season. Within each herd, a cohort of randomly selected cows (approximately 40 per herd) was blood sampled to determine concentrations of BHBA on six occasions at weekly intervals starting within 5 days of calving. The key outcome variables were the presence/absence of PVD at 5 weeks post-calving, PR after 6 weeks (6-week PR) and after the completion of the breeding season (final PR), and mean daily milk solids production. Two cut-points for defining SCK were identified: firstly concentration of BHBA in blood≥1.2 mmol/L within 5 days post-calving, which was associated with an increased diagnosis of PVD (24 vs. 8%); and secondly concentration of BHBA in blood≥1.2 mmol/L at any stage within 5 weeks post-calving, which was associated with decreased 6-week PR (78 vs. 85%). The mean herd-level incidence of SCK within 5 weeks post-calving was 68 (min 12; max 100)% and large variations existed between herds in peak prevalence of SCK and the interval post-calving at which such peaks occurred. Cows>8 years of age and cows losing body condition were at increased risk of SCK within 5 weeks of calving. Cows with concentration of BHBA in blood≥1.2 mmol/L in early lactation had a higher risk of PVD and lower 6-week PR. Cow and herd-level prevalence of SCK varied widely in early lactation. Subclinical ketosis is common and is significantly

  13. Nitrogen balance and milk composition of dairy cows fed urea and soybean meal and two protein levels using sugar cane based diets

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Henrique Andreucci Conti; Elmeson Ferreira de Jesus; Angélica Simone Cravo Pereira; Marcos André Arcari; Kleber da Cunha Peixoto Junior; Francisco Palma Rennó; Marcos Veiga dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of feeding two levels of crude protein (CP) (low: 142 g CP/kg DM; and high: 156 g CP/kg DM) and two nitrogen sources (soybean meal and urea) to dairy cows using sugar cane as forage on microbial protein synthesis, the composition of the milk nitrogen fraction, nitrogen (N) balance and blood parameters. Twelve Holstein cows with an average milk yield of 22.0 ± 2.3 kg/day, and with 235 ± 40 days in milk were included in this study. The animals wer...

  14. Performance and metabolite profile of dairy cows fed tropical grasses and concentrates containing crude protein with low or high degradability

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Raphael dos Santos; Oliveira, Tadeu Silva de; Pereira, José Carlos; Vieira, Ricardo Augusto Mendonça; Henrique, Douglas Sampaio; Fernandes, Alberto Magno; Leonel, Fernando de Paula

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ten Holstein-Zebu crossbred cows distributed into two simultaneous Latin squares (5 × 5) as a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement formed by chopped sugarcane or elephant grass silage, both with high or low protein degradability supplements and a corn silage as a control treatment, were compared using orthogonal contrasts. The studied variables were the performance, plasma concentrations of urea-N, glucose, and creatinine, urine-N and milk urea-N, and the nychthemeral variation in NH3-N in th...

  15. A model to estimate insulin sensitivity in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtenius Kjell

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Impairment of the insulin regulation of energy metabolism is considered to be an etiologic key component for metabolic disturbances. Methods for studies of insulin sensitivity thus are highly topical. There are clear indications that reduced insulin sensitivity contributes to the metabolic disturbances that occurs especially among obese lactating cows. Direct measurements of insulin sensitivity are laborious and not suitable for epidemiological studies. We have therefore adopted an indirect method originally developed for humans to estimate insulin sensitivity in dairy cows. The method, "Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index" (RQUICKI is based on plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin and free fatty acids (FFA and it generates good and linear correlations with different estimates of insulin sensitivity in human populations. We hypothesized that the RQUICKI method could be used as an index of insulin function in lactating dairy cows. We calculated RQUICKI in 237 apparently healthy dairy cows from 20 commercial herds. All cows included were in their first 15 weeks of lactation. RQUICKI was not affected by the homeorhetic adaptations in energy metabolism that occurred during the first 15 weeks of lactation. In a cohort of 24 experimental cows fed in order to obtain different body condition at parturition RQUICKI was lower in early lactation in cows with a high body condition score suggesting disturbed insulin function in obese cows. The results indicate that RQUICKI might be used to identify lactating cows with disturbed insulin function.

  16. Integrative Analyses of Hepatic Differentially Expressed Genes and Blood Biomarkers during the Peripartal Period between Dairy Cows Overfed or Restricted-Fed Energy Prepartum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Khuram; Bionaz, Massimo; Trevisi, Erminio; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Loor, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    Using published dairy cattle liver transcriptomics dataset along with novel blood biomarkers of liver function, metabolism, and inflammation we have attempted an integrative systems biology approach applying the classical functional enrichment analysis using DAVID, a newly-developed Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA), and an upstream gene network analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Transcriptome data was generated from experiments evaluating the impact of prepartal plane of energy intake [overfed (OF) or restricted (RE)] on liver of dairy cows during the peripartal period. Blood biomarkers uncovered that RE vs. OF led to greater prepartal liver distress accompanied by a low-grade inflammation and larger proteolysis (i.e., higher haptoglobin, bilirubin, and creatinine). Post-partum the greater bilirubinaemia and lipid accumulation in OF vs. RE indicated a large degree of liver distress. The re-analysis of microarray data revealed that expression of >4,000 genes was affected by diet × time. The bioinformatics analysis indicated that RE vs. OF cows had a liver with a greater lipid and amino acid catabolic capacity both pre- and post-partum while OF vs. RE cows had a greater activation of pathways/functions related to triglyceride synthesis. Furthermore, RE vs. OF cows had a larger (or higher capacity to cope with) ER stress likely associated with greater protein synthesis/processing, and a higher activation of inflammatory-related functions. Liver in OF vs. RE cows had a larger cell proliferation and cell-to-cell communication likely as a response to the greater lipid accumulation. Analysis of upstream regulators indicated a pivotal role of several lipid-related transcription factors (e.g., PPARs, SREBPs, and NFE2L2) in priming the liver of RE cows to better face the early postpartal metabolic and inflammatory challenges. An all-encompassing dynamic model was proposed based on the findings. PMID:24914544

  17. Phosphorus and the dairy cow

    OpenAIRE

    Ekelund, Adrienne

    2003-01-01

    The general aim of the present work was to investigate phosphorus balance in the dairy cow, with reference to the amount and source of phosphorus. Furthermore, biochemical bone markers were used to study the bone turnover during the lactation and dry period. Phosphorus is located in every cell of the body and has more known functions than any other mineral element in the animal body. Phosphorus is also an important constituent of milk, and is therefore required in large amounts in a high yiel...

  18. Perspectives on pasture versus indoor feeding of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, Wilhelm

    2016-01-15

    The dairy industry in many regions of the world has moved towards a high-input/high-output system maximising annual milk production per cow, primarily through increasing concentrate-based total mixed rations fed indoors year round, as opposed to allowing cows to feed on pasture. Pasture-based dairy systems in regions like New Zealand and Ireland are oriented towards maximum milk yield per unit of pasture, which has led to Holstein strains that are 50 to 100 kg lighter, exhibit a higher body condition score, and produce roughly half the annual amount of milk as compared to their Holstein counterparts kept in confinement in North America and Europe. Freedom from hunger might not be guaranteed when high-yielding dairy cows are kept on pasture without any supplemental feed, but at the same time no access to pasture can be considered an animal welfare concern, because pasturing is generally beneficial to the animals' health. On pasture, lighter-weight dairy cows with a medium milk production potential have proven to be superior with regard to feed efficiency and fertility. The year-round indoor feeding of high-yielding dairy cows with total mixed rations containing substantial amounts of human-edible crops from arable land puts global food security at risk and fails to utilise the evolutionary advantages of ruminants. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Factors affecting the reproductive potential of dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folman, Y.; Rosenberg, M.; Kaim, M.

    1990-01-01

    Various factors that affect fertility were examined in high yielding dairy cows. In cows treated for the synchronization of oestrous cycles, manifestation of oestrus following synchronization treatment was affected by the body condition score in the winter; 74% of the cows had a low score. Primiparous cows that were thin or fat had a low conception rate. The conception rate of multiparous cows with different body condition scores did not differ in the winter. However, in the summer, thin, medium-low, medium-high and fat cows had a conception rate of 15, 36, 48 and 27%, respectively (P 4 ) levels five days before the first post-partum AI affected conception rates. Primiparous cows with low (≤2 ng/mL), medium (2.1-4.0 ng/mL) and high (≥4.1 ng/mL) P 4 levels had a conception rate of 28, 17 and 61%, respectively (P 4 had a conception rate of 25, 46 and 52%, respectively (P<0.02). Cows in their fifth or later lactation that were fed straw as their sole roughage had a conception rate of 23% and a 120 day pregnancy rate of 23%. Cows of the same parities that were fed hay had a conception rate of 50% (P<0.05) and a pregnancy rate of 80% (P<0.005). (author). 15 refs, 5 tabs

  20. Effect of niacin supplementation on rumen fermentation characteristics and nutrient flow at the duodenum in lactating dairy cows fed a diet with a negative rumen nitrogen balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann, Martina; Lebzien, Peter; Hüther, Liane; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to ascertain if a daily niacin supplementation of 6 g/cow to lactating dairy cow diets can compensate for the decrease in rumen microbial fermentation due to a negative rumen nitrogen balance (RNB). A total of nine ruminally and duodenally fistulated lactating multiparous German Holstein cows was used. The diets consisted of 10 kg dry matter (DM) maize silage and 7 kg DM concentrate and differed as follows: (i) Diet RNB- (n = 6) with energy and utilisable crude protein (CP) at the duodenum (uCP) according to the average requirement of the animals, but with a negative RNB (-0.41 g N/MJ metabolisable energy [ME]); (ii) Diet RNB0 (n = 7) with energy, uCP, and RNB (0.08 g N/MJ ME) according to the average requirement of the animals; and (iii) Diet NA (nicotinic acid; n = 5), which was the same diet as RNB-, but supplemented with 6 g niacin/d. The negative RNB affected the rumen fermentation pattern and reduced ammonia content in rumen fluid and the daily duodenal flows of microbial CP (MP) and uCP. Niacin supplementation increased the apparent ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fibre. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis per unit of rumen degradable CP was higher, whereby the amount of MP reaching the duodenum was unaffected by niacin supplementation. The number of protozoa in rumen fluid was higher in NA treatment. The results indicated a more efficient use of rumen degradable N due to changes in the microbial population in the rumen when niacin was supplemented to diets deficient in RNB for lactating dairy cows.

  1. Feeding Dairy Cows to Increase Performance on Rhodes Grass Ley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irungu, K.R.G.; Mbugua, P.N.

    1999-01-01

    Majority of dairy farmers in Kenya produce milk from cows fed on roughage. The cow performance follows seasonal variability in quality and quantity of roughage. The objective of the current study was to increase cow performance and maintain productivity of a rhodes grass (chloris gayana) ley. Twenty-four Freisian cows in their second to third lactation were strip grazed on fertilized irrigated Rhodes grass at a stocking rate of 0.034 ha per cow. Four dietary groups of six cows were allocated to one of our diets. one group got no dairy meal while the other three groups were supplemented at a 1kg of dairy meal per 10, 5 and 2.5 kg of 4% fat corrected milk dairy. this amount to 0, 386, 750 and 1542 kg dairy meal (89.4%, DM, 93.7 OM, 16.8, CP and CF) during the lactation. during the 43 - week lactation, records on pasture nutrient yield, nutrient intake, milk yield, liveweight, reproduction and subsequent calf birth weight were collected. The Rhodes grass ley produced 20.7 (ranging from 16.7 to 28.7) t of dry matter (DM) per hectare and cows harvested 16.0 (12.0 to 24.0) t during the 43 weeks.The Rhodes grass contained 32.1, 87.7, 10.8, and 32.3% DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) respectively. Mean stubble of 4.7 (3.9 to 6.0) t DM per hectare was left at pasture. Feeding dairy meals significantly increased (P 0.05) affect batter fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintained (P > 0.05) cow liveweight and increased (P < 0.05) calf birth weight from 32.7 to 37.2 kg. Feeding dairy meal did not affect oestrus cycling. Extreme supplementation, 1542 kg dairy meal, decreased (P < 0.05) fertility. Insemination per conception and calving interval increased (P < 0.05) from 1.5 to 3.5 and 522 days. The findings in the current study show that pasture yield can be increased by over 590% dry matter from 3.5 t obtained from natural pasture containing Kikuyu and Star grasses. The Rhodes grass yield can be increased to 232% of national average yield of 1300

  2. Displaced abomasum and ketosis in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Stengärde, Lena

    2010-01-01

    High producing dairy cows struggle to meet energy demands and handle various transitional changes in late gestation and early lactation. Negative energy balance in early lactation is inevitable and metabolic disorders may follow as a consequence of a deep negative energy balance. This thesis studies associations between blood profiles and body condition score (BCS) in dairy cows, and displaced abomasum (DA) or clinical ketosis, and investigates risk factors for the two diseases at the herd le...

  3. Genetic control of dairy cow reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The decline in dairy cow reproductive performance compromised the productivity and profitability of dairy production worldwide. The phenotypic performance of lactating cows with similar proportions of Holstein genes, similar genetic merit for milk production traits, but either good (Fert+) or poor (Fert-) genetic merit for fertility traits managed in a standardised environment was compared. The objective of this study was to elucidate the physiological mechanisms contributing to suboptimal re...

  4. THE UTILIZATION OF THE COMPLETE RUMEN MODIFIER ON DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Thalib

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the use of Complete Rumen Modifier (CRM to improve dairy cow productivity and to mitigate enteric methane production has been conducted. Sixteen lactating dairy cows were distributed into 4 groups by using compelete randomized design (CRD. Group I (Control fed by basal diet consisted of elephant grass and concentrate 7.5 kg/hd/dy (CP 16% and TDN 70%, Group II (Pro. Woodii fed by basal diet + probiotic Woodii, Group III (Pro.Noterae fed by basal diet + probiotic Noterae; Group IV (CRM-Noterae fed by basal diet + CRM + Pro.Noterae. Measurements were conducted on body weight gain, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, milk and methane production. Results showed that CRM-Noterae increased ADG by 72% (1.29 vs 0.75 kg and improved FCR (9.2 vs 15.6. Probiotic noterae as single treatment or combined with CRM increased fat and total solid content of milk from 3.18% and 10.58% in control group to become 3.91%; 11.31% and 3.55%; 11.02%, respectively. The lowest methane production was recorded in Group IV. The combination of CRM and Noterae reduced percentage of methane production by 14%. It is concluded that combination of CRM and Noterae can improve dairy cow performance and decrease methane production. Probiotic Noterae improved milk quality.

  5. Effects of toasting blue lupins, soybeans or barley as supplement for high-yielding organic dairy cows fed grass-clover silage ad libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Lund, Peter; Kristensen, Troels

    2008-01-01

    . The supplement under investigation was: lupins in experiment 1, barley in experiment 2 and soybeans in experiment 3. The same forage mixture of grass-clover silage (84% of DM), grass pellets (11% of DM) and straw (5% of DM) was fed ad libitum in all the experiments. Toasting decreased effective rumen protein...... degradability determined in situ for all three supplements. Compared to untreated lupins toasting of lupins tended (P = 0.10) to increase milk yield, whereas toasting of soybeans did not affect milk yield. Toasting of lupins decreased (P = 0.03) milk protein content (32.2 versus 32.7 g/kg), whereas toasting...... of soybeans did not affect milk protein content. ECM yield was significantly higher (P = 0.002) for cows fed toasted soybeans than for cows fed untreated soybeans (28.1 versus 26.4 kg ECM) whereas there was no significant effect on ECM yield from toasting lupins or barley. It can be concluded...

  6. Insulin signaling and skeletal muscle atrophy and autophagy in transition dairy cows either overfed energy or fed a controlled energy diet prepartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Abuelo, A; Nydam, D V; Leal Yepes, F A; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J

    2016-05-01

    During periods of negative energy balance, mobilization of muscle is a physiologic process providing energy and amino acids. This is important in transition dairy cows experiencing negative energy and protein balance postpartum. Overconsumption of energy during late pregnancy affects resting glucose and insulin concentrations peripartum and increases the risk for hyperketonemia postpartum, but the effects on muscle tissue are not fully understood. Skeletal muscle accounts for the majority of insulin-dependent glucose utilization in ruminants. Our objective was to study peripartal skeletal muscle insulin signaling as well as muscle accretion and atrophy in cows with excess energy consumption prepartum. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained 28 and 10 days prepartum, as well as 4 and 21 days postpartum from 24 Holstein cows. Biopsies were taken immediately before and 60 min after intravenous glucose challenge causing endogenous release of insulin. Gene expression of IGF-1, myostatin, and atrogin-1, as well as immunoblot analysis of atrogin-1, muRF1, ubiquitinated proteins, LC3, and phosphorylation of AKT, ERK and mTORC1 substrate 4EBP1 was performed. Excess energy consumption in late pregnancy did not lead to changes in insulin-dependent molecular regulation of muscle accretion or atrophy compared with the controlled energy group. In both groups, phosphorylation of AKT and mTORC1 substrate was significantly decreased postpartum whereas proteasome activity and macroautopagy were upregulated. This study showed that in addition to the proteasome pathway of muscle atrophy, macroautophagy is upregulated in postpartum negative energy and protein balance regardless of dietary energy strategy prepartum and was higher in cows overfed energy throughout the study period.

  7. Illumina Sequencing Approach to Characterize Thiamine Metabolism Related Bacteria and the Impacts of Thiamine Supplementation on Ruminal Microbiota in Dairy Cows Fed High-Grain Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaohua; Xue, Fuguang; Nan, Xuemei; Tang, Zhiwen; Wang, Kun; Beckers, Yves; Jiang, Linshu; Xiong, Benhai

    2017-01-01

    The requirements of thiamine in adult ruminants are mainly met by ruminal bacterial synthesis, and thiamine deficiencies will occur when dairy cows overfed with high grain diet. However, there is limited knowledge with regard to the ruminal thiamine synthesis bacteria, and whether thiamine deficiency is related to the altered bacterial community by high grain diet is still unclear. To explore thiamine synthesis bacteria and the response of ruminal microbiota to high grain feeding and thiamine supplementation, six rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were randomly assigned into a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design trial. Three treatments were control diet (CON, 20% dietary starch, DM basis), high grain diet (HG, 33.2% dietary starch, DM basis) and high grain diet supplemented with 180 mg thiamine/kg DMI (HG+T). On day 21 of each period, rumen content samples were collected at 3 h postfeeding. Ruminal thiamine concentration was detected by high performance liquid chromatography. The microbiota composition was determined using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Cows receiving thiamine supplementation had greater ruminal pH value, acetate and thiamine content in the rumen. Principal coordinate analysis and similarity analysis indicated that HG feeding and thiamine supplementation caused a strong shift in bacterial composition and structure in the rumen. At the genus level, compared with CON group, the relative abundances of 19 genera were significantly changed by HG feeding. Thiamine supplementation increased the abundance of cellulolytic bacteria including Bacteroides, Ruminococcus 1, Pyramidobacter, Succinivibrio , and Ruminobacter , and their increases enhanced the fiber degradation and ruminal acetate production in HG+T group. Christensenellaceae R7, Lachnospira, Succiniclasticum , and Ruminococcaceae NK4A214 exhibited a negative response to thiamine supplementation. Moreover, correlation analysis revealed that ruminal thiamine concentration was positively

  8. Illumina Sequencing Approach to Characterize Thiamine Metabolism Related Bacteria and the Impacts of Thiamine Supplementation on Ruminal Microbiota in Dairy Cows Fed High-Grain Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Pan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The requirements of thiamine in adult ruminants are mainly met by ruminal bacterial synthesis, and thiamine deficiencies will occur when dairy cows overfed with high grain diet. However, there is limited knowledge with regard to the ruminal thiamine synthesis bacteria, and whether thiamine deficiency is related to the altered bacterial community by high grain diet is still unclear. To explore thiamine synthesis bacteria and the response of ruminal microbiota to high grain feeding and thiamine supplementation, six rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were randomly assigned into a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design trial. Three treatments were control diet (CON, 20% dietary starch, DM basis, high grain diet (HG, 33.2% dietary starch, DM basis and high grain diet supplemented with 180 mg thiamine/kg DMI (HG+T. On day 21 of each period, rumen content samples were collected at 3 h postfeeding. Ruminal thiamine concentration was detected by high performance liquid chromatography. The microbiota composition was determined using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Cows receiving thiamine supplementation had greater ruminal pH value, acetate and thiamine content in the rumen. Principal coordinate analysis and similarity analysis indicated that HG feeding and thiamine supplementation caused a strong shift in bacterial composition and structure in the rumen. At the genus level, compared with CON group, the relative abundances of 19 genera were significantly changed by HG feeding. Thiamine supplementation increased the abundance of cellulolytic bacteria including Bacteroides, Ruminococcus 1, Pyramidobacter, Succinivibrio, and Ruminobacter, and their increases enhanced the fiber degradation and ruminal acetate production in HG+T group. Christensenellaceae R7, Lachnospira, Succiniclasticum, and Ruminococcaceae NK4A214 exhibited a negative response to thiamine supplementation. Moreover, correlation analysis revealed that ruminal thiamine concentration was

  9. Detection of Subclinical Ketosis in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zhang, Guowen Liu1, Hongbin Wang, Xiaobing Li1 and Zhe Wang1*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ketosis is a common metabolic disorder frequently observed in dairy cows during the early lactation period. It is characterized by increased levels of ketone bodies in the blood, urine, and milk. Subclinical ketosis (SCK in dairy cattle is an excess level of circulating ketone bodies in the absence of clinical signs of ketosis. Usually, detection of SCK is carried out by testing the ketone concentrations in blood, urine, and milk. Here, This review overview the detection methods for SCK in dairy cows, including cowside and laboratory tests.

  10. Rumen volatile fatty acids and milk composition from cows fed hay, haylage, or urea-treated corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schingoethe, D J; Voelker, H H; Beardsley, G L; Parsons, J G

    1976-05-01

    Alfalfa-brome hay, haylage, .5% urea-treated corn silage, or .5% urea plus 1% dried whey-treated corn silage was fed as the only forage to one of four groups of 10 lactating cows per group for a lactation trial of 10 wk. Rumen samples were collected via stomach tube 3 to 4 h after the morning feeding. The pH of the rumen samples from cows fed hay was higher than for cows fed haylage, urea-treated corn silage, and urea-whey corn silage, 6.69 versus 6.36, 6.40, and 6.50. Total volatile fatty acids and propionate were highest from cows fed urea-whey corn silage and were higher on all three fermented forages than cows fed hay. Acetate/propionate ratio was highest from cows fed hay and lowest from cows fed corn silages. Butyrate was highest from cows fed haylage or hay. Milk protein composition was not affected by ration although nonprotein nitrogen of milk was highest from cows fed the urea-treated corn silages. Oleic acid and total unsaturated fatty acids were lowest in milk fat from cows fed hay while palmitic acid was highest from cows fed hay and haylage. These results suggest that type of forage fed may cause small changes in rumen fermentation and in milk composition. The importance of these changes is unknown but may affect properties of dairy products produced from this milk.

  11. Shredded beet pulp substituted for corn silage in diets fed to dairy cows under ambient heat stress: Feed intake, total-tract digestibility, plasma metabolites, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, N; Ghorbani, G R; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2016-11-01

    The effects of substituting increasing concentrations of dried, shredded beet pulp for corn silage on dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production of lactating dairy cows was evaluated under conditions of ambient heat stress. Four multiparous (126±13d in milk) and 4 primiparous (121±11d in milk) Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 4 periods of 21d. Each period had 14d of adaptation and 7d of sampling, and parity was the square. Dietary treatments were (dry matter basis): 16% of dietary dry matter as corn silage without BP (0BP, control diet); 8% corn silage and 8% beet pulp (8BP); 4% corn silage and 12% beet pulp (12BP); and 0% corn silage and 16% beet pulp (16BP). Alfalfa hay was included in all diets (24% dietary dry matter). Dietary concentrations of forage neutral detergent fiber and nonfiber carbohydrates were 21.3 and 39.2% (0BP), 16.5 and 40.9% (8BP), 14.1 and 42.2% (12BP), and 11.7 and 43.4% (16BP), respectively (dry matter basis). The ambient temperature-humidity index indicated that the cows were in heat stress for almost the entire duration of the study. Dry matter intake and nutrient digestibilities were similar across treatments and between multi- and primiparous cows. Mean rumen pH tended to decrease with increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet. Also, increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet linearly decreased acetate and butyrate concentrations in the rumen and increased propionate concentrations, leading to a linear decrease in acetate:propionate ratio. Milk yield linearly increased (38.5, 39.3, 40.9, and 39.6kg/d for 0BP, 8BP, 12BP, and 16BP, respectively), but fat content linearly decreased (3.46, 3.47, 3.27, and 2.99), such that we observed no effect on fat-corrected milk. Substituting beet pulp for corn silage increased the neutral detergent insoluble crude protein content of the diet, leading to a decrease in rumen concentration of

  12. Natural Antibodies Related to Energy Balance in Early Lactation Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Meulenberg, S.; Brand, van den H.; Dijkstra, J.; Kemp, B.; Parmentier, H.K.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the presence of natural antibodies (NAb) in plasma and milk of individual dairy cows and to study the relation between NAb concentrations and energy balance (EB) and dietary energy source. Cows (n = 76) were fed a mainly glucogenic, lipogenic, or a

  13. Total tract nutrient digestion and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets containing different levels of whole raw soya beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, B C; de Freitas Júnior, J E; Takiya, C S; de Araújo, A P C; Santos, M C B; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Vendramini, T H A; Rennó, F P

    2015-12-01

    Whole oilseeds such as soya beans have been utilized in dairy rations to supply additional fat and protein. However, antinutritional components contained in soya beans, such as trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins (lectins) may alter digestibility of nutrients and consequently affect animal performance. The objective of the present experiment was to quantify the effect of different levels of whole raw soya beans in diets of dairy cows on nutrient intake, total tract digestion, nutrient balances and milk yield and composition. Sixteen mid to late-lactation cows (228 ± 20 days in milk; mean ± SD) were used in four replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to treatments: control (without soya beans addition; CO), WS9, WS18 and WS27, with addition of 9%, 18% and 27% of whole raw soya bean in diet on a dry matter (DM) basis respectively. All diets contained identical forage and concentrate components and consisted of maize silage and concentrate based on ground corn and soya beans at a ratio of 60:40. There were no differences in OM, CP, NDF and NEL intakes (kg/day and MJ/day) among the treatments (p > 0.05). However, DM and NFC intakes were negatively affected (p = 0.04 and p raw soya beans for EE (p raw soya beans. However, the nutritive characteristics of excreted grains were not altered. Milk (kg), milk lactose (kg) and protein (kg) yield decreased linearly (p milk fat content (%) increased linearly (p raw soya beans inclusion. Increasing addition of whole raw soya beans affected milk fatty acid profile with a linear decrease of cis-9-trans 11CLA and total saturated FA; and linear increase of total unsaturated and C18:3 FA. Energy balance was positively affected (p = 0.03) by whole raw soya beans as well as efficiency of NEL milk/DE intake (p = 0.02). Nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis were not affected by whole raw soya

  14. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  15. Behaviour of dairy cows under modern housing and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, H.K.

    1991-01-01

    The results of behavioural studies of dairy cows' behaviour under some modern housing and management conditions are presented. Social dominance in dairy cows is studied and methods to describe social dominance are discussed. The lying behaviour of dairy cows is studied under various

  16. Digestibility of Fatty Acids in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Dairy Cows Fed with Tallow or Saturated Fats Rich in Stearic Acid or Palmitic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben; Børsting, Christian Friis

    1992-01-01

    Fatty acid digestibility was studied with five lactating cows fed three different fat sources in a 5 × 5 latin square experiment. The treatments were 500 g of tallow, 500 or 1000 g of saturated fat rich in stearic acid (C18:0) (SARF) or 500 or 1000 g of saturated fat rich in palmitic acid (C16......:0) (PARF) per day. The total daily fatty acid intake was about 1100 g in rations with the highest fat inclusion. The fatty acid digestibilities were 76% for tallow, 74 and 64% for 500 and 1000 g SARF, respectively, and 87 and 81% for 500 and 1000 g of PARF, respectively. When compared to fatty acid...... digestibility for tallow predicted from a model based on literature values, PARF had a higher fatty acid digestibility at both fat intakes, and SARF had a lower fatty acid digestibility, especially at high fat intake....

  17. Digital Cushion Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Metabolism Gene Network Expression in Holstein Dairy Cows Fed a High-Energy Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Muhammad Iqbal

    Full Text Available The hoof digital cushion is a complex structure composed of adipose tissue beneath the distal phalanx, i.e. axial, middle and abaxial fat pad. The major role of these fat depots is dampening compression of the corium underneath the cushion. The study aimed to determine expression of target genes and fatty acid profiles in the hoof of non-pregnant dry Holstein cows fed low (CON or high-energy (OVE diets. The middle fat pad of the hoof digital cushion was collected soon after slaughter. Despite the lack of effect on expression of the transcription regulators SREBF1 and PPARG, the expression of the lipogenic enzymes ACACA, FASN, SCD, and DGAT2 was upregulated with OVE. Along with the upregulation of G6PD and IDH1, important for NADPH synthesis during lipogenesis, and the basal glucose transporter SLC2A1, these data indicated a pro-lipogenic response in the digital cushion with OVE. The expression of the lipid droplet-associated protein PLIN2 was upregulated while expression of lipolytic enzymes (ATGL, ABDH5, and LIPE only tended to be upregulated with OVE. Therefore, OVE induced lipogenesis, lipid droplet formation, and lipolysis, albeit to different extents. Although concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA did not differ, among the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, the concentration of 20:5n3 was lower with OVE. Among the saturated fatty acids, 20:0 concentration was greater with OVE. Although data indicated that the hoof digital cushion metabolic transcriptome is responsive to higher-energy diets, this did not translate into marked differences in the fatty acid composition. The decrease in concentration of PUFA, which could contribute to synthesis of inflammatory molecules, in OVE-fed cows indicated that feeding higher-energy diets might be detrimental for the mediation of inflammation in digital cushion. This effect could be further exacerbated by physiologic and endocrine changes during the peripartal period that favor inflammation.

  18. Metabolism of early-lactation dairy cows as affected by dietary starch and monensin supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M M; Yasui, T; Ryan, C M; Pelton, S H; Mechor, G D; Overton, T R

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary starch content and monensin (MON) on metabolism of dairy cows during early lactation. Before parturition, primiparous (n=21) and multiparous (n=49) Holstein cows were fed a common controlled-energy close-up diet with a daily topdress of either 0 or 400mg/d monensin. From d 1 to 21 postpartum, cows were fed a high-starch (HS; 26.2% starch, 34.3% neutral detergent fiber, 22.7% acid detergent fiber, 15.5% crude protein) or low-starch (LS; 21.5% starch, 36.9% neutral detergent fiber, 25.2% acid detergent fiber, 15.4% crude protein) total mixed ration with a daily topdress of either 0mg/d monensin (CON) or 450mg/d monensin (MON), continuing with prepartum topdress assignment. From d 22 through 63 postpartum, all cows were fed HS and continued with the assigned topdress treatment until d 63. Cows fed HS had higher plasma glucose and insulin and lower nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) than cows fed LS during d 1 to 21 postpartum. Cows fed LS had elevated early-lactation β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) compared with cows fed HS. Cows fed HS had greater insulin resistance and increased plasma haptoglobin in the early lactation period. There was no effect of MON on postpartum plasma NEFA. Cows fed MON had higher plasma glucose compared with CON cows, which was driven by a MON × parity interaction in which primiparous cows fed MON had greater plasma glucose concentrations than cows fed CON. Cows fed MON had lower plasma BHBA compared with CON, which was contributed to by a MON × parity interaction in which primiparous cows fed MON had lower BHBA concentrations than CON. Starch treatment had no effect on overall liver triglyceride content. Primiparous cows fed MON had increased liver triglyceride content compared with CON primiparous cows, and multiparous cows fed MON had decreased liver triglyceride content compared with CON cows. Multiparous cows fed LS with MON had higher liver glycogen content than multiparous

  19. Barium selenate supplementation and its effect on intramammary infection in pasture-based dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, A; Kruze, J; Barkema, H W; Dohoo, I R; Sanchez, J; Uribe, D; Wichtel, J J; Wittwer, F

    2010-04-01

    A significant proportion of cattle receive inadequate dietary Se because of its low content in soils and pastures of various regions of the world. Several economically important diseases in dairy cows, such as mastitis, have been associated with Se deficiency. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single injection of a long-acting form of Se at drying off on the risk and incidence rate of new intramammary infections and on milk somatic cell count in the subsequent lactation in pasture-based dairy cows. Forty-nine Chilean Holstein-Friesian cows were fed a diet containing pasture-based dairy cows did not affect udder health in the subsequent lactation, indicating that Se basal intake was adequate for preventing subclinical mastitis in pasture-based cows in southern Chile. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of dietary starch concentration formulated with two types of corn silage on methane and ammonia emissions in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) emissions of lactating dairy cows fed different starch level and corn silage type. After the completion of an 8-wk production study, 48 Holstein cows were allocated to 1 of 4 air-flow controlled chambers (2 cows/chamber) for...

  1. The dairy cow and global climate changes

    OpenAIRE

    Flávio Baccari Jr

    2015-01-01

     High producing dairy cows are more sensitive to heat stress due mainly to their higher resting metabolic rate as compared to low producing and dry cows. Their responses to increasing levels of the temperature-humidity and the black globe-humidity indices are discussed as well as some aspects of heat tolerance as related to body temperature increase and milk production decrease. Some mitigation and adaptation practices are recommended to face the challenges of global climate changes.

  2. Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in grazing Irish dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Luke; Doherty, Michael L; Mulligan, Finbar J

    2008-04-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a significant production disease of dairy cattle. Previous concerns have been raised over the occurrence of SARA in pasture-fed dairy cattle and the potential consequences of laminitis and lameness. Highly digestible perennial rye grass contains high concentrations of rapidly fermentable carbohydrate and low concentrations of physical effective fibre that may result in SARA. This study conducted a point prevalence survey of rumen health status in grazing Irish dairy cattle fed predominantly perennial rye grass-based pasture. The survey assessed rumen fluid, animal health status, milk production data and pasture composition. A total of 144 cows between 80 and 150 days in milk were sampled on 12 farms. Eleven percent of cows were classified as affected with SARA (pH 5.8). The study showed that low rumen pH is prevalent in grazing Irish dairy cattle consuming perennial rye grass-based pasture and raises concerns regarding effective pasture utilisation and possible consequences for animal health.

  3. Factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D A; Thayne, W V; Dailey, R A

    1985-07-01

    We conducted two studies to determine how herd management practices and traits of individual cows affect performance of the herd and of the cow within a herd. Management practices, reproductive performance of the herd, and relationships between management and reproductive performance were characterized on 83 dairy farms with 7596 cows. Data included 21 management variables (e.g., facilities, herd health program, estrous detection program) and 8 performance variables obtained from Dairy Herd Improvement or unofficial records (e.g., size of herd, production, days open). Although varying among herds, annual average herd incidences of reproductive disorders and reproductive performance were similar to those reported. Managerial practices influenced incidences of retained placenta and uterine infection, days open of cows not bred and of all cows, services per conception, and percentages of herd open more than 100 days and culled for low production. Veterinarian was the most consistent variable influencing herd reproductive performance. Data also were collected from production and lifetime records of 2532 cows in 19 herds. Reproductive performance was affected by season of calving, production, maturity, and reproductive disorders. Several cows with extremely poor reproductive records were maintained.

  4. Coxiella burnetii shedding by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guatteo, Raphaël; Beaudeau, François; Joly, Alain; Seegers, Henri

    2007-01-01

    While shedding routes of Coxiella burnetii are identified, the characteristics of Coxiella shedding are still widely unknown, especially in dairy cattle. However, this information is crucial to assess the natural course of Coxiella burnetii infection within a herd and then to elaborate strategies to limit the risks of transmission between animals and to humans. The present study aimed at (i) describing the characteristics of Coxiella burnetii shedding by dairy cows (in milk, vaginal mucus, faeces) in five infected dairy herds, and at (ii) investigating the possible relationships between shedding patterns and serological responses. A total of 145 cows were included in a follow-up consisting of seven concomitant samplings of milk, vaginal mucus, faeces and blood (Day 0, D7, D14, D21, D28, D63, D90). Detection and quantification of Coxiella burnetii titres were performed in milk, vaginal mucus and faeces samples using real-time PCR assay, while antibodies against Coxiella were detected using an ELISA technique. For a given shedding route, and a given periodicity (weekly or monthly), cows were gathered into different shedding kinetic patterns according to the sequence of PCR responses. Distribution of estimated titres in Coxiella burnetii was described according to shedding kinetic patterns. Coxiella burnetii shedding was found scarcely and sporadically in faeces. Vaginal mucus shedding concerned almost 50% of the cows studied and was found intermittently or sporadically, depending on the periodicity considered. Almost 40% of cows were detected as milk shedders, with two predominant shedding patterns: persistent and sporadic, regardless of the sampling periodicity. Significantly higher estimated titres in Coxiella burnetii were observed in cows with persistent shedding patterns suggesting the existence of heavy shedder cows. These latter cows were mostly, persistently highly-seropositive, suggesting that repeated serological testings could be a reliable tool to screen

  5. Silage alcohols in dairy cow nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    Corn silages with high propanol concentrations has been suspected to cause reduced feed intake and health problems for dairy cows in the post-pattum transition period. With the increasing use of hetero fermentative inoculants to support corn silage fermentation it is likely that silage concentrat......Corn silages with high propanol concentrations has been suspected to cause reduced feed intake and health problems for dairy cows in the post-pattum transition period. With the increasing use of hetero fermentative inoculants to support corn silage fermentation it is likely that silage...... of alcohols will lead to high alcohol concentrations in peripheral bood for a considerable period. Increased hepatic NEFA uptake in the postpartum transition period may result in even further decreased hepatic capacity for alcohol metabolism making post-partum transition cows especially vulnerable to high...... alcohol intakes. In order to evaluate the impact of alcohol fermentation in corn silages on dairy cow performance, the main purpose of this thesis was first to investigate the concentrations and composition of alcohols in typical field corn silages, and second to study how transition and lactating dairy...

  6. Euthanasia of Danish dairy cows evaluated in two questionnaire surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Peter; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2008-01-01

    a random sample of 196 Danish dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow to the Danish Cattle Database in 2002 and 196 dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow in 2006. Our objectives were to evaluate the proportion of euthanized cows, changes in the behaviour of farmers regarding euthanasia of cows over...... the years and possible reasons for these changes. Results It seems that the threshold for euthanasia of cows among farmers has changed. Farmers generally reported a lower threshold for euthanasia compared to 5-10 years ago. Conclusions The threshold for euthanasia of cows has, according to the dairy farmers...

  7. Evaluation of fertility traits of Friesian X Bunaji dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of fertility traits of Friesian X Bunaji dairy cows. ... days open (DO) , number of insemination per conception (NIC), and non- return rate 56 days ... Keywords: Fertility, Friesian x Bunaji cows, Parity, Body condition score, Season, Year ...

  8. A field study on the effects of dietary monensin on milk production and milk composition in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc, Jocelyn; DuTremblay, Denis; Baril, Jean; Bagg, Randy; Brodeur, Marcel; Duffield, Todd; DesCôteaux, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the effect of 16 ppm of dietary monensin on milk production and composition of dairy cows, and to investigate factors having a potential impact on this effect. Data were generated from a total of 3577 Holstein dairy cows (47 herds) in Quebec enrolled in a herd-level, randomized clinical trial investigating the effects of monensin supplementation. Milk production and composition data were collected from monthly dairy herd improvement (DHI) testing. Monensin increased milk production by 0.9 kg/cow/d in cows under 150 days in milk (DIM) (P < 0.05). Monensin decreased milk fat percentage by 0.18 percentage points during the whole lactation (P < 0.05). This decreasing effect was larger for component-fed cows (P < 0.05) and for cows being fed low levels of dietary physically effective particles (P < 0.05) when compared respectively to cows fed total mixed ration and cows fed high levels of dietary physically effective particles. The results of this study suggest that monensin influences milk production and milk composition of dairy cows, and that diet composition and feeding system influence those effects. PMID:20592825

  9. Nutrition and fertility in dairy cow

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition has an important impact on the reproductive performance of dairy cattle. Energy is the major nutrient required by adult cattle and inadequate energy intake has a detrimental impact on reproductive activity of bovine. Cows under negative energy balance have extended periods of anovulation. Postpartum anestrus, as well as infertility, is magnified by losses of body condition during the early postpartum period. Resumption of ovulatory cycles is associated with energy balance, but s...

  10. Interaction of unsaturated fat or coconut oil with monensin in lactating dairy cows fed 12 times daily. II. Fatty acid flow to the omasum and milk fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveneau, C; Ribeiro, C V D M; Eastridge, M L; Firkins, J L

    2012-04-01

    Feeding animal-vegetable (AV) fat or medium-chain fatty acids (FA) to dairy cows can decrease ruminal protozoal counts. However, combining moderate to large amounts of AV fat with monensin (tradename: Rumensin, R) could increase the risk for milk fat depression (MFD), whereas it is not known if diets supplemented with coconut oil (CNO; rich in medium-chain FA) with R would cause MFD. In a 6 × 6 Latin square design with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments, 6 rumen-cannulated cows were fed diets without or with R (12 g/909 kg) and either control (no fat), 5% AV fat, or 5% CNO. Diets were balanced to have 21.5% forage neutral detergent fiber, 16.8% crude protein, and 42% nonfiber carbohydrates. Omasal flows of FA were characterized by an increased percentage of trans 18:1 for AV fat and CNO diets compared with the control, a higher percentage of 12:0 and 14:0 for CNO, and higher cis 18:1 for AV fat. Milk FA composition reflected the changes observed for omasal FA digesta flow. The de novo FA synthesis in the mammary gland was decreased by the main effects of R compared without R (averaged over fat treatments) and for added fat (AV fat and CNO) versus control (averaged over R). The percentages of 6:0, 8:0, and 10:0 in milk fat were lower for R and for AV fat and CNO compared with the control. The percentage of trans 18:1 FA in milk fat also higher for AV fat and CNO compared with the control. Against our hypotheses, the feeding of CNO did not prevent MFD, and few interactions between R and fat source were detected. The feeding of CNO did compromise ruminal biohydrogenation, with accumulation of trans 18:1 in the rumen and in milk fat. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of high levels of rumen degradable protein on rumen pH and histamine concentrations in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilachai, R.; Schonewille, J.T.; Thamrongyoswittayakul, C.; Aiumlamai, S.; Wachirapakom, C.; Everts, H.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the supplementation of crude protein (CP) results in rumen acidosis and increased histamine concentrations in dairy cows. Six ruminally fistulated, non-pregnant dry cows were fed three experimental rations in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square

  12. Modification of immune responses and digestive system microbiota of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine(R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) fed to Holstein and Jersey dairy cows during late lactation (average DIM = 202.44 days on wk-0). Cows were randomized to treatment g...

  13. Effect of carbohydrate source and rumen pH on enteric methane from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Brask, Maike; Lund, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to measure the enteric methane emissions in dairy cows fed diets rich in starch or sugar with and without manipulation of rumen pH. The rations were based on grass-clover silage supplemented with either wheat (W), NaOH treated wheat (WNaOH), sugar beet molasses (M...

  14. Energy evaluation of fresh grass in the diets of lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinenberg, M.H.; Zom, R.L.G.; Valk, H.

    2002-01-01

    The discrepancy between the estimated feeding value of fresh grass and the output per kg grass in terms of milk and maintenance was studied by evaluating 12 experiments with grass-fed dairy cows. The percentage grass in the diets varied between 40 and 90. Intake and milk production were recorded

  15. Validation of an in vitro model for predicting rumen and total-tract fiber digestibility in dairy cows fed corn silages with different in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibilities at 2 levels of dry matter intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2015-01-01

    An in vivo study was performed to validate an in vitro procedure that predicts rate of fiber digestion and total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility (TTNDFD). Two corn silages that differed in fiber digestibility were used in this trial. The corn silage with lower fiber digestibility (LFDCS) had the TTNDFD prediction of 36.0% of total NDF, whereas TTNDFD for the corn silage with higher fiber digestibility (HFDCS) was 44.9% of total neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Two diets (1 with LFDCS and 1 with HFDCS) were formulated and analyzed using the in vitro assay to predict the TTNDFD and rumen potentially digestible NDF (pdNDF) digestion rate. Similar diets were fed to 8 ruminally cannulated, multiparous, high-producing dairy cows in 2 replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. A 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with main effects of intake (restricted to approximately 90% of ad libitum intake vs. ad libitum) and corn silage of different fiber digestibility. Treatments were restricted and ad libitum LFDCS as well as restricted and ad libitum HFDCS. The input and output values predicted from the in vitro model were compared with in vivo measurements. The pdNDF intake predicted by the in vitro model was similar to pdNDF intake observed in vivo. Also, the pdNDF digestion rate predicted in vitro was similar to what was observed in vivo. The in vitro method predicted TTNDFD of 50.2% for HFDCS and 42.9% for LFDCS as a percentage of total NDF in the diets, whereas the in vivo measurements of TTNDFD averaged 50.3 and 48.6% of total NDF for the HFDCS and LFDCS diets, respectively. The in vitro TTNDFD assay predicted total-tract NDF digestibility of HFDCS diets similar to the digestibility observed in vivo, but for LFDCS diets the assay underestimated the digestibility compared with in vivo. When the in vitro and in vivo measurements were compared without intake effect (ad libitum and restricted) considering only diet effect of silage fiber

  16. Comparative studies on bone structure in dairy cows with different feeding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilmane, M; Zitare, I; Jemeljanovs, A

    2010-01-01

    The bone belongs to the dynamic tissues and its structure in domestic cows is still not completely understood in correlation to the impact of different food components. The aim of our work was a histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical research on bone morphology and factors influencing it in healthy dairy cows fed with self-produced grain and with rapeseed cakes. The bone of self-produced grain-fed cows demonstrated statistically significant difference in the number of osteocytes from the bone of rapeseed cakes-fed cows. The rapeseed cakes-fed cows didn't show any bone cell positive for BMP2/4, while FGFR1 increased significantly in their supportive tissues. The number of bFGF- and apoptosis-containing structures varied in cows of both groups. MMP2 expression showed statistically significant difference between both animals' groups with domination in bone of cows fed with self-produced grain. Defensin-, osteopontin- and osteocalcin-containing cells showed tendency to increase in bone of cows on rapeseed cakes diet. Conclusions. The rapeseed-fed cow's long bones demonstrate significant decrease of osteocytes per mm2 and selective increase of FGFR1, suggesting the (compensatory) growth stimulation in supportive tissue. The statistically significant selective absence of MMP2 with a slight tendency of increase in osteopontin and osteocalcin in rapeseed-fed cow's long bones indicates the persistence of seemingly still compensated qualitative changes in bone (beginning of disturbances in mineralization, metabolism etc.) proved also by a slight increase of the bone antimicrobial peptide.

  17. Biomarkers and mechanisms of natural disease resistance in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altena, van S.E.C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to define and test biomarkers for disease resistance in dairy cows and to determine the underlying mechanism in natural disease resistance. The health status of the cows is an important issue in dairy farming. Due to the mandatory reduction in the use of antibiotics,

  18. Diagnosis of pregnancy in dairy cows based on the progesterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnosis of pregnancy in dairy cows based on the progesterone content of milk. Part 1. ... best overall classification of dairy cows into pregnant and non-pregnant groups (confirmed by rectal palpation). Progesterone levels ... Teen 'n diskriminante progesteroonwaarde van 5 ng/ml melk het hierdie funksie 98,0% van alle ...

  19. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in dairy cows in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in dairy cows in subtropical southern China. ... Dairy cows with the history of 5 pregnancies had the highest seroprevalence (33.3%). However, no statistically significant association was found between M. bovis infection and age or number of pregnancies (p > 0.05). All the ...

  20. Peripartal calcium homoeostasis of multiparous dairy cows fed rumen-protected rice bran or a lowered dietary cation/anion balance diet before calving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Tereso, J.; Wijlen, ter H.; Laar, van H.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Milk fever is one of the most important metabolic diseases in dairy cattle. Reducing the dietary cation/anion balance (DCAD) with anionic salts is a common prevention strategy. However, many small European farms cannot use total mixed rations (TMR) in the close-up period. Including anionic salts in

  1. Meal pattern analysis for effects of compound feed formulation in mid to late lactating dairy cows fed hay and compound feed both ad libitum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leen, F.; Navarro-Villa, A.; Fowers, R.; Martin-Tereso, J.; Pellikaan, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    The Kempen System is a dairy feeding system allowing ad libitum access to pelleted compound feed (CF) and hay. This system allows high DM intake (DMI) up to 30 kg DM (80% CF), but small and frequent CF meals are essential to reduce negative ruminal pH fluctuations. Little is known about feed intake

  2. Effect of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance and digestion of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, A B; Freitas Júnior, J E; Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Takiya, C S; Vendramini, T H A; Mingoti, R D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Differing soya bean particle sizes may affect productive performance and ruminal fermentation due to the level of fatty acid (FA) exposure of the cotyledon in soya bean grain and because the protein in small particles is more rapidly degraded than the protein in large particles, which influence ruminal fibre digestion and the amounts of ruminally undegradable nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance, digestion and milk FA profile of dairy cows. Twelve Holstein cows were assigned to three 4 × 4 Latin squares with 21-day periods. At the start of the experiment, cows were 121 days in milk (DIM) and yielded 30.2 kg/day of milk. Cows were fed 4 diets: (i) control diet (CO), without raw soya bean; (ii) whole raw soya bean (WRS); (iii) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 4-mm screen (CS4); and (iv) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 2-mm screen (CS2). The inclusion of soya beans (whole or cracked) was 200 g/kg on dry matter (DM) basis and partially replaced ground corn and soya bean meal. Uncorrected milk yield and composition were not influenced by experimental diets; however, fat-corrected milk (FCM) decreased when cows were fed soya bean treatments. Soya bean diets increased the intake of ether extract (EE) and net energy of lactation (NEL ), and decreased the intake of DM and non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC). Ruminal propionate concentration was lower in cows fed WRS than cows fed CS2 or CS4. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented lower nitrogen in faeces than cows fed WRS. The milk of cows fed WRS, CS2 and CS4 presented higher unsaturated FA than cows fed CO. The addition of raw soya bean in cow diets, regardless of the particle size, did not impair uncorrected milk yield and nutrient digestion, and increased the concentration of unsaturated FA in milk. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented similar productive performance to cows fed whole raw soya bean. Journal of

  3. Oestrus Detection in Dairy Cows Using Likelihood Ratio Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi; Björgvinssin, Trausti; Blanke, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses detection of oestrus in dairy cows using methods from statistical change detection. The activity of the cows was measured by a necklace attached sensor. Statistical properties of the activity measure were investigated. Using data sets from 17 cows, diurnal activity variations...

  4. Automated detection of oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Detection models for oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows were developed, based on sensors for milk yield, milk temperature, electrical conductivity of milk, cow's activity and concentrate intake, and on combined processing of the sensor data. The detection model generated alerts for cows,

  5. Fatty Acid Digestibility in Lactating Cows Fed Increasing Amounts of Protected Vegetable Oil, Fish Oil or Saturated Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christian Friis; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Fatty acid digestion was studied in three dairy cows cannulated in the rumen, duodenum and ileum. Cows were fed encapsulated fat sources (vegetable oil, saturated fat and fish oil). A preperiod diet was fed with no added fat. In a graeco-latin design nine diets comprising three levels of each...... of the three fat sources were fed. The preperiod diet contained 230 g fatty acids (FA), whereas the three other fats were fed at about 550, 850 and 1150 g FA/day. The feed-ileùm true digestibility of total FA was 95, 47 and 86% for vegetable, saturated and fish fat, respectively. The true digestibility of FA...

  6. Feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet induced epigenetic alterations in the mammary tissue of dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhong Dong

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding a high-concentrate corn straw (HCS diet (65% concentrate+35% corn straw on the epigenetic changes in the mammary tissue of dairy cows in comparison with a low-concentrate corn straw (LCS diet (46% concentrate+54% corn straw and with a low-concentrate mixed forage (LMF diet (46% concentrate+54% mixed forage.Multiparous mid-lactation Chinese Holstein cows were fed one of these three diets for 6 weeks, at which time blood samples and mammary tissue samples were collected. Mammary arterial and venous blood samples were analyzed for lipopolysaccharide (LPS concentrations while mammary tissue samples were assayed for histone H3 acetylation and the methylation of specific genes associated with fat and protein synthesis.Extraction of histones and quantification of histone H3 acetylation revealed that acetylation was significantly reduced in cows fed the HCS diet, as compared with cows fed the LCS diet. Cows fed the HCS diet had significantly higher LPS concentrations in the mammary arterial blood, as compared with cows fed the LCS diet. We found that the extent of histone H3 acetylation was negatively correlated with LPS concentrations. The methylation of the stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase gene associated with milk fat synthesis was increased in cows fed the HCS diet. By contrast, methylation of the gene encoding the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A was reduced in cows fed the HCS diet, suggesting that feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet may alter the methylation of specific genes involved in fat and protein synthesis in the mammary tissue of dairy cows.Feeding the high-concentrate diet induced epigenetic changes in the mammary tissues of dairy cows, possibly through effecting the release of differing amounts of LPS into the mammary blood.

  7. Utilization of kura clover-reed canarygrass silage versus alfalfa silage by lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammes, K L; Heemink, G B H; Albrecht, K A; Combs, D K

    2008-08-01

    The mixture of kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) has proven to be extremely persistent in the northern United States, but information about dairy cow performance on this mixture is lacking. Twenty lactating Holstein cows were used in a crossover design to compare dry matter (DM) intake and milk production from diets containing kura clover-reed canarygrass silage (KRS) or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage (AS). Forages were cut, wilted, ensiled in horizontal plastic bags, and allowed to ferment for at least 50 d before beginning the feeding experiment. The KRS was approximately 40% kura clover and 60% reed canarygrass. Treatments were total mixed rations formulated with either 57% of total DM from 1) AS or 2) KRS. Experimental periods were 28 d, with the first 14 d for diet adaptation and the last 14 d for measurement of intake and milk production. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations of AS and KRS were 37.3 and 47.3%, respectively. The fermentation analyses indicated that both silages underwent a restricted fermentation, producing primarily lactic acid and some acetic acid. Dry matter intake (24.2 vs. 22.8 kg) and 4% fat-corrected milk (32.8 vs. 30.9 kg) were significantly higher for cows fed AS than for cows fed KRS. Cows consumed less NDF (6.7 vs. 8.0 kg) and less digestible NDF (3.0 vs. 4.4 kg) when fed AS diets compared with KRS diets, but the pool of ruminally undegraded NDF was similar (3.7 kg) between diets. Cows produced 1.5 kg of milk/kg of DM consumed regardless of the diet, indicating that digestible NDF of KRS was utilized with similar efficiency as the cell wall constituents of AS, but the intake of cows fed KRS may have been limited by rumen fill. Milk fat concentration tended to be higher for cows fed AS, but the milk true protein concentration and yields of fat and protein did not differ by treatment. Milk urea nitrogen content was higher when cows consumed AS (16.4 mg/ d

  8. Sickness behavior in dairy cows during Escherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Røntved, Christine Maria; Sørensen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of mastitis in terms of dairy cow behavior are relatively unknown. Future assessment of dairy cow welfare during mastitis will be facilitated by knowledge about the potential of mastitis to induce sickness behavior. Our aim was to examine behavior of dairy cows in the period from 2...... d before (d −2 and −1) to 3 d (d 0, 1, and 2) after experimental intramammary challenge with Escherichia coli. Effects of experimentally induced mastitis on behavior were examined in 20 primiparous Danish Holstein-Friesian cows, all 3 to 6 wk after calving and kept in tie stalls. After evening....... This knowledge can be useful for the development of welfare assessment protocols, early disease detection, and for future work aimed at understanding the behavioral needs of dairy cows suffering from mastitis....

  9. Nitrogen partitioning and milk production of dairy cows grazing simple and diverse pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totty, V K; Greenwood, S L; Bryant, R H; Edwards, G R

    2013-01-01

    Research was conducted to examine the effects of a diverse pasture mix on dry matter intake, milk yield, and N partitioning of lactating dairy cows. A pasture containing only ryegrass and white clover (RG), or high-sugar ryegrass and white clover (HS), was compared with a diverse pasture mix (HSD) including chicory, plantain, lotus, high-sugar ryegrass, and white clover. The experiment was conducted over a 10-d period using 3 groups of 12 cows in late lactation. No difference was observed in dry matter (14.3 kg of dry matter/cow per day) or N (583 g of N/cow per day) intake between treatments. The cows grazing the HSD pasture had an increased milk yield (16.9 kg/d) compared with those grazing the simple RG and HS pastures (15.2 and 14.7 kg/d, respectively). However, no differences were observed in milk solids yield for the 3 treatments. A tendency toward greater milk protein yields in the HSD group resulted in improved N use efficiency for milk of 20.4% from the cows fed HSD, compared with 17.8 and 16.7% from cows in the RG and HS treatments, respectively. Urinary N excretion was lower from the cows fed HSD, at 353.8 g/d, compared with 438.3 and 426.6 g/d for cows fed RG and HS, respectively. These results suggest that the use of pastures containing chicory, lotus, and plantain can contribute to the goal of reducing N losses from cows in late lactation. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutrient Restriction Increases Circulating and Hepatic Ceramide in Dairy Cows Displaying Impaired Insulin Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Amanda N; Clegg, J L; Perry, C A; McFadden, J W

    2017-09-01

    The progression of insulin resistance in dairy cows represents a maternal adaptation to support milk production during heightened energy demand; however, excessive adipose tissue lipolysis can develop. In diabetic non-ruminants, the mechanisms that mediate insulin resistance involve the sphingolipid ceramide. We tested the hypothesis that ceramide accumulates in dairy cows experiencing lipolysis and insulin resistance. Nine dairy cows were utilized in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. Cows were ad libitum fed, nutrient-restricted (NR), or NR with nicotinic acid (NA; 5 mg of NA/h per kg BW; delivered i.v.) for 34 h. When provided access, cows were ad libitum fed a mixed ration of grass hay and ground corn to meet requirements. Intake for NR cows was limited to vitamins and minerals. Nicotinic acid was administered to suppress lipolysis. Saline was infused in cows not provided NA. At 32 and 33 h of treatment, a liver biopsy and insulin tolerance test were performed, respectively. Samples were analyzed using colorimetry, immunoassay, and mass spectrometry. Nutrient restriction increased serum fatty acids and ceramide levels, and impaired insulin sensitivity; however, NA infusion was unable to prevent these responses. We also show that NR increases hepatic ceramide accumulation, a response that was positively associated with serum ceramide supply. Our data demonstrate that circulating and hepatic 24:0-Cer are inversely associated with systemic insulin tolerance, an effect not observed for the 16:0 moiety. In conclusion, our results suggest that ceramide accrual represents a metabolic adaptation to nutrient restriction and impaired insulin action in dairy cows.

  11. Euthanasia of Danish dairy cows evaluated in two questionnaire surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen Jan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality risk in Danish dairy cows has more than doubled since 1990 (from 2% in 1990 to 5% in 2005. Until now, registrations about dead cows in the Danish Cattle Database have not included information about whether the cow died unassisted or was euthanized. Methods We interviewed a random sample of 196 Danish dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow to the Danish Cattle Database in 2002 and 196 dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow in 2006. Our objectives were to evaluate the proportion of euthanized cows, changes in the behaviour of farmers regarding euthanasia of cows over the years and possible reasons for these changes. Results It seems that the threshold for euthanasia of cows among farmers has changed. Farmers generally reported a lower threshold for euthanasia compared to 5–10 years ago. Conclusion The threshold for euthanasia of cows has, according to the dairy farmers, become lower. This might have positive impacts on animal welfare as more seriously ill cows are euthanized in the herds and not put through a period of suffering associated with disease and treatment or transported to a slaughterhouse in poor condition.

  12. Preferences of Freestall Housed Dairy Cows to Different Bedding Materials

    OpenAIRE

    MITEV, Jurii; VARLYAKOV, Ivan; MITEVA, Tchonka; VASILEV, Nasko; GERGOVSKA, Jivka; UZUNOVA, Krassimira; DIMOVA, Vania

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to examine the behaviour of dairy cows during the rest periods and their preferences to different bedding materials with limited amount of straw as well as the hygienic score of dairy cows. Thirty-six Holstein dairy cows at the first to fourth lactation with live weight 610±58 kg and milk yield of 7364±1202 liter for 305 days of lactation were used for the experiment. Three types of bedding materials were used for the preference tes...

  13. Validation of an approach to predict total-tract fiber digestibility using a standardized in vitro technique for different diets fed to high-producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, F; Ruh, K; Combs, D K

    2015-04-01

    The experimental objective was to validate an in vitro model to predict total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility in dairy cattle. Twenty-one diets from 7 studies conducted at University of Wisconsin-Madison were analyzed for in vitro fiber digestibility. Forages varied among diets (corn, alfalfa, tall and meadow fescue, and wheat straw silages) and nutrient composition (ranges: NDF = 22.5 to 33.8%; crude protein = 15.8 to 18.9%; nonfiber carbohydrates = 38.0 to 51.0%). Total-tract NDF digestibility (TTNDFD) observed in in vivo trials was determined using different markers as described in the individual studies. The in vitro TTNDFD model predicted total-tract fiber digestibility from the proportion of total NDF potentially digestible (pdNDF), rate of pdNDF degradation, and rate of passage of pdNDF. The model predicted TTNDFD similar to in vivo measurements. The relationship between TTNDFD measured in vivo and TTNDFD predicted by the in vitro assay was significant (R(2) = 0.68). The relationship between in vitro 30-h NDF digestibility values and in vivo total-tract NDF digestibility values was not significant, whereas in vitro 48-h NDF digestibility values were correlated (R(2) = 0.30) with in vivo TTNDFD measurements. Indigestible NDF (iNDF) showed a negative relationship (R(2) = 0.40) with TTNDFD in vivo. Each 1-percentage-unit increase of iNDF resulted in a decrease of 0.96 percentage units of total-tract NDF digestibility; however, iNDF by itself was not a good predictor of TTNDFD because of the difference among the means. This study showed that an in vitro TTNDFD model that uses iNDF, pdNDF, and rates of pdNDF digestion and passage can predict (R(2) = 0.68) total-tract NDF digestibility. Most importantly, we demonstrated the ability to predict total-tract fiber digestibility from a model based on in vitro NDF degradation, which could improve our ability to optimize forage utilization and milk production. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science

  14. The effects of forage proportion and rapidly degradable dry matter from concentrate on ruminal digestion in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets with fixed neutral detergent fiber and starch contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechartier, C; Peyraud, J-L

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of the forage-to-concentrate (F:C) ratio and the rate of ruminal degradation of carbohydrates from the concentrate on digestion in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets. Six cows with ruminal cannulas were assigned to 6 treatments in a 6x6 Latin square. Treatments were arranged in a 3x2 factorial design. Three proportions of neutral detergent fiber from forage [FNDF; 7.6, 13.2, and 18.9% of dry matter (DM)] were obtained by modifying F:C (20:80, 35:65, and 50:50). These F:C were combined with concentrates with either high or low content of rapidly degradable carbohydrates. The dietary content of rapidly degradable carbohydrates from the concentrate was estimated from the DM disappearance of concentrate after 4h of in sacco incubation (CRDM). Thus, 2 proportions of CRDM were tested (20 and 30% of DM). Wheat and corn grain were used as rapidly and slowly degradable starch sources, respectively. Soybean hulls and citrus pulp were used as slowly and rapidly degradable fiber sources, respectively. Concentrate composition was adjusted to maintain dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents at 35.9 and 28.9% of DM, respectively. There was no effect of the interaction between F:C and CRDM on DM intake (DMI), ruminal fermentation, chewing activity, and fibrolytic activity. When F:C decreased, DMI increased, the mean ruminal pH linearly decreased, and the pH range linearly increased from 0.95 to 1.27 pH unit. At the same time, the acetate-to-propionate ratio decreased linearly. Decreasing F:C linearly decreased the average time spent chewing per kilogram of DMI from 35.2 to 19.5min/kg of DMI and decreased ruminal liquid outflow from 11.6 to 9.2L/kg of DMI, suggesting a decrease in the salivary flow. Increasing CRDM decreased DMI and increased the time during which pH was below 6.0 (3.1 vs. 4.8h), the pH range (0.90 vs. 1.33), and the initial rate of pH drop. It also increased the volatile fatty acid range (35 vs. 59mM), thus

  15. Leptospira interrogans serotype hardjo in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidić Branka M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on L. hardjo infection of dairy cows in the world pint out its important role in the occurrence of health and economic problem. L. interrogans serotype hardjo has been described as the cause of miscarriages, stillbirts, or the birhs of poorly vital calves, agalactia, mastitis, and low fertility in cows. Two L. hardjo genotypes have been identified in cows, namely, hardjopraitno and hardjobovis. Serological investigations have established a drastic increase in this leptospiral infection in cows. L. hardjo has become adapted to cattle as the primary host, so that an infection is maintained in herds and becomes deeply rooted because of the permanent presence of the source of infection. It was believed that sheep were accidental hosts, but the latest research suggest that they are yet another, transitory, host for maintining this leptospira serotype. L. hardjo is also important from the aspect of human health, especially of persons who are professionally exposed to this infection. L. hardjo infection is detected using serological tests and by proving the presence of leptospira. The medicine of choice in the therapy of leptospiral infections is streptomycin (DSM. Therapy using oxytetracyclines for clinical mastitis was also proven effective. Treatment is most successful in the early stage of the disease. A single dose of streptomycin administered in infected herds reduces the duration period of leptospira excretion through urine, thus preventing the spread of infection thorugh contaminated urine. The basic components of the plan to contain leptospira are the following: serological investigations, sanitary-higiene measures, the elimination of animals which excrete leptospira through urine, therapy, vaccination, quarantine.

  16. Feeding a higher forage diet prepartum decreases incidences of subclinical ketosis in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, L A; Weary, D M; Veira, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2013-02-01

    A common feeding practice during the dry period is to switch dairy cows to an energy-dense diet 3 wk prepartum, but this practice may lead to the overconsumption of energy and increase the risk of metabolic disease postpartum. The aim of this trial was to compare the metabolic status of transition Holstein dairy cows fed a 77% forage diet (77F; NEl = 1.46 Mcal/kg; NDF = 41%) vs. those fed an 87% forage diet (87F; NEl = 1.41 Mcal/kg; 48% NDF). Approximately 60 d before calving, cows were dried off, housed in a free stall barn, and fed the 87F diet. Three weeks before expected calving, cows were randomly assigned to either the 77F treatment and switched to this diet (n = 45) or assigned to the 87F treatment and stayed on the dry cow ration until parturition (n = 42). After parturition, all cows were fed a common lactation diet (NEl = 1.59 Mcal/kg; 36% NDF). Dry matter intake was measured daily from 2 wk before to 2 wk after calving. Blood was sampled daily for 10 d postpartum. Subclinical ketosis was diagnosed using a threshold of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) ≥ 1.0 mmol/L after calving. The percentage of cows pregnant and odds of being pregnant for each treatment group were determined at 60, 90, and 120 d in milk through ultrasound by the herd veterinarian. Cows on the 87F diet consumed less DM prepartum than those on the 77F diet (12.7 ± 0.3 kg/d vs. 15.4 ± 0.3 kg/d, P ketosis (SCK; 49% vs. 17%; P = 0.001). Milk production tended to be less for cows fed the 87F diet prepartum (47.3 ± 0.4 kg/d vs. 48.8 ± 0.4 kg/d; P = 0.10) for the first 22 wk of lactation, which was significant for d 7 to 28 of lactation (44.6 ± 1.1 kg/d vs. 47.6 ± 1.0 kg/d; P = 0.05). Although sample size was small to draw strong conclusions on reproductive performance, at 120 d in milk, cows on the 87F diet were 0.3 times more likely to be pregnant (P = 0.03). These results indicate that feeding an 87F diet before calving can reduce rates of SCK in transition dairy cows.

  17. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heravi Mosavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  18. Wheat is more potent than corn or barley for dietary mitigation of enteric methane emissions from dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Jacobs, J L; Hannah, M C; Beauchemin, K A; Eckard, R J; Wales, W J

    2017-09-01

    Wheat is the most common concentrate fed to dairy cows in Australia, but few studies have examined the effects of wheat feeding on enteric methane emissions, and no studies have compared the relative potencies of wheat, corn, and barley for their effects on enteric methane production. In this 35-d experiment, 32 Holstein dairy cows were offered 1 of 4 diets: a corn diet (CRN) of 10.0 kg of dry matter (DM)/d of single-rolled corn grain, 1.8 kg of DM/d of canola meal, 0.2 kg of DM/d of minerals, and 11.0 kg of DM/d of chopped alfalfa hay; a wheat diet (WHT) similar to the CRN diet but with the corn replaced by single-rolled wheat; a barley diet (SRB) similar to the CRN diet but with the corn replaced by single-rolled barley; and a barley diet (DRB) similar to the CRN diet but with the corn replaced by double-rolled barley. Individual cow feed intakes, milk yields, and milk compositions were measured daily but reported for the last 5 d of the experiment. During the last 5 d of the experiment, individual cow methane emissions were measured using the SF 6 tracer technique for all cows, and ruminal fluid pH was continuously measured by intraruminal sensors for 3 cows in each treatment group. The average DM intake of cows offered the CRN, WHT, SRB, and DRB diets was 22.2, 21.1, 22.6, and 22.6 kg/d. The mean energy-corrected milk of cows fed the WHT diet was less than that of cows fed the other diets. This occurred because the milk fat percentage of cows fed the WHT diet was significantly less than that of cows fed the other diets. The mean methane emissions and methane yields of cows fed the WHT diet were also significantly less than those of cows fed the other diets. Indeed, the CRN, SRB, and DRB diets were associated with 49, 73, and 78% greater methane emissions, respectively, compared with the emissions from the WHT diet. Methane yield was found to be most strongly related to the minimum daily ruminal fluid pH. This study showed that although the inclusion of wheat in

  19. Effects of alfalfa flavonoids on the production performance, immune system, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jinshun; Liu, Mingmei; Su, Xiaoshuang; Zhan, Kang; Zhang, Chungang; Zhao, Guoqi

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of alfalfa flavonoids on the production performance, immunity, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows. The experiments employed four primiparous Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas, and used a 4×4 Latin square design. Cattle were fed total mixed ration supplemented with 0 (control group, Con), 20, 60, or 100 mg of alfalfa flavonoids extract (AFE) per kg of dairy cow body weight (BW). The feed intake of the group receiving 60 mg/kg BW of AFE were significantly higher (pcontent of milk reduced (p = 0.05) linearly as AFE supplementation was increased. The somatic cell count of milk in group receiving 60 mg/kg BW of AFE was significantly lower (pruminal fermentation parameters were not affected by AFE supplementation. Relative levels of the rumen microbe Ruminococcus flavefaciens tended to decrease (p = 0.09) quadratically, whereas those of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens showed a tendency to increase (p = 0.07) quadratically in response to AFE supplementation. The results of this study demonstrate that AFE supplementation can alter composition of milk, and may also have an increase tendency of nutrient digestion by regulating populations of microbes in the rumen, improve antioxidant properties by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities, and affect immunity by altering the proportions of lymphocyte and neutrophil granulocytes in dairy cows. The addition of 60 mg/kg BW of AFE to the diet of dairy cows was shown to be beneficial in this study.

  20. Effects of alternative protein sources on rumen microbes and productivity of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metha Wanapat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of various protein sources on digestibility, rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in dairy cows. Four Holstein Friesian native crossbred cows in early lactating were randomly assigned according to a 4x4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments containing different protein sources in concentrate diets were soybean meal (SBM, cassava hay (CH, Leucaena leucocephala (LL and yeast-fermented cassava chips (YEFECAP, with ad libitum intake of urea-treated rice straw. Digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and ADF was not different among treatments (P>0.05 while CP digestibility was highest (P<0.05 in CH and YEFECAP supplemented groups. Ruminal NH3-N and BUN concentrations varied among protein sources and were highest in SBM and LL fed groups (P<0.05. Ruminal total volatile fatty acid (VFA and propionic acid were found highest in cows receiving CH and YEFECAP (P<0.05. Ruminal fungi, proteolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were highest when YEFECAP was supplemented. Milk fat and milk protein were significantly increased (P<0.05 in cows fed with CH and YEFECAP. Based on this study, it was concluded that providing CH or YEFECAP as protein source in concentrate diets could improve rumen fermentation and milk production in lactating dairy cows fed on rice straw.

  1. Does the diurnal pattern of enteric methane emissions from dairy cows change over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M J; Craigon, J; Saunders, N; Goodman, J R; Garnsworthy, P C

    2018-02-22

    Diet manipulation and genetic selection are two important mitigation strategies for reducing enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminant livestock. The aim of this study was to assess whether the diurnal pattern of CH4 emissions from individual dairy cows changes over time when cows are fed on diets varying in forage composition. Emissions of CH4 from 36 cows were measured during milking in an automatic (robotic) milking station in three consecutive feeding periods, for a total of 84 days. In Periods 1 and 2, the 36 cows were fed a high-forage partial mixed ration (PMR) containing 75% forage, with either a high grass silage or high maize silage content. In Period 3, cows were fed a commercial PMR containing 69% forage. Cows were offered PMR ad libitum plus concentrates during milking and CH4 emitted by individual cows was sampled during 8662 milkings. A linear mixed model was used to assess differences among cows, feeding periods and time of day. Considerable variation was observed among cows in daily mean and diurnal patterns of CH4 emissions. On average, cows produced less CH4 when fed on the commercial PMR in feeding Period 3 than when the same cows were fed on high-forage diets in feeding Periods 1 and 2. The average diurnal pattern for CH4 emissions did not significantly change between feeding periods and as lactation progressed. Emissions of CH4 were positively associated with dry matter (DM) intake and forage DM intake. It is concluded that if the management of feed allocation remains constant then the diurnal pattern of CH4 emissions from dairy cows will not necessarily alter over time. A change in diet composition may bring about an increase or decrease in absolute emissions over a 24-h period without significantly changing the diurnal pattern unless management of feed allocation changes. These findings are important for CH4 monitoring techniques that involve taking measurements over short periods within a day rather than complete 24-h observations.

  2. Insulin Signaling in Liver and Adipose Tissues in Periparturient Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Asako; Kenéz, Ákos; Locher, Lena; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna

    2016-01-01

    The glucose homeostasis in dairy cattle is very well controlled, in line with the metabolic adaptation during the periparturient period. Former studies showed that nicotinic acid (NA) lowered plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity in dairy cows. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the expression of proteins involved in hepatic and adipose insulin signaling and protein expression of hepatic glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) were affected by dietary NA and dietary concentrate intake in periparturient dairy cows. Twenty pluriparous German Holstein cows were fed with the same diet from about 21 days before the expected calving date (d-21) to calving. After calving, cows were randomly assigned in 4 groups and fed with diets different in concentrate proportion ("HC" with 60:40% or "LC" with 30:70% concentrate-to-roughage ratio) and supplemented with NA (24 g/day) (NA) or without (CON) until d21. Biopsy samples were taken from the liver, subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal (RPAT) adipose tissues at d-21 and d21. Protein expression of insulin signaling molecules (insulin receptor (INSR), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ)) and hepatic GLUT2 was measured by Western Blotting. The ratio of protein expression at d21/at d-21 was calculated and statistically evaluated for the effects of time and diet. Cows in HC had significantly higher dietary energy intake than cows in LC. In RPAT a decrease in PI3K and PKCζ expression was found in all groups, irrespectively of diet. In the liver, the GLUT2 expression was significantly lower in cows in NA compared with cows in CON. In conclusion, insulin signaling might be decreased in RPAT over time without any effect of diet. NA was able to modulate hepatic GLUT2 expression, but its physiological role is unclear.

  3. Insulin Signaling in Liver and Adipose Tissues in Periparturient Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asako Kinoshita

    Full Text Available The glucose homeostasis in dairy cattle is very well controlled, in line with the metabolic adaptation during the periparturient period. Former studies showed that nicotinic acid (NA lowered plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity in dairy cows. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the expression of proteins involved in hepatic and adipose insulin signaling and protein expression of hepatic glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2 were affected by dietary NA and dietary concentrate intake in periparturient dairy cows. Twenty pluriparous German Holstein cows were fed with the same diet from about 21 days before the expected calving date (d-21 to calving. After calving, cows were randomly assigned in 4 groups and fed with diets different in concentrate proportion ("HC" with 60:40% or "LC" with 30:70% concentrate-to-roughage ratio and supplemented with NA (24 g/day (NA or without (CON until d21. Biopsy samples were taken from the liver, subcutaneous (SCAT and retroperitoneal (RPAT adipose tissues at d-21 and d21. Protein expression of insulin signaling molecules (insulin receptor (INSR, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K, protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ and hepatic GLUT2 was measured by Western Blotting. The ratio of protein expression at d21/at d-21 was calculated and statistically evaluated for the effects of time and diet. Cows in HC had significantly higher dietary energy intake than cows in LC. In RPAT a decrease in PI3K and PKCζ expression was found in all groups, irrespectively of diet. In the liver, the GLUT2 expression was significantly lower in cows in NA compared with cows in CON. In conclusion, insulin signaling might be decreased in RPAT over time without any effect of diet. NA was able to modulate hepatic GLUT2 expression, but its physiological role is unclear.

  4. Interaction of unsaturated fat or coconut oil with monensin in lactating dairy cows fed 12 times daily. I. Protozoal abundance, nutrient digestibility, and microbial protein flow to the omasum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveneau, C; Karnati, S K R; Oelker, E R; Firkins, J L

    2012-04-01

    Monensin (tradename: Rumensin) should reduce the extent of amino acid deamination in the rumen, and supplemental fat should decrease protozoal abundance and intraruminal N recycling. Because animal-vegetable (AV) fat can be biohydrogenated in the rumen and decrease its effectiveness as an anti-protozoal agent, we included diets supplemented with coconut oil (CNO) to inhibit protozoa. In a 6 × 6 Latin square design with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments, 6 rumen-cannulated cows were fed diets without or with Rumensin (12 g/909 kg) and either no fat (control), 5% AV fat, or 5% CNO. The log10 concentrations (cells/mL) of total protozoa were not different between control (5.97) and AV fat (5.95) but were decreased by CNO (4.79; main effect of fat source). Entodinium and Dasytricha decreased as a proportion of total cells from feeding CNO, whereas Epidinium was unchanged in total abundance and thus increased proportionately. Total volatile fatty acid concentration was not affected by diet, but the acetate:propionate ratio decreased for CNO (1.85) versus control (2.95) or AV fat (2.58). Feeding CNO (23.8%) decreased ruminal neutral detergent fiber digestibility compared with control (31.1%) and AV fat (30.5%). The total-tract digestibility of NDF was lower for CNO (45.8%) versus control (57.0%) and AV fat (54.6%), with no difference in apparent organic matter digestibility (averaging 69.8%). The omasal flows of microbial N and non-ammonia N were lower for CNO versus control and AV fat, but efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was not affected. The dry matter intake was 4.5 kg/d lower with CNO, which decreased milk production by 3.1 kg/d. Main effect means of dry matter intake and milk yield tended to decrease by 0.7 and 1.2 kg/d, respectively, when Rumensin was added. Both percentage and production of milk fat decreased for CNO (main effect of fat source). An interaction was observed such that AV decreased milk fat yield more when combined with Rumensin

  5. Factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cow in Algeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2017-01-11

    Jan 11, 2017 ... Article Number: 8C8D1B562380. ISSN 1684-5315. Copyright ... lactation on reproductive performance of dairy cows in Algeria. Calving to first .... sniffing the vulva of other cows, mucus presence in the vulva, nervousness, pink ...

  6. Rubber Flooring Impact on Production and Herdlife of Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The overall objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate production, reproduction, and retention of first and second lactations of cows assigned to either rubber (RUB) or concrete (CON) flooring at the fe...

  7. Rubber Flooring Impact on Health of Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate locomotion, health, production, and immunity over the first 180d of each of the 1st and 2nd lactations of cows assigned to free-stall housing with either r...

  8. Dairy cows with prolonged calving seek additional isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2017-01-01

    and management practices that better align with the motivations of the cow. This study examined dairy cow preferences for individual calving pens by offering 3 different levels of isolation (tall and narrow, low and wide, and tall and wide) by analyzing the association between precalving behavior, choice...... that interactions between motivation for isolation seeking and calving behavior exist....

  9. Track way distance and cover as risk factors for lameness in Danish dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, Elke; Thomsen, Peter Thorup; Rousing, Tine

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of length and cover of track ways between barn and pasture on lameness in Danish dairy cows. We hypothesised that short track distances would be associated with a lower lameness probability of dairy cows compared to longer distances and that track ways...... with prepared cover (asphalt, gravel, slag, concrete, rubber) compared to no prepared cover (sand, soil and/or grass) would be associated with a lower lameness probability of dairy cows in grazing herds. In total, 2084 dairy cows from 36 herds, grazing their dairy cows during summer, were individually assessed...... was associated with decreased severe lameness in Danish dairy cows....

  10. High levels of whole raw soya beans in dairy cow diets: digestibility and animal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Freitas Junior, J E; Verdurico, L C; Mingoti, R D; Bettero, V P; Benevento, B C; Vilela, F G; Rennó, F P

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high levels of whole raw soya beans in the diets of lactating cows. Twelve Holstein dairy cows were used, randomized in three 4 ×  4 balanced and contemporary Latin squares and fed the following diets: (i) control (C), without including whole raw soya beans; (ii) 80 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G80); (iii) 160 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G160); and (iv) 240 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G240). There was significant reduction (p beans in dairy cow diets improves the unsaturated fatty acid profile in milk, and the diets (G80 and G160) led to minor alterations in the digestive processes and animal metabolism. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Genomic regulation of oestrous behaviour in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommadath, A.

    2012-01-01

    Concurrent to the impressive improvement achieved over the last few decades for the trait of milk production in dairy cows was a steady decline in several fertility traits including oestrous behaviour (OB). An understanding of the genomic regulation of OB, which is currently lacking in dairy

  12. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Purup, Stig

    2012-01-01

    interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley...... red clover-grass silage diet (1,494μg/kg of milk). Because of the metabolism of biochanin A, genistein, and prunetin, their concentrations in milk and the apparent recovery were low. Coumestrol was detected in only short-term and long-term ley silage mixtures, and its milk concentration was low....... Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone...

  13. Alterations of the Lipid Metabolome in Dairy Cows Experiencing Excessive Lipolysis Early Postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, Elke; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Gruber, Leonhard; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-01-01

    A decrease in insulin sensitivity enhances adipose tissue lipolysis helping early lactation cows counteracting their energy deficit. However, excessive lipolysis poses serious health risks for cows, and its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. The present study used targeted ESI-LC-MS/MS-based metabolomics and indirect insulin sensitivity measurements to evaluate metabolic alterations in the serum of dairy cows of various parities experiencing variable lipolysis early postpartum. Thirty (12 primiparous and 18 multiparous) cows of Holstein Friesian and Simmental breeds, fed the same diet and kept under the same management conditions, were sampled at d 21 postpartum and classified as low (n = 10), medium (n = 8), and high (n = 12) lipolysis groups, based on serum concentration of nonesterified fatty acids. Overall, excessive lipolysis in the high group came along with impaired estimated insulin sensitivity and characteristic shifts in acylcarnitine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine and lysophospholipid metabolome profiles compared to the low group. From the detected phosphatidylcholines mainly those with diacyl-residues showed differences among lipolysis groups. Furthermore, more than half of the detected sphingomyelins were increased in cows experiencing high lipomobilization. Additionally, strong differences in serum acylcarnitines were noticed among lipolysis groups. The study suggests an altered serum phospholipidome in dairy cows associated with an increase in certain long-chain sphingomyelins and the progression of disturbed insulin function. In conclusion, the present study revealed 37 key metabolites as part of alterations in the synthesis or breakdown of sphingolipids and phospholipids associated with lowered estimated insulin sensitivity and excessive lipolysis in early-lactating cows.

  14. Effects of rumen-protected choline supplementation on metabolic and performance responses of transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Marques, R S; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare metabolic and milk production parameters in dairy cows supplemented and nonsupplemented with rumen-protected choline (RPC) during the transition period. Twenty-three nonlactating, multiparous, pregnant Holstein cows were ranked by BW and BCS 21 d before expected date of calving and immediately were assigned to receive (n = 12) or not receive (control; n = 11) RPC until 45 d in milk (DIM). Cows supplemented with RPC received (as-fed basis) 50 and 100 g/d of RPC (18.8% choline) before and after calving, respectively. Before calving, cows were maintained in 2 drylot pens according to treatment with ad libitum access to corn silage, and individually they received (as-fed basis) 3 kg/cow daily of a concentrate. Upon calving, cows were moved to 2 adjacent drylot pens according to treatment, milked twice daily, offered (as-fed basis) 35 kg/cow daily of corn silage, and individually received a concentrate formulated to meet their nutritional requirements after milking. The RPC was individually offered to cows as a topdressing into the morning concentrate feeding. Before calving, cow BW and BCS were recorded weekly, and blood samples were collected every 5 d beginning on d -21 relative to expected calving date. Upon calving and until 45 DIM, BW and BCS were recorded weekly, individual milk production was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected once a week and analyzed for fat, protein, and total solids. Blood samples were collected every other day from 0 to 20 DIM and every 5 d from 20 to 45 DIM. Based on actual calving dates, cows receiving RPC or control began receiving treatments 16.8 ± 1.7 and 17.3 ± 2.0 d before calving, respectively. No treatment effects were detected (P ≥ 0.18) on postpartum concentrate intake, BW and BCS, or serum concentrations of cortisol, β-hydroxybutyrate, NEFA, glucose, and IGF-I. Cows supplemented with RPC had greater (P ≤ 0.01) mean serum haptoglobin and insulin concentrations

  15. Effect of feed restriction on reproductive and metabolic hormones in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraretto, L F; Gencoglu, H; Hackbart, K S; Nascimento, A B; Dalla Costa, F; Bender, R W; Guenther, J N; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of feed restriction (FR) on serum glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, progesterone (P4), insulin, and milk production in dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows, 114 ± 14 d pregnant and 685 ± 39 kg of body weight, were randomly assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 14-d periods. During the first 8 d of each period, cows in all treatments were fed for ad libitum feed intake. Beginning on d 9 of each period, cows received 1 of 4 treatments: ad libitum (AL), 25% feed restriction (25 FR), 50% feed restriction (50 FR), and 50% of TMR replaced with wheat straw (50 ST). Daily feed allowance was divided into 3 equal portions allocated every 8h with jugular blood samples collected immediately before each feeding through d 14. In addition, on d 12 of each period, blood samples were collected before and at 60, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420, and 480 min after morning feeding. The conventional total mixed ration and total mixed ration with straw averaged 15.1 and 10.8%, 32.1 and 50.5%, and 26.8 and 17.0% for concentrations of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and starch, respectively. Cows that were feed and energy restricted had reduced dry matter intake, net energy for lactation intake, circulating glucose concentrations, and milk production, but greater body weight and body condition score losses than AL cows. Circulating concentrations of insulin were lower for cows fed 50 FR (8.27 μIU/mL) and 50 ST (6.24 μIU/mL) compared with cows fed AL (16.65 μIU/mL) and 25 FR (11.16 μIU/mL). Furthermore, the greatest plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentration was observed for 50 ST (647.7 μ Eq/L), followed by 50 FR (357.5 μEq/L), 25 FR (225.3 μEq/L), and AL (156.3 μEq/L). In addition, serum P4 concentration was lower for cows fed AL than cows fed 50 ST and 25 FR. Thus, FR reduced circulating glucose and insulin but increased P4 concentration, changes that may be positive in reproductive

  16. Short communication: Flooring preferences of dairy cows at calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the flooring preference during the 30 h before parturition in Holstein dairy cows housed individually in a maternity pen. Seventeen multiparous cows were moved, on average, 2 d before expected calving date into an individual maternity pen with 3 different flooring surfaces: 10 cm of sand, pebble-top rubber mats, or concrete flooring, each covered with 15 cm of straw. Calving location, lying time, and total time and number of lying bouts on each of the floor types were recorded during 2 periods: precalving (24 to 29 h before calving) and at calving (0 to 5h before calving). Ten cows calved on sand, 6 on concrete, and 1 on the rubber mat. Lying bouts increased during the hours closest to calving, regardless of flooring. The number of lying bouts did not differ between flooring types precalving but cows had more lying bouts on sand and concrete compared with rubber at calving. Cows spent more time lying down on sand and concrete compared with rubber precalving, but lying times did not differ between treatments at calving. Cows that calved on sand spent more time lying on sand at calving compared with the other 2 flooring types. Cows that calved on concrete did not show a flooring preference at calving. These results indicate that rubber mats are the least preferred by dairy cows in the maternity pens, even when covered with a deep layer of straw. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of extruding wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas or canola meal on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, nutrient digestion, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, R M; Christensen, D A; Mutsvangwa, T

    2016-09-01

    plasma urea-N concentration tended to be lower in cows fed coextruded compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Plasma glucose concentration was greater in cows fed diets containing WDDGS-CM compared with those fed diets containing WDDGS-peas, but the difference in plasma glucose concentration between WDDGS-CM and WDDGS-peas was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. In summary, feeding coextruded compared with nonextruded supplements or WDDGS-peas compared WDDGS-CM increased yields of milk, fat, and protein. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Drinking and Cleaning Water Use in a Dairy Cow Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Krauß

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Water is used in dairy farming for producing feed, watering the animals, and cleaning and disinfecting barns and equipment. The objective of this study was to investigate the drinking and cleaning water use in a dairy cow barn. The water use was measured on a well-managed commercial dairy farm in North-East Germany. Thirty-eight water meters were installed in a barn with 176 cows and two milking systems (an automatic milking system and a herringbone parlour. Their counts were logged hourly over 806 days. On average, the cows in the automatic milking system used 91.1 (SD 14.3 L drinking water per cow per day, while those in the herringbone parlour used 54.4 (SD 5.3 L per cow per day. The cows drink most of the water during the hours of (natural and artificial light in the barn. Previously published regression functions of drinking water intake of the cows were reviewed and a new regression function based on the ambient temperature and the milk yield was developed (drinking water intake (L per cow per day = −27.937 + 0.49 × mean temperature + 3.15 × milk yield (R2 = 0.67. The cleaning water demand had a mean of 28.6 (SD 14.8 L per cow per day in the automatic milking system, and a mean of 33.8 (SD 14.1 L per cow per day in the herringbone parlour. These findings show that the total technical water use in the barn makes only a minor contribution to water use in dairy farming compared with the water use for feed production.

  19. Effect of pregnancy and feeding level on cell turnover and expression of related genes in the mammary tissue of lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, J V; Sørensen, M T; Theil, P K

    2008-01-01

    Milk yield is reduced by pregnancy, and the present experiment was conducted to study the biological basis for the negative effect of pregnancy on milk yield. A total of 16 dairy cows were fed at either a normal or a low feeding level (eight cows per treatment), and half of them were inseminated ...

  20. Review of the relationship between nutrition and lameness in pasture-fed dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, C T; Bramley, E; Lean, I J

    2003-10-01

    Lameness of dairy cattle fed predominantly on pasture is increasingly recognised as one of the most costly disease conditions affecting dairy herds in New Zealand and Australia. Numerous risk factors are involved in the aetiology of claw lameness, including environment and factors associated with the conformation of individual cows. The role of nutrition requires further definition. Australasian pastures are characterised by low levels of fibre and effective fibre, rapid rates of fibre degradation, high water content, and high concentrations of rumen degradable protein during the autumn, winter and spring months. Relationships between high-quality vegetative pastures and ruminal acidosis may increase the risk of laminitis, particularly where pasture is supplemented with grains or other feeds containing significant amounts of starch. This article reviews the incidence, prevalence and pathophysiology of ruminal acidosis and laminitis and considers mechanisms by which acidosis may occur in pasture-fed cows. Techniques for diagnosing ruminal acidosis are reviewed, and practical strategies to avoid it are proposed. Currently, there is little information on the incidence and prevalence of ruminal acidosis and laminitis in pasture-fed cattle. The evidence gathered in this review suggests that ruminal acidosis and laminitis should be considered in the aetiology of lameness in pasture-fed dairy herds.

  1. Effects of nitrogen fertilisation rate and maturity of grass silage on methane emission by lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, D.; Hatew, B.; Podesta, S.C.; Klop, G.; Gastelen, van S.; Laar, van H.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.

    2016-01-01

    Grass silage is typically fed to dairy cows in temperate regions. However, in vivo information on methane (CH4) emission from grass silage of varying quality is limited. We evaluated the effect of two rates of nitrogen (N) fertilisation of grassland (low fertilisation (LF), 65 kg of N/ha; and high

  2. Effects of a combination of feed additives on methane production, diet digestibility, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.; Fonken, B.C.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Perdok, H.B.; Fokkink, W.B.; Newbold, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of a mixture of dietary additives on enteric methane production, rumen fermentation, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows. Identical diets were fed in both experiments. The mixture of feed additives

  3. Effects of Feeding Corn-lablab Bean Mixture Silages on Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Performance of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Qu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of corn-lablab bean mixture silages relative to corn silages. The effects of feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages on nutrient apparent digestibility and milk production of dairy cows in northern China were also investigated. Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to determine the ruminal digestion kinetics and ruminal nutrient degradability of corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups of 30 cows each. Two diets were formulated with a 59:41 forage: concentrate ratio. Corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages constituted 39.3% of the forage in each diet, with Chinese wildrye hay constituting the remaining 60.7%. Corn-lablab bean mixture silages had higher lactic acid, acetic acid, dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ash, Ca, ether extract concentrations and ruminal nutrient degradability than monoculture corn silage (p<0.05. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF concentrations of corn-lablab bean mixture silages were lower than those of corn silage (p<0.05. The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF for cows fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was higher than for those fed corn silage (p<0.05. Feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield and milk protein of dairy cows when compared with feeding corn silage (p<0.05. The economic benefit for cow fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was 8.43 yuan/day/cow higher than that for that fed corn silage. In conclusion, corn-lablab bean mixture improved the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of silage compared with monoculture corn. In this study, feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield, milk protein and nutrient apparent digestibility of dairy cows compared with corn silage in northern China.

  4. THE EFFECTS OF ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF PROPYLENE GLYCOL AND CALCIUM PROPIONATE IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. GAVAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effects of the oral administration of propylene glycol and calcium propionate on performance of dairy cows. Treatments were 10 l water (control, 10 l water+300 ml propylene glycol (GP and 10 l water+500 g calcium propionate (CP. Animals were mainly of Holstein breeds and were fed and managed in a commercial setting. The cows were divided randomly into an experimental group, n=24 (n=12 with PG and n=12 with CP and a control group, n=11. Cows received the assigned treatment within 10 hours of calving and 24 hours after calving. Health events were recorded during calving and for the first 21 days in milk (DIM. Health examinations were performed on cows that appeared not well. The cows were milked three times daily and milk production was recorded electronically. Milk solid content and somatic cell score were determinate from three consecutive milking weekly till 20 DIM and than monthly till 110 DIM. Retained placenta, hypocalcaemia, displaced abomasums, ketosis and metritis were low in treatment groups (with PG and CP. The cows receiving PG had 2.8 Kg/day grater milk production than control group. The cows receiving CP had 1.7 kg/day grater milk production than control group. Prophylactic administration of PG and CP drenches to Holstein cows may be justified by potentially higher milk yields and reduced health complications.

  5. Using Ovsynch protocol versus Cosynch protocol in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Valeriu Caraba

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As a research on the reproductive physiology and endocrinology surrounding the estrous cycle in dairy cattle has been compiled, several estrous synchronization programs have been developed for use with dairy cows. These include several programs that facilitate the mass breeding of all animals at a predetermined time (timed-AI rather than the detection of estrus. We studied on 15 dary cows which were synchronized by Ovsynch and Cosynch programs. The estrus response for cows in Ovsynch protocol was of 63%. Pregnancy per insemination at 60 days was of 25%. Estrus response for cow in Cosynch protocol was of 57%. Pregnancy per insemination at 60 days was of 57%. Synchronization of ovulation using Ovsynch protocols can provide an effective way to manage reproduction in lactating dairy cows by eliminating the need for estrus detection. These are really efficient management programs for TAI of dairy cows that are able to reduce both the labour costs and the extra handling to daily estrus detection and AI.

  6. Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma α-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 μg vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 μg Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

  7. Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivertsen T

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma α-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 μg vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 μg Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

  8. Monitoring feeding behaviour of dairy cows using accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Mattachini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring cow behaviour has become increasingly important in understanding the nutrition, production, management of the well being, and overall health of dairy cows. Methods of assessing behavioural activity have changed in recent years, favouring automatic recording techniques. Traditional methods to measure behaviour, such as direct observation or time-lapse video, are labour-intensive and time-consuming. Automated recording devices have become increasingly common to measure behaviour accurately. Thus, the development of automated monitoring systems that can continuously and accurately quantify feeding behaviour are required for efficient monitoring and control of modern and automated dairy farms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible use of a 3D accelerometer to record feeding behaviour of dairy cows. Feeding behaviour (feeding time and number of visits to the manger of 12 lactating dairy cows was recorded for approximately 3 h with 3D-accelerometer data loggers (HOBO Pendant G logger. The sensors were positioned in the high part of the neck to monitor head movements. Behaviour was simultaneously recorded using visual observation as a reference. Linear regression analysis between the measurement methods showed that the recorded feeding time (R2=0.90, n=12, P<0.001 was closely related to visual observations. In contrast, the number of visits was inadequately recorded by the 3D-accelerometer, showing a poor relationship with visual observations (R2=0.31, n=12, P<0.06. Results suggest that the use of accelerometer sensors can be a reliable and suitable technology for monitoring feeding behaviour of individual dairy cows in free stall housing. However, further research is necessary to develop an appropriate device able to detect and recognise the movements connected with the head movement during feeding. Such a device could be part of an automatic livestock management tool for the efficient monitoring and control of comfort and

  9. Impact of longevity on greenhouse gas emissions and profitability of individual dairy cows analysed with different system boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandl, F; Furger, M; Kreuzer, M; Zehetmeier, M

    2018-05-29

    Dairy production systems are often criticized as being major emitters of greenhouse gases (GHG). In this context, the extension of the length of the productive life of dairy cows is gaining interest as a potential GHG mitigation option. In the present study, we investigated cow and system GHG emission intensity and profitability based on data from 30 dairy cows of different productive lifetime fed either no or limited amounts of concentrate. Detailed information concerning productivity, feeding and individual enteric methane emissions of the individuals was available from a controlled experiment and herd book databases. A simplified GHG balance was calculated for each animal based on the milk produced at the time of the experiment and for their entire lifetime milk production. For the lifetime production, we also included the emissions arising from potential beef produced by fattening the offspring of the dairy cows. This accounted for the effect that changes in the length of productive life will affect the replacement rate and thus the number of calves that can be used for beef production. Profitability was assessed by calculating revenues and full economic costs for the cows in the data set. Both emission intensity and profitability were most favourable in cows with long productive life, whereas cows that had not finished their first lactation performed particularly unfavourably with regard to their emissions per unit of product and rearing costs were mostly not repaid. Including the potential beef production, GHG emissions in relation to total production of animal protein also decreased with age, but the overall variability was greater, as the individual cow history (lifetime milk yield, twin births, stillbirths, etc.) added further sources of variation. The present results show that increasing the length of productive life of dairy cows is a viable way to reduce the climate impact and to improve profitability of dairy production.

  10. Effects of Feeding Garlic and Juniper Berry Essential Oils on Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhu Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs from plant extracts have been reported to have an antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Several of the gram-positive bacteria are involved in ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids (FAs, thus suggesting that feeding EOs could lower biohydrogenation of FA because of a decrease in the number of bacteria involved in that process. As a result, milk FA profiles are expected to be modified. In addition, monensin was approved as an antibiotic to be fed in dairy cattle, and it was reported that dairy cows supplemented with monensin produced milk containing higher concentration of 18:1 t10 and 18:1 t11. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two EOs (garlic and juniper berry oils and monensin on FA profiles of milk fat. Four ruminally fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake a total mixed ration without supplementation (control, or supplemented with monensin (330 mg/head per day, garlic oil (5 g/head per day, or juniper berry oil (2 g/head per day. The FA composition of saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated was not affected by supplementation of EO and monensin. However, proportion of conjugated linoleic acid trans 10, cis 12 (CLA t10, c12 was higher ( P < 0.05 for cows fed EO or monensin than for control cows. Supplementation of monensin increased ( P < 0.05 the proportion of total trans FA compared with the control. These results indicate that supplementation of the dairy cow diet with garlic or juniper berry EO or monensin had the potential to increase the proportion of CLA t10, c12 in milk fat with minimal overall effects on FA of milk fat. The results also confirm the increase of 18:1 t10 in milk fat by feeding monensin to dairy cows.

  11. Health status of cows fed maize silage covered with oxo-biodegradable foil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr SZTERK

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In agricultural practice, silage production uses pure, low density polyethylene foil. This foil, after use, becomes farm waste, having a negative impact on the environment. Instead of conventional foil, an environmentally safe biodegradable foil can be used, made from naturally occurring polymers or from synthetic multiparticulates, easily degradable by microorganisms. Silage covered with this type of foil should be safe for animal health. The purpose of the study was to determine whether oxo-biodegradable film could be used instead of conventional film in agricultural practice, to produce silage that is safe for the cows' health. Dairy cows were fed a partly mixed ratio (PMR, the component of which was silage made of whole maize plants, covered with oxo-biodegradable foil. The cow blood serum was marked for content of: glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triacylglycerols and enzyme activity: aspartic and alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase and amylase. The total protein concentration in the serum of cows analyzed at the end of the experiment was higher than the commonly accepted normal values. The content of glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerols and the activity of aspartate and alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase and amylase was within reference limits. Feeding of silage from whole maize plants covered withoxo-biodegradable foil did not negatively affect the biochemical indicators of the cows' blood serum. The silage proved to be safe for the cows' health.

  12. A Cow- and Herd-specific Bio-Economic Model of Intramammary Infections in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Gussmann, Maya Katrin; Græsbøll, Kaare

    Introduction. Mastitis, or intramammary infection (IMI), is one of the most significant diseases in dairy herds worldwide. It is caused by environmental and contagious bacteria. Simulation models have proven useful for evaluating the effect of different control strategies. However, previous...... published models are not cow-specific and therefore not so detailed in the simulation of host-pathogen interactions. If a simulation model is to be used by dairy farmers as a decision-making tool, it needs to be cow-specific because daily management decisions are made on cow level. Furthermore, as IMI......, contagious or mixed), the model should be able to reflect this diversity. Our objective was thus to create a pathogen-, cow- and herd-specific bio-economic simulation model that could simulate multiple pathogens and strains at the same time within a dairy herd. This model should be able to simulate realistic...

  13. Effects of corn-based diet starch content and corn particle size on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredin, S M; Ferraretto, L F; Akins, M S; Bertics, S J; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary starch content in corn-based diets and corn particle size on lactation performance, nutrient digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows using the omasal and reticular sampling technique. Eight ruminally cannulated lactating multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were fine (FG; mean particle size=552µm) and coarse (CG; 1,270µm) ground dry shelled corn in normal- (NS) and reduced- (RS) starch diets fed as total mixed rations. The NS and RS rations contained 27 and 18% starch (dry matter basis), respectively, and were formulated by partially replacing corn with soy hull pellets. Mean dry matter intake was unaffected by treatment (23.2kg/d). Cows fed NS diets produced 1.9kg/d more milk and 0.06kg/d more milk protein compared with cows fed RS diets. Cows fed NSFG and RSCG diets produced more fat-corrected milk than did cows fed NSCG and RSFG diets. Milk urea concentration was decreased for cows fed NS diets (12.4mg/dL) compared with RS diets (13.5mg/dL). Ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF; % of NDF intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with NS diets (43.4 vs. 34.9%), and total-tract digestibility of NDF (% of NDF intake) was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (50.1 vs. 43.1%). Ruminal digestibility of starch (% of starch intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was greater in cows fed NS diets compared with those fed RS diets (85.6 vs. 81.6%). Total-tract starch digestion was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (96.9 vs. 94.6%) and in cows fed FG diets compared with those fed CG diets (98.0 vs. 93.5%). Bacterial protein flow was unaffected by treatment. The omasal and reticular sampling techniques resulted in similar treatment effects for nutrient flow

  14. Decreased insulin response in dairy cows following a four-day fast to induce hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, S; Oetzel, G R

    2006-08-01

    Negative energy balance has been implicated in the development of fatty liver, insulin resistance, and impaired health in dairy cows. A 4-d fasting model previously was reported to increase liver triglycerides more than 2.5-fold. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate insulin response in this fasting model. Nonlactating, nonpregnant Holstein cows were fasted for 4 d (6 cows) or fed continuously as control cows (4 cows). Samples were collected 5 d before fasting, during fasting, and immediately after the 4-d fast, 8 d after the fast, and 16 d after the fast. Fasted cows had greater liver triglyceride content (49.4 vs. 16.2 mg/g, wet-weight basis) at the end of the fasting period compared with control cows. Fasted cows also had increased plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations (1.24 vs. 0.21 mmol/L) and increased plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations at the end of the fasting period. Liver triglyceride, plasma NEFA, and plasma BHBA in fasted cows returned to prefasting concentrations by the end of the experiment. Plasma glucose concentrations were not affected by fasting. Plasma insulin concentrations were decreased (6.3 vs. 14.1 microU/mL) and insulin-stimulated blood glucose reduction was decreased (24.9 vs. 48.6%) in the fasted cows compared with control cows at the end of the fast, indicating reduced insulin response. Insulin response was negatively correlated with plasma NEFA and liver triglycerides. Decreased insulin response may be an important complication of negative energy balance and hepatic lipidosis.

  15. Hepatic lipidosis in pregnant cows on a dairy farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentink, G H; van Dijk, S; Goedegebuure, S A; Vos, J; Wensing, T

    1992-12-01

    A syndrome very similar to hepatic lipidosis is described in dairy cows during the dry period. After being sent to pasture the animals did not eat well for undetermined reasons. The disease phenomena were mainly observed in animals carrying twins. At post mortem examination severe falty infiltration was found in the 3 animals made available for post mortem examination. Increase of the energy supply to the dry cows by addition of maize silage to the ration prevented new cases.

  16. Specific fatty acids as metabolic modulators in the dairy cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.A. Pires

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent developments on the utilization of specific fatty acids to modulate bovine energy metabolism, with emphasis on the periparturient dairy cow. A number of experiments have assessed the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on bovine hepatic energy metabolism using in vitro and in vivo models. Treatment of hepatocytes with specific fatty acids altered energy metabolism in vitro. For example, linolenic acid seemed to decrease hepatocyte triacylglycerol accumulation. This effect was confirmed in vivo, using parenteral infusions of emulsions derived from different fat sources to feed-restricted non-lactating cows. Additionally, polyunsaturated fatty acids can increase whole body response to insulin, potentially enhancing antilipolytic effects of insulin and muscle protein anabolism in the bovine. There is limited literature on the effects of feeding fat sources rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as fish oil and linseed oil, on metabolism of periparturient dairy cows. Available research has yielded conflicting results which need further clarification. On the other hand, specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid consistently induce milk fat depression and are able to decrease energy export in milk by periparturient dairy cows. Nonetheless, research is still needed to assess whether these effects will ultimately benefit productivity and health status of periparturient dairy cows. Limitations of available methods to protect fatty acids from ruminal biohydrogenation are also addressed.

  17. Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, A-K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, T W; Larsen, T; Emanuelson, U

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if and how cow factors and intramammary infection (IMI) are associated with 4 different udder-health indicators in dairy cows as a first step in investigating whether the diagnostic performance of these indicators can be improved. The investigated indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days in milk from the sampled test milking) were collected from the Swedish milk-recording scheme. Of the sampled cows 485 were considered IMI negative and were used in multivariable mixed-effect linear regression models to investigate associations between cow factors and the udder-health indicators. A second modeling including all cows, both IMI negative and IMI positive (256 cows), was also performed. The results showed that all udder-health indicators were affected by cow factors but that different cow factors were associated with different indicators. Intramammary-infection status was significantly associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing that LDH, NAGase, and AP are more affected than SCC by cow factors. The IMI status explained 23% of the variation in SCC in the model with all cows but only 7% of the variation in

  18. Produção de proteína microbiana e parâmetros ruminais em vacas leiteiras alimentadas com farelo de trigo Microbial protein production and ruminal parameters in dairy cows fed wheat middlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Aparecida Soares

    2005-02-01

    concentration. The four experimental diets were formulated to contain 70% of corn silage and 30% of concentrate. Increasing levels of wheat middlings in the concentrate (0, 33, 67 and 100% in substitution to the corn meal. The milk urea (38.8 mg/dL and N-urea (18.1 mg/dL concentrations were not influenced by wheat middlings levels, such as plasma urea (51.1 mg/dL e N-urea (23.8 mg/dL concentration. The urinary urea, N-urea, allantoin, PD, absorbed purine, N-microbial urinary excretion and milk allantoin concentration were not altered. However, uric acid excretion presented a quadratic response, with maximum value of 40.03 mmol/day in the wheat middlings level of 36%. The pH and ruminal ammonia concentration before and after feeding were also not influenced by wheat middlings levels. The corn meal can be substituted integrally by the wheat middlings in the concentrate of dairy cows, with 20 kg/day average milk production, fed corn silage based diets, with no alteration on microbial protein production and ruminal pH and ammonia concentration.

  19. Dairy cows with prolonged calving seek additional isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2017-01-01

    and management practices that better align with the motivations of the cow. This study examined dairy cow preferences for individual calving pens by offering 3 different levels of isolation (tall and narrow, low and wide, and tall and wide) by analyzing the association between precalving behavior, choice...... preference between degrees of isolation or difference in calving behavior in the different calving pens was found. However, cows experiencing a longer calving duration chose to calve in the most secluded calving pen (tall and wide). These results cannot determine cause and effect, but may suggest...... that interactions between motivation for isolation seeking and calving behavior exist....

  20. Performance of dairy cows fed rations produced with sugarcane silages treated with additives or fresh sugarcane Desempenho de vacas leiteiras alimentadas com rações produzidas com silagens de cana-de-açúcar tratadas com aditivos ou cana-de-açúcar fresca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André de Faria Pedroso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was performed aiming at evaluating the performance of dairy cows fed sugarcane silages treated with additives compared to cows fed fresh forage. Twenty-four Holstein cows were grouped in blocks of three cows, according to parity order and milk production level, in multiple 3 x 3 Latin Square design to evaluate three types of ration (63% roughage and 37% concentrate in dry matter - DM: ration with silage treated with urea (5.0 g/kg of fresh forage - FF + sodium benzoate (0.5 g/kg FF; ration with silage inoculated with Lactobacillus buchneri (5 x 10(4 cfu/g FF; ration with fresh sugarcane. Each evaluation period consisted of two weeks for adaptation and one week for data collection. Cows fed rations with silages treated with urea + benzoate and L. buchneri showed lower DM intake (18.5 vs 21.4 kg/day and lower milk production (17.4 vs 18.6 kg/day in comparison to those fed fresh forage ration. Fat content was higher in the milk of cows fed silage inoculated with L. buchneri compared to cows in the fresh forage group resulting in similar 3.5% fat corrected milk (FCM among cows in both groups. Cows fed ration with silage treated with urea + benzoate presented intermediate fat content in milk but inferior FCM production compared to animals fed fresh sugarcane. Feed efficiency (kg FCM/kg DMI was higher for cows fed ration produced with the inoculated silage (0.95, intermediate for cows that received silage treated with the combination of chemical additives (0.91 and lower for cows fed the ration with fresh sugarcane (0.83.Um experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho de vacas leiteiras alimentadas com silagens de cana-de-açúcar tratadas com aditivos em comparação ao de vacas alimentadas com a forragem fresca. Vinte e quatro vacas holandesas foram agrupadas em blocos de três vacas, de acordo com a ordem do parto e com o nível de produção de leite, em um delineamento quadrado latino múltiplo 3 x 3, para avalia

  1. Effects of extruded corn on milk yield and composition and blood parameters in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to a 2x2 cross over design, fourteen Holstein dairy cows at 99±55 DIM were fed two diets containing 21.5% DM of either ground corn (GC or extruded corn (EC. Performance and metabolic profile were detected during the third week of each experimental period. DMI and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. Milk fat and protein percentage of EC diet were significantly (P<0.10 lower than those of GC diet. Probably the higher rumen degradability of starch from EC thesis modified the synthesis of specific fatty acids leading to a milk fat depression event. Diets did not influence blood parameters, except for lower values of total protein and glucose content in EC diet-fed cows. Results suggested that the dietary inclusion of extruded corn should not be used at the tested level of substitution.

  2. Circulating Metabolic Profile of High Producing Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar CHALMEH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the metabolic profile based on the concept that the laboratory measurement of certain circulating components is a tool to evaluate metabolic status of dairy cows. Veterinarian also can evaluate the energy input-output relationships by assessing the metabolic profile to prevent and control of negative energy balance, metabolic disorders and nutritional insufficiencies. In the present study, 25 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided to 5 equal groups containing early, mid and late lactation, and far-off and close-up dry. Blood samples were collected from all cows through jugular venipuncture and sera were evaluated for glucose, insulin, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, high, low and very low density lipoproteins (HDL, LDL and VLDL. Insulin levels in mid lactation and close-up dry cows were significantly higher than other groups (P<0.05 and the lowest insulin concentration was detected in far-off dry group. Serum concentrations of NEFA and BHBA in early and mid-lactation and close-up dry cows were significantly higher than late lactation and far-off dry animals (P<0.05. Baseline levels of cholesterol in mid and late lactation were significantly higher than other groups. The level of LDL in mid lactation cows was higher than others significantly, and its value in far-off dry cows was significantly lower than other group (P<0.05. It may be concluded that the detected changes among different groups induce commonly by negative energy balance, lactogenesis and fetal growth in each state. The presented metabolic profile can be considered as a tool to assess the energy balance in dairy cows at different physiologic states. It can be used to evaluate the metabolic situations of herd and manage the metabolic and production disorders.

  3. Performance, body fat reserves and plasma metabolites in Brown Swiss dairy cows: Indoor feeding versus pasture-based feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H-J; Gross, J J; Petermann, R; Probst, S; Bruckmaier, R M; Hofstetter, P

    2018-04-01

    Feeding dairy cows indoors or on pasture affects not only labour, machinery and housing costs, but also animals' performance and metabolism. This study investigates the effects of indoor feeding (IF) with a partial-mixed ration (PMR) versus pasture-based feeding (PF) on milk production, fertility, backfat thickness (BFT), body weight (BW) loss and energy metabolism of Brown Swiss (BS) dairy cows with similar genetic production potential. The IF herd consisted of 13 cows fed a PMR composed of maize and grass silage plus protein concentrate according to each cow's requirements. The PF herd consisted of 14 cows offered barn-ventilated hay ad libitum after calving from January until March and grazed on semi-continuous pastures during the vegetation period. The IF cows produced more energy-corrected milk (ECM) per standard lactation (9,407 vs. 5,960 kg; p dairy cows in our trial seem to have a high capacity for metabolic adaptation to different production systems. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Mastitis and oxidative stress in vitamin E supplemented dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The research described in this thesis evaluated the effect of vitamin E supplementation under field conditions on the udder health of Dutch dairy cows. Additionally, it investigated the mechanism by which vitamin E influenced oxidative stress, especially during the dry period. Moreover, it

  5. Nitrogen and amino acid metabolism in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, S.

    1981-01-01

    For the process of milk production, the dairy cow requires nutrients of which energy supplying nutrients and protein or amino acid supplying nutrients are the most important. Amino acid supplying nutrients have to be absorbed from the small intestine and the research reported in this thesis mainly

  6. Ketosis in dairy cows: etiologic factors, monitoring, treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Drift, S.G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Ketosis is a metabolic disorder that mainly occurs during the negative energy balance in early-lactation dairy cows. It is characterized by elevated concentrations of ketone bodies in blood (hyperketonemia), urine, and milk. The thesis of Saskia van der Drift covers investigations on etiologic

  7. Shortening or omitting the dry period in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Juncai

    2016-01-01

    During early lactation, dairy cows typically experience negative energy balance (EB) caused by the high energy requirement for milk yield, which cannot be met by feed intake. Severity of negative EB has been associated with an increased incidence of metabolic disorders and infectious diseases,

  8. Skin injuries on the body and thigh of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Gröhn, Y.T.; Thysen, Iver

    1994-01-01

    An epidemiological study was conducted in 18 dairy herds with the objective to characterize those groups of cows where skin injuries to the body and thighs occurred most frequently. Data were analyzed with multivariable logistic regression. The epidemiologic patterns were different in first and l...

  9. Nematode parasitism in adult dairy cows in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agneessens, J.; Claerebout, E.; Dorny, P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Vercruysse, J.

    2000-01-01

    Over a period of 1 year, from November 1997 to October 1998, the abomasa, blood and faecal samples of 121 dairy cows in Belgium were collected and examined for nematode infections. Nematodes were present in the abomasa of 110 animals. Ostertagia was found in all 110, Trichostrongylus was seen in 65

  10. Partial replacement of corn grain by hydrogenated oil in grazing dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salado, E E; Gagliostro, G A; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I

    2004-05-01

    Thirty-six grazing dairy cows were used to determine milk production and composition, and dry matter and energy intake when corn grain was partially replaced by hydrogenated oil in the concentrate. Four additional cows, each fitted with a ruminal cannula, were used in a crossover design to evaluate effects of supplemental fat on rumen environment and pasture digestion. All cows grazed mixed pastures with an herbage allowance of 30 kg dry matter/cow per day. The control group was fed a concentrate containing corn grain (4.49 kg dry matter/cow per day) and fishmeal (0.37 kg dry matter/cow per day), whereas the other group (fat) received a concentrate containing corn grain (2.87 kg dry matter/cow per day), fishmeal (0.37 kg dry matter/cow per day) and fat (0.7 kg dry matter/cow per day). The fat was obtained by hydrogenation of vegetable oils (melting point 58 to 60 degrees C, 30.3% C16:0, 34.9% C18:0, 21.8% C18:1, 3.3% C18:2). Supplemental fat increased milk production (control = 23.7 vs. fat = 25.0 kg/cow per day), fat-corrected milk (control = 22.5 vs. fat = 24.5 kg/cow per day), milk fat content (control = 3.64% vs. fat = 3.86%) and yields of milk fat (control = 0.86 vs. fat = 0.97 kg/cow per day) and protein (control = 0.74 vs. fat = 0.78 kg/cow per day). Milk percentages of protein, lactose, casein, cholesterol, and urea nitrogen were not affected. Pasture DMI and total DMI of pasture and concentrate and estimated energy intake were unchanged. No differences in loss of body weight or body condition score were detected. Plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, somatotropin, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor were not affected by supplemental fat. Concentrations of plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol were increased by supplemented fat, and no changes in plasma glucose and urea nitrogen were observed. The acetate-to-propionate ratio was higher in rumen fluid of cows that consumed fat (fat = 3.39 vs. control = 3.27). In situ pasture NDF

  11. Potential for reduction of methane emissions from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannes, Maike; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Methane is a gas cows naturally produce in the rumen. However, it is also a potential greenhouse gas. Therefore, there is a certain interest from an environmental point of view to reduce methane emissions from dairy cows. Estimates from earlier studies indicate that there is a potential to reduce...... methane production by 10 to 25% by changing the feeding strategies. Several feedstuffs influence methane production, such as additional fat. The increase of the concentrate proportion can potentially decrease methane by decreasing the rumen degradability of the diet or by changing the rumen fermentation......, while fibre and sugar enhance methane emissions. Fat can be regarded as the most promising feed additive at the moment. At AU, respiration chambers have been installed to enable methane measurements from dairy cows combined with digestibility trials, and at present studies are being conducted concerning...

  12. Feed irradiation and diet composition in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubic, G.; Vitorovic, D; Vitorovic, G.; Donic, S.

    1998-01-01

    The feasibility of 137 Cs activity reduction by ration formulation in dairy cows was examined. The foodstuffs and their 137 Cs activity simulated conditions during the Chernobyl accident. It was found that a substantial reduction of radioactivity in dairy cow rations during accidental situations is possible. Using linear programming software for diet formulating by setting the criterion for lowest 137 Cs activity, and choosing conserved foodstuffs (like silage) prepared before the accident, it is possible to formulate rations significantly less radioactive. At the same time, all the nutrient needs even for high yielding cows are met successfully, so that their production is not reduced. This simple method could be very successful in domestic animal protection during possible accidents provided that the farm stores sufficient quantities of conserved feeds

  13. A field study to determine the prevalence, dairy herd management systems, and fresh cow clinical conditions associated with ketosis in western European dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Anna C; Vertenten, Geert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, major management systems, and fresh cow clinical conditions associated with ketosis in western European dairy herds. A total of 131 dairies were enrolled in Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom during 2011 to 2012. A milk-based test for ketones (Keto-Test; Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co. Ltd., Nagoya, Japan; distributed by Elanco Animal Health, Antwerp, Belgium) was used for screening cows between d 7 and 21 after calving and ketosis was defined as a Keto-Test ≥100µmol/L. Study cows were observed for clinical disease up to 35d postcalving. Multivariate analysis (generalized estimating equation logistic regression) was performed to determine country, farm, management, feed, and cow factors associated with ketosis and to determine associations between ketosis and fresh cow diseases. Thirty-nine percent of the cows were classified as having ketosis. The herd average of ketosis was 43% in Germany, 53% in France, 31% in Italy, 46% in the Netherlands, and 31% in the United Kingdom. Of the 131 farms, 112 (85%) had 25% or more of their fresh cows resulting as positive for ketosis. Clinical ketosis was not reported in most farms and the highest level of clinical ketosis reported was 23%. The risks of ketosis were significantly lower in Italy and the United Kingdom compared with France, the Netherlands, and Germany. Larger herd size was associated with a decreased risk of ketosis. The farms that fed partially mixed rations had 1.5 times higher odds of ketosis than those that fed total mixed rations. Cows that calved in April to June had the highest odds of ketosis, with about twice as high odds compared with cows that calved in July to September. The cows that calved in January to March tended to have 1.5 times higher risk of ketosis compared with cows that calved in July to September. The odds of ketosis in parity 2 and parity 3 to 7 was significantly higher (1.5 and 2.8 times higher

  14. Alterations of the Lipid Metabolome in Dairy Cows Experiencing Excessive Lipolysis Early Postpartum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, Elke; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Gruber, Leonhard; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-01-01

    A decrease in insulin sensitivity enhances adipose tissue lipolysis helping early lactation cows counteracting their energy deficit. However, excessive lipolysis poses serious health risks for cows, and its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. The present study used targeted ESI-LC-MS/MS-based metabolomics and indirect insulin sensitivity measurements to evaluate metabolic alterations in the serum of dairy cows of various parities experiencing variable lipolysis early postpartum. Thirty (12 primiparous and 18 multiparous) cows of Holstein Friesian and Simmental breeds, fed the same diet and kept under the same management conditions, were sampled at d 21 postpartum and classified as low (n = 10), medium (n = 8), and high (n = 12) lipolysis groups, based on serum concentration of nonesterified fatty acids. Overall, excessive lipolysis in the high group came along with impaired estimated insulin sensitivity and characteristic shifts in acylcarnitine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine and lysophospholipid metabolome profiles compared to the low group. From the detected phosphatidylcholines mainly those with diacyl-residues showed differences among lipolysis groups. Furthermore, more than half of the detected sphingomyelins were increased in cows experiencing high lipomobilization. Additionally, strong differences in serum acylcarnitines were noticed among lipolysis groups. The study suggests an altered serum phospholipidome in dairy cows associated with an increase in certain long-chain sphingomyelins and the progression of disturbed insulin function. In conclusion, the present study revealed 37 key metabolites as part of alterations in the synthesis or breakdown of sphingolipids and phospholipids associated with lowered estimated insulin sensitivity and excessive lipolysis in early-lactating cows. PMID:27383746

  15. Alterations of the Lipid Metabolome in Dairy Cows Experiencing Excessive Lipolysis Early Postpartum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Humer

    Full Text Available A decrease in insulin sensitivity enhances adipose tissue lipolysis helping early lactation cows counteracting their energy deficit. However, excessive lipolysis poses serious health risks for cows, and its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. The present study used targeted ESI-LC-MS/MS-based metabolomics and indirect insulin sensitivity measurements to evaluate metabolic alterations in the serum of dairy cows of various parities experiencing variable lipolysis early postpartum. Thirty (12 primiparous and 18 multiparous cows of Holstein Friesian and Simmental breeds, fed the same diet and kept under the same management conditions, were sampled at d 21 postpartum and classified as low (n = 10, medium (n = 8, and high (n = 12 lipolysis groups, based on serum concentration of nonesterified fatty acids. Overall, excessive lipolysis in the high group came along with impaired estimated insulin sensitivity and characteristic shifts in acylcarnitine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine and lysophospholipid metabolome profiles compared to the low group. From the detected phosphatidylcholines mainly those with diacyl-residues showed differences among lipolysis groups. Furthermore, more than half of the detected sphingomyelins were increased in cows experiencing high lipomobilization. Additionally, strong differences in serum acylcarnitines were noticed among lipolysis groups. The study suggests an altered serum phospholipidome in dairy cows associated with an increase in certain long-chain sphingomyelins and the progression of disturbed insulin function. In conclusion, the present study revealed 37 key metabolites as part of alterations in the synthesis or breakdown of sphingolipids and phospholipids associated with lowered estimated insulin sensitivity and excessive lipolysis in early-lactating cows.

  16. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, E.; Rousing, T.; Thomsen, P. T.

    2013-01-01

    Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been......) inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than...... out to be more beneficial than few daily grazing hours (range average above 9 to 21 h) for the welfare of the dairy herds. In conclusion, this study reports a positive within-herd effect of summer grazing on dairy cow welfare, where many daily grazing hours were more beneficial than few daily grazing...

  17. Concentrations of buparvaquone in milk and tissue of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, S; Hillerton, J E; Pegram, D

    2016-11-01

    To determine the concentration of the anti-theilerial drug buparvaquone in the milk and tissue of dairy cattle following treatment with two different formulations, and to assess the effect of clinical theileriosis on the concentration of buparvaquone in milk. Healthy lactating dairy cows (n=25) were injected once (Day 0) I/M with 2.5 mg/kg of one of two formulations of buparvaquone (Butalex; n=12 or Bupaject; n=13). Milk samples were collected from all cows daily until Day 35. Five cows were slaughtered on each of Days 56, 119, 147, 203 and 328, and samples of liver, muscle and injection site tissue collected. Milk samples were also collected from cows (n=14) clinically affected with theileriosis for up to 21 days after treatment with buparvaquone. Milk and tissue samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; limits of detection (LOD) were 0.00018 mg/kg for muscle and 0.00023 mg/L for milk. Concentrations of buparvaquone in milk and tissues were log10-transformed for analysis using multivariate models. In healthy cows, concentrations of buparvaquone in milk declined with time post-treatment (pcows at Day 35. Concentration in milk was higher one day after treatment in cows treated with Butalex than in cows treated with Bupaject, but not different thereafter (p=0.007). Concentrations of buparvaquone in muscle were below the LOD for four of five animals at Day 119 and for all animals by Day 147, but were above the LOD at the injection site of one cow, and in the liver of three cows at Day 328. Tissue concentrations did not differ with formulation nor was there a formulation by time interaction (p>0.3). Concentrations of buparvaquone in the milk of clinically affected animals were not different from those of healthy animals at 1 and 21 days post-treatment (p=0.72). Between 21 and 25 days post-treatment concentrations were below the LOD in 9/14 milk samples from clinically affected cows. Detectable concentrations of buparvaquone were found in

  18. Molecular characterisation of the uterine microbiome of dairy cows suffering from endometritis, metritis, and pyometra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lif Rødtness Vesterby

    Postpartum uterine disease is a problem in dairy herds. Approximately 90% of dairy cows experience postpartum bacterial contamination of the uterus. Most of the cows are able to clear the infection within 8 weeks in the process of involution, but up to 20% of the cows develop metritis, which is i...

  19. Milk urea concentration as an indicator of ammonia emission from dairy cow barn under restricted grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duinkerken, van G.; Smits, M.C.J.; Andre, G.; Sebek, L.B.J.; Dijkstra, J.

    2011-01-01

    Bulk milk urea concentration was evaluated to assess its potential as an indicator of ammonia emission from a dairy cow barn in a situation with restricted grazing. An experiment was carried out with a herd of, on average, 52 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The cows were housed in a naturally

  20. Inclusion of calcium hydroxide-treated corn stover as a partial forage replacement in diets for lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casperson, Brittany A; Wertz-Lutz, Aimee E; Dunn, Jim L; Donkin, Shawn S

    2018-03-01

    Chemical treatment may improve the nutritional value of corn crop residues, commonly referred to as corn stover, and the potential use of this feed resource for ruminants, including lactating dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of prestorage chopping, hydration, and treatment of corn stover with Ca(OH) 2 on the feeding value for milk production, milk composition, and dry matter intake (DMI). Multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows (n = 30) were stratified by parity and milk production and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets. Corn stover was chopped, hydrated, and treated with 6% Ca(OH) 2 (as-fed basis) and stored in horizontal silo bags. Cows received a control (CON) total mixed ration (TMR) or a TMR in which a mixture of treated corn stover and distillers grains replaced either alfalfa haylage (AHsub) or alfalfa haylage and an additional portion of corn silage (AH+CSsub). Treated corn stover was fed in a TMR at 0, 15, and 30% of the diet DM for the CON, AHsub, and AH+CSsub diets, respectively. Cows were individually fed in tiestalls for 10 wk. Milk production was not altered by treatment. Compared with the CON diet, DMI was reduced when the AHsub diet was fed and tended to be reduced when cows were fed the AH+CSsub diet (25.9, 22.7, and 23.1 ± 0.88 kg/d for CON, AHsub, and AH+CSsub diets, respectively). Energy-corrected milk production per unit of DMI (kg/kg) tended to increase with treated corn stover feeding. Milk composition, energy-corrected milk production, and energy-corrected milk per unit of DMI (kg/kg) were not different among treatments for the 10-wk feeding period. Cows fed the AHsub and AH+CSsub diets had consistent DMI over the 10-wk treatment period, whereas DMI for cows fed the CON diet increased slightly over time. Milk production was not affected by the duration of feeding. These data indicate that corn stover processing, prestorage hydration, and treatment with calcium hydroxide can serve as an alternative to

  1. Sugarcane bagasse as exclusive roughage for dairy cows in smallholder livestock system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidiana Amélia Pontes de Almeida

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The study aimed to evaluate sugarcane bagasse as roughage in lactating cow on feed intake, digestibility, ingestive behavior, milk production and composition, and microbial protein synthesis. Methods Ten Girolando cows at initial body weight of 450±25.6 kg and at 143.7±30.7 days in milk were assigned in two 5×5 Latin square designs. Five 21-day experimental periods were adopted (1° to 14-day: diets adaptation period; 15° to 21-day: data collection and sampling period. The diets consisted of four different levels of sugarcane bagasse (45%, 50%, 55%, and 60% and a control diet, commonly adopted in the region, based on spineless cactus (25% sugarcane bagasse, formulated to meet 12 kg/d milk yield. Results The dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, and total digestible nutrients intakes and DM and OM digestibilities observed for 45% and 50% bagasse inclusion were similar to control diet, while that 55% and 60% bagasse inclusion were lower. Cows fed control diet, and bagasse diets of 45%, and 50% levels had the nutritional requirements attended, that guaranteed 12 kg/d of milk yield. The crude protein intake and digestibility of cows fed 45%, 50%, and 55% of bagasse inclusion were similar to control diet. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake and digestibility differ for all bagasse diets related to control diet, while the non-fiber carbohydrates intake and digestibility for cows fed 45% of bagasse were similar for control diet. The intakes and digestibilities of nutrients decreased linearly in function of bagasse inclusion; NDF and indigestible NDF intakes did not vary. The ruminating time, feeding and rumination efficiency, microbial protein synthesis and milk yield decreased linearly with sugarcane bagasse inclusion. Conclusion Sugarcane bagasse decreases milk production; however, its inclusion level in between 45% to 50% associated to concentrate could replace diets based on spineless cactus for crossbred dairy cow's producing 12 kg

  2. Sugarcane bagasse as exclusive roughage for dairy cows in smallholder livestock system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Gleidiana Amélia Pontes; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; de Lima Silva, Janaina; Chagas, Juana Catarina Cariri; Véras, Antônia Sherlânea Chaves; de Barros, Leonardo José Assis; de Almeida, Gledson Luiz Pontes

    2018-03-01

    The study aimed to evaluate sugarcane bagasse as roughage in lactating cow on feed intake, digestibility, ingestive behavior, milk production and composition, and microbial protein synthesis. Ten Girolando cows at initial body weight of 450±25.6 kg and at 143.7±30.7 days in milk were assigned in two 5×5 Latin square designs. Five 21-day experimental periods were adopted (1° to 14-day: diets adaptation period; 15° to 21-day: data collection and sampling period). The diets consisted of four different levels of sugarcane bagasse (45%, 50%, 55%, and 60%) and a control diet, commonly adopted in the region, based on spineless cactus (25% sugarcane bagasse), formulated to meet 12 kg/d milk yield. The dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and total digestible nutrients intakes and DM and OM digestibilities observed for 45% and 50% bagasse inclusion were similar to control diet, while that 55% and 60% bagasse inclusion were lower. Cows fed control diet, and bagasse diets of 45%, and 50% levels had the nutritional requirements attended, that guaranteed 12 kg/d of milk yield. The crude protein intake and digestibility of cows fed 45%, 50%, and 55% of bagasse inclusion were similar to control diet. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake and digestibility differ for all bagasse diets related to control diet, while the non-fiber carbohydrates intake and digestibility for cows fed 45% of bagasse were similar for control diet. The intakes and digestibilities of nutrients decreased linearly in function of bagasse inclusion; NDF and indigestible NDF intakes did not vary. The ruminating time, feeding and rumination efficiency, microbial protein synthesis and milk yield decreased linearly with sugarcane bagasse inclusion. Sugarcane bagasse decreases milk production; however, its inclusion level in between 45% to 50% associated to concentrate could replace diets based on spineless cactus for crossbred dairy cow's producing 12 kg/d of milk.

  3. Effects of supplementary folic acid and vitamin B(12) on hepatic metabolism of dairy cows according to methionine supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preynat, A; Lapierre, H; Thivierge, M C; Palin, M F; Cardinault, N; Matte, J J; Desrochers, A; Girard, C L

    2010-05-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to study the interactions between dietary supplements of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) and intramuscular injections of folic acid and vitamin B(12), given from 3 wk before calving to 16 wk of lactation, on hepatic metabolism of lactating dairy cows. Sixty multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 10 blocks of 6 cows each according to their previous milk production. Within each block, 3 cows were fed a diet calculated to supply Met as 1.83% of metabolizable protein, whereas the 3 other cows were fed the same diet supplemented with 18g of RPM calculated to provide Met as 2.23% of metabolizable protein. Within each level of Met, the cows received no vitamin supplement or weekly intramuscular injections of 160mg of folic acid alone or combined with 10mg of vitamin B(12). Liver biopsies were taken at 2, 4, 8, and 16 wk of lactation. Liver concentrations of folates and vitamin B(12) were increased by their respective supplements but this response to vitamin supplements was altered by methionine supply. Concentrations of total lipids and triglycerides increased in livers of cows fed RPM, whereas concentrations of cholesterol ester, cholesterol, diglycerides, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine were not affected. Folic acid, alone or combined with vitamin B(12), tended to increase the ratio of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylethanolamine. Gene expression of 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase, microsomal transfer protein, and phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase were higher in liver of cows fed RPM supplements. The relative mRNA abundance of 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase were increased by the combined injections of folic acid and vitamin B(12), whereas those of methionine synthase and methionine synthase reductase were not affected by treatments. These results suggest that increasing supply of methyl groups, as preformed labile methyl groups or through

  4. Heel erosion and other interdigital disorders in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Gröhn, Y.T.; Thysen, Iver

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiologic associations between variables obtainable from dairy cow records and the occurrence of heel erosion, interdigital dermatitis, and interdigital hyperplasia at claw trimmings were estimated with multivariable logistic regression analysis on data from 1170 and 542 cows in lactation 1...... and lactations 2 to 9, respectively. In the 17 herds, heel erosion, interdigital dermatitis, and hyperplasia occurred among 43.8, 4.5, and .9% of cows in lactation 1 and among 69.1, 7.6 and 5.9% of cows in lactations 2 to 9, respectively. Severity of heel erosion increased with parity, and risk increased...... with stage of lactation. Strong seasonal effects were present. Various combinations of veterinary treatments were associated with heel erosion and hyperplasia depending on parity, stage of lactation, and the presence of other claw disorders. In contrast, veterinary treatment had a protective effect...

  5. Effects of percutaneous needle liver biopsy on dairy cow behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lene; Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    In cattle, percutaneous needle liver biopsy is used for scientific examination of liver metabolism. The impact of the biopsy procedure is, however, poorly investigated. Our aim was to examine the behaviour of dairy cows during and after liver biopsy. Data were collected from 18 dry cows....... Percutaneous needle liver biopsies (after administration of local anaesthesia (2% Procaine)) and blood samples were taken during restraining. During the control treatment, animals were restrained and blood sampled. During the biopsy procedure, cows showed increased restlessness (P = 0.008), frequency of head...... behavioural changes for up to 19 h – and particularly for behaviour previously associated with pain. Even though the exact welfare impact of percutaneous needle liver biopsies in cows is not known, and the magnitude of the behavioural changes was limited, pain always has negative effects on animal welfare...

  6. Utilization of Tephrosia vogelii in controlling ticks in dairy cows by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of Tephrosia vogelii in controlling ticks on dairy cows among small-scale dairy farmers in Mashonaland Central Province of Zimbabwe. T. vogelii treatment concentrations and Triatix D acaricide dip were randomly administered to 40 dairy cows. The experiment was carried out ...

  7. Associations of dairy cow behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and risk of elevated somatic cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, T J; Aarnoudse, M G; Barkema, H W; Leslie, K E; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2012-10-01

    Poor dairy cow hygiene has been consistently associated with elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and the risk of subclinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between dairy cow standing and lying behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and the risk of experiencing elevated SCC. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n=69; 86 ± 51 DIM; parity: 2.0 ± 1.2; means ± SD), kept in 1 of 2 groups, were monitored over a 4-mo period. Each group contained 61 ± 1 (mean ± SD) cows over the study period; complete data were obtained from 37 and 32 animals within each respective group. Cows were housed in a sand-bedded, freestall barn with 2 symmetrical pens, each with a free cow traffic automatic milking system. To vary barn hygiene, in 4 consecutive 28-d periods, alley manure scrapers in each of the 2 pens were randomly assigned to frequencies of operation of 3, 6, 12, and 24 times per day. During the last 7 d of each period, cow hygiene (upper leg/flank, lower legs, and udder; scale of 1 = very clean to 4 = very dirty) and stall hygiene (number of 0.15×0.15-m squares contaminated with manure in a 1.20×1.65-m grid) were recorded. Standing and lying behavior of the cows were collected during those days using data loggers. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning and end of each 28-d period. Elevated SCC was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis; incidence of elevated SCC was defined as having a SCC >200,000 cells/mL at the end of each 28-d period, when SCC was <100,000 cells/mL at the beginning of the period. Less frequent scraping of the barn alleys was associated with cows having poorer hygiene. Poor udder hygiene was associated with poor stall hygiene. Longer lying duration was associated with poor hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Greater premilking standing duration was associated with poor udder hygiene and decreased frequency of lying bouts was associated with poor hygiene of the lower legs. Higher milk yield was

  8. Comportamento ingestivo de vacas leiteiras alimentadas com dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar ou silagem de milho Ingestive behavior in dairy cows fed sugar cane or corn silage based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro de Souza Mendonça

    2004-06-01

    . The animals were observed every 10 minutes, during 24 hours, to determine the time expended eating, ruminating and resting. There was no difference for the mean time expended eating and ruminating among the experimental diets. However, in the corn silage based diets, the animals expended less time idle, compared to those fed sugar cane based diets. Feeding efficiency, expressed in gNDF/h, showed no difference among the experimental diets. Rumination efficiency, expressed in gDM/h, was similar for the different diets. Rumination efficiency, expressed in gNDF/h (RUE NDF was higher for the corn silage based diet. There was no difference in RUE NDF among the sugar cane based diets. Cows fed sugar cane based diets showed higher time expended in idle and smaller DM intake, when compared those fed corn silage based diets.

  9. Feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid modulates rumen fermentation patterns and increases milk fat content in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, S; Zebeli, Q; Mazzolari, A; Bertoni, G; Dunn, S M; Yang, W Z; Ametaj, B N

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of the present in vivo and in situ trials were to evaluate whether feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid (LA) would affect rumen fermentation patterns, in situ dry matter (DM) degradation kinetics, and milk production and composition in lactating dairy cows. The in vivo trial involved 8 rumen-fistulated Holstein cows fed once daily a total mixed ration containing rolled barley grain (27% in DM) steeped for 48 h in an equal quantity of tap water (CTR) or in 0.5% LA (TRT) in a 2 x 2 crossover design. The in situ trials consisted of incubation of untreated rolled barley grain in cows fed CTR or TRT diets and of incubation of 3 different substrates including CTR or barley grain steeped in 0.5% or 1.0% LA (TRT1 and TRT2, respectively) up to 72 h in the rumen. Results of the in vivo trial indicated that cows fed the TRT diet had greater rumen pH during most intensive fermentation phases at 10 and 12 h post-feeding. The latter effect was associated with a shorter duration in which rumen pH was below 5.8 for cows fed the TRT diet (2.4 h) compared with CTR diet (3.9 h). Furthermore, cows fed the TRT diet had lower concentrations of volatile fatty acids at 2 and 4 h post-feeding. In addition, concentrations of preprandial volatile fatty acids were lower in the rumen fluid of cows fed the TRT diet. Results also showed that molar proportion of acetate was lower, whereas propionate tended to increase by feeding cows the TRT diet. Cows fed the TRT diet demonstrated greater rumen in situ lag time of substrate DM degradation and a tendency to lower the fractional degradation rate. Other in situ results indicated a quadratic effect of LA on the effective rumen degradability of substrates whereby the latter variable was decreased from CTR to TRT1 but increased for TRT2 substrate. Although the diet did not affect actual milk yield, fat-corrected milk, percentages of milk protein, and lactose and concentration of milk urea nitrogen, cows fed the TRT diet increased

  10. Quercetin decrease somatic cells count in mastitis of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmańczuk, Artur; Hola, Piotr; Milczak, Andrzej; Piech, Tomasz; Kowalski, Cezary; Wojciechowska, Beata; Grabowski, Tomasz

    2018-04-01

    Quercetin is a dietary flavonoid which has an effect on inflammation, angiogenesis and vascular inflammation. In several other flavonoids (e.g. kaempferol, astragalin, alpinetin, baicalein, indirubin), anti-inflammatory mechanism was proven by using mice mastitis model. The aim of the current study was pilot analysis of quercetin tolerability and its impact on somatic cells count (SCC) after multiple intramammary treatment on dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Based on SCC and clinical investigation, 9 dairy cows with clinical mastitis of one quarter were selected for the pilot study. Baseline analysis (hematology, TNFα, SCC) was performed every 24h among all cows three days before the first dose (B1-B3). After the baseline monitoring (B1-B3) eight days treatment (D1-D8) was performed with a high and low dose. Selected blood parameters were analyzed. Starting from D1 to D8, a decrease of SCC in relation to baseline was characterized by declining trend. The presented results allowed the confirmation of the significant influence of quercetin on the reduction of SCC in mastitis in dairy cows after 8days of therapy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Oxidative stress in dairy cows seropositives for Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glombowsky, Patrícia; Bottari, Nathieli B; Klauck, Vanderlei; Fávero, Juscivete F; Soldá, Natan M; Baldissera, Matheus D; Perin, Gessica; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Stefani, Lenita M; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2017-10-01

    Bovine neosporosis is caused by the protozoan Neospora caninum and is one of the major causes of abortion in cows. Cattle are intermediate hosts of this parasite and may have asymptomatic or symptomatic infections. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress marker reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiobarbituric reactive acid substances (TBARS) levels, glutathione S-transferase (GST), adenosine deaminase (ADA), and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities in dairy cows seropositives for N. caninum (asymptomatic or symptomatic). Dairy cows (n=90) were tested by immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA) for N. caninum and divided accordingly into three groups: the group A (seronegatives, n=30), the group B (seropositives and asymptomatic, n=30), and the group C (seropositives and symptomatic, n=30). It was observed increased levels of TBARS and reduced (Pcows (the group C) compared to seronegatives dairy cows (the group A). Based on these results, it was observed that seropositive animals showed cell damage associated with oxidative stress and inflammation, mainly in those with symptomatic infections. Increased seric ROS levels and BChE activity may have influenced N. caninum pathogenesis in symptomatic animals due to increased cell damage and exacerbated inflammatory response, leading to the development of clinical signs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dairy cow preference for different types of outdoor access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Anne-Marieke C; Weary, Daniel M; Costa, Joao H C; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2018-02-01

    Dairy cows display a partial preference for being outside, but little is known about what aspects of the outdoor environment are important to cows. The primary aim of this study was to test the preference of lactating dairy cattle for pasture versus an outdoor sand pack during the night. A secondary aim was to determine whether feeding and perching behavior changed when cows were provided outdoor access. A third objective was to investigate how the lying behavior of cows changed when given access to different outdoor areas. Ninety-six lactating pregnant cows were assigned to 8 groups of 12 animals each. After a baseline phase of 2 d in which cows were kept inside the freestall barn, cows were habituated to the outdoor areas by providing them access to each of the 2 options for 24 h. Cows were then given access, in random order by group, to either the pasture (pasture phase) or the sand pack (sand phase). As we tested the 2 outdoor options using space allowances consistent with what would be practical on commercial dairy farms, the space provided on pasture was larger (21,000 m 2 ) than that provided on the sand pack (144 m 2 ). Cows were tested at night (for 2 nights in each condition), from 2000 h until morning milking at approximately 0800 h, as preference to be outdoors is strongest at this time. During the next 3 nights cows were given access to both outside options simultaneously (choice phase). Feeding and perching behaviors were recorded when cows were indoors during the day and night periods. Lying behavior was automatically recorded by HOBO data loggers (Onset, Bourne, MA). Cows spent more time outside in the pasture phase (90.0 ± 5.9%) compared with the sand phase (44.4 ± 6.3%). When provided simultaneous access to both options, cows spent more time on pasture than on the sand pack (90.5 ± 2.6% vs. 0.8 ± 0.5%, respectively). Time spent feeding indoors during the day did not change regardless of what type of outdoor access was provided, but there was a

  13. Effects of rumen-protected methionine, lysine, and histidine on lactation performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallongo, F; Harper, M T; Oh, J; Lopes, J C; Lapierre, H; Patton, R A; Parys, C; Shinzato, I; Hristov, A N

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing a metabolizable protein (MP)-deficient diet with rumen-protected (RP) Met, Lys, and His, individually or combined, on the performance of lactating dairy cows. The experiment was a 9-wk randomized complete block design with 72 Holstein cows. Following a 2-wk covariate period, cows were blocked by days in milk, milk yield, and parity, and randomly assigned to 1 of the following 6 treatments: (1) MP-adequate diet [MPA; +243g/d MP balance, according to the National Research Council (2001) requirements]; (2) MP-deficient diet (MPD; -54g/d MP balance); (3) MPD supplemented with RPMet (MPDM); (4) MPD supplemented with RPLys (MPDL); (5) MPD supplemented with RPHis (MPDH); and (6) MPD supplemented with RPMet, RPLys, and RPHis (MPDMLH). Dry matter intake (DMI), yields of milk and milk components (fat, protein, lactose) and energy-corrected milk (ECM), feed and ECM feed efficiencies, and milk and plasma urea N were decreased by MPD, compared with MPA. Supplementation of the MPD diet with RPLys increased milk protein content and plasma glucose concentration and tended to increase milk urea N. Addition of RPHis tended to increase DMI, increased milk protein concentration, and numerically increased yields of milk fat, protein, and ECM. In addition to the trends for increased DMI and milk fat content, and higher milk protein concentration, supplementation of the 3 RP AA also increased yields of milk fat, protein, and ECM and ECM feed efficiency. Relative to MPA, milk N efficiency tended to be increased by MPD. Concentrations of plasma essential AA (except Met and Thr) were decreased by MPD compared with MPA. Supplementation of RPMet, RPLys, and RPHis increased plasma Met (except for MPDM), Lys, and His concentrations, respectively. Cows fed MPD had lower blood hemoglobin concentration and numerically higher plasma ghrelin than cows fed MPA. Concentration of total saturated fatty acids in milk fat were or

  14. Yeast culture increased plasma niacin concentration, evaporative heat loss, and feed efficiency of dairy cows in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Julia D L; Silva, Rayana B; Fernandes, Tatiane; Barbosa, Eugenio F; Graças, Larissa E C; Araujo, Rafael C; Pereira, Renata A N; Pereira, Marcos N

    2018-04-04

    The supplementation of dairy cows with yeast culture may increase diet digestibility, plasma niacin concentration, heat dissipation, and lactation performance. Our objective was to evaluate the response of Holstein cows in late lactation (234 ± 131 d in milk) to dead yeast culture (YC, 15 g/d, Factor SC, GRASP, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during Brazilian summer (temperature-humidity index >68 for 92.2% of the time). Thirty-two cows were individually fed a standard total mixed ration for 14 d and control (CTL) or YC treatments for 35 d, in a covariate adjusted complete randomized block design. Response was evaluated in wk 5 or as repeated measures over time. Cows were milked 3 times per day and treatments (YC or placebo) were orally dosed to each cow before each milking. Plasma niacin was 1.50 for CTL and 1.66 µg/mL for YC. The YC reduced rectal temperature, respiration rate, and skin temperature, whereas it tended to increase sweating rate. The proportion of cows with rectal temperature ≥39.2°C on CTL and YC was, respectively, 8 and 0% at 0730 h, 52 and 25% at 1500 h, and 35 and 26% at 2200 h. Plasma glucose was increased by YC. The total-tract apparent digestibility of nutrients, plasma urea N concentration, molar proportion of ruminal VFA, and urinary allantoin excretion were not affected by YC. Cows fed YC were less selective against feed particles >19 mm in the morning, in the afternoon were more selective against long feed particles and in favor of particles loss, and feed efficiency of late lactation dairy cows by reducing intake at similar milk yield. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Concentrations of progesterone and insulin in serum of nonlactating dairy cows in response to carbohydrate source and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Scatena, T S; Sá Filho, O G; Cooke, R F; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2008-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of carbohydrate source and processing on serum progesterone (P4) and insulin concentrations of nonlactating dairy cows. In experiment 1, 12 ovariectomized grazing Gir x Holstein cows were stratified by body weight and body condition score, and randomly assigned to receive a supplement containing either finely ground corn or citrus pulp in a Latin square crossover design. Diets were fed individually, twice daily at a rate of 10.9 kg of dry matter per cow. Cows received a controlled intravaginal P4-releasing insert before the beginning of the study, and inserts were replaced every 7 d. During the first experimental period, cows were adapted to treatments from d 0 to 13 and blood was collected on d 14, whereas during the second experimental period cows were adapted to treatments from d 0 to 6 and blood samples were collected on d 7. In both periods, blood samples were collected immediately before and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h after the first supplement feeding of the collection day. In experiment 2, the cows utilized in experiment 1 were randomly assigned to receive a supplement based on finely ground corn, coarsely ground corn, or high-moisture corn in a Latin square crossover design. Cows were fed and received the controlled intravaginal P4-releasing insert as in experiment 1. Within each of the 3 experimental periods, cows were adapted to diets from d 0 to 6, and blood samples were collected on d 7 as in experiment 1. Time effects were detected in experiments 1 and 2 because insulin concentrations increased by 1 h (4.6 +/- 0.90 vs. 7.4 +/- 0.91 microIU/mL for 0 and 1 h, respectively) and P4 concentrations decreased by 3 h (1.8 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.2 +/- 0.11 ng/mL for 0 and 3 h, respectively) after supplements were offered. In experiment 2, insulin concentrations were greater in cows fed high-moisture corn compared with those fed coarsely or finely ground corn (8.8 +/- 1.05, 5.7 +/- 1.05, and 6.1 +/- 1.05 micro

  16. The effect of heat waves on dairy cow mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, A; Felici, A; Esposito, S; Bernabucci, U; Bertocchi, L; Maresca, C; Nardone, A; Lacetera, N

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the mortality of dairy cows during heat waves. Mortality data (46,610 cases) referred to dairy cows older than 24mo that died on a farm from all causes from May 1 to September 30 during a 6-yr period (2002-2007). Weather data were obtained from 12 weather stations located in different areas of Italy. Heat waves were defined for each weather station as a period of at least 3 consecutive days, from May 1 to September 30 (2002-2007), when the daily maximum temperature exceeded the 90th percentile of the reference distribution (1971-2000). Summer days were classified as days in heat wave (HW) or not in heat wave (nHW). Days in HW were numbered to evaluate the relationship between mortality and length of the wave. Finally, the first 3 nHW days after the end of a heat wave were also considered to account for potential prolonged effects. The mortality risk was evaluated using a case-crossover design. A conditional logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for mortality recorded in HW compared with that recorded in nHW days pooled and stratified by duration of exposure, age of cows, and month of occurrence. Dairy cows mortality was greater during HW compared with nHW days. Furthermore, compared with nHW days, the risk of mortality continued to be higher during the 3 d after the end of HW. Mortality increased with the length of the HW. Considering deaths stratified by age, cows up to 28mo were not affected by HW, whereas all the other age categories of older cows (29-60, 61-96, and >96mo) showed a greater mortality when exposed to HW. The risk of death during HW was higher in early summer months. In particular, the highest risk of mortality was observed during June HW. Present results strongly support the implementation of adaptation strategies which may limit heat stress-related impairment of animal welfare and economic losses in dairy cow farm during HW. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science

  17. Behaviour of dairy cows under free or forced cow traffic in a simulated automatic milking system environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauwere, de C.C.K.; Hendriks, M.M.B.; Metz, J.H.M.; Schouten, W.G.P.

    1998-01-01

    The introduction of fully automatic milking systems (AMS) on dairy farms can only succeed if cows visit the system more or less voluntarily, at regular intervals. This can be arranged by either forced or free cow traffic. In the case of forced cow traffic, the AMS is the only route from the lying

  18. The high-producing dairy cow and its reproductive performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobson, H; Smith, Rf; Royal, Md

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that the reproductive performance of dairy cows has declined as milk yields have increased over the last 40 years. Identifying the precise cause(s) of this problem may provide focused solutions. Intensive genetic selection for very high yields has reduced fertility, due mainly...... to an increase in postpartum clinical problems, poor expression of oestrus, defective oocytes/embryos and uterine infections. It is a challenge to solve the problem by getting enough food into these cows to meet the high demands of peak milk yields in early lactation, as well as providing the considerable...

  19. Elevated Apoptosis in the Liver of Dairy Cows with Ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiliang; Chen, Liang; Huang, Dan; Peng, Zhicheng; Zhao, Chenxu; Zhang, Yuming; Zhu, Yiwei; Wang, Zhe; Li, Xinwei; Liu, Guowen

    2017-01-01

    Dairy cows with ketosis are characterized by oxidative stress and hepatic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate hepatic oxidative stress and the apoptotic status of ketotic cows, as well as the underlying apoptosis pathway. The blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities and the haptoglobin (HP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and serum apoptotic cytokeratin 18 neo-epitope M30 (CK18 M30) concentrations were determined by commercially available kits and ELISA kits, respectively. Liver histology, TUNEL and Oil red O staining were performed in liver tissue samples. TG contents were measured using an enzymatic kit; Caspase 3 assays were carried out using the Caspase 3 activity assay kit; oxidation and antioxidant markers were measured using biochemical kits; apoptosis pathway were determined by qRT-PCR and western blot. Ketotic cows displayed hepatic fat accumulation. The hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly increased, but the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were markedly decreased in ketotic cows compared with control cows, indicating that ketotic cows displayed severe oxidative stress. Significantly higher serum levels of the hepatic damage markers AST, ALT, GGT and GLDH were observed in ketotic cows than in control cows. The blood concentration of the apoptotic marker CK18 M30 and the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the liver of ketotic cows were 1.19- and 2.61-fold, respectively, higher than the values observed in control cows. Besides, Caspase 3 activity was significantly increased in the liver of ketosis cows. Importantly, the levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) were significantly increased but the level of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) was markedly decreased, which

  20. Elevated Apoptosis in the Liver of Dairy Cows with Ketosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiliang Du

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Dairy cows with ketosis are characterized by oxidative stress and hepatic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate hepatic oxidative stress and the apoptotic status of ketotic cows, as well as the underlying apoptosis pathway. Methods: The blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT activities and the haptoglobin (HP, serum amyloid A (SAA and serum apoptotic cytokeratin 18 neo-epitope M30 (CK18 M30 concentrations were determined by commercially available kits and ELISA kits, respectively. Liver histology, TUNEL and Oil red O staining were performed in liver tissue samples. TG contents were measured using an enzymatic kit; Caspase 3 assays were carried out using the Caspase 3 activity assay kit; oxidation and antioxidant markers were measured using biochemical kits; apoptosis pathway were determined by qRT-PCR and western blot. Results: Ketotic cows displayed hepatic fat accumulation. The hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA content was significantly increased, but the activities of catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were markedly decreased in ketotic cows compared with control cows, indicating that ketotic cows displayed severe oxidative stress. Significantly higher serum levels of the hepatic damage markers AST, ALT, GGT and GLDH were observed in ketotic cows than in control cows. The blood concentration of the apoptotic marker CK18 M30 and the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the liver of ketotic cows were 1.19- and 2.61-fold, respectively, higher than the values observed in control cows. Besides, Caspase 3 activity was significantly increased in the liver of ketosis cows. Importantly, the levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK were significantly increased but the level of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase1

  1. Intake, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in lactating dairy cows fed diets containing sunflower cakeConsumo, digestibilidade dos nutrientes e balanço de nitrogênio em vacas leiteiras alimentadas com dietas contendo torta de girassol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzânia Sales Pereira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of sunflower cake (SC inclusion in the diets of lactating dairy cows on dry matter (DM intake, the apparent digestibility of dietary nutrients and nitrogen balance. Eight Holstein-Zebu cows with a milk yield of 20 ± 2 kg/day were allotted to a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design, where were tested the effects of four levels of SC inclusion (0, 7, 14 and 21% of DM basis. Tifton-85 (Cynodon dactylon hay was used as roughage in a 60:40 roughage:concentrate ratio. The SC inclusion had no effect on dry matter, crude protein, organic matter (OM or total carbohydrate (TC intake (kg/day. However, a quadratic effect (P O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de inclusão de torta de girassol (TG na dieta de vacas em lactação sobre o consumo de matéria seca (MS, digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes da dieta e balanço de nitrogênio. Oito vacas Girolanda com produção diária de leite de 20 ± 2 kg/dia foram distribuídas em delineamento em quadrado latino duplo 4x4, em que foram testados os efeitos de quatro níveis de inclusão da TG (0, 7, 14 e 21% MS. Foi utilizado o feno de Tifton-85 (Cynodon dactylon como volumoso em uma relação volumoso:concentrado de 60:40. A inclusão de TG não afetou o consumo (kg/dia de MS, proteína bruta, matéria orgânica (OM e carboidratos totais (CT. Entretanto, foi observado efeito quadrático (P < 0,05 no consumo (kg/dia de fibra em detergente neutro e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF. Não houve efeito da inclusão de TG na digestibilidade de MO, CT e CNF, assim como para o balanço de nitrogênio. Foi observado efeito linear para o nitrogênio endógeno basal (g/dia. A torta de girassol pode ser recomendada como um ingrediente de rações para vacas em lactação.

  2. Comparison of two treatment strategies for cows with metritis in high-risk lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengol, Ramon; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2015-05-01

    Acute puerperal metritis (APM) and clinical metritis (CM) are uterine diseases frequently diagnosed in dairy cows. These diseases are responsible for important economic loss because of their effect not only on reproductive performance but also on milk production. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of two different treatments for metritis on dairy cows by measuring their reproductive performance in the next gestation. The end points to measure the reproductive performance included the conception rate at the first artificial insemination, the number of days at conception, and the proportion of nonpregnant cows at over 150 days after beginning milk production. The study was carried out in a high production dairy cow farm located in Lleida (northeast Spain). Recordings of 1044 parturitions of 747 Holstein cows were controlled in this farm from 2009 to 2014. Cows were diagnosed as suffering from metritis (APM or CM) if the following parameters were observed: an abnormally enlarged uterus; a fetid, watery, reddish brown uterine discharge with (APM) or without (CM) fever (>39.5 °C); and presence (APM) or absence (CM) of signs of systemic illness (decreased milk production, dullness, or other signs of toxemia) within 21 days postpartum. Afterwards, cows suffering from metritis (APM or CM) were randomly assigned and balanced to two groups: (1) animals receiving parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly plus intrauterine infusion with oxytetracycline (P + I group) and (2) animals receiving only parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly (P group). Furthermore, reproductive performance of cows without metritis was used as reference (control group). Metritis was diagnosed in 27.5% of the total parturitions included in the study (288 of 1044). In particular, metritis was diagnosed in 30.5% (118 of 387) and 25.9% (170 of 657) of parturitions from heifers and multiparous cows, respectively. Reproductive performance was not significantly affected by the parity, the

  3. Heat Stress in Tunisia: Effects on dairy cows and potential means ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heat Stress in Tunisia: Effects on dairy cows and potential means. ... The objectives of this work were to characterize the environmental conditions to which Holstein ... Maintaining cow performance under hot conditions requires the adoption of ...

  4. Comportamento ingestivo de vacas em lactação alimentadas com níveis de inclusão de bagaço de mandioca Ingestive behavior of dairy cows fed with inclusion levels of cassava bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulysses Cecato

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o comportamento ingestivo de vacas em lactação recebendo dietas com níveis de bagaço de mandioca (0; 5; 10 e 15%. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas leiteiras Holandês x Zebu com 478,5kg de peso corporal médio e com 100 a 150 dias de lactação, distribuídas em três Quadrados Latinos 4 x 4. Além do consumo de matéria seca, fibra em detergente neutro, carboidratos não fibrosos e nutrientes digestíveis totais, foi avaliado o comportamento ingestivo dos animais, os quais foram submetidos a quatro avaliações visuais, com duração de 24 horas cada, em escalas de cinco minutos. As avaliações foram realizadas no último dia de cada período experimental, que tiveram duração de 12 dias. Os consumos de matéria seca, carboidratos não fibrosos e nutrientes digestíveis totais aumentaram linearmente com a inclusão do bagaço de mandioca. O tempo gasto com alimentação, ruminação e ócio não diferiu entre os tratamentos, assim como o número de períodos e o tempo gasto em cada período nas respectivas atividades. Quanto aos aspectos comportamentais, apenas o número de mastigações por bolo ruminado foi afetado pelas dietas. As eficiências de alimentação e ruminação só tiveram interferência nos carboidratos não fibrosos, os quais apresentaram efeito quadrático. O aumento crescente dos consumos de matéria seca, carboidratos não-fibrosos e nutrientes digestíveis totais demonstraram que o bagaço de mandioca em níveis de até 15% não altera o comportamento ingestivo.The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of lactating cows receiving diets with different levels of cassava bagasse (0; 5; 10 and 15%. Twelve Holstein x Zebu dairy cows with 478.5kg of average body weight and 100 to 150 days in milk, were distributed in three 4 x 4 Latin Squares. The dry matter intake, neutral detergent fiber, non fibrous carbohydrates and total digestible nutrients intake, and the ingestive behavior of the animals

  5. Reproductive performance of artificially inseminated dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of the study were to generate a reliable field data set and analyze it to determine reproductive parameters/indices. A total of 280 and 400 households keeping 158 and 709 cows and heifers in Rwanda and Tanzania respectively were studied. Reproductive events: dates of heat, AI or NS, service number, sire ...

  6. Overview of progesterone profiles in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blavy, P.; Derks, M.; Martin, O.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the variability in shape and features of all progesterone profiles during oestrus cycles in cows, and to create templates for cycle shapes and features as a base for further research. Milk progesterone data from 1418 oestrus cycles, coming...

  7. Nutrition and udder health in dairy cows: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Rourke D

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mastitis is still one of the three main diseases that affects the profitability of dairy farmers. Despite the implementation of the five-point mastitis control programme in the early 1970 s, the incidence in the UK has not reduced dramatically over the past 10 years. A review of the scientific literature indicates that there is a link between nutrition and mastitis in the dairy cow. The major impact of nutrition on udder health is via suppression of the immune system. Cows in negative energy balance are at a higher risk of ketosis and clinical ketosis is associated with a two-fold increase in the risk of clinical mastitis. Trace minerals and vitamins that can affect udder health are selenium and vitamin E, copper, zinc, and vitamin A and β-carotene.

  8. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on glucose tolerance in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Leal Yepes, F A; Duplessis, M; Wakshlag, J J; Overton, T R; Cummings, B P; Nydam, D V

    2016-01-01

    Overfeeding energy in the dry period can affect glucose metabolism and the energy balance of transition dairy cows with potential detrimental effects on the ability to successfully adapt to early lactation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on glucose tolerance and on resting concentrations of blood glucose, glucagon, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in the peripartum period. Cows entering second or greater lactation were enrolled at dry-off (57 d before expected parturition) into 1 of 3 treatment groups following a randomized block design: cows that received a total mixed ration (TMR) formulated to meet but not exceed energy requirements during the dry period (n=28, controlled energy); cows that received a TMR supplying approximately 150% of energy requirements during the dry period (n=28, high energy); and cows that were fed the same diet as the controlled energy group for the first 28 d, after which the TMR was formulated to supply approximately 125% of energy requirements until calving (n=28, intermediate energy). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) with rapid administration of 0.25 g of glucose/kg of body weight were performed 28 and 10d before expected parturition, as well as at 4 and 21 d after calving. Area under the curve for insulin and glucose, maximal concentration and time to half-maximal concentration of insulin and glucose, and clearance rates were calculated. Insulin resistance (IR) indices were calculated from baseline samples obtained during IVGTT and Spearman rank correlations determined between IVGTT parameters and IR indices. Treatment did not affect IVGTT parameters at any of the 4 time points. Correlation between IR indices and IVGTT parameters was generally poor. Overfeeding cows energy in excess of predicted requirements by approximately 50% during the entire dry period resulted in decreased postpartum basal plasma glucose and

  9. Comparison of the Effects of Goat Dairy and Cow Dairy Based Breakfasts on Satiety, Appetite Hormones, and Metabolic Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Martín, Elehazara; García-Escobar, Eva; Ruiz de Adana, Maria-Soledad; Lima-Rubio, Fuensanta; Peláez, Laura; Caracuel, Angel-María; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco-Javier; Soriguer, Federico; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Olveira, Gabriel

    2017-08-15

    The satiating effects of cow dairy have been thoroughly investigated; however, the effects of goat dairy on appetite have not been reported so far. Our study investigates the satiating effect of two breakfasts based on goat or cow dairy and their association with appetite related hormones and metabolic profile. Healthy adults consumed two breakfasts based on goat (G-Breakfast) or cow (C-Breakfast) dairy products. Blood samples were taken and VAS tests were performed at different time points. Blood metabolites were measured and Combined Satiety Index (CSI) and areas under the curves (AUC) were calculated. Desire to eat rating was significantly lower (breakfast & time interaction p cow dairy products, and pointed to a potential association of GLP-1 and triglyceride levels with the mechanisms by which dairy products might affect satiety after the G-Breakfast and C-Breakfast, respectively.

  10. Metabolomic biomarkers correlating with hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Imhasly, Sandro; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Baumann, Sven; von Bergen, Martin; Luch, Andreas; Jungnickel, Harald; Potratz, Sarah; Gerspach, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatic lipidosis or fatty liver disease is a major metabolic disorder of high-producing dairy cows that compromises animal performance and, hence, causes heavy economic losses worldwide. This syndrome, occurring during the critical transition from gestation to early lactation, leads to an impaired health status, decreased milk yield, reduced fertility and shortened lifetime. Because the prevailing clinical chemistry parameters indicate advanced liver damage independently of the u...

  11. Influence of feeding supplements of almond hulls and ensiled citrus pulp on the milk production, milk composition, and methane emissions of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S R O; Chaves, A V; Deighton, M H; Jacobs, J L; Hannah, M C; Ribaux, B E; Morris, G L; Wales, W J; Moate, P J

    2018-03-01

    Almond hulls and citrus pulp have been fed to dairy cows with variable responses for milk production, but no information exists on their effect on enteric methane emissions. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with either almond hulls or ensiled citrus pulp on the milk yield, milk composition, and enteric methane emissions of dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in mid lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets over a 28-d experiment. Twelve cows received a control (CON) diet, 10 cows a diet containing almond hulls (ALH), and 10 cows a diet containing ensiled citrus pulp (CIT). All cows were offered 6.0 kg of dry matter (DM)/d of crushed corn, 2.0 kg of DM/d of cold-pressed canola, and 0.2 kg of DM/d of a mineral mix. In addition, cows fed the CON diet were offered 14.5 kg of DM/d of alfalfa cubes; cows fed the ALH diet were offered 10.5 kg of DM/d of alfalfa cubes and 4.0 kg of DM/d of almond hulls; and cows on the CIT diet were offered 11.5 kg of DM/d of alfalfa cubes and 3.0 kg of DM/d of ensiled citrus pulp. Milk yield was measured daily and milk composition was measured on 4 d of each week. Individual cow methane emissions were measured by a sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique on d 24 to 28 of the experiment. The mean milk yield of cows fed the CON diet (27.4 kg/d) was greater than the mean milk yield of cows fed the ALH diet (24.6 kg/cow per day), whereas the mean milk yield of cows fed the CIT diet (26.2 kg/cow per day) was not different from the mean milk yield from cows fed the other 2 diets. Dietary treatment did not influence the concentrations of milk fat, protein, and lactose or fat yields, but the mean protein yield from cows fed the CON diet (0.87 kg/d) was greater than that from cows fed the ALH diet (0.78 kg/d) but not different to those fed the CIT diet (0.85 kg/d). In general, we found no differences in the proportion of individual fatty acids in milk. The mean pH of ruminal fluid from cows offered the CON diet was not

  12. Lecithin: a by-product of biodiesel production and a source of choline for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of soy lecithins (L, a by-product of the biodiesel production process, and choline chloride microencapsulated with hydrogenated vegetable oils (C on dry matter intake, milk yield,  milk quality traits, milk choline and haematological profile of dairy cows. A total of 12 mid-lactating Holstein Friesian cows were assigned to one of two experimental groups and fed according to cross-over design (2 diets x 2 periods. Diets were isoenergetic, isofibrous and isonitrogenous and had the same content of choline. Dry matter intake was not affected by the diet, but L led to lower milk choline (P

  13. The Potential Feed Value, Mode of Use and Limitations of Locally Produced Spent Brewers' Grains Fed to Dairy Cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owango, M.O.; Sanda, I.A.; Lukuyu, B.A.; Omolo, J.O.; Masibili, M.

    1999-01-01

    A diagnostic survey and participatory rural appraisal were conducted to determine the potential feed value, mode of and constraints to the use of locally produced wet spent brewers' grains fed to dairy cattle. Structured questionnaire instruments, covering, household characteristics, dairy production, feeds and feeding and extension services were used. The survey was conducted by trained enumerators. The tools used in participatory rural appraisal were; semi-structured interview, ranking seasonal calendars labour profile and gender responsibilities.The main feed resources were Napier grass, green and dry maize stover, public land grasses and supplements consisting of Dairy meal, milling and agroindustrial by-products.Wet spent brewers' grain is one of the by-products.The main sources were Kenya Breweries Limited, Kuguru Food Processors and 'Busaa' dregs from the traditional brews. It was fed to dairy cows by (96.8%) of the households interviewed, either at milking in the mornings or evenings. Spent brewers grains was stored after collection from the sources by (87.2%) and (12.8%) of the households for one or more weeks respectively. Households interviewed perceived spent brewers grains to be comparable to available dairy meal and other energy feeds, and all the households feeding spent brewers grains reported that it increased milk yield in lactating cows. The farmers therefore, preferentially fed spent brewers grains to lactating and dry cows, heifers, calves and bulls respectively. However, only (1.7%)of the households interviewed received extension advice on the use of spent brewers' grains. The perception of the farmers/household was that spent brewers' grains is a valuable feed for dairy cattle and increased milk yield production, and maintained good body condition. However,limited information is available on the potential, mode of and constraints to the use of locally produced spent brewers' grains

  14. Frequency of some acropodium diseases in dairy cows in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research included 520 dairy cows on 64 mini-farms in mountainous Serbian areas, with the goal to acquire an insight on acropodium diseases frequency in dairy cows, as well as distribution of hoof alterations. In 56.25% of farms, animals were kept tied in the stable, while 43.75% were grazing regularly or occasionally. Only 10.94% of farms were free of hoof acropodium alterations. Extremely bad hygienic conditions were noted in 18.75% of farms, where 74.01% of animals had acropodium lesions. Based on clinical analysis of 520 dairy cows, 388 of them were diagnosed with acropodium alternations: overgrown hooves (in 21.91% of animals, shoe-like hooves (7.22%, scissors-like (17.27% and spiral hooves (8.76%. Wounded acropodium skin was diagnosed in 1.8%, interdigital phlegmon in 9.02%, aseptic pododermatitis in 3.61%, digital dermatitis in 4.89%, interdigital dermatitis in 3.09%, hoof ulcer in 3.35%, interdigital blister in 4.89%, hollow hoof wall in 6.18%, horn wall rupture in 0.51%, heel abscess in 3.09%, tendovaginitis in 3.85% and crown joint displacement in 0.26% of animals. We found no pathological lesions of the acropodium in 132 animals (25.38%.

  15. FGF-21: promising biomarker for detecting ketosis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuang; Xu, Qiushi; Chen, Yuanyuan; Yang, Wei; Xia, Cheng; Yu, Hongjiang; Zhu, Kuilin; Shen, Taiyu; Zhang, Ziyang

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the measurement of serum fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21), a protein mainly synthesized by the liver, as a sensitive biomarker for diagnosis of ketosis in dairy cows. Ninety Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 healthy and 30 ketosis cases) were selected and divided into a Ketosis group (K), and a Control group (C). We measured serum FGF-21 and other biochemical parameters by commercial ELISA kits. In a combined population of all 90 cows, we found that serum FGF-21 level was lower (P ketosis. When the β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) level increased over 1.2 mmol/L, the FGF-21 level tended to decline below 300.85 pg/ml. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) for serum FGF-21 for diagnosis of fatty liver was 0.952-0.025 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.904, 1.000] which was higher than the AUC-ROC for glucose (Glc) and other tested parameters. We concluded that FGF-21 could be a diagnostic parameter in the evaluation and auxiliary diagnosis of changes in the energy metabolism state, and serum FGF-21 measurement would have a considerable clinical impact and lead to greater profitability in the dairy industry.

  16. Metabolomic biomarkers correlating with hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhasly, Sandro; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Baumann, Sven; von Bergen, Martin; Luch, Andreas; Jungnickel, Harald; Potratz, Sarah; Gerspach, Christian

    2014-06-02

    Hepatic lipidosis or fatty liver disease is a major metabolic disorder of high-producing dairy cows that compromises animal performance and, hence, causes heavy economic losses worldwide. This syndrome, occurring during the critical transition from gestation to early lactation, leads to an impaired health status, decreased milk yield, reduced fertility and shortened lifetime. Because the prevailing clinical chemistry parameters indicate advanced liver damage independently of the underlying disease, currently, hepatic lipidosis can only be ascertained by liver biopsy. We hypothesized that the condition of fatty liver disease may be accompanied by an altered profile of endogenous metabolites in the blood of affected animals. To identify potential small-molecule biomarkers as a novel diagnostic alternative, the serum samples of diseased dairy cows were subjected to a targeted metabolomics screen by triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. A subsequent multivariate test involving principal component and linear discriminant analyses yielded 29 metabolites (amino acids, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelines) that, in conjunction, were able to distinguish between dairy cows with no hepatic lipidosis and those displaying different stages of the disorder. This proof-of-concept study indicates that metabolomic profiles, including both amino acids and lipids, distinguish hepatic lipidosis from other peripartal disorders and, hence, provide a promising new tool for the diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis. By generating insights into the molecular pathogenesis of hepatic lipidosis, metabolomics studies may also facilitate the prevention of this syndrome.

  17. Modeling heat loss from the udder of a dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, Kifle G; Wu, Binxin

    2016-07-01

    A mechanistic model that predicts sensible and latent heat fluxes from the udder of a dairy cow was developed. The prediction of the model was spot validated against measured data from the literature, and the result agreed within 7% of the measured value for the same ambient temperature. A dairy cow can lose a significant amount of heat (388W/m(2)) from the udder. This suggests that the udder could be considered as a heat sink. The temperature profile through the udder tissue (core to skin) approached the core temperature for an air temperature ≥37°C whereas the profile decreased linearly from the core to skin surface for an air temperature less than 37°C. Sensible heat loss was dominant when ambient air temperature was less than 37.5°C but latent heat loss was greater than sensible heat loss when air temperature was ≥37.5°C. The udder could lose a total (sensible + latent) heat flux of 338W/m(2) at an ambient temperature of 35°C and blood-flow rate of 3.2×10(-3)m(3)/(sm(3) tissue). The results of this study suggests that, in time of heat stress, a dairy cow could be cooled by cooling the udder only (e.g., using an evaporative cooling jacket). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of corn silage hybrids differing in starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility on lactation performance and total-tract nutrient digestibility by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraretto, L F; Fonseca, A C; Sniffen, C J; Formigoni, A; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    Selection for hybrids with greater starch and NDF digestibility may be beneficial for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a TMR containing a floury-leafy corn silage hybrid (LFY) compared with a brown midrib corn silage hybrid (BMR) for intake, lactation performance, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. Ninety-six multiparous Holstein cows, 105±31d in milk at trial initiation, were stratified by DIM and randomly assigned to 12 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments, BMR or LFY, in a completely randomized design; a 2-wk covariate period with cows fed a common diet followed by a 14-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diet. Starch digestibilities, in situ, in vitro, and in vivo, were greater for LFY compared with BMR; the opposite was observed for NDF digestibility. Cows fed BMR consumed 1.7kg/d more dry matter than LFY. Although, actual-, energy-, and solids-corrected milk yields were greater for BMR than LFY, feed conversions (kg of milk or component-corrected milk per kg of DMI) did not differ. Fat-corrected milk and milk fat yield were similar, as milk fat content was greater for cows fed LFY (4.05%) than BMR (3.83%). Cows fed BMR had lower milk urea nitrogen concentration, but greater milk protein and lactose yields compared with LFY. Body weight change and condition score were unaffected by treatment. Total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage; however, dry matter intake and milk and protein yields were greater for cows fed the BMR corn silage. Although total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage, feed efficiency was not affected by hybrid type due to greater dry matter intake and milk and protein yields by cows fed the BMR corn silage. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. GRAZING BEHAVIOUR OF DAIRY COWS ON MOUNTAIN FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. VOŘÍŠKOVÁ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The etological observation was provided on a dairy herd (65 Czech Fleckvieh and 51 Holstein cows on a low-input mountain farm during the pasture season (April – October 2008. The milking was provided two-times a day in the stalls. The 24-hours observations were made four-times: in June, July, September and October, in 10- minutes intervals. The cows spent 25 to 38 % of a day on average by feeding and 18 to 22 % on average by moving (stalls – pasture movements took about half of this period. The resting time consisting of chewing was found unsufficient and took 29 % to 40 % of a day on average. Better comfort of cows given by an improved milking technology and a more effective grazing management connected with longer time spent by resting is suggested to achieve higher milk yields on the farm.

  20. 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos': Transplacental transmission in dairy cows (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto-Soares, Aline; Soares, João Fabio; Bogado, Alexey Leon Gomel; de Macedo, César Augusto Barbosa; Sandeski, Lígia Mara; Garcia, João Luis; Vidotto, Odilon

    2016-11-15

    'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' is a haemotropic mycoplasma that can produce various clinical signs in cattle, but abortive potential of the parasite is unknown, as well as the frequency of transplacental transmission in cattle. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the frequency of detection of 'C. M. haemobos' in aborted fetuses and the blood of dairy cows. Blood samples of 22 dairy cows that aborted and pool tissues (brain, lung, heart and liver) of their respective aborted fetuses were tested by conventional PCR. The occurrence of 'C. M. haemobos' DNA in adult animals was 40.9% (9/22) and in the fetuses was 18.2% (4/22). Two fetuses that contained 'C. M. haemobos' DNA were derived from cows which were PCR negative. When stratifying by breed, it was observed that Jersey cows had a higher proportion of positive animals (8/11; 72.7%) as compared to Holstein (1/9; 11.1% P<0.01). The results of this study suggest that this parasite can be transferred via the placenta, but it is not certain if the abortions were due to 'C. M. haemobos'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of bacterial direct-fed microbials on ruminal characteristics, methane emission, and milk fatty acid composition in cows fed high- or low-starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippeau, C; Lettat, A; Martin, C; Silberberg, M; Morgavi, D P; Ferlay, A; Berger, C; Nozière, P

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of bacterial direct-fed microbials (DFM) on ruminal fermentation and microbial characteristics, methane (CH 4 ) emission, diet digestibility, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition in dairy cows fed diets formulated to induce different ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles. Eight ruminally cannulated dairy cows were divided into 2 groups based on parity, days in milk, milk production, and body weight. Cows in each group were fed either a high-starch (38%, HS) or a low-starch (2%, LS) diet in a 55:45 forage-to-concentrate ratio on a dry matter (DM) basis. For each diet, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a Latin square design of (1) control (CON); (2) Propionibacterium P63 (P63); (3) P63 plus Lactobacillus plantarum 115 (P63+Lp); (4) P63 plus Lactobacillus rhamnosus 32 (P63+Lr). Strains of DFM were administered at 10 10 cfu/d. Methane emission (using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique), total-tract digestibility, dry matter intake, and milk production and composition were quantified in wk 3. Ruminal fermentation and microbial characteristics were measured in wk 4. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The 2 diets induced different ruminal VFA profiles, with a greater proportion of propionate at the expense of acetate and butyrate for the HS diet. Greater concentrations of total bacteria and selected bacterial species of methanogenic Archaea were reported for the HS diet, whereas the protozoa concentration in HS decreased. For both diets, bacterial DFM supplementation raised ruminal pH (+0.18 pH units, on average) compared with CON. Irrespective of diet, P63+Lp and P63+Lr increased ruminal cellulase activity (3.8-fold, on average) compared with CON, but this effect was not associated with variations in ruminal microbial numbers. Irrespective of diet, no effect of bacterial DFM on ruminal VFA was observed. For the LS diet, supplementing cows with P63+Lr tended

  2. Post-partum reproductive performance of the Icelandic dairy cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldon, J.; Olafsson, T.; Thorsteinsson, T.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the studies was to monitor the reproductive performance of Icelandic dairy cow herds with and without histories of fertility problems under normal farming conditions. Artificial inseminations and calvings were recorded, pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal palpation, and progesterone concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay in sequential samples of milk. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals and the concentrations of glucose, urea, calcium and magnesium were determined. Clinical ketosis and low glucose were found in one third of the cows on problem farms. The mean time of first post-partum ovulation was 49 days for cows with ketosis, compared with 34 days for cows free of ketosis. Cows in the normal herds ovulated considerably later than is reported for many other breeds of dairy cows; however, the time of first post-partum AI, the time of conception and the conception rate were similar to those reported for other breeds. The effects of season and herd were statistically significant for the time of first post-partum ovulation, AI and conception; the effect of area was highly significant for the time of ovulation. Progesterone profiles showed that over 50% of the first post-partum ovarian cycles were short and had low progesterone concentrations. Season had significant effects on the length of the interval from calving to first post-partum ovulation, AI and conception, on the conception rate to first AI and consequently on the number of AIs per conception, and on the blood levels of glucose, urea and calcium. (author). 28 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Eliminative behaviour of dairy cows at pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whistance, Lindsay Kay; Sinclair, Liam A.; Arney, David Richard

    2011-01-01

    Walking whilst defaecating was most likely to occur when cows were simultaneously engaged in an ‘active’ state, such as going to drink or catching up with the herd. Overall, standing to defaecate and moving forward...... behaviour of 40 Holstein-Friesian cows was observed at pasture for6 heach day between morning and afternoon milking for a total of24 h. Lying (l), standing (s) and walking (w) behaviours were recorded pre, during and post-elimination. Sequences of 3–6 changes in these behaviours were recorded if expressed...... within 30 s of an eliminative event. Intentional, incidental or no avoidance of faeces was also recorded for each event. Activity, characterised as static (lying, grazing or loafing), or active (moving to a different area of field, going to drink and catching up with herd) was also recorded. Of the 437...

  4. Studies investigating the excretion of acetyl urea in the milk of dairy cows receiving oral doses of 14C acetyl urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergner, H.; Kijora, C.; Goersch, R.

    1976-01-01

    2 experimental cows were fed acetyl urea several weeks before the trial was started. The first cow received a daily amount of 200 g and the second cow 855 g. On the first day of experiment both cows were given 5 mCi of 14 C acetyl urea intraruminally. Up to 6 hrs after the beginning of the experiment acetyl urea in blood plasma was shown to contain a higher proportion of 14 C activity than urea. 0.21 g urea and 0.18 g acetyl urea were contained in 1 kg of milk from cow No 1 while 1 kg of milk from cow No 2 contained 0.18 g urea and 0.12 g acetyl urea. The feeding of acetyl urea to dairy cows is not recommended on the basis of the fact that any further contamination of human nutrition with foreign substances should be possibly avoided. (author)

  5. Studies investigating the excretion of acetyl urea in the milk of dairy cows receiving oral doses of /sup 14/C acetyl urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergner, H; Kijora, C; Goersch, R [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin

    1976-01-01

    2 experimental cows were fed acetyl urea several weeks before the trial was started. The first cow received a daily amount of 200 g and the second cow 855 g. On the first day of experiment both cows were given 5 mCi of /sup 14/C acetyl urea intraruminally. Up to 6 hrs after the beginning of the experiment acetyl urea in blood plasma was shown to contain a higher proportion of /sup 14/C activity than urea. 0.21 g urea and 0.18 g acetyl urea were contained in 1 kg of milk from cow No 1 while 1 kg of milk from cow No 2 contained 0.18 g urea and 0.12 g acetyl urea. The feeding of acetyl urea to dairy cows is not recommended on the basis of the fact that any further contamination of human nutrition with foreign substances should be possibly avoided.

  6. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) as an alternative forage for dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, A W; Doepel, L

    2011-08-01

    Fenugreek is a novel forage crop in Canada that is generating interest as an alternative to alfalfa for dairy cows. To evaluate the value of fenugreek haylage relative to alfalfa haylage, six, second lactation Holstein cows (56 ± 8 days in milk), which were fitted with rumen cannulas (10 cm i.d., Bar Diamond Inc., Parma, ID, USA) were used in a replicated three × three Latin square design with 18-day periods. Diets consisting of 400 g/kg haylage, 100 g/kg barley silage and 500 g/kg concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis were fed once daily for ad libitum intake. The haylage component constituted the dietary treatments: (i) Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada F70 fenugreek (F70), (ii) Crop Development Center Quatro fenugreek (QUAT) and (iii) alfalfa (ALF). DM intake (DMI), milk yield and milk protein and lactose yields were higher (P haylage has a lower feeding value than ALF for lactating dairy cows due in part to lower DMI and subsequently lower milk yield.

  7. Supplementation with partially hydrogenated oil in grazing dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, G F; Gagliostro, G A; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I

    2002-03-01

    the digestion of pasture fiber. The addition of energy in the form of partially hydrogenated fat to early lactation dairy cows fed primarily on pasture increased the yield of fat-corrected milk and milk fat content when it represented about 11% of the total metabolizable energy requirement of cows, without affecting milk protein content. The partial hydrogenation of a byproduct of the oil industry apparently prevented detrimental effects of fat supplementation on ruminal digestion.

  8. Feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid affects enteric methane production and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klop, G; Hatew, B; Bannink, A; Dijkstra, J

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to study potential interaction between the effects of feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) on enteric CH4 production and performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped into 7 blocks of 4 cows. Within blocks, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (CON; urea as alternative nonprotein N source to nitrate), NO3 [21 g of nitrate/kg of dry matter (DM)], DHA (3 g of DHA/kg of DM and urea as alternative nonprotein N source to nitrate), or NO3 + DHA (21 g of nitrate/kg of DM and 3 g of DHA/kg of DM, respectively). Cows were fed a total mixed ration consisting of 21% grass silage, 49% corn silage, and 30% concentrates on a DM basis. Feed additives were included in the concentrates. Cows assigned to a treatment including nitrate were gradually adapted to the treatment dose of nitrate over a period of 21 d during which no DHA was fed. The experimental period lasted 17 d, and CH4 production was measured during the last 5d in climate respiration chambers. Cows produced on average 363, 263, 369, and 298 g of CH4/d on CON, NO3, DHA, and NO3 + DHA treatments, respectively, and a tendency for a nitrate × DHA interaction effect was found where the CH4-mitigating effect of nitrate decreased when combined with DHA. This tendency was not obtained for CH4 production relative to dry matter intake (DMI) or to fat- and protein corrected milk (FPCM). The NO3 treatment decreased CH4 production irrespective of the unit in which it was expressed, whereas DHA did not affect CH4 production per kilogram of DMI, but resulted in a higher CH4 production per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) production. The FPCM production (27.9, 24.7, 24.2, and 23. 8 kg/d for CON, NO3, DHA, and NO3 + DHA, respectively) was lower for DHA-fed cows because of decreased milk fat concentration. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat was decreased by DHA, and the proportion of

  9. Effect of feeding of different sources of NPN on production performance of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Karcol

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of feeding of different sources of NPN on nutrient utilization and production performance of dairy cows under field conditions. Balancing diets for crude protein without consideration of protein quality or rumen degradability often led to overfeeding of nitrogen and less than optimum production. High yielding dairy cows separated in two groups with 85 resp. 80 cows in each were set up for the trial. Groups were consistent according the stage of production and reproduction cycle as well as age structure. Both groups were fed concentrate mixture with the same composition with only difference in NPN/ microbial protein source, with same dosage of 100 g per cow and day. Field trial was performed for period of 3 subsequent months. Performance data were collected in accordance with official milk recording. In both groups majority of cows were on first lactation. Significant differences in daily milk production were observed 2.87 kg (P<0.01 for group 2, in fat content 0.07 % for group 2 non-significant, whereas in protein content 0.18% for group 1 significant (P<0.01 in case of first lactations. If considering first tree lactations, group 2 produced 1.7 kg milk per day more (P<0.08, with 0.05% fat more and 0.002 % protein less than group 1. The space created in dry matter intake by a concentrated slow-release NPN can be filled with high quality forage that could reduce the cost of feeding while maintaining levels of production.

  10. The influence of covering methods on the nutritive value of corn silage for lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Camargo do Amaral

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of covering methods on the nutritive value of corn silage and performance of dairy cows. Whole-plant corn was harvested at 340 g/kg of dry matter (DM and ensiled for 135 d in horizontal silos covered with one of the following methods: oxygen barrier film (45-µm thick + white-on-black polyethylene film (200-µm thick over the oxygen barrier film (OB+WB; white-on-black polyethylene film (200-µm thick (WB; black polyethylene film (200-µm thick (B; or recycled black polyethylene film (200-µm thick covered with a layer of 10 cm of sugarcane bagasse (RB+SB. Nutrient composition, fermentation profile, and yeast and mold counts in edible silages were similar across treatments. Silage temperature during the storage period was 24.6, 28.7, 28.4 and 33.1 °C for RB+SB, OB+WB, WB and B, respectively, and the proportion of spoiled silage ranged from 28.7 (for the RB+SB treatment to 74.2 g/kg DM (for the B treatment. Dry matter intake was similar across treatments and averaged 21.9 kg/d. Milk production was higher for cows fed corn silage covered with RB+SB (34.4 kg/d compared with those fed corn silage covered with B (30.4 kg/d, resulting in higher feed efficiency for RB+SB treatment. Silages covered with OB+WB and WB had intermediate values. In vivo digestibility of organic matter was higher for cows fed corn silage covered with RB+SB compared with those fed corn silage covered with WB and B, but were similar to those fed corn silage covered with OB+WB. The utilization of oxygen barrier films and the protection of polyethylene film with sugarcane bagasse are effective strategies to increase the recovery of digestible nutrients and, consequently, to enhance production efficiency of lactating dairy cows.

  11. Effect of feeding different sources of rumen-protected methionine on milk production and N-utilization in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives of this study were to quantify production responses of lactating dairy cows to supplying absorbable Met as isopropyl-2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMBi), or rumen-protected Met (RPM, Smartamine® M) fed with or without 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMB), and to determin...

  12. Effects of corn-based diet starch content and neutral detergent fiber source on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredin, S M; Akins, M S; Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of corn-based dietary starch content and source of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on lactation performance, nutrient digestion, bacterial protein flow, and ruminal parameters in lactating dairy cows. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows averaging 193±11d in milk were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatment diets were high corn grain (HCG; 38% corn silage, 19% dry ground corn, and 4% soy hulls), high soy hulls (HSH; 38% corn silage, 11% dry ground corn, and 13% soy hulls), high corn silage (HCS; 50% corn silage, 6% dry ground corn, and 4% soy hulls), and low corn silage (LCS; 29% corn silage, 15% corn, and 19% soy hulls). The HCG, HSH, HCS, and LCS diets contained 29, 23, 24, and 22% starch; 27, 32, 30, and 32% total NDF; and 21, 21, 25, and 17% forage NDF (dry matter basis), respectively. Mean dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by treatment. Cows fed LCS had reduced milk fat content compared with HSH and HCS. The concentration of milk urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed HCS compared with the other treatments. Total-tract digestion of NDF was reduced for cows fed the HCG diet. Total-tract starch digestion was increased for cows fed the HSH and HCS compared with HCG and LCS diets. Bacterial protein flow was unaffected by treatment. Ruminal ammonia concentration was reduced in cows fed the HCG and LCS diets compared with the HCS diet. Ruminal propionate increased and the acetate:propionate ratio decreased in cows fed the LCS diet compared with the HCS diet. Ruminal pH was greater for cows fed the HCS diet compared with cows fed the LCS diet. Diet digestibility and performance of mid- to late-lactation cows fed reduced-starch diets by partially replacing corn grain with soy hulls or corn silage was similar to or improved compared with cows fed a normal-starch diet. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  13. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derno, Michael; Otten, Winfried; Mielenz, Manfred; Nürnberg, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS) and one pair-fed (PF) at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1), cows were challenged for 6 days (P2) by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI) = 76) or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows. PMID:25938406

  14. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamp, Ole; Derno, Michael; Otten, Winfried; Mielenz, Manfred; Nürnberg, Gerd; Kuhla, Björn

    2015-01-01

    High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS) and one pair-fed (PF) at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1), cows were challenged for 6 days (P2) by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI) = 76) or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows.

  15. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Lamp

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS and one pair-fed (PF at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1, cows were challenged for 6 days (P2 by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI = 76 or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows.

  16. Effect of increasing dietary nonfiber carbohydrate with starch, sucrose, or lactose on rumen fermentation and productivity of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X; Oba, M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate effects of increasing dietary nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) with starch, sucrose, or lactose on rumen fermentation, volatile fatty acid absorption, and milk production of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight multiparous, lactating Holstein cows (141 ± 50 d in milk; 614 ± 53 kg of body weight) including 8 ruminally cannulated cows were used in this study. Cows were assigned to 4 dietary treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. The treatments were control [27% starch and 4% sugar on a dry matter (DM) basis], a high-NFC diet by increasing dietary starch content (STA; 32% starch and 4% sugar on a DM basis), and 2 more high-NFC diets by increasing dietary sugar content (27% starch and 9% sugar on a DM basis) in which sucrose (SUC) or lactose (LAC) was supplemented. Dry matter intake was greater for cows fed high-NFC diets compared with control diet (27.1 vs. 26.3 kg/d), but rumen pH and milk production did not differ between cows fed control and high-NFC diets. However, cows fed high-disaccharide diets had lower mean rumen pH than those fed STA diet (6.19 vs. 6.32). Although molar proportion of butyrate was greater for high-disaccharide treatments than STA treatment (15.2 vs. 13.7 mol/100 mol), absorption rate of volatile fatty acid in the rumen was not affected by treatment. In addition, cows fed high-disaccharide diets had higher energy-corrected milk yield than cows fed STA diet (39.6 vs. 38.0 kg/d). Dry matter intake did not differ between cows fed 2 high-disaccharide diets. Although cows fed the SUC diet had lower molar proportion of butyrate in the rumen compared with those fed the LAC diet (14.4 vs. 15.9 mol/100 mol), the SUC diet did not decrease rumen pH. In addition, cows fed the SUC diet had lower nutrient digestibility of organic matter than did those fed the LAC diet (59.7 vs. 64.4%), but milk component yields did not differ between the 2 high-disaccharide diet treatments. The results of the

  17. Modeling conductive cooling for thermally stressed dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, Kifle G; Wu, Binxin; Perano, K

    2016-02-01

    Conductive cooling, which is based on direct contact between a cow lying down and a cooled surface (water mattress, or any other heat exchanger embedded under the bedding), allows heat transfer from the cow to the cooled surface, and thus alleviate heat stress of the cow. Conductive cooling is a novel technology that has the potential to reduce the consumption of energy and water in cooling dairy cows compared to some current practices. A three-dimensional conduction model that simulates cooling thermally-stressed dairy cows was developed. The model used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method to characterize the air-flow field surrounding the animal model. The flow field was obtained by solving the continuity and the momentum equations. The heat exchange between the animal and the cooled water mattress as well as between the animal and ambient air was determined by solving the energy equation. The relative humidity was characterized using the species transport equation. The conduction 3-D model was validated against experimental temperature data and the agreement was very good (average error is 4.4% and the range is 1.9-8.3%) for a mesh size of 1117202. Sensitivity analyses were conducted between heat losses (sensible and latent) with respect to air temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, and level of wetness of skin surface to determine which of the parameters affect heat flux more than others. Heat flux was more sensitive to air temperature and level of wetness of the skin surface and less sensitive to relative humidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of Parity on Reproductive Performance in Postpartum Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eiri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was the study of reproductive performance in postpartum dairy cows with different parities. Twenty Holstein dairy cows were assigned into two equal primiparous and multiparous groups. Body weight and body condition score (based on 1-5 scoring were measured every other week, starting from two weeks before calving till pregnancy confirmation. Daily milk yield was also recorded. Reproductive parameters including days from calving to the uterus returning time, to the initiation time of clinical oestrus signs, to the first time of insemination and number of insemination per pregnancy were recorded. Meanwhile, blood serum concentrations of estrogen and progesterone were measured. Results indicated that, the mean (±SE of body weight and milk production was significantly higher for multiparous cows. Blood serum concentration of estrogen (mean ±SE was significantly lower for primiparous cows (61.86±17.91 vs. 71.39±17.02 pg/ml. The number of insemination per pregnancy and estrus frequency did not differ between both groups. However, the intervals (mean ±SE of calving to the uterus returning time (40.0±5.41 vs. 24.0±5.41 days, to the first insemination (119.62±14.17 vs. 67.5±14.17 days and the initiation of clinical oestrus signs (28.5±4.5 vs. 19.67±8.5 days was significantly higher for primiparous than multiparous cows. In general, this study demonstrated that the effect of parity on postpartum reproductive performance is modulated through its effect of blood serum estrogen level, uterus returning time and estrus initiation time.

  19. Digestibilidade e metabólitos sanguíneos de vacas da raça Holandesa superovuladas que receberam Lac100® ou linhaça em grão como fontes de gordura Digestibility and blood concentration of metabolites in superovulated dairy cows fed Lac100® or linseed as fat sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L.B. Cavalieri

    2009-08-01

    values of DNDF (57.44% vs. 50.80% and DEE (77.70% vs. 72.18% compared to those fed flaxseed. Cows fed Lac100® had higher blood concentrations of LDL (111.00 vs. 45.46mg/dL, HDL (82.27 vs. 64.93mg/dL, and total cholesterol (203.60 vs. 116.13mg/dL and lower N-urea (13.22 vs. 15.19mg/dL compared to those fed flaxseed. Blood concentrations of glucose, calcium, phosphorus, and progesterone were similar between the treatments. These results suggest that dietary fat modifies DNDF and DEE and blood concentrations of LDL, HDL, VLDL, and total cholesterol in lactating dairy cows.

  20. In vivo release of aflatoxin B1 bound to different sequestering agents in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Diaz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nine lactating dairy cows, producing 31.08±5.00 kg of milk/cow/day and fed with a Total Mixed Ration (TMR with an intake of 22.3±0.8 Kg s.s./cow, were used to investigate the resistance of the AFs-SA complex in the rumen and in the gastro-intestinal tract. Two commercial sequestering agents Atox® and Mycosorb® were used. The AFB1 was also mixed to a rumen fluid (R-SA. AFB1 sequestered by Atox®, Mycosorb® and by R-SA were then fed to cows before the morning meal. Milk samples were collected for 6 consecutive milkings and analyzed for AFM1 content. The in vitro binding capacity of the two SA were 94.2% for Atox®, 84.3% for Mycosorb® and 71.86% for the R-SA. Both Atox® and Mycosorb® released some of the sequestered AFB1 determining an increase of the AFM1 in milk as soon as in the 1st milking from oral drenching (4.23±7.33; 23.60±8.23 and 46.06±39.84 ppt for Atox®, Mycosorb® and R-SA respectively. The AFM1 (ng/cow in milk at the 4th milking was lower (66.04, 661.77 and 1613.04; P<0.05 in Atox® and Mycosorb® than R-SA, respectively. The percentage release of bound AFB1 were 1.63% for Atox®, 20.27% for Mycosorb® and 50.48% for R-SA.

  1. Responses of dairy cows with divergent residual feed intake as calves to metabolic challenges during midlactation and the nonlactating period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiacomo, K; Norris, E; Dunshea, F R; Hayes, B J; Marett, L C; Wales, W J; Leury, B J

    2018-03-28

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the actual and expected feed intake required to support animal maintenance and growth. Thus, a cow with a low RFI can obtain nutrients for maintenance and growth from a reduced amount of feed compared with a cow with a high RFI. Variation in RFI is underpinned by a combination of factors, including genetics, metabolism, thermoregulation and body composition; hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness is also a possible contributor. Responses to 3 metabolic challenges were measured in lactating and nonlactating dairy cattle. Sixteen Holstein Friesian cows with phenotypic RFI measurements that were obtained during the growth period (188-220 d old) were grouped as either low-calfhood RFI (n = 8) or high-calfhood RFI (n = 8). An ACTH (2 µg/kg of body weight), insulin (0.12 U/kg), and epinephrine (a low dose of 0.1 µg/kg and a high dose of 1.6 µg/kg of epinephrine) challenge were each conducted during both midlactation (122 ± 23.4 d in milk) and the nonlactating period (dry period; approximately 38 d after cessation of milking). Cows were housed in metabolism stalls for the challenges and were fed a diet of alfalfa cubes ad libitum for at least 10 d before the experiment (lactating cows also were offered a total of 6 kg of dry matter/d of crushed wheat grain plus minerals fed as 3 kg of dry matter at each milking) and were fasted for 12 h before the challenges. The efficiency of conversion of feed into milk (the ratio of feed consumed to milk produced over the 7 d before the experiment) during midlactation was better (lower) in low-calfhood RFI cows, although dry matter intake did not differ between RFI groups. Low-calfhood RFI cows exhibited a lower plasma cortisol response to the ACTH challenge than high-calfhood RFI cows, particularly in midlactation (-15%). The low-calfhood RFI cows had a greater plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 response to the insulin challenge and plasma fatty

  2. Effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines, AMP-activated protein kinase, and heat shock signal molecules in dairy cows*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Li; Cheng, Jian-bo; Shi, Bao-lu; Yang, Hong-jian; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jia-qi

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress affects feed intake, milk production, and endocrine status in dairy cows. The temperature-humidity index (THI) is employed as an index to evaluate the degree of heat stress in dairy cows. However, it is difficult to ascertain whether THI is the most appropriate measurement of heat stress in dairy cows. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and heat shock signal molecules (heat shock transcription factor (HSF) and heat shock proteins (HSP)) in dairy cows and to research biomarkers to be used for better understanding the meaning of THI as a bioclimatic index. To achieve these objectives, two experiments were performed. The first experiment: eighteen lactating Holstein dairy cows were used. The treatments were: heat stress (HS, THI average=81.7, n=9) and cooling (CL, THI average=53.4, n=9). Samples of HS were obtained on August 16, 2013, and samples of CL were collected on April 7, 2014 in natural conditions. The second experiment: HS treatment cows (n=9) from the first experiment were fed for 8 weeks from August 16, 2013 to October 12, 2013. Samples for moderate heat stress, mild heat stress, and no heat stress were obtained, respectively, according to the physical alterations of the THI. Results showed that heat stress significantly increased the serum adiponectin, AMPK, HSF, HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90 (Pheat-stressed dairy cows. When heat stress treatment lasted 8 weeks, a higher expression of HSF and HSP70 was observed under moderate heat stress. Serum HSF and HSP70 are sensitive and accurate in heat stress and they could be potential indicators of animal response to heat stress. We recommend serum HSF and HSP70 as meaningful biomarkers to supplement the THI and evaluate moderate heat stress in dairy cows in the future. PMID:26055916

  3. Milk progesterone on day 5 following insemination in the dairy cow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the importance of progesterone on the fertility of lactating dairy cows, the factors that affect post ovulatory progesterone concentration are still unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with the post ovulatory progesterone rise following 1st insemination in lactating dairy cows.

  4. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: Intake, milk production and nitrogen utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: perennial ryegrass, dairy cows, intake, digestibility milk production, nitrogen utilisation.In the Netherlands, grass is one of the main roughages in the diet of high productive dairy cows. Grass is associated with two main problems: the limited dry matter intake (DMI)

  5. Behaviour of Dairy Cows, Useful Indicator in Assessing Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Cristina Andronie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to establish the manner in which the flooring type may influence the welfare levelsin dairy cows by assessment of laminitis incidence and animals’ behaviour. 42 dairy cows were grouped based on theshelter floor surface: concrete with straw bedding, asphalted concrete with straw bedding and concrete plus shavings.The behaviour was assessed through direct observation and laminitis incidence was established by numericalassessment of locomotion prior or following milking.The results have indicated an increase of laminitis incidence by 15-25 % in B and C lot and was absent in A lot. Thelarge number of diseases was recorded on concrete floors with shavings bedding (53%. The behavioural displays ofthe cows suffering from laminitis were different from the healthy ones, as their resting behaviour outside the stallswas more prevalent (17.6% compared to 8.8% while the feeding behaviour was less present (10.1% compared to14.7%. Likewise, the socializing behaviour was more active in these animals, compared to the healthycows.

  6. Effects of alfalfa flavonoids on the production performance, immune system, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshun Zhan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to examine the effects of alfalfa flavonoids on the production performance, immunity, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows. Methods The experiments employed four primiparous Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas, and used a 4×4 Latin square design. Cattle were fed total mixed ration supplemented with 0 (control group, Con, 20, 60, or 100 mg of alfalfa flavonoids extract (AFE per kg of dairy cow body weight (BW. Results The feed intake of the group receiving 60 mg/kg BW of AFE were significantly higher (p<0.05 than that of the group receiving 100 mg/kg BW. Milk yields and the fat, protein and lactose of milk were unaffected by AFE, while the total solids content of milk reduced (p = 0.05 linearly as AFE supplementation was increased. The somatic cell count of milk in group receiving 60 mg/kg BW of AFE was significantly lower (p<0.05 than that of the control group. Apparent total-tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and crude protein showed a tendency to increase (0.05

  7. The effect of grazing on cow mortality in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, Elke; Thomsen, Peter Thorup; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2011-01-01

    The effect of summer grazing in large Danish dairy herds and certain management characteristics of grazing were studied for their impact on dairy cow mortality. Mortality data (from the Danish Cattle Database) from 391 Danish dairy herds (>100 cows) were combined with information from...... a questionnaire survey of grazing procedures on these herds in 2008. In all, 131 of the herds were identified as summer grazing and 260 as zero-grazing herds. The mortality was affected by an interaction of summer grazing and milking system. The risk of a cow dying was reduced to 46% in a grazing compared...... and pasture was associated with increased cow mortality....

  8. Association of claw disorders with subclinical intramammary infections in Egyptian dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refaal, Walid; Mahmmod, Yasser

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Bovine mastitis and lameness are the most common production diseases affecting dairy farms worldwide resulting in huge economic impact and impaired animal welfare. The objective of this field study was to investigate the association of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders...... with the occurrence of subclinical intramammary infections (IMIs) diagnosed by California mastitis test (CMT) in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 dairy cows were included in this field study. Subclinical IMI was diagnosed by CMT on all lactating quarters of cows. A cow...

  9. Metritis in dairy cows: risk factors and reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, M J; Magnasco, R P; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M; Risco, C A; de la Sota, R L

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the risk factors for metritis, its effects on milk yield and on reproductive performance, and the efficacy of ceftiofur therapy in Holstein dairy cows. Cows (n=303) from a commercial dairy herd in Argentina were studied. Cows were scored for body condition, and blood samples were collected on d -14, 7, 21, 31, 41, and 50 relative to parturition. Cows having a watery, purulent, or brown, and fetid vaginal discharge (VD) and rectal temperature ≤ 39.2°C were diagnosed as having clinical metritis, and those having a similar VD and rectal temperature >39.2°C were diagnosed as having puerperal metritis. Both clinical and puerperal metritis cows were randomly assigned to control (no treatment) or ceftiofur group (2.2mg/kg×3 consecutive days). Cure was declared if clear VD was observed at 21 d in milk (DIM). Blood samples were analyzed for nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, and blood urea nitrogen using commercial kits, and for insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin, and leptin by RIA. Data were analyzed with PROC MIXED, GENMOD, PHREG, and LIFETEST from SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The risk for metritis increased with dystocia, retained fetal membranes, and dead calf [AOR (adjusted odds ratio)=2.58, 95% CI: 1.189-5.559], and as prepartum nonesterified fatty acids levels increased (AOR=1.001, 95% CI: 0.999-1.002). Conversely, risk decreased as prepartum insulin-like growth factor-1 increased (AOR=0.65, 95% CI: 0.349-1.219). Cows having either clinical or puerperal metritis produced less milk by 90 DIM than did healthy cows (2,236 ± 172 vs. 2,367 ± 77 vs. 2,647 ± 82 kg, respectively). Cows with puerperal metritis had lower risk for pregnancy by 100 DIM (AOR=0.189, 95% CI: 0.070-0.479) and a lower hazard rate for pregnancy by 150 DIM (hazard rate: 0.753, 95% CI: 0.621-0.911), and took longer to get pregnant (129 vs. 111 vs. 109 d, for puerperal metritis, clinical metritis, and healthy cows, respectively

  10. Effect of selenium on its content in milk and performance of dairy cows in ecological farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Horký

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the ecological farming is increasingly spread in the European Union. The aim of this relatively young farming method is a friendly approach to agricultural production with an emphasis to deliver healthy raw materials and food to final consumer. Selenium is included in an essential trace micronutrients which are necessary for the proper process of physiological reactions. It is a part of glutathione peroxidase, which is a powerful antioxidant. At present,  selenium-deficiency can occur in feed and food in central Europe. Selenium deficiency is one cause of the higher occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the experiment was to study whether the addition of selenium to the diet of dairy cows in ecological farming can increase its concentration in milk and affect quantitative (milk yield and quality (content of protein, fat, lactose, somatic cells and urea milk indicators. The experiment included twenty cows of Holstein breed. The first experimental group of cows (n = 10 was fed with selenium in an amount of 0.3 mg.kg-1 (as selenomethionine in the feed dose. The control group (n = 10 was not fed with the increased selenium in the feed dose. The basic feed dose contained 0.17 mg of Se/kg in the diet. For dairy cows, daily intake was of 20.5 kg of dry matter feed. The duration of the experiment was set at 45 days. The selenium concentration in milk was measured from 0.13 to 0.15 µg.mL-1 in the experimental group of cows during the evaluation. The control group of cows without the addition of selenium to the diet showed a selenium concentration below the detection limit. During the experiment, milk yield, lactose, fat and protein were not affected. A significant decrease (p <0.05 of somatic cells by 58% occurred in milk in the experimental group. The amount of urea was significantly lower in both groups in the experimental (by 52%; p <0.05 and control (50%; p <0.05. These results show that the addition of selenium may increase

  11. Precalving and early lactation factors that predict milk casein and fertility in the transition dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Rachael M; Hall, Jenianne K; Westwood, Charlotte T; Celi, Pietro; Lean, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Multiparous Holstein cows (n=82) of either high or low genetic merit (GM) (for milk fat + protein yield) were allocated to 1 of 2 diets in a 2×2 factorial design. Diets differed in the ratio of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) to rumen-degradable protein (37% RUP vs. 15% RUP) and were fed from 21 d precalving to 150 days in milk. This study evaluated the effects of these diets and GM on concentrations of milk casein (CN) variants and aimed to identify precalving and early lactation variables that predict milk CN and protein yield and composition and fertility of dairy cows. It explored the hypothesis that low milk protein content is associated with lower fertility and extended this hypothesis to also evaluate the association of CN contents with fertility. Yields (kg/d) for CN variants were 0.49 and 0.45 of α-CN, 0.38 and 0.34 of β-CN, 0.07 and 0.06 for κ-CN, and 0.10 and 0.09 of γ-CN for high- and low-RUP diets, respectively. Increased RUP increased milk, CN, and milk protein yields. Increased GM increased milk protein and γ-CN yields and tended to increase milk CN yield. The effects of indicator variables on CN variant yields and concentrations were largely consistent, with higher body weight and α-amino nitrogen resulting in higher yields, but lower concentrations. An increase in cholesterol was associated with decreased CN variant concentrations, and disease lowered CN variant yield. A diet high in RUP increased proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy from 41 to 58%. Increased precalving metabolizable protein (MP) balance decreased the proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy when evaluated in a model containing CN percentage, milk protein yield, diet, and GM. This finding suggests that the positive effects of increasing dietary RUP on fertility may be curvilinear because cows with a very positive MP balance before calving were less fertile than those with a lower, but positive, MP balance. Prepartum MP balance was important

  12. [Automated detection of estrus and mastitis in dairy cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mol, R M

    2001-02-15

    The development and test of detection models for oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows is described in a PhD thesis that was defended in Wageningen on June 5, 2000. These models were based on sensors for milk yield, milk temperature, electrical conductivity of milk, and cow activity and concentrate intake, and on combined processing of the sensor data. The models alert farmers to cows that need attention, because of possible oestrus or mastitis. A first detection model for cows, milked twice a day, was based on time series models for the sensor variables. A time series model describes the dependence between successive observations. The parameters of the time series models were fitted on-line for each cow after each milking by means of a Kalman filter, a mathematical method to estimate the state of a system on-line. The Kalman filter gives the best estimate of the current state of a system based on all preceding observations. This model was tested for 2 years on two experimental farms, and under field conditions on four farms over several years. A second detection model, for cow milked in an automatic milking system (AMS), was based on a generalization of the first model. Two data sets (one small, one large) were used for testing. The results for oestrus detection were good for both models. The results for mastitis detection were varying (in some cases good, in other cases moderate). Fuzzy logic was used to classify mastitis and oestrus alerts with both detection models, to reduce the number of false positive alerts. Fuzzy logic makes approximate reasoning possible, where statements can be partly true or false. Input for the fuzzy logic model were alerts from the detection models and additional information. The number of false positive alerts decreased considerably, while the number of detected cases remained at the same level. These models make automated detection possible in practice.

  13. Shifts in bacterial community composition in the rumen of lactating dairy cows under milk fat-depressing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, P J; Stevenson, D M; Mertens, D R

    2010-01-01

    Eighteen ruminally cannulated dairy cattle were fed a series of diets (in 28-d periods) designed to elicit different degrees of milk fat depression (MFD) for the purpose of relating MFD to ruminal bacterial populations. Cows were fed a TMR containing 25% starch (DM basis) supplied as corn silage, a slowly fermented starch (SFS treatment, period 1), then switched to a TMR containing 27% starch, much of it supplied as ground high-moisture corn, a rapidly fermented starch (RFS treatment, period 2). In period 3, the RFS diet was amended with 13.6 mg of monensin/kg of DM (RFS/Mon treatment), and in period 4, the cows were returned to the RFS diet without monensin (RFS/Post treatment). Effect of both starch source and monensin on milk fat percentage varied by cow, and cluster analysis identified 4 pairs of cows having distinct milk fat patterns. Archived ruminal liquors and solids from the 4 pairs were processed to isolate bacterial DNA, which was subjected to automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis followed by correspondence analysis to visualize bacterial community composition (BCC). One pair of cows (S-responsive) showed MFD on RFS feeding, but displayed no additional MFD upon monensin feeding and a fat rebound upon monensin withdrawal. The second pair of cows (M-responsive) showed no MFD upon switch from the SFS diet to the RFS diet, but displayed strong MFD upon monensin feeding and no recovery after monensin withdrawal. Both groups displayed major shifts in BCC upon dietary shifts, including dietary shifts that both did and did not change milk fat production. The third pair of cows (SM-responsive) displayed reduction of milk fat on both RFS and RFS/Mon diets, and fat returned to the levels on the RFS diet upon monensin withdrawal; these cows showed a more gradual shift in BCC in response to both starch source and monensin. The fourth pair of cows (nonresponsive) did not display changes in milk fat percentage with dietary treatment and showed only minor

  14. The Relationship of Cow Comfort and Flooring to Lameness Disorders in Dairy Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Marcia I

    2017-07-01

    Cow comfort and flooring contribute to lameness incidence in dairy herds. The trigger factors for lameness can all be exacerbated by poor cow comfort. Reduced cow comfort influences lameness incidence by increasing the risk for development of new cases and the time it takes for a cow to recover. Reduction in resting time will increase the cow's exposure to hard flooring surfaces. Many factors are associated with lameness prevalence. Housing and management factors should be optimized to reduce lameness incidence on dairy farms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk factors associated with on-farm mortality in Swedish dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvåsen, K.; Jansson Mörk, M.; Dohoo, I. R.

    2014-01-01

    Dairy cow mortality (unassisted death and euthanasia) has increased, worldwide and in Sweden. On-farm mortality indicates suboptimal herd health or welfare and causes financial loss for the dairy producer. The objective of this study was to identify cow-level risk factors associated with on......). The effects of potential risk factors on on-farm cow mortality were analysed using a Weibull proportional hazard model with a gamma distributed frailty effect common to cows within herd. The event of interest (failure) was euthanasia or unassisted death. An observation was right censored if the cow...

  16. Risk factors for digital dermatitis in dairy cows kept in cubicle houses in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, J.G.C.J.; Frankena, K.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    The presence of digital dermatitis (DD) in dairy cows has increased considerably over the last 10 years in The Netherlands, resulting in a current prevalence of 30% in cows kept in cubicle houses. Our objective was to evaluate a diversified sample of cow- and herd-related risk factors for DD in

  17. The milk quality and feasebility analysis of loose housing dairy cows - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Janžekovič

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was technological and economical analysis of free range cow breeding. The case study analyzed two different systems of holstein-friesian dairy cows breeding. The model total costs enterprise budget was developed for evaluation of economic feasibility of loose housing dairy cows in comparison with tied cow breeding system. Computer supported calculation enabled estimation of the most important economical parameters (net return, total cost, and coefficient of economics. Results obtained show that (at observed input parameters loose housing system is economically feasible, if there is a minimum of 41 dairy cows with an average milk production of 8610 kg per cow. It was also established that cows need approximately 6 months to fully adapt to the loose housing system.

  18. Faecal bacterial composition in dairy cows shedding Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in faeces in comparison with nonshedding cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaevska, Marija; Videnska, Petra; Sedlar, Karel; Bartejsova, Iva; Kralova, Alena; Slana, Iva

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in the faecal microbiota of dairy cows infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in comparison with noninfected cows from the same herds. Faecal samples from cows in 4 herds were tested for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by real-time PCR, and faecal bacterial populations were analysed by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The most notable differences between shedding and nonshedding cows were an increase in the genus Psychrobacter and a decrease in the genera Oscillospira, Ruminococcus, and Bifidobacterium in cows infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The present study is the first to report the faecal microbial composition in dairy cows infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

  19. Herd health and management of dairy cow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćaǧlayan, Alper; Yüca, Songül

    2016-04-01

    Herd management requires multidisciplinary practices including animal feeding, gynecology, artificial insemination, immunology, and similar topics. Animal feeding is the most delicate subject as the fodder expense is 70% of the farm cost and as nearly all of the metabolic diseases arising out as health problem are because of misfeeding. However, a business organization's being able to maintain making profit will be possible by taking a healthy calf from breeding herd every year. For this reason, precision registrations of birth and artificial insemination, following-up pregnant state of animals, and making the other animals pregnant as soon as possible should be primary aim. It should not be forgotten that diarrhea and pneumonia in calves are among the most frequently witnessed infection related health problems. Mastitis, metritis and foot diseases take an important place in mature cows. These diseases can be minimized by vaccinations that are done properly and in suitable time, in-service training of staffs, making shelters suitable for animals welfare, and improving the hygienic conditions.

  20. Effect of Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) in Dairy Cow Diets on Manure Bioenergy Production Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Daniel I; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Saady, Noori M Cata

    2014-03-05

    The main objective of this study was to obtain scientifically sound data on the bioenergy potential of dairy manures from cows fed different levels of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Three diets differing in corn DDGS content were formulated: 0% corn DDGS (DDGS0; control diet), 10% corn DDGS (DDGS10) and 30% corn DDGS (DDGS30). Bioenergy production was determined in psychrophilic (25 ± 1 °C) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed 3 g COD L(-1)·day(-1) during a two-week feeding period followed by a two-week react period. Compared to the control diet, adding DDGS10 and DDGS30 to the dairy cow diet increased the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry by 29% and 70%, respectively. The addition of DDGS30 increased the cows' daily production of fresh feces and slurry by 15% and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, the incorporation of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. While the addition of DDGS did not significantly affect the specific CH₄ production per kg VS compared to the control diet, DDGS30 increased the per cow daily CH₄ production by 14% compared to the control diet.

  1. Studies on quantity and composition of dairy cow excreta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschke, H.

    1982-01-01

    After feeding a lactating dairy cow a day ration completely enriched with 15 N, the quantities of feces and urine were registered over a period of ten days and put into proportion to the animal mass. The fecal dry matter was put into proportion to the dry matter of the fodder by means of 15 N analysis the N excretion with the excreta was determined concerning quantity and time. Selected feces and urine charges were used to produce a slurry model. The content of nutritive elements of the initial components and of the organic fertilizer are discussed. (author)

  2. Precursors for liver gluconeogenesis in periparturient dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2013-01-01

    -organ transfer of nitrogen from catabolised AA. AAs seem to be prioritised for anabolic purposes, indicating the relevance of investigating effects of supplying additional protein to post partum dairy cows. Combining data from quantitative and qualitative experimental techniques on L-lactate metabolism point...... to the conclusion that the quantitatively most important adaptation of metabolism to support the increased glucose demand in the immediate post partum period is endogenous recycling of glucogenic carbon through lactate. This is mediated by a dual site of adaptation of metabolism in the liver and in the peripheral...

  3. Feeding Moringa oleifera fresh or ensiled to dairy cows--effects on milk yield and milk flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendieta-Araica, Bryan; Spörndly, Eva; Reyes-Sánchez, Nadir; Spörndly, Rolf

    2011-06-01

    Moringa oleifera, either fresh or ensiled, was compared with Elephant grass as a main feedstuff for dairy cows. To test the effects feed had on milk yield, milk composition, ration digestibility, and the organoleptic characteristics of milk, six lactating dairy cows were used in a Changeover 3 × 3 Latin Square experiment, replicated twice. With equal intake of metabolizable energy the intake of protein and fiber differed (p Moringa had the highest and the Elephant grass diet had the lowest intake. Compared with the control diet, ensiled Moringa had higher digestibility (P Moringa and Moringa silage treatments. Milk yield did not differ between any of the treatments and averaged 13.7 kg cow day(-1). Milk composition was similar among all treatments. Milk from the fresh Moringa treatment, however, had a grassy flavor and aroma, significantly different from the other two treatments, even though it was normal in color and appearance. No organoleptic differences were found between milk from the control treatment and the Moringa silage treatment. The conclusion is that Moringa silage can be fed to dairy cows in large quantities to produce the same quantity and quality of milk as traditional diets.

  4. Effects of Combination of Rice Straw with Alfalfa Pellet on Milk Productivity and Chewing Activity in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. J. Na

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets containing coarse-texture rice straw and small particle size alfalfa pellets as a part of total mixed ration (TMR on milk productivity and chewing activity in lactating dairy cows. Sixteen multiparous Holstein dairy cows (670±21 kg body weight in mid-lactation (194.1±13.6 days in milk were randomly assigned to TMR containing 50% of timothy hay (TH or TMR containing 20% of rice straw and 30% of alfalfa pellet mixture (RSAP. Geometric mean lengths of TH and RSAP were found to be 5.8 and 3.6, respectively. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were measured. Moreover, eating and ruminating times were recorded continuously using infrared digital camcorders. Milk yield and milk composition were not detected to have significant differences between TH and RSAP. Dry matter intake (DMI did not significantly differ for cows fed with TH or RSAP. Although particle size of TH was larger than RSAP, eating, ruminating and total chewing time (min/d or min/kg of DMI on TH and RSAP were similar. Taken together, our results suggest that using a proper amount of coarse-texture rice straw with high value nutritive alfalfa pellets may stimulate chewing activity in dairy cows without decreasing milk yield and composition even though the quantity of rice straw was 40% of TH.

  5. Main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Abeni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarise the main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows. Intensive farming systems are considered, both from a structural and a managerial point of view, for their constraints that may limit animal welfare: possible physical activity; acceptable interactions with humans and other animals; feeding and watering, protection from climate, parasites, and diseases. The dairy farms managed according to the organic rules do not always guarantee, per se, better welfare conditions; organic or low input dairy farming needs to consider the right interaction among cattle breed and herd management, focusing on the actual quality of feedstuffs meet face cow requirements. The considered structural aspects evidence how special care must be given to the rest area (straw yard or cubicle; to the floors that should be not too hard or abrasive and not slippery; to the cubicle bedding material to ensure hygiene, softness, and dryness; to the feeding (and watering area to reduce conflicts; to a microclimate control system, to avoid heat stress during summer time. The importance of proper management for animal welfare is evidenced for buildings and equipment, to have clean and comfortable stables and well functioning milking machines; nutritive and storage quality of feeds; diet suitability (energy, protein, physically efficient fibre, buffers etc., in the different phases of a dairy cow’s life (dry period, close-up, transition, and lactation; feed distribution (frequency and time, and 24h availability. Special attention has to be paid to the social aspects, regarding both animal competition (stocking density, group size, and human/animal interactions (methods of management and manipulation. The interaction between welfare and health requires special attention. Poor welfare can cause immune depression, thus increasing the risk of disease. In turn, any disease that causes an inflammatory response may determine depression

  6. Daily eating activity of dairy cows from 3D accelerometer data and RFID signals: prediction by random forests and detection of sick cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldager, Leslie; Gildbjerg, Lars Bilde; Voss, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Feed intake is very important for dairy cows and deviation from normal eating behaviour may predict a cow that needs treatment. We used video recordings of dairy cows at the Danish Cattle Research Centre (DKC) combined with data from a neck-collar mounted 3D accelerometer and RFID device from...

  7. Effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines, AMP-activated protein kinase, and heat shock signal molecules in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Li; Cheng, Jian-bo; Shi, Bao-lu; Yang, Hong-jian; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jia-qi

    2015-06-01

    Heat stress affects feed intake, milk production, and endocrine status in dairy cows. The temperature-humidity index (THI) is employed as an index to evaluate the degree of heat stress in dairy cows. However, it is difficult to ascertain whether THI is the most appropriate measurement of heat stress in dairy cows. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and heat shock signal molecules (heat shock transcription factor (HSF) and heat shock proteins (HSP)) in dairy cows and to research biomarkers to be used for better understanding the meaning of THI as a bioclimatic index. To achieve these objectives, two experiments were performed. The first experiment: eighteen lactating Holstein dairy cows were used. The treatments were: heat stress (HS, THI average=81.7, n=9) and cooling (CL, THI average=53.4, n=9). Samples of HS were obtained on August 16, 2013, and samples of CL were collected on April 7, 2014 in natural conditions. The second experiment: HS treatment cows (n=9) from the first experiment were fed for 8 weeks from August 16, 2013 to October 12, 2013. Samples for moderate heat stress, mild heat stress, and no heat stress were obtained, respectively, according to the physical alterations of the THI. Results showed that heat stress significantly increased the serum adiponectin, AMPK, HSF, HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90 (Pdairy cows. When heat stress treatment lasted 8 weeks, a higher expression of HSF and HSP70 was observed under moderate heat stress. Serum HSF and HSP70 are sensitive and accurate in heat stress and they could be potential indicators of animal response to heat stress. We recommend serum HSF and HSP70 as meaningful biomarkers to supplement the THI and evaluate moderate heat stress in dairy cows in the future.

  8. Effects of bedding quality on lying behavior of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregonesi, J A; Veira, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2007-12-01

    Cows prefer to spend more time lying down in free stalls with more bedding, but no research to date has addressed the effects of bedding quality. Bedding in stalls often becomes wet either from exposure to the elements or from feces and urine. The aim of this study was to test the effect of wet bedding on stall preference and use. Four groups of 6 nonlactating Holstein cows were housed in free stalls bedded daily with approximately 0.1 m of fresh sawdust. Following a 5-d adaptation period, each group of cows was tested sequentially with access to stalls with either dry or wet sawdust bedding (86.4 +/- 2.1 vs. 26.5 +/- 2.1% dry matter), each for 2 d. These no-choice phases were followed by a 2-d free-choice phase during which cows had simultaneous access to stalls containing either wet or dry bedding. Stall usage was assessed by using 24-h video recordings scanned at 10-min intervals, and responses were analyzed by using a mixed model, with group (n = 4) as the observational unit. The minimum and maximum environmental temperatures during the experiment were 3.4 +/- 2.2 and 6.8 +/- 2.5 degrees C, respectively. When cows had access only to stalls with wet bedding, they spent 8.8 +/- 0.8 h/d lying down, which increased to 13.8 +/- 0.8 h/d when stalls with dry bedding were provided. Cows spent more time standing with their front 2 hooves in the stall when provided with wet vs. dry bedding (92 +/- 10 vs. 32 +/- 10 min/d). During the free-choice phase, all cows spent more time lying down in the dry stalls, spending 12.5 +/- 0.3 h/d in the dry stalls vs. 0.9 +/- 0.3 h/ d in stalls with wet bedding. In conclusion, dairy cows show a clear preference for a dry lying surface, and they spend much more time standing outside the stall when only wet bedding is available.

  9. Stage of lactation and corresponding diets affect in situ protein degradation by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadt, I; Mertens, D R; Van Soest, P J; Azzaro, G; Licitra, G

    2014-12-01

    The influence of stage of lactation and corresponding diets on rates of protein degradation (kd) is largely unstudied. Study objectives were to measure and compare in situ ruminal kd of crude protein (CP) and estimate rumen CP escape (rumen-undegradable protein; RUP) of selected feeds by cows at 3 stages of lactation fed corresponding diets, and to determine the incubation times needed in an enzymatic in vitro procedure, using 0.2 units of Streptomyces griseus protease per percent of true CP, that predicted in situ RUP. Residue CP was measured after in situ fermentation for 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h of 5 protein sources and 3 total mixed rations, which were fed to the in situ cows. Two nonlactating (dry) cows and 2 cows each at 190 (mid) and 90 (peak) days of lactation were used. Each pair of cows was offered free-choice diets that differed in composition to meet their corresponding nutrient requirements. Diets had decreasing proportions of forages and contained (dry matter basis) 11.9, 15.1 and 16.4% CP and 54.3, 40.3 and 35.3% neutral detergent fiber, for dry, mid, and peak TMR (TMR1, TMR2, and TMR3), respectively. Intakes were 10.3, 21.4, and 23.8kg of dry matter/d, respectively. Kinetic CP fractions (extractable, potentially degradable, undegradable, or slowly degradable) were unaffected by treatment. Lag time and kd varied among feeds. The kd was faster for all feeds (0.136/h) when incubated in dry-TMR1 cows compared with mid-TMR2 (0.097/h) or peak-TMR3 (0.098/h) cows, and no differences in lag time were detected. Calculated RUP, using estimated passage rates for each cow based on intake, differed between dry-TMR1 (0.382) and mid-TMR2 (0.559) or peak-TMR3 (0.626) cows, with a tendency for mid-TMR2 to be different from peak-TMR3. Using the average kd and lag time obtained from dry-TMR1 to calculate RUP for mid-TMR2 and peak-TMR3 cows using their passage rates reduced RUP values by 6.3 and 9.5 percentage units, respectively. Except for that of herring meal

  10. Effect of peroral supplementation with selenium and vitamin e during late pregnancy on udder health and milk quality in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Vasiľ; František Zigo; Juraj Elečko; Martina Zigová; Zuzana Farkašová

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to study selenium and vitamin E sources in the diet of dairy cows in late phase of pregnancy and their effects on udder health and milk quality during the first two weeks after calving. The experiment included 48 cows of Holstein breed divided into four equal groups (n = 12). The first experimental group (D1) was fed with addition of vitamin E in total dose of 1020 dl-a-tocopherol acetate Se/cow per day. The second group (D2) was added the selenium at a dose of 0...

  11. Postpartum responses of dairy cows supplemented with n-3 fatty acids for different durations during the peripartal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiei, A; Aliverdilou, A; Amanlou, H; Beheshti, M; Dirandeh, E; Masoumi, R; Moosakhani, F; Petit, H V

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different durations of n-3 supplementation during the peripartal period on production and reproduction performance of Holstein dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dry cows (16 multiparous and 16 primiparous) were blocked within parity for similar expected calving dates 8 wk before calving. Cows within blocks were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 treatments: (1) control without n-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation during the dry period; (2) n-3 FA supplementation during the whole dry period (8 wk); and (3) n-3 FA supplementation during the early dry period (first 5 wk; far-off), or (4) n-3 FA supplementation during the late dry period (last 3 wk; close-up). All cows received the same diet without n-3 FA after calving for the first 6 wk of lactation. Ovaries of each cow were examined 10, 17, 24, and 34 d from calving (calving=d 0) by transrectal ultrasonography to determine follicular development. Blood samples were collected at 14-d intervals starting on the first day of the dry period (8 wk before expected calving) to determine plasma concentrations of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids, urea N, aspartate aminotransferase, and insulin. Blood samples were also collected on d 1, 10, 17, 24, 31, and 38 postpartum for determination of progesterone concentration. Milk yield was recorded daily throughout the experiment and samples were taken twice weekly (Monday and Thursday mornings) for analysis of fat, protein, and lactose. Yields of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk and milk composition were similar among treatments except for fat proportion, which tended to be lower in cows that were fed n-3 FA throughout the dry period. We observed no differences among treatments for plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones. The cows that were fed in the 3 n-3 FA treatments had larger ovulatory follicles compared with those fed the controlled diet. Treatments did not differ significantly in terms of the

  12. The use of yeast culture in feeding of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Doležal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I – 1077 addition in the diet of dairy cows on their rumen fermentation. Animals received a diet consisting of good maize silage with a higher dry matter content (18 kg, 6 kg of lucerne haylage, 5 kg of pea – silage, 3 kg of ensiled high moisture crimped corn, 1 kg of meadow hay, rape-cake 1 kg, ­brewer’s grain silage 4 kg, and 8.0 kg feed mixture. The yeast culture was added to the mixture in the dose 2.8*1010 cfu / day and cow. The supplement of yeast culture showed a positive effect on ruminal VFA production by experimental group cows in comparison with control, higher production (P < 0.01 of acetic acid (58.50 ± 1.2583b vs. 51.833 ± 2.409a %, and lower production of propionic and butyric acid (24.667 ± 1.3744a vs. 28.833 ± 1.863b %. The average utilisation of ammonia was higher by cows in treated group (12.267 ± 0.754 mmol / L, but difference was not significant. The difference in number of protozoa of cows in the control and experimental groups was significant (P < 0.05 different (308.333 ± 24.390a vs. 342.333 ± 10.9341b ths /1 ml of rumen fluid.

  13. Metabolic fate of [U-14C]pentachlorophenol in a lactating dairy cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinzell, J.H.; McKenzie, R.M.; Olson, B.A.; Kirsch, D.G.; Shull, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    A lactating Holstein-Friesen dairy cow was administered a single oral dose of [U- 14 C]pentachlorophenol (PCP). To better simulate chronic exposure conditions on a typical dairy farm, the cow was fed 0.2 mg/kg body wt/day technical PCP for 95 days prior to [U- 14 C]PCP administration and for the 4 days postadministration. Both absorption and elimination of PCP obeyed first-order kinetics and had half-lives of 4.3 and 43 h, respectively. Over the 76-h postadministration, 75% of the radiolabel was eliminated in urine, 5% in milk, and 5% in feces. The radiolabel was distributed widely into various tissues, but the highest levels were in liver, kidneys, and lungs. Skeletal muscle and adipose tissue contained among the lowest levels. In milk, the fat fraction contained the greatest amount of the radiolabel but the whey fraction represented the largest pool (62.2%). In whey and casein, both conjugated and unconjugated forms were quantified. There was no evidence of phase 1 metabolism of PCP, whereas phase 2 metabolism (conjugation) was highly evident. In urine, two-thirds of the PCP was present in a conjugated form, whereas in serum about 80% was present as unconjugated PCP. These data suggest that efficient conjugation and elimination of PCP prevent its accumulation in cattle tissues

  14. Diurnal behavior of dairy cows on alfalfa pastures supplemented with corn silage and concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Peres Netto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal ingestive behavior of dairy cows on alfalfa pastures supplemented with corn silage and concentrate was evaluated. Sixteen Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation were used in a randomized block design. The treatments were partial replacement of corn silage for limited alfalfa grazing time (LGT or unlimited grazing time (UGT. Rotational alfalfa grazing was used and the amount of concentrate fed was the same in both treatments. Behavioral activities observed were time spent grazing, rumination and idleness, during four days, from 8:00 AM to 7:00 PM. From 2:00 to 5:00 PM grazing was intermittent and short-lasting on UGT, whereas on LGT grazing activity was longer than UGT in the morning and at the end of the afternoon. Restriction in available grazing time clearly influenced the distribution of time spent with grazing, rumination and idleness throughout the day. However, this effect was not observed in the total time spent in these activities.

  15. Supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol of dairy cows in early lactation - Effects on metabolic status, body condition, and milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Frössling, J; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol to dairy cows in early lactation on metabolic status, body condition and milk yield. In total, 673 newly calved cows from 12 commercial Swedish dairy herds were randomized to daily....... No differences in BCS or HG or in plasma concentrations of glucose, BHBA, NEFA, or IGF-1 were found between the control group and any of the treatment groups. Cows in the GLY group had lower plasma insulin concentrations during DIM 0 to 63 compared with group CON, but no difference in insulin was found between...... supplementation with 450 g of glycerol (GLY), 300 g of propylene glycol (PG), or nothing (control, CON). Supplements were fed twice daily from 0 to 21 d in milk (DIM) as a top dress on concentrates. For each cow, data on parity, breed, calving date, monthly test-day milk yield, and cases of diseases were...

  16. Dairy cows increase ingestive mastication and reduce ruminative chewing when grazing chicory and plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorini, P; Minnee, E M K; Griffiths, W; Lee, J M

    2013-01-01

    Although the nutritive value of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) has been thoroughly studied, little is known about the grazing behavior of cattle feeding on chicory and plantain swards. The objective of the present study was to assess and describe the grazing behavior of dairy cows as affected by dietary proportions of chicory and plantain fed as monocultures for part of the day. Ninety Holstein-Friesian cows (489±42 kg of body weight; 4.1±0.3 body condition score, and 216±15 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 15 groups (6 cows per group) and grazed according to 7 treatments: control (CTL, 3 groups), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) dominant sward (24-h pasture strip); 3 chicory treatments comprising 20, 40, and 60% of the diet, strip-grazing a monoculture of chicory to a fixed postgrazing residual before strip-grazing a perennial ryegrass dominant sward (2 groups of cows per treatment); and 3 plantain treatments comprising 20, 40, and 60% of the diet, strip-grazing a monoculture of plantain to a fixed postgrazing residual before strip-grazing a perennial ryegrass dominant sward (2 groups of cows per treatment). Four focal animals per group were equipped with 3-dimensional motion sensors, which provided the number of steps taken at each minute of the day. These cows were also fitted with automatic jaw-movement recorders that identified bites, mastication during ingestion, chewing during rumination, and determined grazing, rumination and idling times and bouts. Daily grazing time and bouts were not affected by treatments but rumination time differed and was reduced by up to 90 min when cows were allocated to chicory and plantain as 60% of their diet. Ruminative chewing was reduced in cows grazing chicory and plantain by up to 20% in cows allocated to the 60% treatments. Compared with perennial ryegrass, as the dietary proportion of chicory and plantain increased, cows spent more time idling and less time ruminating

  17. Effect of feeding rumen-protected methionine on productive and reproductive performance of dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Mateus Z.; Baez, Giovanni M.; Garcia-Guerra, Alvaro; Lobos, Nelson E.; Guenther, Jerry N.; Trevisol, Eduardo; Luchini, Daniel; Shaver, Randy D.

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of daily top-dressing (individually feeding on the top of the total mixed ration) with rumen-protected methionine (RPM) from 30 ± 3 until 126 ± 3 Days in milk on productive and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cows. A total of 309 lactating dairy Holstein cows (138 primiparous and 171 multiparous) were randomly assigned to treatment diets containing either RPM (21.2 g of RPM + 38.8 g of dried distillers grain; 2.34% Methionine [Met] of metabolizable protein [MP]) or Control (CON; 60 g of dried distillers grain; 1.87% Met of MP). Plasma amino acids were evaluated at the time of artificial insemination (AI) and near pregnancy diagnosis. Milk production and milk composition were evaluated monthly. Pregnancy was diagnosed on Day 28 (by Pregnancy-specific protein B [PSPB]), 32, 47, and 61 (by ultrasound) and sizes of embryonic and amniotic vesicle were determined by ultrasound on Day 33 after AI. Feeding RPM increased plasma Met at 6, 9, 12, and 18 hours after top-dressing with a peak at 12 hours (52.4 vs 26.0 μM; P Cows fed RPM had a small increase in milk protein percentage (3.08 vs 3.00%; P = 0.04) with no differences on milk yield and milk protein yield. Additionally, in multiparous cows, RPM feeding increased milk protein (3.03 vs 2.95%; P = 0.05) and fat (3.45 vs 3.14%; P = 0.01) percentages, although no effects were observed in primiparous cows. In multiparous cows fed RPM, pregnancy loss was lower between Days 28 to 61 (19.6 [10/51] vs. 6.1% [3/49]; P = 0.03) or between Days 32 to 61 (8.9 [4/45] vs. 0 [0/0] %; P = 0.03), although, there was no effect of treatment on pregnancy loss in primiparous cows. Consistent with data on pregnancy loss, RPM feeding increased embryonic abdominal diameter (P = 0.01) and volume (P = 0.009) and amniotic vesicle volume (P = 0.04) on Day 33 of pregnancy in multiparous cows but had no effect on embryonic size in primiparous cows. Thus, the increase in plasma

  18. Dairy cow breed interacts with stocking rate in temperate pasture-based dairy production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaans, O K; Macdonald, K A; Lancaster, J A S; Bryant, A M; Roche, J R

    2018-05-01

    Economic optimum stocking rates for grazing dairy systems have been defined by accounting for the pasture production potential of the farm [t of dry matter (DM)/ha], the amount of feed imported from outside the farm (t of DM/ha), and the size of the cow (kg). These variables were combined into the comparative stocking rate [CSR; kg of body weight (BW)/t of feed DM available] measure. However, CSR assumes no effect of cow genetics beyond BW, and there is increasing evidence of within-breed differences in residual feed intake and between-breed differences in the gross efficiency with which cows use metabolizable energy for milk production. A multiyear production system experiment was established to determine whether Jersey (J) and Holstein-Friesian (HF) breeds performed similarly at the same CSR. Fifty-nine J cows and 51 HF cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 CSR in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement; systems were designed to have a CSR of either 80 or 100 kg of BW/t of feed DM (J-CSR80, J-CSR100, HF-CSR80, and HF-CSR100 treatment groups). Data were analyzed for consistency of farmlet response over years using ANOVA procedures, with year and farmlet as fixed effects and the interaction of farmlet with year as a random effect. The collated biological data and financial data extracted from a national economic database were used to model the financial performance for the different breed and CSR treatments. On average, annual and individual season pasture DM production was greater for the J farmlets and was less in the CSR100 treatment; however, the effect of CSR was primarily driven by a large decline in pasture DM production in the HF-CSR100 treatment (breed × CSR interaction). This interaction in feed availability resulted in a breed × CSR interaction for the per-cow and per-hectare milk production variables, with HF cows producing more milk and milk components per cow in the CSR80 treatment but the same amount as the J cows in the CSR100 treatment. On a per

  19. Effect of water extract from spent mushroom substrate after Ganoderma balabacense cultivation by using JUNCAO technique on production performance and hematology parameters of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Zhao, Chao; Lin, Dongmei; Lin, Hui; Lin, Zhanxi

    2015-09-01

    The spent mushroom substrate of Ganoderma balabacense cultivation (SMSGB) contains a large amount of bioactive substances. However, the potentials of SMSGB for improving milk production in dairy cows have not been thoroughly studied. In this study, the effects of hot water extract (HWE) from spent mushroom substrate after G. balabacense cultivated with JUNCAO, the herbaceous plants long-known to be suitable for cultivating edible and medicinal fungi, on production performance and hematology parameters of dairy cows, were determined. Holstein dairy cows were fed different doses of HWE. After a 60-day administration period with 100 g/day of HWE, milk yield, milk protein and triglyceride (TG) levels increased by 4.02% (P < 0.01), 4.49% (P < 0.05) and 32.65% (P < 0.05), respectively; somatic cell count (SCC) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The production performance of dairy cows suggests that HWE with SMSGB treatment is effective in improving milk yield (P < 0.01) and hematology parameters of dairy cows, and may be useful as a functional feed additive. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Comparison of three techniques for estimating the forage intake of lactating dairy cows on pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macoon, B; Sollenberger, L E; Moore, J E; Staples, C R; Fike, J H; Portier, K M

    2003-09-01

    Quantifying DMI is necessary for estimation of nutrient consumption by ruminants, but it is inherently difficult on grazed pastures and even more so when supplements are fed. Our objectives were to compare three methods of estimating forage DMI (inference from animal performance, evaluation from fecal output using a pulse-dose marker, and estimation from herbage disappearance methods) and to identify the most useful approach or combination of approaches for estimating pasture intake by lactating dairy cows. During three continuous 28-d periods in the winter season, Holstein cows (Bos taurus; n = 32) grazed a cool-season grass or a cool-season grass-clover mixture at two stocking rates (SR; 5 vs. 2.5 cows/ha) and were fed two rates of concentrate supplementation (CS; 1 kg of concentrate [as-fed] per 2.5 or 3.5 kg of milk produced). Animal response data used in computations for the animal performance method were obtained from the latter 14 d of each period. For the pulse-dose marker method, chromium-mordanted fiber was used. Pasture sampling to determine herbage disappearance was done weekly throughout the study. Forage DMI estimated by the animal performance method was different among periods (P forage mass. The pulse-dose marker method generally provided greater estimates of forage DMI (as much as 11.0 kg/d more than the animal performance method) and was not correlated with the other methods. Estimates of forage DMI by the herbage disappearance method were correlated with the animal performance method. The difference between estimates from these two methods, ranging from -4.7 to 5.4 kg/d, were much lower than their difference from pulse-dose marker estimates. The results of this study suggest that, when appropriate for the research objectives, the animal performance or herbage disappearance methods may be useful and less costly alternatives to using the pulse-dose method.

  1. Evaluation of corn germ from ethanol production as an alternative fat source in dairy cow diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelqader, M M; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Schingoethe, D J; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2009-03-01

    Sixteen multiparous cows (12 Holstein and 4 Brown Swiss, 132 +/- 20 d in milk) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to determine the effects of feeding corn germ on dairy cow performance. Diets were formulated with increasing concentrations of corn germ (Dakota Germ, Poet Nutrition, Sioux Falls, SD) at 0, 7, 14, and 21% of the diet dry matter (DM). All diets had a 55:45 forage to concentrate ratio, where forage was 55% corn silage and 45% alfalfa hay. Dietary fat increased from 4.8% in the control diet to 8.2% at the greatest inclusion level of corn germ. The addition of corn germ resulted in a quadratic response in DM intake with numerically greater intake at 14% of diet DM. Feeding corn germ at 7 and 14% of diet DM increased milk yield and energy-corrected milk as well as fat percentage and yield. Milk protein yield tended to decrease as the concentration of corn germ increased in the diet. Dietary treatments had no effect on feed efficiency, which averaged 1.40 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of DMI. Increasing the dietary concentration of corn germ resulted in a linear increase in milk fat concentrations of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids at the expense of saturated fatty acids. Milk fat concentration and yield of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid were increased with increased dietary concentrations of corn germ. Although milk fat concentrations of both total trans-18:1 and cis-18:1 fatty acids increased linearly, a marked numeric increase in the concentration of trans-10 C18:1 was observed in milk from cows fed the 21% corn germ diet. A similar response was observed in plasma concentration of trans-10 C18:1. Feeding increasing concentrations of corn germ had no effect on plasma concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, or beta-hydroxybutyrate; however, the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids increased linearly, with plasma cholesterol concentration demonstrating a similar trend

  2. Associations between lipid metabolism and fertility in the dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathes, D Claire; Clempson, Andrew M; Pollott, Geoff E

    2012-01-01

    Dairy cows mobilise body tissues to support milk production and, because glucose supplies are limited, lipids are used preferentially for energy production. Lipogenic activity is switched off and lipolytic mechanisms in adipose tissue increase through changes in the expression of several key enzymes. This results in a loss of body condition, together with high circulating concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids. Changes in the synthesis, secretion and signalling pathways of somatotrophic hormones (insulin, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1) and adipokines (e.g. leptin) are central to the regulation of these processes. A high reliance on fatty acids as an energy source in the peripartum period causes oxidative damage to mitochondria in metabolically active tissues, including the liver and reproductive tract. The expression of genes involved in insulin resistance (PDK4, AHSG) is increased, together with expression of TIEG1, a transcription factor that can induce apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. Polymorphisms in TFAM and UCP2, two autosomal mitochondrial genes, have been associated with longevity in dairy cows. Polymorphisms in many other genes that affect lipid metabolism also show some associations with fertility traits. These include DGAT1, SCD1, DECR1, CRH, CBFA2T1, GH, LEP and NPY. Excess lipid accumulation in oocytes and the regenerating endometrium reduces fertility via reductions in embryo survival and increased inflammatory changes, respectively.

  3. The effect of partial replacement of corn silage on rumen degradability, milk production and composition in lactating primiparous dairy cows

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    Hakan Biricik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of corn silage with long alfalfa hay and/or coarse chopped wheat straw on neutral detergent fibre (NDF rumen degradability, milk yield and composition in late lactating dairy cows fed diets with 50% forage on dry matter basis. Twelve late lactating Holstein primiparous cows including four cows equipped with a rumen cannula, averaging 210 ± 20 d in milk and weighing 575 ± 50 kg were randomly assigned in a 4x4 Latin square design. During each of four 21-d periods, cows were fed 4 total mixed diets that were varied in the forage sources: 1 50% corn silage (CS, 2 35% corn silage + 15% wheat straw (CSW, 3 35% corn silage + 15% alfalfa hay (CSA, 4 25% corn silage + 10% wheat straw + 15% alfalfa hay (CSWA. The production of milk averaged 18.55, 20.41 and 20.06 kg/d for unadjusted milk production, 4% fat corrected milk and solid corrected milk, respectively, and was not affected by treatments. Likewise, milk composition or production of milk components was not affected by diets and averaged 4.69% fat, 3.66% protein, 4.51% lactose, 866 g/d fat, 665 g/d protein, 824 g/d lactose. Treatments had no effect on in situ NDF soluble, degradable and potential degradability of all diets, whereas the effective degradability (ED of NDF was greater for cows fed CS diet than for cows fed CSW, CSA and CSWA diets (P<0.05. These values suggested that the partial replacement of corn silage with alfalfa hay and/or wheat straw has no unfavourable effect on the productive parameters.

  4. Prevalence of mastitis in dairy cows from smallholder farms in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Simbarashe Katsande; Gift Matope; Masimba Ndengu; Davies M. Pfukenyi

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis and the associated factors in cows from selected smallholder dairy farms in Zimbabwe. Physical examinations were conducted on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis. Composite milk samples were collected from all lactating cows for bacterial culture and somatic cell counting. Cows were categorised as clinical if they exhibited clinical features of mastitis, or sub-cli...

  5. Lateralized behaviour as indicator of affective state in dairy cows.

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    Sarah Kappel

    Full Text Available In humans, there is evidence that sensory processing of novel or threatening stimuli is right hemisphere dominated, especially in people experiencing negative affective states. There is also evidence for similar lateralization in a number of non-human animal species. Here we investigate whether this is also the case in domestic cattle that may experience long-term negative states due to commonly occurring conditions such as lameness. Health and welfare implications associated with pain in lame cows are a major concern in dairy farming. Behavioural tests combining animal behaviour and cognition could make a meaningful contribution to our understanding of disease-related changes in sensory processing in animals, and consequently enhance their welfare. We presented 216 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows with three different unfamiliar objects which were placed either bilaterally (e.g. two yellow party balloons, two black/white checkerboards or hung centrally (a Kong™ within a familiar area. Cows were individually exposed to the objects on three consecutive days, and their viewing preference/eye use, exploration behaviour/nostril use, and stop position during approach was assessed. Mobility (lameness was repeatedly scored during the testing period. Overall, a bias to view the right rather than the left object was found at initial presentation of the bilateral objects. More cows also explored the right object rather than the left object with their nose. There was a trend for cows appearing hesitant in approaching the objects by stopping at a distance to them, to then explore the left object rather than the right. In contrast, cows that approached the objects directly had a greater tendency to contact the right object. No significant preference in right or left eye/nostril use was found when cows explored the centrally-located object. We found no relationship between lameness and lateralized behaviour. Nevertheless, observed trends suggesting that

  6. Lateralized behaviour as indicator of affective state in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, Sarah; Mendl, Michael T; Barrett, David C; Murrell, Joanna C; Whay, Helen R

    2017-01-01

    In humans, there is evidence that sensory processing of novel or threatening stimuli is right hemisphere dominated, especially in people experiencing negative affective states. There is also evidence for similar lateralization in a number of non-human animal species. Here we investigate whether this is also the case in domestic cattle that may experience long-term negative states due to commonly occurring conditions such as lameness. Health and welfare implications associated with pain in lame cows are a major concern in dairy farming. Behavioural tests combining animal behaviour and cognition could make a meaningful contribution to our understanding of disease-related changes in sensory processing in animals, and consequently enhance their welfare. We presented 216 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows with three different unfamiliar objects which were placed either bilaterally (e.g. two yellow party balloons, two black/white checkerboards) or hung centrally (a Kong™) within a familiar area. Cows were individually exposed to the objects on three consecutive days, and their viewing preference/eye use, exploration behaviour/nostril use, and stop position during approach was assessed. Mobility (lameness) was repeatedly scored during the testing period. Overall, a bias to view the right rather than the left object was found at initial presentation of the bilateral objects. More cows also explored the right object rather than the left object with their nose. There was a trend for cows appearing hesitant in approaching the objects by stopping at a distance to them, to then explore the left object rather than the right. In contrast, cows that approached the objects directly had a greater tendency to contact the right object. No significant preference in right or left eye/nostril use was found when cows explored the centrally-located object. We found no relationship between lameness and lateralized behaviour. Nevertheless, observed trends suggesting that lateralized

  7. Fluoride Concentration in Water, Cow Milk and Cow Urine from Smallholder Dairy Farms in Kiambu- Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gikunju, J.K.; Maitho, T.E.; Kyule, M.N.; Mitema, E.S.; Mugera, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Kiambu district is situated in central part of Kenya. most of the available land is suitable for agricultural use. majority of the farmers are small scale or subsistence farmers and they are involve in a variety of livestock activities e.g. dairy production, pig production and others in combination or as separate operations. excessive fluoride ingestion can cause specific dental and skeletal lesions and in severe cases adversely influence the health and productivity performance of domestic animals.therefore a study was designed to investigate the levels of flouride in urine, milk and water samples from small scale dairy farms in Kiambu. Water, cow urine and milk samples were collected in clean plastic containers from 84 small scale farms belonging to 6 dairy farmers co-operative societies (DFCs). The DFCs in this study were Kiambaa, Lari, Nderi, Kikuyu, Chania and Limuru. The fluoride concentration in water milk and urine were analysed using the potentiometric method of fluoride ion specific electrode. overall urine contained the highest fluoride concentration while milk contained the lowest fluoride levels. Fluoride levels in water, milk and urine were significantly different, (P>0.05). The mean fluoride concentration in water from all societies was 0.29 ppm while the mean fluoride concentration in milk 0.05 ppm. urine samples had the highest fluoride concentration, (1.5 ppm). The cooperative specific mean fluoride concentrations arranged in descending order were as follow: Nderi (2.8 ppm), Kikuyu (2.4 ppm), Kiambaa(1.9 ppm), Chania (1.6 ppm), Limuru (1.3 ppm) and Lari (1.0 ppm). The maximum fluoride concentration encountered in water in this study was 3.4 ppm, however adverse productivity has been reported in dairy animals consuming as low as 2.15 ppm in drinking water. The mean milk production in in kilograms per day per cow ranged from 2.5 to 6.9 when all six dairy co-operative societies were taken into consideration. this is far below the expected production

  8. Effect of humates in diet of dairy cows on the raw milk main components

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    Miroslava Potůčková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplemental humic substances (HS on the main milk components was investigated. A total of 10 dairy cows (Czech pied cattle, crossbred Czech pied cattle ´ Ayrshire and crossbred Czech pied cattle ´ Red Holstein were tested. Animals were randomly divided into 2 groups, control (C and experimental (E. Animals fed the same feed mixture and group E was additionally supplemented with HS (200 mg.kg-1 of product Humafit prepared from the Sakhalin Leonardite. The experimental period took 3 months. Cows were milked twice a day. The milk composition (lactose, fat, crude protein, pure protein and casein of every cow was monitored on days 0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70 and 84 of the experiment. Pure protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method, other components were analysed using an infrared analyserMilkoScan FT 120. It was found that the crude protein, pure protein and casein content in milk of group E significantly (p <0.05 increased from the 56th day of the experimental period. Differences of the protein fraction contents in group C and of the dry matter, non-fat dry matter, lactose and fat content in both groups were non-significant (p <0.05.Higher protein and especially casein content in milk could be very important for the cheesemaking as it could increase the cheese yield. Normal 0 21 false false false CS X-NONE X-NONE

  9. Replacing soybean meal for cottonseed meal on performance of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Hugo; De Souza, Jonas; Batistel, Fernanda; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed meal (CSM) is an alternative source of protein, and previous studies have been shown that it can replace soybean meal (SBM) without decrease animal performance. However, Brazilian CSM has a different chemical composition compared with the usual CSM reported in the literature. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of replacing SBM for Brazilian CSM on performance and energy balance of mid-lactating dairy cows. Forty-two Holstein cows were used in a replicate 3 × 3 Latin square design. Increasing contents of CSM (0, 15, and 30% of dry matter (DM)) were fed in diets to replace SBM. Milk yield and feed efficiency were linearly reduced with the replacement of CSM for SBM (P = 0.001). Milk fat content tended to increase quadratically (P = 0.07) with CSM addition. Replacing SBM for CSM affected milk protein content quadratically (P = 0.05). Milk urea nitrogen and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) tended to respond quadratically (P = 0.06 and 0.10) when CSM replaced SBM to the diets. Variation in body weight (BW) also responded quadratically as CSM replaced SBM (P = 0.05). Altogether, the findings suggest better performance when cows receive SBM diet compared with the Brazilian CSM diet.

  10. Effects of high ambient temperature on urea-nitrogen recycling in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obitsu, Taketo; Kamiya, Mitsuru; Kamiya, Yuko; Tanaka, Masahito; Sugino, Toshihisa; Taniguchi, Kohzo

    2011-08-01

    Effects of exposure to hot environment on urea metabolism were studied in lactating Holstein cows. Four cows were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration and housed in a temperature-controlled chamber at constant moderate (18°C) or high (28°C) ambient temperatures in a cross-over design. Urea nitrogen (N) kinetics was measured by determining urea isotopomer in urine after single injection of [(15) N(2) ]urea into the jugular vein. Both dry matter intake and milk yield were decreased under high ambient temperature. Intakes of total N and digestible N were decreased under high ambient temperature but urinary urea-N excretion was increased. The ratio of urea-N production to digestible N was increased, whereas the proportion of gut urea-N entry to urea-N production tended to be decreased under high ambient temperature. Neither return to the ornithine cycle, anabolic use nor fecal excretion of urea-N recycled to the gut was affected by ambient temperature. Under high ambient temperature, renal clearance of plasma urea was not affected but the gut clearance was decreased. Increase of urea-N production and reduction of gut urea-N entry, in relative terms, were associated with increased urinary urea-N excretion of lactating dairy cows in higher thermal environments. 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Definitions and diagnosis of postpartum endometritis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc, J; Duffield, T F; Leslie, K E; Walton, J S; LeBlanc, S J

    2010-11-01

    The objectives of this observational study were to determine and compare diagnostic criteria for postpartum endometritis in dairy cows. Data generated from 1,044 Holstein cows (6 herds) enrolled in a randomized clinical trial were used. Cows were examined for endometritis at 35±3 d (exam 1) and 56±3 d (exam 2) after parturition, using endometrial cytology (cytobrush technique), vaginal discharge scoring (Metricheck device; Simcrotech, Hamilton, New Zealand), and cervical diameter measurement (transrectal palpation). Reproductive data were recorded until 200 d after parturition. Diagnostic criteria for cytological and clinical endometritis were determined based on detrimental effect on subsequent reproductive performance, using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models accounting for the effect of herd clustering. Comparison of diagnostic criteria was performed using endometrial cytology as reference test or by quantifying the agreement between diagnostic approaches. At exam 1, diagnostic criteria were ≥6% polymorphonuclear cells and mucopurulent or worse (purulent or foul) vaginal discharge for cytological and clinical endometritis, respectively. At exam 2, diagnostic criteria were ≥4% polymorphonuclear cells and mucopurulent or worse vaginal discharge for cytological and clinical endometritis, respectively. Cows were classified as having cytological endometritis only, clinical endometritis only, or both cytological and clinical endometritis. Prevalence at exam 1 was 13.5, 9.4, and 5.8% for cytological endometritis only, clinical endometritis only, and both cytological and clinical endometritis, respectively. The detrimental effects of cytological and clinical endometritis on reproductive performance were additive. Among cows with clinical endometritis, only 38 and 36% had cytological endometritis at exam 1 and exam 2, respectively. Combination of diagnostic criteria improved neither the accuracy for predicting cytological endometritis nor the

  12. Serum calcium and magnesium level in dairy cows at calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Pulimeno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk fever and hypocalcaemia are post-partum metabolic diseases affecting about 6% of dairy cows and are due to a fail of the homeostatic metabolism regulating the calcium blood level around 9 and 10mg/100mL. The calcium drainage to the mammary gland along with the reduced capacity of the animal to mobilize calcium from bone reserve lead to a drop of the calcium blood level under 5-6mg/100mL with paresis like clinical symptoms known as milk fever. The incidence of the clinical milk fever is low, however the occurrence of mild hypocalcaemia (subclinical could be as high as 15- 20% within few days after calving, particularly in multiparous cows. The hypocalcaemia status as for the reduced bone calcium mobilization and intestinal absorption leads to reduced feed intake and make it a good start for ketosis, retained placenta, displaced abomasums and mastitis problems (Beede, 1991. The acid-base balance of the cow in the late pregnancy is determinant for hypocalcaemia............

  13. EFFECT OF PROTEIN UNDEGRADED SUPPLEMENTATION ON PRODUCTION AND COMPOSITION OF MILK IN DAIRY COWS

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    B.P. Widyobroto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to examine the effect of undegraded protein supplementation on nutrientsintake, production and milk composition in dairy cows. The purpose of this research was to provideinformation on the undegraded protein supplementation to increase milk production and composition indairy cows. The research was conducted for 3 months in Boyolali-Central Java. The study used 20lactation cows (<3 months of lactation, aged 3 to 3.5 years with body weight from 350 to 400 kg. Thecows were then randomly divided into 2 groups of ten based on their body weight, milk production,lactation period and age. The first group (control and the second group (treated, both were fed dietbased on NRC (1987. The second group was added undegraded protein (UDP of 30 g/l milk that mixedby concentrate. The observed variables were dry matter intake (DM, organic matter (OM, crudeprotein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, milk production and milk composition including fat, proteinand solid non fat (SNF. Data obtained were examined by t-test.The results showed that intake of DM, OM, and the NDF of treated and control groups were notdifferent (9.57; 8.49; 4.98 vs 9.44; 8.38; 5.40 kg/cow/d, respectively; however, protein intake of treatedgroup was higher (P<0.01 than that of the control group (1097 vs. 1210g/cow/d. Milk production ofcows receiving UDP supplementation tended to be higher than that in the control group (+ 1:45kg/cow/d. Although they tended to be lower in fat (4.13 vs. 3.88%, protein (2.45 vs. 2.27% and SNF(7.26 vs. 6.94%, but protein and fat production were higher for cows receiving UDP supplementation(366 each; 214 vs. 330; 196g/cow/d. It can be concluded that UDP supplementation increased milk, fatproduction and milk protein but it tended to reduce the level of fat, protein and SNF milk.

  14. Effects of rumen-degradable protein:rumen-undegradable protein ratio and corn processing on production performance, nitrogen efficiency, and feeding behavior of Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savari, M; Khorvash, M; Amanlou, H; Ghorbani, G R; Ghasemi, E; Mirzaei, M

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the ratio of rumen-degradable protein (RDP) to rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) and corn processing method on production performance, nitrogen (N) efficiency, and feeding behavior of high-producing Holstein dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (second parity; milk yield = 48 ± 3 kg/d) were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factor 1 was corn processing method [ground corn (GC) or steam flaked corn (SFC) with a flake density of about 390 g/L], and factor 2 was RDP:RUP ratio [low ratio (LR) = 60:40; high ratio (HR) = 65:35] based on crude protein (%). The crude protein concentrations were kept constant across the treatments (16.7% of DM). No significant interactions of main treatment effects occurred for lactation performance data. Cows fed 2 different RDP:RUP ratios exhibited similar dry matter intake (DMI), but those fed SFC showed decreased feed intake compared with those receiving GC (25.1 ± 0.48 vs. 26.2 ± 0.47 kg/d, respectively). Cows fed HR diets produced more milk than did those fed LR diets (44.4 ± 1.05 vs. 43.2 ± 1.05 kg/d, respectively). Milk fat content decreased but milk protein content increased in cows fed SFC compared with those fed GC. Feed efficiency (i.e., milk yield/DMI) was enhanced with increasing ratio of RDP:RUP (1.68 ± 0.04 vs. 1.74 ± 0.04 for LR and HR, respectively). Apparent N efficiency was higher in cows fed HR than in those fed LR (30.4 ± 0.61 vs. 29.2 ± 0.62, respectively). Compared with cows fed the GC-based diet, those receiving SFC exhibited lower values of N intake, N-NH 3 concentration, and fecal N excretion. Cows receiving SFC-based diets spent more time ruminating (min/kg of DMI) than did those fed GC. Although these results showed no interaction effects of RDP:RUP ratio and corn processing method on performance, higher RDP:RUP ratios and ground corn can be effective feeding strategies for

  15. Response profiles of enteric methane emissions and lactational performance during habituation to dietary coconut oil in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, M; Powers, W J; Fogiel, A C; Liesman, J S; Beede, D K

    2013-03-01

    Dietary coconut oil (CNO) can reduce dry matter intake (DMI), enteric methane (eCH(4)) emissions, and milk fat yield of lactating cows. The goals of this research were to examine responses to different CNO concentrations during the habituation period (34-d) and to evaluate temporal patterns of DMI, eCH(4), and milk fat yield. Treatment diets contained (dry basis): 0.0% (CNO0), 1.3% (CNO1.3), 2.7% (CNO2.7), 3.3% (CNO3.3), or 4.0% CNO (CNO4). In experiment 1, 12 primi- or small secundiparous cows were housed in individual, environmentally controlled rooms and fed CNO0, CNO1.3, CNO2.7, or CNO4. Measurements included DMI, eCH(4), and milk yield and composition. Due to a precipitous drop in DMI (26%), cows fed CNO4 were replaced with cows fed CNO3.3 following d 10. Dietary CNO of 2.7% or more reduced eCH(4) emissions. Reduction was greater with increased CNO and during the first than the second half of the day. Simultaneously, decline in DMI of cows fed CNO2.7, CNO3.3, or CNO4 was increasingly precipitous with increased CNO concentration. Total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility during wk 5 was reduced in cows fed CNO2.7 or CNO3.3, which in part explained concomitantly reduced eCH(4)/DMI. In addition, milk fat yield was depressed at an increasing rate in cows fed CNO2.7, CNO3.3, and CNO4. In experiment 2, DMI was measured individually in 12 multiparous cows during habituation to CNO0, CNO1.3, CNO2.7, or CNO3.3 for 21 d before relocation to individual, environmentally controlled rooms. Dietary CNO2.7 or CNO3.3 reduced DMI by d 4 and total-tract NDF digestibility during wk 5. Relocation to individual rooms was associated with a 15% reduction in DMI, which was not affected by treatment. Results showed that 2.7% or more dietary CNO reduced eCH(4) and DMI, caused milk fat depression, and decreased NDF digestibility. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Supplementing an immunomodulatory feed ingredient to modulate thermoregulation, physiologic, and production responses in lactating dairy cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Schubach, K M; Batista, L F D; Miranda, M F; Colombo, E A; Rodrigues, R O; Junior, J R G; Cerri, R L A; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2017-06-01

    This study compared vaginal temperature, physiologic, and productive parameters in lactating dairy cows supplemented or not with Omnigen-AF (Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) during the summer months in a tropical environment. Thirty-two lactating, primiparous (n = 16) and multiparous (n = 16) pregnant Holstein × Gir cows were ranked by parity, days in milk, body weight, and body condition score (BCS), and assigned to receive (SUPP; n = 16) or not (CON; n = 16) Omnigen-AF (Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) at 56 g/cow daily (as-fed basis). During the experimental period (d -6 to 56), cows were maintained in a single drylot pen with ad libitum access to water and a total mixed ration, and milked twice daily. Cows received Omnigen-AF mixed with 200 g of corn (as-fed basis) after the daily morning milking through self-locking head gates, whereas CON cows concurrently received 56 g of kaolin mixed with 200 g of corn. For feed intake evaluation, cows from both treatments were randomly divided in 4 groups of 8 cows each, and allocated to 8 individual feeding stations for 3 d. Intake was evaluated 4 times per group from d 1 to 56. From d -6 to 0, d 15 to 28, and d 43 to 56, cow vaginal temperature was recorded hourly. Environmental temperature-humidity index (THI) was also recorded hourly from d 15 to 28 and d 43 to 56. Cows were evaluated for body weight and BCS on d -6 and 56, individual milk production was recorded daily from d -6 to 56, and milk samples were collected on d -6, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 for analyses of somatic cell count and milk components. Blood samples were collected on d -6, -3, 0, 9, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 36, 45, 48, 51, 54, and 56. Results from samples or observations collected from d -6 to 0 were included as an independent covariate in each respective analysis. Environmental THI was 74.2 ± 0.5 and cows were exposed to THI >68 for 633 h within a total of 672 h of evaluation. Cows assigned to CON had greater vaginal temperature on d

  17. Mastitis treatment-Reduction in antibiotic usage in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krömker, V; Leimbach, S

    2017-08-01

    Animal-friendly, economical, resource-saving milk production provides the basis for sustained consumer acceptance. Bovine mastitis plays a decisive role in the dairy industry-disturbing animal health and welfare and causing considerable economic losses on the other hand. Currently, antimicrobial treatment is indispensable to keep bovine udder health, animal welfare and economic aspects in balance. On the contrary, emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an urgent matter of particular public interest, and as a consequence, antimicrobial usage (AMU) in production livestock is a critically discussed subject. In urgent need of future reduction in AMU in the dairy industry, this review article describes and discusses possible approaches promising prompt implementation, including therapeutical alternatives as well as pro- and metaphylactic concepts such as the implementation of evidence-based mastitis therapy concepts and selective dry cow treatment (sDCT), in search of the most effective and contemporary methods for decreasing AMU and AMR in dairy production. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Mechanisms underlying reduced fertility in anovular dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J E P; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S

    2016-07-01

    Resumption of ovulation after parturition is a coordinated process that involves recoupling of the GH/insulin-like growth factor 1 axis in the liver, increase in follicular development and steroidogenesis, and removal of negative feedback from estradiol in the hypothalamus. Infectious diseases and metabolic disorders associated with extensive negative energy balance during early lactation disrupt this pathway and delay first ovulation postpartum. Extended periods of anovulation postpartum exert long-lasting effects on fertility in dairy cows including the lack of spontaneous estrus, reduced pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI), and increased risk of pregnancy loss. Concentrations of progesterone in anovular cows subjected to synchronized programs for AI are insufficient to optimize follicular maturation, oocyte competence, and subsequent fertility to AI. Ovulation of first wave follicles, which develop under low concentrations of progesterone, reduces embryo quality in the first week after fertilization and P/AI in dairy cows. Although the specific mechanisms by which anovulation and low concentrations of progesterone impair oocyte quality have not been defined, studies with persistent follicles support the involvement of premature resumption of meiosis and degradation of maternal RNA. Suboptimal concentrations of progesterone before ovulation also increase the synthesis of PGF2α in response to oxytocin during the subsequent estrous cycle, which explains the greater incidence of short luteal phases after the first AI postpartum in anovular cows compared with estrous cyclic herd mates. It is suggested that increased spontaneous luteolysis early in the estrous cycle is one of the mechanisms that contributes to early embryonic losses in anovular cows. Anovulation also leads to major shifts in gene expression in elongated conceptuses during preimplantation stages of pregnancy. Transcripts involved with control of energy metabolism and DNA repair were

  19. Long-term alteration of follicular steroid concentrations in relation to subclinical endometritis in postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M P; Ledgard, A M; Beaumont, S E; Berg, M C; McNatty, K P; Peterson, A J; Back, P J

    2011-11-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the effect of subclinical endometritis (scEndo) on ovarian follicular steroid concentrations in early postpartum pasture-fed dairy cows. Mixed-age lactating dairy cows (n = 169) were examined to ascertain uterine health status on d 21 postpartum (±3 d). From this herd, a cohort of scEndo and uninfected cows (n = 47) were selected using uterine cytology to determine scEndo. To ensure cows with scEndo were selected for the study, a conservative threshold [>18% polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells among uterine nucleated cells] was chosen as a selection threshold. Ovarian follicular dynamics were assessed by ultrasonography on d 21, 42, and 63 postpartum. On the latter 2 d, all follicles >4 mm in diameter were ablated, and 4 d later, the largest (F1) and second largest (F2) follicles were measured and their follicular fluid aspirated. Hematological variables and plasma metabolites were measured also on these days to further characterize scEndo cows. On d 21, the prevalence of scEndo was approximately 9% in this herd; by d 42 infections had self-resolved in the majority (81%) of those cows classified as having scEndo on d 21. The scEndo cows had a delayed return to cyclicity; however, no effect was evident on ovarian follicle size or growth rate. Weeks after scEndo had self-resolved and cyclicity was restored, decreased (P = 0.07) testosterone and increased (P = 0.07) cortisol concentrations were evident in F1 follicles of scEndo compared with uninfected cows. Progesterone concentrations of F1 increased (P cows, whereas estradiol, androstendione, and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations were decreased (P cows. These 3 steroids also differed (P size categories of scEndo but not uninfected cows. On d 21, mean plasma albumin concentration was decreased (P = 0.02) in scEndo cows. In summary, early postpartum scEndo had surprisingly long-term influences on the steroid concentrations of ovarian follicles long after infections had self

  20. Staphylococcus aureus entrance into the dairy chain: Tracking S. aureus from dairy cow to cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Kümmel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. 1176 quarter milk (QM samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294 and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS. Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing, dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day fourteen of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires effective clearance strategies and hygienic

  1. Vitamin D3 synthesis in the entire skin surface of dairy cows despite hair coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2010-01-01

    How hair-coated animals such as dairy cows synthesize endogenous vitamin D3 during exposure to summer sunlight has been unclear since vitamin D3 and its relation to sunlight was discovered. The fur of fur-bearing animals is thought to be comparable to clothing in humans, which prevents vitamin D3...... produce the vitamin. To test different scenarios, 16 Danish Holstein dairy cows were subjected to 4 degrees of coverage of their bodies with fabric that prevented vitamin D3 synthesis in the covered skin areas. The treatments were horse blanket (cows fitted with horse blankets), udder cover (cows fitted...... with udder covers, horse blanket + udder cover (cows fitted with both horse blankets and udder covers), and natural (cows without any coverage fitted). The cows were let out to pasture daily between 1000 and 1500 h for 4 wk in July and August 2009. Blood samples were collected 15 times during the study...

  2. Comparison of Various Indices of Energy Metabolism in Recumbent and Healthy Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Hugues; Detilleux, Johann; Lebreton, Pascal; Garnier, Catherine; Bonvoisin, Marie; Rollin, Frederic; Sandersen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Downer cow syndrome (DCS) is often diagnosed in dairy cattle during the early post-partum period. The etiology of this condition is not completely understood, as it can be related to the energetic or electrolyte metabolism, as well as to infectious diseases or to trauma. The aim of this study is to compare energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity indices and various biochemical parameters between recumbent and healthy dairy cows. A prospective study has been undertaken on 361 recumbent and 80 healthy Holstein cows. Plasmatic glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) were assayed in all cows in order to calculate the insulin sensitivity indices but also minerals (Calcium, Phosphorous and Magnesium), thyroxin and creatine kinase. Body Condition Scores (BCS) was assessed. Significant differences in NEFA, and the glucose and insulin sensitivity indices ("Homeostasis Model Assessment" HOMA, "Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index" RQUICKI, RQUICKI-BHB) were observed between healthy and recumbent cows in the early post-parturient period indicating disturbances of glucose and insulin homeostasis in the recumbent cows. In the same manner, mineral concentrations were significantly different between healthy and recumbent cows. Glucose, insulin NEFA, and HOMA, were different between early post-partum downer cows and the DCS-affected cows later in lactation. Results indicate disturbances in energy homeostasis in DCS-affected dairy cows. Further research should determine a prognostic value of the indices in cows suffering from recumbency of metabolic origin.

  3. Comparison of Various Indices of Energy Metabolism in Recumbent and Healthy Dairy Cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Guyot

    Full Text Available Downer cow syndrome (DCS is often diagnosed in dairy cattle during the early post-partum period. The etiology of this condition is not completely understood, as it can be related to the energetic or electrolyte metabolism, as well as to infectious diseases or to trauma.The aim of this study is to compare energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity indices and various biochemical parameters between recumbent and healthy dairy cows.A prospective study has been undertaken on 361 recumbent and 80 healthy Holstein cows.Plasmatic glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB were assayed in all cows in order to calculate the insulin sensitivity indices but also minerals (Calcium, Phosphorous and Magnesium, thyroxin and creatine kinase. Body Condition Scores (BCS was assessed.Significant differences in NEFA, and the glucose and insulin sensitivity indices ("Homeostasis Model Assessment" HOMA, "Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index" RQUICKI, RQUICKI-BHB were observed between healthy and recumbent cows in the early post-parturient period indicating disturbances of glucose and insulin homeostasis in the recumbent cows. In the same manner, mineral concentrations were significantly different between healthy and recumbent cows. Glucose, insulin NEFA, and HOMA, were different between early post-partum downer cows and the DCS-affected cows later in lactation.Results indicate disturbances in energy homeostasis in DCS-affected dairy cows. Further research should determine a prognostic value of the indices in cows suffering from recumbency of metabolic origin.

  4. A 100-Year Review: Protein and amino acid nutrition in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Charles G; Broderick, Glen A

    2017-12-01

    Considerable progress has been made in understanding the protein and amino acid (AA) nutrition of dairy cows. The chemistry of feed crude protein (CP) appears to be well understood, as is the mechanism of ruminal protein degradation by rumen bacteria and protozoa. It has been shown that ammonia released from AA degradation in the rumen is used for bacterial protein formation and that urea can be a useful N supplement when lower protein diets are fed. It is now well documented that adequate rumen ammonia levels must be maintained for maximal synthesis of microbial protein and that a deficiency of rumen-degradable protein can decrease microbial protein synthesis, fiber digestibility, and feed intake. Rumen-synthesized microbial protein accounts for most of the CP flowing to the small intestine and is considered a high-quality protein for dairy cows because of apparent high digestibility and good AA composition. Much attention has been given to evaluating different methods to quantify ruminal protein degradation and escape and for measuring ruminal outflows of microbial protein and rumen-undegraded feed protein. The methods and accompanying results are used to determine the nutritional value of protein supplements and to develop nutritional models and evaluate their predictive ability. Lysine, methionine, and histidine have been identified most often as the most-limiting amino acids, with rumen-protected forms of lysine and methionine available for ration supplementation. Guidelines for protein feeding have evolved from simple feeding standards for dietary CP to more complex nutrition models that are designed to predict supplies and requirements for rumen ammonia and peptides and intestinally absorbable AA. The industry awaits more robust and mechanistic models for predicting supplies and requirements of rumen-available N and absorbed AA. Such models will be useful in allowing for feeding lower protein diets and increased efficiency of microbial protein synthesis

  5. Associations of herd- and cow-level factors, cow lying behavior, and risk of elevated somatic cell count in free-stall housed lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, M E Alexandrea; Meijer, Karin M A; Barkema, Herman W; Leslie, Kenneth E; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Devries, Trevor J

    2013-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the risk of intramammary infection in dairy cows is related to lying patterns. The objectives of this study were to quantify the standing and lying behavior of dairy cows milked 3×/d, determine the cow- and herd-level factors associated with these behaviors, and relate these findings to the risk of an elevated somatic cell count (SCC). Five commercial free-stall dairy herds in Eastern Ontario, milking 3×/d, were enrolled in a longitudinal study. Forty Holstein-Friesian cows/herd were randomly selected as focal animals based on days in milk (cow SCC was recorded at the beginning of each period and end of the final period. Elevated SCC (eSCC) was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis. A new incident eSCC was defined as an individual cow that started the period with a SCC cows for hygiene and lameness. Throughout the course of the study, cows averaged 11.2h/d of lying time, split into 8.6 lying bouts/d that were on average 84.6 min in length. Later lactation cows had longer daily lying times that were split into fewer lying bouts of longer duration than cows earlier in lactation. Lame cows had longer daily lying times and lying bout durations than non-lame cows. Cows with greater milk yield had lower lying times than lower producing cows. Average post-milking standing time across the study herds was 103 min. Manipulation of feed (feed delivery or push-up) by the stockperson, in the hour before milking or shortly thereafter, resulted in the longest post-milking standing times. Over the study period, 48 new eSCC were detected, resulting in a mean herd incidence rate of 0.91 eSCC/cow-year at risk for all study herds. A non-linear relationship between post-milking standing time and eSCC incidence was found; compared to those cows that lie down cows that lie down for the first time >90 min after milking had a lower risk of acquiring a new eSCC. The risk of experiencing an eSCC was also increased in multiparous cows, and in those cows

  6. Effect of Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS in Dairy Cow Diets on Manure Bioenergy Production Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel I. Massé

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to obtain scientifically sound data on the bioenergy potential of dairy manures from cows fed different levels of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS. Three diets differing in corn DDGS content were formulated: 0% corn DDGS (DDGS0; control diet, 10% corn DDGS (DDGS10 and 30% corn DDGS (DDGS30. Bioenergy production was determined in psychrophilic (25 ± 1 °C sequencing batch reactors (SBRs fed 3 g COD L−1·day−1 during a two-week feeding period followed by a two-week react period. Compared to the control diet, adding DDGS10 and DDGS30 to the dairy cow diet increased the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry by 29% and 70%, respectively. The addition of DDGS30 increased the cows’ daily production of fresh feces and slurry by 15% and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, the incorporation of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of dry matter (DM, volatile solids (VS, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. While the addition of DDGS did not significantly affect the specific CH4 production per kg VS compared to the control diet, DDGS30 increased the per cow daily CH4 production by 14% compared to the control diet.

  7. Effect of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen environment, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Gunun, P

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows. Four multiparous early-lactating dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian cross-bred, 75%) with an initial body weight (BW) of 405 ± 40 kg and 36 ± 8 day in milk were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were unsupplemented (control), supplemented with rain tree pod (S. saman) meal (RPM) at 60 g/kg, supplemented with palm oil (PO) at 20 g/kg, and supplemented with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO), of total dry matter (DM) intake. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effect on ruminal pH, blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen concentration (p > 0.05). However, supplementation with RPM resulted in lower ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) concentration (p rumen environment and increased milk yield, content of milk protein and milk fat. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Evaluation of Coarsely Ground Wheat as a Replacement for Ground Corn in the Diets of Lactating Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Q. Guo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Eight multiparous Holstein cows (569±47 kg of BW; 84±17 DIM were used to evaluate the effects of different levels of coarsely ground wheat (CGW as replacements for ground corn (GC in diets on feed intake and digestion, ruminal fermentation, lactation performance, and plasma metabolites profiles in dairy cows. The cows were settled in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 3-wk treatment periods; four cows in one of the replicates were fitted with rumen cannulas. The four diets contained 0, 9.6, 19.2, and 28.8% CGW and 27.9, 19.2, 9.6, and 0% GC on dry matter (DM basis, respectively. Increasing dietary levels of CGW, daily DM intake tended to increase quadratically (p = 0.07; however, apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF were significantly decreased (p<0.01 in cows fed the 28.8% CGW diets. Ruminal pH remained in the normal physiological range for all dietary treatments at all times, except for the 28.8% CGW diets at 6 h after feeding; moreover, increasing dietary levels of CGW, the daily mean ruminal pH decreased linearly (p = 0.01. Increasing the dietary levels of CGW resulted in a linear increase in ruminal propionate (p<0.01 and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N (p = 0.06 concentration, while ruminal acetate: propionate decreased linearly (p = 0.03 in cows fed the 28.8% CGW diets. Milk production was not affected by diets; however, percentage and yield of milk fat decreased linearly (p = 0.02 when the level of CGW was increased. With increasing levels of dietary CGW, concentrations of plasma beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA (p = 0.07 and cholesterol (p<0.01 decreased linearly, whereas plasma glucose (p = 0.08, insulin (p = 0.02 and urea nitrogen (p = 0.02 increased linearly at 6 h after the morning feeding. Our results indicate that CGW is a suitable substitute for GC in the diets of dairy cows and that it may be included up to a level of 19.2% of DM without adverse effects on feed intake and digestion

  9. Development of a Bilingual Training Tool to Train Dairy Workers on the Prevention and Management of Non-Ambulatory Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Muniz, Ivette N.; Van Metre, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Dairy cows at risk of becoming non-ambulatory or downers represent economic losses and animal well-being issues for the dairy industry. Colorado State University researchers and Extension faculty collaborated with Colorado's dairy industry to create a training tool for the early identification and management of cows at risk of becoming downers on…

  10. Determination of NABE in urine of high-yield dairy cows in early lactation in conditions of moderate heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratrić Natalija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the results of investigations of the effect of moderate heat stress on the acidobasal status in high-yield dairy cows in early lactation. Improving performance in high-yield dairy cows increases their inclination toward metabolic disorders. The most likely to be affected is the acid-base balance, in particular when cows are exposed to heat stress. Investigations so far have shown that the taking of urine samples and their analysis is the best and fastest way to diagnose disorders in the acid-base balance. Investigations were carried out on 7 clinically healthy cows of the Holstein- Friesian breed in the phase of early lactation, 30 to 40 days (on days 30, 33 and 40 following calving during the summer period, during the month of July, when there were significant variations in daily and nightly temperatures. The cows were in the second and fourth lactation, the annual milk yield was 8000 L milk per cow. The average daily milk production in the early phase of lactation ranged from 35 to 40 L. The cows were fed mixed rations (TMR twice daily. Lucerne hay in limited quantities was given to the cows prior to the mixed feed ration. The ration for this animal category was optimized on the grounds of the daily milk production. The balance of cations and anions in the feed ration stood at 95 mEq/kg DM. The results clearly demonstrate the cows' response to moderate heat stress through the defense parameters in urine (urine pH, NABE (net-acid-base-excretion, acids, bases, ammonium ion (NH4. The determination of the kidney NABE yields more correct data than the urine pH on acidotic conditions. The results of examinations of the urine pH do not show any digressions from physiological values and are approximately the same in all cows during the investigated periods. Normal NABE values are from 100-200 mmol/L. Burdening with acid products results in a NABE range from 0-100mmol/L, and metabolic acidosis results in NAB<0 mmol/L. NABE in the cows

  11. Red blood cell phosphate concentration and osmotic resistance during dietary phosphate depletion in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünberg, W; Mol, J A; Teske, E

    BACKGROUND: Hypophosphatemia in early lactating dairy cows has been implicated as primary cause for postparturient hemoglobinuria in cattle. Decreased availability of phosphorus has been proposed to reduce adenosine triphosphate synthesis of erythrocytes and thereby reduce osmotic resistance of

  12. Effects of feeding dry glycerol on milk production, nutrients digestibility and blood components in primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafilzadeh, F.; Piri, V.; Karami-Shabankareh, H.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucogenic property of glycerol supplementation in the dairy cow’s diet. Sixty primiparous cows (control, n=30, and glycerol supplemented, n=30) were used to measure milk yield and components, blood hormone and metabolite profiles, and body condition score. Feed intake and apparent total-tract digestibility were also measured using 10 primiparous cows (control, n=5, and glycerol supplemented, n=5). Dry glycerol was top dressed at 250 g/day/cow from parturition to 21 days postpartum. Average feed intake, milk yield and components were not affected by glycerol supplementation. Apparent total–tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were not influenced by dry glycerol supplementation, but lipid digestibility was greater (p=0.01) in cows fed glycerol. The serum concentration of glucose and insulin tended to be higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p=0.1; p=0.06, respectively). While, serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were not affected. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1 to 5 after calving (p=0.09). The glucogenic effect of glycerol did not affect milk yield during the first 3 weeks of lactation. However, daily milk yield during the 13 weeks recording period was higher in the glycerol-supplemented cows (28.5 vs. 30.3 kg, p<0.001). Percentages of cows cycling at the planned breeding date was greater (p=0.01) for cows fed dry glycerol. The results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply could be useful in saving body reserves and improving energy balance of primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period. (Author)

  13. Effects of feeding dry glycerol on milk production, nutrients digestibility and blood components in primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farokh Kafilzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucogenic property of glycerol supplementation in the dairy cow’s diet. Sixty primiparous cows (control, n=30, and glycerol supplemented, n=30 were used to measure milk yield and components, blood hormone and metabolite profiles, and body condition score. Feed intake and apparent total-tract digestibility were also measured using 10 primiparous cows (control, n=5, and glycerol supplemented, n=5. Dry glycerol was top dressed at 250 g/day/cow from parturition to 21 days postpartum. Average feed intake, milk yield and components were not affected by glycerol supplementation. Apparent total–tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were not influenced by dry glycerol supplementation, but lipid digestibility was greater (p=0.01 in cows fed glycerol. The serum concentration of glucose and insulin tended to be higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p=0.1; p=0.06, respectively. While, serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were not affected. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1 to 5 after calving (p=0.09. The glucogenic effect of glycerol did not affect milk yield during the first 3 weeks of lactation. However, daily milk yield during the 13 weeks recording period was higher in the glycerol-supplemented cows (28.5 vs. 30.3 kg, p<0.001. Percentages of cows cycling at the planned breeding date was greater (p=0.01 for cows fed dry glycerol. The results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply could be useful in saving body reserves and improving energy balance of primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period.

  14. Effects of Prepartum Dietary Energy Level and Nicotinic Acid Supplementation on Immunological, Hematological and Biochemical Parameters of Periparturient Dairy Cows Differing in Parity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Reka; Kersten, Susanne; Frahm, Jana; Hüther, Liane; Meyer, Ulrich; Huber, Korinna; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Several biological changes occur during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation which is associated with a high susceptibility of health disorders. Nicotinic acid, as feed additive, is suggested to balance catabolic metabolism of periparturient dairy cows by attenuating lipolysis and impact production performance. This study provides information of the biological changes occurring around parturition with special emphasis on differences between primiparous and multiparous cows. Present results showed that energy-dense feeding prepartum did not result in metabolic imbalances postpartum in dairy cows which were similar in body condition score. Nicotinic acid supplementation did not reveal any effect. Abstract The periparturient period is critical according to health, productivity and profitability. As this period is fundamental for the success of the lactation period, the interest in improving periparturient health by dietary supplements increased in recent years. The present study investigated the effects of feeding nicotinic acid (NA) combined with varying dietary energy densities on immunological, hematological and biochemical parameters of periparturient cows differing in parity. Thirty-six multiparous and 20 primiparous dairy cows were enrolled in the study 42 days before expected parturition date until 100 days postpartum with the half of the cows being supplemented with 24 g of NA/d. After parturition a diet with 30% concentrate was fed to all cows which was followed by different concentrate escalation strategies. Dietary NA supplementation was ceased on day 24 postpartum. Dietary NA increased (P = 0.010) serum nicotinamide concentrations (mean of 3.35 ± 1.65 µg/mL), whereas NA could not be detected. Present data emphasize that periparturient cows are faced with major physiological challenges and that both parity-groups have different prerequisites to adapt to those changes irrespective of NA supplementation. The overfeeding of

  15. Behavioral changes in freestall-housed dairy cows with naturally occurring clinical mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner; Herskin, Mette S

    2015-01-01

    Dairy cows exhibit classic signs of sickness behavior during mastitis. However, knowledge about the consequences of naturally occurring mastitis in freestall-housed dairy cows, milked in automatic milking systems, is lacking. The aim of the present study was to describe the behavior of dairy cows...... after diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of mastitis. In the days before and after antibiotic treatment, the milking behavior, feeding, and activity were examined in 30 mastitic and 30 control Danish Holstein-Friesian cows kept in freestalls and milked by an automatic milking system. Sickness behavior...... milking, as seen by a higher frequency of tripping and kicking. Mastitic cows continued to show increased kicking during milking even after the antibiotic treatment period. These results show that the behavioral changes induced by naturally occurring mastitis persisted beyond the days of antibiotic...

  16. Comparison of Various Indices of Energy Metabolism in Recumbent and Healthy Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Hugues; Detilleux, Johann; Lebreton, Pascal; Garnier, Catherine; Bonvoisin, Marie; Rollin, Frederic; Sandersen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Background Downer cow syndrome (DCS) is often diagnosed in dairy cattle during the early post-partum period. The etiology of this condition is not completely understood, as it can be related to the energetic or electrolyte metabolism, as well as to infectious diseases or to trauma. Hypothesis/Objectives The aim of this study is to compare energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity indices and various biochemical parameters between recumbent and healthy dairy cows. Animals A prospective study h...

  17. Changes in thermal nociceptive responses in dairy cows following experimentally induced Esherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ditte B.; Fogsgaard, Katrine; Røntved, Christine Maria

    2011-01-01

    Mastitis is a high incidence disease in dairy cows. The acute stage is considered painful and inflammation can lead to hyperalgesia and thereby contribute to decreased welfare. The aim of this study was to examine changes in nociceptive responses toward cutaneous nociceptive laser stimulation (NLS......) in dairy cows with experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis, and correlate behavioral changes in nociceptive responses to clinical and paraclinical variables....

  18. Resistin in Dairy Cows: Plasma Concentrations during Early Lactation, Expression and Potential Role in Adipose Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Reverchon, Maxime; Ramé, Christelle; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Elis, Sébastien; Guillaume, Daniel; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP) and at five months of gestation (5 MG). We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigat...

  19. Corn silage hybrid type and quality of alfalfa hay affect dietary nitrogen utilization by early lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, M S; Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; Nestor, K E

    2013-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage (CS) hybrids and quality of alfalfa hay (AH) in high-forage dairy diets on N utilization, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by early-lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. The 8 cows (average days in milk = 23 ± 11.2) were surgically fitted with ruminal cannula, and the 2 squares were conducted simultaneously. Within square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 4 diets: conventional CS (CCS) or brown midrib CS (BMR) was combined with fair-quality AH [FAH: 46.7% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 18.4% crude protein (CP)] or high-quality AH (HAH: 39.2% NDF and 20.7% CP) to form 4 treatments: CCS with FAH, CCS with HAH, BMR with FAH, and BMR with HAH. Diets were isonitrogenous across treatments, averaging 15.9% CP. Each period lasted a total of 21 d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 7d for data collection and sampling. Intake of DM and milk yield did not differ in response to CS hybrids or AH quality. Although feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N output by 24%, it did not affect fecal N output. Feeding HAH decreased urinary N output by 15% but increased fecal N output by 20%. Nitrogen efficiency [milk N (g/d)/intake N (g/d)] tended to increase for BMR treatments. Ruminal ammonia-N concentration was lower for cows fed BMR-based diets than for those fed CCS-based diets but was not affected by quality of AH. Feeding BMR-based diets or HAH decreased milk urea N concentration by 23 or 15%, respectively, compared with CCS-based diets or FAH. Total volatile fatty acid concentration increased with HAH but was not influenced by CS hybrids. Feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N-to-fecal N ratio (UN:FN), and it was further reduced by feeding HAH. Although cows fed the BMR-based diets tended to increase milk N-to-manure N ratio, the

  20. Modulation of the Somatotropic Axis in Periparturient Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wook Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on modulation of growth hormone (GH and its downstream actions on periparturient dairy cows undergoing physiological and metabolic adaptations. During the periparturient period, cows experience a negative energy balance implicating that the feed intake does not meet the total energy demand for the onset of lactation. To regulate this metabolic condition, key hormones of somatotropic axis such as GH, IGF-I and insulin must coordinate adaptations required for the preservation of metabolic homeostasis. The hepatic GHR1A transcript and GHR protein are reduced at parturition, but recovers on postpartum. However, plasma IGF-I concentration remains low even though hepatic abundance of the GHR and IGF-I mRNA return to pre-calving value. This might be caused by alternation in IGFBPs and ALS genes, which consequently affect the plasma IGF-I stability. Plasma insulin level declines in a parallel manner with the decrease in plasma IGF-I after parturition. Increased GH stimulates the lipolytic effects and hepatic glucose synthesis to meet the energy requirement for mammary lactose synthesis, suggesting that GH antagonizes insulin-dependent glucose uptake and attenuates insulin action to decrease gluconeogenesis.

  1. Transfer coefficients of radionuclides secreted in milk of dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam, D.; Williams, W.F.; Rockmann, D.D.; Allen, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    This study simulated experimentally the transfer of radionuclides to milk of dairy cows on a worst-case situation using various radionuclides known to emanate from nuclear power stations and which have been detected on particulates. Two lactating Holstein cows were administered orally one gelatin capsule containing 10 radionuclides in water-soluble form per day for 14 consecutive days. Milk samples were collected and aliquots analyzed in a germanium lithium-drifted detector coupled to a 2048-multichannel gamma-ray analyzer to measure small amounts of complex mixtures of radionuclides. The transfer coefficients of the radionuclides were calculated when their secretion in milk reached or approached a plateau of concentration. The radionuclides and their transfer coefficients to milk were: chromium 51 less than 0.01%; manganese 54 0.033 +- 0.005%; cobalt 60 0.01 +- 0.002%; iron 59 0.0048 +- 0.002%; zinc 65 0.31 +- 0.07%; selenium 75 0.29 +- 0.1%; antimony 125 0.011 +- 0.003%; iodine 131 0.88 +- 0.05%; and cesium 137 0.79 +- 0.08%

  2. Short term post-partum heat stress in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuquay, J. W.; Chapin, L. T.; Brown, W. H.

    1980-06-01

    Since many dairy cows calve during late summer, the objective was to determine if heat stress immediately post-partum would (1) alter metabolism, thus, increasing susceptibility to metabolic disorders, (2) affect lactation and/or (3) affect reproduction. Forty four cows, calving during late summer, were paired with one member of each pair stressed (HS) for the first 10 post-partum days in a hot barn. Controls (CC) were kept in a cooled section of the barn. Plasma drawn weekly for 7 weeks was analyzed in an autoanalyzer for calcium, inor. phosphorus, protein, glucose and cholesterol and by radioimmunoassay for cortisol and progesterone. Ovaries and uteri were palpated weekly. Rectal temperatures were significant higher for HS during the first 10 post-partum days. No significant effects on plasma constituents were observed during the 10-day treatment period. For the 7-week period, glucose and cholesterol were lower in HS, as were cyclic peaks of progesterone and cortisol. Both calcium and inorganic phosphorus remained clinically low for the 7 weeks, but no treatment effects were seen. Uteri of HS involuted more rapidly than the CC. Treatment did not affect reproductive efficiency. Lactation milk yields did not differ, but milk fat percent was lower in HS. Heat stress immediately post-partum altered lipid metabolism, but the animal's compensatory mechanisms prevented reduction in milk production or reproductive efficiency.

  3. SUPPLEMENTARY FEEDING ON THE NUTRIENT BALANCE OF LACTATING DAIRY COW AT CONTRASTING TEMPERATURE REGIMES: ASSESSMENT USING CORNELL NET CARBOHYDRATE AND PROTEIN SYSTEM (CNCPS MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jayanegara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cows often do not receive adequate nutrient supply during their lactation period. This condition caneven be worse if the environmental temperature is not in comfortable range which may occur especially intropical regions. The present research was aimed to simulate the effect of supplementary feeding on nutrientbalance of lactating dairy cow at contrasting temperature regimes using Cornell Net Carbohydrate andProtein System (CNCPS model. Treatments consisted of feeds (R1: Pennisetum purpureum, R2: P.purpureum + concentrate (60:40, R3: P. purpureum + Gliricidia sepium + Leucaena leucocephala(60:20:20, R4: P. purpureum + concentrate + G. sepium + L. leucocephala (60:20:10:10 and environmentaltemperatures (T1: 20 oC, T2: 30 oC. The dairy cow inputs in CNCPS were Holstein breed, body weight of500 kg, feed intake of 15 kg (dry matter basis per day and produced milk 15 kg/day. Based on the CNCPSmodel, there were negative balances of metabolisable energy (ME and metabolisable protein (MP if alactating dairy cow fed only by P. purpureum. The ME balance was worse at higher temperature, while theMP balance was remain unchanged. Addition of concentrate mixture (R2 fulfilled the ME and MPrequirements as well as other nutrients. Addition of leguminous tree leaves (R3 and R4 improved thenutritional status of the lactating cow model compared to R1, but did not better than R2. It was concludedthat supplementary feeding is necessary for improving the nutrient balance of lactating dairy cow, especiallywhen the cow is maintained under uncomfortable environmental temperature.

  4. The Design and Experiment of the Track-Type Equipment for Feeding Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping LI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As one of the effective ways of reducing the cost and increase the revenue, feeding dairy cows with individual precision in quantity could further develop the production potential of high- yield dairy cows and improve the milk yield of every dairy cow. Therefore, based on three kinds of technologies of radio frequency identification technology, wireless transmission technology and infrared technology and grounded on the foundation of previous studies, this thesis has completed the track- type equipment for feeding dairy cows with individual precision in quantity. The equipment takes the computer as the information management platform, adopts the singly chip microcomputer as the control platform, uses the wireless module and U disk to conduct the transmission of individual feeding data of dairy cows and guides the whole process with the track. This kind of equipment could advance automatically, identify and feed dairy cows precisely during the feeding process. This thesis also designs the matching feeding technology of the equipment, and accomplishes the test of feeding outside the cowshed, which takes “TMR + precise feeding with concentrated feed” as the feeding model, so that the feeding process could be more effective and further steady.

  5. The effect of thermal environment on daily milk yield of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metodija Trajchev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of environmental air temperatures on the milk production of dairy cows. Therefore, the experiment was carried out at the height of summer (from 15th of June to 15th of September in three small family dairy farms and one commercial dairy farm. In total, 51 dairy cows from the black-white breed were subjected to the study. The season of research was divided into three periods: the period before the hot season, the period of the hot season and the period after the hot season. In each period there were three test days selected that were used for recording the air temperature inside and outside the barns and cow’s daily milk yield. Unvaried associations between the test day milk yield of cows and independent environmental and cow factors were done using the linear mixed model for repeated measurements. The statistical model showed that the farm management system and the hot season of the year had significant infl uence on daily milk yield per cow at the level of p<0.001. The test day per periods of the season when milk control was performed and the average test day environmental temperature showed statistically significant influence on daily milk yield per cow at level p<0.01. The present results revealed that environmental air temperatures contributes to considerable loss in the milk production of dairy cows.

  6. Milk production, grazing behavior and nutritional status of dairy cows grazing two herbage allowances during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ruiz-Albarran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter grazing provides a useful means for increasing the proportion of grazed herbage in the annual diet of dairy cows. This season is characterized by low herbage growth rate, low herbage allowance, and low herbage intake and hence greater needs for supplements to supply the requirements of lactating dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of herbage allowance (HA offered to autumn calving dairy cows grazing winter herbage on milk production, nutritional status, and grazing behavior. The study took 63 d using 32 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Prior to experimental treatment, milk production averaged 20.2 ± 1.7 kg d-1, body weight was 503 ± 19 kg, and days in milking were 103 ± 6. Experimental animals were randomly assigned to two treatments according to HA offered above ground level: low (17 kg DM cow-1 d-1 vs. high HA (25 kg DM cow¹ d¹. All cows were supplemented with grass silage supplying daily 6.25 and 4.6 kg DM of concentrate (concentrate commercial plus high corn moisture. Decreasing HA influenced positively milk production (+25%, milk protein (+20 kg, and milk fat (+17 kg per hectare; however no effects on milk production per cow or energy metabolic status were observed in the cows. In conclusion, a low HA showed to be the most significant influencing factor on milk and milk solids production per hectare in dairy cows grazing restricted winter and supplemented with grass silage and concentrate; but no effect on the milk production per cow was found.

  7. Clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy cows: incidence and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Cabal, M A; Yaici, S; Alenda, R

    2008-07-01

    Clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy herds has been studied. Since April 2005 up to December 2006, in 25 Spanish herds 1,054 cases registered were available. Aims were to determine mastitis incidence and factors of risk, to analyze whether yield production has been affected, and to quantify mastitis costs along 2006. The 25% lactations were infected at least once with average recurrence of 1.64. Descriptive analysis showed that 29% of cases occurred within the first month after calving. Primiparous showed higher mastitis frequency at early and late lactation while in multiparous cases number was progressively decreasing since the first month. Multiparous were statistically more liable to mastitis than primiparous. Mastitis did not show effect on yield production. Mastitis costs included treatment products and discarded milk. Individual daily production at each case onset was estimated by using monthly official milking records. An average mastitis case cost was 73.93, cheaper in primiparous than in multiparous because of lower milk production. Average discarded milk represented 74% of total cost per case. Mastitis costs were 117 per infected cow and lactation. Then, annual economic losses due to mastitis were 3,190 per average herd, showing the concern of producers on selecting resistant animals as well as the importance of the implementation of systematic recording for clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy farms. Additional key words: genetic selection, udder health. (Author) 28 refs.

  8. Digital dermatitis of the accessory digits of dairy cows

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    Celso A. Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This report characterizes the digital dermatitis (DD lesions in the accessory digits of dairy cows and presents data on the applied therapy. Fifteen Holstein cattle with DD affecting the accessory digits of the hindlimbs from four dairy farms with previous history of DD were evaluated. Lesions were excised, the wounds were sutured, and a topical application of oxytetracycline powder covered by bandaging was associated with a single parenteral administration of long acting oxytetracycline IM (20mg/kg. Tissue samples were obtained for histopathology and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM. Lesions from all the animals were recuperated 15 days after surgical procedure. Overal, most DD lesions were papillomatous epidermal projections or wartlike verrucous lesions. Histopathologically, samples revealed hyperplasia of epidermis with hyperkeratosis, several mitoses in the stratum basale and elongated rete ridges in the superficial and middle dermis. TEM revealed long, thin spirochete-like bacteria. Morphologic features of lesions and its response to therapy were comparable to those described for DD.

  9. Rumen-protected methionine compared with rumen-protected choline improves immunometabolic status in dairy cows during the peripartal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z; Bulgari, O; Vailati-Riboni, M; Trevisi, E; Ballou, M A; Cardoso, F C; Luchini, D N; Loor, J J

    2016-11-01

    The immunometabolic status of peripartal cows is altered due to changes in liver function, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Nutritional management during this physiological state can affect the biological components of immunometabolism. The objectives of this study were to measure concentrations of biomarkers in plasma, liver tissue, and milk, and also polymorphonuclear leukocyte function to assess the immunometabolic status of cows supplemented with rumen-protected methionine (Met) or choline (CHOL). Forty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a randomized complete block design with 2×2 factorial arrangement of Met (Smartamine M, Adisseo NA, Alpharetta, GA) and CHOL (ReaShure, Balchem Inc., New Hampton, NY) level (with or without). Treatments (12 cows each) were control (CON), no Met or CHOL; CON and Met (SMA); CON and CHOL (REA); and CON and Met and CHOL (MIX). From -50 to -21d before expected calving, all cows received the same diet [1.40Mcal of net energy for lactation (NE L )/kg of DM] with no Met or CHOL. From -21d to calving, cows received the same close-up diet (1.52Mcal of NE L /kg of DM) and were assigned randomly to each treatment. From calving to 30d, cows were on the same postpartal diet (1.71Mcal of NE L /kg of DM) and continued to receive the same treatments until 30d. The Met supplementation was adjusted daily at 0.08% DM of diet, and CHOL was supplemented at 60g/cow per day. Liver (-10, 7, 21, and 30d) and blood (-10, 4, 8, 20, and 30d) samples were harvested for biomarker analyses. Neutrophil and monocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst were assessed at d 1, 4, 14, and 28d. The Met-supplemented cows tended to have greater plasma paraoxonase. Greater plasma albumin and IL-6 as well as a tendency for lower haptoglobin were detected in Met- but not CHOL-supplemented cows. Similarly, cows fed Met compared with CHOL had greater concentrations of total and reduced glutathione (a potent intracellular antioxidant) in liver tissue. Upon a

  10. Test accuracy of metabolic indicators in predicting decreased fertility in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Gustafsson, H; Svensson, C

    2012-01-01

    Negative energy balance is a known risk factor for decreased fertility in dairy cows. This study evaluated the accuracy of plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)—factors related to negative energy balance...... was low when metabolic indicators measured as single values in early lactation were used to predict fertility in dairy cows, but accuracy was influenced by cow-level factors such as parity. The prevalence of the target condition (in this case, decreased fertility) also influences test usefulness......—in predicting decreased fertility. One plasma sample per cow was collected from 480 cows in 12 herds during the period from d 4 to 21 in milk and analyzed for NEFA, BHBA, and IGF-1. For each cow, data on breed, parity, calving date, gynecological examinations, and insemination dates were obtained. Milk samples...

  11. Effect of silage maize hybrid (dry down vs. stay green) on dairy cow performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.L.G.; Schooten, van H.A.; Laar, van H.

    2008-01-01

    A randomized block design experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two contrasting silage maize hybrids (DD: dry down vs. SG: stay green) harvested at 33% dry matter (DM) on in situ degradation and dairy cow performance. Thirty-eight Red-HF cows were assigned to two silage treatments and

  12. Prevalence and Clinico-Pathology of Ketosis in Dairy Cows in Tigray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    An investigation to study the prevalence and clinico-pathology of ketosis in dairy cows ... The clinical observations in ketotic cows were anorexia, refusal to .... The decrease in milk yield was 36-100% in 5 cases followed by 30-36% in 5 cases.

  13. Studies on test-day and lactation milk, fat and protein yield of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilmink, J.B.M.

    1987-01-01

    Data of milk recording provides the basis to control herd management and genetic improvement of cows. Different management guides can be presented to dairy farmers. Breeding values are predicted for 305-day yields in order to select bulls and cows. However, breeding values should be

  14. Factors associated with Coxiella burnetii antibody positivity in Danish dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Suman; Agger, Jens Frederik Gramstrup; Markussen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify associations between the level of Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) antibodies in individual milk samples and cow and herd level factors in Danish dairy cows. The study, designed as a prospective cross sectional study with follow up, included 24 herds identified...

  15. Improved knowledge about Conception Rates Influences the Decision to Stop Insemination in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Vries, de A.; Jorritsma, R.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2012-01-01

    The conception rate in dairy cows is dependent on a number of cow factors such as days in milk and insemination number. Unfortunately, some of these factors were not accounted for in optimal insemination and replacement decision models. By using wrong estimates of the conception rate, the calculated

  16. Effects of Management and Genetics on Udder Health and Milk Composition in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouweltjes, W.; Beerda, B.; Windig, J.J.; Calus, M.P.L.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Milk production per cow has increased significantly as a result of breeding, feeding, and other management factors. This study aims to address concerns about udder health risks for low- and high-producing dairy cows. In a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design, Holstein-Friesian heifers (n = 100) of low or high

  17. Evaluation of energy balance of Friesian x Bunaji dairy cows using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potentials of using milk composition as indicators of energy balance (EB) in dairy cows were evaluated. Milk composition traits (milk protein, fat and lactose percentages) from thirteen (13) primiparous and 47 multiparous (F1) Friesian x Bunaji cows were studied. The milk composition was analyzed weekly from 4 to 300 ...

  18. Sewerage overflows put production and fertility of dairy cows at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G.A.L.; Bree, de J.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Spoelstra, S.F.

    1999-01-01

    More than 50% of the diary farmers in the Netherlands use surface water as the main source of drinking water for their cows during the grazing season. The quality of this water may be affected by discharges from sewerage overflows, but possible effects on health of dairy cows have not been

  19. The comparison of dairy performance and some reproductive parameters of holstein cows imported from Sweden and their Polish age mates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The general aim of the present work was to compare dairy performance and some reproductive parameters of Holstein-Friesian (HF cows imported from Sweden as an in-calf heifers, and their age mates in Poland. The animals were kept freely on the deep litter on the farm owned by Agro-company “Witkowo” and feeding was based on TMR (total mixed ration system during whole year. All ration’s ingredients (bulky feed, concentrate, miscellaneous additives were mixed and fed as all-mash. The feed ration depended from the physiological condition of a cow and it was composed of corn and grass ensilage, mash concentrate, crushed corn meal, brewer’s grains and beet pulp.Cows imported from Sweden as in-calf heifers obtained higher milk, fat and protein yield in both lactations comparing to home cows. Significant statistical differences were observed for kg of milk, kg of protein, for FCM (P<0.01 and for kg of fat (P<0.05 in 2nd lactation. Fat and protein content in milk was in average higher for home cows (P<0.01. Big differences (P<0.01 were observed in SBT (proportion of protein to fat content and RTB (difference between concentration of fat and protein at imported cows in 2nd lactation. As far as reproduction parameters (gestation interval, calving interval, insemination index are concerned was cows from Sweden better too. Heifers from Sweden calved earlier. The usage of high genetic potential of imported cows is possible only with providing them optimum living conditions suitable to their needs.

  20. Investigating locomotion of dairy cows by use of high speed cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, A H; Drevemo, S

    1997-05-01

    The longterm influence of management systems on the locomotion of 17 dairy cows was investigated by high speed cinematography (100 frames/s) and kinematic analysis. Angular patterns and hoof trajectories of the left fore- and hindlimbs are presented and statistics made of occurring minimum and maximum angles. At the recording, 3 cows had been kept in tie-stalls (TI) and 6 cows in cubicles (CI) for a consecutive time of about 2.5 years while 8 cows had been kept on grass for about 3 months. Four of the grazing cows had earlier been kept in cubicles (CG) and 4 in tie-stalls (TG) during earlier off grazing seasons together with TI and CI cows. The CI cows had a smaller maximum angle of the elbow joint compared to TI, TG and CG cows. The hock joint angle of the CI cows was less flexed during the stance phase than in TI and CG cows while the minimum angle during the swing phase was greater in the TI and CI cows compared to TG and CG cows. Pastured cows (TG and CG) had a less pronounced flexion of the fetlock joint angle during the stance compared to cows kept indoors (TI and CI). The results suggest that slatted floor and lack of exercise during summer grazing may affect locomotion. This is indicated by restrictions in the movements of the elbow and hock joints and in less fetlock joint flexion at full support.

  1. Dairy Cows Productivity and Socio-Economic Profile of Dairy Smallholder’s Communities in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyobroto, B. P.; Rochijan; Noviandi, C. T.; Astuti, A.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this field questionnaire survey was to describe the dairy cow productivity and socio-economic profile of dairy cattle farmers in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta smallholder farming communities which have been targeted dairy development policy. The study was conducted on 190 Friesian Holstein (FH) cows maintained under smallholder’s management system in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A total of 83 farmers were randomly selected and interviewed with structured questionnaire to assess the socio-economic dairy farmer and productivity performance of dairy cows. The number of dairy productivity performance within the normal. Shortages as well as high cost of feed, occurrence of disease, scarce information about feeding and high medicament cost were the main constraints which might have contributed considerably to delayed age at first service, late age at first calving, long calving interval, short lactation length and low milk production. Therefore, strategies designed to solve the existing problem should be important by involving all stakeholders in the formulation and implementation of improvement strategiesor dairy development policy was being implemented and necessary respect to environmental factors affecting agricultural activities such as a constraint on land use and access to water resources.

  2. Assessing circumstances and causes of dairy cow death in Italian dairy farms through a veterinary practice survey (2013-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, Francesca; Angelucci, Alessandra; Lorenzi, Valentina; Bolzoni, Luca; Bertocchi, Luigi

    2017-02-01

    A questionnaire survey about on farm dairy cow mortality was carried out among veterinary practitioners in Italy between January 2013 and May 2014. The study aimed at investigating the main circumstances of death in dairy cows (euthanasia, emergency slaughter or unassisted death), the primary causes and the risk factors of death. Out of 251 dead cows involved (across 137 farms), 54.6% died assisted and 45.4% were found dead. The main causes of death were metabolic/digestive disorders (22.3%) and mastitis/udder problems (17.1%), while in 14.7% of all cases, reasons of death were unknown. From the univariable generalised linear mixed models, dry cows showed a significantly higher odds to die unassisted compared to lactating cows (OR=3.2); dry cows also had higher odds of dying from unknown reasons (OR=11.7). Season was not significantly related to the risk of dying unassisted and for unknown reasons, but during the summer (characterised by hot and muggy weather in Northern Italy) cows died mostly for problems at calving. 54.2% of cows died during the first 30days in milk (DIM). Half of the multiparous cows that died, died in the first 29.5 DIM, while half of the primiparous cows that died, died in the first 50 DIM. Results pointed out that, especially in dry cows, around calving and during the summer, some failure in management practices and daily inspections may occur. Improvements should be done in monitoring activities and in recognising early symptoms of diseases among stockperson. In addition, in case of diagnosed diseases with poor prognosis, euthanasia procedures should be implemented to prevent cows from dying unassisted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship among circulating anti-Müllerian hormone, insulin like growth factor 1, cadmium and superovulatory response in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Aziz, R L; Khalil, A A Y; Abdel-Wahab, A; Hassan, N Y; Abdel-Hamied, E; Kasimanickam, R K

    2017-09-15

    The objectives of this study were 1. to determine the associations among circulating anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations of lactating Holstein cows at the time of superovulation and 2. to determine the effect of circulating AMH, IGF1 and Cd concentrations on the superovulatory response in Holstein dairy cows. Holstein cows (n = 30) were milked thrice daily and housed and fed in free stall barn as a separate group. All animals were synchronized for superovulation and flushed. Three blood samples for AMH, IGF1 and Cd analysis were collected prior to superovulation, at estrus and at the time of embryo collection. The concentrations of blood makers prior to superovulation were highly correlated to superovulatory response. Circulating concentrations of AMH, IGF1 prior to superovulation were negatively correlated to Cd concentrations (P cows were classified into quartiles (Q) of circulating AMH concentration, number of corpus luteum, and total embryos, total transferable embryos and total grade 1 embryos yield was significantly different for AMH quartiles. The superovulatory response parameters evaluated were increased with increased AMH concentrations; particularly we observed a >2-fold difference between first and fourth AMH quartiles in total transferable embryo yield and total grade 1 embryo yield. In conclusion, circulating AMH concentration was strongly associated with superovulatory response. Measuring AMH before enrolling cows in superovulation programs will likely allow practitioners to improve numbers of embryos produced and, thereby, reduce costs per embryo produced. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Síntese de proteína microbiana e concentrações de uréia em vacas alimentadas com diferentes fontes de proteína Estimation of microbial protein synthesis and urea nitrogen metabolism in lactating dairy cows fed diets supplemented with different protein sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas dos Santos Pina

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 12 vacas Holandesas puras e mestiças, distribuídas em três quadrados latinos 4 x 4, organizados de acordo com os dias em lactação, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes fontes protéicas sobre a síntese, a eficiência de síntese de proteína microbiana, a concentração de nitrogênio uréico no soro (NUS e no leite (NUL, a concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal e o pH ruminal. Utilizou-se silagem de milho como volumoso, na proporção de 60% da MS total. Os concentrados foram constituídos de diferentes fontes protéicas (FS - farelo de soja; FA38 - farelo de algodão 38%PB; FA28 - farelo de algodão 28%PB e FSU - farelo de soja + 5% de uréia/sulfato de amônia na MS do concentrado. As coletas spot de urina e de sangue foram realizadas no 18º dia do período experimental 4 horas após o fornecimento da alimentação aos animais, no período da manhã. Não foram observadas diferenças entre as dietas para o volume urinário (V, a excreção total de derivados de purinas (PT, a síntese e a eficiência de síntese de PB microbiana, expressa em g de PB/kg de NDT consumido. As concentrações de NUS e NUL também não diferiram entre as dietas. As concentrações de NUS e NUL e a síntese de PB microbiana não foram influenciadas pelas diferentes fontes de proteína dietéticas, inclusive com a adição de uréia (5% MS do concentrado.Twelve Holstein lactating dairy cows were blocked by days in milk and randomly assigned to three replicated 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate the effect of different protein sources on efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, concentration of serum (NUS and milk (MUN urea nitrogen, and ruminal metabolism. A basal corn silage diet (60% of the total dry matter was fed plus one of the following proteins sources (DM basis: soybean meal (SBM, cottonseed meal with 38% of crude protein (CSM38, cottonseed meal with 28% of crude protein (CSM28, or soybean meal plus 5% of urea

  5. Incidence and risk factors of milk fever among cross-bred dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted on 206 cross-bred dairy cows in different dairy herds in Khartoum State, Sudan, during the period from March 2003 to June 2004 to determine the prevalence and incidence rate of milk fever (MF) based on clinical and laboratory diagnosis, and to recognize the risk factors associated with the ...

  6. Measurement methods to assess methane production of individual dairy cows in a barn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract

    Mitigation of methane production from dairy cows is critical to reduce the dairy industry’s contribution to the production of greenhouse gases. None of current used methane measurement methods are flawless and application of the methods is limited to assess the

  7. Economic optimization of decisions with respect to dairy cow health management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, E.H.P.

    1995-01-01


    The research described in this thesis was directed towards decision support in dairy cow health management. Attention was focused on clinical mastitis, in many countries considered to be the most important dairy health problem. First a statistical analysis was carried out to obtain

  8. Nutrient Prioritization in Dairy Cows Early Postpartum: Mismatch Between Metabolism and Fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leroy, J.L.M.R.; Vanholder, T.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Garcia-Ispierto, I.; Bols, P.E.J.

    2008-01-01

    For several decades, researchers worldwide report a decrease in fertility in high-yielding dairy cows, most probably based on conflicting metabolic and reproductive needs. The dairy herd manager's success at improving milk production has been accompanied by a negative trend for the most visible

  9. Rumen Fermentation and Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows Affected by Physical Forms and Urea Treatment of Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gunun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different physical forms and urea treatment of rice straw on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and milk production. Four, multiparous Holstein crossbred dairy cows in mid-lactation with initial body weight (BW of 409±20 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were as follows: untreated, long form rice straw (LRS, urea-treated (5%, long form rice straw (5% ULRS, urea-treated (2.5%, long form rice straw (2.5% ULRS and urea-treated (2.5%, chopped (4 cm rice straw (2.5% UCRS. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2 and rice straw was fed ad libitum. The findings revealed significant improvements in total DM intake and digestibility by using long and short forms of urea-treated rice straw (p0.05, whereas ruminal NH3-N, BUN and MUN were found to be increased (p<0.01 by urea-treated rice straw as compared with untreated rice straw. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs concentrations especially those of acetic acid were decreased (p<0.05 and those of propionic acid were increased (p<0.05, thus acetic acid:propionic acid was subsequently lowered (p<0.05 in cows fed with long or short forms of urea-treated rice straw. The 2.5% ULRS and 2.5% UCRS had greater microbial protein synthesis and was greatest when cows were fed with 5% ULRS. The urea-treated rice straw fed groups had increased milk yield (p<0.05, while lower feed cost and greater economic return was in the 2.5% ULRS and 2.5% UCRS (p<0.01. From these results, it could be concluded that 2.5% ULRS could replace 5% ULRS used as a roughage source to maintain feed intake, rumen fermentation, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, milk production and economical return in mid-lactating dairy cows.

  10. Chewing activity of dairy cows fed diets based in sunflower cakeComportamento ingestivo de vacas em lactação alimentadas com rações a base de torta de girassol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nery Rocha Junior

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of sunflower cake (SC on nutrient intake and ingestive behavior in lactating cows. Eight multiparous Holstein x Zebu cows, between 50 and 74 lactation days and 20 ± 2 kg of milk per day, were allocated in a 4 x 4 double latin square design, where the factors were four inclusion levels of SC (0; 7; 14 and 21%. Tifton 85 hay was used as forage in a 60:40 ratio of forage: concentrate. There was no detectable effect of the inclusion of SC (P > 0.05 on dry matter, crude protein and organic matter intake. However, ether extract and neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake, showed linear and quadratic effect (P O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de torta de girassol (TG sobre o consumo de nutrientes e comportamento ingestivo em vacas em lactação. Oito vacas da raça Girolando, entre 50 e 74 dias em lactação e com produção média de 20 ± 2 kg de leite/dia foram distribuídas em quadrado latino 4x4 duplo, onde os fatores foram os níveis de inclusão de TG (0; 7; 14 e 21%. Como volumoso foi utilizado o feno de Tifton 85 em uma relação 60:40 de volumoso:concentrado. Não foi detectado efeito da inclusão da TG (P > 0,05 sobre consumo de matéria seca, proteína bruta e matéria orgânica. No entanto, os consumos de extrato etéreo e de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN apresentaram comportamento linear e quadrático (P < 0,05, respectivamente. O tempo gasto com ruminação, ócio e em pé não foi alterado pela adição de TG às rações, contudo o tempo despendido com alimentação e ingestão de água foi influenciado linearmente (P < 0,05. A eficiência de ruminação, expressa em gMS/h e gFDN/h, o tempo de mastigação total, número de bolos ruminais e número de mastigações merícicas por dia não diferiram significativamente, com exceção da eficiência de alimentação que variou de forma quadrática (P < 0,05. Em um manejo alimentar de

  11. Casein infusion rate influences feed intake differently depending on metabolizable protein balance in dairy cows: A multilevel meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, R; Ouellet, D R; Kebreab, E; Lapierre, H

    2016-04-01

    The effects of casein infusion have been investigated extensively in ruminant species. Its effect on responses in dry matter intake (DMI) has been reviewed and indicated no significant effect. The literature reviewed in the current meta-analysis is more extensive and limited to dairy cows fed ad libitum. A total of 51 studies were included in the meta-analysis and data were fitted to a multilevel model adjusting for the correlated nature of some studies. The effect size was the mean difference calculated by subtracting the means for the control from the casein-infused group. Overall, casein infusion [average of 333 g of dry matter (DM)/d; range: 91 to 1,092 g of DM/d] tended to increase responses in DMI by 0.18 kg/d (n=48 studies; 3 outliers). However, an interaction was observed between the casein infusion rate (IR) and the initial metabolizable protein (MP) balance [i.e., supply minus requirements (NRC, 2001)]. When control cows were in negative MP balance (n=27 studies), responses in DMI averaged 0.28 kg/d at mean MP balance (-264 g/d) and casein IR (336 g/d), and a 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean increased further responses by 0.14 kg/d (MP balance being constant), compared with cows not infused with casein. In contrast, when control cows were in positive MP balance (n=22 studies; 2 outliers), responses in DMI averaged -0.20 kg/d at mean casein IR (339 g/d), and a 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean further decreased responses by 0.33 kg/d, compared with cows not infused with casein. Responses in milk true protein yield at mean casein IR were greater (109 vs. 65 g/d) for cows in negative vs. positive MP balance, respectively, and the influence of the casein IR on responses was significant only for cows in negative MP balance. A 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean increased further responses in milk true protein yield by 25 g/d, compared with cows not infused with casein. Responses in blood urea concentration increased in

  12. Tomato seeds as a novel by-product feed for lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinerio, C A; Fadel, J G; Asmus, J; Heguy, J M; Taylor, S J; DePeters, E J

    2015-07-01

    Whole tomato seeds, a novel by-product feedstuff, were fed to lactating Holstein cows to determine the nutritive value of whole tomato seeds by replacing whole cottonseed in the total mixed ration. Four primiparous and 4 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design and fed 1 of 4 total mixed rations. Whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed on a weight-to-weight basis for lipid. The proportion of whole tomato seeds to whole cottonseed in the diets were 100:0, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100 on a lipid basis. Thus, tomato seeds were 4.0, 2.4, 1.1, and 0% of the ration dry matter, respectively. Milk yield and the concentrations and yields of protein, lactose, and solids-not-fat did not differ for the effect of diet. However, milk fat concentration decreased and milk fat yield tended to decrease as whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed. Intakes of dry matter, lipid, and crude protein did not differ. Whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and ash-free neutral detergent fiber did not differ, but digestibility of total fatty acids and crude protein decreased with increasing proportion of whole tomato seeds. Urea concentration in milk and plasma both decreased with increasing whole tomato seeds. Fecal concentration of linoleic and α-linolenic acids increased with increasing whole tomato seeds, suggesting that seeds were passing out of the digestive tract undigested. The concentrations of C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 in milk fat had small increases, but their yields were not different, suggesting that only a small amount of whole-tomato-seed lipid might have been digested postruminally. Amounts of trans C18:1 fatty acids in milk fat were higher with increasing whole cottonseed, which might suggest a shift in rumen biohydrogenation pathways. At the level of feeding used in the current study, whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed in the diet of lactating dairy cows without a change in production. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science

  13. Variáveis ruminais, concentração de uréia plasmática e excreções urinárias de nitrogênio em vacas leiteiras alimentadas com concentrado processado de diferentes formas Ruminal metabolism, plasma urea concentration, and urinary excretion of nitrogen of dairy cows fed concentrate processed in different forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Luiz Wernersbach Filho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste estudo foi avaliar a influência do tipo de processamento do concentrado sobre o pH e a amônia ruminal, a concentração de uréia no plasma e as excreções urinárias de vacas leiteiras alimentadas com dietas contendo diferentes relações volumoso:concentrado. Foram utilizadas 16 vacas da raça Holandesa, puras e mestiças, em dois níveis de produção de leite (30 e 20 kg/dia, distribuídas em quatro quadrados latinos (dois para cada nível de produção, com quatro períodos de 15 dias. As dietas experimentais, isoprotéicas, foram constituídas à base de silagem de milho com relações volumoso:concentrado 50:50 e 60:40 na MS, visando produções de 30 e 20 kg de leite/dia, respectivamente. Imediatamente antes e 3 horas após a alimentação matinal, não houve diferenças nos valores de pH e amônia ruminal nos diferentes níveis de produção. Contudo, nas vacas alimentadas com a dieta com concentrado extrusado, a concentração de amônia ruminal foi menor 3 horas após a alimentação. Não houve diferença nas concentrações de uréia plasmática entre os tratamentos e as excreções urinárias de nitrogênio diferiram somente com o concentrado contendo alto teor de energia parcialmente processado.The objective of this trial was to study the effects of different forms of concentrate processing on ruminal pH and ammonia as well as on plasma concentration of urea. Sixteen dairy cows, pure Holstein and crossbred, were blocked by production level (30.0 and 20.0 kg/day and randomly assigned to two Latin squares with four periods of 15 days each. Diets were isonitrogenous and contained the following forage (corn silage:concentrate ratios: 50:50 and 60:40 (% of DM for cows yielding 30.0 and 20.0 kg of milk/day, respectively. Ruminal pH and ammonia (N-NH3 did not differ at 0 h (pre-feeding and at 3 h after the morning feeding in the different production levels. However, it was observed lower ruminal ammonia concentration

  14. Inclusion of brown midrib dwarf pearl millet silage in the diet of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, M T; Melgar, A; Oh, J; Nedelkov, K; Sanchez, G; Roth, G W; Hristov, A N

    2018-06-01

    Brown midrib brachytic dwarf pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) forage harvested at the flag leaf visible stage and subsequently ensiled was investigated as a partial replacement of corn silage in the diet of high-producing dairy cows. Seventeen lactating Holstein cows were fed 2 diets in a crossover design experiment with 2 periods of 28 d each. Both diets had forage:concentrate ratios of 60:40. The control diet (CSD) was based on corn silage and alfalfa haylage, and in the treatment diet, 20% of the corn silage dry matter (corresponding to 10% of the dietary dry matter) was replaced with pearl millet silage (PMD). The effects of partial substitution of corn silage with pearl millet silage on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk components, fatty acid profile, apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients, N utilization, and enteric methane emissions were analyzed. The pearl millet silage was higher in crude protein and neutral detergent fiber and lower in lignin and starch than the corn silage. Diet did not affect dry matter intake or energy-corrected milk yield, which averaged 46.7 ± 1.92 kg/d. The PMD treatment tended to increase milk fat concentration, had no effect on milk fat yield, and increased milk urea N. Concentrations and yields of milk protein and lactose were not affected by diet. Apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter decreased from 66.5% in CSD to 64.5% in PMD. Similarly, organic matter and crude protein digestibility was decreased by PMD, whereas neutral- and acid-detergent fiber digestibility was increased. Total milk trans fatty acid concentration was decreased by PMD, with a particular decrease in trans-10 18:1. Urinary urea and fecal N excretion increased with PMD compared with CSD. Milk N efficiency decreased with PMD. Carbon dioxide emission was not different between the diets, but PMD increased enteric methane emission from 396 to 454 g/d and increased methane yield and intensity. Substituting corn silage with brown midrib dwarf

  15. Impact of NDF degradability of corn silage on the milk yield potential of dairy cows

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    Mauro Spanghero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The neutral detergent fibre (NDF degradability of corn silage samples, measured in vitro (ivNDFd by a filter bag system, was used to examine (i the relationship between the ivNDFd and that calculated from acid detergent lignin (L content (NDFd and (ii the impact of ivNDFd variations on the predicted milk yield (MY of dairy cows fed corn silage based diets. A total of 173 samples of corn silage were collected during a period of three years (2001-03 in different dairy farms of the Po Valley (Northern Italy. Each sample was analysed for chemical composition and was also tested in triplicate for the ivNDFd using the DaisyII incubator (Ankom, Tech. Co., Fairport, NY, USA with incubation time of 48hs. Moreover, the NDFd of samples was calculated from the L contents, while the measured ivNDFd values were used to estimate the NEl, the potential dry matter intakes (DMI and to predict the MY of cows. Corn silage samples of the three years were similar for NDF and starch contents (44.2 and 30.7% DM, on average, respectively while samples from 2003, in comparison with 2001 and 2002, had lower crude protein (6.9 vs 8.3-8.4% DM, P<0.01 and L contents (3.3 vs 3.6-3.9% DM, P<0.01 and higher ivNDFd values (53.3 vs 45.6-47.8%, P<0.01. The relationship between ivNDFd and NDFd was weak (R2=0.09, not significant. The MY predicted from the NEl content and DMI of corn silage (5.5 MJ/kg DM and 8.9 kg/d minus the maintenance energy costs, was 11.5 kg/d on average (coefficient of variation 20%. Our simulations indicate that a variation of ivNDFd by +1.0% changes the NEl of corn silage to have an expected variation in milk yield of +0.15 kg/d. If the ivNDFd is also used to predict the corn silage DMI then a +1.0% variation in ivNDFd of corn silage produces an overall +0.23 kg/d MY variation. The present results indicate that ivNDFd is highly variable in corn silage populations and differences in this nutritional parameter have an appreciable impact on the predicted milk

  16. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season.

  17. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Ravinet

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN infection can impair milk production (MP in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1 the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2 herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR, faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd. Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average. This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season.

  18. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers’ grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season. PMID

  19. Alterations of Innate Immunity Reactants in Transition Dairy Cows before Clinical Signs of Lameness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanshi; Hailemariam, Dagnachew; Dervishi, Elda; Deng, Qilan; Goldansaz, Seyed A.; Dunn, Suzanna M.; Ametaj, Burim N.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Lameness is prevalent in dairy cows and early diagnosis and timely treatment of the disease can lower animal suffering, improve recovery rate, increase longevity, and minimize cow loss. However, there are no indications of disease until it appears clinically, and presently the only approach to deal with the sick cow is intensive treatment or culling. The results suggest that lameness affected serum concentrations of the several parameters related to innate immunity and carbohydrate metabolism that might be used to monitor health status of transition dairy cows in the near future. Abstract The objectives of this study were to evaluate metabolic and innate immunity alterations in the blood of transition dairy cows before, during, and after diagnosis of lameness during periparturient period. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vain once per week before morning feeding from 100 multiparous Holstein dairy cows during −8, −4, disease diagnosis, and +4 weeks (wks) relative to parturition. Six healthy cows (CON) and six cows that showed clinical signs of lameness were selected for intensive serum analyses. Concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), lactate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured in serum by ELISA or colorimetric methods. Health status, DMI, rectal temperature, milk yield, and milk composition also were monitored for each cow during the whole experimental period. Results showed that cows affected by lameness had greater concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA in the serum vs. CON cows. Concentrations of TNF tended to be greater in cows with lameness compared with CON. In addition, there was a health status (Hs) by time (week) interaction for IL-1, TNF, and Hp in lameness cows vs. CON ones. Enhanced serum concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA at −8 and

  20. Studies on hepatic lipidosis and coinciding health and fertility problems of high-producing dairy cows using the "Utrecht fatty liver model of dairy cows". A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, M J H; Wensing, T

    2006-09-01

    Fatty liver or hepatic lipidosis is a major metabolic disorder of high-producing dairy cows that occurs rather frequently in early lactation and is associated with decreased health, production and fertility. A background section of the review explores reasons why high-producing dairy cows are prone to develop fatty liver post partum. Hepatic lipidosis and coinciding health and fertility problems seriously endanger profitability and longevity of the dairy cow. Results from a great number of earlier epidemiological and clinical studies made it clear that a different approach was needed for elucidation of pathogenesis and etiology of this complex of health problems. There was a need for an adequate animal model in which hepatic lipidosis and production, health and fertility problems could be provoked under controlled conditions. It was hypothesized that overconditioning ante partum and feed restriction post partum might induce lipolysis in adipose tissue and triacylglycerol accumulation in the liver following calving. This consideration formed the basis for the experiments, which resulted in the "Utrecht fatty liver model of dairy cows". In this model, post partum triacylglycerol-lipidosis as well as the whole complex of health and fertility problems are induced under well-controlled conditions. The experimental protocol based on this hypothesis produced in all cases (10 feeding trials with over 150 dairy cattle) the intended result, i.e. all experimental cows developed post partum higher hepatic triacylglycerol concentrations than did control cows. The model was evaluated in biochemical, clinical pathology, immunological, clinical and fertility terms. It turned out that in this model, post partum triacylglycerol-lipidosis as well as the whole complex of health and fertility problems were induced under well-controlled conditions.

  1. Pea (Pisum sativum in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

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    Rosanna Scipioni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant protein in place of soybean meal protein in diets for farmed animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute GMO in the food chain. Among the possible alternatives, the heat-processed (flaked pea appears interesting in dairy cow diets. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to test flaked peas as a partial substitute for soybean meal in the diet of Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a “Control” concentrate (8.3% soybean meal was compared to a “Pea” concentrate (5% soybean meal and 15% flaked peas. Forages fed to animals included mixed grass hay and alfalfa hay in experiment 1, and hay (mixed grass and alfalfa plus mixed grass in experiment 2. Milk yield and quality, and the characteristics of grab faecal samples, examined to get some empirical indicators of digestibility, were similar between feeding groups. Compositional changes (crude protein and solubility in forages used as common base in the diets of both experiments had a slight effect on milk and plasma urea contents. There was a tendency for a higher milk urea content in the “Pea” group (32.3 vs 30.1mg/dl in experiment 1, P<0.1; 30.2 vs 28.0mg/dl in experiment 2, P<0.1. The plasma urea content was different only in experiment 2 (4.9 vs 5.6mmol/l, respectively for “Control” and “Pea” groups; P<0.05. The inclusion of the heatprocessed pea within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation could represent a feasible opportunity for a partial substitution of soybean meal.

  2. Uterine inflammation affects the reproductive performance of dairy cows: A review

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    Roger Eduardo Molina-Coto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of post- partum uterine disease is an important concern in dairy cattle, because it affects its reproduction. Therefore, the objective of this review of literature was to generate a multifactorial overview about uterine diseases, and the reproductive performance of dairy cows, from a zootechnical approach. Dairy cows face multiple challenges around parturition. Immune suppression around calving, exposition to trauma and uterine bacterial contamination, metabolic diseases, lactation, and changes in management make dairy cows susceptible to uterine diseases. Most cows are able to eliminate uterine infection after calving, however, some cows keep uterine disease. Uterine disease may show clinical signs, but also silent signs that affect fertility as well. Poor reproductive performance is not caused by those signs by themselves, but due to alterations in ovarian and uterine function. Also, the problem of this silent signs is that farmers become aware of the disease when it has already caused negative effects on the reproductiveperformance. Sometimes, uterine disease is still present at the moment of the first service after calving. Uterine diseasemake it harder for cows to get pregnant because it affects the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, being another cause for infertility, increasing the cull rate and decreasing incomes from the dairy industry.

  3. Effects of dietary crude protein and rumen-degradable protein concentrations on urea recycling, nitrogen balance, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsvangwa, T; Davies, K L; McKinnon, J J; Christensen, D A

    2016-08-01

    be greater in cows fed the high-CP diet compared with those fed the low-CP diet, and it was greater in cows fed the high-RDP diet as compared with those fed the low-RDP diet. Nitrogen intake and both total N and urea-N excretion in urine were greater for cows fed the high-CP diet compared with those fed the low-CP diet. However, N balance and urinary excretion of purine derivatives were unaffected by dietary treatment. Urea-N entry rate (UER) was greater in cows fed the high-CP diet compared with those fed the low-CP diet; however, UER was unaffected by dietary RDP concentration. The proportion of urea-N recycled to the gastrointestinal tract (as a percentage of UER) was greater in cows fed the low-CP diet compared with those fed the high-CP diet. In summary, reducing dietary CP concentration decreased urinary N excretion but had no effect on milk yield, thus resulting in an overall improvement in milk N efficiency. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. In situ provision of drinking water to grazing dairy cows improves milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglierina, M M; Bonadeo, N; Ornstein, A M; Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2018-01-01

    To determine the effect of providing water within the area grazed by dairy cows on milk yield and quality, compared to requiring cows to walk to a distant water trough, on a dairy farm in the Pampa region of Argentina during summer. Holstein dairy cows were allocated to two herds with similar parity, days in milk and milk production. They were grazed in one paddock that was divided in two, with a fixed water trough at one end. Cows were moved twice daily to grazing plots within the paddock. Control cows (n=66) could only access water from the fixed trough, whereas supplemented cows (n=67) also received water from a mobile trough within the grazing plot. Milk production of each cow, and water consumption of the two herds were measured daily over 62 days. Milk composition for each herd was determined weekly from Days 18 to 60 of the study, and grazing behaviour was observed between 08:00 and 16:00 hours on Days 11-15, 19-22 and 39-43. Over the 62 days of the study, supplemented cows produced 1.39 (SE 0.11) L/cow/day more milk than Control cows (p=0.027). Estimated mean daily water intake was 50.4 (SE 2.1) L/cow/day for supplemented cows and 58.2 (SE 2.7) L/cow/day for Control cows (p=0.004). Percentage total solids in milk was higher for supplemented (12.5 (SE 0.06)%) than Control (12.4 (SE 0.04)%) cows (p=0.047). During the periods of behavioural observation, a higher percentage of cows in the water supplemented than the Control herd were observed in the grazing area (p=0.012). This preliminary study demonstrated that provision of water to dairy cows within the grazing plot was beneficial for milk production and composition, and may be associated with longer periods spent within the grazing area, during hot weather in the Pampa region of Argentina.

  5. Short communication: Association of lying behavior and subclinical ketosis in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, E I; LeBlanc, S J; McBride, B W; Duffield, T F; DeVries, T J

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the association of lying behavior and subclinical ketosis (SCK) in transition dairy cows. A total of 339 dairy cows (107 primiparous and 232 multiparous) on 4 commercial dairy farms were monitored for lying behavior and SCK from 14d before calving until 28 d after calving. Lying time, frequency of lying bouts, and average lying bout length were measured using automated data loggers 24h/d. Cows were tested for SCK 1×/wk by taking a blood sample and analyzing for β-hydroxybutyrate; cows with β-hydroxybutyrate ≥1.2mmol/L postpartum were considered to have SCK. Cases of retained placenta, metritis, milk fever, or mastitis during the study period were recorded and cows were categorized into 1 of 4 groups: healthy (HLT) cows had no SCK or any other health problem (n=139); cows treated for at least 1 health issue other than SCK (n=50); SCK (HYK) cows with no other health problems during transition (n=97); or subclinically ketotic plus (HYK+) cows that had SCK and 1 or more other health problems (n=53). Daily lying time was summarized by week and comparisons were made between HLT, HYK, and HYK+, respectively. We found no difference among health categories in lying time, bout frequency, or bout length fromwk -2 towk +4 relative to calving for first-lactation cows. Differences in lying time for multiparous cows were seen inwk +1, when HYK+ cows spent 92±24.0 min/d more time lying down than HLT cows, and duringwk +3 and +4 when HYK cows spent 44±16.7 and 41±18.9 min/d, respectively, more time lying down than HLT cows. Increased odds of HYK+ were found to be associated with higher parity, longer dry period, and greater stall stocking density inwk -1 and longer lying time duringwk +1. When comparing HYK to HLT cows, the same variables were associated with odds of SCK; however, lying time was not retained in the final model. These results suggest that monitoring lying time may contribute to identifying multiparous cows

  6. Corn silage in dairy cow diets to reduce ruminal methanogenesis: effects on the rumen metabolically active microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettat, A; Hassanat, F; Benchaar, C

    2013-08-01

    Methane produced by the methanogenic Archaea that inhabit the rumen is a potent greenhouse gas and represents an energy loss for the animal. Although several strategies have been proposed to mitigate enteric CH4 production, little is known about the effects of dietary changes on the microbial consortia involved in ruminal methanogenesis. Thus, the current study aimed to examine how the metabolically active microbes are affected when dairy cows were fed diets with increasing proportions of corn silage (CS). For this purpose, 9 ruminally cannulated lactating dairy cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design and fed a total mixed ration (60:40 forage:concentrate ratio on a dry matter basis) with the forage portion being either alfalfa silage (0% CS), corn silage (100% CS), or a 50:50 mixture (50% CS). Enteric CH4 production was determined using respiration chambers and total rumen content was sampled for the determination of fermentation characteristics and molecular biology analyses (cDNA-based length heterogeneity PCR, quantitative PCR). The cDNA-based length heterogeneity PCR targeting active microbes revealed similar bacterial communities in cows fed 0% CS and 50% CS diets, whereas important differences were observed between 0% CS and 100% CS diets, including a reduction in the bacterial richness and diversity in cows fed 100% CS diet. As revealed by quantitative PCR, feeding the 100% CS diet increased the number of total bacteria, Prevotella spp., Archaea, and methanogenic activity, though it reduced protozoal number. Meanwhile, increasing the CS proportion in the diet increased propionate concentration but decreased ruminal pH, CH4 production (L/kg of dry matter intake), and concentrations of acetate and butyrate. Based on these microbial and fermentation changes, and because CH4 production was reduced by feeding 100% CS diet, this study shows that the use of cDNA-based quantitative PCR to estimate archaeal growth and activity is not reliable

  7. Desempenho produtivo de vacas leiteiras alimentadas com silagem pré-seca de alfafa adicionada de inoculante microbiano Performance of lactating dairy cows fed alfalfa haylage with microbial inoculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Jaime de Almeida Magalhães

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com o presente estudo, avaliar os efeitos da inoculação microbiana da silagem pré-seca de alfafa sobre o consumo de matéria seca, a produção e composição do leite de vacas da raça Holandesa, multíparas, com 135 ± 16,4 dias de lactação, distribuídas em delineamento em reversão simples com seqüência balanceada ("cross-over", com dois períodos sucessivos. Os tratamentos corresponderam à silagem pré-seca de alfafa (50,0% de MS e 16,5% de PB controle ou inoculada com o produto Silobac® (Lactobacillus plantarum e Pediococcus pentosaceus. Cada período experimental teve duração de 21 dias, sendo os cinco últimos dias destinados à coleta de dados. Não se observou efeito da inoculação sobre o CMS (inoculada = 17,8 vs. controle = 17,8 kg/animal/dia, a produção de leite corrigida para 4,0% de gordura (21,0 vs. 20,4 kg/dia, produção de leite (23,0 vs. 22,4 kg/dia, porcentagem de gordura (3,46 vs. 3,47%, proteína (2,96 vs. 2,93%, lactose (4,64 vs. 4,67%, sólidos totais (11,9 vs. 11,9% e sólidos desengordurados (8,49 vs. 8,48%, CCS (5,43 vs. 5,16 log cel/10³/mL, NUL (11,7 vs. 12,1 mg/dl, acidez (15,9 vs. 16,4ºD, densidade (1030,1 vs. 1030,0 e crioscopia (-0,529 vs. -0,531ºH.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding alfalfa haylage with microbial inoculat on dry matter intake, milk yield and composition in Holstein cows, at 135 ± 16.4 days in milk. A cross-over design with two periods of sampling was used. Treatments were alfalfa haylage (50.0% DM and 16.5% CP control or microbially inoculated with Silobac® product (Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Each experimental period extended for twenty-one days, the last five used for data collection. The inoculation did not influence DMI (inoculated = 17.8 vs. control = 17.8 kg/animal/day, 4%FCM (21.0 vs. 20.4 kg/day, milk yield (23.0 vs. 22.4 kg/day, fat (3.46 vs. 3.47%, protein (2.96 vs. 2.93%, lactose (4.64 vs. 4

  8. Comparative composition, diversity, and abundance of oligosaccharides in early lactation milk from commercial dairy and beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sischo, William M.; Short, Diana M.; Geissler, Mareen; Bunyatratchata, Apichaya; Barile, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Prebiotics are nondigestible dietary ingredients, usually oligosaccharides (OS), that provide a health benefit to the host by directly modulating the gut microbiota. Although there is some information describing OS content in dairy-source milk, no information is available to describe the OS content of beef-source milk. Given the different trait emphasis between dairy and beef for milk production and calf survivability, it is plausible that OS composition, diversity, and abundance differ between production types. The goal of this study was to compare OS in milk from commercial dairy and beef cows in early lactation. Early-lactation multiparous cows (5–12 d in milk) from 5 commercial Holstein dairy herds and 5 Angus or Angus hybrid beef herds were sampled once. Milk was obtained from each enrolled cow and frozen on the farm. Subsequently, each milk sample was assessed for total solids, pH, and OS content and relative abundance. Oligosaccharide diversity and abundance within and between samples was transformed through principal component analysis to reduce data complexity. Factors from principal component analysis were used to create similarity clusters, which were subsequently used in a multivariate logistic regression. In total, 30 OS were identified in early-lactation cow milk, including 21 distinct OS and 9 isomers with unique retention times. The majority of OS detected in the milk samples were present in all individual samples regardless of production type. Two clusters described distribution patterns of OS for the study sample; when median OS abundance was compared between the 2 clusters, we found that overall OS relative abundance was consistently greater in the cluster dominated by beef cows. For several of the structures, including those with known prebiotic effect, the difference in abundance was 2- to 4-fold greater in the beef-dominated cluster. Assuming that beef OS content in milk is the gold standard for cattle, it is likely that preweaning dairy

  9. Serum paraoxonase-1 as biomarker for improved diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Ayman Samir; Honkawa, Kazuyuki; Fath, Eman Mohamed; Nonaka, Nariaki; Horii, Yoichiro

    2013-04-11

    Fatty liver is a major metabolic disorder in dairy cows and is believed to result in major economic losses in dairy farming due to decreased health status, reproductive performance and fertility. Currently, the definitive means for diagnosing fatty liver is determining the fat content of hepatic tissue by liver biopsy, which is an invasive and costly procedure, making it poorly suited to dairy farms. Therefore, the key aim of this study was to investigate the measurement of serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1), an enzyme exclusively synthesized by the liver, as a sensitive noninvasive biomarker for diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows. A comparative cohort study using serum specimens from Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (46 healthy and 46 fatty liver cases) was conducted. Serum PON1 (paraoxonase, lactonase and arylesterase) activity and other biochemical and hematological parameters were measured. We found that serum PON1 activity was lower (Pratio (+LR), negative likelihood ratio (-LR), diagnostic odd ratio (DOR) and overall diagnostic accuracy in diagnosing fatty liver. The present results indicate that addition of serum PON1 activity measurement to the biochemical profile could improve the diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows, which would have a considerable clinical impact and lead to greater profitability in the dairy industry.

  10. Diet-induced bacterial immunogens in the gastrointestinal tract of dairy cows: impacts on immunity and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guozhong; Liu, Shimin; Wu, Yongxia; Lei, Chunlong; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Sen

    2011-08-09

    Dairy cows are often fed high grain diets to meet the energy demand for high milk production or simply due to a lack of forages at times. As a result, ruminal acidosis, especially subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA), occurs frequently in practical dairy production. When SARA occurs, bacterial endotoxin (or lipopolysaccharide, LPS) is released in the rumen and the large intestine in a large amount. Many other bacterial immunogens may also be released in the digestive tract following feeding dairy cows diets containing high proportions of grain. LPS can be translocated into the bloodstream across the epithelium of the digestive tract, especially the lower tract, due to possible alterations of permeability and injuries of the epithelial tissue. As a result, the concentration of blood LPS increases. Immune responses are subsequently caused by circulating LPS, and the systemic effects include increases in concentrations of neutrophils and the acute phase proteins such as serum amyloid-A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), LPS binding protein (LBP), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in blood. Entry of LPS into blood can also result in metabolic alterations. Blood glucose and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations are enhanced accompanying an increase of blood LPS after increasing the amount of grain in the diet, which adversely affects feed intake of dairy cows. As the proportions of grain in the diet increase, patterns of plasma β-hydroxybutyric acid, cholesterol, and minerals (Ca, Fe, and Zn) are also perturbed. The bacterial immunogens can also lead to reduced supply of nutrients for synthesis of milk components and depressed functions of the epithelial cells in the mammary gland. The immune responses and metabolic alterations caused by circulating bacterial immunogens will exert an effect on milk production. It has been demonstrated that increases in concentrations of ruminal LPS and plasma acute phase proteins (CRP, SAA, and LBP) are associated with declines in milk fat content

  11. Diet-induced bacterial immunogens in the gastrointestinal tract of dairy cows: Impacts on immunity and metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dairy cows are often fed high grain diets to meet the energy demand for high milk production or simply due to a lack of forages at times. As a result, ruminal acidosis, especially subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA, occurs frequently in practical dairy production. When SARA occurs, bacterial endotoxin (or lipopolysaccharide, LPS is released in the rumen and the large intestine in a large amount. Many other bacterial immunogens may also be released in the digestive tract following feeding dairy cows diets containing high proportions of grain. LPS can be translocated into the bloodstream across the epithelium of the digestive tract, especially the lower tract, due to possible alterations of permeability and injuries of the epithelial tissue. As a result, the concentration of blood LPS increases. Immune responses are subsequently caused by circulating LPS, and the systemic effects include increases in concentrations of neutrophils and the acute phase proteins such as serum amyloid-A (SAA, haptoglobin (Hp, LPS binding protein (LBP, and C-reactive protein (CRP in blood. Entry of LPS into blood can also result in metabolic alterations. Blood glucose and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations are enhanced accompanying an increase of blood LPS after increasing the amount of grain in the diet, which adversely affects feed intake of dairy cows. As the proportions of grain in the diet increase, patterns of plasma β-hydoxybutyric acid, cholesterol, and minerals (Ca, Fe, and Zn are also perturbed. The bacterial immunogens can also lead to reduced supply of nutrients for synthesis of milk components and depressed functions of the epithelial cells in the mammary gland. The immune responses and metabolic alterations caused by circulating bacterial immunogens will exert an effect on milk production. It has been demonstrated that increases in concentrations of ruminal LPS and plasma acute phase proteins (CRP, SAA, and LBP are associated with declines in

  12. The effect of dry corn gluten feed on chewing activities and rumen parameters in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ismet Turkmen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of dry corn gluten feed (DCGF on dry matter intake (DMI, chewing activity, and rumen fermentation when used to replace a portion of corn silage in diets for lactating Holstein cows. Eight lactating Holstein primiparous cows averaging 98±20 d in milk and weighing 515±20 kg were randomly assigned in a 4x4 Latin square design with 4 week periods. Dietary treatments were 1 a control diets (C of 50% forage (corn silage and wheat straw, 35%, 15% DM basis, respectively, 2 a low DCGF diet (L-DCGF in which 10% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF, 3 a medium DCGF diet (M-DCGF in which 18% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF, and 4 a high DCGF diet (H-DCGF in which 25% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF. The proportion of particles retained on the 19.0 mm screen and physical effectiveness factor of the HDCGF was lower (P<0.05 than in the other groups. Increasing the level of DCGF did not change DMI. Cows fed the C diet spent significantly more time ruminating and chewing per day compared with the MDCGF and H-DCGF diets (483.88, 435.63, 431.25 min/d, P<0.05; and 818.38, 753.00, 745.75 min/d respectively, P<0.05. Cows fed the C diet had ruminal pH values higher than the cows fed the M-DCGF and H-DCGF diets (6.02, 5.95, and 5.91, P<0.05. The total volatile fatty acid and propionate levels of H-DCGF fed cows were higher than the control (P<0.05. The changes in acetate (A and propionate (P concentrations resulted in a decrease in A/P ratio, when corn silage was replaced by DCGF, which led to a reduction in the particle size of the diets (P<0.05. It was concluded that when ratio 18 and 25% DCGF were substituted for corn silage, rumination time, chewing activities and ruminal pH are negatively affected. The optimum level for the addition of DCGF was found to be below 18% of the diet for a healthy rumen and a chewing behaviour in dairy cows.

  13. Invited review: Learning from the future-A vision for dairy farms and cows in 2067.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, J H; Cushman, R A; Dechow, C D; Dobson, H; Humblot, P; Hutjens, M F; Jones, G A; Ruegg, P S; Sheldon, I M; Stevenson, J S

    2018-05-01

    The world's population will reach 10.4 billion in 2067, with 81% residing in Africa or Asia. Arable land available for food production will decrease to 0.15 ha per person. Temperature will increase in tropical and temperate zones, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, and this will push growing seasons and dairy farming away from arid areas and into more northern latitudes. Dairy consumption will increase because it provides essential nutrients more efficiently than many other agricultural systems. Dairy farming will become modernized in developing countries and milk production per cow will increase, doubling in countries with advanced dairying systems. Profitability of dairy farms will be the key to their sustainability. Genetic improvements will include emphasis on the coding genome and associated noncoding epigenome of cattle, and on microbiomes of dairy cattle and farmsteads. Farm sizes will increase and there will be greater lateral integration of housing and management of dairy cattle of different ages and production stages. Integrated sensors, robotics, and automation will replace much of the manual labor on farms. Managing the epigenome and microbiome will become part of routine herd management. Innovations in dairy facilities will improve the health of cows and permit expression of natural behaviors. Herds will be viewed as superorganisms, and studies of herds as observational units will lead to improvements in productivity, health, and well-being of dairy cattle, and improve the agroecology and sustainability of dairy farms. Dairy farmers in 2067 will meet the world's needs for essential nutrients by adopting technologies and practices that provide improved cow health and longevity, profitable dairy farms, and sustainable agriculture. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. THE EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTAL LIGHT ON MILK PRODUCTION IN HOLSTEIN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. GAVAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available 20 multiparous cows were utilized to investigate effect of supplemental light on milk production. Cows were randomly assigned to one of two treatments (n=10: a 10- 13 hours of light and 14-11 hours of darkness/d natural light -NL group; b 17 hours of light (natural light + supplemental light -SL group. Supplemental lighting of 350 lx at eye level was provided by fluorescent lamps, controlled by an automatic timer. Multiparous cows in SL group produced more fat corected milk (FMC than multiparous cows in NL group. The efficiency of production in dairy cows can be enhanced by the photoperiod manipulation and thus provide another management tool for dairy producers to enhance productivity.

  15. Chronic Effects of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Rations with or without Increased Concentrate Proportion on the Insulin Sensitivity in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Asako; Keese, Christina; Meyer, Ulrich; Starke, Alexander; Wrenzycki, Christine; Dänicke, Sven

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term exposure to a Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON, 5 mg/kg DM) on the energy metabolism in lactating cows fed diets with different amounts of concentrate. In Period 1 27 German Holstein cows were assigned to two groups and fed a control or mycotoxin-contaminated diet with 50% concentrate for 11 weeks. In Period 2 each group was further divided and fed either a diet containing 30% or 60% concentrate for 16 weeks. Blood samples were collected in week 0, 4, 8, 15, 21, and 27 for calculation of the Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index and biopsy samples of skeletal muscle and the liver in w 0, 15, and 27 for analysis by real-time RT-qPCR. The DON-fed groups presented lower insulin sensitivities than controls at week 27. Concomitantly, muscular mRNA expression of insulin receptors and hepatic mRNA expression of glucose transporter 2 and key enzymes for gluconeogenesis and fatty acid metabolism were lower in DON-fed cows compared to the control. The study revealed no consistent evidence that DON effects were modified by dietary concentrate levels. In conclusion, long-term dietary DON intake appears to have mild effects on energy metabolism in lactating dairy cows. PMID:29738450

  16. Chronic Effects of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Rations with or without Increased Concentrate Proportion on the Insulin Sensitivity in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asako Kinoshita

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term exposure to a Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON, 5 mg/kg DM on the energy metabolism in lactating cows fed diets with different amounts of concentrate. In Period 1 27 German Holstein cows were assigned to two groups and fed a control or mycotoxin-contaminated diet with 50% concentrate for 11 weeks. In Period 2 each group was further divided and fed either a diet containing 30% or 60% concentrate for 16 weeks. Blood samples were collected in week 0, 4, 8, 15, 21, and 27 for calculation of the Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index and biopsy samples of skeletal muscle and the liver in w 0, 15, and 27 for analysis by real-time RT-qPCR. The DON-fed groups presented lower insulin sensitivities than controls at week 27. Concomitantly, muscular mRNA expression of insulin receptors and hepatic mRNA expression of glucose transporter 2 and key enzymes for gluconeogenesis and fatty acid metabolism were lower in DON-fed cows compared to the control. The study revealed no consistent evidence that DON effects were modified by dietary concentrate levels. In conclusion, long-term dietary DON intake appears to have mild effects on energy metabolism in lactating dairy cows.

  17. Behaviour around the time of calving in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    . Within minutes after calving cows stood up and licked their calves; second parity cows had a longer latency to stand than later parity cows. Sniffing and licking the calf peaked during the first hour after calving and decreased during the five successive hours, while calves’ sniffing the cow peaked...

  18. Energy partitioning in dairy cows : effects of lipogenic and glucogenic diets on energy balance, metabolites and reproduction variables in early lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: dairy cows; dietary energy source; glucogenic nutrients; lipogenic nutrients; negative energy balance; metabolic disorders; reproduction, immune system Dairy cows experience a negative energy balance (NEB) in early lactation which results from high energy requirements for milk production

  19. Gait of dairy cows on floors with different slipperiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telezhenko, E; Magnusson, M; Bergsten, C

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the slip resistance of different types of solid flooring in cattle housing using a range of technical tests and gait analysis. Dynamic and static coefficient of friction, skid resistance, and abrasiveness were tested on concrete flooring with a smooth finish, a grooved pattern, or a tamped pattern, acid-resistant mastic asphalt, soft rubber mats, and a worn slatted concrete floor. Coefficients of friction and skid resistance were tested under clean and slurry-soiled conditions. Linear kinematic variables were assessed in 40 cows with trackway measurements after the cows passed over the floors in a straight walk. All gait variables were assessed as deviations from those obtained on the slatted concrete floor, which was used as a baseline. The coefficient of friction tests divided the floors into 3 categories: concrete flooring, which had a low coefficient of friction (0.29-0.41); mastic asphalt flooring, which had medium values (0.38-0.45); and rubber mats, which had high values (0.49-0.57). The highest abrasion (g/10 m) was on the asphalt flooring (4.48), and the concrete flooring with a tamped pattern had significantly higher abrasiveness (2.77) than the other concrete floors (1.26-1.60). Lowest values on the skid-resistance tests (dry/wet) were for smooth concrete (79/35) and mastic asphalt (65/47), especially with a slurry layer on the surface. Gait analysis mainly differentiated floors with higher friction and abrasion by longer strides and better tracking. Step asymmetry was lower on floors with high skid-resistance values. The most secure cow gait, in almost every aspect, was observed on soft rubber mats. Relationships between gait variables and physical floor characteristics ranged from average to weak (partial correlations 0.54-0.16). Thus, none of the physical characteristics alone was informative enough to characterize slip resistance. With reference to gait analysis, the abrasiveness of the hard surfaces was more informative than the

  20. Pattern of antibiotic resistant mastitis in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chandrasekaran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of drug resistant mastitis and their pattern of antibiotic resistance in dairy cows from Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: Isolation and identification of resistant pathogens were performed from acute clinical mastitis samples. Based on culture, isolation and sensitivity tests, cows with resistant mastitis were grouped as; Group I: Escherichia coli (n=119, Group II: Staphylococcus aureus (n=104 and Group III: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus (MRSA (n=12. The isolates were tested using agar disc diffusion method for their antimicrobial susceptibility and modified resazurin assay microdilution technique for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC to 8 antimicrobial drugs. The organisms were also confirmed for their identity by performing PCR on the bacterial pellet targeting the specific genes such as 16s-23s rRNA, mecA and blaZ respectively for the resistant pathogens and also confirmed by sequencing. Results: Antibiotic resistant mastitis was detected in 235 out of 401 cows accounting to 56.1%. The predominant resistant causative pathogen was E. coli (50.64% followed by S. aureus (44.25% and MRSA (5.11%. In vitro antibiotic sensitivity test and MIC breakpoints, E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA organisms showed more sensitivity to enrofloxacin, amoxicillin + sulbactam, gentamicin and ceftriaxone and had highest resistant to penicillin followed by amoxicillin, oxytetracycline and methicillin. E. coli and S. aureus isolates were found to be resistant to 1 or 2 antimicrobials, whereas most of the MRSA isolates were found to be multi-drug resistant i.e resistance to 3 or more of antimicrobials. Out of 235 milk samples, the specific target gene 16s-23s rRNA (E. coli , 16s-23s rRNA (S. aureus and MRSA (mecA and blaZ could be amplified from 119, 104 and 12 isolates with a percentage positivity of 50.64 (119/235, 89.64 (104/116 and 10.34 (12/116 respectively. Conclusion: Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR in

  1. Milk yield and reproductive performance of dairy heifers and cows supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine productive and fertility responses of Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows to supplementation with extruded linseed and soybean as sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Supplementation had a positive effect on profitability, with significant increases in milk yield in supplemented cows, but not in heifers. Treatments had no effect on milk fat content, but higher milk protein contents were observed with supplementation. A higher conception rate was found for supplemented heifers, but not for cows. Fat sources containing PUFAs are recommended for dairy cattle supplementation, since they improve fertility in heifers and milk yield in cows.

  2. Interactions between barley grain processing and source of supplemental dietary fat on nitrogen metabolism and urea-nitrogen recycling in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozho, G N; Hobin, M R; Mutsvangwa, T

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of methods of barley grain processing and source of supplemental fat on urea-N transfer to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the utilization of this recycled urea-N in lactating dairy cows. Four ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (656.3 +/- 27.7 kg of BW; 79.8 +/- 12.3 d in milk) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods and a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Experimental diets contained dry-rolled barley or pelleted barley in combination with whole canola or whole flaxseed as supplemental fat sources. Nitrogen balance was measured from d 15 to 19, with concurrent measurements of urea-N kinetics using continuous intrajugular infusions of [15N 15N]-urea. Dry matter intake and N intake were higher in cows fed dry-rolled barley compared with those fed pelleted barley. Nitrogen retention was not affected by diet, but fecal N excretion was higher in cows fed dry-rolled barley than in those fed pelleted barley. Actual and energy-corrected milk yield were not affected by diet. Milk fat content and milk fat yield were higher in cows fed dry-rolled barley compared with those fed pelleted barley. Source of supplemental fat did not affect urea-N kinetics. Urea-N production was higher (442.2 vs. 334.3 g of N/d), and urea-N entering the GIT tended to be higher (272.9 vs. 202.0 g of N/d), in cows fed dry-rolled barley compared with those fed pelleted barley. The amount of urea-N entry into the GIT that was returned to the ornithine cycle was higher (204.1 vs. 159.5 g of N/d) in cows fed dry-rolled barley than in pelleted barley-fed cows. The amount of urea-N recycled to the GIT and used for anabolic purposes, and the amounts lost in the urine or feces were not affected by dietary treatment. Microbial nonammonia N supply, estimated using total urinary excretion of purine derivatives, was not affected by diet. These results show that even though barley grain processing altered urea

  3. Incidence of double ovulation during the early postpartum period in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Hiromi; Miura, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Motohiro; Sakaguchi, Minoru

    2017-03-15

    In lactating cattle, the incidence of twin calving has many negative impacts on production and reproduction in dairy farming. In almost all cases, natural twinning in dairy cattle is the result of double ovulation. It has been suggested that the milk production level of cows influences the number of ovulatory follicles. The objective of the present study was to investigate the incidence of double ovulations during the early postpartum period in relation to the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cows. The ovaries of 43 Holstein cows (26 primiparous and 17 multiparous) were ultrasonographically scanned throughout the three postpartum ovulation sequences. The incidence of double ovulation in the unilateral ovaries was 66.7%, with a higher incidence in the right ovary than in the left, whereas that in bilateral ovaries was 33.3%. When double ovulations were counted dividing into each side ovary in which ovulations occurred, the total frequency of ovulations deviated from a 1:1 ratio (60.3% in the right side and 39.7% in the left side, P cows, double ovulation occurred more frequently than in primiparous cows (58.8% vs. 11.5% per cow and 30.0% vs. 3.8% per ovulation, respectively P cows, the double ovulators exhibited higher peak milk yield (P cows. Two multiparous cows that experienced double ovulation during the early postpartum period subsequently conceived twin fetuses. It can be speculated that the incidence of double ovulations during the early postpartum period partly contributes to the increased incidence of undesirable twin births in multiparous dairy cows. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Once-daily milking during a feed deficit decreases milk production but improves energy status in early lactating grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, J K; Phyn, C V C; Rius, A G; Morgan, S R; Grala, T M; Roche, J R

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of milking frequency (MF) at 2 feeding levels (FL) on milk production, body condition score, and metabolic indicators of energy status in grazing dairy cows during early lactation. Multiparous Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cows (n=120) grazed pasture and were milked twice daily (2×) from calving until 34 ± 6 d in milk (mean ± standard deviation). Cows were then allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of 2 FL: adequately fed [AF; 14.3 kg dry matter intake (DMI)/cow per d] or underfed (UF; 8.3 kg of DMI/cow per d) and 2 MF: 2× or once daily (1×). Treatments were imposed for 3 wk. After the treatment period, all cows were offered a generous pasture allowance (grazing residuals >1,600 kg of dry matter/ha) and milked 2×. During the 3-wk treatment period, we observed an interaction between FL and MF for energy-corrected milk (ECM), such that the decrease due to 1× milking was greater in AF than in UF cows (20 and 14% decrease, respectively). No interactions were found posttreatment. Cows previously UF produced 7% less ECM than AF cows during wk 4 to 12; however, no subsequent effect was observed of the previous underfeeding. Cows previously milked 1× produced 5% less ECM during wk 4 to 12, and differences remained during wk 13 to 23. During the 3-wk treatment period, UF cows lost 0.2 body condition score units (1-10 scale) and this was not affected by 1× milking. During the treatment period, UF cows had lower plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I, and greater nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations than AF cows. Cows milked 1× had greater plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I, and lower nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations compared with cows milked 2×. In conclusion, energy status was improved by 1× milking; however, when UF cows were milked 1

  5. A herd health approach to dairy cow nutrition and production diseases of the transition cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, F J; O'Grady, L; Rice, D A; Doherty, M L

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents a practical, on-farm approach for the monitoring and prevention of production disease in dairy cattle. This integrated approach, should be used in an interdisciplinary way by farmers, veterinarians, nutrition advisors and other relevant professionals for the improvement of animal health and welfare and producer profitability. The key areas that form the basis for this approach are body condition score management, negative energy balance, hypocalcaemia, rumen health and trace element status. Monitoring criteria are described for each of these key areas, which when considered collectively, will facilitate the assessment of dairy cow health with regard to clinical and subclinical disease. The criteria, which are informed by published scientific literature, are based on farm management and environmental factors, clinical data, milk production records, dietary analysis, and assessment of blood and liver concentrations of various metabolites or trace elements. The aim is to review the efficacy of production disease control measures currently in place, and if necessary to modify them or formulate new ones.

  6. Pregnancy, bovine somatotropin, and dietary n-3 fatty acids in lactating dairy cows: I. Ovarian, conceptus, and growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor system responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilby, T R; Sozzi, A; Lopez, M M; Silvestre, F T; Ealy, A D; Staples, C R; Thatcher, W W

    2006-09-01

    The objective was to examine effects of bovine somatotropin (bST), pregnancy, and dietary fatty acids on reproductive responses in lactating dairy cows. Beginning at approximately 17 d in milk (DIM), a comparison was made of isoenergetic diets comprising supplementary lipids of whole cottonseed vs. calcium salts of fish oil enriched lipid (FO). Ovulation was synchronized in cows with a presynchronization plus Ovsynch protocol, and cows were inseminated artificially by appointment or not inseminated (d 0 = time of synchronized ovulation; 77 +/- 12 DIM). On d 0 and 11, cows received bST (500 mg) or no bST. All cows were slaughtered on d 17. Number of cows in each group was as follows: control diet had 5 bST-treated cyclic (bST-C), 5 non-bST-treated cyclic (no bST-C), 4 bST-treated pregnant (bST-P), and 5 non-bST-treated pregnant (no bST-P) cows; and cyclic cows fed FO diet had 4 bST-treated (bST-FO) and 5 non-bST-treated cyclic (no bST-FO-C) cows. Feeding FO increased milk production, number of class 1 follicles (2 to 5 mm), and decreased insulin during the period before d 0 compared with control-fed cows. The bST increased milk production, pregnancy rate [83% (5/6) vs. 40% (4/10)], conceptus length (45 vs. 34 cm), and interferon-tau in the uterine luminal flushings (9.4 vs. 5.3 microg) with no effect on interferon-tau mRNA concentration in the conceptus. Treatment with bST increased plasma growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. Among control-fed cows (cyclic and pregnant), bST decreased progesterone concentration in plasma. Cows fed FO had less plasma insulin than control-fed cyclic cows, and FO altered the plasma GH (bST-FO > bST-C) and IGF-I (bST-C > bST-FO-C) responses to bST injections. Endometrial IGF-I mRNA was reduced in pregnant cows and tended to decrease in those fed FO. The IGF-II mRNA was increased in the endometrium of pregnant and bST-treated cows fed the control diet. Cows fed FO had increased concentrations of IGF-II mRNA, when b

  7. Relationship between residual feed intake and digestibility for lactating Holstein cows fed high and low starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, S B; Boerman, J P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S; VandeHaar, M J

    2017-01-01

    between HRFI and LRFI were expected because cows with high RFI eat at a greater multiple of maintenance, and greater intake is associated with increased passage rate and digestibility depression. Based on these data, we conclude that a cow's digestive ability explains none of the variation in RFI for cows eating high starch diets but 9 to 31% of the variation in RFI when cows are fed low starch diets. Perhaps differences in other metabolic processes, such as tissue turnover, heat production, or others related to maintenance, can account for more variation in RFI than digestibility. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of supplemental yeast culture and dietary starch content on rumen fermentation and digestion in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, A L G; Freitas, J A; Micai, B; Azevedo, R A; Greco, L F; Santos, J E P

    2018-01-01

    , increased mean rumen pH, reduced the time with pH rumen neutral detergent fiber digestion caused by HS. Cows fed HS had less total-tract digestion of organic matter (73.9 vs. 72.4%) because of reduced acid detergent fiber (57.6 vs. 51.7%) and neutral detergent fiber (60.9 vs. 56.7%) digestibility. Production performance after the challenge was similar to that before the challenge, and YC improved yield of ECM. After the challenge, supplementing YC tended to reduce rumen lactate concentration compared with the control and reduced haptoglobin in cows fed HS. Feeding HS but not YC increased expression in rumen papillae of genes for receptors (FFAR2 and FFAR3) and transporter (SLC16A3) of short-chain fatty acids but did not affect genes involved in transport of Na + /H + or water or in inflammatory response. Supplementing YC to dairy cows improved lactation performance in diets containing low or high starch, and mechanisms might be partially attributed to improvements in rumen pH, digestion of fiber, microbial N synthesis, and reduction in acute phase response. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors associated with colostrum quality in individual cows from dairy herds in the Waikato region of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, K S; McDougall, S; Chambers, G; Clough, W

    2018-05-01

    To examine associations between various cow-level factors and quality of first-milking colostrum (measured as Brix), and to evaluate herd-level associations between vaccination against calf diarrhoea and colostrum quality, in cows from dairy herds in the Waikato region of New Zealand. A single colostrum sample was collected, by complete udder evacuation, from each of 20 cows from 29 dairy herds in the Waikato region of New Zealand during the 2016 spring calving period. Vaccination pre-partum with a calf diarrhoea vaccine was used in 15 herds. Each colostrum sample was tested using a digital Brix refractometer. The body condition score of each cow was recorded at the time of sample collection and farmers provided records of clinical mastitis and facial eczema from the previous 12 months, as well as the age and breed of cows. Associations between cow-level variables in non-vaccinated herds and Brix were examined using a multivariable linear mixed model and estimated marginal means obtained for different categories. Mean Brix of 281 samples from cows in non-vaccinated herds was 18.7 (SD 0.26)%; 63/281 (22.4%) samples had Brix ≥22% and 152/281 (54.1%) had Brix ≥18%. Mean Brix of colostrum samples from cows aged ≥6 years (20.2 (95% CI=19.1-21.2)%) was higher than for samples from 2-year-old cows (18.6 (95% CI=17.3-19.9)%) (p=0.005). Colostrum that was collected at the first milking on the day of calving had higher Brix (20.0 (95% CI=19.1-20.9)%) than colostrum collected from cows that calved the previous day (17.5 (95% CI=16.5-18.4)%) (p<0.001). Mean Brix of colostrum samples from cows which produced ≥8 L (18.2 (95% CI=17.1-19.2)%) tended to be lower than from cows which produced <8 L first-milking colostrum (19.1 (95% CI=18.3-20.0)%) (p=0.08). Among vaccinating herds, 9/15 (60%) had ≥60% colostrum samples with Brix ≥18% compared with 4/14 (29%) of non-vaccinating herds (p=0.04). Colostrum quality, as measured by Brix, was associated with the total

  10. Heat stress effects on Holstein dairy cows' rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, R; Biffani, S; Chessa, S; Bozzi, R

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between temperature-humidity index (THI) and rumination time (RT) in order to possibly exploit it as a useful tool for animal welfare improvement. During summer 2015 (1 June to 31 August), data from an Italian Holstein dairy farm located in the North of Italy were collected along with environmental data (i.e. ambient temperature and relative humidity) recorded with a weather station installed inside the barn. Rumination data were collected through the Heatime® HR system (SCR Engineers Ltd., Hadarim, Netanya, Israel), an automatic system composed of a neck collar with a Tag that records the RT and activity of each cow. A significant negative correlation was observed between RT and THI. Mixed linear models were fitted, including animal and test day as random effects, and parity, milk production level and date of last calving as fixed effects. A statistically significant effect of THI on RT was identified, with RT decreasing as THI increased.

  11. A simulation model "CTR Dairy" to predict the supply of nutrients in dairy cows managed under discontinuous feeding patterns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chilibroste, P.; Dijkstra, J.; Robinson, P.H.; Tamminga, S.

    2008-01-01

    A simulation rumen model has been developed to function under non-steady state conditions in order to allow prediction of nutrient availability in dairy cows managed under discontinuous feeding systems. The model simulates availability of glycogenic, aminogenic and lipogenic nutrients to lactating

  12. Short communication: Partial replacement of ground corn with algae meal in a dairy cow diet: Milk yield and composition, nutrient digestibility, and metabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, G G; Ferreira de Jesus, E; Takiya, C S; Del Valle, T A; da Silva, T H; Vendramini, T H A; Yu, Esther J; Rennó, F P

    2016-11-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of partially replacing dietary ground corn with a microalgae meal from Prototheca moriformis (composed of deoiled microalgae and soyhulls) on milk yield and composition, nutrient intake, total-tract apparent digestibility, and blood profile of lactating dairy cows. Twenty multiparous Holstein cows (57.7±49.4d in milk, 25.3±5.3 of milk yield, and 590±71kg of live weight at the start of experiment, mean ± standard deviation) were used in a cross-over design experiment, with 21-d periods. Diets were no microalgae meal (CON) or 91.8g/kg of microalgae meal partially replacing dietary ground corn (ALG). Cows showed similar milk yield and composition. The 3.5% fat-corrected milk production was 30.2±1.34kg/d for CON and 31.1±1.42kg/d for ALG. Despite cows having similar dry matter intake, ALG increased neutral detergent fiber and ether extract intake. In addition, cows fed ALG exhibited higher ether extract digestibility. No differences were detected in glucose, urea, amino-aspartate transferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase blood concentrations. Feeding ALG increased the total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein in blood compared with CON. The microalgae meal may partially replace ground corn in diets of lactating cows without impairing the animal's performance. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of extruded linseed dietary supplementation on milk yield, milk quality and lipid metabolism of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Brogna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Italian Friesian dairy cows were used in an experimental trial to study the effects of extruded linseed dietary supplementation on milk production, milk quality and fatty acid (FA percentages of milk fat and total plasma lipids and plasma phospholipids. Control cows were fed a corn silage based total mixed ration (TMR while treated animals also received 700g/head/d of extruded linseed supplementation. Feed intake was similar between groups. Milk yields was tendentially greater for cows fed extruded linseed. Milk urea content (P<0.05 were reduced by treatment. Results showed a significant increase n-3 FA concentration (particularly alpha linolenic acid and a significant reduction of n-6/n-3 FA ratio in milk fat, total plasma lipids and plasma phospholipids (P<0.001; moreover a reduction trend (P<0.1 of arachidonic acid concentrations was observed in milk fat, total plasma lipids and plasma phospholipids. At last, treatment enhanced milk fat conjugated linoleic acid (CLA percentage (P<0.05.

  14. Effect of Heat Stress on Concentrations of Faecal Cortisol Metabolites in Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, A; Fischer-Tenhagen, C; Heuwieser, W

    2016-06-01

    The negative impact of heat stress on health and productivity of dairy cows is well known. Heat stress can be quantified with the temperature-humidity index (THI) and is defined as a THI ≥ 72. Additionally, animal welfare is affected in cows living under heat stress conditions. Finding a way to quantify heat stress in dairy cows has been of increasing interest over the past decades. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate concentrations of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites [i.e. 11,17-dioxoandrostanes (11,17-DOA)] as an indirect stress parameter in dairy cows without heat stress (DOA 0), with heat stress on a single day (acute heat stress, DOA 1) or with more than a single day of heat stress (chronic heat stress, DOA 2). Cows were housed in five farms under moderate European climates. Two statistical approaches (approach 1 and approach 2) were assessed. Using approach 1, concentrations of faecal 11,17-DOA were compared among DOA 0, DOA 1 and DOA 2 samples regardless of their origin (i.e. cow, unpaired comparison with a one-way anova). Using approach 2, a cow was considered as its own control; that is 11,17-DOA was treated as a cow-specific factor and only paired samples were included in the analysis for this approach (paired comparison with t-tests). In approach 1 (p = 0.006) and approach 2 (p = 0.038), 11,17-DOA values of cows under acute heat stress were higher compared to those of cows without heat stress. Our results also indicate that acute heat stress has to be considered as a confounder in studies measuring faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in cows to evaluate other stressful situations. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Mastitis vaccines in dairy cows: Recent developments and recommendations of application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Bani Ismail

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review article was to summarize the most recent clinical field trials that have been published evaluating the use of different types of vaccines against mastitis pathogens in dairy cows. Mastitis is one of the most common and economically important diseases in dairy cows in the world. The disease is considered an important welfare issue facing the dairy industry in addition to the loss of production and premature removal or death of affected cows. Losses are also related to high cost of veterinary medicines and the cost of unsalable milk of treated cows. Mastitis can be caused by either contagious or environmental pathogens both of which are best prevented rather than treated. In addition to the application of best management practices in the parlor during milking, vaccination against common udder pathogens is widely practiced in many dairy farms to prevent or reduce the severity of clinical mastitis. In this review, the most recent clinical field studies that evaluated the use of different types of vaccines in dairy cows are summarized.

  16. Effects of glucose on lactose synthesis in mammary epithelial cells from dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ye; Sun, Xiaoxu; Hou, Xiaoming; Qu, Bo; Gao, Xuejun; Li, Qingzhang

    2016-05-26

    Lactose, as the primary osmotic component in milk, is the major determinant of milk volume. Glucose is the primary precursor of lactose. However, the effect of glucose on lactose synthesis in dairy cow mammary glands and the mechanism governing this process are poorly understood. Here we showed that glucose has the ability to induce lactose synthesis in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells, as well as increase cell viability and proliferation. A concentration of 12 mM glucose was the optimum concentration to induce cell growth and lactose synthesis in cultured dairy cow mammary epithelial cells. In vitro, 12 mM glucose enhanced lactose content, along with the expression of genes involved in glucose transportation and the lactose biosynthesis pathway, including GLUT1, SLC35A2, SLC35B1, HK2, β4GalT-I, and AKT1. In addition, we found that AKT1 knockdown inhibited cell growth and lactose synthesis as well as expression of GLUT1, SLC35A2, SLC35B1, HK2, and β4GalT-I. Glucose induces cell growth and lactose synthesis in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells. Protein kinase B alpha acts as a regulator of metabolism in dairy cow mammary gland to mediate the effects of glucose on lactose synthesis.

  17. Does ownership of improved dairy cow breeds improve child nutrition? A pathway analysis for Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassul S Kabunga

    Full Text Available The promotion of livestock production is widely believed to support enhanced diet quality and child nutrition, but the empirical evidence for this causal linkage remains narrow and ambiguous. This study examines whether adoption of improved dairy cow breeds is linked to farm-level outcomes that translate into household-level benefits including improved child nutrition outcomes in Uganda. Using nationwide data from Uganda's National Panel Survey, propensity score matching is used to create an unbiased counterfactual, based on observed characteristics, to assess the net impacts of improved dairy cow adoption. All estimates were tested for robustness and sensitivity to variations in observable and unobservable confounders. Results based on the matched samples showed that households adopting improved dairy cows significantly increased milk yield-by over 200% on average. This resulted in higher milk sales and milk intakes, demonstrating the potential of this agricultural technology to both integrate households into modern value chains and increase households' access to animal source foods. Use of improved dairy cows increased household food expenditures by about 16%. Although undernutrition was widely prevalent in the study sample and in matched households, the adoption of improved dairy cows was associated with lower child stunting in adopter household. In scale terms, results also showed that holding larger farms tends to support adoption, but that this also stimulates the household's ability to achieve gains from adoption, which can translate into enhanced nutrition.

  18. Lateralization of behavior in dairy cows in response to conspecifics and novel persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C J C; Oevermans, H; Syrett, K L; Jespersen, A Y; Pearce, G P

    2015-04-01

    The right brain hemisphere, connected to the left eye, coordinates fight and flight behaviors in a wide variety of vertebrate species. We investigated whether left eye vision predominates in dairy cows' interactions with other cows and humans, and whether dominance status affects the extent of visual lateralization. Although we found no overall lateralization of eye use to view other cows during interactions, cows that were submissive in an interaction were more likely to use their left eye to view a dominant animal. Both subordinate and older cows were more likely to use their left eye to view other cattle during interactions. Cows that predominantly used their left eye during aggressive interactions were more likely to use their left eye to view a person in unfamiliar clothing in the middle of a track by passing them on the right side. However, a person in familiar clothing was viewed predominantly with the right eye when they passed mainly on the left side. Cows predominantly using their left eyes in cow-to-cow interactions showed more overt responses to restraint in a crush compared with cows who predominantly used their right eyes during interactions (crush scores: left eye users 7.9, right eye users 6.4, standard error of the difference=0.72). Thus, interactions between 2 cows and between cows and people were visually lateralized, with losing and subordinate cows being more likely to use their left eyes to view winning and dominant cattle and unfamiliar humans. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of energy status of dairy cows using milk fat, protein and urea concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirovski Danijela

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy status of dairy cows may be estimated using results for concentrations of fat, protein and urea (MUN in milk samples obtained from bulk tank or individual cows. Using individual cow milk samples is recommended on dairy farms in our geografical region due to the unhomogenity of cows in the herds in respect to their genetic potential for milk production. Depression of milk fat occurs as a consequence of heat stress, underfeeding of peripartal cows, overfeeding concentrate with reduced ration fiber levels or overfeeding with dietary fat. High milk fat content is usually combined with severe negative energy balance. Nutrition and feeding practices have great impact on milk protein level. A deficiency of crude protein in the ration may depress protein in milk. Feeding excessive dietary protein does not significantly increase milk protein. MUN analyses point out potential problems in feeding program on dairy farm. High MUN values may reflect excessive dietary crude protein and/or low rumen degradable non fiber carbohydrates intake. Also, MUN levels is impacted by heat stress since its value is increased during the summer season. Low MUNs indicate a possible dietary protein deficiency. Additionally, low MUNs concentration may indicate excess in dietary nonstructural carbohydrates. On the bases on the interrelationships between protein and urea concentrations, as well as protein and fat concentrations in individual milk sample, estimation of energy balance of dairy cows may be done more accurately.

  20. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finnish dairy cows: changes during recent decades and impact of cow and herd factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiitiö, Heidi; Vakkamäki, Johanna; Simojoki, Heli; Autio, Tiina; Junnila, Jouni; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Pyörälä, Satu

    2017-04-20

    The dairy industry has undergone substantial structural changes as intensive farming has developed during recent decades. Mastitis continues to be the most common production disease of dairy cows. Nationwide surveys of mastitis prevalence are useful in monitoring udder health of dairy herds and to study the impact of structural changes on the dairy industry. This survey on bovine subclinical mastitis was the first based on cow composite milk somatic cell count (SCC) data from the Finnish national health monitoring and milk recording database. A cow with composite milk SCC ≥200,000 cells/ml in at least one of the four test milkings during the year was considered to have subclinical mastitis and a cow with composite milk SCC ≥200,000 cells/ml in three or in all four test milkings during the year to have chronic subclinical mastitis. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and chronic subclinical mastitis in Finland in 1991, 2001 and 2010 and to investigate cow and herd factors associated with elevated SCC. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finland decreased over recent decades from 22.3% (1991) and 20.1% (2001) to 19.0% (2010). Prevalence of chronic subclinical mastitis was 20.4% in 1991, 15.5% in 2001 and 16.1% in 2010. The most significant cow and herd factors associated with subclinical mastitis or high milk SCC were increasing parity, Holstein breed, free-stalls with an automatic milking system and organic production. Milk SCC were highest from July to September. Main factors associated with chronic mastitis were increasing parity and Holstein breed. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finland decreased over recent decades, the greatest change taking place during the first decade of the study. Prevalence of chronic subclinical mastitis significantly decreased from 1991. The most significant factors associated with both types of mastitis were increasing parity and Holstein breed, and for subclinical mastitis also

  1. The relationship between serum adiponectin and postpartum luteal activity in high-producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafi, Mojtaba; Tamadon, Amin; Saeb, Mehdi

    2015-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to initially determine the pattern of serum adiponectin concentrations during a normal estrous cycle in high-producing postpartum dairy cows and then evaluate the relationship between the serum concentrations of adiponectin and insulin with the commencement of postpartum luteal activity and ovarian activities in clinically healthy high-producing Holstein dairy cows. During a normal estrous cycle of cows (n = 6), serum adiponectin concentrations gradually decreased (P Cows with higher peak of milk yield had lower serum adiponectin concentrations by week 7 postpartum (P = 0.01). Serum adiponectin and insulin concentrations in cows with different postpartum luteal activity (based on the progesterone profile) were evaluated using the following class of cows: normal (≤45 days, n = 11) and delayed (>45 days, n = 11) commencement of luteal activity (C-LA) and four different profiles of normal luteal activity (NLA, n = 5), prolonged luteal phase (n = 6), delayed first ovulation (n = 6), and anovulation (AOV, n = 5). Serum adiponectin concentrations decreased gradually by week 3 postpartum in NLA and then increased; whereas in AOV and delayed first ovulation, they were decreased after week 3 postpartum (P cows was more than that of NLA cows. Insulin concentrations were almost maintained at a stable level in NLA cows (P > 0.05), whereas they increased in the other groups (P cows with C-LA greater than 45 days decreased more than those with C-LA 45 days or less after week 3 postpartum (P = 0.002). Serum adiponectin concentrations at week 7 postpartum were lower in delayed C-LA (P = 0.01). Milk yield in cows with C-LA greater than 45 days increased more than cows with C-LA 45 days or less postpartum (P = 0.002). Insulin concentrations increased relatively in parallel from weeks 1 to 7 postpartum in cows either with C-LA greater than 45 or with C-LA 45 days or less. We showed for the first time the profile of serum adiponectin concentrations

  2. Future consequences of decreasing marginal production efficiency in the high-yielding dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moallem, U

    2016-04-01

    The objectives were to examine the gross and marginal production efficiencies in high-yielding dairy cows and the future consequences on dairy industry profitability. Data from 2 experiments were used in across-treatments analysis (n=82 mid-lactation multiparous Israeli-Holstein dairy cows). Milk yields, body weights (BW), and dry matter intakes (DMI) were recorded daily. In both experiments, cows were fed a diet containing 16.5 to 16.6% crude protein and net energy for lactation (NEL) at 1.61 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM). The means of milk yield, BW, DMI, NEL intake, and energy required for maintenance were calculated individually over the whole study, and used to calculate gross and marginal efficiencies. Data were analyzed in 2 ways: (1) simple correlation between variables; and (2) cows were divided into 3 subgroups, designated low, moderate, and high DMI (LDMI, MDMI, and HDMI), according to actual DMI per day: ≤ 26 kg (n=27); >26 through 28.2 kg (n=28); and >28.2 kg (n=27). The phenotypic Pearson correlations among variables were analyzed, and the GLM procedure was used to test differences between subgroups. The relationships between milk and fat-corrected milk yields and the corresponding gross efficiencies were positive, whereas BW and gross production efficiency were negatively correlated. The marginal production efficiency from DM and energy consumed decreased with increasing DMI. The difference between BW gain as predicted by the National Research Council model (2001) and the present measurements increased with increasing DMI (r=0.68). The average calculated energy balances were 1.38, 2.28, and 4.20 Mcal/d (standard error of the mean=0.64) in the LDMI, MDMI, and HDMI groups, respectively. The marginal efficiency for milk yields from DMI or energy consumed was highest in LDMI, intermediate in MDMI, and lowest in HDMI. The predicted BW gains for the whole study period were 22.9, 37.9, and 75.8 kg for the LDMI, MDMI, and HDMI groups, respectively. The

  3. Central genomic regulation of the expression of oestrous behaviour in dairy cows: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelders, H; van der Lende, T; Kommadath, A; te Pas, M F W; Smits, M A; Kaal, L M T E

    2014-05-01

    The expression of oestrous behaviour in Holstein Friesian dairy cows has progressively decreased over the past 50 years. Reduced oestrus expression is one of the factors contributing to the current suboptimal reproductive efficiency in dairy farming. Variation between and within cows in the expression of oestrous behaviour is associated with variation in peripheral blood oestradiol concentrations during oestrus. In addition, there is evidence for a priming role of progesterone for the full display of oestrous behaviour. A higher rate of metabolic clearance of ovarian steroids could be one of the factors leading to lower peripheral blood concentrations of oestradiol and progesterone in high-producing dairy cows. Oestradiol acts on the brain by genomic, non-genomic and growth factor-dependent mechanisms. A firm base of understanding of the ovarian steroid-driven central genomic regulation of female sexual behaviour has been obtained from studies on rodents. These studies have resulted in the definition of five modules of oestradiol-activated genes in the brain, referred to as the GAPPS modules. In a recent series of studies, gene expression in the anterior pituitary and four brain areas (amygdala, hippocampus, dorsal hypothalamus and ventral hypothalamus) in oestrous and luteal phase cows, respectively, has been measured, and the relation with oestrous behaviour of these cows was analysed. These studies identified a number of genes of which the expression was associated with the intensity of oestrous behaviour. These genes could be grouped according to the GAPPS modules, suggesting close similarity of the regulation of oestrous behaviour in cows and female sexual behaviour in rodents. A better understanding of the central genomic regulation of the expression of oestrous behaviour in dairy cows may in due time contribute to improved (genomic) selection strategies for appropriate oestrus expression in high-producing dairy cows.

  4. Utilization of protein in red clover and alfalfa silages by lactating dairy cows and growing lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Glen A

    2018-02-01

    influence any production trait; however, a significant silage × RPL interaction was detected for intake: RPL reduced intake of AS diets but increased intake of RCS diets. Duplicated metabolism trials were conducted with lambs confined to metabolism crates and fed only silage. After adaptation, collections of silage refusals and excreta were made during ad libitum feeding followed by feeding DM restricted to 2% of body weight. Intake of DM was not different when silages were fed ad libitum. Apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, NDF, and hemicellulose was greater in lambs fed RCS on both ad libitum and restricted intake; however, acid detergent fiber digestibility was only greater at restricted intake. Apparent and estimated true N digestibility was substantially lower, and N retention was reduced, on RCS. Results confirmed greater DM and fiber digestibility in ruminants and N efficiency in cows fed RCS. Specific loss of Lys bioavailability on RCS was not observed. Based on milk composition, Met was the first-limiting AA on both silages; however, Met was not limiting based on production and nutrient efficiency. Depressed true N digestibility suggested impaired intestinal digestibility of rumen-undegraded protein from RCS. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Plasma metabolic profiling of dairy cows affected with clinical ketosis using LC/MS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Xu, C; Xia, C; Zhang, Hy; Sun, Lw; Gao, Y

    2014-01-01

    Ketosis in dairy cattle is an important metabolic disorder. Currently, the plasma metabolic profile of ketosis as determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has not been reported. To investigate plasma metabolic profiles from cows with clinical ketosis in comparison to control cows. Twenty Holstein dairy cows were divided into two groups based on clinical signs and plasma β-hydroxybutyric acid and glucose concentrations 7-21 days postpartum: clinical ketosis and control cows. Plasma metabolic profiles were analyzed using LC/MS. Data were processed using principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Compared to control cows, the levels of valine, glycine, glycocholic, tetradecenoic acid, and palmitoleic acid increased significantly in clinical ketosis. On the other hand, the levels of arginine, aminobutyric acid, leucine/isoleucine, tryptophan, creatinine, lysine, norcotinine, and undecanoic acid decreased markedly. Our results showed that the metabolic changes in cows with clinical ketosis involve complex metabolic networks and signal transduction. These results are important for future studies elucidating the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and prevention of clinical ketosis in dairy cows.

  6. Beheersgraskuil als voeder voor melkgevende koeien = Grassilage form nature conservation areas as forage for lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duinkerken, van G.; Remmelink, G.J.; Valk, H.; Houwelingen, van K.M.; Hettinga, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    The response of lactating dairy cows on diets with varying ratio’s of common grass silage (approx. 6.2 MJ NEL/kg DM) and grass silage from nature conservation areas (approx. 4.8 MJ NEL/kg DM) was studied in a feeding trial with 36 HF dairy cows. If grass silage from nature conservation areas is

  7. Feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid affects enteric methane production and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.; Hatew, B.; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, Jan

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study potential interaction between the effects of feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) on enteric CH4 production and performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped into 7 blocks of 4

  8. Alteration of gene expression in mammary gland tissue of dairy cows in response to dietary unsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mach Casellas, N.; Jacobs, A.A.A.; Kruijt, L.; Baal, van J.; Smits, M.C.J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of unprotected dietary unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) from different plant oils on gene expression in the mammary gland of grazing dairy cows. Milk composition and gene expression in the mammary gland tissue were evaluated in grazing dairy cows

  9. Alteration of gene expression in mammary gland tissue of dairy cows in response to dietary unsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mach Casellas, N.; Jacobs, A.A.A.; Kruijt, L.; Baal, van J.; Smits, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing unprotected dietary unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) from different plant oils on gene expression in the mammary gland of grazing dairy cows. A total of 28 Holstein–Friesian dairy cows in mid-lactation were blocked according to

  10. A Robust Statistical Model to Predict the Future Value of the Milk Production of Dairy Cows Using Herd Recording Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2017-01-01

    The future value of an individual dairy cow depends greatly on its projected milk yield. In developed countries with developed dairy industry infrastructures, facilities exist to record individual cow production and reproduction outcomes consistently and accurately. Accurate prediction of the fut...

  11. Effect of dry period length and dietary energy source on energy balance, milk yield, and milk composition of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Remmelink, G.J.; Jorjong, S.; Fievez, V.; Kemp, B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period length and dietary energy source in early lactation on milk production, feed intake, and energy balance (EB) of dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 primiparous and 108 multiparous) were randomly assigned to dry period

  12. Change of selenium in plasma of dairy cows receiving two levels of sodium-selenite during the transition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Giubbiotti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to study the plasma Se content during transition period, 2 groups of 12 dairy cows were monitored the month before and after calving. In stall 1 (S1 cows were tied and individually fed, in stall2 (S2 cows were free and fed TMR. In both stalls cows were supplied with Se as Na-selenite. In S1 3 mg/d of Se were fed mixed with corn silage while, in S2, Se was offered with TMR, in dry period 2 mg/d were added with a mineral-vitamin supplement, in lactation 2.6 mg/d (when DMI was 22.2 kg/d with the concentrate. Forages, the same for both stalls, and concentrates were sampled for chemical composition and Se determination. Cows were checked for milk yield and its content of somatic cells (SCC, health problems, and bled for Se determination in plasma. Average Se intake was higher in S1, in both dry (4.08 vs 2.76 mg/d and lactating (5.80 vs 2.11 mg/d period. Besides the supplementation, differences depended on high Se intake in S1 with the concentrate (increased after calving to 11.5 kg/DM on d 30 and containing 0.24 mg/kg DM of Se. According to the intake, plasma Se content resulted higher in S1 in dry (1.20 vs 0.74 μmol/L and lactating (1.47 vs 0.62 μmol/L cows. In close-up plasma Se decreased in both groups, in first days of lactation increased in S1, while decreased in S2 to level indicating a deficient intake (0.50 μmol/L. These results confirm the link between Se intake and its plasma level. Finally, Se plasma content did not seem related to cow health status during transition period.

  13. Short communication: Characterizing metabolic and oxidant status of pastured dairy cows postpartum in an automatic milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elischer, M F; Sordillo, L M; Siegford, J M; Karcher, E L

    2015-10-01

    The periparturient period represents a stressful time for dairy cows as they transition from late gestation to early lactation. Undesirable fluctuations in metabolites and impaired immune defense mechanisms near parturition can severely affect cow health and have residual effects on performance and longevity. Metabolic and oxidative stress profiles of multiparous and primiparous dairy cows in traditional parlor and feeding systems are well characterized, but status of these profiles in alternative management systems, such as grazing cows managed with an automatic milking system (AMS), are poorly characterized. Therefore, the objective of this case study was to characterize the metabolic and oxidant status of pastured cows milked with an AMS. It was hypothesized that primiparous and multiparous cows milked with an AMS would experience changes in oxidative and metabolic status after parturition; however, these changes would not impair cow health or production. Blood was collected from 14 multiparous and 8 primiparous Friesian-cross dairy cows at 1, 7, 14, and 21 d relative to calving for concentrations of insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate, reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, and antioxidant potential. Milk production and milking frequency data were collected postpartum. Milk production differed on d 7 and 14 between primiparous and multiparous cows and frequency was not affected by parity. Primiparous cows had higher levels of glucose than multiparous cows. No differences in insulin, NEFA, or β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were noted between multiparous and primiparous cows postpartum, though days relative to calving significantly affected insulin and NEFA. Primiparous cows also had higher antioxidant potential than multiparous cows during the postpartum period. Results from this study show that, although responses were within expected ranges, periparturient multiparous cows responded differently than periparturient

  14. The Effect of Soybean-Derived Phytoestrogens on Concentrations of Plasma Isoflavones, 15-keto-13,14-dihydroprostaglandin F2α and Progesterone in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Watzková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effect of soybean-derived phytoestrogens and their metabolites on the activity of sex hormones during the oestrous cycle in multiparous lactating dairy cows. The experiment was carried out on 4 multiparous lactating Holstein cows in the form of replicated Latin square in double reversal design. The experiment in the total length of 168 days was divided into 4 periods of 42 days, each consisting of a 21-day preliminary period and a 21-day collecting period. Cows were divided into 2 groups of 2 cows. The control group (C was fed a diet based on extruded rapeseed cake while the experimental group (S was fed a diet containing extruded full-fat soya. The intake of total isoflavones was 3297 mg/d in S and 58.0 mg/d in C (P P P > 0.05. Plasma concentration of prostaglandine PGFM throughout the oestrous cycle in the experimental group (S tended to be higher (P = 0.095 than in the control group (C. No differences in the length of the oestrous cycle between the cows fed different diets were observed.

  15. Effects of feeding dry glycerol to primiparous Holstein dairy cows on follicular development, reproductive performance and metabolic parameters related to fertility during the early post-partum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami-Shabankareh, H; Kafilzadeh, F; Piri, V; Mohammadi, H

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the effects of dry glycerol supplementation on follicular growth, post-partum interval to first ovulation, concentration of serum metabolites and hormones related to fertility, body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in primiparous Holstein dairy cows. Sixty primiparous Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to two groups (control: n = 30 and glycerol supplemented: n = 30). Dry glycerol (250 g/day/cow) was fed as a top dressing to the common lactating total mixed ration (TMR) from parturition to 21 days post-partum. Ovaries were examined four times using ultrasonography on days 13, 19, 25 and 36 post-partum to determine ovarian follicular growth. Concentration of serum metabolites and hormones was determined weekly. Body condition score was evaluated weekly from weeks 1 to 5 after parturition, and BWs were recorded three times on days 1, 11 and 21 during the experimental period. The cows fed dry glycerol had more large follicles (p cows. Days to the first ovulation (p = 0.06), days to first oestrus (p = 0.05), services per conception (p = 0.06) and days open (p = 0.004) were positively affected by dry glycerol supplementation. Serum concentration of glucose and insulin was higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p = 0.1; p = 0.06, respectively). Feeding glycerol had no effect on mean serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids and IGF-1 during the experimental period. However, significant differences were observed at concentration of BHBA and IGF-1 (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively) between two groups on day 21 after calving. The cows in the glycerol-fed group had higher serum progesterone concentrations on days 33 (p = 0.007) and 36 (p = 0.004) after calving. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1-5 after calving compared with the control cows (0.34 vs 0.41 BCS). In week 13 post-partum, the proportion of cycling cows was 83.3 and 69.9% for those which

  16. Identification of predictive biomarkers of disease state in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, D; Mandal, R; Saleem, F; Dunn, S M; Wishart, D S; Ametaj, B N

    2014-05-01

    In dairy cows, periparturient disease states, such as metritis, mastitis, and laminitis, are leading to increasingly significant economic losses for the dairy industry. Treatments for these pathologies are often expensive, ineffective, or not cost-efficient, leading to production losses, high veterinary bills, or early culling of the cows. Early diagnosis or detection of these conditions before they manifest themselves could lower their incidence, level of morbidity, and the associated economic losses. In an effort to identify predictive biomarkers for postpartum or periparturient disease states in dairy cows, we undertook a cross-sectional and longitudinal metabolomics study to look at plasma metabolite levels of dairy cows during the transition period, before and after becoming ill with postpartum diseases. Specifically we employed a targeted quantitative metabolomics approach that uses direct flow injection mass spectrometry to track the metabolite changes in 120 different plasma metabolites. Blood plasma samples were collected from 12 dairy cows at 4 time points during the transition period (-4 and -1 wk before and 1 and 4 wk after parturition). Out of the 12 cows studied, 6 developed multiple periparturient disorders in the postcalving period, whereas the other 6 remained healthy during the entire experimental period. Multivariate data analysis (principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis) revealed a clear separation between healthy controls and diseased cows at all 4 time points. This analysis allowed us to identify several metabolites most responsible for separating the 2 groups, especially before parturition and the start of any postpartum disease. Three metabolites, carnitine, propionyl carnitine, and lysophosphatidylcholine acyl C14:0, were significantly elevated in diseased cows as compared with healthy controls as early as 4 wk before parturition, whereas 2 metabolites, phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C42:4 and

  17. Effect of timing and type of supplementary grain on herbage intake, nitrogen utilization and milk production in dairy cows grazed on perennial ryegrass pasture from evening to morning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the effect of timing and type of supplementary grain in grazing dairy cows on herbage dry matter intake (HDMI), nitrogen utilization and milk production. Eight lactating cows were allowed to graze from evening to morning during three seasonal periods (spring, summer, autumn). They were randomly allocated to four treatments (timing: pre- (Pre) or post-grazing (Post), for large grain allotments consisting of 75% of daily grain offered; grain type: barley or corn) in 4 × 4 Latin square designs in each period. In the spring period, HDMI was greater for cows fed corn than those fed barley (P = 0.005), whereas cows in the Pre treatment had a similar HDMI, higher (P = 0.049) urinary purine derivative concentration and greater (P = 0.004) milk yield compared with cows in the Post treatment. In the summer and autumn periods, timing treatments did not affect HDMI, nitrogen utilization or milk production, but cows supplemented with barley had higher urinary purine derivatives concentration (P production without reducing HDMI regardless of grain type. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Performance of Crossbred Dairy Cows Suitable for Smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    to put maximum efforts to improve routine management activities to maintain performance evaluated animals .... Cows with repeated heat may be served up to four times. Cows not ..... sire selection and to maximize production and productivity.

  19. Progesterone supplementation postinsemination improves fertility of cooled dairy cows during the summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E; Roth, Z; Voet, H; Lavon, Y; Wolfenson, D

    2012-06-01

    Reduced fertility of dairy cows during periods of elevated temperature, humidity, or both might be associated with low plasma progesterone concentration. Alleviation of thermal stress by efficient cooling is a prerequisite for improving fertility by hormonal treatment. We examined whether insertion of a controlled intravaginal drug-releasing (CIDR) insert containing progesterone following artificial insemination (AI) would improve summer conception rate. Control (n = 195) and treated (CIDR; n=165) cows, yielding on average 42.3 kg milk/d, were inseminated following estrus detection during the summer (July to October) in 2 commercial dairy herds in Israel. Mean maximal air temperature and relative humidity during the study were 30.2°C and 86%, respectively. All experimental cows were efficiently cooled throughout the study, as confirmed by measuring the body temperature of random cows. Treated cows received a CIDR insert on d 5 ± 1 post-AI for 13 d and pregnancy was confirmed by palpation 45 d post-AI. Plasma progesterone concentration in treated cows was elevated by approximately 1.5 ng/mL. Multiple logistic regressions were used to analyze conception rate. Treatment did not alter the overall conception rate; however, probability of conception increased in CIDR-treated cows with low body condition score (BCS) compared with their control counterparts (53 vs. 27%, respectively). A pronounced increase in probability of conception was recorded in CIDR-treated cows exhibiting both low BCS and postpartum reproductive disorders, compared with their control counterparts (58 vs. 14%, respectively). Exogenous progesterone supplementation on d 5 post-AI for 13 d improves summer fertility of subpopulations of cows exhibiting low BCS and postpartum reproductive disorders. Reproductive management based on specific hormonal treatment of designated subgroups of cows known to derive beneficial effects from it might improve treatment efficiency and reduce expenses. Copyright

  20. Radiographic assessment of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in the dairy cow: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhn, J.C.; Kneller, S.K.; Nelson, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Case records and radiographs of 37 dairy cows presented to the University of Illinois Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital with a diagnosis of cranial cruciate ligament rupture were reviewed. Signalment, history, duration of lameness prior to clinical presentation, and physical examination findings were evaluated. Survey radiographs were examined and radiographic lesions were documented. Individual cows were classified into groups (A, B, C) based on the severity of radiographic lesions, with Group A cows having minimal radiographic lesions. Cows in Groups A and B had radiographic lesions similar to Class I in beef bulls reported in another study.3,4 An attempt was made to relate the severity of radiographic lesions with age and duration of lameness. Group A animals tended to be younger cows (x@@= 4.58 years) with a short duration of lameness. Group B cows were older (x@@= 7.87 years) with a somewhat longer duration of lameness. Group C cows were slightly younger (x@@= 7.30 years) than Group B cows; however, their duration of lameness was much longer (x@@= 57.2 weeks vs 6.35 weeks for Group B and 2.54 weeks for Group A). The pathogenesis of cranial cruciate ligament rupture and its associated lameness appeared to differ in dairy cows from beef bulls. The majority of animals in this study had radiographic lesions of mild to moderate severity (Groups A and B). In contrast, based on previous work, beef bulls had a greater tendency to be similar to our Group C designation. Beef bulls became lame with cranial cruciate ligament rupture only after severe lesions of degenerative joint disease had already occurred. It has been stated that lameness associated with cranial cruciate ligament rupture in the beef bull is, therefore, secondary to degenerative joint disease. In contrast, the syndrome in dairy cows, as evidenced here, differs, since they often presented with cranial cruciate ligament rupture with little or no radiographic evidence of degenerative joint disease

  1. Canada's first on-farm cow-powered dairy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2011-07-15

    Bakerview EcoDairy in British Columbia, Canada, has invented a new technology which converts cow manure into clean renewable energy. It has already been connected to B.C.'s electricity grid. In addition, this project also produces fewer greenhouse gas emissions, less odour from manure and smaller amounts of manure than run-off into local water supplies. Apart from generating clean electricity, this technology can also create heat, fertilizer and cow bedding for the farm. For example, the byproduct - biogas - can be used to create electricity using a generator. All of these sustainable initiatives make Bakerview EcoDairy the first on-farm, cow-powered dairy and show its creativity, innovation and leadership in sustainability.

  2. Dietary Protected Feed Supplement to Increase Milk Production and Quality of Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, A.; Handayanta, E.; Widayati, D. T.; Putro, P. P.; Kustono

    2017-04-01

    The efforts to improve and optimize productivity of dairy cows require sufficient availability of nutrients, especially high energy in the early period of lactation. Increasing energy intake in dairy cows can be conducted by increasing the density of energy. The research aimed to evaluate dietary protected feed supplement on milk production and quality, including: fat, protein, and lactose content of Friesian Holstein dairy cow milk. Protected feed supplement was produced from sardine fish oil, through saponification and microencapsulation protection methods. The experiment consists of two treatments i.e. P0: basal diet (control) and P1: basal diet + 3 % protected feed supplement. Each treatment was repeated 15 times. Data were analyzed by independent samples t-test analysis. Results showed that supplementation of protected sardine fish oil had no effect on lactose content, but increased milk yield production (pmilk fat content (p<0.05), and protein content (p<0.05).

  3. Sward and milk production response to early turnout of dairy cows to pasture in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. VIRKAJÄRVI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The timing of turnout is an important factor affecting the grazing management of dairy cows. However,its consequences are not well known in the short grazing season of northern Europe. Thus, the effect of the turnout date of dairy cows to pasture on sward regrowth, herbage mass production and milk production was studied in two experiments,1a grazing trial with 16 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows and 2a plot trial where the treatments simulated the grazing trial.The treatments were early turnout (1 Juneand normal turnout (6 June.Early turnout decreased the annual herbage mass (HM production in the plot trial (P =0.005,but due to a higher average organic matter (OMdigestibility (P 0.05. Although early turnout had no effect on milk yields it meant easier management of pastures.;

  4. Liver protein expression in dairy cows with high liver triglycerides in early lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersen, Henrik; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Fatty liver is a frequent subclinical health disorder in dairy cows that may lead to disorders related to the liver function. However, the effect of triglyceride (TG) accumulation on liver metabolic pathways is still unclear. The objective was, therefore, to characterize quantitative differences...... in the liver proteome between early lactation dairy cows with a low or high liver TG content. The liver proteome analysis indicated that a high liver TG content in early lactation dairy cows is associated with increased oxidation of saturated fatty acids, oxidative stress, and urea synthesis...... and decreasedoxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, liver gluconeogenesis is apparently not impaired by an increased liver TG content. Based on correlations between liver proteins and plasma components, we suggest that future studies investigate the sensitivity and specificity of plasma aspartate...

  5. Lactation performance and serum biochemistry of dairy cows fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum biochemistry concentrations (serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, and cortisol and insulin concentration) and blood hematology (red blood cell, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and percentage neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, basophiles, eosinophils and ratio of neutrophils to ...

  6. Fibrinogen and ceruloplasmin in plasma and milk from dairy cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, A Davasaz; Batavani, R A; Rezaei, S Asri; Ahmadi, M

    2008-02-15

    The potential using of Acute Phase Proteins (APPs) in the assessment of mammary gland health was studied by examining the levels of Fibrinogen (Fb) and Ceruloplasmin (Cp) in plasma and milk from dairy cows with different grades of mastitis. Plasma samples were taken from jugular vein and milk samples were collected from quarters of cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis, as well as healthy controls. California Mastitis Test (CMT) were performed on each udder quarter of cows for detection of CMT2+ and CMT3+ quarters. CMT (0) and culture negative cases were considered healthy cows. Clinical mastitis, was graded as mild (clots in milk) or moderate (clots in milk and visible signs of inflammation in the mammary gland/s). The concentrations of Fb in the plasma of the cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis were higher than in the plasma of the healthy cows (p0.05), but differences between clinical and healthy groups were significant (pmastitis were higher than in the milk of the healthy cows (pmastitis in dairy cows.

  7. Effect of decreasing dietary phosphorus supply on net recycling of inorganic phosphate in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puggaard, L; Kristensen, N B; Sehested, J

    2011-03-01

    Five ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows, fitted with permanent indwelling catheters in the mesenteric vein, hepatic vein, portal vein, and an artery were used to study intestinal absorption and net recycling of inorganic phosphate (P(i)) to the gastrointestinal tract. Treatments were low P (LP; 2.4 g of P/kg of DM) and high P (HP; 3.4 g of P/kg of DM). The dietary total P (tP) concentrations were obtained by replacing 0.50% calcium carbonate in the LP diet with 0.50% monocalcium phosphate in the HP diet. Diets were fed for 14 d and cows were sampled on d 14 in each period. Cows were fed restrictively, resulting in equal dry matter intakes as well as milk, fat, and protein yields between treatments. Net P(i) recycling (primarily salivary) was estimated as the difference between net portal plasma flux (net absorption of P(i)) and apparently digested tP (feed - fecal tP difference). Phosphorus intake, apparently digested tP, and fecal tP excretion decreased with LP. An effect of decreased tP intake on net portal plasma flux of P(i) could not be detected. However, despite numerically minute net fluxes across the liver, the net splanchnic flux of P(i) was less in LP compared with that in HP. Though arterial plasma P(i) concentration decreased, net P(i) recycling was not decreased when tP intake was decreased, and recycling of P(i) was maintained at the expense of deposition of P(i) in bones. Data are not consistent with salivary P(i) secretion being the primary regulator of P(i) homeostasis at low tP intakes. On the contrary, maintaining salivary P(i) recycling at low tP intakes indicates that rumen function was prioritized at the expense of bone P reserves. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimation of Body Weight from Body Size Measurements and Body Condition Scores in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.

    1997-01-01

    , and body condition score were consistently associated with BW. The coefficients of multiple determination varied from 80 to 89%. The number of significant terms and the parameter estimates of the models differed markedly among groups of cows. Apparently, these differences were due to breed and feeding...... regimen. Results from this study indicate that a reliable model for estimating BW of very different dairy cows maintained in a wide range of environments can be developed using body condition score, demographic information, and measurements of hip height and hip width. However, for management purposes......The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hip height and width, body condition score, and relevant demographic information to predict body weight (BW) of dairy cows. Seven regression models were developed from data from 972 observations of 554 cows. Parity, hip height, hip width...

  9. Parturient hypocalcemia in jersey cows fed alfalfa haylage-based diets with different cation to anion ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, P J; Mueller, F J; Miller, J K; Ramsey, N; Goff, J P; Horst, R L

    1989-10-01

    Jersey cows were fed three alfalfa haylage-based diets with different cation-anion balances beginning 6 wk preceding third or later calving and ending 24 to 36 h postpartum. Sodium and Cl as percentages of dietary DM were .08 and 1.66 in diet 1 (anionic, 5 cows), .44 and .91 in diet 2 (intermediate, 6 cows), and 1.60 and .34 in diet 3 (cationic, 6 cows). Cation-anion balances were 22, 60, and 126 meq/100 g DM; Ca:P ratios averaged 4:1. Cows fed diet 1 in comparison with cows fed diets 2 or 3 over 6 wk had similar concentrations of Ca, P, and Na but higher concentrations of Mg and K in plasma and higher urinary excretions of Ca and Mg. Concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 d before parturition were higher in cows fed diet 1 than in cows fed diets 2 or 3. Within 36 h after calving, mean concentrations of Ca in plasma (mg/dl, range) of cows fed diets 1 to 3, respectively, were 7 (8.7 to 6.2), 6.5 (7.8 to 3.9), and 6.3 (7.8 to 3.8). Number of cases of clinical milk fever by diet were 0 of 5, 2 of 6, and 1 of 6 cows. Alteration of dietary cation-anion balance by addition of Cl may effectively reduce incidence and severity of parturient hypocalcemia.

  10. Association between protein feeding and reproductive efficiency in the dairy cow: specific emphasis on protein feeding in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. SHINGFIELD

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Associations between protein feeding and reproductive efficiency in the dairy cow are reviewed. Examination of published data indicated that reproductive responses assessed as days open, services per conception or conception rate following changes in protein feeding tend to be inconsistent. Discrepancies can arise due to between-study variations in experimental design, statistical analysis, sample population size, uterine health, cow age, parity, reproductive management or nutrient intake. Detri-mental effects on reproductive efficiency following periods of excessive protein feeding are often attributed to increases in tissue urea and ammonia oncentrations leading to impaired reproductive hysiology, modified endocrine function or exacerbated postpartum negative energy balance. Examination of data collected from Finnish dairy herds (n = 16 051 participating in the national milk recording scheme during 1993 indicated that milk production was maximised in herds fed diets containing 180 g crude protein/kg dry matter. In contrast, no consistent relationships were identified between increases in on-farm protein feeding necessary to secure higher milk production and herd reproductive efficiency assessed as calving interval, first service interval and number of inseminations per calving. Further examination of data derived from 5 437 herds within the National recording scheme indicated that on-farm reproductive efficiency was independent of large variations in the mean annual urea concentration of bulk tank milk. It is concluded that increases in the crude protein content of Finnish dairy cow rations from 150 to between 170 and 180 g/kg dry matter would allow improvements in milk production to be realised without leading to significant reductions in reproductive efficiency.;

  11. Cross-infection between cats and cows: Origin and control of Streptococcus canis mastitis in a dairy herd

    OpenAIRE

    Tikofsky, L L; Zadoks, R N

    2005-01-01

    Group G streptococci in animals usually belong to the species Streptococcus canis and are most commonly found in dogs and cats. Occasionally, Strep. canis is detected in milk from dairy cows. An outbreak of Strep. canis mastitis in a dairy herd is described. Based on results from bacterial culture and ribotyping, a cat with chronic sinusitis was the most likely source of the outbreak. Subsequent cow-to-cow transmission of Strep. canis was facilitated by poor udder health management, including...

  12. Exploration of sequence alterations of the vitamin D receptor gene in regard to hypocalcemia and periparturient paresis in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Reiche, Maria Agnes

    2012-01-01

    Periparturient hypocalcemia belongs to the most important mineral metabolism dysfunctions in dairy cows. The incidence of subclinical hypocalcemia in the USA is given with 25% in heifers and up to 40 to 50 % in older cows (Reinhardt et al. 2010), the incidence of clinical symptoms (downer cow syndrome) is given with 5-10% (DeGaris und Lean 2008; Goff 2008). Hence manifold prophylaxis and therapy concepts to prevent periparturient paresis are established in current practice in dairy cattle hus...

  13. Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on calf birth weight, postpartum health, feed intake, milk yield, and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, R; Colazo, M G; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-05-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of supplemental fat (no oilseed vs. oilseed) during late gestation and the source of fat (canola vs. sunflower seed), on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma metabolite concentrations, milk production and composition, calf birth weight, postpartum health disorders, ovarian function and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Pregnant Holstein cows, blocked by body condition and parity, were assigned to 1 of 3 diets containing rolled canola seed (high in oleic acid; n=43) or sunflower (high in linoleic acid; n=45) at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed (control; n=43), for the last 35±2 d of pregnancy. After calving, all cows received a common lactation diet. Blood samples were collected at wk -3 (i.e., 2 wk after initiation of prepartum diets) and at wk +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5 postpartum to determine the concentration of fatty acids (mEq/dL), β-hydroxybutyrate (mg/dL), and glucose (mg/dL). Ovarian ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to determine the first appearance of dominant (10mm) and preovulatory-size (≥16mm) follicles, and ovulation. Uterine inflammatory status based on the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN; subclinical endometritis: >8% PMN) was assessed at d 25±1 postpartum. Significant parity by treatment interactions were observed for DMI and milk yield. Prepartum oilseed supplementation, more specifically sunflower seed supplementation, increased postpartum DMI in primiparous cows without affecting prepartum DMI or milk yield. Contrarily, in multiparous cows, prepartum oilseed supplementation decreased both prepartum and postpartum DMI and milk yield during the first 2 wk. Regardless of parity, prepartum feeding of canola reduced postpartum DMI compared with those fed sunflower. Mean fatty acids concentrations at wk -3 were greater in cows given supplemental oilseed than those fed no oilseeds. Gestation length and calf birth weight were increased in cows given supplemental oilseed prepartum

  14. Effects of precalving body condition score and prepartum feeding level on production, reproduction, and health parameters in pasture-based transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J R; Meier, S; Heiser, A; Mitchell, M D; Walker, C G; Crookenden, M A; Riboni, M Vailati; Loor, J J; Kay, J K

    2015-10-01

    Precalving feeding level alters postcalving energy balance, dry matter intake, the liver and adipose tissue transcriptome, hepatic lipidosis, and the risk of metabolic diseases in both high-production cows consuming total mixed rations and moderate-production cows grazing pasture. We hypothesized that the reported benefits of a controlled restriction before calving are dependent on precalving body condition score (BCS): low BCS animals would not benefit from reduced feeding levels precalving, but high BCS cows would have metabolic and immunomodulatory profiles indicative of an improved health status. One hundred sixty-one days before calving, 150 cows were allocated randomly to 1 of 6 treatment groups (n = 25) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement: 2 precalving BCS categories (4.0 and 5.0; based on a 10-point scale: BCS4 and BCS5,