WorldWideScience

Sample records for dadu zelmeu zles

  1. Detecting Variation Trends of Temperature and Precipitation for the Dadu River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the variation trends of temperature and precipitation in the Dadu River Basin of China based on observed records from fourteen meteorological stations. The magnitude of trends was estimated using Sen’s linear method while its statistical significance was evaluated using Mann-Kendall’s test. The results of analysis depict increase change from northwest to southeast of annual temperature and precipitation in space. In temporal scale, the annual temperature showed significant increase trend and the annual precipitation showed increase trend. For extreme indices, the trends for temperature are more consistent in the region compared to precipitation. This paper has practical meanings for an effective management of climate risk and provides a foundation for further study of hydrological situation in this river basin.

  2. DADU SICHERMAN (SUATU APLIKASI DARI FAKTORISASI TUNGGAL PADA Z[X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elah Nurlaelah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An interesting application of unique factorization in Z[X] is Sicherman dice.  The dice is a pair of dice whose has different number from ordinary dice which faces are labeled 1 through 6. But probability the sum  of faces are same as the sum of ordinary dices. Sicherman dice is obtained by using one to one correspondence between the two polynomials and the face of two dice of ordinary dice. Kata Kunci : ring R[X], daerah Integral, polynomial irreducible,  Faktorisasi tunggal pada Z[X].

  3. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Re'surne'. 'L'Etat-nation est un terme control/else” cleZltS le uocabulaire zles etudiants d'e'conomie politiaue internationale. A telle enseigne au'appliauer le concept a une analyse de l'e'i/olution de l 'e'conomie politiaue d 'unc region telle epic l 'Afiiaue a ustrale, ieleue d 'une recloutable entreprise. Trois paradigmes — le ...

  4. Numerical investigation of the flow in axial water turbines and marine propellers with scale-resolving simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgut, Mitja; Jošt, Dragica; Nobile, Enrico; Škerlavaj, Aljaž

    2015-11-01

    The accurate prediction of the performances of axial water turbines and naval propellers is a challenging task, of great practical relevance. In this paper a numerical prediction strategy, based on the combination of a trusted CFD solver and a calibrated mass transfer model, is applied to the turbulent flow in axial turbines and around a model scale naval propeller, under non-cavitating and cavitating conditions. Some selected results for axial water turbines and a marine propeller, and in particular the advantages, in terms of accuracy and fidelity, of ScaleResolving Simulations (SRS), like SAS (Scale Adaptive Simulation) and Zonal-LES (ZLES) compared to standard RANS approaches, are presented. Efficiency prediction for a Kaplan and a bulb turbine was significantly improved by use of the SAS SST model in combination with the ZLES in the draft tube. Size of cavitation cavity and sigma break curve for Kaplan turbine were successfully predicted with SAS model in combination with robust high resolution scheme, while for mass transfer the Zwart model with calibrated constants were used. The results obtained for a marine propeller in non-uniform inflow, under cavitating conditions, compare well with available experimental measurements, and proved that a mass transfer model, previously calibrated for RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes), can be successfully applied also within the SRS approaches.

  5. jfewr ©2016 - jfewr Publications E-mail:jfewr@yahoo.com ISBN: 2141

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Sam System

    Syed (2013) obtained a similar result in Gorakh Hill-Dadu-Sindh resort in Pakistan. Shortage of manpower in tourism/hospitality sector is not limited to developing countries. Jope. (2012) observedthat developed countries such as. US, France, Germany and Switzerland similarly experience manpower shortage but actually.

  6. Significant genetic boundaries and spatial dynamics of giant pandas occupying fragmented habitat across southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lifeng; Zhang, Shanning; Gu, Xiaodong; Wei, Fuwen

    2011-03-01

    Understanding population history and genetic structure are key drivers of ecological research. Here, we studied two highly fragmented and isolated populations (Xiaoxiangling and Daxiangling) of giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) at the extreme southwestern edge of their distribution. This area also contains the Dadu River, national road 108 and various human infrastructure and development, providing an ideal region in which we can identify the effects of different barriers on animal movements. We used partial mitochondrial control region (mtDNA) and nine microsatellite loci (nuclear DNA) data derived from 192 faecal and one blood sample collected from the wild. We found 136 genotypes corresponding to 53 unique multilocus genotypes and eight unique control region haplotypes (653 bp). Significant genetic boundaries correlated spatially with the Dadu River (K = 2). We estimate that a major divergence took place between these populations 26,000 years bp, at around the similar time the rock surface of valley bottom formed in Dadu River. The national road has resulted in further recent population differentiation (Pairwise F(S) on mtDNA and nuclear DNA) so that in effect, four smaller sub-populations now exist. Promisingly, we identified two possible first-generation migrants and their migration paths, and recommended the immediate construction of a number of corridors. Fortunately, the Chinese government has accepted our advice and is now planning corridor construction. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Two new species of Japalura (Squamata: Agamidae) from the Hengduan Mountain Range, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Jiang, Ke; Zou, Da-Hu; Yan, Fang; Siler, Cameron D; Che, Jing

    2016-01-18

    Until recently, the agamid species, Japalura flaviceps, was recognized to have the widest geographic distribution among members of the genus occurring in China, from eastern Tibet to Shaanxi Province. However, recent studies restricted the distribution of J. flaviceps to the Dadu River valley only in northwestern Sichuan Province, suggesting that records of J. flaviceps outside the Dadu River valley likely represent undescribed diversity. During two herpetofaunal surveys in 2013 and 2015, eight and 12 specimens of lizards of the genus Japalura were collected from the upper Nujiang (=Salween) Valley in eastern Tibet, China, and upper Lancang (=Mekong) Valley in northwestern Yunnan, China, respectively. These specimens display a unique suite of diagnostic morphological characters. Our robust comparisons of phenotype reveal that these populations can be distinguished readily from J. flaviceps and all other recognized congeners. Herein, we describe the two Japalura lineages as new species, Japalura laeviventris sp. nov. and Japalura iadina sp. nov.. In addition, we provide updated conservation assessments for the new species as well as imperiled congeners according to the IUCN criteria for classification, discuss the importance of color patterns in the diagnosis and description of species in the genus Japalura, and discuss directions for future taxonomic studies of the group.

  8. Uplifting model of the Longmenshan mountain in the eastern margin of Tibetan plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Ding, R.; Mao, C.

    2010-12-01

    Longmenshan mountain is a vivid manifestation of the Cenozoic orogenesis in the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau, and a key to understand the geodynamics of eastward extending of the plateau. Thus the uplift mechanism of Longmenshan mountain became a hot spot issue of geosciences about the Tibetan plateau. Two entirely different hypotheses, i.e., crustal shortening and lower crustal channel flow, were put forward, but the solution is open. Further discussion need our deeper understanding about the uplifting features of the Longmenshan mountain. Fortunately, the uplifting processes were recorded objectively by peneplains and river landforms. We first analysed the peneplains and pediplanes of Longmenshan mountain and its surrounding areas, and surveyed the terraces of Dadu river running across the mountain. Then we studied the uplifting features of the study areas in late Cenozoic time on the basis of landform geometries. Finaly we discussed the possible mechanisms for the uplifting. There are two levels of peneplains whose peneplanations may begin in early Cenozoic time and end at late Miocene when the final fluctuations of elevations were possibly less than one kilometers. The valley of Dadu river is incised into the peneplains and has a staircase of no less than ten levels of terraces. The highest terrace is a strath which was contemporary with the pediplane in the piedmont formed in late Pliocene or in early Pleistocene. Due to their originally flat features, the peneplains and the strath terraces were used as datum planes for judging neotectonic deformations. Since late Miocene, the southeastern side of Longmenshan mountain has been dominated by thrust-faulting with a total vertical displacement of about 4500 m against the Sichuan basin, meantime the northwest side has been maintained flexural uplift with syncline hinge approximately following the Longriba fault. As a landform barrier between Tibetan plateau and Sichuan basin, the crest lines of the

  9. Flood scour monitoring system using fiber Bragg grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yung Bin; Lai, Jihn Sung; Chang, Kuo Chun; Li, Lu Sheng

    2006-12-01

    The exposure and subsequent undermining of pier/abutment foundations through the scouring action of a flood can result in the structural failure of a bridge. Bridge scour is one of the leading causes of bridge failure. Bridges subject to periods of flood/high flow require monitoring during those times in order to protect the traveling public. In this study, an innovative scour monitoring system using button-like fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors was developed and applied successfully in the field during the Aere typhoon period in 2004. The in situ FBG scour monitoring system has been demonstrated to be robust and reliable for real-time scour-depth measurements, and to be valid for indicating depositional depth at the Dadu Bridge. The field results show that this system can function well and survive a typhoon flood.

  10. Influence of a tectonically active mountain belt on its foreland basin: Evidence from detrital zircon dating of bedrocks and sediments from the eastern Tibetan Plateau and Sichuan Basin, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ning; Song, Xiangsuo; Xu, Hongyan; Jiang, Hanchao

    2017-09-01

    The tectonically active eastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) impacts the populous Sichuan Basin in the form of dust and exhumed detrital materials. To better understand a detailed transport process of detrital material from the eastern TP to the Sichuan Basin, eight samples were collected from the upper reaches of the Min River in the eastern TP to the Sichuan Basin, for zircon U-Pb chronological and grain-size analysis. The results are compared with those of previously studies. Zircon grains are comparatively coarse in three bedrock samples, one fluvial sand sample and one dust sample, but are distinctly fine in three lacustrine samples. Intriguingly, the zircon grain-size parameters from the fluvial sand and dust samples are similar to each other. Consistent with previous studies of this area, the analysis of our U-Pb zircon ages indicates five major age populations at 180-350 Ma, 350-550 Ma, 700-1000 Ma, 1600-2000 Ma, and 2200-2600 Ma, which broadly correspond to five known granitoid magmatic events within the Yangtze Block. The Min River links lacustrine sediments from Lixian, fluvial sands from Wenchuan, Leshan, Yibin, and from the Dadu River and the Dayi conglomerate, implying the Dayi conglomerate was transported by fluvial rather than glacial processes. The denuded detrital material, mainly generated by seismic events in the eastern TP, was transported by water flow into the western Sichuan Basin, where two thick sedimentary depocenters developed, and the relatively fine grains were then transported by wind to the northern Sichuan Basin. Thus, the thick sediments in the western Sichuan Basin mainly transported by the Min River probably exerted a major influence on dust deposition in the northern Sichuan Basin. In contrast, the Jialing and Dadu rivers made a minor contribution.

  11. The REFANI Pakistan study--a cluster randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cash-based transfer programmes on child nutrition status: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Bridget; Sangrasi, Ghulam Murtaza; Puett, Chloe; Trenouth, Lani; Pietzsch, Silke

    2015-10-12

    Cash-based transfer programmes are an emerging strategy in the prevention of wasting in children, especially targeted at vulnerable households during periods of food insecurity or during emergencies. However, the evidence surrounding the use of either cash or voucher transfer programmes in the humanitarian context and on nutritional outcomes is elusive. More evidence is needed not only to inform the global community of practice on best practices in humanitarian settings, but also to help strengthen national mitigation responses. The Research for Food Assistance on Nutrition Impact Pakistan study (REFANI-P) sets out to evaluate the impact of three cash-based interventions on nutritional outcomes in children aged less than five years from poor and very poor households in Dadu District. This four-arm parallel cluster randomised controlled trial is set among Action Against Hunger (ACF) programme villages in Dadu District, Sindh Province. Mothers are the target recipients of either seasonal unconditional cash transfers or fresh food vouchers. A comparison group receives 'standard care' provided by the ACF programme to which all groups have the same access. The primary outcomes are prevalence of wasting and mean weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) in children. Impact will be assessed at 6 months and at 1 year from baseline. Using a theory-based approach we will determine 'how' the different interventions work by looking at the processes involved and the impact pathways following the theory of change developed for this context. Quantitative and qualitative data are collected on morbidity, health seeking, hygiene and nutrition behaviours, dietary diversity, haemoglobin concentration, women's empowerment, household food security and expenditures and social capital. The direct and indirect costs of each intervention borne by the implementing organisation and their partners as well as by beneficiaries and their communities are also assessed. The results of this trial will provide

  12. Consanguinity among the risk factors for underweight in children under five: a study from rural Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnain, S.F.; Hashmi, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem, especially in developing countries. Of the 11 million children under 5 who die each year in the developing countries mainly from preventable causes, the death of about 54% are either directly or indirectly attributable to malnutrition. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence and associated factors for underweight in rural Sindh. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Jhangara Town, located in District Dadu, Sindh. Eight hundred children under 5 years of age were enrolled. A questionnaire was used to elicit required information and anthropometric measurements were made. Results: The overall prevalence for underweight was 54.3% in the study population, which was higher than the prevalence reported by PDHS 1990 - 91. In multivariate analysis, various factors for underweight were consanguinity (OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.0 - 2.07), low birth weight (parents perspective) (OR=1.6, 95% CI=1.08 - 2.16) and lack of breast-feeding (OR=2.7, 95% CI=1.19 - 6.17). Conclusion: Effective strategies to discourage consanguineous marriages between first cousins are required. Promoting breast feeding is another factor that should be incorporated while designing control strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality due to malnutrition in children (<5 years). (author)

  13. Prevalence of constipation among the general population: a community-based survey from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Mamta; Saini, Sushma Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Constipation is a frequent health problem leading to great discomfort to the person and affects his or her quality of life. It is considered to be highly prevalent in the general population, but there is little data supporting the findings. This study was undertaken with an objective to assess the prevalence of constipation and its associated factors among the general population of Dadu Majra Colony, UT, Chandigarh, India. A total of 505 individuals were interviewed through structured questionnaire based on ROME II criteria for constipation. Results revealed that the prevalence of self-reported constipation within the last 1 year was 24.8% whereas 16.8% of participants had constipation according to the Rome II criteria. Most of the subjects (83%) were within the age group of 18-59 years with mean age (years) of 38.64 ± 15.57. Constipation was significantly more frequent in females than in males (20% vs. 13%) and in nonworking population than in working population (20% vs. 12%). Poor dietary habits, lesser fluid intake per day, and lesser physical activity were found to be significant factors leading to the constipation. About 18% of constipated subjects reported physicians' consultation, whereas 8% reported the use of laxatives to relieve their constipation.

  14. The Total Risk Analysis of Large Dams under Flood Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dams and reservoirs are useful systems in water conservancy projects; however, they also pose a high-risk potential for large downstream areas. Flood, as the driving force of dam overtopping, is the main cause of dam failure. Dam floods and their risks are of interest to researchers and managers. In hydraulic engineering, there is a growing tendency to evaluate dam flood risk based on statistical and probabilistic methods that are unsuitable for the situations with rare historical data or low flood probability, so a more reasonable dam flood risk analysis method with fewer application restrictions is needed. Therefore, different from previous studies, this study develops a flood risk analysis method for large dams based on the concept of total risk factor (TRF used initially in dam seismic risk analysis. The proposed method is not affected by the adequacy of historical data or the low probability of flood and is capable of analyzing the dam structure influence, the flood vulnerability of the dam site, and downstream risk as well as estimating the TRF of each dam and assigning corresponding risk classes to each dam. Application to large dams in the Dadu River Basin, Southwestern China, demonstrates that the proposed method provides quick risk estimation and comparison, which can help local management officials perform more detailed dam safety evaluations for useful risk management information.

  15. Ancient Chinese capital models - Measurement system in urban planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funo, Shuji

    2017-01-01

    Measurement systems are very important in urban design. This article reviews the theories of grid plans, particularly with respect to the spatial formations of ancient capital cities in Asia, and clarifies three Chinese Capital Models. The "Zhōu lǐ" Capital Model (Z) is based on the ancient text "Zhōu lǐ" that makes mention of the ideal city. However, because the description of the physical plan of the city is very brief and includes contradictory elements, conclusions regarding the specifics of the city design are extremely difficult to reach. This article proposes the most appropriate Model (Z) as an architype of the ideal Chinese city. Interestingly, there are no excavated examples of Model (Z). The two existing models, the Chang'an Capital Model (C), which is well known as the model for ancient Japanese capitals like Heiankyo (the present Kyoto) and the Dà Yuán (Dadu) Capital Model (D), the model for the city that is today Beijing, are described as Variants I and II, with a focus on the land division system of bo (street blocks).

  16. Environmental geochemistry of acid mine drainage water at Indus coal mine at Lakhra, Sindh Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, I.; Shah, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    The annual coal production of Pakistan is about 3,637, 825 tones which is about 6% of the country's energy resources, out of this 1,241, 965 tones of coal was produced/ mined from the Lakhra coal field, District Dadu, Sindh which after the Thar coal field is the second largest coal field of Pakistan. At this coal field more than 58 mining companies are engaged in exploring the hidden wealth of the country. The problem of acid mine drainage, is caused by the passage or seepage of water, through mines where iron disulfides, usually pyrites, are exposed to the oxidizing action of water, air and bacteria, is the main problem faced by the mining companies. The geochemical analysis of acid mine drainage water collected from Indus coal mine no. 6 shows that beside its higher pH, total Dissolved Solids and Sulfates, it also posses higher amount of heavy metals like Cd, Cu, Pb, Co, Ni and Fe. This acid mine drainage water not only damages the mine structures but is also harmful to soil and ecology. (author)

  17. Phylogeographic investigation and ecological niche modelling of the endemic frog species Nanorana pleskei revealed multiple refugia in the eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The largest plateau Tibetan Plateau supplied an excellent opportunity to investigate the influence of the Pleistocene events on the high-elevation species. To test for the alternative hypotheses of Pleistocene glacial refugia, we used partial sequences of two mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene to examine the phylogeographic patterns of the endemic frog species Nanorana pleskei across its known range in the eastern Tibetan Plateau, and conducted species distribution modelling (SDM to explore changes of its distribution range through current and paleo periods. In all data sets, the species was divided into lineage north occupying open plateau platform and lineage south colonizing the mountainous plateau. The divergence of two major clades was estimated at the early Pleistocene. In mtDNA, lineage north contained northeastern and northwestern sublineages, and lineage south had two overlapping-distributed sublineages. Different lineages possessed distinct demographic characteristics, i.e., subdivision in the northeastern sublineage, historical bottleneck effects and recent expansions in the northwestern sublineage and the southeastern sublineage. SDMs depicted that stable suitable habitats had existed in the upper-middle streams of the Yellow River, Dadu River, Jinsha River and Yalong River. These regions were also recognized as the ancestral areas of different lineages. In conclusion, Nanorana pleskei lineages have probably experienced long-term separations. Stable suitable habitats existing in upper-middle streams of major rivers on the eastern Tibetan Plateau and distinct demographic dynamics of different lineages indicated that the lineages possessed independent evolutionary processes in multiple glacial refugia. The findings verified the profound effects of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations on the plateau endemic species.

  18. Impact evaluation of different cash-based intervention modalities on child and maternal nutritional status in Sindh Province, Pakistan, at 6 mo and at 1 y: A cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Bridget; Colbourn, Tim; Dolan, Carmel; Pietzsch, Silke; Sangrasi, Murtaza; Shoham, Jeremy

    2017-05-01

    Cash-based interventions (CBIs), offer an interesting opportunity to prevent increases in wasting in humanitarian aid settings. However, questions remain as to the impact of CBIs on nutritional status and, therefore, how to incorporate them into emergency programmes to maximise their success in terms of improved nutritional outcomes. This study evaluated the effects of three different CBI modalities on nutritional outcomes in children under 5 y of age at 6 mo and at 1 y. We conducted a four-arm parallel longitudinal cluster randomised controlled trial in 114 villages in Dadu District, Pakistan. The study included poor and very poor households (n = 2,496) with one or more children aged 6-48 mo (n = 3,584) at baseline. All four arms had equal access to an Action Against Hunger-supported programme. The three intervention arms were as follows: standard cash (SC), a cash transfer of 1,500 Pakistani rupees (PKR) (approximately US$14; 1 PKR = US$0.009543); double cash (DC), a cash transfer of 3,000 PKR; or a fresh food voucher (FFV) of 1,500 PKR; the cash or voucher amount was given every month over six consecutive months. The control group (CG) received no specific cash-related interventions. The median total household income for the study sample was 8,075 PKR (approximately US$77) at baseline. We hypothesized that, compared to the CG in each case, FFVs would be more effective than SC, and that DC would be more effective than SC-both at 6 mo and at 1 y-for reducing the risk of child wasting. Primary outcomes of interest were prevalence of being wasted (weight-for-height z-score [WHZ] nutrition resilience. Purchasing restrictions applied to food-based voucher transfers could have unintended effects, and their use needs to be carefully planned to avoid this. ISRCTN registry ISRCTN10761532.

  19. Phylogeographic investigation and ecological niche modelling of the endemic frog species Nanorana pleskei revealed multiple refugia in the eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Xie, Feng; Li, Jiannan; Wang, Gang; Li, Cheng; Jiang, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    The largest plateau Tibetan Plateau supplied an excellent opportunity to investigate the influence of the Pleistocene events on the high-elevation species. To test for the alternative hypotheses of Pleistocene glacial refugia, we used partial sequences of two mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene to examine the phylogeographic patterns of the endemic frog species Nanorana pleskei across its known range in the eastern Tibetan Plateau, and conducted species distribution modelling (SDM) to explore changes of its distribution range through current and paleo periods. In all data sets, the species was divided into lineage north occupying open plateau platform and lineage south colonizing the mountainous plateau. The divergence of two major clades was estimated at the early Pleistocene. In mtDNA, lineage north contained northeastern and northwestern sublineages, and lineage south had two overlapping-distributed sublineages. Different lineages possessed distinct demographic characteristics, i.e., subdivision in the northeastern sublineage, historical bottleneck effects and recent expansions in the northwestern sublineage and the southeastern sublineage. SDMs depicted that stable suitable habitats had existed in the upper-middle streams of the Yellow River, Dadu River, Jinsha River and Yalong River. These regions were also recognized as the ancestral areas of different lineages. In conclusion, Nanorana pleskei lineages have probably experienced long-term separations. Stable suitable habitats existing in upper-middle streams of major rivers on the eastern Tibetan Plateau and distinct demographic dynamics of different lineages indicated that the lineages possessed independent evolutionary processes in multiple glacial refugia. The findings verified the profound effects of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations on the plateau endemic species.

  20. Impacts of climate change on spring flower tourism in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanjiong

    2016-04-01

    The beauty of blooming flowers causes spring to be one of the most picturesque and pleasant seasons in which to travel. However, the blooming time of plant species are very sensitive to small changes in climate. Therefore, recent climate change may shift flowering time and, as a result, may affect timing of spring tourism for tourists. In order to prove this assumption, we gathered data of first flowering date and end of flowering date (1963-2014) for 49 common ornamental plants in Beijing, China. In addition, we used the number of messages (2010-2014) posted on Sina Weibo (one of the most popular microblogs sites in China, in use by well over 30% of internet users, with a market penetration similar to the United States' Twitter) to indicate the tourist numbers of five scenic spots in Beijing. These spots are most famous places for seeing spring flowers, including the Summer Palace, Yuyuantan Park, Beijing Botanical Garden, Jingshan Park, Dadu City Wall Relics Park. The results showed that the number of species in flower starts to increase in early spring and peaks in middle spring, and then begins to decrease from late spring. The date when the number of species in flower peaks can be defined as best date of spring flower tourism, because on this day people can see blooming flowers of most plant species. The best date of spring flower tourism varied from March 31 to May 1 among years with a mean of April 20. At above scenic spots characterized by the beauty of blooming flowers, tourist numbers also had a peak value during spring. Furthermore, peak time of tourist numbers derived from Weibo varied among different years and was related to best date of spring flower tour derived from phenological data. This suggests that the time of spring outing for tourists is remarkably attracted by flowering phenology. From 1963 to 2014, the best date of spring flower tour became earlier at a rate of 1.6 days decade-1, but the duration for spring flower tour (defined as width at

  1. [Clinical observation of peptic ulcer treated with acupuncture based on theory of "the compatibility of the five meridians" in Huxiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiying; Li, Jinxiang; Pan, Shimin; Zhang, Xi; Li, Ying

    2017-08-12

    To compare the effects differences for peptic ulcer between acupuncture based on the theory of "the compatibility of the five meridians" in Huxiang and conventional western medication. Sixty patients with peptic ulcer of liver-stomach disharmony type (LSDT) and weakness of spleen and stomach type (WSST) were assigned into an observation group and a control group by block randomization according to syndrome differentiation.Finally,28 cases (17 with LSDT and 11 with WSST) in the observation group,29 cases (18 with LSDT and 11 with WSST) in the control group were included.In the observation group,patients with LSDT were treated with acupuncture at Zhongwan (CV 12),Taichong (LR 3),Xingjian (LR 2),Qimen (LR 14),Zusanli (ST 36),Gongsun (SP 4),Shaofu (HT 8),Jingqu (LU 8),Neiguan (PC 6); those with WSST,at Zhongwan (CV 12),Dadu (SP 2),Taibai (SP 3),Yinlingquan (SP 9),Zusanli (ST 36),Shaofu (HT 8), Taichong (LR 3),Yingu (KI 10),Taixi (KI 3),Taiyuan (LU 9) according to the theory of "the compatibility of the five meridians" in Huxiang .Reinforcing and reducing were according to syndrome differentiation.The treatment was given once a day with needle retained for 30 min,5 days a week,2 days at interval.In the control group,the conventional triple drugs (omeprazole,amoxicillin and clarithromycin) were prescribed orally for Hp positive patients,and omeprazole for Hp negative patients.All the patients were treated for 4 weeks.The clinical syndrome score,ulcer healing under gastroscope,anti-Hp infection and Hp negative conversion ratio rate were observed in the two groups before and after treatment as well as 1 month after treatment.The total effects were evaluated. The syndrome scores after treatment and at 1 month ofter treatment decreased in the two groups (all P 0.05).The scores within the group between the two syndromes showed no significance in the two groups (both P >0.05).The cure rates under gastroscope,anti-Hp infection rates and the total rates had no statistically

  2. Peningkatan Motivasi Belajar Kimia Siswa Sekolah Menengah Menggunakan Metode Koligatif Kemas Kreatif (K3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suci Rizki Nurul Aeni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research is classroom action research at XII class of Madrasah Aliyah YAPIKA. The subject matter  properties of Colligative Solution conducted with K3 method (Koligatif Kemas Kreatif to improve student’s learning motivation. Research has been conducted with the repetition of three times so that the study be completed for three years. Three phase of learning are preparation, implementation and evaluation. Preparation phase is done by teachers and students at home. The teacher is preparing the learning media there are games rules, cardboard spacecraft, question cards,  stopwatch, and a dice. Students learn the material properties of koligatif independently learning by themself using  the student hand book. Implementation of the learning is done through a number of methods, there are the story method, discussions and cooperative teamwork through creative games. The evaluation was direct observation methods. The observation sheets assessing of cognitive and affective aspects of students. Based on the results of observation showed that students can impact the content, focus attention and participate active in learning, supported by innovations that have been implemented.Keywords: Colligative properties, K3, MotivationAbstrak: Penelitian ini adalah penelitian tindakan kelas di Madrasah Aliyah YAPIKA Kurnia kelas XII yang mengkaji materi Sifat Koligatif Larutan melalui metode pembelajaran K3 (Koligatif Kemas Kreatif, sebagai cara untuk meningkatkan motivasi belajar siswa. Penelitian telah dilakukan dengan pengulangan sebanyak tiga kali. Pembelajaran yang ditempuh berupa tahap persiapan, pelaksanaan dan evaluasi. Tahap persiapan dilakukan oleh guru dan siswa di rumah. Guru mempersiapkan media pembelajaran berupa petunjuk games, karton wahana, question card, stopwatch, dan dadu. Siswa mempelajari materi sifat koligatif secara mandiri dengan cara belajar melalui buku pegangan siswa. Pelaksanaan

  3. Impact evaluation of different cash-based intervention modalities on child and maternal nutritional status in Sindh Province, Pakistan, at 6 mo and at 1 y: A cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Fenn

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cash-based interventions (CBIs, offer an interesting opportunity to prevent increases in wasting in humanitarian aid settings. However, questions remain as to the impact of CBIs on nutritional status and, therefore, how to incorporate them into emergency programmes to maximise their success in terms of improved nutritional outcomes. This study evaluated the effects of three different CBI modalities on nutritional outcomes in children under 5 y of age at 6 mo and at 1 y.We conducted a four-arm parallel longitudinal cluster randomised controlled trial in 114 villages in Dadu District, Pakistan. The study included poor and very poor households (n = 2,496 with one or more children aged 6-48 mo (n = 3,584 at baseline. All four arms had equal access to an Action Against Hunger-supported programme. The three intervention arms were as follows: standard cash (SC, a cash transfer of 1,500 Pakistani rupees (PKR (approximately US$14; 1 PKR = US$0.009543; double cash (DC, a cash transfer of 3,000 PKR; or a fresh food voucher (FFV of 1,500 PKR; the cash or voucher amount was given every month over six consecutive months. The control group (CG received no specific cash-related interventions. The median total household income for the study sample was 8,075 PKR (approximately US$77 at baseline. We hypothesized that, compared to the CG in each case, FFVs would be more effective than SC, and that DC would be more effective than SC-both at 6 mo and at 1 y-for reducing the risk of child wasting. Primary outcomes of interest were prevalence of being wasted (weight-for-height z-score [WHZ] < -2 and mean WHZ at 6 mo and at 1 y. The odds of a child being wasted were significantly lower in the DC arm after 6 mo (odds ratio [OR] = 0.52; 95% CI 0.29, 0.92; p = 0.02 compared to the CG. Mean WHZ significantly improved in both the FFV and DC arms at 6 mo (FFV: z-score = 0.16; 95% CI 0.05, 0.26; p = 0.004; DC: z-score = 0.11; 95% CI 0.00, 0.21; p = 0.05 compared to the CG

  4. Impact evaluation of different cash-based intervention modalities on child and maternal nutritional status in Sindh Province, Pakistan, at 6 mo and at 1 y: A cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietzsch, Silke; Sangrasi, Murtaza; Shoham, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Background Cash-based interventions (CBIs), offer an interesting opportunity to prevent increases in wasting in humanitarian aid settings. However, questions remain as to the impact of CBIs on nutritional status and, therefore, how to incorporate them into emergency programmes to maximise their success in terms of improved nutritional outcomes. This study evaluated the effects of three different CBI modalities on nutritional outcomes in children under 5 y of age at 6 mo and at 1 y. Methods and findings We conducted a four-arm parallel longitudinal cluster randomised controlled trial in 114 villages in Dadu District, Pakistan. The study included poor and very poor households (n = 2,496) with one or more children aged 6–48 mo (n = 3,584) at baseline. All four arms had equal access to an Action Against Hunger–supported programme. The three intervention arms were as follows: standard cash (SC), a cash transfer of 1,500 Pakistani rupees (PKR) (approximately US$14; 1 PKR = US$0.009543); double cash (DC), a cash transfer of 3,000 PKR; or a fresh food voucher (FFV) of 1,500 PKR; the cash or voucher amount was given every month over six consecutive months. The control group (CG) received no specific cash-related interventions. The median total household income for the study sample was 8,075 PKR (approximately US$77) at baseline. We hypothesized that, compared to the CG in each case, FFVs would be more effective than SC, and that DC would be more effective than SC—both at 6 mo and at 1 y—for reducing the risk of child wasting. Primary outcomes of interest were prevalence of being wasted (weight-for-height z-score [WHZ] child being wasted were significantly lower in the DC arm after 6 mo (odds ratio [OR] = 0.52; 95% CI 0.29, 0.92; p = 0.02) compared to the CG. Mean WHZ significantly improved in both the FFV and DC arms at 6 mo (FFV: z-score = 0.16; 95% CI 0.05, 0.26; p = 0.004; DC: z-score = 0.11; 95% CI 0.00, 0.21; p = 0.05) compared to the CG. Significant