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Sample records for daily fractionated rt

  1. Multiple Daily Fractionated RT for Malignant Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kang Mo; Chang, Hye Sook; Ahn, Seoung Do; Choi, Eun Kyung [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-15

    Since Jan. 1992, authors have conducted a pilot study to treat malignant glioma with multiple daily fractionated (MDF) radiation therapy and this paper presents the outcome compared MDF to conventional fractionated (CF) radiation therapy. Between Sep. 1989 and Jan. 1993, forty-three patients with high grade glioma of brain except brain stem glioma were treated: nineteen patients were treated with CF radiation therapy and 24 patients were treated with MDF radiation therapy. In CF radiation therapy, total dose was 6300cHy/35fx in 7 weeks, which 5040cGy was delivered to the initial target volume and 1260cGy to reduced target volume. And in MDF radiation therapy, total dose was 6400cGy/40fx in 4 weeks, which 3200cGy was delivered to the initial target volume as 160cGy 2 times daily 6hr apart. All patients had histologically confirmed anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) of glioblastoma multiforme(GBM) with stereotactic biopsy or craniotomy for subtotal or gross tumor resection. The rage of follow-up was 7 months to 4 years with a median follow-up of 9 months. The Median survival from surgery was 9 months for all patients. The median survival was 9 months and 10 months for MDF group and CF group and 10 months and 9.5 months for glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma, respectively. In 36 patients with follow-up CT scan or MRI scan, disease status was evaluated according to treatment group. Four patients (GBM:3, AA:1) of 21 patients in MDF group, were alive with no evidence of disease, while none of patient was alive with no evidence of disease in CF group. The progression of disease had occurred in 20 patients, 11 patients and 9 patients in MDF group and CF group, respectively. All of these patients showed in-field progression of disease. Four of 11 patients (27%) in MDF group showed the new lesion outside of the treatment field, while 5 of 9 patients(56%) in CF group. In our study the prognosis was not influenced by age, KPS, grade, extent of surgery and different

  2. Evaluating the Impacts of NASA/SPoRT Daily Greenness Vegetation Fraction on Land Surface Model and Numerical Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jordan R.; Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Kumar, Sujay V.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed a Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVF) dataset, which is updated daily using swaths of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data aboard the NASA EOS Aqua and Terra satellites. NASA SPoRT began generating daily real-time GVF composites at 1-km resolution over the Continental United States (CONUS) on 1 June 2010. The purpose of this study is to compare the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) climatology GVF product (currently used in operational weather models) to the SPoRT-MODIS GVF during June to October 2010. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) was employed to study the impacts of the SPoRT-MODIS GVF dataset on a land surface model (LSM) apart from a full numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. For the 2010 warm season, the SPoRT GVF in the western portion of the CONUS was generally higher than the NCEP climatology. The eastern CONUS GVF had variations both above and below the climatology during the period of study. These variations in GVF led to direct impacts on the rates of heating and evaporation from the land surface. In the West, higher latent heat fluxes prevailed, which enhanced the rates of evapotranspiration and soil moisture depletion in the LSM. By late Summer and Autumn, both the average sensible and latent heat fluxes increased in the West as a result of the more rapid soil drying and higher coverage of GVF. The impacts of the SPoRT GVF dataset on NWP was also examined for a single severe weather case study using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Two separate coupled LIS/WRF model simulations were made for the 17 July 2010 severe weather event in the Upper Midwest using the NCEP and SPoRT GVFs, with all other model parameters remaining the same. Based on the sensitivity results, regions with higher GVF in the SPoRT model runs had higher evapotranspiration and

  3. Evaluating the Impacts of NASA/SPoRT Daily Greenness Vegetation Fraction on Land Surface Model and Numerical Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jordan R.; Case, Jonathan L.; Molthan, Andrew L.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center develops new products and techniques that can be used in operational meteorology. The majority of these products are derived from NASA polar-orbiting satellite imagery from the Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms. One such product is a Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVF) dataset, which is produced from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data aboard the NASA EOS Aqua and Terra satellites. NASA SPoRT began generating daily real-time GVF composites at 1-km resolution over the Continental United States (CONUS) on 1 June 2010. The purpose of this study is to compare the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) climatology GVF product (currently used in operational weather models) to the SPoRT-MODIS GVF during June to October 2010. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) was employed to study the impacts of the new SPoRT-MODIS GVF dataset on land surface models apart from a full numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. For the 2010 warm season, the SPoRT GVF in the western portion of the CONUS was generally higher than the NCEP climatology. The eastern CONUS GVF had variations both above and below the climatology during the period of study. These variations in GVF led to direct impacts on the rates of heating and evaporation from the land surface. The second phase of the project is to examine the impacts of the SPoRT GVF dataset on NWP using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Two separate WRF model simulations were made for individual severe weather case days using the NCEP GVF (control) and SPoRT GVF (experimental), with all other model parameters remaining the same. Based on the sensitivity results in these case studies, regions with higher GVF in the SPoRT model runs had higher evapotranspiration and lower direct surface heating, which typically resulted in lower (higher) predicted 2-m temperatures (2-m dewpoint temperatures). The opposite was true

  4. Modeling of Sokoto Daily Average Temperature: A Fractional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling of Sokoto Daily Average Temperature: A Fractional Integration Approach. 22 extension of the class of ARIMA processes stemming from Box and Jenkins methodology. One of their originalities is the explicit modeling of the long term correlation structure (Diebolt and. Guiraud, 2000). Autoregressive fractionally.

  5. TRMM (TMPA-RT) Near Real-Time Precipitation L3 1 day 0.25 degree x 0.25 degree V7 (TRMM_3B42RT_Daily) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This daily accumulated precipitation product is generated from the Near Real-Time 3-hourly TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis TMPA (3B42RT). It is produced...

  6. A comparison of the sensitivities of detection of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes by magnetic fractionation, thick blood film microscopy, and RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St-Pierre Tim G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The magnetic properties of Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes have been exploited for different clinical and research purposes. A recent study in a rural clinical setting in Papua New Guinea has demonstrated that Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte detection is facilitated by magnetic deposition microscopy but no study has yet determined the relative sensitivity and limit of detection of a magnetic fractionation technique. The present study compares the detection limit and sensitivity of a technique based on the use of commercially available magnetic fractionation columns with those for thick blood film microscopy and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR methods. Methods Gametocyte detection in six series of dilutions of cultured P. falciparum parasites with known gametocytaemia was conducted using magnetic fractionation, thick blood film, and RT-PCR techniques. Results The preparations obtained by the magnetic fractionation method were of thin film quality allowing easy gametocyte identification by light microscopy. Magnetic fractionation had a higher sensitivity and approximately two orders of magnitude better limit of detection than thick blood film microscopy. Gametocytes were also more readily detectable on the magnetically fractionated preparations. Magnetic fractionation had a similar limit of detection to that of RT-PCR. Conclusion Magnetic fractionation is a highly sensitive and convenient method for gametocyte detection in comparison with the standard thick blood film and RT-PCR methods, and could readily be adapted to field application.

  7. Randomized Comparison of Whole Brain Radiotherapy, 20 Gy in Four Daily Fractions Versus 40 Gy in 20 Twice-Daily Fractions, for Brain Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, P.H.; Bucci, J.; Browne, L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The present study compared the intracranial control rate and quality of life for two radiation fractionation schemes for cerebral metastases. Methods and Materials: A total of 113 patients with a Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 2 months), absent, or concurrent presentation of extracranial disease were randomized to 40 Gy in 20 twice-daily fractions (Arm A) or 20 Gy in four daily fractions (Arm B), stratified by resection status. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life 30-item questionnaire was administered monthly during Year 1, bimonthly during Year 2, and then every 6 months to Year 5. Results: The patient age range was 28-83 years (mean 62). Of the 113 patients, 41 had undergone surgical resection, and 74 patients had extracranial disease (31 concurrent and 43 stable). The median survival time was 6.1 months in Arm A and 6.6 months in Arm B, and the overall 5-year survival rate was 3.5%. Intracranial progression occurred in 44% of Arm A and 64% of Arm B patients (p = .03). Salvage surgery or radiotherapy was used in 4% of Arm A patients and 21% of Arm B patients (p = .004). Death was attributed to central nervous system progression in 32% of patients in Arm A and 52% of patients in Arm B (p = .03). The toxicity was minimal, with a minor increase in short-term cutaneous reactions in Arm A. The patients' quality of life was not impaired by the more intense treatment in Arm A. Conclusion: Intracranial disease control was improved and the quality of life was maintained with 40 Gy in 20 twice-daily fractions. This schema should be considered for better prognosis subgroups of patients with cerebral metastases.

  8. Whole-abdomen radiotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma using twice-daily fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liauw, Stanley L.; Yeh, Alexander M.; Morris, Christopher G.; Olivier, Kenneth R.; Mendenhall, Nancy Price

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To report the tolerability and efficacy of twice-daily whole-abdomen irradiation (WAI) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Methods and Materials: Of 123 patients treated for NHL with WAI, 37% received previous chemotherapy, 28% received WAI as part of comprehensive lymphatic irradiation (CLI), and 32% received WAI for palliation. The median dose to the whole abdomen was 25.0 Gy, followed by a median tumor boost of 9.8 Gy in 58 patients. Fractionation was 1.0 Gy once daily (54%) or 0.8 Gy twice daily (46%). Blood counts were measured weekly. Results: At a median follow-up of 4.3 years, local control was 72% and overall survival was 55% at 5 years. Median time of WAI was 42 days for once-daily treatment and 32 days for twice-daily treatment. Patients receiving twice-daily WAI did not have a significantly higher rate of acute side effects (e.g., nausea, diarrhea, platelet or red blood cell toxicity). Overall, acute thrombocytopenia was the most frequent side effect of treatment; 24 of 96 patients (25%) with available hematologic data had Grade 3+ toxicity. There was no acute Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity and no late small bowel obstruction. Multiple regression indicated that patients with four or less involved sites and disease size ≤6 cm had improved local control and overall survival. Conclusions: Twice-daily WAI using 0.8 Gy/fraction does not appear to have any greater toxicity compared with once-daily treatment using 1 Gy/fraction. Small doses per fraction (0.8-1 Gy/fx) are effective, tolerated well in the acute setting, and associated with a low rate of late toxicity

  9. A No-Arbitrage Fractional Cointegration Model for Futures and Spot Daily Ranges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    The no-arbitrage relation between futures and spot prices implies an analogous relation between futures and spot daily ranges. The long-memory features of the range-based volatility estimators are analyzed, and fractional cointegration is tested in a semi-parametric framework. In particular, the no...... highlight the importance of incorporating the long-run equilibrium in volatilities to obtain better forecasts, given the information content in the volatility of futures prices....

  10. An Empirical Model Of Fractionally Cointegrated Daily High And Low Stock Market Prices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Dvořáková, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2015), s. 193-206 ISSN 0264-9993 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Keywords : fractional cointegration * long memory * range * volatility * daily high and low prices Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.997, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/barunik-0434888.pdf

  11. SU-E-J-53: A Phantom Design to Assist Patient Position Verification System in Daily Image-Guided RT and Comprehensive QA Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syh, J; Wu, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study is to implement a homemade novel device with surface locking couch index to check daily radiograph (DR) function of adaPTInsight™, stereoscopic image guided system (SIGS), for proton therapy. The comprehensive daily QA checks of proton pencil beam output, field size, flatness and symmetry of spots and energy layers will be followed by using MatriXX dosimetry device. Methods The iBa MatriXX device was used to perform daily dosimetry which is also used to perform SIGS checks. A set of markers were attached to surface of MatriXX device in alignment of DRR of reconstructed CT images and daily DR. The novel device allows MatriXX to be fit into the cradle which was locked by couch index bars on couch surface. This will keep the MatriXX at same XY plane daily with exact coordinates. Couch height Z will be adjusted according to imaging to check isocenter-laser coincidence accuracy. Results adaPTInsight™ provides robotic couch to move in 6-degree coordinate system to align the dosimetry device to be within 1.0 mm / 1.0°. The daily constancy was tightened to be ± 0.5 mm / 0.3° compared to 1.0 mm / 1.0° before. For gantry at 0° and couch all 0° angles (@ Rt ARM 0 setting), offsets measured of the couch systems were ≤ 0.5° in roll, yaw and pitch dimensions. Conclusion Simplicity of novel device made daily image guided QA consistent with accuracy. The offset of the MatriXX isocenter-laser coincident was reproducible. Such easy task not only speeds up the setup, but it increases confidence level in detailed daily comprehensive measurements. The total SIGS alignment time has been shortened with less setup error. This device will enhance our experiences for the future QA when cone beam CT imaging modality becomes available at proton therapy center

  12. A reanalysis of MODIS fine mode fraction over ocean using OMI and daily GOCART simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Jones

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Using daily Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART model simulations and columnar retrievals of 0.55 μm aerosol optical thickness (AOT and fine mode fraction (FMF from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, we estimate the satellite-derived aerosol properties over the global oceans between June 2006 and May 2007 due to black carbon (BC, organic carbon (OC, dust (DU, sea-salt (SS, and sulfate (SU components. Using Aqua-MODIS aerosol properties embedded in the CERES-SSF product, we find that the mean MODIS FMF values for each aerosol type are SS: 0.31 ± 0.09, DU: 0.49 ± 0.13, SU: 0.77 ± 0.16, and (BC + OC: 0.80 ± 0.16. We further combine information from the ultraviolet spectrum using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI onboard the Aura satellite to improve the classification process, since dust and carbonate aerosols have positive Aerosol Index (AI values >0.5 while other aerosol types have near zero values. By combining MODIS and OMI datasets, we were able to identify and remove data in the SU, OC, and BC regions that were not associated with those aerosol types.

    The same methods used to estimate aerosol size characteristics from MODIS data within the CERES-SSF product were applied to Level 2 (L2 MODIS aerosol data from both Terra and Aqua satellites for the same time period. As expected, FMF estimates from L2 Aqua data agreed well with the CERES-SSF dataset from Aqua. However, the FMF estimate for DU from Terra data was significantly lower (0.37 vs. 0.49 indicating that sensor calibration, sampling differences, and/or diurnal changes in DU aerosol size characteristics were occurring. Differences for other aerosol types were generally smaller. Sensitivity studies show that a difference of 0.1 in the estimate of the anthropogenic component of FMF produces a corresponding change of 0.2 in the anthropogenic component of AOT (assuming a unit value of AOT. This uncertainty would then be passed

  13. Radiation therapy in cancer patients with psoriasis. The fractionated daily dose and the Koebner phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Yosef, Rami; Soyfer, Vyacheslav; Vexler, Akiva

    2005-01-01

    Skin side effects following XRT take place more often in patients with skin disorders. In this study six patients with psoriatic lesions were evaluated. The total/daily XRT dose to the tumor site was 50-70/1.8-2.0 Gy. No debilitating effect of XRT was observed in both the psoriatic lesions and in the surrounding normal skin

  14. The effects of different multiple daily fractionation (MDF) on the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becciolini, A.; Balzi, M.; Cremonini, D.; Fabbrica, D.; Giache, V.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of 3 MDF were studied: 2Gyx3 x 2 with 8 h intervals (A), 2Gyx3 with 4 h intervals and after 16 h again 2Gyx3 (B), 3Gyx2 x 2 with 12 h intervals among fractions (C). The anaesthetized animals were exposed to a 60Co unit only on the abdomen. Brush border enzyme activity, lysosomal enzymes, protein content were studied. Qualitative and quantitative morphologic observations were carried on the proximal jejunum. Number of crypt and villus epithelial cells, mitotic and labelling indices, number of goblet cells and distribution of labelled cells in the crypt (after /sup 3/H Thymidine administration) were determined

  15. Accelerated partial breast irradiation using once-daily fractionation: analysis of 312 cases with four years median follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Arif Y

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited data on accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI using external beam techniques. Moreover, there are recent reports of increased fibrosis and unacceptable cosmesis with APBI using external beam with BID fractionation. We adopted a once daily regimen of APBI with fractionation similar to that shown to be effective in a Canadian randomized trial of whole breast irradiation. It is unclear whether patients with DCIS or invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC are suitable for APBI. Methods The retrospective cohort included 310 patients with 312 tumors of T1-T2N0-N1micM0 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC, ILC, or Tis (DCIS treated with APBI via external beam. Most patients were treated using IMRT with 16 daily fractions of 270 cGy to a dose of 4320 cGy. The target volume included the lumpectomy cavity plus 1.0 cm to account for microscopic disease and an additional 0.5 to 1.0 cm for setup uncertainty and breathing motion. Ipsilateral breast failure (IBF was pathologically confirmed as a local failure (LF or an elsewhere failure (EF. Results Median follow-up was 49 months. Among the 312 cases, 213 were IDC, 31 ILC, and 68 DCIS. Median tumor size was 1.0 cm. There were 9 IBFs (2.9% including 5 LFs and 4 EFs. The IBF rates among patients with IDC, ILC, and DCIS were 2.4%, 3.2%, and 4.4%, respectively, with no significant difference between histologies. When patients were analyzed by the ASTRO APBI consensus statement risk groups, 32% of treated cases were considered suitable, 50% cautionary, and 18% unsuitable. The IBF rates among suitable, cautionary, and unsuitable patients were 4.0%, 2.6%, and 1.8%, respectively, with no significant difference between risk groups. Acute skin reactions were rare and long-term cosmetic outcome was very good to excellent. Conclusions External beam APBI with once daily fractionation has a low rate of IBF consistent with other published APBI studies. The ASTRO risk stratification did not

  16. Phase I/II study of preoperative chemo-radiotherapy (CT-RT) using twice daily radiation as concomitant boost during two cycles of taxol (T), cisplatin (C), 5-FU (F) in esophageal cancer: normal tissue tolerance and early results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Noah; Lynch, Thomas; Mathisen, Douglas; Wain, John; Wright, Cameron; Carey, Robert; Grossbard, Michael; Grillo, Hermes

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Even though preoperative CT has failed to show survival benefit over surgery alone, preoperative CT-RT may provide such survival advantage. The goal of this study was to evaluate an intensified radiotherapy (RT) schedule in preoperative concurrent CT-RT for toxicities, resection rate, tumor downstaging, pathologic complete remission (CR) and treatment outcome. Materials and Methods: Eligibility included biopsy proven squamous or adenocarcinoma, T2-4N0-1M0 lesions, performance status ≤ 2 of ECOG scale, creatinine ≤ 2.0 mg/dl, WBC ≥ 2,500/μl, and platelets ≥ 75,000//μl. CT consisted of cisplatin (P) 20 mg/m 2 /day (d) x 5 d, 5-FU (F) 800 mg/m 2 /d continuous infusion x 5 d and Taxol (T) 75-125 mg/m 2 (3 hour infusion) on d1 of each cycle. RT delivered 58.5 Gy/34 fractions (F) /5 weeks (wks) to the gross tumor volume by a combination of 45 Gy/25 F/5 wks to a large target volume (6 cm proximal and distal, and 3 cm radial margins beyond the gross tumor) and a boost dose of 13.5 Gy/9 F (1.5 Gy/F x 5 d with the first cycle [wk 1] and 1.5 Gy/F x 4 d with the second cycle [wk 5] of CT) with an interval of ≥ 5 hours between RT to the gross tumor (am) and large target volume (pm) as a means of concomitant boost. Staging work up included barium swallow, chest and head computed tomography, bone scan, esophagoscopy, and endoscopic ultrasound study (EUS). Results: Between April 1995 and February 1997, 38 patients (pts) with locoregional esophageal cancer have been entered into this study. Patient characteristics were as follows: Age 33-84 (median 63), male: female 30 : 8, adenocarcinoma: squamous cell carcinoma 31 : 7. Tumor stages by EUS included T2N0 11 (29%), T2N1 3 (8%), T3N0 14 (37%), T3N1 8 (21%) and T4N0 2 (5%). Taxol dose was escalated from 75 mg/m 2 (7 pts) to 125 mg/m 2 (5 pts) at which dose limiting toxicities were observed in (3(5)) pts (myocardial infarction, pneumonia, grade 4 neutropenia). The remaining 26 pts have been treated with T

  17. Comparing the effect of multiple-dose and once-daily regimens of gentamicin therapy on fraction excretion of magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khalili

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to compare the influence of ordinary (multiple-dose and once-daily administration of gentamicin on tubular nephrotoxicity based on the urinary excretion of magnesium (Mg as an indicator for this type of side effect. Thirty-two hospitalized patients, who were assigned to receive at least 5-days treatment with gentamicin at the infectious disease ward of Imam Hospital in Tehran, were prospectively studied. Seventeen patients received multiple-doses of gentamicin per day and 15 patients received once-daily regimen. At the beginning and at the end of of gentamicin therapy, blood urea, serum creatinine (Cr and Mg levels were measured. Additionally 24-hour urine samples were collected for measurement of urinary volume, creatinine and Mg excretions. In both treatment groups serum Mg concentration was significantly lower and fraction excretion of (FEMg were considerably higher at the end of gentamicin therapy compared with the beginning of the treatment. However, the serum and urinary creatinine levels did not change significantly in the two groups

  18. An assessment of the effects of multiple daily fractionated radiation therapy and hyperthermia on tumor growth pattern in a C57BL/6J mouse ependymoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, K.H.; Cormack, D.V.

    1985-01-01

    Multiple Daily Fractionated (MDF) radiation therapy utilizes three fractions per day with an interval of 3 hours between fractions. In clinical studies a significant advantage of MDF radiation therapy over conventional radiation therapy has been shown. Since March 1984, the authors have been trying to improve the effectiveness of MDF radiation therapy by adding Hyperfractionated Hyperthermia (HH). HH was given 3 times for 30 minutes at 42.5 - 0.5 0 C immediately after irradiation. The preliminary assessment shows that there is a significant benefit in the MDF and HH combined therapy over the MDF alone. Thermal enhancement of normal skin reaction was monitored and no significant enhancement was seen

  19. A comparison of the sensitivities of detection of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes by magnetic fractionation, thick blood film microscopy, and RT-PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Karl, Stephan; Davis, Timothy ME; St-Pierre, Tim G

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The magnetic properties of Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes have been exploited for different clinical and research purposes. A recent study in a rural clinical setting in Papua New Guinea has demonstrated that Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte detection is facilitated by magnetic deposition microscopy but no study has yet determined the relative sensitivity and limit of detection of a magnetic fractionation technique. The present study compares the detection limit and sens...

  20. Three-year outcomes of a once daily fractionation scheme for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using 3-D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Sharad; Daroui, Parima; Khan, Atif J; Kearney, Thomas; Kirstein, Laurie; Haffty, Bruce G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report 3-year outcomes of toxicity, cosmesis, and local control using a once daily fractionation scheme (49.95 Gy in 3.33 Gy once daily fractions) for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Between July 2008 and August 2010, women aged ≥40 years with ductal carcinoma in situ or node-negative invasive breast cancer ≤3 cm in diameter, treated with breast-conserving surgery achieving negative margins, were accrued to a prospective study. Women were treated with APBI using 3–5 photon beams, delivering 49.95 Gy over 15 once daily fractions over 3 weeks. Patients were assessed for toxicities, cosmesis, and local control rates before APBI and at specified time points. Thirty-four patients (mean age 60 years) with Tis 0 (n = 9) and T1N0 (n = 25) breast cancer were treated and followed up for an average of 39 months. Only 3% (1/34) patients experienced a grade 3 subcutaneous fibrosis and breast edema and 97% of the patients had good/excellent cosmetic outcome at 3 years. The 3-year rate of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) was 0% while the rate of contralateral breast events was 6%. The 3-year disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) was 94%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Our novel accelerated partial breast fractionation scheme of 15 once daily fractions of 3.33 Gy (49.95 Gy total) is a remarkably well-tolerated regimen of 3D-CRT-based APBI. A larger cohort of patients is needed to further ascertain the toxicity of this accelerated partial breast regimen

  1. Clinical Evaluation of a Laser Surface Scanning System in 120 Patients for Improving Daily Setup Accuracy in Fractionated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Torsten, E-mail: t.moser@dkfz.de [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Habl, Gregor; Uhl, Matthias; Schubert, Kai; Sroka-Perez, Gabriele; Debus, Jürgen; Herfarth, Klaus [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Karger, Christian P. [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical suitability of a specific optical surface imaging system to detect setup errors in fractionated radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The setup correction accuracy of a 3-dimensional laser imaging system was analyzed for 6 different tumor locations with 20 patients each. For each patient, the setup corrections of the megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) images of a TomoTherapy unit (TomoTherapy, Madison, WI) were compared with those of the laser system for the first 10 fractions. For the laser system, the reference surface either was obtained from the DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) surface structure delineated on the planning computed tomography images or was acquired with the system itself at the first fraction after the MVCT-based setup correction. Data analysis was performed for both reference types. Results: By use of the DICOM reference image, systematic shifts between 3 and 9 mm were found, depending on the tumor location. For the optical reference, no clinically relevant systematic shifts were found. MVCT-based setup corrections were detected with high accuracy, and only small movements were observed during treatment. Conclusions: Using a reference image acquired with the laser system itself after MVCT-based setup correction appears more reliable than importing the DICOM reference surface. After generation of the optical reference, the laser system may be used to derive setup corrections over a certain number of fractions, but additional radiologic imaging may still be necessary on a regular basis (eg, weekly) or if the corrections of the optical system appear implausibly large. Nevertheless, such a combined application may help to reduce the imaging dose for the patient.

  2. Responses of rat R-1 cells to low dose rate gamma radiation and multiple daily dose fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kal, H.B.; Bijman, J.Th.

    1981-01-01

    Multifraction irradiation may offer the same therapeutic gain as continuous irradiation. Therefore, a comparison of the efficacy of low dose rate irradiation and multifraction irradiation was the main objective of the experiments to be described. Both regimens were tested on rat rhabdomyosarcoma (R-1) cells in vitro and in vivo. Exponentially growing R-1 cells were treated in vitro by a multifraction irradiation procedure with dose fractions of 2 Gy gamma radiation and time intervals of 1 to 3 h. The dose rate was 1.3 Gy.min -1 . The results indicate that multifractionation of the total dose is more effective with respect to cell inactivation than continuous irradiation. (Auth.)

  3. Analysis of inter-fraction setup errors and organ motion by daily kilovoltage cone beam computed tomography in intensity modulated radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palombarini, Marcella; Mengoli, Stefano; Fantazzini, Paola; Cadioli, Cecilia; Degli Esposti, Claudio; Frezza, Giovanni Piero

    2012-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) enables a better conformality to the target while sparing the surrounding normal tissues and potentially allows to increase the dose to the target, if this is precisely and accurately determined. The goal of this work is to determine inter-fraction setup errors and prostate motion in IMRT for localized prostate cancer, guided by daily kilovoltage cone beam computed tomography (kVCBCT). Systematic and random components of the shifts were retrospectively evaluated by comparing two matching modalities (automatic bone and manual soft-tissue) between each of the 641 daily kVCBCTs (18 patients) and the planning kVCT. A simulated Adaptive Radiation Therapy (ART) protocol using the average of the first 5 kVCBCTs was tested by non-parametric bootstrapping procedure. Shifts were < 1 mm in left-right (LR) and in supero-inferior (SI) direction. In antero-posterior (AP) direction systematic prostate motion (2.7 ± 0.7 mm) gave the major contribution to the variability of results; the averages of the absolute total shifts were significantly larger in anterior (6.3 ± 0.2 mm) than in posterior (3.9 mm ± 0.2 mm) direction. The ART protocol would reduce margins in LR, SI and anterior but not in posterior direction. The online soft-tissue correction based on daily kVCBCT during IMRT of prostate cancer is fast and efficient. The large random movements of prostate respect to bony anatomy, especially in the AP direction, where anisotropic margins are needed, suggest that daily kVCBCT is at the present time preferable for high dose and high gradients IMRT prostate treatments

  4. An anti-angiogenic agent (TNP-470) inhibited reoxygenation during fractionated radiotherapy of murine mammary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumi, Murata; Yasumasa, Nishimura; Masahiro, Hiraoka

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Angio genesis is one of the important factors for tumor growth. Therefore, an angio genesis inhibitor might decelerate tumor repopulation and is expected to improve the tumor control rate in fractionated radiotherapy (RT). On the other hand, it might increase hypoxic fraction of tumors or inhibit tumor reoxygenation during fractionated RT. This study investigated the effects of an angio genesis inhibitor on fractionated RT. Materials and Methods: Animal-tumors were early generation iso transplants of mammary carcinoma in C3H/He mice. Tumor response was studied by tumor growth (TG) time and TCD-50 (50% tumor control dose) assays. Treatments were started when tumors on the right paw grew 4-5 mm in diameter. Radiation was locally given to tumors in air or under hypoxic condition. An angio genesis inhibitor, TNP-470, a synthetic analogue of fumagillin which is a natural product of Aspergillus fumigatus, has been reported to inhibit endothelial cell growth in vitro. TNP-470 was administered s.c. twice a week at a dose of 100mg/kg. In the TG time assay, fractionated RT was delivered daily for 5 days to a total dose of 10Gy (2Gy/fraction x 5). Two or four doses of TNP-470 were administered during and/or after fractionated RT. The time required for a tumor to reach 3-fold of initial tumor volume (TG time) was determined for each group. In the TCD-50 assay, a single or fractionated irradiation was given alone or in combination with TNP-470. Fractionated irradiation was delivered daily, five times per week, over two weeks (10 fractions). One dose of TNP-470 was administered 24 h prior to a single dose of irradiation, whereas four doses of TNP-470 were given during fractionated RT. Tumors were observed for recurrence once a week for 120 days following the end of RT. Results: The TG time for no treatment group, a group treated with fractionated RT alone, or two doses of TNP-470 alone was 5.3 days (95% confidence limits: 4.8-5.9), 15.6 days (15.1-16.1) or 7.8 days (7

  5. Variations in automatically recorded rumination time as explained by variations in intake of dietary fractions and milk production, and between-cow variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, Malene Vesterager; Nadeau, E.; Johansson, B. E. O.

    2015-01-01

    of different dietary fractions, the relationship between RT in minutes per kilogram of dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production, and to examine the variation in RT within and between mid-lactating dairy cows. Data from 3 production trials were used in which a total of 27 different diets were fed. The data...... in milk, and parity was used to analyze the relationship between RT and the selected dietary fractions. Relationships between RT in minutes per kilogram of DMI and milk yield and milk components were analyzed, using the same multivariate model as in step 2. Approximately 32% of the variation in daily RT...... related to daily RT. Rumination time in minutes per kilogram of DMI was negatively related to milk yield and protein percentage, but positively related to milk fat percentage....

  6. Patients with coronary stenosis and a fractional flow reserve of ≥0.75 measured in daily practice at the VU University Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, N.; Marques, K.M.; Bronzwaer, J.G.F.; Brinckman, S.; Allaart, C.P.; de Cock, C.C.; Appelman, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to analyse the rate of major adverse clinical events in patients with coronary artery disease and a fractional flow reserve (FFR) of ≥0.75 and deferred for coronary intervention in daily practice. Methods. From 1 January to 31 December 2006, FFR measurement was initiated in 122 patients (5%) out of 2444 patients referred for coronary angiography. In two patients FFR measurement failed and in one patient the FFR value could no longer be traced in the documents. Thus, 119 patients (84 men, 64 years, range 41-85) were included in the evaluation (145 lesions). Major adverse clinical events (death, myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)) and the presence of angina were evaluated at follow-up. Furthermore a cost-effectiveness analysis was performed. Results. In 93 patients (76%) the FFR value was ≥0.75. Seventy of these 93 patients (76%) were treated with medication alone or underwent PCI for a different lesion (medical treatment group). Average duration of follow-up of all 119 patients was 22 months (range 4 days to 30 months). In the medical treatment group seven patients (10%) experienced a major adverse clinical event related to the FFR-evaluated lesion during follow-up. In this study population, the use of FFR measurement is cost-reducing provided that at least 65% of the patients in the medical treatment group has had a PCI with stent implantation when the use of FFR measurement is impossible. In this case, the decision to use PCI with stent implantation is purely based on the angiogram. Conclusions. In patients with a coronary stenosis based on visual assessment and an FFR of ≥0.75 deferral of PCI or CABG is safe in daily clinical practice and saves money. (Neth Heart J 2010;18:402–7.) PMID:20862234

  7. Long term results of comparison of concurrent low-dose daily cisplatin versus the standard weekly cisplatin with six fractions per week radiotherapy in locally advanced head neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: Weekly administration of cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum [CDDP] appears more feasible and substantially more popular than the 3 weekly schedules due to better compliance. Different concurrent cisplatin schedules have been attempted including a daily schedule. We did a comparison of two consecutive single arm studies, i.e., use of weekly cisplatin versus daily cisplatin when used with concurrently with a moderately accelerated radiotherapy (RT schedule. Patients and Methods: Two prospective feasibility, safety and efficacy studies were carried out consecutively within the department. The weekly CDDP study was done from August 2003 to August 2005 and daily CDDP study was conducted from November 2005 to June 2007. Both studies included locally advanced stage III and IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region with RT dose of 70 Gy. Concurrent single-agent cisplatin was administered weekly (35 mg/m 2 in the first and daily (6 mg/m 2 in the second study. Results: Weekly cisplatin study had 68 and daily CDDP study had 52 patients. The median follow-up in the two studies was 93 and 63 months, respectively. Compliance in the two studies was comparable. Acute Grade III/IV mucositis and dysphagia were significantly higher in weekly cisplatin study. Late Grade II/III toxicities such as xerostomia, dysphagia, ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity were similar. The 5 years locoregional control was 18% and 25% and 5 years overall survival rate was 32% and 31% in weekly and daily cisplatin studies, respectively. Conclusions: Modest acceleration along with either "weekly" or "daily" cisplatin, whichever is possible in one′s setup, is do-able, provided due attention is paid to patient selection and supportive care.

  8. Protocol for the CONVERT trial-Concurrent ONce-daily VErsus twice-daily RadioTherapy: an international 2-arm randomised controlled trial of concurrent chemoradiotherapy comparing twice-daily and once-daily radiotherapy schedules in patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) and good performance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Falk, Sally; Ashcroft, Linda; Bewley, Michelle; Lorigan, Paul; Wilson, Elena; Groom, Nicki; Snee, Michael; Fournel, Pierre; Cardenal, Felipe; Bezjak, Andrea; Blackhall, Fiona

    2016-01-20

    Concurrent ONce-daily VErsus twice-daily RadioTherapy (CONVERT) is the only multicentre, international, randomised, phase III trial open in Europe and Canada looking at optimisation of chemoradiotherapy (RT) in limited stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC). Following on from the Turrisi trial of once-daily versus twice-daily (BD) concurrent chemoradiotherapy, there is a real need for a new phase III trial using modern conformal RT techniques and investigating higher once-daily radiation dose. This trial has the potential to define a new standard chemo-RT regimen for patients with LS-SCLC and good performance status. 447 patients with histologically or cytologically proven diagnosis of SCLC were recruited from 74 centres in eight countries between 2008 and 2013. Patients were randomised to receive either concurrent twice-daily RT(45 Gy in 30 twice-daily fractions over 3 weeks) or concurrent once-daily RT(66 Gy in 33 once-daily fractions over 6.5 weeks) both starting on day 22 of cycle 1. Patients are followed up until death. The primary end point of the study is overall survival and secondary end points include local progression-free survival, metastasis-free survival, acute and late toxicity based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events V.3.0, chemotherapy and RTdose intensity. The trial received ethical approval from NRES Committee North West-Greater Manchester Central (07/H1008/229). There is a trial steering committee, including independent members and an independent data monitoring committee. Results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international conferences. ISRCTN91927162; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. External Beam Accelerated Partial-Breast Irradiation Using 32 Gy in 8 Twice-Daily Fractions: 5-Year Results of a Prospective Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashtan, Itai M. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Recht, Abram [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ancukiewicz, Marek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brachtel, Elena [Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Abi-Raad, Rita F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); D' Alessandro, Helen A. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Levy, Antonin; Wo, Jennifer Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hirsch, Ariel E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kachnic, Lisa A. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Goldberg, Saveli [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Specht, Michelle; Gadd, Michelle; Smith, Barbara L. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Powell, Simon N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G., E-mail: ataghian@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: External beam accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an increasingly popular technique for treatment of patients with early stage breast cancer following breast-conserving surgery. Here we present 5-year results of a prospective trial. Methods and Materials: From October 2003 through November 2005, 98 evaluable patients with stage I breast cancer were enrolled in the first dose step (32 Gy delivered in 8 twice-daily fractions) of a prospective, multi-institutional, dose escalation clinical trial of 3-dimensional conformal external beam APBI (3D-APBI). Median age was 61 years; median tumor size was 0.8 cm; 89% of tumors were estrogen receptor positive; 10% had a triple-negative phenotype; and 1% had a HER-2-positive subtype. Median follow-up was 71 months (range, 2-88 months; interquartile range, 64-75 months). Results: Five patients developed ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), for a 5-year actuarial IBTR rate of 5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1%-10%). Three of these cases occurred in patients with triple-negative disease and 2 in non-triple-negative patients, for 5-year actuarial IBTR rates of 33% (95% CI, 0%-57%) and 2% (95% CI, 0%-6%; P<.0001), respectively. On multivariable analysis, triple-negative phenotype was the only predictor of IBTR, with borderline statistical significance after adjusting for tumor grade (P=.0537). Conclusions: Overall outcomes were excellent, particularly for patients with estrogen receptor-positive disease. Patients in this study with triple-negative breast cancer had a significantly higher IBTR rate than patients with other receptor phenotypes when treated with 3D-APBI. Larger, prospective 3D-APBI clinical trials should continue to evaluate the effect of hormone receptor phenotype on IBTR rates.

  10. OMI/Aura TOMS-Like Ozone and Radiative Cloud Fraction Daily L3 Global 0.25x0.25 deg V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Version-003 of Level-3 Aura/OMI daily global TOMS-Like Total Column Ozone gridded product (OMTO3e) is generated by the NASA OMI science team by picking the best...

  11. OMI/Aura TOMS-Like Ozone, Aerosol Index, Cloud Radiance Fraction Daily L3 Global 1.0x1.0 deg V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Level-3 Aura/OMI daily global TOMS-Like Total Column Ozone gridded product (OMTO3d) is generated by the NASA OMI science team by gridding and averaging only good...

  12. Mystery Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sonalee; Namakshi, Nama; Zunker, Christina; Warshauer, Hiroko K.; Warshauer, Max

    2016-01-01

    Making math more engaging for students is a challenge that every teacher faces on a daily basis. These authors write that they are constantly searching for rich problem-solving tasks that cover the necessary content, develop critical-thinking skills, and engage student interest. The Mystery Fraction activity provided here focuses on a key number…

  13. NASA SPoRT Modeling and Data Assimilation Research and Transition Activities Using WRF, LIS and GSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Blankenship, Clay B.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Berndt, Emily B.

    2014-01-01

    weather research and forecasting ===== The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program has numerous modeling and data assimilation (DA) activities in which the WRF model is a key component. SPoRT generates realtime, research satellite products from the MODIS and VIIRS instruments, making the data available to NOAA/NWS partners running the WRF/EMS, including: (1) 2-km northwestern-hemispheric SST composite, (2) daily, MODIS green vegetation fraction (GVF) over CONUS, and (3) NASA Land Information System (LIS) runs of the Noah LSM over the southeastern CONUS. Each of these datasets have been utilized by specific SPoRT partners in local EMS model runs, with select offices evaluating the impacts using a set of automated scripts developed by SPoRT that manage data acquisition and run the NCAR Model Evaluation Tools verification package. SPoRT is engaged in DA research with the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) and Ensemble Kalman Filter in LIS for soil moisture DA. Ongoing DA projects using GSI include comparing the impacts of assimilating Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) radiances versus retrieved profiles, and an analysis of extra-tropical cyclones with intense non-convective winds. As part of its Early Adopter activities for the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, SPoRT is conducting bias correction and soil moisture DA within LIS to improve simulations using the NASA Unified-WRF (NU-WRF) for both the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity and upcoming SMAP mission data. SPoRT has also incorporated real-time global GVF data into LIS and WRF from the VIIRS product being developed by NOAA/NESDIS. This poster will highlight the research and transition activities SPoRT conducts using WRF, NU-WRF, EMS, LIS, and GSI.

  14. NASA SPoRT Initialization Datasets for Local Model Runs in the Environmental Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Carcione, Brian; Wood, Lance; Maloney, Joseph; Estupinan, Jeral; Medlin, Jeffrey M.; Blottman, Peter; Rozumalski, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed several products for its National Weather Service (NWS) partners that can be used to initialize local model runs within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Environmental Modeling System (EMS). These real-time datasets consist of surface-based information updated at least once per day, and produced in a composite or gridded product that is easily incorporated into the WRF EMS. The primary goal for making these NASA datasets available to the WRF EMS community is to provide timely and high-quality information at a spatial resolution comparable to that used in the local model configurations (i.e., convection-allowing scales). The current suite of SPoRT products supported in the WRF EMS include a Sea Surface Temperature (SST) composite, a Great Lakes sea-ice extent, a Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVF) composite, and Land Information System (LIS) gridded output. The SPoRT SST composite is a blend of primarily the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) infrared and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System data for non-precipitation coverage over the oceans at 2-km resolution. The composite includes a special lake surface temperature analysis over the Great Lakes using contributions from the Remote Sensing Systems temperature data. The Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory Ice Percentage product is used to create a sea-ice mask in the SPoRT SST composite. The sea-ice mask is produced daily (in-season) at 1.8-km resolution and identifies ice percentage from 0 100% in 10% increments, with values above 90% flagged as ice.

  15. Normal tissue sparing in a phase II trial on daily adaptive plan selection in radiotherapy for urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Anne; Muren, Ludvig P; Lindberg, Henriette; Jakobsen, Kirsten L; Petersen, Jørgen B B; Elstrøm, Ulrik V; Agerbæk, Mads; Høyer, Morten

    2014-08-01

    Background: Patients with urinary bladder cancer often display large changes in the shape and size of their bladder target during a course of radiotherapy (RT), making adaptive RT (ART) appealing for this tumour site. We are conducting a clinical phase II trial of daily plan selection-based ART for bladder cancer and here report dose-volume data from the first 20 patients treated in the trial. All patients received 60 Gy in 30 fractions to the bladder; in 13 of the patients the pelvic lymph nodes were simultaneously treated to 48 Gy. Daily patient set-up was by use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) guidance. The first 5 fractions were delivered with large, population-based (non-adaptive) margins. The bladder contours from the CBCTs acquired in the first 4 fractions were used to create a patient-specific library of three plans, corresponding to a small, medium and large size bladder. From fraction 6, daily online plan selection was performed, where the smallest plan covering the bladder was selected prior to each treatment delivery. A total of 600 treatment fractions in the 20 patients were evaluated. Small, medium and large size plans were used almost equally often, with an average of 10, 9 and 11 fractions, respectively. The median volume ratio of the course-averaged PTV (PTV-ART) relative to the non-adaptive PTV was 0.70 (range: 0.46-0.89). A linear regression analysis showed a 183 cm(3) (CI 143-223 cm(3)) reduction in PTV-ART compared to the non-adaptive PTV (R(2) = 0.94). Daily adaptive plan selection in RT of bladder cancer results in a considerable normal tissue sparing, of a magnitude that we expect will translate into a clinically significant reduction of the treatment-related morbidity.

  16. Observability of market daily volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  17. SU-G-JeP3-02: Comparison of Magnitude and Frequency of Patient Positioning Errors in Breast Irradiation Using AlignRT 3D Optical Surface Imaging and Skin Mark Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, R; Chisela, W; Dorbu, G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate clinical usefulness of AlignRT (Vision RT Ltd., London, UK) in reducing patient positioning errors in breast irradiation. Methods: 60 patients undergoing whole breast irradiation were selected for this study. Patients were treated to the left or right breast lying on Qfix Access breast board (Qfix, Avondale, PA) in supine position for 28 fractions using tangential fields. 30 patients were aligned using AlignRT by aligning a breast surface region of interest (ROI) to the same area from a reference surface image extracted from planning CT. When the patient’s surface image deviated from the reference by more than 3mm on one or more translational and rotational directions, a new reference was acquired using AlignRT in-room cameras. The other 30 patients were aligned to the skin marks with room lasers. On-Board MV portal images of medial field were taken daily and matched to the DRRs. The magnitude and frequency of positioning errors were determined from measured translational shifts. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate statistical differences of positional accuracy and precision between AlignRT and non-AlignRT patients. Results: The percentage of port images with no shift required was 46.5% and 27.0% in vertical, 49.8% and 25.8% in longitudinal, 47.6% and 28.5% in lateral for AlignRT and non-AlignRT patients, respectively. The percentage of port images requiring more than 3mm shifts was 18.1% and 35.1% in vertical, 28.6% and 50.8% in longitudinal, 11.3% and 24.2% in lateral for AlignRT and non-AlignRT patients, respectively. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed that there were significant differences between the frequency distributions of AlignRT and non-AlignRT in vertical, longitudinal, and lateral shifts. Conclusion: As confirmed by port images, AlignRT-assisted patient positioning can significantly reduce the frequency and magnitude of patient setup errors in breast irradiation compared to the use of lasers and skin marks.

  18. The early supra-additive apoptotic response of R3327-G prostate tumors to androgen ablation and radiation is not sustained with multiple fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, Alan; Ashoori, Faramarz; Sikes, Charles; Lim Joon, Daryl; Eschenbach, Andrew C. von; Zagars, Gunar K.; Meistrich, Marvin L.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The treatment of R3327-G tumor-bearing rats with androgen ablation (AA) via castration results in a supra-additive increase in apoptosis when 2-8 Gy γ-irradiation (RT) is given as a single dose 3-14 days afterwards. We report here the dose response and effect of multiple fractions on this supra-additive apoptotic response. Materials and Methods: Dunning R3327-G tumors were grown in the flanks of Copenhagen rats and the experiments were initiated at a tumor volume of 1.0-1.5 cc. Androgen ablation was achieved by castration 3 days prior to γ-irradiation. Apoptosis was measured with a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling assay 6-h after RT, unless otherwise specified. Results: The dose response of the supra-additive apoptotic response was assessed by irradiating castrated animals with single doses of 2, 4, 8, or 16 Gy (n = 5 per group); tumor cell apoptosis at 6-h following irradiation was 2.4% ± 0.7% (± SEM), 4.2% ± 0.8%, 6.5% ± 1.4%, and 1.6% ± 0.3%, respectively. The RT only and AA only controls had < 1% apoptosis. The effect of fractionated RT on apoptosis was investigated to determine if the supra-additive apoptotic response was sustained with repeated 2-8 Gy fractions. When tumor-bearing animals were treated with repeated daily 2-Gy fractions, there was a reduction in the level of the supra-additive apoptotic response. After five 2-Gy fractions at 24-h intervals, apoptosis in the combined treated tumors was at levels seen in the AA controls. This raised the possibility that more than 24 h are required for recovery of the high supra-additive apoptotic levels seen after one fraction. When the interfraction interval was extended to 96 h, there was no significant increase in apoptosis over the additive effect of AA and RT. Although there was a decline in supra-additive apoptosis with repeated fractions, a dose response for tumor growth delay was evident for RT alone using 2.5-Gy fractions. Moreover, the combination of

  19. Daily cone-beam computed tomography used to determine tumour shrinkage and localisation in lung cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquard Knap, Marianne; Nordsmark, Marianne (Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Oncology, Aarhus (Denmark)), E-mail: mariknap@rm.dk; Hoffmann, Lone; Vestergaard, Anne (Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Medical Physics, Aarhus (Denmark))

    2010-10-15

    Purpose/Objective. Daily Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in room imaging is used to determine tumour shrinkage during a full radiotherapy (RT) course. In addition, relative interfractional tumour and lymph node motion is determined for each RT fraction. Material and methods. From November 2009 to March 2010, 20 consecutive lung cancer patients (14 NSCLC, 6 SCLC) were followed with daily CBCT during RT. The gross tumour volume for lung tumour (GTV-t) was visible in all daily CBCT scans and was delineated at the beginning, at the tenth and the 20th fraction, and at the end of treatment. Whenever visible, the gross tumour volume for lymph nodes (GTV-n) was also delineated. The GTV-t and GTV-n volumes were determined. All patients were setup according to an online bony anatomy match. Retrospectively, matching based on the internal target volume (ITV), the GTV-t or the GTV-n was performed. Results. In eight patients, we observed a significant GTV-t shrinkage (15-40%) from the planning CT until the last CBCT. Only five patients presented a significant shrinkage (21-37%) in the GTV-n. Using the daily CBCT imaging, it was found that the mean value of the difference between a setup using the skin tattoo and an online matching using the ITV was 7.3+-2.9 mm (3D vector in the direction of ITV). The mean difference between the ITV and bony anatomy matching was 3.0+-1.3 mm. Finally, the mean distance between the GTV-t and the GTV-N was 2.9+-1.6 mm. Conclusion. One third of all patients with lung cancer undergoing chemo-RT achieved significant tumour shrinkage from planning CT until the end of the radiotherapy. Differences in GTV-t and GTV-n motion was observed and matching using the ITV including both GTV-t and GTV-n is therefore preferable.

  20. Early Assessment of Treatment Responses During Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer Using Quantitative Analysis of Daily Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Jijo; Yang, Cungeng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Wu, Hui [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Tai, An [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Dalah, Entesar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Department of Medical Diagnostic Imaging, College of Health Science, University of Sharjah (United Arab Emirates); Zheng, Cheng [Biostatistics, Joseph. J. Zilber School of Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Johnstone, Candice [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Kong, Feng-Ming [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Gore, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Li, X. Allen, E-mail: ali@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate early tumor and normal tissue responses during the course of radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer using quantitative analysis of daily computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods and Materials: Daily diagnostic-quality CT scans acquired using CT-on-rails during CT-guided RT for 20 lung cancer patients were quantitatively analyzed. On each daily CT set, the contours of the gross tumor volume (GTV) and lungs were generated and the radiation dose delivered was reconstructed. The changes in CT image intensity (Hounsfield unit [HU]) features in the GTV and the multiple normal lung tissue shells around the GTV were extracted from the daily CT scans. The associations between the changes in the mean HUs, GTV, accumulated dose during RT delivery, and patient survival rate were analyzed. Results: During the RT course, radiation can induce substantial changes in the HU histogram features on the daily CT scans, with reductions in the GTV mean HUs (dH) observed in the range of 11 to 48 HU (median 30). The dH is statistically related to the accumulated GTV dose (R{sup 2} > 0.99) and correlates weakly with the change in GTV (R{sup 2} = 0.3481). Statistically significant increases in patient survival rates (P=.038) were observed for patients with a higher dH in the GTV. In the normal lung, the 4 regions proximal to the GTV showed statistically significant (P<.001) HU reductions from the first to last fraction. Conclusion: Quantitative analysis of the daily CT scans indicated that the mean HUs in lung tumor and surrounding normal tissue were reduced during RT delivery. This reduction was observed in the early phase of the treatment, is patient specific, and correlated with the delivered dose. A larger HU reduction in the GTV correlated significantly with greater patient survival. The changes in daily CT features, such as the mean HU, can be used for early assessment of the radiation response during RT delivery for lung cancer.

  1. Patterns of Local Recurrence and Dose Fractionation of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy in 462 Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcoma of Extremity and Trunk Wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jebsen, Nina L., E-mail: nina.louise.jebsen@helse-bergen.no [Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Department of Oncology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Engellau, Jacob [Department of Oncology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Engström, Katarina [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Bauer, Henrik C. [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Monge, Odd R. [Department of Oncology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Muren, Ludvig P. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Department of Medical Physics, Aarhus University and Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Eide, Geir E. [Centre for Clinical Research, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Trovik, Clement S. [Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Department of Oncology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Bruland, Øyvind S. [Department of Oncology, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of dose fractionation of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) on local recurrence (LR) and the relation of LR to radiation fields. Methods and Materials: LR rates were analyzed in 462 adult patients with soft tissue sarcoma who underwent surgical excision and adjuvant RT at five Scandinavian sarcoma centers from 1998 to 2009. Medical records were reviewed for dose fractionation parameters and to determine the location of the LR relative to the radiation portals. Results: Fifty-five of 462 patients developed a LR (11.9%). Negative prognostic factors included intralesional surgical margin (hazard ratio [HR]: 7.83, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.08-20.0), high malignancy grade (HR: 5.82, 95% CI: 1.31-25.8), age at diagnosis (HR per 10 years: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.03-1.56), and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor histological subtype (HR: 6.66, 95% CI: 2.56-17.3). RT dose was tailored to margin status. No correlation between RT dose and LR rate was found in multiple Cox regression analysis. The majority (65%) of LRs occurred within the primary RT volume. Conclusions: No significant dose–response effect of adjuvant RT was demonstrated. Interestingly, patients given 45-Gy accelerated RT (1.8 Gy twice daily/2.5 weeks) had the best local outcome. A total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions seemed adequate following wide margin surgery. The risk of LR was associated with histopathologic subtype, which should be included in the treatment algorithm of adjuvant RT in soft tissue sarcoma.

  2. Repopulation of FaDu human squamous cell carcinoma during fractionated radiotherapy correlates with reoxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Cordula; Zips, Daniel; Krause, Mechthild; Schoene, Kerstin; Eicheler, Wolfgang; Hoinkis, Cordelia; Thames, Howard D.; Baumann, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: FaDu human squamous cell carcinoma (FaDu-hSCC) showed a clear-cut time factor during fractionated radiotherapy (RT) under ambient blood flow. It remained unclear whether this is caused solely by proliferation or if radioresistance resulting from increasing hypoxia contributed to this phenomenon. To address this question, repopulation of clonogenic FaDu cells during fractionated RT under clamp hypoxia was determined by local tumor control assays, and compared to the results after irradiation with the same regimen under ambient blood flow. Methods and Materials: FaDu-hSCC was transplanted into the right hind leg of NMRI nu/nu mice. In the first set of experiments, irradiation was performed under clamp hypoxia. After increasing numbers of 3 Gy fractions (time intervals 24 h or 48 h), graded top-up doses were given to determine the TCD 50 (dose required to control 50% of the tumors). In the second set of experiments, all 3 Gy fractions were applied under ambient conditions, but as in the previous experiments the graded top-up doses were given under clamp hypoxia. A total of 26 TCD 50 assays were performed and analyzed using maximum likelihood techniques. Results: With increasing numbers of daily fractions, the top-up TCD 50 under clamp hypoxia decreased from 39.4 Gy [95% CI 36, 42] after single dose to 19.8 Gy [15, 24] after 18 fractions in 18 days and to 37.8 Gy [31, 44] after 18 fractions in 36 days. The results were consistent with biphasic repopulation, with a switch to rapid repopulation after about 22 days [13, 30]. The clonogen doubling time (T clon ) decreased from 9.8 days [0, 21] in the beginning of RT to 3.4 days after 22 days. Under ambient blood flow the top-up TCD 50 decreased from 37.6 Gy [34, 40] after single dose irradiation to 0 Gy [0, 1] after 18 fractions in 18 days and 22.4 Gy [18, 27] after 18 fractions in 36 days. Similar to results from irradiations under clamp hypoxia, the ambient data were consistent with a biphasic course of clonogen

  3. Single fraction versus multiple fraction radiotherapy for palliation of painful vertebral bone metastases: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipanjan Majumder

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Different fractionation of radiation has same response and toxicity in treatment of vertebral bone metastasis. Single fraction RT may be safely used to treat these cases as this is more cost effective and less time consuming. Studies may be conducted to find out particular subgroup of patients to be benefitted more by either fractionation schedule; however, our study cannot comment on that issue.

  4. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, T.P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Jones, N.L. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  5. Radiation in daily life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Rodriguez, P.

    1999-01-01

    The medical community benefits on a daily basis from the ionizing radiations used in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. The doses received in the medical field are only a small fraction of the total radiation received in a year. This bibliographic review has several objectives. The first one is to present the different components of natural radiation (background radiation). Secondly, it will introduce many consumer products that contain radioactive sources and expose our bodies. Third, arguments to diminish the radiation phobia will be presented and finally an easy to understand dosimetric magnitude will be introduced for the physician, the technologist and the patient. (author) [es

  6. Using CoRT Thinking in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Timothy M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes the use of Edward de Bono's CoRT (Cognitive Research Trust) program in English classes during the past five years at Memorial Junior High School in Valley Stream, New York. CoRT tools were used to analyze literary characters and plot development and to generate and organize ideas for writing assignments. (TE)

  7. OMI/Aura Effective Cloud Pressure and Fraction (Raman Scattering) Daily L2 Global Gridded 0.25 degree x 0.25 degree V3 (OMCLDRRG) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level-2G daily global gridded product OMCLDRRG is based on the pixel level OMI Level-2 CLDRR product OMCLDRR. This level-2G global cloud product (OMCLDRRG)...

  8. Effect of low frequency ultrasound on combined rt-PA and eptifibatide thrombolysis in human clots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Jason M; Holland, Christy K; Pancioli, Arthur M; Lindsell, Christopher J; Shaw, George J

    2009-01-01

    Fibrinolytics such as recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) are used to treat thrombotic disease such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and ischemic stroke. Interest in increasing efficacy and reducing side effects has led to the study of adjuncts such as GP IIb-IIIa inhibitors and ultrasound (US) enhanced thrombolysis. Currently, GP IIb-IIIa inhibitor and fibrinolytic treatment are often used in AMI, and are under investigation for stroke treatment. However, little is known of the efficacy of combined GP IIb-IIIa inhibitor, fibrinolytic and ultrasound treatment. We measure the lytic efficacy of rt-PA, eptifibatide (Epf) and 120 kHz ultrasound treatment in an in-vitro human clot model. Blood was drawn from 15 subjects after IRB approval. Clots were made in 20 microL pipettes, and placed in a water tank for microscopic visualization during lytic treatment. Clots were exposed to control, rt-PA (rt-PA), eptifibatide (Epf), or rt-PA+eptifibatide (rt-PA + Epf), with (+US) or without (-US) ultrasound for 30 minutes at 37 degrees C in human plasma. Clot lysis was measured over time, using a microscopic imaging technique. The fractional clot loss (FCL) and initial lytic rate (LR) were used to quantify lytic efficacy. LR values for (- US) treated clots were 0.8+/-0.1(control), 1.8+/-0.3 (Epf), 1.5+/-0.2 (rt-PA), and 1.3+/-0.4 (rt-PA + Epf) (% clot width/minute) respectively. In comparison, the (+ US) group exhibited LR values of 1.6+/-0.2 (control), 4.3+/-0.4 (Epf), 6.3+/-0.4 (rt-PA), and 4.6+/-0.6 (rt-PA + Epf). For (- US) treated clots, FCL was 6.0+/-0.8 (control), 9.2+/-2.5 (Epf), 15.6+/-1.7 (rt-PA), and 28.0+/-2.2% (rt-PA + Epf) respectively. FCL for (+ US) clots was 13.5+/-2.4 (control), 20.7+/-6.4 (Epf), 44.4+/-3.6 (rt-PA) and 30.3+/-3.6% (rt-PA + Epf) respectively. Although the addition of eptifibatide enhances the in-vitro lytic efficacy of rt-PA in the absence of ultrasound, the efficacy of ultrasound and rt-PA is greater than that of combined

  9. Imaging response is highly predictive of survival of malignant glioma patients treated with standard or hyperfractionated RT and carmustine in RTOG 9006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, Walter J.; Scott, Charles B.; Yung, W.K. Alfred; Scarantino, Charles; Urtasun, Raul; Movsas, Benjamin; Jones, Christopher; Simpson, Joseph; Fischbach, A. Jennifer; Petito, Carol; Nelson, James

    1996-01-01

    Objectives: Limited information is available correlating response to initial therapy and survival outcome among malignant glioma patients. This analysis was conducted to determine the response rate of malignant glioma patients to either standard (STN) or hyperfractionated (HFX) RT and carmustine and to correlate the tumor response status with survival. Patients and Methods: From (11(90)) to (3(94)), 712 newly diagnosed malignant glioma patients were registered on RTOG 9006 and randomized between hyperfractionated RT of 72.0 Gy in 1.2 Gy twice-daily fractions and 60.0 Gy in 2.0 Gy daily fractions. All patients received 80 mg/m-2 of carmustine D 1-3 q 8 wks. As reported in the 1996 Proceedings of the Amer Soc Clin Oncol (Abstr no. 280), there was no survival benefit observed for the HFX regimen. 529 of the 686 eligible patients had pre-operative, post-operative, and post-RT contrast-enhanced MR and/or CT scans available for central review of tumor and peritumoral edema measurements. Response status was judged by applying standard response criteria to a comparison of tumor measurements on follow-up and post-operative films. Results: Of the 529 patients evaluated for imaging response, the complete and partial response rates were 14% and 20%, respectively. A significant correlation between response and survival was observed (P<0.0001). Variables which predicted for a better tumor response were anaplastic astrocytoma vs glioblastoma multiforme histology, better performance status, more extensive resection, and a more favorable Recursive Partitioning and Amalgamation class assignment (JNCI 85:704-710, 1993). Conclusion: The objective response rate for malignant glioma patients to RTOG 9006 therapy was 34%, and survival outcome is strongly correlated with tumor response status. These observations justify the testing of aggressive salvage strategies for patients without imaging evidence of response following initial therapy

  10. FRACTIONAL BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Klimikova

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

  11. OMI/Aura Cloud Pressure and Fraction (O2-O2 Absorption) Daily L2 Global Gridded 0.25 degree x 0.25 degree V3 (OMCLDO2G) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level-2G daily global gridded product OMCLDO2G is based on the pixel level OMI Level-2 CLDO2 product OMCLDO2. This level-2G global cloud product (OMCLDO2G) is...

  12. rt: Fratres / Robert Cowan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Cowan, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt: Fratres (seven versions). Festina Lente. Cantus in Memory of Benjamin Britten. Summa. Peter Manning (vn.), France Springuel (vc.), Mireille Gleizes (pf.), I Fiamminghi. Telare CD CD80387 (79 minutes)

  13. Arvo Pärt. Litany / Peter Korfmacher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Korfmacher, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt, Arvo. Litany; Psalom; Trisagion. Hilliard Ensemble, Estonian Philharmonic Chamber Choir, Tallinn Chamber Orchestra, Tõnu Kaljuste"; Lithuanian Chamber Orchestra, Saulius Sondeckis. ECM 1592/449 810-2

  14. rt: Berliner Messe / Rob Cowan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Cowan, Rob

    1998-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt: Berliner Messe. The Beatitudes. Annum per Annum. Magnificat. Seven Magnificat Antiphons. De profundis. Polyphony / Steven Layton with Andrew Lucas" Hyperion CDA66960 (74 minutes:DDD)

  15. Concurrent high-dose thoracic irradiation plus daily low-dose cisplatin and vindesine in locally advanced unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Kikuo; Hiramoto, Takehiko; Kanehara, Masasi; Doi, Mihoko; Hada, Yosihiro; Nakamura, Kenji [National Hospital of Kure, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Patients with unresectable non-small cell lung cancer were treated to evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of high-dose thoracic irradiation (RT) combined with concurrent daily low-dose cisplatin plus vindesine. Twenty five evaluable patients were treated with continuous-course RT (70 Gy in 35 fractions of 2.0 Gy once daily) and concurrent daily intravenous cisplatin (6 mg/m{sup 2}) plus vindesine (3 mg/m{sup 2} on day 1 and day 8). Leukopenia (48%) was the most severe sign of toxicity, but there were no episodes of discontinuation of treatment. Two patients (8%) had a grade 3 acute radiation esophagitis, but there was no severe late radiation esophagitis. Ten patients experienced late radiation pneumonitis and 9 of those were grade 1 or 2. There was only one life-threatening toxicity (grade 5 pneumonitis). The objective response rate was 72%, and one patient achieved a radiographic complete response. The median survival duration for all patients was 14 months, and the 3- and 5-year actuarial survival rates were 27.2% and 27.2%, respectively. We concluded that the regimen of high-dose thoracic RT combined with concurrent daily low-dose cisplatin plus vindesine was a well-tolerated regimen. The survival results were encouraging. (author)

  16. Fractional thermoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Povstenko, Yuriy

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to fractional thermoelasticity, i.e. thermoelasticity based on the heat conduction equation with differential operators of fractional order. Readers will discover how time-fractional differential operators describe memory effects and space-fractional differential operators deal with the long-range interaction. Fractional calculus, generalized Fourier law, axisymmetric and central symmetric problems and many relevant equations are featured in the book. The latest developments in the field are included and the reader is brought up to date with current research.  The book contains a large number of figures, to show the characteristic features of temperature and stress distributions and to represent the whole spectrum of order of fractional operators.  This work presents a picture of the state-of-the-art of fractional thermoelasticity and is suitable for specialists in applied mathematics, physics, geophysics, elasticity, thermoelasticity and engineering sciences. Corresponding sections of ...

  17. Generation of synthetic CT data using patient specific daily MR image data and image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanie Kraus, Kim; Jäkel, Oliver; Niebuhr, Nina I.; Pfaffenberger, Asja

    2017-02-01

    To fully exploit the advantages of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for radiotherapy (RT) treatment planning, a method is required to overcome the problem of lacking electron density information. We aim to establish and evaluate a new method for computed tomography (CT) data generation based on MRI and image registration. The thereby generated CT data is used for dose accumulation. We developed a process flow based on an initial pair of rigidly co-registered CT and T2-weighted MR image representing the same anatomical situation. Deformable image registration using anatomical landmarks is performed between the initial MRI data and daily MR images. The resulting transformation is applied to the initial CT, thus fractional CT data is generated. Furthermore, the dose for a photon intensity modulated RT (IMRT) or intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plan is calculated on the generated fractional CT and accumulated on the initial CT via inverse transformation. The method is evaluated by the use of phantom CT and MRI data. Quantitative validation is performed by evaluation of the mean absolute error (MAE) between the measured and the generated CT. The effect on dose accumulation is examined by means of dose-volume parameters. One patient case is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the method introduced here. Overall, CT data derivation lead to MAEs with a median of 37.0 HU ranging from 29.9 to 66.6 HU for all investigated tissues. The accuracy of image registration showed to be limited in the case of unexpected air cavities and at tissue boundaries. The comparisons of dose distributions based on measured and generated CT data agree well with the published literature. Differences in dose volume parameters kept within 1.6% and 3.2% for photon and proton RT, respectively. The method presented here is particularly suited for application in adaptive RT in current clinical routine, since only minor additional technical equipment is required.

  18. Acurácia na reprodutibilidade do posicionamento diário de pacientes submetidos a radioterapia conformada (RT3D para câncer de próstata Accuracy in the reproducibility of daily patients' setup in 3D conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelmo José Giordani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a reprodutibilidade do posicionamento de pacientes com diagnóstico de câncer de próstata submetidos a radioterapia conformada. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 960 (posições anterior e lateral filmes radiológicos, de um total de 120 pacientes que receberam radioterapia conformada na próstata com técnica isocêntrica. As imagens foram obtidas em acelerador linear de partículas 6 MV. Aplicou-se protocolo específico para planejamento e tratamento da próstata, com o paciente em posição supina, mãos colocadas sobre o tórax, pés apoiados em suporte apropriado. Diariamente, os pacientes foram posicionados conforme demarcações na pele, coincidentes com os lasers da sala. Os filmes radiológicos foram comparados com as radiografias reconstruídas digitalmente (digitally reconstructed radiography - DRR em sistema de planejamento computadorizado Eclipse, a partir das tomografias. As radiografias de posicionamento foram realizadas no primeiro dia e após, semanalmente, até o término do tratamento. RESULTADOS: As médias dos deslocamentos observados foram de 1,99 ± 1,25 mm no sentido crânio-caudal, 1,37 ± 0,84 mm no látero-lateral e 1,94 ± 1,10 mm no ântero-posterior. CONCLUSÃO: O uso de protocolos específicos para posicionamento dos pacientes é possível na prática clínica, possibilita reprodutibilidade adequada e rápida correção dos possíveis erros.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reproducibility of daily patients' setup in 3D conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study evaluated a total of 960 radiological images (anterior and lateral views of 120 patients submitted to conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer with the isocentric technique. A 6 MV particle accelerator was utilized in the process. A specific protocol for prostate radiotherapy planning and treatment was applied, with the patients placed in supine position, hands on the chest and legs placed on and

  19. Efficacy and toxicity of conventionally fractionated pelvic radiation with a hypo fractionated simultaneous versus conventionally fractionated sequential boost for patients with high-risk prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Andrew M.; Jacob, Rojymon; Dobelbower, Michael C.; Kim, Robert Y.; Fiveash, John B. [Univ. of Alabama at Birmingham, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Birmingham, Alabama (United States)], e-mail: friezu@uab.edu

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To determine if high-risk prostate cancer responds differently to hypo fractionation. Material and methods: One hundred and fifty-seven men with NCCN high-risk (T3, PSA 20, or Gleason 8) clinically localized prostate cancer treated between 1998 and 2010 met the inclusion criteria for the analysis. Eighty-two were treated with conventional WPRT with a conventionally fractionated sequential boost to the prostate (cRT), with the prostate receiving 75-77 Gy in 1.8 - 2.0 Gy fractions. Seventy-five were treated with pelvic IMRT with a hypo fractionated simultaneous boost to the prostate (hRT), with the prostate receiving 70 Gy in 2.5 Gy fractions. The dose to the pelvic lymph nodes was 45 Gy in the cRT group and 50.4 Gy in the hRT group, both at 1.8 Gy per fraction. Ninety-two percent received neoadjuvant hormonal ablation therapy, typically beginning two months prior to the start of RT. Results: Median follow-up was 6.5 years for men receiving cRT and 3.7 years for those receiving hRT. The actuarial rate of biochemical control at four years was 88% for cRT and 94% for hRT (p=0.82). The rates of early rectal and urinary grade {>=}2 toxicities were 35% (29 of 82) and 49% (40 of 82) for the cRT group and 36% (27 of 75) and 44% (33 of 75) for the hRT group. The actuarial rate of late grade 2 rectal toxicity at four years was 25% for the cRT group and 13% for the hRT group (p=0.037). The rate of late grade 3 rectal complications was 4% (3 of 82) for patients receiving cRT and 1% (1 of 75) for patients receiving hRT. Conclusion: Initial follow-up indicates equivalent biochemical control between regimens. Patients receiving hRT experienced fewer late rectal complications.

  20. Artist - analytical RT inspection simulation tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellon, C.; Jaenisch, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    The computer simulation of radiography is applicable for different purposes in NDT such as for the qualification of NDT systems, the prediction of its reliability, the optimization of system parameters, feasibility analysis, model-based data interpretation, education and training of NDT/NDE personnel, and others. Within the framework of the integrated project FilmFree the radiographic testing (RT) simulation software developed by BAM is being further developed to meet practical requirements for inspection planning in digital industrial radiology. It combines analytical modelling of the RT inspection process with the CAD-orientated object description applicable to various industrial sectors such as power generation, railways and others. (authors)

  1. Neoadjuvant twice daily chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer: Treatment-related mortality and long-term outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart E. Samuels, MD, PhD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Neoadjuvant twice-daily chemoradiation for esophageal cancer is a safe and effective alternative to daily fractionation with low treatment-related mortality and long-term outcomes similar to standard fractionation courses.

  2. rt, Arvo: "Litany" / Barry Witherden

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Witherden, Barry

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt, Arvo: "Litany". Litany. Psalom. Trisagion. The Hilliard Ensemble, Tallinn Chamber Orchestra, Estonian Philharmonic Chamber Orchestra, Estonian Philharmonic Chamber Choir, Tõnu Kaljuste. Orchestre de chambre de Lituanie, Saulius Sondeckis". ECM New Series ECM 1592, distribution Polygram 449 810-2 (CD:158F)

  3. rt, Arvo: "Litany" / Patric Wiklacz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wiklacz, Patric

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt, Arvo: "Litany". Litany. Psalom. Trisagion. The Hilliard Ensemble, Orchestre de chambre de Tallinn, Choeur de chambre Philharmonique d'Estonie, Tõnu Kaljuste. Orchestre de chambre de Lituanie, Saulius Sondeckis. ECM New Series ECM 1592, distribution Polygram 449 810-2 (CD:158F)

  4. Forført af hjernen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Blandingen af offentlig interesse, gode mediehistorier og smarte sælgere har ført til sejlivede neuromyter, der ikke bare distraherer almindelige mennesker, men også fører til udbredte misforståelser blandt professionelle som lærere og plejepersonale. I bedste fald leder neuromyter til spild af t...

  5. rt, Arvo. Fratres / Rainer Wagner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wagner, Rainer

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt, Arvo. Fratres, Cantus (in Memory of Benjamin Britten), summa, Festina Lente; Peter Manning, France Springuel, Mireille Gleizes, Huub Righarts, I Fiamminghi, Rudolf Werthen" (AD: 1994) Telarc/in-akustik CD 80 387 (WD: 79'00")

  6. Fractional charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saminadayar, L.

    2001-01-01

    20 years ago fractional charges were imagined to explain values of conductivity in some materials. Recent experiments have proved the existence of charges whose value is the third of the electron charge. This article presents the experimental facts that have led theorists to predict the existence of fractional charges from the motion of quasi-particles in a linear chain of poly-acetylene to the quantum Hall effect. According to the latest theories, fractional charges are neither bosons nor fermions but anyons, they are submitted to an exclusive principle that is less stringent than that for fermions. (A.C.)

  7. Second Study of Hyper-Fractionated Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jacob

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Method. Hyper-fractionated radiotherapy for treatment of soft tissue sarcomas is designed to deliver a higher total dose of radiation without an increase in late normal tissue damage. In a previous study at the Royal Marsden Hospital, a total dose of 75 Gy using twice daily 1.25 Gy fractions resulted in a higher incidence of late damage than conventional radiotherapy using 2 Gy daily fractions treating to a total of 60 Gy. The current trial therefore used a lower dose per fraction of 1.2 Gy and lower total dose of 72 Gy, with 60 fractions given over a period of 6 weeks.

  8. Activities of Daily Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Parkinson's › Managing Parkinson's › Activities of Daily Living Activities of Daily Living Sometimes Parkinson’s disease (PD) can complicate the basic daily activities a person with living with Parkinson’s once did ...

  9. The SPoRT-WRF: Evaluating the Impact of NASA Datasets on Convective Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Kozlowski, Danielle; Case, Jonathan; Molthan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) seeks to improve short-term, regional weather forecasts using unique NASA products and capabilities SPoRT has developed a unique, real-time configuration of the NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)WRF (ARW) that integrates all SPoRT modeling research data: (1) 2-km SPoRT Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Composite, (2) 3-km LIS with 1-km Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVFs) (3) 45-km AIRS retrieved profiles. Transitioned this real-time forecast to NOAA's Hazardous Weather Testbed (HWT) as deterministic model at Experimental Forecast Program (EFP). Feedback from forecasters/participants and internal evaluation of SPoRT-WRF shows a cool, dry bias that appears to suppress convection likely related to methodology for assimilation of AIRS profiles Version 2 of the SPoRT-WRF will premier at the 2012 EFP and include NASA physics, cycling data assimilation methodology, better coverage of precipitation forcing, and new GVFs

  10. Phase II study of induction chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy combined with daily cisplatin in stage III inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scolaro, T.; Ardizzoni, A.; Giudici, S.; Grossi, F.; Cosso, M.; Pennucci, M.C.; Bacigalupo, A.; Rosso, R.; Vitale, V.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Results of radical radiotherapy in the treatment of inoperable NSCLC can be improved by either concurrent daily low-dose Cisplatin as radiosensitizer (Shaake-Koning, N Engl J Med, 1992; 326: 524) or by using neoadiuvant chemotherapy (Dillman, N Engl J Med, 1990; 323: 940). The aim of present study was to evaluate the activity and feasibility of a new chemo-radiotherapy (CT-RT) regimen in which both strategies of RT improvement will be used. Methods: Thirty consecutive patients (pts) were treated with induction CT (Cisplatin 100 mg/m 2 i.v. day 1,22 + Vinblastine 5 mg/m 2 i.v. day 1,8,15,22,29) followed by RT (60 Gy/30 fractions in 6 wks) combined with Cisplatin 5 mg/m 2 daily before RT. Patients' characteristics were: 29 pts were male and 1 female; median age 60.5 yrs (range 44-69); median PS 1 (range 0-1); 21 squamous cell carcinoma and 9 adenocarcinoma; stage III A in 9 pts and stage IIIB in 21 pts. Results: Twenty-three pts were evaluable for RT plus daily Cisplatin toxicity and 29 for CT toxicity (according to WHO). For RT plus daily cisplatin hematological toxicity consisted of grade III leukopenia in 22%, grade III anemia 9% and grade III thrombocytopenia in 9% of pts. Only 2 patients developed severe esophagitis. Only one case of radiation pneumonitis was reported. For induction CT hematological toxicity consisted of grade III-IV leukopenia in 31%, grade II anemia 10% and grade IV thrombocitopenia in 14% of cases. Non-hematological toxicity consisted mainly of grade I peripheral neuropaty and occured in 17% of pts. One case of minor hearing loss and 4 cases of tinnitus were observed at the end of treatment. Twenty-seven pts were evaluable for response. Response rate was 59% with 7 CRs (26%) and 9 PRs (33%); 1 patient had SD (4%), 5 pts PD (20%) and 5 pts (19%) died early (3 for early progression, 1 for toxicity and 1 for cardiac failure). All pts with CR are still alive with a median event-free survival of 23.9 months (range 12.3-41.9). Actuarial

  11. Daily cone-beam computed tomography used to determine tumour shrinkage and localisation in lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquard Knap, Marianne; Nordsmark, Marianne; Hoffmann, Lone; Vestergaard, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objective. Daily Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in room imaging is used to determine tumour shrinkage during a full radiotherapy (RT) course. In addition, relative interfractional tumour and lymph node motion is determined for each RT fraction. Material and methods. From November 2009 to March 2010, 20 consecutive lung cancer patients (14 NSCLC, 6 SCLC) were followed with daily CBCT during RT. The gross tumour volume for lung tumour (GTV-t) was visible in all daily CBCT scans and was delineated at the beginning, at the tenth and the 20th fraction, and at the end of treatment. Whenever visible, the gross tumour volume for lymph nodes (GTV-n) was also delineated. The GTV-t and GTV-n volumes were determined. All patients were setup according to an online bony anatomy match. Retrospectively, matching based on the internal target volume (ITV), the GTV-t or the GTV-n was performed. Results. In eight patients, we observed a significant GTV-t shrinkage (15-40%) from the planning CT until the last CBCT. Only five patients presented a significant shrinkage (21-37%) in the GTV-n. Using the daily CBCT imaging, it was found that the mean value of the difference between a setup using the skin tattoo and an online matching using the ITV was 7.3±2.9 mm (3D vector in the direction of ITV). The mean difference between the ITV and bony anatomy matching was 3.0±1.3 mm. Finally, the mean distance between the GTV-t and the GTV-N was 2.9±1.6 mm. Conclusion. One third of all patients with lung cancer undergoing chemo-RT achieved significant tumour shrinkage from planning CT until the end of the radiotherapy. Differences in GTV-t and GTV-n motion was observed and matching using the ITV including both GTV-t and GTV-n is therefore preferable.

  12. Fractionation statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Baoyong; Zheng, Chunfang; Sankoff, David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Paralog reduction, the loss of duplicate genes after whole genome duplication (WGD) is a pervasive process. Whether this loss proceeds gene by gene or through deletion of multi-gene DNA segments is controversial, as is the question of fractionation bias, namely whether one homeologous chromosome is more vulnerable to gene deletion than the other. Results As a null hypothesis, we first assume deletion events, on one homeolog only, excise a geometrically distributed number o...

  13. Hypoenergetic diet-induced reductions in myofibrillar protein synthesis are restored with resistance training and balanced daily protein ingestion in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Caoileann H; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Mitchell, Cameron J; Kolar, Nathan M; Kassis, Amira; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Burke, Louise M; Hawley, John A; Phillips, Stuart M

    2015-05-01

    Strategies to enhance weight loss with a high fat-to-lean ratio in overweight/obese older adults are important since lean loss could exacerbate sarcopenia. We examined how dietary protein distribution affected muscle protein synthesis during energy balance (EB), energy restriction (ER), and energy restriction plus resistance training (ER + RT). A 4-wk ER diet was provided to overweight/obese older men (66 ± 4 yr, 31 ± 5 kg/m(2)) who were randomized to either a balanced (BAL: 25% daily protein/meal × 4) or skewed (SKEW: 7:17:72:4% daily protein/meal; n = 10/group) pattern. Myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were measured during a 13-h primed continuous infusion of l-[ring-(13)C6]phenylalanine with BAL and SKEW pattern of protein intake in EB, after 2 wk ER, and after 2 wk ER + RT. Fed-state myofibrillar FSR was lower in ER than EB in both groups (P < 0.001), but was greater in BAL than SKEW (P = 0.014). In ER + RT, fed-state myofibrillar FSR increased above ER in both groups and in BAL was not different from EB (P = 0.903). In SKEW myofibrillar FSR remained lower than EB (P = 0.002) and lower than BAL (P = 0.006). Fed-state sarcoplasmic protein FSR was reduced similarly in ER and ER + RT compared with EB (P < 0.01) in both groups. During ER in overweight/obese older men a BAL consumption of protein stimulated the synthesis of muscle contractile proteins more effectively than traditional, SKEW distribution. Combining RT with a BAL protein distribution "rescued" the lower rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis during moderate ER. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Application of Suomi-NPP Green Vegetation Fraction and NUCAPS for Improving Regional Numerical Weather Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Berndt, Emily B.; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Zavodsky, Bradley T.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA SPoRT Center is working to incorporate Suomi-NPP products into its research and transition activities to improve regional numerical weather prediction (NWP). Specifically, SPoRT seeks to utilize two data products from NOAA/NESDIS: (1) daily global VIIRS green vegetation fraction (GVF), and (2) NOAA Unique CrIS and ATMS Processing System (NUCAPS) temperature and moisture retrieved profiles. The goal of (1) is to improve the representation of vegetation in the Noah land surface model (LSM) over existing climatological GVF datasets in order to improve the land-atmosphere energy exchanges in NWP models and produce better temperature, moisture, and precipitation forecasts. The goal of (2) is to assimilate NUCAPS retrieved profiles into the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation system to assess the impact on a summer pre-frontal convection case. Most regional NWP applications make use of a monthly GVF climatology for use in the Noah LSM within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The GVF partitions incoming energy into direct surface heating/evaporation over bare soil versus evapotranspiration processes over vegetated surfaces. Misrepresentations of the fractional coverage of vegetation during anomalous weather/climate regimes (e.g., early/late bloom or freeze; drought) can lead to poor NWP model results when land-atmosphere feedback is important. SPoRT has been producing a daily MODIS GVF product based on the University of Wisconsin Direct Broadcast swaths of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). While positive impacts have been demonstrated in the WRF model for some cases, the reflectances composing these NDVI do not correct for atmospheric aerosols nor satellite view angle, resulting in temporal noisiness at certain locations (especially heavy vegetation). The method behind the NESDIS VIIRS GVF is expected to alleviate the issues seen in the MODIS GVF real-time product, thereby offering a higher-quality dataset for

  15. Daily Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...

  16. Managing Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Duchenne / Managing Daily Life Print Email Managing Daily Life Environmental accessibility As the person with Duchenne starts ... such as wider doorways and ramps, can make life easier once the person with Duchenne cannot climb ...

  17. Error analysis of pupils in calculating with fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Uranič, Petra

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I examine the correlation between the frequency of errors that seventh grade pupils make in their calculations with fractions and their level of understanding of fractions. Fractions are a relevant and demanding theme in the mathematics curriculum. Although we use fractions on a daily basis, pupils find learning fractions to be very difficult. They generally do not struggle with the concept of fractions itself, but they frequently have problems with mathematical operations ...

  18. Fifteen-year results of a randomized prospective trial of hyperfractionated chest wall irradiation versus once-daily chest wall irradiation after chemotherapy and mastectomy for patients with locally advanced noninflammatory breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, Thomas A.; Strom, Eric A.; Oswald, Mary Jane; Perkins, George H.; Oh, Julia; Domain, Delora; Yu, Tse-Kuan; Woodward, Wendy A.; Tereffe, Welela; Singletary, S. Eva; Thomas, Eva; Buzdar, Aman U.; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; McNeese, Marsha D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the results of a Phase III clinical trial that investigated whether a hyperfractionated radiotherapy (RT) schedule could reduce the risk of locoregional recurrence in patients with locally advanced breast cancer treated with chemotherapy and mastectomy. Methods and Materials: Between 1985 and 1989, 200 patients with clinical Stage III noninflammatory breast cancer were enrolled in a prospective study investigating neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy. Of the 179 patients treated with mastectomy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 108 participated in a randomized component of the trial that compared a dose-escalated, hyperfractionated (twice-daily, b.i.d.) chest wall RT schedule (72 Gy in 1.2-Gy b.i.d. fractions) with a once-daily (q.d.) schedule (60 Gy in 2-Gy q.d. fractions). In both arms of the study, the supraclavicular fossa and axillary apex were treated once daily to 50 Gy. The median follow-up period was 15 years. Results: The 15-year actuarial locoregional recurrence rate was 7% for the q.d. arm and 12% for the b.i.d. arm (p = 0.36). The rates of severe acute toxicity were similar (4% for q.d. vs. 5% for b.i.d.), but moist desquamation developed in 42% of patients in the b.i.d. arm compared with 28% of the patients in the q.d. arm (p = 0.16). The 15-year actuarial rate of severe late RT complications did not differ between the two arms (6% for q.d. vs. 11% for b.i.d., p = 0.54). Conclusion: Although the sample size of this study was small, we found no evidence that this hyperfractionation schedule of postmastectomy RT offered a clinical advantage. Therefore, we have concluded that it should not be further studied in this cohort of patients

  19. Concurrent chemoradiation with daily low dose cisplatin for advanced stage head and neck carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoebers, Frank J.P.; Heemsbergen, Wilma; Balm, Alfons J.M.; Zanten, Mathilde van; Schornagel, Jan H.; Rasch, Coen R.N.

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: To evaluate treatment results of concurrent chemoradiation with daily low dose cisplatin. Materials and methods: 121 patients with advanced stage HNSCC were treated with RT (35 x 2 Gy) and cisplatin (6 mg/m 2 i.v. x20, daily before RT). After 47 patients, the treatment protocol (Standard Group) was changed: Daily i.v. prehydration and accelerated RT were given to the subsequent 74 patients (Hydr-Ac-RT Group). Results: Mean follow-up was 29 months (range 7-62). More chemotherapy could be administered in the Hydr-Ac-RT Group (maximum no. of 20 cisplatin-infusions increased from 59% to 91% of patients, p = 0.008), with less renal toxicity (p < 0.001) and less hospital admissions (p < 0.02). However, mucositis was more pronounced and tubefeeding more frequent in the Hydr-Ac-RT Group. The CR rate of the primary tumor increased from 74% (Standard Group) to 90% (Hydr-Ac-RT Group) (p = 0.06), although this did not lead to an improvement in loco-regional control. Conclusions: Concurrent chemoradiation with daily low dose cisplatin is feasible and effective for selected patients with advanced HNSCC. Although the addition of accelerated RT resulted in more mucositis and tubefeeding, the introduction of prehydration led to better compliance to therapy with more chemotherapy administered and less hospital admissions

  20. Planning target volume margins for prostate radiotherapy using daily electronic portal imaging and implanted fiducial markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarsgard, David; Cadman, Pat; El-Gayed, Ali; Pearcey, Robert; Tai, Patricia; Pervez, Nadeem; Wu, Jackson

    2010-01-01

    Fiducial markers and daily electronic portal imaging (EPI) can reduce the risk of geographic miss in prostate cancer radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to estimate CTV to PTV margin requirements, without and with the use of this image guidance strategy. 46 patients underwent placement of 3 radio-opaque fiducial markers prior to prostate RT. Daily pre-treatment EPIs were taken, and isocenter placement errors were corrected if they were ≥ 3 mm along the left-right or superior-inferior axes, and/or ≥ 2 mm along the anterior-posterior axis. During-treatment EPIs were then obtained to estimate intra-fraction motion. Without image guidance, margins of 0.57 cm, 0.79 cm and 0.77 cm, along the left-right, superior-inferior and anterior-posterior axes respectively, are required to give 95% probability of complete CTV coverage each day. With the above image guidance strategy, these margins can be reduced to 0.36 cm, 0.37 cm and 0.37 cm respectively. Correction of all isocenter placement errors, regardless of size, would permit minimal additional reduction in margins. Image guidance, using implanted fiducial markers and daily EPI, permits the use of narrower PTV margins without compromising coverage of the target, in the radiotherapy of prostate cancer

  1. Power lies in interdisciplinary cooperation / Kärt Summatavet ; interv. Kärt Blumberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Summatavet, Kärt, 1963-

    2008-01-01

    Ehtekunstnik Kärt Summatavet oma uudsest meetodist ehete valmistamisel - paberil oleva kujutise ülekandmisest arvuti abil metallile, mille ta töötas väljas oma doktoritöö raames Soomes Helsingi Kunsti- ja Disainiülikoolis ning mis pälvis Soulis toimunud ülemaailmsel naisleiutajate konkursil hõbemedali

  2. Recent Upgrades to NASA SPoRT Initialization Datasets for the Environmental Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Rozumalski, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed several products for its National Weather Service (NWS) partners that can initialize specific fields for local model runs within the NOAA/NWS Science and Training Resource Center (STRC) Environmental Modeling System (EMS). In last year's NWA abstract on this topic, the suite of SPoRT products supported in the STRC EMS was presented, which includes a Sea Surface Temperature (SST) composite, a Great Lakes sea-ice extent, a Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF) composite, and NASA Land Information System (LIS) gridded output. This abstract and companion presentation describes recent upgrades made to the SST and GVF composites, as well as the real-time LIS runs. The Great Lakes sea-ice product is unchanged from 2011. The SPoRT SST composite product has been expanded geographically and as a result, the resolution has been coarsened from 1 km to 2 km to accommodate the larger domain. The expanded domain covers much of the northern hemisphere from eastern Asia to western Europe (0 N to 80 N latitude and 150 E to 10 E longitude). In addition, the NESDIS POES-GOES product was added to fill in gaps caused by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) being unable to sense in cloudy regions, replacing the recently-lost Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS with negligible change to product fidelity. The SST product now runs twice per day for Terra and Aqua combined data collections from 0000 to 1200 UTC and from 1200 to 0000 UTC, with valid analysis times at 0600 and 1800 UTC. The twice-daily compositing technique reduces the overall latency of the previous version while still representing the diurnal cycle characteristics. The SST composites are available at approximately four hours after the end of each collection period (i.e. 1600 UTC for the nighttime analysis and 0400 UTC for the daytime analysis). The real-time MODIS GVF composite has only received minor updates in the

  3. A DICOM-RT based ePR radiation therapy information system for managing brain tumor patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Brent J.; Law, Maria; Huang, H. K.; Zee, C. S.; Chan, Lawrence

    2005-04-01

    The need for comprehensive clinical image data and relevant information in image-guided Radiation Therapy (RT) is becoming steadily apparent. Multiple standalone systems utilizing the most technological advancements in imaging, therapeutic radiation, and computerized treatment planning systems acquire key data during the RT treatment course of a patient. One example are patients treated for brain tumors of greater sizes and irregular shapes that utilize state-of-the-art RT technology to deliver pinpoint accurate radiation doses. One such system, the Cyberknife, is a radiation treatment system that utilizes image-guided information to control a multi-jointed, six degrees of freedom, robotic arm to deliver precise and required radiation dose to the tumor site of a cancer patient. The image-guided system is capable of tracking the lesion orientations with respect to the patient"s position throughout the treatment process. This is done by correlating live radiographic images with pre-operative, CT and MR imaging information to determine relative patient and tumor position repeatedly over the course of the treatment. The disparate and complex data generated by the Cyberknife system along with related data is scattered throughout the RT department compromising an efficient clinical workflow since the data crucial for a clinical decision may be time-consuming to retrieve, temporarily missing, or even lost. To address these shortcomings, the ACR-NEMA Standards Committee extended its DICOM (Digital Imaging & Communications in Medicine) Standard from Radiology to RT by ratifying seven DICOM RT objects starting in 1997. However, they are rarely used by the RT community in daily clinical operations. In the past, the research focus of an RT department has primarily been developing new protocols and devices to improve treatment process and outcomes of cancer patients with minimal effort dedicated to integration of imaging and information systems. Our research, tightly

  4. Global daily dynamics of the pineal transcriptome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bustos, Diego M; Bailey, Michael J; Sugden, David

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptome profiling of the pineal gland has revealed night/day differences in the expression of a major fraction of the genes active in this tissue, with two-thirds of these being nocturnal increases. A set of over 600 transcripts exhibit two-fold to >100-fold daily differences in abundance...

  5. A DICOM-RT radiation oncology ePR with decision support utilizing a quantified knowledge base from historical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documet, Jorge R.; Liu, Brent; Le, Anh; Law, Maria

    2008-03-01

    During the last 2 years we have been working on developing a DICOM-RT (Radiation Therapy) ePR (Electronic Patient Record) with decision support that will allow physicists and radiation oncologists during their decision-making process. This ePR allows offline treatment dose calculations and plan evaluation, while at the same time it compares and quantifies treatment planning algorithms using DICOM-RT objects. The ePR framework permits the addition of visualization, processing, and analysis tools, which combined with the core functionality of reporting, importing and exporting of medical studies, creates a very powerful application that can improve the efficiency while planning cancer treatments. Usually a Radiation Oncology department will have disparate and complex data generated by the RT modalities as well as data scattered in RT Information/Management systems, Record & Verify systems, and Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) which can compromise the efficiency of the clinical workflow since the data crucial for a clinical decision may be time-consuming to retrieve, temporarily missing, or even lost. To address these shortcomings, the ACR-NEMA Standards Committee extended its DICOM (Digital Imaging & Communications in Medicine) standard from Radiology to RT by ratifying seven DICOM RT objects starting in 1997 [1,2]. However, they are not broadly used yet by the RT community in daily clinical operations. In the past, the research focus of an RT department has primarily been developing new protocols and devices to improve treatment process and outcomes of cancer patients with minimal effort dedicated to integration of imaging and information systems. Our attempt is to show a proof-of-concept that a DICOM-RT ePR system can be developed as a foundation to perform medical imaging informatics research in developing decision-support tools and knowledge base for future data mining applications.

  6. Single-Fraction High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Hypofractionated External Beam Radiation Therapy in the Treatment of Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer - Long Term Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cury, Fabio L., E-mail: fabio.cury@muhc.mcgill.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Duclos, Marie [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Aprikian, Armen [Department of Urology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Patrocinio, Horacio [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Kassouf, Wassim [Department of Urology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Shenouda, George; Faria, Sergio; David, Marc; Souhami, Luis [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: We present the long-term results of a cohort of patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PC) treated with single-fraction high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) combined with hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (HypoRT). Methods and Materials: Patients were treated exclusively with HDRB and HypoRT. HDRB delivered a dose of 10 Gy to the prostate surface and HypoRT consisted of 50 Gy delivered in 20 daily fractions. The first 121 consecutive patients with a minimum of 2 years posttreatment follow-up were assessed for toxicity and disease control. Results: The median follow-up was 65.2 months. No acute Grade III or higher toxicity was seen. Late Grade II gastrointestinal toxicity was seen in 9 patients (7.4%) and Grade III in 2 (1.6%). Late Grade III genitourinary toxicity was seen in 2 patients (1.6%). After a 24-month follow-up, a rebiopsy was offered to the first 58 consecutively treated patients, and 44 patients agreed with the procedure. Negative biopsies were found in 40 patients (91%). The 5-year biochemical relapse-free survival rate was 90.7% (95% CI, 84.5-96.9%), with 13 patients presenting biochemical failure. Among them, 9 were diagnosed with distant metastasis. Prostate cancer-specific and overall survival rates at 5 years were 100% and 98.8% (95% CI, 96.4-100%), respectively. Conclusion: The combination of HDRB and HypoRT is well tolerated, with acceptable toxicity rates. Furthermore, results from rebiopsies revealed an encouraging rate of local control. These results confirm that the use of conformal RT techniques, adapted to specific biological tumor characteristics, have the potential to improve the therapeutic ratio in intermediate-risk PC patients.

  7. Three-times-daily radiotherapy with induction chemotherapy in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Feasibility and toxicity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, G.; Jereczek-Fossa, B.A.; Pas, T. de [Div. of Radiotherapy, European Inst. of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Leon, M.E. [Div. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, European Inst. of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Cattani, F. [Div. of Medical Physics, European Inst. of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Spaggiari, L.; Veronesi, G. [Div. of Thoracic Surgery, European Inst. of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Braud, F. de [Div. of Medical Oncology, European Inst. of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Orecchia, R. [Div. of Radiotherapy, European Inst. of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Radiotherapy, Univ. of Milan, Milan (Italy)

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: to evaluate the feasibility and toxicity of three-times-daily radiotherapy (3tdRT), preceded by induction chemotherapy (iCT), in stage IIIA-IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and methods: iCT consisted of three cycles of cisplatin and gemcitabine. Surgery was considered for stage IIIA patients responsive to iCT; definitive or postoperative 3tdRT was planned. Doses of 54.4 Gy and 64.6 Gy in postoperative and definitive treatments, respectively, were delivered in three daily fractions. Results: from February 1998 to October 2000, 37 patients received 3tdRT as definitive (n = 18) or postoperative treatment (n = 19). Toxicity was limited to RTOG grade 2 (25 patients, 67.6%) and grade 3 (four patients, 10.8%) acute esophagitis; no grade 3 late esophagitis occurred. Late lung toxicity was represented by one grade 3 pneumonitis. No correlation emerged between acute esophageal toxicity and irradiated esophageal volume or disease- and treatment-related factors. A significant correlation was found for stage (IIIA vs. IIIB; p = 0.03) and a trend for the N-class (N2 vs. N3; p = 0.08). Conclusion: in this experience of 3tdRT preceded by iCT, the low toxicity profile confirmed the feasibility of this combination. The limited statistical power does not permit a definition of predictors for radiation-induced esophagitis incidence and severity; additional studies are required to clarify the impact of volumetric and dosimetric parameters. Failure patterns and survival results are warranted to confirm the efficacy of this approach in locally advanced NSCLC. (orig.)

  8. Recent Upgrades to NASA SPoRT Initialization Datasets for the Environmental Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Lafontaine, Frank J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Rozumalski, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed several products for its NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) partners that can initialize specific fields for local model runs within the NOAA/NWS Science and Training Resource Center Environmental Modeling System (EMS). The suite of SPoRT products for use in the EMS consists of a Sea Surface Temperature (SST) composite that includes a Lake Surface Temperature (LST) analysis over the Great Lakes, a Great Lakes sea-ice extent within the SST composite, a real-time Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF) composite, and NASA Land Information System (LIS) gridded output. This paper and companion poster describe each dataset and provide recent upgrades made to the SST, Great Lakes LST, GVF composites, and the real-time LIS runs.

  9. Mamma diagnostics for MTRA (medical-radiological personnel)/RT (radiologists); Mammadiagnostik fuer MTRA/RT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Uwe; Baum, Friedemann

    2014-07-01

    The text book on mamma diagnostics for MTRA (medical-radiological personnel)/RT (radiologists) covers the following issues: Anatomy, development and physiology of mammary glands; tumor development an breast cancer risk; pathology, non-imaging diagnostics; mammography: physical-technical fundamentals; mammography: analogue technique; mammography: digital technique; mammography: quality assurance; mammography: legal questions and radiation protection; mammography: new developments; mammography: setting technique; mammography: use and appraisal; mamma-sonography: technique and methodology; mamma-sonography: assignment and appraisal, mamma-NMR: technique and methodology; mamma-NMR: assignment and appraisal lymph node diagnostics; mamma interventions; biopsy; mamma interventions: marking examination concepts; therapeutic concepts; hygienic concepts; communication and interaction.

  10. Daily bowel care program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000133.htm Daily bowel care program To use the sharing features on this page, ... Work with your health care provider. Basic Bowel Program Keeping active helps prevent constipation. Try to walk, ...

  11. Lightship Daily Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board lightships along the United States coasts from 1936 - 1983. Generally 4-6 observations daily. Also includes deck logs, which give...

  12. Tips for Daily Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips and Gadgets for Daily Activities Dressing Tips Shopping Tips Modifying the Bathroom Driving After Stroke Medication ... and resources. Find a group in your area . Online Support If there is not a support group ...

  13. Daily Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several different government offices have published the Daily weather maps over its history. The publication has also gone by different names over time. The U.S....

  14. Tips for Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chapter Join our online community Tips for Daily Life Coping skills will help you handle day-to- ... challenges, maximize your independence and live a meaningful life with your diagnosis. Accepting changes Creating a coping ...

  15. DailyMed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — DailyMed provides high quality information about marketed drugs. This information includes FDA labels (package inserts). This Web site provides health information...

  16. Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a highly specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method that allows one to detect very low transcription levels of functional gene(s) in soil. RT-qPCR helps us to know the active members of the microbial community, and their activities can be ...

  17. Multiplex RT-PCR for detection and identification of three necroviruses that infect olive trees

    OpenAIRE

    Varanda, Carla; Cardoso, Joana M.S.; Félix, M. Rosário; Oliveira, Solange; Clara, M.Ivone

    2010-01-01

    An optimized multiplex RT-PCR assay was developed to discriminate three necrovirus (Olive latent virus 1 (OLV-1), Tobacco necrosis virus D (TNV-D) and Olive mild mosaic virus (OMMV)) that infect olive trees. An olive orchard consisting of 54 trees of cv. "Galega vulgar" in the south of Portugal was surveyed. dsRNA fraction was used as template and revealed the 3 viruses, singly or in multiple infections, present in 17 out of 54 trees in the orchard. OMMV was the most frequent occurring in 15 ...

  18. Fractional Vector Calculus and Fractional Special Function

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ming-Fan; Ren, Ji-Rong; Zhu, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Fractional vector calculus is discussed in the spherical coordinate framework. A variation of the Legendre equation and fractional Bessel equation are solved by series expansion and numerically. Finally, we generalize the hypergeometric functions.

  19. Chronic daily headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches.

  20. Short-course intensity-modulated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer with daily transabdominal ultrasound localization of the prostate gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Dasarahally S.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Willoughby, Twyla R.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To present our initial observations on the clinical feasibility of the technique of short-course intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SCIM-RT) in the treatment of localized prostate cancer coupled with daily transabdominal ultrasound localization of the prostate. The proposed regimen consists of a hypofractionated course delivering 70.0 Gy in 28 fractions. Methods and Materials: The treatment data of the first 51 patients treated with SCIM-RT at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation are presented in this report. The technique consisted of intensity-modulated radiotherapy using 5 static fields (anterior, 2 laterals, and 2 anterior obliques). Inverse plans were generated by the Corvus treatment-planning system. The treatment delivery was performed with a Varian Dynamic Multileaf Collimator. The target was the prostate only in patients with low-risk disease (stage T1-T2, pretreatment PSA ≤10, and biopsy Gleason ≤6). The target was the prostate and seminal vesicles in patients with high-risk disease (stage T3 or pretreatment PSA >10 or biopsy Gleason ≥7). In the Corvus planning system, the margins for the planning target volume (PTV) were 4 mm posteriorly, 8 mm laterally, and 5 mm in all other directions. A total of 70.0 Gy (mean prostate dose approximately 75 Gy) was prescribed in all cases at 2.5 Gy per fraction to be delivered in 28 fractions over 5((1)/(2)) weeks. Prior to treatment delivery, the patients were minimally immobilized on the treatment table, only using lasers and skin marks. The location of the prostate gland was verified daily with the BAT transabdominal ultrasound system and patient position adjustments were performed accordingly. Fifty-one patients completed therapy between October 1998 and May 1999. Results: The dose was prescribed to an isodose line ranging from 82.0% to 90.0% (mean: 87.2%). The range of the individual prostate mean doses was 73.5 to 78.5 Gy (average: 75.3 Gy). The range of the maximum doses was 77.4 to 84.5 Gy (average: 80

  1. Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily), Version 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily) dataset integrates daily climate observations from approximately 30 different data sources. Version 3...

  2. SIS epidemiological model for adaptive RT: Forecasting the parotid glands shrinkage during tomotherapy treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Nicola; Guidi, Gabriele; Vecchi, Claudio; Ciarmatori, Alberto; Gottardi, Giovanni; Meduri, Bruno; D'Angelo, Elisa; Bruni, Alessio; Mazzeo, Ercole; Pratissoli, Silvia; Giacobazzi, Patrizia; Baldazzi, Giuseppe; Lohr, Frank; Costi, Tiziana

    2016-07-01

    A susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic model was applied to radiation therapy (RT) treatments to predict morphological variations in head and neck (H&N) anatomy. 360 daily MVCT images of 12 H&N patients treated by tomotherapy were analyzed in this retrospective study. Deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms, mesh grids, and structure recontouring, implemented in the RayStation treatment planning system (TPS), were applied to assess the daily organ warping. The parotid's warping was evaluated using the epidemiological approach considering each vertex as a single subject and its deformed vector field (DVF) as an infection. Dedicated IronPython scripts were developed to export daily coordinates and displacements of the region of interest (ROI) from the TPS. matlab tools were implemented to simulate the SIS modeling. Finally, the fully trained model was applied to a new patient. A QUASAR phantom was used to validate the model. The patients' validation was obtained setting 0.4 cm of vertex displacement as threshold and splitting susceptible (S) and infectious (I) cases. The correlation between the epidemiological model and the parotids' trend for further optimization of alpha and beta was carried out by Euclidean and dynamic time warping (DTW) distances. The best fit with experimental conditions across all patients (Euclidean distance of 4.09 ± 1.12 and DTW distance of 2.39 ± 0.66) was obtained setting the contact rate at 7.55 ± 0.69 and the recovery rate at 2.45 ± 0.26; birth rate was disregarded in this constant population. Combining an epidemiological model with adaptive RT (ART), the authors' novel approach could support image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) to validate daily setup and to forecast anatomical variations. The SIS-ART model developed could support clinical decisions in order to optimize timing of replanning achieving personalized treatments.

  3. Toothbrushing: Do It Daily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…

  4. rt, Arvo: "Beatus". Statuit ei Dominus / Patric Wiklacz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wiklacz, Patric

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt, Arvo: "Beatus". Statuit ei Dominus. Missa syllabica. Beatus Petronius. 7 Magnificat-Antiphonen. De profundis. Memento. Cantate Domino. Solfeggio. Estonian Philharmonic Chamber Choir, T. Kaljuste". Virgin Classics 545 276-2 (CD:167F)

  5. rt, Arvo: "Miserere", "Festina lente" / Volkmar Fischer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fischer, Volkmar

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist Pärt, Arvo: "Miserere", "Festina lente", "Sarah Was Ninety Years Old". The Hilliard Ensemble. Orchester der Beethovenhalle Bonn. Dirigent Dennis Russel Davies (ECM Records, distr Amigo)

  6. rt, Arvo. Litany; Psalom; Trisagion / Andreas Obst

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Obst, Andreas

    1996-01-01

    rt, Arvo. Litany; Psalom; Trisagion. Hilliard Ensemble, Estonian Philharmonic Chamber Choir, Tallinn Chamber Orchestra, Tõnu Kaljuste; Lithuanian Chamber Orchestra, Saulius Sondeckis. ECM 1592/449 810-2

  7. rt, Arvo: Litany. Psalom. Trisagion / Robert Cowan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Cowan, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt, Arvo: Litany. Psalom. Trisagion. Hilliard Ensemble, Estonian Philharmonic Chamber Choir, Tallinn Chamber Orchestra, Tõnu Kaljuste; Lithuanian Chamber Orchestra, Saulius Sondeckis" ECM New Series 449 810-4; 449 810-2 (42 minutes: DDD)

  8. rt, Arvo: Seven Magnificat Antiphons / Barry Witherden

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Witherden, Barry

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt, Arvo: Seven Magnificat Antiphons. Magnificat. Summa; Tormis, Veljo: The Curse Upon Iron. Karelian Destiny. BBC Singers, Bo Holton". Collins Classics 1472-2 (61 minutes: DDD)

  9. Milan Kundera poeediparukaga faun / Kärt Hellerma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hellerma, Kärt, 1956-

    1996-01-01

    Arvustus: Kundera, Milan. Surematus. Tln. : Monokkel, 1995. Ilmunud ka kogumikus: Hellerma, Kärt. Kohanenud kirjandus : valik kirjanduskriitikat 1987-2006. Eesti Keele Sihtasutus : Tallinn, 2006. Lk. 176-179

  10. Kuidas sünnib pealkiri? / Pärt Lias

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lias, Pärt

    2003-01-01

    Eesti kirjanikud vastavad Pärt Liase küsimusele oma teoste pealkirjade saamisloo kohta: Doris Kareva, Ilona Laaman, Eha Lättemäe, Priidu Beier, Oskar Kruus, Jaan Kruusvall, Paul-Eerik Rummo ja Andres Vanapa (1); Triin Soomets, Priit Aimla, Aarne Puu, Einar Sander, Jüri Tuulik ja Ülo Tuulik (2); Nikolai Baturin, Leo Metsar, Toomas Vint, Leonid Stolovitš ja Pärt Lias (3)

  11. Understanding watershed hydrogeochemistry: 1. Development of RT-Flux-PIHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Chen; Li, Li; Shi, Yuning; Duffy, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Model development in hydrology and geochemistry has been advancing separately with limited integration. We developed a watershed hydrogeochemical code RT-Flux-PIHM to understand complex interactions between hydrological processes (PIHM), land-surface processes (FLUX—Noah Land Surface Model), and multicomponent subsurface reactive transport (RT). The RT module simulates geochemical processes including aqueous complexation, surface complexation, mineral dissolution and precipitation, and cation exchange. The RT module is verified against the widely used reactive transport code CrunchFlow. The code uses semidiscrete finite volume method and irregular gridding and offers data harvesting capabilities from national databases. The application of RT-Flux-PIHM is demonstrated in the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO). We aim to understand key processes that govern hydrogeochemical dynamics of the nonreactive chloride and reactive magnesium. Simulation results indicate that watershed characteristics, in particular topography, dictate the spatial distributions of water content and soil dissolution rates. Ion exchange provides buffering capacities and leads to a hysteresis loop of concentration and discharge relationship of magnesium, which differs from the open hysteresis of chloride. RT-Flux-PIHM offers physics-based modeling capabilities to integrate the vast amount of water and chemistry data that have now become available, to differentiate the relative importance of competing processes, and to test hypotheses at the interface of hydrology and geochemistry.

  12. Hyperthermic Fibrinolysis with rt-PA: In Vitro Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzenberg, Helmut; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Brossman, Joachim; Christian Glueer, Claus; Bruhn, Hans Dieter; Heller, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of hyperthermia up to 45 deg. C on fibrinolysis with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA). Methods: Standardized fibrin clots were incubated in a water bath for 5 hr with either rt-PA (test group) or 0.9% sodium chloride (control group) and blood plasma at temperatures of 30-45 deg. C. Concentrations of D-dimer and time to complete clot lysis were measured.Results: The activity of fibrinolysis with rt-PA rose with increasing temperature: time to lysis approximately halved from 30 deg. C to 40 deg. C and the concentration of D-dimer tripled. In the control group clot size did not change.Conclusions: Activity of rt-PA-induced fibrinolysis rises distinctly with higher temperatures. Since even healthy subjects show a physiologic decline in body temperature in the extremities, in patients with occlusive arterial disease decreased activity of fibrinolysis with rt-PA can be expected. Controlled hyperthermia may improve fibrinolysis with rt-PA and should be investigated in vivo

  13. The Daily Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else

    2015-01-01

    In this PhD thesis, The Daily Selection, I will be addressing the overall question of how research on wardrobes can contribute to a more effective connection between the production and the consumption of dress objects. The thesis builds on exemplary studies of people in their wardrobes, with the ......In this PhD thesis, The Daily Selection, I will be addressing the overall question of how research on wardrobes can contribute to a more effective connection between the production and the consumption of dress objects. The thesis builds on exemplary studies of people in their wardrobes...... are appropriated and used in the wardrobes of informants. In this way, I point to discrepancies between the production and the dissemination of dress objects that take place in the fashion industry, and to the ways that people use and experience these objects in their everyday lives. In Part III, I conduct...

  14. NASA SPoRT GOES-R Proving Ground Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Jedloec, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program is a partner with the GOES-R Proving Ground (PG) helping prepare forecasters understand the unique products to come from the GOES-R instrument suite. SPoRT is working collaboratively with other members of the GOES-R PG team and Algorithm Working Group (AWG) scientists to develop and disseminate a suite of proxy products that address specific forecast problems for the WFOs, Regional and National Support Centers, and other NOAA users. These products draw on SPoRT s expertise with the transition and evaluation of products into operations from the MODIS instrument and the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA). The MODIS instrument serves as an excellent proxy for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) that will be aboard GOES-R. SPoRT has transitioned and evaluated several multi-channel MODIS products. The true and false color products are being used in natural hazard detection by several SPoRT partners to provide better observation of land features, such as fires, smoke plumes, and snow cover. Additionally, many of SPoRT s partners are coastal offices and already benefit from the MODIS sea surface temperature composite. This, along with other surface feature observations will be developed into ABI proxy products for diagnostic use in the forecast process as well as assimilation into forecast models. In addition to the MODIS instrument, the NALMA has proven very valuable to WFOs with access to these total lightning data. These data provide situational awareness and enhanced warning decision making to improve lead times for severe thunderstorm and tornado warnings. One effort by SPoRT scientists includes a lightning threat product to create short-term model forecasts of lightning activity. Additionally, SPoRT is working with the AWG to create GLM proxy data from several of the ground based total lightning networks, such as the NALMA. The evaluation will focus on the vastly improved spatial

  15. Initialized Fractional Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

  16. SU-E-J-257: A PCA Model to Predict Adaptive Changes for Head&neck Patients Based On Extraction of Geometric Features From Daily CBCT Datasets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetvertkov, M; Siddiqui, F; Chetty, I; Kim, J; Kumarasiri, A; Liu, C; Gordon, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Using daily cone beam CTs (CBCTs) to develop principal component analysis (PCA) models of anatomical changes in head and neck (H&N) patients and to assess the possibility of using these prospectively in adaptive radiation therapy (ART). Methods: Planning CT (pCT) images of 4 H&N patients were deformed to model several different systematic changes in patient anatomy during the course of the radiation therapy (RT). A Pinnacle plugin was used to linearly interpolate the systematic change in patient for the 35 fraction RT course and to generate a set of 35 synthetic CBCTs. Each synthetic CBCT represents the systematic change in patient anatomy for each fraction. Deformation vector fields (DVFs) were acquired between the pCT and synthetic CBCTs with random fraction-to-fraction changes were superimposed on the DVFs. A patient-specific PCA model was built using these DVFs containing systematic plus random changes. It was hypothesized that resulting eigenDVFs (EDVFs) with largest eigenvalues represent the major anatomical deformations during the course of treatment. Results: For all 4 patients, the PCA model provided different results depending on the type and size of systematic change in patient’s body. PCA was more successful in capturing the systematic changes early in the treatment course when these were of a larger scale with respect to the random fraction-to-fraction changes in patient’s anatomy. For smaller scale systematic changes, random changes in patient could completely “hide” the systematic change. Conclusion: The leading EDVF from the patientspecific PCA models could tentatively be identified as a major systematic change during treatment if the systematic change is large enough with respect to random fraction-to-fraction changes. Otherwise, leading EDVF could not represent systematic changes reliably. This work is expected to facilitate development of population-based PCA models that can be used to prospectively identify significant

  17. Tempered fractional calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzikar, Farzad; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Chen, Jinghua

    2015-07-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  18. Tempered fractional calculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabzikar, Farzad, E-mail: sabzika2@stt.msu.edu [Department of Statistics and Probability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Meerschaert, Mark M., E-mail: mcubed@stt.msu.edu [Department of Statistics and Probability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Chen, Jinghua, E-mail: cjhdzdz@163.com [School of Sciences, Jimei University, Xiamen, Fujian, 361021 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  19. Alternating radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) for inoperable stage III non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC): long-term results of two phase II cooperative trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirimanoff, R.O.; Alberto, P.; Bolla, M.; Mermillod, B.; Michel, G.; Mirabell, R.; Moro, D.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The treatment of inoperable Stage III NSCLC with conventional RT alone results in a high incidence of local and distant failures and in very limited long-term survival rates. In two consecutive phase II cooperative trials, we evaluated the combination of alternating hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy and cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: A total of one hundred and thirty two patients were enrolled. Between 2/86 and 9/89, 65 patients were entered in the first trial (G.I) and between 12/89 and 10/92 67 were enrolled in the second trial (G.II). In both protocols, RT was administered twice daily, with 6 hours interval, 5 days a week, to a total dose of 63 Gy in 42 fractions of 1.5 Gy. RT was given during weeks 2, 3 and 6, 7, over an elapsed time of 6 weeks. In G.I, 3 cycles of cisplatin, 60 mg/m2 d.1, mitomycin, 8 mg/m2 d.1 and vindesin 3 mg/m2 d.1 and 8, were given during weeks 1, 5 and 9, whereas in G.II, cisplatin 70 mg/m2 d.1 and vinblastin 5 mg/m2 d.1 and 8 were given during weeks 1, 5, 9, 13, 17 and 21. Patients' characteristics included the following : median age was 55.5 years (28-70), male to female ratio was 7.3 : 1, tumor Stage were III A in 44% and III B in 56%, performance status (P.S.) were 0 in 36%, 1 in 52% and 2 in 12%. Histologic type consisted in squamous cell carcinoma in 60%, adenocarcinoma in 22%, large cell carcinoma in 14% and undifferentiated NSCLC in 4%. Results: With a minimum follow-up of 3 years, the 1, 2, 5 and 8 year overall survival probability was 56% (95% C.I. 47% - 64%), 27% (20% - 35%), 12% (7% - 18%) and 9% (3% - 16%) respectively, with a median survival of 13.6 months (11.4 - 16.8). Median follow-up for survivors was 6 years (3.3 - 9.9). There were no survival differences between Stage III A and III B (p = .84), PS 0, ,, 2 (p = .87), sex (p = .45) or between the two treatment protocols. At this time, 14 patients are alive, and 118 have died : 102 from NSCLC, 4 from acute toxicity, 2

  20. An antiangiogenic agent (TNP-470) inhibited reoxygenation during fractionated radiotherapy of murine mammary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Rumi; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: TNP-470, a synthetic analogue of fumagillin which is a natural product of Aspergillus fumigatus, has been noted as an angiogenesis inhibitor. Combined effects of TNP-470 with fractionated radiotherapy (RT) were investigated using a mouse tumor. Methods and Materials: Tumors were early generations of mammary carcinoma in C3H/He mice. Treatments were initiated when tumors reached an average diameter of 4-5 mm. Tumor response was evaluated by tumor growth (TG) time assay and 50% tumor control dose (TCD 50 ) assay. Tumors were irradiated locally under hypoxic conditions or in air. Five fractionated radiation doses were given in the TG time assay, whereas a single dose or 10 fractionated doses were given in the TCD 50 assay. TNP-470 (100 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously twice a week during and/or after RT. Results: In the TG time assay, significant delay of tumor growth was observed by TNP-470 alone (100 mg/kg x 2) compared with control tumors (p 50 assay, no significant difference in TCD 50 s was observed between RT alone and RT combined with TNP-470 in single dose experiments. Hypoxic fraction of tumors calculated from the TCD 50 s was not affected significantly by administrating TNP-470 24 h before RT. On the other hand, in 10-fraction experiments, the TCD 50 (RT with TNP-470, in air) was significantly higher than the TCD 50 (RT alone, in air) (p 50 (RT with TNP-470) and the TCD 50 (RT alone) under hypoxic conditions

  1. Hypofractionated versus conventionally fractionated radiotherapy for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oar, Andrew; Papadatos, George; Boxer, Miriam M.; Delaney, Geoff P.; Phan, Penny; Descallar, Joseph; Duggan, Kirsten; Tran, Kelvin; Tap, Mei Ling

    2016-01-01

    Hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) in the setting of early invasive breast cancer has been shown to have similar local control rates and cosmetic outcomes as conventionally fractionated RT. This study compares ipsilateral recurrence rates between hypofractionated and conventional RT, with and without a boost. The effect of hypofractionated RT and chest wall separation (CWS) on cosmetic outcome was also assessed. All patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) treated between 1998 and 2012 across two sites of a single cancer institution were retrospectively studied. Patients were analysed according to those receiving conventional RT (≤2 Gy per fraction) and those receiving hypofractionated RT (>2 Gy per fraction), as well as the presence or absence of a tumour bed boost. Data were collected through electronic medical records and local cancer registry. Cosmetic outcome was scored by physicians on a four-point scale during clinical follow-up appointments. One hundred and ninety-seven patients were treated for DCIS during the study period. One hundred and forty-one were treated with conventional RT, and 56 with hypofractionated RT. After a median follow up of 4.4 years, there were 12 ipsilateral recurrences, of which seven were invasive disease and five DCIS. Ten recurrences occurred in patients who received conventional RT (7.1% recurrence rate) and two in those who received hypofractionated RT (3.6% recurrence rate) (P = 0.48). Cosmetic outcomes were not significantly different between conventional and hypofractionated RT (P = 0.06). Hypofractionation represents a suitable alternative for treating DCIS in the absence of randomised data.

  2. TEMPERED FRACTIONAL CALCULUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    MEERSCHAERT, MARK M.; SABZIKAR, FARZAD; CHEN, JINGHUA

    2014-01-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series. PMID:26085690

  3. TEMPERED FRACTIONAL CALCULUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerschaert, Mark M; Sabzikar, Farzad; Chen, Jinghua

    2015-07-15

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  4. Modelling Dynamic Topologies via Extensions of VDM-RT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Ballegård

    Only a few formal methods include descriptions of the network topology that the modelled system is deployed onto. In VDM Real-Time (VDM-RT) this has been enabled for distributed systems that have a static structure. However, when modelling dynamic systems this fixed topology becomes an issue....... Systems with highly distributed and alternating relationships cannot be expressed correctly in a static model. This document describes how VDM-RT can be extended with new language constructs to enable the description of dynamic reconfiguration of the network topology during the runtime execution...... of a model. The extension is developed on the basis of a case study involving a dynamic system that has a constant changing system topology. With a basis in the case study a model is developed that uses the static version of VDM-RT in order to reveal the limitations of the language. The case study...

  5. Screening inhibitory potential of anti-HIV RT RNA aptamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Margaret J; Burke, Donald H

    2014-01-01

    Aptamers targeted to HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) have been demonstrated to inhibit RT in biochemical assays and as in cell culture. However, methods employed to date to evaluate viral suppression utilize time-consuming serial passage of infectious HIV in aptamer-expressing stable cell lines. We have established a rapid, transfection-based assay system to effectively examine the inhibitory potential of anti-HIV RT aptamers expressed between two catalytically inactive hammerhead ribozymes. Our system can be altered and optimized for a variety of cloning schemes, and addition of sequences of interest to the cassette is simple and straightforward. When paired with methods to analyze aptamer RNA accumulation and localization in cells and as packaging into pseudotyped virions, the method has a very high level of success in predicting good inhibitors.

  6. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains weekly Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF) derived from VIIRS. The Green Vegetation Fraction product is updated daily and is used as an input to...

  7. Soft-Rt: software for IMRT simulations based on MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira F, T. C. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Campos, T., E-mail: tcff01@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is an advanced treatment technique, widely used in external radiotherapy. This paper presents the Soft-Rt which allows the simulation of an entire IMRT treatment protocol. The Soft-Rt performs a full three-dimensional rendering of a set of patient images, including the definitions of region of interest with organs in risk, and the target tumor volume and margins (PTV). Thus, a more accurate analysis and planning can be performed, taking into account the features and orientation of the radiation beams. The exposed tissues as well as the amount of absorbed dose is depicted in healthy and/or cancerous tissues. As conclusion, Soft-Rt can predict dose on the PTV accurately, preserving the surrounding healthy tissues. Soft-Rt is coupled with SISCODES code. The SISCODES code is firstly applied to segment the set of CT or MRI patient images in distinct tissues pointing out its respective density and chemical compositions. Later, the voxel model is export to the Soft-Rt IMRT planning module in which a full treatment planning is created. All geometrical parameters are sent to the general purpose Monte Carlo transport code - MCNP - to simulate the interaction of each incident beam towards to the PTV avoiding organs in risk. The normalized dose results are exported to the Soft-Rt out-module, in which the three-dimensional model visualization is shown in a transparent glass procedure adopting gray scale for the dependence on the mass density of the correlated tissue; while, a color scale to depict dose values in a superimpose protocol. (Author)

  8. Soft-Rt: software for IMRT simulations based on MCNPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira F, T. C.; Campos, T.

    2015-10-01

    Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is an advanced treatment technique, widely used in external radiotherapy. This paper presents the Soft-Rt which allows the simulation of an entire IMRT treatment protocol. The Soft-Rt performs a full three-dimensional rendering of a set of patient images, including the definitions of region of interest with organs in risk, and the target tumor volume and margins (PTV). Thus, a more accurate analysis and planning can be performed, taking into account the features and orientation of the radiation beams. The exposed tissues as well as the amount of absorbed dose is depicted in healthy and/or cancerous tissues. As conclusion, Soft-Rt can predict dose on the PTV accurately, preserving the surrounding healthy tissues. Soft-Rt is coupled with SISCODES code. The SISCODES code is firstly applied to segment the set of CT or MRI patient images in distinct tissues pointing out its respective density and chemical compositions. Later, the voxel model is export to the Soft-Rt IMRT planning module in which a full treatment planning is created. All geometrical parameters are sent to the general purpose Monte Carlo transport code - MCNP - to simulate the interaction of each incident beam towards to the PTV avoiding organs in risk. The normalized dose results are exported to the Soft-Rt out-module, in which the three-dimensional model visualization is shown in a transparent glass procedure adopting gray scale for the dependence on the mass density of the correlated tissue; while, a color scale to depict dose values in a superimpose protocol. (Author)

  9. RT-PCR detection of HIV in Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosevska, Golubinka; Panovski, Nikola; Dokić, Eleni; Grunevska, Violeta

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study was to detect HIV RNA in seropositive patients using RT-PCR method and thus, to establish PCR methodology in the routine laboratory works. The total of 33 examined persons were divided in two groups: 1) 13 persons seropositive for HIV; and 2) 20 healthy persons - randomly selected blood donors that made the case control group. The subjects age was between 25 and 52 years (average 38,5). ELFA test for combined detection of HIV p24 antigen and anti HIV-1+2 IgG and ELISA test for detection of antibodies against HIV-1 and HIV-2, were performed for each examined person. RNA from the whole blood was extracted using a commercial kit based on salt precipitation. Detection of HIV RNA was performed using RT-PCR kit. Following nested PCR, the product was separated by electrophoresis in 1,5 % agarose gel. The result was scored positive if the band of 210bp was visible regardless of intensity. Measures of precaution were taken during all the steps of the work and HIV infected materials were disposed of accordingly. In the group of blood donors ELFA, ELISA and RT-PCR were negative. Assuming that prevalence of HIV infection is zero, the clinical specificity of RT-PCR is 100 %. The analytical specificity of RT-PCR method was tested against Hepatitis C and B, Human Papiloma Virus, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes Simplex Virus, Rubella Virus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Chlamydia trachomatis. None of these templates yielded amplicon. In the group of 13 seropositive persons, 33 samples were analyzed. HIV RNA was detected in 15 samples. ELISA and ELFA test were positive in all samples. Different aliquots of the samples were tested independently and showed the same results. After different periods of storing the RNA samples at -70 masculineC, RT-PCR reaction was identical to the one performed initially. The obtained amplicons were maintained frozen at -20 masculineC for a week and the subsequently performed electrophoresis was identical to the previous one. The reaction is

  10. RT-PCR Detection of HIV in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubinka Bosevska

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to detect HIV RNA in seropositive patients using RT-PCR method and thus, to establish PCR methodology in the routine laboratory works.The total of 33 examined persons were divided in two groups: 1 13 persons seropositive for HIV; and 2 20 healthy persons - randomly selected blood donors that made the case control group. The subjects age was between 25 and 52 years (average 38,5.ELFA test for combined detection of HIV p24 antigen and anti HIV-1 + 2 IgG and ELISA test for detection of antibodies against HIV-1 and HIV-2, were performed for each examined person. RNA from the whole blood was extracted using a commercial kit based on salt precipitation. Detection of HIV RNA was performed using RT-PCR kit. Following nested PCR, the product was separated by electrophoresis in 1,5 % agarose gel. The result was scored positive if the band of 210bp was visible regardless of intensity Measures of precaution were taken during all the steps of the work and HIV infected materials were disposed of accordingly.In the group of blood donors ELFA, ELISA and RT-PCR were negative. Assuming that prevalence of HIV infection is zero, the clinical specificity of RT-PCR is 100 %. The analytical specificity of RT-PCR method was tested against Hepatitis C and B, Human Papiloma Virus, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes Simplex Virus, Rubella Virus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Chlamydia trachomatis. None of these templates yielded amplicon. In the group of 13 seropositive persons, 33 samples were analyzed. HIV RNA was detected in 15 samples. ELISA and ELFA test were positive in all samples. Different aliquots of the samples were tested independently and showed the same results. After different periods of storing the RNA samples at -70°C, RT-PCR reaction was identical to the one performed initially. The obtained amplicons were maintained frozen at -20°C for a week and the subsequently performed electrophoresis was identical to the previous one. The reaction is

  11. Daily sperm production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyjovska, Zdenka Orabi; Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner; Jackson, Petra

    2013-01-01

    instillation with Printex90. Body and testicle weight, sperm content per g testicular parenchyma and daily sperm production (DSP) were assessed. The protocol for assessment of DSP was optimized for application in mice (C57BL/6J) and the influence of different parameters was studied. Maternal particulate...... exposure did not affect DSP statistically significantly in the F1 generation, although TiO2 tended to reduce sperm counts. Overall, time-to-first F2 litter increased with decreasing sperm production. There was no effect on sperm production in the F2 generation originating after TiO2 exposure. F2 offspring......, whose fathers were prenatally exposed to Printex90, showed lowered sperm production. Furthermore, we report statistically significant differences in sperm production between mouse strains....

  12. Physics in daily life

    CERN Document Server

    Hermans, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This book provides answers to everyday questions that any curious mind would ask, like : Why is water blue ? What makes ice so slippery ? How do we localize sound ? How do we keep our body temperature so nice and constant ? How do we survive the sauna at 90 C ? Why do large raindrops fall faster than small ones, and what exactly is their speed ? The answers are given in an accessible and playful way, and are illustrated with funny cartoons. In this book forty "Physics in Daily Life" columns, which appeared earlier in Europhysics News, are brought together in one inspiring volume. As well as being a source of enjoyment and satisfying insights for anyone with some physics background, it also serves as a very good teaching tool for science students. This booklet is a feast of erudition and humour.

  13. Making Daily Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Wind, Simon

    In 2012 the average daily transportation distance for every Dane were 40 km (TU Data). Realising how much of life is spend thinking about, planning and performing mobility practices it becomes evident that it is much more than an instrumental physical phenomenon – it has great repercussions on life......, social networks, understanding of places and ultimately ourselves and others. To successfully accomplish everyday life, households have to cope with large number of different activities and mobility in relation to their children, work, social life, obligations, expectations, needs and wishes. Drawing...... on mobilities theory (Urry 2007; Larsen et al. 2006) and practice theory (Schatzki 2001; Reckwitz 2002; Shove et al. 2012) this paper seeks to unfold a theoretical framework for understanding of the household’s mobility coping strategies and how these strategies are actualised and materialised into mobility...

  14. TEMPERED FRACTIONAL CALCULUS

    OpenAIRE

    MEERSCHAERT, MARK M.; SABZIKAR, FARZAD; CHEN, JINGHUA

    2015-01-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly obs...

  15. fractional differential equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We apply this method for solving space–time fractional Cahn--Allen equation and space--time fractional Klein–Gordon equation. The fractional derivatives are described in the sense of modified Riemann--Lioville. As a result of some exact solution in the form of hyperbolic, trigonometric and rational solutions are deduced.

  16. Unfolding Fraction Multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyberg, Terry; Whitney, Stephanie R.; Cramer, Kathleen A.; Monson, Debra S.; Leavitt, Seth

    2011-01-01

    Students often have difficulty understanding fractions, in general, and understanding how to multiply fractions, in particular. To move past this potential problem area, students need to develop a deeper understanding of multiplication and connect the ideas to fractions. In this article, the authors share their insights into teaching fraction…

  17. Correctional Facility Average Daily Population

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains Accumulated monthly with details from Pre-Trial Average daily caseload * Detention Services, Average daily population for MCCF, MCDC, PRRS and...

  18. Narr kui ajastu metafoor / Kärt Hellerma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hellerma, Kärt, 1956-

    2001-01-01

    William Shakespeare'i "Kuningas Lear" (lav. Priit Pedajas) ja Pedro Calder̤n de la Barca "Elu on unenägu" (lav. Ingo Normet) Eesti Draamateatris. Ilmunud ka kogumikus : Hellerma, Kärt. Avanenud ruum. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2006, lk. 213-216. Pealk. Narr kui meie aja kangelane

  19. Systemisk vaskulært lækage-syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Krista Dybtved; Rickers, Hans

    2008-01-01

    , træthed og ødemer) og biokemiske abnormiteter (hypoalbuminæmi, hæmokoncentration og monoklonalkomponent), som viste, at tilstanden var forenelig med den akutte - og potentielt letale - form af systemisk vaskulært lækage-syndrom. Ved Mayo Clinic i USA har man haft gode resultater med profylaktisk...

  20. Kirjanduskriitikute suvemängud / Kärt Hellerma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hellerma, Kärt, 1956-

    2007-01-01

    Arvustus: Lodge, David. Ühest kohast teise / tlk. Aet Varik. Tallinn : Varrak, 2005 ; Lodge, David. Väike maailm / tlk. Kersti Unt. Tallinn : Varrak, 1996 ; Lodge, David. Väärt töö / tlk. Kersti Unt. Tallinn : Varrak, 2006

  1. Torm Balti merel / Märt Treier ; interv. Inge Pitsner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Treier, Märt, 1975-

    2004-01-01

    TV3 näitab saksa poliitilist põnevusfilmi "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku : stsenarist, produtsent Jutta Rabe : režissöör Reuben Leder. Filmi eel on teles Märt Treieri saade "Tormist sündinud tormid"

  2. Use of rt-PA (Alteplase) for acute cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshibuchi, Rumi; Fukusako, Toshihiro; Matayoshi, Yasutoshi; Shiramoto, Kiyotaka; Itoh, Makoto; Oka, Hideo

    2008-01-01

    Among those patients with cerebral infarction who were brought to our emergency department from December 2005 through June 2007, 28 satisfied the criteria for indication for alteplase, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), and served as the subjects of this study. According to the treatment protocol that our group, led by neurologists, had prepared, 0.6 mg/kg of rt-PA was administered following a CT of the head region that negated the presence of a brain hemorrhage. The time that elapsed between onset and rt-PA administration was 41-167 minutes (median 95). For 24 hours after medication, the patients were placed under respiratory and circulatory care and their neurological performances were observed in an intensive care unit (ICU) or a neurological ward. On a modified ranking scale, which indicates the possibility for social rehabilitation, 9 patients (32%) were rated to be between 0 to 1. Four (14%) succumbed during this period. By formulating a treatment protocol, rapid administration of rt-PA and monitoring to prevent complications became possible. (author)

  3. rt, Arvo: De profundis. Missa Sillabica / Patric Wiklacz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wiklacz, Patric

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt, Arvo: De profundis. Missa Sillabica. Solfeggio. And one of the Pharisees. Cantate Domino. Summa. 7 Antiennes du Magnificat. The Beautitudes. Magnificat. Christopher Bowers-Broadbent (org.), Daniel Kennedy (perc.). Theatre of Voices / Paul Hillier (bass)" Harmonia Mundi HMU907 182 F (CD:165F). 1996. TT:1h 16'06"

  4. Future of the reprocessing business at the RT-1 plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukharin, O.

    1995-01-01

    Economic viability of reprocessing operations at the RT-1 plant is provided by the contracts with nuclear utilities from Finland and Hungary. Finland will stop sending fuel to Mayak for reprocessing after 1996. Hungary will be capable to resolve the problem of spent fuel domestically some time in the future. This increases vulnerability of the reprocessing business at Mayak to future political uncertainties. (author)

  5. RT-PCR Protocols - Methods in Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Monti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available “The first record I have of it, is when I made a computer file which I usually did whenever I had an idea, that would have been on the Monday when I got back, and I called it Chain Reaction.POL, meaning polymerase. That was the identifier for it and later I called the thing the Polymerase Chain Reaction, which a lot of people thought was a dumb name for it, but it stuck, and it became PCR”. With these words the Nobel prize winner, Kary Mullis, explains how he named the PCR: one of the most important techniques ever invented and currently used in molecular biology. This book “RT-PCR Protocols” covers a wide range of aspects important for the setting of a PCR experiment for both beginners and advanced users. In my opinion the book is very well structured in three different sections. The first one describes the different technologies now available, like competitive RT-PCR, nested RT-PCR or RT-PCR for cloning. An important part regards the usage of PCR in single cell mouse embryos, stressing how important...........

  6. 25 kaadrit sekundis / Liis Auväärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Auväärt, Liis

    2009-01-01

    Nukufilmis käib töö filmiga "Lisa Limone & Maroc Orange", režissöör Mait Laas, animaatorid Triin Sarapik-Kivi, Märt Kivi, operaator Ragnar Neljandi, nukumeistrid Heigo Eeriksoo, Taivo Müürsep, Ene Mellow ja Kreeta Käeri. Dekoratsioonimeistrid Mait Erik ja Roman Kuznetsov

  7. Karje kunstniku südamest / Kärt Hellerma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hellerma, Kärt, 1956-

    1997-01-01

    Arvustus: Dinesen, Isak [Blixen, Karen]. Babette'i pidusöök / tlk. Piret Peiker. Tallinn : Varrak, 1996. Ilmunud ka kogumikus: Hellerma, Kärt. Kohanenud kirjandus : valik kirjanduskriitikat 1987-2006. Eesti Keele Sihtasutus : Tallinn, 2006. Lk. 167-169

  8. rt: Chamber and Orchestral Works / Robert Cowan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Cowan, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt: Chamber and Orchestral Works. Bournemouth Sinfonietta, Richard Studt. EMI Eminence CD CD-EMX 2221; Fratres; Cantus in memory of Benjamin Britten; Summa; Spiegel im Spiegel; Festina lente; Tabula Rasa; Fratres - selected comparison: Bachmann, Kibonoff (12/94)(CATA) 09026 61824-2. Kremer, Jarrett (ECM) 817 764-2

  9. Fractional smith chart theory

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif

    2011-03-01

    For the first time, a generalized Smith chart is introduced here to represent fractional order circuit elements. It is shown that the standard Smith chart is a special case of the generalized fractional order Smith chart. With illustrations drawn for both the conventional integer based lumped elements and the fractional elements, a graphical technique supported by the analytical method is presented to plot impedances on the fractional Smith chart. The concept is then applied towards impedance matching networks, where the fractional approach proves to be much more versatile and results in a single element matching network for a complex load as compared to the two elements in the conventional approach. © 2010 IEEE.

  10. Modulation of accelerated repopulation in mouse skin during daily irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.-R.; Shirazi, A.; Heasman, F.

    1999-01-01

    Background and purpose: The timing of acceleration of repopulation in the epidermis during daily irradiation is related to the development of skin erythema and epidermal hypoplasia. Therefore, the relationship between impairment of the epidermal barrier function, the dermal inflammatory response and epidermal hypoplasia with the acceleration of repopulation was investigated.Materials and purpose: Skin fields of approximately 1 cm 2 on the thighs of TUC mice were given five daily fractions of 3 Gy in each week followed by top-up doses at the end of the first, the second, or the third week to determine residual epidermal tolerance and to calculate repopulation rates in weeks 1, 2, or 3. Systemic modulation of repopulation was attempted by daily indomethacine during fractionated irradiation whereas tape stripping or UV-B exposure before the start of fractionated irradiation attempted local modulation. In parallel experiments, the water permeability coefficient of the epidermis was determined ex vivo by studying transepidermal transport of tritiated water.Results: Without modulation, no repopulation was found in the first week of daily fractionation but repopulation compensated 30% of the dose given in week two and 70% of the dose given in week three. Only tape stripping before the start of fractionated irradiation accelerated repopulation in week one. UV-B had no effect on repopulation although it stimulated proliferation as much as tape stripping. Indomethacin did not suppress acceleration of repopulation. A significant increase in transepidermal water loss was found but only after repopulation had already accelerated.Conclusions: Acceleration of repopulation in mouse epidermis during daily-fractionated irradiation is not related to the simultaneous development of an inflammatory response. Also, the loss of the epidermal barrier function is not involved in the development of the acceleration response, which rather seems to be triggered directly by the decreased

  11. Fractional factorial plans

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Aloke

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop reference to fractional factorials and related orthogonal arrays.Presenting one of the most dynamic areas of statistical research, this book offers a systematic, rigorous, and up-to-date treatment of fractional factorial designs and related combinatorial mathematics. Leading statisticians Aloke Dey and Rahul Mukerjee consolidate vast amounts of material from the professional literature--expertly weaving fractional replication, orthogonal arrays, and optimality aspects. They develop the basic theory of fractional factorials using the calculus of factorial arrangements, thereby providing a unified approach to the study of fractional factorial plans. An indispensable guide for statisticians in research and industry as well as for graduate students, Fractional Factorial Plans features: * Construction procedures of symmetric and asymmetric orthogonal arrays. * Many up-to-date research results on nonexistence. * A chapter on optimal fractional factorials not based on orthogonal arrays. * Trend-free plans...

  12. Fractional Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, José; Luo, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Fractional Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive overview of recent advances in the areas of nonlinear dynamics, vibration and control with analytical, numerical, and experimental results. This book provides an overview of recent discoveries in fractional control, delves into fractional variational principles and differential equations, and applies advanced techniques in fractional calculus to solving complicated mathematical and physical problems.Finally, this book also discusses the role that fractional order modeling can play in complex systems for engineering and science. Discusses how fractional dynamics and control can be used to solve nonlinear science and complexity issues Shows how fractional differential equations and models can be used to solve turbulence and wave equations in mechanics and gravity theories and Schrodinger’s equation  Presents factional relaxation modeling of dielectric materials and wave equations for dielectrics  Develops new methods for control and synchronization of...

  13. Effectiveness and toxicity of single-fraction radiotherapy with 1x8 Gy for metastatic spinal cord compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rades, Dirk; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Zschenker, Oliver; Alberti, Winfried; Koning, Caro C.E.

    2005-01-01

    Toxicity and functional outcome were evaluated in 199 MSCC-patients irradiated with 1x8 Gy. Motor function improved in 54/199 patients (27%). Patients who regained walking ability were 20/78 (26%). Long-term-survivors (≥12 months) who needed re-irradiation for in-field-recurrence were 19/65 (29%). Acute toxicity was mild, late toxicity not observed. A randomised trial comparing single-fraction RT to multi-fraction RT is mandatory

  14. A Population-based Study of the Fractionation of Palliative Radiotherapy for Bone Metastasis in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Weidong; Zhang-Salomons, Jina; Hanna, Timothy P.; Mackillop, William J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the use of palliative radiotherapy (PRT) for bone metastases in Ontario between 1984 and 2001 and identify factors associated with the choice of fractionation. Methods and Materials: Electronic RT records from the nine provincial RT centers in Ontario were linked to the Ontario Cancer Registry to identify all courses of PRT for bone metastases. Results: Between 1984 and 2001, 44,884 patients received 74,432 courses of PRT for bone metastases in Ontario. The mean number of courses per patient was 1.7, and 65% of patients received only a single course of PRT for bone metastasis. The mean number of fractions per course was 3.9. The proportion of patients treated with a single fraction increased from 27.2% in 1984-1986 to 40.3% in 1987-1992 and decreased thereafter. Single fractions were used more frequently in patients with a shorter life expectancy, in older patients, and in patients who lived further from an RT center. Single fractions were used more frequently when the prevailing waiting time for RT was longer. There were wide variations in the use of single fractions among the different RT centers (intercenter range, 11.8-62.3%). Intercenter variations persisted throughout the study period and were not explained by differences in case mix. Conclusions: Despite increasing evidence of the effectiveness of single-fraction PRT for bone metastases, most patients continued to receive fractionated PRT throughout the two decades of this study. Single fractions were used more frequently when waiting times were longer. There was persistent, unexplained variation in the fractionation of PRT among different centers

  15. Arvo Pärt jagab preemia koolidele / Rebekka Lotman, Eva Kübar ; kommenteerinud Arvo Pärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lotman, Rebekka, 1978-

    2009-01-01

    Kultuuriministeerium tegi ettepaneku anda Arvo Pärdile elutööpreemia, millega kaasneva rahasumma lubas Pärt kinkida Rakvere ja Paide muusikakoolile. Elutööpreemiad saavad veel Ellen Niit ja Aarne Üksküla

  16. rt Haamer: Tsahknal pole Overalliga mingisugust seost / Märt Haamer ; intervjueerinud Jan Jõgis-Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haamer, Märt, 1973-

    2009-01-01

    Overall Eesti juhi Märt Haameri väitel pole Anders Tsahkna ühtegi riigihanget Overalli ettevõtetele suunanud. Overalli omandusse kuuluv firma Gennet Lab on olnud alltöövõtja paaris E-tervise Sihtasutuse korraldatud hankes

  17. Reconstructing missing daily precipitation data using regression trees and artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incomplete meteorological data has been a problem in environmental modeling studies. The objective of this work was to develop a technique to reconstruct missing daily precipitation data in the central part of Chesapeake Bay Watershed using regression trees (RT) and artificial neural networks (ANN)....

  18. Regional radiotherapy (RT), hyperthermia (HT) and chemotherapy in primary inoperable or recurrent rectal carcinoma: feasibility and operability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schem, B.C.; Froystein, T.; Sorbye, H.; Dahl, O.; Mella, O.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Patients with primarily inoperable rectal carcinomas without distant metastases, and some with local recurrence, are surgically curable if tumor shrinkage after preoperative treatment is achieved. The effect of preoperative RT alone or combined with chemotherapy is not satisfactory in many patients. In a previous pilot study, excellent local control was achieved with radiotherapy, oxaliplatin, continuous 5FU, and weekly hyperthermia before surgery. However, acute toxicity, mainly diarrhoea, was a problem, and the continuous administration of 5FU via a central venous line was cumbersome in an outpatient setting. In the present study 5FU was replaced with oral capecitabine, all the radiotherapy was customized by conformal techniques, and the radiotherapy dose was moderately reduced. Patients were included from August -03. Based on clinical and MR evaluation, all were considered inoperable or with high risk of pelvic failure after surgery alone. 23 patients (M15, F8) have completed preoperative treatment. Their stage were T4 (8), T3 (9) and local pelvic recurrence, all without distant metastases. Mean age was 58 years (range 21 - 74). The treatment schedule was: RT (2 Gy x 23 to primary tumor, mesorectum and regional nodes with margins, attempting to minimize dose to the ileum, and 2 Gy x 4-5 boost to the tumor, average total tumor dose 54.3 Gy), weekly HT just after RT, weekly oxaliplatin (50 mg/m 2 simultaneous with HT), and capecitabine (825 mg/m 2 ) the evening and morning before each RT fraction. Hyperthermia was given with BSD 2000 (Sigma-60 or Sigma Eye applicator) and use of invasive thermometry with Bowman probes. Therapeutic time was 60 min. at tolerable output. Trimodality treatment with conformal RT, HT, oxaliplatin and capecitabine is tolerable. In the present setting, the toxicity is less pronounced than in the first pilot study, and the treatment is easier in an outpatient setting. (author)

  19. Performance Evaluation of Irbene RT-16 Radio Telescope Receiving System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleiders M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, recent measurement results of refurbished Irbene RT-16 radio telescope receiving system performance are presented. The aim of the research is to evaluate characteristics of RT-16, which will allow carrying out necessary amplitude calibration in both single dish and VLBI observations, to improve the performance of existing system as well as to monitor, control and compare performance if possible changes in the receiving system will occur in future. The evaluated receiving system is 16 m Cassegrain antenna equipped with a cryogenic receiver with frequency range from 4.5 to 8.8 GHz, which is divided into four sub-bands. Multiple calibration sessions have been carried out by observing stable astronomical sources with known flux density by using in-house made total power registration backend. First, pointing offset calibration has been carried out and pointing model coefficients calculated and applied. Then, amplitude calibration, namely antenna sensitivity, calibration diode equivalent flux density and gain curve measurements have been carried out by observing calibration sources at different antenna elevations at each of the receiver sub-bands. Beam patterns have also been evaluated at different frequency bands. As a whole, acquired data will serve as a reference point for comparison in future performance evaluation of RT-16.

  20. GOKaRT: Graphical Online Search Tool for Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mechthild Schüler

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The map department of the Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Göttingen together with the Berlin State Library propose a project to develop a web-based graphic cataloguing and search system for maps, to be funded by the German Research Foundation. This tool shall be made available to all map holdings in archives, libraries, university departments and museums in Germany as a comfortable means for the administration of map holdings and as a search tool. Sheets belonging to map series as well as single maps (old and new will be registered cooperatively by the participants with simple tools. This cooperation in data maintenance will facilitate the work especially for understaffed map holdings. Depending on the type of map there are four different mechanisms for map reference. For map series electronic index sheets are used which will show information regarding the various issues of the map sheets. Due to the intuitive graphic search entry GOKaRT-users will easily find the required maps of a certain region available in a chosen holding. User administration modules ensure comfortable handling. GOKaRT is being developed on the basis of licence-free open source programmes. In case financing is provided by the German Research Foundation, GOKaRT can be used free of charge internationally. This would require a contract stipulating data exchange between the partners as well as permanent storage and usability of the data.

  1. WE-H-207B-00: MRgRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, steady progress has been made towards the implementation of MRI in external beam radiation therapy for processes ranging from treatment simulation to in-room guidance. Novel procedures relying mostly on MR data are currently implemented in the clinic. This session will cover topics such as (a) commissioning and quality control of the MR in-room imagers and simulators specific to RT, (b) treatment planning requirements, constraints and challenges when dealing with various MR data, (c) quantification of organ motion with an emphasis on treatment delivery guidance, and (d) MR-driven strategies for adaptive RT workflows. The content of the session was chosen to address both educational and practical key aspects of MR guidance. Learning Objectives: Good understanding of MR testing recommended for in-room MR imaging as well as image data validation for RT chain (e.g. image transfer, filtering for consistency, spatial accuracy, manipulation for task specific); Familiarity with MR-based planning procedures: motivation, core workflow requirements, current status, challenges; Overview of the current methods for the quantification of organ motion; Discussion on approaches for adaptive treatment planning and delivery. T. Stanescu - License agreement with Modus Medical Devices to develop a phantom for the quantification of MR image system-related distortions.; T. Stanescu, N/A

  2. WE-H-207B-04: Strategies for Adaptive RT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, O.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, steady progress has been made towards the implementation of MRI in external beam radiation therapy for processes ranging from treatment simulation to in-room guidance. Novel procedures relying mostly on MR data are currently implemented in the clinic. This session will cover topics such as (a) commissioning and quality control of the MR in-room imagers and simulators specific to RT, (b) treatment planning requirements, constraints and challenges when dealing with various MR data, (c) quantification of organ motion with an emphasis on treatment delivery guidance, and (d) MR-driven strategies for adaptive RT workflows. The content of the session was chosen to address both educational and practical key aspects of MR guidance. Learning Objectives: Good understanding of MR testing recommended for in-room MR imaging as well as image data validation for RT chain (e.g. image transfer, filtering for consistency, spatial accuracy, manipulation for task specific); Familiarity with MR-based planning procedures: motivation, core workflow requirements, current status, challenges; Overview of the current methods for the quantification of organ motion; Discussion on approaches for adaptive treatment planning and delivery. T. Stanescu - License agreement with Modus Medical Devices to develop a phantom for the quantification of MR image system-related distortions.; T. Stanescu, N/A

  3. Impact of a dedicated palliative radiation oncology service on the use of single fraction and hypofractionated radiation therapy among patients with bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skamene, Sonia; Agarwal, Isha; Makar, Maggie; Krishnan, Monica; Spektor, Alex; Hertan, Lauren; Mouw, Kent W; Taylor, Allison; Noveroske Philbrick, Sarah; Balboni, Tracy

    2017-11-30

    Radiation therapy (RT) is frequently used to palliate symptomatic bone metastases. While high quality literature has shown that for uncomplicated bone metastases, shorter radiotherapy courses are just as effective as longer courses for the treatment of pain, shorter courses remain under-utilized. We aimed to assess the impact of a dedicated palliative radiation oncology service on the frequency of single fraction RT (SF-RT) and hypofractionated radiation (hypo-RT) (≤5 fractions) among patients with bone metastases. We identified 2,086 instances of palliative radiation (RT) for complicated and uncomplicated bone metastases between April 10, 2008 and September 17, 2014. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis (MVA) to estimate the association of the Supportive and Palliative Radiation Oncology (SPRO) service with the likelihood of receiving SF-RT or hypo-RT after controlling for age, sex, tumor type, and treatment site. Prior to SPRO's implementation on July 1, 2011, the proportion of SF-RT and hypo-RT for bone metastases was 6.4% and 27.6% respectively. After SPRO's implementation, the proportion of SF-RT and hypo-RT increased to 22.3% (Pdedicated palliative service, patients receiving care at the SPRO affiliated department were more likely to receive SF-RT (OR =1.9, 95% CI =1.1-3.2, P=0.02) and hypo-RT (OR =1.5, 95% CI =1.1-2.0, P=0.004) for bone metastases. After SPRO's implementation, the average number of RT courses delivered for bone metastases increased from 17.4 to 25.6 per month, (+8.3, 95% CI =4.99-11.55, Pdedicated palliative radiation oncology service was associated with increased use of SF and hypo-RT and with greater courses of RT delivered for bone metastases.

  4. Unravelling daily human mobility motifs

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Christian M.; Belik, Vitaly; Couronné, Thomas; Smoreda, Zbigniew; González, Marta C.

    2013-01-01

    Human mobility is differentiated by time scales. While the mechanism for long time scales has been studied, the underlying mechanism on the daily scale is still unrevealed. Here, we uncover the mechanism responsible for the daily mobility patterns by analysing the temporal and spatial trajectories of thousands of persons as individual networks. Using the concept of motifs from network theory, we find only 17 unique networks are present in daily mobility and they follow simple rules. These net...

  5. Transuranics and fission products release from PWR fuels in severe accident conditions. Lessons learnt from VERCORS RT3 and RT4 tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontillon, Y.; Ducros, G.; Van Winckel, S.; Christiansen, B.; Kissane, M.P.; Dubourg, R.; Dutheillet, Y.; Andreo, F.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decades, several experimental programs devoted to the source term of fission products (FP) and actinides released from PWR fuel samples in severe accident (SA) conditions have been initiated throughout the world. In France, in this context, the Institute for Radiological Protection and Safety (IRSN) and Electricite de France (EDF) have supported the analytical VERCORS program which was performed by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA). The VERCORS facility at the LAMA-laboratory (CEA-Grenoble, France) was designed to heat up an irradiated fuel sample - taken from EDF's nuclear power reactors - to fuel relocation, and to capture the fission products released from the fuel and deposited downstream on a series of specific filters (impactors, bead-bed filter). On-line gamma detectors aimed at the fuel position, filters and gas capacity monitored the progress of FP release from the fuel, FP deposition on the filters and the fission gases emitted by the fuel (xenon and krypton). Before and after the test, a longitudinal gamma-scan of the fuel was conducted to measure the initial and final FP inventory in order to evaluate the quantitative fractions of FP emitted by the fuel during the test. All the components of the loop were then gamma-scanned to measure and locate the FPs released during the test and to draw up a mass balance of these FP. 25 annealing tests were performed between 1983 and 2002 on irradiated PWR fuels under various conditions of temperature and atmospheres (oxidising or reducing conditions). The influence of the nature of the fuel (UO 2 versus MOX, burn up) and the fuel morphology (initially intact or fragmented fuel) have also been investigated. This led to an extended data base allowing on the one hand to study mechanisms which promote FP release in SA conditions, and on the other hand to enhance models implemented in SA codes. Because gamma spectrometry is well suited to FP measurement and not to actinides (except neptunium

  6. Fractional and noncommutative spacetimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzano, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/32616443X; Calcagni, M.; Oriti, D.; Scalisi, M.

    2011-01-01

    We establish a mapping between fractional and noncommutative spacetimes in configuration space. Depending on the scale at which the relation is considered, there arise two possibilities. For a fractional spacetime with log-oscillatory measure, the effective measure near the fundamental scale

  7. Fractional location problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.I. Barros (Ana); J.B.G. Frenk (Hans); J.A.S. Gromicho (Joaquim)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we analyze some variants of the classical uncapacitated facility location problem with a ratio as an objective function. Using basic concepts and results of fractional programming, we identify a class of one-level fractional location problems which can be solved in

  8. An Appetite for Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Trena L.; Bryan, Tommy; Curry, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how using candy bars as models gives sixth-grade students a taste for learning to represent fractions whose denominators are factors of twelve. Using paper models of the candy bars, students explored and compared fractions. They noticed fewer different representations for one-third than for one-half. The authors conclude…

  9. Radiobiological arguments for and clinical possibilities of unconventional fractionating rhythms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, T.; Voigtmann, L.

    1986-01-01

    Radiobiological considerations are presented using unconventional fractionating rhythms. The aim of this method is to enlarge the therapeutic dimensions between maximum tumor destruction and most careful treatment of late responding cell systems. These late responding tissues show a very similar dose-time reaction, probably by reason of a causal injury on cells of the capillary endothelium. In linear-quadratic models for the estimation of the parameters of the number of fractions and total treatment period it becomes evident that a careful treatment of late responding tissue can be attained by reduction of the single dose per fraction. Because with partition of a total dose in several fractions at daily irradiation a longer repopulation period is available also for the tumor irradiations are presented, done repeatedly during the day. Accelerated fractionation (same fractionating number in reduced treatment period) are contrasted to hyperfractionation (increased fractionating number within the same total treatment period) and possibilities in application are suggested. (author)

  10. Fractional bosonic strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Victor Alfonzo; Giusti, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a simple generalization of bosonic string theory in the framework of the theory of fractional variational problems. Specifically, we present a fractional extension of the Polyakov action, for which we compute the general form of the equations of motion and discuss the connection between the new fractional action and a generalization the Nambu-Goto action. Consequently, we analyze the symmetries of the modified Polyakov action and try to fix the gauge, following the classical procedures. Then we solve the equations of motion in a simplified setting. Finally, we present a Hamiltonian description of the classical fractional bosonic string and introduce the fractional light-cone gauge. It is important to remark that, throughout the whole paper, we thoroughly discuss how to recover the known results as an "integer" limit of the presented model.

  11. Multi-institutional phase I study of low-dose ultra-fractionated radiotherapy as a chemosensitizer for gemcitabine and erlotinib in patients with locally advanced or limited metastatic pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konski, Andre; Meyer, Joshua E; Joiner, Michael; Hall, Michael J; Philip, Philip; Shields, Anthony; McSpadden, Erin; Choi, Minsig; Adaire, Beth; Duncan, Gail; Meropol, Neal J; Cescon, Terrence P; Cohen, Steven J

    2014-10-01

    Gemcitabine (G) has been shown to sensitize pancreatic cancer to radiotherapy but requires lower doses of G and thus delays aggressive systemic treatment, potentially leading to distant failure. We initiated a phase I trial combining ultra-fractionated low-dose radiotherapy with full dose G and erlotinib in the treatment of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer confined to the abdomen and an ECOG performance status (PS) of 0-1 who had received 0-1 prior regimens (without G or E) and no prior radiotherapy were eligible. Patients were treated in 21 day cycles with G IV days 1 & 8, E once PO QD, and twice daily RT fractions separated by at least 4h on days 1, 2, 8, and 9. Whole abdominal RT fields were used. Primary endpoint was to define dose limiting toxicity (DLT) and the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). 27 patients (median age 64 years and 15 male) were enrolled between 11/24/08 and 4/12/12. 1 patient withdrew consent prior to receiving any protocol therapy. 17 patients had a PS of 1. The majority of patients were stage IV. One DLT was noted out of 7 patients at dose level (DL) 1. Subsequently no DLTs were noted in 3 patients each enrolled at DL2-4 or 11 patients in the expansion cohort. The majority of grade 3 toxicities were hematologic with 1 grade 5 bowel perforation in dose level 1 in cycle 4. Best response in 24 evaluable patients: PR (8), stable (15), PD 1. Median survival for the entire group was 9.1 months. This phase I study combining low-dose ultra-fractionated RT as a sensitizer to full dose G plus E was well tolerated with encouraging efficacy. This represents a novel strategy worthy of further investigation in advanced pancreatic cancer patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Serial assessment of FDG-PET FDG uptake and functional volume during radiotherapy (RT) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edet-Sanson, Agathe; Dubray, Bernard; Doyeux, Kaya; Back, Adeline; Hapdey, Sebastien; Modzelewski, Romain; Bohn, Pierre; Gardin, Isabelle; Vera, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives were (i) to confirm that diagnostic FDG-PET images could be obtained during thoracic radiotherapy, (ii) to verify that significant changes in FDG uptake or volume could be measured early enough to adapt the radiotherapy plan and (iii) to determine an optimal time window during the radiotherapy course to acquire a single FDG-PET examination that would be representative of tumour response. Methods: Ten non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients with significant PET/CT-FDG tumour radioactivity uptake (versus the background level), candidates for curative radiotherapy (RT, n = 4; 60–70 Gy, 2 Gray per fraction, 5 fractions per week) or RT plus chemotherapy (CT-RT, n = 6), were prospectively evaluated. Using a Siemens Biograph, 5 or 6 PET/CT scans (PET n , n = 0–5) were performed for each patient. Each acquisition included a 15-min thoracic PET with respiratory gating (RG) 60 ± 5 min post-injection of the FDG (3.5 MBq/kg), followed by a standard, 5-min non-gated (STD) thoracic PET. PET 0 was performed before the first RT fraction. During RT, PET 1–5 were performed every 7 fractions, i.e., at 14 Gy total dose increment. FDG uptake was measured as the variation of SUV max,PETn versus SUV max,PET0 . Each lesions’ volume was measured by (i) visual delineation by an experienced nuclear physician, (ii) 40% SUV max fixed threshold and (iii) a semi-automatic adaptive threshold method. Results: A total of 53 FDG-PET scans were acquired. Seventeen lesions (6 tumours and 11 nodes) were visible on PET 0 in the 10 patients. The lesions were located either in or near the mediastinum or in the apex, without significant respiratory displacements at visual inspection of the gated images. Healthy lung did not cause motion artefacts in the PET images. As measured on 89 lesions, both the absolute and relative SUV max values decreased as the RT dose increased. A 50% SUV max decrease was obtained around a total dose of 45 Gy. Out of the 89 lesions, 75

  13. Logistiline Daily Service / Paavo Kangur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangur, Paavo, 1966-

    2005-01-01

    Sügisel ostis Leedu endise majandusministri Valetntinas Milaknise firma Daily Service ära kõik bürootarvetemüüja Reval Impexi aktsiad. 300 miljoni kroonise aastakäibega firma Eesti tütarettevõte prognoosib oma tänavuseks käibeks 31,2 miljonit krooni. Lisa: Daily Service'i struktuur

  14. Detection and Analysis of Circular RNAs by RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Amaresh C; Gorospe, Myriam

    2018-03-20

    Gene expression in eukaryotic cells is tightly regulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Posttranscriptional processes, including pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA export, mRNA turnover, and mRNA translation, are controlled by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and noncoding (nc)RNAs. The vast family of ncRNAs comprises diverse regulatory RNAs, such as microRNAs and long noncoding (lnc)RNAs, but also the poorly explored class of circular (circ)RNAs. Although first discovered more than three decades ago by electron microscopy, only the advent of high-throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and the development of innovative bioinformatic pipelines have begun to allow the systematic identification of circRNAs (Szabo and Salzman, 2016; Panda et al ., 2017b; Panda et al ., 2017c). However, the validation of true circRNAs identified by RNA sequencing requires other molecular biology techniques including reverse transcription (RT) followed by conventional or quantitative (q) polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Northern blot analysis (Jeck and Sharpless, 2014). RT-qPCR analysis of circular RNAs using divergent primers has been widely used for the detection, validation, and sometimes quantification of circRNAs (Abdelmohsen et al ., 2015 and 2017; Panda et al ., 2017b). As detailed here, divergent primers designed to span the circRNA backsplice junction sequence can specifically amplify the circRNAs and not the counterpart linear RNA. In sum, RT-PCR analysis using divergent primers allows direct detection and quantification of circRNAs.

  15. Applications of LANCE Data at SPoRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Short term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center: Mission: Apply NASA and NOAA measurement systems and unique Earth science research to improve the accuracy of short term weather prediction at the regional/local scale. Goals: Evaluate and assess the utility of NASA and NOAA Earth science data and products and unique research capabilities to address operational weather forecast problems; Provide an environment which enables the development and testing of new capabilities to improve short term weather forecasts on a regional scale; Help ensure successful transition of new capabilities to operational weather entities for the benefit of society

  16. SMAP Data Assimilation at NASA SPoRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Clay B.; Case, Jonathan L.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Short-Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center maintains a near-real- time run of the Noah Land Surface Model within the Land Information System (LIS) at 3-km resolution. Soil moisture products from this model are used by several NOAA/National Weather Service Weather Forecast Offices for flood and drought situational awareness. We have implemented assimilation of soil moisture retrievals from the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Soil Moisture Active/ Passive (SMAP) satellites, and are now evaluating the SMAP assimilation. The SMAP-enhanced LIS product is planned for public release by October 2016.

  17. 47: A new RT-CT system for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujii, H.; Kamada, T.; Takamura, A.; Irie, G.; Ohta, H.; Kubo, Y.; Inamura, K.

    1987-01-01

    A new radiotherapy dedicated CT-system (RT-CT system) has been developed, allowing various aspects of radiotherapy including pre-treatment staging, treatment planning, treatment delivery and follow-up after irradiation. The hardwares include a CT scanner, laser-beam field projector, dose planning unit, independent diagnostic console, data processing and filing unit, and related accessories. The main feature of treatment planning involves the determination of radiation parameters using CT scans with or without a scout view, where a conventional X-ray simulator is no longer used. The system permits 3-D dose calculation with inhomogeneity corrections. 8 refs.; 4 figs

  18. Contribution of various microenvironments to the daily personal exposure to ultrafine particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Kjeldsen, Birthe Uldahl; Olsen, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    occurring in various microenvironments (residence, during active and passive transport, other indoor and outdoor environments) to the total daily exposure. On average, the fractional contribution of each microenvironment to the daily integrated personal exposure roughly corresponded to the fractions......, compared to the GPS. These results may indicate limitations of using diaries, but also possible inaccuracy and miss-classification in the GPS data. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Low or High Fractionation Dose {beta}-Radiotherapy for Pterygium? A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viani, Gustavo Arruda, E-mail: gusviani@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medicine School, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Fendi, Ligia Issa; Fonseca, Ellen Carrara [Department of Ophthalmology, Marilia Medicine School, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Stefano, Eduardo Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medicine School, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Postoperative adjuvant treatment using {beta}-radiotherapy (RT) is a proven technique for reducing the recurrence of pterygium. A randomized trial was conducted to determine whether a low fractionation dose of 2 Gy within 10 fractions would provide local control similar to that after a high fractionation dose of 5 Gy within 7 fractions for surgically resected pterygium. Methods: A randomized trial was conducted in 200 patients (216 pterygia) between February 2006 and July 2007. Only patients with fresh pterygium resected using a bare sclera method and given RT within 3 days were included. Postoperative RT was delivered using a strontium-90 eye applicator. The pterygia were randomly treated using either 5 Gy within 7 fractions (Group 1) or 2 Gy within 10 fractions (Group 2). The local control rate was calculated from the date of surgery. Results: Of the 216 pterygia included, 112 were allocated to Group 1 and 104 to Group 2. The 3-year local control rate for Groups 1 and 2 was 93.8% and 92.3%, respectively (p = .616). A statistically significant difference for cosmetic effect (p = .034), photophobia (p = .02), irritation (p = .001), and scleromalacia (p = .017) was noted in favor of Group 2. Conclusions: No better local control rate for postoperative pterygium was obtained using high-dose fractionation vs. low-dose fractionation. However, a low-dose fractionation schedule produced better cosmetic effects and resulted in fewer symptoms than high-dose fractionation. Moreover, pterygia can be safely treated in terms of local recurrence using RT schedules with a biologic effective dose of 24-52.5 Gy{sub 10.}.

  20. Fractional Order Generalized Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tenreiro Machado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates a novel expression for entropy inspired in the properties of Fractional Calculus. The characteristics of the generalized fractional entropy are tested both in standard probability distributions and real world data series. The results reveal that tuning the fractional order allow an high sensitivity to the signal evolution, which is useful in describing the dynamics of complex systems. The concepts are also extended to relative distances and tested with several sets of data, confirming the goodness of the generalization.

  1. Daily and Sub-daily Precipitation for the Former USSR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of in situ daily and hourly meteorological observations for the former USSR initially obtained within the framework of several joint...

  2. Treatment of chronic migraine: a 3-month comparator study of naproxen sodium vs SumaRT/Nap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Roger; Nett, Robert; Dexter, Kent; Freitag, Fred; Beach, M E; Manley, Heather R

    2014-01-01

    To compare the use of a combination of 85 mg sumatriptan plus 500 mg naproxen sodium in a combination tablet with 500 mg naproxen sodium in an identically appearing tablet when used as a daily preventative and acute treatment for 1 month and episodic acute treatment for an additional 2 months in patients with chronic migraine. To date, there has been minimal study of acute medications for patients with chronic migraine. Consequently, there is a paucity of study methodology or evidence-based guidance on the use of acute treatment medications in patients with chronic migraine. This two-center, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, comparator pilot trial of 28 subjects, 18 to 65 years of age, with ICHD-II defined chronic migraine, was designed to generate hypotheses about the efficacy of 2 established acute migraine medications used both as a daily preventive treatment (month 1) and episodic acute treatment (months 1, 2, and 3). Subjects were randomized 1:1 to treat daily with SumaRT/Nap (85 mg sumatriptan + 500 mg naproxen sodium) (group A) or naproxen sodium (500 mg) (group B) in a prophylactic strategy for 1 month followed by 2 months of the same medications used for episodic acute treatment. The combination of SumaRT/Nap used over a 3-month period did not appear to significantly reduce the number of migraine headache days. In the subset of subjects using naproxen sodium and completing the study per protocol, there was a marked reduction in migraine headache days (P Nap (group A) did not appear to reduce migraine headache frequency over a 3-month period. Subjects using naproxen sodium (group B) alone and completing the study per protocol had a marked statistically significant reduction in migraine headache days. Both groups completing the study per protocol had experienced clinically meaningful 2-hour headache relief. This suggests there may be a subset of patients with chronic migraine that are responsive to high doses of naproxen as an acute

  3. FRACTIONS: CONCEPTUAL AND DIDACTIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sead Rešić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fractions represent the manner of writing parts of whole numbers (integers. Rules for operations with fractions differ from rules for operations with integers. Students face difficulties in understanding fractions, especially operations with fractions. These difficulties are well known in didactics of Mathematics throughout the world and there is a lot of research regarding problems in learning about fractions. Methods for facilitating understanding fractions have been discovered, which are essentially related to visualizing operations with fractions.

  4. Fractional Stochastic Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkonen, Juha

    2018-02-01

    Models describing evolution of physical, chemical, biological, social and financial processes are often formulated as differential equations with the understanding that they are large-scale equations for averages of quantities describing intrinsically random processes. Explicit account of randomness may lead to significant changes in the asymptotic behaviour (anomalous scaling) in such models especially in low spatial dimensions, which in many cases may be captured with the use of the renormalization group. Anomalous scaling and memory effects may also be introduced with the use of fractional derivatives and fractional noise. Construction of renormalized stochastic field theory with fractional derivatives and fractional noise in the underlying stochastic differential equations and master equations and the interplay between fluctuation-induced and built-in anomalous scaling behaviour is reviewed and discussed.

  5. Social Trust and Fractionalization:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2008-01-01

    a much larger country sample than in previous literature confirms that fractionalization in the form of income inequality and political diversity adversely affects social trust while ethnic diversity does not. However, these effects differ systematically across countries, questioning standard...

  6. Fractional excretion of sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    FE sodium; FENa ... a lab. There, they are examined for salt (sodium) and creatinine levels. Creatinine is a chemical waste ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Excretion fraction of filtered sodium-blood and urine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, ...

  7. Discrete fractional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Goodrich, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This text provides the first comprehensive treatment of the discrete fractional calculus. Experienced researchers will find the text useful as a reference for discrete fractional calculus and topics of current interest. Students who are interested in learning about discrete fractional calculus will find this text to provide a useful starting point. Several exercises are offered at the end of each chapter and select answers have been provided at the end of the book. The presentation of the content is designed to give ample flexibility for potential use in a myriad of courses and for independent study. The novel approach taken by the authors includes a simultaneous treatment of the fractional- and integer-order difference calculus (on a variety of time scales, including both the usual forward and backwards difference operators). The reader will acquire a solid foundation in the classical topics of the discrete calculus while being introduced to exciting recent developments, bringing them to the frontiers of the...

  8. MO-E-BRC-01: Online Adaptive MR-Guided RT: Workflow and Clinical Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashani, R. [Washington University School of Medicine (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Online adaptive radiation therapy has the potential to ensure delivery of optimal treatment to the patient by accounting for anatomical and potentially functional changes that occur from one fraction to the next and over the course of treatment. While on-line adaptive RT (ART) has been a topic of many publications, discussions, and research, it has until very recently remained largely a concept and not a practical implementation. However, recent advances in on-table imaging, use of deformable image registration for contour generation and dose tracking, faster and more efficient plan optimization, as well as fast quality assurance method has enabled the implementation of ART in the clinic in the past couple of years. The introduction of these tools into routine clinical use requires many considerations and progressive knowledge to understand how processes that have historically taken hours/days to complete can now be done in less than 30 minutes. This session will discuss considerations to perform real time contouring, planning and patient specific QA, as well as a practical workflow and the required resources. Learning Objectives: To understand the difficulties, challenges and available technologies for online adaptive RT. To understand how to implement online adaptive therapy in a clinical environment and to understand the workflow and resources required. To understand the limitations and sources of uncertainty in the online adaptive process I have research funding from ViewRay Inc. and Philips Medical Systems.; R. Kashani, I have research funding from ViewRay Inc. and Philips Medical Systems.; X. Li, Research supported by Elekta Inc.

  9. MO-E-BRC-01: Online Adaptive MR-Guided RT: Workflow and Clinical Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashani, R.

    2016-01-01

    Online adaptive radiation therapy has the potential to ensure delivery of optimal treatment to the patient by accounting for anatomical and potentially functional changes that occur from one fraction to the next and over the course of treatment. While on-line adaptive RT (ART) has been a topic of many publications, discussions, and research, it has until very recently remained largely a concept and not a practical implementation. However, recent advances in on-table imaging, use of deformable image registration for contour generation and dose tracking, faster and more efficient plan optimization, as well as fast quality assurance method has enabled the implementation of ART in the clinic in the past couple of years. The introduction of these tools into routine clinical use requires many considerations and progressive knowledge to understand how processes that have historically taken hours/days to complete can now be done in less than 30 minutes. This session will discuss considerations to perform real time contouring, planning and patient specific QA, as well as a practical workflow and the required resources. Learning Objectives: To understand the difficulties, challenges and available technologies for online adaptive RT. To understand how to implement online adaptive therapy in a clinical environment and to understand the workflow and resources required. To understand the limitations and sources of uncertainty in the online adaptive process I have research funding from ViewRay Inc. and Philips Medical Systems.; R. Kashani, I have research funding from ViewRay Inc. and Philips Medical Systems.; X. Li, Research supported by Elekta Inc.

  10. The Local Fractional Bootstrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel; Hounyo, Ulrich; Lunde, Asger

    new resampling method, the local fractional bootstrap, relies on simulating an auxiliary fractional Brownian motion that mimics the fine properties of high frequency differences of the Brownian semistationary process under the null hypothesis. We prove the first order validity of the bootstrap method...... to two empirical data sets: we assess the roughness of a time series of high-frequency asset prices and we test the validity of Kolmogorov's scaling law in atmospheric turbulence data....

  11. Intracellular Cadmium Isotope Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, T. J.; Lee, R. B.; Henderson, G. M.; Rickaby, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent stable isotope studies into the biological utilization of transition metals (e.g. Cu, Fe, Zn, Cd) suggest several stepwise cellular processes can fractionate isotopes in both culture and nature. However, the determination of fractionation factors is often unsatisfactory, as significant variability can exist - even between different organisms with the same cellular functions. Thus, it has not been possible to adequately understand the source and mechanisms of metal isotopic fractionation. In order to address this problem, we investigated the biological fractionation of Cd isotopes within genetically-modified bacteria (E. coli). There is currently only one known biological use or requirement of Cd, a Cd/Zn carbonic anhydrase (CdCA, from the marine diatom T. weissfloggii), which we introduce into the E. coli genome. We have also developed a cleaning procedure that allows for the treating of bacteria so as to study the isotopic composition of different cellular components. We find that whole cells always exhibit a preference for uptake of the lighter isotopes of Cd. Notably, whole cells appear to have a similar Cd isotopic composition regardless of the expression of CdCA within the E. coli. However, isotopic fractionation can occur within the genetically modified E. coli during Cd use, such that Cd bound in CdCA can display a distinct isotopic composition compared to the cell as a whole. Thus, the externally observed fractionation is independent of the internal uses of Cd, with the largest Cd isotope fractionation occurring during cross-membrane transport. A general implication of these experiments is that trace metal isotopic fractionation most likely reflects metal transport into biological cells (either actively or passively), rather than relating to expression of specific physiological function and genetic expression of different metalloenzymes.

  12. Mouse skin damages caused by fractionated irradiation with carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, K.; Chen, Y.J.; Ohira, C.; Nojima, K.; Ando, S.; Kobayashi, N.; Ohbuchi, T.; Shimizu, W. [Space and Particle Radiation Science Research Group, Chiba (Japan); Koike, S.; Kanai, T. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Div. of Accelerator Physics

    1997-09-01

    We have investigated carbon-dose responses of early and late skin damages after daily fractionations to the mouse leg. Depilated legs were irradiated with 7 different positions within 290 MeV/u carbon beams. Fractionation schedules were 1, 2, 4 and 8 daily fractions. Skin reaction was scored every other day for 32 days. Five highest scores in individual mice were averaged, and used as averaged peak reaction. The isoeffect doses to produce an averaged peak skin reaction of 3.0 (moist desquamation) on dose-response curves were calculated with 95% confidence limit. The isoeffect dose for control gamma rays constantly increased with an increase in the number of fraction. The isoeffect doses in low LET carbon ions of 14- and 20 keV/{mu}m also increased up to 4 fractions, but did not increase when 4 fractions increased to 8 fractions. The saturation of isoeffect dose was more prominently observed for 40 keV/{mu}m in such that the isoeffect doses did not change among 2, 4 and 8 fractions. The isoeffect doses for LET higher than 50 keV/{mu}m were smaller than those for lower LET. However, the isoeffect doses for 50-, 60-, 80- and 100 keV/{mu} steadily increased with an increase in the number of fraction and did not show any saturation up to 8 fractions. Relation between LET and RBE was linear for all fractionation schedules. The slope of regression line in 4 fractions was steepest, and significantly (P<0.05) different from that in 1 fraction. (orig.)

  13. Mouse skin damages caused by fractionated irradiation with carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, K.; Chen, Y.J.; Ohira, C.; Nojima, K.; Ando, S.; Kobayashi, N.; Ohbuchi, T.; Shimizu, W.; Koike, S.; Kanai, T.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated carbon-dose responses of early and late skin damages after daily fractionations to the mouse leg. Depilated legs were irradiated with 7 different positions within 290 MeV/u carbon beams. Fractionation schedules were 1, 2, 4 and 8 daily fractions. Skin reaction was scored every other day for 32 days. Five highest scores in individual mice were averaged, and used as averaged peak reaction. The isoeffect doses to produce an averaged peak skin reaction of 3.0 (moist desquamation) on dose-response curves were calculated with 95% confidence limit. The isoeffect dose for control gamma rays constantly increased with an increase in the number of fraction. The isoeffect doses in low LET carbon ions of 14- and 20 keV/μm also increased up to 4 fractions, but did not increase when 4 fractions increased to 8 fractions. The saturation of isoeffect dose was more prominently observed for 40 keV/μm in such that the isoeffect doses did not change among 2, 4 and 8 fractions. The isoeffect doses for LET higher than 50 keV/μm were smaller than those for lower LET. However, the isoeffect doses for 50-, 60-, 80- and 100 keV/μ steadily increased with an increase in the number of fraction and did not show any saturation up to 8 fractions. Relation between LET and RBE was linear for all fractionation schedules. The slope of regression line in 4 fractions was steepest, and significantly (P<0.05) different from that in 1 fraction. (orig.)

  14. Global Dynamics and International Cooperation Needs of RT Development and Utilization for the Establishment of the Northeast Asia RT Hub in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. K.; Oh, G. B.; Yun, S. W.; Yang, M. H.; Ryu, J. S.; Choi, S. J.; Choi, S. G.

    2005-11-01

    In an effort to achieve the objectives, the following scopes were categorized for in-depth study. First, analysis framework was developed for RT capacity development and international technology cooperation strategy. RT survey checklist and international technology cooperation was analyzed with interviewing and reports of domestic participants recently. Second, RT strategic environment was analyze for East-Asia hub competition/cooperation and developing nations using analysis framework. Korean RT was analyzed using SWOT analysis for establishment of RT hub in Korea. Third, East-Asian nations were classified analyzed by RT categories in standpoint of our country. Technology status and future cooperation plan were discussed about RT application for bio-medicine. Products/technology seminar related to an export was hold about support plan of admission/sales for functional food HemoHIM. This study can be utilized in the establishment of RT hub and development strategy. And it can be also utilized in promotion devising of domestic RT and planning setup for obtaing the international competitive power

  15. Global Dynamics and International Cooperation Needs of RT Development and Utilization for the Establishment of the Northeast Asia RT Hub in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. K.; Oh, G. B.; Yun, S. W.; Yang, M. H.; Ryu, J. S.; Choi, S. J.; Choi, S. G

    2005-11-15

    In an effort to achieve the objectives, the following scopes were categorized for in-depth study. First, analysis framework was developed for RT capacity development and international technology cooperation strategy. RT survey checklist and international technology cooperation was analyzed with interviewing and reports of domestic participants recently. Second, RT strategic environment was analyze for East-Asia hub competition/cooperation and developing nations using analysis framework. Korean RT was analyzed using SWOT analysis for establishment of RT hub in Korea. Third, East-Asian nations were classified analyzed by RT categories in standpoint of our country. Technology status and future cooperation plan were discussed about RT application for bio-medicine. Products/technology seminar related to an export was hold about support plan of admission/sales for functional food HemoHIM. This study can be utilized in the establishment of RT hub and development strategy. And it can be also utilized in promotion devising of domestic RT and planning setup for obtaing the international competitive power.

  16. Estimation of daily evapotranspiration over Africa using MODIS/Terra and SEVIRI/MSG data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sun, Z

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available . The procedure consists of estimating the instantaneous evaporative fraction (EF) based on the MODIS/Terra land data products, and estimating the daily net radiation and daily available energy based on the 30-min SEVIRI/MSG data products. Assuming constant EF...

  17. TV Producer Juggles Daily News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Bill

    1989-01-01

    Brennan discusses the daily activities required in the production of a television news show. In "The Not-So-Glamorous Life of a TV Reporter," Linda Yu describes the time and effort required to become a television reporter. (LS)

  18. Allegheny County Jail Daily Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A daily census of the inmates at the Allegheny County Jail (ACJ). Includes gender, race, age at booking, and current age. The records for each month contain a...

  19. Unravelling daily human mobility motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christian M; Belik, Vitaly; Couronné, Thomas; Smoreda, Zbigniew; González, Marta C

    2013-07-06

    Human mobility is differentiated by time scales. While the mechanism for long time scales has been studied, the underlying mechanism on the daily scale is still unrevealed. Here, we uncover the mechanism responsible for the daily mobility patterns by analysing the temporal and spatial trajectories of thousands of persons as individual networks. Using the concept of motifs from network theory, we find only 17 unique networks are present in daily mobility and they follow simple rules. These networks, called here motifs, are sufficient to capture up to 90 per cent of the population in surveys and mobile phone datasets for different countries. Each individual exhibits a characteristic motif, which seems to be stable over several months. Consequently, daily human mobility can be reproduced by an analytically tractable framework for Markov chains by modelling periods of high-frequency trips followed by periods of lower activity as the key ingredient.

  20. Chronic Daily Headache in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of chronic daily headache (CDH, and its impact and related medication use or overuse in adolescents were examined at the Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, and other centers in Taiwan.

  1. Daily Food Plan for Moms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand the Price Tag Read the Food Label Kitchen Timesavers Cooking for Your Family Tasty & Low-Cost ... Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables Grains Protein Foods Dairy Oils ONLINE TOOLS BMI Calculator Daily Checklist Quizzes Portion ...

  2. Polymers in our daily life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Namazi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymers are widely used advanced materials, which are found almost in every material used in our daily life. To date, the importance of polymers has been much more highlighted because of their applications in different dominions of sciences, technologies and industry – from basic uses to biopolymers and therapeutic polymers. The main aim of this editorial is to accentuate the pragmatic impacts of polymers in human daily life.

  3. Management and Development of the RT Research Facilities and Infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Ho; Nho, Young Chang; Kim, Jae Sung

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this project are to operate the core facilities of the research for the Radiation Technology in stable and to assist the research activities efficiently in the industry, academic, and research laboratory. By developing the infrastructure of the national radio technology industry, we can activate the researching area of the RT and the related industry, and obtain the primary and original technology. The key point in the study of the RT and the assistance of the industry, academic, and research laboratory for the RT area smoothly, is managing the various of unique radiation facilities in our country. The gamma Phytotron and Gene Bank are essential in the agribiology because these facilities are used to preserve and utilize the genes and to provide an experimental field for the environment and biotechnology. The Radiation Fusion Technology research supporting facilities are the core support facilities, and are used to develop the high-tech fusion areas. In addition, the most advanced analytical instruments, whose costs are very high, should be managed in stable and be utilized in supporting works, and the experimental animal supporting laboratory and Gamma Cell have to be maintained in high level and managed in stable also. The ARTI have been developed the 30MeV cyclotron during 2005∼2006, aimed to produce radioisotopes and to research the beam applications as a result of the project, 'Establishment of the Infrastructure for the Atomic Energy Research Expansion', collaborated with the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. In addition, the ARTI is in the progress of establishing cyclotron integrated complex as a core research facility, using a proton beam to produce radioisotopes and to support a various research areas. The measurement and evaluation of the irradiation dose, and irradiation supporting technology of the Good Irradiation Practice(GIP) are essential in various researching areas. One thing to remember is that the publicity

  4. Series expansion in fractional calculus and fractional differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ming-Fan; Ren, Ji-Rong; Zhu, Tao

    2009-01-01

    Fractional calculus is the calculus of differentiation and integration of non-integer orders. In a recently paper (Annals of Physics 323 (2008) 2756-2778), the Fundamental Theorem of Fractional Calculus is highlighted. Based on this theorem, in this paper we introduce fractional series expansion method to fractional calculus. We define a kind of fractional Taylor series of an infinitely fractionally-differentiable function. Further, based on our definition we generalize hypergeometric functio...

  5. Relationships Among Nightly Sleep Quality, Daily Stress, and Daily Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaxton, Jessica M; Bergeman, Cindy S; Whitehead, Brenda R; Braun, Marcia E; Payne, Jessic D

    2017-05-01

    We explored the prospective, microlevel relationship between nightly sleep quality (SQ) and the subsequent day's stress on positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) as well as the moderating relationships between nightly SQ, subsequent stress, and subsequent PA on NA. We investigated whether age moderated these relationships. We collected 56 days of sleep, stress, and affect data using daily diary questionnaires (N = 552). We used multilevel modeling to assess relationships at the between- and within-person levels. Daily increases in SQ and decreases in stress interacted to predict higher daily PA and lower daily NA. Better SQ in older adults enhanced the benefits of PA on the stress-NA relationship more during times of low stress, whereas better sleep in younger adults enhanced the benefits of PA more during times of high stress. Between-person effects were stronger predictors of well-being outcomes than within-person variability. The combination of good SQ and higher PA buffered the impact of stress on NA. The moderating impact of age suggests that sleep and stress play different roles across adulthood. Targeting intervention and prevention strategies to improve SQ and enhance PA could disrupt the detrimental relationship between daily stress and NA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Laguna Verde simulator: A new TRAC-RT based application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Cases, J.J.; Tanarro Onrubia, A.

    2006-01-01

    In a partnership with GSE Systems, TECNATOM is developing a full scope training simulator for Laguna Verde Unit 2 (LV2). The simulator design is based upon the current 'state-of-the art technology' regarding the simulation platform, instructor station, visualization tools, advanced thermalhydraulics and neutronics models, I/O systems and automated model building technology. When completed, LV2 simulator will achieve a remarkable level of modeling fidelity by using TECNATOM's TRAC-RT advanced thermalhydraulic code for the reactor coolant and main steam systems, and NEMO neutronic model for the reactor core calculations. These models have been utilized up to date for the development or upgrading of nine NPP simulators in Spain and abroad, with more than 8000 hours of training sessions, and have developed an excellent reputation for its robustness and high fidelity. (author)

  7. Adjuvant radiotherapy for cutaneous melanoma: Comparing hypofractionation to conventional fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Daniel T.; Amdur, Robert J.; Morris, Christopher G. M.S.; Mendenhall, William M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To examine locoregional control after adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for cutaneous melanoma and compare outcomes between conventional fractionation and hypofractionation. Methods and Materials: Between January 1980 and June 2004, 56 patients with high-risk disease were treated with adjuvant RT. Indications for RT included: recurrent disease, cervical lymph node involvement, lymph nodes >3 cm, more than three lymph nodes involved, extracapsular extension, gross residual disease, close or positive margins, or satellitosis. Hypofractionation was used in 41 patients (73%) and conventional fractionation was used in 15 patients (27%). Results: The median age was 61 years (21->90). The median follow-up among living patients was 4.4 years (range, 0.6-14.4 years). The primary site was located in the head and neck in 49 patients (87%) and below the clavicles in 7 patients (13%). There were 7 in-field locoregional failures (12%), 3 out-of-field regional failures (5%), and 24 (43%) distant failures. The 5-year in-field locoregional control (ifLRC) and freedom from distant metastases (FFDM) rates were 87% and 43%, respectively. The 5-year cause-specific (CSS) and overall survival (OS) was 57% and 46%, respectively. The only factor associated with ifLRC was satellitosis (p = 0.0002). Nodal involvement was the only factor associated with FFDM (p = 0.0007), CSS (p = 0.0065), and OS (p = 0.016). Two patients (4%) who experienced severe late complications, osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone and radiation plexopathy, and both received hypofractionation (5%). Conclusions: Although surgery and adjuvant RT provides excellent locoregional control, distant metastases remain the major cause of mortality. Hypofractionation and conventional fractionation are equally efficacious

  8. Fractional calculus in pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopasakis, Pantelis; Sarimveis, Haralambos; Macheras, Panos; Dokoumetzidis, Aristides

    2018-02-01

    We are witnessing the birth of a new variety of pharmacokinetics where non-integer-order differential equations are employed to study the time course of drugs in the body: this is dubbed "fractional pharmacokinetics". The presence of fractional kinetics has important clinical implications such as the lack of a half-life, observed, for example with the drug amiodarone and the associated irregular accumulation patterns following constant and multiple-dose administration. Building models that accurately reflect this behaviour is essential for the design of less toxic and more effective drug administration protocols and devices. This article introduces the readers to the theory of fractional pharmacokinetics and the research challenges that arise. After a short introduction to the concepts of fractional calculus, and the main applications that have appeared in literature up to date, we address two important aspects. First, numerical methods that allow us to simulate fractional order systems accurately and second, optimal control methodologies that can be used to design dosing regimens to individuals and populations.

  9. Serial histopathological changes in irradiated guinea pig lung receiving conventional fractionated and hyperfractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Satoshi; Inomata, Taisuke; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Shoji; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Ohtsuki, Yuji

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine serial histopathological differences in guinea pig lungs receiving the same total dose as clinically used between conventional fractionated and hyperfractionated irradiation. The guinea pigs received 80 Gy in 40 daily fractions of 2 Gy each (conventional fractionation), 80 Gy in 80 fractions of 1 Gy each twice a day (hyperfractionation), 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions of 3 Gy each (conventional fractionation), or 81 Gy in 54 fractions of 1.5 Gy each twice a day (hyperfractionation). We evaluated the histopathological changes of irradiated guinea pig lungs at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after irradiation. The guinea pig lungs that received 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions showed histopathological changes of inflammation including formation of lymph follicles after 6 months. The lungs which received 81 Gy in 54 fractions showed similar but slightly less pronounced changes than those that received 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions. The guinea pig lungs of other groups showed no histopathological changes during the observation period. In hyperfractionated irradiation the damage to the guinea pig lung is quantitatively less than that occurring as a result of conventional fractionated irradiation of the same total dose. (author)

  10. FRACTIONS: CONCEPTUAL AND DIDACTIC ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sead Rešić; Ismet Botonjić; Maid Omerović

    2016-01-01

    Fractions represent the manner of writing parts of whole numbers (integers). Rules for operations with fractions differ from rules for operations with integers. Students face difficulties in understanding fractions, especially operations with fractions. These difficulties are well known in didactics of Mathematics throughout the world and there is a lot of research regarding problems in learning about fractions. Methods for facilitating understanding fractions have been discovered...

  11. Fractional-order devices

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Karabi; Caponetto, Riccardo; Mendes Lopes, António; Tenreiro Machado, José António

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on two specific areas related to fractional order systems – the realization of physical devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, usually called fractional-order elements (FOEs); and the characterization of vegetable tissues via electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) – and provides readers with new tools for designing new types of integrated circuits. The majority of the book addresses FOEs. The interest in these topics is related to the need to produce “analogue” electronic devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, and to the characterization of natural phenomena, which are systems with memory or aftereffects and for which the fractional-order calculus tool is the ideal choice for analysis. FOEs represent the building blocks for designing and realizing analogue integrated electronic circuits, which the authors believe hold the potential for a wealth of mass-market applications. The freedom to choose either an integer- or non-integer-order analogue integrator...

  12. Comparison of Three-Dimensional (3D) Conformal Proton Radiotherapy (RT), 3D Conformal Photon RT, and Intensity-Modulated RT for Retroperitoneal and Intra-Abdominal Sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Erika L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (United States); Indelicato, Daniel J., E-mail: dindelicato@floridaproton.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Louis, Debbie; Flampouri, Stella; Li, Zuofeng [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Morris, Christopher G.; Paryani, Nitesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (United States); Slopsema, Roelf [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To compare three-dimensional conformal proton radiotherapy (3DCPT), intensity-modulated photon radiotherapy (IMRT), and 3D conformal photon radiotherapy (3DCRT) to predict the optimal RT technique for retroperitoneal sarcomas. Methods and Materials: 3DCRT, IMRT, and 3DCPT plans were created for treating eight patients with retroperitoneal or intra-abdominal sarcomas. The clinical target volume (CTV) included the gross tumor plus a 2-cm margin, limited by bone and intact fascial planes. For photon plans, the planning target volume (PTV) included a uniform expansion of 5 mm. For the proton plans, the PTV was nonuniform and beam-specific. The prescription dose was 50.4 Gy/Cobalt gray equivalent CGE. Plans were normalized so that >95% of the CTV received 100% of the dose. Results: The CTV was covered adequately by all techniques. The median conformity index was 0.69 for 3DCPT, 0.75 for IMRT, and 0.51 for 3DCRT. The median inhomogeneity coefficient was 0.062 for 3DCPT, 0.066 for IMRT, and 0.073 for 3DCRT. The bowel median volume receiving 15 Gy (V15) was 16.4% for 3DCPT, 52.2% for IMRT, and 66.1% for 3DCRT. The bowel median V45 was 6.3% for 3DCPT, 4.7% for IMRT, and 15.6% for 3DCRT. The median ipsilateral mean kidney dose was 22.5 CGE for 3DCPT, 34.1 Gy for IMRT, and 37.8 Gy for 3DCRT. The median contralateral mean kidney dose was 0 CGE for 3DCPT, 6.4 Gy for IMRT, and 11 Gy for 3DCRT. The median contralateral kidney V5 was 0% for 3DCPT, 49.9% for IMRT, and 99.7% for 3DCRT. Regardless of technique, the median mean liver dose was <30 Gy, and the median cord V50 was 0%. The median integral dose was 126 J for 3DCPT, 400 J for IMRT, and 432 J for 3DCRT. Conclusions: IMRT and 3DCPT result in plans that are more conformal and homogenous than 3DCRT. Based on Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in Clinic benchmarks, the dosimetric advantage of proton therapy may be less gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity.

  13. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HERTING DL

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions

  14. Are mean lung dose and changes in respiration during RT predictive for pulmonary function changes after RT?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K.; Bernchou, U.; Schytte, T.

    2015-01-01

    and respiration patterns extracted from frequently recorded 4DCone Beam CT. Materials and Methods: This is a study of 140 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, which were treated with 60-66 Gy in 30-33 fractions. Measures of ventilation were generated by the freeware tool elastix (http...

  15. Daily Occupations among asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le

    2014-01-01

    Asylum seekers often find themselves in a situation where the structure and content of daily occupations have been disrupted and they might have limited access to paid work and education. Studies have shown that asylum seekers experience occupational deprivation and a change in daily occupations...... was to assess whether torture had an influence on the occupational satisfaction and performance, and whether this had changed after ten-months. Forty-three asylum seekers from Afghanistan, Iran and Syria participated at baseline and ten months later 17 were available for inclusion in follow-up studies. Study I......-being and health, all of which had associations to occupational satisfaction, activity level and occupational performance. Torture did not appear to have an influence on satisfaction with daily occupations, but physical torture could be a predictor of decline in ADL motor skills (Study III). On arrival...

  16. Sweet Work with Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Natalya; Blaine, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Almost everyone loves chocolate. However, the same cannot be said about fractions, which are loved by markedly fewer. Middle school students tend to view them with wary respect, but little affection. The authors attempt to sweeten the subject by describing a type of game involving division of chocolate bars. The activity they describe provides a…

  17. Fractional Differential Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa El-Shahed

    2007-01-01

    where 2<α<3 is a real number and D0+α is the standard Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. Our analysis relies on Krasnoselskiis fixed point theorem of cone preserving operators. An example is also given to illustrate the main results.

  18. Nonlinear fractional relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We define a nonlinear model for fractional relaxation phenomena. We use ε-expansion method to analyse this model. By studying the fundamental solutions of this model we find that when t → 0 the model exhibits a fast decay rate and when t → ∞ the model exhibits a power-law decay. By analysing the frequency ...

  19. Vapor liquid fraction determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This invention describes a method of measuring liquid and vapor fractions in a non-homogeneous fluid flowing through an elongate conduit, such as may be required with boiling water, non-boiling turbulent flows, fluidized bed experiments, water-gas mixing analysis, and nuclear plant cooling. (UK)

  20. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley

    Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental

  1. Fermion Number Fractionization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 8. Fermion Number Fractionization. Kumar Rao Narendra Sahu Prasanta K ... Author Affiliations. Kumar Rao1 Narendra Sahu1 Prasanta K Panigrahi1. Theoretical Physics Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009, India ...

  2. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw

  3. ROS1 gene rearrangement and expression of splice isoforms in lung cancer, diagnosed by a novel quantitative RT-PCR assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalla C

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Successful treatment of lung cancer (NSCLC patients with ROS1 inhibitors depends on the accurate diagnosis of ROS1 gene rearrangements. The approved FISH tests are low-throughput assays difficult to use in daily diagnostic practice. Immunohistochemistry is currently discussed as screening test. We aimed to devise an alternative, sensitive diagnostic test for the rearrangement of ROS1 and to investigate upregulated ROS1 gene expression as potential target in NSCLC. We developed a qRT-PCR assay adapted to RNA isolated from FFPE material and applied it to 695 NSCLC specimens. The reliability to detect ROS1 rearrangements was evidenced by comparison with FISH and immunohistochemistry. qRT-PCR analysis detected unbalanced ROS1 expression indicative of gene rearrangement in 5 (0.7% and expression of non-rearranged ROS1 transcripts in 65 (9.6% of 680 interpretable tumors. In comparison with FISH, qRT-PCR accurately typed 99% of 5 rearranged and 121 non-rearranged tumors. Immunohistochemistry detected ROS1 protein expression in 7/8 tumors with gene fusions and 6/35 NSCLC with transcriptional upregulation. To elucidate RNA processing, 12 NSCLC were examined by systematic RT-PCR and sequence analysis. In all 12 NSCLC analyzed, up-regulated gene expression independent of translocation was associated with aberrant expression of fetal transcript isoforms identified here. We conclude that our qRT-PCR assay reliably diagnoses and distinguishes ROS1 rearrangements and expression of non-rearranged transcripts. Immunostaining is a suitable screening tool, but re-examination of ROS1 protein expressing cases by qRT-PCR/FISH is compulsory. The expression of ROS1 splice isoforms – shown here for the first time - may be relevant for ROS1 inhibitor therapy in NSCLC.

  4. From Daily Life to Philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bransen, J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that the little everyday things of life often provide excellent entries into the intellectual problems of academic philosophy. This is illustrated with an analysis of four small stories taken from daily life in which people are in agony because they do not know what to do. It is

  5. Digital daily cycles of individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level daily rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive...

  6. On polar daily geomagnetic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Michelis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the nature of the daily magnetic field perturbations produced by ionospheric and magnetospheric currents at high latitudes. We analyse the hourly means of the X and Y geomagnetic field components recorded by a meridian chain of permanent geomagnetic observatories in the polar region of the Northern Hemisphere during a period of four years (1995-1998 around the solar minimum. We apply a mathematical method, known as natural orthogonal component (NOC, which is capable of characterizing the dominant modes of the geomagnetic field daily variability through a set of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs. Using the first two modes we reconstruct a two-dimensional equivalent current representation of the ionospheric electric currents, which contribute substantially to the geomagnetic daily variations. The obtained current structures resemble the equivalent current patterns of DP2 and DP1. We characterize these currents by studying their evolution with the geomagnetic activity level and by analysing their dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field. The obtained results support the idea of a coexistence of two main processes during all analysed period although one of them, the directly driven process, represents the dominant component of the geomagnetic daily variation.

  7. Kuidas sünnib pealkiri? / Pärt Lias

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lias, Pärt

    2002-01-01

    Pealkiri, pühendus, moto, joonealune märge, ees- ja järelsõna on teose teksti manused, mis ei kuulu otse teksti, kuid selgitavad, täiendavad ja täpsustavad seda. Gerard Genette on need teksti lisandid koondanud üldnimetuse paratekstid alla. Eesti kirjanikud vastavad Pärt Liase küsimusele oma teoste pealkirjade saamisloo kohta: Aimee Beekman, Henn-Kaarel Hellat, Joel Sang ja Arvo Mägi (4); Lennart Meri, Heino Kiik ja Fanny de Sivers (5); Helga Nõu, Ülle Kauksi, Maie Kalda ja Cornelius Hasselblatt (6); Debora Vaarandi, Vaino Vahing, Arved Viirlaid ja Wimberg (7); Vahur Afanasjev, Matt Barker, Andrus Kivirähk, Jürgen Rooste ja Contra (8); Elin Toona, Jaak Rähesoo, Enn Soosaar, Juhan Peegel ja Toomas Kall (9); Kerttu Rakke, Aare Pilv, Aarne Ruben, Indrek Hargla, Jan Kaus ja Karen Orlau (10); Ene Mihkelson, Mats Traat ja Boriss Baljasnõi (11); Maimu Berg, Ain Kaalep, Enn Nõu ja Madis Kõiv (12)

  8. Fractional Poisson Fields and Martingales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletti, Giacomo; Leonenko, Nikolai; Merzbach, Ely

    2018-01-01

    We present new properties for the Fractional Poisson process (FPP) and the Fractional Poisson field on the plane. A martingale characterization for FPPs is given. We extend this result to Fractional Poisson fields, obtaining some other characterizations. The fractional differential equations are studied. We consider a more general Mixed-Fractional Poisson process and show that this process is the stochastic solution of a system of fractional differential-difference equations. Finally, we give some simulations of the Fractional Poisson field on the plane.

  9. Fractional Poisson Fields and Martingales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletti, Giacomo; Leonenko, Nikolai; Merzbach, Ely

    2018-02-01

    We present new properties for the Fractional Poisson process (FPP) and the Fractional Poisson field on the plane. A martingale characterization for FPPs is given. We extend this result to Fractional Poisson fields, obtaining some other characterizations. The fractional differential equations are studied. We consider a more general Mixed-Fractional Poisson process and show that this process is the stochastic solution of a system of fractional differential-difference equations. Finally, we give some simulations of the Fractional Poisson field on the plane.

  10. -Dimensional Fractional Lagrange's Inversion Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Abd El-Salam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Riemann-Liouville fractional differential operator, a fractional extension of the Lagrange inversion theorem and related formulas are developed. The required basic definitions, lemmas, and theorems in the fractional calculus are presented. A fractional form of Lagrange's expansion for one implicitly defined independent variable is obtained. Then, a fractional version of Lagrange's expansion in more than one unknown function is generalized. For extending the treatment in higher dimensions, some relevant vectors and tensors definitions and notations are presented. A fractional Taylor expansion of a function of -dimensional polyadics is derived. A fractional -dimensional Lagrange inversion theorem is proved.

  11. Factors influencing the use of RT in NSW: a qualitative study exploring consumer and health professional practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaresan, Puma; Milross, Christopher G.; Stockler, Martin R.; Smith, Andrea; Evans, Alison; King, Madeleine T.

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) is an essential and cost-effective cancer treatment. It is underutilised in Australia. Bridging the gap between actual and optimal RT utilisation requires not only provision of adequate RT infrastructure but also an understanding of the factors that influence the extent to which this opportunity for RT is utilised. This study explored factors perceived to affect RT-related decision making by consumers and health professionals (HPs). Six semi-structured focus groups (FGs) and 13 interviews were conducted at three geographical locations in NSW, Australia (n=26 consumers and 30 HPs). Audio recordings of FGs and interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. An exhaustive list of issues perceived to affect consumer and HP RT decisions was identified. There were common themes across participant groups and locations. Perceptions of RT and its benefits, as well as accurate communication of the expected benefits and risks of RT, were highlighted as important to decision making. Perceived factors relating to 'inconvenience' of RT were multifaceted and included travel, relocation, accommodation, time away from work and financial challenges. Perceived potential barriers to RT referral included knowledge of RT and RT services, availability of a local or visiting RT service, referrer bias, and the low profile of RT. Important drivers during RT decisions appear to include the perceived benefit, risks and inconvenience of RT. Underutilisation of RT may also result from multiple barriers at the referrer level. Further research into whether these factors influence actual RT decisions is needed.

  12. Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske, E-mail: matheuslazo@furg.br [Instituto de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2011-09-26

    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators. -- Highlights: → We propose a fractional Lagrangian formulation for fractional Maxwell's fields. → We obtain gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields. → Our generalized fractional Maxwell's field is spatially symmetrical. → We discuss the non-causality of the theory.

  13. Comparative evaluation of conventional RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR) for detection of avian metapneumovirus subtype A

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, HL; Spilki, FR; dos Santos, MMAB; de Almeida, RS; Arns, CW

    2009-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) belongs to Metapneumovirus genus of Paramyxoviridae family. Virus isolation, serology, and detection of genomic RNA are used as diagnostic methods for AMPV. The aim of the present study was to compare the detection of six subgroup A AMPV isolates (AMPV/A) viral RNA by using different conventional and real time RT-PCR methods. Two new RT-PCR tests and two real time RT-PCR tests, both detecting fusion (F) gene and nucleocapsid (N) gene were compared with an establis...

  14. NWS Daily Climatology Data: 1988 (SNF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Daily min, max, average temperature (F), precipitation (water equivalent in inches), and daily insolation (Langleys) for the Superior National Forest area as...

  15. NWS Daily Climatology Data: 1980 (SNF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Daily min, max, average temperature (F), precipitation (water equivalent in inches), and daily insolation (Langleys) for the Superior National Forest area...

  16. NWS Daily Climatology Data: 1982 (SNF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Daily min, max, average temperature (F), precipitation (water equivalent in inches), and daily insolation (Langleys) for the Superior National Forest area as...

  17. Fractionalization and Entrepreneurial Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Awaworyi Churchill, Sefa

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of the literature on ethnicity and entrepreneurship focuses on the construct of ethnic entrepreneurship. However, very little is known about how ethnic heterogeneity affects entrepreneurship. This study attempts to fill the gap, and thus examines the effect of ethnic heterogeneity on entrepreneurial activities in a cross-section of 90 countries. Using indices of ethnic and linguistic fractionalization, we show that ethnic heterogeneity negatively influences entrepreneurship....

  18. Fractional Number Operator and Associated Fractional Diffusion Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rguigui, Hafedh

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we study the fractional number operator as an analog of the finite-dimensional fractional Laplacian. An important relation with the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is given. Using a semigroup approach, the solution of the Cauchy problem associated to the fractional number operator is presented. By means of the Mittag-Leffler function and the Laplace transform, we give the solution of the Caputo time fractional diffusion equation and Riemann-Liouville time fractional diffusion equation in infinite dimensions associated to the fractional number operator.

  19. Importance of daily electronic portal imaging in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, L. J.; Shakespeare, T. P.; Willis, A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: An audit was conducted on 20 randomly selected patients who had daily electronic portal imaging during the course of their radiotherapy treatment. The daily images were reviewed to determine whether they were within tolerance according to departmental protocol. If they were not, the actions that were taken were documented. Four treatment areas (spine, chest, breast and prostate) were compared among five patients belonging to each of these categories. The patients were also categorized according to their treatment intent (radical or palliative). A total of 889 electronic portal images of 475 fractions were audited and 33.5% of all fractions were outside tolerance. It was found that 95% of patients needed an action during their treatment and 80% of the patients needed a treatment centre move during the course of their treatment. We found that errors occurred throughout the treatment and it was not possible to predict patients who could have daily imaging omitted. Concordance between radiation therapists and radiation oncologists for identification of error was also investigated. Despite the use of familiar electronic portal imaging protocols, image reviewers (radiation therapists and radiation oncologists) disagreed in interpretation 10% of the time. Our results support the hypothesis that daily imaging may be a useful tool for patients undergoing radiotherapy and that imaging may be ideally carried out before each fraction. Image assessments would be ideally carried out by a team approach, with all images reviewed by both radiation therapists and radiation oncologists. This approach has significant resource implications and may require review of current Medicare and Health Program Grant reimbursements.

  20. SumaRT/Nap vs naproxen sodium in treatment and disease modification of migraine: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Roger; O'Carroll, Phillip; Dexter, Kent; Freitag, Fred; Shade, Candace L

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study explored the potential for 2 recognized acute migraine medications, 85 mg of sumatriptan plus 500 mg of naproxen sodium in a combination tablet (SumaRT/Nap) and 500 mg of naproxen sodium, to treat and modify the disease progression of migraine. In other words, can these medications both abort an acute attack of migraine and reduce the number of future migraine attacks? Patients suffering with moderate to severe attacks of migraine desire acute treatment. As migraine frequency increases, so does the need for more frequent relief of acute attacks. This may lead to medication overuse and potentially medication overuse headache (MOH). Ideally, acute medication would have the ability to abort an attack of migraine and reduce the likelihood of future attacks. The primary endpoint of this study was a reduction in migraine headache days from baseline through month 3 of the study. Subjects were randomized 1:1 to treat 14 or fewer migraines per month with SumaRT/Nap (Group A) or naproxen sodium (Group B) for 3 months. Subjects in group A utilized SumaRT/Nap were encouraged, but not required, to treat migraine headache within 1 hour of onset of headache when the pain was mild. They could re-treat if needed after 2 hours. Subjects in group B utilized the same treatment strategy with 500 mg of naproxen sodium. Tablets of study medication were identical for both groups. Subjects recorded headache days, migraine attacks, duration of attacks, treatment, and treatment results daily on paper diaries. Subjects took the Migraine Disability Assessment Test (MIDAS) at randomization and 3 months later at the end of study. Naproxen sodium was associated with a statistically significant reduction in migraine headache days at month 3 compared to baseline (P = .0002). SumaRT/Nap was also associated with a reduction of migraine headache days, but this decrease did not reach statistical significance (P = .2). In addition, subjects in the naproxen sodium group

  1. Dayak and Their Daily Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Darmadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article titled "Dayak and Daily Life" This paper aims to reveal the Dayak and in their daily life. Dayak is a native of Borneo has its own characteristics. Dayak, divided into 405 sub-sub clans [1]. Each sub Dayak both Indonesia and Malaysia are identical. Dayak customs and culture comes from the word "Power" which means upstream, to refer to people who live in inland areas or in the interior of Borneo. In the arsenal of art and culture, Dayak has many similarities such as; saber, chopsticks, beliong, betang, cupai, renjung, empajang and others. Dayak indigenous religion is Kaharingan which is the original religion born of the cultural ancestors of the Dayaks. Most of the Dayak people still adhere to the belief of the existence of unseen objects in certain places such as rocks, large trees, planting gardens in the forest, lakes, pools, and others are believed to have "magical powers". Daily life of the Dayaks in general farming, farming. When will open farming land, farming they held ritual.

  2. Endogenous reverse transcriptase (RT) activity and Chromatin remodeling in normal and transformed cells and early embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadafora, C.; Sciamanna, I.; Misteli, T.

    2009-01-01

    Endogenous Reverse Transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme encoded by two classes of genomic retro-elements: retro-transposons and endogenous retroviruses. Basal levels of RT are expressed in all non pathological, differentiated tissues while high RT expression levels characterize tumorigenic cells, germ cells and embryonic tissues. Preliminary studies carried out in our laboratory have shown that RT inhibition using pharmacological inhibitors (nevirapine and efavirenz, two drugs currently used in AIDS therapy) drastically reduces cell proliferation, promotes differentiation of tumorigenic cells in vitro, induces a reprogrammed gene expression and antagonizes tumor progression in nude mice inoculated with tumorigenic human cell lines, including melanoma, prostate and colon carcinoma and microcitoma

  3. Table 1. Primers used in the qRT-PCR reactions. LBD gene name ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AGTTCGTCAGCATCATCTTG. VvLBD10. AATCCTTGCTCATCGTCTCAG. CATCTCTTGTTGCTCTCTTGC. VvLBD18. CCCGTGTATGGATGTGCTG. TGCTGCTGCTGCTGAAAG. Vvactin. TACAATTCCATCATGAAGTGTGATG. TTAGAAGCACTTCCTGTGAACAATG. Table 3. qRT-PCR analysis data in grape. Gene. Stress.

  4. Fractional Chern Insulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Regnault

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chern insulators are band insulators exhibiting a nonzero Hall conductance but preserving the lattice translational symmetry. We conclusively show that a partially filled Chern insulator at 1/3 filling exhibits a fractional quantum Hall effect and rule out charge-density-wave states that have not been ruled out by previous studies. By diagonalizing the Hubbard interaction in the flat-band limit of these insulators, we show the following: The system is incompressible and has a 3-fold degenerate ground state whose momenta can be computed by postulating an generalized Pauli principle with no more than 1 particle in 3 consecutive orbitals. The ground-state density is constant, and equal to 1/3 in momentum space. Excitations of the system are fractional-statistics particles whose total counting matches that of quasiholes in the Laughlin state based on the same generalized Pauli principle. The entanglement spectrum of the state has a clear entanglement gap which seems to remain finite in the thermodynamic limit. The levels below the gap exhibit counting identical to that of Laughlin 1/3 quasiholes. Both the 3 ground states and excited states exhibit spectral flow upon flux insertion. All the properties above disappear in the trivial state of the insulator—both the many-body energy gap and the entanglement gap close at the phase transition when the single-particle Hamiltonian goes from topologically nontrivial to topologically trivial. These facts clearly show that fractional many-body states are possible in topological insulators.

  5. Fractional channel multichannel analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Anderson, G.A.

    1994-08-23

    A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynchronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board. 9 figs.

  6. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  7. Fractional Integral Inequalities via Hadamard’s Fractional Integral

    OpenAIRE

    Sudsutad, Weerawat; Ntouyas, Sotiris K.; Tariboon, Jessada

    2014-01-01

    We establish new fractional integral inequalities, via Hadamard’s fractional integral. Several new integral inequalities are obtained, including a Grüss type Hadamard fractional integral inequality, by using Young and weighted AM-GM inequalities. Many special cases are also discussed.

  8. Fractional Integral Inequalities via Hadamard’s Fractional Integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerawat Sudsutad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish new fractional integral inequalities, via Hadamard’s fractional integral. Several new integral inequalities are obtained, including a Grüss type Hadamard fractional integral inequality, by using Young and weighted AM-GM inequalities. Many special cases are also discussed.

  9. Correlation between moderate daily physical activity and neurocognitive variability in healthy elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Ken; Yasunaga, Akitomo; Wang, Li-Qun

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that moderate physical activity in daily life contributes to maintenance of a proper state of cognitive function in elderly individuals. The present study investigated the validity of correlations between moderate physical activity and cognitive function using more objective and detailed assessments of both physical activity and neurocognitive function. Participants comprised 72 healthy elderly individuals who wore an electronic accelerometer during waking hours for 3 months. This device recorded the number of steps per day as well as the duration of each intensity level in daily life; levels 1-3 were the equivalent of easy-paced walking (light activity), while levels 4-6 corresponded to brisk walking (moderate activity). To estimate executive cognitive ability in healthy elderly individuals, performance variability of executive control was examined with a task-switching reaction time (RT) test measuring intra-individual variability (IIV) in RTs. In 43 consenting participants, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the task-switching RT trial was analyzed to assess differences in brain activity patterns as a function of daily physical activity. Daily duration of level 4 physical activity correlated negatively with and significantly predicted IIV. Moreover, fMRI analysis confirmed that the higher physical activity group (duration of level 4 activity ≥ 26.4 min/day) showed significantly reduced age-related functional attenuation of prefrontal activations during the task-switching RT trial. The study discusses the possibility that enhancing the moderate daily physical activity could be helpful for lowering the rate of neurocognitive degradations in healthy elderly individuals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fractional variational principles with delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleanu, Dumitru; Abdeljawad, Thabet Maaraba; Jarad, Fahd

    2008-01-01

    The fractional variational principles within Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives in the presence of delay are analyzed. The corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations are obtained and one example is analyzed in detail

  11. Advances in robust fractional control

    CERN Document Server

    Padula, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents design methodologies for (robust) fractional control systems. It shows the reader how to take advantage of the superior flexibility of fractional control systems compared with integer-order systems in achieving more challenging control requirements. There is a high degree of current interest in fractional systems and fractional control arising from both academia and industry and readers from both milieux are catered to in the text. Different design approaches having in common a trade-off between robustness and performance of the control system are considered explicitly. The text generalizes methodologies, techniques and theoretical results that have been successfully applied in classical (integer) control to the fractional case. The first part of Advances in Robust Fractional Control is the more industrially-oriented. It focuses on the design of fractional controllers for integer processes. In particular, it considers fractional-order proportional-integral-derivative controllers, becau...

  12. Search for fractional charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A search was made for fractional charges of the form Z plus two-thirds e, where Z is an integer. It was assumed that the charges exist in natural form bound with other fractional charges in neutral molecules. It was further assumed that these neutral molecules are present in air. Two concentration schemes were employed. One sample was derived from the waste gases from a xenon distillation plant. This assumes that high mass, low vapor pressure components of air are concentrated along with the xenon. The second sample involved ionizing air, allowing a brief recombination period, and then collecting residual ions on the surface of titanium discs. Both samples were analyzed at the University of Rochester in a system using a tandem Van de Graff to accelerate particles through an essentially electrostatic beam handling system. The detector system employed both a Time of Flight and an energy-sensitive gas ionization detector. In the most sensitive mode of analysis, a gas absorber was inserted in the beam path to block the intense background. The presence of an absorber limited the search to highly penetrating particles. Effectively, this limited the search to particles with low Z and masses greater than roughly fifty GeV. The final sensitivities attained were on the order of 1 x 10 -20 for the ionized air sample and 1 x 10 -21 for the gas sample. A discussion of the caveats that could reduce the actual level of sensitivity is included

  13. In Situ Capture RT-qPCR: A New Simple and Sensitive Method to Detect Human Norovirus in Oysters

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Zhenhuan; Tian, Zhengan; Li, Qianqian; Tian, Peng; Wu, Qingping; Wang, Dapeng; Shi, Xianming

    2017-01-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the major cause worldwide for non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis. In this study, we applied a novel viral receptor mediated in situ capture RT-qPCR (ISC-RT-qPCR) to detect HuNoVs in oysters and compared with the traditional RT-qPCR method. Ten HuNoVs RT-PCR positive and 5 negative clinical samples from gastroenteritis patients were used to compare specificity and sensitivity of ISC-RT-qPCR against that of the RT-qPCR assay. ISC-RT-qPCR had at a one-log and a tw...

  14. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  15. Enhancement of the MODIS Daily Snow Albedo Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Wang, Zhuosen; Riggs, George A.

    2009-01-01

    The MODIS daily snow albedo product is a data layer in the MOD10A1 snow-cover product that includes snow-covered area and fractional snow cover as well as quality information and other metadata. It was developed to augment the MODIS BRDF/Albedo algorithm (MCD43) that provides 16-day maps of albedo globally at 500-m resolution. But many modelers require daily snow albedo, especially during the snowmelt season when the snow albedo is changing rapidly. Many models have an unrealistic snow albedo feedback in both estimated albedo and change in albedo over the seasonal cycle context, Rapid changes in snow cover extent or brightness challenge the MCD43 algorithm; over a 16-day period, MCD43 determines whether the majority of clear observations was snow-covered or snow-free then only calculates albedo for the majority condition. Thus changes in snow albedo and snow cover are not portrayed accurately during times of rapid change, therefore the current MCD43 product is not ideal for snow work. The MODIS daily snow albedo from the MOD10 product provides more frequent, though less robust maps for pixels defined as "snow" by the MODIS snow-cover algorithm. Though useful, the daily snow albedo product can be improved using a daily version of the MCD43 product as described in this paper. There are important limitations to the MOD10A1 daily snow albedo product, some of which can be mitigated. Utilizing the appropriate per-pixel Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDFs) can be problematic, and correction for anisotropic scattering must be included. The BRDF describes how the reflectance varies with view and illumination geometry. Also, narrow-to-broadband conversion specific for snow on different surfaces must be calculated and this can be difficult. In consideration of these limitations of MOD10A1, we are planning to improve the daily snow albedo algorithm by coupling the periodic per-pixel snow albedo from MCD43, with daily surface ref|outanoom, In this paper, we

  16. Daily practices, consumption and citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane M. Mazzarino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper promotes a reflection on the relationship between daily practices and consumption. Understanding how conflicts, resistance and consensus are generated from daily consumption practices opens up possibilities for reflecting on the construction of sustainability in the context of diversity, one of the landmarks of the globalized world. Within this socio-cultural context, the central issue is: can consumption generate citizenship practices? The concepts of subject and agent help one think about collective action and subjectivation processes and their interferences on the collective consuming behavior. Based on empirical data from a research carried out in the municipality of Estrela in 2007, in the Taquari Valley - Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil on local reality consumption practices, it was possible to conclude that various reasoning mechanisms and values underlie the daily consumption practices. Citizenship construction, based on consumption practices, depends on the subject's reflection capacity on his/her daily practices or on what goes through the circulation of environmental information based on sociability spaces.O artigo reflete sobre as relações entre as práticas cotidianas e o consumo. Compreender como se geram os conflitos, as resistências e os consensos a partir das práticas de consumo no cotidiano abre possibilidades para refletir sobre a construção da sustentabilidade no contexto de diversidade, uma das marcas do mundo globalizado. Neste contexto sociocultural, a questão central que surge é: o consumo pode gerar práticas de cidadania? As noções de sujeito e de agente ajudam a pensar a ação coletiva e os processos de subjetivação e suas interferências no comportamento coletivo de consumir. A partir de dados empíricos da pesquisa realizada em 2007 no município de Estrela, na região do Vale do Taquari - RS (Sul do Brasil, sobre práticas de consumo de uma realidade local, foi possível concluir que

  17. Fractional Hopfield Neural Networks: Fractional Dynamic Associative Recurrent Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yi-Fei; Yi, Zhang; Zhou, Ji-Liu

    2017-10-01

    This paper mainly discusses a novel conceptual framework: fractional Hopfield neural networks (FHNN). As is commonly known, fractional calculus has been incorporated into artificial neural networks, mainly because of its long-term memory and nonlocality. Some researchers have made interesting attempts at fractional neural networks and gained competitive advantages over integer-order neural networks. Therefore, it is naturally makes one ponder how to generalize the first-order Hopfield neural networks to the fractional-order ones, and how to implement FHNN by means of fractional calculus. We propose to introduce a novel mathematical method: fractional calculus to implement FHNN. First, we implement fractor in the form of an analog circuit. Second, we implement FHNN by utilizing fractor and the fractional steepest descent approach, construct its Lyapunov function, and further analyze its attractors. Third, we perform experiments to analyze the stability and convergence of FHNN, and further discuss its applications to the defense against chip cloning attacks for anticounterfeiting. The main contribution of our work is to propose FHNN in the form of an analog circuit by utilizing a fractor and the fractional steepest descent approach, construct its Lyapunov function, prove its Lyapunov stability, analyze its attractors, and apply FHNN to the defense against chip cloning attacks for anticounterfeiting. A significant advantage of FHNN is that its attractors essentially relate to the neuron's fractional order. FHNN possesses the fractional-order-stability and fractional-order-sensitivity characteristics.

  18. Do Children Understand Fraction Addition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, David W.; Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Many children fail to master fraction arithmetic even after years of instruction. A recent theory of fraction arithmetic (Braithwaite, Pyke, & Siegler, in press) hypothesized that this poor learning of fraction arithmetic procedures reflects poor conceptual understanding of them. To test this hypothesis, we performed three experiments…

  19. Fractional dynamic calculus and fractional dynamic equations on time scales

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiev, Svetlin G

    2018-01-01

    Pedagogically organized, this monograph introduces fractional calculus and fractional dynamic equations on time scales in relation to mathematical physics applications and problems. Beginning with the definitions of forward and backward jump operators, the book builds from Stefan Hilger’s basic theories on time scales and examines recent developments within the field of fractional calculus and fractional equations. Useful tools are provided for solving differential and integral equations as well as various problems involving special functions of mathematical physics and their extensions and generalizations in one and more variables. Much discussion is devoted to Riemann-Liouville fractional dynamic equations and Caputo fractional dynamic equations.  Intended for use in the field and designed for students without an extensive mathematical background, this book is suitable for graduate courses and researchers looking for an introduction to fractional dynamic calculus and equations on time scales. .

  20. Evaluation of the use of RT-PCR for the early diagnosis of dengue fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grobusch, M. P.; Niedrig, M.; Göbels, K.; Klipstein-Grobusch, K.; Teichmann, D.

    2006-01-01

    RT-PCR was used to diagnose dengue virus infections confirmed serologically in 26 returning travellers. RT-PCR was positive for three (75%) of four samples taken on or before day 3 of the illness, for 15 (78.9%) of 19 samples taken between days 4 and 7, and for none of three samples tested on or

  1. Remaining Challenges for the Use of RtI with Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claire E.; Rollins, Karen; Johnsen, Susan K.; Pereles, Daphne A.; Omdal, Stuart; Baldwin, Lois; Brown, Elissa F.; Abernethy, Sherry H.; Coleman, Mary Ruth

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss the challenges that might be faced if gifted education moves toward an RtI (Response to Intervention) approach. The challenges they share can be used as discussion points for planning and reflection. In spite of the remaining challenges, the authors conclude that RtI is certainly changing the face of education and that gifted…

  2. Simultaneous detection of three lily viruses using Triplex IC-RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yubao; Wang, Yajun; Xie, Zhongkui; Yang, Guo; Guo, Zhihong; Wang, Le

    2017-11-01

    Viruses commonly infecting lily (Lilium spp.) include: Lily symptomless virus (LSV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Lily mottle virus (LMoV). These viruses usually co-infect lilies causing severe economic losses in terms of quantity and quality of flower and bulb production around the world. Reliable and precise detection systems need to be developed for virus identification. We describe the development of a triplex immunocapture (IC) reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of LSV, CMV and LMoV. The triplex IC-RT-PCR was compared with a quadruplex RT-PCR assay. Relative to the quadruplex RT-PCR, the specificity of the triplex IC-RT-PCR system for LSV, CMV and LMoV was 100% for field samples. The sensitivity of the triplex IC-RT-PCR system was 99.4%, 81.4% and 98.7% for LSV, CMV and LMoV, respectively. Agreement (κ) between the results obtained from the two tests was 0.968, 0.844 and 0.984 for LSV, CMV and LMoV, respectively. This is the first report of the simultaneous detection of LSV, CMV and LMoV in a triplex IC-RT-PCR assay. In particular we believe this convenient and reliable triplex IC-RT-PCR method could be used routinely for large-scale field surveys or crop health monitoring of lily. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Evaluation of reference genes in Vibrio parahaemolyticus for gene expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a significant human pathogen capable of causing foodborne gastroenteritis associated with the consumption of contaminated raw or undercooked seafood. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a useful tool for studying gene expression in V. parahaemolyticus to characterize the viru...

  4. Teekond Kirjasõna Vabariigis / Märt Väljataga ; intervjueerinud Marek Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Väljataga, Märt, 1965-

    2015-01-01

    rt Väljataga tõlgitud R. Rorty artiklist "Pragmatism ja filosoofia", mis ilmus Akadeemia 1992, nr. 2, lk. 281-282, 285, tema filosoofiast ja Märt Väljataga tööst ajakirja "Vikerkaar" toimetajana ning tõlkijana

  5. Table 1. Primer sequences used for real-time qRT-PCR analysis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    User

    TGTCCCAGTAAACCGCTC. GAATCCAGCACGATACCAGT. Figure 1. Expression analysis of candidate CsActin and CsFbox genes by qRT-PCR in response to 4°C treatment. The y-axis indicates Cq values, and error bars represent standard deviations of the mean values of four replicates. Rt, roots; St, stems; Le, leaves; Fl ...

  6. Identification of genes for normalization of real-time RT-PCR data in breast carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Maria B; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Pallisgaard, Niels

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) has become a valuable molecular technique in basic and translational biomedical research, and is emerging as an equally valuable clinical tool. Correlation of inter-sample values requires data normalization, which can be accomplished by various ...

  7. L. Harrison: Mass (to St. Anthony); A. Pärt: Berliner Messe / Robert Cowan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Cowan, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "L. Harrison: Mass (to St. Anthony); A. Pärt: Berliner Messe. Oregon Repertory Singers / Gilbert Seeley. Koch International Classics CD 37 177-2; Pärt - comparative version: Estonian Phil. Chbr. Ch., Tallinn CO / Kaljuste" (11/93)(ECM) 439 162-2

  8. Propidium monoazide reverse transcription PCR and RT-qPCR for detecting infectious enterovirus and norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presently there is no established cell line or small animal model that allows for the detection of infectious human norovirus. Current methods based on RT-PCR and RT-qPCR detect both infectious and non-infectious virus and thus the conclusions that may be drawn regarding the publ...

  9. Combination of Vessel-Targeting Agents and Fractionated Radiation Therapy: The Role of the SDF-1/CXCR4 Pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Fang-Hsin; Fu, Sheng-Yung; Yang, Ying-Chieh; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Hong, Ji-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate vascular responses during fractionated radiation therapy (F-RT) and the effects of targeting pericytes or bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) on the efficacy of F-RT. Methods and Materials: Murine prostate TRAMP-C1 tumors were grown in control mice or mice transplanted with green fluorescent protein-tagged bone marrow (GFP-BM), and irradiated with 60 Gy in 15 fractions. Mice were also treated with gefitinib (an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor) or AMD3100 (a CXCR4 antagonist) to examine the effects of combination treatment. The responses of tumor vasculatures to these treatments and changes of tumor microenvironment were assessed. Results: After F-RT, the tumor microvascular density (MVD) was reduced; however, the surviving vessels were dilated, incorporated with GFP-positive cells, tightly adhered to pericytes, and well perfused with Hoechst 33342, suggesting a more mature structure formed primarily via vasculogenesis. Although the gefitinib+F-RT combination affected the vascular structure by dissociating pericytes from the vascular wall, it did not further delay tumor growth. These tumors had higher MVD and better vascular perfusion function, leading to less hypoxia and tumor necrosis. By contrast, the AMD3100+F-RT combination significantly enhanced tumor growth delay more than F-RT alone, and these tumors had lower MVD and poorer vascular perfusion function, resulting in increased hypoxia. These tumor vessels were rarely covered by pericytes and free of GFP-positive cells. Conclusions: Vasculogenesis is a major mechanism for tumor vessel survival during F-RT. Complex interactions occur between vessel-targeting agents and F-RT, and a synergistic effect may not always exist. To enhance F-RT, using CXCR4 inhibitor to block BM cell influx and the vasculogenesis process is a better strategy than targeting pericytes by epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor

  10. Daily cycles in coastal dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R.E.; Richmond, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Daily cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. Daily cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.

  11. The benefit of daily photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seité, Sophie; Fourtanier, Anny M A

    2008-05-01

    It is now recognized that both ultraviolet (UV)-A and UVB wavelengths participate in the generation of photodamaged human skin during sun exposure. During usual daily activities, an appropriate protection against solar UV exposure should prevent clinical, cellular, and molecular changes potentially leading to photoaging. This study was designed to evaluate in human beings the protection afforded by a day cream containing a photostable combination of UVB and UVA filters and thus protect against the UV-induced skin alterations. In solar-simulated radiation exposed and unprotected skin sites we observed melanization. The epidermis revealed a significant increase in stratum corneum and stratum granulosum thickness. In the dermis, an enhanced expression of tenascin and a reduced expression of type I procollagen were evidenced just below the dermoepidermal junction. Although no change in elastic fibers in exposed buttock skin was seen, a slightly increased deposit of lysozyme and alpha-1 antitrypsin on elastin fibers was observed using immunofluorescence techniques. A day cream with photoprotection properties was shown to prevent all of the above-described alterations. This study was performed on a limited number of patients (n = 12) with specific characteristics (20-35 years old and skin type II and III). Two dermal alterations were evaluated by visual assessment and not by computer-assisted image analysis quantification. Our in vivo results demonstrate the benefits of daily photoprotection using a day cream containing appropriate broad-spectrum sunscreens, which prevent solar UV-induced skin damages.

  12. A Polyadic pi-Calculus Approach for the Formal Specification of UML-RT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Bezerra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available UML-RT is a UML real-time profile that allows modeling event-driven and distributed systems; however it is not a formal specification language. This paper proposes a formal approach for UML-RT through a mapping of the UML-RT communicating elements into the -calculus (or pi-calculus process algebra. The formal approach both captures the intended behavior of the system being modeled and provides a rigorous and nonambiguous system description. Our proposal differentiates from other research work because we map UML-RT to -calculus, and we allow the mapping of dynamic reconfiguration of UML-RT unwired ports. We illustrate the usage and applicability of the mapping through three examples. The first example focuses on explaining the mapping; the second one aims to demonstrate the use of the -calculus definitions to verify system requirements; the third case is an example of mobile processes called Handover protocol.

  13. Membrane Assisted Enzyme Fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Linfeng

    . In this thesis, separations using crossflow elecro-membrane filtration (EMF) of amino acids, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and industrial enzymes from Novozymes were performed. The main objective of this study was to investigate the technological feasibility of EMF in the application of industrial enzyme...... fractionation, such as removal of a side activity from the main enzyme activity. As a proof-of-concept, amino acids were used as model solution to test the feasibility of EMF in the application of amphoteric molecule separation. A single amino acid was used to illustrate the effect of an electric field...... on the separation performance were very small in the investigated range. The mass transport of each enzyme can be well explained by the Extended-Nernst-Planck equation. Better separation was observed at lower feed concentration, higher solution pH in the investigated range and with a polysulfone (PS) MF membrane...

  14. Thermochemical transformations of anthracite fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, T.V.; Privalov, V.E.; Stepanenko, atM.A.

    1979-08-01

    Research on the nature of thermochemical transformations of anthracite fractions and the possibility of increasing their activity and identifying conditions for their use in the electrode pitch process is described. From research done on different anthracite fractions processed at varying temperatures it was concluded that accumulations of condensates from heating anthracite fractions occur significantly slower in comparison with pitch. As a result the electrode pitch process is prolonged. Thermal treatment of an anthracite fraction causes the formation and accumulation of condensates and promotes thermochemical transformations. Lastly, the use of thermally treated anthracite fractions apparently intensifies the electrode pitch process and improves its quality. (16 refs.) (In Russian)

  15. Modeling and Predicting the Daily Equatorial Plasma Bubble Activity Using the Tiegcm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B. A.; Retterer, J. M.; Yizengaw, E.; Wiens, K. C.; Wing, S.; Groves, K. M.; Caton, R. G.; Bridgwood, C.; Francis, M. J.; Terkildsen, M. B.; Norman, R.; Zhang, K.

    2014-12-01

    Describing and understanding the daily variability of Equatorial Plasma Bubble (EPB) occurrence has remained a significant challenge over recent decades. In this study we use the Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIEGCM), which is driven by solar (F10.7) and geomagnetic (Kp) activity indices, to study daily variations of the linear Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability growth rate in relation to the measured scintillation strength at five longitudinally distributed stations. For locations characterized by generally favorable conditions for EPB growth (i.e., within the scintillation season for that location) we find that the TIEGCM is capable of identifying days when EPB development, determined from the calculated R-T growth rate, is suppressed as a result of geomagnetic activity. Both observed and modeled upward plasma drift indicate that the pre-reversal enhancement scales linearly with Kp from several hours prior, from which it is concluded that even small Kp changes cause significant variations in daily EPB growth. This control of Kp variations on EPB growth prompted an investigation into the use of predicted Kp values from the Wing Kp model over a 2-month equinoctial campaign in 2014. It is found that both the 1-hr and 4-hr predicted Kp values can be reliably used as inputs into the TIEGCM to forecast the EPB growth conditions during scintillation season, when daily EPB variability is governed by the suppression of EPBs on days with increased, but not necessarily high, geomagnetic activity.

  16. Goal conflict and goal facilitation as predictors of daily accelerometer-assessed physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presseau, Justin; Tait, Richard I; Johnston, Derek W; Francis, Jill J; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2013-12-01

    To test whether perceptions of conflicting and facilitating personal goals, and actual daily time spent in their pursuit, predict accelerometer-assessed physical activity (PA). A prospective multilevel design with a daily accelerometer-based assessment of PA over 1 week was used (N = 106). Participants' personal goals were elicited using personal projects analysis. Participants then rated their personal goals in terms of how they were perceived to facilitate and conflict with their regular PA. Items assessing PA-specific intention and perceived behavioral control (PBC) were also embedded within the baseline measures. For the subsequent 7 consecutive days, participants completed a daily diary based on the day reconstruction method, indicating the time spent in daily episodes involving each of their personal goals, and wore an RT3 tri-axial accelerometer. The main outcome was accelerometer-assessed daily time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Random intercept multilevel models indicated that perceived goal facilitation, but not perceived goal conflict, predicted MVPA over and above intention and PBC. Daily time pursuing conflicting goals negatively predicted MVPA when subsequently added to the model and in so doing, attenuated the association between perceived goal facilitation and MVPA. Perceived goal facilitation predicts objectively measured PA over and above intention and PBC, but daily time spent in pursuit of conflicting personal goals provides a better account of how alternative goals relate to engaging in regular PA.

  17. The influence of resilience on fatigue in cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Bernhard; Brix, Christina; Fischer, Sebastian; Leppert, Karena; Füller, Jürgen; Roehrig, Bernd; Schleussner, Christine; Wendt, Thomas G

    2007-08-01

    The primary goal of the study was to determine if resilience influences fatigue in a consecutive sample of cancer patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. Out of an initial sample of 250 patients, 239 could be assessed at the beginning of their RT. Two hundred and eight patients were reassessed at the end of RT 4-8 weeks later. Measures comprised the Resilience Scale (RS), the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI), and the SF-12 as a measure of health related Quality of Life (QoL). Medical data were continuously registered. As hypothesized, the sample revealed higher scores in the MFI and lower scores in the SF-12 than normative samples. Resilience scores were higher than in the norm population. Fatigue increased during RT. Using multiple regression analyses, fatigue scores at the beginning of treatment were shown to be higher in inpatients and patients undergoing palliative treatment. Initial fatigue was best predicted by the patients' initial resilience scores. Changes of fatigue scores during RT depended on initial scores, decrease in Hb and the patients' experience with RT. Resilience could not be determined as a predictor of changes in fatigue during RT. The study confirmed that fatigue is an important problem among RT patients. Resilience turned out to powerfully predict the patients' fatigue at least early in RT. This result is in line with other studies, showing resilience to be an important psychological predictor of QoL and coping in cancer patients. On the other hand, resilience seems to have little influence on treatment related fatigue during RT.

  18. Influence of daily setup measurements and corrections on the estimated delivered dose during IMRT treatment of prostate cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haaren, Paul M. A.; Bel, Arjan; Hofman, Pieter; van Vulpen, Marco; Kotte, Alexis N. T. J.; van der Heide, Uulke A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of marker-based position verification, using daily imaging and an off-line correction protocol, by calculating the delivered dose to prostate, rectum and bladder. Methods: Prostate cancer patients (n = 217) were treated with IMRT, receiving 35 daily fractions. Plans

  19. The representitativeness of patient position during the first treatment fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Anders; Nielsen, Morten; Westberg, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    the patient position uncertainty at the initial three treatment fractions is representative for the uncertainty throughout the treatment course. METHODS: Seventy seven patients were treated using Elekta Synergy accelerators. The patients were immobilized during treatment by use of a customized VacFix bag......BACKGROUND: During external radiotherapy daily or even weekly image verification of the patient position might be problematic due to the resulting workload. Therefore it has been customary to perform image verification only at the first treatment fraction. In this study it is investigated whether...... and a mask of AquaPlast. Cone beam CT (CBCT) scans were performed at fractions 1, 2, and 3 and at the 10th and 20th treatment fractions. Displacements in patient position, translational and rotational, have been measured by an image registration of the CBCT and the planning CT scan. The displacements data...

  20. Toward lattice fractional vector calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2014-09-01

    An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity.

  1. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  2. RT-12OUTCOMES IN MEDULLOBLASTOMA: SINGLE INSTITUTION CASE SERIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, V.; Bajpai, Ranjeet; Anand, Vivek; Deshpande, Sudesh; Misra, Basant K.; Kapadia, Asha; Almel, Sachin; Sankhe, Milind; Desai, Ketan; Kannan, Aarthi; Dubey, Sandhya; Ashok, P.P.; Shinde, Sandip

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have seen a paradigm shift in terms of use of radiation technology for the treatment of patients with medulloblastoma, from conventional 2-D shifting fields to 3-D CRT, IMRT and proton therapy. Similarly from prone to supine position and reduced dose to the cranio-spinal axis with an intent to have equivalent outcomes with reduced probability of late sequelae including second malignancies. METHODS: We have analysed data of 21 consecutive patients in May 2014, registered and treated in our hospital between 2002 and 2011. The cohort consisted of 14 male and 7 female patients with a median age of 8 (Range 3-30) Years. With no known co-morbidities and median KPS of 70 they all had tumors mostly in the IV ventricle(43%) and cerebellum(38%), for which they underwent surgery including decompression(72%) subtotal excision(9%), near total or total excision(19%). All patients were histologically grade IV medulloblastoma who underwent adjuvant radiation alone (40%) or followed by chemotherapy (60%) based on the risk stratification. 57% received 3D CRT in supine position while rest are treated with conventional techniques, median dose given to cranio-spinal axis was 23.4 Gy, posterior fossa was 36 Gy and to the tumor bed was 55.8 Gy at 1.8Gy per fraction. Chemotherapy was usually procarbazine/cisplatin/vincristine based regimen. Regular IQ, endocrine, ophthalmic and auditory evaluation was done in all the patients on follow-up. RESULT: Overall survival at 5 year was documented at 45% and 10 year survival at 35% for the entire cohort taking worst case scenario.3/13 patients developed IQ problems, 7/13 developed endocrine dysfunction, 3/12 developed auditory abnormality. CONCLUSION: Outcome of this cohort is comparable to the literature on risk group stratification. More importantly, risk adapted strategy for the treatment was found to be technically and logistically feasible and effective for a comparatively rare tumor in our setup.

  3. Forecasting daily political opinion polls using the fractionally cointegrated VAR model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard; Shibaev, Sergei S.

    trend from the model follows the vote share of the UKIP very closely, and we thus interpret it as a measure of Euro-skepticism in public opinion rather than an indicator of the more traditional left-right political spectrum. In terms of prediction of vote shares in the election, forecasts generated...... by the FCVAR model leading into the election appear to provide a more informative assessment of the current state of public opinion on electoral support than the hung parliament prediction of the opinion poll....

  4. Misonidazole in fractionated radiotherapy: are many small fractions best

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denekamp, J.; McNally, N.J.; Fowler, J.F.; Joiner, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    The largest sensitizing effect is always demonstrated with six fractions, each given with 2 g/m 2 of misonidazole. In the absence of reoxygenation a sensitizer enhancement ratio of 1.7 is predicted, but this falls to 1.1-1.2 if extensive reoxygenation occurs. Less sensitization is observed with 30 fractions, each with 0.4 g/m 2 of drug. However, for clinical use, the important question is which treatment kills the maximum number of tumour cells. Many of the simulations predict a marked disadvantage of reducing the fraction number for X rays alone. The circumstances in which this disadvantage is offset by the large Sensitizer enhancement ratio values with a six-fraction schedule are few. The model calculations suggest that many small fractions, each with a low drug dose, are safest unless the clinician has some prior knowledge that a change in fraction number is not disadvantageous. (author)

  5. Daily transpiration rates of woody species on drying soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Thomas R; Holbrook, N Michelle; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2005-11-01

    Among annual plants, daily transpiration rates, expressed as a fraction of volumetric soil water content available for transpiration, show a common pattern in response to soil drying. Initially, as soil dries, there is little decrease in transpiration rate until water availability has fallen to about one third that at field capacity. With further soil drying, relative transpiration rate decreases in a more-or-less linear fashion until all available water has been used. Data previously obtained for perennial woody species have often been confounded by different methods for determining available soil water. In this study, we investigated the daily transpiration response to soil drying in five woody perennial species: Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don, Acer rubrum L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Hibiscus sp. and Ibex aquifolium L. Transpiration was unaffected by soil drying until the initial estimated transpirable soil water fraction had decreased to between 0.23 and 0.32 of that at field capacity. Beyond this point, transpiration rate declined linearly with available soil water fraction until reaching one fifth the rate observed in well-watered plants. With further soil drying, the relative transpiration rates remained between 10 and 20% of that observed in well-watered plants. Maintenance of transpiration at these rates with further soil drying was hypothesized to result from contributions to transpiration of water stored in plant tissues. After taking tissue water storage into account, it was estimated that transpiration was curtailed as the available soil water fraction fell to between 0.26 and 0.37 of that at field capacity, which is comparable to values reported for annual crop plants.

  6. RT-qPCR and RT-Digital PCR: A Comparison of Different Platforms for the Evaluation of Residual Disease in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikian, Mary; Whale, Alexandra S; Akiki, Susanna; Piechocki, Kim; Torrado, Celia; Myint, Thet; Cowen, Simon; Griffiths, Michael; Reid, Alistair G; Apperley, Jane; White, Helen; Huggett, Jim F; Foroni, Letizia

    2017-02-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are the cornerstone of successful clinical management of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Quantitative monitoring of the percentage of the fusion transcript BCR-ABL1 (breakpoint cluster region-c-abl oncogene 1, non-receptor tyrosine kinase) BCR-ABL1 IS (%BCR-ABL1 IS ) by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is the gold standard strategy for evaluating patient response to TKIs and classification into prognostic subgroups. However, this approach can be challenging to perform in a reproducible manner. Reverse-transcription digital PCR (RT-dPCR) is an adaptation of this method that could provide the robust and standardized workflow needed for truly standardized patient stratification. BCR-ABL1 and ABL1 transcript copy numbers were quantified in a total of 102 samples; 70 CML patients undergoing TKI therapy and 32 non-CML individuals. 3 commercially available digital PCR platforms (QS3D, QX200 and Raindrop) were compared with the platform routinely used in the clinic for RT-qPCR using the EAC (Europe Against Cancer) assay. Measurements on all instruments correlated well when the %BCR-ABL1 IS was ≥0.1%. In patients with residual disease below this level, greater variations were measured both within and between instruments limiting comparable performance to a 4 log dynamic range. RT-dPCR was able to quantify low-level BCR-ABL1 transcript copies but was unable to improve sensitivity below the level of detection achieved by RT-qPCR. However, RT-dPCR was able to perform these sensitive measurements without use of a calibration curve. Adaptions to the protocol to increase the amount of RNA measured are likely to be necessary to improve the analytical sensitivity of BCR-ABL testing on a dPCR platform. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  7. Global Daily Climatology Network: Kazakhstan subset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of in situ daily meteorological observations for Kazakhstan within the framework of joint efforts to create Global Daily Climatology...

  8. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  9. Daily Medicine Record for Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the-Counter Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers Daily Medicine Record for Your Child (English) Share Tweet Linkedin ... Age: ____ 2 years old___ Weight: ___ 30 pounds ___ Daily Medicine Record Child’s name: ___________________ Today’s date: _________________ Age: ____________ Weight: ________________ (pounds) ...

  10. Fractional variational calculus in terms of Riesz fractional derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, O P

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents extensions of traditional calculus of variations for systems containing Riesz fractional derivatives (RFDs). Specifically, we present generalized Euler-Lagrange equations and the transversality conditions for fractional variational problems (FVPs) defined in terms of RFDs. We consider two problems, a simple FVP and an FVP of Lagrange. Results of the first problem are extended to problems containing multiple fractional derivatives, functions and parameters, and to unspecified boundary conditions. For the second problem, we present Lagrange-type multiplier rules. For both problems, we develop the Euler-Lagrange-type necessary conditions which must be satisfied for the given functional to be extremum. Problems are considered to demonstrate applications of the formulations. Explicitly, we introduce fractional momenta, fractional Hamiltonian, fractional Hamilton equations of motion, fractional field theory and fractional optimal control. The formulations presented and the resulting equations are similar to the formulations for FVPs given in Agrawal (2002 J. Math. Anal. Appl. 272 368, 2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 10375) and to those that appear in the field of classical calculus of variations. These formulations are simple and can be extended to other problems in the field of fractional calculus of variations

  11. Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release 2 Shortwave Daily Data in Native Format (SRB_REL2_SW_DAILY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    This data set contains upward and downward fluxes, photosynthetically active radiative flux, aerosol and cloud optical depth, cloud fraction, and solar zenith angle measured at three hourly intervals for each day for the entire globe between 07/01/1983 and 10/31/1995. These SW surface radiative parameters were derived with the Shortwave algorithm of the NASA World Climate Research Programme/Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (WCRP/GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Project. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1998-07-26] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=Ranges from 1 degree (tropics and subtropics) to 120 degrees (the poles).; Temporal_Resolution=daily; Temporal_Resolution_Range=daily].

  12. rt-PA Thrombolysis in Acute Thromboembolic Upper-Extremity Arterial Occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cejna, Manfred; Salomonowitz, Erich; Wohlschlager, Helmut; Zwrtek, Karin; Boeck, Rudolf; Zwrtek, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Retrospective analysis of the results of rt-PA thrombolysis in the treatment of acute thromboembolic occlusion of the upper limb.Methods: Of 55 patients with demonstrated acute embolic arterial occlusion, rt-PA thrombolysis was performed on 40 occlusions in 38 patients (23 women with a mean age of 62 years, range 32-85 years; 15 men with a mean age of 65 years, range 32-92 years) according to the following design: 6 mg rt-PA/hr for 30 min, 3 mg rt-PA/hr for the next 30 min, 1 mg rt-PA/hr for 7 hr, and 0.4 mg rt-PA/hr until the end of lysis. Onset of symptoms varied from 1 to 14 days. Included were three isolated upper-arm occlusions, nine combined brachial and forearm occlusions, and 28 forearm and hand artery occlusions.Results: The overall success rate was 55%. The lysis results for isolated upper arm, combined brachial and forearm occlusions, and forearm and hand artery occlusions were 100%, 66%, and 46%, respectively. In eight patients surgical embolectomy had to be performed after failed thrombolysis. No amputation was required in the follow-up period. No lethal complications occurred.Conclusions: Interventional rt-PA treatment of proximal upper-extremity arterial occlusions may be performed with comparable success rates to surgical embolectomy and without severe complications. For distal occlusions the results are inferior to the success rates obtained with surgery

  13. Ring trial 2016 for Bluetongue virus detection by real-time RT-PCR in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailleau, Corinne; Viarouge, Cyril; Breard, Emmanuel; Vitour, Damien; Zientara, Stephan

    2017-05-01

    Since the unexpected emergence of BTV-8 in Northern Europe and the incursion of BTV-8 and 1 in France in 2006-2007, molecular diagnosis has considerably evolved. Several real-time RT-PCR (rtRT-PCR) methods have been developed and published, and are currently being used in many countries across Europe for BTV detection and typing. In France, the national reference laboratory (NRL) for orbiviruses develops and validates 'ready-to-use' kits with private companies for viral RNA detection. The regional laboratories network that was set up to deal with a heavy demand for analyses has used these available kits. From 2007, ring tests were organized to monitor the performance of the French laboratories. This study presents the results of 63 regional laboratories in the ring trial organized in 2016. Blood samples were sent to the laboratories. Participants were asked to use the rtRT-PCR methods in place in their laboratory, for detection of all BTV serotypes and specifically BTV-8. The French regional laboratories are able to detect and genotype BTV in affected animals. Despite the use of several methods (i.e. RNA extraction and different commercial rtRT-PCRs), the network is homogeneous. The ring trial demonstrated that the French regional veterinary laboratories have reliable and robust BTV diagnostic tools for BTV genome detection.

  14. ScriptingRT: A Software Library for Collecting Response Latencies in Online Studies of Cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Schubert

    Full Text Available ScriptingRT is a new open source tool to collect response latencies in online studies of human cognition. ScriptingRT studies run as Flash applets in enabled browsers. ScriptingRT provides the building blocks of response latency studies, which are then combined with generic Apache Flex programming. Six studies evaluate the performance of ScriptingRT empirically. Studies 1-3 use specialized hardware to measure variance of response time measurement and stimulus presentation timing. Studies 4-6 implement a Stroop paradigm and run it both online and in the laboratory, comparing ScriptingRT to other response latency software. Altogether, the studies show that Flash programs developed in ScriptingRT show a small lag and an increased variance in response latencies. However, this did not significantly influence measured effects: The Stroop effect was reliably replicated in all studies, and the found effects did not depend on the software used. We conclude that ScriptingRT can be used to test response latency effects online.

  15. Error analysis of global satellite precipitation products using daily gauged observations over the upper central Blue Nile Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlu, Dejene; Moges, Semu; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Hailu, Dereje

    2015-04-01

    Water resource assessment, planning and management in Africa are often constrained due to lack of reliable spatio-temporal rainfall data. Satellite and global reanalysis products are steadily growing and offering useful alternative datasets of rainfall globally. Aim of this paper is to examine the error characteristics of the main available global satellite precipitation products with the view to improve the reliability of wet season (June to September) rainfall datasets over the upper Blue Nile Basin in Ethiopia. The study utilized six satellite derived precipitation datasets at 0.25-deg spatial grid size and daily temporal resolution:1) the near real-time (3B42_RT) and gauge adjusted (3B42_V7) products of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), 2) gauge adjusted and unadjusted Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) products and 3) the gauge adjusted and un-adjusted product of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Prediction Center Morphing technique (CMORPH) over the period of 2000 to 2013. The historical daily rainfall data sets are chosen for the same period from 64 gauging stations which are within a mountainous area of about 45,000 km2. The elevation of gauges used in this error study ranged from 1800 to 3000 meters above sea level. The error analysis utilized statistical techniques of missed rainfall volume fraction (MRV), falsely detected rainfall volume fraction (FRV), mean relative error (MRE), bias ratio (Bias), coefficient of variation of error (CVE) and the trends of the error metrics with respect to elevation. The three error metrics, MRE, Bias and CVE are further examined for five rainfall thresholds associated with different percentile categories (2nd, 20th, 50th, 80th and 98th) . Results show that CMORPH has relatively lower MRV (~1.5 %) than the TRMM and PERSIANN products (10 -13 %.). Non-gauge adjusted

  16. Dynamical fractional chaotic inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harigaya, Keisuke; Ibe, Masahiro; Schmitz, Kai; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2014-12-01

    Chaotic inflation based on a simple monomial scalar potential, V (ϕ )∝ϕp, is an attractive large-field model of inflation capable of generating a sizable tensor-to-scalar ratio r . Therefore, assuming that future cosmic microwave background observations will confirm the large r value reported by BICEP2, it is important to determine what kind of dynamical mechanism could possibly endow the inflaton field with such a simple effective potential. In this paper, we answer this question in the context of field theory, i.e. in the framework of dynamical chaotic inflation, where strongly interacting supersymmetric gauge dynamics around the scale of grand unification dynamically generate a fractional power-law potential via the quantum effect of dimensional transmutation. In constructing explicit models, we significantly extend our previous work, as we now consider a large variety of possible underlying gauge dynamics and relax our conditions on the field content of the model. This allows us to realize almost arbitrary rational values for the power p in the inflaton potential. The present paper may hence be regarded as a first step toward a more complete theory of dynamical chaotic inflation.

  17. The RT-18: a new screening tool to assess young adult risk-taking behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Haan L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Lydia de Haan1, Esther Kuipers1, Yvanca Kuerten1, Margriet van Laar2, Berend Olivier1, Joris Cornelis Verster11Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University; 2Trimbos Institute, Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Utrecht, The NetherlandsAbstract: Risk-taking behavior is a major determinant of health and plays a central role in various diseases. Therefore, a brief questionnaire was developed to assess risk taking among young adults with known different levels of risk-taking behavior (social drinkers and recreational drug users. In Study 1, N = 522 university students completed the RT-18 risk taking questionnaire. N = 100 students were retested after 2 to 4 weeks and performed the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT. Mean RT-18 score was 7.69 and Cronbach's alpha was 0.886. The test-retest reliability was r = 0.94. Significant correlation was found between the RT-18 score and CGT scores of risk taking, bet proportion, and risk adjustment. In Study 2, N = 7834 young adult social drinkers, and recreational drug users, mean RT-18 score was 9.34 and Cronbach's alpha was 0.80. Factor analysis showed that the RT-18 comprises two factors assessing level of risk-taking behavior and risk assessment. Men scored significantly higher than women on the RT-18. Recreational drug users had significantly higher scores when compared to social drinkers. In Study 3 of N = 1000 students, construct validity was confirmed by showing that the RT-18 outcome correlates significantly with scores on the Stimulating-Instrumental Risk Inventory. In conclusion, the RT-18 is a valid and reliable screening tool to differentiate levels of risk-taking behavior. This short scale is quick and practical to administer, imposing minimal demands on participants. The RT-18 is able to differentiate risk taking and risk assessment which can help target appropriate intervention strategies.Keywords: risk taking, impulsivity, sensation

  18. RT-PCR-ELISA as a tool for diagnosis of low-pathogenicity avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybkaer, Karen; Munch, Mette; Handberg, Kurt Jensen

    2003-01-01

    A one-tube reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction coupled with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (RT-PCR-ELISA) was developed for the rapid detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) in clinical specimens. A total of 419 swab pools were analyzed from chickens experimentally infected wit...... of the twenty-three VI-positive specimens were negative when tested by RT-PCR-ELISA. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the RT-PCR-ELISA was 91% and 97%, respectively, using VI in SPF eggs as the gold reference standard....

  19. Development of RT-components for the M-3 Strawberry Harvesting Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tomoki; Tanaka, Motomasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Hayashi, Shigehiko; Saito, Sadafumi; Sugano, Shigeki

    We are now developing the strawberry harvest robot called “M-3” prototype robot system under the 4th urgent project of MAFF. In order to develop the control software of the M-3 robot more efficiently, we innovated the RT-middleware “OpenRTM-aist” software platform. In this system, we developed 9 kind of RT-Components (RTC): Robot task sequence player RTC, Proxy RTC for image processing software, DC motor controller RTC, Arm kinematics RTC, and so on. In this paper, we discuss advantages of RT-middleware developing system and problems about operating the RTC-configured robotic system by end-users.

  20. Comparative Evaluation Of Conventional Rt-pcr And Real-time Rt-pcr (rrt-pcr) For Detection Of Avian Metapneumovirus Subtype A [comparação Entre As Técnicas De Rt-pcr Convencional E Rt-pcr Em Tempo Real Para A Detecção Do Metapneumovírus Aviários Subtipo A

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira H.L.; Spilki F.R.; dos Santos M.M.A.B.; de Almeida R.S.; Arns C.W.

    2009-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) belongs to Metapneumovirus genus of Paramyxoviridae family. Virus isolation, serology, and detection of genomic RNA are used as diagnostic methods for AMPV. The aim of the present study was to compare the detection of six subgroup A AMPV isolates (AMPV/A) viral RNA by using different conventional and real time RT-PCR methods. Two new RT-PCR tests and two real time RT-PCR tests, both detecting fusion (F) gene and nucleocapsid (N) gene were compared with an establis...

  1. RT-ABCDE strategy for management and prevention of human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chun-song

    2008-06-01

    In this article, the authors summarized the RT-ABCDE strategy for the management and prevention of human diseases, which includes ReTro-ABCDE (Examination regularity, Disease and risk factor control, Changing lifestyle and reducing pathways of infection and spread, Biochemical and Antagonistic index control and therapeutic treatment as well as RT--Routine and Right Treatment). The RT-ABCDE strategy, a novel concept and an essential method, should be a routine strategy for disease control and prevention. It should be proposed and applied in both clinical and preventive medicine.

  2. Accessible solitons of fractional dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Wei-Ping, E-mail: zhongwp6@126.com [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Shunde Polytechnic, Guangdong Province, Shunde 528300 (China); Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Belić, Milivoj [Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Zhang, Yiqi [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education & Shaanxi Key Lab of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrate that accessible solitons described by an extended Schrödinger equation with the Laplacian of fractional dimension can exist in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media. The soliton solutions of the model are constructed by two special functions, the associated Legendre polynomials and the Laguerre polynomials in the fraction-dimensional space. Our results show that these fractional accessible solitons form a soliton family which includes crescent solitons, and asymmetric single-layer and multi-layer necklace solitons. -- Highlights: •Analytic solutions of a fractional Schrödinger equation are obtained. •The solutions are produced by means of self-similar method applied to the fractional Schrödinger equation with parabolic potential. •The fractional accessible solitons form crescent, asymmetric single-layer and multilayer necklace profiles. •The model applies to the propagation of optical pulses in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media.

  3. Update on chronic daily headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, James R

    2011-02-01

    Chronic daily headache (CDH), defined as a primary headache occurring at least 15 days per month, is a problem of worldwide scope, which is seen in 3% to 5% of the population. Though it has been recognized since ancient times, only recently have there been attempts to define and classify it. CDH usually consists of a mixture of migraine and tension-type headaches (TTH), with the more severe headaches having migraine features and the less severe headaches fitting the definition of TTH. Some patients have pure chronic TTH and no migrainous features, and others have only migraine, but most have a mixed migraine-TTH pattern. New daily persistent headache, a CDH pattern that comes on over a few days, constitutes 9% to 10% of this group and is otherwise indistinguishable from CDH. Hemicrania continua (1% of CDH) appears to be unique in being absolutely responsive to indomethacin. Accurate diagnosis of CDH is critical to management, as all organic etiologies of chronic headache must be ruled out. Problems often associated with CDH and complicating the diagnosis are head injury or medication overuse (rebound-withdrawal headache). These accompanying issues must be recognized and treated appropriately in the management plan. Finally, psychiatric problems (unipolar depression, bipolar disease, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive/compulsive disorder) often accompany CDH, as they are comorbid with migraine. These conditions must be recognized and treated along with the headache itself for treatment to succeed fully. Treatment of CDH is multimodal. The cornerstone of therapy is the use of prophylactic antimigraine medications to prevent or modulate the next headache. Amitriptyline, topiramate, valproic acid, and gabapentin have all had class I studies showing effectiveness in reducing headache occurrence. Recent studies with botulinum toxin have also shown effectiveness in reducing the headache burden. Recognition and treatment of medication overuse headache (MOH) must

  4. A New Method to Improve the Electrical Properties of KNN-based Ceramics: Tailoring Phase Fraction

    KAUST Repository

    Lv, Xiang

    2017-08-18

    Although both the phase type and fraction of multi-phase coexistence can affect the electrical properties of (K,Na)NbO3 (KNN)-based ceramics, effects of phase fraction on their electrical properties were few concerned. In this work, through changing the calcination temperature of CaZrO3 powders, we successfully developed the 0.96K0.5Na0.5Nb0.96Sb0.04O3-0.01CaZrO3-0.03Bi0.5Na0.5HfO3 ceramics containing a wide rhombohedral-tetragonal (R-T) phase coexistence with the variations of T (or R) phase fractions. It was found that higher T phase fraction can warrant a larger piezoelectric constant (d33) and d33 also showed a linear variation with respect to tetragonality ratio (c/a). More importantly, a number of domain patterns were observed due to high T phase fraction and large c/a ratio, greatly benefiting the piezoelectricity. In addition, the improved ferroelectric fatigue behavior and thermal stability were also shown in the ceramics containing high T phase fraction. Therefore, this work can bring a new viewpoint into the physical mechanism of KNN-based ceramics behind R-T phase coexistence.

  5. Fractional Calculus and Shannon Wavelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Cattani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An explicit analytical formula for the any order fractional derivative of Shannon wavelet is given as wavelet series based on connection coefficients. So that for any 2(ℝ function, reconstructed by Shannon wavelets, we can easily define its fractional derivative. The approximation error is explicitly computed, and the wavelet series is compared with Grünwald fractional derivative by focusing on the many advantages of the wavelet method, in terms of rate of convergence.

  6. Fractional delayed damped Mathieu equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbahi, Afshin; Haeri, Mohammad; Nazari, Morad; Butcher, Eric A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper investigates the dynamical behaviour of the fractional delayed damped Mathieu equation. This system includes three different phenomena (fractional order, time delay, parametric resonance). The method of harmonic balance is employed to achieve approximate expressions for the transition curves in the parameter plane. The n = 0 and n = 1 transition curves (both lower and higher order approximations) are obtained. The dependencies of these curves on the system parameters and fractional orders are determined. Previous results for the transition curves reported for the damped Mathieu equation, delayed second-order oscillator, and fractional Mathieu equation are confirmed as special cases of the results for the current system.

  7. EPA Method 1615. Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus Occurrence in Water by Culture and RT-qPCR. Part III. Virus Detection by RT-qPCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Method 1615 measures enteroviruses and noroviruses present in environmental and drinking waters. The viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) from water sample concentrates is extracted and tested for enterovirus and norovirus RNA using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). V...

  8. Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic Properties, and Phytochemical Characterization of Stem Bark Extract and Fractions of Anthocleista nobilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwoke, Kenneth Gerald; Akwagbulam, Amaka Godsaveus; Erhirhie, Ernest Oghenesuvwe; Ajaghaku, Daniel Lotanna; Okoye, Festus Basden Chiedu; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2018-01-01

    Background: Anthocleista nobilis (Loganiaceae) is used by Mbano people of Imo State, Nigeria, for the treatment of various ailments Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties of the methanol extract, fractions, and subfractions of A. nobilis. Materials and Methods: The powdered stem bark was extracted with methanol and sequentially fractionated into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. The constituents of the fractions were analyzed using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the components were identified by dereplication. Antioxidant potential of the extracts and fractions was investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging method. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the extract and fractions were also investigated using xylene-induced inflammation and acetic acid-induced writhing models, respectively. Results: A total of five compounds isovitexin (Rt = 18.77 min), isovitexin-2''-O-xyl (Rt = 19.68 min), p-Hydroxybenzoic acid (Rt = 11.88 min), Sarasinoside L (Rt = 19.64 min), isovitexin (Rt = 18.77), and apigenin monoglycoside (Rt = 19.64 min) were identified by HPLC analysis and dereplication. The ethyl acetate fraction and subfraction elicited the best anti-inflammatory activity. The ethyl acetate subfraction also inhibited acetic acid-induced pain by 79% and 85.0% at the doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, respectively, which was better than 71.1% and 81.3% observed for diclofenac at similar doses. Conclusion: A. nobilis could be a potential source of anti-inflammatory and analgesic lead compounds. SUMMARY The extract, fractions and subfractions of Anthocleista nobilis were screened or antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and Analgesic properties in vitro and in mice models. Some of the components were identified by dereplication after HPLC analysis. The results demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic property of the extracts and

  9. Arvo Pärt ajas ja ajatuses / Igor Garšnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    2010-01-01

    Mõtteid Arvo Pärdi muusikast ajendatuna ETVs 2. septembril kavas olnud saadetest: "Arvo Pärt Istanbulis " ja "Arvo Pärdi autorikontsert Istanbulis", mis kajastasid 7. juunil Hagia Irene kirikus esiettekandel tulnud helilooja uusimat teost "Aadama itk"

  10. NASA/SPoRt: GOES-R Activities in Support of Product Development, Management, and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuell, Kevin; Jedlovec, Gary; Molthan, Andrew; Stano, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    SPoRT is using current capabilities of MODIS and VIIRS, combined with current GOES (i.e. Hybrid Imagery) to demonstrate mesoscale capabilities of future ABI instrument. SPoRT is transitioning RGBs from EUMETSAT standard "recipes" to demonstrate a method to more efficiently handle the increase channels/frequency of ABI. Challenges for RGB production exist. Internal vs. external production, Bit depth needed, Adding quantitative information, etc. SPoRT forming group to address these issues. SPoRT is leading efforts on the application of total lightning in operations and to educate users of this new capability. Training in many forms is used to support testbed activities and is a key part to the transition process.

  11. A multiplex RT-PCR for rapid and simultaneous detection of viruses and viroids in chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, A; You, Y; Chen, F; Li, P; Jiang, J; Chen, S

    2013-01-01

    Chrysanthemum plants are subject to serious virus diseases, so detection and identification of virus pathogens is important to prevent the virus spread. A reliable one-step multiplex RT-PCR was developed to simultaneously detect two viruses and two viriods: chrysanthemum virus B, tomato Aspermy virus, chrysanthemum stunt viroid and chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid. In addition, we investigated the detection limit and the efficiency of single and multiplex RT-PCR assays. The results showed that the multiplex RT-PCR assay proved to be as sensitive as the single one. In conclusion, this technique is potentially useful in routine diagnosis of chrysanthemum viruses and viroids. The multiplex RT-PCR assay described in this study is the first report of simultaneous detection of virus and viroid in chrysanthemum, which provides a fast, convenient, cost-saving way to detect the virus and viroid mixed infections in plants. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. rt, Arvo: "Summa". Collage sur BACH. Fratres / Patric Wiklacz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wiklacz, Patric

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt, Arvo: "Summa". Collage sur BACH. Fratres. Cantus in Memoriam Benjamin Britten. Summa. Festina Lente. Tabula rasa. Tapiola Sinfonietta / Jean-Jacques Kantorow". BIS-CD-834. 62:30 DDD

  13. Design and analysis of Q-RT-PCR assays for haematological malignancies using mixed effects models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgsted, Martin; Mandrup, Charlotte; Petersen, Anders

    The recent WHO classification of haematological malignancies includes detection of genetic abnormalities with rognostic significance. Consequently, an increasing number of specific real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) based assays are in clinical...

  14. rt: Fratres in sechs Versionen. Festina lente. Summa / C. S.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    C. S.

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt: Fratres in sechs Versionen. Festina lente. Summa. Cantus in memoriam Benjamin Britten. Orchester der Ungarischen Staatsoper, Tamas Benedek". Naxos CD 8 553 750 (WD:79'06") DDD

  15. Transition and Evaluation of RGB Imagery to WFOs and National Centers by NASA SPoRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuell, Kevin K.; Molthan, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    MODIS Snow/Cloud and True Color RGB imagery has been used by SPoRT partners since 2004 to examine changes in surface features such as snow cover, vegetation, ocean color, fires, smoke plumes, and oil spills.

  16. Kaks vaadet Ameerikast Jacques Derridale / Märt Väljataga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Väljataga, Märt, 1965-

    1998-01-01

    Kommentaariks Vikerkaares 1998, nr. 7-8 ilmunud artiklitele: Mark Lilla 'Jacques Derrida poliitika' ja Richard Rorty 'Ironistlikust teooriast privaatsete allusioonideni' (mõlemad tõlkinud Märt Väljataga)

  17. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and chromogenic in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosa, Fabíola E; Silveira, Sara M; Silveira, Cássia G T

    2009-01-01

    HER-2 expression and morphological features. However, FISH signals are labile and fade over time, making post-revision of the tumor difficult. CISH (chromogenic in situ hybridization) is an alternative procedure, with certain advantages, although still limited as a diagnostic tool in breast carcinomas....... METHODS: To elucidate the molecular profile of HER-2 status, mRNA and protein expression in 75 invasive breast carcinomas were analyzed by real time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and IHC, respectively. Amplifications were evaluated in 43 of these cases by CISH and in 11 by FISH. RESULTS: The concordance...... rate between IHC and qRT-PCR results was 78.9%, and 94.6% for qRT-PCR and CISH. Intratumoral heterogeneity of HER-2 status was identified in three cases by CISH. The results of the three procedures were compared and showed a concordance rate of 83.8%; higher discordances were observed in 0 or 1...

  18. An Overview of NASA SPoRT GOES-R JPSS Proving Ground Testbed Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Emily; Stano, Geoffrey; Fuell, Kevin; Leroy, Anita; Mcgrath, Kevin; Molthan, Andrew; Schultz, Lori; Smith, Matthew; White, Kris; Schultz, Christopher; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center is funded by NASA's Earth Science Division and NOAA's JPSS and GOES-R Proving Grounds to transition satellite products and capabilities to the NWS to improve short term (0-48 hr) forecasts on a regional and local scale. SPoRT currently collaborates with 30+ NWS WFOs (at least one in each NWS region) and 5 National Centers/Testbeds. SPoRT matches user-identified forecast challenges to specific products, providing access to these data in AWIPS through new plug-in development, and generating applications-based training to use the products for their needs (R20). Upon transition, SPoRT collaborates with the user to assess the product impact in a real-world environment for feedback to product developers (O2R) and to benefit their peers.

  19. rt, Arvo. Cantus in memory of Benjamin Britten / Andrew Achenbach

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Achenbach, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt, Arvo. Cantus in memory of Benjamin Britten. BBC Northern Symphony Orchestra / Norman del Mar; BBC Symphony Orchestra / Gennady Rozhdestvensky". BBC Radio Classics CD BBCRD 9129 (71 minutes)

  20. Kuu plaat : Märt Sults "Kõigest koolipapa...". Plaadid kauplusest Lasering

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Heliplaatidest : Märt Sults "Kõigest koolipapa...", Madonna "Confessions on a Dance Floor", Tõnis Mägi "Vestlus Hermanniga", Rammstein "Rosenrot", a-ha "Analogue", Darkness "One Way Ticket to Hell...And Back"

  1. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-10-18

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  2. Application of Multiplex RT-PCR for Detection of Cucurbit-infecting Tobamovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Daryono, Budi Setiadi; Natsuaki, Keiko T.

    2016-01-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) and Kyuri green mottle mosaic virus (KGMMV) are seed borne viruses and they are also transmitted mechanically during agricultural practice and through water. Hence, these viruses have potential diseases widely distributed throughout the world. To detect different strains of CGMMV and KGMMV, several specific primers for each virus were designed for single and multiplex RT-PCR. The results of single and multiplex RT-PCR showed that CGMMV was detected i...

  3. Short-Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center: Transitioning Satellite Data to Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodsky, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center located at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has been conducting testbed activities aimed at transitioning satellite products to National Weather Service operational end users for the last 10 years. SPoRT is a NASA/NOAA funded project that has set the bar for transition of products to operational end users through a paradigm of understanding forecast challenges and forecaster needs, displaying products in end users decision support systems, actively assessing the operational impact of these products, and improving products based on forecaster feedback. Aiming for quality partnerships rather than a large quantity of data users, SPoRT has become a community leader in training operational forecasters on the use of up-and-coming satellite data through the use of legacy instruments and proxy data. Traditionally, SPoRT has supplied satellite imagery and products from NASA instruments such as the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). However, recently, SPoRT has been funded by the GOES-R and Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Proving Grounds to accelerate the transition of selected imagery and products to help improve forecaster awareness of upcoming operational data from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). This presentation provides background on the SPoRT Center, the SPoRT paradigm, and some example products that SPoRT is excited to work with forecasters to evaluate.

  4. Optimisation of the RT-PCR detection of immunomagnetically enriched carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynor, Michael; Stephenson, Sally-Anne; Walsh, David CA; Pittman, Kenneth B; Dobrovic, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    Immunomagnetic enrichment followed by RT-PCR (immunobead RT-PCR) is an efficient methodology to identify disseminated carcinoma cells in the blood and bone marrow. The RT-PCR assays must be both specific for the tumor cells and sufficiently sensitive to enable detection of single tumor cells. We have developed a method to test RT-PCR assays for any cancer. This has been investigated using a panel of RT-PCR markers suitable for the detection of breast cancer cells. In the assay, a single cell line-derived tumor cell is added to 100 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) after which mRNA is isolated and reverse transcribed for RT-PCR analysis. PBMNCs without added tumor cells are used as specificity controls. The previously studied markers epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mammaglobin 1 (MGB1), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM/TACSTD1), mucin 1 (MUC1), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were tested. Two new epithelial-specific markers ELF3 and EphB4 were also tested. MUC1 was unsuitable as strong amplification was detected in 100 cell PBMNC controls. Expression of ELF3, EphB4, EpCAM, EGFR, CEA and MGB1 was found to be both specific for the tumor cell, as demonstrated by the absence of a signal in most 100 cell PBMNC controls, and sensitive enough to detect a single tumor cell in 100 PBMNCs using a single round of RT-PCR. ELF3, EphB4, EpCAM, EGFR, CEA and MGB1 are appropriate RT-PCR markers for use in a marker panel to detect disseminated breast cancer cells after immunomagnetic enrichment

  5. Evaluation of several RT-PCR primer pairs for the detection of Apple stem pitting virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komorowska, B; Malinowski, T; Michalczuk, L

    2010-09-01

    Detection of Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) using RT-PCR based methods was studied in infected apple and pear trees. Three virus-specific primers (ASPF1CP, ASPF2CP, ASPR3CP) were designed to target the most conservative regions of the coat protein gene of 10 virus isolates in Poland and 7 other ASPV sequences available in GenBank. The suitability of the primer pairs ASPF1CP-ASPR3CP and ASPF2CP-ASPR3CP for detection of 19 virus isolates was checked. Both new primer pairs initiated amplification of a specific product from all sources tested. From 1 to 11 isolates were not detected with the primer sets published previously. Detection of the virus in the samples collected in March, using ASPF1CP-ASPR3CP primer pair, was possible up to 512 times dilution. For the samples collected in July, virus was detected in the extracts from infected plants diluted eight times. More than 100-fold increase of sensitivity could be obtained by semi-nested PCR with primers ASPF2CP-ASPR3CP following the first round with ASPF1CP-ASPR3CP. Identification of virus isolates with different number of deletions in the coat protein gene was possible using RT-PCR with newly designed reverse primer ASPDEL in combination with the published primer ASPV7956. Besides, the comparative analysis of silicacapture-RT-PCR (SC-RT-PCR) versus immunocapture-RT-PCR (IC-RT-PCR) assays was carried out. Few ASPV isolates escaped detection by IC-RT-PCR, while all isolates tested were detected using the SC-RT-PCR with the new primers. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Canine distemper virus detection by different methods of One-Step RT-qPCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia de Camargo Tozato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Three commercial kits of One-Step RT-qPCR were evaluated for the molecular diagnosis of Canine Distemper Virus. Using the kit that showed better performance, two systems of Real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR assays were tested and compared for analytical sensitivity to Canine Distemper Virus RNA detection: a One-Step RT-qPCR (system A and a One-Step RT-qPCR combined with NESTED-qPCR (system B. Limits of detection for both systems were determined using a serial dilution of Canine Distemper Virus synthetic RNA or a positive urine sample. In addition, the same urine sample was tested using samples with prior centrifugation or ultracentrifugation. Commercial kits of One-Step RT-qPCR assays detected canine distemper virus RNA in 10 (100% urine samples from symptomatic animals tested. The One-Step RT-qPCR kit that showed better results was used to evaluate the analytical sensitivity of the A and B systems. Limit of detection using synthetic RNA for the system A was 11 RNA copies µL-1 and 110 RNA copies µl-1 for first round System B. The second round of the NESTED-qPCR for System B had a limit of detection of 11 copies µl-1. Relationship between Ct values and RNA concentration was linear. The RNA extracted from the urine dilutions was detected in dilutions of 10-3 and10-2 by System A and B respectively. Urine centrifugation increased the analytical sensitivity of the test and proved to be useful for routine diagnostics. The One-Step RT-qPCR is a fast, sensitive and specific method for canine distemper routine diagnosis and research projects that require sensitive and quantitative methodology.

  7. Thermal regulation 2000: one year later; RT 2000: un an apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    This meeting, organized by the research center of Gaz de France (Cegibat), aims at drawing up a progress status of the French thermal regulation (RT 2000), one year after its enforcement on June 1, 2000: status, experience feedback and recommendations; Gaz de France assistance and solutions; tools at the disposition of designers (labelling of equipments, simulation softwares..); practical examples of implementation of the RT 2000 in office buildings, residential buildings and sport complexes. (J.S.)

  8. Preoperative radiotherapy (RT) for prevention of heterotopic ossification (HO) after total hip replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyd, R.; Schopohl, B.; Boettcher, H.D.; Kirchner, J.

    1997-01-01

    Preliminary results of a prospective study which investigates the efficacy of preoperative radiotherapy (RT) for prevention of heterotopic ossification (HO) after total hip arthroplasty are summarized. A total number of 20 hip joints (18 patients) were irradiated with a single dose of 6.0 Gy Brooker grade II). The functional outcome quantified with the Harris score was improved by an average of 37.9 points. The authors conclude that preoperative RT is an effective alternative for postoperative irradiation. (orig.) [de

  9. Daily mineral intakes for Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Kunio

    1990-01-01

    Recently it became necessary to assess the dietary intake of both stable and radioactive elements for non-radiation workers. But data of mineral intake in the literature are not good enough for this assessment. ICRP Pub. 23 in 'Reference Man' is one of the best references in this field. ICRP Reference Man was selected as the standard for Caucasian by using values reported during early 1970s or before. Moreover it seems not to be suitable for Japanese (Mongolian). In this report, analytical methods of minerals in total diet samples for Japanese were described. Furthermore, daily intakes for Japanese (Reference Japanese Man) and ICRP Reference Man were compared. After collected by a duplicate portion study and a model diet study, diet samples were dry-ashed followed by wet-digestion with a mixture of HNO 3 and HClO 4 . Diet sample solutions thus prepared were analysed by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively-coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Matrix effects of major elements (Na, K, P, Ca and Mg) in diet samples were compensated by a matrix-matching method. About 20 elements were simultaneously determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, more easily than by AAS. Most of dietary mineral intakes, except for Na, Mn, and Sr, for Japanese were lower than those of ICRP Reference Man. But, dietary intakes were found to be different depending on countries, even among European and American countries. New representative data for as many elements as possible are necessary now. (author)

  10. Patrol Officer Daily Noise Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Lynn R; Vosburgh, Donna J H

    2015-01-01

    established by the OSHA or ACGIH occupational exposure levels from the daily occupational tasks that were monitored.

  11. Simultaneous detection of enteropathogenic viruses in buffalos faeces using multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Pagnini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A multiplex reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR assay that detects Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus, Bovine Coronavirus, and Group A Rotaviruses in infected cell-culture fluids and clinical faecal samples is described. One hundred twenty faecal samples from buffalo calves with acute gastroenteritis were tested. The mRT-PCR was validated against simplex RT-PCR with published primers for Pestivirus, Coronavirus and Rotavirus. The multiplex RT-PCR was equally sensitive and specific in detecting viral infections compared with simplex RT-PCR. The mRT-PCR readily identified viruses by discriminating the size of their amplified gene products. This mRT-PCR may be a sensitive and rapid assay for surveillance of buffalo enteric viruses in field specimens. This novel multiplex RT-PCR is an attractive technique for the rapid, specific, and cost-effective laboratory diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis.

  12. RT-qPCR for the diagnosis of dermatophilosis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Linda A; Kania, Stephen A; Weyant, Ellie

    2016-10-01

    Dermatophilus congolensis causes a crusting dermatitis that affects horses. Diagnosis requires the identification of the organism with cytological evaluation of crust samples. This method can lack sensitivity in chronic cases. To develop a probe-based real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) test to assist with the diagnosis of dermatophilosis in horses. Twenty six privately owned horses and seven horses from a research colony were used. Crust samples, collected from 14 horses with suspected dermatophilosis and 12 horses with crusting skin disease not characteristic of dermatophilosis, were evaluated by cytological evaluation and RT-qPCR; the latter was also performed on hair samples collected from seven healthy horses. Cytological evaluation revealed organisms consistent with Dermatophilus congolensis from nine horses with suspected dermatophilosis, with only a few organisms seen from five samples. Cytological evaluation of all other crusts was negative for Dermatophilus. Other bacterial organisms were detected on cytological evaluation from 15 samples. RT-qPCR for Dermatophilus was positive from 11 crusts, whereas all other samples were negative. Two samples were cytologically negative but RT-qPCR positive for Dermatophilus. No samples were cytologically positive but RT-qPCR negative for Dermatophilus. Results of this study show that RT-qPCR may be a more sensitive and easier method than cytological evaluation for the diagnosis of dermatophilosis in horses. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  13. Does inhibiting Sur1 complement rt-PA in cerebral ischemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, J. Marc; Geng, Zhihua; Silver, Frank L.; Sheth, Kevin N.; Kimberly, W. Taylor; Stern, Barney J.; Colucci, Mario; Gerzanich, Volodymyr

    2012-01-01

    Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) associated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) complicates and limits its use in stroke. Here, we provide a focused review on the involvement of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in rt-PA–associated HT in cerebral ischemia, and we review emerging evidence that the selective inhibitor of the sulfonylurea receptor 1 (Sur1), glibenclamide (U.S. adopted name, glyburide), may provide protection against rt-PA–associated HT in cerebral ischemia. Glyburide inhibits activation of MMP-9, ameliorates edema formation, swelling, and symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation, and improves preclinical outcomes in several clinically relevant models of stroke, both without and with rt-PA treatment. A retrospective clinical study comparing outcomes in diabetic patients with stroke treated with rt-PA showed that those who were previously on and were maintained on a sulfonylurea fared significantly better than those whose diabetes was managed without sulfonylureas. Inhibition of Sur1 with injectable glyburide holds promise for ameliorating rt-PA–associated HT in stroke. PMID:22994227

  14. Natural and Enhanced Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents Using RT3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Christian D.; Truex, Michael J.; Clement, T P.

    2006-07-25

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a reactive transport code that can be applied to model solute fate and transport for many different purposes. This document specifically addresses application of RT3D for modeling related to evaluation and implementation of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA). Selection of MNA as a remedy requires an evaluation process to demonstrate that MNA will meet the remediation goals. The U.S. EPA, through the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) Directive 9200.4?17P, provides the regulatory context for the evaluation and implementation of MNA. In a complementary fashion, the context for using fate and transport modeling as part of MNA evaluation is described in the EPA?s technical protocol for chlorinated solvent MNA, the Scenarios Evaluation Tool for Chlorinated Solvent MNA, and in this document. The intent of this document is to describe (1) the context for applying RT3D for chlorinated solvent MNA and (2) the attenuation processes represented in RT3D, (3) dechlorination reactions that may occur, and (4) the general approach for using RT3D reaction modules (including a summary of the RT3D reaction modules that are available) to model fate and transport of chlorinated solvents as part of MNA or for combinations of MNA and selected types of active remediation.

  15. Detection of Tomato black ring virus by real-time one-step RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Scott J; Delmiglio, Catia; Ward, Lisa I; Clover, Gerard R G

    2011-01-01

    A TaqMan-based real-time one-step RT-PCR assay was developed for the rapid detection of Tomato black ring virus (TBRV), a significant plant pathogen which infects a wide range of economically important crops. Primers and a probe were designed against existing genomic sequences to amplify a 72 bp fragment from RNA-2. The assay amplified all isolates of TBRV tested, but no amplification was observed from the RNA of other nepovirus species or healthy host plants. The detection limit of the assay was estimated to be around nine copies of the TBRV target region in total RNA. A comparison with conventional RT-PCR and ELISA, indicated that ELISA, the current standard test method, lacked specificity and reacted to all nepovirus species tested, while conventional RT-PCR was approximately ten-fold less sensitive than the real-time RT-PCR assay. Finally, the real-time RT-PCR assay was tested using five different RT-PCR reagent kits and was found to be robust and reliable, with no significant differences in sensitivity being found. The development of this rapid assay should aid in quarantine and post-border surveys for regulatory agencies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Red blood cells in cerebrospinal fluid as possible inhibitory factor for enterovirus RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The presence of hemoglobin in samples are considered an important inhibitory factor for polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of red blood cells (RBCs in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF as an inhibitory factor to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for enteroviruses (EV. Forty-four CSF samples from patients showing characteristics of viral meningitis were assessed for EV by RT-PCR. Viral RNA extracted with guanidine isothyocianate buffer and virus detection was performed by in-house nested PCR. Positivity for EV RT-PCR was higher in CSF samples without RBCs than in samples with RBCs: 13(26% and 36(9.2%, p = 0.001. In the group with positive EV RT-PCR, the mean + SD CSF RBC was 37 ± 183 cell/mm3; the group with negative results had 580 + 2,890 cell/mm3 (p = 0.007. The acceptable upper limit for CSF RBCs that could not influence RT-PCR was 108 cells/mm3. CSF samples with negative results for EV RT-PCR have more erythrocytes.

  17. Financial Planning with Fractional Goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Goedhart; J. Spronk (Jaap)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWhen solving financial planning problems with multiple goals by means of multiple objective programming, the presence of fractional goals leads to technical difficulties. In this paper we present a straightforward interactive approach for solving such linear fractional programs with

  18. Deterministic ratchets for suspension fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulrattanarak, T.

    2010-01-01

    Driven by the current insights in sustainability and technological development in biorefining natural renewable resources, the food industry has taken an interest in fractionation of agrofood materials, like milk and cereal crops. The purpose of fractionation is to split the raw material in

  19. Rational Exponentials and Continued Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    Using continued fraction expansions, we can approximate constants, such as pi and e, using an appropriate integer n raised to the power x[superscript 1/x], x a suitable rational. We review continued fractions and give an algorithm for producing these approximations.

  20. Fractional random walk lattice dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelitsch, T. M.; Collet, B. A.; Riascos, A. P.; Nowakowski, A. F.; Nicolleau, F. C. G. A.

    2017-02-01

    We analyze time-discrete and time-continuous ‘fractional’ random walks on undirected regular networks with special focus on cubic periodic lattices in n  =  1, 2, 3,.. dimensions. The fractional random walk dynamics is governed by a master equation involving fractional powers of Laplacian matrices {{L}\\fracα{2}}} where α =2 recovers the normal walk. First we demonstrate that the interval 0expressions for the transition matrix of the fractional random walk and closely related the average return probabilities. We further obtain the fundamental matrix {{Z}(α )} , and the mean relaxation time (Kemeny constant) for the fractional random walk. The representation for the fundamental matrix {{Z}(α )} relates fractional random walks with normal random walks. We show that the matrix elements of the transition matrix of the fractional random walk exihibit for large cubic n-dimensional lattices a power law decay of an n-dimensional infinite space Riesz fractional derivative type indicating emergence of Lévy flights. As a further footprint of Lévy flights in the n-dimensional space, the transition matrix and return probabilities of the fractional random walk are dominated for large times t by slowly relaxing long-wave modes leading to a characteristic {{t}-\\frac{n{α}} -decay. It can be concluded that, due to long range moves of fractional random walk, a small world property is emerging increasing the efficiency to explore the lattice when instead of a normal random walk a fractional random walk is chosen.

  1. Outcomes of HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer patients treated by radiotherapy alone using altered fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Sullivan, Brian; Huang Shaohui; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Massey, Christine; Siu, Lillian L.; Weinreb, Ilan; Hope, Andrew; Kim, John; Bayley, Andrew J.; Cummings, Bernard; Ringash, Jolie; Dawson, Laura A.; Cho, B.C. John; Chen, Eric; Irish, Jonathan; Gilbert, Ralph W.; Hui, Angela; Liu Feifei; Zhao, Helen; Waldron, John N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report outcome of HPV-related [HPV(+)] oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) managed predominantly by altered-fractionation radiotherapy-alone (RT-alone). Methods: OPCs treated with RT-alone (n = 207) or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) (n = 151) from 2001 to 2008 were included. Overall survival (OS), local (LC), regional (RC) and distant (DC) control were compared for HPV(+) vs. HPV-unrelated [HPV(−)], by RT-alone vs. CRT, and by smoking pack-years (⩽10 vs. >10). Multivariate analysis identified predictors. Results: HPV(+) (n = 277) had better OS (81% vs. 44%), LC (93% vs. 76%), RC (94% vs. 79%) (all p < 0.01) but similar DC (89% vs. 86%, p = 0.87) vs. HPV(−) (n = 81). HPV(+) stage IV CRT (n = 125) had better OS (89% vs. 70%, p < 0.01), but similar LC (93% vs. 90%, p = 0.41), RC (94% vs. 90%, p = 0.31) and DC (90% vs. 83%, p = 0.22) vs. RT-alone (n = 96). Both HPV(+) RT-alone (n = 37) and CRT (n = 67) stage IV minimal smokers had favorable OS (86% vs. 88%, p = 0.45), LC (95% vs. 92%, p = 0.52), RC (97% vs. 93%, p = 0.22), and DC (92% vs. 86%, p = 0.37). RT-alone and heavy-smoking were independent predictors for lower OS but not CSS in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Overall, HPV(+) RT-alone stage IV demonstrated lower survival but comparable disease control vs. CRT, but no difference was apparent among minimal smokers.

  2. Permutation entropy of fractional Brownian motion and fractional Gaussian noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunino, L.; Perez, D.G.; Martin, M.T.; Garavaglia, M.; Plastino, A.; Rosso, O.A.

    2008-01-01

    We have worked out theoretical curves for the permutation entropy of the fractional Brownian motion and fractional Gaussian noise by using the Bandt and Shiha [C. Bandt, F. Shiha, J. Time Ser. Anal. 28 (2007) 646] theoretical predictions for their corresponding relative frequencies. Comparisons with numerical simulations show an excellent agreement. Furthermore, the entropy-gap in the transition between these processes, observed previously via numerical results, has been here theoretically validated. Also, we have analyzed the behaviour of the permutation entropy of the fractional Gaussian noise for different time delays

  3. Silica fractionation and reactivity in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unzué Belmonte, Dácil; Barão, Lúcia; Vandevenne, Floor; Schoelynck, Jonas; Struyf, Eric; Meire, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    550°C burnings. The first results showed differences in silica fractions between treatments and between soil types. This project is a close collaboration with University of Dresden. -Fertilization. Humans use fertilizers to increase crops growth and to avoid plagues affecting soil biogeochemistry. We set up a greenhouse experiment where olivine (a relatively easily weatherable silicate mineral) fertilization is applied to two crops (barley and wheat), at two rain application regimes (daily rain and weekly heavy rain) and with different fertilizer grain sizes. The aim of this project is to investigate how olivine application affects Si fractionation and reactivity in the soil profile. Barão, L., Clymans, W., Vandevenne, F., Meire, P., Conley, D.J. and Struyf, E. Pedogenic and biogenic amorphous Si distribution along a temperate land use gradient. Submitted, European Journal of Soil Science, 2013. Koning, E., Epping, E., and Van Raaphorst, W.: Determining bio- genic silica in marine samples by tracking silicate and aluminium concentrations in alkaline leaching solutions, Aquat. Geochem., 8, 37-67, 2002. Vandevenne, F.I., Struyf, E., Clymans, W. & Meire, P. 2012. Agricultural silica harvest: have humans created a new and important loop in the global silica cycle? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10: 243-248.

  4. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR), Version 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains gridded daily Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) derived from the NOAA Climate Data...

  5. Application and evaluation of RT-PCR-ELISA for the nucleoprotein and RT-PCR for detection of low-pathogenic H5 and H7 subtypes of avian influenza virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybkær, Karen; Munch, Mette; Handberg, Kurt J.

    2004-01-01

    originating from chickens experimentally infected with 2 different low pathogenic avian influenza viruses, from domestic ducks and from wild aquatic birds were examined. The outcome of 1) the universal AIV RT-PCR including a PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure directed against NP (NP RT......-PCR-ELISA) and 2) the subtype specific RT-PCR for H5 and H7 were compared to the results obtained by inoculation of the same specimens into the allantoic cavity of embryonated specific pathogen free (SPF) hen's eggs. Using inoculation in SPF fowl eggs as standard the sensitivity of the NP RT-PCR-ELISA and the RT...

  6. Microalbuminuria, Kidney Function, and Daily Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Afsar, Baris

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate independent relationship between daily physical activity, microalbuminuria, and kidney function. The demographic characteristics and laboratory parameters were recorded for all patients. The determination of daily activities was carried out by Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living Scale (NEADLS) which was performed for each patient in an interview. Totally 139 patients were enrolled. In the whole group NEADLS score was correlated with ...

  7. Toward lattice fractional vector calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E

    2014-01-01

    An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity. (papers)

  8. Fraction in shot-put: A learning trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, R. I. I.; Zulkardi

    2017-08-01

    This research was aimed to produce a learning trajectory that can help students in the fractions learning by using shot-put context at the fourth grade. The method used in this research was research design which has three stages: preparing for the experiment, the design experiment, and the retrospective analysis. Data collection techniques used was interviews, video recordings and photographs, written tests, observation and field notes. This research involved six students who have the high capability, medium capability and low capability at the first cycle and 34 students at the second cycle. The research which was conducted produced learning trajectory that consisted of a series of learning in three mathematics activities. The results showed that by using shot-put context can help students in subtraction of fractions learning and can solve the problems dealing with subtraction of fractions in daily life by using PMRI.

  9. Daily Public Assistance Grants Award Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Daily activity of Public Assistance Grant Awards, including FEMA Region, State, Disaster Declaration Number, Event description, Mission Assigned agency, Assistance...

  10. System Model of Daily Sediment Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, T. C.; Dickinson, W. T.

    1980-06-01

    Input-output systems concepts have been applied to the modeling of daily runoff-sediment yield of the Thames River in southern Ontario, Canada. Spectral and correlation techniques have been used to construct a parsimonious model of daily sediment yields. It is shown that a linear discrete dynamic model is possible in terms of the log-transformed daily runoff and sediment yield sequences. The fluvial system of the Thames River watershed exhibits a weak memory on a daily basis, and the noise component corrupting the watershed fluvial system resembles a white noise process.

  11. Detection of respiratory bacterial pathogens causing atypical pneumonia by multiplex Lightmix®RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karoline; Springer, Burkard; Imkamp, Frank; Opota, Onya; Greub, Gilbert; Keller, Peter M

    2018-04-01

    Pneumonia is a severe infectious disease. In addition to common viruses and bacterial pathogens (e.g. Streptococcus pneumoniae), fastidious respiratory pathogens like Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Legionella spp. can cause severe atypical pneumonia. They do not respond to penicillin derivatives, which may cause failure of antibiotic empirical therapy. The same applies for infections with B. pertussis and B. parapertussis, the cause of pertussis disease, that may present atypically and need to be treated with macrolides. Moreover, these fastidious bacteria are difficult to identify by culture or serology, and therefore often remain undetected. Thus, rapid and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens causing atypical pneumonia is crucial. We performed a retrospective method evaluation study to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the new, commercially available Lightmix ® multiplex RT-PCR assay that detects these fastidious bacterial pathogens causing atypical pneumonia. In this retrospective study, 368 clinical respiratory specimens, obtained from patients suffering from atypical pneumonia that have been tested negative for the presence of common agents of pneumonia by culture and viral PCR, were investigated. These clinical specimens have been previously characterized by singleplex RT-PCR assays in our diagnostic laboratory and were used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the respiratory multiplex Lightmix ® RT-PCR. The multiplex RT-PCR displayed a limit of detection between 5 and 10 DNA copies for different in-panel organisms and showed identical performance characteristics with respect to specificity and sensitivity as in-house singleplex RT-PCRs for pathogen detection. The Lightmix ® multiplex RT-PCR assay represents a low-cost, time-saving and accurate diagnostic tool with high throughput potential. The time-to-result using an automated DNA extraction device for respiratory specimens followed by multiplex RT-PCR detection was

  12. Antimicrobial activity and bioguided fractionation of Rumex tingitanus extracts for meat preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhalla, Dhekra; Bouaziz, Amira; Ennouri, Karim; Chawech, Rachid; Smaoui, Slim; Jarraya, Raoudha; Tounsi, Slim; Trigui, Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal activities of Rumex tingitanus leaves extracts as well as the identification of bioactive components and their performance in meat preservation. Total phenolics and flavonoids showed the highest content of phenolics and flavonoids in the ethyl acetate fraction (Rt EtOAcF). For antimicrobial efficacy, leaves extract and derived fraction were tested for their capacity to inhibit bacterial and fungal proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the most potent antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the others extracts. Thus, the efficacy of this extract to inhibit the proliferation of Listeria monocytogenes in minced beef meat model was examined. This fraction eradicates the L. monocytogenes population in meat in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. A bio-guided purification of the Rt EtOAc fraction resulted in the isolation of the compound responsible for the observed antimicrobial activity. This compound was identified as luteolin by analysis of spectroscopic data. Luteolin (PubChem CID: 5280445); p-iodonitrotetrazolium chloride (PubChem CID: 64957); Amphotericin B (PubChem CID: 5280965); Gentamicin and (PubChem CID: 6419933); Hexane (PubChem CID: 8058); Methanol (PubChem CID: 887); Ethanol (PubChem CID: 702); Dimethylsulfoxide (PubChem CID: 679); Quercetin (PubChem CID: 5280343); Gallic acid (PubChem CID: 370). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ferroelectric Fractional-Order Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Agambayev, Agamyrat

    2017-07-25

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based polymers and their blends are used to fabricate electrostatic fractional-order capacitors. This simple but effective method allows us to precisely tune the constant phase angle of the resulting fractional-order capacitor by changing the blend composition. Additionally, we have derived an empirical relation between the ratio of the blend constituents and the constant phase angle to facilitate the design of a fractional order capacitor with a desired constant phase angle. The structural composition of the fabricated blends is investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques.

  14. On Generalized Fractional Differentiator Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid A. Jalab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By employing the generalized fractional differential operator, we introduce a system of fractional order derivative for a uniformly sampled polynomial signal. The calculation of the bring in signal depends on the additive combination of the weighted bring-in of N cascaded digital differentiators. The weights are imposed in a closed formula containing the Stirling numbers of the first kind. The approach taken in this work is to consider that signal function in terms of Newton series. The convergence of the system to a fractional time differentiator is discussed.

  15. Prabhakar-like fractional viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Andrea; Colombaro, Ivano

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a linear viscoelastic model based on Prabhakar fractional operators. In particular, we propose a modification of the classical fractional Maxwell model, in which we replace the Caputo derivative with the Prabhakar one. Furthermore, we also discuss how to recover a formal equivalence between the new model and the known classical models of linear viscoelasticity by means of a suitable choice of the parameters in the Prabhakar derivative. Moreover, we also underline an interesting connection between the theory of Prabhakar fractional integrals and the recently introduced Caputo-Fabrizio differential operator.

  16. Instruments of RT-2 experiment onboard CORONAS-PHOTON and their test and evaluation III: Coded Aperture Mask and Fresnel Zone Plates in RT-2/CZT payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Anuj; Palit, S.; Debnath, D.; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Kotoch, T. B.; Sarkar, R.; Yadav, Vipin K.; Girish, V.; Rao, A. R.; Bhattacharya, D.

    2011-02-01

    Imaging in hard X-rays of any astrophysical source with high angular resolution is a challenging job. Shadow-casting technique is one of the most viable options for imaging in hard X-rays. We have used two different types of shadow-casters, namely, Coded Aperture Mask (CAM) and Fresnel Zone Plate (FZP) pair and two types of pixellated solid-state detectors, namely, CZT and CMOS in RT-2/CZT payload, the hard X-ray imaging instrument onboard the CORONAS-PHOTON satellite. In this paper, we present the results of simulations with different combinations of coders (CAM & FZP) and detectors that are employed in the RT-2/CZT payload. We discuss the possibility of detecting transient Solar flares with good angular resolution for various combinations. Simulated results are compared with laboratory experiments to verify the consistency of the designed configuration.

  17. SU-C-202-02: A Comprehensive Evaluation of Adaptive Daily Planning for Cervical Cancer HDR Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meerschaert, R; Paul, A; Zhuang, L [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology Division, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Nalichowski, A [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology Division, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States); Burmeister, J; Miller, A [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology Division, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology Division, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate adaptive daily planning for cervical cancer patients who underwent high-dose-rate intra-cavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT). Methods: This study included 22 cervical cancer patients who underwent 5 fractions of HDR ICBT. Regions of interest (ROIs) including high-risk clinical tumor volume (HR-CTV) and organs-at-risk (OARs) were manually contoured on daily CT images. All patients were treated with adaptive daily plans, which involved ROI delineation and dose optimization at each treatment fraction. Single treatment plans were retrospectively generated by applying the first treatment fraction’s dwell times adjusted for decay and dwell positions of the applicator to subsequent treatment fractions. Various existing similarity metrics were calculated for the ROIs to quantify interfractional organ variations. A novel similarity score (JRARM) was established, which combined both volumetric overlap metrics (DSC, JSC, and RVD) and distance metrics (ASD, MSD, and RMSD). Linear regression was performed to determine a relationship between inter-fractional organ variations of various similarity metrics and D2cc variations from both plans. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Tests were used to assess adaptive daily plans and single plans by comparing EQD2 D2cc (α/β=3) for OARs. Results: For inter-fractional organ variations, the sigmoid demonstrated the greatest variations based on the JRARM and DSC similarity metrics. Comparisons between paired ROIs showed differences in JRARM scores and DSCs at each treatment fraction. RVD, MSD, and RMSD were found to be significantly correlated to D2cc variations for bladder and sigmoid. The comparison between plans found that adaptive daily planning provided lower EQD2 D2cc of OARs than single planning, specifically for the sigmoid (p=0.015). Conclusion: Substantial inter-fractional organ motion can occur during HDR-BT, which may significantly affect D2cc of OARs. Adaptive daily planning provides improved dose sparing for OARs

  18. Comparison of Mammographic Changes Across Three Different Fractionation Schedules for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Sibo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey and Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers, New Jersey (United States); Paster, Lina F. [Department of Radiology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers, New Jersey (United States); Kim, Sinae [Biometrics Division, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, and Department of Biostatistics, Rutgers School of Public Health, Rutgers, New Jersey (United States); Kirstein, Laurie [Division of Surgical Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey and Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers, New Jersey (United States); Haffty, Bruce G.; Ferro, Adam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey and Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers, New Jersey (United States); Amorosa, Judith [Department of Radiology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers, New Jersey (United States); Goyal, Sharad, E-mail: goyalsh@rutgers.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey and Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers, New Jersey (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: As the use of hypofractionated breast radiation therapy (RT) increases, so will the need for long-term data on post-RT mammographic changes. The purpose of the present study was to longitudinally compare the incidence of common mammographic sequelae seen after breast conserving surgery and RT in patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI), hypofractionated whole breast irradiation (HWBI), and conventionally fractionated whole breast irradiation (WBI). Methods and Materials: Patients treated with either APBI or HWBI after breast conserving therapy and with ≥3 mammograms of the treated breast were identified. They were matched 1:1 by age ±5 years to patients treated with WBI. The mammograms were evaluated for common post-RT breast findings by a mammographer who was unaware of the treatment. The outcomes were analyzed using a cumulative logistic regression model; P<.05 indicated statistically significance. Results: Of 89 patients treated with RT from 2006 to 2011, 29 had received APBI, 30 had received HWBI, and 30 had received WBI. Their median age was 60 years (range 33-83). A total of 605 mammograms were evaluated, with a median follow-up of 48 months. The treatment technique did not affect the severity of architectural distortion when the groups were evaluated longitudinally. The likelihood of finding skin thickening decreased with increasing follow-up duration (odds ratio 0.6; P<.001) adjusted for fractionation schemes. No differences were seen with respect to changes in skin thickening, fluid collections, or calcifications among the treatment groups, after adjustment for the follow-up time. The clinical characteristics, including age, race, T stage, and chemotherapy use, were not linked to the likelihood of finding several mammographic phenomena over time. Conclusions: Although specific post-treatment imaging findings evolved over time, RT fractionation did not alter the relative incidence or severity of architectural

  19. Comparison of Mammographic Changes Across Three Different Fractionation Schedules for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Sibo; Paster, Lina F.; Kim, Sinae; Kirstein, Laurie; Haffty, Bruce G.; Ferro, Adam; Amorosa, Judith; Goyal, Sharad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: As the use of hypofractionated breast radiation therapy (RT) increases, so will the need for long-term data on post-RT mammographic changes. The purpose of the present study was to longitudinally compare the incidence of common mammographic sequelae seen after breast conserving surgery and RT in patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI), hypofractionated whole breast irradiation (HWBI), and conventionally fractionated whole breast irradiation (WBI). Methods and Materials: Patients treated with either APBI or HWBI after breast conserving therapy and with ≥3 mammograms of the treated breast were identified. They were matched 1:1 by age ±5 years to patients treated with WBI. The mammograms were evaluated for common post-RT breast findings by a mammographer who was unaware of the treatment. The outcomes were analyzed using a cumulative logistic regression model; P<.05 indicated statistically significance. Results: Of 89 patients treated with RT from 2006 to 2011, 29 had received APBI, 30 had received HWBI, and 30 had received WBI. Their median age was 60 years (range 33-83). A total of 605 mammograms were evaluated, with a median follow-up of 48 months. The treatment technique did not affect the severity of architectural distortion when the groups were evaluated longitudinally. The likelihood of finding skin thickening decreased with increasing follow-up duration (odds ratio 0.6; P<.001) adjusted for fractionation schemes. No differences were seen with respect to changes in skin thickening, fluid collections, or calcifications among the treatment groups, after adjustment for the follow-up time. The clinical characteristics, including age, race, T stage, and chemotherapy use, were not linked to the likelihood of finding several mammographic phenomena over time. Conclusions: Although specific post-treatment imaging findings evolved over time, RT fractionation did not alter the relative incidence or severity of architectural

  20. Development of single step RT-PCR for detection of Kyasanur forest disease virus from clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouri Chaubal

    2018-02-01

    Discussion and conclusion: The previously published sensitive real time RT-PCR assay requires higher cost in terms of reagents and machine setup and technical expertise has been the primary reason for development of this assay. A single step RT-PCR is relatively easy to perform and more cost effective than real time RT-PCR in smaller setups in the absence of Biosafety Level-3 facility. This study reports the development and optimization of single step RT-PCR assay which is more sensitive and less time-consuming than nested RT-PCR and cost effective for rapid diagnosis of KFD viral RNA.

  1. Australia's Next Top Fraction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms.

  2. Physcicists rewarded for 'fractional electrons'

    CERN Multimedia

    Ball, P

    1998-01-01

    The 1998 Nobel prize for physics has been awarded to Horst Stormer, Daniel Tsui and Robert Laughlin.Stormer and Tsui were the first to observe the fractional quantum Hall effect and Laughlin provided the theory shortly afterwards (1 page).

  3. Fractionated Spacecraft Architectures Seeding Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathieu, Charlotte; Weigel, Annalisa

    2006-01-01

    The report introduces the concept of spacecraft fractionation, which transforms a traditional monolithic spacecraft into a network of elements where a free-flying payload module is supported by nearby...

  4. Ultracentrifugation for ultrafine nanodiamond fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koniakhin, S. V.; Besedina, N. A.; Kirilenko, D. A.; Shvidchenko, A. V.; Eidelman, E. D.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method for ultrafine fractionation of nanodiamonds using the differential centrifugation in the fields up to 215000g. The developed protocols yield 4-6 nm fraction giving main contribution to the light scattering intensity. The desired 4-6 nm fraction can be obtained from various types of initial nanodiamonds: three types of detonation nanodiamonds differing in purifying methods, laser synthesis nanodiamonds and nanodiamonds made by milling. The characterization of the obtained hydrosols was conducted with Dynamic Light Scattering, Zeta potential measurements, powder XRD and TEM. According to powder XRD and TEM data ultracentrifugation also leads to a further fractionation of the primary diamond nanocrystallites in the hydrosols from 4 to 2 nm.

  5. Prognostic Value of RT-PCR Tyrosinase Detection in Peripheral Blood of Melanoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Esmeralda; Prados, José; Marchal, Juan Antonio; Boulaiz, Houria; Martínez, Antonio; Rodríguez-Serrano, Fernando; Caba, Octavio; Serrano, Salvio; Aránega, Antonia

    2006-01-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) prognosis has been related to tumour thickness and clinical stage and metastasis risk has been associated with presence of tumour cells in peripheral blood. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between presence of tyrosinase in peripheral blood of MM patients and their clinical prognosis. Blood samples from 58 MM patients (stage I–IV) were analysed, using RT-PCR assay to detect tyrosinase mRNA. The results showed that positive RT-PCR assay for tyrosinase were significantly associated with clinical status and tumour thickness. After a median follow-up of 24 months, RT-PCR results were found to be significant correlated with recurrence (p < 0.05) and clinical stage III (p < 0.05). Separate analysis of stage III tumours to determine the prognostic value of tyrosinase presence in peripheral blood showed an overall 24-month survival rate of 70% in the RT-PCR negative group versus 10% in the positive group (p < 0.02). These results suggest that detection of circulating melanoma cells may be especially relevant in stage III patients, in whom RT-PCR positivity defines a subpopulation at high risk of recurrence. PMID:16788251

  6. Direct recovery of infectious Pestivirus from a full-length RT-PCR amplicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Reimann, Ilona; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the use of a novel and rapid long reverse transcription (RT)-PCR for the generation of infectious full-length cDNA of pestiviruses. To produce rescued viruses, full-length RT-PCR amplicons of 12.3 kb, including a T7-promotor, were transcribed directly in vitro, and the result......This study describes the use of a novel and rapid long reverse transcription (RT)-PCR for the generation of infectious full-length cDNA of pestiviruses. To produce rescued viruses, full-length RT-PCR amplicons of 12.3 kb, including a T7-promotor, were transcribed directly in vitro......, and the resulting RNA transcripts were electroporated into ovine cells. Infectious virus was obtained after one cell culture passage. The rescued viruses had a phenotype similar to the parental Border Disease virus strain. Therefore, direct generation of infectious pestiviruses from full-length RT-PCR cDNA products...

  7. SASqPCR: robust and rapid analysis of RT-qPCR data in SAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daijun Ling

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR is a key method for measurement of relative gene expression. Analysis of RT-qPCR data requires many iterative computations for data normalization and analytical optimization. Currently no computer program for RT-qPCR data analysis is suitable for analytical optimization and user-controllable customization based on data quality, experimental design as well as specific research aims. Here I introduce an all-in-one computer program, SASqPCR, for robust and rapid analysis of RT-qPCR data in SAS. This program has multiple macros for assessment of PCR efficiencies, validation of reference genes, optimization of data normalizers, normalization of confounding variations across samples, and statistical comparison of target gene expression in parallel samples. Users can simply change the macro variables to test various analytical strategies, optimize results and customize the analytical processes. In addition, it is highly automatic and functionally extendable. Thus users are the actual decision-makers controlling RT-qPCR data analyses. SASqPCR and its tutorial are freely available at http://code.google.com/p/sasqpcr/downloads/list.

  8. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  9. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M andO 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  10. Fractional Reserve Banking: Some Quibbles

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David

    2010-01-01

    We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with...

  11. Fractional diffusion in inhomogeneous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chechkin, A V [Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Science Center ' Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' , Akademicheskaya St. 1, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Gorenflo, R [Department of Mathematics and Informatics, Free University of Berlin, Arnimallee 3, D-14195 Berlin, Dahlem (Germany); Sokolov, I M [Institute for Physics, Humboldt University of Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2005-10-21

    Starting from the continuous time random walk (CTRW) scheme with the space-dependent waiting-time probability density function (PDF) we obtain the time-fractional diffusion equation with varying in space fractional order of time derivative. As an example, we study the evolution of a composite system consisting of two separate regions with different subdiffusion exponents and demonstrate the effects of non-trivial drift and subdiffusion whose laws are changed in the course of time. (letter to the editor)

  12. Fractional Charge Definitions and Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldhaber, A.S.

    2004-06-04

    Fractional charge is known through theoretical and experimental discoveries of isolable objects carrying fractions of familiar charge units--electric charge Q, spin S, and the difference of baryon and lepton numbers B-L. With a few simple assumptions all these effects may be described using a generalized version of charge renormalization for locally conserved charges, in which medium correlations yield familiar adiabatic, continuous renormalization, or sometimes nonadiabatic, discrete renormalization. Fractional charges may be carried by fundamental particles or fundamental solitons. Either picture works for the simplest fractional-quantum-Hall-effect quasiholes, though the particle description is far more general. The only known fundamental solitons in three or fewer space dimensions d are the kink (d = 1), the vortex (d = 2), and the magnetic monopole (d = 3). Further, for a charge not intrinsically coupled to the topological charge of a soliton, only the kink and the monopole may carry fractional values. The same reasoning enforces fractional values of B-L for electrically charged elementary particles.

  13. [Chronic daily headache in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvellier, J-C; Cuisset, J-M; Vallée, L

    2008-12-01

    Chronic daily headache (CDH) affects 2-4% of adolescent females and 0.8-2% of adolescent males. Chronic daily headache is diagnosed when headaches occur more than 4h/day, 15 headache days per month or more, over a period of 3 consecutive months, without an underlying pathology. It is manifested by severe intermittent, migraine-like headaches as well as by chronic baseline headaches. Both Silberstein-Lipton criteria and the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) can be used to classify chronic daily headache in children and adolescents. Chronic daily headache is classified into four diagnostic categories: transformed (Silberstein-Lipton criteria)/chronic (ICHD) migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache, and hemicrania continua. Children and adolescents with chronic daily headache frequently have sleep disturbance, pain at other sites, dizziness, medication-overuse headache, and a psychiatric comorbidity (anxiety and mood disorders). Chronic daily headache frequently results in school absence. Successful approaches to treatment include reassurance, education, use of preventative medication, avoidance of analgesics, and helping the child return to a functional daily routine and a regular school schedule.

  14. Stochastic modelling of daily rainfall sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buishand, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    Rainfall series of different climatic regions were analysed with the aim of generating daily rainfall sequences. A survey of the data is given in I, 1. When analysing daily rainfall sequences one must be aware of the following points:
    a. Seasonality. Because of seasonal variation

  15. Daily Stressors in Primary Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Trianes, María V.; Escobar, Milagros; Blanca, María J.; Muñoz, Ángela M.

    2015-01-01

    Daily stress can have a bearing on children's emotional and academic development. This study aimed to assess daily stressors and to determine their prevalence among primary education students, taking into account their gender, academic year, social adaptation, and the school location. A sample of 7,354 Spanish schoolchildren aged between 6 and 13…

  16. Establishing quantitative real-time quaking-induced conversion (qRT-QuIC) for highly sensitive detection and quantification of PrPSc in prion-infected tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Song; Mitteregger-Kretzschmar, Gerda; Giese, Armin; Kretzschmar, Hans A

    2013-08-02

    PrPSc, the only known constituent of prions, the infectious agents causing prion diseases, can be detected by real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC). However, there is no efficient method to quantify the amount of PrPSc by RT-QuIC. Here we introduce quantitative RT-QuIC (qRT-QuIC) to quantify with high accuracy minute amounts of PrPSc in the brain and various peripheral tissues at levels far below detection by in vivo transmission. PrPSc is relatively resistant to treatment with proteinase K (PK). However, as there can also be a fraction of pathological PrP that is digested by PK, we use the term PrP27-30 to denote to the amount of PrPSc that can be detected by immunoblot after PK treatment. qRT-QuIC is based upon the quantitative correlation between the seeded amount of PrP27-30 and the lag time to the start of the conversion reaction detected by RT-QuIC. By seeding known amounts of PrP27-30 quantified by immunoblot into qRT-QuIC a standard calibration curve can be obtained. Based on this calibration curve, seeded undetermined amounts of PrP27-30 can be directly calculated. qRT-QuIC allowed to quantify PrP27-30 concentrations at extremely low levels as low as 10-15.5 g PrP27-30, which corresponds to 0.001 LD50 units obtained by in vivo i.c. transmission studies. We find that PrP27-30 concentration increases steadily in the brain after inoculation and can be detected at various time points during the incubation period in peripheral organs (spleen, heart, muscle, liver, kidney) in two experimental scrapie strains (RML, ME7) in the mouse. We suggest that an automatic quantitative system to measure disease progression as well as prion contamination of organs, blood and food product is feasible. Moreover, the concept of qRT-QuIC should be applicable to measure other disease-associated proteins rich in β-pleated structures (amyloid) that bind ThT and that show seeded aggregation.

  17. Muscle activity and inactivity periods during normal daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Tikkanen

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours. EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMG(MVC during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMG(MVC. During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMG(MVC (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMG(MVC. Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5-38.3 min. Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMG(MVC than men (p<0.05. In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity.

  18. RT 03

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Vera

    2011-01-01

    The roundtable on the specific challenges presented by the global phenomenon of terrorism for teachers and researchers in English literature proved to be a lively and controversial gathering. This being a roundtable, the participants had been asked to consider the impact of terrorism on literature...... and our profession as a whole rather than present close readings of specific texts, leaving ample room for discussion. Helga Ramsey Kurz opened the debate with a statement (questions). Greta Olson focussed on the ways in which Neil Forsyth's contribution stressed the historical continuity of terrorism...

  19. RT 03

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Vera

    2011-01-01

    by focusing on a recent debate surrounding re-readings of Milton in the light of current affairs. Georgia Christinidis related the phenomenon of terrorism to ongoing debates about the representation and aesthetics of trauma. The audience comments and questions showed that there is a wide spectrum of diverging...... and our profession as a whole rather than present close readings of specific texts, leaving ample room for discussion. Helga Ramsey Kurz opened the debate with a statement (questions). Greta Olson focussed on the ways in which Neil Forsyth's contribution stressed the historical continuity of terrorism...

  20. Conformable Fractional Bessel Equation and Bessel Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Gökdoğan, Ahmet; Ünal, Emrah; Çelik, Ercan

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we study the fractional power series solutions around regular singular point x=0 of conformable fractional Bessel differential equation and fractional Bessel functions. Then, we compare fractional solutions with ordinary solutions. In addition, we present certain property of fractional Bessel functions.

  1. Discrete fractional solutions of a Legendre equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmazer, Resat

    2018-01-01

    One of the most popular research interests of science and engineering is the fractional calculus theory in recent times. Discrete fractional calculus has also an important position in fractional calculus. In this work, we acquire new discrete fractional solutions of the homogeneous and non homogeneous Legendre differential equation by using discrete fractional nabla operator.

  2. Structural Evolution of the R-T Phase Boundary in KNN-Based Ceramics

    KAUST Repository

    Lv, Xiang

    2017-10-04

    Although a rhombohedral-tetragonal (R-T) phase boundary is known to substantially enhance the piezoelectric properties of potassium-sodium niobate ceramics, the structural evolution of the R-T phase boundary itself is still unclear. In this work, the structural evolution of R-T phase boundary from -150 °C to 200 °C is investigated in (0.99-x)K0.5Na0.5Nb1-ySbyO3-0.01CaSnO3-xBi0.5K0.5HfO3 (where x=0~0.05 with y=0.035, and y=0~0.07 with x=0.03) ceramics. Through temperature-dependent powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and Raman spectra, the structural evolution was determined to be Rhombohedral (R, <-125 °C) → Rhombohedral+Orthorhombic (R+O, -125 °C to 0 °C) → Rhombohedral+Tetragonal (R+T, 0 °C to 150 °C) → dominating Tetragonal (T, 200 °C to Curie temperature (TC)) → Cubic (C, >TC). In addition, the enhanced electrical properties (e.g., a direct piezoelectric coefficient (d33) of ~450±5 pC/N, a conversion piezoelectric coefficient (d33*) of ~580±5 pm/V, an electromechanical coupling factor (kp) of ~0.50±0.02, and TC~250 °C), fatigue-free behavior, and good thermal stability were exhibited by the ceramics possessing the R-T phase boundary. This work improves understanding of the physical mechanism behind the R-T phase boundary in KNN-based ceramics and is an important step towards their adoption in practical applications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative RT-PCR for titration of replication-defective recombinant Semliki Forest virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglia, Ana L P; Rezende, Alexandre G; Jorge, Soraia A C; Wagner, Renaud; Pereira, Carlos A; Astray, Renato M

    2013-11-01

    Virus titration may constitute a drawback in the development and use of replication-defective viral vectors like Semliki Forest virus (SFV). The standardization and validation of a reverse transcription quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) method for SFV titration is presented here. The qRT-PCR target is located within the nsp1 gene of the non-structural polyprotein SFV region (SFV RNA), which allows the strategy to be used for several different recombinant SFV constructs. Titer determinations were carried out by performing virus titration and infection assays with SFVs containing an RNA coding region for the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVGP) or green fluorescent protein (GFP). Results showed that the standardized qRT-PCR is applicable for different SFV constructs, and showed good reproducibility. To evaluate the correlation between the amount of functional SFV RNA in a virus lot and its infectivity in BHK-21 cell cultures, a temperature mediated titer decrease was performed and successfully quantitated by qRT-PCR. When used for cell infection at the same multiplicity of infection (MOI), the temperature treated SFV-RVGP samples induced the same levels of RVGP expression. Similarly, when different SFV-GFP lots with different virus titers, as accessed by qRT-PCR, were used for cell infection at the same MOI, the cultures showed comparable amounts of fluorescent cells. The data demonstrate a good correlation between the amount of virus used for infection, as measured by its SFV RNA, and the protein synthesis in the cells. In conclusion, the qRT-PCR method developed here is accurate and enables the titration of replication-defective SFV vectors, an essential aid for viral vector development as well as for establishment of production bioprocesses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Rapid Orbit Product (daily files, generated daily) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This derived product set consists of Global Navigation Satellite System Rapid Orbit Product (daily files, generated daily) from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data...

  5. A new method for constructing and reusing domain specific design patterns: Application to RT domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussen Rekhis

    2017-07-01

    Initially, we propose a pattern development process that guides pattern developers in the construction of patterns. The proposed process defines unification rules that apply a set of comparison criteria on various applications in the pattern domain. This process is illustrated through the design of the controller pattern. Moreover, we propose a process guiding the application designers in pattern instantiation based on model transformation. Finally, the proposed RT patterns and their development process are evaluated by calculating quality metrics and comparing the applications designed with our RT patterns and others developed by experts without the use of our patterns.

  6. DETECTION OF CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS BY RT-PCR IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Chowdhury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever is a deadly disease of swine, caused by a RNA virus. The present study has identified presence of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV in pigs of West Bengal by one step reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR performed using 5’ NTR specific primers. Internal organs from clinically affected pigs were examined from three districts of West Bengal. RT-PCT has identified presence of CSFV in all the tissues examined confirming presence of CSFV in different parts of the state.

  7. The evaporative fraction as a measure of surface energy partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cuenca, R.H. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The evaporative fraction is a ratio that expresses the proportion of turbulent flux energy over land surfaces devoted to evaporation and transpiration (evapotranspiration). It has been used to characterize the energy partition over land surfaces and has potential for inferring daily energy balance information based on mid-day remote sensing measurements. The HAPEX-MOBILHY program`s SAMER system provided surface energy balance data over a range of agricultural crops and soil types. The databases from this large-scale field experiment was analyzed for the purpose of studying the behavior and daylight stability of the evaporative fraction in both ideal and general meteorological conditions. Strong linear relations were found to exist between the mid-day evaporative fraction and the daylight mean evaporative fraction. Statistical tests however rejected the hypothesis that the two quantities were equal. The relations between the evaporative fraction and the surface soil moisture as well as soil moisture in the complete vegetation root zone were also explored.

  8. The evaporative fraction as a measure of surface energy partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Cuenca, R.H. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States))

    1990-01-01

    The evaporative fraction is a ratio that expresses the proportion of turbulent flux energy over land surfaces devoted to evaporation and transpiration (evapotranspiration). It has been used to characterize the energy partition over land surfaces and has potential for inferring daily energy balance information based on mid-day remote sensing measurements. The HAPEX-MOBILHY program's SAMER system provided surface energy balance data over a range of agricultural crops and soil types. The databases from this large-scale field experiment was analyzed for the purpose of studying the behavior and daylight stability of the evaporative fraction in both ideal and general meteorological conditions. Strong linear relations were found to exist between the mid-day evaporative fraction and the daylight mean evaporative fraction. Statistical tests however rejected the hypothesis that the two quantities were equal. The relations between the evaporative fraction and the surface soil moisture as well as soil moisture in the complete vegetation root zone were also explored.

  9. Delayed coker fractionator advanced control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaisinghani, R.; Minter, B. (ABB SIMCON Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Tica, A.; Puglesi, A.; Ojeda, R. (Yacimentos Petroliferos Fiscales, Mendoza (Argentina))

    1993-08-01

    In a delayed coking process, as coke drum switches are made, rapid changes occur in both the fractionator feed rate and composition. With conventional control, it is not unusual to see long transient behavior of large swings in both quality and flowrates of coker gas oils. This can extract a heavy economic toll, not only in coker operation, but in the operation of downstream units as the upset is propagated. An advanced process control application (APC) was recently implemented on the coker fractionator at the Yacimentos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF), Lujan de Cuyo Refinery, in Mendoza, Argentina. This coker fractionator control design was unique as it handled two different operating objectives: control of product qualities via tower temperature profile during normal operation and control of gas oil product flow ratio during drum switch. This combination of control objectives in one multivariable predictive control program was achieved by including special logic to decouple the individual tuning requirements. Also, additional logic was included to unambiguously detect and identify drum switch and drum steam out as discrete events within 30 seconds of their actual occurrence. These discrete events were then used as disturbance variables to minimize fractionator transient behavior. As a performance measure, the overhead temperature was controlled within 2 C to 2.5 C of its target, gas oil flows were stabilized during drum switches and steam generation via pump around was maximized. Overall, implementing advanced control for the delayed coker fractionator resulted in substantial benefits from product quality control, product flow control and minimized energy consumption.

  10. Cognition and Quality of Life After Chemotherapy Plus Radiotherapy (RT) vs. RT for Pure and Mixed Anaplastic Oligodendrogliomas: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 9402

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Meihua; Cairncross, Gregory; Shaw, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9402 compared procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy plus radiation therapy (PCV + RT) vs. RT alone for anaplastic oligodendroglioma. Here we report longitudinal changes in cognition and quality of life, effects of patient factors and treatments on cognition, quality of life and survival, and prognostic implications of cognition and quality of life. Methods and Materials: Cognition was assessed by Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and quality of life by Brain-Quality of Life (B-QOL). Scores were analyzed for survivors and within 5 years of death. Shared parameter models evaluated MMSE/B-QOL with survival. Results: For survivors, MMSE and B-QOL scores were similar longitudinally and between treatments. For those who died, MMSE scores remained stable initially, whereas B-QOL slowly declined; both declined rapidly in the last year of life and similarly between arms. In the aggregate, scores decreased over time (p = 0.0413 for MMSE; p = 0.0016 for B-QOL) and were superior with age <50 years (p < 0.001 for MMSE; p = 0.0554 for B-QOL) and Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) 80-100 (p < 0.001). Younger age and higher KPS were associated with longer survival. After adjusting for patient factors and drop-out, survival was longer after PCV + RT (HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49-0.9, p = 0.0084; HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.54-1.01, p = 0.0592) in models with MMSE and B-QOL. In addition, there were no differences in MMSE and B-QOL scores between arms (p = 0.4752 and p = 0.2767, respectively); higher scores predicted longer survival. Conclusion: MMSE and B-QOL scores held steady in the upper range in both arms for survivors. Younger, fitter patients had better MMSE and B-QOL and longer survival.

  11. Semi-infinite fractional programming

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Ram U

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a smooth and unified transitional framework from generalised fractional programming, with a finite number of variables and a finite number of constraints, to semi-infinite fractional programming, where a number of variables are finite but with infinite constraints. It focuses on empowering graduate students, faculty and other research enthusiasts to pursue more accelerated research advances with significant interdisciplinary applications without borders. In terms of developing general frameworks for theoretical foundations and real-world applications, it discusses a number of new classes of generalised second-order invex functions and second-order univex functions, new sets of second-order necessary optimality conditions, second-order sufficient optimality conditions, and second-order duality models for establishing numerous duality theorems for discrete minmax (or maxmin) semi-infinite fractional programming problems.   In the current interdisciplinary supercomputer-oriented research envi...

  12. Estimating Daily Evapotranspiration From Remotely Sensed Instantaneous Observations With Simplified Derivations of a Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ronglin; Li, Zhao-Liang

    2017-10-01

    Surface evapotranspiration (ET) is one of the key components in global hydrological cycle and energy budget on Earth. This paper designs a theoretical relationship between daily and instantaneous ETs with a multiplication of multiple fractions through a mathematical derivation of the physics-based Penman-Monteith equation and further develops five methods for converting remotely sensed instantaneous ET to daily values, one of which is equivalent to the conventional constant evaporative fraction (EF) method. The five methods are then evaluated and intercompared using long-term ground-based eddy covariance system-measured half-hourly latent heat flux (LE) and three groups of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-based instantaneous LE data sets collected from April 2009 to late October 2011 at the Yucheng station. Overall, the constant decoupling factor (Ω) method, the constant surface resistance (Rc) method, and the constant ratio of surface resistance to aerodynamic resistance (Rc/Ra) method could produce daily LE estimates that are in reasonably good agreement with the ground-based eddy covariance measurements, whereas the constant EF method and the constant Priestley-Taylor parameter (α) method underestimate the daily LE with larger biases and root-mean-square errors. The former three methods are of more solid physical foundation and can effectively capture the effect of temporally variable meteorological factors on the diurnal pattern of surface ET. They provide good alternatives to the nowadays commonly applied methods for the conversion of remotely sensed instantaneous ET to daily values.

  13. MO-G-BRE-04: Automatic Verification of Daily Treatment Deliveries and Generation of Daily Treatment Reports for a MR Image-Guided Treatment Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, D; Li, X; Li, H; Wooten, H; Green, O; Rodriguez, V; Mutic, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Two aims of this work were to develop a method to automatically verify treatment delivery accuracy immediately after patient treatment and to develop a comprehensive daily treatment report to provide all required information for daily MR-IGRT review. Methods: After systematically analyzing the requirements for treatment delivery verification and understanding the available information from a novel MR-IGRT treatment machine, we designed a method to use 1) treatment plan files, 2) delivery log files, and 3) dosimetric calibration information to verify the accuracy and completeness of daily treatment deliveries. The method verifies the correctness of delivered treatment plans and beams, beam segments, and for each segment, the beam-on time and MLC leaf positions. Composite primary fluence maps are calculated from the MLC leaf positions and the beam-on time. Error statistics are calculated on the fluence difference maps between the plan and the delivery. We also designed the daily treatment delivery report by including all required information for MR-IGRT and physics weekly review - the plan and treatment fraction information, dose verification information, daily patient setup screen captures, and the treatment delivery verification results. Results: The parameters in the log files (e.g. MLC positions) were independently verified and deemed accurate and trustable. A computer program was developed to implement the automatic delivery verification and daily report generation. The program was tested and clinically commissioned with sufficient IMRT and 3D treatment delivery data. The final version has been integrated into a commercial MR-IGRT treatment delivery system. Conclusion: A method was developed to automatically verify MR-IGRT treatment deliveries and generate daily treatment reports. Already in clinical use since December 2013, the system is able to facilitate delivery error detection, and expedite physician daily IGRT review and physicist weekly chart

  14. Fractionation method for soil microelements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuman, L.M.

    1985-07-01

    To evaluate a sequential extraction procedure to separate chemical forms of soil microelements, I fractionated 16 soils, both surface and subsoils. The purpose of the sequential extractions was to solubilize the Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn in the exchangeable, organic matter, Mn oxide, amorphous Fe oxide, and crystalline Fe oxide fractions. The solid portion remaining was separated into sand, silt, and clay sizes, and each was dissolved and analyzed for the above elements. Soil properties were determined, and whole soils were analyzed for total microelement content.

  15. On a fractional difference operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Baliarsingh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, a set of new difference sequence spaces of fractional order has been introduced and subsequently, an application of these spaces, the notion of the derivatives and the integrals of a function to the case of non-integer order have been generalized. Certain results involving the unusual and non-uniform behavior of the corresponding difference operator have been investigated and also been verified by using some counter examples. We also verify these unusual and non-uniform behaviors by studying the geometry of fractional calculus.

  16. Intravenous thrombolysis with rt-PA in stroke: experience of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of strokes are due to blockage of an artery in the brain by a blood clot. Prompt treatment with thrombolytic drugs can restore blood flow before major brain damage has occurred. We report the case series of all patients who were treated with rt-PA at Stroke Unit of HASSAN II University hospital between 2010 and ...

  17. Molecular detection of Papaya meleira virus in the latex of Carica papaya by RT-PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo, de M.M.M.; Tavares, E.T.; Silva, da F.R.; Marinho, V.L.D.; Souza, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    A RT-PCR assay was developed for early and accurate detection of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) in the latex from infected papayas. The meleira disease is characterized by an excessive exudation of more fluidic latex from fruits, leaves and stems. This latex oxidises and gives the fruit a ¿sticky¿

  18. Analysis of binding energy activity of TIBO and HIV-RT based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tetrahydro-imidazo[4,5,l-jk][1,4]-benzodiazepin-2 (1 H)one (TIBO) is a noncompetitive non nucleotide antiretroviral drug with a specific allosteric binding site of HIV-1 RT. The conformational analysis shows that the effect of the drug depends on the potential energy which varied due to the beta rotatable dihedral angles (N6 ...

  19. Detection panel for identification of twelve hemorrhagic viruses using real-time RT-PCR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fajfr, M.; Neubauerová, V.; Pajer, P.; Kubíčková, P.; Růžek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 3 (2014), s. 232-238 ISSN 1210-7913 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : hemorrhagic fever * filovirus * arenavirus * real-time * RT-PCR – detection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.353, year: 2014

  20. OR.NET RT: how service-oriented medical device architecture meets real-time communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Jonas H; Kasparick, Martin; Strathen, Benjamin; Dietz, Christian; Dingler, Max E; Lueth, Tim C; Timmermann, Dirk; Radermacher, Klaus; Golatowski, Frank

    2018-02-23

    Today's landscape of medical devices is dominated by stand-alone systems and proprietary interfaces lacking cross-vendor interoperability. This complicates or even impedes the innovation of novel, intelligent assistance systems relying on the collaboration of medical devices. Emerging approaches use the service-oriented architecture (SOA) paradigm based on Internet protocol (IP) to enable communication between medical devices. While this works well for scenarios with no or only soft timing constraints, the underlying best-effort communication scheme is insufficient for time critical data. Real-time (RT) networks are able to reliably guarantee fixed latency boundaries, for example, by using time division multiple access (TDMA) communication patterns. However, deterministic RT networks come with their own limitations such as tedious, inflexible configuration and a more restricted bandwidth allocation. In this contribution we overcome the drawbacks of both approaches by describing and implementing mechanisms that allow the two networks to interact. We introduce the first implementation of a medical device network that offers hard RT guarantees for control and sensor data and integrates into SOA networks. Based on two application examples we show how the flexibility of SOA networks and the reliability of RT networks can be combined to achieve an open network infrastructure for medical devices in the operating room (OR).

  1. RT-PCR-ELISA as a tool for diagnosis of low-pathogenicity avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybkær, Karen; Munch, Mette; Handberg, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    A one-tube reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction coupled with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (RT-PCR-ELISA) was developed for the rapid detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) in clinical specimens. A total of 419 swab pools were analyzed from chickens experimentally infected...

  2. Chapter 6: Response to Intervention (RtI) and Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, James M.; Bruce, Andrew; Lloyd, John Wills

    2012-01-01

    We review the concept of response to intervention (RtI) as it is being applied to emotional and behavioral disorders (EDB) in the early part of the 21st century, examining how it differs from and incorporates features of other approaches to addressing those problems, including pre-referral interventions, applied behavior analysis, functional…

  3. Arvo Pärt tänavu Holland-Festivali keskmes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Klassikalise muusika festivalil "Holland-Festival" 1.-26. juun. Amsterdamis on aukülaliseks Arvo Pärt, kelle muusikat esitatakse 7.-10. ja 18. juunil Amsterdami Uues kirikus (Nieuwe Kerk), Muziekgebouw aan het Ij-is ja Concertgebouw's

  4. Regional Data Assimilation of AIRS Profiles and Radiances at the SPoRT Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodsky, Brad; Chou, Shih-hung; Jedlovec, Gary

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Short Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center's mission to improve short-term weather prediction at the regional and local scale. It includes information on the cold bias in Weather Research and Forcasting (WRF), troposphere recordings from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), and vertical resolution of analysis grid.

  5. Briti peaminister Tony Blair tuleb hiiobisõnumiga / Andris Feldmanis, Märt Kivine

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Feldmanis, Andris, 1982-

    2005-01-01

    Eestisse visiidile saabuv Suurbritannia peaminister Tony Blair soovib toetust EL-i eelarveprojektile, mis säilitaks Suurbritannia tagasimakse EL-i eelarvest ning vähendaks uute liikmesriikide toetusi. Kommenteerib Andrus Ansip. Vt. samas intervjuud Toomas Hendrik Ilvesega; Märt Kivine. Vajalik täpsustus: saagem mandri-eurooplasteks!

  6. Romantiline mässaja või irooniline intellektuaal? / Kärt Hellerma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hellerma, Kärt, 1956-

    2005-01-01

    Arvustus: Camus, Albert. Pagendus ja kuningriik : kogutud lühiproosa / prantsuse keelest tõlkinud Triinu Tamm, Krista Vogelberg, Tanel Lepsoo, Henno Rajandi. Tallinn : Varrak, 2004. Ilmunud ka kogumikus: Hellerma, Kärt. Kohanenud kirjandus : valik kirjanduskriitikat 1987-2006. Eesti Keele Sihtasutus : Tallinn, 2006. Lk. 200-202, pealk. Must päike ja igaviku helk

  7. AmbientRT - real time system software support for data centric sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer, T.J.; Dulman, S.O.; Jansen, P.G.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    We present the architecture and design of a real time operating system for mobile wireless sensor networks. AmbientRT is being developed for environments with very limited resources in order to relieve the burden of the developer and to efficiently use the resources of the node. This paper presents

  8. AmbientRT - real time system software support for data centric sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer, T.J.; Dulman, S.O.; Jansen, P.G.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2004-01-01

    We present the architecture and design of a real time operating system for mobile wireless sensor networks. AmbientRT is being developed for environments with very limited resources in order to relieve the burden of the developer and to efficiently use the resources of the node. This paper presents

  9. Detection Of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus Gag-Gene By Rt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predominantly, cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage were specifically infected by the virus as proviral DNA was detected in infected cultures by amplification of a 414 base-pair (bp) fragment of the viral gag-gene by Reverse Transcription- Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) technique. The present study revealed ...

  10. Detecting the Presence of Nora Virus in "Drosophila" Utilizing Single Fly RT-PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Bethany; Ericson, Brad; Carlson, Darby J.; Carlson, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    A single fly RT-PCR protocol has recently been developed to detect the presence of the persistent, horizontally transmitted Nora virus in "Drosophila." Wild-caught flies from Ohio were tested for the presence of the virus, with nearly one-fifth testing positive. The investigation presented can serve as an ideal project for biology…

  11. Gorecki. Sonata No 1, Four Preludes. Pärt, Arvo. Für Alina / Bernhard Uske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uske, Bernhard

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Gorecki. Sonata No 1, Four Preludes. Pärt, Arvo. Für Alina, Variationen zur Gesundung von Arinuschka. Ustvolskaya. Twelve Preludes, Sonata No 6. David Arden AD: 1994. Koch CD 3-7301-2 (WD: 55'12") (WD: 59'54")

  12. Dynamo transformation of the collisional R-T in a weakly ionized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    terms of dynamo transformation of neutral drag effect as a source to understand complete suppression of the usual collisional R-T and in turn linear driving of the NILF. It is therefore emphasized, worth calling it as the dynamo instability. Keywords. Ionosphere; mesosphere; partial ionization; irregularities; collisional; dynamo ...

  13. rt, Arvo. Fratres (version 1980). Cantus in memoriam Benjamin Britten / Guillaume Connesson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Connesson, Guillaume

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt, Arvo. Fratres (version 1980). Cantus in memoriam Benjamin Britten. Summa. Spiegel im Spiegel. Festina lente. Tabula rasa: Tasmin Little (violon), Martin Roscoe (piano), Bournemouth Sinfonietta, Richard Studt" EMI Classics 565 031-2 (CD: 98 F). 1993. TT: 1h 03'42"

  14. Study of rt-PA therapy for acute stroke in older patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Yasuhiro; Toyoshima, Atsuhiko; Toyota, Yasunori; Kuramoto, Satoshi; Katsumata, Atsushi; Kawauchi, Masamitsu; Matsumoto, Yuzo

    2011-01-01

    Intravenous alteplase (rt-PA) therapy has been widely approved for acute ischemic stroke. We examined symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH) and outcomes in older patients treated with rt-PA therapy. We divided 130 consecutive patients treated with rt-PA into two groups: 72 patients younger than 80 years (age <80 group) and 58 patients older than 80 years (age ≥80 group). On CT and MRI scans, SICH was observed in 5 patients (7.1%) in the age <80 group and 4 patients (6.9%) in the age ≥80 group. The SICH rate did not differ significantly between the two groups (odds ratio (OR) 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-2.39, P=0.6174). The patients in the age ≥80 group had a significantly lower mRS 0-1 rate (8.8 vs. 30.0%; OR 7.20, 95% CI 6.05-8.34, P=0.0009) and significantly higher mRS 6 (mortality) rate (19.3 vs. 9.0%; OR 6.52, 95% CI 5.39-7.65, P=0.0015) compared with those in the age <80 group. These data suggest that the factor of age is not related to SICH but is related to patients' outcomes in rt-PA therapy. (author)

  15. Deteksi Virus Classical Swine Fever di Bali dengan RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Wirata

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Classical Swine Fever (CSF virus has been confirmed for the first time in pig in Bali. The object of thisstudy was suspected CSF cases diagnosed at the diagnostic laboratory assistantship of the Faculty ofVeterinary Medicine, Udayana University, in 2007-2008. Total number of cases was 12. Case recordsincluded the signalment of case (breed, age, body weight, and the origin of respective case, clinical signs,post-mortem lesions, and histological pictures. CSF virus was confirmed using the standardized reversetranscriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for CSF from European Union. One RT-PCR productwas sequenced. CSF virus was confirmed in seven out of 12 cases (58%. The cDNA sequence wasconfirmed to be specific of CSF E2 protein coding region with 98% homology to one isolate from China thatwas available in GeneBank. Further works are recommended to elucidate the sensitivity of RT-PCR, toclarify some differential diagnose, and to find out the genetic variation of CSF virus in Bali.Key words: classical swine fever virus, Bali, RT-PCR

  16. iSmaRT: a toolkit for a comprehensive analysis of small RNA-Seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panero, Riccardo; Rinaldi, Antonio; Memoli, Domenico; Nassa, Giovanni; Ravo, Maria; Rizzo, Francesca; Tarallo, Roberta; Milanesi, Luciano; Weisz, Alessandro; Giurato, Giorgio

    2017-03-15

    The interest in investigating the biological roles of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) is increasing, due to the pleiotropic effects of these molecules exert in many biological contexts. While several methods and tools are available to study microRNAs (miRNAs), only few focus on novel classes of sncRNAs, in particular PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). To overcome these limitations, we implemented iSmaRT ( i ntegrative Sm all R NA T ool-kit), an automated pipeline to analyze smallRNA-Seq data. iSmaRT is a collection of bioinformatics tools and own algorithms, interconnected through a Graphical User Interface (GUI). In addition to performing comprehensive analyses on miRNAs, it implements specific computational modules to analyze piRNAs, predicting novel ones and identifying their RNA targets. A smallRNA-Seq dataset generated from brain samples of Huntington's Disease patients was used here to illustrate iSmaRT performances, demonstrating how the pipeline can provide, in a rapid and user friendly way, a comprehensive analysis of different classes of sncRNAs. iSmaRT is freely available on the web at ftp://labmedmolge-1.unisa.it (User: iSmart - Password: password). aweisz@unisa.it or ggiurato@unisa.it. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. The Practical Teaching of Thinking Using the CoRT Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bono, Edward

    1986-01-01

    The CoRT (Cognitive Research Trust) is a five-step program in direct instruction of thinking skills which increase the number and diversity of ideas as well as help the individual establish goals, set priorities, improve interactions with others, and incorporate feeling into thinking. (DB)

  18. Evaluation of Microarray Preprocessing Algorithms Based on Concordance with RT-PCR in Clinical Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Lage; Szallasi, Zoltan Imre; Eklund, Aron Charles

    2009-01-01

    performed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used TaqMan RT-PCR arrays as a reference to evaluate the accuracy of expression values from Affymetrix microarrays in two experimental data sets: one comprising 84 genes in 36 colon biopsies, and the other comprising 75 genes in 29 cancer cell lines. We...

  19. Identification and characterization of a novel tospovirus species using a new RT-PCR approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortez, I.; Saaijer, J.; Wonjkaew, K.S.; Pereira, A.M.; Goldbach, R.W.; Peters, D.; Kormelink, R.

    2001-01-01

    Summary. A novel tospovirus serologically distinct from all established tospo- virus species was found in Thailand in Physalis minima L. The S RNA of this virus was cloned by a new RT-PCR approach revealing a nucleotide sequence of 3257 nucleotides. The ambisense RNA segment encoded a nonstructural

  20. Analysis of binding energy activity of TIBO and HIV-RT based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEN

    2007-02-05

    Feb 5, 2007 ... the structure of TIBO-HIV-RT complex (Ren et al., 1995,. 1999). In this theoretical research, the energy change corresponding to the conformational change within TIBO was investigated. It was observed that change in the beta dihedral angle conformation critically affects the binding energy. Decreased ...

  1. From my Home: Dvarionas: Elegie; Pärt: Fratres / Patric Wiklacz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wiklacz, Patric

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "From my Home: Dvarionas: Elegie; Pärt: Fratres; Barkauskas: Partita; Vasks: Musica Dolorosa; Pelecis: Concerto for Violin, Piano and String Orchestra, "Neverthless"; Plakidis: Two Grasshopper Dances; Tüür: Conversio. Deutsche Kammerphilharmonie, Gidon Kremer (violon), Vadim Sacharov (piano)" Teldec 0630-14654-2 (79 minutes:DDD)

  2. The feasibility of tetraplex RT-PCR in the determination of PVS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... Dormant potato tubers belonging to cvs., namely, Agria, Granola and Marfona known to be infected with potato viruses (Potato leafroll virus, PLRV; Potato virus S, PVS; Potato virus X, PVX and Potato virus Y,. PVY) were tested with uniplex RT-PCR and strong bands specific to each virus were obtained from.

  3. Läheneb Vikerkaare 75. aastapäev / Märt Väljataga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Väljataga, Märt, 1965-

    1997-01-01

    Vastukaja : Haug, Toomas. Kultuurilooline õppetund peatoimetaja Väljatagale. // Eesti Ekspress (1997) 18. apr., lk. B6. (Poleemika); Väljataga, Märt. Vikerkaart nähti juba Sumeris!. // Eesti Ekspress (1997) 25. apr., lk. B7; Haug, Toomas. Ei soovi vasikaga võidu joosta. // Eesti Ekspress (1997) 2. mai, lk. B7

  4. Searching for Roots. Pärt: Symphony No. 1, "Polyphonic" / Guy S. Rickards

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rickards, Guy S.

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Searching for Roots. Pärt: Symphony No. 1, "Polyphonic". Nekrolog, Op. 3; Tubin: Symphony No. 11; Tüür: Searching for Roots. Insula deserta. Zeitraum. Royal Stockholm Philharmonic Orchestra / Paavo Järvi. Virgin Classics VC5 45212-2 (72 min.:DDD)

  5. Dynamo transformation of the collisional R-T in a weakly ionized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is obvious to note the difference between usual R-T and NILF mode of instabilities. Now let us consider a situation when the relative neutral flow produces an internal effective gravity in the equilibrium but is not perturbed by the resulting instability. For a quick estimation of the growth rate of the resulting instability due to ...

  6. NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX-GDDP) dataset is comprised of downscaled climate scenarios for the globe that are derived from the...

  7. Percent Daily Value: What Does It Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating What do the Daily Value numbers mean on food labels? Answers from ... 15, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/expert-answers/food-and- ...

  8. The Sports Column on National Daily Newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alp Çelik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available National daily newspapers aim to report detailed daily news. Sport pages of the newspapers contain sport columns and news about sport activities. The aim of this research was to investigate the sport columns appearing on sport pages of national daily newspapers published in Turkey. During the research process, nine national daily newspapers published in Turkey were reviewed for one year. The number of sport columns, publishing page, publishing space in cm. and accessibility of newspapers are ascertained. Newspaper field measurement, statistical and percentage calculations are made by Microsoft Excel. The study was completed with the transfer of the data obtained from Excel to Word as a document. According to the obtained data, regarding the news density on sport columns; Milliyet has the most news published, Cumhuriyet has the most news on front page, Haber Turk has the most space allocated and Zaman has been the most accessible newspaper.

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-specific reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors may suppress the replication of specific drug-resistant (E138K)RT HIV-1 mutants or select for highly resistant (Y181C-->C181I)RT HIV-1 mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzarini, J; Karlsson, A; Sardana, V V; Emini, E A; Camarasa, M J; De Clercq, E

    1994-07-05

    Mutant HIV-1 that expresses a Glu138-->Lys substitution in its RT [(E138K)RT] is resistant to the HIV-1-specific RT inhibitor 2',5'-bis-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-3'-spiro-5"-(4"-amino-1",2"- oxathiole-2",2"-dioxide)pyrimidine (TSAO). However, cell cultures infected with this mutant were completely protected against virus-mediated destruction by micromolar concentrations of the HIV-1-specific RT inhibitors tetrahydroimidazo[4,5,1-jk][1,4]benzodiazepin-2(1H)-one and -thione (TIBO), nevirapine, and bis(heteroaryl)piperazine (BHAP). In contrast, cells infected with a virus mutant that expresses a Tyr181-->Cys substitution in its RT [(Y181C)RT] were not protected by nevirapine and TIBO and were only temporarily protected by BHAP. HIV-1 mutant that emerged under the latter conditions contained a Cys181-->Ile substitution in their RT [(LC181I)RT]. This mutant proved highly resistant to all HIV-1-specific RT inhibitors tested, except for several 1-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)-6-(phenylthio)thymine (HEPT) derivatives. When recombinant (C181I)RT was evaluated for susceptibility to the HIV-1-specific RT inhibitors, it was resistant to all inhibitors except the HEPT compounds. Since a (Y181F)RT HIV mutant strain was isolated from cells infected with (Y181C)RT HIV-1 and treated with BHAP, we postulate that the Ile codon was derived from a Cys-->Phe transversion mutation (TGT-->TTT), followed by a Phe-->Ile transversion mutation (TTT-->ATT).

  10. Response of rat spinal cord to very small doses per fraction: lack of enhanced radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shun, Wong C.; Yong, Hao; Hill, Richard P.

    1995-01-01

    Our previous work with rat spinal cord demonstrated that the linear quadratic (LQ) model based on data for large fraction sizes ((α(β)) of 2.4 Gy) failed to predict isoeffective doses between 1 and 2 Gy per fraction, and under-estimated the sparing effect of small doses per fraction given once daily. In contrast, data from mouse skin and kidney, and recent in vitro results revealed a paradoxical increase in radiosensitivity at below 1 Gy per fraction. To assess whether enhanced radiosensitivity is present in the spinal cord below 1 Gy per fraction, the rat spinal cord (C2-T2) was irradiated initially with three daily doses of 10.25 Gy (top-up doses representing 90% of tolerance), followed by graded single doses or fractionated doses in 1.5, 1.0, 0.8, 0.6 or 0.4 Gy fractions given once daily. To limit the overall treatment time to ≤ 8 weeks, a small number of the 0.6- and 0.4-Gy fractions were given twice daily with an interfraction interval of 16 h. The end-point was forelimb paralysis secondary to white matter necrosis, confirmed histologically. The ED 50 values, excluding the top-up doses, were 5.8, 10.6, 14.8, 15.2, 15.9 and 19.1 Gy for a single dose and doses in 1.5-, 1.0-, 0.8-, 0.6- and 0.4-Gy fractions, respectively. The data gave an (α(β)) of 2.1 Gy (95% CI, 1.4, 2.7 Gy). Pooling the data separately, the (α(β)) value was 2.3 Gy (95% CI, 0.82, 3.7 Gy) for fraction sizes ≥ 1 Gy, and 1.2 Gy (95% CI, 0.16, 2.3 Gy) for the 0.8-, 0.6- and 0.4-Gy experiments. These results in which top-up doses were given initially are consistent with a large sparing effect of very small fraction sizes in rat spinal cord provided sufficient time is allowed for repair of sublethal damage between fractions, and provide no evidence for a paradoxical increase in radiosensitivity in the rat spinal cord below 1 Gy down to 0.4 Gy per fraction

  11. Impact of radiation therapy fraction size on local control of early glottic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Edward; Shenouda, George; Beaudet, Marie P.; Black, Martin J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Different radiotherapy fractionation schedules were used over a 10-year period to treat patients with early squamous cell carcinoma of the vocal cords at McGill University. A retrospective analysis was performed to study the effect of fraction size on local control in this group of patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 126 previously untreated patients with T1 invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the true vocal cords were irradiated between January 1978 and December 1988 in the Department of Radiation Oncology at McGill University. All patients received megavoltage irradiation, 94 patients received daily fractions > 2 Gy (64 patients received 50 Gy with once-daily 2.5-Gy fractions, and 30 received 65.25 Gy in 29 fractions of 2.25 Gy each), and 32 patients were treated to a dose of 66 Gy in 33 fractions with 2 Gy/fraction. Patients' characteristics of prognostic importance were equally distributed between the two fractionation groups. Results: At a median follow-up of 84 months, the 10-year disease-free survival and overall survival were 76% and 93%, respectively. Local control for patients treated with > 2 Gy fraction was 84%, compared to 65.6% for those treated with 2-Gy fractions (p = 0.026). Among the prognostic factors tested, such as gender, age, stage, anterior and posterior commissure involvement, smoking history, and fraction size, the latter was the only significant predictor of local control for the whole group of patients in univariate (p = 0.041) and multivariate (p = 0.023) analysis. There was no observed difference in the incidence of complications between the two fraction groups. Conclusions: From the results of this retrospective review of patients treated with radiotherapy for T1 true vocal cord cancer, and within the range of total doses and overall treatment times used in our patients, it was found that fractionation schedules using daily fraction size > 2 Gy are associated with a better local control than schedules delivering 2 Gy/fraction

  12. Impact of intestinal stoma of daily activities

    OpenAIRE

    Kougl, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    In the theoretical part I am devoted to the history, anatomy, types of stoma, concept of stoma, indications for an establishment of stoma, pre and postoperative care, treatment of stoma, instruments and the influence on daily activities of a client while having a stoma. In the practical part I am following my own research of the impact of stoma on daily life's activities of klients with a stoma.

  13. Didanosine once daily: potential for expanded use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, R B

    2000-11-10

    Factors affecting patient adherence to therapy, such as frequent daily dosing and complex dosing schedules, are widely understood to be key obstacles to the durability of effective anti-HIV therapy. Didanosine, a nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) that is a core component of combination antiretroviral regimens, is currently indicated for twice-daily dosing. However, the active metabolite of didanosine (2',3'-dideoxyadenosine-5'-triphosphate) has a long intracellular half-life that supports the use of didanosine in a more patient-friendly, once-daily dosing schedule. Clinical studies in which didanosine was administered either once or twice daily, as monotherapy or in combination with another NRTI, have demonstrated the equivalence of both dosing schedules, with respect to safety and tolerability, virologic and immunologic endpoints, and short-term clinical effects (e.g., weight gain). Preliminary results from recent studies support the clinical efficacy and utility of once-daily didanosine in combination antiretroviral regimens that provide maximal drug exposure, while allowing for once- or twice-daily dosing of all component drugs.

  14. SPoRT - An End-to-End R2O Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    Established in 2002 to demonstrate the weather and forecasting application of real-time EOS measurements, the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program has grown to be an end-to-end research to operations activity focused on the use of advanced NASA modeling and data assimilation approaches, nowcasting techniques, and unique high-resolution multispectral observational data applications from EOS satellites to improve short-term weather forecasts on a regional and local scale. SPoRT currently partners with several universities and other government agencies for access to real-time data and products, and works collaboratively with them and operational end users at 13 WFOs to develop and test the new products and capabilities in a "test-bed" mode. The test-bed simulates key aspects of the operational environment without putting constraints on the forecaster workload. Products and capabilities which show utility in the test-bed environment are then transitioned experimentally into the operational environment for further evaluation and assessment. SPoRT focuses on a suite of data and products from MODIS, AMSR-E, and AIRS on the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites, and total lightning measurements from ground-based networks. Some of the observations are assimilated into or used with various versions of the WRF model to provide supplemental forecast guidance to operational end users. SPoRT is enhancing partnerships with NOAA / NESDIS for new product development and data access to exploit the remote sensing capabilities of instruments on the NPOESS satellites to address short term weather forecasting problems. The VIIRS and CrIS instruments on the NPP and follow-on NPOESS satellites provide similar observing capabilities to the MODIS and AIRS instruments on Terra and Aqua. SPoRT will be transitioning existing and new capabilities into the AWIIPS II environment to continue the continuity of its activities.

  15. Use of alternative alkali chlorides in RT and PCR of polynucleotides containing G quadruplex structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Alemán, Fabiola; González-Jasso, Eva; Pless, Reynaldo C

    2018-02-15

    Several alkali chlorides were compared for their use in reverse transcription (RT) and PCR of different types of nucleic acid templates. On a test region of biological DNA incapable of forming G quadruplex (G4) structures, Taq DNA polymerase showed similar PCR performance with 50 mM KCl, CsCl, LiCl, and NaCl. In contrast, on a synthetic model polydeoxyribonucleotide prone to G4 formation, good PCR amplification was obtained with 50 mM CsCl, but little or none with LiCl or KCl. Similarly, in RT of a G4-prone model polyribonucleotide, MMLV reverse transcriptase produced a good yield with 50 mM CsCl, mediocre yields with LiCl or without added alkali chloride, and a poor yield with 50 mM KCl. The full RT-PCR assay starting from the G4-prone polyribonucleotide, showed good results with CsCl in both stages, poor results with LiCl, and no product formation with KCl. The model polynucleotides showed fast G quadruplex formation under PCR or RT conditions with 50 mM KCl, but not with CsCl or LiCl. The results argue for the use of CsCl instead of KCl for RT and PCR of G4-prone sequences. No advantage was observed when using the 7-deaza type nucleotide analog c 7 dGTP in PCR amplification of the G4-prone polydeoxyribonucleotide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Concentration and daily excretion of uranium in urine of Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolmachev, Sergei; Kuwabara, Jun; Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2006-08-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate uranium concentrations in urine samples for unexposed Japanese individuals and to evaluate uranium daily excretion. Uranium concentrations were measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave-assisted digestion and online separation using the UTEVA extraction chromatographic resin. The concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 35.6 ng of uranium per liter of urine (median 4.5 ng L(-1)). Urinary uranium was normalized relative to the creatinine concentration in order to compensate for the degree of urine dilution. Creatinine-normalized values ranged from 1.2 to 17.8 ng of uranium per gram of creatinine (median 7.4 ng g(-1) creatinine). These results corresponded to the lower end of urinary uranium reported for unexposed populations. The level of daily excreted uranium was calculated as 6.45 ng d(-1) (median value) using ICRP recommended values for 24-h creatinine excretion. These data along with literature data on uranium dietary intake for Japanese populations were used to estimate the uranium gastrointestinal absorption fraction (f(1)). The median f(1) value was calculated to be 0.007. Statistical analysis was done to investigate statistical differences and relationships between the studied variables.

  17. Prediction of motor outcomes and activities of daily living function using diffusion tensor tractography in acute hemiparetic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, Takeshi; Nagasawa, Yuki; Inagawa, Tetsuji; Imada, Naoki; Izumi, Hiroaki; Emoto, Katsuya; Tani, Itaru; Yamasaki, Hiroyuki; Ota, Yuichiro; Oki, Shuichi; Maeda, Tadanori; Araki, Osamu

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The efficacy of diffusion tensor imaging in the prediction of motor outcomes and activities of daily living function remains unclear. We evaluated the most appropriate diffusion tensor parameters and methodology to determine whether the region of interest- or tractography-based method was more useful for predicting motor outcomes and activities of daily living function in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Diffusion tensor imaging data within 10 days after stroke onset were collected and analyzed for 25 patients. The corticospinal tract was analyzed. Fractional anisotropy, number of fibers, and apparent diffusion coefficient were used as diffusion tensor parameters. Motor outcomes and activities of daily living function were evaluated on the same day as diffusion tensor imaging and at 1 month post-onset. [Results] The fractional anisotropy value of the affected corticospinal tract significantly correlated with the motor outcome and activities of daily living function within 10 days post-onset and at 1 month post-onset. Tthere were no significant correlations between other diffusion tensor parameters and motor outcomes or activities of daily living function. [Conclusion] The fractional anisotropy value of the affected corticospinal tract obtained using the tractography-based method was useful for predicting motor outcomes and activities of daily living function in stroke patients.

  18. Estimation of Daily Average Downward Shortwave Radiation over Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingji Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface shortwave (SW irradiation is the primary driving force of energy exchange in the atmosphere and land interface. The global climate is profoundly influenced by irradiation changes due to the special climatic condition in Antarctica. Remote-sensing retrieval can offer only the instantaneous values in an area, whilst daily cycle and average values are necessary for further studies and applications, including climate change, ecology, and land surface process. When considering the large values of and small diurnal changes of solar zenith angle and cloud coverage, we develop two methods for the temporal extension of remotely sensed downward SW irradiance over Antarctica. The first one is an improved sinusoidal method, and the second one is an interpolation method based on cloud fraction change. The instantaneous irradiance data and cloud products are used in both methods to extend the diurnal cycle, and obtain the daily average value. Data from South Pole and Georg von Neumayer stations are used to validate the estimated value. The coefficient of determination (R2 between the estimated daily averages and the measured values based on the first method is 0.93, and the root mean square error (RMSE is 32.21 W/m2 (8.52%. As for the traditional sinusoidal method, the R2 and RMSE are 0.68 and 70.32 W/m2 (18.59%, respectively The R2 and RMSE of the second method are 0.96 and 25.27 W/m2 (6.98%, respectively. These values are better than those of the traditional linear interpolation (0.79 and 57.40 W/m2 (15.87%.

  19. On a Fractional Binomial Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoy, Dexter O.; Polito, Federico

    2012-02-01

    The classical binomial process has been studied by Jakeman (J. Phys. A 23:2815-2825, 1990) (and the references therein) and has been used to characterize a series of radiation states in quantum optics. In particular, he studied a classical birth-death process where the chance of birth is proportional to the difference between a larger fixed number and the number of individuals present. It is shown that at large times, an equilibrium is reached which follows a binomial process. In this paper, the classical binomial process is generalized using the techniques of fractional calculus and is called the fractional binomial process. The fractional binomial process is shown to preserve the binomial limit at large times while expanding the class of models that include non-binomial fluctuations (non-Markovian) at regular and small times. As a direct consequence, the generality of the fractional binomial model makes the proposed model more desirable than its classical counterpart in describing real physical processes. More statistical properties are also derived.

  20. Fractional Trajectories: Decorrelation Versus Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-27

    numerical solutions of fractional-order predator–prey and rabies models, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 325 (2007) 542–553. [6] D. West, B.J. West, On allometry...E 70 (2004) 051103. [17] E.W. Montroll, G.H. Weiss, Random walks on lattices . II, J. Math. Phys. 6 (1965) 167–181. [18] R. Metzler, J. Klafter, The

  1. Complexity and the Fractional Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    and H. A. A. El-Saka, “Equi- librium points, stability and numerical solutions of fractional- order predator-prey and rabies models,” Journal of...Montroll and G. H. Weiss, “Random walks on lattices . II,” Journal of Mathematical Physics, vol. 6, pp. 167–181, 1965. [35] J.-P. Bouchaud and A. Georges

  2. Math Fair: Focus on Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokashi, Neelima A.

    2009-01-01

    This article depicts the rewarding experience of creating mathematical environments for kindergarten and elementary students by focusing on one of the most important and often difficult-to-grasp concepts (fractions) through play methods incorporated into a math fair. The basic concept of a math fair is threefold: (1) to create preplanned,…

  3. Riesz potential versus fractional Laplacian

    KAUST Repository

    Ortigueira, Manuel Duarte

    2014-09-01

    This paper starts by introducing the Grünwald-Letnikov derivative, the Riesz potential and the problem of generalizing the Laplacian. Based on these ideas, the generalizations of the Laplacian for 1D and 2D cases are studied. It is presented as a fractional version of the Cauchy-Riemann conditions and, finally, it is discussed with the n-dimensional Laplacian.

  4. Geodesic continued fractions and LLL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, F

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a proposal for a continued fraction-like algorithm to determine simultaneous rational approximations to dd real numbers α1,…,αdα1,…,αd. It combines an algorithm of Hermite and Lagarias with ideas from LLL-reduction. We dynamically LLL-reduce a quadratic form with parameter tt as t↓0t↓0.

  5. Fractional Processes and Fractional-Order Signal Processing Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, Hu; Qiu, TianShuang

    2012-01-01

    Fractional processes are widely found in science, technology and engineering systems. In Fractional Processes and Fractional-order Signal Processing, some complex random signals, characterized by the presence of a heavy-tailed distribution or non-negligible dependence between distant observations (local and long memory), are introduced and examined from the ‘fractional’ perspective using simulation, fractional-order modeling and filtering and realization of fractional-order systems. These fractional-order signal processing (FOSP) techniques are based on fractional calculus, the fractional Fourier transform and fractional lower-order moments. Fractional Processes and Fractional-order Signal Processing: • presents fractional processes of fixed, variable and distributed order studied as the output of fractional-order differential systems; • introduces FOSP techniques and the fractional signals and fractional systems point of view; • details real-world-application examples of FOSP techniques to demonstr...

  6. Depletion of RT6.1+ T lymphocytes induces diabetes in resistant biobreeding/Worcester (BB/W) rats

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the role of RT6+ T cells in the pathogenesis of diabetes in BB/W rats, we treated animals from the diabetes-resistant (DR) subline with anti-RT6.1 lymphocytotoxic mAb. This depleted greater than 95% of peripheral RT6+ T cells but did not substantially reduce levels of circulating T cells or the in vitro response of spleen cells to mitogen. Treatment of 30-d-old DR BB/W rats in this way: induced insulitis and diabetes, rendered nondiabetic RT6-depleted DR rats susceptible to the...

  7. Quantification of intra-fraction motion in breast radiotherapy using supine magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heijst, Tristan C F; Philippens, Mariëlle E P; Charaghvandi, Ramona K; den Hartogh, Mariska D; Lagendijk, Jan J W; van den Bongard, H J G Desirée; van Asselen, Bram

    2016-02-07

    In early-stage breast-cancer patients, accelerated partial-breast irradiation techniques (APBI) and hypofractionation are increasingly implemented after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). For a safe and effective radiation therapy (RT), the influence of intra-fraction motion during dose delivery becomes more important as associated fraction durations increase and targets become smaller. Current image-guidance techniques are insufficient to characterize local target movement in high temporal and spatial resolution for extended durations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high soft-tissue contrast, allow fast imaging, and acquire images during longer periods. The goal of this study was to quantify intra-fraction motion using MRI scans from 21 breast-cancer patients, before and after BCS, in supine RT position, on two time scales. High-temporal 2-dimensional (2D) MRI scans (cine-MRI), acquired every 0.3 s during 2 min, and three 3D MRI scans, acquired over 20 min, were performed. The tumor (bed) and whole breast were delineated on 3D scans and delineations were transferred to the cine-MRI series. Consecutive scans were rigidly registered and delineations were transformed accordingly. Motion in sub-second time-scale (derived from cine-MRI) was generally regular and limited to a median of 2 mm. Infrequently, large deviations were observed, induced by deep inspiration, but these were temporary. Movement on multi-minute scale (derived from 3D MRI) varied more, although medians were restricted to 2.2 mm or lower. Large whole-body displacements (up to 14 mm over 19 min) were sparsely observed. The impact of motion on standard RT techniques is likely small. However, in novel hypofractionated APBI techniques, whole-body shifts may affect adequate RT delivery, given the increasing fraction durations and smaller targets. Motion management may thus be required. For this, on-line MRI guidance could be provided by a hybrid MRI/RT modality, such as the

  8. Fractional governing equations of transient groundwater flow in confined aquifers with multi-fractional dimensions in fractional time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvas, M. Levent; Tu, Tongbi; Ercan, Ali; Polsinelli, James

    2017-10-01

    Using fractional calculus, a dimensionally consistent governing equation of transient, saturated groundwater flow in fractional time in a multi-fractional confined aquifer is developed. First, a dimensionally consistent continuity equation for transient saturated groundwater flow in fractional time and in a multi-fractional, multidimensional confined aquifer is developed. For the equation of water flux within a multi-fractional multidimensional confined aquifer, a dimensionally consistent equation is also developed. The governing equation of transient saturated groundwater flow in a multi-fractional, multidimensional confined aquifer in fractional time is then obtained by combining the fractional continuity and water flux equations. To illustrate the capability of the proposed governing equation of groundwater flow in a confined aquifer, a numerical application of the fractional governing equation to a confined aquifer groundwater flow problem was also performed.

  9. Mapping soil textural fractions across a large watershed in north-east Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, S; Mishra, U

    2010-08-01

    Assessment of regional scale soil spatial variation and mapping their distribution is constrained by sparse data which are collected using field surveys that are labor intensive and cost prohibitive. We explored geostatistical (ordinary kriging-OK), regression (Regression Tree-RT), and hybrid methods (RT plus residual Sequential Gaussian Simulation-SGS) to map soil textural fractions across the Santa Fe River Watershed (3585 km(2)) in north-east Florida. Soil samples collected from four depths (L1: 0-30 cm, L2: 30-60 cm, L3: 60-120 cm, and L4: 120-180 cm) at 141 locations were analyzed for soil textural fractions (sand, silt and clay contents), and combined with textural data (15 profiles) assembled under the Florida Soil Characterization program. Textural fractions in L1 and L2 were autocorrelated, and spatially mapped across the watershed. OK performance was poor, which may be attributed to the sparse sampling. RT model structure varied among textural fractions, and the model explained variations ranged from 25% for L1 silt to 61% for L2 clay content. Regression residuals were simulated using SGS, and the average of simulated residuals were used to approximate regression residual distribution map, which were added to regression trend maps. Independent validation of the prediction maps showed that regression models performed slightly better than OK, and regression combined with average of simulated regression residuals improved predictions beyond the regression model. Sand content >90% in both 0-30 and 30-60 cm covered 80.6% of the watershed area. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. RT-PCR evidence for the turp effect: re-visiting an 80's concept with a 90's technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Jose G.; Corn, Benjamin W.; Valicenti, Richard; Alexander, Archibald; Shupp-Byrne, Dolores; Gomella, Leonard G.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: The 'TURP effect' is a controversial phenomenon that suggests that transurethral resection of the prostate (especially in those with advanced stage, moderately-poorly differentiated tumors) promotes tumor dissemination that leads to inferior survival. Although the advent of trans-rectal ultrasonography (TRUS), prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing, and spring-loaded biopsy guns have minimized the percentage of patients who have a diagnosis established by TURP, some investigators continue to advocate a different clinical algorithm for those who have TURP prior to definitive irradiation. The Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) technique is an exquisitely sensitive molecular application that allows the detection of a small number of PSA-synthesizing cells in a highly diluted population of peripheral blood cells. The purpose of the present analysis was to prospectively acquire RT-PCR data to determine whether surgical manipulation of the prostate gland engenders release of prostate cells into the peripheral circulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients undergoing TRUS-guided biopsy (n=51), radical prostatectomy (n=3), and TURP (n=4) consented to have 8 ml of peripheral venous blood drawn before and 10-30 minutes after their respective procedures. RNA was extracted from fractionated blood, and RNA quality was assured with actin RT-PCR analysis. PSA primers binding exons 4 and 5 yielded a 254 bp PCR product with a sensitivity of 1LNcap cell in 100 million lymphoid cells on ethidium bromide gel. RESULTS: 50/51TRUS cases were negative prior to biopsy, of which 4 (8%) became positive after the procedure. Of the 3 radical prostatectomy cases, one remained positive pre and post-operatively, one remained negative and the other converted to a positive result. Of the 4 TURP cases, all had negative baseline studies, of which 3 converted to a positive result after the procedure (p<0.05). All 3 TURP cases that became positive had a highly intense

  11. Effect of three fatty acids from the leaf extract of Tiliacora triandra on P-glycoprotein function in multidrug-resistant A549RT-eto cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpiboon, Chutima; Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Yongvanich, Tikamporn; Phuwapraisirisan, Preecha; Assavalapsakul, Wanchai

    2014-08-01

    Cancer cells have the ability to develop resistance to chemotherapy drugs, which then leads to a reduced effectiveness and success of the treatment. Multidrug resistance (MDR) involves the resistance in the same cell/tissue to a diverse range of drugs of different structures. One of the characteristics of MDR is an overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which causes the efflux of the accumulated drug out of the cell. The MDR human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line with a high P-gp expression level (A549RT-eto) was used to investigate the bioactive compounds capable of reversing the etoposide resistance in this cell line. The leaves of Tiliacora triandra were sequentially extracted with hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. Only the hexane extract reduced the etoposide resistance of the A549RT-eto cell line, and was further fractionated by column chromatography using the TLC-pattern and the restoration of etoposide sensitivity as the selection criteria. The obtained active fraction (F22) was found by nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analyses to be comprised of a 49.5:19.6:30.9 (w/w/w) mixture of hexadecanoic: octadecanoic acid: (Z)-6-octadecenoic acids. This stoichiometric mixture was recreated using pure fatty acids (MSFA) and gave a similar sensitization to etoposide and enhanced the relative rate of rhodamine-123 accumulation to a similar extent as F22, supporting the action via reducing P-gp activity. In contrast, the fatty acids alone did not show this effect. This is the first report of the biological activity from the leaves of T. triandra as a potential source of a novel chemosensitizer.

  12. Note on fractional Mellin transform and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıçman, Adem; Omran, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we define the fractional Mellin transform by using Riemann-Liouville fractional integral operator and Caputo fractional derivative of order [Formula: see text] and study some of their properties. Further, some properties are extended to fractional way for Mellin transform.

  13. On the fractional calculus of Besicovitch function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Yongshun

    2009-01-01

    Relationship between fractional calculus and fractal functions has been explored. Based on prior investigations dealing with certain fractal functions, fractal dimensions including Hausdorff dimension, Box dimension, K-dimension and Packing dimension is shown to be a linear function of order of fractional calculus. Both Riemann-Liouville fractional calculus and Weyl-Marchaud fractional derivative of Besicovitch function have been discussed.

  14. Analysis of related factors of orolingual angioedema after rt-PA intravenous thrombolytic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y-X; Li, Y-Q; Chen, Y; Zhang, C-H; Dong, Z; Wang, Z; Zhao, S-N; Li, C-H; Zhang, P-L

    2018-03-01

    Orolingual angioedema (OA) is a rare clinical complication with a potentially fatal risk that occurs after the intravenous application of alteplase (rt-PA) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. The purpose of this work is to investigate the related factors of OA in patients with acute ischemic stroke after the administration of intravenous thrombolytic therapy, to improve the predictive ability of OA during intravenous thrombolytic therapy, and to reduce the prevalence of complications. We recruited 1223 cases of patients with acute ischemic stroke that were treated in the Department of Neurology No. 4 of the Tianjin Huanhu Hospital from June 2014 to April 2015. The clinical manifestations of rt-PA related OA were recorded, the clinical prevalence was counted, related factors of OA after intravenous thrombolytic therapy were analyzed, and the risk assessment of rt-PA related OA was conducted. 14 cases of patients developed OA, with a prevalence rate of 1.14%. Among them, 5 had a history of urticaria, 4 of drug allergy, and 3 of food allergy. Among the 14 cases of patients, 10 developed OA in the process of intravenous thrombolysis and 4 after intravenous thrombolysis, 12 showed lip edema, 9 showed extensive swelling of tongue, 3 showed swelling of lateral tongue, 3 were complicated by respiratory distress, 10 showed infarction in the middle cerebral artery territory, and 6 had previously been given oral ACEI drugs. Orolingual angioedema is a rare complication that occurs after rt-PA intravenous thrombolytic therapy; when serious, it may endanger a patient's life. If patients take an oral hypotension such as ACEI drugs before the onset of OA, they have a history of allergies, or the lesion is an infraction in the dominated area of the middle cerebral artery, the risk of OA after rt-PA intravenous thrombolytic therapy will be increased. The prevalence of OA should be monitored during the rt-PA intravenous thrombolytic therapy process; timely detection and early

  15. SPoRT's Participation in the GOES-R Proving Ground Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary; Fuell, Kevin; Smith, Matthew; Stano, Geoffrey; Molthan, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The next generation geostationary satellite, GOES-R, will carry two new instruments with unique atmospheric and surface observing capabilities, the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), to study short-term weather processes. The ABI will bring enhanced multispectral observing capabilities with frequent refresh rates for regional and full disk coverage to geostationary orbit to address many existing and new forecast challenges. The GLM will, for the first time, provide the continuous monitoring of total lightning flashes over a hemispherical region from space. NOAA established the GOES-R Proving Ground activity several years ago to demonstrate the new capabilities of these instruments and to prepare forecasters for their day one use. Proving Ground partners work closely with algorithm developers and the end user community to develop and transition proxy data sets representing GOES-R observing capabilities. This close collaboration helps to maximize refine algorithms leading to the delivery of a product that effectively address a forecast challenge. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program has been a participant in the NOAA GOES-R Proving Ground activity by developing and disseminating selected GOES-R proxy products to collaborating WFOs and National Centers. Established in 2002 to demonstrate the weather and forecasting application of real-time EOS measurements, the SPoRT program has grown to be an end-to-end research to operations activity focused on the use of advanced NASA modeling and data assimilation approaches, nowcasting techniques, and unique high-resolution multispectral data from EOS satellites to improve short-term weather forecasts on a regional and local scale. Participation in the Proving Ground activities extends SPoRT s activities and taps its experience and expertise in diagnostic weather analysis, short-term weather forecasting, and the transition of research and experimental

  16. PO-0905: A predictive model for acute oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients after primary RT, chemo- or bioradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Chouvalova; J.A. Langendijk; R.J.H.M. Steenbakkers; H.P. Bijl; K. Wopken; R. Visser; A. Gawryszuk

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Acute mucositis is a serious dose-limiting side effect during and immediately after primary RT, concurrent chemoradiation (ChemoRT) or a combination of cetuximab and accelerated RT (bioradiation or BioRT) resulting in compromised oral intake due to pain and dysphagia. The purpose

  17. Daily life in the enclave Vitina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatanović Sanja M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on a fieldwork performed in 2003 in the enclave Vitina, Kosovo. The aim of the paper is to provide an ethnographic brief account of the post-war daily life in the researched area. Since 1999 and the establishment of the international protectorate over the area, the enclave’s daily life has changed profoundly. The people from Vitina are very much concerned about their daily troubles, especially the ones involving the relationship with the Albanian population. The daily life in Vitina is saturated with the war related traumas, existential insecurity and unpredictability, experiences of ghetto, paralyzed everyday life, and the time that appears to stand still. The Kosovo area is characterized by especially complex historical, political and cultural contexts. It is a borderline area, so identities seem to be undefined, varying, ambivalent and situational. In the last decades of the 20th century, the identities became homogenous, developing fixed boundaries. The ethnic identification thus becomes more relevant than any other membership or affiliation. A need to designate and preserve an ethnic identity in Kosovo has lead to a paroxysm. The dominant, Albanian population displays its ethnic symbols openly, while the Serbs demonstrate their symbols more alluringly but with the same amount of fervor. The ethnicity is being articulated in everyday life, in different answers to its requirements and challenges while a daily life is usually equalized with privacy and female sphere, therefore, the paper also discusses a relationship between the ethnic and gender identities.

  18. Interaction of reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations conferring resistance to lamivudine and etravirine: effects on fitness and RT activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zixin; Kuritzkes, Daniel R

    2011-11-01

    Resistance to the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors etravirine and rilpivirine (RPV) is conferred by the E138K mutation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT). Clinical trials of RPV administered with lamivudine or emtricitabine showed the emergence of E138K together with M184I, which confers lamivudine and emtricitabine resistance in most patients with virologic failure. To understand why M184I was favored over M184V, we determined the drug susceptibility, infectivity, relative fitness, and reverse transcriptase activity of HIV-1 carrying E138K/M184I or E138K/M184V mutations. Whereas the replication capacity (RC) of the single mutants was reduced compared to that of the wild type (WT), the RC of the two double mutants was comparable to that of the WT in the absence of drug. The RC of the E138K/M184I mutant in the presence of etravirine was significantly greater than that of the E138K and E138K/M184V mutants; the RC of the double mutants was greater than that of the M184I or M184V mutant. Fitness profiles and growth competition experiments showed that the E138K/M184I mutant had a significant replicative advantage over the E138K/M184V mutant in the presence of etravirine and lamivudine. The virion-associated RT activity of the E138K, M184I, or M184V virus was significantly reduced compared to that of the WT, whereas the RT activity of the E138K/M184I virus was significantly greater than that of the WT or E138K/M184V virus. These results suggest that the E138K and M184I/V mutations are mutually compensatory and may explain the frequent occurrence of E138K/M184I after the virologic failure of rilpivirine-, lamivudine-, and emtricitabine-containing regimens.

  19. Interaction of Reverse Transcriptase (RT) Mutations Conferring Resistance to Lamivudine and Etravirine: Effects on Fitness and RT Activity of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zixin; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Resistance to the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors etravirine and rilpivirine (RPV) is conferred by the E138K mutation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT). Clinical trials of RPV administered with lamivudine or emtricitabine showed the emergence of E138K together with M184I, which confers lamivudine and emtricitabine resistance in most patients with virologic failure. To understand why M184I was favored over M184V, we determined the drug susceptibility, infectivity, relative fitness, and reverse transcriptase activity of HIV-1 carrying E138K/M184I or E138K/M184V mutations. Whereas the replication capacity (RC) of the single mutants was reduced compared to that of the wild type (WT), the RC of the two double mutants was comparable to that of the WT in the absence of drug. The RC of the E138K/M184I mutant in the presence of etravirine was significantly greater than that of the E138K and E138K/M184V mutants; the RC of the double mutants was greater than that of the M184I or M184V mutant. Fitness profiles and growth competition experiments showed that the E138K/M184I mutant had a significant replicative advantage over the E138K/M184V mutant in the presence of etravirine and lamivudine. The virion-associated RT activity of the E138K, M184I, or M184V virus was significantly reduced compared to that of the WT, whereas the RT activity of the E138K/M184I virus was significantly greater than that of the WT or E138K/M184V virus. These results suggest that the E138K and M184I/V mutations are mutually compensatory and may explain the frequent occurrence of E138K/M184I after the virologic failure of rilpivirine-, lamivudine-, and emtricitabine-containing regimens. PMID:21849432

  20. Comparison and evaluation of conventional RT-PCR, SYBR green I and TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assays for the detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinrong; Zhang, Tiansheng; Song, Deping; Huang, Tao; Peng, Qi; Chen, Yanjun; Li, Anqi; Zhang, Fanfan; Wu, Qiong; Ye, Yu; Tang, Yuxin

    2017-06-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly contagious intestinal disease, resulting in substantial economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. In this study, three assays, namely a conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR and a TaqMan real-time RT-PCR targeting the highly conserved M gene of PEDV, were developed and evaluated. Then, the analytical specificity, sensitivity and reproducibility of these assays were determined and compared. The TaqMan real-time RT-PCR was 100-fold and 10,000-fold more sensitive than that of the SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR and the conventional RT-PCR, respectively. The analytical sensitivity of TaqMan real-time RT-PCR was 10 copies/μl of target gene and no cross amplification with other viruses tested was observed. With the features of high specificity, sensitivity, and reproducibility, the TaqMan real-time RT-PCR established in this study could be a useful tool for clinical diagnosis, epidemiological surveys and outbreak investigations of PED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro antioxidant and anticancer effects of solvent fractions from Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yu-Jin; Lee, Eun-Ju; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Hwang, Kyung-A

    2013-11-09

    Recently, considerable attention has been focused on exploring the potential antioxidant properties of plant extracts or isolated products of plant origin. Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina is widely distributed in Korea, Japan, China, and Europe, and it continues to be used to treat inflammation, eye pain, headache, and dizziness. However, reports on the antioxidant activities of P. vulgaris var. lilacina are limited, particularly concerning the relationship between its phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and anticancer activities of an ethanol extract from P. vulgaris var. lilacina and its fractions. Dried powder of P. vulgaris var. lilacina was extracted with ethanol, and the extract was fractionated to produce the hexane fraction, butanol fraction, chloroform fraction and residual water fraction. The phenolic content was assayed using the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Subsequently, the antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract and its fractions were analyzed employing various antioxidant assay methods including DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, SOD activity and production of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, the extract and fractions were assayed for their ability to exert cytotoxic activities on various cancer cells using the MTT assay. We also investigated the expression of genes associated with apoptotic cell death by RT-PCR. The total phenolic contents of the ethanol extract and water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina were 303.66 and 322.80 mg GAE/g dry weight (or fractions), respectively. The results showed that the ethanol extract and the water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina had higher antioxidant content than other solvent fractions, similar to their total phenolic content. Anticancer activity was also tested using the HepG2, HT29, A549, MKN45 and HeLa cancer cell lines. The results clearly demonstrated that the P. vulgaris var. lilacina ethanol extract induced significant cytotoxic effects

  2. Geometrical explanation of the fractional complex transform and derivative chain rule for fractional calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Ji-Huan; Elagan, S.K.; Li, Z.B.

    2012-01-01

    The fractional complex transform is suggested to convert a fractional differential equation with Jumarie's modification of Riemann–Liouville derivative into its classical differential partner. Understanding the fractional complex transform and the chain rule for fractional calculus are elucidated geometrically. -- Highlights: ► The chain rule for fractional calculus is invalid, a counter example is given. ► The fractional complex transform is explained geometrically. ► Fractional equations can be converted into differential equations.

  3. Comprehensive inter-comparison of INSAT multispectral rainfall algorithm estimates and TMPA 3B42-RT V7 estimates across different climate regions of India during southwest monsoon period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Shruti; Ramsankaran, Raaj

    2017-12-23

    The main objective of this study is to validate and inter-compare two Near-Real-Time Satellite Rainfall Estimates (NRT-SREs): INSAT Multispectral Rainfall Algorithm (IMSRA, simple blended product) and TMPA 3B42-RT V7 (3B42-RT, multisatellite product) across India. This study aims to provide some insight into the error characteristics of both the NRT-SREs to the algorithm developers and end users by inter-comparing the daily rainfall estimates during the southwest monsoon period of 2010-2013. This study utilizes various volumetric statistics and categorical statistics to understand and evaluate the performance of NRT-SREs in terms of both spatial and volumetric error characteristics (hit, miss, and false error) at different rainfall thresholds across different Köppen-Geiger climate regions of India using the gridded gauge data provided by Indian Meteorological Department as reference dataset. A detailed statistical evaluation shows that the 3B42-RT performs comparatively better than the IMSRA across India. The results indicate that both IMSRA and 3B42-RT have a general tendency of overestimating the low rainfall rates (0-2.5 mm/day) and underestimating the high rainfall rates (> 35.5 mm/day). At lower threshold values (0 and 2.5 mm/day), it is found that the miss error is dominant in IMSRA, whereas the false error is dominant in 3B42-RT. As the threshold increases (7.5 and 35.5 mm/day), both the miss and false errors increase in both SREs. Additionally, the spatial analysis of the results clearly indicate that the performance of the tested NRT-SREs is not uniform across different climatic regions, an important aspect to be considered for development/improvement of the tested NRT-SRE algorithms.

  4. Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) and Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy (FSRT) for children with head-and-neck-rhabdomyosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, Stephanie E; Behnisch, Wolfgang; Kulozik, Andreas E; Huber, Peter E; Debus, Jürgen; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluates the outcome of 19 children with rhabdomyosarcoma of the head-and-neck region treated with Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) or Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy (FSRT) between August 1995 and November 2005. We treated 19 children with head-and-neck rhabdomyosarcoma with FSRT (n = 14) or IMRT (n = 5) as a part of multimodal therapy. Median age at the time of radiation therapy was 5 years (range 2–15 years). All children received systemic chemotherapy according to the German Soft Tissue Sarcoma Study protocols. Median size of treatment volume for RT was 93,4 ml. We applied a median total dose of 45 Gy (range 32 Gy – 54 Gy) using a median fractionation of 5 × 1,8 Gy/week (range 1,6 Gy – 1,8 Gy). The median time interval between primary diagnosis and radiation therapy was 5 months (range 3–9 months). After RT, the 3- and 5-year survival rate was 94%. The 3- and 5-year actuarial local control rate after RT was 89%. The actuarial freedom of distant metastases rate at 3- and 5-years was 89% for all patients. Radiotherapy was well tolerated in all children and could be completed without interruptions > 4 days. No toxicities >CTC grade 2 were observed. The median follow-up time after RT was 17 months. IMRT and FSRT lead to excellent outcome in children with head-and-neck RMS with a low incidence of treatment-related side effects

  5. Complexity and the Fractional Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pensri Pramukkul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study complex processes whose evolution in time rests on the occurrence of a large and random number of events. The mean time interval between two consecutive critical events is infinite, thereby violating the ergodic condition and activating at the same time a stochastic central limit theorem that supports the hypothesis that the Mittag-Leffler function is a universal property of nature. The time evolution of these complex systems is properly generated by means of fractional differential equations, thus leading to the interpretation of fractional trajectories as the average over many random trajectories each of which satisfies the stochastic central limit theorem and the condition for the Mittag-Leffler universality.

  6. Intelligent fractions learning system: implementation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available to capture and analyse the children?s interactions), the scalability of the system makes it attractive in applications where automatic data capture is required. This paper is structured as follows. First, we describe the objectives of the system. Next we... to fractions. Our aim with the current research project is to extend the existing UFractions learning system to incorporate automatic data capturing. ?Intelligent UFractions? allows a teacher to remotely monitor the children?s progress during...

  7. Microfluidic Devices for Blood Fractionation

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Han Wei; Bhagat, Ali Asgar S.; Lee, Wong Cheng J.; Huang, Sha; Han, Jongyoon; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2011-01-01

    Blood, a complex biological fluid, comprises 45% cellular components suspended in protein rich plasma. These different hematologic components perform distinct functions in vivo and thus the ability to efficiently fractionate blood into its individual components has innumerable applications in both clinical diagnosis and biological research. Yet, processing blood is not trivial. In the past decade, a flurry of new microfluidic based technologies has emerged to address this compelling problem. ...

  8. Fractional viscoelastic beam under torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinas-Armijo, N.; Cutrona, S.; Di Paola, M.; Pirrotta, A.

    2017-07-01

    This paper introduces a study on twisted viscoelastic beams, having considered fractional calculus to capture the viscoelastic behaviour. Further another novelty of this paper is extending a recent numerical approach, labelled line elementless method (LEM), to viscoelastic beams. The latter does not require any discretization neither in the domain nor in the boundary. Some numerical applications have been reported to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the method.

  9. FRACTIONAL DYNAMICS AT MULTIPLE TIMES

    OpenAIRE

    Meerschaert, Mark M.; Straka, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A continuous time random walk (CTRW) imposes a random waiting time between random particle jumps. CTRW limit densities solve a fractional Fokker-Planck equation, but since the CTRW limit is not Markovian, this is not sufficient to characterize the process. This paper applies continuum renewal theory to restore the Markov property on an expanded state space, and compute the joint CTRW limit density at multiple times.

  10. FRACTIONAL DYNAMICS AT MULTIPLE TIMES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerschaert, Mark M; Straka, Peter

    2012-11-01

    A continuous time random walk (CTRW) imposes a random waiting time between random particle jumps. CTRW limit densities solve a fractional Fokker-Planck equation, but since the CTRW limit is not Markovian, this is not sufficient to characterize the process. This paper applies continuum renewal theory to restore the Markov property on an expanded state space, and compute the joint CTRW limit density at multiple times.

  11. Evaluating the Impact of AIRS Observations on Regional Forecasts at the SPoRT Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodsky, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center collaborates with operational partners of different sizes and operational goals to improve forecasts using targeted projects and data sets. Modeling and DA activities focus on demonstrating utility of NASA data sets and capabilities within operational systems. SPoRT has successfully assimilated the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) radiance and profile data. A collaborative project is underway with the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation (JCSDA) to use AIRS profiles to better understand the impact of AIRS radiances assimilated within Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) in hopes of engaging the operational DA community in a reassessment of assimilation methodologies to more effectively assimilate hyperspectral radiances.

  12. The Effect of Corrective Feedback on Performance in Basic Cognitive Tasks: An Analysis of RT Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Moret-Tatay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the effect of trial-by-trial feedback about correct and error responding on performance in two basic cognitive tasks: a classic Stroop task (n = 40 and a color-word matching task ('n' = 30. Standard measures of both RT and accuracy were examined in addition to measures obtained from fitting the ex-Gaussian distributional model to the correct RTs. For both tasks, RTs were faster in blocks of trials with feedback than in blocks without feedback, but this difference was not significant. On the other hand, with respect to the distributional analyses, providing feedback served to significantly reduce the size of the tails of the RT distributions. Such results suggest that, for conditions in which accuracy is fairly high, the effect of corrective feedback might either be to reduce the tendency to double-check before responding or to decrease the amount of attentional lapsing.

  13. RT-PCR diagnosis of recurrent rearrangements in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Cristina N; Gallego, Marta S; Rossi, Jorge G; Medina, Adriana; Rubio, Patricia L; Bernasconi, Andrea R; Zubizarreta, Pedro A; Felice, María S

    2012-06-01

    The present study was performed to establish the prevalence of the recurrent fusion transcripts in Argentinean pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A total of 380 newly diagnosed children (including 50 infants and 44 T-ALL) were screened by RT-PCR; the incidence of recurrent rearrangements was: ETV6-RUNX1, 12.9%; TCF3-PBX1, 5.0%; BCR-ABL1, 1.6%; and MLL rearrangements, 10.5%. STIL-TAL1 was detected in 22.7% of T-ALL cases. In B-ALL cases, the pEFS was significantly influenced by the presence of genetic alterations. RT-PCR studies improved patients' stratification and also the overall outcome of children treated in a pediatric hospital from a developing country. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Simple and Rapid Detection for Rice stripe virus Using RT-PCR and Porous Ceramic Cubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Bin Hong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and simple RT-PCR diagnosis method for detection of Rice stripe virus (RSV, one of major virus infecting rice, was developed using porous ceramic cubes in this study. The porous ceramic cube can rapidly absorb biological molecules such as small-sized proteins and nucleic acid fragments into its pores. We examined whether this ability of porous ceramic cubes could be applied for isolating viral nucleic acids or particles from the RSV- infected plant tissues. In this study, we found that the porous ceramic cube was capable of absorbing a detection level of viruses from the rice tissues infected with RSV and established RT-PCR-based RNA diagnosis method using porous ceramic cubes.

  15. Intelligent software systems and SMiRT: Potentials, actual results, expectations, trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, A.

    1993-01-01

    The paper gives a survey of recent development trends in the area of knowledge-based systems, hypermedia, neural networks and other similar technologies which are on the baseline of modern 'intelligent' software systems, applied in the areas relevant for SMiRT: power plant operation, design and analysis of structural components, materials, and many others. The paper highlights the historical background of these trends, as well as the methodologies and technologies which made such a development possible ('enabling methodologies/technologies'). Examples from several, SMiRT characteristic application areas are mentioned, in order to give an illustration what the deployment of an intelligent software system can mean in practice. Finally, a summary of these result is made and future perspectives indicated. (author)

  16. Standard-curve competitive RT-PCR quantification of myogenic regulatory factors in chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Alvares

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR is the most sensitive method used to evaluate gene expression. Although many advances have been made since quantitative RT-PCR was first described, few reports deal with the mathematical bases of this technique. The aim of the present study was to develop and standardize a competitive PCR method using standard-curves to quantify transcripts of the myogenic regulatory factors MyoD, Myf-5, Myogenin and MRF4 in chicken embryos. Competitor cDNA molecules were constructed for each gene under study using deletion primers, which were designed to maintain the anchorage sites for the primers used to amplify target cDNAs. Standard-curves were prepared by co-amplification of different amounts of target cDNA with a constant amount of competitor. The content of specific mRNAs in embryo cDNAs was determined after PCR with a known amount of competitor and comparison to standard-curves. Transcripts of the housekeeping ß-actin gene were measured to normalize the results. As predicted by the model, most of the standard-curves showed a slope close to 1, while intercepts varied depending on the relative efficiency of competitor amplification. The sensitivity of the RT-PCR method permitted the detection of as few as 60 MyoD/Myf-5 molecules per reaction but approximately 600 molecules of MRF4/Myogenin mRNAS were necessary to produce a measurable signal. A coefficient of variation of 6 to 19% was estimated for the different genes analyzed (6 to 9 repetitions. The competitive RT-PCR assay described here is sensitive, precise and allows quantification of up to 9 transcripts from a single cDNA sample.

  17. A Host-Based RT-PCR Gene Expression Signature to Identify Acute Respiratory Viral Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaas, Aimee K.; Burke, Thomas; Chen, Minhua; McClain, Micah; Nicholson, Bradly; Veldman, Timothy; Tsalik, Ephraim L.; Fowler, Vance; Rivers, Emanuel P.; Otero, Ronny; Kingsmore, Stephen F.; Voora, Deepak; Lucas, Joseph; Hero, Alfred O.; Carin, Lawrence; Woods, Christopher W.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Improved ways to diagnose acute respiratory viral infections could decrease inappropriate antibacterial use and serve as a vital triage mechanism in the event of a potential viral pandemic. Measurement of the host response to infection is an alternative to pathogen-based diagnostic testing and may improve diagnostic accuracy. We have developed a host-based assay with a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) TaqMan low-density array (TLDA) platform for classifying respiratory viral infection. We developed the assay using two cohorts experimentally infected with influenza A H3N2/Wisconsin or influenza A H1N1/Brisbane, and validated the assay in a sample of adults presenting to the emergency department with fever (n = 102) and in healthy volunteers (n = 41). Peripheral blood RNA samples were obtained from individuals who underwent experimental viral challenge or who presented to the emergency department and had microbiologically proven viral respiratory infection or systemic bacterial infection. The selected gene set on the RT-PCR TLDA assay classified participants with experimentally induced influenza H3N2 and H1N1 infection with 100 and 87% accuracy, respectively. We validated this host gene expression signature in a cohort of 102 individuals arriving at the emergency department. The sensitivity of the RT-PCR test was 89% [95% confidence interval (CI), 72 to 98%], and the specificity was 94% (95% CI, 86 to 99%). These results show that RT-PCR–based detection of a host gene expression signature can classify individuals with respiratory viral infection and sets the stage for prospective evaluation of this diagnostic approach in a clinical setting. PMID:24048524

  18. RT-qPCR work-flow for single-cell data analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stahlberg, A.; Rusňáková, Vendula; Forootan, A.; Anděrová, Miroslava; Kubista, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2013), s. 80-88 ISSN 1046-2023 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10052; GA ČR GAP303/10/1338 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : RT-qPCR * Single-cell biology * Single-cell data analysis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; FH - Neurology (UEM-P) Impact factor: 3.221, year: 2013

  19. Table 1. Real-time qRT-PCR verification of eight DEGs. Gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table 1. Real-time qRT-PCR verification of eight DEGS. Gene ID. Gene description. Gene expression RNA-seq comparisons log2(FC) Up/down. Primer sequence. (5' → 3'). Up. Up. Up. Up F: G. BMK.10019 Uncharacterized protein LOC100777071. JL2 vs YZ9253. 1.63. Up. F: TCTGGТGCTTATCGТССТ. JL2 vs JL7. 2.26.

  20. Detection of circulating tumor cells by nested RT-PCR targeting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salwa H. Teama

    We used nested RT-PCR-based reverse transcription PCR assay for the detection of circu- lating cancer cells in the peripheral blood. Results: The blood samples from the colon cancer patients showed detection of EGFR in 15/36 patients (41.7%); CEAmRNA in 22/36 patients (61.1%) and CK20mRNA in 24/36 patients.

  1. Data Fusion Modeling for an RT3102 and Dewetron System Application in Hybrid Vehicle Stability Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhibin Miao; Hongtian Zhang

    2015-01-01

    More and more hybrid electric vehicles are driven since they offer such advantages as energy savings and better active safety performance. Hybrid vehicles have two or more power driving systems and frequently switch working condition, so controlling stability is very important. In this work, a two-stage Kalman algorithm method is used to fuse data in hybrid vehicle stability testing. First, the RT3102 navigation system and Dewetron system are introduced. Second, a modeling of data fusion is p...

  2. Elu on väärt riskideski / Juta Üts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Üts, Juta, 1934-

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna Noorte Naiste ja Noorte Meeste Kristlik Ühing aitab läbi projektide "Terve Eesti laps" ja "Elu on väärt ka riskides" õpetada astma- ja suhkruhaigetele lastele toimetulekut oma haigusega. Projekte tutvustavad Tallinna NNKÜ ja NMKÜ peasekretär Katrin Ohno, Tallinna Kesklinna Lastepolikliiniku päevastatsionaari töötaja Viive Sirge ning endokrinoloog dr. Riina Shor

  3. Thrombolytic therapy with rt-PA and transcranial color Doppler ultrasound (TCCS) combined with microbubbles for embolic thrombus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xinping; Wang, Yong; Wang, Yi; Chen, Hong; Chen, Li; Liu, Yi; Xue, Chengshi

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the efficacy of transcranial color Doppler ultrasound (TCCS) combined with microbubbles (MBs) and rt-PA (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator) for thrombolysis in vivo. An arterial embolization model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats by retrograde placement of autologous thrombi into the common carotid artery followed by ligation of external carotid artery and temporary occlusion of the carotid artery and internal carotid artery by clamping. The animals were divided into 5 groups with 6 rats in each group: ① untreated control group, ② rt-PA group, ③ TCCS+MBs group, ④ TCCS+MBs+rt-PA group, ⑤ TCCS+MBs+1/2 rt-PA+group. Thrombolytic effects including recanalization rate and recanalization grade were evaluated with grayscale and color Doppler ultrasound post treatment. Examination of histological change in the involved vessel was performed at the end of the experiments. Thrombolysis in terms of recanalization rate and recanalization grade was observed in the treated groups in a time-dependent manner, except the TCCS+MBs group. Addition of rt-PA remarkably enhanced the therapeutic lysis in TCCS+MBs group. However, no difference of therapeutic effects existed between TCCS+MBs+rt-PA group and TCCS+MBs+1/2 rt-PA group. TCCS+MBs combined with rt-PA is a relatively effective approach for ischemic arterial thrombosis with an additive or synergistic effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Looking beyond RtI Standard Treatment Approach: It's Not Too Late to Embrace the Problem-Solving Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Diane; Coughlin, Patricia Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    There are two approaches for providing Tier 2 interventions within Response to Intervention (RtI): standard treatment protocol (STP) and the problem-solving approach (PSA). This article describes the multi-tiered RtI prevention model being implemented across the United States through an analysis of these two approaches in reading instruction. It…

  5. Investigations for a multi-marker RT-PCR to improve sensitivity of disseminated tumor cell detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlems, F.A.; Diepstra, J.H.S.; Cornelissen, I.M.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Wobbes, Th.; Punt, C.J.A.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Ruers, T.J.M.; Muijen, G.N.P. van

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In order to develop a multi-marker RT-PCR, which as such may be more sensitive than a single marker assay for the detection of disseminated tumor cells, we evaluated six RT-PCR markers: cytokeratin 20 (CK20), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), guanylyl cyclase C (GCC), epidermal growth

  6. Investigations for a multi-marker RT-PCR to improve sensitivity of disseminated tumor cell detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlems, F. A.; Diepstra, J. H. S.; Cornelissen, I. M. H. A.; Ligtenberg, M. J. L.; Wobbes, Th; Punt, C. J. A.; van Krieken, J. H. J. M.; Ruers, T. J. M.; van Muijen, G. N. P.

    2003-01-01

    In order to develop a multi-marker RT-PCR, which as such may be more sensitive than a single marker assay for the detection of disseminated tumor cells, we evaluated six RT-PCR markers: cytokeratin 20 (CK20), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), guanylyl cyclase C (GCC), epidermal growth factor receptor

  7. Importance of Housekeeping gene selection for accurate RT-qPCR in a wound healing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turabelidze, Anna; Guo, Shujuan; DiPietro, Luisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Studies in the field of wound healing have utilized a variety of different housekeeping genes for RT-qPCR analysis. However, nearly all of these studies assume that the selected normalization gene is stably expressed throughout the course of the repair process. The purpose of our current investigation was to identify the most stable housekeeping genes for studying gene expression in mouse wound healing using RT-qPCR. To identify which housekeeping genes are optimal for studying gene expression in wound healing, we examined all articles published in Wound Repair and Regeneration that cited RT-qPCR during the period of Jan/Feb 2008 until July/August2009. We determined that ACTIN, GAPDH, 18S and β2M were the most frequently used housekeeping genes in human, mouse, and pig studies. We also investigated nine commonly used housekeeping genes that are not generally used in wound healing models: GUS, TBP, RPLP2, ATP5B, SDHA, UBC, CANX, CYC1, and YWHAZ. We observed that wounded and unwounded tissues have contrasting housekeeping gene expression stability. The results demonstrate that commonly used housekeeping genes must be validated as accurate normalizing genes for each individual experimental condition. PMID:20731795

  8. Validation of endogenous reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis of human visceral adipose samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afendy Arian

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the epidemic proportions of obesity worldwide and the concurrent prevalence of metabolic syndrome, there is an urgent need for better understanding the underlying mechanisms of metabolic syndrome, in particular, the gene expression differences which may participate in obesity, insulin resistance and the associated series of chronic liver conditions. Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR is the standard method for studying changes in relative gene expression in different tissues and experimental conditions. However, variations in amount of starting material, enzymatic efficiency and presence of inhibitors can lead to quantification errors. Hence the need for accurate data normalization is vital. Among several known strategies for data normalization, the use of reference genes as an internal control is the most common approach. Recent studies have shown that both obesity and presence of insulin resistance influence an expression of commonly used reference genes in omental fat. In this study we validated candidate reference genes suitable for qRT-PCR profiling experiments using visceral adipose samples from obese and lean individuals. Results Cross-validation of expression stability of eight selected reference genes using three popular algorithms, GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper found ACTB and RPII as most stable reference genes. Conclusions We recommend ACTB and RPII as stable reference genes most suitable for gene expression studies of human visceral adipose tissue. The use of these genes as a reference pair may further enhance the robustness of qRT-PCR in this model system.

  9. Evaluation of reference genes for gene expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR in Azospirillum brasilense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary McMillan

    Full Text Available Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen fixing bacterium that has been shown to have various beneficial effects on plant growth and yield. Under normal conditions A. brasilense exists in a motile flagellated form, which, under starvation or stress conditions, can undergo differentiation into an encapsulated, cyst-like form. Quantitative RT-PCR can be used to analyse changes in gene expression during this differentiation process. The accuracy of quantification of mRNA levels by qRT-PCR relies on the normalisation of data against stably expressed reference genes. No suitable set of reference genes has yet been described for A. brasilense. Here we evaluated the expression of ten candidate reference genes (16S rRNA, gapB, glyA, gyrA, proC, pykA, recA, recF, rpoD, and tpiA in wild-type and mutant A. brasilense strains under different culture conditions, including conditions that induce differentiation. Analysis with the software programs BestKeeper, NormFinder and GeNorm indicated that gyrA, glyA and recA are the most stably expressed reference genes in A. brasilense. The results also suggested that the use of two reference genes (gyrA and glyA is sufficient for effective normalisation of qRT-PCR data.

  10. Evaluation of reference genes for gene expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR in Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2014-01-01

    Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen fixing bacterium that has been shown to have various beneficial effects on plant growth and yield. Under normal conditions A. brasilense exists in a motile flagellated form, which, under starvation or stress conditions, can undergo differentiation into an encapsulated, cyst-like form. Quantitative RT-PCR can be used to analyse changes in gene expression during this differentiation process. The accuracy of quantification of mRNA levels by qRT-PCR relies on the normalisation of data against stably expressed reference genes. No suitable set of reference genes has yet been described for A. brasilense. Here we evaluated the expression of ten candidate reference genes (16S rRNA, gapB, glyA, gyrA, proC, pykA, recA, recF, rpoD, and tpiA) in wild-type and mutant A. brasilense strains under different culture conditions, including conditions that induce differentiation. Analysis with the software programs BestKeeper, NormFinder and GeNorm indicated that gyrA, glyA and recA are the most stably expressed reference genes in A. brasilense. The results also suggested that the use of two reference genes (gyrA and glyA) is sufficient for effective normalisation of qRT-PCR data.

  11. SPoRT Participation in the GOES-R and JPSS Proving Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary; Fuell, Kevin; Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    For the last several years, the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) project at has been working with the various algorithm working groups and science teams to demonstrate the utility of future operational sensors for GOES-R and the suite of instruments for the JPSS observing platforms. For GOES-R, imagery and products have been developed from polar-orbiting sensors such as MODIS and geostationary observations from SEVIRI, simulated imagery, enhanced products derived from existing GOES satellites, and data from ground-based observing systems to generate pseudo or proxy products for the ABI and GLM instruments. The suite of products include GOES-POES basic and RGB hybrid imagery, total lightning flash products, quantitative precipitation estimates, and convective initiation products. SPoRT is using imagery and products from VIIRS, CrIS, ATMS, and OMPS to show the utility of data and products from their operational counterparts on JPSS. The products include VIIRS imagery in swath form, the GOES-POES hybrid, a suite of RGB products including the air mass RGB using water vapor and ozone channels from CrIS, and several DNB products. Over a dozen SPoRT collaborative WFOs and several National Centers are involved in an intensive evaluation of the operational utility of these products.

  12. Det retlige sprog som virkelighedsskabende - graviditetsvært kontra surrogatmoder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Frank Høgholm

    2018-01-01

    artiklen foreslås supplementært, at der i valget af term til beskrivelsen af den graviditetsbærende kvinde i et surrogati-arrangement indføres en skelnen baseret på, hvorvidt den graviditetsbærende kvinde ikke er genetisk relateret til barnet, eller om hun faktisk er. Det foreslås følgelig at anvende den......I dag er det undtagelsen, at kvinden, der bærer graviditeten og føder barnet i et surrogati-arrangement, er genetisk relateret til barnet. I artiklen foreslås som en supplerende betegnelse til surrogatmoder derfor betegnelsen: graviditetsvært. Valget af en retlig betegnelse til beskrivelse af...... fænomen og kan føre den retlige forståelse i forskelligartede retninger. Supplering af det retlige sprog med betegnelsen graviditetsvært øger derfor indsigten i de underliggende faktiske forhold og forbedrer grundlaget for retlige vurderinger i konkrete sager samt for retspolitiske refleksioner. I...

  13. Development of an improved RT-LAMP assay for detection of currently circulating rubella viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, H; Okamoto, K; Anraku, M; Otsuki, N; Sakata, M; Icenogle, J; Zheng, Q; Kurata, T; Kase, T; Komase, K; Takeda, M; Mori, Y

    2014-10-01

    Rubella virus is the causative agent of rubella. The symptoms are usually mild, and characterized by a maculopapular rash and fever. However, rubella infection in pregnant women sometimes can result in the birth of infants with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Global efforts have been made to reduce and eliminate CRS. Although a reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for detection of rubella virus has been reported, the primers contained several mismatched nucleotides with the genomes of currently circulating rubella virus strains. In the present study, a new RT-LAMP assay was established. The detection limit of this assay was 100-1000PFU/reaction of viruses for all rubella genotypes, except for genotype 2C, which is not commonly found in the current era. Therefore, the new RT-LAMP assay can successfully detect all current rubella virus genotypes, and does not require sophisticated devices like TaqMan real-time PCR systems. This assay should be a useful assay for laboratory diagnosis of rubella and CRS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection of avian metapneumovirus subtypes in turkeys using RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongor, H; Karahan, M; Kalin, R; Bulut, H; Cetinkaya, B

    2010-03-20

    This study investigated the prevalence of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and the detection of molecular subtypes of field strains of the virus using RT-PCR in clinically healthy turkeys and those showing signs of respiratory disease. In the RT-PCR examination of 624 tracheal tissue samples collected from a local turkey abattoir, 2.9 per cent (18/624) of samples tested positive. In the examination of tracheal swab samples collected from flocks with respiratory problems, 18 of 20 samples tested positive. When the results were assessed at flock level, aMPV infection was detected in only one of the 23 clinically healthy turkey flocks, whereas all four flocks with respiratory problems were infected. Molecular typing using primers specific to the attachment glycoprotein (G) gene showed that all 36 positive samples belonged to subtype B. Partial sequence analysis of DNA samples showed 95 per cent homology between the field types and the reference strain aMPV subtype B. Whereas clinically healthy turkeys had been vaccinated with a subtype A virus vaccine, the flocks with respiratory problems had been vaccinated with a subtype B virus vaccine. Despite four blind passages of RT-PCR-positive samples on Vero and chicken embryo fibroblast cells, no cytopathic effect was detected by microscopic examination.

  15. Optical and UV spectroscopy of the peculiar RS CVn system RT Lacertae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huenemoerder, D. P.; Barden, S. C.

    1986-01-01

    H-alpha and H-beta spectra of the peculiar double-lined RS CVn binary RT Lacertae have been obtained using the IUE, together with a ground-based coude-feed telescope at KPNO. The ground-based spectra show an asymmetry related to the orbital phase in the H-alpha profile. H-beta profiles showed excess emission in one hemisphere and excess absorption in the other, with a broad Gaussian emission component superposed on the excess H-alpha line. A radial velocity curve was derived to estimate the mass ratio and geometry of the system. It is shown that the component of RT Lac fills 80-90 percent of the equilibrium Roche surface. Low-resolution ultraviolet data show that the supposed cooler component is bluer than its companion, suggesting evidence of a scattering shell or a cloud produced by the splash of a gas stream. The phase behavior of the low resolution ultraviolet data support the conclusion that RT Lac is a mass transfer system and that mass transfer is the primary cause of its activity.

  16. How feasible is remote 3D dosimetry for MR guided Radiation Therapy (MRgRT)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mein, S.; Rankine, L.; Miles, D.; Juang, T.; Cai, B.; Curcuru, A.; Mutic, S.; Fenoli, J.; Adamovics, J.; Li, H.; Oldham, M.

    2017-05-01

    To develop and apply a remote dosimetry protocol with PRESAGE® radiochromic plastic and optical-CT readout in the validation of MRI guided radiation therapy (MRgRT) treatments (MRIdian® by ViewRay®). Through multi-institutional collaboration we performed PRESAGE® dosimetry studies in 4ml cuvettes to investigate dose-response linearity, MR-compatibility, and energy-independence. An open calibration field and symmetrical 3-field plans were delivered to 10cm diameter PRESAGE® to examine percent depth dose and response uniformity under a magnetic field. Evidence of non-linear dose response led to a large volume PRESAGE® study where small corrections were developed for temporally- and spatially-dependent behaviors observed between irradiation and delayed readout. TG-119 plans were created in the MRIdian® TPS and then delivered to 14.5cm 2kg PRESAGE® dosimeters. Through the domestic investigation of an off-site MRgRT system, a refined 3D remote dosimetry protocol is presented capable of validation of advanced MRgRT radiation treatments.

  17. Selection of suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analyses in cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Pinto

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are a group of photosynthetic prokaryotes that have a diverse morphology, minimal nutritional requirements and metabolic plasticity that has made them attractive organisms to use in biotechnological applications. The use of these organisms as cell factories requires the knowledge of their physiology and metabolism at a systems level. For the quantification of gene transcripts real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is the standard technique. However, to obtain reliable RT-qPCR results the use and validation of reference genes is mandatory. Towards this goal we have selected and analyzed twelve candidate reference genes from three morphologically distinct cyanobacteria grown under routinely used laboratory conditions. The six genes exhibiting less variation in each organism were evaluated in terms of their expression stability using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. In addition, the minimum number of reference genes required for normalization was determined. Based on the three algorithms, we provide a list of genes for cyanobacterial RT-qPCR data normalization. To our knowledge, this is the first work on the validation of reference genes for cyanobacteria constituting a valuable starting point for future works.

  18. WE-H-207B-02: MR-Driven RT Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, M.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, steady progress has been made towards the implementation of MRI in external beam radiation therapy for processes ranging from treatment simulation to in-room guidance. Novel procedures relying mostly on MR data are currently implemented in the clinic. This session will cover topics such as (a) commissioning and quality control of the MR in-room imagers and simulators specific to RT, (b) treatment planning requirements, constraints and challenges when dealing with various MR data, (c) quantification of organ motion with an emphasis on treatment delivery guidance, and (d) MR-driven strategies for adaptive RT workflows. The content of the session was chosen to address both educational and practical key aspects of MR guidance. Learning Objectives: Good understanding of MR testing recommended for in-room MR imaging as well as image data validation for RT chain (e.g. image transfer, filtering for consistency, spatial accuracy, manipulation for task specific); Familiarity with MR-based planning procedures: motivation, core workflow requirements, current status, challenges; Overview of the current methods for the quantification of organ motion; Discussion on approaches for adaptive treatment planning and delivery. T. Stanescu - License agreement with Modus Medical Devices to develop a phantom for the quantification of MR image system-related distortions.; T. Stanescu, N/A

  19. A Comparison of daily megavoltage CT and ultrasound image guided radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Cheng; Kainz, Kristofer; Lawton, Colleen; Li, X. Allen

    2008-01-01

    In order to quantify the differences between ultrasound-imaging and megavoltage-CT (MVCT) daily prostate localization in prostate-cancer radiotherapy and their dosimetric impacts, daily shifts were analyzed for a total of 140 prostate cancer patients; 106 positioned using ultrasound-based imaging [B-mode Acquisition and Targeting (BAT)], and 34 using the MVCT from a TomoTherapy Hi-Art unit. The shifts indicated by the two systems were compared statistically along the right/left (R/L), superior/inferior (S/I), and anterior/posterior (A/P) directions. The systematic and random variations among the daily alignments were calculated. Margins to account for these shifts were estimated. The mean shifts and standard deviations along the R/L, S/I, and A/P directions were -0.11±3.80, 0.67±4.67, and 2.71±6.31 mm for BAT localizations and -0.98±5.13, 0.27±3.35, and 1.00±4.22 mm for MVCT localizations, respectively. The systematic and random variations in daily shifts based on MVCT were generally smaller than those based on BAT, especially along the A/P direction. A t-test showed this difference to be statistically significant. The planning target volume margins in the A/P direction estimated to account for daily variations were 8.81 and 14.66 mm based on MVCT and BAT data, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the daily prostate movement pattern between the first few fractions and the remaining fractions. Dosimetric comparison of MVCT and BAT prostate alignments was performed for seven fractions from a patient. The degradation from the plan caused by the MVCT alignment is trivial, while that by BAT is substantial. The MVCT technique results in smaller variations in daily shifts than ultrasound imaging, indicating that MVCT is more reliable and precise for prostate localization. Ultrasound-based localization may overestimate the daily prostate motion, particularly in the A/P direction, negatively impacting prostate dose coverage and rectal

  20. Development of a novel recombinant encapsidated RNA particle: evaluation as an internal control for diagnostic RT-PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Donald P.; Montague, Nick; Ebert, Katja

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the generation of novel encapsidated RNA particles and their evaluation as in-tube internal controls in diagnostic real-time reverse-transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) assays for the detection of RNA viruses. A cassette containing sequences of 2 diagnostic primer sets for foot...... unguiculata). RNA contained in these particles was amplified in diagnostic rRT-PCR assays used for detection of FMDV and SVDV. Amplification of these internal controls was used to confirm that rRT-PCR inhibitors were absent from clinical samples, thereby verifying negative assay results. The recombinant CPMVs...... did not reduce the analytical sensitivity of the rRT-PCRs when amplification of the insert was performed in the same tube as the diagnostic target. This system provides an attractive solution to the production of internal controls for rRT-PCR assays since CPMV grows to high yields in plants...