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Sample records for daily metabolic patterns

  1. Maternal melatonin programs the daily pattern of energy metabolism in adult offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo S Ferreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Shift work was recently described as a factor that increases the risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, rats born to mothers subjected to a phase shift throughout pregnancy are glucose intolerant. However, the mechanism by which a phase shift transmits metabolic information to the offspring has not been determined. Among several endocrine secretions, phase shifts in the light/dark cycle were described as altering the circadian profile of melatonin production by the pineal gland. The present study addresses the importance of maternal melatonin for the metabolic programming of the offspring. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Female Wistar rats were submitted to SHAM surgery or pinealectomy (PINX. The PINX rats were divided into two groups and received either melatonin (PM or vehicle. The SHAM, the PINX vehicle and the PM females were housed with male Wistar rats. Rats were allowed to mate and after weaning, the male and female offspring were subjected to a glucose tolerance test (GTT, a pyruvate tolerance test (PTT and an insulin tolerance test (ITT. Pancreatic islets were isolated for insulin secretion, and insulin signaling was assessed in the liver and in the skeletal muscle by western blots. We found that male and female rats born to PINX mothers display glucose intolerance at the end of the light phase of the light/dark cycle, but not at the beginning. We further demonstrate that impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and hepatic insulin resistance are mechanisms that may contribute to glucose intolerance in the offspring of PINX mothers. The metabolic programming described here occurs due to an absence of maternal melatonin because the offspring born to PINX mothers treated with melatonin were not glucose intolerant. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present results support the novel concept that maternal melatonin is responsible for the programming of the daily pattern of energy metabolism in their offspring.

  2. Maternal Melatonin Programs the Daily Pattern of Energy Metabolism in Adult Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Danilo S.; Amaral, Fernanda G.; Mesquita, Caroline C.; Barbosa, Ana Paula L.; Lellis-Santos, Camilo; Turati, Ariane O.; Santos, Laila R.; Sollon, Carolina S.; Gomes, Patricia R.; Faria, Juliana A.; Cipolla-Neto, José; Bordin, Silvana; Anhê, Gabriel F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Shift work was recently described as a factor that increases the risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, rats born to mothers subjected to a phase shift throughout pregnancy are glucose intolerant. However, the mechanism by which a phase shift transmits metabolic information to the offspring has not been determined. Among several endocrine secretions, phase shifts in the light/dark cycle were described as altering the circadian profile of melatonin production by the pineal gland. The present study addresses the importance of maternal melatonin for the metabolic programming of the offspring. Methodology/Principal Findings Female Wistar rats were submitted to SHAM surgery or pinealectomy (PINX). The PINX rats were divided into two groups and received either melatonin (PM) or vehicle. The SHAM, the PINX vehicle and the PM females were housed with male Wistar rats. Rats were allowed to mate and after weaning, the male and female offspring were subjected to a glucose tolerance test (GTT), a pyruvate tolerance test (PTT) and an insulin tolerance test (ITT). Pancreatic islets were isolated for insulin secretion, and insulin signaling was assessed in the liver and in the skeletal muscle by western blots. We found that male and female rats born to PINX mothers display glucose intolerance at the end of the light phase of the light/dark cycle, but not at the beginning. We further demonstrate that impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and hepatic insulin resistance are mechanisms that may contribute to glucose intolerance in the offspring of PINX mothers. The metabolic programming described here occurs due to an absence of maternal melatonin because the offspring born to PINX mothers treated with melatonin were not glucose intolerant. Conclusions/Significance The present results support the novel concept that maternal melatonin is responsible for the programming of the daily pattern of energy metabolism in their offspring. PMID:22719949

  3. Seasonal changes in daily metabolic patterns of Tegu lizards (tupinambis merianae) placed in the cold (17 C) and dark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milsom, William K.; Andrade, Denis V.; Brito, Simone P.

    2008-01-01

    their standard metabolic rate (SMR) by 80%-90% over the experimental run, but only roughly 20%-30% of the total fall was due to the reduction in temperature; 70%-80% of the total fall occurred at constant temperature. By autumn, when the starting SMR on the first night at 25°C was already reduced by 59......). Although this degree of reduction appeared to take longer to invoke when starting from higher metabolic rates, tegu lizards reduced their metabolism to the low rates seen in winter dormancy at all times of the year when given sufficient time in the cold and dark. In the spring and summer, tegus reduced......%-81% (early and late autumn, respectively) from peak summer values, virtually all of the fall (63%-83%) in metabolism was due to the reduction in temperature. This suggests that the temperature-independent reduction of metabolism was already in place by autumn before the tegus had entered winter dormancy....

  4. Understanding metropolitan patterns of daily encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng

    2013-08-20

    Understanding of the mechanisms driving our daily face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her daily behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in daily life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes.

  5. Blood Pressure: Does It Have a Daily Pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheps, M.D. Blood pressure has a daily pattern. Blood pressure is normally lower at night while you' ... begins dropping again. Having an abnormal blood pressure pattern, such as high blood pressure during the night or early in the ...

  6. Seasonal and daily activity patterns of leopard tortoises ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal and daily activity patterns of leopard tortoises ( Stigmochelys pardalis Bell, 1828) on farmland in the Nama-Karoo, South Africa. ... that activity is also initiated by the time since sunrise. Key words: Stigmochelys pardalis, leopard tortoise, activity patterns, activity behaviour, Nama-Karoo Biome, time of day, season.

  7. Impact of the daily meal pattern on energy balance

    OpenAIRE

    Bellisle, France

    2008-01-01

    The daily distribution of food intake can influence the regulation of energy balance and, in consequence, the control of body weight. Two aspects of this question must be considered: the daily number of eating occasions and their temporal distribution. Since the 1960s, epidemiological studies have reported an inverse relationship between frequency of eating and body weight, suggesting that a ‘‘nibbling’’ pattern could help to prevent obesity. This notion has later been...

  8. Daily patterns of stem size variation in irrigated and unirrigated Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, David M; O'Grady, Anthony P; Downes, Geoffrey M; Read, Jennifer; Worledge, Dale

    2008-10-01

    High resolution measurements of stem diameter variation provide a means to study short-term dynamics of tree growth and water status. In this 14-month study, daily changes in stem radius of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. seedlings were measured with electronic point dendrometers in a plantation in southern Tasmania, Australia. The daily patterns of stem expansion and shrinkage were classified into three phases: shrinkage; recovery; and increase in diameter from one maximum to the next, or increment. This study showed that rapid onset of even mild drought in irrigated trees caused distinct changes in daily patterns of stem diameter variation, particularly the duration of daily stem increment. The duration of the daily increment phase was directly related to increment magnitude. The dynamics of daily increment were significantly affected by mean minimum temperature, indicating a temperature limitation on metabolic processes underlying diameter growth in these trees. Most likely due to differences in conductance, the duration but not rate of the incremental daily expansion was greater in fast- than in slow-growing trees.

  9. Optimal flux patterns in cellular metabolic networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almaas, E

    2007-01-20

    The availability of whole-cell level metabolic networks of high quality has made it possible to develop a predictive understanding of bacterial metabolism. Using the optimization framework of flux balance analysis, I investigate metabolic response and activity patterns to variations in the availability of nutrient and chemical factors such as oxygen and ammonia by simulating 30,000 random cellular environments. The distribution of reaction fluxes is heavy-tailed for the bacteria H. pylori and E. coli, and the eukaryote S. cerevisiae. While the majority of flux balance investigations have relied on implementations of the simplex method, it is necessary to use interior-point optimization algorithms to adequately characterize the full range of activity patterns on metabolic networks. The interior-point activity pattern is bimodal for E. coli and S. cerevisiae, suggesting that most metabolic reaction are either in frequent use or are rarely active. The trimodal activity pattern of H. pylori indicates that a group of its metabolic reactions (20%) are active in approximately half of the simulated environments. Constructing the high-flux backbone of the network for every environment, there is a clear trend that the more frequently a reaction is active, the more likely it is a part of the backbone. Finally, I briefly discuss the predicted activity patterns of the central-carbon metabolic pathways for the sample of random environments.

  10. Smoking patterns and stimulus control in intermittent and daily smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Shiffman

    Full Text Available Intermittent smokers (ITS - who smoke less than daily - comprise an increasing proportion of adult smokers. Their smoking patterns challenge theoretical models of smoking motivation, which emphasize regular and frequent smoking to maintain nicotine levels and avoid withdrawal, but yet have gone largely unexamined. We characterized smoking patterns among 212 ITS (smoking 4-27 days per month compared to 194 daily smokers (DS; smoking 5-30 cigarettes daily who monitored situational antecedents of smoking using ecological momentary assessment. Subjects recorded each cigarette on an electronic diary, and situational variables were assessed in a random subset (n=21,539 smoking episodes; parallel assessments were obtained by beeping subjects at random when they were not smoking (n=26,930 non-smoking occasions. Compared to DS, ITS' smoking was more strongly associated with being away from home, being in a bar, drinking alcohol, socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, and when others were smoking. Mood had only modest effects in either group. DS' and ITS' smoking were substantially and equally suppressed by smoking restrictions, although ITS more often cited self-imposed restrictions. ITS' smoking was consistently more associated with environmental cues and contexts, especially those associated with positive or "indulgent" smoking situations. Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS.

  11. Smoking Patterns and Stimulus Control in Intermittent and Daily Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael S.; Li, Xiaoxue; Scholl, Sarah M.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Anderson, Stewart J.; Ferguson, Stuart G.

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent smokers (ITS) – who smoke less than daily – comprise an increasing proportion of adult smokers. Their smoking patterns challenge theoretical models of smoking motivation, which emphasize regular and frequent smoking to maintain nicotine levels and avoid withdrawal, but yet have gone largely unexamined. We characterized smoking patterns among 212 ITS (smoking 4–27 days per month) compared to 194 daily smokers (DS; smoking 5–30 cigarettes daily) who monitored situational antecedents of smoking using ecological momentary assessment. Subjects recorded each cigarette on an electronic diary, and situational variables were assessed in a random subset (n = 21,539 smoking episodes); parallel assessments were obtained by beeping subjects at random when they were not smoking (n = 26,930 non-smoking occasions). Compared to DS, ITS' smoking was more strongly associated with being away from home, being in a bar, drinking alcohol, socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, and when others were smoking. Mood had only modest effects in either group. DS' and ITS' smoking were substantially and equally suppressed by smoking restrictions, although ITS more often cited self-imposed restrictions. ITS' smoking was consistently more associated with environmental cues and contexts, especially those associated with positive or “indulgent” smoking situations. Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS. PMID:24599056

  12. Metabolic effects of growth hormone administered subcutaneously once or twice daily to growth hormone deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl

    1994-01-01

    -term metabolic effects in GH deficient patients. An improved growth response is obtained in GH deficient children when a fixed weekly GH dose is administered by daily subcutaneous injections instead of twice or thrice-weekly intramuscular injections. A more pulsatile pattern and serum GH levels above zero might...... to the hospital for 37 hours. Steady-state profiles of GH, IGF-I, IGF binding proteins 1 and 3, insulin, glucose, lipid intermediates and metabolites were obtained following administration of 3 IU/m2 of GH (at 1900 h (one injection) and at 1900 and 0800 h (two injections)). RESULTS: Similar mean integrated levels...

  13. Mining Spatiotemporal Patterns of the Elder's Daily Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. R.; Chen, C. F.; Liu, M. E.; Tsai, S. J.; Son, N. T.; Kinh, L. V.

    2016-06-01

    With rapid developments in wearable device technology, a vast amount of spatiotemporal data, such as people's movement and physical activities, are generated. Information derived from the data reveals important knowledge that can contribute a long-term care and psychological assessment of the elders' living condition especially in long-term care institutions. This study aims to develop a method to investigate the spatial-temporal movement patterns of the elders with their outdoor trajectory information. To achieve the goal, GPS based location data of the elderly subjects from long-term care institutions are collected and analysed with geographic information system (GIS). A GIS statistical model is developed to mine the elderly subjects' spatiotemporal patterns with the location data and represent their daily movement pattern at particular time. The proposed method first finds the meaningful trajectory and extracts the frequent patterns from the time-stamp location data. Then, a density-based clustering method is used to identify the major moving range and the gather/stay hotspot in both spatial and temporal dimensions. The preliminary results indicate that the major moving area of the elderly people encompasses their dorm and has a short moving distance who often stay in the same site. Subjects' outdoor appearance are corresponded to their life routine. The results can be useful for understanding elders' social network construction, risky area identification and medical care monitoring.

  14. Effect of daytime-restricted feeding in the daily variations of liver metabolism and blood transport of serotonin in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Vald?s-Fuentes, Marlen; Vera-Rivera, Gabriela; De Ita-P?rez, Dalia; M?ndez, Isabel; Miranda, Mar?a Isabel; D?az-Mu?oz, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    The biogenic amine serotonin is a signaling molecule in the gastrointestinal tract, platelets, and nervous tissue. In nervous system, serotonin and its metabolites are under the control of the circadian timing system, but it is not known if daily variations of serotonin exist in the liver. To explore this possibility, we tested if the rhythmic pattern of serotonin metabolism was regulated by daytime restricted feeding (DRF) which is a protocol associated to the expression of the food entraine...

  15. Relation between usual daily walking time and metabolic syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There are several studies about the positive relation between physical inactivity or low cardio respiratory fitness with development of metabolic syndrome (MS). In contrast, physical activity had favourable effects on all components of MS but the quantity and the frequency of physical activity necessary to produce ...

  16. METABOLIC SYNDROME AND DAILY AMBULATION IN CHILDREN, ADOLESCENTS, AND YOUNG ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andrew W.; Parker, Donald E.; Krishnan, Sowmya; Chalmers, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    Purposes To compare daily ambulatory measures in children, adolescents, and young adults with and without metabolic syndrome, and to assess which metabolic syndrome components, demographic measures, and body composition measures are associated with daily ambulatory measures. Methods Two-hundred fifty subjects between the ages of 10 and 30 years were assessed on metabolic syndrome components, demographic and clinical measures, body fat percentage, and daily ambulatory strides, durations, and cadences during seven consecutive days. Forty-five of the 250 subjects had metabolic syndrome, as defined by the International Diabetes Federation. Results Subjects with metabolic syndrome ambulated at a slower daily average cadence than those without metabolic syndrome (13.6 ± 2.2 strides/min vs. 14.9 ± 3.2 strides/min; p=0.012), and they had slower cadences for continuous durations of 60 minutes (p=0.006), 30 minutes (p=0.005), 20 minutes (p=0.003), 5 minutes (p=0.002), and 1 minute (p=0.001). However, the total amount of time spent ambulating each day was not different (p=0.077). After adjustment for metabolic syndrome status, average cadence is linearly associated with body fat percentage (pmetabolic syndrome ambulate more slowly and take fewer strides throughout the day than those without metabolic syndrome, even though the total amount of time spent ambulating is not different. Furthermore, the detrimental influence of metabolic syndrome on ambulatory cadence is primarily a function of body fatness. PMID:22811038

  17. Daily profile in two circadian markers "melatonin and cortisol" and associations with metabolic syndrome components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbalán-Tutau, Dolores; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Nicolás, Francisco; Garaulet, Marta

    2014-01-17

    The aim of the present work was to investigate associations in circadian markers, melatonin (MT) and cortisol, with metabolic syndrome (MetS) parameters, and with leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin plasma values. The study was conducted in 70 women (mean age: 41±10years) that were classified without MetS (n=30) and with MetS (n=40). Blood collection, plasma separation and processing, and biochemical analyses for plasma lipids were performed. For measuring salivary melatonin, participants collected two samples. The first simple was obtained before lunch (at 14:00 p.m.) and the second sample was taken at night (3:00 a.m.). On a random working day, participants delivered repeated salivary cortisol samples. The first sample was obtained in the morning (09:00 a.m.), then before lunch at (14:00 p.m.), and finally just before bedtime (23:00 p.m.). Significant differences were found between the MT measurements taken at night in women without and with MetS. With respect to cortisol, significant differences were found in the different times cortisol levels toward a more flattened pattern among MetS women. Both parameters were positive correlated between them. Of note MT and cortisol night/morning ratios were associated with MetS score and metabolic syndrome components. The findings indicate that diminished daily amplitude in MT and cortisol circadian patterns was associated with metabolic disturbances in blood pressure, glucose and plasma lipids regulation, ghrelin and adipocyte-secreted hormones such as leptin and adiponectin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evolution of Daily Gene Co-expression Patterns from Algae to Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de los Reyes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Daily rhythms play a key role in transcriptome regulation in plants and microalgae orchestrating responses that, among other processes, anticipate light transitions that are essential for their metabolism and development. The recent accumulation of genome-wide transcriptomic data generated under alternating light:dark periods from plants and microalgae has made possible integrative and comparative analysis that could contribute to shed light on the evolution of daily rhythms in the green lineage. In this work, RNA-seq and microarray data generated over 24 h periods in different light regimes from the eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana and the microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Ostreococcus tauri have been integrated and analyzed using gene co-expression networks. This analysis revealed a reduction in the size of the daily rhythmic transcriptome from around 90% in Ostreococcus, being heavily influenced by light transitions, to around 40% in Arabidopsis, where a certain independence from light transitions can be observed. A novel Multiple Bidirectional Best Hit (MBBH algorithm was applied to associate single genes with a family of potential orthologues from evolutionary distant species. Gene duplication, amplification and divergence of rhythmic expression profiles seems to have played a central role in the evolution of gene families in the green lineage such as Pseudo Response Regulators (PRRs, CONSTANS-Likes (COLs, and DNA-binding with One Finger (DOFs. Gene clustering and functional enrichment have been used to identify groups of genes with similar rhythmic gene expression patterns. The comparison of gene clusters between species based on potential orthologous relationships has unveiled a low to moderate level of conservation of daily rhythmic expression patterns. However, a strikingly high conservation was found for the gene clusters exhibiting their highest and/or lowest expression value during the light transitions.

  19. Observed daily large-scale rainfall patterns during BOBMEX-1999

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    A daily rainfall dataset and the corresponding rainfall maps have been produced by objective analysis of rainfall data. The satellite estimate of rainfall and the raingauge values are merged to form the final analysis. Associated with epochs of monsoon these rainfall maps are able to show the rainfall activities over India and ...

  20. Daily basking patterns of the fresh-water turtle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A single asbestos platform (25 X 25 X 25 cm) was situated at one end of the tank, allowing turtles to emerge completely from the water should they wish to bask. A heat lamp (Philips Infraphil 240 V, 150 W; Type. F/3379/F49) was positioned at varying heights above the platform (Table 1) illuminating it for 12 hours daily.

  1. Dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome among type 2 diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is raising worldwide; however, the role of diet in the origin of metabolic syndrome is not understood well. This study identifies major dietary patterns among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with and without metabolic syndrome; and its association with metabolic syndrome ...

  2. The relationship between daily urinary sodium excretion and metabolic syndrome in patients with kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Aydin; Kocyigit, Ismail; Sipahioglu, Murat Hahri; Tokgoz, Bulent; Oymak, Oktay

    2014-08-12

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship between daily urinary sodium excretion and metabolic syndrome in kidney transplantation patients. This cross-sectional study included 76 adult renal transplantation recipients. To calculate urinary sodium excretion, 24-h urine samples were collected. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria updated in a statement from the American Heart Association (AHA)/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) in 2005. Mean age of the 76 patients was 38 ± 10 years; 21 of the 76 patients were female. Metabolic syndrome was found in 52 (68.4%) of the 76 renal transplantation patients. Mean daily urinary sodium excretion was 190 ± 102 mmol/day, which is equal to a salt intake of 11.1 g/day. Daily urinary sodium excretion was significantly higher in patients with metabolic syndrome compared to those without metabolic syndrome (209 ± 112 mmol/day and 150 ± 62 mmol/day, respectively, p: 0.005). Daily urinary sodium excretion correlated with diastolic blood pressure (r: 0.254, p: 0.028), serum glucose concentration (r: 0.446, p: creatinine clearance (r: 478, p: metabolic syndrome in renal transplant recipients. The Turkish kidney transplantation patients consume a great amount of salt and salt intake is positively correlated with blood pressure.

  3. The importance of hormonal circadian rhythms in daily feeding patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, Iris J.M.M.; Boer, de Imke J.M.; Hofstede, Gert Jan; Fleur, la Susanne E.; Bokkers, Eddy

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between hormonal circadian rhythms and feeding behaviour is not well understood. This study aimed to deepen our understanding of mechanisms underlying circadian feeding behaviour in animals, using pigs, Sus scrofa, as a case study. Pigs show an alternans feeding pattern, that is,

  4. The relationship between basal metabolic rate and daily energy expenditure in birds and mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricklefs, RE; Konarzewski, M; Daan, S

    We examined the relationship between daily energy expenditure (DEE) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in birds and mammals. Two models of the relationship between DEE and BMR were distinguished: a ''shared pathways'' model in which DEE replaces BMR in the active organism and a ''partitioned pathways''

  5. Thyroid hormones correlate with resting metabolic rate, not daily energy expenditure, in two charadriiform seabirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle H. Elliott

    2013-04-01

    Thyroid hormones affect in vitro metabolic intensity, increase basal metabolic rate (BMR in the lab, and are sometimes correlated with basal and/or resting metabolic rate (RMR in a field environment. Given the difficulty of measuring metabolic rate in the field—and the likelihood that capture and long-term restraint necessary to measure metabolic rate in the field jeopardizes other measurements—we examined the possibility that circulating thyroid hormone levels were correlated with RMR in two free-ranging bird species with high levels of energy expenditure (the black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla, and thick-billed murre, Uria lomvia. Because BMR and daily energy expenditure (DEE are purported to be linked, we also tested for a correlation between thyroid hormones and DEE. We examined the relationships between free and bound levels of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3 with DEE and with 4-hour long measurements of post-absorptive and thermoneutral resting metabolism (resting metabolic rate; RMR. RMR but not DEE increased with T3 in both species; both metabolic rates were independent of T4. T3 and T4 were not correlated with one another. DEE correlated with body mass in kittiwakes but not in murres, presumably owing to the larger coefficient of variation in body mass during chick rearing for the more sexually dimorphic kittiwakes. We suggest T3 provides a good proxy for resting metabolism but not DEE in these seabird species.

  6. Daily pattern of energy distribution and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A; Li, Fan; Cardoso, Chelsi

    2018-02-19

    Timing of energy intake, a temporal dietary pattern, may enhance health. Eating a greater amount of energy earlier and a smaller amount of energy later in the day, a behavioral circadian rhythm, may assist with chronoenhancement. Chronoenhancement seeks to enhance entrainment (synchronization) of biological and behavioral circadian rhythms. In humans, research reports that eating a greater amount of energy early and a smaller amount of energy later in the day increases dietary induced thermogenesis, improves cardiometabolic outcomes, and enhances weight loss. However, little human research has examined if this eating pattern enhances regularity of biological circadian rhythm. In a randomized controlled 8-week pilot study, the influence of energy distribution timing on weight loss and regularity of sleep onset and wake times (marker for biological circadian rhythm) was examined. Within an hypocaloric, three-meal prescription, participants (n = 8) were assigned to either: 1) Morning: 50%, 30%, and 20% of kcal at breakfast, lunch, and dinner, respectively; or 2) Evening: 20%, 30%, and 50% of kcal at breakfast, lunch, and dinner, respectively. Percent weight loss and regularity of sleep onset and wake times were significantly (p energy distribution timing on health, longer studies conducted in free-living participants, with dietary intake assessed using time-stamped methods, that include measures of the circadian timing system are needed. This small review is based upon a symposium presentation at the Society of the Study of Ingestive Behavior in 2017. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparing Patterns of Stress in Daily Experiences of Elderly Caregivers and Noncaregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallstein, Sharon M.

    1993-01-01

    Used daily experience survey to distinguish patterns of stress among 21 elderly individuals providing home care to spouse or parent with Alzheimer's disease and comparison group of 20 elderly noncaregivers. Found that life circumstances influenced stress perception in daily life. Caregivers and noncaregivers differed in types of experiences they…

  8. A fruit and dairy dietary pattern is associated with a reduced risk of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soyoung; Song, Yoonju; Lee, Kye Heui; Lee, Hong Soo; Lee, Myoungsook; Jee, Sun Ha; Joung, Hyojee

    2012-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between adherence to different dietary patterns and the presence of metabolic syndrome and its components among Korean adults. The sample consisted of 406 Korean adults aged 22 to 78 years recruited from hospitals. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria issued by the Adult Treatment Panel III, with the exception of central obesity, which was defined according to the Asian-Pacific criteria. Dietary information was obtained by means of a 24-hour recall and a 3-day food record, and factor analysis was used to define dietary patterns. Factor analysis identified 4 major dietary patterns, which explained 28.8% of the total variance, based on the percentage of total daily energy intake from each food group: Korean traditional, alcohol and meats, sweets and fast foods, and fruit and dairy. After controlling for all potential confounders, we found that the Korean traditional dietary pattern was not associated with individual components of the metabolic syndrome but was significantly associated with increased odds of having metabolic syndrome. The fruit and dairy pattern was significantly associated with decreased odds of impaired blood glucose, hypertriglyceridemia, and metabolic syndrome. Our findings suggest that the fruit and dairy pattern is associated with reduced risk of having metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Size dependence in non-sperm ejaculate production is reflected in daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Christopher R; Powers, Donald R; Copenhaver, Paige E; Mason, Robert T

    2015-05-01

    The non-sperm components of an ejaculate, such as copulatory plugs, can be essential to male reproductive success. But the costs of these ejaculate components are often considered trivial. In polyandrous species, males are predicted to increase energy allocation to the production of non-sperm components, but this allocation is often condition dependent and the energetic costs of their production have never been quantified. Red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) are an excellent model with which to quantify the energetic costs of non-sperm components of the ejaculate as they exhibit a dissociated reproductive pattern in which sperm production is temporally disjunct from copulatory plug production, mating and plug deposition. We estimated the daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate of males after courtship and mating, and used bomb calorimetry to estimate the energy content of copulatory plugs. We found that both daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate were significantly higher in small mating males than in courting males, and a single copulatory plug without sperm constitutes 5-18% of daily energy expenditure. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify the energetic expense of size-dependent ejaculate strategies in any species. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. A camera-phone based study reveals erratic eating pattern and disrupted daily eating-fasting cycle among adults in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelu Jain Gupta

    Full Text Available The daily rhythm of feeding-fasting and meal-timing are emerging as important determinants of health. Circadian rhythm research in animal models and retrospective analyses of human nutrition data have shown that reduced length of overnight fasting or increased late night eating increases risk for metabolic diseases including obesity and diabetes. However, the daily rhythm in eating pattern in humans is rarely measured. Traditional methods to collect nutrition information through food diary and food log pay little attention to the timing of eating which may also change from day to day. We adopted a novel cell-phone based approach to longitudinally record all events of food and beverage intake in adults. In a feasibility study daily food-eating patterns of 93 healthy individuals were recorded for 21 days using camera phones. Analysis of the daily eating patterns of these individuals indicates deviation from conventional assumption that people eat three meals-a-day within a 12 h interval. We found that eating events are widespread throughout the day, with 30% consumed in evening and late night hours. There was little difference in eating pattern between weekdays and weekends. In this cohort more than 50% of people spread their caloric intake events over 15 h or longer. One decile of the cohort who were spouses of shift-workers or had flexible work schedule spread their caloric intake over 20 h. Although the nutrition quality and diversity of food consumed is different between South-East Asian and Western countries, such overall disruption of daily eating-fasting rhythm is similar. Therefore, in view of hypothesis that disrupted daily eating pattern may contribute to the global increase in metabolic diseases and modification of daily eating pattern is a potential modifiable behavior to contain these diseases, monitoring eating pattern is an important aspect of lifestyle.

  11. Metabolic disorders in dairy Simmentals - prevalence risk and effect on subsequent daily milk traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Gantner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyse metabolic disorders in Simmental cows, 2.641.223 test-day records have been used. The metabolic disorders prevalence risk was indicated by the fat to protein (F/P ratio, while the subclinical disorder was demonstrated using the F/P ratio and daily production. In terms of the ketosis prevalence risk (KPR, the highest prevalence risks occurred at the 20th lactation day in all tested cows with exception of cows in parity P4+ which experienced peak prevalence risk at 25th lactation day. A steady decrease of KPR after peak prevalence was observed in all animals except the 3rd lactation cows which experienced the second peak prevalence at the 30th lactation day, after which the prevalence risk continued to decline. The highest acidosis prevalence risk (APR was detected among 4+ parity cows. Considering the lactation stage, the highest APR occurred within the first 10 days, with the indication from 16 to 23 %, depending on parity. The peak prevalence risk was followed by a considerable decline during the ensuing 20 days. The prevalence risk began to increase among all cows after the 25th lactation day. Furthermore, there was a considerable decrease in a daily milk yield and variation of daily milk contents due to subclinical disorders. The most noticeable drop in daily milk yield, for both ketosis/acidosis, was detected in cows in 4+ parity in the amounts of 7.45 kg/day and 2.73 kg/day respectively. There was also a production decline in the subsequent milk controls. Subclinical disorders can also substantially change daily milk contents. The daily fat content was considerably reduced by the subclinical ketosis and the same parameter was considerably increased by the subclinical acidosis. The opposite trends were detected for daily protein content. Since indication criteria was set on Holstein population and considering the fact that Simmental cows produce noticeably less, some adjustment is needed before a routine use of test

  12. Changes in body weight, blood pressure and selected metabolic biomarkers with an energy-restricted diet including twice daily sweet snacks and once daily sugar-free beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M.; Piehowski, Kathryn E.; Metzgar, Catherine J.; Miller, Debra L.; Preston, Amy G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The type of sweet snack incorporated into an energy-restricted diet (ERD) may produce differential effects on metabolic improvements associated with body weight (BW) loss. This study compared effects of incorporating either twice daily energy-controlled dark chocolate snacks plus once daily sugar-free cocoa beverage (DC) to non-chocolate snacks plus sugar-free non-cocoa beverage (NC) into an ERD on BW loss and metabolic outcomes. MATERIALS/METHODS In an 18-week randomize...

  13. Patterns of nutrient utilization. Implications for nitrogen metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldham, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Nutrients react within both the rumen and the ruminant body, and the patterns of availability of different nutrients greatly influence their net utilization. In the rumen, microbial capture of N substrates, especially ammonia, depends on the degree of synchronization between rates of production of N substrates and of ATP to drive microbial protein synthesis. The form of dietary carbohydrate and of dietary N and the frequency of feeding can all affect the efficiency of microbial growth and digestion. The pattern of supply of nutrients to the body will also influence nutrient utilization. Disparities between diurnal patterns of supply of volatile fatty acids from the rumen and amino acids from the intestines will result in changes in balance of metabolic pathways. The balance between supply of glucogenic and lipogenic nutrients will influence efficiency of fattening. A major factor determining the pattern of utilization/metabolism of amino acids is the metabolic demand for protein synthesis, which varies with physiological state. (author)

  14. Dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome risk factors among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyojee Joung

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Unbalanced diets and decreased physical activity have contributed to increased prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in adolescents. We have performed a systematic review and data analysis to examine the association between dietary pattern and metabolic syndrome risk factors in adolescents. Methods: We searched the PubMed and BioMedLib databases for appropriate articles published during the past 10 years and selected 6 articles. The studies reviewed applied factor analysis or cluster analysis to extract dietary patterns. For data analysis, we examined the association between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome risk factors using data of 3,168 adolescents (13 to 18 years obtained from 4 consecutive Korean Nutrition Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1998, 2001, 2005, and 2007 to 2009. Results: Our systematic review confirmed that western dietary patterns are positively associated with metabolic syndrome risk factors such as obesity and elevated triglycerides, while traditional dietary patterns were negatively associated. Data analysis found that the number of adolescents aged 16 to 18 years who had “Rice & Kimchi” dietary pattern decreased, while the number having western dietary patterns increased during the 1998 to 2009 time frame. There were no changes in the dietary patterns in adolescents aged 13 to 15 years. The risk of elevated serum triglycerides and reduced serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol was high in the “Rice & Kimchi” dietary pattern compared to the other dietary pattern groups.Conclusion: Because adolescents’ dietary patterns are changing continuously and have long-term effects, further studies on the dietary patterns of adolescents and their health effects into adulthood are necessary.

  15. Patterns of Daily Costs Differ for Medical and Surgical Intensive Care Unit Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Garland, Allan; Gong, Michelle N

    2015-12-01

    Published studies suggest hospital costs on Day 1 in the intensive care unit (ICU) far exceed those of subsequent days, when costs are relatively stable. Yet, no study stratified patients by ICU type. To determine whether daily cost patterns differ by ICU type. We performed a retrospective study of adults admitted to five ICUs (two surgical: quaternary surgical ICU [SICU quat] and quaternary cardiac surgical ICU [CSICU quat]; two medical: tertiary medical ICU [MICU tertiary] and quaternary medical ICU [MICU quat]; one general: community medical surgical ICU [MSICU comm]) at Montefiore Medical Center in the Bronx, New York during 2013. After excluding costs clearly accrued outside the ICU, daily hospital costs were merged with clinical data. Patterns of daily unadjusted costs were evaluated in each ICU using median regression. Generalized estimating equations with first-order autocorrelation were used to identify factors independently associated with daily costs. Unadjusted daily costs were higher on Day 1 than on subsequent days only for surgical ICUs-SICU quat (median [interquartile range], $2,636 [$1,834-$4,282] on Day 1 vs. $1,840 [$1,501-$2,332] on Day 2; P cost from Days 1 to 2. After multivariate adjustment, there remained a significant decrease in cost from ICU Day 1 to 2 in surgical units with statistically similar Day 1 and 2 costs for other ICUs. Higher Day 1 costs are not seen in patients admitted to medical/nonsurgical ICUs.

  16. Daily patterns of anxiety in anorexia nervosa: associations with eating disorder behaviors in the natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; De Young, Kyle P; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Le Grange, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    The role of anxiety has been emphasized in etiological/maintenance models of anorexia nervosa. This study identified daily patterns of anxiety in anorexia nervosa and examined the likelihood of the occurrence of eating disorder behaviors in each trajectory, the daily temporal distribution of eating disorder behaviors in each trajectory, and the extent to which the tendency to exhibit particular anxiety trajectories was associated with baseline diagnostic and trait-level personality variables. Women with full or subthreshold anorexia nervosa (N = 118) completed a 2-week ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol during which they reported on a variety of behavioral and affective variables, including anxiety and eating disorder behaviors. Using latent growth mixture modeling to classify EMA days (N = 1,526) based on anxiety ratings, we identified 7 distinct daily anxiety trajectories. Overall differences between trajectories were found for rates of binge eating, self-induced vomiting, body checking, skipping meals, and dietary restriction. Furthermore, distinct daily temporal distributions of eating disorder behaviors were found across the trajectories, with peaks in the probability of behaviors frequently coinciding with high levels of anxiety. Finally, traits of personality pathology (affective lability, self-harm, social avoidance, and oppositionality) and the presence of a co-occurring mood disorder were found to be associated with the tendency to experience particular daily anxiety trajectories (e.g., stable high anxiety). Findings support the presence of within-person variability in daily anxiety patterns in anorexia nervosa and also provide evidence for an association between these anxiety patterns and eating disorder behaviors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Exploration of Energy Metabolism in the Mouse Using Indirect Calorimetry: Measurement of Daily Energy Expenditure (DEE) and Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carola W; Reitmeir, Peter; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2015-09-01

    Current comprehensive mouse metabolic phenotyping involves studying energy balance in cohorts of mice via indirect calorimetry, which determines heat release from changes in respiratory air composition. Here, we describe the measurement of daily energy expenditure (DEE) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in mice. These well-defined metabolic descriptors serve as meaningful first-line read-outs for metabolic phenotyping and should be reported when exploring energy expenditure in mice. For further guidance, the issue of appropriate sample sizes and the frequency of sampling of metabolic measurements is also discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Dietary patterns are associated with metabolic syndrome in adult Samoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBello, Julia R; McGarvey, Stephen T; Kraft, Peter; Goldberg, Robert; Campos, Hannia; Quested, Christine; Laumoli, Tuiasina Salamo; Baylin, Ana

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has reached epidemic levels in the Samoan Islands. In this cross-sectional study conducted in 2002-2003, dietary patterns were described among American Samoan (n = 723) and Samoan (n = 785) adults (> or =18 y) to identify neo-traditional and modern eating patterns and to relate these patterns to the presence of metabolic syndrome using Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The neo-traditional dietary pattern, similar across both polities, was characterized by high intake of local foods, including crab/lobster, coconut products, and taro, and low intake of processed foods, including potato chips and soda. The modern pattern, also similar across both polities, was characterized by high intake of processed foods such as rice, potato chips, cake, and pancakes and low intake of local foods. The neo-traditional dietary pattern was associated with significantly higher serum HDL-cholesterol in American Samoa (P-trend = 0.05) and a decrease in abdominal circumference in American Samoa and Samoa (P-trend = 0.004 and 0.01, respectively). An inverse association was found with metabolic syndrome, although it did not reach significance (P = 0.23 in American Samoa; P = 0.13 in Samoa). The modern pattern was significantly positively associated with metabolic syndrome in Samoa (prevalence ratio = 1.21 for the fifth compared with first quintile; 95% CI: 0.93.1.57; P-trend = 0.05) and with increased serum triglyceride levels in both polities (P fiber, seafood, and coconut products may help to prevent growth in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Samoan islands.

  19. Objective assessment of dietary patterns by use of metabolic phenotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Posma, Joram M; Gibson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accurate monitoring of changes in dietary patterns in response to food policy implementation is challenging. Metabolic profiling allows simultaneous measurement of hundreds of metabolites in urine, the concentrations of which can be affected by food intake. We hypothesised...... that metabolic profiles of urine samples developed under controlled feeding conditions reflect dietary intake and can be used to model and classify dietary patterns of free-living populations. METHODS: In this randomised, controlled, crossover trial, we recruited healthy volunteers (aged 21-65 years, BMI 20...... controlled environment can classify groups of free-living people into consumers of diets associated with lower or higher non-communicable disease risk on the basis of multivariate metabolite patterns. This approach enables objective monitoring of dietary patterns in population settings and enhances...

  20. Influence of personality attributes and daily moods on bulimic eating patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebert, W M; Stanton, A L; Schwarz, R M

    1991-01-01

    Relationships among personality attributes, mood states, and eating patterns were examined in a nonclinical sample of females with bulimic symptomatology and binge eaters. Thirteen subjects in each group completed trait measures of depression, anxiety, hostility, and locus of control. Subsequently, they self-monitored affect and eating patterns over a 20-day period. Greater state depression, anxiety, and hostility all were associated significantly with subsequent daily binge eating, and with purging for bulimic subjects. The association of binge occurrence with state anxiety and hostility was significantly greater for bulimics than for binge eaters. Locus of control and trait hostility were important in influencing reactivity of binge eating to daily moods. As trait hostility and externality increased, reactivity of binges to negative mood states also increased.

  1. Patterns of parasite transmission in polar seas: Daily rhythms of cercarial emergence from intertidal snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokofiev, Vladimir V.; Galaktionov, Kirill V.; Levakin, Ivan A.

    2016-07-01

    Trematodes are common parasites in intertidal ecosystems. Cercariae, their dispersive larvae, ensure transmission of infection from the first intermediate molluscan host to the second intermediate (invertebrates and fishes) or the final (fishes, marine birds and mammals) host. Trematode transmission in polar seas, while interesting in many respects, is poorly studied. This study aimed to elucidate the patterns of cercarial emergence from intertidal snails at the White Sea and Barents Sea. The study, involving cercariae of 12 species, has provided the most extensive material obtained so far in high latitude seas (66-69° N). The experiments were conducted in situ. Multichannel singular spectral analysis (MSSA) used for processing primary data made it possible to estimate the relative contribution of different oscillations into the analysed time series and to separate the daily component from the other oscillatory components and the noise. Cercarial emergence had pronounced daily rhythms, which did not depend on the daily tidal schedule but were regulated by thermo- and photoperiod. Daily emergence maximums coincided with periods favourable for infecting the second intermediate hosts. Cercarial daily emergence rhythms differed in species using the same molluscan hosts which can be explained by cercarial host searching behaviour. Daily cercarial output (DCO) correlated negatively with larval volume and positively with that of the molluscan host except in cercariae using ambuscade behaviour. In the Barents Sea cercariae emerged from their molluscan hosts at lower temperatures than in the warmer White Sea but the daily emergence period was prolonged. Thus, DCO of related species were similar in these two seas and comparable with DCO values reported for boreal seas. Local temperature adaptations in cercarial emergence suggests that in case of Arctic climate warming trematode transmission in coastal ecosystems is likely to be intensified not because of the increased

  2. Objective assessment of dietary patterns by use of metabolic phenotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Posma, Joram M; Gibson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accurate monitoring of changes in dietary patterns in response to food policy implementation is challenging. Metabolic profiling allows simultaneous measurement of hundreds of metabolites in urine, the concentrations of which can be affected by food intake. We hypothesised that metabo...

  3. Daily rhythms of behavioral and hormonal patterns in male dromedary camels housed in boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydiane Aubè

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Daily rhythmicity has been observed for a number of hormonal and behavioral variables in mammals. It can be entrained by several external factors, such as light-dark cycle and scheduled feeding. In dromedary camels, daily rhythmicity has been documented only for melatonin secretion and body temperature. In this study, the daily rhythmicity of behavioral repertoire, cortisol and testosterone levels was investigated in captive male camels. Methods Six clinically healthy male dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius were used. The animals were housed in single boxes for 24 h daily and fed twice a day. Over a period of 48 h, behavioral observations were made and blood samples taken every two hours. The data were analyzed using diurnality index, conisor analysis and PROC mixed procedure. Results The diurnality index for rumination and lying down was close to 0 (respectively, 0.09 and 0.19, while the indices for stereotypy, standing, feeding and walking were close to 1 (respectively, 0.74, 0.84, 0.92 and 0.85. Cosinor analysis revealed daily rhythmicity for all behaviors and for cortisol levels (acrophase at 12:57 but not for testosterone. Rumination and lying down (inactive behaviors reached a peak during the scotophase, whereas feeding, walking and stereotypy (active behaviors reached a peak during the photophase around midday. Cortisol level and expression of stereotypies peaked before and after food distribution and were negatively correlated (r =  − 0.287, P = 0.005. Testosterone levels and expression of sexual behaviors were stimulated by the visual and olfactory contacts with the females and were positively correlated (r = 0.164, P = 0.040. Testosterone was also negatively correlated with cortisol (r =  − 0.297; P = 0.003. Discussion These preliminary results provided new knowledge about the daily rhythm of behaviors in camels housed in boxes, suggesting that camels exhibit diurnal behavior pattern in the maintenance

  4. Greater physiological and behavioral effects of interrupted stress pattern compared to daily restraint stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated

  5. Effect of the daily consumption of ostrich and bovine meat on the lipid metabolism in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Vasconcelos de Carvalho-Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of the daily consumption of ostrich meat (lliofemuralis internus and bovine meat (Psoas major on the lipid metabolism in adult mice. The analyses of the centesimal composition of the meats and preparation of the diets were accomplished following the recommendations of the American Institute of Nutrition-AIN-93. Three groups of 150 day-old animals: group I (diet I, with casein, group II (diet II, with ostrich meat, and group III (diet III with bovine meat were fed for 13 weeks with the respective diets and weight gain, food efficiency coefficient, total cholesterol, lipoprotein fractions, hepatic, transaminases and body fat percentage and hepatic fat content were evaluated. No difference (p < 0.05 it was found for weight gain and coefficients for feed efficiency among the groups. Total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, relationship of total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol, VLDL, triglycerides and hepatic transaminases were also not different among the groups (p < 0.05. This research suggests that the consumption of ostrich meat or thin bovine meat on a daily basis does not raise concerns about weight gain, and an increase in the plasma concentrations of lipoprotein and levels of hepatic transaminase.

  6. Dietary Pattern and Metabolic Syndrome in Thai Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Aekplakorn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the dietary patterns of middle-aged Thais and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Methods. The Thai National Health Examination Survey IV data of 5,872 participants aged ≥30–59 years were used. Dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis and their associations with Mets were examined using multiple logistic regression. Results. Three major dietary patterns were identified. The first, meat pattern, was characterized by a high intake of red meat, processed meat, and fried food. The second, healthy pattern, equated to a high intake of beans, vegetables, wheat, and dairy products. The third, high carbohydrate pattern, had a high intake of glutinous rice, fermented fish, chili paste, and bamboo shoots. Respondents with a healthy pattern were more likely to be female, higher educated, and urban residents. The carbohydrate pattern was more common in the northeast and rural areas. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of carbohydrate pattern was associated with MetS (adjusted odds ratio: 1.82; 95% CI 1.31, 2.55 in men and 1.60; 95% CI 1.24, 2.08 in women, particularly among those with a low level of leisure time physical activity (LTPA. Conclusion. The carbohydrate pattern with low level of LTPA increased the odds of MetS.

  7. Irregular patterns in the daily weight chart at night predict body weight regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Misuzu; Itoh, Kazue; Abe, Shimako; Imai, Katsumi; Masuda, Takashi; Koga, Ririko; Itoh, Hitomi; Konomi, Yumiko; Kinukawa, Naoko; Sakata, Toshiie

    2004-10-01

    This study examined whether charting daily weight patterns can predict weight regain in obese patients. The subjects were 98 moderately obese Japanese women aged 23 to 66 years who were obliged to precisely record their daily weights during the initial 4-month education period, but not thereafter. The patients were followed up at 8, 12, and 16 months. Abdominal fat areas and blood samples were assessed in the outpatient clinic at 0, 4, and 16 months. The standard deviations (SDs) of the differences in body weight between "after waking up" and "after breakfast" (SDa), "after dinner" (SDb), and "before going to bed" (SDc) were calculated, which were parameters reflecting the fluctuations in the daily weight patterns during the first 4 months. SDc, but not SDa or SDb, was correlated positively with weight regain at 8, 12, and 16 months (P = 0.049, P = 0.002, and P = 0.001, respectively). There were significant differences in temporal change in body weight and abdominal visceral fat between the small SDc group (SDc 75th percentile), but not for subcutaneous abdominal fat or the serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, or lipids. The results indicate that fluctuation of body weight immediately before going to bed is useful for predicting the rebound in body weight.

  8. Association between yogurt consumption, dietary patterns, and cardio-metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Hubert; Thifault, Élisabeth; Garneau, Véronique; Tremblay, Angelo; Drapeau, Vicky; Pérusse, Louis; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2016-03-01

    To examine whether yogurt consumption is associated with a healthier dietary pattern and with a better cardio-metabolic risk profile among healthy individuals classified on the basis of their body mass index (BMI). A 91-item food frequency questionnaire, including data on yogurt consumption, was administered to 664 subjects from the INFOGENE study. After principal component analysis, two factors were retained, thus classified as the Prudent and Western dietary patterns. Yogurt was a significant contributor to the Prudent dietary pattern. Moreover, yogurt consumption was associated with lower body weight, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist circumference and tended to be associated with a lower BMI. Consumers had lower levels of fasting total cholesterol and insulin. Consumers of yogurt had a positive Prudent dietary pattern mean score, while the opposite trend was observed in non-consumers of yogurt. Overweight/obese individuals who were consumers of yogurts exhibited a more favorable cardio-metabolic profile characterized by lower plasma triglyceride and insulin levels than non-consumers within the same range of BMI. There was no difference in total yogurt consumption between normal-weight individuals and overweight/obese individuals. However, normal-weight subjects had more daily servings of high-fat yogurt and less daily servings of fat-free yogurt compared to overweight/obese individuals. Being a significant contributor to the Prudent dietary pattern, yogurt consumption may be associated with healthy eating. Also, yogurt consumption may be associated with lower anthropometric indicators and a more beneficial cardio-metabolic risk profile in overweight/obese individuals.

  9. Patterns of daily energy management at work: relations to employee well-being and job characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Ulla; Feldt, Taru; de Bloom, Jessica; Korpela, Kalevi

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed at identifying subgroups of employees with similar daily energy management strategies at work and finding out whether well-being indicators and job characteristics differ between these subgroups. The study was conducted by electronic questionnaire among 1122 Finnish employees. First, subgroups of employees with unique and distinctive patterns of energy management strategies were identified using latent profile analysis. Second, differences in well-being indicators and job characteristics between the subgroups were investigated by means of ANCOVA. Four subgroups (i.e., patterns) were identified and named: Passives (n = 371), Averages (n = 390), Casuals (n = 272) and Actives (n = 89). Passives used all three (i.e., work-related, private micro-break and physical micro-break) strategies less frequently than other subgroups, whereas Actives used work-related and physical energy management strategies more frequently than other subgroups. Averages used all strategies on an average level. Casuals' use of all strategies came close to that of Actives, notably in a shared low use of private micro-break strategies. Active and Casual patterns maintained vigor and vitality. Autonomy and social support at work played a significant role in providing opportunities for the use of beneficial energy management strategies. Autonomy and support at work seem to support active and casual use of daily energy management, which is important in staying energized throughout the working day.

  10. Canary tomato export prices: comparison and relationships between daily seasonal patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Martin-Rodriguez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Statistical procedures are proposed to describe, compare and forecast the behaviour of seasonal variations in two daily price series of Canary tomato exported to German and British markets, respectively, over the last decade. These seasonal patterns are pseudo-periodic as the length of the seasonal period changes frequently in dependence of market conditions. Seasonal effect at a day in the harvesting period is defined as a spline function of the proportion of the length of such a period elapsed up to such a day. Then, seasonal patterns for the two series are compared in terms of the area between the corresponding spline functions. The ability of these models to capture the dynamic process of change in the seasonal pattern is useful to forecasting purpose. Furthermore, an analytical tool is also proposed to obtain forecasts of the seasonal pattern in one of these two series from the forecasts of the seasonal pattern in the other one. These procedures are useful for farmers in developing strategies related to the seasonal distribution of tomato production exported to each market.

  11. Effect of daytime-restricted feeding in the daily variations of liver metabolism and blood transport of serotonin in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Fuentes, Marlen; Vera-Rivera, Gabriela; De Ita-Pérez, Dalia; Méndez, Isabel; Miranda, María Isabel; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio

    2015-05-01

    The biogenic amine serotonin is a signaling molecule in the gastrointestinal tract, platelets, and nervous tissue. In nervous system, serotonin and its metabolites are under the control of the circadian timing system, but it is not known if daily variations of serotonin exist in the liver. To explore this possibility, we tested if the rhythmic pattern of serotonin metabolism was regulated by daytime restricted feeding (DRF) which is a protocol associated to the expression of the food entrained oscillator (FEO). The DRF involved food access for 2 h each day for 3 weeks. Control groups included food ad libitum (AL) as well as acute fasting and refeeding. Serotonin-related metabolites were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography, the anabolic and catabolic enzymes were evaluated by western blot, qPCR, and immunohistochemistry to generate 24-h profiles. The results showed in the AL group, liver serotonin, tryptophan hydroxylase-1 activity, and protein abundance as well as serotonin in plasma and serum were rhythmic and coordinated. The DRF protocol disrupted this coordinated response and damped the rhythmic profile of these parameters. We demonstrated the daily synthesis and the degradation of serotonin as well as its transport in blood. This rhythm could influence the physiological role played by serotonin in peripheral organs. DRF caused an uncoordinated response in the liver and blood serotonin rhythm. This modification could be a part of the physiology of the FEO. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  12. Effect of the pattern of food intake on human energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verboeket-van de Venne, W P; Westerterp, K R; Kester, A D

    1993-07-01

    The pattern of food intake can affect the regulation of body weight and lipogenesis. We studied the effect of meal frequency on human energy expenditure (EE) and its components. During 1 week ten male adults (age 25-61 years, body mass index 20.7-30.4 kg/m2) were fed to energy balance at two meals/d (gorging pattern) and during another week at seven meals/d (nibbling pattern). For the first 6 d of each week the food was provided at home, followed by a 36 h stay in a respiration chamber. O2 consumption and CO2 production (and hence EE) were calculated over 24 h. EE in free-living conditions was measured over the 2 weeks with doubly-labelled water (average daily metabolic rate, ADMR). The three major components of ADMR are basal metabolic rate (BMR), diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and EE for physical activity (ACT). There was no significant effect of meal frequency on 24 h EE or ADMR. Furthermore, BMR and ACT did not differ between the two patterns. DIT was significantly elevated in the gorging pattern, but this effect was neutralized by correction for the relevant time interval. With the method used for determination of DIT no significant effect of meal frequency on the contribution of DIT to ADMR could be demonstrated.

  13. A Pattern Analysis of Daily Electric Vehicle Charging Profiles: Operational Efficiency and Environmental Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit R. Desai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs are considered one solution to reducing GHG emissions from private transport. Additionally, PEV adopters often have free access to public charging facilities. Through a pattern analysis, this study identifies five distinct clusters of daily PEV charging profiles observed at the public charging stations. Empirically observed patterns indicate a significant amount of operational inefficiency, where 54% of the total parking duration PEVs do not consume electricity, preventing other users from charging. This study identifies the opportunity cost in terms of GHG emissions savings if gasoline vehicles are replaced with potential PEV adopters. The time spent in parking without charging by current PEV users can be used by these potential PEV users to charge their PEVs and replace the use of gasoline. The results suggest that reducing inefficient station use leads to significant reductions in emissions. Overall, there is significant variability in outcomes depending on the specific cluster membership.

  14. Urinary steroid hormone patterns: III. Effect of continuous daily administration of low dose megestrol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, G L; Roy, S; Allag, I S; Ghosal, J

    1975-12-01

    The effect of megestrol acetate, administered in daily doses of .5 mg, on urinary steroid levels was studied before, during, and after therapy in 4 women volunteers. In each case, pregnanediol levels were reduced, though ovulatory biphasic patterns, as reflected in basal body temperature patterns, were apparent in the majority of the cycles, which suggests that corpus luteum function, but not ovulation, was impaired. 17-ketosteroid levels were significantly (p less than .001) increased either during or after treatment, while 17-hydroxycorticoid levels were reduced in 3 of the women. 2 subjects showed a marked reduction in levels of 17-ketogenic steroids and corticoid levels. Total estrogen levels seemed to correlate with the levels of corticoid excretion.

  15. Light pollution modifies the expression of daily rhythms and behavior patterns in a nocturnal primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tallec, Thomas; Perret, Martine; Théry, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Among anthropogenic pressures, light pollution altering light/dark cycles and changing the nocturnal component of the environment constitutes a threat for biodiversity. Light pollution is widely spread across the world and continuously growing. However, despite the efforts realized to describe and understand the effects of artificial lighting on fauna, few studies have documented its consequences on biological rhythms, behavioral and physiological functions in nocturnal mammals. To determine the impacts of light pollution on nocturnal mammals an experimental study was conducted on a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. Male mouse lemurs (N = 8) were exposed 14 nights to moonlight treatment and then exposed 14 nights to light pollution treatment. For both treatments, chronobiological parameters related to locomotor activity and core temperature were recorded using telemetric transmitters. In addition, at the end of each treatment, the 14(th) night, nocturnal and feeding behaviors were explored using an infrared camera. Finally, throughout the study, body mass and daily caloric food intake were recorded. For the first time in a nocturnal primate, light pollution was demonstrated to modify daily rhythms of locomotor activity and core temperature especially through phase delays and increases in core temperature. Moreover, nocturnal activity and feeding behaviors patterns were modified negatively. This study suggests that light pollution induces daily desynchronization of biological rhythms and could lead to seasonal desynchronization with potential deleterious consequences for animals in terms of adaptation and anticipation of environmental changes.

  16. Light Pollution Modifies the Expression of Daily Rhythms and Behavior Patterns in a Nocturnal Primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tallec, Thomas; Perret, Martine; Théry, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Among anthropogenic pressures, light pollution altering light/dark cycles and changing the nocturnal component of the environment constitutes a threat for biodiversity. Light pollution is widely spread across the world and continuously growing. However, despite the efforts realized to describe and understand the effects of artificial lighting on fauna, few studies have documented its consequences on biological rhythms, behavioral and physiological functions in nocturnal mammals. To determine the impacts of light pollution on nocturnal mammals an experimental study was conducted on a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. Male mouse lemurs (N = 8) were exposed 14 nights to moonlight treatment and then exposed 14 nights to light pollution treatment. For both treatments, chronobiological parameters related to locomotor activity and core temperature were recorded using telemetric transmitters. In addition, at the end of each treatment, the 14th night, nocturnal and feeding behaviors were explored using an infrared camera. Finally, throughout the study, body mass and daily caloric food intake were recorded. For the first time in a nocturnal primate, light pollution was demonstrated to modify daily rhythms of locomotor activity and core temperature especially through phase delays and increases in core temperature. Moreover, nocturnal activity and feeding behaviors patterns were modified negatively. This study suggests that light pollution induces daily desynchronization of biological rhythms and could lead to seasonal desynchronization with potential deleterious consequences for animals in terms of adaptation and anticipation of environmental changes. PMID:24236115

  17. Light pollution modifies the expression of daily rhythms and behavior patterns in a nocturnal primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Le Tallec

    Full Text Available Among anthropogenic pressures, light pollution altering light/dark cycles and changing the nocturnal component of the environment constitutes a threat for biodiversity. Light pollution is widely spread across the world and continuously growing. However, despite the efforts realized to describe and understand the effects of artificial lighting on fauna, few studies have documented its consequences on biological rhythms, behavioral and physiological functions in nocturnal mammals. To determine the impacts of light pollution on nocturnal mammals an experimental study was conducted on a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. Male mouse lemurs (N = 8 were exposed 14 nights to moonlight treatment and then exposed 14 nights to light pollution treatment. For both treatments, chronobiological parameters related to locomotor activity and core temperature were recorded using telemetric transmitters. In addition, at the end of each treatment, the 14(th night, nocturnal and feeding behaviors were explored using an infrared camera. Finally, throughout the study, body mass and daily caloric food intake were recorded. For the first time in a nocturnal primate, light pollution was demonstrated to modify daily rhythms of locomotor activity and core temperature especially through phase delays and increases in core temperature. Moreover, nocturnal activity and feeding behaviors patterns were modified negatively. This study suggests that light pollution induces daily desynchronization of biological rhythms and could lead to seasonal desynchronization with potential deleterious consequences for animals in terms of adaptation and anticipation of environmental changes.

  18. An Evaluation of Accelerometer-derived Metrics to Assess Daily Behavioral Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Sampson, Joshua; Li, Haocheng; Lyden, Kate; Matthews, Charles E.; Carroll, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The way physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) are accumulated throughout the day (i.e., patterns) may be important for health, but identifying measurable and meaningful metrics of behavioral patterns is challenging. This study evaluated accelerometer-derived metrics to determine if they predicted PA and SB patterns and were reliably measured. Methods We defined and measured 55 metrics that describe daily PA and SB using data collected by using the activPal (AP) monitor in four studies. The first two studies were randomized-crossover designs that included recreationally-active participants. Study one experimentally manipulated time spent in moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time and study two held time in exercise constant and manipulated SB. Study three included inactive participants who increased exercise, decreased sedentary time or both. The study conditions induced distinct behavioral patterns, thus we tested whether the new metrics could improve the prediction of an individual’s study condition after adjusting for the overall volume of physical activity or SB using conditional logistic regression. In a fourth study, we measured the three-month reliability for the pattern metrics by calculating intraclass correlations (ICCs) in a community-dwelling sample who wore the AP monitor twice for seven-days. Results In each of the experimental studies, we identified new metrics that could improve the accuracy for predicting condition beyond SB and MVPA volume. In study one, 23 metrics were predictive of a highly active condition and 24 metrics were predictive of a highly sedentary condition in study two. In the fourth study, the median ICC (25–75th percentiles) of the metrics were 0.59 (0.46, 0.65). Conclusions Several new metrics were predictive of patterns of SB, exercise and non-exercise behavior and are moderately reliable over a three-month period. Applying these metrics to determine if daily

  19. Daily Physical Activity Patterns During the Early Stage of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Vijay R; Watts, Amber

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that results in severe disability. Very few studies have explored changes in daily physical activity patterns during early stages of AD when components of physical function and mobility may be preserved. Our study explored differences in daily physical activity profiles, independent of the effects of non-cognitive factors including physical function and age, among individuals with mild AD compared to controls. Patients with mild AD and controls (n = 92) recruited from the University of Kansas Alzheimer's Disease Center Registry, wore the Actigraph GT3X+ for seven days, and provided objective physical function (VO2 max) and mobility data. Using multivariate linear regression, we explored whether individuals with mild AD had different daily average and diurnal physical activity patterns compared to controls independent of non-cognitive factors that may affect physical activity, including physical function and mobility. We found that mild AD was associated with less moderate-intensity physical activity (p lower peak activity (p lower physical activity complexity (p lower-intensity physical activity across the day after adjusting for non-cognitive covariates. These findings suggest that factors independent of physical capacity and mobility may drive declines in moderate-intensity physical activity, and not lower-intensity or sedentary activity, during the early stage of AD. This underscores the importance of a better mechanistic understanding of how cognitive decline and AD pathology impact physical activity. Findings emphasize the potential value of designing and testing time-of-day specific physical activity interventions targeting individuals in the early stages of AD, prior to significant declines in mobility and physical function.

  20. Systematic analysis of stability patterns in plant primary metabolism.

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    Dorothee Girbig

    Full Text Available Metabolic networks are characterized by complex interactions and regulatory mechanisms between many individual components. These interactions determine whether a steady state is stable to perturbations. Structural kinetic modeling (SKM is a framework to analyze the stability of metabolic steady states that allows the study of the system Jacobian without requiring detailed knowledge about individual rate equations. Stability criteria can be derived by generating a large number of structural kinetic models (SK-models with randomly sampled parameter sets and evaluating the resulting Jacobian matrices. Until now, SKM experiments applied univariate tests to detect the network components with the largest influence on stability. In this work, we present an extended SKM approach relying on supervised machine learning to detect patterns of enzyme-metabolite interactions that act together in an orchestrated manner to ensure stability. We demonstrate its application on a detailed SK-model of the Calvin-Benson cycle and connected pathways. The identified stability patterns are highly complex reflecting that changes in dynamic properties depend on concerted interactions between several network components. In total, we find more patterns that reliably ensure stability than patterns ensuring instability. This shows that the design of this system is strongly targeted towards maintaining stability. We also investigate the effect of allosteric regulators revealing that the tendency to stability is significantly increased by including experimentally determined regulatory mechanisms that have not yet been integrated into existing kinetic models.

  1. Ideal free distribution of metabolic activity: Implications of seasonal metabolic-activity patterns on competitive coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Péter

    2016-10-01

    The seasonal distribution of metabolic activity determines how much individuals experience different aspects of a periodically changing environment. Seasonal metabolic-activity patterns of coexisting species may differ significantly despite their shared environmental conditions, suggesting that interspecific diversification of this trait has a major role in the coexistence of competing species. In the present study the effect of the seasonal distribution of metabolic activity on intra- and interspecific competition is investigated in a consumer-resource model. It is shown that, in a periodically changing environment, for each environmental preference pattern there is an ideal seasonal distribution of metabolic activity, which results in maximum resource utilisation efficiency and competitive superiority. Contrary to the common interpretation of temporal niche segregation, opposing species-specific seasonal preferences are not a sufficient condition for the coexistence of two species on a population dynamical time scale. A necessary and sufficient condition for coexistence is the temporal segregation of the species via different seasonal activity distributions. However, coexistence is evolutionarily stable only if seasonal metabolic activities and preferences are positively correlated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Early Birds by Light at Night: Effects of Light Color and Intensity on Daily Activity Patterns in Blue Tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Maaike; Caro, Samuel P.; Gienapp, Phillip; Spoelstra, Kamiel; Visser, Marcel E.

    2017-01-01

    Artificial light at night disturbs the daily rhythms of many organisms. To what extent this disturbance depends on the intensity and spectral composition of light remain obscure. Here, we measured daily activity patterns of captive blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) exposed to similar intensities of

  3. Longitudinal and Temporal Associations Between Daily Pain and Sleep Patterns After Major Pediatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitts, Jennifer A; Zhou, Chuan; Narayanan, Arthi; Palermo, Tonya M

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 20% of children develop persistent pain after major surgery. Sleep disruption has been implicated as a predictor of children's acute postsurgical pain. However, perioperative sleep patterns have not been longitudinally assessed, and the role of sleep in persistence of postsurgical pain has not been explored. We aimed to examine sleep patterns over 4 months in children having major surgery, and temporal relationships between daily sleep and pain. Sixty children age 10 to 18 (mean = 14.7) years having major surgery completed 7 days of actigraphy sleep monitoring (sleep duration, efficiency), twice daily electronic diaries (sleep quality, pain intensity, medication use), and validated questionnaires at presurgery, 2 weeks, and 4 months postsurgery. Generalized linear models, controlling for age, sex, naps, and medication, showed sleep quality (β [B] = -.88, P sleep quality was significantly associated with greater next day pain intensity (B = -.15, P = .005). Sleep duration and efficiency were not associated with subsequent pain; daytime pain was not associated with subsequent sleep. Findings suggest sleep quality may be an important target for intervention after surgery in children; research is needed to understand how other sleep parameters may relate to recovery. This study assessed longitudinal sleep patterns over 4 months after major pediatric surgery using actigraphy, diaries, and validated measures. Sleep quality and efficiency were significantly reduced at 2 weeks. Poorer sleep quality was associated with greater next day pain intensity suggesting that sleep quality may be an important target for intervention. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Daily Activity and Nest Occupation Patterns of Fox Squirrels (Sciurus niger throughout the Year.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wassmer

    Full Text Available The authors investigated the general activity and nest occupation patterns of fox squirrels in a natural setting using temperature-sensitive data loggers that measure activity as changes in the microenvironment of the animal. Data were obtained from 25 distinct preparations, upon 14 unique squirrels, totaling 1385 recording days. The animals were clearly diurnal, with a predominantly unimodal activity pattern, although individual squirrels occasionally exhibited bimodal patterns, particularly in the spring and summer. Even during the short days of winter (9 hours of light, the squirrels typically left the nest after dawn and returned before dusk, spending only about 7 hours out of the nest each day. Although the duration of the daily active phase did not change with the seasons, the squirrels exited the nest earlier in the day when the days became longer in the summer and exited the nest later in the day when the days became shorter in the winter, thus tracking dawn along the seasons. During the few hours spent outside the nest each day, fox squirrels seemed to spend most of the time sitting or lying. These findings suggest that fox squirrels may have adopted a slow life history strategy that involves long periods of rest on trees and short periods of ground activity each day.

  5. Daily Activity and Nest Occupation Patterns of Fox Squirrels (Sciurus niger) throughout the Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassmer, Thomas; Refinetti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the general activity and nest occupation patterns of fox squirrels in a natural setting using temperature-sensitive data loggers that measure activity as changes in the microenvironment of the animal. Data were obtained from 25 distinct preparations, upon 14 unique squirrels, totaling 1385 recording days. The animals were clearly diurnal, with a predominantly unimodal activity pattern, although individual squirrels occasionally exhibited bimodal patterns, particularly in the spring and summer. Even during the short days of winter (9 hours of light), the squirrels typically left the nest after dawn and returned before dusk, spending only about 7 hours out of the nest each day. Although the duration of the daily active phase did not change with the seasons, the squirrels exited the nest earlier in the day when the days became longer in the summer and exited the nest later in the day when the days became shorter in the winter, thus tracking dawn along the seasons. During the few hours spent outside the nest each day, fox squirrels seemed to spend most of the time sitting or lying. These findings suggest that fox squirrels may have adopted a slow life history strategy that involves long periods of rest on trees and short periods of ground activity each day.

  6. Dietary patterns in men and women are simultaneously determinants of altered glucose metabolism and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langsetmo, Lisa; Barr, Susan I; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Berger, Claudie; Kovacs, Christopher S; Josse, Robert G; Adachi, Jonathan D; Hanley, David A; Prior, Jerilynn C; Brown, Jacques P; Morin, Suzanne N; Davison, Kenneth S; Goltzman, David; Kreiger, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    We hypothesized that diet would have direct effects on glucose metabolism with direct and indirect effects on bone metabolism in a cohort of Canadian adults. We assessed dietary patterns (Prudent [fruit, vegetables, whole grains, fish, and legumes] and Western [soft drinks, potato chips, French fries, meats, and desserts]) from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. We used fasting blood samples to measure glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), parathyroid hormone, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (a bone formation marker), and serum C-terminal telopeptide (CTX; a bone resorption marker). We used multivariate regression models adjusted for confounders and including/excluding body mass index. In a secondary analysis, we examined relationships through structural equations models. The Prudent diet was associated with favorable effects on glucose metabolism (lower insulin and HOMA-IR) and bone metabolism (lower CTX in women; higher 25OHD and lower parathyroid hormone in men). The Western diet was associated with deleterious effects on glucose metabolism (higher glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR) and bone metabolism (higher bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and lower 25OHD in women; higher CTX in men). Body mass index adjustment moved point estimates toward the null, indicating partial mediation. The structural equation model confirmed the hypothesized linkage with strong effects of Prudent and Western diet on metabolic risk, and both direct and indirect effects of a Prudent diet on bone turnover. In summary, a Prudent diet was associated with lower metabolic risk with both primary and mediated effects on bone turnover, suggesting that it is a potential target for reducing fracture risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The importance of hormonal circadian rhythms in daily feeding patterns: An illustration with simulated pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumans, Iris J M M; de Boer, Imke J M; Hofstede, Gert Jan; la Fleur, Susanne E; Bokkers, Eddie A M

    2017-07-01

    The interaction between hormonal circadian rhythms and feeding behaviour is not well understood. This study aimed to deepen our understanding of mechanisms underlying circadian feeding behaviour in animals, using pigs, Sus scrofa, as a case study. Pigs show an alternans feeding pattern, that is, a small peak of feed intake at the beginning of the day and a larger peak at the end of the day. We simulated the feeding behaviour of pigs over a 24h period. The simulation model contained mechanisms that regulate feeding behaviour of animals, including: processing of feed in the gastrointestinal tract, fluctuation in energy balance, circadian rhythms of melatonin and cortisol and motivational decision-making. From the interactions between these various processes, feeding patterns (e.g. feed intake, meal frequency, feeding rate) emerge. These feeding patterns, as well as patterns for the underlying mechanisms (e.g. energy expenditure), fitted empirical data well, indicating that our model contains relevant mechanisms. The circadian rhythms of cortisol and melatonin explained the alternans pattern of feeding in pigs. Additionally, the timing and amplitude of cortisol peaks affected the diurnal and nocturnal peaks in feed intake. Furthermore, our results suggest that circadian rhythms of other hormones, such as leptin and ghrelin, are less important in circadian regulation of feeding behaviour than previously thought. These results are relevant to animal species with a metabolic and endocrine system similar to that of pigs, such as humans. Moreover, the modelling approach to understand feeding behaviour can be applied to other animal species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Daily patterns of communication and contact between Italian early adolescents and their friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocco, Roberto; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Schneider, Barry H; Dalessio, Maria; Amichai-Hamburger, Yair; Coplan, Robert J; Koszycki, Diana; Flament, Martine

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore patterns of communication between adolescents and their friends across both "online" and "in-person" contexts. The participants were adolescents (n = 727) aged 11-16 years attending middle schools in urban and rural areas of Italy. Participants completed daily logs of their in-person and online contacts with friends for 20 consecutive school days. Girls reported more total contacts with their friends than did boys as well as friendships that were closer and more intimate. However, boys indicated more contact than girls via electronic communication and online. Contacts with peers in general were less frequent among the older participants, perhaps because of increasing academic demands. Participants who complemented in-person contact with friends with electronic contact were less lonely than their counterparts who were less versatile in accessing different modalities of making contact with friends.

  9. Breakfast consumption and physical activity in adolescents: daily associations and hourly patterns123

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sluijs, Esther MF; Ridgway, Charlotte L; Steele, Rebekah M; Prynne, Celia J; Stephen, Alison M; Bamber, Diane J; Dunn, Valerie J; Goodyer, Ian M; Ekelund, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association between breakfast consumption and physical activity (PA) is inconclusive. Objective: We aimed to investigate daily associations and hourly patterns of PA and breakfast consumption in British adolescents. Design: Daily PA [accelerometry-derived moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA)] and breakfast consumption (diet diary) were measured simultaneously over 4 d in 860 adolescents (boys: 43.4%; mean ± SD age: 14.5 ± 0.5 y). Associations between MVPA and breakfast consumption were assessed by using a multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression separately by sex and for weekends and weekdays. Hourly patterns of MVPA by breakfast consumption status were displayed graphically, and differences were tested by using ANOVA. Multilevel linear regression was used to investigate differences in log MVPA on days when 570 inconsistent breakfast consumers ate or skipped breakfast. Results: On weekends, boys and girls with higher MVPA were more likely to eat breakfast [OR (95% CI): boys, 1.78 (1.30, 2.45) (P breakfast consumers compared with nonconsumers on weekends (P breakfast consumers did more MVPA on days when they ate breakfast [exponentiated β coefficients (95% CIs): 1.2 (1.0, 1.5) on weekdays and 1.4 (1.1, 1.8) on weekends for boys and 1.6 (1.3, 2.1) on weekends for girls; all P breakfast was associated with higher MVPA on weekends. The time of peak MVPA differed between breakfast consumers and nonconsumers on weekends. Breakfast consumption at weekends is worth additional investigation to potentially inform PA promotion in adolescents. PMID:24284440

  10. Breakfast consumption and physical activity in adolescents: daily associations and hourly patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corder, Kirsten; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Ridgway, Charlotte L; Steele, Rebekah M; Prynne, Celia J; Stephen, Alison M; Bamber, Diane J; Dunn, Valerie J; Goodyer, Ian M; Ekelund, Ulf

    2014-02-01

    The association between breakfast consumption and physical activity (PA) is inconclusive. We aimed to investigate daily associations and hourly patterns of PA and breakfast consumption in British adolescents. Daily PA [accelerometry-derived moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA)] and breakfast consumption (diet diary) were measured simultaneously over 4 d in 860 adolescents (boys: 43.4%; mean ± SD age: 14.5 ± 0.5 y). Associations between MVPA and breakfast consumption were assessed by using a multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression separately by sex and for weekends and weekdays. Hourly patterns of MVPA by breakfast consumption status were displayed graphically, and differences were tested by using ANOVA. Multilevel linear regression was used to investigate differences in log MVPA on days when 570 inconsistent breakfast consumers ate or skipped breakfast. On weekends, boys and girls with higher MVPA were more likely to eat breakfast [OR (95% CI): boys, 1.78 (1.30, 2.45) (P breakfast consumers compared with nonconsumers on weekends (P breakfast consumers did more MVPA on days when they ate breakfast [exponentiated β coefficients (95% CIs): 1.2 (1.0, 1.5) on weekdays and 1.4 (1.1, 1.8) on weekends for boys and 1.6 (1.3, 2.1) on weekends for girls; all P breakfast was associated with higher MVPA on weekends. The time of peak MVPA differed between breakfast consumers and nonconsumers on weekends. Breakfast consumption at weekends is worth additional investigation to potentially inform PA promotion in adolescents.

  11. Cerebellar involvement in metabolic disorders: a pattern-recognition approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinlin, M.; Boltshauser, E.; Blaser, S.

    1998-01-01

    Inborn errors of metabolism can affect the cerebellum during development, maturation and later during life. We have established criteria for pattern recognition of cerebellar abnormalities in metabolic disorders. The abnormalities can be divided into four major groups: cerebellar hypoplasia (CH), hyperplasia, cerebellar atrophy (CA), cerebellar white matter abnormalities (WMA) or swelling, and involvement of the dentate nuclei (DN) or cerebellar cortex. CH can be an isolated typical finding, as in adenylsuccinase deficiency, but is also occasionally seen in many other disorders. Differentiation from CH and CA is often difficult, as in carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome or 2-l-hydroxyglutaric acidaemia. In cases of atrophy the relationship of cerebellar to cerebral atrophy is important. WMA may be diffuse or patchy, frequently predominantly around the DN. Severe swelling of white matter is present during metabolic crisis in maple syrup urine disease. The DN can be affected by metabolite deposition, necrosis, calcification or demyelination. Involvement of cerebellar cortex is seen in infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy. Changes in DN and cerebellar cortex are rather typical and therefore most helpful; additional features should be sought as they are useful in narrowing down the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  12. Environmental physiology: effects of energy-related pollutants on daily cycles of energy metabolism, motor activity, and thermoregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacher, G.A.; Rosenberg, R.S.; Duffy, P.H.; Obermeyer, W.; Russell, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    This section contains a summary of research on the effects of energy-related pollutants on daily cycles of energy metabolism, motor activity, and thermoregulation. So far, mice have been exposed to fast neutron-gamma radiation or to the chemical effluents of an atmospheric pressure experimental fluidized-bed combustor. The physiological parameters measured included: O 2 consumption; CO 2 production; motor activity; and deep body temperatures

  13. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS AND ESTIMATED DAILY ENERGY EXPENDITURES IN NORMAL AND OVERWEIGHT TUNISIAN SCHOOLCHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayçal Zarrouk

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to test the normality of physical activity patterns and energy expenditures in normal weight and overweight primary school students. Heart rate estimates of total daily energy expenditure (TEE, active energy expenditure (AEE, and activity patterns were made over 3 consecutive school days in healthy middle-class Tunisian children (46 boys, 44 girls, median age (25th-75th percentile, 9.2 (8.8-9.9 years. Our cross-section included 52 students with a normal body mass index (BMI and 38 who exceeded age-specific BMI limits. TEE, AEE and overall physical activity level (PAL were not different between overweight children and those with a normal BMI [median values (25th-75th 9.20 (8.20-9.84 vs. 8.88 (7.42-9.76 MJ/d; 3.56 (2.59-4.22 vs. 3.85 (2.77-4.78 MJ/d and 1.74 (1.54-2.04 vs. 1.89 (1.66-2.15 respectively]. Physical activity intensities (PAI were expressed as percentages of the individual's heart rate reserve (%HRR. The median PAI for the entire day (PAI24 and for the waking part of day (PAIw were lower in overweight than in normal weight individuals [16.3 (14.2-18.9 vs. 20.6 (17.9-22.3 %HRR, p < 0.001 and 24.8 (21.6-28.9 vs.26.2 (24.5-30.8 %HRR, p < 0.01], respectively. Overweight children allocated more of their day to sedentary pursuits [385 (336-468 vs 297 (235-468 min/d, p < 0.001], and less time to moderate physical activity [381(321-457 vs. 460 (380-534 min/d, p < 0.01]. Nevertheless, because of the greater energy cost of a given task, total and active daily energy expenditure did not differ from those with a normal BMI

  14. Daily pattern of flight activity of Aedes albifasciatus in Central Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco F. Ludueña Almeida

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albifasciatus is an important common mosquito in Central Argentina. Its a confirmed vector of the Western Equine Encephalitis and is responsible for loss of milk production in dairy cattle during peak populations. This paper reports the flight activity pattern of Ae. albifasciatus for different seasons, in the southern coast of the Mar Chiquita Lake (Central Argentina. Data were collected by sampling two sites between 1992 and 1993 with CDC traps and human-bait captures. Adult mosquito population density, estimated by CDC trapping and human-bait, were highly correlated. However, when compared to other species, the proportion of Ae. albifasciatus was higher in human-bait collections. Adult female populations were active only when temperature were higher than 6§C. Two daily biting peaks were observed (dusk and dawn during the spring, summer and autumn, and only one peak during winter (around 15:00 pm. Adult abundance was significantly correlated (R²= 0.71; p<0.01 with temperature and illumination.

  15. The Daily Pattern of Main Activities in the Gelada Baboon (Theropithecus gelada

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    Radek Filipčík

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to observe and analyse the main daily activities in the group of geladas kept in the Zlín Zoo. The experimental group was formed by three males (one of them was a dominant alfa male and four females who were in the reproductive cycle at the observation period. The behavioural study included five recurrent observations which took place in March 2014. The observations revealed that geladas spent most of the time feeding (44.1% and performing comfort behaviour (24.6%. About 7.7–10.4% of the total time the geladas spent moving, resting and observing the neighbourhoods. The settled and stable social hierarchy within the group prevented greater incidence (0.7% of aggressive behaviour. Occurrence of other types of activities was low – play (1.7%, climbing the trees (0.5% and sexual behaviour (2.3%. The work also studied how the incidence of a particular type of behaviour changed over time within the day. A certain pattern in behavioural activities was apparent because their incidence tended to be similar on all observation days. Foraging activities were the greatest (44.80 ± 3.64 observations between 15.00 and 16.00, resting (8.00–9.80 observations between 12.00 and 14.00 and comfort behaviour (23.20 ± 2.82 observations in the morning.

  16. National youth sedentary behavior and physical activity daily patterns using latent class analysis applied to accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Kelly R; Wen, Fang; Hales, Derek; Herring, Amy H

    2016-05-03

    Applying latent class analysis (LCA) to accelerometry can help elucidated underlying patterns. This study described the patterns of accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity among youth by applying LCA to a nationally representative United States (US) sample. Using 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 3998 youths 6-17 years wore an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer for one week, providing > =3 days of wear for > =8 h/day from 6:00 am-midnight. Cutpoints defined sedentary behavior ( = 2296 counts/minute), and vigorous activity (> = 4012 counts/minute). To account for wear time differences, outcomes were expressed as percent of day in a given intensity. LCA was used to classify daily (Monday through Sunday) patterns of average counts/minute, sedentary behavior, light activity, MVPA, and vigorous activity separately. The latent classes were explored overall and by age (6-11, 12-14, 15-17 years), gender, and whether or not youth attended school during measurement. Estimates were weighted to account for the sampling frame. For average counts/minute/day, four classes emerged from least to most active: 40.9% of population (mean 323.5 counts/minute/day), 40.3% (559.6 counts/minute/day), 16.5% (810.0 counts/minute/day), and 2.3% (1132.9 counts/minute/day). For percent of sedentary behavior, four classes emerged: 13.5% of population (mean 544.6 min/day), 30.1% (455.1 min/day), 38.5% (357.7 min/day), and 18.0% (259.2 min/day). For percent of light activity, four classes emerged: 12.3% of population (mean 222.6 min/day), 29.3% (301.7 min/day), 41.8% (384.0 min/day), and 16.6% (455.5 min/day). For percent of MVPA, four classes emerged: 59.9% of population (mean 25.0 min/day), 33.3% (60.9 min/day), 3.1% (89.0 min/day), and 3.6% (109.3 min/day). For percent of vigorous activity, three classes emerged: 76.8% of population (mean 7.1 min/day), 18.5% (23.9 min/day), and 4.7% (47.4 min/day). Classes were developed by age

  17. Daily consumption of white tea (Camellia sinensis (L.)) improves the cerebral cortex metabolic and oxidative profile in prediabetic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ana R; Alves, Marco G; Tomás, Gonçalo D; Conde, Vanessa R; Cristóvão, Ana C; Moreira, Paula I; Oliveira, Pedro F; Silva, Branca M

    2015-03-14

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major public health problem and its incidence is rising dramatically. The brain, particularly the cerebral cortex, is very susceptible to glucose fluctuations and hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress. Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.)) is widely consumed; however, the antidiabetic properties of white tea remain largely unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the effects of daily consumption of white tea on the cerebral cortex of prediabetic rats. The cerebral cortex metabolic profile was evaluated, and the expression levels of GLUT, phosphofructokinase-1, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and monocarboxylate transporter 4 were assessed. LDH activity was also determined. The cerebral cortex oxidative profile was determined by evaluating its antioxidant power, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation levels. Catalase, glutathione, glutamate, N-acetylaspartate, aspartate, choline, γ-aminobutyric acid, taurine and valine contents were determined. Daily consumption of white tea ameliorated glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Moreover, white tea altered the cortex glycolytic profile, modulating GLUT expression and lactate and alanine contents. Finally, white tea consumption restored protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels and catalase expression, and improved antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, daily consumption of white tea improved the cerebral cortex metabolic and oxidative profile in prediabetic rats, suggesting it as a good, safe and inexpensive strategy to prevent DM-related effects in the cerebral cortex.

  18. The mouse liver displays daily rhythms in the metabolism of phospholipids and in the activity of lipid synthesizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorné, Lucas D; Acosta-Rodríguez, Victoria A; Pasquaré, Susana J; Salvador, Gabriela A; Giusto, Norma M; Guido, Mario Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    The circadian system involves central and peripheral oscillators regulating temporally biochemical processes including lipid metabolism; their disruption leads to severe metabolic diseases (obesity, diabetes, etc). Here, we investigated the temporal regulation of glycerophospholipid (GPL) synthesis in mouse liver, a well-known peripheral oscillator. Mice were synchronized to a 12:12 h light-dark (LD) cycle and then released to constant darkness with food ad libitum. Livers collected at different times exhibited a daily rhythmicity in some individual GPL content with highest levels during the subjective day. The activity of GPL-synthesizing/remodeling enzymes: phosphatidate phosphohydrolase 1 (PAP-1/lipin) and lysophospholipid acyltransferases (LPLATs) also displayed significant variations, with higher levels during the subjective day and at dusk. We evaluated the temporal regulation of expression and activity of phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesizing enzymes. PC is mainly synthesized through the Kennedy pathway with Choline Kinase (ChoK) as a key regulatory enzyme or through the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) N-methyltransferase (PEMT) pathway. The PC/PE content ratio exhibited a daily variation with lowest levels at night, while ChoKα and PEMT mRNA expression displayed maximal levels at nocturnal phases. Our results demonstrate that mouse liver GPL metabolism oscillates rhythmically with a precise temporal control in the expression and/or activity of specific enzymes.

  19. Estimating center of pressure and center of mass patterns in stroke subjects during daily life activities using force sensing shoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meulen, Fokke; Reenalda, Jasper; Nikamp-Simons, Corien Diana Maria; Buurke, Jaap; Veltink, Petrus H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate center of pressure and center of mass movement patterns in stroke patients, during activities of daily living while wearing instrumented shoes containing force sensors and inertial sensors. The use of instrumented shoes enables the measurement of balance

  20. Daily rhythms in glucose metabolism: suprachiasmatic nucleus output to peripheral tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Fleur, S. E.

    2003-01-01

    The body has developed several control mechanisms to maintain plasma glucose concentrations within strict boundaries. Within those physiological boundaries, a clear daily rhythm in plasma glucose concentrations is present; this rhythm depends on the biological clock, which is located in the

  1. A Retrospective Study in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome: Diabetic Risk Factor Response to Daily Consumption of Agaricus bisporus (White Button Mushrooms).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Mona S; Mehrotra, Anita; Beelman, Robert B; Nadkarni, Girish; Wang, Lingzhi; Cai, Weijing; Goh, Boon Cher; Kalaras, Michael D; Uribarri, Jaime

    2016-09-01

    Adults with metabolic syndrome from different race/ethnicities are often predisposed to developing type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, growing evidence suggests that healthy diets and lifestyle choices can significantly slow or prevent progression to T2D. This poorly understood relationship to healthy dietary patterns and prevention of T2D motivated us to conduct a retrospective analysis to determine the potential impact of a minor dietary lifestyle change (daily mushroom consumption) on known T2D risk factors in racially diverse adults with confirmed features of the metabolic syndrome. Retrospectively, we studied 37 subjects who had participated in a dietary intervention focused on vitamin D bioavailability from white button mushrooms (WBM). All 37 had previously completed a 16-week study where they consumed 100 g of WBM daily and were then followed-up for one month during which no mushrooms were consumed. We analyzed differences in serum risk factors from baseline to 16-week, and from baseline to one-month follow-up. Measurement of serum diabetic risk factors included inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and the antioxidant component naturally rich in mushrooms, ergothioneine. Significant beneficial health effects were observed at 16-week with the doubling of ergothioneine from baseline, increases in the antioxidant marker ORAC (oxygen radical absorption capacity) and anti-inflammatory hormone, adiponectin and significant decreases in serum oxidative stress inducing factors, carboxymethyllysine (CML) and methylglyoxal (MG), but no change in the lipid oxidative stress marker 8-isoprostane, leptin or measures of insulin resistance or glucose metabolism. We conclude that WBM contain a variety of compounds with potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant health benefits that can occur with frequent consumption over time in adults predisposed to T2D. Well-controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings and identify the specific mushroom components

  2. Dietary patterns of Korean adults and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Dong Woo

    Full Text Available The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants' dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the 'traditional' pattern, the 'meat' pattern, and the 'snack' pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00-2.15, p for trend = 0.016. A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10-4.21, p for trend = 0.005. The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults.

  3. Dietary patterns of Korean adults and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants' dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the 'traditional' pattern, the 'meat' pattern, and the 'snack' pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00-2.15, p for trend = 0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10-4.21, p for trend = 0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults.

  4. Adult Attachment Interview Discourse Patterns Predict Metabolic Syndrome in Midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Cynthia R.; Usher, Nicole; Dearing, Eric; Barkai, Ayelet R.; Crowell-Doom, Cindy; Mantzoros, Christos S.; Crowell, Judith A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Adult attachment discourse patterns and current family relationship quality were examined as predictors of health behaviors and number of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) criteria met. Methods A sample of 215 White/European American and Black/African American adults, aged 35 to 55, were examined cross-sectionally. Discourse was assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), specifically: 1) coherence, a marker of attachment security, 2) unresolved trauma/loss, a marker of disorganized and distorted cognition related to trauma, and 3) idealization, the tendency to minimize the impact of stressful experiences. Health behaviors of diet, exercise, smoking and alcohol use were also assessed, as were adverse childhood experiences, current depressive symptoms and relationship functioning. MetS includes hypertension, hyperglycemia, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, and obesity. Results Using path analysis and accounting for childhood adversity and depressive symptoms, AAI coherence and unresolved trauma or loss were directly linked to number of MetS criteria met (β = −.22 and .21 respectively). Idealization was indirectly linked to MetS through poor diet (β = −.26 and −.36 respectively), predicting 21% of the variance in number of MetS criteria met. Conclusions Attachment representations related to stress appraisal and care-seeking behaviors appear to serve as cognitive mechanisms increasing risk of MetS. PMID:25264975

  5. Eating patterns in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: Associations with metabolic control, insulin omission, and eating disorder pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisting, Line; Reas, Deborah Lynn; Bang, Lasse; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Rø, Øyvind

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate eating patterns among male and female adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D), and the associations with age, zBMI, eating disorder (ED) pathology, intentional insulin omission, and metabolic control. The sample consisted of 104 adolescents (58.6% females) with child-onset T1D, mean age of 15.7 years (SD 1.8) and mean zBMI of 0.4 (SD 0.8). The Child Eating Disorder Examination (ChEDE) assessed meal/snack frequency and ED pathology. T1D clinical data was obtained from the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry. A significantly lower proportion of females than males (73.8% vs 97.7%) consumed breakfast on a daily basis. Approximately 50% of both genders ate lunch and 90% ate dinner daily. Among females, skipping breakfast was significantly associated with higher global ED psychopathology, shape concerns, self-induced vomiting, binge eating, insulin omission due to shape/weight concerns, and poorer metabolic control. Less frequent lunch consumption was significantly associated with poorer metabolic control. Skipping dinner was significantly associated with older age, higher dietary restraint, eating concerns, self-induced vomiting, and insulin omission. Among males, less frequent consumption of lunch and evening snacks was associated with attitudinal features of ED, including shape/weight concerns and dietary restraint. Among adolescents with T1D, irregular or infrequent meal consumption appears to signal potential ED pathology, as well as being associated with poorer metabolic control. These findings suggest the importance of routinely assessing eating patterns in adolescents with T1D to improve detection of ED pathology and to facilitate improved metabolic control and the associated risk of somatic complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evolution of Daily Activity Patterns from 1971 to 1981: A Study of the Halifax Activity Panel Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Harvey

    2001-12-01

    similarity measures between character strings, which can be used to measure the similarity of two persons’ daily activities, to measure change over time, or to determine the relative similarity of three or more activity diaries. The results of the research showed that both pure activities and activity-settings identified broadly the same behvioural groupings: employed workers, domestic workers, and weekend activities. The similarity of activity patterns of individuals was greater over the ten-year analysis period than the average similarity of the sample in either 1971 or 1981. The average similarity of activity and activitysetting patterns rose from 1971 to 1981, which contradicts observations that daily routines are becoming more complex and diverse.

  7. Total error shift patterns for daily CT on rails image-guided radiotherapy to the prostate bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota Helvecio C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the daily total error shift patterns on post-prostatectomy patients undergoing image guided radiotherapy (IGRT with a diagnostic quality computer tomography (CT on rails system. Methods A total of 17 consecutive post-prostatectomy patients receiving adjuvant or salvage IMRT using CT-on-rails IGRT were analyzed. The prostate bed's daily total error shifts were evaluated for a total of 661 CT scans. Results In the right-left, cranial-caudal, and posterior-anterior directions, 11.5%, 9.2%, and 6.5% of the 661 scans required no position adjustments; 75.3%, 66.1%, and 56.8% required a shift of 1 - 5 mm; 11.5%, 20.9%, and 31.2% required a shift of 6 - 10 mm; and 1.7%, 3.8%, and 5.5% required a shift of more than 10 mm, respectively. There was evidence of correlation between the x and y, x and z, and y and z axes in 3, 3, and 3 of 17 patients, respectively. Univariate (ANOVA analysis showed that the total error pattern was random in the x, y, and z axis for 10, 5, and 2 of 17 patients, respectively, and systematic for the rest. Multivariate (MANOVA analysis showed that the (x,y, (x,z, (y,z, and (x, y, z total error pattern was random in 5, 1, 1, and 1 of 17 patients, respectively, and systematic for the rest. Conclusions The overall daily total error shift pattern for these 17 patients simulated with an empty bladder, and treated with CT on rails IGRT was predominantly systematic. Despite this, the temporal vector trends showed complex behaviors and unpredictable changes in magnitude and direction. These findings highlight the importance of using daily IGRT in post-prostatectomy patients.

  8. Efficacy and Safety of Once-Daily Minoxidil Foam 5% Versus Twice-Daily Minoxidil Solution 2% in Female Pattern Hair Loss: A Phase III, Randomized, Investigator-Blinded Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Shapiro, Jerry; Messenger, Andrew G; Hordinsky, Maria K; Zhang, Paul; Quiza, Carlos; Doshi, Uday; Olsen, Elise A

    2016-07-01

    A once-daily minoxidil topical foam (MTF) has been developed to treat female pattern hair loss. Determine noninferiority of once-daily 5% MTF versus twice-daily 2% minoxidil topical solution (MTS) based on the change from baseline in target area hair count (TAHC) at 24 weeks. In a randomized, phase III trial, women with female pattern hair loss received once-daily 5% MTF (n=161) or twice-daily 2% MTS (n=161) for 52 weeks. Primary endpoint was change from baseline in TAHC at 24 weeks. Secondary endpoint was change from baseline in TAHC at 12 weeks. Exploratory endpoints included change in total unit area density and change in overall scalp coverage. Once-daily 5% MTF increased TAHC from baseline (adjusted mean ± standard error) by 23.9 ± 2.1 hairs/cm2 at week 24. Twice-daily 2% MTS increased TAHC 24.2 ± 2.1 hairs/cm2 at week 24. The treatment difference was -0.3 hairs/cm2 (95% CI = -6.0, 5.4). Since the lower bound of the 95% CI was less than -5.0, the prespecified noninferiority goal was not met. Both treatments were well tolerated. Once-daily 5% MTF and twice-daily 2% MTS induced hair regrowth in female pattern hair loss, but prespecified noninferiority criteria were not met. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01145625 J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):883-889.

  9. Effects of non-exercise activity and daily exercise activity upon glucose and fat metabolism in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Fukuda, Kazuhito; Oshima, Yoshitake; Moritani, Toshio

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to disclose the relationship between objectively measured non-exercise activity (NEA) and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) using triaxial accelerometer and the effect of each activity on glucose and fat metabolism in active type 2 diabetes. Elucidating this relationship and effect would lead to support educational programs for the management of type 2 diabetes. Seventy-seven patients with type 2 diabetes who had performed daily programmed walking exercise participated in this cross-sectional study. Physical activity including NEA and MVPA was measured by triaxial accelerometer for 10 consecutive days and the measurements of body composition and glucose and lipid profile were performed. There was no significant correlation between NEA and MVPA in active type 2 diabetes. NEA had a significant inverse correlation with body fat (Pdiabetes.

  10. Daily stressors, past depression, and metabolic responses to high-fat meals: a novel path to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K; Habash, Diane L; Fagundes, Christopher P; Andridge, Rebecca; Peng, Juan; Malarkey, William B; Belury, Martha A

    2015-04-01

    Depression and stress promote obesity. This study addressed the impact of daily stressors and a history of major depressive disorder (MDD) on obesity-related metabolic responses to high-fat meals. This double-blind, randomized, crossover study included serial assessments of resting energy expenditure (REE), fat and carbohydrate oxidation, triglycerides, cortisol, insulin, and glucose before and after two high-fat meals. During two separate 9.5-hour admissions, 58 healthy women (38 breast cancer survivors and 20 demographically similar control subjects), mean age 53.1 years, received either a high saturated fat meal or a high oleic sunflower oil meal. Prior day stressors were assessed by the Daily Inventory of Stressful Events. Greater numbers of stressors were associated with lower postmeal REE (p = .008), lower fat oxidation (p = .04), and higher insulin (p = .01), with nonsignificant effects for cortisol and glucose. Women with prior MDD had higher cortisol (p = .008) and higher fat oxidation (p = .004), without significant effects for REE, insulin, and glucose. Women with a depression history who also had more stressors had a higher peak triglyceride response than other participants (p = .01). The only difference between meals was higher postprandial glucose following sunflower oil compared with saturated fat (p = .03). The cumulative 6-hour difference between one prior day stressor and no stressors translates into 435 kJ, a difference that could add almost 11 pounds per year. These findings illustrate how stress and depression alter metabolic responses to high-fat meals in ways that promote obesity. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Breakfast skipping and breakfast type are associated with daily nutrient intakes and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Seokhwa; Choi, Kyungran

    2015-06-01

    Emerging evidence shows that eating breakfast and breakfast types may be associated with health outcomes and dietary intakes in various populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between breakfast types in Korean adults with their daily nutrient intakes and health outcomes. A total of 11,801 20- to 64-year-old adults (age 42.9 ± 11.8 yrs [mean ± standard error of the mean]; male 41.1%, female 58.9%) in 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey data were divided into 5 groups based on breakfast types in a 24-hr dietary recall: rice with 3 or more side dishes (Rice3+, 35.3%), rice with 0-2 side dishes (Rice0-2, 34.73%), noodles (1.56%), bread and cereal (6.56%), and breakfast skipping (21.63%). Daily nutrient intakes and the risk of metabolic syndrome were compared among five groups. Compared with Korean Recommended Nutrient Intake levels, the breakfast-skipping group showed the lowest intake level in most nutrients, whereas the Rice3+ group showed the highest. Fat intake was higher in the bread and noodle groups than in the other groups. When compared with the Rice3+ group, the odds ratios for the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome were increased in the breakfast skipping, Rice0-2, and noodle groups after controlling for confounding variables. The rice-based breakfast group showed better nutritional status and health outcomes when eating with 3 or more side dishes. Nutrition education is needed to emphasize both the potential advantage of the rice-based, traditional Korean diet in terms of nutritional content and the importance of food diversity.

  12. A visual analytics design for studying rhythm patterns from human daily movement data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zeng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human’s daily movements exhibit high regularity in a space–time context that typically forms circadian rhythms. Understanding the rhythms for human daily movements is of high interest to a variety of parties from urban planners, transportation analysts, to business strategists. In this paper, we present an interactive visual analytics design for understanding and utilizing data collected from tracking human’s movements. The resulting system identifies and visually presents frequent human movement rhythms to support interactive exploration and analysis of the data over space and time. Case studies using real-world human movement data, including massive urban public transportation data in Singapore and the MIT reality mining dataset, and interviews with transportation researches were conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of our system.

  13. Daily Patterns of Conjoint Smoking and Drinking in College Student Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Kristina M.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological data indicate a robust association between smoking and alcohol use. However, a critical question that is less resolved is the extent to which the smoking event takes place during the time of alcohol consumption. The present study used data from an eight-week prospective web-based study of college student smokers to examine daily associations between smoking and alcohol use, using measures of both likelihood and level of use. Findings indicated that within a person, consumption...

  14. Objective measurements of daily physical activity patterns and sedentary behaviour in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnardottir, Nanna Yr; Koster, Annemarie; Van Domelen, Dane R

    2013-01-01

    objectively measured population physical activity (PA) data from older persons is lacking. The aim of this study was to describe free-living PA patterns and sedentary behaviours in Icelandic older men and women using accelerometer.......objectively measured population physical activity (PA) data from older persons is lacking. The aim of this study was to describe free-living PA patterns and sedentary behaviours in Icelandic older men and women using accelerometer....

  15. Daily rhythmic behaviors and thermoregulatory patterns are disrupted in adult female MeCP2-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Wither

    Full Text Available Mutations in the X-linked gene encoding Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2 have been associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders including Rett Syndrome, X-linked mental retardation syndrome, severe neonatal encephalopathy, and Angelman syndrome. Although alterations in the performance of MeCP2-deficient mice in specific behavioral tasks have been documented, it remains unclear whether or not MeCP2 dysfunction affects patterns of periodic behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG activity. The aim of the current study was therefore to determine whether a deficiency in MeCP2 is sufficient to alter the normal daily rhythmic patterns of core body temperature, gross motor activity and cortical delta power. To address this, we monitored individual wild-type and MeCP2-deficient mice in their home cage environment via telemetric recording over 24 hour cycles. Our results show that the normal daily rhythmic behavioral patterning of cortical delta wave activity, core body temperature and mobility are disrupted in one-year old female MeCP2-deficient mice. Moreover, female MeCP2-deficient mice display diminished overall motor activity, lower average core body temperature, and significantly greater body temperature fluctuation than wild-type mice in their home-cage environment. Finally, we show that the epileptiform discharge activity in female MeCP2-deficient mice is more predominant during times of behavioral activity compared to inactivity. Collectively, these results indicate that MeCP2 deficiency is sufficient to disrupt the normal patterning of daily biological rhythmic activities.

  16. Early Birds by Light at Night: Effects of Light Color and Intensity on Daily Activity Patterns in Blue Tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maaike; Caro, Samuel P; Gienapp, Phillip; Spoelstra, Kamiel; Visser, Marcel E

    2017-08-01

    Artificial light at night disturbs the daily rhythms of many organisms. To what extent this disturbance depends on the intensity and spectral composition of light remain obscure. Here, we measured daily activity patterns of captive blue tits ( Cyanistes caeruleus) exposed to similar intensities of green, red, or white light at night. Birds advanced their onset of activity in the morning under all light colors but more under red and white light than under green light. Offset of activity was slightly delayed in all light colors. The total activity over a 24-h period did not change but birds moved a part of their daily activity into the night. Since the effect of red and white lights are comparable, we tested the influence of light intensity in a follow-up experiment, where we compared the activity of the birds under different intensities of green and white light only. While in the higher range of intensities, the effects of white and green light were comparable; at lower intensities, green light had a less disturbing effect as compared with white light on daily rhythms in blue tits. Our results show that the extent of this disturbance can be mitigated by modulating the spectral characteristics and intensity of outdoor lighting, which is now feasible through the use of LED lighting.

  17. A specific metabolic pattern related to the hallucinatory activity in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huret, J.D.; Martinot, J.L.; Lesur, A.; Mazoyer, B.; Pappata, S.; Syrota, A.; Baron, J.C.; Lemperiere, T.

    1988-01-01

    A clinical and PEI study using 18 F - fluorodesoxyglucose for measuring local cerebral glucose metabolism with the aim of showing a specific pattern related to the hallucinatory activity, is presented in schizophrenic patients all experiencing hallucinations or pseudo-halluccinations

  18. The influence of daily sleep patterns of commercial truck drivers on driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang Xiang; Fang, Youjia; Guo, Feng; Hanowski, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    Fatigued and drowsy driving has been found to be a major cause of truck crashes. Lack of sleep is the number one cause of fatigue and drowsiness. However, there are limited data on the sleep patterns (sleep duration, sleep percentage in the duration of non-work period, and the time when sleep occurred) of truck drivers in non-work periods and the impact on driving performance. This paper examined sleep patterns of 96 commercial truck drivers during non-work periods and evaluated the influence these sleep patterns had on truck driving performance. Data were from the Naturalistic Truck Driving Study. Each driver participated in the study for approximately four weeks. A shift was defined as a non-work period followed by a work period. A total of 1397 shifts were identified. Four distinct sleep patterns were identified based on sleep duration, sleep start/end point in a non-work period, and the percentage of sleep with reference to the duration of non-work period. Driving performance was measured by safety-critical events, which included crashes, near-crashes, crash-relevant conflicts, and unintentional lane deviations. Negative binomial regression was used to evaluate the association between the sleep patterns and driving performance, adjusted for driver demographic information. The results showed that the sleep pattern with the highest safety-critical event rate was associated with shorter sleep, sleep in the early stage of a non-work period, and less sleep between 1 a.m. and 5 a.m. This study also found that male drivers, with fewer years of commercial vehicle driving experience and higher body mass index, were associated with deteriorated driving performance and increased driving risk. The results of this study could inform hours-of-service policy-making and benefit safety management in the trucking industry. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Diel feeding patterns and daily food intake of juvenile stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, Takeshi; Katayama, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Shoji, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Pleuronectid flatfish are considered visual day feeders, but their ability to feed at night has not been examined in the field. Juvenile (age-0) stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus were collected, and their stomach contents were investigated in situ every 4 h over a 24-h period in an estuarine habitat to elucidate diel feeding periodicity. The weight of juvenile stomach contents was usually the highest around dusk and the main prey was bivalve siphons. To reveal whether juveniles feed only at particular times during the day or throughout a 24-h period, we conducted 24-h cage experiments in which 10 juveniles with empty stomachs were held in a cage for approximately 4 h (six trials). This experiment was carried out three times during different moon phases. Juveniles primarily ingested prey during the day, but 30% of fish that were caged at night also ingested prey. The number of successful captures by the caged fish was much greater during the day than that at night. These results indicate that stone flounder generally feed during the day and they may only feed at night under unusual situations, although they have the ability to capture prey at night. The mean daily ration estimated by diel changes in stomach content weight varied from 3.4% (95% confidence interval, 1.8-4.8%) to 13.2% (11.0-15.6%) of body weight between survey dates, indicating that daily food consumption by fish estimated from a single survey may be strongly biased.

  20. Daily Light Exposure Patterns Reveal Phase and Period of the Human Circadian Clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelders, Tom; Beersma, Domien G M; Gordijn, Marijke C M; Hut, Roelof A; Wams, Emma J

    2017-06-01

    Light is the most potent time cue that synchronizes (entrains) the circadian pacemaker to the 24-h solar cycle. This entrainment process is an interplay between an individual's daily light perception and intrinsic pacemaker period under free-running conditions. Establishing individual estimates of circadian phase and period can be time-consuming. We show that circadian phase can be accurately predicted (SD = 1.1 h for dim light melatonin onset, DLMO) using 9 days of ambulatory light and activity data as an input to Kronauer's limit-cycle model for the human circadian system. This approach also yields an estimated circadian period of 24.2 h (SD = 0.2 h), with longer periods resulting in later DLMOs. A larger amount of daylight exposure resulted in an earlier DLMO. Individuals with a long circadian period also showed shorter intervals between DLMO and sleep timing. When a field-based estimation of tau can be validated under laboratory studies in a wide variety of individuals, the proposed methods may prove to be essential tools for individualized chronotherapy and light treatment for shift work and jetlag applications. These methods may improve our understanding of fundamental properties of human circadian rhythms under daily living conditions.

  1. Dietary patterns as compared with physical activity in relation to metabolic syndrome among Chinese adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Y.; Li, Y.; Lai, J.; Wang, D.; Zhang, J.; Fu, P.; Yang, X.; Qi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To examine the nationally-representative dietary patterns and their joint effects with physical activity on the likelihood of metabolic syndrome (MS) among 20,827 Chinese adults. Methods and results: CNNHS was a nationally representative cross-sectional observational study. Metabolic syndrome

  2. Daily physical activity patterns from hip- and wrist-worn accelerometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiroma, Eric J; Schepps, M A; Harezlak, J

    2016-01-01

    Accelerometer wear location may influence physical activity estimates. This study investigates this relationship through the examination of activity patterns throughout the day. Participants from the aging research evaluating accelerometry (AREA) study (n men = 37, n women = 47, mean age (SD) = 7...

  3. The importance of hormonal circadian rhythms in daily feeding patterns: An illustration with simulated pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, Iris J. M. M.; de Boer, Imke J. M.; Hofstede, Gert Jan; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Bokkers, Eddie A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between hormonal circadian rhythms and feeding behaviour is not well understood. This study aimed to deepen our understanding of mechanisms underlying circadian feeding behaviour in animals, using pigs, Sus scrofa, as a case study. Pigs show an alternans feeding pattern, that is, a

  4. Daily oviposition patterns of the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae on different types of aqueous substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knols Bart GJ

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae Giles is the most important vector of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Knowledge of the factors that influence its daily oviposition pattern is crucial if field interventions targeting gravid females are to be successful. This laboratory study investigated the effect of oviposition substrate and time of blood feeding on daily oviposition patterns of An. gambiae mosquitoes. Methods Greenhouse-reared gravid and hypergravid (delayed oviposition onset An. gambiae sensu stricto and wild-caught An. gambiae sensu lato were exposed to three types of substrates in choice and no-choice cage bioassays: water from a predominantly anopheline colonised ground pool (anopheline habitat water, swamp water mainly colonised by culicine larvae (culicine habitat water and distilled water. The daily oviposition pattern and the number of eggs oviposited on each substrate during the entire egg-laying period were determined. The results were subjected to analysis of variance using the General Linear Model (GLM procedure. Results The main oviposition time for greenhouse-reared An. gambiae s.s. was between 19:00 and 20:00 hrs, approximately one hour after sunset. Wild-caught gravid An. gambiae s.l. displayed two distinct peak oviposition times between 19:00 and 20:00 hrs and between 22:00 and 23:00 hrs, respectively. During these times, both greenhouse-reared and wild-caught mosquitoes significantly (P P Conclusion This study shows that the peak oviposition time of An. gambiae s.l. may be regulated by the light-dark cycle rather than oviposition habitat characteristics or feeding times. However, the number of eggs laid by the female mosquito during the peak oviposition time is affected by the suitability of the habitat.

  5. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Patterns of Participation in Daily Physical and Play Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Memari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD indicates several neurodevelopmental impairments which may end in impairments in motor or physical activities. Daily physical activity involvement was investigated in a total of 83 children (52 boys and 31 girls with ASD aged 6–15 years. Results indicated that only 10 (12% of children with ASD were physically active. Children were predominantly engaged in solitary play rather than social play activities. Gender, family income, and household structure were found to be associated with activity scores. Financial burden and lack of opportunities were noted as the leading barriers to physical activities. In conclusion, findings indicated a low rate of physical activity participation in children with ASD that is closely associated with sociodemographic variables.

  6. DAILY STEM GROWTH PATTERN IN IRRIGATED APPLE ORCHARDS FROM ARGES COUNTY IN RELATION TO CLIMATE CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chitu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of climate change manifested in the last 30 years in Romania (1982-2011, average data for 29 localities and characterized by a significant increase in maximum and minimum temperatures, especially in the summer months and increased rainfall deficit, fruit trees farm efficiency is becoming increasingly dependent on strict control of water management through irrigation systems. Thus, the maximum air temperatures experienced average growth trend per decade of 0.88°C, 0.82°C and 0.70°C in June, July and August, respectively, and minimum of 0.61°C, 0.67°C and 0.75°C, in the same months. In this context, ensuring continuous easily accessible soil water content to the root system of the trees, in correlation with plant consumption, has become the most widely used measure to mitigate the negative effects of rising temperatures and rainfall deficits. One of the most accurate methods of water stress early diagnosis and monitoring in a very short step of the fruit trees growth processes is the measurement of trunk diameter variations (SDV with electronic dendrometers. To highlight the advantages of applying the method to irrigated apple (Malus domestica Borkh. plantations from the southern Romania, we have organized two experiences with Redix and Braeburn cvs. grafted on M9 in 2009-2012 period. For measurements were used DEX 100 (Dynamax dendrometers and GP1 dataloggers (Delta-T Devices. It was found that all SDV-derived indices (maximum daily shrinkage (MDS, daily recovery (DR and daily growth (DG of the trees trunk between two successive days may be used for early diagnosis of water and temperature stress. DG was significantly negatively influenced by MDS in both cultivars and in all months of the year, except in September. The Redix cv. DG was inhibited only by the MDS values greater than 0.36 mm. DG is a much less sensitive indicator of water and heat trees stress than MDS. Emergence of water stress was highlighted by two indicators: soil

  7. Dietary Patterns and Metabolic Syndrome among Type 2 Diabetes Patients in Gaza Strip, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bilbeisi, Abdel Hamid; Hosseini, Saeed; Djafarian, Kurosh

    2017-05-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is raising worldwide; however, the role of diet in the origin of metabolic syndrome is not understood well. This study identifies major dietary patterns among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with and without metabolic syndrome; and its association with metabolic syndrome components in Gaza Strip, Palestine. This cross sectional study was conducted among 1200 previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (both genders, aged 20 - 64 years) patients receiving care in primary healthcare centers in Gaza Strip, Palestine. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on the International Diabetes Federation criteria; dietary patterns were evaluated using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20. Two major dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis: Asian-like pattern and sweet-soft drinks-snacks pattern. After adjustment for confounding variables, patients in the highest tertile of the Asian-like pattern characterized by a high intake of whole grains, potatoes, beans, legumes, vegetables, tomatoes and fruithad a lower odds for (Metabolic syndrome, central obesity, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol and high blood pressure), (OR 0.766 CI 95% (.642-.914)), (OR 0.797 CI 95% (.652-.974)), (OR 0.791 CI 95% (.687-.911)), (OR 0.853 CI 95% (.743-.978)) and (OR 0.815 CI 95% (.682-.973)) respectively, (P value metabolic syndrome and its components. The Asian-like pattern may be associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among type 2 diabetes patients.

  8. Activity Pattern Profiles: Relationship With Affect, Daily Functioning, Impairment, and Variables Related to Life Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Rosa; López-Martínez, Alicia E; Peters, Madelon L; Serrano-Ibáñez, Elena R; Ruíz-Párraga, Gema T; González-Gómez, Henar; Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify subgroups of patients on the basis of their activity patterns and to investigate their relationship with life goals, optimism, affect, and functioning. The sample was comprised of 276 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the activity pattern variables and the resulting clusters were compared using 1-way analysis of variance. The 4-cluster was the optimal solution. The 4 clusters comprised: 1) avoiders: patients with high levels of avoidance and low levels of persistence, who use pacing to reduce pain, 2) doers: patients with high levels of persistence and low levels of pacing and avoidance, 3) extreme cyclers: patients with high levels of avoidance and persistence and low levels of pacing, and 4) medium cyclers: patients with moderately high levels of avoidance and persistence and high levels of pacing. Comparison of the clusters showed that doers had the most adaptive profile, whereas avoiders, followed by extreme cyclers, had unhealthy profiles. Doers showed a high level of optimism and a good balance between goal value, expectancy, and conflict. It is useful to distinguish profiles on the basis of various activity patterns. In contrast to profiles characterized by avoidance, profiles characterized by high persistence and low avoidance were associated with adaptive results. Patients with this profile also showed a high level of optimism and a good balance between goal value, expectancy, and conflict. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of Daily Laboratory Orders at a Large Urban Academic Center: A Multifaceted Approach to Changing Test Ordering Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Joseph W; Dighe, Anand S; Coley, Christopher M; Kamis, Irina K; Wertheim, Bradley M; Wright, Douglas E; Lewandrowski, Kent B; Baron, Jason M

    2017-08-01

    We sought to address concerns regarding recurring inpatient laboratory test order practices (daily laboratory tests) through a multifaceted approach to changing ordering patterns. We engaged in an interdepartmental collaboration to foster mindful test ordering through clinical policy creation, electronic clinical decision support, and continuous auditing and feedback. Annualized daily order volumes decreased from approximately 25,000 to 10,000 during a 33-month postintervention review. This represented a significant change from preintervention order volumes (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.64; P < 10-16). Total inpatient test volumes were not affected. Durable changes to inpatient order practices can be achieved through a collaborative approach to utilization management that includes shared responsibility for establishing clinical guidelines and electronic decision support. Our experience suggests auditing and continued feedback are additional crucial components to changing ordering behavior. Curtailing daily orders alone may not be a sufficient strategy to reduce in-laboratory costs. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Exposure to workplace smoking bans and continuity of daily smoking patterns on workdays and weekends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Michael S; Shiffman, Saul; Chandra, Siddharth

    2018-05-01

    Individuals may compensate for workplace smoking bans by smoking more before or after work, or escaping bans to smoke, but no studies have conducted a detailed, quantitative analysis of such compensatory behaviors using real-time data. 124 daily smokers documented smoking occasions over 3weeks using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), and provided information on real-world exposure to smoking restrictions and type of workplace smoking policy (full, partial, or no bans). Mixed modeling and generalized estimating equations assessed effects of time of day, weekday (vs weekend), and workplace policy on mean cigarettes per hour (CPH) and reports of changing location to smoke. Individuals were most likely to change locations to smoke during business hours, regardless of work policy, and frequency of EMA reports of restrictions at work was associated with increased likelihood of changing locations to smoke (OR=1.11, 95% CI 1.05-1.16; pbusiness hours across weekdays and weekends. Smokers largely compensate for exposure to workplace smoking bans by escaping restrictions during business hours. Better understanding the effects of smoking bans on smoking behavior may help to improve their effectiveness and yield insights into determinants of smoking in more restrictive environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Daily temporal patterns of heroin and cocaine use and craving: relationship with business hours regardless of actual employment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Karran A; Epstein, David H; Preston, Kenzie L

    2013-10-01

    Real-time monitoring of behavior using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) has provided detailed data about daily temporal patterns of craving and use in cigarette smokers. We have collected similar data from a sample of cocaine and heroin users. Here we analyzed it in the context of its relationship with a societal construct of daily temporal organization: 9-to-5 business hours. In a 28-week prospective study, 112 methadone-maintained polydrug-abusing individuals initiated an electronic-diary entry and provided data each time they used cocaine, heroin, or both during weeks 4 to 28. EMA data were collected for 10,781 person-days and included: 663 cocaine-craving events, 710 cocaine-use events, 288 heroin-craving events, 66 heroin-use events, 630 craving-both-drugs events, and 282 use-of-both-drugs events. At baseline, 34% of the participants reported full-time employment in the preceding 3-year period. Most participants' current employment status fluctuated throughout the study. In a generalized linear mixed model (SAS Proc Glimmix), cocaine use varied by time of day relative to business hours (pBusiness Hours (pbusiness hours (pBusiness Hours (p=.57). Heroin craving and use were mostly reported during business hours, but data were sparse. Cocaine craving is most frequent during business hours while cocaine use is more frequent after business hours. Cocaine use during business hours, but not craving, seems suppressed on most weekdays, but not weekends, suggesting that societal conventions reflected in business hours influence drug-use patterns even in individuals whose daily schedules are not necessarily dictated by employment during conventional business hours. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Patterns of daily allocation of sleep periods: a case study in an Amazonian riverine community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, G F; da Silva, H P; Marques, N

    1991-01-01

    Few works already carried out have examined the relative role of genetic and external factors on the determination of the rhythmicity of the human sleep/wake cycle. In order to make a preliminary approach in this field, we investigated the diversity of patterns of allocation of sleep periods among 29 families living at the Combu Island, a socioculturally very homogeneous human group of the Brazilian Amazon. The individuals were interviewed through a questionnaire designed by Horne and Ostberg (1976), with the language of the questions adjusted to the way-of-life of the riverine people. A large predominance of the morning type was observed (95.35%), what constitutes a strong deviation in relation to other populations studied, suggesting the occurrence of a masking effect. The individual scores presented a positive correlation with the age (r = 0.31; p less than 0.01), and a significant intersexual difference was also verified (t = 3.08; p less than 0.01). This intersex difference is explained, in part, by analyzing the socioeconomic patterns of the community. The offspring/parent regression of the individual scores indicated a low dependency between genitors and their direct descendents (p greater than 0.7), and the estimative of heritability obtained (0.14) is artificial, since the offspring/mother and offspring/midparent regression coefficients were negative. Statistically non-significant coefficients of correlation and/or regression showed a highly randomic populational distribution of scores for the Horne-Ostberg's test. Such findings suggest that the intensity of the masking over the sleep/wake cycle varies among human populations, and that the individual tendency towards morningness/eveningness is strongly related to sociocultural factors.

  13. Global patterns in lake ecosystem responses to warming based on the temperature dependence of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Benjamin M; Chandra, Sudeep; Dell, Anthony I; Dix, Margaret; Kuusisto, Esko; Livingstone, David M; Schladow, S Geoffrey; Silow, Eugene; Sitoki, Lewis M; Tamatamah, Rashid; McIntyre, Peter B

    2017-05-01

    Climate warming is expected to have large effects on ecosystems in part due to the temperature dependence of metabolism. The responses of metabolic rates to climate warming may be greatest in the tropics and at low elevations because mean temperatures are warmer there and metabolic rates respond exponentially to temperature (with exponents >1). However, if warming rates are sufficiently fast in higher latitude/elevation lakes, metabolic rate responses to warming may still be greater there even though metabolic rates respond exponentially to temperature. Thus, a wide range of global patterns in the magnitude of metabolic rate responses to warming could emerge depending on global patterns of temperature and warming rates. Here we use the Boltzmann-Arrhenius equation, published estimates of activation energy, and time series of temperature from 271 lakes to estimate long-term (1970-2010) changes in 64 metabolic processes in lakes. The estimated responses of metabolic processes to warming were usually greatest in tropical/low-elevation lakes even though surface temperatures in higher latitude/elevation lakes are warming faster. However, when the thermal sensitivity of a metabolic process is especially weak, higher latitude/elevation lakes had larger responses to warming in parallel with warming rates. Our results show that the sensitivity of a given response to temperature (as described by its activation energy) provides a simple heuristic for predicting whether tropical/low-elevation lakes will have larger or smaller metabolic responses to warming than higher latitude/elevation lakes. Overall, we conclude that the direct metabolic consequences of lake warming are likely to be felt most strongly at low latitudes and low elevations where metabolism-linked ecosystem services may be most affected. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The relationship between the menstrual cycle and cortisol secretion: Daily and stress-invoked cortisol patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-López, Eva; Santos-Ruiz, Ana; García-Ríos, M Carmen; Rodríguez-Blázquez, Manuel; Rogers, Heather L; Peralta-Ramírez, María Isabel

    2018-03-29

    The menstrual cycle involves significant changes in hormone levels, causing physical and psychological changes in women that are further influenced by stress. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between menstrual cycle phase and salivary cortisol patterns during the day as well as the salivary cortisol response to the Virtual Reality Version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-VR). Forty two women not taking oral contraceptives (24 in follicular phase and 18 in luteal phase) participated in the study. Five samples of salivary cortisol collected during the day and another five samples of cortisol during the TSST-VR were analyzed. Psychological stress measures and psychopathological symptomatology were also evaluated. A 2 × 4 mixed ANCOVA showed an interaction between the two groups on the TSST-RV invoked cortisol response to the [F(3,42) = 3.681; p = 0.023) where women in luteal phase showed higher cortisol post exposure levels (5.96 ± 3.76 nmol/L) than women in follicular phase (4.31 ± 2.23 nmol/L). No other significant differences were found. Our findings provide evidence that menstrual cycle phase tended to influence cortisol response to laboratory-induced mental stress, with more reactivity observed in the luteal phase. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Meal patterns and food choices of young African-American men: understanding eating within the context of daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoca, Margaret R; Martine, Tara L; Morton, Tiffany B; Johnson, Lakeisha T; Bell, Nancy M; Aronson, Robert E; Wallace, Debra C

    2011-09-01

    Although young African-American men are at particularly high risk of developing hypertension at an early age, dietary interventions that have successfully reduced blood pressure among African-American adults have not been translated into programs for this group. Life contexts such as school enrollment, participation in competitive athletics, and employment influence the daily activities and meal patterns of African-American men. This study explored the activities of young African-American men to identify opportunities to increase healthful food choices. A purposive sample was recruited that included five groups of African-American men aged 15 to 22 years (N=106): high school athletes and nonathletes, college athletes and nonathletes, and nonstudents. A structured interview guided participants through a description of their activities, meal patterns, and food choices during the course of a typical weekday. Common elements emerged that provided a contextual view of the participant meal patterns and food choices. These elements were sports team participation, college employment, school as a food source, nonstudent status, and eating dinner at home. These findings suggest opportunities for the design of dietary interventions for young African-American men that take into consideration how school, athletics, and employment may influence opportunities to eat regular meals that include healthful foods. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Association between daily lifestyle and the risk of metabolic syndrome among young adults in Japan. An analysis of Kobe city young adult health examination data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Youji; Shirai, Chika; Ijichi, Akihiro

    2013-02-01

    Appropriate lifestyle modifications through health guidance and other methods are known to be effective in preventing lifestyle-related diseases. Furthermore, early intervention is key. To examine the association between daily lifestyle and the risk of metabolic syndrome among young adults in Japan, we analyzed data from the Kobe City Young Adult Health Examination. We examined 4,912 adults aged 30 to 39 years to identify the association between daily lifestyle and the risk of metabolic syndrome. Daily lifestyle was assessed from 11 lifestyle-related items in the questionnaire administered during the health exam. The Standard Health Exam and Guidance Program by the Ministry of Health and Labor was used to determine the risks of abdominal obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. Having a risk related to metabolic syndrome was defined as having a risk of abdominal obesity combined with a risk of hypertension, diabetes, or hypercholesterolemia. We also evaluated the stages of behavioral change in those who possessed a risk of metabolic syndrome, as well as their willingness to receive health guidance. Eating quickly had a significantly greater association with-risk of metabolic syndrome, for both sexes, than eating slowly or at a normal pace. For women, smoking, skipping breakfast more than three days a week, and eating supper within two hours before going to bed for more than three days a week were associated with risk of metabolic syndrome. A multiple regression analysis showed that skipping breakfast (P adults in their thirties in Kobe, irregular eating habits seemed to be associated with risk of metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, their intention to/awareness of the need to change their behavior and their willingness to receive health guidance were rather strong. Thus, for the "Tokutei kenshin (specific national health checkup system)" to achieve its objective of preventing lifestyle-related diseases more effectively than at present, the target

  17. Dietary Patterns in Relation to Metabolic Syndrome among Adults in Poland: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Suliga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In several populations the associations between diet and the risk of metabolic syndrome have not been fully examined yet. The aim of the study is to identify the main dietary patterns among Polish adults and the evaluation of the relationships of these patterns with metabolic syndrome and its components. The study was conducted on a group of 7997 participants, aged between 37 and 66 years old. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. Three dietary patterns were identified and designated as: “Healthy”, “Westernized” and “Traditional-carbohydrate”. In the adjusted model, a higher score in the “Westernized” pattern aligns with a higher risk of abnormal glucose concentration (ptrend = 0.000, but with a lower risk of abnormal High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol HDL-cholesterol concentration (ptrend = 0.024. Higher scores in the “Traditional-carbohydrate” pattern were connected with the risk of abdominal obesity (ptrend = 0.001 and increased triglycerides concentration (ptrend = 0.050. Our results suggest that adherence to the “Traditional-carbohydrate” dietary pattern, characterized by higher intakes of refined grains, potatoes, sugar and sweets is associated with a higher risk of abdominal obesity and triglyceridemia. A “Westernized” dietary pattern on the other hand, is related to hyperglycemia. The study results can be used for community-based health promotion and intervention programs to prevent or better manage chronic diseases.

  18. Association between dietary patterns and the risk of metabolic syndrome among Lebanese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Naja, F.; Nasreddine, L.; Itani, L.; Adra, N.; Sibai, A. M.; Hwalla, N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The main objective of this study was to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its metabolic abnormalities among Lebanese adults, using data from a national nutrition survey. Methods A cross-sectional analysis involving adults aged ?18?years (n?=?323) with no prior history of chronic diseases was conducted. Participants completed a brief sociodemographic and 61-item food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements and fasting b...

  19. An objective daily Weather Type classification for Iberia since 1850; patterns, trends, variability and impact in precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A. M.; Trigo, R. M.; Lorenzo, M. N.; Vaquero, J. M.; Gallego, M. C.; Valente, M. A.; Gimeno, L.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years a large number of automated classifications of atmospheric circulation patterns have been published covering the entire European continent or specific sub-regions (Huth et al., 2008). This generalized use of objective classifications results from their relatively straightforward computation but crucially from their capacity to provide simple description of typical synoptic conditions as well as their climatic and environmental impact. For this purpose, the vast majority of authors has employed the Reanalyses datasets, namely from either NCEP/NCAR or ECMWF projects. However, both these widely used datasets suffer from important caveats, namely their restricted temporal coverage, that is limited to the last six decades (NCEP/NCAR since 1948 and ECMWF since 1958). This limitation has been partially mitigated by the recent availability of continuous daily mean sea level pressure obtained within the European project EMULATE, that extended the historic records over the extra-tropical Atlantic and Europe (70°-25° N by 70° W-50° E), for the period 1850 to the present (Ansell, T. J. et al. 2006). Here we have used the extended EMULATE dataset to construct an automated version of the Lamb Weather type (WTs) classification scheme (Jones et al 1993) adapted for the center of the Iberian Peninsula. We have identified 10 basic WTs (Cyclonic, Anticyclonic and 8 directional types) following a similar methodology to that previously adopted by Trigo and DaCamara, 2000 (for Portugal) and Lorenzo et al. 2008 (for Galicia, northwestern Iberia). We have evaluated trends of monthly/seasonal frequency of each WT for the entire period and several shorter periods. Finally, we use the long-term precipitation time series from Lisbon (recently digitized) and Cadiz (southern Spain) to evaluate, the impact of each WT on the precipitation regime. It is shown that the Anticyclonic (A) type, although being the most frequent class in winter, gives a rather small contribution to

  20. Breakfast eating patterns and the metabolic syndrome: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ki-Bong; Suh, Hee-Jae; Lee, Minjee; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kwon, Jeoung A; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out the association between eating breakfast, breakfast patterns, and the metabolic syndrome. We used the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2009. A total of 16,734 subjects were included. Breakfast dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between breakfast consumption, breakfast dietary patterns, and the metabolic syndrome. We found that breakfast consumption itself reduced the risk of the metabolic syndrome (odds ratio=0.82, 95% confidence interval=0.69-0.98). We identified two breakfast dietary patterns: the traditional Korean pattern and the dairy-cereal pattern. The dairy-cereal pattern was associated with a reduction in the risk of the metabolic syndrome among breakfast consumers. Compared to no breakfast consumption, the strongest traditional Korean pattern and the highest quartiles for the dairy-cereal pattern were associated with a reduced risk of the metabolic syndrome. Breakfast consumption is associated with the metabolic syndrome. Not all breakfast consumption patterns are associated with a reduced risk of having the metabolic syndrome. In particular, eating either a dairy-cereal breakfast or high energy and fiber breakfast are associated with a reduced risk of the metabolic syndrome.

  1. Association between dietary patterns and the risk of metabolic syndrome among Lebanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naja, F; Nasreddine, L; Itani, L; Adra, N; Sibai, A M; Hwalla, N

    2013-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its metabolic abnormalities among Lebanese adults, using data from a national nutrition survey. A cross-sectional analysis involving adults aged ≥ 18 years (n = 323) with no prior history of chronic diseases was conducted. Participants completed a brief sociodemographic and 61-item food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood samples were also obtained. The International Diabetes Federation criteria were used to classify study participants with the metabolic syndrome. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of extracted patterns with MetS and its metabolic abnormalities. Out of 323 participants, 112 (34.6%) were classified as having MetS. Three dietary patterns were identified: "Fast Food/Dessert," "Traditional Lebanese," and "High Protein." Compared with participants in the lowest quintile of the Fast Food/Dessert pattern, those in the highest quintile had significantly higher odds for MetS (OR, 3.13; 95% CI: 1.36-7.22) and hyperglycemia (OR, 3.81; 95% CI: 159-9.14). Subjects with the highest intake of the High Protein pattern had an increased risk for hypertension (OR, 2.98; 95% CI: 1.26-7.02). The Traditional Lebanese pattern showed no association with MetS or its components. The findings of this study demonstrate a positive association of the Fast Food/Dessert pattern with MetS and hyperglycemia among Lebanese adults. These results may guide the development of improved preventive nutrition interventions in this adult population.

  2. Diagnostic value of daily fluctuations in the free form of testosterone and cortisol in men with obesity and metabolic syndrome under the age of 50 years

    OpenAIRE

    E. A. Kuznetsova; A. S. Adamchik; N. P. Goncharov; G. V. Katsiya

    2016-01-01

    The important pathogenetic link of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) in men are disorders of testosterone production in the testes and adrenal adrenal cortisol production. Тestosterone deficiency and functional hypercortisolism have a mutual influence on each other. Comprehensive assessment of testosterone and cortisol balance and identify their daily variability in the saliva may improve the diagnosis of hormonal disorders in men with obesity and MS. In the present study, by comparative an...

  3. Genetic variation in alcohol metabolizing enzymes among Inuit and its relation to drinking patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Mikkelsen, Stine Schou; Becker, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Variation in genes involved in alcohol metabolism is associated with drinking patterns worldwide. We compared variation in these genes among the Inuit with published results from the general population of Denmark and, due to the Asian ancestry of the Inuit, with Han Chinese. We analyzed...

  4. Gender difference on the association between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Y; Kim, J

    2016-10-01

    Dietary patterns are found to be associated with metabolic risk factors. We explored gender difference on the association between dietary patterns and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the general Korean population. A total of 13,410 Korean adults (aged ≥19 years, 5384 men and 8026 women) who participated in the fifth KNHANES were studied. Dietary intake was assessed by the 24-h recall method. MetS was defined by the joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the relationship between dietary pattern and MetS and its components by gender. Three dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis by sex: traditional, Westernized, and healthy. The traditional pattern was positively associated with hypertriglyceridemia (P for trend = 0.0098), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P for trend = 0.0007), elevated blood pressure (P for trend = 0.0328), and MetS (P for trend = 0.0003) in women only after adjusting for age, body mass index, socioeconomic status, and lifestyle factors. In contrast, the healthy pattern (HP) was negatively associated with abdominal obesity (P for trend = 0.0051) in women. For men, the HP was negatively associated with hypertriglyceridemia (P for trend = 0.0025) after adjustment for potential confounders. The Westernized pattern was not associated with MetS or its components in either men or women. There may be gender differences on the relationship between dietary patterns and metabolic risk factors in Korean population.

  5. Activity of wild Japanese macaques in Yakushima revealed by camera trapping: Patterns with respect to season, daily period and rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanya, Goro; Otani, Yosuke; Hongo, Shun; Honda, Takeaki; Okamura, Hiroki; Higo, Yuma

    2018-01-01

    Animals are subject to various scales of temporal environmental fluctuations, among which daily and seasonal variations are two of the most widespread and significant ones. Many biotic and abiotic factors change temporally, and climatic factors are particularly important because they directly affect the cost of thermoregulation. The purpose of the present study was to determine the activity patterns of wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) with a special emphasis on the effect of thermal conditions. We set 30 camera traps in the coniferous forest of Yakushima and monitored them for a total of 8658 camera-days between July 2014 and July 2015. Over the one-year period, temperature had a positive effect, and rainfall had a negative effect on the activity of macaques during the day. Capture rate was significantly higher during the time period of one hour after sunrise and during midday. During winter days, macaques concentrated their activity around noon, and activity shifted from the morning toward the afternoon. This could be interpreted as macaques shifting their activity to warmer time periods within a single day. Japanese macaques decreased their activity during the time before sunrise in seasons with lower temperatures. It was beneficial for macaques to be less active during cooler time periods in a cold season. Even small amounts of rainfall negatively affected the activity of Japanese macaques, with capture rates decreasing significantly even when rainfall was only 0.5-1 mm/min. In conclusion, thermal conditions significantly affected the activity of wild Japanese macaques at various time scales.

  6. Dietary Patterns and Risk for Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Woo, Hae Dong; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-08-01

    Dietary patterns are a risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MetS). The prevalence of MetS has increased in Korea, and this condition has become a public health issue. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study aimed to identify the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of MetS among Korean women.The data of 5189 participants were analyzed to determine dietary intake and lifestyle. A principal components analysis was employed to determine participant dietary patterns with regard to 106 food items. MetS was diagnosed using the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III. Logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the associations between dietary pattern quintiles and MetS and to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for potential confounders.Three dietary patterns were identified: "traditional," "western," and "prudent." The "prudent" dietary pattern consisted of a high intake of fruits and fruit products as well as nuts, dairy, and a low consumption of grains; this pattern was negatively associated with the risk of MetS. The highest quintile of the "prudent" dietary pattern was significantly less likely to develop MetS (OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.36-0.68, P for trend traditional" and "western" dietary patterns were not associated with the risk of MetS.The "prudent" dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of developing MetS among Korean women.

  7. Effects of daily gain in pre- and postpubertal replacement dairy heifers on body condition score, body size, metabolic profile, and future milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeni, F; Calamari, L; Stefanini, L; Pirlo, G

    2000-07-01

    Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of moderate (0.7 kg) and accelerated (0.9 kg) average daily gain before (trial 1) and after (trial 2) puberty on body condition, metabolic profile, and first lactation milk production of Italian Holstein-Friesian heifers. There were 20 heifers in trial 1 and 22 in trial 2. Trials started when heifers averaged 150 and 300 kg of body weight in trial 1 and 2, respectively, and lasted 7 mo (experimental period). Across diet groups, half of the heifers were mated at first estrus after 370 kg and the other half after 420 kg of body weight gain. Actual average daily gains were 0.667 and 0.775 kg in trial 1 and 0.748 and 0.824 kg in trial 2 for moderate and accelerated experimental groups, respectively. Diets for high average daily gain did not affect body condition during growing phase in trial 1, whereas it did in trial 2. High average daily gain increased plasma glucose in trial 1 and plasma urea concentration in trial 2. Rearing diet did not affect milk production and milk protein percent; age in both trials. High average daily gain decreased milk fat percentage in trial 2. Early calving negatively influenced milk production in both trials and milk fat percentage in trial 1. Early calving heifers showed higher protein percentage than those with late calving only in trial 1.

  8. Leaf growth rate per unit thermal time follows QTL-dependent daily patterns in hundreds of maize lines under naturally fluctuating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadok, Walid; Naudin, Philippe; Boussuge, Benoit; Muller, Bertrand; Welcker, Claude; Tardieu, Francois

    2007-02-01

    We have analysed daily patterns of leaf elongation rate (LER) in large data sets with 318 genotypes placed in naturally fluctuating temperature and evaporative demand, and examined the effect of targeted alleles on these patterns. The method consisted, firstly, in expressing elongation rate per unit thermal time, so it became temperature independent; secondly, in a joint analysis of diurnal fluctuations of elongation rate and of micrometeorological conditions in several experiments, and finally, in a comparison of daily patterns between groups of genotypes possessing targeted alleles. (1) Conditions for using thermal time at a time step of 15 min were first tested successfully in 318 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of three mapping populations. (2) An analysis of 1989 time courses revealed a robust daily pattern of LER per unit thermal time (LERth) over several experiments. LERth was constant during the night and was reproducible (for a given RIL) over up to 10 consecutive nights in different experiments. It declined rapidly during the early morning, closely following the daily pattern of transpiration rate. (3) Groups of RILs carrying alleles conferring a high response to temperature had markedly higher night-time plateau of LER than those with low responses. Groups of RILs with high response to evaporative demand had rapid decreases in elongation rate at the transition between night and day, while this decrease was slower in groups of RILs with low response. These results open the way for using kinetics of responses to environmental stimuli as a phenotyping tool in genetic analyses.

  9. Longitudinal assessment of daily activity patterns on weight change after involuntary job loss: the ADAPT study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L. Haynes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization has identified obesity as one of the most visible and neglected public health problems worldwide. Meta-analytic studies suggest that insufficient sleep increases the risk of developing obesity and related serious medical conditions. Unfortunately, the nationwide average sleep duration has steadily declined over the last two decades with 25% of U.S. adults reporting insufficient sleep. Stress is also an important indirect factor in obesity, and chronic stress and laboratory-induced stress negatively impact sleep. Despite what we know from basic sciences about (a stress and sleep and (b sleep and obesity, we know very little about how these factors actually manifest in a natural environment. The Assessing Daily Activity Patterns Through Occupational Transitions (ADAPT study tests whether sleep disruption plays a key role in the development of obesity for individuals exposed to involuntary job loss, a life event that is often stressful and disrupting to an individual’s daily routine. Methods This is an 18-month closed, cohort research design examining social rhythms, sleep, dietary intake, energy expenditure, waist circumference, and weight gain over 18 months in individuals who have sustained involuntary job loss. Approximately 332 participants who lost their job within the last 3 months are recruited from flyers within the Arizona Department of Economic Security (AZDES Unemployment Insurance Administration application packets and other related postings. Multivariate growth curve modeling will be used to investigate the temporal precedence of changes in social rhythms, sleep, and weight gain. Discussion It is hypothesized that: (1 unemployed individuals with less consistent social rhythms and worse sleep will have steeper weight gain trajectories over 18 months than unemployed individuals with stable social rhythms and better sleep; (2 disrupted sleep will mediate the relationship between

  10. Distinct brain metabolic patterns separately associated with cognition, motor function, and aging in Parkinson's disease dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ji Hyun; Katako, Audrey; Aljuaid, Maram; Goertzen, Andrew L; Borys, Andrew; Hobson, Douglas E; Kim, Seok Min; Lee, Chong Sik

    2017-12-01

    We explored whether patients with Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) show a distinct spatial metabolic pattern that characterizes cognitive deficits in addition to motor dysfunction. Eighteen patients with PDD underwent 3 separate positron emission tomography sessions with [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (for glucose metabolism), fluorinated N-3-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (for dopamine transporter density) and Pittsburgh compound-B (for beta-amyloid load). We confirmed in PDD versus normal controls, overall hypometabolism in the posterior and prefrontal brain regions accompanied with hypermetabolism in subcortical structures and the cerebellar vermis. A multivariate network analysis then revealed 3 metabolic patterns that are separately associated with cognitive performance (p = 0.042), age (p = 0.042), and motor symptom severity (p = 0.039). The age-related pattern's association with aging was replicated in healthy controls (p = 0.047) and patients with Alzheimer's disease (p = 0.002). The cognition-related pattern's association with cognitive performance was observed, with a trend-level of correlation, in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (p = 0.084) but not in patients with Alzheimer's disease (p = 0.974). We found no association with fluorinated N-3-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane and Pittsburgh compound-B positron emission tomography with patients' cognitive performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Leptin levels and luteinizing hormone pulsatility in normal cycling women and their relationship to daily changes in metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Rebecca M; Dominguez, Jennifer E; Mayer, Laurel; Walsh, B Timothy; Boozer, Carol; Warren, Michelle P

    2008-10-01

    To determine whether leptin and LH secretion in normal women is related to changes in metabolic rate. Academic medical center. PATIENT(S) AND DESIGN: Ten young women with normal weight and menses were studied during the early follicular phase. Leptin and LH levels were sampled every 15 minutes over a 24-hour period. Metabolic rate was frequently sampled using indirect calorimetry. Luteinizing hormone pulsatility was analyzed using a Cluster Program analysis. None. Leptin, LH, and metabolic rate levels. All subjects demonstrated a diurnal leptin curve. Luteinizing hormone pulses were increased in amplitude and slower after the leptin peak. The average (+/-SE) number of LH pulses per 6 hours slowed from 4.30 +/- 0.42 to 3.00 +/- 0.42 pulses after the leptin peak, whereas pulse amplitude increased from 1.64 +/- 0.26 to 2.51 +/- 0.42 mIU/mL after the leptin peak. The LH interpulse interval increased from 85.1 +/- 3.64 minutes to 108.8 +/- 10.26 minutes after the leptin peak. Metabolic rate began to drop approximately 4-6 hours before leptin levels peaked, going from 1.66 +/- 0.24 to 1.15 +/- 0.04 kcal/min after the leptin peak. There is a significant association between the timing of the leptin peak, the nightly slowing of LH pulses, and the fall in metabolic rate, suggesting a metabolic cycle in normal individuals.

  12. Daily Coffee Intake Inhibits Pancreatic Beta Cell Damage and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in a Mouse Model of Spontaneous Metabolic Syndrome, Tsumura-Suzuki Obese Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Syunsuke; Takahashi, Tetsuyuki; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Uehara, Hisanori; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Baba, Hayato; Morimoto, Yuki; Tsuneyama, Koichi

    2017-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome is one of the most important health issues worldwide. Obesity causes insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and various diseases throughout the body. The liver phenotype, which is called nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), frequently progresses to hepatocellular carcinoma. We recently established a new animal model, Tsumura-Suzuki obese diabetic (TSOD) mice, which spontaneously exhibit obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and NASH with liver nodules. We examined the effects of coffee intake on various conditions of the metabolic syndrome using TSOD mice. The daily volume of coffee administered was limited so that it reflected the appropriate quantities consumed in humans. To clarify the effects of the specific components, animals were divided into two coffee-intake groups that included with and without caffeine. Coffee intake did not significantly affect obesity and hyperlipidemia in TSOD mice. In contrast, coffee intake caused various degrees of improvement in the pancreatic beta cell damage and steatohepatitis with liver carcinogenesis. Most of the effects were believed to be caused by a synergistic effect of caffeine with other components such as polyphenols. However, the antifibrotic effects of coffee appeared to be due to the polyphenols rather than the caffeine. A daily habit of drinking coffee could possibly play a role in the prevention of metabolic syndrome.

  13. Activity of wild Japanese macaques in Yakushima revealed by camera trapping: Patterns with respect to season, daily period and rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Yosuke; Hongo, Shun; Honda, Takeaki; Okamura, Hiroki; Higo, Yuma

    2018-01-01

    Animals are subject to various scales of temporal environmental fluctuations, among which daily and seasonal variations are two of the most widespread and significant ones. Many biotic and abiotic factors change temporally, and climatic factors are particularly important because they directly affect the cost of thermoregulation. The purpose of the present study was to determine the activity patterns of wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) with a special emphasis on the effect of thermal conditions. We set 30 camera traps in the coniferous forest of Yakushima and monitored them for a total of 8658 camera-days between July 2014 and July 2015. Over the one-year period, temperature had a positive effect, and rainfall had a negative effect on the activity of macaques during the day. Capture rate was significantly higher during the time period of one hour after sunrise and during midday. During winter days, macaques concentrated their activity around noon, and activity shifted from the morning toward the afternoon. This could be interpreted as macaques shifting their activity to warmer time periods within a single day. Japanese macaques decreased their activity during the time before sunrise in seasons with lower temperatures. It was beneficial for macaques to be less active during cooler time periods in a cold season. Even small amounts of rainfall negatively affected the activity of Japanese macaques, with capture rates decreasing significantly even when rainfall was only 0.5–1 mm/min. In conclusion, thermal conditions significantly affected the activity of wild Japanese macaques at various time scales. PMID:29293657

  14. Activity of wild Japanese macaques in Yakushima revealed by camera trapping: Patterns with respect to season, daily period and rainfall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goro Hanya

    Full Text Available Animals are subject to various scales of temporal environmental fluctuations, among which daily and seasonal variations are two of the most widespread and significant ones. Many biotic and abiotic factors change temporally, and climatic factors are particularly important because they directly affect the cost of thermoregulation. The purpose of the present study was to determine the activity patterns of wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata with a special emphasis on the effect of thermal conditions. We set 30 camera traps in the coniferous forest of Yakushima and monitored them for a total of 8658 camera-days between July 2014 and July 2015. Over the one-year period, temperature had a positive effect, and rainfall had a negative effect on the activity of macaques during the day. Capture rate was significantly higher during the time period of one hour after sunrise and during midday. During winter days, macaques concentrated their activity around noon, and activity shifted from the morning toward the afternoon. This could be interpreted as macaques shifting their activity to warmer time periods within a single day. Japanese macaques decreased their activity during the time before sunrise in seasons with lower temperatures. It was beneficial for macaques to be less active during cooler time periods in a cold season. Even small amounts of rainfall negatively affected the activity of Japanese macaques, with capture rates decreasing significantly even when rainfall was only 0.5-1 mm/min. In conclusion, thermal conditions significantly affected the activity of wild Japanese macaques at various time scales.

  15. Metabolic patterns in prion diseases: an FDG PET voxel-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, Elena; Dominguez-Prado, Ines; Jesus Ribelles, Maria; Arbizu, Javier; Riverol, Mario; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Rosario Luquin, Maria; Castro, Purificacion de

    2015-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis of human prion diseases can be challenging since symptoms are common to other disorders associated with rapidly progressive dementia. In this context, 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) might be a useful complementary tool. The aim of this study was to determine the metabolic pattern in human prion diseases, particularly sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and fatal familial insomnia (FFI). We retrospectively studied 17 patients with a definitive, probable or possible prion disease who underwent FDG PET in our institution. Of these patients, 12 were diagnosed as sCJD (9 definitive, 2 probable and 1 possible), 1 was diagnosed as definitive vCJD and 4 were diagnosed as definitive FFI. The hypometabolic pattern of each individual and comparisons across the groups of subjects (control subjects, sCJD and FFI) were evaluated using a voxel-based analysis. The sCJD group exhibited a pattern of hypometabolism that affected both subcortical (bilateral caudate, thalamus) and cortical (frontal cortex) structures, while the FFI group only presented a slight hypometabolism in the thalamus. Individual analysis demonstrated a considerable variability of metabolic patterns among patients, with the thalamus and basal ganglia the most frequently affected areas, combined in some cases with frontal and temporal hypometabolism. Patients with a prion disease exhibit a characteristic pattern of brain metabolism presentation in FDG PET imaging. Consequently, in patients with rapidly progressive cognitive impairment, the detection of these patterns in the FDG PET study could orient the diagnosis to a prion disease. (orig.)

  16. Metabolic patterns in prion diseases: an FDG PET voxel-based analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, Elena; Dominguez-Prado, Ines; Jesus Ribelles, Maria; Arbizu, Javier [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Nuclear Medicine Department, Pamplona (Spain); Riverol, Mario; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Rosario Luquin, Maria; Castro, Purificacion de [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Neurology Department, Pamplona (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Clinical diagnosis of human prion diseases can be challenging since symptoms are common to other disorders associated with rapidly progressive dementia. In this context, {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) might be a useful complementary tool. The aim of this study was to determine the metabolic pattern in human prion diseases, particularly sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and fatal familial insomnia (FFI). We retrospectively studied 17 patients with a definitive, probable or possible prion disease who underwent FDG PET in our institution. Of these patients, 12 were diagnosed as sCJD (9 definitive, 2 probable and 1 possible), 1 was diagnosed as definitive vCJD and 4 were diagnosed as definitive FFI. The hypometabolic pattern of each individual and comparisons across the groups of subjects (control subjects, sCJD and FFI) were evaluated using a voxel-based analysis. The sCJD group exhibited a pattern of hypometabolism that affected both subcortical (bilateral caudate, thalamus) and cortical (frontal cortex) structures, while the FFI group only presented a slight hypometabolism in the thalamus. Individual analysis demonstrated a considerable variability of metabolic patterns among patients, with the thalamus and basal ganglia the most frequently affected areas, combined in some cases with frontal and temporal hypometabolism. Patients with a prion disease exhibit a characteristic pattern of brain metabolism presentation in FDG PET imaging. Consequently, in patients with rapidly progressive cognitive impairment, the detection of these patterns in the FDG PET study could orient the diagnosis to a prion disease. (orig.)

  17. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Patterns in Metabolic and Toxic Brain Disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sener, R.N.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate metabolic and toxic brain disorders that manifest with restricted, elevated, or both restricted and elevated diffusion patterns on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods: Echo-planar diffusion MRI examinations were obtained in 34 pediatric patients with metabolic and toxic brain disorders proved by appropriate laboratory studies. The MRI unit operated at 1.5T with a gradient strength of 30 mT/meter, and a rise time of 600 s. b=1000 s/mm 2 images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps with ADC values were studied. Results: Three patterns were observed: 1. A restricted diffusion pattern (high signal on b=1000 s/mm 2 images and low ADC values); 2. an elevated diffusion pattern (normal signal on b=1000 s/mm2 images and high ADC values); and 3. a mixed pattern (coexistent restricted and increased diffusion patterns in the same patient). Disorders manifesting with a restricted diffusion pattern included metachromatic leukodystrophy (n=2), phenylketonuria (n=3), maple syrup urine disease (intermediate form) (n=1), infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (n=1), Leigh (n=2), Wilson (n=3), and Canavan disease (n=1). Disorders with an elevated diffusion pattern included phenylketonuria (n=1), adrenoleukodystrophy (n=1), merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (n=2), mucopolysaccharidosis (n=2), Lowe syndrome (n=1), Leigh (n=2), Alexander (n=1), Pelizaeus-Merzbacher (n=1), and Wilson (n=3) disease. Disorders with a mixed pattern included L-2 hydroxyglutaric aciduria (n=2), non-ketotic hyperglycinemia (n=1), infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (n=2), maple syrup urine disease (n=1), and Leigh (n=1) disease. Conclusion: The findings suggested that the three different diffusion patterns reflect the histopathological changes associated with the disorders and different stages of a particular disorder. It is likely that the restricted diffusion pattern corresponds to abnormalities related to myelin, and the elevated diffusion pattern

  18. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Patterns in Metabolic and Toxic Brain Disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sener, R.N. [Ege Univ. Hospital, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate metabolic and toxic brain disorders that manifest with restricted, elevated, or both restricted and elevated diffusion patterns on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods: Echo-planar diffusion MRI examinations were obtained in 34 pediatric patients with metabolic and toxic brain disorders proved by appropriate laboratory studies. The MRI unit operated at 1.5T with a gradient strength of 30 mT/meter, and a rise time of 600 s. b=1000 s/mm{sup 2} images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps with ADC values were studied. Results: Three patterns were observed: 1. A restricted diffusion pattern (high signal on b=1000 s/mm{sup 2} images and low ADC values); 2. an elevated diffusion pattern (normal signal on b=1000 s/mm2 images and high ADC values); and 3. a mixed pattern (coexistent restricted and increased diffusion patterns in the same patient). Disorders manifesting with a restricted diffusion pattern included metachromatic leukodystrophy (n=2), phenylketonuria (n=3), maple syrup urine disease (intermediate form) (n=1), infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (n=1), Leigh (n=2), Wilson (n=3), and Canavan disease (n=1). Disorders with an elevated diffusion pattern included phenylketonuria (n=1), adrenoleukodystrophy (n=1), merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (n=2), mucopolysaccharidosis (n=2), Lowe syndrome (n=1), Leigh (n=2), Alexander (n=1), Pelizaeus-Merzbacher (n=1), and Wilson (n=3) disease. Disorders with a mixed pattern included L-2 hydroxyglutaric aciduria (n=2), non-ketotic hyperglycinemia (n=1), infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (n=2), maple syrup urine disease (n=1), and Leigh (n=1) disease. Conclusion: The findings suggested that the three different diffusion patterns reflect the histopathological changes associated with the disorders and different stages of a particular disorder. It is likely that the restricted diffusion pattern corresponds to abnormalities related to myelin, and the elevated

  19. Pregnancy Suppresses the Daily Rhythmicity of Core Body Temperature and Adipose Metabolic Gene Expression in the Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharfe, Michaela D; Wyrwoll, Caitlin S; Waddell, Brendan J; Mark, Peter J

    2016-09-01

    Maternal adaptations in lipid metabolism are crucial for pregnancy success due to the role of white adipose tissue as an energy store and the dynamic nature of energy needs across gestation. Because lipid metabolism is regulated by the rhythmic expression of clock genes, it was hypothesized that maternal metabolic adaptations involve changes in both adipose clock gene expression and the rhythmic expression of downstream metabolic genes. Maternal core body temperature (Tc) was investigated as a possible mechanism driving pregnancy-induced changes in clock gene expression. Gonadal adipose tissue and plasma were collected from C57BL/6J mice before and on days 6, 10, 14, and 18 of pregnancy (term 19 d) at 4-hour intervals across a 24-hour period. Adipose expression of clock genes and downstream metabolic genes were determined by quantitative RT-PCR, and Tc was measured by intraperitoneal temperature loggers. Adipose clock gene expression showed robust rhythmicity throughout pregnancy, but absolute levels varied substantially across gestation. Rhythmic expression of the metabolic genes Lipe, Pnpla2, and Lpl was clearly evident before pregnancy; however, this rhythmicity was lost with the onset of pregnancy. Tc rhythm was significantly altered by pregnancy, with a 65% decrease in amplitude by term and a 0.61°C decrease in mesor between days 6 and 18. These changes in Tc, however, did not appear to be linked to adipose clock gene expression across pregnancy. Overall, our data show marked adaptations in the adipose clock in pregnancy, with an apparent decoupling of adipose clock and lipolytic/lipogenic gene rhythms from early in gestation.

  20. [Evaluation of the intake of a low daily amount of soybeans in oxidative stress, lipid and inflammatory profile, and insulin resistance in patients with metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahls, Larissa Danielle; Venturini, Danielle; Scripes, Nicole de Angelis; Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson Batisti; Simão, Tathiana Name Colado; Simão, Andréa Name Colado; Dichi, Isaias; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami

    2011-08-01

    Studies show that regular consumption of soybeans reduces the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, most of these studies recommend daily intake of 25 g or more of soy protein, an amount considered high and not well tolerated by patients. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of low daily intake of soybeans in oxidative stress and in components of the metabolic syndrome (MS). Forty individuals with MS were selected and divided into two groups: control group (n = 20) and soybean-treated group (n = 20), which consumed 12.95 g of soy protein for 90 days. After the treatment, the soybean-treated group showed a decrease in fasting glucose and increase in serum HDL and adiponectin. Low intake of soy protein for 90 days, besides being well tolerated by the patients, was able to improve several parameters related to the pathophysiology of MS.

  1. The metabolic pattern of idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder reflects early-stage Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meles, Sanne Katherina; Renken, Remco J; Janzen, Annette; Vadasz, David; Pagani, Marco; Arnaldi, Dario; Morbelli, Silvia; Nobili, Flavio; Mayer, Geert; Leenders, Klaus L; Oertel, Wolfgang H O

    2018-02-23

    Rationale: Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is considered a prodromal stage of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other Lewy-body disorders. Spatial covariance analysis of [ 18 F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography ( 18 F-FDG-PET) data has disclosed a specific brain pattern of altered glucose metabolism in PD. In this study, we identify the metabolic pattern underlying iRBD and compare it to the known PD pattern. To understand the relevance of the iRBD pattern to disease progression, we study the expression of the iRBD pattern in de novo PD patients. Methods: The iRBD-related pattern was identified in 18 F-FDG-PET scans of 21 patients with polysomnographically-confirmed iRBD and 19 controls using spatial covariance analysis. Expression of the iRBD-related pattern was subsequently computed in 18 F-FDG-PET scans of 44 controls and 38 de novo, treatment-naïve PD patients. Of these 38 PD patients, 24 had probable RBD according to the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire. Neuropsychological evaluation showed mild cognitive impairment in 20 PD patients (PD-MCI), of whom sixteen also had concomitant RBD and roughly half (11/20) had bilateral motor symptoms. Results: The iRBD-related pattern was characterized by relative hypermetabolism in cerebellum, brainstem, thalamus, sensorimotor cortex, and hippocampus, and by relative hypometabolism in middle cingulate, temporal, occipital and parietal cortices. This topography partially overlapped with the PD-related pattern (PDRP). The iRBD-related pattern was significantly expressed in PD patients compared to controls (Ppattern expression was not significantly different between PD patients with and without probable RBD, or between PD patients with unilateral or bilateral parkinsonism. iRBD-related pattern expression was higher in PD-MCI patients, compared to PD patients with preserved cognition ( P = 0.001). Subject scores on the iRBD-related pattern were highly correlated to subject scores on the PDRP (r=0.94, Ppatterns

  2. Daily activity patterns of visits by males of four species of Eulaema (Apidae: Euglossina to odor baits in a tropical forest fragment in Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro N. Melo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted with bees of the subtribe Euglossina using odor baits as attractants. The objective of this study was to analyze the daily activity pattern of visits by males of four species of Eulaema - Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841, Eulaema flavescens (Friese, 1899, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804 and Eulaema bombiformis (Packard, 1869 - to vanillin and benzyl acetate baits, and their relationship with climatic and environmental factors throughout the day in different months of the year in a tropical forest fragment in Bahia. Eulaema nigrita was the most frequent species on vanillin baits and E. flavescens was the most frequent species on benzyl acetate baits. The highest frequency of visits was observed in February and December. Activities started between 5:00 and 9:00 h. In February and November, visits of E. nigrita to the bait were observed daily, following a bimodal pattern. The same activity pattern was observed for E. bombiformis in December. Males of four species of Eulaema occurred in all remaining months in a unimodal daily activity pattern, with a higher frequency before 9:30 h. The correlation between the visiting activity to odor baits and climatic factors was low. This result can be due to bee flight activity occurring within a range of adequate climatic variation, particularly temperature, which in our study ranged from 23 to 32ºC. Daily activity patterns of Euglossina males on odor baits can represent patterns of flower fragrance collection under natural conditions, with visits usually at the time of highest production.

  3. Metabolic Pattern of Asymptomatic Hip-Prosthesis by 18F-FDG-Positron-Emission-Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beslic, Nermina; Heber, Daniel; Walter Lipp, Rainer; Sonneck-Koenne, Charlotte; Knoll, Peter; Mirzaei, Siroos

    2015-01-01

    Joint replacement is a procedure with a major impact on the quality of life of patients with joint degenerative disease or traumatic injuries. However, some patients develop symptoms after the intervention caused by mechanical loosening or infection. Metabolic imaging by 18F-FDG-PET investigated in these patients isoften hampered by low specificity for diagnosis of possible septic vs. mechanical loosening. The reason for this shortcoming is to our opinion the unawareness of physiological remodeling processes that could be seen in asymptomatic patients. In order to overcome this drawback, we aimed to find out the physiological metabolic functional pattern in asymptomatic patients with implanted hip prosthesis Twelve patients (6 males, 6 females); mean age 73 ± 7 (range 58 - 91) years were prospectively enrolled in the study. The patients were admitted to our department for oncological referral with implanted hip prostheses. All patients explained no symptoms with regard to their implanted prosthesis. The attenuation corrected images were used for analysis. Fourteen hip prostheses in 12 patients were visually analyzed. Seven out of 14 prostheses among 12 patients showed focal periprosthetic enhanced metabolism, two of which showed two sites of enhanced uptake; whereas, the remaining five prostheses showed singular hypermetabolic areas within the periprosthetic site. The remaining seven prostheses in the other five patients showed no periprosthetic-enhanced uptake. Of the asymptomatic patients investigated, 58% showed focal enhanced periprosthetic glucose metabolism. This finding should be taken into consideration as a more probable unspecific metabolic pattern for correct interpretation of 18F-FDG-PET studies in patients with suspected septic loosening of the hip prosthesis

  4. Modeling and Classification of Kinetic Patterns of Dynamic Metabolic Biomarkers in Physical Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Breit

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were the classification of dynamic metabolic biomarker candidates and the modeling and characterization of kinetic regulatory mechanisms in human metabolism with response to external perturbations by physical activity. Longitudinal metabolic concentration data of 47 individuals from 4 different groups were examined, obtained from a cycle ergometry cohort study. In total, 110 metabolites (within the classes of acylcarnitines, amino acids, and sugars were measured through a targeted metabolomics approach, combining tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS with the concept of stable isotope dilution (SID for metabolite quantitation. Biomarker candidates were selected by combined analysis of maximum fold changes (MFCs in concentrations and P-values resulting from statistical hypothesis testing. Characteristic kinetic signatures were identified through a mathematical modeling approach utilizing polynomial fitting. Modeled kinetic signatures were analyzed for groups with similar behavior by applying hierarchical cluster analysis. Kinetic shape templates were characterized, defining different forms of basic kinetic response patterns, such as sustained, early, late, and other forms, that can be used for metabolite classification. Acetylcarnitine (C2, showing a late response pattern and having the highest values in MFC and statistical significance, was classified as late marker and ranked as strong predictor (MFC = 1.97, P < 0.001. In the class of amino acids, highest values were shown for alanine (MFC = 1.42, P < 0.001, classified as late marker and strong predictor. Glucose yields a delayed response pattern, similar to a hockey stick function, being classified as delayed marker and ranked as moderate predictor (MFC = 1.32, P < 0.001. These findings coincide with existing knowledge on central metabolic pathways affected in exercise physiology, such as β-oxidation of fatty acids, glycolysis, and glycogenolysis. The presented modeling

  5. The Effect of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery on DNA Methylation Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcillo, Sonsoles; Macías-González, Manuel; Tinahones, Francisco J

    2017-08-30

    Metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS) is considered to be the most effective treatment for obesity. Not only due to the significant weight reduction but also because of the many health benefits associated with it. In the last 5 years, several studies have suggested that epigenetic modifications could be involved in the mechanisms underlying the response to bariatric surgery. In this review, we will compile the different studies (2012-2017) concerning the effect of this surgical procedure on DNA methylation patterns (the most studied epigenetic marker) and its association with metabolic improvement. This is an emerging area, and currently, there are not many studies in the literature. The aim is to show what has been done so far and what the future direction in this emerging area might be. Recent findings have shown how metabolic and bariatric surgery modifies the DNA methylation profile of the specific genes associated with the pathophysiology of the disease. The studies were performed in morbidly obese subjects, mainly in women, with the aim of reducing weight and improving the obesity-associated comorbidities. DNA methylation has been measured both in specific tissue and in peripheral blood samples. In general, studies about site-specific DNA methylation have shown a change in the methylation profile after surgery, whereas the studies analyzing global DNA methylation are not so conclusive. Summing up, metabolic and bariatric surgery can modify the DNA methylation profile of different genes and contributes to the metabolic health benefits that are often seen after metabolic and bariatric surgery. Although there are still many issues to be resolved, the capacity to revert the DNA methylation profile of specific sites opens a window for searching for target markers to treat obesity-related comorbidities.

  6. Alcohol-drinking patterns and metabolic syndrome risk: the 2007 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu-Won; Park, Byoung-Jin; Kang, Hee-Taik; Lee, Yong-Jae

    2011-08-01

    Alcohol consumption has been known to be related to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS). Although some studies have revealed that mild to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of MS, most of these studies have focused the effect of alcohol consumption amount on MS. We examined the association between alcohol-drinking patterns and MS by using the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) questionnaire to study 1,768 alcohol drinkers (847 men, 921 women) aged 20-75 years from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2007. When compared with the subjects in the reference group (AUDIT score ≤ 7), the odds ratios (ORs, 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for MS of subjects in the highest group (AUDIT score ≥ 16) were 3.92 (2.40-6.22) in men and 2.27 (0.87-5.89) in women after adjusting for confounding variables. Among the items of the AUDIT score, several alcohol-drinking patterns, including "drinking frequency," "usual drinking quantity," "frequency of high-risk drinking," "frequency of inability to stop drinking," "frequency of feeling guilty after drinking," and "frequency of inability to remember after drinking" were strongly associated with the prevalence of MS in men. In women, there were significant relationships between MS and "usual drinking quantity," "frequency of feeling guilty after drinking," and "frequency of inability to stop drinking." In summary, AUDIT score was strongly associated with MS in Korean adults, particularly in men. Accordingly, in addition to the amount of daily alcohol consumption, alcohol-drinking patterns should be addressed in the prevention and treatment of MS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Breakfast skipping and breakfast type are associated with daily nutrient intakes and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Seokhwa; Choi, Kyungran

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Emerging evidence shows that eating breakfast and breakfast types may be associated with health outcomes and dietary intakes in various populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between breakfast types in Korean adults with their daily nutrient intakes and health outcomes. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 11,801 20- to 64-year-old adults (age 42.9 ? 11.8 yrs [mean ? standard error of the mean]; male 41.1%, female 58.9%) in 2007-2009 Korean National...

  8. Cerebral glucose metabolic patterns in Alzheimer's disease. Effect of gender and age at dementia onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, G.W.; Kuhl, D.E.; Riege, W.H.; Fujikawa, D.G.; Ashford, J.W.; Metter, E.J.; Mazziotta, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    No previous study of Alzheimer's disease has, to our knowledge, assessed the effect of both age at dementia onset and gender on cerebral glucose metabolic patterns. To this end, we used positron emission tomography (fludeoxyglucose F 18 method) to study 24 patients with clinical diagnoses of probable Alzheimer's disease. Comparisons of the 13 patients with early-onset dementia (less than 65 years of age) with the 11 patients with late-onset dementia (greater than 65 years of age) revealed significantly lower left parietal metabolic ratios (left posterior parietal region divided by the hemispheric average) in the early-onset group. The metabolic ratio of posterior parietal cortex divided by the relatively disease-stable average of caudate and thalamus also separated patients with early-onset dementia from those with late-onset dementia, but not men from women. Further comparisons between sexes showed that, in all brain regions studied, the 9 postmenopausal women had higher nonweighted mean metabolic rates than the 15 men from the same age group, with hemispheric sex differences of 9% on the right and 7% on the left. These results demonstrate decreased parietal ratios in early-onset dementia of Alzheimer's disease, independent of a gender effect

  9. Associations of sitting accumulation patterns with cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers in Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellettiere, John; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Chastin, Sebastien F M; Kerr, Jacqueline; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W; Healy, Genevieve N

    2017-01-01

    High amounts of time spent sitting can increase cardiovascular disease risk and are deleteriously associated cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers. Though evidence suggests that accruing sitting time in prolonged periods may convey additional risk, verification using high-quality measures is needed. We examined this issue in adults from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study, using accurate measures of sitting accumulation. In 2011/12, 739 adults aged 36 to 89 years (mean±SD 58±10 years) wore activPAL3™ monitors (which provide accurate objective measures of sitting); 678 provided ≥4 valid days of monitor data and complete cardio-metabolic biomarker and confounder data. Multivariable linear regression models examined associations of sitting time, sitting time accrued in ≥30 minute bouts (prolonged sitting time), and three measures of sitting accumulation patterns with cardio-metabolic risk markers: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, high- and low- density lipoprotein (HDL and LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour post-load glucose (PLG). Interactions tests examined whether associations of sitting time with biomarkers varied by usual sitting bout duration. Adjusted for potential confounders, greater amounts of sitting time and prolonged sitting time were significantly (psitting time was also significantly associated with higher PLG. Sitting accumulation patterns of frequently interrupted sitting (compared to patterns with relatively more prolonged sitting) were significantly beneficially associated with BMI, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, PLG, and with FPG. Effect sizes were typically larger for accumulation patterns than for sitting time. Significant interactions (psitting time with HDL, triglycerides and PLG became more deleterious the longer at a time sitting was usually accumulated. Adding to previous evidence reliant on low

  10. Metabolic pattern analysis of early detection in Alzheimer's disease from other types of dementias and correlated with cognitive function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, R. H.; Lee, C. W.; Jung, Y. A.; Sohn, H. S.; Kim, S. H.; Seo, T. S

    2004-01-01

    PET/CT studies have demonstrated temporoparietal hypometabolism in probable and definite Alzheimer's disease (AD), a pattern that may help differentiate AD from other types of dementias. Seeking to distinguish Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), we examined brain glucose metabolism of DLB and AD. Identification of individual differences in patterns of regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRglc) interactions may be important for early detection of AD. We elucidate the relationship between reduced cognitive function and cerebral metabolism. Ten patients with the diagnosis of AD, 3 DLB patients underwent 18F-FDG PET CT. We applied statistical mapping procedure to evaluate the diagnostic power of rCMRglc patterns for differentiation and also correlated with Korean-mini mental status exam (K-MMSE) score include orientation time, place, registration, attention, calculation, recaIl, language and visuospatial function. Glucose metabolic pattern analysis confirmed AD and DLB patients showed significant metabolic reductions involving parietotemporal association, posterior cingulate, and frontal association cortex. DLB patients showed significant metabolic reductions in the occipital cortex, particularly in the primary visual cortex. Covariate analysis revealed that occipital metabolic changes in DLB were independent from those in the adjacent parietotemporal cortices. AnaIysis of clinically diagnosed probable AD patients showed a significantly higher frequency of primary visual metabolic reduction among patients who fulfilled clinical criteria for DLB. occipital hypometabolism is a potential discriminate marker to distinguish DLB versus AD

  11. Circadian rhythm, sleep pattern, and metabolic consequences: an overview on cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Roberta Marcondes; Koike, Marcia Kiyomi

    2014-04-01

    Sleep duration is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Alteration in sleep pattern can induce the loss of circadian rhythmicity. Chronically, this desynchronization between endogenous rhythm and behavioral cycles can lead to an adverse metabolic profile, a proinflammatory condition and can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. The circadian cycle can vary due to environmental cues. The circadian pacemaker is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei; this central clock coordinates the circadian rhythm in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. The mechanisms involved in sleep disturbance, circadian misalignment and adverse metabolic effects have yet to be fully elucidated. This review looks over the association among sleep alteration, circadian rhythm and the development of risk factors implicated in cardiovascular disease.

  12. Grains, vegetables, and fish dietary pattern is inversely associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome in South korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Jo, Inho

    2011-08-01

    Dietary patterns are critical in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. We examined the association between habitual dietary patterns and the risk of metabolic syndrome in South Korean adults. The study sample was composed of 9,850 Korean adults (aged ≥19 years) who participated in the second and third Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Dietary data were assessed by the 24-hour recall method. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the joint of interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Four dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis (white rice and kimchi pattern; meat and alcohol pattern; high fat, sweets, and coffee pattern; and grains, vegetables, and fish pattern). Each dietary pattern explained 8.6%, 6.7%, 5.7%, and 5.7% of the variation in food intakes, respectively. The meat and alcohol pattern was adversely associated with hypertriglyceridemia (P for trend 0.01) and elevated blood pressure (P for trend 0.01) after adjustments for potential risk factors of metabolic syndrome such as age, sex, body mass index, energy intake, alcohol intake, smoking status, and physical activity. In contrast, the grains, vegetables, and fish pattern was associated with lower risk of hypertriglyceridemia (P for trend 0.0002) and was also inversely associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome after adjusting for risk factors of the metabolic syndrome (P for trend 0.02). Our study suggests that a specific Korean dietary pattern that includes grains, vegetables, and fish may be associated with lower risk of metabolic syndrome in South Korean adults. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Adjustment of Daily Activities: the Influence of Smartphone Adoption on the Travel Pattern of Mobile Professionals in the Greater Jakarta Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloriani Novita Christin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The swift augmentation in the adoption of smartphones, the gadget that resulted from the convergence of Information and Communication Technology (ICT, potentially transforms people's life in myriad dimensions. One potential change induced by smartphones, is how people restructure their daily agenda and consecutively influence their travel pattern. To understand it, this study theoretically reviews mobile professional work, smartphone adoption, and how people conduct their mobile interaction, planning and execution of daily activities. Mobile professionals, the cohort of professionals that spend more than 20% of their total working time moving around out of their work environment; they are important beneficiaries of smartphones and have been chosen as the target of this study. Empirical results of mobile professionals´ experiences in the Greater Jakarta Area are presented at this juncture. Furthermore, their adjustment of activities as a dynamic response to receiving extensive information via smartphones is also analysed. The results indicate that there is a strong adjustment of daily activities by mobile professionals. Through those changes, the transformation of daily travel patterns related to the activity is also brought about by the use of this high-end ICT contrivance.

  14. Dietary indexes, food patterns and incidence of metabolic syndrome in a Mediterranean cohort: The SUN project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Adriano M; Toledo, Estefanía; Rodriguez-Diez, Maria C; Gea, Alfredo; Lopez-Iracheta, Roberto; Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2015-06-01

    We prospectively assessed the association between adherence to several a priori defined healthy food patterns and risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). We assessed 6851 participants of a Spanish dynamic prospective cohort of university graduates, initially free of any MetS-specific definition criteria, and followed-up for a median of 8.3 years. We calculated the adherence to thirteen different a priori defined food patterns or dietary indexes. MetS was classified according to the updated harmonizing criteria. We estimated multivariable-adjusted Incidence Rate Ratios (IRR) of metabolic syndrome and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI), using Poisson regression models. The cumulative incidence of MetS was 5.0%. Moderate adherence to the Pro-Vegetarian Diet (PVEG) was significantly associated with a lower risk for developing MetS (IRR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.59-0.97). Among women, an inverse association with the PVEG was significant not only for a moderate adherence (IRR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.36-0.82), but also for higher adherence (IRR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.43-0.93). A higher adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet showed an inverse association with the MetS among participants, but only if they had low alcohol intake (RR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.20-0.85). Our findings support the adoption of a PVEG dietary pattern for the reduction of MetS risk. The same statement can be applied in relation to the DASH diet, insofar a limited consumption of alcoholic beverages is also maintained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Current evidence on the association of the metabolic syndrome and dietary patterns in a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Zeinab; Whiting, Susan J; Vatanparast, Hassan

    2016-12-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a key indicator of two main causes of death worldwide: CVD and diabetes. The present paper aimed to perform a review of the population-based research on the association of dietary patterns and the MetS in terms of methodology and findings. For the purpose of the present study, a scoping literature review was conducted using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and hand searching in Google Scholar. Thirty-nine population-based studies were selected. Most of these studies used the factor analysis method and the a priori dietary approach, which had been initially extracted via a posteriori methods such as using the Mediterranean dietary pattern. The main finding was that following the Mediterranean or similar 'healthy' pattern reduced risk of the MetS, while following a 'Western' pattern increased risk of the MetS. The methodological approach in determining the dietary pattern of a population, whether a priori or a posteriori, should be chosen based on the purpose of the research. Overall, evidence suggests a diet based on the components of the Mediterranean diet and the avoidance of the 'Western' diet can aid in preventing the MetS.

  16. Obesity History and Daily Patterns of Physical Activity at Age 60-64 Years: Findings From the MRC National Survey of Health and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Rachel; Huang, Lei; Hardy, Rebecca; Crainiceanu, Adina; Harris, Tamara; Schrack, Jennifer A; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Kuh, Diana

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations of current body mass index (BMI) and obesity history with daily patterns of physical activity. At age 60-64, participants from a British birth cohort study wore accelerometers for 5 days. Accelerometry counts were log-transformed and mean log-counts were used to derive a summary variable indicating total daily log-activity counts. Among those with complete data (n = 1,388) the associations of current BMI and age of first obesity were examined with: (a) total daily log-activity counts and (b) total log-activity counts in four segments of the day. Higher current BMI and younger age at obesity were strongly associated with lower levels of total daily activity at age 60-64 even after adjustment for sex, socioeconomic factors, and health status. The fully-adjusted mean difference in total daily log-activity counts was -581.7 (95% confidence interval: -757.2, -406.3) when comparing BMI ≥35 kg/m2 with <25 kg/m2, representing an 18.4% difference. Participants who had been obese since early adulthood had the lowest levels of activity (mean difference in total daily log-activity counts was -413.1 (-638.1, -188.2) when comparing those who were obese by age 26 or 36 with those who were never obese, representing a 13.1% difference). Obese older adults may require targeted interventions and additional support to improve their daily activity levels. As younger generations with greater lifetime exposure to obesity reach old age the proportion of adults achieving sufficient levels of activity to realize its associated health benefits is likely to decline. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  17. Daily Patterns of Preschoolers' Objectively Measured Step Counts in Six European Countries: Cross-Sectional Results from the ToyBox-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stappen, Vicky; Van Dyck, Delfien; Latomme, Julie; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Moreno, Luis; Socha, Piotr; Iotova, Violeta; Koletzko, Berthold; Manios, Yannis; Androutsos, Odysseas; Cardon, Greet; De Craemer, Marieke

    2018-02-07

    This study is part of the ToyBox-study, which is conducted in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain), aiming to develop a cost-effective kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to prevent overweight and obesity in four- to six-year-old preschool children. In the current study, we aimed to examine and compare preschoolers' step count patterns, across the six European countries. A sample of 3578 preschoolers (mean age: 4.8 ± 0.4) was included. Multilevel analyses were performed to take clustering of measurements into account. Based on the average hourly steps, step count patterns for the six European countries were created for weekdays and weekend days. The step count patterns during weekdays were related to the daily kindergarten schedules. Step count patterns during weekdays showed several significant peaks and troughs ( p patterns did not show clear peaks and troughs, which can be explained by a less structured kindergarten schedule. On weekend days, differences in step count patterns were observed in the absolute number of steps in the afternoon trough and the period in which the evening peak occurred. Differences in step count patterns across the countries can be explained by differences in (school) policy, lifestyle habits, and culture. Therefore, it might be important to respond to these step count patterns and more specifically to tackle the inactive periods during interventions to promote physical activity in preschoolers.

  18. Metabolic syndrome and dietary patterns: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Monforte, Míriam; Sánchez, Emília; Barrio, Francisco; Costa, Bernardo; Flores-Mateo, Gemma

    2017-04-01

    Lifestyle is linked to the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, its relationship with dietary patterns remains unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to analyse the association of a posteriori dietary patterns with the metabolic syndrome. The PubMed, CINAHL and Scopus databases were searched for epidemiological studies of dietary patterns and MetS. The association between dietary patterns and MetS was estimated using a random-effects meta-analysis with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 28 cross-sectional studies and three cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. In a comparison of the highest to the lowest category of prudent/healthy dietary patterns, the pooled odds ratio (OR) for MetS was 0.83 (95 % CI 0.76, 0.90; P for heterogeneity =0.0; and I 2  = 72.1 %) in cross-sectional studies, and the pooled relative risk (RR) for MetS in cohort studies was 0.91 (95 % CI 0.68, 1.21; P for heterogeneity =0.005; I 2  = 81.1 %). The pooled OR for MetS in a comparison of the highest to the lowest category of Western dietary patterns was 1.28 (95 % CI 1.17, 1.40; P for heterogeneity =0.0; and I 2  = 72.0 %) in cross-sectional studies, and the RR was 0.96 (95 % CI 0.53, 1.73; P for heterogeneity =0.102; I 2  = 62.6 %) in cohort studies. The results from cross-sectional studies showed that a prudent/healthy pattern is associated with a lower prevalence of MetS, whereas a Western/unhealthy is associated with an increased risk for MetS. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between dietary patterns and MetS.

  19. Untangling metabolic and spatial interactions of stress tolerance in plants. 1. Patterns of carbon metabolism within leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, Karl Y; Fomina, Irina R; Nazarova, Galina N; Soukhovolsky, Vladislav G; Khlebopros, Rem G; Nishio, John N

    2010-09-01

    The localization of the key photoreductive and oxidative processes and some stress-protective reactions within leaves of mesophytic C(3) plants were investigated. The role of light in determining the profile of Rubisco, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, catalase, fumarase, and cytochrome-c-oxidase across spinach leaves was examined by exposing leaves to illumination on either the adaxial or abaxial leaf surfaces. Oxygen evolution in fresh paradermal leaf sections and CO(2) gas exchange in whole leaves under adaxial or abaxial illumination was also examined. The results showed that the palisade mesophyll is responsible for the midday depression of photosynthesis in spinach leaves. The photosynthetic apparatus was more sensitive to the light environment than the respiratory apparatus. Additionally, examination of the paradermal leaf sections by optical microscopy allowed us to describe two new types of parenchyma in spinach-pirum mesophyll and pillow spongy mesophyll. A hypothesis that oxaloacetate may protect the upper leaf tissue from the destructive influence of active oxygen is presented. The application of mathematical modeling shows that the pattern of enzymatic distribution across leaves abides by the principle of maximal ecological utility. Light regulation of carbon metabolism across leaves is discussed.

  20. Actigraphic assessment of daily sleep-activity pattern abnormalities reflects self-assessed depression and anxiety in outpatients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du-Quiton, Jovelyn; Wood, Patricia A; Burch, James B; Grutsch, James F; Gupta, Digant; Tyer, Kevin; Lis, Christopher G; Levin, Robert D; Quiton, Dinah Faith T; Reynolds, Justin L; Hrushesky, William J M

    2010-02-01

    We measured subjectively evaluated depression and anxiety, and objectively measured daily sleep-activity patterns in inpatients and outpatients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and determined whether cancer-associated depression and anxiety are accompanied by characteristic circadian rhythm abnormalities. Equal numbers of inpatients (n=42) and outpatients (n=42) with advanced NSCLC were studied. Baseline depression and anxiety, assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and actigraphy were recorded before chemotherapy initiation. The effects of the presence and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on depression, anxiety, and actigraphy were assessed only among the 42 outpatients. Anxiety occurred in 40% and depression in 25% of these lung cancer patients, equally among inpatients and outpatients. All patients suffer extremely disturbed daily sleep-activity cycles but each patient also maintains some degree of circadian organization. Outpatients maintain more robust daily activity patterns and longer, more consolidated nighttime sleep compared with inpatients. The more disrupted the daily sleep-activity rhythm, the worse the depression and/or anxiety scores for outpatients. These relationships are obscured among inpatients. COPD has no independent measurable effects on the daily organization of sleep-activity, depression, or anxiety. Lung cancer patients whose diurnal activity is disturbed by prolonged and frequent sedentary episodes and whose sleep is disturbed by frequent and prolonged waking are most anxious and depressed. These findings and relationships are masked by hospitalization. Since diurnal exercise improves both sleep and mood, it is reasonable to test whether enhancing daytime activity and nighttime sleep can diminish cancer-associated depression.

  1. Metabolic, endocrine and appetite-related responses to acute and daily milk snack consumption in healthy, adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benjamin P; Stevenson, Emma J; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2017-01-01

    Comprising of two experiments, this study assessed the metabolic, endocrine and appetite-related responses to acute and chronic milk consumption in adolescent males (15-18 y). Eleven adolescents [mean ± SD age: 16.5 ± 0.9 y; BMI: 23.3 ± 3.3 kg/m 2 ] participated in the acute experiment and completed two laboratory visits (milk vs. fruit-juice) in a randomized crossover design, separated by 7-d. Seventeen adolescents [age: 16.1 ± 0.9 y; BMI: 21.8 ± 3.7 kg/m 2 ] completed the chronic experiment. For the chronic experiment, a parallel design with two groups was used. Participants were randomly allocated and consumed milk (n = 9) or fruit-juice (n = 8) for 28-d, completing laboratory visits on the first (baseline, day-0) and last day (follow-up, day-28) of the intervention phase. On laboratory visits (for both experiments), measures of appetite, metabolism and endocrine responses were assessed at regular intervals. In addition, eating behavior was quantified by ad libitum assessment under laboratory conditions and in the free-living environment by weighed food record. Acute milk intake stimulated glucagon (P = 0.027 [16.8 pg mL; 95% CI: 2.4, 31.3]) and reduced ad libitum energy intake relative to fruit-juice (P = 0.048 [-651.3 kJ; 95% CI: -1294.1, -8.6]), but was comparable in the free-living environment. Chronic milk intake reduced free-living energy intake at the follow-up visit compared to baseline (P = 0.013 [-1910.9 kJ; 95% CI: -554.6, -3267.2]), whereas the opposite was apparent for fruit-juice. Relative to baseline, chronic milk intake increased the insulin response to both breakfast (P = 0.031) and mid-morning milk consumption (P = 0.050) whilst attenuating blood glucose (P = 0.025). Together, these findings suggest milk consumption impacts favorably on eating behavior in adolescent males, potentially through integrated endocrine responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Epithelial and Mesenchymal Tumor Compartments Exhibit In Vivo Complementary Patterns of Vascular Perfusion and Glucose Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Galiè

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucose transport and consumption are increased in tumors, and this is considered a diagnostic index of malignancy. However, there is recent evidence that carcinoma-associated stromal cells are capable of aerobic metabolism with low glucose consumption, at least partly because of their efficient vascular supply. In the present study, using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography (PET, we mapped in vivo the vascular supply and glucose metabolism in syngeneic experimental models of carcinoma and mesenchymal tumor. We found that in both tumor histotypes, regions with high vascular perfusion exhibited a significantly lower FDG uptake. This reciprocity was more conspicuous in carcinomas than in mesenchymal tumors, and regions with a high-vascular/low-FDG uptake pattern roughly overlapped with a stromal capsule and intratumoral large connectival septa. Accordingly, mesenchymal tumors exhibited a higher vascular perfusion and a lower FDG uptake than carcinomas. Thus, we provide in vivo evidence of vascular/metabolic reciprocity between epithelial and mesenchymal histotypes in tumors, suggesting a new intriguing aspect of epithelial-stromal interaction. Our results suggests that FDG-PET-based clinical analysis can underestimate the malignity or tumor extension of carcinomas exhibiting any trait of “mesenchymalization” such as desmoplasia or epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

  3. Elucidating the global elapid (Squamata) richness pattern under metabolic theory of ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Rosana Talita; Oliveira de Grande, Thallita; de Souza Barreto, Bruno; Felizola Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre; Terribile, Levi Carina

    2014-04-01

    Environmental determinants of global patterns in species richness are still uncertain. The Metabolic Theory of Ecology (MTE) proposes that species richness patterns can be explained by environmental temperature acting on the metabolism of ectothermic organisms. However, the generality of this theory has been questioned due to its low fit to the geographic variation in species richness of different taxonomic groups. Here, we investigated whether the MTE drives elapid richness, testing the non-stationarity of the relationship between the natural logarithm of species richness (ln S) and the inverse function of temperature (1/kT) using a geographically weighted regression (GWR). The relationship between ln S and 1/kT varied systematically over space and showed non-stationarity. Few tropical locations were consistent with MTE predictions, whereas other regions fitted differently. Although the slope of the GWR model ranged from low to high, the temperature did not predict species richness strongly on average and did not limit the upper values of richness. The response of richness to temperature in some areas might reflect a recent history of colonization and diversification of species across tropical and subtropical regions. In regions not affected by temperature, species richness should be structured by other biotic and abiotic interactions. This scenario reveals that the non-stationarity of the relationship would be linked to idiosyncrasies in the sample sites, which can drift the magnitude or change the relationship between species richness and temperature throughout space.

  4. Daily physical-rest activities in relation to nutritional state, metabolism, and quality of life in cancer patients with progressive cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladiun, Marita; Körner, Ulla; Gunnebo, Lena; Sixt-Ammilon, Petra; Bosaeus, Ingvar; Lundholm, Kent

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate daily physical-rest activities in cancer patients losing weight in relation to disease progression. Physical activity-rest rhythms were measured (ActiGraph, armband sensor from BodyMedia) in relation to body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), energy metabolism, exercise capacity (walking test), and self-scored quality of life (SF-36, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) in weight-losing outpatients with systemic cancer (71 +/- 2 years, n = 53). Well-nourished, age-matched, and previously hospitalized non-cancer patients served as controls (74 +/- 4 years, n = 8). Middle-aged healthy individuals were used as reference subjects (49 +/- 5 years, n = 23). Quality of life was globally reduced in patients with cancer (P sleep and bed-rest activities did not differ between patients with cancer and age-matched non-cancer patients. Spontaneous physical activity correlated weakly with maximum exercise capacity in univariate analysis (r = 0.41, P < 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that spontaneous physical activity was related to weight loss, blood hemoglobin concentration, C-reactive protein, and to subjectively scored items of physical functioning and bodily pain (SF-36; P < 0.05-0.004). Anxiety and depression were not related to spontaneous physical activity. Patient survival was predicted only by weight loss and serum albumin levels (P < 0.01), although there was no such prediction for spontaneous physical activity. Daily physical-rest activities represent variables which probably reflect complex mental physiologic and metabolic interactions. Thus, activity-rest monitoring provides a new dimension in the evaluation of medical and drug interventions during palliative treatment of patients with cancer.

  5. A minimally processed dietary pattern is associated with lower odds of metabolic syndrome among Lebanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasreddine, Lara; Tamim, Hani; Itani, Leila; Nasrallah, Mona P; Isma'eel, Hussain; Nakhoul, Nancy F; Abou-Rizk, Joana; Naja, Farah

    2018-01-01

    To (i) estimate the consumption of minimally processed, processed and ultra-processed foods in a sample of Lebanese adults; (ii) explore patterns of intakes of these food groups; and (iii) investigate the association of the derived patterns with cardiometabolic risk. Cross-sectional survey. Data collection included dietary assessment using an FFQ and biochemical, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. Food items were categorized into twenty-five groups based on the NOVA food classification. The contribution of each food group to total energy intake (TEI) was estimated. Patterns of intakes of these food groups were examined using exploratory factor analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of derived patterns with cardiometabolic risk factors. Greater Beirut area, Lebanon. Adults ≥18 years (n 302) with no prior history of chronic diseases. Of TEI, 36·53 and 27·10 % were contributed by ultra-processed and minimally processed foods, respectively. Two dietary patterns were identified: the 'ultra-processed' and the 'minimally processed/processed'. The 'ultra-processed' consisted mainly of fast foods, snacks, meat, nuts, sweets and liquor, while the 'minimally processed/processed' consisted mostly of fruits, vegetables, legumes, breads, cheeses, sugar and fats. Participants in the highest quartile of the 'minimally processed/processed' pattern had significantly lower odds for metabolic syndrome (OR=0·18, 95 % CI 0·04, 0·77), hyperglycaemia (OR=0·25, 95 % CI 0·07, 0·98) and low HDL cholesterol (OR=0·17, 95 % CI 0·05, 0·60). The study findings may be used for the development of evidence-based interventions aimed at encouraging the consumption of minimally processed foods.

  6. Glucose Metabolism Gene Expression Patterns and Tumor Uptake of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose After Radiation Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, George D.; Thibodeau, Bryan J.; Fortier, Laura E.; Pruetz, Barbara L.; Galoforo, Sandra; Baschnagel, Andrew M.; Chunta, John; Oliver Wong, Ching Yee; Yan, Di; Marples, Brian; Huang, Jiayi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether radiation treatment influences the expression of glucose metabolism genes and compromises the potential use of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) as a tool to monitor the early response of head and neck cancer xenografts to radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Low passage head and neck squamous cancer cells (UT14) were injected to the flanks of female nu/nu mice to generate xenografts. After tumors reached a size of 500 mm 3 they were treated with either sham RT or 15 Gy in 1 fraction. At different time points, days 3, 9, and 16 for controls and days 4, 7, 12, 21, 30, and 40 after irradiation, 2 to 3 mice were assessed with dynamic FDG-PET acquisition over 2 hours. Immediately after the FDG-PET the tumors were harvested for global gene expression analysis and immunohistochemical evaluation of GLUT1 and HK2. Different analytic parameters were used to process the dynamic PET data. Results: Radiation had no effect on key genes involved in FDG uptake and metabolism but did alter other genes in the HIF1α and glucose transport–related pathways. In contrast to the lack of effect on gene expression, changes in the protein expression patterns of the key genes GLUT1/SLC2A1 and HK2 were observed after radiation treatment. The changes in GLUT1 protein expression showed some correlation with dynamic FDG-PET parameters, such as the kinetic index. Conclusion: 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography changes after RT would seem to represent an altered metabolic state and not a direct effect on the key genes regulating FDG uptake and metabolism

  7. Revisiting the daily human birth pattern: time of delivery at Casa de Maternidad in Madrid (1887-1892).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varea, Carlos; Fernández-Cerezo, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Among the ancestral characteristics of the primate group to which Homo sapiens belongs we find a pattern of daytime physical activity, but one notable exception is birthing which usually begins with night-time labor. In populations with a moderate or high level of medicalized labor, there is evidence that the medical preferences interfere with the underlying biological mechanism for the circadian pattern of human birth. This study analyses the hourly patterns of 4,599 single live births in the House of Maternity in Madrid between 1887 and 1892, a period of very limited obstetric intervention and without the influence of artificial lighting. In order to determine the influence of natural light on labor, two periods of maximum and minimum light have been established around the summer and winter solstices of the years in question. A clear circadian pattern of births emerges, with very early morning and early morning births dominating, and a sharp drop from midday until nightfall. The hourly distribution on both solstices follows this pattern, but with a clear peak shift: in winter, there is a greater concentration of deliveries in the early morning, whereas in the summer, the highest concentration is between 8 and 12 in the morning. The results confirm that non-intervened human birth has a clear diurnal cycle, with a higher incidence of deliveries in the early morning or morning. The shift in distribution during the winter and summer solstices seems to confirm the effect of light on the labor process. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Carbon isotopic patterns of amino acids associated with various microbial metabolic pathways and physiological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P. L.; Hsiao, K. T.; Lin, L. H.

    2017-12-01

    Amino acids represent one of the most important categories of biomolecule. Their abundance and isotopic patterns have been broadly used to address issues related to biochemical processes and elemental cycling in natural environments. Previous studies have shown that various carbon assimilative pathways of microorganisms (e.g. autotrophy, heterotrophy and acetotrophy) could be distinguished by carbon isotopic patterns of amino acids. However, the taxonomic and catabolic coverage are limited in previous examination. This study aims to uncover the carbon isotopic patterns of amino acids for microorganisms remaining uncharacterized but bearing biogeochemical and ecological significance in anoxic environments. To fulfill the purpose, two anaerobic strains were isolated from riverine wetland and mud volcano in Taiwan. One strain is a sulfate reducing bacterium (related to Desulfovibrio marrakechensis), which is capable of utilizing either H2 or lactate, and the other is a methanogen (related to Methanolobus profundi), which grows solely with methyl-group compounds. Carbon isotope analyses of amino acids were performed on cells grown in exponential and stationary phase. The isotopic patterns were similar for all examined cultures, showing successive 13C depletion along synthetic pathways. No significant difference was observed for the methanogen and lactate-utilizing sulfate reducer harvested in exponential and stationary phases. In contrast, the H2-utilizing sulfate reducer harvested in stationary phase depleted and enriched 13C in aspartic acid and glycine, respectively when compared with that harvested in exponential phase. Such variations might infer the change of carbon flux during synthesis of these two amino acids in the reverse TCA cycle. In addition, the discriminant function analysis for all available data from culture studies further attests the capability of using carbon isotope patterns of amino acids in identifying microbial metabolisms.

  9. Dietary patterns, metabolic markers and subjective sleep measures in resident physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Maria Carliana; De-Souza, Daurea Abadia; Rossato, Luana Thomazetto; Silva, Catarina Mendes; Araújo, Maria Bernadete Jeha; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida

    2013-10-01

    Shiftwork is common in medical training and is necessary for 24-h hospital coverage. Shiftwork poses difficulties not only because of the loss of actual sleep hours but also because it can affect other factors related to lifestyle, such as food intake, physical activity level, and, therefore, metabolic patterns. However, few studies have investigated the nutritional and metabolic profiles of medical personnel receiving training who are participating in shiftwork. The aim of the present study was to identify the possible negative effects of food intake, anthropometric variables, and metabolic and sleep patterns of resident physicians and establish the differences between genders. The study included 72 resident physicians (52 women and 20 men) who underwent the following assessments: nutritional assessment (3-day dietary recall evaluated by the Adapted Healthy Eating Index), anthropometric variables (height, weight, body mass index, and waist circumference), fasting metabolism (lipids, cortisol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP], glucose, and insulin), physical activity level (Baecke questionnaire), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; PSQI), and sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale; ESS). We observed a high frequency of residents who were overweight or obese (65% for men and 21% for women; p = 0.004). Men displayed significantly greater body mass index (BMI) values (p = 0.002) and self-reported weight gain after the beginning of residency (p = 0.008) than women. Poor diet was observed for both genders, including the low intake of vegetables and fruits and the high intake of sweets, saturated fat, cholesterol, and caffeine. The PSQI global scores indicated significant differences between genders (5.9 vs. 7.5 for women and men, respectively; p = 0.01). Women had significantly higher mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; p 100 mg/dL) were observed in most individuals. Higher than recommended hs-CRP levels were observed in 66% of the

  10. Variation in daily flight activity and foraging patterns in colonies of uruçu - Melipona scutellaris Latreille (Apidae, Meliponini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Monteiro Pierrot

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The flight activities of five colonies of Melipona (Michmelia scutellaris Latreille, 1811 kept among mixed fruit crop plantations in within fragments of Atlantic Rainforest in Pernambuco, NE-Brazil was examined. The daily deployment of foragers to collect pollen, nectar, resin and mud was observed. The colonies performed between 2,640 and 14,250 flights per day. Variations in the number of total daily flights were similar between colonies on all observation days. Proportional allocation of foragers to the different resources also among colonies showed similar variation. More than 90% of the pollen collection flights were made early in the morning. Nectar was collected in similar proportional frequencies with a reduction in activity at noon. On a single day, was observed atypical intense pollen foraging during the afternoon by all colonies. This indicates a high plasticity in foraging behaviour and efficient recruitment to resources which are presented by mass flowering trees with synchronised big bang or multiple bang flowering. Resource availability of the surrounding vegetation, therefore, seems to be the major factor in defining the forager activities on a given day.

  11. Association between the pattern of IGFBP-1 alteration and the glucose/insulin metabolic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedić, O; Masnikosa, R; Lagundžin, D

    2011-05-01

    Little is known on the possible association between impaired glucose/insulin metabolism, the pattern of IGFBP-1 phosphorylation and the complex formation with other serum proteins. In this study, the concentration, isoform, multimer and complex pattern of IGFBP-1 was compared in healthy persons and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or with hypoglycemia. Concentrations of insulin and IGFBP-1 were determined by radioimmunoassay. Metal affinity and immunoaffinity chromatography were used for the separation of molecular forms of IGFBP-1, which were detected by immunoblotting and SELDI. The counter directional change in insulin and IGFBP-1 concentrations, expressed as a factor that takes into consideration the rate of insulin increase and IGFBP-1 decrease after glucose intake was approximately twice more pronounced in patients with diabetes than in healthy and hypoglycemic persons. The alteration in the phosphorylation pattern of IGFBP-1 due to diabetes or hypoglycemia was not observed. IGFBP-1 multimers found in the circulation of patients with diabetes type 2 differed from those detected in the circulation of others: there were 3 molecular forms between 90 and 100 kDa (compared to one in patients with hypoglycemia or 2 in healthy persons), 2 of which were α (2)M-reactive and one not. These results suggest a possible greater involvement of IGF system in glucose regulation in patients with diabetes type 2. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. The global metabolic transition: Regional patterns and trends of global material flows, 1950-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffartzik, Anke; Mayer, Andreas; Gingrich, Simone; Eisenmenger, Nina; Loy, Christian; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2014-05-01

    Since the World War II, many economies have transitioned from an agrarian, biomass-based to an industrial, minerals-based metabolic regime. Since 1950, world population grew by factor 2.7 and global material consumption by factor 3.7-71 Gigatonnes per year in 2010. The expansion of the resource base required by human societies is associated with growing pressure on the environment and infringement on the habitats of other species. In order to achieve a sustainability transition, we require a better understanding of the currently ongoing metabolic transition and its potential inertia. In this article, we present a long-term global material flow dataset covering material extraction, trade, and consumption of 177 individual countries between 1950 and 2010. We trace patterns and trends in material flows for six major geographic and economic country groupings and world regions (Western Industrial, the (Former) Soviet Union and its allies, Asia, the Middle East and Northern Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa) as well as their contribution to the emergence of a global metabolic profile during a period of rapid industrialization and globalization. Global average material use increased from 5.0 to 10.3 tons per capita and year (t/cap/a) between 1950 and 2010. Regional metabolic rates range from 4.5 t/cap/a in Sub-Saharan Africa to 14.8 t/cap/a in the Western Industrial grouping. While we can observe a stabilization of the industrial metabolic profile composed of relatively equal shares of biomass, fossil energy carriers, and construction minerals, we note differences in the degree to which other regions are gravitating toward a similar form of material use. Since 2000, Asia has overtaken the Western Industrial grouping in terms of its share in global resource use although not in terms of its per capita material consumption. We find that at a sub-global level, the roles of the world regions have changed. There are, however, no signs yet that

  13. Evaluation of potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome in bottlenose dolphins:feeding and activity patterns of dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Randall S.; McHugh, Katherine A.; Douglas, David C.; Shippee, Steve; McCabe, Elizabeth Berens; Barros, Nélio B.; Phillips, Goldie T.

    2014-01-01

    Free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) living in Sarasota Bay, Florida appear to have a lower risk of developing insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome compared to a group of dolphins managed under human care. Similar to humans, differences in diet and activity cycles between these groups may explain why Sarasota dolphins have lower insulin, glucose, and lipids. To identify potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome, existing and new data were incorporated to describe feeding and activity patterns of the Sarasota Bay wild dolphin community. Sarasota dolphins eat a wide variety of live fish and spend 10–20% of daylight hours foraging and feeding. Feeding occurs throughout the day, with the dolphins eating small proportions of their total daily intake in brief bouts. The natural pattern of wild dolphins is to feed as necessary and possible at any time of the day or night. Wild dolphins rarely eat dead fish or consume large amounts of prey in concentrated time periods. Wild dolphins are active throughout the day and night; they may engage in bouts of each key activity category at any time during daytime. Dive patterns of radio-tagged dolphins varied only slightly with time of day. Travel rates may be slightly lower at night, suggesting a diurnal rhythm, albeit not one involving complete, extended rest. In comparison, the managed dolphins are older; often fed a smaller variety of frozen-thawed fish types; fed fish species not in their natural diet; feedings and engaged activities are often during the day; and they are fed larger but fewer meals. In summary, potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome in dolphins may include young age, activity, and small meals fed throughout the day and night, and specific fish nutrients. These protective factors against insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are similar to those reported in humans. Further studies may benefit humans and dolphins.

  14. Daily to decadal patterns of precipitation, humidity, and photosynthetic physiology recorded in the spines of the columnar cactus, Carnegiea gigantea

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Nathan B.; Dettman, David L.; Sandquist, Darren R.; Williams, David G.

    2010-06-01

    Isotopic analyses of cactus spines grown serially from the apex of long-lived columnar cactuses may be useful for climatological and ecological studies if time series can be reliably determined from spines. To characterize the timescales over which spines may record this information, we measured spine growth in saguaro cactus over days, months, and years with time-lapse photography, periodic marking, and postbomb radiocarbon dating and then analyzed isotopic variability over these same timescales and compared these measurements to local climate. We used daily increments of growth, visible as transverse bands of light and dark tissue in spines, as chronometers to develop diurnally resolved δ13C and δ18O records from three spines grown in series over a 70 day period. We also constructed a 22 year record of δ13C variations from spine tips arranged in chronological sequence along the side of a 4 m tall, single-stemmed saguaro. We evaluated two mechanisms potentially responsible for daily, weekly, and annual variability in δ13C values of spines; both related to vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Our data suggest that stomatal conductance is unlikely to be the determinant of δ13C variation in spines. We suggest that either VPD-induced changes in the balance of nighttime- and daytime-assimilated CO2 or mesophyll-limited diffusion of CO2 at night are the most likely determinant of δ13C variation in spines. Intra-annual and interannual variability of δ18O in spine tissue appears to be controlled by the mass balance of 18O-depleted water taken up after rain events and evaporative enrichment of 18O in tissue water between rains. We were able to estimate the annual growth and areole generation rate of a saguaro cactus from its 22 yearlong isotopic record because VPD, rainfall, and evaporation exhibit strong annual cycles in the Sonoran Desert and these variations are recorded in the oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of spines.

  15. Risk factors clustering within the metabolic syndrome: a pattern or by chance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parapid, Biljana; Ostojic, Miodrag C; Lalic, Nebojsa M; Micic, Dragan; Damjanovic, Svetozar; Bubanja, Dragana; Simic, Dragan; Lalic, Katarina; Polovina, Snezana; Marinkovic, Jelena; Milic, Natasa M

    2014-01-01

    An accumulation of various cardiovascular risk factors has been noted to occur within the clinical diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. However, it remains unclear whether specific risk factors aggregate following a predefined pattern or whether this happens by chance. This cross-sectional study involved 1715 adults, 37% males and 63% females, aged 34-80 years, who were consecutively recruited from cardiology and endocrinology outpatient clinics, and from internal medicine specialists in the primary healthcare physician office setting in Serbia, on a one-third basis. According to the AHA/NHLBI criteria, the actual prevalence of a combination of 3 or more of the following risk factors was determined: abnormal waist circumference, hypertension, high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and abnormal fasting glucose. In addition, the prevalence of a corresponding combination of 3 factors was predicted from the prevalence of each factor in a given population, assuming that their combination occurred as the result of chance. The most frequent risk factor was hypertension (87%), followed by waist circumference (60%), dyslipidemia (55%), and abnormal fasting glucose level (50%). Metabolic syndrome was identified in 1135 participants (66.2%). The actual prevalence of the combination of increased waist circumference, elevated blood sugar and hypertension was found to be 5 times more frequent than would be expected to occur by chance (10% actual vs. 2% predicted; prisk factors within the metabolic syndrome was found for abdominal obesity, abnormal fasting glucose and hypertension. These risk factors do cluster more frequently than coincidental phenomena in the subjects of the given population, implying common underlying pathophysiological mechanisms.

  16. Beyond the mean: A systematic review on the correlates of daily intraindividual variability of sleep/wake patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Bei; Wiley, Joshua F; Trinder, John; Manber, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Features of an individual's sleep/wake patterns across multiple days are governed by two dimensions, the mean and the intraindividual variability (IIV). The existing literature focuses on the means, while the nature and correlates of sleep/wake IIV are not well understood. A systematic search of records in five major databases from inception to November 2014 identified 53 peer-reviewed empirical publications that examined correlates of sleep/wake IIV in adults. Overall, this literature appeared unsystematic and post hoc, with under-developed theoretical frameworks and inconsistent methodologies. Correlates most consistently associated with greater IIV in one or more aspects of sleep/wake patterns were: younger age, non-White race/ethnicity, living alone, physical health conditions, higher body mass index, weight gain, bipolar and unipolar depression symptomatology, stress, and evening chronotype; symptoms of insomnia and poor sleep were associated with higher sleep/wake IIV, which was reduced following sleep interventions. The effects of experimentally reduced sleep/wake IIV on daytime functioning were inconclusive. In extending current understanding of sleep/wake patterns beyond the mean values, IIV should be incorporated as an additional dimension when sleep is examined across multiple days. Theoretical and methodological shortcomings in the existing literature, and opportunities for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender specific effect of major dietary patterns on the metabolic syndrome risk in Korean pre-pubertal children

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Soo Jin; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Seon Mee; Lee, Myoungsook

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of data on metabolic risk factors during pre-puberty, which is important for identifying the subgroups of youth, at whom early interventions should be targeted. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of metabolic risk factors and its subsequent relations with dietary patterns in Korean pre-pubertal children through a cross-sectional sample (n = 1,008; boys = 513) of pre-pubertal children (aged 8-9 years) from a sub-study of the Korea Metabolic Syndrome Research Initiatives...

  18. Sub-daily growth patterns and environmental recording in the shell of the Chilean coastal gastropod Concholepas concholepas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, N.; Cuif, J.-P.; Ortlieb, L.

    2003-04-01

    It is nowadays well established that paleo-oceanographic reconstructions based on variations of the geochemical composition of molluscs shells require a good understanding of many biological and biogeochemical processes affecting the shell formation and of the different kinds of diagenetic effects superimposed to the biominerals. Therefore, the parameters which control the growth modality as well as the ecological behaviour of the organisms become a prerequisite in the study of geochemical variations within carbonate skeletons. Such studies involve a calibration of the relationships between the actual environmental parameters and the registered variations of the elements or isotopes measured within the biominerals. This approach must take into account the size of the measured samples (eventually limited by instrumental techniques) and the variation of the relevant parameters during the time period covered by the sample. In a study aimed to reconstruct ENSO and upwelling impacts from geochemical variations within shells of a coastal gastropod of northern Chile, Concholepas concholepas, we undertook microstructural, mineralogical, biochemical analyses. Preliminary stable isotope analyses made with 0.3 mm standard drills provided δ18O values between 1,0 and 2,5 (/PDB) and Mg/Ca ratios between 2,0 and 5,5 mmol/mol for the calcitic layers of shells that grew in 1998--2000 (temperature range: 15--21^oC). Sr, Ba and Cd measured in the water are in the order of 10 ppm, 4,5 ppb and 0,040 ppb respectively, while the composition of the same elements (with respect to Ca) in the shells amount to mean values of 1,5 mmol/mol, 0,6 μmol/mol and 0,1 μmol/mol. For high resolution calibration studies, to be developed with laser ICP-MS and ionic microprobes, it is necessary to identify with a great (sub-daily) precision the time of formation of the considered fragment of shells that are subsampled. To achieve this requisite, we have grown Concholepas concholepas individuals in a

  19. Development of Dietary Patterns Spanning Infancy and Toddlerhood: Relation to Body Size, Composition and Metabolic Risk Markers at Three Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B. B.; Mølgaard, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the development of dietary patterns during toddlerhood and the relation to growth and health. The study objective was to characterise the development of dietary patterns from 9-36 mo of age and investigate the association to body size, body composition and metabolic risk...... markers at 36 mo. Food records were filled out at 9, 18 and 36 mo of age (n = 229). Dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis (PCA). Three dietary patterns were identified: Transition Food, Healthy Food and Traditional Food. The course of development in dietary patterns from 9-36 mo...... total cholesterol and LDL. Hence, this could represent undesirable development of dietary patterns in toddlers. In conclusion, development of dietary patterns can be exploratory characterised by PCA and related to potential cardiovascular risk markers in toddlers even within a relatively homogeneous...

  20. Effects of sexually dimorphic growth hormone secretory patterns on arachidonic acid metabolizing enzymes in rodent heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Furong; Yu, Xuming; He, Chunyan; Ouyang, Xiufang; Wu, Jinhua; Li, Jie; Zhang, Junjie; Duan, Xuejiao; Wan, Yu; Yue, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    The arachidonic acid (AA) metabolizing enzymes are the potential therapeutic targets of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). As sex differences have been shown in the risk and outcome of CVDs, we investigated the regulation of heart AA metabolizing enzymes (COXs, LOXs, and CYPs) by sex-dependent growth hormone (GH) secretory patterns. The pulsatile (masculine) GH secretion at a physiological concentration decreased CYP1A1 and CYP2J3 mRNA levels more efficiently in the H9c2 cells compared with the constant (feminine) GH secretion; however, CYP1B1 mRNA levels were higher following the pulsatile GH secretion. Sex differences in CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYP2J11 mRNA levels were observed in both the wild-type and GHR deficient mice. No sex differences in the mRNA levels of COXs, LOXs, or CYP2E1 were observed in the wild-type mice. The constant GH infusion induced heart CYP1A1 and CYP2J11, and decreased CYP1B1 in the male C57/B6 mice constantly infused with GH (0.4 μg/h, 7 days). The activity of rat Cyp2j3 promoter was inhibited by the STAT5B protein, but was activated by C/EBPα (CEBPA). Compared with the constant GH administration, the levels of the nuclear phosphorylated STAT5B protein and its binding to the rat Cyp2j3 promoter were higher following the pulsatile GH administration. The constant GH infusion decreased the binding of the nuclear phosphorylated STAT5B protein to the mouse Cyp2j11 promoter. The data suggest the sexually dimorphic transcription of heart AA metabolizing enzymes, which might alter the risk and outcome of CVDs. GHR-STAT5B signal transduction pathway may be involved in the sex difference in heart CYP2J levels. - Highlights: • The transcription of heart Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1 and Cyp2j genes is sexually dimorphic. • There are no sex differences in the mRNA levels of heart COXs, LOXs, or CYP2E1. • GHR-STAT5B pathway is involved in sexually dimorphic transcription of heart Cpy2j genes. • Heart CYPs-mediated metabolism pathway of arachidonic acid may be sex

  1. Characterization of circannual patterns of metabolic recovery from activity in Rana catesbeiana at 15 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, A M; Gleeson, T T

    2007-05-01

    We characterized carbohydrate metabolism following activity in the American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, and compared whole body metabolic profiles between two seasons. Forty-eight adult male Rana catesbeiana were chronically cannulated and injected with [U-(14)C]L-lactic acid sodium salt in either summer (June) or winter (January) after acclimation for 2 weeks at 15 degrees C with a 12 h:12 h L:D photoperiod. Following injection with [(14)C]lactate, frogs were either allowed to rest for 240 min (REST), hopped for 2 min on a treadmill and immediately sacrificed (PE), or hopped for 2 min on a treadmill and allowed to recover for 240 min (REC 4). Exercise caused a significant increase in blood lactate level from 2.7+/-0.1 mmol l(-1) at rest to 17.0+/-2.1 mmol l(-1) immediately following exercise. This increase persisted throughout the recovery period, with average blood lactate level only reduced to 13.7+/-1.1 mmol l(-1) after 240 min of recovery, despite complete recovery of intramuscular lactate levels. Lactate levels were not significantly different between seasons in any treatment (REST, PE, REC4), in either gastrocnemius muscle or blood. The vast majority of [(14)C]lactate was recovered in the muscle, in both winter (86.3%) and summer (87.5%). Season had no effect on total amount of (14)C label recovered. [(14)C]Lactate was measured in the forms of lactate, glucose and glycogen, in the liver and the muscle sampled. The most robust difference found in seasonal metabolism was that both the liver and the gastrocnemius contained significantly higher levels of intracellular free glucose under all treatments in winter. These data suggest that, overall, bullfrogs accumulate and slowly clear lactate in a manner quite similar to findings in fish, other amphibians and lizards. Additionally, our findings indicate that lactate metabolism is not highly influenced by season alone, but that intracellular glucose levels may be sensitive to annual patterns.

  2. Change in sympathetic nerve firing pattern associated with dietary weight loss in the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Annie Lambert

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Sympathetic activation in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MS plays a role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease development. Diet-induced weight loss decreases sympathetic outflow. However the mechanisms that account for sympathetic inhibition are not known. We sought to provide a detailed description of the sympathetic response to diet by analyzing the firing behavior of single-unit sympathetic nerve fibres. Fourteen subjects (57±2 years, 9 men, 5 females fulfilling ATP III criteria for the MS underwent a 3-month low calorie diet. Metabolic profile, hemodynamic parameters and multi-unit and single unit muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, microneurography were assessed prior to and at the end of the diet. Patients’ weight dropped from 96±4 to 88±3 kg (P<0.001. This was associated with a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (-12 ±3 and -5±2 mmHg, P<0.05, and in heart rate (-7±2 bpm, P<0.01 and an improvement in all metabolic parameters (fasting glucose: -0.302.1±0.118 mmol/l, total cholesterol: -0.564±0.164 mmol/l, triglycerides: -0.414±0.137 mmol/l, P<0.05. Multi-unit MSNA decreased from 68±4 to 59±5 bursts per 100 heartbeats (P<0.05. Single-unit MSNA indicated that the firing rate of individual vasoconstrictor fibres decreased from 59±10 to 32±4 spikes per 100 heart beats (P<0.05. The probability of firing decreased from 34±5 to 23±3 % of heartbeats (P<0.05, and the incidence of multiple firing decreased from 14±4 to 6±1 % of heartbeats (P<0.05. Cardiac and sympathetic baroreflex function were significantly improved (cardiac slope: 6.57±0.69 to 9.57±1.20 msec.mmHg-1; sympathetic slope: -3.86±0.34 to -5.05±0.47 bursts per 100 heartbeats.mmHg-1 P<0.05 for both. Hypocaloric diet decreased sympathetic activity and improved hemodynamic and metabolic parameters. The sympathoinhibition associated with weight loss involves marked changes, not only in the rate but also in the firing pattern of

  3. Association between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in individuals with normal weight: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliga, Edyta; Kozieł, Dorota; Cieśla, Elżbieta; Głuszek, Stanisław

    2015-05-30

    The results of several papers have confirmed the existence of correlations between an unhealthy diet and the presence of metabolic syndrome. However, relationships between eating habits and metabolic obesity with normal weight have not yet been sufficiently studied. The aim of the study is to determine which dietary patterns are present in individuals with a normal BMI and to find out whether those patterns were connected with the risk of metabolic syndrome and its features. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a group of 2479 subjects with a normal weight (BMI = 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)), aged between 37-66. The study included the evaluation of eating habits, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure tests and the analysis of the collected fasting-blood samples, on the basis of which cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels were determined. Dietary patterns were determined by means of factor analysis. In the group of individuals with a normal BMI, four dietary patterns were distinguished: "healthy", "fat, meat and alcohol", "prudent" and "coca cola, hard cheese and French fries". After controlling for potential confounders, subjects in the highest tertile of prudent dietary pattern scores had a lower odds ratio for the metabolic obesity normal weight) (odds ratio: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.53-0.89; p cholesterol (odds ratio: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.59-0.99; p cholesterol concentration and increased glucose concentration.

  4. Diagnostic value of daily fluctuations in the free form of testosterone and cortisol in men with obesity and metabolic syndrome under the age of 50 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Kuznetsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The important pathogenetic link of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS in men are disorders of testosterone production in the testes and adrenal adrenal cortisol production. Тestosterone deficiency and functional hypercortisolism have a mutual influence on each other. Comprehensive assessment of testosterone and cortisol balance and identify their daily variability in the saliva may improve the diagnosis of hormonal disorders in men with obesity and MS. In the present study, by comparative and correlation analysis assessed the circadian rhythm of cortisol and testosterone production in young and middle age men, finding the relationship between the concentration of these hormones in the morning and evening portions of saliva with the changes of anthropometric, hemodynamic and metabolic parameters. The study involved 35 patients with MS, 16 – with overweight and obesity without the MS and 19 – with normal body weight. In men with obesity and MS found a violation of the circadian rhythm of testosterone production. Evening saliva testosterone showed a close correlation with the parameters of the MSome and clinical symptoms of androgen deficiency, as well as a more pronounced decrease with age. Circadian rhythm of cortisol production was not violated, but cortisol was significantly increased in the evening portion of saliva in patients with obesity and MS. MS was associated not only with an increase in the concentration of free salivary cortisol in the evening hours, but with lower cortisol levels in the batch of saliva collected in the morning, which is consistent with other studies.

  5. Towards area-based in vitro metabolic engineering: assembly of Pfs enzyme onto patterned microfabricated chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Angela T; Bentley, William E; Yi, Hyunmin; Rubloff, Gary W; Payne, Gregory F; Ghodssi, Reza

    2008-01-01

    We report an approach for spatially selective assembly of an enzyme onto selected patterns of microfabricated chips. Our approach is based on electrodeposition of the aminopolysaccharide chitosan onto selected electrode patterns and covalent conjugation of a target enzyme to chitosan upon biochemical activation of a genetically fused "pro-tag." We report assembly of S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase (Pfs) fused with a C-terminal pentatyrosine pro-tag. Pfs is a member of the bacterial autoinducer-2 biosynthesis pathway, catalyzing the irreversible cleavage of S-adenosylhomocysteine. The assembled Pfs retains its catalytic activity and structure, as demonstrated by retained antibody recognition. Assembly is controlled by the electrode area, resulting in reproducible rates of catalytic conversion for a given area, and thus allowing for area-based manipulation of catalysis and small molecule biosynthesis. Our approach enables optimization of small molecule biosynthesis in 1-step as well as multistep enzymatic reactions, including entire metabolic pathways, and we envision a wide variety of potential applications.

  6. Hydrometeorological daily recharge assessment model (DREAM) for the Western Mountain Aquifer, Israel: Model application and effects of temporal patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffer, N. A.; Dafny, E.; Gvirtzman, H.; Navon, S.; Frumkin, A.; Morin, E.

    2010-05-01

    Recharge is a critical issue for water management. Recharge assessment and the factors affecting recharge are of scientific and practical importance. The purpose of this study was to develop a daily recharge assessment model (DREAM) on the basis of a water balance principle with input from conventional and generally available precipitation and evaporation data and demonstrate the application of this model to recharge estimation in the Western Mountain Aquifer (WMA) in Israel. The WMA (area 13,000 km2) is a karst aquifer that supplies 360-400 Mm3 yr-1 of freshwater, which constitutes 20% of Israel's freshwater and is highly vulnerable to climate variability and change. DREAM was linked to a groundwater flow model (FEFLOW) to simulate monthly hydraulic heads and spring flows. The models were calibrated for 1987-2002 and validated for 2003-2007, yielding high agreement between calculated and measured values (R2 = 0.95; relative root-mean-square error = 4.8%; relative bias = 1.04). DREAM allows insights into the effect of intra-annual precipitation distribution factors on recharge. Although annual precipitation amount explains ˜70% of the variability in simulated recharge, analyses with DREAM indicate that the rainy season length is an important factor controlling recharge. Years with similar annual precipitation produce different recharge values as a result of temporal distribution throughout the rainy season. An experiment with a synthetic data set exhibits similar results, explaining ˜90% of the recharge variability. DREAM represents significant improvement over previous recharge estimation techniques in this region by providing near-real-time recharge estimates that can be used to predict the impact of climate variability on groundwater resources at high temporal and spatial resolution.

  7. Daily patterns of marijuana and alcohol co-use among individuals with alcohol and cannabis use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metrik, Jane; Gunn, Rachel L; Jackson, Kristina M; Sokolovsky, Alexander W; Borsari, Brian

    2018-04-15

    The study aims were to examine daily associations between marijuana and alcohol use and the extent to which the association differs as a function of cannabis use disorder (CUD) and/or alcohol use disorder (AUD) diagnosis. Timeline Followback interview data collected in a study of veterans (N=127) recruited from a Veterans Affairs hospital who reported at least one day of co-use of marijuana and alcohol in the past 180 days (22,860 observations). Participants reported 40% marijuana use days, 28% drinking days, with 37% meeting DSM-5 criteria for CUD, 40% for AUD, and 15% for both. Use of marijuana on a given day was used to predict a three-level gender-adjusted drinking variable (heavy: ≥ 5 (men)/4 (women) drinks; moderate: 1 - 4/3 drinks; or None: 0 drinks). A categorical four-level variable (no diagnosis, AUD, CUD, or both) was tested as a moderator of the marijuana-alcohol relationship. Multilevel modeling analyses demonstrated that participants were more likely to drink heavily compared to moderately (OR=2.34) and moderately compared to not drinking (OR =1.61) on marijuana use days relative to non-use days. On marijuana use days, those with AUD and those with AUD+CUD were more likely to drink heavily (OR=1.91; OR=2.51, respectively) but those with CUD were less likely to drink heavily (OR=.32) compared to moderately; non-significant differences between any vs. moderate drinking in interaction models. Heavy drinking occurs on days when marijuana is also used. This association is particularly evident in individuals diagnosed with both alcohol and cannabis use disorders and alcohol use disorders alone but not in those with only cannabis use disorders. Findings suggest that alcohol interventions may need to specifically address marijuana use as a risk factor for heavy drinking and AUD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression of the clock gene Rev-erbα in the brain controls the circadian organisation of food intake and locomotor activity, but not daily variations of energy metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, Satish; Dumont, Stéphanie; Sage-Ciocca, Dominique; Reibel, Sophie; de Goede, Paul; Kalsbeek, Andries; Challet, Etienne

    2018-01-01

    The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα is part of the molecular clock mechanism and is considered to be involved in a variety of biological processes within metabolically active peripheral tissues as well. To investigate whether Rev-erbα (also known as Nr1d1) in the brain plays a role in the daily variations

  9. BoostGAPFILL: improving the fidelity of metabolic network reconstructions through integrated constraint and pattern-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetunde, Tolutola; Zhang, Muhan; Chen, Yixin; Tang, Yinjie; Lo, Cynthia

    2017-02-15

    Metabolic network reconstructions are often incomplete. Constraint-based and pattern-based methodologies have been used for automated gap filling of these networks, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. Moreover, since validation of hypotheses made by gap filling tools require experimentation, it is challenging to benchmark performance and make improvements other than that related to speed and scalability. We present BoostGAPFILL, an open source tool that leverages both constraint-based and machine learning methodologies for hypotheses generation in gap filling and metabolic model refinement. BoostGAPFILL uses metabolite patterns in the incomplete network captured using a matrix factorization formulation to constrain the set of reactions used to fill gaps in a metabolic network. We formulate a testing framework based on the available metabolic reconstructions and demonstrate the superiority of BoostGAPFILL to state-of-the-art gap filling tools. We randomly delete a number of reactions from a metabolic network and rate the different algorithms on their ability to both predict the deleted reactions from a universal set and to fill gaps. For most metabolic network reconstructions tested, BoostGAPFILL shows above 60% precision and recall, which is more than twice that of other existing tools. MATLAB open source implementation ( https://github.com/Tolutola/BoostGAPFILL ). toyetunde@wustl.edu or muhan@wustl.edu . Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Transcriptional Evidence for Inferred Pattern of Pollen Tube-Stigma Metabolic Coupling during Pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Dong, YuXiu; Li, XingGuo; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to derive all qualitative proteomic and metabolomic experimental data in male (pollen tube) and female (pistil) reproductive tissues during pollination because of the limited sensitivity of current technology. In this study, genome-scale enzyme correlation network models for plants (Arabidopsis/maize) were constructed by analyzing the enzymes and metabolic routes from a global perspective. Then, we developed a data-driven computational pipeline using the “guilt by association” principle to analyze the transcriptional coexpression profiles of enzymatic genes in the consecutive steps for metabolic routes in the fast-growing pollen tube and stigma during pollination. The analysis identified an inferred pattern of pollen tube-stigma ethanol coupling. When the pollen tube elongates in the transmitting tissue (TT) of the pistil, this elongation triggers the mobilization of energy from glycolysis in the TT cells of the pistil. Energy-rich metabolites (ethanol) are secreted that can be taken up by the pollen tube, where these metabolites are incorporated into the pollen tube's tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which leads to enhanced ATP production for facilitating pollen tube growth. In addition, our analysis also provided evidence for the cooperation of kaempferol, dTDP-alpha-L-rhamnose and cell-wall-related proteins; phosphatidic-acid-mediated Ca2+ oscillations and cytoskeleton; and glutamate degradation IV for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling activation in Arabidopsis and maize stigmas to provide the signals and materials required for pollen tube tip growth. In particular, the “guilt by association” computational pipeline and the genome-scale enzyme correlation network models (GECN) developed in this study was initiated with experimental “omics” data, followed by data analysis and data integration to determine correlations, and could provide a new platform to assist inachieving a deeper understanding of the co-regulation and inter

  11. Different metabolic patterns analysis of Parkinsonism on the {sup 18}F-FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juh, Rahyeong; Kim, Jaesung; Moon, Daehyuk; Choe, Boyoung; Suh, Tasuk E-mail: suhsanta@catholic.ac.kr

    2004-09-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) are the most common movement disorders associated with neurodegenerative disease. A clinical differential diagnosis of IPD and atypical Parkinsonian disorders, such as MSA and PSP, is often complicated by the presence of symptoms common to both groups. Since Parkinsonism has a different pathophysiology in the cortical and subcortical brain structures, assessing the regional cerebral glucose metabolism may assist in making a differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism. The {sup 18}F-FDG PET images of IPD, MSA and PSP were assessed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) in order to determine the useful metabolic patterns. Twenty-four patients with Parkinsonism: eight patients (mean age 67.9{+-}10.7 years; M/F: 3/5) with IPD, nine patients (57.9{+-}9.2 years; M/F: 4/5) with MSA and seven patients (67.6{+-}4.8 years; M/F: 3/4) with PSP were enrolled in this study. All patients with Parkinsonism and 22 age-matched normal controls underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET, (after 370 MBq {sup 18}F-FDG). The three groups and the individual IPD, MSA and PSP patients were compared with a normal control group using a two-sided t-test of SPM (uncorrected P<0.01, extent threshold >100 voxel). The IPD, MSA and PSP groups showed significant hypometabolism in the cerebral neocortex compared to the normal control group. The MSA group showed significant hypometabolism in the putamen, pons and cerebellum compared to the normal controls and IPD groups. In addition, PSP showed significant hypometabolism in the caudate nucleus, the thalamus, midbrain and the cingulate gyrus compared to the normal controls, the IPD and the MSA groups. In conclusion, an assessment of the {sup 18}F-FDG PET images using SPM may be a useful adjunct to a clinical examination when making a differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism.

  12. Dietary patterns associated with metabolic syndrome, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors in young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to examine the association between dietary patterns (DP) and risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS); and to identify differences in DP by socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors. Dietary intake (from an FFQ), anthropometric/biochemical parameters and sociodemographic/lifestyl...

  13. Environmental control of the seasonal variations in the daily pattern of melatonin synthesis in the European hamster, Cricetus cricetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivien-Roels, B; Pitrosky, B; Zitouni, M; Malan, A; Canguilhem, B; Bonn, D; Pévet, P

    1997-04-01

    Nocturnal patterns of pineal melatonin concentrations were measured at hourly intervals in the European hamster, Cricetus cricetus, maintained under different natural or experimental environmental conditions. There were pronounced variations in the night peak of pineal melatonin both in the duration and the amplitude of the melatonin peak and in the onset and decline of melatonin synthesis. The duration of the melatonin peak increased proportionally with increased dark period. The amplitude increased abruptly from LD 16/8 to LD 15/9 and remained constant in all other photoperiods. The onset of synthesis started 6:00 hours after the onset of darkness in LD 16/8, 15/9, and 14/10, while it started 4:00 hours after dark onset in shorter photoperiods (LD 12/12 and 10/14). This result is opposite to that observed in the rat. The decline of synthesis was delayed as darkness increased and was directly related to lights on in long photoperiods, while it was endogenous in short photoperiods. Temperature, under a long photoperiod, also seems to be implicated in the regulation of the amplitude of the melatonin peak.

  14. Lipid metabolism-related gene expression pattern of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus L.) larvae fed on live prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor, Mónica B; Ortega, Aurelio; de la Gándara, Fernando; Tocher, Douglas R; Mourente, Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    The present study is the first to evaluate lipid metabolism in first-feeding Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABT; Thunnus thynnus L.) larvae fed different live prey including enriched rotifers Brachionus plicatilis and Acartia sp. copepod nauplii from 2 days after hatch. Understanding the molecular basis of lipid metabolism and regulation in ABT will provide insights to optimize diet formulations for this high-value species new to aquaculture. To this end, we investigated the effect of dietary lipid on whole larvae lipid class and fatty acid compositions and the expression of key genes involved in lipid metabolism in first feeding ABT larvae fed different live prey. Additionally, the expression of lipid metabolism genes in tissues of adult broodstock ABT was evaluated. Growth and survival data indicated that copepods were the best live prey for first feeding ABT and that differences in growth performance and lipid metabolism observed between larvae from different year classes could be a consequence of broodstock nutrition. In addition, expression patterns of lipid metabolic genes observed in ABT larvae in the trials could reflect differences in lipid class and fatty acid compositions of the live prey. The lipid nutritional requirements, including essential fatty acid requirements of larval ABT during the early feeding stages, are unknown, and the present study represents a first step in addressing these highly relevant issues. However, further studies are required to determine nutritional requirements and understand lipid metabolism during development of ABT larvae and to apply the knowledge to the commercial culture of this iconic species.

  15. Association of Dietary Patterns with Components of Metabolic Syndrome and Inflammation among Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Syauqy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the correlation of dietary patterns with components of metabolic syndrome (MetS and inflammation among middle-aged and older adults with MetS in Taiwan. This cross-sectional study used data from the Mei Jau International Health Management Institution in Taiwan between 2004 and 2013. A total of 26,016 subjects aged 35 years and above were selected for analysis. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. Three dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis. High intake of a meat–instant food dietary pattern (rich in animal protein, saturated fat, sweets, sodium, and food additives was positively associated with components of MetS and C-reactive protein (CRP, while high intake of a vege–seafood dietary pattern (rich in dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and unsaturated fat or a cereal–dairy dietary pattern (rich in dietary fiber, antioxidants, phytochemicals, complex carbohydrate, prebiotics, and probiotics was inversely associated with components of MetS and CRP. Our findings suggested that intake of a vege–seafood dietary pattern or a cereal–dairy dietary pattern decreased the risk of developing MetS and inflammation among middle-aged and older adults with MetS.

  16. Sub-sets of cancer stem cells differ intrinsically in their patterns of oxygen metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Gammon

    Full Text Available The glycolytic response of hypoxic cells is primarily mediated by the hypoxia inducible factor alpha (HIF-1α but even in the presence of abundant oxygen tumours typically show high rates of glycolysis. Higher levels of HIF-1α in tumours are associated with a poorer prognosis and up-regulation of markers of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT due to HIF-1α actions. We have recently shown that EMT occurs within the CD44(high cancer stem cell (CSC fraction and that epithelial and EMT CSCs are distinguished by high and low ESA expression, respectively. We here show that hypoxia induces a marked shift of the CSC fraction towards EMT leading to altered cell morphology, an increased proportion of CD44(high/ESA(low cells, patterns of gene expression typical of EMT, and enhanced sphere-forming ability. The size of EMT fractions returned to control levels in normoxia indicating a reversible process. Surprisingly, however, even under normoxic conditions a fraction of EMT CSCs was present and maintained high levels of HIF-1α, apparently due to actions of cytokines such as TNFα. Functionally, this EMT CSC fraction showed decreased mitochondrial mass and membrane potential, consumed far less oxygen per cell, and produced markedly reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS. These differences in the patterns of oxygen metabolism of sub-fractions of tumour cells provide an explanation for the general therapeutic resistance of CSCs and for the even greater resistance of EMT CSCs. They also identify potential mechanisms for manipulation of CSCs.

  17. Brain metabolic pattern analysis using a magnetic resonance spectra classification software in experimental stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Xarrié, Elena; Davila, Myriam; Candiota, Ana Paula; Delgado-Mederos, Raquel; Ortega-Martorell, Sandra; Julià-Sapé, Margarida; Arús, Carles; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan

    2017-01-13

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides non-invasive information about the metabolic pattern of the brain parenchyma in vivo. The SpectraClassifier software performs MRS pattern-recognition by determining the spectral features (metabolites) which can be used objectively to classify spectra. Our aim was to develop an Infarct Evolution Classifier and a Brain Regions Classifier in a rat model of focal ischemic stroke using SpectraClassifier. A total of 164 single-voxel proton spectra obtained with a 7 Tesla magnet at an echo time of 12 ms from non-infarcted parenchyma, subventricular zones and infarcted parenchyma were analyzed with SpectraClassifier ( http://gabrmn.uab.es/?q=sc ). The spectra corresponded to Sprague-Dawley rats (healthy rats, n = 7) and stroke rats at day 1 post-stroke (acute phase, n = 6 rats) and at days 7 ± 1 post-stroke (subacute phase, n = 14). In the Infarct Evolution Classifier, spectral features contributed by lactate + mobile lipids (1.33 ppm), total creatine (3.05 ppm) and mobile lipids (0.85 ppm) distinguished among non-infarcted parenchyma (100% sensitivity and 100% specificity), acute phase of infarct (100% sensitivity and 95% specificity) and subacute phase of infarct (78% sensitivity and 100% specificity). In the Brain Regions Classifier, spectral features contributed by myoinositol (3.62 ppm) and total creatine (3.04/3.05 ppm) distinguished among infarcted parenchyma (100% sensitivity and 98% specificity), non-infarcted parenchyma (84% sensitivity and 84% specificity) and subventricular zones (76% sensitivity and 93% specificity). SpectraClassifier identified candidate biomarkers for infarct evolution (mobile lipids accumulation) and different brain regions (myoinositol content).

  18. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... functions: Anabolism (uh-NAB-uh-liz-um), or constructive metabolism, is all about building and storing. It ... in infants and young children. Hypothyroidism slows body processes and causes fatigue (tiredness), slow heart rate, excessive ...

  19. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a particular food provides to the body. A chocolate bar has more calories than an apple, so ... acid phenylalanine, needed for normal growth and protein production). Inborn errors of metabolism can sometimes lead to ...

  20. Comparative analysis of taxonomic, functional, and metabolic patterns of microbiomes from 14 full-scale biogas reactors by metagenomic sequencing and radioisotopic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Fotidis, Ioannis; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-01-01

    , and their relationships with the metabolic patterns. The present study used metagenomic sequencing and radioisotopic analysis to assess the taxonomic, functional, and metabolic patterns of microbiomes from 14 full-scale biogas reactors operated under various conditions treating either sludge or manure. Results...

  1. Sphingoid Base Metabolism in Yeast: Mapping Gene Expression Patterns Into Qualitative Metabolite Time Course Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Radivoyevitch

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Can qualitative metabolite time course predictions be inferred from measured mRNA expression patterns? Speaking against this possibility is the large number of ‘decoupling’ control points that lie between these variables, i.e. translation, protein degradation, enzyme inhibition and enzyme activation. Speaking for it is the notion that these control points might be coordinately regulated such that action exerted on the mRNA level is informative of action exerted on the protein and metabolite levels. A simple kinetic model of sphingoid base metabolism in yeast is postulated. When the enzyme activities in this model are modulated proportional to mRNA expression levels measured in heat shocked yeast, the model yields a transient rise and fall in sphingoid bases followed by a permanent rise in ceramide. This finding is in qualitative agreement with experiments and is thus consistent with the aforementioned coordinated control system hypothesis.

  2. An Alternative Myoelectric Pattern Recognition Approach for the Control of Hand Prostheses: A Case Study of Use in Daily Life by a Dysmelia Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Johan; Lendaro, Eva; Hermansson, Liselotte; Håkansson, Bo; Ortiz-Catalan, Max

    2018-01-01

    The functionality of upper limb prostheses can be improved by intuitive control strategies that use bioelectric signals measured at the stump level. One such strategy is the decoding of motor volition via myoelectric pattern recognition (MPR), which has shown promising results in controlled environments and more recently in clinical practice. Moreover, not much has been reported about daily life implementation and real-time accuracy of these decoding algorithms. This paper introduces an alternative approach in which MPR allows intuitive control of four different grips and open/close in a multifunctional prosthetic hand. We conducted a clinical proof-of-concept in activities of daily life by constructing a self-contained, MPR-controlled, transradial prosthetic system provided with a novel user interface meant to log errors during real-time operation. The system was used for five days by a unilateral dysmelia subject whose hand had never developed, and who nevertheless learned to generate patterns of myoelectric activity, reported as intuitive, for multi-functional prosthetic control. The subject was instructed to manually log errors when they occurred via the user interface mounted on the prosthesis. This allowed the collection of information about prosthesis usage and real-time classification accuracy. The assessment of capacity for myoelectric control test was used to compare the proposed approach to the conventional prosthetic control approach, direct control. Regarding the MPR approach, the subject reported a more intuitive control when selecting the different grips, but also a higher uncertainty during proportional continuous movements. This paper represents an alternative to the conventional use of MPR, and this alternative may be particularly suitable for a certain type of amputee patients. Moreover, it represents a further validation of MPR with dysmelia cases. PMID:29637030

  3. Food pattern and quality of life in metabolic syndrome patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Heng-Hsin; Tseng, Li-Hua; Wei, Jeng; Lin, Cheng-Hsin; Wang, Tsae-Jyy; Liang, Shu-Yuan

    2011-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with poor operative outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG). A healthy food pattern for metabolic syndrome patients is necessary not only in the initial stage to prevent cardiovascular disease but for those who experience cardiovascular problems and undergo heart surgery. Empirical studies that explore food pattern and quality of life metabolic syndrome patients who undergo CABG are lacking. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to explore the food pattern and quality of life of metabolic syndrome patients who undergo CABG and to examine the relationship between these two variables. A descriptive, correlational and cross section design was conducted. Through convenience sampling, 104 patients were recruited. Data were collected through three instruments: a demographic questionnaire; the Chinese Food Frequency Questionnaire-Short Form (Short C-FFQ), used to assess food pattern; and the Taiwanese version of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-Health Survey (SF-36), used to assess quality of life. Descriptive analysis, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson correlation were used to analyze the data. The results indicated that patients who ate fruit more frequently tended to have a better quality of life, while the intake of fried food was more frequently associated with a poor quality of life. The use of these data gives the health care provider a better understanding of food pattern and their impact on quality of life in this population. Such an understanding can be used to develop targeted interventions to promote health in this and in other populations. Copyright © 2010 European Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dietary pattern associated with selenoprotein P and MRI-derived body fat volumes, liver signal intensity, and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Giuseppe, Romina; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Koch, Manja; Nöthlings, Ute; Schlesinger, Sabrina; Borggrefe, Jan; Both, Marcus; Müller, Hans-Peter; Kassubek, Jan; Jacobs, Gunnar; Lieb, Wolfgang

    2018-02-14

    The association of complex dietary patterns with circulating selenoprotein P (SELENOP) levels in humans is unknown. In a general population sample, we aimed to identify a dietary pattern explaining inter-individual variation in circulating SELENOP concentrations and to study this pattern in relation to prevalent diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS), MRI-determined total volumes of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) abdominal adipose tissue, and liver signal intensity/fatty liver disease. In this cross-sectional study, serum SELENOP levels were measured in 853 individuals. In a subsample of 553 participants, whole-body MRI was performed to assess body fat distribution and liver fat. Dietary intake was assessed by a self-administered food frequency questionnaire and the dietary pattern identified using reduced-rank regression (RRR). Multivariable linear and logistic regressions were used to investigate associations between dietary pattern score and metabolic traits. Characterized by high intake of fruit, vegetables and antioxidant beverages, the RRR-derived dietary pattern displayed inverse associations with VAT, SAT, MetS, and prevalent diabetes in multivariable-adjusted restricted cubic splines. Each unit increase in dietary pattern score was associated with 31% higher SELENOP levels, 12% lower VAT (95% CI: - 19%; - 5%), 13% (95% CI: - 20%; - 6%) lower SAT values and 46% (95% CI: 27%; 60%) and 53% (95% CI: 22%; 72%) lower odds of having MetS or diabetes, respectively. No meaningful relations were observed between the dietary pattern and liver traits. Our observations propose diet-related regulation in SELENOP levels and that the identified dietary pattern is inversely related to VAT, SAT, MetS, and prevalent diabetes.

  5. Lack of differential pattern in central adiposity and metabolic syndrome in Barrett's esophagus and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Healy, L A

    2012-02-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma, although the mechanism is unclear. A pathway from reflux to inflammation through metaplasia is the dominant hypothesis, and an added role relating to visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome has been mooted in Barrett\\'s esophagus (BE) patients. Whether BE differs from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in obesity and metabolic syndrome profiles is unclear, and this was the focus of this study. Patients with proven BE or GERD were randomly selected from the unit data registry and invited to attend for metabolic syndrome screening, anthropometry studies including segmental body composition analysis, and laboratory tests including fasting lipids, insulin, and C-reactive protein. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. One hundred and eighteen BE patients and 113 age- and sex-matched GERD controls were studied. The incidence of obesity (body mass index >30 kg\\/m(2)) was 36% and 38%, respectively, with the pattern of fat deposition predominantly central and an estimated trunk fat mass of 13 and 14 kg, respectively. Using the NCEP criteria, metabolic syndrome was significantly more common in the BE cohort (30% vs 20%, P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference using IDF criteria (42% vs 37%, P= 0.340). Central obesity and the metabolic syndrome are common in both Barrett\\'s and GERD cohorts, but not significantly different, suggesting that central obesity and the metabolic syndrome does not per se impact on the development of BE in a reflux population. In BE, the importance of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in disease progression merits further study.

  6. Metabolic connectivity by interregional correlation analysis using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and FDG brain PET; methodological development and patterns of metabolic connectivity in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Soo; Oh, Jungsu S.; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Myung Chul; Kang, Hyejin; Kim, Heejung; Park, Hyojin

    2008-01-01

    Regionally connected areas of the resting brain can be detected by fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Voxel-wise metabolic connectivity was examined, and normative data were established by performing interregional correlation analysis on statistical parametric mapping of FDG-PET data. Characteristics of seed volumes of interest (VOIs) as functional brain units were represented by their locations, sizes, and the independent methods of their determination. Seed brain areas were identified as population-based gyral VOIs (n=70) or as population-based cytoarchitectonic Brodmann areas (BA; n=28). FDG uptakes in these areas were used as independent variables in a general linear model to search for voxels correlated with average seed VOI counts. Positive correlations were searched in entire brain areas. In normal adults, one third of gyral VOIs yielded correlations that were confined to themselves, but in the others, correlated voxels extended to adjacent areas and/or contralateral homologous regions. In tens of these latter areas with extensive connectivity, correlated voxels were found across midline, and asymmetry was observed in the patterns of connectivity of left and right homologous seed VOIs. Most of the available BAs yielded correlations reaching contralateral homologous regions and/or neighboring areas. Extents of metabolic connectivity were not found to be related to seed VOI size or to the methods used to define seed VOIs. These findings indicate that patterns of metabolic connectivity of functional brain units depend on their regional locations. We propose that interregional correlation analysis of FDG-PET data offers a means of examining voxel-wise regional metabolic connectivity of the resting human brain. (orig.)

  7. Metabolic connectivity by interregional correlation analysis using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and FDG brain PET; methodological development and patterns of metabolic connectivity in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Soo; Oh, Jungsu S.; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Kang, Hyejin [Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University, Programs in Brain and Neuroscience, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Heejung; Park, Hyojin [Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University, Interdisciplinary Program in Cognitive Science, Seoul (Korea)

    2008-09-15

    Regionally connected areas of the resting brain can be detected by fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Voxel-wise metabolic connectivity was examined, and normative data were established by performing interregional correlation analysis on statistical parametric mapping of FDG-PET data. Characteristics of seed volumes of interest (VOIs) as functional brain units were represented by their locations, sizes, and the independent methods of their determination. Seed brain areas were identified as population-based gyral VOIs (n=70) or as population-based cytoarchitectonic Brodmann areas (BA; n=28). FDG uptakes in these areas were used as independent variables in a general linear model to search for voxels correlated with average seed VOI counts. Positive correlations were searched in entire brain areas. In normal adults, one third of gyral VOIs yielded correlations that were confined to themselves, but in the others, correlated voxels extended to adjacent areas and/or contralateral homologous regions. In tens of these latter areas with extensive connectivity, correlated voxels were found across midline, and asymmetry was observed in the patterns of connectivity of left and right homologous seed VOIs. Most of the available BAs yielded correlations reaching contralateral homologous regions and/or neighboring areas. Extents of metabolic connectivity were not found to be related to seed VOI size or to the methods used to define seed VOIs. These findings indicate that patterns of metabolic connectivity of functional brain units depend on their regional locations. We propose that interregional correlation analysis of FDG-PET data offers a means of examining voxel-wise regional metabolic connectivity of the resting human brain. (orig.)

  8. Patterns of oxygen consumption during simultaneously occurring elevated metabolic states in the viviparous snake Thamnophis marcianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alexander G S; Leu, Szu-Yun; Ford, Neil B; Hicks, James W

    2015-11-01

    Snakes exhibit large factorial increments in oxygen consumption during digestion and physical activity, and long-lasting sub-maximal increments during reproduction. Under natural conditions, all three physiological states may occur simultaneously, but the integrated response is not well understood. Adult male and female checkered gartersnakes (Thamnophis marcianus) were used to examine increments in oxygen consumption (i.e. V̇(O2)) and carbon dioxide production (i.e. V̇(CO2)) associated with activity (Act), digestion (Dig) and post-prandial activity (Act+Dig). For females, we carried out these trials in the non-reproductive state, and also during the vitellogenic (V) and embryogenic (E) phases of a reproductive cycle. Endurance time (i.e. time to exhaustion, TTE) was recorded for all groups during Act and Act+Dig trials. Our results indicate that male and non-reproductive female T. marcianus exhibit significant increments in V̇(O2) during digestion (∼5-fold) and activity (∼9-fold), and that Act+Dig results in a similar increment in V̇(O2) (∼9- to 10-fold). During reproduction, resting V̇(O2) increased by 1.6- to 1.7-fold, and peak increments during digestion were elevated by 30-50% above non-reproductive values, but values associated with Act and Act+Dig were not significantly different from non-reproductive values. During Act+Dig, endurance time remained similar for all of the groups in the present study. Overall, our results indicate that prioritization is the primary pattern of interaction in oxygen delivery exhibited by this species. We propose that the metabolic processes associated with digestion, and perhaps reproduction, are temporarily compromised during activity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Meal patterns and meal-induced metabolic changes in calves fed milk ad lib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, M; Gross-Lüem, S; Leuenberger, H; Langhans, W

    The feeding behavior of 11 calves fed milk ad lib was characterized and analyzed at the age of 5 weeks, and the short-term changes in the plasma concentrations of various metabolites (glucose, lactate, free fatty acids, triglycerides, beta-hydroxybutyrate) and insulin in relation to a representative spontaneous milk meal were measured during the following week. In a 6-day period, the calves consumed 287 (=86%) of a total of 335 milk meals during the light phase from 0500-2200 [on average, 4.4 +/- 0.5 (mean +/- SEM) meals]. The meal size and duration during light were 2.0 +/- 0.3 kg and 5.3 +/- 0.3 min, respectively. However, only 0.7 +/- 0.1 milk meals of similar size and duration were consumed during the dark phase. The plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose increased in response to the spontaneous milk meal and remained elevated for at least 2 h after meal end. The plasma concentrations of triglycerides, free fatty acids, and beta-hydroxybutyrate also increased after meal termination, and remained elevated until 40 min (triglycerides, free fatty acids) and 60 min (beta-hydroxybutyrate) after meal end, respectively. The observed spontaneous milk intake patterns were similar to the natural suckling behavior described for calves, suggesting that the conditions of the present experiment did not disrupt the animals' natural feeding behavior. Some of the profound metabolic changes in relation to a spontaneous milk meal might contribute to the control of milk intake in calves, but further experiments are necessary to test this idea.

  10. Multidimensional patterns of metabolic response in abiotic stress-induced growth of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Brijesh S; Lahav, Tamar; Reuveni, Eli; Chamovitz, Daniel A; Freilich, Shiri

    2016-12-01

    Contextualization of specific transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis within the stress-tissue-time perspective provides a simplified representation of the cellular transcriptional response pathways to abiotic stress, while reducing the dimensions in gene-oriented response description. Crops resistant to abiotic stresses are a long-term goal of many research programs, thus understanding the progression of stress responses is of great interest. We reanalyzed the AtGenExpress transcription dataset to go beyond gene-level characterization, and to contextualize the discrete information into (1) a process-level signature of stress-specific, time-specific, and tissue-specific responses and (2) identify patterns of response progression across a time axis. To gain a functional perspective, ∼1000 pathways associated with the differentially-expressed genes were characterized across all experiments. We find that the global response of pathways to stress is multi-dimensional and does not obviously cluster according to stress, time or tissue. The early response to abiotic stress typically involves induction of genes involved in transcription, hormone synthesis and signaling modules; a later response typically involves metabolism of amino acids and secondary metabolites. By linking specific primary and secondary response pathways, we outline possible stress-associated routes of response progression. The contextualization of specific processes within stress-tissue-time perspective provides a simplified representation of cellular response while reducing the dimensions in gene-oriented response description. Such simplified representation allows finding stress-specific markers based on process-combinations pointing whether a stress-specific response was invoked as well as provide a reference point for the conductance of comparative inter-plant study of stress response, bypassing the need in detailed orthologous mapping.

  11. Development of Dietary Patterns Spanning Infancy and Toddlerhood: Relation to Body Size, Composition and Metabolic Risk Markers at Three Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise BB Andersen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the development of dietary patterns during toddlerhood and the relation to growth and health. The study objective was to characterise the development of dietary patterns from 9-36 mo of age and investigate the association to body size, body composition and metabolic risk markers at 36 mo. Food records were filled out at 9, 18 and 36 mo of age (n = 229. Dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis (PCA. Three dietary patterns were identified: Transition Food, Healthy Food and Traditional Food. The course of development in dietary patterns from 9-36 mo indicated tracking for a relatively large group of participants in the three patterns. Transition Food and Healthy Food were associated with some of the investigated outcomes. Children with lower adherence to the Transition Food pattern than average at 18 and 36 mo irrespectively of intake at 9 mo had higher BMI z-scores at 36 mo. Similar trend was identified for higher fat mass indices. Children with lower adherence to the Healthy Food pattern than average at all three ages compared to children with higher adherence to the Healthy Food pattern at the first two registrations, 9 and 18 mo had higher total cholesterol and LDL. Hence, this could represent undesirable development of dietary patterns in toddlers. In conclusion, development of dietary patterns can be exploratory characterised by PCA and related to potential cardiovascular risk markers in toddlers even within a relatively homogeneous population with a high socioeconomic status. The tracking of dietary patterns from 9 mo of age indicates a need for early and sustained promotion of healthy diets.

  12. Changes of microbial substrate metabolic patterns through a wastewater reuse process, including WWTP and SAT concerning depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabe, Yugo; Kameda, Ippei; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Nishimura, Fumitake; Itoh, Sadahiko

    2014-09-01

    In this study, changes of microbial substrate metabolic patterns by BIOLOG assay were discussed through a sequential wastewater reuse process, which includes activated sludge and treated effluent in wastewater treatment plant and soil aquifer treatment (SAT), especially focussing on the surface sand layer in conjunction with the vadose zone, concerning sand depth. A SAT pilot-scale reactor, in which the height of packed sand was 237 cm (vadose zone: 17 cm and saturated zone 220 cm), was operated and fed continuously by discharged anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2O) treated water. Continuous water quality measurements over a period of 10 months indicated that the treatment performance of the reactor, such as 83.2% dissolved organic carbon removal, appeared to be stable. Core sampling was conducted for the surface sand to a 30 cm depth, and the sample was divided into six 5 cm sections. Microbial activities, as evaluated by fluorescein diacetate, sharply decreased with increasing distance from the surface of the 30 cm core sample, which included significant decreases only 5 cm from the top surface. A similar microbial metabolic pattern containing a high degree of carbohydrates was obtained among the activated sludge, A2O treated water (influent to the SAT reactor) and the 0-5 cm layer of sand. Meanwhile, the 10-30 cm sand core layers showed dramatically different metabolic patterns containing a high degree of carboxylic acid and esters, and it is possible that the metabolic pattern exhibited by the 5-10 cm layer is at a midpoint of the changing pattern. This suggests that the removal of different organic compounds by biodegradation would be expected to occur in the activated sludge and in the SAT sand layers immediately below 5 cm from the top surface. It is possible that changes in the composition of the organic matter and/or transit of the limiting factor for microbial activities from carbon to phosphorus might have contributed to the observed dramatic changes

  13. T-cell factor 4 and β-catenin chromatin occupancies pattern zonal liver metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gougelet, Angélique; Torre, Cyril; Veber, Philippe; Sartor, Chiara; Bachelot, Laura; Denechaud, Pierre-Damien; Godard, Cécile; Moldes, Marthe; Burnol, Anne-Françoise; Dubuquoy, Céline; Terris, Benoit; Guillonneau, François; Ye, Tao; Schwarz, Michael; Braeuning, Albert; Perret, Christine; Colnot, Sabine

    2014-06-01

    β-catenin signaling can be both a physiological and oncogenic pathway in the liver. It controls compartmentalized gene expression, allowing the liver to ensure its essential metabolic function. It is activated by mutations in 20%-40% of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) with specific metabolic features. We decipher the molecular determinants of β-catenin-dependent zonal transcription using mice with β-catenin-activated or -inactivated hepatocytes, characterizing in vivo their chromatin occupancy by T-cell factor (Tcf)-4 and β-catenin, transcriptome, and metabolome. We find that Tcf-4 DNA bindings depend on β-catenin. Tcf-4/β-catenin binds Wnt-responsive elements preferentially around β-catenin-induced genes. In contrast, genes repressed by β-catenin bind Tcf-4 on hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (Hnf-4)-responsive elements. β-Catenin, Tcf-4, and Hnf-4α interact, dictating β-catenin transcription, which is antagonistic to that elicited by Hnf-4α. Finally, we find the drug/bile metabolism pathway to be the one most heavily targeted by β-catenin, partly through xenobiotic nuclear receptors. β-catenin patterns the zonal liver together with Tcf-4, Hnf-4α, and xenobiotic nuclear receptors. This network represses lipid metabolism and exacerbates glutamine, drug, and bile metabolism, mirroring HCCs with β-catenin mutational activation. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  14. Patterns of instrumental activities of daily living and association with predictors among community-dwelling older women: A latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongok; Lee, Young Joo

    2017-07-21

    The purpose of this study was to classify patterns of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) among community-dwelling older women, to examine difference in characteristics among the classes, and to explore predictors of class membership. This study was a secondary analysis of nationwide data from the 2014 Actual Living Condition of the Elderly and Welfare Need Survey. A total of 10,451 individuals aged 65 years or older were interviewed for the 2014 dataset, but we only selected the female participants (n = 6095) for this study. For statistical analyses, latent class analysis was applied to identify different latent classes of IADL and then the effects of predictors on IADL patterns were analyzed by using multinomial logistic regression. The 5-class model was the best fit for the data. The size of class 1was the biggest (n = 5093, 83.6%), followed by class 5 (n = 401, 6.6%), class 3 (n = 308, 5.1%), class 2 (n = 181, 3.0%), and class 4 (n = 113, 1.8%). The largest class had total independency on all items of IADL. In the multinomial regression, members in the classes 2, 3, 4 and 5 were significantly more likely to have older age and decreased cognitive status compared with the class of total independency on all items of IADL (class1). The predictors of the classes identified in this study can be used for tailored and targeted interventions to increased old adults' independency on IADL.

  15. Diagnostic criteria patterns of U.S. children with Metabolic Syndrome: NHANES 1999–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagstaff David A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As childhood obesity increases in the U.S., the Metabolic Syndrome (MS can be assumed to be increasing in the pediatric population as well. To date, there is lack of information on the most prevalent risk factors of MS in children and the patterns of risk factors present in children met the criteria for MS. Methods Anthropometric and medical data of children 2–18 years old of a nationally representative data set (NHANES 1999–2002 were obtained and the diagnostic criteria of Cook et al. employed to determine MS prevalence. Three samples were examined: a Children 2–18 years old with non-missing data on at least three of the five diagnostic criteria but missing blood glucose data (n = 5,172, b a subsample of 12–18 year olds also providing fasting glucose data but who were not overweight or obese using the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF standards (n = 1,064, and c 12–18 year olds with blood glucose data who were overweight or obese (n = 641. Results Disease prevalence estimates were 2%, 0.7%, and 23% in the three populations. More than 10% of the children providing fasting blood levels had hyperglycemia. 2% of the overweight or obese 12–18 year olds with fasting blood glucose data met all five diagnostic criteria for MS. In all groups, elevated total triglycerides but low high density lipoprotein (HDL level affected a large proportion of the population. Conclusion Results indicate a reason for concern, since the prevalence of MS risk factors in children was high. Dyslipidemia (concurrent high total triglyceride levels and low HDL levels were prevalent in large portions of the population, even in the non-overweight. Thus, chronic disease prevention efforts in the pediatric population should not only encourage healthy body weight but also include dietary recommendations to consume diets moderately low in fat with emphasis on polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats within recommended ratios of omega-6 and omega

  16. Prosthesis use in adult acquired major upper-limb amputees: patterns of wear, prosthetic skills and the actual use of prostheses in activities of daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østlie, Kristin; Lesjø, Ingrid Marie; Franklin, Rosemary Joy; Garfelt, Beate; Skjeldal, Ola Hunsbeth; Magnus, Per

    2012-11-01

    To describe patterns of prosthesis wear and perceived prosthetic usefulness in adult acquired upper-limb amputees (ULAs). To describe prosthetic skills in activities of daily life (ADL) and the actual use of prostheses in the performance of ADL tasks. To estimate the influence of prosthetic skills on actual prosthesis use and the influence of background factors on prosthetic skills and actual prosthesis use. Cross-sectional study analysing population-based questionnaire data (n = 224) and data from interviews and clinical testing in a referred/convenience sample of prosthesis-wearing ULAs (n = 50). Effects were analysed using linear regression. 80.8% wore prostheses. 90.3% reported their most worn prosthesis as useful. Prosthetic usefulness profiles varied with prosthetic type. Despite demonstrating good prosthetic skills, the amputees reported actual prosthesis use in only about half of the ADL tasks performed in everyday life. In unilateral amputees, increased actual use was associated with sufficient prosthetic training and with the use of myoelectric vs cosmetic prostheses, regardless of amputation level. Prosthetic skills did not affect actual prosthesis use. No background factors showed significant effect on prosthetic skills. Most major ULAs wear prostheses. Individualised prosthetic training and fitting of myoelectric rather than passive prostheses may increase actual prosthesis use in ADL.

  17. Improved metabolic control in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), responsive phenylketonuria with sapropterin administered in two divided doses vs. a single daily dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kör, Deniz; Yılmaz, Berna Şeker; Bulut, Fatma Derya; Ceylaner, Serdar; Mungan, Neslihan Önenli

    2017-07-26

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) often requires a lifelong phenylalanine (Phe)-restricted diet. Introduction of 6R-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) has made a huge difference in the diets of patients with PKU. BH4 is the co-factor of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) and improves PAH activity and, thus, Phe tolerance in the diet. A limited number of published studies suggest a pharmacodynamic profile of BH4 more suitable to be administered in divided daily doses. After a 72-h BH4 loading test, sapropterin was initiated in 50 responsive patients. This case-control study was conducted by administering the same daily dose of sapropterin in group 1 (n=24) as a customary single dose or in two divided doses in group 2 (n=26) over 1 year. Mean daily consumption of Phe increased significantly after the first year of BH4 treatment in group 2 compared to group 1 (p<0.05). At the end of the first year of treatment with BH4, another dramatic difference observed between the two groups was the ability to transition to a Phe-free diet. Eight patients from group 2 and two from group 1 could quit dietary restriction. When given in two divided daily doses, BH4 was more efficacious than a single daily dose in increasing daily Phe consumption, Phe tolerance and the ability to transition to a Phe-unrestricted diet at the end of the first year of treatment.

  18. Metabolic pattern analysis of early detection in Alzheimer's disease from other types of dementias and correlated with cognitive function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, R. H.; Lee, C. W.; Jung, Y. A.; Sohn, H. S.; Kim, S. H.; Seo, T. S [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    PET/CT studies have demonstrated temporoparietal hypometabolism in probable and definite Alzheimer's disease (AD), a pattern that may help differentiate AD from other types of dementias. Seeking to distinguish Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), we examined brain glucose metabolism of DLB and AD. Identification of individual differences in patterns of regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRglc) interactions may be important for early detection of AD. We elucidate the relationship between reduced cognitive function and cerebral metabolism. Ten patients with the diagnosis of AD, 3 DLB patients underwent 18F-FDG PET CT. We applied statistical mapping procedure to evaluate the diagnostic power of rCMRglc patterns for differentiation and also correlated with Korean-mini mental status exam (K-MMSE) score include orientation time, place, registration, attention, calculation, recaIl, language and visuospatial function. Glucose metabolic pattern analysis confirmed AD and DLB patients showed significant metabolic reductions involving parietotemporal association, posterior cingulate, and frontal association cortex. DLB patients showed significant metabolic reductions in the occipital cortex, particularly in the primary visual cortex. Covariate analysis revealed that occipital metabolic changes in DLB were independent from those in the adjacent parietotemporal cortices. AnaIysis of clinically diagnosed probable AD patients showed a significantly higher frequency of primary visual metabolic reduction among patients who fulfilled clinical criteria for DLB. occipital hypometabolism is a potential discriminate marker to distinguish DLB versus AD.

  19. The assessment of daily dietary intake reveals the existence of a different pattern of bioaccumulation of chlorinated pollutants between domestic dogs and cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D.; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Rial, Cristian; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; González, Maira Almeida; Luzardo, Octavio P.

    2015-01-01

    Pet dogs and cats have been proposed as sentinel species to assess environmental contamination and human exposure to a variety of pollutants, including POPs. However, some authors have reported that dogs but not cats exhibit intriguingly low levels of some of the most commonly detected POPs, such as DDT and its metabolites. This research was designed to explore these differences between dogs and cats. Thus, we first determined the concentrations of 53 persistent and semi-persistent pollutants (16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)) in samples of the most consumed brands of commercial feed for dogs and cats, and we calculated the daily dietary intake of these pollutants in both species. Higher levels of pollutants were found in dog food and our results showed that the median values of intake were about twice higher in dogs than in cats for all the three groups of pollutants (ΣPAHs: 274.8 vs. 141.8; ΣOCPs: 233.1 vs. 83; ΣPCBs: 101.8 vs. 43.8 (ng/kg bw/day); respectively). Additionally, we determined the plasma levels of the same pollutants in 42 and 35 pet dogs and cats, respectively. All these animals lived indoors and were fed on the commercial brands of feed analyzed. As expected (considering the intake), the plasma levels of PAHs were higher in dogs than in cats. However, for organochlorines (OCPs and PCBs) the plasma levels were much higher in cats than in dogs (as much as 23 times higher for DDTs), in spite of the higher intake in dogs. This reveals a lower capacity of bioaccumulation of some pollutants in dogs, which is probably related with higher metabolizing capabilities in this species. - Highlights: • First assessment of the dietary intake of POPs in pet animals. • Intake levels of pollutants are more than double in dogs than in cats. • Proportionality between intake of PAHs and their plasma levels in both species. • Lower levels of organochlorines in dog plasma

  20. The assessment of daily dietary intake reveals the existence of a different pattern of bioaccumulation of chlorinated pollutants between domestic dogs and cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D.; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Rial, Cristian; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; González, Maira Almeida; Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: octavio.perez@ulpgc.es

    2015-10-15

    Pet dogs and cats have been proposed as sentinel species to assess environmental contamination and human exposure to a variety of pollutants, including POPs. However, some authors have reported that dogs but not cats exhibit intriguingly low levels of some of the most commonly detected POPs, such as DDT and its metabolites. This research was designed to explore these differences between dogs and cats. Thus, we first determined the concentrations of 53 persistent and semi-persistent pollutants (16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)) in samples of the most consumed brands of commercial feed for dogs and cats, and we calculated the daily dietary intake of these pollutants in both species. Higher levels of pollutants were found in dog food and our results showed that the median values of intake were about twice higher in dogs than in cats for all the three groups of pollutants (ΣPAHs: 274.8 vs. 141.8; ΣOCPs: 233.1 vs. 83; ΣPCBs: 101.8 vs. 43.8 (ng/kg bw/day); respectively). Additionally, we determined the plasma levels of the same pollutants in 42 and 35 pet dogs and cats, respectively. All these animals lived indoors and were fed on the commercial brands of feed analyzed. As expected (considering the intake), the plasma levels of PAHs were higher in dogs than in cats. However, for organochlorines (OCPs and PCBs) the plasma levels were much higher in cats than in dogs (as much as 23 times higher for DDTs), in spite of the higher intake in dogs. This reveals a lower capacity of bioaccumulation of some pollutants in dogs, which is probably related with higher metabolizing capabilities in this species. - Highlights: • First assessment of the dietary intake of POPs in pet animals. • Intake levels of pollutants are more than double in dogs than in cats. • Proportionality between intake of PAHs and their plasma levels in both species. • Lower levels of organochlorines in dog plasma

  1. Metabolic Response on Post-therapy FDG-PET Predicts Patterns of Failure After Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Julie K.; Siegel, Barry A.; Dehdashti, Farrokh; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the patterns of failure in patients with cervical cancer treated with definitive radiotherapy and evaluated for metabolic response with early posttherapy 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Methods and Materials: The records of 238 patients with cervical cancer were reviewed. All patients were treated with a combination of external radiotherapy and intracavitary brachytherapy. Two hundred and nineteen patients (92%) received concurrent chemotherapy. All patients underwent pretreatment FDG-PET, and posttherapy FDG-PET was performed within 8–16 weeks of the completion of radiotherapy. Posttherapy FDG-PET results were categorized as complete metabolic response (CMR), partial metabolic response (PMR), and progressive disease (PD). Failure patterns were categorized as none, isolated local failure (central pelvis ± pelvic lymph nodes), distant failure, or combined local plus distant failure. Results: Of the 91 patients (38%) who had a recurrence, 22 had isolated local failures, and 69 had distant failures (49 distant failures and 20 combined local plus distant failures). Of the 173 patients with a CMR, 40 (23%) experienced treatment failure. All 25 patients with PD experienced treatment failure, which was distant in 24 patients (96%). Among the 40 patients with PMR, no failure has been observed for 14 patients (35%). Of the 26 failures within the PMR group, 15 (58%) were limited to the pelvis. Differences in the patterns of failure between the three groups (CMR, PMR, PD) were statistically significant (chi-square test; p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The majority of failures after definitive radiotherapy for cervical cancer include distant failures, even in the setting of concurrent chemotherapy. PMR within the cervix or lymph nodes is more commonly associated with isolated local recurrence.

  2. Metabolic patterns of the shoulder joint on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in adhesive capsulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Du Hwan; Sung, Duk Hyun; Ga, Hyo Yun; Choi, Joon Young

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of our study was to demonstrate metabolic patterns on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) in patients with adhesive capsulitis (AC). We retrospectively reviewed (18)F-FDG PET/CT performed on 22 shoulders of 21 patients diagnosed with AC: 2 shoulders with stage I, 14 with stage II, and 6 with stage III. A clinical diagnosis of AC was retrospectively made based on clinical examination, clinical course, and imaging. The pattern of radiotracer uptake was analyzed. Standardized uptake values in rotator interval (RI), anterior joint capsule (AJC), axillary recess (AR), and greater tuberosity were measured and compared to those of the contralateral side and the control group consisting of 40 shoulders in 20 subjects without shoulder pain. Four patterns of uptake were noted: (1) glenoid type I (n = 16), with uptake in RI, AJC, and AR; (2) glenoid type II (n = 2),with uptake in AJC and AR; (3) glenoid type III (n = 2), with uptake in RI and AJC; (4) focal type (n = 2), with uptake in RI or AR. Affected side SUVmax for RI, AJC, and AR was significantly higher compared with the unaffected side and the control group. Two shoulders with stage I AC had patterns similar to the ones with stage II or III. Specific patterns of (18)F-FDG uptake with dominant uptake in RI, AJC, or AR may be related to AC.

  3. Brazilian dietary patterns and the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet-relationship with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes in the ELSA-Brasil study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drehmer, Michele; Odegaard, Andrew O; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Matos, Sheila M Alvim; Molina, Maria Del Carmen B; Barreto, Sandhi M; Pereira, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    Studies evaluating dietary patterns, including the DASH diet, and their relationship with the metabolic syndrome and diabetes may help to understand the role of dairy products (low fat or full fat) in these conditions. Our aim is to identify dietary patterns in Brazilian adults and compare them with the (DASH) diet quality score in terms of their associations with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-the ELSA-Brasil study. The ELSA-Brasil is a multicenter cohort study comprising 15,105 civil servants, aged 35-74 years at baseline (2008-2010). Standardized interviews and exams were carried out, including an OGTT. We analyzed baseline data for 10,010 subjects. Dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis. Multivariable logistic regression investigated associations of dietary patterns with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes and multivariable linear regression with components of metabolic syndrome. After controlling for potential confounders, we observed that greater adherence to the Common Brazilian meal pattern (white rice, beans, beer, processed and fresh meats), was associated with higher frequencies of newly diagnosed diabetes, metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except HDL-C. Participants with greater intake of a Common Brazilian fast foods/full fat dairy/milk based desserts pattern presented less newly diagnosed diabetes. An inverse association was also seen between the DASH Diet pattern and the metabolic syndrome, blood pressure and waist circumference. Diet, light foods and beverages/low fat dairy pattern was associated with more prevalence of both outcomes, and higher fasting glucose, HDL-C, waist circumference (among men) and lower blood pressure. Vegetables/fruit dietary pattern did not protect against metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes but was associated with lower waist circumference. The inverse associations found for the dietary pattern

  4. Regulation of Brain Glucose Metabolic Patterns by Protein Phosphorlyation and Drug Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-30

    Bipolar GLU cell • ®.-. GLN Figure 3. Diagrammatic representation ofthe metabolic stuttering oflactate between glia and photoreceptors in the retina...film. Films were digitized and the resulting images were analyzed using ImageJ software . Two Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Rat brain mitochondria were

  5. Health impact of fasting in Saudi Arabia during Ramadan: association with disturbed circadian rhythm and metabolic and sleeping patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajabnoor, Ghada M; Bahijri, Suhad; Borai, Anwar; Abdulkhaliq, Altaf A; Al-Aama, Jumana Y; Chrousos, George P

    2014-01-01

    Muslims go through strict Ramadan fasting from dawn till sunset for one month yearly. These practices are associated with disturbed feeding and sleep patterns. We recently demonstrated that, during Ramadan, circadian cortisol rhythm of Saudis is abolished, exposing these subjects to continuously increased cortisol levels. Secretory patterns of other hormones and metabolic parameters associated with cortisol, and insulin resistance, might be affected during Ramadan. Ramadan practitioners (18 males, 5 females; mean age ±SEM = 23.16±1.2 years) were evaluated before and two weeks into Ramadan. Blood was collected for measurements of endocrine and metabolic parameters at 9 am (±1 hour) and again twelve hours later. In Ramadan, glucose concentration was kept within normal range, with a significant increase in the morning. Mean morning concentration of leptin was significantly higher than pre-Ramadan values (p = 0.001), in contrast to that of adiponectin, which was significantly lower (pRamadan than those during regular living conditions, however, normal circadian fluctuation was abolished (p = 0.49). Even though means of liver enzymes, total bilirubin, total protein and albumin were all decreased during Ramadan, statistically lower means were only noted for GGT, total protein, and albumin (p = 0.018, 0.002 and 0.001 respectively). Saudi Ramadan practitioners have altered adipokine patterns, typical of insulin resistance. The noted decreases of hsCRP, liver enzymes, total protein, and albumin, are most likely a result of fasting, while loss of circadian rhythmicity of hsCRP is probably due to loss of circadian cortisol rhythm. Modern Ramadan practices in Saudi Arabia, which are associated with evening hypercortisolism, are also characterized by altered adipokines patterns, and an abolished hsCRP circadian rhythm, all likely to increase cardiometabolic risk.

  6. Daily rhythm of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in Crassulacean acid metabolism plants : Immunological evidence for the absence of a rhythm in protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulfert, J; Vidal, J; Gadal, P; Queiroz, O

    1982-11-01

    Immunotitration of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) extracted from leaves of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana v. Poelln. cv. Tom Thumb. It was established that at different times of the day-night cycle the daily rhythm of enzyme capacity does not result from a rhythm in protein synthesis, but rather from changes in the specific activity of the enzyme.

  7. The effect of dietary and physical activity pattern on metabolic profile in individuals with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Joseph C; Palmese, Laura B; Reutenauer, Erin L; Liskov, Ellen; Grilo, Carlos M; Tek, Cenk

    2012-10-01

    With the rate of obesity on the rise worldwide, individuals with schizophrenia represent a particularly vulnerable population. The aim of this study was to assess the metabolic profile of individuals with schizophrenia in relation to dietary and physical activity habits compared with healthy controls. Dietary and physical activity habits of 130 individuals with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were compared with 250 body mass index-, age-, and sex-matched and racially matched controls from the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys using a 24-hour diet recall and a self-report physical activity questionnaire. Individuals with schizophrenia had significantly higher levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and insulin compared with matched controls. In addition, these individuals had an increased waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure than did the comparison group. Daily energy intake was not different between groups; however, individuals with schizophrenia consumed significantly greater amounts of sugar and fat. Individuals with schizophrenia reported engaging in moderate physical activity less frequently compared with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys group, but there was no difference in reported vigorous physical activity. These findings suggest that the dietary and physical activity habits of individuals with schizophrenia contribute to an adverse metabolic profile. Increased opportunities for physical activity and access to healthy foods for individuals with schizophrenia may ease the burden of disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolic excretion and retention patterns of incorporated radionuclides in reference man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, G.C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper gives formulae for calculating the total expected 50-year dose (TED 50 ) and excretion rate for four patterns of uptake as well as numerical descriptions of the ICRP ''gut model'' and ''lung model''. (author)

  9. Blood indicators of seasonal metabolic patterns in captive adult gray wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1983-01-01

    Blood samples and physical data were collected weekly from a colony of gray wolves (Canis lupus) maintained under natural weather arid light conditions. Sampling over 33 continuous months indicated that hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cells, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and thyroxine exhibited consistent circannual patterns of variation in both males and females. Hemoglobin levels peaked at 15-16 g/dl in January in females and at 16-17 g/dl in February in males, and were lowest in August at 10.5-11.5 g/dl (P patterns of hematocrit, red blood cells, and MCHC were similarly timed. Females also had a cyclic pattern of white blood cell counts and body weight; their weight peaked in early February and was lowest in August (P pattern.

  10. Dietary Pattern during 1991-2011 and Its Association with Cardio Metabolic Risks in Chinese Adults: The China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Shi, Zumin

    2017-11-06

    Increased prevalence of overweight and obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and other cardio metabolic risks has become a public health concern in China, a country undergoing nutrition transition. We investigated the dietary pattern during 1991-2011 and its association with these risks in a longitudinal study among adults; Adults in The China Health and Nutrition Survey were included. Three-day food consumption was collected by 24 h recall method. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids was collected in 2009. Dietary pattern was generated using principal components analysis. The associations between dietary pattern and cardio metabolic risk were assessed with generalized linear regression adjusted for age, sex, and social economic status (SES). "Traditional" pattern loaded with rice, meat, and vegetables, and "Modern" pattern had high loadings of fast food, milk, and deep-fried food. "Traditional" pattern was inversely associated with cardio metabolic risks, with linear slopes ranging from -0.15 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.18, -0.12) for hypertension to -0.67 (95% CI: -0.73, -0.60) for impaired glucose control. "Modern" pattern was associated positively with those factors, with slopes ranging 0.10 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.17) for high cholesterol to 0.42 (95% CI: 0.35, 0.49) for impaired glucose control. Dietary patterns were associated with cardio metabolic risk in Chinese adults.

  11. Dietary Pattern during 1991–2011 and Its Association with Cardio Metabolic Risks in Chinese Adults: The China Health and Nutrition Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased prevalence of overweight and obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and other cardio metabolic risks has become a public health concern in China, a country undergoing nutrition transition. We investigated the dietary pattern during 1991–2011 and its association with these risks in a longitudinal study among adults; Adults in The China Health and Nutrition Survey were included. Three-day food consumption was collected by 24 h recall method. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids was collected in 2009. Dietary pattern was generated using principal components analysis. The associations between dietary pattern and cardio metabolic risk were assessed with generalized linear regression adjusted for age, sex, and social economic status (SES. “Traditional” pattern loaded with rice, meat, and vegetables, and “Modern” pattern had high loadings of fast food, milk, and deep-fried food. “Traditional” pattern was inversely associated with cardio metabolic risks, with linear slopes ranging from −0.15 (95% confidence interval (CI: −0.18, −0.12 for hypertension to −0.67 (95% CI: −0.73, −0.60 for impaired glucose control. “Modern” pattern was associated positively with those factors, with slopes ranging 0.10 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.17 for high cholesterol to 0.42 (95% CI: 0.35, 0.49 for impaired glucose control. Dietary patterns were associated with cardio metabolic risk in Chinese adults.

  12. Inborn errors of metabolism in children referred with Reye's Syndrome: a changing pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, P.C.; Valle, D.; Brusilow, S.W.

    1988-12-02

    Genetic disorders were identified infrequently among children presenting Reye's syndrome in the past. During a two-year period, the authors evaluated four consecutive patients referred for intensive care of Reye's syndrome. A standard investigation for inborn errors of metabolism revealed that two patients had enzymatic defects of fatty acid oxidation, and the other two had partial deficiencies of ornithine transcarbamoylase. None had experienced a previous episode of Reye's syndrome, and three of the four had been entirely healthy in the past. Their experience suggests that as the incidence of Reye's syndrome has decreased, patients with its clinical features are not more likely to have manageable inborn errors of metabolism (eg, disorders of ureagenesis, ketogenesis, and branched-chain amino acids).

  13. Bisphenol A Exposure May Induce Hepatic Lipid Accumulation via Reprogramming the DNA Methylation Patterns of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Zhang-Hong; Pan, Jie-Xue; Jin, Lu-Yang; Xu, Hai-Yan; Yu, Tian-Tian; Ullah, Kamran; Rahman, Tanzil Ur; Ren, Jun; Cheng, Yi; Dong, Xin-Yan; Sheng, Jian-Zhong; Huang, He-Feng

    2016-08-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a role of bisphenol A (BPA) in metabolic disorders. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Using a mouse BPA exposure model, we investigated the effects of long-term BPA exposure on lipid metabolism and the underlying mechanisms. The male mice exposed to BPA (0.5 μg BPA /kg/day, a human relevant dose) for 10 months exhibited significant hepatic accumulation of triglycerides and cholesterol. The liver cells from the BPA-exposed mice showed significantly increased expression levels of the genes related to lipid synthesis. These liver cells showed decreased DNA methylation levels of Srebf1 and Srebf2, and increased expression levels of Srebf1 and Srebf2 that may upregulate the genes related to lipid synthesis. The expression levels of DNA methyltransferases were decreased in BPA-exposed mouse liver. Hepa1-6 cell line treated with BPA showed decreased expression levels of DNA methyltransferases and increased expression levels of genes involved in lipid synthesis. DNA methyltransferase knockdown in Hepa1-6 led to hypo-methylation and increased expression levels of genes involved in lipid synthesis. Our results suggest that long-term BPA exposure could induce hepatic lipid accumulation, which may be due to the epigenetic reprogramming of the genes involved in lipid metabolism, such as the alterations of DNA methylation patterns.

  14. Biomarkers and Metabolic Patterns in the Sediments of Evolving Glacial Lakes as a Proxy for Planetary Lake Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parro, Víctor; Blanco, Yolanda; Puente-Sánchez, Fernando; Rivas, Luis A; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Echeverría, Alex; Chong-Díaz, Guillermo; Demergasso, Cecilia; Cabrol, Nathalie A

    2016-11-28

    Oligotrophic glacial lakes in the Andes Mountains serve as models to study the effects of climate change on natural biological systems. The persistent high UV regime and evolution of the lake biota due to deglaciation make Andean lake ecosystems potential analogues in the search for life on other planetary bodies. Our objective was to identify microbial biomarkers and metabolic patterns that represent time points in the evolutionary history of Andean glacial lakes, as these may be used in long-term studies as microscale indicators of climate change processes. We investigated a variety of microbial markers in shallow sediments from Laguna Negra and Lo Encañado lakes (Región Metropolitana, Chile). An on-site immunoassay-based Life Detector Chip (LDChip) revealed the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria, methanogenic archaea, and exopolymeric substances from Gammaproteobacteria. Bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from field samples confirmed the results from the immunoassays and also revealed the presence of Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, and Deltaproteobacteria, as well as cyanobacteria and methanogenic archaea. The complementary immunoassay and phylogenetic results indicate a rich microbial diversity with active sulfate reduction and methanogenic activities along the shoreline and in shallow sediments. Sulfate inputs from the surrounding volcanic terrains during deglaciation may explain the observed microbial biomarker and metabolic patterns, which differ with depth and between the two lakes. A switch from aerobic and heterotrophic metabolisms to anaerobic ones such as sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in the shallow shores likely reflects the natural evolution of the lake sediments due to deglaciation. Hydrodynamic deposition of sediments creates compartmentalization (e.g., sediments with different structure and composition surrounded by oligotrophic water) that favors metabolic transitions. Similar phenomena would be expected to occur on other

  15. Effect of restricted feeding schedule on seasonal shifting of daily demand-feeding pattern and food anticipatory activity in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzaydi, M; Rubio, V C; López, F J Martínez; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J; Zamora, S; Madrid, J A

    2007-01-01

    The effect of restricted feeding schedule was investigated on the seasonal shifting of daily demand-feeding pattern and food anticipatory activity in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) held under natural environmental conditions in an outdoor laboratory. To that end, demand-feeding behavior was continuously monitored for approximately one year in four groups of 15 fish each exposed to natural fluctuations of water temperature (from 13.2 degrees C to 27.4 degrees C) and photophase (from 9.5 h to 14.5 h of light). When the animals were subjected to a time-restricted feeding schedule, the demand-feeding rhythm rapidly synchronized to the three periods of food availability: the first meal (FM) from 08:00 to 09:00 h, the second meal (SM) from 16:00 to 17:00 h, and the third meal (TM) from 00:00 to 01:00 h. The occurrence of demand-feeding activity into the three periods of food availability displayed a double seasonal shift: fish that self-fed mostly during the daytime periods of feeding availability (FM and SM) in summer and autumn changed to nocturnal feeding (TM) from December to April, returning to diurnal preferences in April. Food-demands appeared to be predominantly associated with feed availability, reaching its maximum levels during the hours of reward. In addition, feeding anticipatory activity (FAA) was observed. A relationship was detected between the duration of FAA and feeding-time, with shortest FAA (30-60 min) when mealtime occurred just after sunrise (FM) or sunset (TM). These findings demonstrate the ability of sea bass to self-feed under time-restricted schedules, and show a seasonal-phase inversion in demand-feeding activity in spite of the restrictions in their feeding availability. Sea bass can use external signals as reference to anticipate the time of feed availability. This information may be useful for designing new feeding strategies for European sea bass fish farming.

  16. Glucose Metabolism Gene Expression Patterns and Tumor Uptake of {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose After Radiation Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, George D., E-mail: george.wilson@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Beaumont BioBank, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Thibodeau, Bryan J.; Fortier, Laura E.; Pruetz, Barbara L. [Beaumont BioBank, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Galoforo, Sandra; Baschnagel, Andrew M.; Chunta, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Oliver Wong, Ching Yee [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Molecular Imaging Medicine, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Yan, Di; Marples, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Huang, Jiayi [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether radiation treatment influences the expression of glucose metabolism genes and compromises the potential use of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) as a tool to monitor the early response of head and neck cancer xenografts to radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Low passage head and neck squamous cancer cells (UT14) were injected to the flanks of female nu/nu mice to generate xenografts. After tumors reached a size of 500 mm{sup 3} they were treated with either sham RT or 15 Gy in 1 fraction. At different time points, days 3, 9, and 16 for controls and days 4, 7, 12, 21, 30, and 40 after irradiation, 2 to 3 mice were assessed with dynamic FDG-PET acquisition over 2 hours. Immediately after the FDG-PET the tumors were harvested for global gene expression analysis and immunohistochemical evaluation of GLUT1 and HK2. Different analytic parameters were used to process the dynamic PET data. Results: Radiation had no effect on key genes involved in FDG uptake and metabolism but did alter other genes in the HIF1α and glucose transport–related pathways. In contrast to the lack of effect on gene expression, changes in the protein expression patterns of the key genes GLUT1/SLC2A1 and HK2 were observed after radiation treatment. The changes in GLUT1 protein expression showed some correlation with dynamic FDG-PET parameters, such as the kinetic index. Conclusion: {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography changes after RT would seem to represent an altered metabolic state and not a direct effect on the key genes regulating FDG uptake and metabolism.

  17. Processed red meat contribution to dietary patterns and the associated cardio-metabolic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenighan, Yvonne M; Nugent, Anne P; Li, Kaifeng F; Brennan, Lorraine; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Roche, Helen M; McNulty, Breige A

    2017-08-01

    Evidence suggests that processed red meat consumption is a risk factor for CVD and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This analysis investigates the association between dietary patterns, their processed red meat contributions, and association with blood biomarkers of CVD and T2D, in 786 Irish adults (18-90 years) using cross-sectional data from a 2011 national food consumption survey. All meat-containing foods consumed were assigned to four food groups (n 502) on the basis of whether they contained red or white meat and whether they were processed or unprocessed. The remaining foods (n 2050) were assigned to twenty-nine food groups. Two-step and k-means cluster analyses were applied to derive dietary patterns. Nutrient intakes, plasma fatty acids and biomarkers of CVD and T2D were assessed. A total of four dietary patterns were derived. In comparison with the pattern with lower contributions from processed red meat, the dietary pattern with greater processed red meat intakes presented a poorer Alternate Healthy Eating Index (21·2 (sd 7·7)), a greater proportion of smokers (29 %) and lower plasma EPA (1·34 (sd 0·72) %) and DHA (2·21 (sd 0·84) %) levels (Pprocessed red meat consumption as a risk factor for CVD and T2D may need to be re-assessed.

  18. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  19. Longitudinal association of metabolic syndrome and dietary patterns: A 13-year prospective population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassannejad, R; Kazemi, I; Sadeghi, M; Mohammadifard, N; Roohafza, H; Sarrafzadegan, N; Talaei, M; Mansourian, M

    2018-04-01

    Diet is a potential factor contributing to the development of the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). This longitudinal study with repeated measurements of dietary intake was thus conducted to examine the longitudinal association between major dietary patterns and risk of MetS. The study was conducted within the framework of the Isfahan Cohort Study (ICS), in which 1387 participants were followed from 2001 to 2013. Validated food frequency questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting serum lipids and blood sugars were evaluated in three phases of the study. Mixed effect Logistic and Cumulative Logit regressions were applied to evaluate the longitudinal associations between dietary patterns change and MetS and number of MetS components. Three dietary patterns were identified: Healthy, Iranian and Western dietary patterns. After adjustment for potential confounders, the higher scores of Healthy diet were inversely associated with the risk of MetS and number of MetS components (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.36-0.70, OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.39-0.70, respectively). The greater adherence to the Iranian diet was positively associated with the risk of MetS and number of MetS components (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.01-1.65, OR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.16-1.81, respectively). The Western dietary pattern did not show any significant associations. Adherence to a Healthy diet was associated with lower risk of MetS even in a developing country setting. However, the Iranian diet was positively associated with the risk of MetS. These results may guide the development of improved preventive nutrition interventions in this adult population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Unravelling daily human mobility motifs

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Christian M.; Belik, Vitaly; Couronné, Thomas; Smoreda, Zbigniew; González, Marta C.

    2013-01-01

    Human mobility is differentiated by time scales. While the mechanism for long time scales has been studied, the underlying mechanism on the daily scale is still unrevealed. Here, we uncover the mechanism responsible for the daily mobility patterns by analysing the temporal and spatial trajectories of thousands of persons as individual networks. Using the concept of motifs from network theory, we find only 17 unique networks are present in daily mobility and they follow simple rules. These net...

  1. Diurnal patterns of gas-exchange and metabolic pools in tundra plants during three phases of the arctic growing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, Rajit; Mortazavi, Behzad; Oberbauer, Steven F; Starr, Gregory

    2013-02-01

    Arctic tundra plant communities are subject to a short growing season that is the primary period in which carbon is sequestered for growth and survival. This period is often characterized by 24-h photoperiods for several months a year. To compensate for the short growing season tundra plants may extend their carbon uptake capacity on a diurnal basis, but whether this is true remains unknown. Here, we examined in situ diurnal patterns of physiological activity and foliar metabolites during the early, mid, and late growing season in seven arctic species under light-saturated conditions. We found clear diurnal patterns in photosynthesis and respiration, with midday peaks and midnight lulls indicative of circadian regulation. Diurnal patterns in foliar metabolite concentrations were less distinct between the species and across seasons, suggesting that metabolic pools are likely governed by proximate external factors. This understanding of diurnal physiology will also enhance the parameterization of process-based models, which will aid in better predicting future carbon dynamics for the tundra. This becomes even more critical considering the rapid changes that are occurring circumpolarly that are altering plant community structure, function, and ultimately regional and global carbon budgets.

  2. Diurnal patterns of gas-exchange and metabolic pools in tundra plants during three phases of the arctic growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, Rajit; Mortazavi, Behzad; Oberbauer, Steven F; Starr, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Arctic tundra plant communities are subject to a short growing season that is the primary period in which carbon is sequestered for growth and survival. This period is often characterized by 24-h photoperiods for several months a year. To compensate for the short growing season tundra plants may extend their carbon uptake capacity on a diurnal basis, but whether this is true remains unknown. Here, we examined in situ diurnal patterns of physiological activity and foliar metabolites during the early, mid, and late growing season in seven arctic species under light-saturated conditions. We found clear diurnal patterns in photosynthesis and respiration, with midday peaks and midnight lulls indicative of circadian regulation. Diurnal patterns in foliar metabolite concentrations were less distinct between the species and across seasons, suggesting that metabolic pools are likely governed by proximate external factors. This understanding of diurnal physiology will also enhance the parameterization of process-based models, which will aid in better predicting future carbon dynamics for the tundra. This becomes even more critical considering the rapid changes that are occurring circumpolarly that are altering plant community structure, function, and ultimately regional and global carbon budgets. PMID:23467719

  3. Mining Metatranscriptomic Data of a Cyanobacterial Bloom for Patterns of Secondary Metabolism Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, K.; Wang, J.; Thompson, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The secondary metabolism of bacterial cells produces small molecules that can have both medicinal properties and toxigenic effects. This study focuses on mining metatranscriptomes from a tropical eutrophic water reservoir in Singapore experiencing a cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Bloom dominated by Microcystis, to identify the types of secondary metabolites genes being expressed and by what taxa. A phylogenomic approach as implemented in the online tool Natural Product Domain Seeker (NaPDoS) was used. NaPDoS was recently developed to classify ketosynthase and condensation domains from polyketide synthases and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases, respectively, to provide insight into potential types of pathway products. Water samples from the reservoir were collected six times over a day/night cycle. Total RNA was extracted and subjected to ribosomal depletion followed by cDNA synthesis and next-generation Illumina DNA sequencing, generating 493,468 to 678,064 95-101 base pairs post-quality control reads per sample. Evidence for expression of PKS and NRPS type genes based on identification of a ketosynthase and condensation domains are present in all time points. KS domains fall into to two main phylogenetic groups, type I and type II, within the type II group of domains are domains for fatty acid biosynthesis (fab), which is considered a part of primary metabolism. Type I KS domains are part of the classic PKS natural product biosynthetic genes that make things such as antibiotics and other toxins such as microcystin. 2849 KS domains were detected in the combined reservoir samples, of these 1141 were likely from fatty acid biosynthesis and 1708 were related to secondary metabolism type KS domains. The most abundant KS domains (485) besides the fab genes are closely related to a KS domain that is not currently experimentally linked to a known secondary metabolite but the domain is found in four Microcystis genomes along with two other species of cyanobacteria. The three

  4. Associations between healthy eating patterns and indicators of metabolic risk in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Marcio AH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since human diets contain many components that may work synergistically to prevent or promote disease, assessing diet quality may be informative. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between quality diet, by using Healthy Eating Index (HEI, and metabolic risk indicators in postmenopausal women. Methods This cross-sectional study included a total of 173 Brazilian women, aged 45-75 years, seeking healthcare at a public outpatient center. Food consumption assessed by 24 h-recall food inquiry was used to calculate HEI scores: >80 implied diet good, 80-51 diet "needed improvement", and 2, waist-circumference (WC, body fat (%BF and lean mass (%LM. Data on total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC, and triglycerides (TG were also collected. Fisher's Exact test, and logistic regression method (to determine odds ratio, OR were used in the statistical analysis. Results Overweight and obesity were observed in 75.7% of the participants. Excessive %BF (> 35% was observed in 56.1%, while %LM was reduced ( 35%, predominantly saturated and monounsaturated fat. On average, plasma TC, LDLC, and TG levels were higher than recommended in 57.2%, 79.2% and 45.1% of the women, respectively, while HDLC was low in 50.8%. There was association between HEI scores and the %BF that it was higher among women with HEI score Conclusion Among the Brazilian postmenopausal women attending a public outpatient clinic, diet was considered to need improvement or to be of poor quality, attributed to high saturated fat ingestion, which probably caused a negative impact on metabolic risk indicators, namely body composition.

  5. DAILY GAIN IN PREPUBERTAL DAIRY HEIFERS AND ITS EFFECT ON BODY SIZE AT FIRST CALVING, METABOLIC PROFILE AND FIRST LACTATION MILK PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    C. GAVAN

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of moderate (660 g/d) and high (880g/d) before puberty on body size, metabolic profile and first lactation milkproduction of Holstein - Friesian heifers. There were 18 heifers raised on fourperiod feeding regimen. Half the heifers were artificially inseminated at 370 kg, andthe other half after 420 kg of body weight to obtain early age at first calving andlate age at first calving respectively. Age at first calving significantly influenced milk...

  6. A cross-sectional investigation of regional patterns of diet and cardio-metabolic risk in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy KS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of diet in India's rapidly progressing chronic disease epidemic is unclear; moreover, diet may vary considerably across North-South regions. Methods The India Health Study was a multicenter study of men and women aged 35-69, who provided diet, lifestyle, and medical histories, as well as blood pressure, fasting blood, urine, and anthropometric measurements. In each region (Delhi, n = 824; Mumbai, n = 743; Trivandrum, n = 2,247, we identified two dietary patterns with factor analysis. In multiple logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, education, income, marital status, religion, physical activity, tobacco, alcohol, and total energy intake, we investigated associations between regional dietary patterns and abdominal adiposity, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Results Across the regions, more than 80% of the participants met the criteria for abdominal adiposity and 10 to 28% of participants were considered diabetic. In Delhi, the "fruit and dairy" dietary pattern was positively associated with abdominal adiposity [highest versus lowest tertile, multivariate-adjusted OR and 95% CI: 2.32 (1.03-5.23; Ptrend = 0.008] and hypertension [2.20 (1.47-3.31; Ptrend trend = 0.03] and the "snacks and sweets" pattern was positively associated with abdominal adiposity [2.05 (1.34-3.14; Ptrend = 0.03]. In Mumbai, the "fruit and vegetable" pattern was inversely associated with hypertension [0.63 (0.40-0.99; Ptrend = 0.05] and the "snack and meat" pattern appeared to be positively associated with abdominal adiposity. Conclusions Cardio-metabolic risk factors were highly prevalent in this population. Across all regions, we found little evidence of a Westernized diet; however, dietary patterns characterized by animal products, fried snacks, or sweets appeared to be positively associated with abdominal adiposity. Conversely, more traditional diets in the Southern regions were inversely related to diabetes and

  7. Body composition, metabolism, sleep, psychological and eating patterns of overtraining syndrome: Results of the EROS study (EROS-PROFILE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadegiani, Flavio A; Kater, Claudio E

    2018-01-09

    Overtraining syndrome (OTS) is caused by an imbalance between training, nutrition and resting, and leads to decreased performance and fatigue; however, the precise underlying triggers of OTS remain unclear. This study investigated the body composition, metabolism, eating, sleeping patterns and mood states among participants with OTS. Selected participants were divided into OTS-affected athletes (OTS, n = 14), healthy athletes (ATL, n = 25), and healthy non-physically active controls (NCS, n = 12). Compared to ATL, OTS showed decreased sleep quality (p = 0.004); increased duration of work or study (p sleep, and increased cognitive activity are likely OTS triggers. OTS appears to induce dehydration, increase body fat, decrease libido, and worsen mood.

  8. Lipid mediator metabolic profiling demonstrates differences in eicosanoid patterns in two phenotypically distinct mast cell populations[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Susanna L.; Saluja, Rohit; Adner, Mikael; Haeggström, Jesper Z.; Nilsson, Gunnar; Wheelock, Craig E.

    2013-01-01

    Mast cells are inflammatory cells that play key roles in health and disease. They are distributed in all tissues and appear in two main phenotypes, connective tissue and mucosal mast cells, with differing capacities to release inflammatory mediators. A metabolic profiling approach was used to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the ability of mast cell phenotypes to produce eicosanoids and other lipid mediators. A total of 90 lipid mediators (oxylipins) were characterized using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), representing the cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LO), and cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolic pathways. In vitro-derived murine mucosal-like mast cells (MLMC) and connective tissue-like mast cells (CTLMC) exhibited distinct mRNA expression patterns of enzymes involved in oxylipin biosynthesis. Oxylipins produced by 5-LO and COX pathways were the predominant species in both phenotypes, with 5-LO products constituting 90 ± 2% of the CTLMCs compared with 58 ± 8% in the MLMCs. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that CTLMCs and MLMCs secrete differing oxylipin profiles at baseline and following calcium ionophore stimulation, evidencing specificity in both a time- and biosynthetic pathway-dependent manner. In addition to the COX-regulated prostaglandin PGD2 and 5-LO-regulated cysteinyl-leukotrienes (e.g., LTC4), several other mediators evidenced phenotype-specificity, which may have biological implications in mast cell-mediated regulation of inflammatory responses. PMID:23034214

  9. Exploring Daily Physical Activity and Nutrition Patterns in Early Learning Settings: Snapshots of Young Children in Head Start, Primary, and After-School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegelin, Dolores A.; Anderson, Denise; Kemper, Karen; Wagner, Jennifer; Evans, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to gain a greater understanding of daily routines of 4-7 year olds regarding physical activity and nutrition practices in typical early learning environments. The settings selected for this observational study included Head Start, primary, and after-school learning environments in a city in the southeast.…

  10. Risk constellations in patients with the metabolic syndrome: epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, Steven M

    2006-05-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide. Among other complications, diabetes is associated with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) that is thought to be equal to the risk of CHD in subjects without diabetes with previous myocardial infarction. Studies have shown that CHD risk factors start to increase long before the onset of clinical diabetes. Furthermore, the risk factors that are present in prediabetic individuals are also components of the highly prevalent metabolic syndrome. This suggests that treatment of CHD risk factors may effectively reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle interventions have proved effective in preventing the onset of type 2 diabetes in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. A number of post hoc studies have reported consistent reductions in the incidence of type 2 diabetes in hypertensive patients treated with either angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). As a result of these positive data, ongoing prospective studies are investigating whether antihypertensive agents prevent or delay the onset of diabetes in patients at risk. Telmisartan, a selective oral ARB that is indicated for first-line therapy of essential hypertension, may provide improved tolerability compared with ACE inhibitors. Therefore, the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) program is investigating the effectiveness of telmisartan in the prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes. The program comprises ONTARGET and the Telmisartan Randomized Assessment Study in ACE-Intolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease (TRANSCEND).

  11. Determination of cerebral metabolic patterns in dementia using positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    With the introduction of the Kety-Schmidt method whole brain measurements of blood flow and metabolism were first applied to normal aged and demented patients. Chronically demented patients were consistently found to have marked reductions in cerebral blood flow, oxygen utilization, and glucose utilization when dementia was severe, and lesser reductions when it was mild. Others found that cerebral blood flow, oxygen utilization, and glucose utilization were decreased in parallel in late stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and multiple infarct dementia (MID). The intraarterial /sup 133/Xe method has been used to determine abnormalities in regional cerebral blood flow that correlate with cognitive deficits in patients with organic dementia, mostly Alzheimer's cases. Positron emission tomography (PET) and the /sup 18/F fluorodeoxyglycose (FDG) method have been applied to small numbers of demented patients with advanced AD. In general, decreases were found in global cerebral glucose utilization, but especially in temporal and parietal cortex. Others, using PET and the /sup 15/O/sub 2/ steady-state method, found a coupled decline in global cerebral blood flow and oxygen utilization that was correlated with increasing severity of dementia in both AD and MID, but there was no increase in oxygen extraction ratio, and therefore no evidence to support the existence of a chronic ischemic brain process. In this chapter, the author reviews some of the recent findings at UCLA using PET and the method in the study of normal aging and dementing disorders

  12. Patterns of Carbon Partitioning in Leaves of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Species during Deacidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, J. T.; Holtum, JAM.

    1996-09-01

    Carbohydrates stored during deacidification in the light were examined in 11 Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species from widely separated taxa grown under uniform conditions. The hypothesis that NAD(P) malic enzyme CAM species store chloroplastic starch and glucans, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase species store extrachloroplastic sugars or polymers was disproved. Of the six malic enzyme species examined, Kalanchoe tubiflora, Kalanchoe pinnata, Kalanchoe daigremontiana, and Vanilla planifolia stored mainly starch. Sansevieria hahnii stored sucrose and Agave guadalajarana did not store starch, glucose, fructose, or sucrose. Of the five phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase species investigated, Ananus comosus stored extrachloroplastic carbohydrate, but Stapelia gigantea, Hoya carnosa, and Portea petropolitana stored starch, whereas Aloe vera stored both starch and glucose. Within families, the major decarboxylase was common for all species examined, whereas storage carbohydrate could differ both between and within genera. In the Bromeliaceae, A. comosus stored mainly fructose, but P. petropolitana stored starch. In the genus Aloe, A. vera stored starch and glucose, but A. arborescens is known to store a galactomannan polymer. We postulate that the observed variation in carbohydrate partitioning between CAM species is the result of two principal components: (a) constraints imposed by the CAM syndrome itself, and (b) diversity in biochemistry resulting from different evolutionary histories.

  13. Coupling gene regulatory patterns to bioprocess conditions to optimize synthetic metabolic modules for improved sesquiterpene production in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bingyin; Plan, Manuel R; Carpenter, Alexander; Nielsen, Lars K; Vickers, Claudia E

    2017-01-01

    Assembly of heterologous metabolic pathways is commonly required to generate microbial cell factories for industrial production of both commodity chemicals (including biofuels) and high-value chemicals. Promoter-mediated transcriptional regulation coordinates the expression of the individual components of these heterologous pathways. Expression patterns vary during culture as conditions change, and this can influence yeast physiology and productivity in both positive and negative ways. Well-characterized strategies are required for matching transcriptional regulation with desired output across changing culture conditions. Here, constitutive and inducible regulatory mechanisms were examined to optimize synthetic isoprenoid metabolic pathway modules for production of trans -nerolidol, an acyclic sesquiterpene alcohol, in yeast. The choice of regulatory system significantly affected physiological features (growth and productivity) over batch cultivation. Use of constitutive promoters resulted in poor growth during the exponential phase. Delaying expression of the assembled metabolic modules using the copper-inducible CUP1 promoter resulted in a 1.6-fold increase in the exponential-phase growth rate and a twofold increase in productivity in the post-exponential phase. However, repeated use of the CUP1 promoter in multiple expression cassettes resulted in genetic instability. A diauxie-inducible expression system, based on an engineered GAL regulatory circuit and a set of four different GAL promoters, was characterized and employed to assemble nerolidol synthetic metabolic modules. Nerolidol production was further improved by 60% to 392 mg L -1 using this approach. Various carbon source systems were investigated in batch/fed-batch cultivation to regulate induction through the GAL system; final nerolidol titres of 4-5.5 g L -1 were achieved, depending on the conditions. Direct comparison of different transcriptional regulatory mechanisms clearly demonstrated that

  14. Treatment patterns and risk factor control in patients with and without metabolic syndrome in cardiac rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitt A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Anselm Gitt1, Christina Jannowitz2, Marthin Karoff3, Barbara Karmann2, Martin Horack1, Heinz Völler4,51Institut für Herzinfarktforschung an der Universität Heidelberg, Ludwigshafen,2Medical Affairs, MSD Sharp and Dohme GmbH, Haar, 3Klinik Königsfeld der Deutschen Rentenversicherung Westfalen in Ennepetal (NRW, Klinik der Universität Witten-Herdecke, 4Kardiologie, Klinik am See, Rüdersdorf, 5Center of Rehabilitation Research, University Potsdam, GermanyAim: Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a clustering of factors that are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. We aimed to investigate the proportion of patients with MetS in patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation (CR, and to describe differences between patients with MetS compared to those without MetS with regard to (1 patient characteristics including demographics, risk factors, and comorbidities, (2 risk factor management including drug treatment, and (3 control status of risk factors at entry to CR and discharge from CR.Methods: Post-hoc analysis of data from 27,904 inpatients (Transparency Registry to Objectify Guideline-Oriented Risk Factor Management registry that underwent a CR period of about 3 weeks were analyzed descriptively in total and compared by their MetS status.Results: In the total cohort, mean age was 64.3 years, (71.7% male, with no major differences between groups. Patients had been referred after a ST elevation of myocardial infarction event in 41.1% of cases, non-ST elevation of myocardial infarction in 21.8%, or angina pectoris in 16.7%. They had received a percutaneous coronary intervention in 55.1% and bypass surgery (coronary artery bypass graft in 39.5%. Patients with MetS (n = 15,819 compared to those without MetS (n = 12,085 were less frequently males, and in terms of cardiac interventions, more often received coronary artery bypass surgery. Overall, statin use increased from 79.9% at entry to 95.0% at discharge (MetS: 79.7% to 95.2%. Patients with Met

  15. A dietary pattern based on estrogen metabolism is associated with breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinter, Mark A; McLain, Alexander C; Merchant, Anwar T; Sandler, Dale P; Steck, Susan E

    2018-03-25

    Increased exposure to estrogen is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer, and dietary factors can influence estrogen metabolism. However, studies of diet and breast cancer have been inconclusive. We developed a dietary pattern associated with levels of unconjugated estradiol and the ratio of 2- and 16-hydroxylated estrogen metabolites in a subsample of Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Screening Trial (PLCO) participants (n = 653) using reduced rank regression, and examined its association with postmenopausal breast cancer prospectively in the larger PLCO cohort (n = 27,488). The estrogen-related dietary pattern (ERDP) was comprised of foods with positively-weighted intakes (non-whole/refined grains, tomatoes, cruciferous vegetables, cheese, fish/shellfish high in ω-3 fatty acids, franks/luncheon meats) and negatively-weighted intakes (nuts/seeds, other vegetables, fish/shellfish low in ω-3 fatty acids, yogurt, coffee). A 1-unit increase in the ERDP score was associated with an increase in total (HR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18), invasive (HR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.04-1.24) and estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.02-1.24) breast cancer risk after adjustment for confounders. Associations were observed for the fourth quartile of ERDP compared with the first quartile for overall breast cancer (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.98-1.32), invasive cases (HR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.02-1.42) and ER-positive cases (HR: 1.19; 95% CI: 0.99-1.41). The increased risk associated with increasing ERDP score was more apparent in strata of some effect modifiers (postmenopausal hormone therapy non-users and non-obese participants) where the relative estrogen exposure due to that factor was lowest, although the p values for interaction were not statistically significant. Results suggest a dietary pattern based on estrogen metabolism is positively associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk, possibly through an estrogenic influence. © 2018 UICC.

  16. How are metabolic control targets of patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus achieved in daily practice in the area with high diabetes prevalence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekäläinen, Päivi; Tirkkonen, Hilkka; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2016-05-01

    We assessed the prevalence of Type 1 diabetes mellitus and determined how the targets established in the guidelines for patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus were achieved in clinical practice in North Karelia, Finland. All adult Type 1 diabetes mellitus patients (n=1075) were identified from the regional electronic patient database. The data for HbA1c and LDL cholesterol measurements during the years 2013 and 2014 were obtained from medical records. The prevalence of Type 1 diabetes mellitus in the adult population in North Karelia was 0.8%, which is among the highest worldwide. HbA1c and LDL cholesterol were measured in 93% and 90% of participants, respectively. Nineteen percent of patients reached the HbA1c target of diabetes achieved glycaemic control targets compared with 13-16% of younger patients with diabetes. Glycaemic control was in line with the recommendations in only one-fifth of Type 1 diabetes mellitus patients and less than half of them had LDL cholesterol levels within the target range. Interestingly, older Type 1 diabetes mellitus patients met the glycaemic control target more often than younger patients with diabetes. The targets established for patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus are not achieved satisfactorily in daily practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Patterns of ecosystem metabolism in the Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia with links to capture fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon W Holtgrieve

    Full Text Available The Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia is a dynamic flood-pulsed ecosystem that annually increases its surface area from roughly 2,500 km(2 to over 12,500 km(2 driven by seasonal flooding from the Mekong River. This flooding is thought to structure many of the critical ecological processes, including aquatic primary and secondary productivity. The lake also has a large fishery that supports the livelihoods of nearly 2 million people. We used a state-space oxygen mass balance model and continuous dissolved oxygen measurements from four locations to provide the first estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP and ecosystem respiration (ER for the Tonle Sap. GPP averaged 4.1±2.3 g O2 m(-3 d(-1 with minimal differences among sites. There was a negative correlation between monthly GPP and lake level (r = 0.45 and positive correlation with turbidity (r = 0.65. ER averaged 24.9±20.0 g O2 m(-3 d(-1 but had greater than six-fold variation among sites and minimal seasonal change. Repeated hypoxia was observed at most sampling sites along with persistent net heterotrophy (GPPmetabolism of organic matter that is likely incorporated into the larger food web. Using our measurements of GPP, we calibrated a hydrodynamic-productivity model and predicted aquatic net primary production (aNPP of 2.0±0.2 g C m(-2 d(-1 (2.4±0.2 million tonnes C y(-1. Considering a range of plausible values for the total fisheries catch, we estimate that fisheries harvest is an equivalent of 7-69% of total aNPP, which is substantially larger than global average for marine and freshwater systems. This is likely due to relatively efficient carbon transfer through the food web and support of fish production from terrestrial NPP. These analyses are an important first-step in quantifying the resource pathways that support this important ecosystem.

  18. Ventilation and metabolic rate in the platypus: insights into the evolution of the mammalian breathing pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frappell, Peter B

    2003-12-01

    The platypus (Ornithorhyncus anatinus) is characterized by a rate of oxygen consumption (V(O2))that is higher than that reported for other similar sized monotremes, similar to marsupials and somewhat lower than eutherians. The platypus is also characterized by a breathing pattern, more typical of a diving mammal, with a high 'inspiratory drive' and a post-inspiratory pause. Further, the platypus reveals an attenuated hyperventilatory response to hypoxia and a reduced hyperpnoea to hypercapnia; such a response to these chemical stimuli is commonly observed in semi-fossorial and diving mammals. Nevertheless, under conditions of normoxia, ventilation (V(E))is matched to (V(O(2)) such that the convection requirement (V(E)/V(O2)) is similar to that reported for other mammals (approx. 37). The apparent consistency of the convection requirement in mammals suggests the blueprint for the design of the mammalian respiratory system has remained an interspecies constant in the three divergent extant sub-classes of mammals.

  19. Effect of once-daily, modified-release hydrocortisone versus standard glucocorticoid therapy on metabolism and innate immunity in patients with adrenal insufficiency (DREAM): a single-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidori, Andrea M; Venneri, Mary Anna; Graziadio, Chiara; Simeoli, Chiara; Fiore, Daniela; Hasenmajer, Valeria; Sbardella, Emilia; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Pozza, Carlotta; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Morrone, Stefania; Santoni, Angela; Naro, Fabio; Colao, Annamaria; Pivonello, Rosario; Lenzi, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    Conventional treatment of patients with adrenal insufficiency involves administration of glucocorticoids multiple times a day and has been associated with weight gain and metabolic impairment. The optimal glucocorticoid replacement therapy for these patients is highly debated because of the scarcity of evidence from randomised trials. We aimed to establish whether the timing and pharmacokinetics of glucocorticoid replacement therapy affect the metabolism and immune system of patients with adrenal insufficiency. We did a single-blind randomised controlled trial at two reference university hospitals in Italy. Eligible patients (aged 18-80 years) with adrenal insufficiency were on conventional glucocorticoid therapy and had been stable for at least 3 months before enrolment. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) with a computer-generated random sequence stratified by type of adrenal insufficiency and BMI to continue conventional glucocorticoid therapy (standard treatment group) or to switch to an equivalent dose of once-daily, modified-release oral hydrocortisone (switch treatment group). Outcome assessors were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was bodyweight change from baseline to 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes included immune cell profiles, susceptibility to infections, and quality of life. Efficacy analyses included all patients who received at least one dose of the study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02277587. Between March 1, 2014, and June 30, 2016, 89 patients with adrenal insufficiency were randomly assigned to continue standard glucocorticoid therapy (n=43) or to switch to once-daily, modified-release hydrocortisone (n=46). At 24 weeks, bodyweight reduction was superior in patients in the once-daily hydrocortisone group compared with those in the standard treatment group (-2·1 kg [95% CI -4·0 to -0·3] vs 1·9 kg [-0·1 to 3·9]; treatment difference -4·0 kg, 95% CI -6·9 to -1·1; p=0·008). Additionally

  20. GPS based daily activity patterns in European red deer and North American elk (Cervus elaphus: indication for a weak circadian clock in ungulates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik P Ensing

    Full Text Available Long-term tracking using global positioning systems (GPS is widely used to study vertebrate movement ecology, including fine-scale habitat selection as well as large-scale migrations. These data have the potential to provide much more information about the behavior and ecology of wild vertebrates: here we explore the potential of using GPS datasets to assess timing of activity in a chronobiological context. We compared two different populations of deer (Cervus elaphus, one in the Netherlands (red deer, the other in Canada (elk. GPS tracking data were used to calculate the speed of the animals as a measure for activity to deduce unbiased daily activity rhythms over prolonged periods of time. Speed proved a valid measure for activity, this being validated by comparing GPS based activity data with head movements recorded by activity sensors, and the use of GPS locations was effective for generating long term chronobiological data. Deer showed crepuscular activity rhythms with activity peaks at sunrise (the Netherlands or after sunrise (Canada and at the end of civil twilight at dusk. The deer in Canada were mostly diurnal while the deer in the Netherlands were mostly nocturnal. On an annual scale, Canadian deer were more active during the summer months while deer in the Netherlands were more active during winter. We suggest that these differences were mainly driven by human disturbance (on a daily scale and local weather (on an annual scale. In both populations, the crepuscular activity peaks in the morning and evening showed a stable timing relative to dawn and dusk twilight throughout the year, but marked periods of daily a-rhythmicity occurred in the individual records. We suggest that this might indicate that (changes in light levels around twilight elicit a direct behavioral response while the contribution of an internal circadian timing mechanism might be weak or even absent.

  1. The metabolic activity of the enteric microflora and the pattern of sensitization in different types of feeding in healthy infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Bogdanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the metabolic activity of the enteric microflora and the rate of milk protein sensitization during different types of feeding in healthy infants of Moscow. A total of 200 apparently healthy children were followed up. According to feeding patterns, there were 100 formula-fed babies (a study group and 100 breast-fed ones (a comparison group. Subgroup 1 of the study group included 51 infants receiving formulas based on New Zealand goat's milk with prebiotics; Subgroup 2 consisted of 49 infants having formulas based on cow's milk-serum proteins with prebiotics. The metabolic activity of the enteric microflora was investigated by gas liquid chromatography; the concentrations of allergen-specific IgE and IgG antibodies against cow's and goat's milk proteins in coprofllrates were determined by noncompetitive enzyme immunoassay using special test systems (Allergopharma, Germany before and during the ingestion of the formulas with prebiotics. The use of the formulas containing prebiotics led to increases in acetic acid and butyric acid concentrations and anaerobic index in both subgroups. However, their highest values in the coproflltrates were observed in Subgroup 1 and breast-fed infants. Analysis of allergen-specific IgE and IgC antibodies before formula indigestion showed that the level of latent sensitization to goat's milk protein was substantially lower than that to cow's milk protein (+ Class 1 and + Class 2, respectively. Subgroup 1 showed a more pronounced tendency to decrease the rate of latent sensitization to these types of protein. Thus, the most pronounced positive tendency in the examined indicators was observed in babies receiving breast milk or formulas based on New Zealand goat's milk with prebiotics.

  2. An assessment of the effects of multiple daily fractionated radiation therapy and hyperthermia on tumor growth pattern in a C57BL/6J mouse ependymoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, K.H.; Cormack, D.V.

    1985-01-01

    Multiple Daily Fractionated (MDF) radiation therapy utilizes three fractions per day with an interval of 3 hours between fractions. In clinical studies a significant advantage of MDF radiation therapy over conventional radiation therapy has been shown. Since March 1984, the authors have been trying to improve the effectiveness of MDF radiation therapy by adding Hyperfractionated Hyperthermia (HH). HH was given 3 times for 30 minutes at 42.5 - 0.5 0 C immediately after irradiation. The preliminary assessment shows that there is a significant benefit in the MDF and HH combined therapy over the MDF alone. Thermal enhancement of normal skin reaction was monitored and no significant enhancement was seen

  3. Ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based comprehensive metabolomics combined with pattern recognition and network analysis methods for characterization of metabolites and metabolic pathways from biological data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ai-hua; Sun, Hui; Han, Ying; Yan, Guang-li; Yuan, Ye; Song, Gao-chen; Yuan, Xiao-xia; Xie, Ning; Wang, Xi-jun

    2013-08-06

    Metabolomics is the study of metabolic changes in biological systems and provides the small molecule fingerprints related to the disease. Extracting biomedical information from large metabolomics data sets by multivariate data analysis is of considerable complexity. Therefore, more efficient and optimizing metabolomics data processing technologies are needed to improve mass spectrometry applications in biomarker discovery. Here, we report the findings of urine metabolomic investigation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients by high-throughput ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) coupled with pattern recognition methods (principal component analysis, partial least-squares, and OPLS-DA) and network pharmacology. A total of 20 urinary differential metabolites (13 upregulated and 7 downregulated) were identified and contributed to HCV progress, involve several key metabolic pathways such as taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, histidine metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, and so forth. Metabolites identified through metabolic profiling may facilitate the development of more accurate marker algorithms to better monitor disease progression. Network analysis validated close contact between these metabolites and implied the importance of the metabolic pathways. Mapping altered metabolites to KEGG pathways identified alterations in a variety of biological processes mediated through complex networks. These findings may be promising to yield a valuable and noninvasive tool that insights into the pathophysiology of HCV and to advance the early diagnosis and monitor the progression of disease. Overall, this investigation illustrates the power of the UPLC-MS platform combined with the pattern recognition and network analysis methods that can engender new insights into HCV pathobiology.

  4. [New theory of holistic integrative physiology and medicine. III: New insight of neurohumoral mechanism and pattern of control and regulation for core axe of respiration, circulation and metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xing-guo

    2015-07-01

    Systemic mechanism of neurohumoral control and regulation for human is limited. We used the new theory of holistic integrative physiology and medicine to approach the mechanism and pattern of neurohumoral control and regulation for life. As the core of human life, there are two core axes of functions. The first one is the common goal of respiration and circulation to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide for cells, and the second one is the goal of gastrointestinal tract and circulation to transport energy material and metabolic product for cells. These two core axes maintain the metabolism. The neurohumoral regulation is holistically integrated and unified for all functions in human body. We simplified explain the mechanism of neurohumoral control and regulation life (respiration and circulation) as the example pattern of sound system. Based upon integrated regulation of life, we described the neurohumoral pattern to control respiration and circulation.

  5. Genome-scale NAD(H/(+ availability patterns as a differentiating feature between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Scheffersomyces stipitis in relation to fermentative metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Acevedo

    Full Text Available Scheffersomyces stipitis is a yeast able to ferment pentoses to ethanol, unlike Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it does not present the so-called overflow phenomenon. Metabolic features characterizing the presence or not of this phenomenon have not been fully elucidated. This work proposes that genome-scale metabolic response to variations in NAD(H/(+ availability characterizes fermentative behavior in both yeasts. Thus, differentiating features in S. stipitis and S. cerevisiae were determined analyzing growth sensitivity response to changes in available reducing capacity in relation to ethanol production capacity and overall metabolic flux span. Using genome-scale constraint-based metabolic models, phenotypic phase planes and shadow price analyses, an excess of available reducing capacity for growth was found in S. cerevisiae at every metabolic phenotype where growth is limited by oxygen uptake, while in S. stipitis this was observed only for a subset of those phenotypes. Moreover, by using flux variability analysis, an increased metabolic flux span was found in S. cerevisiae at growth limited by oxygen uptake, while in S. stipitis flux span was invariant. Therefore, each yeast can be characterized by a significantly different metabolic response and flux span when growth is limited by oxygen uptake, both features suggesting a higher metabolic flexibility in S. cerevisiae. By applying an optimization-based approach on the genome-scale models, three single reaction deletions were found to generate in S. stipitis the reducing capacity availability pattern found in S. cerevisiae, two of them correspond to reactions involved in the overflow phenomenon. These results show a close relationship between the growth sensitivity response given by the metabolic network and fermentative behavior.

  6. The traditional Korean dietary pattern is associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome: findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1998-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Cho, Mi Sook

    2014-01-01

    The traditional Korean diet has several healthy components, including abundant vegetables, fermented foods, a variety of foodstuffs, and a balance of animal and vegetable food intake. Although the traditional Korean diet has many healthy components, few studies have been conducted on the health advantages of the Korean dietary pattern. This study is intended to clarify the relationship between Korean dietary patterns and chronic diseases using the Integrated Korean Dietary Pattern Score (I-KDPS). I-KDPS is an index for measuring Korean dietary patterns based on traditional Korean meals and reflects the complex and multifaceted characteristics of Korean food culture. I-KDPS is composed of seven items to measure the level of balance and adequacy of Korean food consumption, with a maximum score of 60. When I-KDPS was applied to the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2009), a nationwide survey, I-KDPS was closely related to the risk of metabolic syndrome. Even though there were a few differences among the years surveyed, the risk of metabolic syndrome, obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia significantly decreased as I-KDPS increased. These results indicate that risk of diseases, including metabolic syndrome, decreases in individuals adhering to traditional Korean dietary patterns in adequate levels and those who eat a balanced diet. The result of this study shows that the traditional Korean table setting, which comprises side dishes, including seasoned vegetables, grilled dishes, and fermented products with cooked rice (bap), soup (guk), and kimchi, contains traits that help prevent metabolic syndrome. I-KDPS coupled with the basic study of the healthfulness of the Korean dietary lifestyle is expected to help establish a foundation for continuous development of health promoting Korean foods and dietary culture.

  7. Changes in the isozymic pattern of phosphoenolpyruvate : An early step in photoperiodic control of crassulacean acid metabolism level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulfert, J; Arrabaça, M C; Guerrier, D; Queiroz, O

    1979-01-01

    Two major isofunctional forms of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) have been separated from the leaves of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. Tom Thumb by acrylamide gel electrophoresis and diethylaminoethyl cellulose techniques: one of the forms prevails under long-day treatment (low crassulacean acid metabolism level), the other develops under short-day treatment (high Crassulacean acid metabolism level). Molecular weights are significantly different: 175·10(3) and 186·10(3), respectively. These results indicate that two populations of phosphoenolyruvate carboxylase are present in the plant, one of which is responsible for Crassulacean acid metabolism activity under the control of photoperiod.The Crassulacean acid metabolism appears to depend on the same endogenous clock that governs other photoperiodically controlled events (e.g. flowering). The metabolic and energetic significance of this feature is discussed. It is suggested that modification in isozymic composition could be an early step in the response to photoperiodism at the metabolic level.

  8. Daily and annual patterns of thermoregulation in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta marginata) living in a thermally variable marsh in Northern Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, John W; Converse, Paul E; Clark, David L

    2014-02-01

    The capacity for an ectothermic reptile to thermoregulate has implications for many components of its life history. Over two years, we studied thermoregulation in a population of Midland painted turtles (Chrysemys picta marginata) in a shallow, thermally variable wetland during summer in Northern Michigan. Mean body temperature (Tb) of free-ranging turtles was greater in 2008 (25.8 °C) than in 2010 (19.7 °C). Laboratory determined thermoregulatory set point (Tset) ranged from 25 °C (Tset-min) to 31 °C (Tset-max) and was lower during the fall (17-26 °C). Deviations of Tb distributions from field measured operative temperatures (Te) and indices of thermoregulation indicated that C. picta marginata were capable of a limited degree of thermoregulation. Operative temperatures and thermal quality (de=|Tset-min-Te| and |Te-Tset-max|) cycled daily with maximal thermal quality occurring during late morning and late afternoon. The accuracy of thermoregulation (db=|Tset-min-Tb| and |Tb-Tset-max|) was maximal (db values were minimal) as Tb declined and traversed Tset during the late afternoon-early evening hours and was higher on cloudy days than on sunny days because relatively low Te values decreased the number of Tb values that were above Tset. Our index of thermal exploitation (Ex=frequency of Tb observations within Tset) was 36%, slightly lower than that reported for an Ontario population of C. picta marginata. Regression of db (thermal accuracy) on de (thermal quality) indicated that turtles invested more in thermoregulation when thermal quality was low and when water levels were high than when they were low. There were no intersexual differences in mean Tb throughout the year but females had relatively high laboratory determined Tb values in the fall, perhaps reflecting the importance of maintaining ovarian development prior to winter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of daily consumption of synbiotic bread on insulin metabolism and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein among diabetic patients: a double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajadadi-Ebrahimi, Maryam; Bahmani, Fereashteh; Shakeri, Hossein; Hadaegh, Haleh; Hijijafari, Mohammad; Abedi, Fatemeh; Asemi, Zatollah

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of daily consumption of synbiotic bread on the metabolic status of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was performed in 81 diabetic patients. The subjects were randomly assigned to consumption of synbiotic (n = 27), probiotic (n = 27), or control bread (n = 27) for 8 weeks 3 times a day in a 40-gram package. The synbiotic bread contained Lactobacillus sporogenes (1 × 10(8) CFU) and 0.07 g inulin per 1 g. The probiotic bread contained L. sporogenes (1 × 10(8) CFU per 1 g). Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after an 8-week intervention for quantification of related factors. Consumption of the synbiotic bread resulted in a significant reduction in serum insulin levels (-3.2 ± 5.4 vs. -0.3 ± 3.4 and 0.6 ± 4.7 µIU/ml, respectively, p = 0.007), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance scores (-1.5 ± 2.7 vs. -0.2 ± 1.6 and 0.4 ± 3.5, respectively, p = 0.03), and homeostatic model assessment-β-cell function (-7.2 ± 16.3 vs. -0.7 ± 10.8 and 0.7 ± 8.2, respectively, p = 0.04) compared to the probiotic and control breads. We did not find any significant effect of synbiotic bread consumption on fasting plasma glucose, the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, or serum hs-CRP levels compared to other breads. Consumption of the synbiotic bread among diabetic patients had beneficial effects on insulin metabolism. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Exercise training improves sleep pattern and metabolic profile in elderly people in a time-dependent manner

    OpenAIRE

    Lira, Fábio S; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Santos, Ronaldo VT; Oyama, Lila M; Damaso, Ana R; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudia M; Viana, Valter AR; Boscolo, Rita A; Grassmann, Viviane; Santana, Marcos G; Esteves, Andrea M; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco T

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aging and physical inactivity are two factors that favors the development of cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, and sleep dysfunction. In contrast, the adoption a habitual of moderate exercise may present a non-pharmacological treatment alternative for sleep and metabolic disorders. We aimed to assess the effects of moderate exercise training on sleep quality and on the metabolic profile of elderly people with a sedentary lifestyle. Fourteen male sedentary...

  11. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Alison; Christian, Jay W; Lewis, Sarah; Moore, Kate; Jilcott, Stephanie

    2013-01-29

    The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals' food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study's aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. 1) Food venue availability within activity space - no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice - Shopping at farmers' markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers' markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store - those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95% CI [0.14, 0.83]). Interventions aimed at

  12. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafson Alison

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals’ food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study’s aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1 food venue availability; 2 food venue choice and frequency; and 3 availability of healthy food within food venue. Methods In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121 age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. Results 1 Food venue availability within activity space – no significant associations. 2 Food Venue Choice – Shopping at farmers’ markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]. Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers’ markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]. Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]. 3 Availability of food within store – those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages

  13. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals’ food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study’s aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. Methods In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. Results 1) Food venue availability within activity space – no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice – Shopping at farmers’ markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers’ markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store – those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95

  14. Gender Differences in Major Dietary Patterns and Their Relationship with Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in a Year before Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) Surgery Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasalizad Farhangi, Mahdieh; Ataie-Jafari, Asal; Najafi, Mahdi; Sarami Foroushani, Gholamreza; Mohajeri Tehrani, Mohammad Reza; Jahangiry, Leila

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies reported the association between dietary patterns and prevalence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other chronic disease. However, there are no studies reporting major dietary patterns in patients awaiting coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). The aim of this study was to obtain the major dietary patterns and their association with demographic, dietary factors and biochemical parameters in these patients. This was a cross-sectional study on 454 patients aged 35 - 80 years as candidates of CABG and hospitalized in the Tehran Heart Center. Anthropometric and demographic characteristics were obtained from all participants and a 138-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to evaluate dietary patterns by factor analysis. Biochemical parameters including HbA1c, serum lipids, hematocrit (HCT), albumin, creatinine and CRP were assessed by commercial laboratory methods. Five major dietary patterns, including: healthy, intermediate, neo-traditional, western and semi-Mediterranean patterns were extracted. Top quartile of healthy pattern was associated with higher educational attainment and lower serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), and total cholesterol (TC) in men, as well as  higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) concentrations in women (P habits, as well as the lower prevalence of diabetes, hyperlipidemia and hypertension (P eating patterns were associated with lower cardio-metabolic risk factors.

  15. Daily cycle in oxygen consumption by the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis Stephenson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E. Maas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In bilaterian animals, the circadian clock is intimately involved in regulating energetic metabolism. Although cnidarians exhibit diel behavioral rhythms including cycles in locomotor activity, tentacle extension and spawning, daily cycles in cnidarian metabolism have not been described. To explore a possible circadian metabolic cycle, we maintained the anemone Nematostella vectensis in a 12 h light/dark cycle, a reversed light cycle, or in constant darkness. Oxygen consumption rates were measured at intervals using an optical oxygen meter. Respiration rates responded to entrainment with higher rates during light periods. During a second experiment with higher temporal resolution, respiration rates peaked late in the light period. The diel pattern could be detected after six days in constant darkness. Together, our results suggest that respiration rates in Nematostella exhibit a daily cycle that may be under circadian control and that the cycle in respiration rate is not driven by the previously described nocturnal increase in locomotor activity in this species.

  16. Minimum daily core body temperature in western grey kangaroos decreases as summer advances: a seasonal pattern, or a direct response to water, heat or energy supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Meyer, Leith C R; Kamerman, Peter R; Mitchell, Graham; Mitchell, Duncan

    2011-06-01

    Using implanted temperature loggers, we measured core body temperature in nine western grey kangaroos every 5 min for 24 to 98 days in spring and summer. Body temperature was highest at night and decreased rapidly early in the morning, reaching a nadir at 10:00 h, after ambient temperature and solar radiation had begun to increase. On hotter days, the minimum morning body temperature was lower than on cooler days, decreasing from a mean of 36.2°C in the spring to 34.0°C in the summer. This effect correlated better with the time of the year than with proximate thermal stressors, suggesting that either season itself or some factor correlated with season, such as food availability, caused the change. Water saving has been proposed as a selective advantage of heterothermy in other large mammals, but in kangaroos the water savings would have been small and not required in a reserve with permanent standing water. We calculate that the lower core temperature could provide energy savings of nearly 7%. It is likely that the heterothermy that we observed on hot days results either from decreased energy intake during the dry season or from a seasonal pattern entrained in the kangaroos that presumably has been selected for because of decreased energy availability during the dry season.

  17. A note on the evolution of the daily pattern of thermal comfort-related micrometeorological parameters in small urban sites in Athens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampopoulos, Ioannis; Tsiros, Ioannis; Chronopoulou-Sereli, Aikaterini; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Studies on human thermal comfort in urban areas typically quantify and assess the influence of the atmospheric parameters studying the values and their patterns of the selected index or parameter. In this paper, the interpretation tools are the first derivative of the selected parameters (∆Parameter/∆t) and the violin plots. Using these tools, the effect of sites' configuration on thermal conditions was investigated. Both derivatives and violin plots indicated the ability of vegetation to act as a buffer to the rapid changes of air temperature, mean radiant temperature, and the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The study is focused on the "thermal extreme" seasons of winter (December, January, and February) and summer (June, July, and August) during a 3-year period of measurements in five selected sites under calm wind and sunny conditions. According to the results, the absence of vegetation leads to high derivative values whereas the existence of dense vegetation tends to keep the parameters' values relatively low, especially under hot weather conditions.

  18. The Effect of Spectral Quality on Daily Patterns of Gas Exchange, Biomass Gain, and Water-Use-Efficiency in Tomatoes and Lisianthus: An Assessment of Whole Plant Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoue, Jason; Leonardos, Evangelos D; Ma, Xiao; Grodzinski, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Advancements in light-emitting diode (LED) technology have made them a viable alternative to current lighting systems for both sole and supplemental lighting requirements. Understanding how wavelength specific LED lighting can affect plants is thus an area of great interest. Much research is available on the wavelength specific responses of leaves from multiple crops when exposed to long-term wavelength specific lighting. However, leaf measurements do not always extrapolate linearly to the complexities which are found within a whole plant canopy, namely mutual shading and leaves of different ages. Taken together, both tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) leaves under short-term illumination and lisianthus ( Eustoma grandiflorum ) and tomato whole plant diurnal patterns of plants acclimated to specific lighting indicate wavelength specific responses of both H 2 O and CO 2 gas exchanges involved in the major growth parameters of a plant. Tomato leaves grown under a white light source indicated an increase in transpiration rate and internal CO 2 concentration and a subsequent decrease in water-use-efficiency (WUE) when exposed to a blue LED light source compared to a green LED light source. Interestingly, the maximum photosynthetic rate was observed to be similar. Using plants grown under wavelength specific supplemental lighting in a greenhouse, a decrease in whole plant WUE was seen in both crops under both red-blue (RB) and red-white (RW) LEDs when compared to a high pressure sodium (HPS) light. Whole plant WUE was decreased by 31% under the RB LED treatment for both crops compared to the HPS treatment. Tomato whole plant WUE was decreased by 25% and lisianthus whole plant WUE was decreased by 15% when compared to the HPS treatment when grown under RW LED. The understanding of the effects of wavelength specific lighting on both leaf and whole plant gas exchange has significant implications on basic academic research as well as commercial greenhouse production.

  19. The Effect of Spectral Quality on Daily Patterns of Gas Exchange, Biomass Gain, and Water-Use-Efficiency in Tomatoes and Lisianthus: An Assessment of Whole Plant Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Lanoue

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in light-emitting diode (LED technology have made them a viable alternative to current lighting systems for both sole and supplemental lighting requirements. Understanding how wavelength specific LED lighting can affect plants is thus an area of great interest. Much research is available on the wavelength specific responses of leaves from multiple crops when exposed to long-term wavelength specific lighting. However, leaf measurements do not always extrapolate linearly to the complexities which are found within a whole plant canopy, namely mutual shading and leaves of different ages. Taken together, both tomato (Solanum lycopersicum leaves under short-term illumination and lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum and tomato whole plant diurnal patterns of plants acclimated to specific lighting indicate wavelength specific responses of both H2O and CO2 gas exchanges involved in the major growth parameters of a plant. Tomato leaves grown under a white light source indicated an increase in transpiration rate and internal CO2 concentration and a subsequent decrease in water-use-efficiency (WUE when exposed to a blue LED light source compared to a green LED light source. Interestingly, the maximum photosynthetic rate was observed to be similar. Using plants grown under wavelength specific supplemental lighting in a greenhouse, a decrease in whole plant WUE was seen in both crops under both red-blue (RB and red-white (RW LEDs when compared to a high pressure sodium (HPS light. Whole plant WUE was decreased by 31% under the RB LED treatment for both crops compared to the HPS treatment. Tomato whole plant WUE was decreased by 25% and lisianthus whole plant WUE was decreased by 15% when compared to the HPS treatment when grown under RW LED. The understanding of the effects of wavelength specific lighting on both leaf and whole plant gas exchange has significant implications on basic academic research as well as commercial greenhouse production.

  20. The Effect of Spectral Quality on Daily Patterns of Gas Exchange, Biomass Gain, and Water-Use-Efficiency in Tomatoes and Lisianthus: An Assessment of Whole Plant Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoue, Jason; Leonardos, Evangelos D.; Ma, Xiao; Grodzinski, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Advancements in light-emitting diode (LED) technology have made them a viable alternative to current lighting systems for both sole and supplemental lighting requirements. Understanding how wavelength specific LED lighting can affect plants is thus an area of great interest. Much research is available on the wavelength specific responses of leaves from multiple crops when exposed to long-term wavelength specific lighting. However, leaf measurements do not always extrapolate linearly to the complexities which are found within a whole plant canopy, namely mutual shading and leaves of different ages. Taken together, both tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves under short-term illumination and lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum) and tomato whole plant diurnal patterns of plants acclimated to specific lighting indicate wavelength specific responses of both H2O and CO2 gas exchanges involved in the major growth parameters of a plant. Tomato leaves grown under a white light source indicated an increase in transpiration rate and internal CO2 concentration and a subsequent decrease in water-use-efficiency (WUE) when exposed to a blue LED light source compared to a green LED light source. Interestingly, the maximum photosynthetic rate was observed to be similar. Using plants grown under wavelength specific supplemental lighting in a greenhouse, a decrease in whole plant WUE was seen in both crops under both red-blue (RB) and red-white (RW) LEDs when compared to a high pressure sodium (HPS) light. Whole plant WUE was decreased by 31% under the RB LED treatment for both crops compared to the HPS treatment. Tomato whole plant WUE was decreased by 25% and lisianthus whole plant WUE was decreased by 15% when compared to the HPS treatment when grown under RW LED. The understanding of the effects of wavelength specific lighting on both leaf and whole plant gas exchange has significant implications on basic academic research as well as commercial greenhouse production. PMID:28676816

  1. Activities of Daily Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Parkinson's › Managing Parkinson's › Activities of Daily Living Activities of Daily Living Sometimes Parkinson’s disease (PD) can complicate the basic daily activities a person with living with Parkinson’s once did ...

  2. Unravelling daily human mobility motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christian M; Belik, Vitaly; Couronné, Thomas; Smoreda, Zbigniew; González, Marta C

    2013-07-06

    Human mobility is differentiated by time scales. While the mechanism for long time scales has been studied, the underlying mechanism on the daily scale is still unrevealed. Here, we uncover the mechanism responsible for the daily mobility patterns by analysing the temporal and spatial trajectories of thousands of persons as individual networks. Using the concept of motifs from network theory, we find only 17 unique networks are present in daily mobility and they follow simple rules. These networks, called here motifs, are sufficient to capture up to 90 per cent of the population in surveys and mobile phone datasets for different countries. Each individual exhibits a characteristic motif, which seems to be stable over several months. Consequently, daily human mobility can be reproduced by an analytically tractable framework for Markov chains by modelling periods of high-frequency trips followed by periods of lower activity as the key ingredient.

  3. Protein malnutrition after weaning disrupts peripheral clock and daily insulin secretion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck, Patricia Cristine; Batista, Thiago Martins; Vettorazzi, Jean Franciesco; Camargo, Rafael Ludemann; Boschero, Antonio Carlos; Vieira, Elaine; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães

    2017-12-01

    Changes in nutritional state may alter circadian rhythms through alterations in expression of clock genes. Protein deficiency has a profound effect on body metabolism, but the effect of this nutrient restriction after weaning on biological clock has not been explored. Thus, this study aims to investigate whether the protein restriction affects the daily oscillation in the behavior and metabolic rhythms, as well as expression of clock genes in peripheral tissues. Male C57BL/6 J mice, after weaning, were fed a normal-protein (NP) diet or a low-protein (LP) diet for 8 weeks. Mice fed an LP diet did not show difference in locomotor activity and energy expenditure, but the food intake was increased, with parallel increased expression of the orexigenic neuropeptide Npy and disruption of the anorexigenic Pomc oscillatory pattern in the hypothalamus. LP mice showed disruption in the daily rhythmic patterns of plasma glucose, triglycerides and insulin. Also, the rhythmic expression of clock genes in peripheral tissues and pancreatic islets was altered in LP mice. In pancreatic islets, the disruption of clock genes was followed by impairment of daily glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and the expression of genes involved in exocytosis. Pharmacological activation of REV-ERBα could not restore the insulin secretion in LP mice. The present study demonstrates that protein restriction, leading to development of malnutrition, alters the peripheral clock and metabolic outputs, suggesting that this nutrient provides important entraining cues to regulate the daily fluctuation of biological clock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A ‘High Risk’ Lifestyle Pattern Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome among Qatari Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al Thani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of lifestyle patterns, as a combination of diet, physical activity and smoking, on Metabolic Syndrome (MetS among Qatari women of childbearing age (n = 418, a population group particularly vulnerable to the health sequela of this syndrome. Using data from the National WHO STEPwise survey conducted in Qatar in 2012, Principal Component Factor Analysis was performed to derive lifestyle patterns with survey variables related to the frequency of consumption of 13 foods/food groups, physical activity levels, and smoking status. MetS was diagnosed using ATPIII criteria. Three lifestyle patterns were identified: ‘High Risk’ pattern, characterized by intakes of fast foods, sweets and sugar sweetened beverages, in addition to lower levels of physical activity and higher smoking prevalence; ‘Prudent’ pattern, driven mainly by higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, fish, and whole grains; and ‘Traditional’ pattern which included beans, meat, dairy products, and a low prevalence of smoking. Among these three lifestyle patterns, only the ‘High Risk’ was associated with MetS, whereby subjects belonging to the third tertile of this pattern’s score had 2.5 times the odds of MetS compared to those belonging to the first tertile. The findings of this study demonstrated the synergy among high risk behaviors among Qatari women in increasing the odds of MetS; the latter being a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Expression pattern of glucose metabolism genes in relation to development rate of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes and in vitro-produced embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Parveen; Rajput, Sandeep; Verma, Arpana; De, Sachinandan; Datta, Tirtha Kumar

    2013-11-01

    The expression pattern of glucose metabolism genes (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [G6PDH], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], and pyruvate dehydrogenase [PDH]) were studied in buffalo in vitro-matured oocytes and in vitro-produced embryos cultured under different glucose concentrations (0 mM, 1.5 mM, 5.6 mM, and 10 mM) during in vitro maturation of oocytes and culture of IVF produced embryos. The expression of the genes varied significantly over the cleavage stages under different glucose concentrations. Developmental rate of embryos was highest under a constant glucose level (5.6 mM) throughout during maturation of oocytes and embryo culture. Expression pattern of glucose metabolism genes under optimum glucose level (5.6 mM) indicated that glycolysis is the major pathway of glucose metabolism during oocyte maturation and early embryonic stages (pre-maternal to zygotic transition [MZT]) and shifts to oxidative phosphorylation during post-MZT stages in buffalo embryos. Higher glucose level (10 mM) caused abrupt changes in gene expression and resulted in shifting toward anaerobic metabolism of glucose during post-MZT stages. This resulted in decreased development rate of embryos during post-MZT stages. High expression of LDH and PDH in the control groups (0 mM glucose) indicated that in absence of glucose, embryos try to use available pyruvate and lactate sources, but succumb to handle the post-MZT energy requirement, resulting to poor development rate. Expression pattern of G6PDH during oocyte maturation as well early embryonic development was found predictive of quality and development competence of oocytes/ embryos. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The mRNA expression profile of metabolic genes relative to MHC isoform pattern in human skeletal muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plomgaard, Peter; Penkowa, Milena; Leick, Lotte

    2006-01-01

    The metabolic profile of rodent muscle is generally reflected in the myosin heavy chain (MHC) fiber-type composition. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that metabolic gene expression is not tightly coupled with MHC fiber-type composition for all genes in human skeletal muscle...... was more than twofold higher in soleus and vastus than in triceps. Contrary, phosphofructokinase and total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was approximately three- and twofold higher in triceps than in both soleus and vastus. Expression of metabolic genes was assessed by determining the mRNA content...... of a broad range of metabolic genes. The triceps muscle had two- to fivefold higher MHC IIa, phosphofructokinase, and LDH A mRNA content and two- to fourfold lower MHC I, lipoprotein lipase, CD36, hormone-sensitive lipase, and LDH B and hexokinase II mRNA than vastus lateralis or soleus. Interestingly...

  7. Mediterranean dietary pattern and VEGF +405 G/C gene polymorphisms in patients with metabolic syndrome: An aspect of gene-nutrient interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiluian, Ghazaleh; Abbasalizad Farhangi, Mahdieh; Jahangiry, Leila

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between Mediterranean dietary pattern, anthropometric and metabolic biomarkers and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) +405 G/C gene polymorphism in patient with metabolic syndrome (Mets). In this study 150 patients with Mets and 50 healthy subjects were enrolled. Dietary intakes were evaluated with a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and Mediterranean dietary quality index (Med-DQI) was assessed. Anthropometric assessments and blood pressure measurement were performed. Biochemical assays including fasting serum glucose (FSG), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), liver enzymes and lipid profiles were also assessed. Polymorphism of +405 G/C VEGF gene was determined utilizing polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragments length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly lower and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) concentrations and FSG were significantly higher in metabolic syndrome patients compared with control group (P consumption of "cholesterol" had significantly upper serum TG; also high consumption of "fish" and "vegetables-fruits" was associated with a significantly lower serum LDL concentrations. In metabolic syndrome patients with CC genotype, mean score of "saturated fatty acid" subgroup was significantly higher compared with other genotypes; whereas, in healthy individuals, mean score of "fruit-vegetable" subgroup in individuals of CC and GG genotype was significantly higher (P<0.05). Our findings indicated a significant relationship between Mediterranean dietary quality index and both anthropometric and metabolic risk factors. We also indicated a higher "saturated fatty acid" intake in CC genotype among metabolic syndrome patients.

  8. Symptom patterns and phenotypic subgrouping of women with polycystic ovary syndrome: association between endocrine characteristics and metabolic aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chu-Chun; Tien, Yin-Jing; Chen, Mei-Jou; Chen, Chun-Houh; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Yang, Yu-Shih

    2015-04-01

    What are the potential endocrine characteristics related to risk and severity of metabolic disturbances in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? Women with PCOS could be subtyped into four subgroups according to heterogeneous endocrine characteristics and the major predictive endocrine factors for metabolic aberrations among different subgroups were free androgen index (FAI) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. Women diagnosed with PCOS present with highly heterogeneous phenotypes, including endocrine and metabolic aberrations. Different strategies have been proposed to predict the metabolic outcomes but whether the endocrine factors can solely predict the metabolic aberrations is still inconclusive. A cross-sectional study including 460 patients recruited from a reproductive endocrinology outpatient clinic of a tertiary medical center. Patients with PCOS diagnosed according to the 2003 Rotterdam criteria were studied. Clinical history recorded by questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, biochemistry tests after an overnight fast, and pelvic ultrasonography were collected from all patients. Applying a matrix visualization and clustering approach (generalized association plots), the patients were divided into four distinct clusters according to the correlation with four endocrine parameters. Each cluster exhibited specific endocrine characteristics and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) was significantly different among the clusters (P characteristic of these two metabolically unhealthy clusters was relatively lower LH level. Contrarily, higher LH level (≧15 mIU/ml) during early follicular phase was found to be the best indicator of the metabolically healthy cluster (cluster 1). While high FAI level did correlate with more severe metabolic aberrations, high LH level showed better predictive value than low FAI level to become a metabolically healthy cluster. The results should be applied to other populations with caution due to racial or

  9. Metabolomics study on the toxicity of Annona squamosa by ultraperformance liquid-chromatography high-definition mass spectrometry coupled with pattern recognition approach and metabolic pathways analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yun-Jie; Shi, Ye-Ye; Li, Fu-Qiang; Shan, Chen-Xiao; Chen, Yong; Chen, Jian-Wei; Li, Xiang

    2016-05-26

    Annona squamosa Linn (Annonaceae) is a commonly used and effective traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) especially in the South China. The seeds of Annona squamosa Linn (SAS) have been used as a folk remedy to treat "malignant sores" (cancer) in South of China, but they also have high toxicity on human body. To discover the potential biomarkers in the mice caused by SAS. We made metabonomics studies on the toxicity of SAS by ultraperformance liquid-chromatography high-definition mass spectrometry coupled with pattern recognition approach and metabolic pathways analysis. The significant difference in metabolic profiles and changes of metabolite biomarkers between the Control group and SAS group were well observed. 11 positive ions and 9 negative ions (P<0.05) were indicated based on UFLC-QTOF-HDMS. The metabolic pathways of SAS group are discussed according to the identified endogenous metabolites, and eight metabolic pathways are identified using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). The present study demonstrates that metabonomics analysis could greatly facilitate and provide useful information for the further comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological activity and potential toxicity of SAS in the progress of them being designed to a new anti-tumor medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exercise training improves sleep pattern and metabolic profile in elderly people in a time-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Fábio S; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Santos, Ronaldo Vt; Oyama, Lila M; Damaso, Ana R; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudia M; Viana, Valter Ar; Boscolo, Rita A; Grassmann, Viviane; Santana, Marcos G; Esteves, Andrea M; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco T

    2011-07-06

    Aging and physical inactivity are two factors that favors the development of cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, and sleep dysfunction. In contrast, the adoption a habitual of moderate exercise may present a non-pharmacological treatment alternative for sleep and metabolic disorders. We aimed to assess the effects of moderate exercise training on sleep quality and on the metabolic profile of elderly people with a sedentary lifestyle. Fourteen male sedentary, healthy, elderly volunteers performed moderate training for 60 minutes/day, 3 days/week for 24 wk at a work rate equivalent to the ventilatory aerobic threshold. The environment was kept at a temperature of 23 ± 2 °C, with an air humidity 60 ± 5%. Blood and polysomnographs analysis were collected 3 times: at baseline (1 week before training began), 3 and 6 months (after 3 and 6 months of training). Training promoted increasing aerobic capacity (relative VO2, time and velocity to VO2max; p improved HOMA index (p sleep parameters, awake time and REM sleep latency were decreased after 6 months exercise training (p exercise training protocol improves the sleep profile in older people, but the metabolism adaptation does not persist. Suggesting that this population requires training strategy modifications as to ensure consistent alterations regarding metabolism.

  11. Metabolic markers in relation to hypoxia; staining patterns and colocalization of pimonidazole, HIF-1α, CAIX, LDH-5, GLUT-1, MCT1 and MCT4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rademakers, Saskia E; Lok, Jasper; Kogel, Albert J van der; Bussink, Johan; Kaanders, Johannes HAM

    2011-01-01

    The cellular response of malignant tumors to hypoxia is diverse. Several important endogenous metabolic markers are upregulated under hypoxic conditions. We examined the staining patterns and co-expression of HIF-1α, CAIX, LDH-5, GLUT-1, MCT1 and MCT4 with the exogenous hypoxic cell marker pimonidazole and the association of marker expression with clinicopathological characteristics. 20 biopsies of advanced head and neck carcinomas were immunohistochemically stained and analyzed. All patients were given the hypoxia marker pimonidazole intravenously 2 h prior to biopsy taking. The tumor area positive for each marker, the colocalization of the different markers and the distribution of the markers in relation to the blood vessels were assessed by semiautomatic quantitative analysis. MCT1 staining was present in hypoxic (pimonidazole stained) as well as non-hypoxic areas in almost equal amounts. MCT1 expression showed a significant overall correlation (r = 0.75, p < 0.001) and strong spatial relationship with CAIX. LDH-5 showed the strongest correlation with pimonidazole (r = 0.66, p = 0.002). MCT4 and GLUT-1 demonstrated a typical diffusion-limited hypoxic pattern and showed a high degree of colocalization. Both MCT4 and CAIX showed a higher expression in the primary tumor in node positive patients (p = 0.09 both). Colocalization and staining patterns of metabolic and hypoxia-related proteins provides valuable additional information over single protein analyses and can improve the understanding of their functions and environmental influences

  12. Photoperiodism and crassulacean acid metabolism : I. Immunological and kinetic evidences for different patterns of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isoforms in photoperiodically inducible and non-inducible Crassulacean acid metabolism plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulfert, J; Müller, D; Kluge, M; Queiroz, O

    1982-05-01

    Plants of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana v. Poelln. Tom Thumb and Sedum morganianum E. Walth. were grown under controlled photoperiodic conditions under either short or long days. Gaz exchange measurements confirmed that in K. blossfeldiana Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) was photoperiodically inducible and that S. morganianum performed CAM independently of photoperiod. With K. blossfeldiana, a comparison of catalytic and regulatory properties of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) from short-day and long-day grown plants showed differences, but not with S. morganianum. Ouchterlony double diffusion tests and immunotitration experiments (using a S. morganianum PEPC antibody) established that CAM is induced in K. blossfeldiana-but not in S. morganianum-through the synthesis of a new PEPC isoform; this form shows an immunological behavior different from that prevailing under non-inductive conditions and can be considered as specific for CAM performance.

  13. Different patterns of metabolic cryo-damage in domestic cat (Felis catus) and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Kimberly A; Wildt, David E; Anthony, Nicola M; Bavister, Barry D; Leibo, S P; Penfold, Linda M; Marker, Laurie L; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2012-04-01

    Felid spermatozoa are sensitive to cryopreservation-induced damage, but functional losses can be mitigated by post-thaw swim-up or density gradient processing methods that selectively recover motile or structurally-normal spermatozoa, respectively. Despite the importance of sperm energy production to achieving fertilization, there is little knowledge about the influence of cryopreservation or post-thaw processing on felid sperm metabolism. We conducted a comparative study of domestic cat and cheetah sperm metabolism after cryopreservation and post-thaw processing. We hypothesized that freezing/thawing impairs sperm metabolism and that swim-up, but not density gradient centrifugation, recovers metabolically-normal spermatozoa. Ejaculates were cryopreserved, thawed, and processed by swim-up, Accudenz gradient centrifugation, or conventional washing (representing the 'control'). Sperm glucose and pyruvate uptake, lactate production, motility, and acrosomal integrity were assessed. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was measured in cat spermatozoa. In both species, lactate production, motility, and acrosomal integrity were reduced in post-thaw, washed samples compared to freshly-collected ejaculates. Glucose uptake was minimal pre- and post-cryopreservation, whereas pyruvate uptake was similar between treatments due to high coefficients of variation. In the cat, swim-up, but not Accudenz processing, recovered spermatozoa with increased lactate production, pyruvate uptake, and motility compared to controls. Although confounded by differences in non-specific fluorescence among processing methods, MMP values within treatments were positively correlated to sperm motility and acrosomal integrity. Cheetah spermatozoa isolated by either selection method exhibited improved motility and/or acrosomal integrity, but remained metabolically compromised. Collectively, findings revealed a metabolically-robust subpopulation of cryopreserved cat, but not cheetah, spermatozoa

  14. Oxidative stress status, antioxidant metabolism and polypeptide patterns in Juncus maritimus shoots exhibiting differential mercury burdens in Ria de Aveiro coastal lagoon (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Naser A; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2014-05-01

    This study assessed the oxidative stress status, antioxidant metabolism and polypeptide patterns in salt marsh macrophyte Juncus maritimus shoots exhibiting differential mercury burdens in Ria de Aveiro coastal lagoon at reference and the sites with highest, moderate and the lowest mercury contamination. In order to achieve these goals, shoot-mercury burden and the responses of representative oxidative stress indices, and the components of both non-glutathione- and glutathione-based H2O2-metabolizing systems were analyzed and cross-talked with shoot-polypeptide patterns. Compared to the reference site, significant elevations in J. maritimus shoot mercury and the oxidative stress indices such as H2O2, lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage and reactive carbonyls were maximum at the site with highest followed by moderate and the lowest mercury contamination. Significantly elevated activity of non-glutathione-based H2O2-metabolizing enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase and catalase accompanied the studied damage-endpoint responses, whereas the activity of glutathione-based H2O2-scavenging enzymes glutathione peroxidase and glutathione sulfo-transferase was inhibited. Concomitantly, significantly enhanced glutathione reductase activity and the contents of both reduced and oxidized glutathione were perceptible in high mercury-exhibiting shoots. It is inferred that high mercury-accrued elevations in oxidative stress indices were obvious, where non-glutathione-based H2O2-decomposing enzyme system was dominant over the glutathione-based H2O2-scavenging enzyme system. In particular, the glutathione-based H2O2-scavenging system failed to coordinate with elevated glutathione reductase which in turn resulted into increased pool of oxidized glutathione and the ratio of oxidized glutathione-to-reduced glutathione. The substantiation of the studied oxidative stress indices and antioxidant metabolism with approximately 53-kDa polypeptide warrants further studies.

  15. Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obesity Is Associated with Higher Adherence to a Traditional Dietary Pattern: A Cross-Sectional Study among Adults in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Joane; Nasreddine, Lara; Jomaa, Lamis; Hwalla, Nahla; Mehio Sibai, Abla; Czernichow, Sebastien; Itani, Leila; Naja, Farah

    2016-07-20

    This study aimed to examine the proportion and socio-demographic correlates of Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obesity (MHOv/O) among Lebanese adults and to investigate the independent effect of previously identified dietary patterns on odds of MHOv/O. Data were drawn from the National Nutrition and Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor Survey (Lebanon 2008-2009). Out of the 337 adult participants who had complete socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary as well as anthropometric and biochemical data, 196 had a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² and their data were included in this study. MHOv/O was identified using the Adult Treatment Panel criteria. Dietary patterns previously derived in this study population were: Fast Food/Dessert, Traditional-Lebanese and High-Protein. The proportion of MHOv/O in the study sample was 37.2%. Females, higher education and high level of physical activity were positively associated with odds of MHOv/O. Subjects with higher adherence to the Traditional-Lebanese pattern had higher odds of MHOv/O (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.09-3.91). No significant associations were observed between the Fast Food/Dessert and the high-protein patterns with MHOv/O. Follow-up studies are needed to confirm those findings and understand the mechanisms by which the Traditional-Lebanese pattern may exert a protective effect in this subgroup of overweight and obese adults.

  16. Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obesity Is Associated with Higher Adherence to a Traditional Dietary Pattern: A Cross-Sectional Study among Adults in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joane Matta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the proportion and socio-demographic correlates of Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obesity (MHOv/O among Lebanese adults and to investigate the independent effect of previously identified dietary patterns on odds of MHOv/O. Data were drawn from the National Nutrition and Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor Survey (Lebanon 2008–2009. Out of the 337 adult participants who had complete socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary as well as anthropometric and biochemical data, 196 had a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and their data were included in this study. MHOv/O was identified using the Adult Treatment Panel criteria. Dietary patterns previously derived in this study population were: Fast Food/Dessert, Traditional-Lebanese and High-Protein. The proportion of MHOv/O in the study sample was 37.2%. Females, higher education and high level of physical activity were positively associated with odds of MHOv/O. Subjects with higher adherence to the Traditional-Lebanese pattern had higher odds of MHOv/O (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.09–3.91. No significant associations were observed between the Fast Food/Dessert and the high-protein patterns with MHOv/O. Follow-up studies are needed to confirm those findings and understand the mechanisms by which the Traditional-Lebanese pattern may exert a protective effect in this subgroup of overweight and obese adults.

  17. [Physiological patterns of intestinal microbiota. The role of dysbacteriosis in obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes and metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmos, Tamás; Suba, Ilona

    2016-01-03

    The intestinal microbiota is well-known for a long time, but due to newly recognized functions, clinician's attention has turned to it again in the last decade. About 100 000 billion bacteria are present in the human intestines. The composition of bacteriota living in diverse parts of the intestinal tract is variable according to age, body weight, geological site, and diet as well. Normal bacteriota defend the organism against the penetration of harmful microorganisms, and has many other functions in the gut wall integrity, innate immunity, insulin sensitivity, metabolism, and it is in cross-talk with the brain functions as well. It's a recent recognition, that intestinal microbiota has a direct effect on the brain, and the brain also influences the microbiota. This two-way gut-brain axis consists of microbiota, immune and neuroendocrine system, as well as of the autonomic and central nervous system. Emerging from fermentation of carbohydrates, short-chain fatty acids develop into the intestines, which produce butyrates, acetates and propionates, having favorable effects on different metabolic processes. Composition of the intestinal microbiota is affected by the circadian rhythm, such as in shift workers. Dysruption of circadian rhythm may influence intestinal microbiota. The imbalance between the microbiota and host organism leads to dysbacteriosis. From the membrane of Gram-negative bacteria lipopolysacharides penetrate into the blood stream, via impaired permeability of the intestinal mucosa. These processes induce metabolic endotoxaemia, inflammation, impaired glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, obesity, and contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, inflammarory bowel diseases, autoimmunity and carcinogenesis. Encouraging therapeutic possibility is to restore the normal microbiota either using pro- or prebiotics, fecal transplantation or bariatric surgery. Human investigations seem to prove that fecal transplant from lean

  18. Phenotypic plasticity of gas exchange pattern and water loss in Scarabaeus spretus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): deconstructing the basis for metabolic rate variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terblanche, John S; Clusella-Trullas, Susana; Chown, Steven L

    2010-09-01

    Investigation of gas exchange patterns and modulation of metabolism provide insight into metabolic control systems and evolution in diverse terrestrial environments. Variation in metabolic rate in response to environmental conditions has been explained largely in the context of two contrasting hypotheses, namely metabolic depression in response to stressful or resource-(e.g. water) limited conditions, or elevation of metabolism at low temperatures to sustain life in extreme conditions. To deconstruct the basis for metabolic rate changes in response to temperature variation, here we undertake a full factorial study investigating the longer- and short-term effects of temperature exposure on gas exchange patterns. We examined responses of traits of gas exchange [standard metabolic rate (SMR); discontinuous gas exchange (DGE) cycle frequency; cuticular, respiratory and total water loss rate (WLR)] to elucidate the magnitude and form of plastic responses in the dung beetle, Scarabaeus spretus. Results showed that short- and longer-term temperature variation generally have significant effects on SMR and WLR. Overall, acclimation to increased temperature led to a decline in SMR (from 0.071+/-0.004 ml CO(2) h(-1) in 15 degrees C-acclimated beetles to 0.039+/-0.004 ml CO(2) h(-1) in 25 degrees C-acclimated beetles measured at 20 degrees C) modulated by reduced DGE frequency (15 degrees C acclimation: 0.554+/-0.027 mHz, 20 degrees C acclimation: 0.257+/-0.030 mHz, 25 degrees C acclimation: 0.208+/-0.027 mHz recorded at 20 degrees C), reduced cuticular WLRs (from 1.058+/-0.537 mg h(-1) in 15 degrees C-acclimated beetles to 0.900+/-0.400 mg h(-1) in 25 degrees C-acclimated beetles measured at 20 degrees C) and reduced total WLR (from 4.2+/-0.5 mg h(-1) in 15 degrees C-acclimated beetles to 3.1+/-0.5 mg h(-1) in 25 degrees C-acclimated beetles measured at 25 degrees C). Respiratory WLR was reduced from 2.25+/-0.40 mg h(-1) in 15 degrees C-acclimated beetles to 1.60+/-0.40 mg h

  19. Daily Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...

  20. Managing Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Duchenne / Managing Daily Life Print Email Managing Daily Life Environmental accessibility As the person with Duchenne starts ... such as wider doorways and ramps, can make life easier once the person with Duchenne cannot climb ...

  1. Competact, a fixed combination of pioglitazone and metformin, improves metabolic markers in type 2 diabetes patients with insufficient glycemic control by metformin alone--results from a post-marketing surveillance trial under daily routine conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöndorf, Thomas; Karagiannis, Efstrathios; Posseldt, Richard E K; Forst, Thomas; Pfützner, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    In patients with type 2 diabetes, glycemic control to target goals can only be achieved for a while by single-drug treatment. Antidiabetes therapy has to be adapted according to the individual course of the disease. This trial investigates the impact of Competact (Takeda Pharma, Aachen, Germany) (marketed as ActoplusMet in the United States)-a fixed combination of 850 mg of metformin with 15 mg of pioglitazone-for diabetes treatment in patients with insufficient glycemic control by metformin alone. This observational drug monitoring trial was performed at 1,480 study sites in Germany, and 4,866 complete patient data sets were included into the final analyses. Mean +/- SD age was 60.8 +/- 9.6 years (2,171 women, 2,691 men; disease duration, 6.7 +/- 4.7 years; body mass index [BMI], 31.0 +/- 5.2 kg/m(2)). In total, 43.8% of the patients received lipid-lowering drugs (antihypertensive medication, 74.3%). Main inclusion criteria were type 2 diabetes, metformin monotherapy, and an initial hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) value between 6.6% and 9.9%. Parameters of glycemic control (HbA1c, fasting blood glucose [FBG]), blood pressure (BP), inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP]), and lipid metabolism (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein [HDL]-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides) were collected at baseline and after 4 months. All investigated parameters improved significantly (all P 2.0 mm Hg; diastolic BP, 83.1 +/- 8.9 vs. 80.5 +/- 7.5 mm Hg; HbA1c, 7.8 +/- 1.0% vs. 7.0 +/- 0.8%; FBG, 9.0 +/- 2.6 vs. 7.0 +/- 1.7 mM; cholesterol, 5.7 +/- 1.1 mM vs. 5.3 +/- 0.9 mM; HDL-cholesterol, 1.2 +/- 0.4 mM vs. 1.3 +/- 0.4 mM; non-HDL-cholesterol, 4.5 +/- 1.2 mM vs. 4.0 +/- 0.9 mM; triglycerides, 2.5 +/- 1.0 mM vs. 2.1 +/- 0.8 mM; hsCRP, 3.2 +/- 2.6 mg/L vs. 2.7 +/- 2.3 mg/L). It is noteworthy that the BMI was not affected by Competact (31.0 +/- 5.2 kg/m(2) vs. 31.1 +/- 6.1 kg/m(2), P = 0.221). These observational results, obtained from a non

  2. Exercise training improves sleep pattern and metabolic profile in elderly people in a time-dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscolo Rita A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aging and physical inactivity are two factors that favors the development of cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, and sleep dysfunction. In contrast, the adoption a habitual of moderate exercise may present a non-pharmacological treatment alternative for sleep and metabolic disorders. We aimed to assess the effects of moderate exercise training on sleep quality and on the metabolic profile of elderly people with a sedentary lifestyle. Fourteen male sedentary, healthy, elderly volunteers performed moderate training for 60 minutes/day, 3 days/week for 24 wk at a work rate equivalent to the ventilatory aerobic threshold. The environment was kept at a temperature of 23 ± 2°C, with an air humidity 60 ± 5%. Blood and polysomnographs analysis were collected 3 times: at baseline (1 week before training began, 3 and 6 months (after 3 and 6 months of training. Training promoted increasing aerobic capacity (relative VO2, time and velocity to VO2max; p

  3. Cerebral blood flow and metabolic patterns as predictors of response to bilateral anterior capsulotomy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbely, K.; Babel, B.; Tron, L.; Nemeth, A.; Pataki, E.; Csigo, E.; Morocz, K.; Lukacs, E.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: Earlier Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies of patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) have demonstrated abnormal regional Cerebral Blood Flow (rCBF) and Cerebral Glucose Metabolic (rCGlM) pattern in the orbitofrontal-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuits (OBgThC). OCD is characterized by intrusive, repetitive thoughts and/or behaviors that cause marked distress. In case of a severe, and medically and/or psycho therapeutically intractable disease surgical therapy remains the only possible solution. The purpose of this study was to evaluate rCBF and rCGlM patterns as potential predictors of treatment response to bilateral anterior capsulotomy. We performed rCBF SPECT and rCGlM PET studies in 5 patients with severe, intractable OCD before and after (3, 6 and 12 months) surgical therapy. Methods: The assessment included neurological, psychiatrical examination, CT, MRI, and neuropsychological evaluation. 99mTc-HMPAO-SPECT and 18F-FDG-PET studies were carried out with a standard technique for each patient. The data were analyzed visually and by a special region of interests (ROIs) program. The rCBF SPECT and glucose metabolic PET results were compared to clinical and neuropsychological findings. Results: The SPECT and PET measurements showed significant (p<0.05) rCBF and metabolic abnormalities in caudate nuclei, thalamus, singular and orbitofrontal cortex. There was a marked, but individually variable rCBF and rCGlM pattern before and after surgery. Additionally, the preoperative and postoperative rCBF and rCGlM data proved to be concordant with clinical and neuropsychological findings. Conclusion: Both SPECT and PET (before and after surgery) proved to be concordant with clinical and neuropsychological findings. However, rCGlM PET measurements had a higher sensitivity. Patients with higher preoperative rCBF and rCGlM rates of OBgThC circuits were associated with a better postoperative outcome. RCBF

  4. Expression pattern of glucose metabolism genes correlate with development rate of buffalo oocytes and embryos in vitro under low oxygen condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Parveen; Verma, Arpana; Kumar, Manish; De, Sachinandan; Kumar, Rakesh; Datta, Tirtha Kumar

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates the effect of low oxygen conditions (5 Vs 20%) on buffalo embryo development. Expression patterns of key glucose metabolism genes (HK, PFK, LDH, PDH, G6PDH and Glut1) were assessed in buffalo oocytes and embryos cultured at 5 and 20% oxygen and correlated with development rate. Maturation rate was observed by determining MII stages by Aceto-orcein method and blastocyst formation was observed at 7 day post insemination (dpi). Expression levels of genes were determined by real time PCR in oocytes / embryos at 5 and 20% O2. Oocyte maturation and blastocyst formation rates were significantly higher at 5% O2 as compared to 20% O2 (P embryos under 5% O2 tend to follow anaerobic glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathways to support optimum embryo development. Under 20% O2, oocytes and embryos had high expression of PDH indicating higher oxidative phosphorylation. Further, less G6PDH expression at 20% O2 was indicative of lower pentose phosphate activity. Higher expression of LDH was observed in oocytes and embryos under 20% O2 indicating sub-optimal culture conditions. High Glut1 activity was observed in the oocytes / embryos at 5% O2, indicative of high glucose uptake correlating with high expression of glycolytic genes. The expression patterns of glucose metabolism genes could be a valuable indicator of the development potential of oocytes and embryos. The study indicates the importance of reduced oxygen conditions for production of good quality embryos.

  5. Extensive Regulation of Diurnal Transcription and Metabolism by Glucocorticoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Weger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Altered daily patterns of hormone action are suspected to contribute to metabolic disease. It is poorly understood how the adrenal glucocorticoid hormones contribute to the coordination of daily global patterns of transcription and metabolism. Here, we examined diurnal metabolite and transcriptome patterns in a zebrafish glucocorticoid deficiency model by RNA-Seq, NMR spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-based methods. We observed dysregulation of metabolic pathways including glutaminolysis, the citrate and urea cycles and glyoxylate detoxification. Constant, non-rhythmic glucocorticoid treatment rescued many of these changes, with some notable exceptions among the amino acid related pathways. Surprisingly, the non-rhythmic glucocorticoid treatment rescued almost half of the entire dysregulated diurnal transcriptome patterns. A combination of E-box and glucocorticoid response elements is enriched in the rescued genes. This simple enhancer element combination is sufficient to drive rhythmic circadian reporter gene expression under non-rhythmic glucocorticoid exposure, revealing a permissive function for the hormones in glucocorticoid-dependent circadian transcription. Our work highlights metabolic pathways potentially contributing to morbidity in patients with glucocorticoid deficiency, even under glucocorticoid replacement therapy. Moreover, we provide mechanistic insight into the interaction between the circadian clock and glucocorticoids in the transcriptional regulation of metabolism.

  6. Extensive Regulation of Diurnal Transcription and Metabolism by Glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weger, Benjamin D; Weger, Meltem; Görling, Benjamin; Schink, Andrea; Gobet, Cédric; Keime, Céline; Poschet, Gernot; Jost, Bernard; Krone, Nils; Hell, Rüdiger; Gachon, Frédéric; Luy, Burkhard; Dickmeis, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Altered daily patterns of hormone action are suspected to contribute to metabolic disease. It is poorly understood how the adrenal glucocorticoid hormones contribute to the coordination of daily global patterns of transcription and metabolism. Here, we examined diurnal metabolite and transcriptome patterns in a zebrafish glucocorticoid deficiency model by RNA-Seq, NMR spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-based methods. We observed dysregulation of metabolic pathways including glutaminolysis, the citrate and urea cycles and glyoxylate detoxification. Constant, non-rhythmic glucocorticoid treatment rescued many of these changes, with some notable exceptions among the amino acid related pathways. Surprisingly, the non-rhythmic glucocorticoid treatment rescued almost half of the entire dysregulated diurnal transcriptome patterns. A combination of E-box and glucocorticoid response elements is enriched in the rescued genes. This simple enhancer element combination is sufficient to drive rhythmic circadian reporter gene expression under non-rhythmic glucocorticoid exposure, revealing a permissive function for the hormones in glucocorticoid-dependent circadian transcription. Our work highlights metabolic pathways potentially contributing to morbidity in patients with glucocorticoid deficiency, even under glucocorticoid replacement therapy. Moreover, we provide mechanistic insight into the interaction between the circadian clock and glucocorticoids in the transcriptional regulation of metabolism.

  7. Myc and Ras oncogenes engage different energy metabolism programs and evoke distinct patterns of oxidative and DNA replication stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maya-Mendoza, A.; Ostrakova, J.; Košař, Martin; Hall, A.; Duskova, P.; Mistrik, M.; Merchut-Maya, J.M.; Hodný, Zdeněk; Bartkova, J.; Christensen, C.; Bartek, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2015), s. 601-616 ISSN 1574-7891 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-17555S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304 Grant - others:Danish Council for Independent Research(DK) DFF- 1331-00262; Lundbeck Foundation(DK) R93-A8990 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Myc * Ras * Replication stress * DNA fork progression * Energy metabolism * DNA damage response Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.367, year: 2015

  8. Metabolic patterns of JWH-210, RCS-4, and THC in pig urine elucidated using LC-HR-MS/MS: Do they reflect patterns in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Nadine; Helfer, Andreas G; Kettner, Mattias; Laschke, Matthias W; Schlote, Julia; Ewald, Andreas H; Meyer, Markus R; Menger, Michael D; Maurer, Hans H; Schmidt, Peter H

    2017-04-01

    The knowledge of pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) is important for interpretation of analytical results found for example in intoxicated individuals. In the absence of human data from controlled studies, animal models elucidating SC PK have to be established. Pigs providing large biofluid sample volumes were tested for prediction of human PK data. In this context, the metabolic fate of two model SCs, namely 4-ethylnaphthalen-1-yl-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)methanone (JWH-210) and 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(1-pentyl-indol-3-yl)methanone (RCS-4), was elucidated in addition to Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). After intravenous administration of the compounds, hourly collected pig urine was analyzed by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. The following pathways were observed: for JWH-210, hydroxylation at the ethyl side chain or pentyl chain and combinations of them followed by glucuronidation; for RCS-4, hydroxylation at the methoxyphenyl moiety or pentyl chain followed by glucuronidation as well as O-demethylation followed by glucuronidation or sulfation; for THC, THC glucuronidation, 11-hydroxylation, followed by carboxylation and glucuronidation. For both SCs, parent compounds could not be detected in urine in contrast to THC. These results were consistent with those obtained from human hepatocyte and/or human case studies. Urinary markers for the consumption of JWH-210 were the glucuronide of the N-hydroxypentyl metabolite (detectable for 3-4 h) and of RCS-4 the glucuronides of the N-hydroxypentyl, hydroxy-methoxyphenyl (detectable for at least 6 h), and the O-demethyl-hydroxy metabolites (detectable for 4 h). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Growth Patterns and Adult Diseases: Growth During Childhood and Determinants of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Profi le in Young Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W.J. Leunissen (Ralph)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractTh is doctoral thesis describes the infl uence of diff erent growth patterns during childhood on determinants of adult disease, like cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis, in healthy young adults. Additionally, diff erences in these determinants are described

  10. Daily rhythmicity of high affinity copper transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea-García, Ana; Sanz, Amparo; Moreno, Joaquín; Andrés-Bordería, Amparo; de Andrés, Sonia Mayo; Davis, Amanda M; Huijser, Peter; Davis, Seth J; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2016-01-01

    A differential demand for copper (Cu) of essential cupro-proteins that act within the mitochondrial and chloroplastal electronic transport chains occurs along the daily light/dark cycles. This requires a fine-tuned spatiotemporal regulation of Cu delivery, becoming especially relevant under non-optimal growth conditions. When scarce, Cu is imported through plasma membrane-bound high affinity Cu transporters (COPTs) whose coding genes are transcriptionally induced by the SPL7 transcription factor. Temporal homeostatic mechanisms are evidenced by the presence of multiple light- and clock-responsive regulatory cis elements in the promoters of both SPL7 and its COPT targets. A model is presented here for such temporal regulation that is based on the synchrony between the basal oscillatory pattern of SPL7 and its targets, such as COPT2. Conversely, Cu feeds back to coordinate intracellular Cu availability on the SPL7-dependent regulation of further Cu acquisition. This occurs via regulation at COPT transporters. Moreover, exogenous Cu affects several circadian-clock components, such as the timing of GIGANTEA transcript abundance. Together we propose that there is a dynamic response to Cu that is integrated over diurnal time to maximize metabolic efficiency under challenging conditions.

  11. Growth Patterns in the Irish Pyridoxine Nonresponsive Homocystinuria Population and the Influence of Metabolic Control and Protein Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla Purcell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A low methionine diet is the mainstay of treatment for pyridoxine nonresponsive homocystinuria (HCU. There are various guidelines for recommended protein intakes for HCU and clinical practice varies. Poor growth has been associated with low cystine levels. This retrospective review of 48 Irish pyridoxine nonresponsive HCU patients assessed weight, height, body mass index (BMI, protein intake, and metabolic control up to 18 years at nine set time points. Patients diagnosed through newborn screening (NBS were compared to late diagnosed (LD patients. At 18 years the LD group (n=12, mean age at diagnosis 5.09 years were heavier (estimated effect +4.97 Kg, P=0.0058 and taller (estimated effect +7.97 cm P=0.0204 than the NBS group (n=36. There was no difference in growth rate between the groups after 10 years of age. The HCU population were heavier and taller than the general population by one standard deviation with no difference in BMI. There was no association between intermittently low cystine levels and height. Three protein intake guidelines were compared; there was no difference in adult height between those who met the lowest of the guidelines (Genetic Metabolic Dietitians International and those with a higher protein intake.

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ether metabolism in field collected fish from the Gila River, Arizona, USA-Levels, possible sources, and patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Kathy R.; Peterman, Paul H.; Hinck, Jo Ellen; Orazio, Carl E.

    2013-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in fish collected from the Gila River, Arizona, a tributary of the Colorado River in the lower part of the Colorado River Basin. Fish samples were collected at sites on the Gila River downstream from Hayden, Phoenix, and Arlington, Arizona in late summer 2003. The Gila River is ephemeral upstream of the Phoenix urban area due to dams and irrigation projects and has limited perennial flow downstream of Phoenix due to wastewater and irrigation return flows. Fifty PBDE congeners were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry using labeled surrogate standards in composite samples of male and female common carp (Cyrpinus carpio), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). The predominant PBDE congeners detected and quantified were 47, 100, 153, 49, 28, and 17. Concentrations of total PBDEs in these fish ranged from 1.4 to 12700 ng g-1 wet weight, which are some of the highest concentrations reported in fish from the United States. Differences in metabolism of several PBDE congeners by carp is clear at the Phoenix site; congeners with at least one ring of 2,4,5-substitution are preferentially metabolized as are congeners with 2,3,4-substitution.

  13. Growth Patterns in the Irish Pyridoxine Nonresponsive Homocystinuria Population and the Influence of Metabolic Control and Protein Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Orla; Coughlan, Aoife; Grant, Tim; McNulty, Jenny; Clark, Anne; Deverell, Deirdre; Mayne, Philip; Hughes, Joanne; Monavari, Ahmad; Knerr, Ina; Crushell, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    A low methionine diet is the mainstay of treatment for pyridoxine nonresponsive homocystinuria (HCU). There are various guidelines for recommended protein intakes for HCU and clinical practice varies. Poor growth has been associated with low cystine levels. This retrospective review of 48 Irish pyridoxine nonresponsive HCU patients assessed weight, height, body mass index (BMI), protein intake, and metabolic control up to 18 years at nine set time points. Patients diagnosed through newborn screening (NBS) were compared to late diagnosed (LD) patients. At 18 years the LD group ( n = 12, mean age at diagnosis 5.09 years) were heavier (estimated effect +4.97 Kg, P = 0.0058) and taller (estimated effect +7.97 cm P = 0.0204) than the NBS group ( n = 36). There was no difference in growth rate between the groups after 10 years of age. The HCU population were heavier and taller than the general population by one standard deviation with no difference in BMI. There was no association between intermittently low cystine levels and height. Three protein intake guidelines were compared; there was no difference in adult height between those who met the lowest of the guidelines (Genetic Metabolic Dietitians International) and those with a higher protein intake.

  14. Biomarker patterns of inflammatory and metabolic pathways are associated with risk of colorectal cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Jenab, Mazda; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Fedirko, Veronika; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Jansen, Eugene; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Murphy, Neil; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Westhpal, Sabine; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Racine, Antoine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Agnoli, Claudia; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H; Duell, Eric J; Molina-Montes, Esther; Quirós, J Ramón; Dorronsoro, Miren; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Palmqvist, Richard; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Pischon, Tobias; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-04-01

    A number of biomarkers of inflammatory and metabolic pathways are individually related to higher risk of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, the association between biomarker patterns and CRC incidence has not been previously evaluated. Our study investigates the association of biomarker patterns with CRC in a prospective nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). During median follow-up time of 7.0 (3.7-9.4) years, 1,260 incident CRC cases occurred and were matched to 1,260 controls using risk-set sampling. Pre-diagnostic measurements of C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), C-reactive protein (CRP), reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM), insulin-like growth factor 1, adiponectin, leptin and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) were used to derive biomarker patterns from principal component analysis (PCA). The relation with CRC incidence was assessed using conditional logistic regression models. We identified four biomarker patterns 'HDL-C/Adiponectin fractions', 'ROM/CRP', 'TG/C-peptide' and 'leptin/sOB-R' to explain 60 % of the overall biomarker variance. In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression, the 'HDL-C/Adiponectin fractions', 'ROM/CRP' and 'leptin/sOB-R' patterns were associated with CRC risk [for the highest quartile vs the lowest, incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.69, 95 % CI 0.51-0.93, P-trend = 0.01; IRR = 1.70, 95 % CI 1.30-2.23, P-trend = 0.002; and IRR = 0.79, 95 % CI 0.58-1.07; P-trend = 0.05, respectively]. In contrast, the 'TG/C-peptide' pattern was not associated with CRC risk (IRR = 0.75, 95 % CI 0.56-1.00, P-trend = 0.24). After cases within the first 2 follow-up years were excluded, the 'ROM/CRP' pattern was no longer associated with CRC risk, suggesting potential influence of preclinical disease on these associations. By application of PCA, the study identified 'HDL-C/Adiponectin fractions', 'ROM/CRP' and 'leptin/sOB-R' as

  15. On polar daily geomagnetic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Michelis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the nature of the daily magnetic field perturbations produced by ionospheric and magnetospheric currents at high latitudes. We analyse the hourly means of the X and Y geomagnetic field components recorded by a meridian chain of permanent geomagnetic observatories in the polar region of the Northern Hemisphere during a period of four years (1995-1998 around the solar minimum. We apply a mathematical method, known as natural orthogonal component (NOC, which is capable of characterizing the dominant modes of the geomagnetic field daily variability through a set of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs. Using the first two modes we reconstruct a two-dimensional equivalent current representation of the ionospheric electric currents, which contribute substantially to the geomagnetic daily variations. The obtained current structures resemble the equivalent current patterns of DP2 and DP1. We characterize these currents by studying their evolution with the geomagnetic activity level and by analysing their dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field. The obtained results support the idea of a coexistence of two main processes during all analysed period although one of them, the directly driven process, represents the dominant component of the geomagnetic daily variation.

  16. The intrauterine metabolic environment modulates the gene expression pattern in fetal rat islets: prevention by maternal taurine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusens, B; Sparre, T; Kalbe, L

    2008-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis  Events during fetal life may in critical time windows programme tissue development leading to organ dysfunction with potentially harmful consequences in adulthood such as diabetes. In rats, the beta cell mass of progeny from dams fed with a low-protein (LP) diet during gestation...... is decreased at birth and metabolic perturbation lasts through adulthood even though a normal diet is given after birth or after weaning. Maternal and fetal plasma taurine levels are suboptimal. Maternal taurine supplementation prevents these induced abnormalities. In this study, we aimed to reveal changes...... in gene expression in fetal islets affected by the LP diet and how taurine may prevent these changes. Methods  Pregnant Wistar rats were fed an LP diet (8% [wt/wt] protein) supplemented or not with taurine in the drinking water or a control diet (20% [wt/wt] protein). At 21.5 days of gestation, fetal...

  17. Estimation of microbial metabolism and co-occurrence patterns in fracture groundwaters of deep crystalline bedrock at Olkiluoto, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomberg, M.; Lamminmäki, T.; Itävaara, M.

    2015-08-01

    The microbial diversity in oligotrophic isolated crystalline Fennoscandian Shield bedrock fracture groundwaters is great but the core community has not been identified. Here we characterized the bacterial and archaeal communities in 12 water conductive fractures situated at depths between 296 and 798 m by high throughput amplicon sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq platform. The great sequencing depth revealed that up to 95 and 99 % of the bacterial and archaeal communities, respectively, were composed of only a few common species, i.e. the core microbiome. However, the remaining rare microbiome contained over 3 and 6 fold more bacterial and archaeal taxa. Several clusters of co-occurring rare taxa were identified, which correlated significantly with physicochemical parameters, such as salinity, concentration of inorganic or organic carbon, sulphur, pH and depth. The metabolic properties of the microbial communities were predicted using PICRUSt. The rough prediction showed that the metabolic pathways included commonly fermentation, fatty acid oxidation, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation and methanogenesis/anaerobic methane oxidation, but carbon fixation through the Calvin cycle, reductive TCA cycle and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway was also predicted. The rare microbiome is an unlimited source of genomic functionality in all ecosystems. It may consist of remnants of microbial communities prevailing in earlier conditions on Earth, but could also be induced again if changes in their living conditions occur. In this study only the rare taxa correlated with any physicochemical parameters. Thus these microorganisms can respond to environmental change caused by physical or biological factors that may lead to alterations in the diversity and function of the microbial communities in crystalline bedrock environments.

  18. Long-Term Impacts of Foetal Malnutrition Followed by Early Postnatal Obesity on Fat Distribution Pattern and Metabolic Adaptability in Adult Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Prabhat; Johnsen, Lærke; Axel, Anne Marie Dixen; Hansen, Pernille Willert; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft; Lyckegaard, Nette Brinch; Nielsen, Mette Olaf

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether over- versus undernutrition in late foetal life combined with obesity development in early postnatal life have differential implications for fat distribution and metabolic adaptability in adulthood. Twin-pregnant ewes were fed NORM (100% of daily energy and protein requirements), LOW (50% of NORM) or HIGH (150%/110% of energy/protein requirements) diets during the last trimester. Postnatally, twin-lambs received obesogenic (HCHF) or moderate (CONV) diets until 6 months of age, and a moderate (obesity correcting) diet thereafter. At 2½ years of age (adulthood), plasma metabolite profiles during fasting, glucose, insulin and propionate (in fed and fasted states) tolerance tests were examined. Organ weights were determined at autopsy. Early obesity development was associated with lack of expansion of perirenal, but not other adipose tissues from adolescence to adulthood, resulting in 10% unit increased proportion of mesenteric of intra-abdominal fat. Prenatal undernutrition had a similar but much less pronounced effect. Across tolerance tests, LOW-HCHF sheep had highest plasma levels of cholesterol, urea-nitrogen, creatinine, and lactate. Sex specific differences were observed, particularly with respect to fat deposition, but direction of responses to early nutrition impacts were similar. However, prenatal undernutrition induced greater metabolic alterations in adult females than males. Foetal undernutrition, but not overnutrition, predisposed for adult hypercholesterolaemia, hyperureaemia, hypercreatinaemia and hyperlactataemia, which became manifested only in combination with early obesity development. Perirenal expandability may play a special role in this context. Differential nutrition recommendations may be advisable for individuals with low versus high birth weights. PMID:27257993

  19. Beneficial Effects of the RESMENA Dietary Pattern on Oxidative Stress in Patients Suffering from Metabolic Syndrome with Hyperglycemia Are Associated to Dietary TAC and Fruit Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alfredo Martinez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia and oxidative stress are conditions directly related to the metabolic syndrome (MetS, whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a new weight-loss dietary pattern on improving the oxidative stress status on patients suffering MetS with hyperglycemia. Seventy-nine volunteers were randomly assigned to two low-calorie diets (−30% Energy: the control diet based on the American Health Association criteria and the RESMENA diet based on a different macronutrient distribution (30% proteins, 30% lipids, 40% carbohydrates, which was characterized by an increase of the meal frequency (seven-times/day, low glycemic load, high antioxidant capacity (TAC and high n-3 fatty acids content. Dietary records, anthropometrical measurements, biochemical parameters and oxidative stress biomarkers were analyzed before and after the six-month-long study. The RESMENA (Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra diet specifically reduced the android fat mass and demonstrated more effectiveness on improving general oxidative stress through a greater decrease of oxidized LDL (oxLDL values and protection against arylesterase depletion. Interestingly, oxLDL values were associated with dietary TAC and fruit consumption and with changes on body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, fat mass and triacilglyceride (TG levels. In conclusion, the antioxidant properties of the RESMENA diet provide further benefits to those attributable to weight loss on patients suffering Mets with hyperglycemia.

  20. Evaluation of metabolic enzymes in response to Excel Mera 71, a glyphosate-based herbicide, and recovery pattern in freshwater teleostean fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Palas; Pal, Sandipan; Mukherjee, Aloke Kumar; Ghosh, Apurba Ratan

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were evaluated in Indian teleostean fishes, namely, Anabas testudineus (Bloch) and Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch), for an exposure to 30 days of Excel Mera 71 (17.2 mg/L), a glyphosate formulation, and subsequent depuration under Liv.52, a plant extract at a dose of 187.5 mg/d/250 L for the same period in the same tissues under laboratory condition. ALT activity was significantly increased (PExcel Mera 71 caused alterations in the metabolic enzymatic activities in fish tissues and AST showed the highest alteration in both the fishes, while lowest in ALP and ALT in A. testudineus and H. fossilis, respectively. During depuration under Liv.52, all the enzyme activities came down towards the control condition which indicated the compensatory response by the fish against this herbicidal stress and it was in the following order: AST>ALT>ALP, in A. testudineus, while H. fossilis showed the following trend: ALT>AST>ALP. Therefore, these parameters could be used as indicators of herbicidal pollution in aquatic organisms and were recommended for environmental monitoring for investigating the mechanism involved in the recovery pattern.

  1. Differential brain glucose metabolic patterns in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia with and without auditory verbal hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horga, Guillermo; Parellada, Eduard; Lomeña, Francisco; Fernández-Egea, Emilio; Mané, Anna; Font, Mireia; Falcón, Carles; Konova, Anna B; Pavia, Javier; Ros, Domènec; Bernardo, Miguel

    2011-09-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are a core symptom of schizophrenia. Previous reports on neural activity patterns associated with AVHs are inconsistent, arguably owing to the lack of an adequate control group (i.e., patients with similar characteristics but without AVHs) and neglect of the potential confounding effects of medication. The current study was conducted in a homogeneous group of patients with schizophrenia to assess whether the presence or absence of AVHs was associated with differential regional cerebral glucose metabolic patterns. We investigated differences between patients with commenting AVHs and patients without AVHs among a group of dextral antipsychotic-naive inpatients with acute first-episode schizophrenia examined with [(18)F]fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) at rest. Univariate and multivariate approaches were used to establish between-group differences. We included 9 patients with AVHs and 7 patients without AVHs in this study. Patients experiencing AVHs during FDG uptake had significantly higher metabolic rates in the left superior and middle temporal cortices, bilateral superior medial frontal cortex and left caudate nucleus (cluster level p 3.3, respectively). Additionally, the multivariate method identified hippocampal-parahippocampal, cerebellar and parietal relative hypoactivity during AVHs in both hemispheres (bootstrap ratio PET imaging technique does not provide information regarding the temporal course of neural activity. The limited sample size may have increased the risk of false-negative findings. Our results indicate that AVHs in patients with schizophrenia may be mediated by an alteration of neural pathways responsible for normal language function. Our findings also point to the potential role of the dominant caudate nucleus and the parahippocampal gyri in the pathophysiology of AVHs. We discuss the relevance of phenomenology-based grouping in the study of AVHs.

  2. Dietary beliefs and eating patterns influence metabolic health in type 2 diabetes: A clinic-based study in urban North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L Colles

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Almost 15% of India′s urban adult populace now lives with type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to characterize the eating patterns, knowledge, beliefs, and determinants of food choice, and assess associations with the metabolic health among urban Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 258 individuals (mean age 55.7 ± 10 years; body mass index 27.1 ± 4.8 kg/m 2 ; diabetes duration 10.1 ± 6.5 years attending two out-patient clinics in New Delhi, India. Food-related information was collected during a semi-structured interview. Clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical data were recorded. Results: Beliefs related to health and diabetes played a role determining food choice and dietary patterns; erroneous views were associated with the poor food choices and greater metabolic perturbations. Average consumption of fruits/vegetables was low. Intakes were positively associated with intentions to manage diabetes; inversely associated with the waist circumference and negatively correlated with one′s degree of personal responsibility for food choice. Household saturated fat usage was common. High fat intakes were positively associated with the taste preference, ratings of perceived "health-value;" waist circumference, glycosylated haemoglobin percentage (HbA1c% and lipids. Conclusions: Strategies to enhance diabetes control among Asian Indians are required and should encourage fruit/vegetable intake, personal accountability, and consider individual beliefs and preferences. Greater emphasis and resources directed to regular dietary and behavioral counseling may assist.`

  3. Evolutionary patterns of carbohydrate transport and metabolism in Halomonas boliviensis as derived from its genome sequence: influences on polyester production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Daniel; Balderrama-Subieta, Andrea; Cardona-Ortuño, Carla; Guevara-Martínez, Mónica; Callisaya-Quispe, Nataly; Quillaguamán, Jorge

    2012-04-17

    Halomonas boliviensis is a halophilic bacterium that is included in the γ-Proteobacteria sub-group, and is able to assimilate different types of carbohydrates. H. boliviensis is also able to produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) in high yields using glucose as the carbon precursor. Accumulation of PHB by microorganisms is induced by excess of intracellular NADH.The genome sequences and organization in microorganisms should be the result of evolution and adaptation influenced by mutation, gene duplication, horizontal gen transfer (HGT) and recombination. Furthermore, the nearly neutral theory of evolution sustains that genetic modification of DNA could be neutral or selected, albeit most mutations should be at the border between neutrality and selection, i.e. slightly deleterious base substitutions in DNA are followed by a slightly advantageous substitutions. This article reports the genome sequence of H. boliviensis. The chromosome size of H. boliviensis was 4 119 979 bp, and contained 3 863 genes. A total of 160 genes of H. boliviensis were related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, and were organized as: 70 genes for metabolism of carbohydrates; 47 genes for ABC transport systems and 43 genes for TRAP-type C4-dicarboxylate transport systems. Protein sequences of H. boliviensis related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism were selected from clusters of orthologous proteins (COGs). Similar proteins derived from the genome sequences of other 41 archaea and 59 bacteria were used as reference. We found that most of the 160 genes in H. boliviensis, c.a. 44%, were obtained from other bacteria by horizontal gene transfer, while 13% of the genes were acquired from haloarchaea and thermophilic archaea, only 34% of the genes evolved among Proteobacteria and the remaining genes encoded proteins that did not cluster with any of the proteins obtained from the reference strains. Furthermore, the diversity of the enzymes derived from these genes led to polymorphism

  4. Evolutionary patterns of carbohydrate transport and metabolism in Halomonas boliviensis as derived from its genome sequence: influences on polyester production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Halomonas boliviensis is a halophilic bacterium that is included in the γ-Proteobacteria sub-group, and is able to assimilate different types of carbohydrates. H. boliviensis is also able to produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) in high yields using glucose as the carbon precursor. Accumulation of PHB by microorganisms is induced by excess of intracellular NADH. The genome sequences and organization in microorganisms should be the result of evolution and adaptation influenced by mutation, gene duplication, horizontal gen transfer (HGT) and recombination. Furthermore, the nearly neutral theory of evolution sustains that genetic modification of DNA could be neutral or selected, albeit most mutations should be at the border between neutrality and selection, i.e. slightly deleterious base substitutions in DNA are followed by a slightly advantageous substitutions. Results This article reports the genome sequence of H. boliviensis. The chromosome size of H. boliviensis was 4 119 979 bp, and contained 3 863 genes. A total of 160 genes of H. boliviensis were related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, and were organized as: 70 genes for metabolism of carbohydrates; 47 genes for ABC transport systems and 43 genes for TRAP-type C4-dicarboxylate transport systems. Protein sequences of H. boliviensis related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism were selected from clusters of orthologous proteins (COGs). Similar proteins derived from the genome sequences of other 41 archaea and 59 bacteria were used as reference. We found that most of the 160 genes in H. boliviensis, c.a. 44%, were obtained from other bacteria by horizontal gene transfer, while 13% of the genes were acquired from haloarchaea and thermophilic archaea, only 34% of the genes evolved among Proteobacteria and the remaining genes encoded proteins that did not cluster with any of the proteins obtained from the reference strains. Furthermore, the diversity of the enzymes derived from these genes

  5. The intrauterine metabolic environment modulates the gene expression pattern in fetal rat islets: prevention by maternal taurine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusens, B; Sparre, T; Kalbe, L; Bouckenooghe, T; Theys, N; Kruhøffer, M; Orntoft, T F; Nerup, J; Remacle, C

    2008-05-01

    Events during fetal life may in critical time windows programme tissue development leading to organ dysfunction with potentially harmful consequences in adulthood such as diabetes. In rats, the beta cell mass of progeny from dams fed with a low-protein (LP) diet during gestation is decreased at birth and metabolic perturbation lasts through adulthood even though a normal diet is given after birth or after weaning. Maternal and fetal plasma taurine levels are suboptimal. Maternal taurine supplementation prevents these induced abnormalities. In this study, we aimed to reveal changes in gene expression in fetal islets affected by the LP diet and how taurine may prevent these changes. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed an LP diet (8% [wt/wt] protein) supplemented or not with taurine in the drinking water or a control diet (20% [wt/wt] protein). At 21.5 days of gestation, fetal pancreases were removed, digested and cultured for 7 days. Neoformed islets were collected and transcriptome analysis was performed. Maternal LP diet significantly changed the expression of more than 10% of the genes. Tricarboxylic acid cycle and ATP production were highly targeted, but so too were cell proliferation and defence. Maternal taurine supplementation normalised the expression of all altered genes. Development of the beta cells and particularly their respiration is modulated by the intrauterine environment, which may epigenetically modify expression of the genome and programme the beta cell towards a pre-diabetic phenotype. This mis-programming by maternal LP diet was prevented by early taurine intervention.

  6. Metabolic patterns of bacterial communities in aerobic compost teas associated with potential biocontrol of soilborne plant diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catello PANE

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerated compost teas (ACTs are organic products obtained by forced aeration of composts suspended in liquid phase. These products may be biological control tools alternative to synthetic fungicides, because ACTs contain antagonistic microorganisms. In this study, soilborne disease suppressive ability of seven water ACTs, extracted from five horticultural residue-based composts, from an animal waste anaerobic solid digestate and from a commercial municipal waste compost, was assessed using in vitro and in vivo systems. All the ACTs inhibited in vitro growth of Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia minor, Sclerotium rolfsii and Botrytis cinerea. Filter or thermal sterilization eliminated in vitro suppression, suggesting that microorganisms play key roles in pathogen inhibition. Drenching applications of raw ACTs have potential to reduced disease symptoms caused by R. solani on savoy cabbage, S. minor on lettuce and S. rolfsii on pepper, improved the biomass production and did not show any sign of phytotoxicity. Both in vitro and in vivo suppressiveness of ACTs may be explained by antagonistic  bacterial communities that provide general suppression activities. The metabolic BIOLOG GN and GP profiles reflected the functional potential of the numerically dominant members of the microbial communities used as inoculum. This study has demonstrated that useful resident microorganisms, including mainly Gram-positive and Gram-negative antagonistic bacteria, are likely to be responsible for biological control activity of ACTs.

  7. Metabolic engineering of geranic acid in maize to achieve fungal resistance is compromised by novel glycosylation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Stoopen, Geert; Yalpani, Nasser; Vervoort, Jacques; de Vos, Ric; Voster, Alessandra; Verstappen, Francel W A; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Jongsma, Maarten A

    2011-07-01

    Many terpenoids are known to have antifungal properties and overexpression of these compounds in crops is a potential tool in disease control. In this study, 15 different mono- and sesquiterpenoids were tested in vitro against two major pathogenic fungi of maize (Zea mays), Colletotrichum graminicola and Fusarium graminearum. Among all tested terpenoids, geranic acid showed very strong inhibitory activity against both fungi (MICLippia dulcis under the control of a ubiquitin promoter. The volatile and non-volatile metabolite profiles of leaves from transgenic and control lines were compared. The headspaces collected from intact seedlings of transgenic and control plants were not significantly different, although detached leaves of transgenic plants emitted 5-fold more geranyl acetate compared to control plants. Non-targeted LC-MS profiling and LC-MS-MS identification of extracts from maize leaves revealed that the major significantly different non-volatile compounds were 2 geranic acid derivatives, a geraniol dihexose and 4 different types of hydroxyl-geranic acid-hexoses. A geranic acid glycoside was the most abundant, and identified by NMR as geranoyl-6-O-malonyl-β-d-glucopyranoside with an average concentration of 45μM. Fungal bioassays with C. graminicola and F. graminearum did not reveal an effect of these changes in secondary metabolite composition on plant resistance to either fungus. The results demonstrate that metabolic engineering of geraniol into geranic acid can rely on the existing default pathway, but branching glycosylation pathways must be controlled to achieve accumulation of the aglycones. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (Pdietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  9. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (Panimal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  10. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (P<0.05). The ratio of dietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  11. Daily bowel care program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000133.htm Daily bowel care program To use the sharing features on this page, ... Work with your health care provider. Basic Bowel Program Keeping active helps prevent constipation. Try to walk, ...

  12. Lightship Daily Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board lightships along the United States coasts from 1936 - 1983. Generally 4-6 observations daily. Also includes deck logs, which give...

  13. Tips for Daily Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips and Gadgets for Daily Activities Dressing Tips Shopping Tips Modifying the Bathroom Driving After Stroke Medication ... and resources. Find a group in your area . Online Support If there is not a support group ...

  14. Daily Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several different government offices have published the Daily weather maps over its history. The publication has also gone by different names over time. The U.S....

  15. Tips for Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chapter Join our online community Tips for Daily Life Coping skills will help you handle day-to- ... challenges, maximize your independence and live a meaningful life with your diagnosis. Accepting changes Creating a coping ...

  16. DailyMed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — DailyMed provides high quality information about marketed drugs. This information includes FDA labels (package inserts). This Web site provides health information...

  17. Breathing pattern and ventilatory chemosensitivity of the 1-day old Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) in relation to its metabolic demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortola, Jacopo P; Toro-Velasquez, Paula Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Adult birds have a ventilatory equivalent (pulmonary ventilation-oxygen consumption ratio, V˙ E/ [Formula: see text] ) lower than mammals because of the superior gas exchange efficiency of their respiratory apparatus. In particular, adult Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) have been reported to have an extraordinary low ventilatory equivalent (~14mL STPD·mL BTPS(-1)). We asked if similar high efficiency was already apparent in duck hatchlings. Breathing pattern and V˙E were measured by the barometric technique and [Formula: see text] by an open-flow methodology in 1-day old Muscovy duck hatchlings (N=21); same measurements were performed on chicken hatchlings (N=21) for purpose of comparison. During air breathing V˙E/ [Formula: see text] was slightly, yet significantly, lower in ducklings (20.8) than in chicks (25.3), mostly because of a lower breathing frequency (f). The hatchlings of both species (N=14 per group) responded to inspired hypoxia (15 or 10% O2) or hypercapnia (2 or 4% CO2) with a clear hyperventilation; however, in ducklings the hypercapnic hyperventilation was smaller than in chicks because of a smaller increase in tidal volume and lower f. We conclude that duck and chicken hatchlings just a few hours old have the high ventilatory efficiency typical of birds, although possibly not as high as their adults. The low f and blunted V˙E response to hypercapnia of the newborn duck could be related to the aquatic habitat of the species. In such a case, it would mean that these characteristics are genetic traits, the phenotypic expression of which does not require diving experience. © 2013.

  18. Padrões alimentares de adolescentes obesos e diferentes repercussões metabólicas Dietary patterns of obese adolescents and different metabolic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Regina Mello Dishchekenian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação de padrões alimentares com alterações metabólicas em adolescentes obesos. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal envolvendo 76 estudantes (ambos os sexos, 14-19 anos, IMC³P95 e Tanner ³4 de escolas públicas da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram coletados dados antropométricos e bioquímicos, e aplicados questionários com informações sociodemográficas e registro alimentar de 4 dias, entre 2006 e 2007. Escores fatoriais foram obtidos na análise fatorial e, após ajustes, três padrões alimentares identificados foram associados a fatores de risco biológico por regressão linear múltipla. RESULTADOS: O padrão Tradicional (arroz e massas, feijões, carnes vermelhas, embutidos, óleos e doces foi positivamente associado com insulina, glicemia e triglicérides e negativamente associado com lipoproteína de alta densidade. O padrão Em Transição (peixe, aves, ovos, pães, manteiga, leite e derivados, hortaliças, frutas, sucos de frutas e açúcar refinado apresentou as mesmas associações, além de associação similar com a pressão arterial diastólica. O padrão Fast Food (cafeteria, hambúrguer, maionese, bolacha, bolos e tortas, chocolate e refrigerantes apresentou associação positiva com o colesterol, lipoproteína de baixa densidade e pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica, e associação negativa com insulina e lipoproteína de alta densidade. CONCLUSÃO: Os padrões Tradicional e Em transição apresentaram associações diferentes com o metabolismo lipídico e glicídico quando comparados com o padrão Fast Food. Os três padrões podem ser considerados obesogênicos, porém o padrão Fast Food pareceu ser o mais aterogênico e promotor de hipertensão arterial.OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the association between dietary patterns and metabolic changes in obese adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 76 students (both genders, 14-19 years old, BMI³P95 and Tanner stage ³4

  19. Chronic daily headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches.

  20. Temporal Signal Pattern Recognition in Mass Spectrometry: A Method for Rapid Identification and Accurate Quantification of Biomarkers for Inborn Errors of Metabolism with Quality Assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBattista, Alicia; McIntosh, Nathan; Lamoureux, Monica; Al-Dirbashi, Osama Y; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2017-08-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomic initiatives that use conventional separation techniques are limited by low sample throughput and complicated data processing that contribute to false discoveries. Herein, we introduce a new strategy for unambiguous identification and accurate quantification of biomarkers for inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) from dried blood spots (DBS) with quality assurance. A multiplexed separation platform based on multisegment injection-capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (MSI-CE-MS) was developed to provide comparable sample throughput to flow injection analysis-tandem MS (FIA-MS/MS) but with greater selectivity as required for confirmatory testing and discovery-based metabolite profiling of volume-restricted biospecimens. Mass spectral information is encoded temporally within a separation by serial injection of three or more sample pairs, each having a unique dilution pattern, alongside a quality control (QC) that serves as a reference in every run to facilitate between-sample comparisons and/or batch correction due to system drift. Optimization of whole blood extraction conditions on DBS filter paper cut-outs was first achieved to maximize recovery of a wide range of polar metabolites from DBS extracts. An interlaboratory comparison study was also conducted using a proficiency test and retrospective neonatal DBS that demonstrated good agreement between MSI-CE-MS and validated FIA-MS/MS methods within an accredited facility. Our work demonstrated accurate identification of various IEM based on reliable measurement of a panel of primary or secondary biomarkers above an upper cutoff concentration limit for presumptive screen-positive cases without stable isotope-labeled reagents. Additionally, nontargeted metabolite profiling by MSI-CE-MS with temporal signal pattern recognition revealed new biomarkers for early detection of galactosemia, such as N-galactated amino acids, that are a novel class of pathognomonic marker due to

  1. Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily), Version 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily) dataset integrates daily climate observations from approximately 30 different data sources. Version 3...

  2. Giant Cell Tumor with Secondary Aneurysmal Bone Cyst Shows Heterogeneous Metabolic Pattern on18F-FDG PET/CT: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Jeong; Kwon, Seong Young; Cho, Sang-Geon; Kim, Jahae; Song, Ho-Chun; Kim, Sung Sun; Yoon, Yeon Hong; Park, Jin Gyoon

    2016-12-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) is a generally benign bone tumor accounting for approximately 5 % of all primary bone neoplasms. Cystic components in GCTs that indicate secondary aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are reported in 14 % of GCTs. Although both of them have been described separately in previous reports that may show considerable fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake despite their benign nature, the findings of GCT with secondary ABC on 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) have not been well-known. We report a case of GCT with secondary ABC in a 26-year-old woman. 18 F-FDG PET/CT revealed a heterogeneous hypermetabolic lesion in the left proximal femur with the maximum standardized uptake value of 4.7. The solid components of the tumor showed higher FDG uptake than the cystic components. These observations suggest that the ABC components in GCTs show heterogeneous metabolic patterns on 18 F-FDG PET/CT.

  3. Giant cell tumor with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst shows heterogeneous metabolic pattern on {sup 18}F-FDG PET.CT: A case reort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Jeong; Kwon, Seong Young; Yoon, Yeon Hong [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Huasun (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sang Geon; Kim, Jahae; Song, Ho Chun; Kim, Sung Sun; Park, Jin Gyoon [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) is a generally benign bone tumor accounting for approximately 5 % of all primary bone neoplasms. Cystic components in GCTs that indicate secondary aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are reported in 14 % of GCTs. Although both of them have been described separately in previous reports that may show considerable fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake despite their benign nature, the findings of GCT with secondary ABC on 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) have not been well-known. We report a case of GCT with secondary ABC in a 26-year-old woman. 18F-FDG PET/CT revealed a heterogeneous hypermetabolic lesion in the left proximal femur with the maximum standardized uptake value of 4.7. The solid components of the tumor showed higher FDG uptake than the cystic components. These observations suggest that the ABC components in GCTs show heterogeneous metabolic patterns on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT.

  4. Toothbrushing: Do It Daily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…

  5. Long-term effects of continuous subcutaneous infusion versus daily subcutaneous injections of growth hormone (GH) on the insulin-like growth factor system, insulin sensitivity, body composition, and bone and lipoprotein metabolism in GH-deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Heickendorff, Lene

    2001-01-01

    injections (inj) in the evening as usual, and 7 received a continuous infusion (inf) of GH by means of a portable pump. The GH dose was kept unchanged before and during the study. Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) tended to increase in the patients switched to constant infusion (from 175...... not influence insulin sensitivity (P = 0.71) or glucose effectiveness (P = 0.15) derived from Bergman's minimal model. Similarly, the two treatment regimens had no differential impact on lipoprotein levels, bone metabolism, or body composition. In conclusion, continuous and intermittent administrations of GH...

  6. The Daily Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else

    2015-01-01

    In this PhD thesis, The Daily Selection, I will be addressing the overall question of how research on wardrobes can contribute to a more effective connection between the production and the consumption of dress objects. The thesis builds on exemplary studies of people in their wardrobes, with the ......In this PhD thesis, The Daily Selection, I will be addressing the overall question of how research on wardrobes can contribute to a more effective connection between the production and the consumption of dress objects. The thesis builds on exemplary studies of people in their wardrobes...... are appropriated and used in the wardrobes of informants. In this way, I point to discrepancies between the production and the dissemination of dress objects that take place in the fashion industry, and to the ways that people use and experience these objects in their everyday lives. In Part III, I conduct...

  7. Daily cycle in oxygen consumption by the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis Stephenson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Amy E; Jones, Ian T; Reitzel, Adam M; Tarrant, Ann M

    2016-01-15

    In bilaterian animals, the circadian clock is intimately involved in regulating energetic metabolism. Although cnidarians exhibit diel behavioral rhythms including cycles in locomotor activity, tentacle extension and spawning, daily cycles in cnidarian metabolism have not been described. To explore a possible circadian metabolic cycle, we maintained the anemone Nematostella vectensis in a 12 h light/dark cycle, a reversed light cycle, or in constant darkness. Oxygen consumption rates were measured at intervals using an optical oxygen meter. Respiration rates responded to entrainment with higher rates during light periods. During a second experiment with higher temporal resolution, respiration rates peaked late in the light period. The diel pattern could be detected after six days in constant darkness. Together, our results suggest that respiration rates in Nematostella exhibit a daily cycle that may be under circadian control and that the cycle in respiration rate is not driven by the previously described nocturnal increase in locomotor activity in this species. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Impact of an 8-Month Trial Using Height-Adjustable Desks on Children’s Classroom Sitting Patterns and Markers of Cardio-Metabolic and Musculoskeletal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contardo Ayala, Ana María; Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Sudholz, Bronwyn; Ridgers, Nicola D.; Sethi, Parneet; Dunstan, David W.

    2016-01-01

    During school hours, children can sit for prolonged and unbroken periods of time. This study investigated the impact of an 8-month classroom-based intervention focusing on reducing and breaking-up sitting time on children’s cardio-metabolic risk factors (i.e., body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure) and perceptions of musculoskeletal discomfort. Two Year-6 classes (24 students per class) in one primary school were assigned to either an intervention or control classroom. The intervention classroom was equipped with height-adjustable desks and the teacher was instructed in the delivery of pedagogical strategies to reduce and break-up sitting in class. The control classroom followed standard practice using traditional furniture. At baseline, and after 8-months, time spent sitting, standing, stepping, and sitting-bouts (occasions of continuous sitting) as well as the frequency of sit-to-stand transitions were obtained from activPAL inclinometers and the time spent in light-intensity physical activity was obtained from ActiGraph accelerometers. Demographics and musculoskeletal characteristics were obtained from a self-report survey. Hierarchical linear mixed models found that during class-time, children’s overall time spent sitting in long bouts (>10 min) were lower and the number of sit-to-stand transitions were higher in the intervention group compared to the control group, while no changes were observed for musculoskeletal pain/discomfort. No significant intervention effects were found for the anthropometrics measures and blood pressure. Height-adjustable desks and pedagogical strategies to reduce/break-up sitting can positively modify classroom sitting patterns in children. Longer interventions, larger and varied sample size may be needed to show health impacts; however, these desks did not increase musculoskeletal pain/discomfort. PMID:27973414

  9. Circulating pathogen-associated molecular pattern - binding proteins and High Mobility Group Box protein 1 in nascent metabolic syndrome: implications for cellular Toll-like receptor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jialal, I; Rajamani, U; Adams-Huet, B; Kaur, H

    2014-09-01

    The Metabolic Syndrome, (MetS) a global epidemic, is a state of low grade chronic inflammation and confers an increased risk for diabetes and CVD. We have previously reported increased activity of the pathogen recognition receptors, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), TLR2 and TLR4 in MetS. We hypothesized that increased TLR activity in MetS is due in part to increased levels of circulating PAMP-binding proteins, soluble CD14 (sCD14), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and the damage associated molecular pattern (DAMP), High Mobility Group Box protein 1 (HMGB-1). We measured sCD14, LBP and HMGB-1 in fasting plasma from nascent MetS (n = 37) and healthy control subjects (n = 32) by ELISA. We also investigated the effects of sCD14 and LBP on TLR4 activity in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Following adjustment for body mass index and waist circumference, sCD14, LBP and HMGB-1 levels remained significantly increased in MetS. Also their levels increased with increasing numbers of MetS risk factors. Only sCD14 correlated significantly with monocyte TLR4 protein and activity. None of these soluble biomarkers correlated with TLR2 protein. Both sCD14 and HMGB-1 correlated significantly with HOMA-IR. In LPS primed HAECs, sCD14 compared to LBP, resulted in a greater increase in both TLR4 abundance and inflammatory biomediators (NF-κB, IL-1β, IL-8 and TNF-α). Thus, we make the novel observation that sCD14 reflects increased monocyte TLR4 protein and activity in nascent MetS and by contributing to increased cellular inflammation could explain, in part, the increased risk for diabetes and CVD. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. A dietary pattern including nopal, chia seed, soy protein, and oat reduces serum triglycerides and glucose intolerance in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Cruz, Martha; Tovar, Armando R; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Medina-Vera, Isabel; Gil-Zenteno, Lidia; Hernández-Viveros, Isaac; López-Romero, Patricia; Ordaz-Nava, Guillermo; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Guillen Pineda, Luz E; Torres, Nimbe

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a health problem throughout the world and is associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Thus, the purpose of the present work was to evaluate the effects of a dietary pattern (DP; soy protein, nopal, chia seed, and oat) on the biochemical variables of MetS, the AUC for glucose and insulin, glucose intolerance (GI), the relationship of the presence of certain polymorphisms related to MetS, and the response to the DP. In this randomized trial, the participants consumed their habitual diet but reduced by 500 kcal for 2 wk. They were then assigned to the placebo (P; n = 35) or DP (n = 32) group and consumed the reduced energy diet plus the P or DP beverage (235 kcal) minus the energy provided by these for 2 mo. All participants had decreases in body weight (BW), BMI, and waist circumference during the 2-mo treatment (P < 0.0001); however, only the DP group had decreases in serum TG, C-reactive protein (CRP), and AUC for insulin and GI after a glucose tolerance test. Interestingly, participants in the DP group with MetS and the ABCA1 R230C variant had a greater decrease in BW and an increase in serum adiponectin concentration after 2 mo of dietary treatment than those with the ABCA1 R230R variant. The results from this study suggest that lifestyle interventions involving specific DP for the treatment of MetS could be more effective if local foods and genetic variations of the population are considered.

  11. Effects of starvation and molting on the metabolic rate of the bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Zachary C; Kells, Stephen A; Appel, Arthur G

    2015-01-01

    The bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) is a common hematophagous pest in the urban environment and is capable of surviving extended periods of starvation. However, the relationship between starvation and metabolism in bed bugs is not well understood. To better understand this relationship, we measured the metabolism of all life stages for >900 h after feeding (starvation) using closed-system respirometry. Measurements were made around molting for the immature life stages, which occurs only after a blood meal. In addition, both mated and unmated adults were measured. Starvation and molting had significant effects on the metabolism of the bed bug. Mass-specific metabolic rate (V(O2); mL g(-1) h(-1)) declined in a curvilinear fashion with the period of starvation for adults and with the postmolting period for immature bed bugs (used to standardize all immature life stages). A standard curve was developed to depict the generalized pattern of metabolic decline observed in all life stages that molted. Individual metabolic comparisons among life stages that molted revealed some differences in metabolic rate between unmated males and females. In addition, the mass scaling coefficient was found to decline with starvation time (postmolting time) for all life stages that molted. In most life stages, the ratio of V(CO2) to V(O2) (respiratory exchange ratio) declined over time, indicating a change in metabolic substrate with starvation. Finally, daily percent loss in body mass declined in a pattern similar to that of V(O2). The observed patterns in metabolic decline are evaluated in relation to the life history of bed bugs. In addition, the evolutionary development of these patterns is discussed. The metabolic pattern after feeding was also found to share several similarities with that of other ectothermic species.

  12. Principal component analysis of normalized full spectrum mass spectrometry data in multiMS-toolbox: An effective tool to identify important factors for classification of different metabolic patterns and bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejnar, Pavel; Kuckova, Stepanka; Prochazka, Ales; Karamonova, Ludmila; Svobodova, Barbora

    2018-03-09

    Explorative statistical analysis of mass spectrometry data is still a time-consuming step. We analyzed critical factors for application of principal component analysis in mass spectrometry and focused on two whole spectrum based normalization techniques and their application in analysis of registered peak data and, in comparison, in full spectrum data analysis. We used this technique to identify different metabolic patterns in the bacterial culture of Cronobacter sakazakii, an important foodborne pathogen. Two software utilities, the ms-alone, a python based utility for mass spectrometry data preprocessing and peak extraction, and the multiMS-toolbox, an R software tool for advanced peak registration and detailed explorative statistical analysis were implemented. The bacterial culture of Cronobacter sakazakii was cultivated on Enterobacter sakazakii Isolation Agar, Blood Agar Base and Tryptone Soya Agar for 24 h and 48 h and applied by the smear method on an Autoflex speed MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. For three tested cultivation media only two different metabolic patterns of Cronobacter sakazakii were identified using principal component analysis applied on data normalized by two different normalization techniques. Results from matched peak data and subsequent detailed full spectrum analysis identified only two different metabolic patterns - a cultivation on Enterobacter sakazakii Isolation Agar showed significant differences than the cultivation on other two tested media. The metabolic patterns for all tested cultivation media also proved the dependence on cultivation time. Both whole spectrum based normalization techniques together with the full spectrum principal component analysis allow identification of important discriminative factors in experiments with several variable condition factors avoiding any problems with improper identification of peaks or emphasis on bellow threshold peak data. The amounts of processed data remain still manageable. Both

  13. Radiation in daily life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Rodriguez, P.

    1999-01-01

    The medical community benefits on a daily basis from the ionizing radiations used in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. The doses received in the medical field are only a small fraction of the total radiation received in a year. This bibliographic review has several objectives. The first one is to present the different components of natural radiation (background radiation). Secondly, it will introduce many consumer products that contain radioactive sources and expose our bodies. Third, arguments to diminish the radiation phobia will be presented and finally an easy to understand dosimetric magnitude will be introduced for the physician, the technologist and the patient. (author) [es

  14. Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors in urban adults of Benin: Relationship with socio-economic status, urbanisation, and lifestyle patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delisle Hélène

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES, urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and serum lipids (HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. WHO cut-offs were used to define CVD risk factors. Food intake and physical activity were assessed with three non-consecutive 24-hour recalls. Information on tobacco use and alcohol consumption was collected using a questionnaire. An overall lifestyle score (OLS was created based on diet quality, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity. A SES score was computed based on education, main occupation and household amenities (as proxy for income. Results The most prevalent CVD risk factors were overall obesity (18%, abdominal obesity (32%, hypertension (23%, and low HDL-cholesterol (13%. Diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia were uncommon. The prevalence of overall obesity was roughly four times higher in women than in men (28 vs. 8%. After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity increased significantly with SES, while a longer exposure to the urban environment was associated with higher odds of hypertension. Of the single lifestyle factors examined, physical activity was the most strongly associated with several CVD risk factors. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the likelihood of obesity and hypertension decreased significantly as the OLS improved, while controlling for potential confounding factors. Conclusion Our data show that obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors are highly prevalent among urban adults in Benin, which calls for urgent measures to avert the

  15. Daily sperm production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyjovska, Zdenka Orabi; Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner; Jackson, Petra

    2013-01-01

    instillation with Printex90. Body and testicle weight, sperm content per g testicular parenchyma and daily sperm production (DSP) were assessed. The protocol for assessment of DSP was optimized for application in mice (C57BL/6J) and the influence of different parameters was studied. Maternal particulate...... exposure did not affect DSP statistically significantly in the F1 generation, although TiO2 tended to reduce sperm counts. Overall, time-to-first F2 litter increased with decreasing sperm production. There was no effect on sperm production in the F2 generation originating after TiO2 exposure. F2 offspring......, whose fathers were prenatally exposed to Printex90, showed lowered sperm production. Furthermore, we report statistically significant differences in sperm production between mouse strains....

  16. Physics in daily life

    CERN Document Server

    Hermans, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This book provides answers to everyday questions that any curious mind would ask, like : Why is water blue ? What makes ice so slippery ? How do we localize sound ? How do we keep our body temperature so nice and constant ? How do we survive the sauna at 90 C ? Why do large raindrops fall faster than small ones, and what exactly is their speed ? The answers are given in an accessible and playful way, and are illustrated with funny cartoons. In this book forty "Physics in Daily Life" columns, which appeared earlier in Europhysics News, are brought together in one inspiring volume. As well as being a source of enjoyment and satisfying insights for anyone with some physics background, it also serves as a very good teaching tool for science students. This booklet is a feast of erudition and humour.

  17. Making Daily Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Wind, Simon

    In 2012 the average daily transportation distance for every Dane were 40 km (TU Data). Realising how much of life is spend thinking about, planning and performing mobility practices it becomes evident that it is much more than an instrumental physical phenomenon – it has great repercussions on life......, social networks, understanding of places and ultimately ourselves and others. To successfully accomplish everyday life, households have to cope with large number of different activities and mobility in relation to their children, work, social life, obligations, expectations, needs and wishes. Drawing...... on mobilities theory (Urry 2007; Larsen et al. 2006) and practice theory (Schatzki 2001; Reckwitz 2002; Shove et al. 2012) this paper seeks to unfold a theoretical framework for understanding of the household’s mobility coping strategies and how these strategies are actualised and materialised into mobility...

  18. Expression Patterns and Correlations with Metabolic Markers of Zinc Transporters ZIP14 and ZNT1 in Obesity and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxel, Trine; Svendsen, Pernille Fog; Smidt, Kamille

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with infertility, increased androgen levels, and insulin resistance. In adipose tissue, zinc facilitates insulin signaling. Circulating zinc levels are altered in obesity, diabetes, and PCOS; and zinc supplementation can ameliorate metabolic...

  19. Update on chronic daily headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, James R

    2011-02-01

    Chronic daily headache (CDH), defined as a primary headache occurring at least 15 days per month, is a problem of worldwide scope, which is seen in 3% to 5% of the population. Though it has been recognized since ancient times, only recently have there been attempts to define and classify it. CDH usually consists of a mixture of migraine and tension-type headaches (TTH), with the more severe headaches having migraine features and the less severe headaches fitting the definition of TTH. Some patients have pure chronic TTH and no migrainous features, and others have only migraine, but most have a mixed migraine-TTH pattern. New daily persistent headache, a CDH pattern that comes on over a few days, constitutes 9% to 10% of this group and is otherwise indistinguishable from CDH. Hemicrania continua (1% of CDH) appears to be unique in being absolutely responsive to indomethacin. Accurate diagnosis of CDH is critical to management, as all organic etiologies of chronic headache must be ruled out. Problems often associated with CDH and complicating the diagnosis are head injury or medication overuse (rebound-withdrawal headache). These accompanying issues must be recognized and treated appropriately in the management plan. Finally, psychiatric problems (unipolar depression, bipolar disease, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive/compulsive disorder) often accompany CDH, as they are comorbid with migraine. These conditions must be recognized and treated along with the headache itself for treatment to succeed fully. Treatment of CDH is multimodal. The cornerstone of therapy is the use of prophylactic antimigraine medications to prevent or modulate the next headache. Amitriptyline, topiramate, valproic acid, and gabapentin have all had class I studies showing effectiveness in reducing headache occurrence. Recent studies with botulinum toxin have also shown effectiveness in reducing the headache burden. Recognition and treatment of medication overuse headache (MOH) must

  20. Correctional Facility Average Daily Population

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains Accumulated monthly with details from Pre-Trial Average daily caseload * Detention Services, Average daily population for MCCF, MCDC, PRRS and...

  1. Daily dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    As part of study on ''Reference Asian Man'' to strengthen radiation protection, the data on the dietary consumption patterns of the Asian region were collected. Eight provided dietary data - Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Philippines, and Viet Nam. Whereas the dietary information from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan and Viet Nam are preliminary in nature, the dietary information from China, India, Japan and Philippines, on the other hand, is quite substantial. The population of the countries from which sufficient dietary data are available represents more than 2/3 of the population of the Asian region. The details of the individual data available on dietary parameters from different Asian countries are listed below

  2. Circadian Patterns in Twitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Thij, M.C.; Kampstra, P.; Bhulai, S.; Laux, F.; Pardalos, P.M.; Crolotte, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study activity on the microblogging platform Twitter. We analyse two separate aspects of activity on Twitter. First, we analyse the daily and weekly number of posts, through which we find clear circadian (daily) patterns emerging in the use of Twitter for multiple languages. We see

  3. Metabolic Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    A metabolic panel is a group of tests that measures different chemicals in the blood. These tests are usually done on ... and liver. There are two types: basic metabolic panel (BMP) and comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP). The BMP ...

  4. Identifying quantitative operation principles in metabolic pathways: a systematic method for searching feasible enzyme activity patterns leading to cellular adaptive responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorribas Albert

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimization methods allow designing changes in a system so that specific goals are attained. These techniques are fundamental for metabolic engineering. However, they are not directly applicable for investigating the evolution of metabolic adaptation to environmental changes. Although biological systems have evolved by natural selection and result in well-adapted systems, we can hardly expect that actual metabolic processes are at the theoretical optimum that could result from an optimization analysis. More likely, natural systems are to be found in a feasible region compatible with global physiological requirements. Results We first present a new method for globally optimizing nonlinear models of metabolic pathways that are based on the Generalized Mass Action (GMA representation. The optimization task is posed as a nonconvex nonlinear programming (NLP problem that is solved by an outer-approximation algorithm. This method relies on solving iteratively reduced NLP slave subproblems and mixed-integer linear programming (MILP master problems that provide valid upper and lower bounds, respectively, on the global solution to the original NLP. The capabilities of this method are illustrated through its application to the anaerobic fermentation pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We next introduce a method to identify the feasibility parametric regions that allow a system to meet a set of physiological constraints that can be represented in mathematical terms through algebraic equations. This technique is based on applying the outer-approximation based algorithm iteratively over a reduced search space in order to identify regions that contain feasible solutions to the problem and discard others in which no feasible solution exists. As an example, we characterize the feasible enzyme activity changes that are compatible with an appropriate adaptive response of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to heat shock Conclusion Our results

  5. Differential pattern for regulating insulin secretion, insulin resistance, and lipid metabolism by osteocalcin in male and female T2DM patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Xuefei; Xu, Bei; Su, Junlei; Pan, Chunping; Zhan, Chenyu; Su, Bin; Li, Hong; Wang, Jiying; Sheng, Hui; Qu, Shen

    2014-05-01

    Osteocalcin has been reported to be relevant to glucose and lipid metabolism, indicating it may stimulate insulin secretion and improve insulin resistance. Yet the difference between male and female patients is still not clear. We aimed to investigate the difference in serum osteocalcin, and its association with glucose, lipid metabolism, pancreatic function, insulin sensitivity, and resistance in male and female middle-aged and elderly type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients. 739 T2DM patients were included. After measurement of body mass index (BMI), the levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin (FINS), C peptide (FC-P), 2-h post-OGTT plasma glucose (2h-PG), HbA1C, and osteocalcin were determined. Homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-%B), homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-%S), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were calculated. Females had higher osteocalcin concentration than males (Pinsulin (2h-INS), and HOMA-%B (Pmetabolism through enhancing insulin secretion in males, and through increasing insulin secretion and improving insulin resistance in females with T2DM. Osteocalcin probably also plays an important role in lipid metabolism.

  6. Enhancing monellin production by Pichia pastoris at low cell induction concentration via effectively regulating methanol metabolism patterns and energy utilization efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Luqiang; Tu, Tingyong; Huai, Qiangqiang; Sun, Jiaowen; Chen, Shanshan; Li, Xin; Shi, Zhongping; Ding, Jian

    2017-01-01

    In heterologous protein productions by P. pastoris, methanol induction is generally initiated when cell concentration reaches very high density. The alternative strategy by initiating methanol induction at lower cells concentration was also reported to be effective in easing DO control, reducing toxic by-metabolites accumulation and increasing targeted proteins titers. However, the methanol/energy regulation mechanisms are seldom reported. We theoretically analyzed the methanol/energy metabolisms in protein expression process with the strategies of initiating induction at higher or lower cells concentrations, using monellin production as a prototype. When initiating induction at lower cells concentration and controlling induction temperature at 30°C, monellin concentration reached the highest levels of 2.62~2.71 g/L, which was 2.5~4.9 fold of those obtained with the strategy of initiating induction at higher cells concentration. With the desired induction strategy, 1) carbon metabolism ratio directing into the precursors synthesis route for monellin production reached the highest level of 65%, carbon metabolism ratios towards to precursors synthesis and ATP regeneration routes were regulated at relatively balanced levels; 2) monellin synthesis was completely cell growth associated, with the largest associated coefficient and higher specific growth rate; 3) theoretical NADH (energy) utilization efficiency η was the highest, and η stayed high levels (≥0.8) during most period (89%) within induction phase to supply sufficient energy in supporting monellin synthesis.

  7. Logistiline Daily Service / Paavo Kangur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangur, Paavo, 1966-

    2005-01-01

    Sügisel ostis Leedu endise majandusministri Valetntinas Milaknise firma Daily Service ära kõik bürootarvetemüüja Reval Impexi aktsiad. 300 miljoni kroonise aastakäibega firma Eesti tütarettevõte prognoosib oma tänavuseks käibeks 31,2 miljonit krooni. Lisa: Daily Service'i struktuur

  8. Anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis show distinct patterns of brain glucose metabolism in 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Florian; Wilke, Florian; Raab, Peter; Tayeb, Said Ben; Boeck, Anna-Lena; Haense, Cathleen; Trebst, Corinna; Voss, Elke; Schrader, Christoph; Logemann, Frank; Ahrens, Jörg; Leffler, Andreas; Rodriguez-Raecke, Rea; Dengler, Reinhard; Geworski, Lilli; Bengel, Frank M; Berding, Georg; Stangel, Martin; Nabavi, Elham

    2014-06-20

    Pathogenic autoantibodies targeting the recently identified leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein and the subunit 1 of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor induce autoimmune encephalitis. A comparison of brain metabolic patterns in 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography of anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis patients has not been performed yet and shall be helpful in differentiating these two most common forms of autoimmune encephalitis. The brain 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake from whole-body positron emission tomography of six anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis patients and four patients with anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein encephalitis admitted to Hannover Medical School between 2008 and 2012 was retrospectively analyzed and compared to matched controls. Group analysis of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate encephalitis patients demonstrated regionally limited hypermetabolism in frontotemporal areas contrasting an extensive hypometabolism in parietal lobes, whereas the anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein syndrome was characterized by hypermetabolism in cerebellar, basal ganglia, occipital and precentral areas and minor frontomesial hypometabolism. This retrospective 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography study provides novel evidence for distinct brain metabolic patterns in patients with anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis.

  9. Daily antecedents and consequences of nightly sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; Crain, Tori L; McHale, Susan M; Almeida, David M; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2017-08-01

    Sleep can serve as both cause and consequence of individuals' everyday experiences. We built upon prior studies of the correlates of sleep, which have relied primarily on cross-sectional data, to examine the antecedents and consequences of sleep using a daily diary design. Specifically, we assessed the temporal sequence between nightly sleep and daily psychosocial stressors. Parents employed in a US information technology company (n = 102) completed eight consecutive daily diaries at both baseline and 1 year later. In telephone interviews each evening, participants reported on the previous night's sleep hours, sleep quality and sleep latency. They also reported daily work-to-family conflict and time inadequacy (i.e. perceptions of not having enough time) for their child and for themselves to engage in exercise. Multi-level models testing lagged and non-lagged effects simultaneously revealed that sleep hours and sleep quality were associated with next-day consequences of work-to-family conflict and time inadequacy, whereas psychosocial stressors as antecedents did not predict sleep hours or quality that night. For sleep latency, the opposite temporal order emerged: on days with more work-to-family conflict or time inadequacy for child and self than usual, participants reported longer sleep latencies than usual. An exception to this otherwise consistent pattern was that time inadequacy for child also preceded shorter sleep hours and poorer sleep quality that night. The results highlight the utility of a daily diary design for capturing the temporal sequences linking sleep and psychosocial stressors. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  10. Thermodynamic principles governing metabolic operation : inference, analysis, and prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niebel, Bastian

    2015-01-01

    The principles governing metabolic flux are poorly understood. Because diverse organisms show similar metabolic flux patterns, we hypothesized that fundamental thermodynamic constraints might shape cellular metabolism. We developed a constraint-based model for Saccharomyces cerevisiae that included

  11. Daily and Sub-daily Precipitation for the Former USSR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of in situ daily and hourly meteorological observations for the former USSR initially obtained within the framework of several joint...

  12. Is the timing of caloric intake associated with variation in diet-induced thermogenesis and in the metabolic pattern? A randomized cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, S; Fadda, M; Castiglione, A; Ciccone, G; De Francesco, A; Fedele, D; Guggino, A; Parasiliti Caprino, M; Ferrara, S; Vezio Boggio, M; Mengozzi, G; Ghigo, E; Maccario, M; Broglio, F

    2015-12-01

    Food-induced thermogenesis is generally reported to be higher in the morning, although contrasting results exist because of differences in experimental settings related to the preceding fasting, exercise, sleeping and dieting. To definitively answer to this issue, we compared the calorimetric and metabolic responses to identical meals consumed at 0800 hours and at 2000 hours by healthy volunteers, after standardized diet, physical activity, duration of fast and resting. Twenty subjects (age range 20-35 years, body mass index=19-26 kg m(-)(2)) were enrolled to a randomized cross-over trial. They randomly received the same standard meal in the morning and, 7 days after, in the evening, or vice versa. A 30-min basal calorimetry was performed; a further 60-min calorimetry was done 120-min after the beginning of the meal. Blood samples were drawn every 30-min for 180-min. General linear models, adjusted for period and carry-over, were used to evaluate the 'morning effect', that is, the difference of morning delta (after-meal minus fasting values) minus evening delta (after-meal minus fasting values) of the variables. Fasting resting metabolic rate (RMR) did not change from morning to evening; after-meal RMR values were significantly higher after the morning meal (1916; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1792, 2041 vs 1756; 1648, 1863 kcal; Ptiming of meals should probably be considered when nutritional recommendations are given.

  13. Examining daily activity routines of older adults using workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jane; Ozkaynak, Mustafa; Demiris, George

    2017-07-01

    We evaluated the value of workflow analysis supported by a novel visualization technique to better understand the daily routines of older adults and highlight their patterns of daily activities and normal variability in physical functions. We used a self-reported activity diary to obtain data from six community-dwelling older adults for 14 consecutive days. Workflow for daily routine was analyzed using the EventFlow tool, which aggregates workflow information to highlight patterns and variabilities. A total of 1453 events were included in the data analysis. To demonstrate the patterns and variability of each individual's daily activities, participant activity workflows were visualized and compared. The workflow analysis revealed great variability in activity types, regularity, frequency, duration, and timing of performing certain activities across individuals. Also, when workflow approach was applied to spatial information of activities, the analysis revealed the ability to provide meaningful data on individuals' mobility in different levels of life spaces from home to community. Results suggest that using workflows to characterize the daily activities of older adults will be helpful for clinicians and researchers in understanding their daily routines and preparing education and prevention strategies tailored to each individual's activity level. This tool also has the potential to be integrated into consumer informatics technologies, such as patient portals or personal health records, so that consumers may be encouraged to become actively involved in monitoring and managing their health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. TV Producer Juggles Daily News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Bill

    1989-01-01

    Brennan discusses the daily activities required in the production of a television news show. In "The Not-So-Glamorous Life of a TV Reporter," Linda Yu describes the time and effort required to become a television reporter. (LS)

  15. Allegheny County Jail Daily Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A daily census of the inmates at the Allegheny County Jail (ACJ). Includes gender, race, age at booking, and current age. The records for each month contain a...

  16. Chronic Daily Headache in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of chronic daily headache (CDH, and its impact and related medication use or overuse in adolescents were examined at the Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, and other centers in Taiwan.

  17. Daily Food Plan for Moms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand the Price Tag Read the Food Label Kitchen Timesavers Cooking for Your Family Tasty & Low-Cost ... Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables Grains Protein Foods Dairy Oils ONLINE TOOLS BMI Calculator Daily Checklist Quizzes Portion ...

  18. Polymers in our daily life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Namazi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymers are widely used advanced materials, which are found almost in every material used in our daily life. To date, the importance of polymers has been much more highlighted because of their applications in different dominions of sciences, technologies and industry – from basic uses to biopolymers and therapeutic polymers. The main aim of this editorial is to accentuate the pragmatic impacts of polymers in human daily life.

  19. Daily animal exposure and children's biological concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerdts, Megan S; Van de Walle, Gretchen A; LoBue, Vanessa

    2015-02-01

    A large body of research has focused on the developmental trajectory of children's acquisition of a theoretically coherent naive biology. However, considerably less work has focused on how specific daily experiences shape the development of children's knowledge about living things. In the current research, we investigated one common experience that might contribute to biological knowledge development during early childhood-pet ownership. In Study 1, we investigated how children interact with pets by observing 24 preschool-aged children with their pet cats or dogs and asking parents about their children's daily involvement with the pets. We found that most of young children's observed and reported interactions with their pets are reciprocal social interactions. In Study 2, we tested whether children who have daily social experiences with animals are more likely to attribute biological properties to animals than children without pets. Both 3- and 5-year-olds with pets were more likely to attribute biological properties to animals than those without pets. Similarly, both older and younger children with pets showed less anthropocentric patterns of extension of novel biological information. The results suggest that having pets may facilitate the development of a more sophisticated, human-inclusive representation of animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationships Among Nightly Sleep Quality, Daily Stress, and Daily Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaxton, Jessica M; Bergeman, Cindy S; Whitehead, Brenda R; Braun, Marcia E; Payne, Jessic D

    2017-05-01

    We explored the prospective, microlevel relationship between nightly sleep quality (SQ) and the subsequent day's stress on positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) as well as the moderating relationships between nightly SQ, subsequent stress, and subsequent PA on NA. We investigated whether age moderated these relationships. We collected 56 days of sleep, stress, and affect data using daily diary questionnaires (N = 552). We used multilevel modeling to assess relationships at the between- and within-person levels. Daily increases in SQ and decreases in stress interacted to predict higher daily PA and lower daily NA. Better SQ in older adults enhanced the benefits of PA on the stress-NA relationship more during times of low stress, whereas better sleep in younger adults enhanced the benefits of PA more during times of high stress. Between-person effects were stronger predictors of well-being outcomes than within-person variability. The combination of good SQ and higher PA buffered the impact of stress on NA. The moderating impact of age suggests that sleep and stress play different roles across adulthood. Targeting intervention and prevention strategies to improve SQ and enhance PA could disrupt the detrimental relationship between daily stress and NA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Serotonin, a possible intermediate between disturbed circadian rhythms and metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, R I; Serlie, M J; Kalsbeek, A; la Fleur, S E

    2015-08-20

    It is evident that eating in misalignment with the biological clock (such as in shift work, eating late at night and skipping breakfast) is associated with increased risk for obesity and diabetes. The biological clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus dictates energy balance including feeding behavior and glucose metabolism. Besides eating and sleeping patterns, glucose metabolism also exhibits clear diurnal variations with higher blood glucose concentrations, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity prior to waking up. The daily variation in plasma glucose concentrations in rats, is independent of the rhythm in feeding behavior. On the other hand, feeding itself has profound effects on glucose metabolism, but differential effects occur depending on the time of the day. We here review data showing that a disturbed diurnal eating pattern results in alterations in glucose metabolism induced by a disrupted circadian clock. We first describe the role of central serotonin on feeding behavior and glucose metabolism and subsequently describe the effects of central serotonin on the circadian system. We next explore the interaction between the serotonergic system and the circadian clock in conditions of disrupted diurnal rhythms in feeding and how this might be involved in the metabolic dysregulation that occurs with chronodisruption. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Observed daily large-scale rainfall patterns during BOBMEX-1999

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    . Individual sci- entists and research institutes use these special datasets to ... including the data reporting no rain is very impor- tant to make the final merged dataset. Figures 2 and 3 show the total weekly rainfall amounts for different weeks in ...

  3. Daily basking patterns of the fresh-water turtle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Natal, Durban. Basking activity in the turtle Pelomedusa subrufa L. apparently is initiated by the presence of a ..... the desert tortoises, Gopherus berlandieri and G. agassizii. (Auffenberg & Weaver 1969). It is suggested that maximum activity in these species occurs in the early ...

  4. Review: Behavior and daily grazing patterns of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gregorini, P.; Tamminga, S.; Gunther, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Grazing ruminants consume their food in discrete grazing events. The frequency and distribution of these events depend on the current physiological state of the animal and its environment. Within a small spatio-temporal scale, foraging decisions such as when to begin, which frequency, and how to

  5. The association between Western and Prudent dietary patterns and fasting blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes and normal glucose metabolism in older Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Erin I; Jacka, Felice N; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J; Cherbuin, Nicolas

    2017-06-01

    High blood glucose and type 2 diabetes are associated with a range of adverse health and cognitive outcomes. One factor that contributes to high blood glucose and type 2 diabetes is dietary intake. This study investigated the relationship between dietary patterns, fasting blood glucose and diabetes status in a sample of 209 participants aged 60-65. Blood plasma glucose was measured from venous blood samples. Individual Prudent and Western dietary patterns were estimated from a self-completed food frequency questionnaire. The relationship between dietary patterns, diabetes, and blood glucose was assessed via general linear model analyses controlling for age, sex, height, and total caloric intake. Results indicated that there was no association between Prudent diet and fasting blood glucose levels, or type 2 diabetes. In contrast, an individual in the upper tertile for Western dietary score had a significantly higher risk of having diabetes than an individual in the lower tertile for Western dietary score. However, there was no significant association between Western diet and fasting blood glucose. Western diet may be associated with type 2 diabetes through mechanisms beyond impacting blood plasma glucose directly. The fact that the association between Western diet and type 2 diabetes remained even when total caloric intake was controlled for highlights the need for policy and population health interventions targeting the reduction of unhealthy food consumption.

  6. Patterns of extracellular enzyme activities and microbial metabolism in an Arctic fjord of Svalbard and in the northern Gulf of Mexico: contrasts in carbon processing by pelagic microbial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol eArnosti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The microbial community composition of polar and temperate ocean waters differs substantially, but the potential functional consequences of these differences are largely unexplored. We measured bacterial production, glucose metabolism, and the abilities of microbial communities to hydrolyze a range of polysaccharides in an Arctic fjord of Svalbard (Smeerenburgfjord, and thus to initiate remineralization of high-molecular weight organic matter. We compared these data with similar measurements previously carried out in the northern Gulf of Mexico in order to investigate whether differences in the spectrum of enzyme activities measurable in Arctic and temperate environments are reflected in ‘downstream’ aspects of microbial metabolism (metabolism of monomers and biomass production. Only 4 of 6 polysaccharide substrates were hydrolyzed in Smeerenburgfjord; all were hydrolyzed in the upper water column of the Gulf. These patterns are consistent on an interannual basis. Bacterial protein production was comparable at both locations, but the pathways of glucose utilization differed. Glucose incorporation rate constants were comparatively higher in Svalbard, but glucose respiration rate constants were higher in surface waters of the Gulf. As a result, at the time of sampling ca. 75% of the glucose was incorporated into biomass in Svalbard, but in the northern Gulf of Mexico most of the glucose was respired to CO2. A limited range of enzyme activities is therefore not a sign of a dormant community or one unable to further process substrates resulting from extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis. The ultimate fate of carbohydrates in marine waters, however, is strongly dependent upon the specific capabilities of heterotrophic microbial communities in these disparate environments.

  7. Breathing around the clock: an overview of the circadian pattern of respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortola, Jacopo P

    2004-03-01

    This article reviews human and animal studies about the circadian patterns of physiological variables involved with the respiratory function. Some measures reflecting the mechanical properties of the lungs, such as functional residual capacity, forced expiratory volumes and airway resistance, change periodically with the time of the day. Also resting pulmonary ventilation (V(E)), tidal volume, and breathing rate follow circadian patterns. In humans, these patterns occur independently of the daily changes in activity, whereas, to some extent, they are linked to changes in the state of arousal. Differently, in some rodents, the circadian oscillations of the breathing pattern occur independently of the daily rhythms of either activity or state of arousal. Recent measurements of the breathing pattern for unlimited periods of time in undisturbed animals have indicated that the circadian changes occur in close temporal phase with those of oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and body temperature. However, none of these variables can fully explain the circadian pattern of breathing, the origin of which remains unclear. Both in humans and in rats the V(E) responses to hypercapnia or hypoxia differ at various times of the day. In rats, the daily differences in V(E) responses are buffered by changes in metabolic rate, such that, unlike humans, the hyperventilation (defined as the increase in ventilation-metabolism ratio) remains constant throughout the 24 h. The presence of a biological clock is a major advantage in the adaptation to the environment, although it forces some variables to deviate periodically from their mean value. In humans, these deviations become apparent in conditions of hypoxia. Hence, a daily time-window exists in which the respiratory system is less capable of responding to challenges, a factor which may contribute to the findings that some cardio-respiratory symptoms and diseases peak at particular times of the day.

  8. Copepods in ice-covered seas—Distribution, adaptations to seasonally limited food, metabolism, growth patterns and life cycle strategies in polar seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. J.; Huntley, M.

    1991-07-01

    rhythms under or near the ice have also been observed for several species. In the Northern Hemisphere larger zooplanktonic species may take two, three, or possibly more years to reach maturity, but the grand strategy, apparently used by all, is to assure that their young have reached active feeding stages by the time of maximum primary production in the water column so that maximum growth, often, but not always, with emphasis on lipid storage, can occur during the often brief, but usually intense, summer bloom. The rate of growth of arctic or antarctic zooplankton is not so important as assuring a high level of fecundity when maturity comes. Overwintering is probably not a great hardship and diapause may not be a useful strategy because the environmental temperature is constantly near the freezing point of sea water, and basal metabolism accordingly low. Nonetheless, feeding behaviour and metabolic rates have strong seasonal signals. In the absence of other stimuli, light must be involved in the transformation from winter to summer metabolism and visa versa but the mechanisms still remain obscure.

  9. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Individual Components Among Midwestern University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Najat; Brown, Carrie A; Snyder, Ericka; Cumper, Stephanie; Langolf, Andrea; Trayer, Chelsey; Green, Chelsea

    2017-08-01

    Michigan has the 17th highest adult obesity rate in the United States. Among college-aged adults between 18 and 25 years old, the rate of obesity was 11.6%. Obesity is a key precedent for the development of metabolic syndrome. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its individual components among a sample of students at Central Michigan University. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 462 students, aged 18-25 years, in Spring 2015 and Fall/Spring 2016 semesters. Students were recruited throughout the campus via flyers, in-class, and Blackboard announcements. Biochemical, anthropometric, and blood pressure measurements were taken for all students. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was estimated based on the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Multivariable analysis was used to assess the prevalence of metabolic risk components. To explore the association between metabolic risk factors and lifestyle behaviors, students filled out a validated online questionnaire related to their eating habits, physical activity, and sleep patterns. Metabolic syndrome was not prevalent in our sample. However, about one-third of the students had at least one metabolic abnormality, and 6.0% had two metabolic abnormalities. The most common metabolic abnormalities were low HDL-cholesterol levels (22.0%) and high waist circumference (12.6%), and elevated serum triglyceride (5.8%). Adjusting for other factors, excess adiposity and high visceral fat scores were associated with increased risk of metabolic risk factors, whereas healthy lifestyle practices such as daily breakfast consumption, eating three meals a day, being active, and not smoking were associated with lower risks for MetS. Given the adverse consequences of undiagnosed metabolic abnormalities, efforts to identify and manage MetS among asymptomatic college students, particularly women, is essential and warrants further

  10. Relationship between residual feed intake and daily methane emission in young Nellore bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Melo Caliman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cattle production is a sector of agricultural activity that has impact on global warming due to enteric fermentation from digestive process that releases methane (CH4, with energy loss of food and consequent inefficiency of system. Residual feed intake (RFI is a feed efficiency trait defined as the difference between actual feed intake and the one predicted on the basis of requirements for body weight production and maintenance. There are evidences that more efficient cattle (low RFI have lower methane daily emissions than less efficient cattle (high RFI. This study aimed to evaluate the pattern of CH4 daily emission and its relationship with RFI obtained during the CH4 collection in Nelore previously evaluated for this trait. A sample of 23 from 62 young bulls, previously classified into low RFI72 and high RFI72 in the 72-days performance test (RFI72, were evaluated. After the 72-days test, the individual feed intake was recorded for a further 45 days. Another RFI was obtained from the last 32 days (RFI32, and the animals were classified into two RFI32 classes: below zero (low RFI32 and above zero (high RFI32. CH4 daily emissions of each animal were collected during the last 7 days of this period, being preceded by 7 days for adaptation of animals to the collection apparatus. The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 tracer technique was used for estimating enteric methane emissions. CH4 and SF6 local background were also collected each day from inside of the installation using the same apparatus. The SF6 and CH4 gases were analyzed by gas chromatography. The correlation between RFI72 and RFI32 was not high (0.41 as a 32 days is a short period for accurately measuring the average daily gain. However, the additional period of 32 days is more representative of age, weight and feed intake at the time of CH4 collecting period than 72-days performance test itself. The averages of age, weight and CH4 daily emission were 351±24 days, 343±34 kg, and 155.5

  11. Daily Occupations among asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le

    2014-01-01

    Asylum seekers often find themselves in a situation where the structure and content of daily occupations have been disrupted and they might have limited access to paid work and education. Studies have shown that asylum seekers experience occupational deprivation and a change in daily occupations...... was to assess whether torture had an influence on the occupational satisfaction and performance, and whether this had changed after ten-months. Forty-three asylum seekers from Afghanistan, Iran and Syria participated at baseline and ten months later 17 were available for inclusion in follow-up studies. Study I......-being and health, all of which had associations to occupational satisfaction, activity level and occupational performance. Torture did not appear to have an influence on satisfaction with daily occupations, but physical torture could be a predictor of decline in ADL motor skills (Study III). On arrival...

  12. Epileptic patterns of local cerebral metabolism and perfusion in man determined by emission computed tomography of 18FDG and 13NH3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, D.E.; Engel, J. Jr.; Phelps, M.E.; Selin, C.

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen patients with partial epilepsy had EEG monitoring concurrent with cerebral emission computed tomography (ECT) after 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) and 13 N-ammonia were given intravenously as indicators of local cerebral glucose utilization (LCMR/sub glc/) and relative perfusion, respectively. In 12 of 15 patients who had unilateral or focal electrical abnormalities, interictal 18 FDG scan patterns clearly showed localized regions of decreased (20% to 50%) LCMR/sub glc/, which correlated anatomically with the eventual EEG localization. These hypometabolic zones appeared normal on x-ray computed tomography in all but three patients and were unchanged on scans repeated on different days. In 5 of 6 patients who underwent temporal lobectomy, the interictal 18 FDG scan correctly detected the pathologically confirmed lesion as a hypometabolic zone, and removal of the lesion site resulted in marked clinical improvement. In contrast, the ictal 18 FDG scan patterns clearly showed foci of increased (82% to 130%) LCMR/sub glc/, which correlated temporally and anatomically with ictal EEG spike foci and were within the zones of interictal hypometabolism (3 studies in 2 patients). 13 NH 3 distributions paralleled 18 FDG increases and decreases in abnormal zones, but 13 NH 3 differences were of lesser magnitude. When the relationship of 13 NH 3 uptake to local blood flow found in dog brain was applied as a correction to the patients' 13 NH 3 scan data, local alterations in perfusion and glucose utilization were usually matched, both in the interictal and ictal states

  13. Human responses to the geophysical daily, annual and lunar cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Russell G; Roenneberg, Till

    2008-09-09

    Collectively the daily, seasonal, lunar and tidal geophysical cycles regulate much of the temporal biology of life on Earth. The increasing isolation of human societies from these geophysical cycles, as a result of improved living conditions, high-quality nutrition and 24/7 working practices, have led many to believe that human biology functions independently of them. Yet recent studies have highlighted the dominant role that our circadian clock plays in the organisation of 24 hour patterns of behaviour and physiology. Preferred wake and sleep times are to a large extent driven by an endogenous temporal program that uses sunlight as an entraining cue. The alarm clock can drive human activity rhythms but has little direct effect on our endogenous 24 hour physiology. In many situations, our biology and our society appear to be in serious opposition, and the damaging consequences to our health under these circumstances are increasingly recognised. The seasons dominate the lives of non-equatorial species, and until recently, they also had a marked influence on much of human biology. Despite human isolation from seasonal changes in temperature, food and photoperiod in the industrialised nations, the seasons still appear to have a small, but significant, impact upon when individuals are born and many aspects of health. The seasonal changes that modulate our biology, and how these factors might interact with the social and metabolic status of the individual to drive seasonal effects, are still poorly understood. Lunar cycles had, and continue to have, an influence upon human culture, though despite a persistent belief that our mental health and other behaviours are modulated by the phase of the moon, there is no solid evidence that human biology is in any way regulated by the lunar cycle.

  14. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These conditions ... agree on the definition or cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is ...

  15. Exposure to maternal diabetes is associated with altered fetal growth patterns: A hypothesis regarding metabolic allocation to growth under hyperglycemic-hypoxemic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampl, Michelle; Jeanty, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is rising worldwide, including women who grew poorly in early life, presenting intergenerational health problems for their offspring. It is well documented that fetuses exposed to maternal diabetes during pregnancy experience both macrosomia and poor growth outcomes in birth size. Less is known about the in utero growth patterns that precede these risk factor expressions. Fetal growth patterns and the effects of clinical class and glycemic control were investigated in 37 diabetic pregnant women and their fetuses and compared to 29 nondiabetic, nonsmoking maternal/fetal pairs who were participants in a biweekly longitudinal ultrasound study with measurements of the head, limb, and trunk dimensions. White clinical class of the diabetic women was recorded (A2-FR) and glycosylated hemoglobin levels taken at the time of measurement assessed glycemic control (median 6.9%, interquartile range 5.6-9.2%). No significant difference in fetal weight was found by exposure. The exposed sample had greater abdominal circumferences from 21 weeks (P fetuses had a smaller slope for the occipital frontal diameter (P = 0.00) and were brachycephalic. They experienced a proximal/distal growth gradient in limb proportionality with higher humerus / femur ratios (P = 0.04) and arms relatively long by comparison with legs (P = 0.02). HbA1c levels above 7.5% accompanied shorter femur length for thigh circumference after 30 gestational weeks of age. Significant effects of diabetic clinical class and glycemic control were identified in growth rate timing. These growth patterns suggest that hypoxemic and hyperglycemic signals cross-talk with their target receptors in a developmentally regulated, hierarchical sequence. The increase in fetal fat often documented with diabetic pregnancy may reflect altered growth at the level of cell differentiation and proximate mechanisms controlling body composition. These data suggest that the maternal-fetal interchange circuit

  16. Drug Metabolism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Chemistry of Drug Metabolism. Drug metabolism is a chemical process, where enzymes play a crucial role in the conversion of one chemical species to another. The major family of enzymes associated with these metabolic reactions is the cytochrome P450 family. The structural features and functional activity of these ...

  17. Epileptic patterns of local cerebral metabolism and perfusion in man determined by emission computed tomography of /sup 18/FDG and /sup 13/NH/sub 3/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, D.E.; Engel, J. Jr.; Phelps, M.E.; Selin, C.

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen patients with partial epilepsy had EEG monitoring concurrent with cerebral emission computed tomography (ECT) after /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose (/sup 18/FDG) and /sup 13/N-ammonia were given intravenously as indicators of local cerebral glucose utilization (LCMR/sub glc/) and relative perfusion, respectively. In 12 of 15 patients who had unilateral or focal electrical abnormalities, interictal /sup 18/FDG scan patterns clearly showed localized regions of decreased (20% to 50%) LCMR/sub glc/, which correlated anatomically with the eventual EEG localization. These hypometabolic zones appeared normal on x-ray computed tomography in all but three patients and were unchanged on scans repeated on different days. In 5 of 6 patients who underwent temporal lobectomy, the interictal /sup 18/FDG scan correctly detected the pathologically confirmed lesion as a hypometabolic zone, and removal of the lesion site resulted in marked clinical improvement. In contrast, the ictal /sup 18/FDG scan patterns clearly showed foci of increased (82% to 130%) LCMR/sub glc/, which correlated temporally and anatomically with ictal EEG spike foci and were within the zones of interictal hypometabolism (3 studies in 2 patients). /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ distributions paralleled /sup 18/FDG increases and decreases in abnormal zones, but /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ differences were of lesser magnitude. When the relationship of /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ uptake to local blood flow found in dog brain was applied as a correction to the patients' /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ scan data, local alterations in perfusion and glucose utilization were usually matched, both in the interictal and ictal states.

  18. Daily torpor and hibernation in birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Thomas; Geiser, Fritz

    2015-08-01

    Many birds and mammals drastically reduce their energy expenditure during times of cold exposure, food shortage, or drought, by temporarily abandoning euthermia, i.e. the maintenance of high body temperatures. Traditionally, two different types of heterothermy, i.e. hypometabolic states associated with low body temperature (torpor), have been distinguished: daily torpor, which lasts less than 24 h and is accompanied by continued foraging, versus hibernation, with torpor bouts lasting consecutive days to several weeks in animals that usually do not forage but rely on energy stores, either food caches or body energy reserves. This classification of torpor types has been challenged, suggesting that these phenotypes may merely represent extremes in a continuum of traits. Here, we investigate whether variables of torpor in 214 species (43 birds and 171 mammals) form a continuum or a bimodal distribution. We use Gaussian-mixture cluster analysis as well as phylogenetically informed regressions to quantitatively assess the distinction between hibernation and daily torpor and to evaluate the impact of body mass and geographical distribution of species on torpor traits. Cluster analysis clearly confirmed the classical distinction between daily torpor and hibernation. Overall, heterothermic endotherms tend to be small; hibernators are significantly heavier than daily heterotherms and also are distributed at higher average latitudes (∼35°) than daily heterotherms (∼25°). Variables of torpor for an average 30 g heterotherm differed significantly between daily heterotherms and hibernators. Average maximum torpor bout duration was >30-fold longer, and mean torpor bout duration >25-fold longer in hibernators. Mean minimum body temperature differed by ∼13°C, and the mean minimum torpor metabolic rate was ∼35% of the basal metabolic rate (BMR) in daily heterotherms but only 6% of BMR in hibernators. Consequently, our analysis strongly supports the view that hibernators

  19. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Reduced Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Golaleh; Yuzbashian, Emad; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hooshmand, Fatemeh; Najafi, Reza; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-07-01

    To assess the association of adherence to Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-style diet with development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children and adolescents. Dietary data were collected using a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire among 425 healthy subjects, aged 6-18 years. MetS was defined as the presence of at least 3 of the following according to the Cook criteria: waist circumference ≥90th percentile for sex and age according to national reference curves; systolic blood pressure and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90th percentile for sex, age, and height; fasting plasma glucose ≥100 mg/dL; triglycerides ≥110 mg/dL; and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol DASH-style diet score was assessed based on 8 components: high intakes of whole grain, vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes; moderate amounts of low-fat dairy products; and low intake of red and processed meat, sweetened beverages, and sodium. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the OR and 95% CI after 3.6 years of follow-up for developing MetS in each quartile of DASH score after adjustment for baseline confounders. Mean ± SD for age and DASH score were 13.6 ± 3.7 years and 24.1 ± 4.3, respectively, at baseline. The OR (95% CI) of developing MetS in the highest, compared with the lowest, quartile of DASH score was 0.36 (0.14-0.94) with a linear decreasing trend (P for trend = .023). Also, incidence of hypertension, high fasting plasma glucose, and abdominal obesity decreased with higher adherence to DASH diet (P DASH-style diet with MetS and some of its components in both children and adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gene expression patterns regulating the seed metabolism in relation to deterioration/ageing of primed mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satyendra Nath; Maheshwari, Ankita; Sharma, Chitra; Shukla, Nidhi

    2018-03-01

    We are proposing mechanisms to account for the loss of viability (seed deterioration/ageing) and enhancement in seed quality (post-storage priming treatment). In order to understand the regulatory mechanism of these traits, we conducted controlled deterioration (CD) test for up to 8 d using primed mung bean seeds and examined how CD effects the expression of many genes, regulating the seed metabolism in relation to CD and priming. Germination declined progressively with increased duration of CD, and the priming treatment completely/partially reversed the inhibition depending on the duration of CD. The loss of germination capacity by CD was accompanied by a reduction in total RNA content and RNA integrity, indicating that RNA quantity and quality impacts seed longevity. Expression analysis revealed that biosynthesis genes of GA, ethylene, ABA and ROS-scavenging enzymes were differentially affected in response to duration of CD and priming, suggesting coordinately regulated mechanisms for controlling the germination capacity of seeds by modifying the permeability characteristics of biological membranes and activities of different enzymes. ABA genes were highly expressed when germination was delayed and inhibited by CD. Whereas, GA and ethylene genes were more highly expressed when germination was enhanced and permitted by priming under similar conditions. GSTI, a well characterized enzyme family involved in stress tolerance, was expressed in primed seeds over the period of CD, suggesting an additional protection against deterioration. The results are discussed in light of understanding the mechanisms underlying longevity/priming which are important issues economically and ecologically. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Primary headache diagnosis among chronic daily headache patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krymchantowski, Abouch Valenty

    2003-06-01

    Chronic daily headache (CDH) refers to a group of non-paroxysmal daily or near-daily headaches with peculiar characteristics that are highly prevalent in populations of neurological clinics and not uncommon among non-patient populations. Most of the patients with CDH had, as primary diagnosis, episodic migraine, which, with the time, presented a progressive frequency, pattern modification and loss of specific migraine characteristics. Other CDH patients had chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and hemicrania continua, which evolved thru the time to the daily or near-daily presentation. The objective of this study was to determine the primary headache diagnosis among a population of chronic daily headache patients attending a tertiary center for headache treatment. During a 5-year period 651 consecutive chronic daily headache patients attending a private subspecialty center were studied prospectively. The criteria adopted were those proposed by Silberstein et al (1994, revised 1996). Five hundred seventy four patients (88.1%) had episodic migraine as primary headache before turning into daily presentation, 52 (8%) had chronic tension-type headache, 14 (2.2%) had hemicrania continua and 11 patients (1.7%) had new daily persistent headache. CDH is quite frequent in patients from clinic-based studies suggesting a high degree of disability. Emphasis on education of patients suffering from frequent primary headaches with regard to measures that are able to decrease suffering and disability as well as better medical education directed to more efficient ways to handle these patients are necessary to improve outcome of such a prevalent condition.

  2. From Daily Life to Philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bransen, J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that the little everyday things of life often provide excellent entries into the intellectual problems of academic philosophy. This is illustrated with an analysis of four small stories taken from daily life in which people are in agony because they do not know what to do. It is

  3. Digital daily cycles of individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level daily rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive...

  4. Variações sazonais e diárias nos padrões de atividade de Psitacídeos (Aves: Psittacidae no Parque Estadual Alberto Löfgren, São Paulo – SP. Daily and seasonal variation in activity patterns in Psittacids from Alberto Löfgren State Parque, São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsander Zamonano ANTUNES

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Psitacídeos apresentam grande capacidadede deslocamento e podem buscar recursos em umaárea relativamente ampla. O presente trabalhou visouanalisar variações sazonais e diárias, no padrão deatividade e no tamanho médio do grupo, para trêsespécies de psitacídeos no Parque Estadual AlbertoLöfgren. Os dados foram coletados utilizandotrilhas pré-existentes, entre julho de 2007 e agostode 2008. Os padrões de detecção foram distintosentre as espécies. De uma maneira geral, a detecçãode grupos de Psitacídeos foi maior durante aestação seca, provavelmente devido às aves sedeslocarem mais em busca de recursos alimentaresneste período.Psittacids search for resources in wideareas. In this paper we address the daily andseasonal variation in activity patterns and flocksize in three parrot species at the Alberto LöfgrenState Park, state of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil.We counted birds from August 2007 to July 2008during walks along trails. The detection patternsvaried between species. In general, the flock countswere greater in dry season, probably because parrotsare more actively searching for food in this period.

  5. Temporal pattern of loss/persistence of duplicate genes involved in signal transduction and metabolic pathways after teleost-specific genome duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Yukuto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent genomic studies have revealed a teleost-specific third-round whole genome duplication (3R-WGD event occurred in a common ancestor of teleost fishes. However, it is unclear how the genes duplicated in this event were lost or persisted during the diversification of teleosts, and therefore, how many of the duplicated genes contribute to the genetic differences among teleosts. This subject is also important for understanding the process of vertebrate evolution through WGD events. We applied a comparative evolutionary approach to this question by focusing on the genes involved in long-term potentiation, taste and olfactory transduction, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, based on the whole genome sequences of four teleosts; zebrafish, medaka, stickleback, and green spotted puffer fish. Results We applied a state-of-the-art method of maximum-likelihood phylogenetic inference and conserved synteny analyses to each of 130 genes involved in the above biological systems of human. These analyses identified 116 orthologous gene groups between teleosts and tetrapods, and 45 pairs of 3R-WGD-derived duplicate genes among them. This suggests that more than half [(45×2/(116+45] = 56.5% of the loci, probably more than ten thousand genes, present in a common ancestor of the four teleosts were still duplicated after the 3R-WGD. The estimated temporal pattern of gene loss suggested that, after the 3R-WGD, many (71/116 of the duplicated genes were rapidly lost during the initial 75 million years (MY, whereas on average more than half (27.3/45 of the duplicated genes remaining in the ancestor of the four teleosts (45/116 have persisted for about 275 MY. The 3R-WGD-derived duplicates that have persisted for a long evolutionary periods of time had significantly larger number of interacting partners and longer length of protein coding sequence, implying that they tend to be more multifunctional than the singletons after the 3R-WGD. Conclusion

  6. New research developments and insights from Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Farr, Olivia M.; Camp, Michelle; Mantzoros, Christos S.

    2014-01-01

    In a field of great importance to daily life and clinical care, metabolic-related research covers a wealth of information and knowledge. This broad field encompasses a number of physical states that are increasingly critical to study, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Additionally, the impacts of diet, nutrition, and exercise on these physical states are an area of ever-important and expanding research. With the latest advances in metabolic re...

  7. NWS Daily Climatology Data: 1988 (SNF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Daily min, max, average temperature (F), precipitation (water equivalent in inches), and daily insolation (Langleys) for the Superior National Forest area as...

  8. NWS Daily Climatology Data: 1980 (SNF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Daily min, max, average temperature (F), precipitation (water equivalent in inches), and daily insolation (Langleys) for the Superior National Forest area...

  9. NWS Daily Climatology Data: 1982 (SNF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Daily min, max, average temperature (F), precipitation (water equivalent in inches), and daily insolation (Langleys) for the Superior National Forest area as...

  10. Metabolic requirements for fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milley, J R; Simmons, M A

    1979-09-01

    Table 1 outlines a metabolic balance sheet for the sheep fetus. It is clear that maternal substrate concentrations as well as placental function are important in assuring the provision of adequate substrate to meet fetal metabolic and growth requirements. It is intriguing that the fetus appears to use substrates not usually regarded as important in extrauterine diets (lactate) and to use substrates for catabolic purposes normally thought to be primarily anabolic substrates (amino acids). This information emphasizes the hazards of extrapolating metabolic and nutritional patterns seen in extrauterine life in reaching conclusions concerning the fetus. It likewise emphasizes the importance of ongoing studies in maternal and fetal nutrition and metabolism.

  11. Photoreceptor cells display a daily rhythm in the orphan receptor Esrrβ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Stefanie; Wolloscheck, Tanja; Grether, Markus; Trunsch, Patricia; Wolfrum, Uwe; Spessert, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear orphan receptors are critical for the development and long-term survival of photoreceptor cells. In the present study, the expression of the nuclear orphan receptor Esrrβ--a transcriptional regulator of energy metabolism that protects rod photoreceptors from dystrophy--was tested under daily regulation in the retina and photoreceptor cells. The daily transcript and protein amount profiles were recorded in preparations of the whole retina and microdissected photoreceptor cells using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and western blot analysis. Esrrβ displayed a daily rhythm with elevated values at night in the whole retina and enriched photoreceptor cells. Daily regulation of Esrrβ mRNA depended on light input but not on melatonin, and evoked a corresponding rhythm in the Esrrβ protein. The data presented in this study indicate that daily regulation of Esrrβ in photoreceptor cells may contribute to their adaptation to 24-h changes in metabolic demands.

  12. Do Daily Retail Gasoline Prices adjust Asymmetrically?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettendorf, L.; Van der Geest, S.; Kuper, G.

    2005-04-01

    This paper analyzes adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004 taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out the volatility process is asymmetrical: an unexpected increase in the producer price has a larger effect on the variance of the producer price than an unexpected decrease. We do not find strong evidence for amount asymmetry. However, there is a faster reaction to upward changes in spot prices than to downward changes in spot prices. This implies timing or pattern asymmetry. This asymmetry starts three days after the change in the spot price and lasts for four days

  13. Associations between daily musicking and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Ola; Juel, Knud; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2016-01-01

    /day. RESULTS: Both musically active men and women were more likely to report good self-rated health than individuals that were not active musically. However, the results also indicated that musically active women were less likely to report poor physical and mental health than women who were not active...... musically, while this pattern was not found among men. CONCLUSIONS GENDER SEEMS TO PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MUSICKING AND HEALTH, BUT MORE RESEARCH IS NEEDED TO UNDERSTAND THESE DIFFERENCES AND THE UNDERLYING MECHANISMS IN ADDITION, LONGITUDINAL STUDIES ARE WARRANTED TO EXAMINE......AIMS: To examine the associations between singing/playing musical instruments daily and various outcomes such as health-related quality of life and health behaviour. METHODS: Data originates from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2013. The survey was based on a random sample of 25,000 adult...

  14. Comparative metabolism of radionuclides in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.; Furchner, J.E.; London, J.E.; Drake, G.A.; Wilson, J.S.; Richmond, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    An interspecies comparison of 60 Co metabolism was made among mice, rats, monkeys and dogs following intravenous, intragastric and oral administration. Results of these studies have been compared with human data available in the literature. Long-term whole-body retention appeared to be longer in the mouse (495 days) than in the rat (309 days), monkey (183 days) or dog (180 days). This pattern is quite different than normally encountered in the retention of trace metals and may be attributed to differences in vitamin B 12 behaviour among species. The possibility of a carrier effect in the amount of stable cobalt administered between species may explain the differences observed. Tissue distribution of 60 Co, administered here as the chloride, favors the liver and kidney at short times after single administration and during chronic (daily) dosage in the drinking water. Data from a few longer term animals following intravenous injection indicate that bone may be the organ of highest concentration. The data on cobalt chloride absorption from the rat gastrointestinal tract to blood indicate that less than 10% enters the circulation after single dosage but that daily administration leads to an equilibrium body burden of about 20%, a value about two-thirds that used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for humans. (author)

  15. Uncovering transcriptional regulation of metabolism by using metabolic network topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Kiran Raosaheb; Nielsen, Jens

    2005-01-01

    therefore developed an algorithm that is based on hypothesis-driven data analysis to uncover the transcriptional regulatory architecture of metabolic networks. By using information on the metabolic network topology from genome-scale metabolic reconstruction, we show that it is possible to reveal patterns...... changes induced by complex regulatory mechanisms coordinating the activity of different metabolic pathways. It is difficult to map such global transcriptional responses by using traditional methods, because many genes in the metabolic network have relatively small changes at their transcription level. We...... in the metabolic network that follow a common transcriptional response. Thus, the algorithm enables identification of so-called reporter metabolites (metabolites around which the most significant transcriptional changes occur) and a set of connected genes with significant and coordinated response to genetic...

  16. Observability of market daily volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  17. Dayak and Their Daily Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Darmadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article titled "Dayak and Daily Life" This paper aims to reveal the Dayak and in their daily life. Dayak is a native of Borneo has its own characteristics. Dayak, divided into 405 sub-sub clans [1]. Each sub Dayak both Indonesia and Malaysia are identical. Dayak customs and culture comes from the word "Power" which means upstream, to refer to people who live in inland areas or in the interior of Borneo. In the arsenal of art and culture, Dayak has many similarities such as; saber, chopsticks, beliong, betang, cupai, renjung, empajang and others. Dayak indigenous religion is Kaharingan which is the original religion born of the cultural ancestors of the Dayaks. Most of the Dayak people still adhere to the belief of the existence of unseen objects in certain places such as rocks, large trees, planting gardens in the forest, lakes, pools, and others are believed to have "magical powers". Daily life of the Dayaks in general farming, farming. When will open farming land, farming they held ritual.

  18. Steroid metabolism by monkey and human spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajalakshmi, M.; Sehgal, A.; Pruthi, J.S.; Anand-Kumar, T.C.

    1983-01-01

    Freshly ejaculated spermatozoa from monkey and human were washed and incubated with tritium labelled androgens or estradiol to study the pattern of spermatozoa steroid metabolism. When equal concentrations of steroid substrates were used for incubation, monkey and human spermatozoa showed very similar pattern of steroid conversion. Spermatozoa from both species converted testosterone mainly to androstenedione, but reverse conversion of androstenedione to testosterone was negligible. Estradiol-17 beta was converted mainly to estrone. The close similarity between the spermatozoa of monkey and men in their steroid metabolic pattern indicates that the rhesus monkey could be an useful animal model to study the effect of drugs on the metabolic pattern of human spermatozoa

  19. Daily practices, consumption and citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane M. Mazzarino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper promotes a reflection on the relationship between daily practices and consumption. Understanding how conflicts, resistance and consensus are generated from daily consumption practices opens up possibilities for reflecting on the construction of sustainability in the context of diversity, one of the landmarks of the globalized world. Within this socio-cultural context, the central issue is: can consumption generate citizenship practices? The concepts of subject and agent help one think about collective action and subjectivation processes and their interferences on the collective consuming behavior. Based on empirical data from a research carried out in the municipality of Estrela in 2007, in the Taquari Valley - Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil on local reality consumption practices, it was possible to conclude that various reasoning mechanisms and values underlie the daily consumption practices. Citizenship construction, based on consumption practices, depends on the subject's reflection capacity on his/her daily practices or on what goes through the circulation of environmental information based on sociability spaces.O artigo reflete sobre as relações entre as práticas cotidianas e o consumo. Compreender como se geram os conflitos, as resistências e os consensos a partir das práticas de consumo no cotidiano abre possibilidades para refletir sobre a construção da sustentabilidade no contexto de diversidade, uma das marcas do mundo globalizado. Neste contexto sociocultural, a questão central que surge é: o consumo pode gerar práticas de cidadania? As noções de sujeito e de agente ajudam a pensar a ação coletiva e os processos de subjetivação e suas interferências no comportamento coletivo de consumir. A partir de dados empíricos da pesquisa realizada em 2007 no município de Estrela, na região do Vale do Taquari - RS (Sul do Brasil, sobre práticas de consumo de uma realidade local, foi possível concluir que

  20. Washout of 82Rb as a marker of impaired tissue integrity, obtained by list-mode cardiac PET/CT: relationship with perfusion/metabolism patterns of myocardial viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, David T.; Bravo, Paco; Higuchi, Takahiro; Merrill, Jennifer; Bengel, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Myocardial washout of the potassium analogue 82 Rb may indicate tissue impairment. Few studies have evaluated its usefulness for viability assessment, and controversial results were reported. We revisited this topic using list-mode positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. A total of 22 patients with chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) and 11 control subjects with normal CT coronary angiogram were studied. Rest 82 Rb PET/CT studies were acquired in list mode and resampled to static, gated, and dynamic images. Using a 17-segment model, 82 Rb washout was determined by monoexponential fitting of myocardial time-activity curves. In ICM patients, 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) studies were obtained in the same session and segments were classified as normally perfused, mismatch, or matched defect. 82 Rb washout was minimal and homogeneous in control subjects. Normally perfused segments of ICM did not differ (p = 0.33). ICM patients had a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 25 ± 12%, 25/353 mismatched, and 46/353 matched defect segments. 82 Rb washout was higher in hypoperfused vs normal segments (p 82 Rb washout correlated inversely with 82 Rb uptake (r = -0.70; p 82 Rb washout does not distinguish between perfusion/metabolism patterns of hibernating myocardium and scar. Tissue integrity may be at least partially impaired in hibernation. (orig.)

  1. Nucleotide Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Willemoës, M.; Kilstrup, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic pathways are connected through their utilization of nucleotides as supplier of energy, allosteric effectors, and their role in activation of intermediates. Therefore, any attempt to exploit a given living organism in a biotechnological process will have an impact on nucleotide metabolism...

  2. Individual patterns of alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobashev, Georgiy V; Liao, Dan; Hampton, Joel; Helzer, John E

    2014-05-01

    We present methodology to identify statistically distinct patterns of daily alcohol use and classify them into categories that could be further used in monitoring of transitions between patterns such as transitions from regular to problem use. The study analyzed individual patterns of adult alcohol consumption from two datasets containing short (patterns and classified them into 8 types according to their means, percentages of non-drinking days and variances of consumed amount during drinking days. For each studied individual we calculated a transition chart that characterizes transitions between the types. Individual daily consumption patterns can be identified, and classified into distinct patterns. Changes between the patterns could be related to life events or environmental trends, and thus provide insights into pathways towards either heavier use or recovery. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Basal levels and diurnal variations of some hormones and metabolites in blood of dairy cows treated daily with rbSTin early and late lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgen Blum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The variations of basal value (before morning feeding at 3-4 days interval and daily pattern (on 4and 18day of treat-  ment with 8 blood collections within 24h of hormones and metabolites were studied in four dairy cows; 2 in early and  2 in late lactation, which were alternatively injected daily for a period of 21 days with 26.3 mg rbST or saline.  The rbST  injection significantly increased the basal and daily levels of GH, IGF-I in both stages of lactation. Daily levels of NEFA  were significantly increased by rbST in both stages of lactation and their variations, due to the effect of meals, were coun-  teracted by the rbST; the higher level of NEFA allowed a greater sparing of glucose, the blood level of which resulted  higher (P  blood urea level (P  ticular the high availability of glucose, determined a significantly higher blood level of insulin and T3, and lower level of  glucagon. Despite the similar GH, IGF-I and NEFA increases observed in the cows treated in early and late lactation, other  metabolic and endocrine consequences resulted more evident in late lactation. Furthermore, some of these variations  were affected by the forage meals. It can be concluded, therefore, that the changes occurring in the blood subsequent  to a rbST treatment are not equal to those which occur at the start of lactation; moreover, they are affected by the daily  feeding pattern and perhaps by the stage of  lactation. 

  4. Daily cycles in coastal dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R.E.; Richmond, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Daily cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. Daily cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.

  5. The benefit of daily photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seité, Sophie; Fourtanier, Anny M A

    2008-05-01

    It is now recognized that both ultraviolet (UV)-A and UVB wavelengths participate in the generation of photodamaged human skin during sun exposure. During usual daily activities, an appropriate protection against solar UV exposure should prevent clinical, cellular, and molecular changes potentially leading to photoaging. This study was designed to evaluate in human beings the protection afforded by a day cream containing a photostable combination of UVB and UVA filters and thus protect against the UV-induced skin alterations. In solar-simulated radiation exposed and unprotected skin sites we observed melanization. The epidermis revealed a significant increase in stratum corneum and stratum granulosum thickness. In the dermis, an enhanced expression of tenascin and a reduced expression of type I procollagen were evidenced just below the dermoepidermal junction. Although no change in elastic fibers in exposed buttock skin was seen, a slightly increased deposit of lysozyme and alpha-1 antitrypsin on elastin fibers was observed using immunofluorescence techniques. A day cream with photoprotection properties was shown to prevent all of the above-described alterations. This study was performed on a limited number of patients (n = 12) with specific characteristics (20-35 years old and skin type II and III). Two dermal alterations were evaluated by visual assessment and not by computer-assisted image analysis quantification. Our in vivo results demonstrate the benefits of daily photoprotection using a day cream containing appropriate broad-spectrum sunscreens, which prevent solar UV-induced skin damages.

  6. Once-daily dose regimen of ribavirin is interchangeable with a twice-daily dose regimen: randomized open clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balk JM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jiska M Balk,1 Guido RMM Haenen,1 Özgür M Koc,2 Ron Peters,3 Aalt Bast,1 Wim JF van der Vijgh,1 Ger H Koek,4 1Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, 2Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, 3DSM Resolve, Geleen, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, the Netherlands Background: The combination of ribavirin (RBV and pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN is effective in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection. Reducing the frequency of RBV intake from twice to once a day will improve compliance and opens up the opportunity to combine RBV with new and more specific direct-acting agents in one pill. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of RBV in a once-daily to twice-daily regimen. The secondary aim was to determine tolerability as well as the severity and differences in side effects of both treatment regimens. Methods: In this randomized open-label crossover study, twelve patients with chronic type 1 hepatitis C infection and weighing more than 75 kg were treated with 180 µg of PEG-IFN weekly and 1,200 mg RBV daily for 24 weeks. The patients received RBV dosed as 1,200 mg once-daily for 12 weeks followed by RBV dosed as 600 mg twice-daily for 12 weeks, or vice versa. In addition to the pharmacokinetic profile, the hematological profile and side effects were recorded. The RBV concentrations in plasma were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Eight of twelve patients completed the study. Neither the time taken for RBV to reach peak plasma concentration nor the AUC0-last (adjusted for difference in dose was significantly different between the two groups (P>0.05. Furthermore, the once-daily regimen did not give more side effects than the twice-daily regimen (P>0

  7. Daily extreme temperature multifractals in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgueño, A. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Lana, X., E-mail: francisco.javier.lana@upc.edu [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Serra, C. [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Martínez, M.D. [Departament de Física Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-02-01

    The multifractal character of the daily extreme temperatures in Catalonia (NE Spain) is analyzed by means of the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) applied to 65 thermometric records covering years 1950–2004. Although no clear spatial patterns of the multifractal spectrum parameters appear, factor scores deduced from Principal Component analysis indicate some signs of spatial gradients. Additionally, the daily extreme temperature series are classified depending on their complex time behavior, through four multifractal parameters (Hurst exponent, Hölder exponent with maximum spectrum, spectrum asymmetry and spectrum width). As a synthesis of the three last parameters, a basic measure of complexity is proposed through a normalized Complexity Index. Its regional behavior is found to be free of geographical dependences. This index represents a new step towards the description of the daily extreme temperatures complexity.

  8. Study of association between beverage consumption pattern and lipid profile in shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhadi, Nafiseh Shokri; Saadat, Saeed; Afsharmanesh, Mohammad Reza; Shirali, Saeed

    The circadian system influences on health and metabolic function that can cause raising some risk factor of metabolic syndrome. Few studies have examined data that incorporate the full complexity of daily beverage intake pattern on lipid profiles. The purpose of this study was to investigate relation between daily water and beverage intake of adults working in day or shift work and lipid profile. Total beverages intake was estimated in shift and administrative staff of Ahvaz International Airport, Iran. Forty five male, aged 25-55 years, attending this institute were invited to participate in this study. They completed a three-day food records and all participants were measured plasma lipid profiles. Forty one of participants completed all aspects of the study. Two clusters were emerged, labeled descriptively as Conventional including "high Sugar-sweetened drinkers" and "low sugar drinkers". The highest intake of water was in cluster 1 (1170.9ml/day) even this amount is much less than the daily recommended amounts. There were significant differences in triglyceride levels among day and night shift workers. According to the results, there is inadequacy of water and high sugar beverage intake among the shift workers which it is a potential risk of some related chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome with high triglyceride level in the future. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Once-daily versus multiple-daily dosing with intravenous aminoglycosides for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Alan R; Bhatt, Jayesh; Nevitt, Sarah J

    2017-03-27

    of bias.There was no significant difference between treatment groups in: forced expiratory volume in one second, mean difference 0.33 (95% confidence interval -2.81 to 3.48, moderate quality evidence); forced vital capacity, mean difference 0.29 (95% confidence interval -6.58 to 7.16, low quality evidence); % weight for height, mean difference -0.82 (95% confidence interval -3.77 to 2.13, low quality evidence); body mass index, mean difference 0.00 (95% confidence interval -0.42 to 0.42, low quality evidence); or in the incidence of ototoxicity, relative risk 0.56 (95% confidence interval 0.04 to 7.96, moderate quality evidence). The percentage change in creatinine significantly favoured once-daily treatment in children, mean difference -8.20 (95% confidence interval -15.32 to -1.08, moderate quality evidence), but showed no difference in adults, mean difference 3.25 (95% confidence interval -1.82 to 8.33, moderate quality evidence). The included trials did not report antibiotic resistance patterns or quality of life. Once- and three-times daily aminoglycoside antibiotics appear to be equally effective in the treatment of pulmonary exacerbations of cystic fibrosis. There is evidence of less nephrotoxicity in children.

  10. Metabolic Consequences of Changing Dietary Patterns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    should be eaten well, lunch must be in one's fill, and food for dinner should be little', there has lately been a neglect of breakfast, whereas the use of fast foods and large dinners has become the trend. In the Australian Aboriginal population and in South Africa, the consequences of shifts from the hunter-gatherer dietary.

  11. A Metabolic Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.S. Costa et al.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome describes a set of metabolic risk factors that manifest in an individual and some aspects contribute to its appearance: genetic, overweight and the absence of physical activity. So, a board game was created to simulate the environment and routine experienced by UFF students that could contribute  to the development of Metabolic Syndrome. Players move along a simplified map of Niterói city, where places as Antônio Pedro Hospital (HUAP are pointed out. OBJECTIVES: This project aimed to develop an educational game to consolidate Metabolic Syndrome biochemical events. MATERIAL E METHODS: Each group receives a board, pins, dice, question, challenge and diagnostics cards. One student performs the family doctor function, responsable for delivering cards, reading activities and providing diagnosis to players when game is over.The scoring system is based on 3 criteria for Metabolic Syndrome diagnosis: glycemia, abdominal obesity and HDL cholesterol. At the end of game, it is possible to calculate the rates of each player and provide proportional diagnosis. The winner is the healthiest that first arrives at HUAP. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The game was applied to 50 students and only 10% classified the subject-matter as difficult. This finding highlight the need to establish new methods to enhance the teaching and learning process and decrease the students’ dificulties. Students evaluated the game as an important educational support and 85% of them agreed it complements  and consolidate the content discussed in classroom. Finally, the game was very highly rated by students according to their perception about their own performance while playing.  In addition, 95 % students pointed they would play again and 98% said they think games are able to optimize learning. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible not only to approximate biochemical phenomena to the students’ daily life, but also to solidify the theoretical concepts in a dynamic and fun

  12. Global Daily Climatology Network: Kazakhstan subset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of in situ daily meteorological observations for Kazakhstan within the framework of joint efforts to create Global Daily Climatology...

  13. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  14. Daily Medicine Record for Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the-Counter Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers Daily Medicine Record for Your Child (English) Share Tweet Linkedin ... Age: ____ 2 years old___ Weight: ___ 30 pounds ___ Daily Medicine Record Child’s name: ___________________ Today’s date: _________________ Age: ____________ Weight: ________________ (pounds) ...

  15. Drug Metabolism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 3. Drug Metabolism: A Fascinating Link Between Chemistry and Biology. Nikhil Taxak Prasad V Bharatam. General Article Volume 19 Issue 3 March 2014 pp 259-282 ...

  16. Drug Metabolism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Drug metabolism may be defined as the biochemical modifica- tion of one chemical form to another, occurring usually through ..... Endogenous. Enzyme. Drugs. Cofactor. Glucuronidation. UDP glucoronic. UDP-. Chloramphenicol, acid glucuronosyltransferase morphine, paracetamol, salicylic acid, fenoprofen, desipramine,.

  17. Metabolic Myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    Metabolic myopathies are genetic disorders that impair intermediary metabolism in skeletal muscle. Impairments in glycolysis/glycogenolysis (glycogen-storage disease), fatty acid transport and oxidation (fatty acid oxidation defects), and the mitochondrial respiratory chain (mitochondrial myopathies) represent the majority of known defects. The purpose of this review is to develop a diagnostic and treatment algorithm for the metabolic myopathies. The metabolic myopathies can present in the neonatal and infant period as part of more systemic involvement with hypotonia, hypoglycemia, and encephalopathy; however, most cases present in childhood or in adulthood with exercise intolerance (often with rhabdomyolysis) and weakness. The glycogen-storage diseases present during brief bouts of high-intensity exercise, whereas fatty acid oxidation defects and mitochondrial myopathies present during a long-duration/low-intensity endurance-type activity or during fasting or another metabolically stressful event (eg, surgery, fever). The clinical examination is often normal between acute events, and evaluation involves exercise testing, blood testing (creatine kinase, acylcarnitine profile, lactate, amino acids), urine organic acids (ketones, dicarboxylic acids, 3-methylglutaconic acid), muscle biopsy (histology, ultrastructure, enzyme testing), MRI/spectroscopy, and targeted or untargeted genetic testing. Accurate and early identification of metabolic myopathies can lead to therapeutic interventions with lifestyle and nutritional modification, cofactor treatment, and rapid treatment of rhabdomyolysis.

  18. Animal metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walburg, H.E.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on placental transport included the following: clearance of tritiated water as a baseline measurement for transport of materials across perfused placentas; transport of organic and inorganic mercury across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation; and transport of cadmium across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation. Studies on cadmium absorption and metabolism included the following: intestinal absorption and retention of cadmium in neonatal rats; uptake and distribution of an oral dose of cadmium in postweanling male and female, iron-deficient and normal rats; postnatal viability and growth in rat pups after oral cadmium administration during gestation; and the effect of calcium and phosphorus on the absorption and toxicity of cadmium. Studies on gastrointestinal absorption and mineral metabolism included: uptake and distribution of orally administered plutonium complex compounds in male mice; gastrointestinal absorption of 144 Ce in the newborn mouse, rat, and pig; and gastrointestinal absorption of 95 Nb by rats of different ages. Studies on iodine metabolism included the following: influence of thyroid status and thiocyanate on iodine metabolism in the bovine; effects of simulated fallout radiation on iodine metabolism in dairy cattle; and effects of feeding iodine binding agents on iodine metabolism in the calf

  19. Liver, but not muscle, has an entrainable metabolic memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Song Chen

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia in the hospitalized setting is common, especially in patients that receive nutritional support either continuously or intermittently. As the liver and muscle are the major sites of glucose disposal, we hypothesized their metabolic adaptations are sensitive to the pattern of nutrient delivery. Chronically catheterized, well-controlled depancreatized dogs were placed on one of three isocaloric diets: regular chow diet once daily (Chow or a simple nutrient diet (ND that was given either once daily (ND-4 or infused continuously (ND-C. Intraportal insulin was infused to maintain euglycemia. After 5 days net hepatic (NHGU and muscle (MGU glucose uptake and oxidation were assessed at euglycemia (120 mg/dl and hyperglycemia (200 mg/dl in the presence of basal insulin. While hyperglycemia increased both NHGU and MGU in Chow, NHGU was amplified in both groups receiving ND. The increase was associated with enhanced activation of glycogen synthase, glucose oxidation and suppression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK-4. Accelerated glucose-dependent muscle glucose uptake was only evident with ND-C. This was associated with a decrease in PDK-4 expression and an increase in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation. Interestingly, ND-C markedly increased hepatic FGF-21 expression. Thus, augmentation of carbohydrate disposal in the liver, as opposed to the muscle, is not dependent on the pattern of nutrient delivery.

  20. Washout of {sup 82}Rb as a marker of impaired tissue integrity, obtained by list-mode cardiac PET/CT: relationship with perfusion/metabolism patterns of myocardial viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, David T.; Bravo, Paco; Higuchi, Takahiro; Merrill, Jennifer [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Russell H Morgan Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Bengel, Frank M. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Russell H Morgan Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    Myocardial washout of the potassium analogue {sup 82}Rb may indicate tissue impairment. Few studies have evaluated its usefulness for viability assessment, and controversial results were reported. We revisited this topic using list-mode positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. A total of 22 patients with chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) and 11 control subjects with normal CT coronary angiogram were studied. Rest {sup 82}Rb PET/CT studies were acquired in list mode and resampled to static, gated, and dynamic images. Using a 17-segment model, {sup 82}Rb washout was determined by monoexponential fitting of myocardial time-activity curves. In ICM patients, {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) studies were obtained in the same session and segments were classified as normally perfused, mismatch, or matched defect. {sup 82}Rb washout was minimal and homogeneous in control subjects. Normally perfused segments of ICM did not differ (p = 0.33). ICM patients had a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 25 {+-} 12%, 25/353 mismatched, and 46/353 matched defect segments. {sup 82}Rb washout was higher in hypoperfused vs normal segments (p < 0.05), but not different between mismatch and matched defect (p = 0.18). Intraindividual analysis in nine patients showing both FDG mismatch and matched defect confirmed absence of differences. Overall, segmental {sup 82}Rb washout correlated inversely with {sup 82}Rb uptake (r = -0.70; p < 0.05) and less well with FDG uptake (r = -0.31; p < 0.05). Using state-of-the-art PET/CT technology for myocardial viability assessment, {sup 82}Rb washout does not distinguish between perfusion/metabolism patterns of hibernating myocardium and scar. Tissue integrity may be at least partially impaired in hibernation. (orig.)

  1. What is Metabolic Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Home / Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic Syndrome What Is Metabolic syndrome is the name for a group of risk ... three metabolic risk factors to be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. A large waistline. This also is called abdominal ...

  2. The effects of fasting on metabolism and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J; Fallah, J; Coyle, E F

    2010-06-01

    An overnight fast of 8-10 h is normal for most people. Fasting is characterised by a coordinated set of metabolic changes designed to spare carbohydrate and increase reliance on fat as a substrate for energy supply. As well as sparing the limited endogenous carbohydrate, and increased rate of gluconeogenesis from amino acids, glycerol and ketone bodies help maintain the supply of carbohydrate. Many individuals undergo periodic fasts for health, religious or cultural reasons. Ramadan fasting, involving 1 month of abstention from food and fluid intake during daylight hours, is practised by a large part of the world population. This period involves a shift in the pattern of intake from daytime to the hours of darkness. There seems to be little effect on overall daily dietary intake and only small metabolic effects, but there may be implications for both physical and cognitive function. The limited evidence suggests that effects of Ramadan-style fasting on exercise performance are generally small. This needs to be balanced, however, against the observation that small differences in performance are critical in determining the outcomes of sporting events. Studies involving challenging sporting events (prolonged sustained or intermittent high-intensity events, hot and humid environments) are needed. Increases in subjective sensations of fatigue may be the result of loss of sleep or disruption of normal sleep patterns. Modifications to the competition timetable may minimise or even eliminate any effect on performance in sport, but there may be negative effects on performance in some events.

  3. Frequency of feeding, weight reduction and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verboeket-van de Venne, W P; Westerterp, K R

    1993-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding frequency on the rate and composition of weight loss and 24 h energy metabolism in moderately obese women on a 1000 kcal/day diet. During four consecutive weeks fourteen female adults (age 20-58 years, BMI 25.4-34.9 kg/m2) restricted their food intake to 1000 kcal/day. Seven subjects consumed the diet in two meals daily (gorging pattern), the others consumed the diet in three to five meals (nibbling pattern). Body mass and body composition, obtained by deuterium dilution, were measured at the start of the experiment and after two and four weeks of dieting. Sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) was measured at the same time intervals using a respiration chamber. At the end of the experiment 24 h energy expenditure (24 h EE) and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) were assessed by a 36 h stay in the respiration chamber. There was no significant effect of the feeding frequency on the rate of weight loss, fat mass loss or fat-free mass loss. Furthermore, fat mass and fat-free mass contributed equally to weight loss in subjects on both gorging and nibbling diet. Feeding frequency had no significant effect on SMR after two or four weeks of dieting. The decrease in SMR after four weeks was significantly greater in subjects on the nibbling diet. 24 h EE and DIT were not significantly different between the two feeding regimens.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Diet-Induced Low-Grade Metabolic Acidosis and Clinical Outcomes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Alves Carnauba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-grade metabolic acidosis is a condition characterized by a slight decrease in blood pH, within the range considered normal, and feeding is one of the main factors that may influence the occurrence of such a condition. The excessive consumption of acid precursor foods (sources of phosphorus and proteins, to the detriment of those precursors of bases (sources of potassium, calcium, and magnesium, leads to acid-base balance volubility. If this condition occurs in a prolonged, chronic way, low-grade metabolic acidosis can become significant and predispose to metabolic imbalances such as kidney stone formation, increased bone resorption, reduced bone mineral density, and the loss of muscle mass, as well as the increased risk of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis. Considering the increase in the number of studies investigating the influence of diet-induced metabolic acidosis on clinical outcomes, this review gathers the available evidence evaluating the association of this disturbance and metabolic imbalances, as well as related mechanisms. It is necessary to look at the western dietary pattern of most countries and the increasing incidence of non-comunicable diseases for the balance between fruit and vegetable intake and the appropriate supply of protein, mainly from animal sources, so that it does not exceed the daily recommendations.

  5. Overcoming equifinality: Leveraging long time series for stream metabolism estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appling, Alison; Hall, Robert O.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Arroita, Maite

    2018-01-01

    The foundational ecosystem processes of gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) cannot be measured directly but can be modeled in aquatic ecosystems from subdaily patterns of oxygen (O2) concentrations. Because rivers and streams constantly exchange O2 with the atmosphere, models must either use empirical estimates of the gas exchange rate coefficient (K600) or solve for all three parameters (GPP, ER, and K600) simultaneously. Empirical measurements of K600 require substantial field work and can still be inaccurate. Three-parameter models have suffered from equifinality, where good fits to O2 data are achieved by many different parameter values, some unrealistic. We developed a new three-parameter, multiday model that ensures similar values for K600 among days with similar physical conditions (e.g., discharge). Our new model overcomes the equifinality problem by (1) flexibly relating K600 to discharge while permitting moderate daily deviations and (2) avoiding the oft-violated assumption that residuals in O2 predictions are uncorrelated. We implemented this hierarchical state-space model and several competitor models in an open-source R package, streamMetabolizer. We then tested the models against both simulated and field data. Our new model reduces error by as much as 70% in daily estimates of K600, GPP, and ER. Further, accuracy benefits of multiday data sets require as few as 3 days of data. This approach facilitates more accurate metabolism estimates for more streams and days, enabling researchers to better quantify carbon fluxes, compare streams by their metabolic regimes, and investigate controls on aquatic activity.

  6. [Metabolic myopathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazian, Óscar; Rivas-Chacón, Rafael

    2013-09-06

    To review the metabolic myopathies manifested only by crisis of myalgias, cramps and rigidity of the muscles with decreased voluntary contractions and normal inter crisis neurologic examination in children and adolescents. These metabolic myopathies are autosomic recessive inherited enzymatic deficiencies of the carbohydrates and lipids metabolisms. The end result is a reduction of intra muscle adenosine triphosphate, mainly through mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, with decrease of available energy for muscle contraction. The one secondary to carbohydrates intra muscle metabolism disorders are triggered by high intensity brief (fatty acids metabolism disorders are triggered by low intensity prolonged (> 10 min) exercises. The conditions in the first group in order of decreasing frequency are the deficiencies of myophosforilase (GSD V), muscle phosphofructokinase (GSD VII), phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (GSD X) and beta enolase (GSD XIII). The conditions in the second group in order of decreasing frequency are the deficiencies of carnitine palmitoyl transferase II and very long chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase. The differential characteristics of patients in each group and within each group will allow to make the initial presumptive clinical diagnosis in the majority and then to order only the necessary tests to achieve the final diagnosis. Treatment during the crisis includes hydration, glucose and alkalinization of urine if myoglobin in blood and urine are elevated. Prevention includes avoiding exercise which may induce the crisis and fasting. The prognosis is good with the exception of rare cases of acute renal failure due to hipermyoglobinemia because of severe rabdomyolisis.

  7. Daily mineral intakes for Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Kunio

    1990-01-01

    Recently it became necessary to assess the dietary intake of both stable and radioactive elements for non-radiation workers. But data of mineral intake in the literature are not good enough for this assessment. ICRP Pub. 23 in 'Reference Man' is one of the best references in this field. ICRP Reference Man was selected as the standard for Caucasian by using values reported during early 1970s or before. Moreover it seems not to be suitable for Japanese (Mongolian). In this report, analytical methods of minerals in total diet samples for Japanese were described. Furthermore, daily intakes for Japanese (Reference Japanese Man) and ICRP Reference Man were compared. After collected by a duplicate portion study and a model diet study, diet samples were dry-ashed followed by wet-digestion with a mixture of HNO 3 and HClO 4 . Diet sample solutions thus prepared were analysed by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively-coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Matrix effects of major elements (Na, K, P, Ca and Mg) in diet samples were compensated by a matrix-matching method. About 20 elements were simultaneously determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, more easily than by AAS. Most of dietary mineral intakes, except for Na, Mn, and Sr, for Japanese were lower than those of ICRP Reference Man. But, dietary intakes were found to be different depending on countries, even among European and American countries. New representative data for as many elements as possible are necessary now. (author)

  8. Patrol Officer Daily Noise Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Lynn R; Vosburgh, Donna J H

    2015-01-01

    established by the OSHA or ACGIH occupational exposure levels from the daily occupational tasks that were monitored.

  9. GALACTOSE METABOLISM I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, T. T.; O'Kane, D. J.

    1962-01-01

    Fukuyama T. T. (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia) and D. J. O'Kane. Galactose metabolism. I. Pathway of carbon in fermentation by Streptococcus faecalis. J. Bacteriol. 84:793–796. 1962.—The pathway by which galactose-1-C14 is fermented in Streptococcus faecalis was investigated using dried-cell preparations. Lactic acid, acetic acid, formic acid, ethanol, and carbon dioxide were the end products formed, with lactic acid representing approximately 50% of the sugar fermented. The distribution of radio-activity indicated that the fermentation follows the Embden-Meyerhof route, suggesting that the difference in the formation of the products of glucose and galactose fermentation must be attributed to alternate routes of pyruvic acid metabolism. Differences in pH did not account for the dissimilar fermentation patterns. PMID:13960210

  10. Increasing Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Soo; Shin, Hayley; Song, Jung Han; Kwak, Soo Heon; Kang, Seon Mee; Won Yoon, Ji; Choi, Sung Hee; Cho, Sung Il; Park, Kyong Soo; Lee, Hong Kyu; Jang, Hak Chul; Koh, Kwang Kon

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The number of people with metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide, and changes in socioenvironmental factors contribute to this increase. Therefore, investigation of changes in metabolic syndrome and its components in South Korea, where rapid socioenvironmental changes have occurred in recent years, would be foundational in setting up an effective strategy for reducing this increasing trend. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We compared the prevalence and pattern of metabolic syndrome ...

  11. Metabolic Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    and in vitro to be able to alter properties of the encoded enzyme, and (6) assemble an array of genes for their expression inside the host cell. Although bacteria and yeast are the pioneering hosts for metabolic engineering, other organisms such as fungi, animal as well as plant cells are also used nowadays for similar experi ...

  12. Metabolic Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Metabolic engineering is a process for modulating the me- tabolism of the organisms so as to produce the required amounts of the desired metabolite through genetic manipula- tions. Considering its advantages over the other chemical synthesis routes, this area of biotechnology is likely to revolu- tionize the way in which ...

  13. Metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/pubmed/26718656 . Ruderman NB, Shulman GI. Metabolic syndrome. In: Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 43. Review ... NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health ...

  14. Metabolic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to get or make energy from the food you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Chemicals in your digestive system break the food parts down into sugars and acids, your body's ...

  15. Why oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus cannot meet their daily energy requirements in a single low water period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarts, L; Ens, B.J.; GossCustard, JD; Hulscher, JB; Kersten, M.

    1996-01-01

    Captive Oystercatchers consume daily 25-40 g dry flesh or 550-850 kJ, of which they metabolize 450-700 kJ. Free-living Oystercatchers eat more than captive birds but, contrary to expectation, this is not due to greater activity costs but to a higher body weight. When body weights are equal,

  16. Microalbuminuria, Kidney Function, and Daily Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Afsar, Baris

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate independent relationship between daily physical activity, microalbuminuria, and kidney function. The demographic characteristics and laboratory parameters were recorded for all patients. The determination of daily activities was carried out by Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living Scale (NEADLS) which was performed for each patient in an interview. Totally 139 patients were enrolled. In the whole group NEADLS score was correlated with ...

  17. Metabolic alkalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, A; Kurtzman, N A

    2006-01-01

    Metabolic alkalosis is a primary pathophysiologic event characterized by the gain of bicarbonate or the loss of nonvolatile acid from extracellular fluid. The kidney preserves normal acid-base balance by two mechanisms: bicarbonate reclamation mainly in the proximal tubule and bicarbonate generation predominantly in the distal nephron. Bicarbonate reclamation is mediated mainly by a Na-H antiporter and to a smaller extent by the H-ATPase. The principal factors affecting HCO 3 reabsorption include effective arterial blood volume, glomerular filtration rate, chloride, and potassium. Bicarbonate regeneration is primarily affected by distal Na delivery and reabsorption, aldosterone, arterial pH, and arterial pCO2. To generate metabolic alkalosis, either a gain of base or a loss of acid, must occur. The loss of acid may be via the GI tract or by the kidney. Excess base may be gained by oral or parenteral HCO 3 administration or by lactate, acetate, or citrate administration. Factors that help maintain metabolic alkalosis include decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), volume contraction, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, and aldosterone excess. Clinical states associated with metabolic alkalosis are vomiting, mineralocorticoid excess, the adrenogenital syndrome, licorice ingestion, diuretic administration, and Bartter's and Gitelma's Syndromes. The effects of metabolic alkalosis on the body are varied and include effects on the central nervous system, myocardium, skeletal muscle, and the liver. Treatment of this disorder is simple, once the pathophysiology of the cause is delineated. Therapy consists of reversing the contributory factors promoting alkalosis and in severe cases, administration of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, acid infusion, and low bicarbonate dialysis.

  18. Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Predicting and Mapping Daily Pan Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunkumar, R.; Jothiprakash, V.; Sharma, Kirty

    2017-09-01

    In this study, Artificial Intelligence techniques such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Model Tree (MT) and Genetic Programming (GP) are used to develop daily pan evaporation time-series (TS) prediction and cause-effect (CE) mapping models. Ten years of observed daily meteorological data such as maximum temperature, minimum temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, dew point temperature and pan evaporation are used for developing the models. For each technique, several models are developed by changing the number of inputs and other model parameters. The performance of each model is evaluated using standard statistical measures such as Mean Square Error, Mean Absolute Error, Normalized Mean Square Error and correlation coefficient (R). The results showed that daily TS-GP (4) model predicted better with a correlation coefficient of 0.959 than other TS models. Among various CE models, CE-ANN (6-10-1) resulted better than MT and GP models with a correlation coefficient of 0.881. Because of the complex non-linear inter-relationship among various meteorological variables, CE mapping models could not achieve the performance of TS models. From this study, it was found that GP performs better for recognizing single pattern (time series modelling), whereas ANN is better for modelling multiple patterns (cause-effect modelling) in the data.

  19. Daily Public Assistance Grants Award Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Daily activity of Public Assistance Grant Awards, including FEMA Region, State, Disaster Declaration Number, Event description, Mission Assigned agency, Assistance...

  20. System Model of Daily Sediment Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, T. C.; Dickinson, W. T.

    1980-06-01

    Input-output systems concepts have been applied to the modeling of daily runoff-sediment yield of the Thames River in southern Ontario, Canada. Spectral and correlation techniques have been used to construct a parsimonious model of daily sediment yields. It is shown that a linear discrete dynamic model is possible in terms of the log-transformed daily runoff and sediment yield sequences. The fluvial system of the Thames River watershed exhibits a weak memory on a daily basis, and the noise component corrupting the watershed fluvial system resembles a white noise process.

  1. Experiences of daily occupations at 99 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggblom-Kronlöf, Greta; Hultberg, John; Eriksson, Bo G; Sonn, Ulla

    2007-09-01

    The aim was to explore experiences of daily occupations among the oldest old. Ten 99-year-old persons were interviewed in their living environment about an ordinary day. The interviews were analysed according to the phenomenographic approach. The result showed that participants regarded themselves as competent and that they felt proud because they were involved in daily occupations. Being challenged was experienced as a way of performing difficult tasks, thus being confirmed as a capable person who performs and learns new things. The participants' occupational patterns preserve occupational ability and continuity in life in that they have a rhythm and allow the individuals to predict and handle interruptions. Participants experienced being incapable and being restricted as a result of personal, environmental, and social hindrances. The participants adapted to and reshaped their sense of self, which has been disrupted due to the discrepancy between self, the person's ability, and the real world "outside". Experience of daily occupation is unique, supports the sense of self, builds identities, and describes engagement and creative processes. Individual experience must be recognized as it can mean the difference between success and failure in maintaining meaningful daily occupation.

  2. Daily concordance between parent and adolescent sleep habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuligni, Andrew J; Tsai, Kim M; Krull, Jennifer L; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2015-02-01

    To assess the daily concordance between parent and adolescent daily sleep habits, how that concordance compares to other predictors of sleep, and whether the degree of concordance varies across families. A total of 421 adolescents (Mage = 15.03 years) and their primary caregivers (Mage = 41.93 years) reported their sleep, bed, and wake times on a daily basis for a 2-week period. Approximately 80% of the sample repeated the same protocol 1 year later. Multilevel modeling indicated a significant concordance between parent and adolescent sleep, bed, and wake times on a daily basis. Concordance existed independent of other predictors of sleep such as day of the week and adolescent study time. Larger families and those with higher levels of parent-adolescent support exhibited greater concordance. Adolescent sleep is connected to the sleep habits of their parents, above and beyond commonly known structural and experiential factors that can shape teenage sleep. Efforts to improve teenage sleep should pay greater attention to the sleep patterns of parents and potentially other family members. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Xenobiotic Metabolism and Gut Microbiomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anubhav; Srinivasan, Meenakshi; Ghosh, Tarini Shankar; Mande, Sharmila S.

    2016-01-01

    Humans are exposed to numerous xenobiotics, a majority of which are in the form of pharmaceuticals. Apart from human enzymes, recent studies have indicated the role of the gut bacterial community (microbiome) in metabolizing xenobiotics. However, little is known about the contribution of the plethora of gut microbiome in xenobiotic metabolism. The present study reports the results of analyses on xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in various human gut microbiomes. A total of 397 available gut metagenomes from individuals of varying age groups from 8 nationalities were analyzed. Based on the diversities and abundances of the xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, various bacterial taxa were classified into three groups, namely, least versatile, intermediately versatile and highly versatile xenobiotic metabolizers. Most interestingly, specific relationships were observed between the overall drug consumption profile and the abundance and diversity of the xenobiotic metabolizing repertoire in various geographies. The obtained differential abundance patterns of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and bacterial genera harboring them, suggest their links to pharmacokinetic variations among individuals. Additional analyses of a few well studied classes of drug modifying enzymes (DMEs) also indicate geographic as well as age specific trends. PMID:27695034

  4. Xenobiotic Metabolism and Gut Microbiomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Das

    Full Text Available Humans are exposed to numerous xenobiotics, a majority of which are in the form of pharmaceuticals. Apart from human enzymes, recent studies have indicated the role of the gut bacterial community (microbiome in metabolizing xenobiotics. However, little is known about the contribution of the plethora of gut microbiome in xenobiotic metabolism. The present study reports the results of analyses on xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in various human gut microbiomes. A total of 397 available gut metagenomes from individuals of varying age groups from 8 nationalities were analyzed. Based on the diversities and abundances of the xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, various bacterial taxa were classified into three groups, namely, least versatile, intermediately versatile and highly versatile xenobiotic metabolizers. Most interestingly, specific relationships were observed between the overall drug consumption profile and the abundance and diversity of the xenobiotic metabolizing repertoire in various geographies. The obtained differential abundance patterns of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and bacterial genera harboring them, suggest their links to pharmacokinetic variations among individuals. Additional analyses of a few well studied classes of drug modifying enzymes (DMEs also indicate geographic as well as age specific trends.

  5. Types of Family Caregiving and Daily Experiences in Midlife and Late Adulthood: The Moderating Influences of Marital Status and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jen D; Shobo, Yetunde

    2017-07-01

    Guided by the life-course perspective, this study contributes to the family caregiving, aging, and disability literature by examining the daily experiences of three types of family caregivers in midlife and late adulthood. A sample of 162 caregivers from the National Survey of Midlife in the United States study completed interviews, questionnaires, and a Daily Diary Study. Multilevel models showed the patterns of daily time use did not differ by caregiver types. Caregivers of sons/daughters with developmental disabilities (DD) experienced more daily stressors than caregivers of parents with health conditions (HC) and caregivers of spouses with HC. Unmarried caregivers of sons/daughters with DD reported spending more time on daily leisure activities and exhibited greater daily stressor exposure than other family caregivers. Age did not moderate the associations between caregiver types and daily experiences. Findings highlight the important consideration of the caregivers' characteristics to better determine the quality of their daily experiences in midlife and late adulthood.

  6. Expectancy for food or expectancy for chocolate reveals timing systems for metabolism and reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles-Castellanos, M; Salgado-Delgado, R; Rodríguez, K; Buijs, R M; Escobar, C

    2008-07-31

    The clock gene protein Per 1 (PER1) is expressed in several brain structures and oscillates associated with the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Restricted feeding schedules (RFS) induce anticipatory activity and impose daily oscillations of c-Fos and clock proteins in brain structures. Daily access to a palatable treat (chocolate) also elicits anticipatory activity and induces c-Fos expression mainly in corticolimbic structures. Here the influence of daily access to food or chocolate was explored by the analysis of the oscillatory patterns of PER1 in hypothalamic and corticolimbic structures. Wistar rats were exposed to RFS or to daily access to chocolate for 3 weeks. Persistence of food or chocolate entrained rhythms was determined 8 days after cessation of the feeding protocols. RFS and chocolate induced a phase shift in PER1 rhythmicity in corticolimbic structures with peak values at zeitgeber time 12 and a higher amplitude in the chocolate group. Both RFS and chocolate groups showed an upregulation of PER1 in the SCN. Food and chocolate entrained rhythms persisted for 8 days in behavior and in PER1 expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, accumbens, prefrontal cortex and central amygdala. The present data demonstrate the existence of different oscillatory systems in the brain that can be activated by entrainment to metabolic stimuli or to reward and suggest the participation of PER1 in both entraining pathways. Persistence and amplification of PER1 oscillations in structures associated with reward suggest that this oscillatory process is fundamental to food addictive behavior.

  7. [Chronic daily headache in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvellier, J-C; Cuisset, J-M; Vallée, L

    2008-12-01

    Chronic daily headache (CDH) affects 2-4% of adolescent females and 0.8-2% of adolescent males. Chronic daily headache is diagnosed when headaches occur more than 4h/day, 15 headache days per month or more, over a period of 3 consecutive months, without an underlying pathology. It is manifested by severe intermittent, migraine-like headaches as well as by chronic baseline headaches. Both Silberstein-Lipton criteria and the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) can be used to classify chronic daily headache in children and adolescents. Chronic daily headache is classified into four diagnostic categories: transformed (Silberstein-Lipton criteria)/chronic (ICHD) migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache, and hemicrania continua. Children and adolescents with chronic daily headache frequently have sleep disturbance, pain at other sites, dizziness, medication-overuse headache, and a psychiatric comorbidity (anxiety and mood disorders). Chronic daily headache frequently results in school absence. Successful approaches to treatment include reassurance, education, use of preventative medication, avoidance of analgesics, and helping the child return to a functional daily routine and a regular school schedule.

  8. Stochastic modelling of daily rainfall sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buishand, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    Rainfall series of different climatic regions were analysed with the aim of generating daily rainfall sequences. A survey of the data is given in I, 1. When analysing daily rainfall sequences one must be aware of the following points:
    a. Seasonality. Because of seasonal variation

  9. Daily Stressors in Primary Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Trianes, María V.; Escobar, Milagros; Blanca, María J.; Muñoz, Ángela M.

    2015-01-01

    Daily stress can have a bearing on children's emotional and academic development. This study aimed to assess daily stressors and to determine their prevalence among primary education students, taking into account their gender, academic year, social adaptation, and the school location. A sample of 7,354 Spanish schoolchildren aged between 6 and 13…

  10. Metabolic Profiles in Children During Fasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Merel R.; van Hasselt, Peter M.; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G. M.; Verhoeven, Nanda; Hofstede, Floris C.; de Koning, Tom J.; Visser, Gepke

    BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia is one of the most common metabolic derangements in childhood. To establish the cause of hypoglycemia, fasting tolerance tests can be used. Currently available ref