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Sample records for dacs upgrade study

  1. Human-machine interface (HMI) report for 241-SY-101 data acquisition system (DACS) upgrade study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truitt, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides an independent evaluation of information for a Windows based Human Machine Interface (HMI) to replace the existing DOS based Iconics HMI currently used in the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) used at Tank 241-SY-101. A fundamental reason for this evaluation is because of the difficulty of maintaining the system with obsolete, unsupported software. The DACS uses a software operator interface (Genesis for DOS HMI) that is no longer supported by its manufacturer, Iconics. In addition to its obsolescence, it is complex and difficult to train additional personnel on. The FY 1997 budget allocated $40K for phase 1 of a software/hardware upgrade that would have allowed the old DOS based system to be replaced by a current Windows based system. Unfortunately, budget constraints during FY 1997 has prompted deferral of the upgrade. The upgrade needs to be performed at the earliest possible time, before other failures render the system useless. Once completed, the upgrade could alleviate other concerns: spare pump software may be able to be incorporated into the same software as the existing pump, thereby eliminating the parallel path dilemma; and the newer, less complex software should expedite training of future personnel, and in the process, require that less technical time be required to maintain the system

  2. DACS upgrade acceptance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuehlke, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    The readiness of the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) to provide monitoring and control of the mixer pump, directional drive system, and the instrumentation associated with the SY-101 tank and support systems, and the proper functioning of the DACS with new Model 984-785 Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), new MODBUS PLUS version 2.01 software for the PLCs, and version 3.72 of the GENESIS software will be systematically evaluated by performance of this procedure. The DACS, which is housed in a trailer located just outside of the north fence at the SY tank farm, receives input signals from a variety of sensors located in and around the SY-101 tanks. These sensors provide information such as: tank vapor space and ventilation system H 2 concentration; tank waste temperature; tank pressure; waste density; operating pump parameters such as speed, flow, rotational position, discharge pressure, and internal temperature; strain (for major equipment); and waste level. The output of these sensors is conditioned and transmitted to the DACS computers where these signals are displayed, recorded, and monitored for out-of-specification conditions. If abnormal conditions are detected, then, in certain situations, the DACS automatically generates alarms and causes the system to abort pump operations

  3. DACS upgrade acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuehlke, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    The DACS, which is housed in a trailer located just outside of the north fence at the SY tank farm, receives input signals from a variety of sensors located in and around the SY-101 tank. These sensors provide information such as: (1) tank vapor space and ventilation system H 2 concentration; (2) tank waste temperature; (3) tank pressure; (4) waste density; (5) operating pump parameters such as speed, flow, rotational position, discharge pressure, and internal temperature; (6) strain (for major equipment); and (7) waste level. The output of these sensors is conditioned and transmitted to the DACS computers where these signals are displayed, recorded, and monitored for out-of-specification conditions. If abnormal conditions are detected, then, in certain situations, the DACS automatically generates alarms and causes the system to abort pump operations. The report documents testing performed per WHC-SD-WM-ATP-082. Rev. 0-13

  4. Human-machine interface (HMI) report for 241-SY-101 data acquisition [and control] system (DACS) upgrade study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truitt, R.W.

    1997-10-22

    This report provides an independent evaluation of information for a Windows based Human Machine Interface (HMI) to replace the existing DOS based Iconics HMI currently used in the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) used at Tank 241-SY-101. A fundamental reason for this evaluation is because of the difficulty of maintaining the system with obsolete, unsupported software. The DACS uses a software operator interface (Genesis for DOS HMI) that is no longer supported by its manufacturer, Iconics. In addition to its obsolescence, it is complex and difficult to train additional personnel on. The FY 1997 budget allocated $40K for phase 1 of a software/hardware upgrade that would have allowed the old DOS based system to be replaced by a current Windows based system. Unfortunately, budget constraints during FY 1997 has prompted deferral of the upgrade. The upgrade needs to be performed at the earliest possible time, before other failures render the system useless. Once completed, the upgrade could alleviate other concerns: spare pump software may be able to be incorporated into the same software as the existing pump, thereby eliminating the parallel path dilemma; and the newer, less complex software should expedite training of future personnel, and in the process, require that less technical time be required to maintain the system.

  5. 241-SY-101 data acquisition and control system (DACS) operator interface upgrade operational test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ERMI, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This procedure provides instructions for readiness of the first portion of the upgraded 241-SY-101 Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) computer system to provide proper control and monitoring of the mitigation mixer pump and instrumentation installed in the 241-SY-101 underground storage tank will be systematically evaluated by the performance of this procedure

  6. Work plan for upgrade of SY-101 Hydrogen Mitigation Test Project Data Acquisition and Control Systemm (DACS-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truitt, R.W.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this effort is to upgrade the existing DACS-1 used for control and data acquisition in support of the hydrogen mitigation program for tank 101-SY. The planned upgrades will enhance the system capabilities to support additional mitigation projects and improve the system operability by implementing changes identified during operation of the system to date. Once the upgrades have been implemented, the DACS-1 system should operate as it did prior to the upgrade, but with greatly increased speed and capability. No retraining of Test Engineers will be required; the upgrade is designed to be transparent to those who operate it, with only a noticeable increase in the speed of the system. This work plan defines the tasks required for implementing the upgrade. It identifies deliverables, responsible organizations and individuals, interfaces, and schedule. This upgrade effort employs system engineering principles wherever applicable

  7. Disciplinary Action Committee (DAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notar, Charles; Riley, Gena; Thornburg, Roland; Owens, Lynetta; Harper, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    The College of Education and Professional Studies (CEPS) provides an environment in which all students can learn. The term "students" encompasses anyone enrolled in a course provided by the College. The DAC was formed to protect the health, safety, and general welfare of students, educators, and those who participate in conjunction with…

  8. Studying DAC capacitor-array degradation in charge-redistribution SAR ADCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, system-level behavioural models are used to simulate the aging-related degradation effects in the DAC capacitor array of a charge-redistribution successive approximation register (SAR) ADC because of the large calculation time of transistor-level aging simulators. A

  9. UPGRADES

    CERN Document Server

    D. Contardo and J. Spalding

    2013-01-01

    There is very good progress in the execution of the LS1 projects and in launching construction of the Phase 1 upgrades. We focus here on two main achievements since the last CMS Week. The approval of the third Phase 1 TDR The preparation of the L1 Trigger Upgrade Technical Design Report has been a major effort of the collaboration at the beginning of this year, especially to develop supporting Trigger menu and physics performance studies. These studies have demonstrated the efficiency of the upgraded system to ensure low lepton and jet trigger thresholds, leading to a significant increase of the acceptance for the Higgs measurements, in the associated production mode and in the ττ decays, as well as for the stop searches involving multiple jets in the final state. The TDR was submitted to the LHCC in May and approved at the June committee meeting. It is now a public document, completing the series of the three TDRs describing the Phase 1 upgrades, with the new Pixel system and the HCAL rea...

  10. Disruption studies on ASDEX upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautasso, G.; Egorov, S.; Finken, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    Disruptions generate large thermal and mechanical stresses on the tokamak components and are occasionally responsible for damages to the machine. For a future reactor disruptions have a significant impact on the design since all loading conditions must be analyzed in accordance with stricter design criteria (due to safety or difficult maintenance). Therefore the uncertainties affecting the predicted stresses must be reduced as much as possible with a more comprehensive set of measurements and analyses in this generation of experimental machines, and avoidance/predictive methods must be developed further. Disruption studies on ASDEX Upgrade are focused on these subjects, namely on: (1) understanding the physical mechanisms leading to this phenomenon in order to learn to avoid it or to predict its occurrence and to mitigate its effects; (2) analyzing the effects of disruptions on the machine to determine the functional dependence of the thermal and mechanical loads upon the discharge parameters. This allows, firstly, to dimension or reinforce the machine components to withstand these loads and, secondly, to extrapolate them to tokamaks still in the design phase; (3) learning to mitigate the consequence of disruptions, i.e. thermal loads, mechanical forces and runaways with injection of impurity pellets or gas. This paper is focused on most recent results concerning points, i.e. on the analysis of the degree of asymmetry of the forces and on the use of impurity puff for mitigation

  11. Disruption studies in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautasso, G.

    2002-01-01

    Disruption generate large thermal and mechanical stresses on the tokamak components. For a future reactor disruptions have a significant impact on the design since all loading conditions must be analyzed in accordance with stricter design criteria (due to safety or difficult maintenance). Therefore the uncertainties affecting the predicted stresses must be reduced as much as possible with a more comprehensive set of measurements and analyses in this generation of experimental machines, and avoidance/ predictive methods must be developed further. The study of disruptions on ASDEX Upgrade is focused on these subjects, namely on: (1) understanding the physical mechanisms leading to this phenomenon and learning to avoid it or to predict its occurrence (with neural networks, for example) and to mitigate its effects; (2) analyzing the effects of disruptions on the machine to determine the functional dependence of the thermal and mechanical loads upon the discharge parameters. This allows to dimension or reinforce the machine components to withstand these loads and to extrapolate them to tokamaks still in the design phase; (3) learning to mitigate the consequence of disruptions. (author)

  12. IPNS upgrade: A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Many of Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL's) scientific staff members were very active in R ampersand D work related to accelerator-based spoliation sources in the 1970s and early 1980s. In 1984, the Seitz/Eastman Panel of the National Academy of Sciences reviewed U.S. materials science research facilities. One of the recommendations of this panel was that the United States build a reactor-based steady-state source, the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Subsequently, R ampersand D activities related to the design of an accelerator-based source assumed a lower priority. The resumption of pulsed-source studies in this country started simultaneously with design activities in Europe aimed at the European Spallation Source (ESS). The European Community funded a workshop in September 1991 to define the parameters of the ESS. Participants in this workshop included both accelerator builders and neutron source users. A consortium of European countries has proposed to build a 5-MW pulsed source, and a feasibility study is currently under way. Soon after the birth of the ESS, a small group at ANL set about bringing themselves up to date on pulsed-source information since 1984 and studied the feasibility of upgrading ANL's Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) to 1 MW by means of a rapidly cycling synchrotron that could be housed, along with its support facilities, in existing buildings. In early 1993, the Kohn panel recommended that (1) design and construction of the ANS should be completed according to the proposed project schedule and (2) development of competitive proposals for cost-effective design and construction of a 1-MW pulsed spallation source should be authorized immediately

  13. IPNS upgrade: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Many of Argonne National Laboratory`s (ANL`s) scientific staff members were very active in R&D work related to accelerator-based spoliation sources in the 1970s and early 1980s. In 1984, the Seitz/Eastman Panel of the National Academy of Sciences reviewed U.S. materials science research facilities. One of the recommendations of this panel was that the United States build a reactor-based steady-state source, the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Subsequently, R&D activities related to the design of an accelerator-based source assumed a lower priority. The resumption of pulsed-source studies in this country started simultaneously with design activities in Europe aimed at the European Spallation Source (ESS). The European Community funded a workshop in September 1991 to define the parameters of the ESS. Participants in this workshop included both accelerator builders and neutron source users. A consortium of European countries has proposed to build a 5-MW pulsed source, and a feasibility study is currently under way. Soon after the birth of the ESS, a small group at ANL set about bringing themselves up to date on pulsed-source information since 1984 and studied the feasibility of upgrading ANL`s Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) to 1 MW by means of a rapidly cycling synchrotron that could be housed, along with its support facilities, in existing buildings. In early 1993, the Kohn panel recommended that (1) design and construction of the ANS should be completed according to the proposed project schedule and (2) development of competitive proposals for cost-effective design and construction of a 1-MW pulsed spallation source should be authorized immediately.

  14. Opening Remarks: SciDAC 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Michael

    2007-09-01

    SciDAC work. I am pleased that the President's FY08 budget restores the funding for SciDAC. Quoting from Advanced Scientific Computing Research description in the House Energy and Water Development Appropriations Bill for FY08, "Perhaps no other area of research at the Department is so critical to sustaining U.S. leadership in science and technology, revolutionizing the way science is done and improving research productivity." As a society we need to revolutionize our approaches to energy, environmental and global security challenges. As we go forward along the road to the X-scale generation, the use of computation will continue to be a critical tool along with theory and experiment in understanding the behavior of the fundamental components of nature as well as for fundamental discovery and exploration of the behavior of complex systems. The foundation to overcome these societal challenges will build from the experiences and knowledge gained as you, members of our SciDAC research teams, work together to attack problems at the tera- and peta- scale. If SciDAC is viewed as an experiment for revolutionizing scientific methodology, then a strategic goal of ASCR program must be to broaden the intellectual base prepared to address the challenges of the new X-scale generation of computing. We must focus our computational science experiences gained over the past five years on the opportunities introduced with extreme scale computing. Our facilities are on a path to provide the resources needed to undertake the first part of our journey. Using the newly upgraded 119 teraflop Cray XT system at the Leadership Computing Facility, SciDAC research teams have in three days performed a 100-year study of the time evolution of the atmospheric CO2 concentration originating from the land surface. The simulation of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation which was part of this study has been characterized as `the most impressive new result in ten years' gained new insight into the behavior of

  15. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Spalding and D. Contardo

    2012-01-01

      The CMS Upgrade Programme consists of four classes of projects: (a) Detector and Systems upgrades which are ongoing and largely (though not entirely) target LS1. (b) Full system upgrades for three projects that are preparing TDRs: Pixels, HCAL and L1 Trigger. The projects target completion by LS2. (c) Infrastructure consolidation and upgrades to improve operational robustness and to support the above projects. (d) Phase 2 replacement of the Tracker and major upgrades of the Trigger and Forward Detectors. For (a) and (c), detailed costing exists and is being integrated into a common reporting system. The schedule milestones for each project will be linked into the overall schedule planning for LS1. For the three TDR projects, the designs have progressed significantly since the Technical Proposal in 2010. Updated detailed cost estimates and schedules will be prepared with the TDRs to form the basis for tracking the projects through completion. To plan the upgrades and the supporting simulati...

  16. Preface: SciDAC 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, William M., Dr.

    2006-01-01

    : `SciDAC has strengthened the role of high-end computing in furthering science. It is defining whole new fields for discovery.' (SciDAC Review, Spring 2006, p8). Application domains within the SciDAC 2006 conference agenda encompassed a broad range of science including: (i) the DOE core mission of energy research involving combustion studies relevant to fuel efficiency and pollution issues faced today and magnetic fusion investigations impacting prospects for future energy sources; (ii) fundamental explorations into the building blocks of matter, ranging from quantum chromodynamics - the basic theory that describes how quarks make up the protons and neutrons of all matter - to the design of modern high-energy accelerators; (iii) the formidable challenges of predicting and controlling the behavior of molecules in quantum chemistry and the complex biomolecules determining the evolution of biological systems; (iv) studies of exploding stars for insights into the nature of the universe; and (v) integrated climate modeling to enable realistic analysis of earth's changing climate. Associated research has made it quite clear that advanced computation is often the only means by which timely progress is feasible when dealing with these complex, multi-component physical, chemical, and biological systems operating over huge ranges of temporal and spatial scales. Working with the domain scientists, applied mathematicians and computer scientists have continued to develop the discretizations of the underlying equations and the complementary algorithms to enable improvements in solutions on modern parallel computing platforms as they evolve from the terascale toward the petascale regime. Moreover, the associated tremendous growth of data generated from the terabyte to the petabyte range demands not only the advanced data analysis and visualization methods to harvest the scientific information but also the development of efficient workflow strategies which can deal with the data input

  17. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Butler and J. Nash

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress on the CMS upgrades was summarised, in a workshop held at Fermilab between 7th and 10th November, attended by more than 150 people, many of whom came from Europe and Asia. Important goals of the workshop were to begin to formulate a schedule for the upgrades and to determine project interdependencies. Input was received from all the upgrade working groups and will be combined into a first-pass schedule over the next several weeks. In addition, technical progress on each of the major subtasks was presented and plans for the near-term future were established. Slides from the more than 100 talks are located at: https://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=153564 In the opening plenary session, Frank Zimmermann, of the CERN Beams Department, gave his view of the LHC luminosity evolution. The luminosity will increase faster than we assumed in designing the upgrades. CMS will need to re-evaluate the current upgrade plans and revise them if necessary. CMS Upgrade Physics coordinator...

  18. Filtration engineering study to upgrade the ETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, F.N.N.

    1995-01-01

    Filtration technologies are evaluated which have potential to augment or upgrade the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility. The study was written in anticipation of treating future waste waters that have high fouling potentials. The Three ultrafilters judged to be capable of treating future waste waters are: hollow fiber, tubular, and centrifugal

  19. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Contardo and J. Spalding

    2012-01-01

      Good progress is being made on the projects that will be installed during LS1. CSC chamber production for ME4/2 is progressing at a rate of four chambers per month, with 25 built so far, and the new electronics for ME1/1 is undergoing a pre-production integration testing. For the RPC chambers, gap production is underway with first deliveries to the chamber assembly sites at CERN and Ghent. The third site at Mumbai will begin production next month. For the PMT replacement in the forward hadron calorimeters (HF), the 1728 PMTs are all characterised and ready to be installed. Testing of the electronics boards is going well. Preparations to replace the HPDs in the outer calorimeter (HO) with SiPMs are also on-track. All components are at CERN and burn-in of the new front-end electronics is proceeding. There are three major upgrade projects targeting the period from LS1 through LS2: a new pixel detector, upgraded photo-detectors and electronics for HCAL, and development of a new L1 Trigger. The new ...

  20. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    Didier Contardo

    2012-01-01

      The CMS Upgrade Programme is making good progress on the LS1 and Phase 1 projects, in the planning for Phase 2. The construction of the ME4/2 muon chambers to be installed during LS1 has started and the two first CSC production chambers have been fully qualified. The three muon groups have recently established a set of milestones towards the completion of their project, that will be integrated in the detailed planning and scheduling for the shutdown work established by Technical Coordination. The project to replace the photo-detectors in the HF and HO calorimeters is also well advanced and at the validation stage. The operation of an HF slice with new multi-anode PMTs and back-end electronics has already been demonstrated in 2012. For the Phase 1 data-taking, as discussed in the Chamonix workshop, it is likely that the LHC performance will exceed the nominal luminosity and pile-up before the second shutdown, still scheduled in 2018. The collaboration is therefore pursuing a strategy to upgrade ...

  1. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Contardo and J. Spalding

    2013-01-01

    The three post-LS1 Phase 1 Upgrade projects (the L1-Trigger, Pixel Tracker, and HCAL) are all making excellent progress and are transitioning from the prototype to the execution phase. Meanwhile plans are developing for Phase 2, a major Upgrade programme targeting the third long shutdown, LS3. News on Phase 1 is included under the respective projects; we only provide a brief summary here. Phase 1 The plan for the L1 Trigger relies on the installation during the present shutdown of optical splitting for the Trigger input signals. This will allow the new Trigger system to be brought online and fully commissioned during beam operation in 2015, while CMS relies on the existing legacy Trigger for physics. Once fully commissioned the experiment can switch over to the new Trigger, which will provide greatly improved performance at high event pile-up, by 2016. System tests of the splitter system, and of the new architecture of the calorimeter trigger were very successful, and the work in LS1 is on-track. Prototype ...

  2. UPGRADES

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Contardo and J. Spalding

    2013-01-01

      LS1 and Phase 1 The detector projects targeting LS1 are progressing well, and a fully integrated schedule developed by Technical Coordination includes installation milestones and a detailed work-plan. The first chambers of the RPC system were produced and are being qualified. Production will ramp up this year to a rate of 20 chambers per month. 32 chambers of the CSC system have been fabricated for the ME4/2 CSC stations, and production proceeds at a rate of 4 per month. The new ME1/1 Front-End Board is in production and the off-detector electronics integration tests are ongoing. The new Theta Trigger Boards for the DT readout production is started and the relocation of the Sector Collector boards with new Optical Links as been successfully tested. All the components for the upgrade of the Forward Hadron Calorimeter PMTs have been received at CERN and assemblies are being qualified. The situation is similar for the Hadron Outer Calorimeter new SiPMs and readout modules. Three projects are plan...

  3. B-physics studies for HL-LHC ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Jakoubek, Tomas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Simulation studies were made to estimate ATLAS HL-LHC upgrade performance for B-physics. In particular, the decay of $B_s^0 \\to J/\\psi\\phi$ is studied in order to measures the $CP$ violating mixing phase and the width difference between the $B_s^0$ eigenstates. The increased sensitivity is related mainly to the improved decay time resolution obtained with the upgraded ITk inner tracking detector.

  4. Preface: SciDAC 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Horst

    2009-07-01

    By almost any measure, the SciDAC community has come a long way since DOE launched the SciDAC program back in 2001. At the time, we were grappling with how to efficiently run applications on terascale systems (the November 2001 TOP500 list was led by DOE's ASCI White IBM system at Lawrence Livermore achieving 7.2 teraflop/s). And the results stemming from the first round of SciDAC projects were summed up in two-page reports. The scientific results were presented at annual meetings, which were by invitation only and typically were attended by about 75 researchers. Fast forward to 2009 and we now have SciDAC Review, a quarterly magazine showcasing the scientific computing contributions of SciDAC projects and related programs, all focused on presenting a comprehensive look at Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing. That is also the motivation behind the annual SciDAC conference that in 2009 was held from June 14-18 in San Diego. The annual conference, which can also be described as a celebration of all things SciDAC, grew out those meetings organized in the early days of the program. In 2005, the meeting was held in San Francisco and attendance was opened up to all members of the SciDAC community. The schedule was also expanded to include a keynote address, plenary speakers and other features found in a conference format. This year marks the fifth such SciDAC conference, which now comprises four days of computational science presentations, multiple poster sessions and, since last year, an evening event showcasing simulations and modeling runs resulting from SciDAC projects. The fifth annual SciDAC conference was remarkable on several levels. The primary purpose, of course, is to showcase the research accomplishments resulting from SciDAC programs in particular and computational science in general. It is these accomplishments, represented in 38 papers and 52 posters, that comprise this set of conference proceedings. These proceedings can stand alone as

  5. Preface: SciDAC 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, David E.

    2007-09-01

    It takes a village to perform a petascale computation—domain scientists, applied mathematicians, computer scientists, computer system vendors, program managers, and support staff—and the village was assembled during 24-28 June 2007 in Boston's Westin Copley Place for the third annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) 2007 Conference. Over 300 registered participants networked around 76 posters, focused on achievements and challenges in 36 plenary talks, and brainstormed in two panels. In addition, with an eye to spreading the vision for simulation at the petascale and to growing the workforce, 115 participants—mostly doctoral students and post-docs complementary to the conferees—were gathered on 29 June 2007 in classrooms of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for a full day of tutorials on the use of SciDAC software. Eleven SciDAC-sponsored research groups presented their software at an introductory level, in both lecture and hands-on formats that included live runs on a local BlueGene/L. Computation has always been about garnering insight into the behavior of systems too complex to explore satisfactorily by theoretical means alone. Today, however, computation is about much more: scientists and decision makers expect quantitatively reliable predictions from simulations ranging in scale from that of the Earth's climate, down to quarks, and out to colliding black holes. Predictive simulation lies at the heart of policy choices in energy and environment affecting billions of lives and expenditures of trillions of dollars. It is also at the heart of scientific debates on the nature of matter and the origin of the universe. The petascale is barely adequate for such demands and we are barely established at the levels of resolution and throughput that this new scale of computation affords. However, no scientific agenda worldwide is pushing the petascale frontier on all its fronts as vigorously as SciDAC. The breadth of this conference

  6. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Welcome to Seattle and the 2008 SciDAC Conference. This conference, the fourth in the series, is a continuation of the PI meetings we first began under SciDAC-1. I would like to start by thanking the organizing committee, and Rick Stevens in particular, for organizing this year's meeting. This morning I would like to look briefly at SciDAC, to give you a brief history of SciDAC and also look ahead to see where we plan to go over the next few years. I think the best description of SciDAC, at least the simulation part, comes from a quote from Dr Ray Orbach, DOE's Under Secretary for Science and Director of the Office of Science. In an interview that appeared in the SciDAC Review magazine, Dr Orbach said, `SciDAC is unique in the world. There isn't any other program like it anywhere else, and it has the remarkable ability to do science by bringing together physical scientists, mathematicians, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists who recognize that computation is not something you do at the end, but rather it needs to be built into the solution of the very problem that one is addressing'. Of course, that is extended not just to physical scientists, but also to biological scientists. This is a theme of computational science, this partnership among disciplines, which goes all the way back to the early 1980s and Ken Wilson. It's a unique thread within the Department of Energy. SciDAC-1, launched around the turn of the millennium, created a new generation of scientific simulation codes. It advocated building out mathematical and computing system software in support of science and a new collaboratory software environment for data. The original concept for SciDAC-1 had topical centers for the execution of the various science codes, but several corrections and adjustments were needed. The ASCR scientific computing infrastructure was also upgraded, providing the hardware facilities for the program. The computing facility that we had at that time was the big 3

  7. Study of the epitope structure of purified Dac G I and Lol p I, the major allergens of Dactylis glomerata and Lolium perenne pollens, using monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, W; Mécheri, S; Peltre, G; David, B; Hébert, J

    1988-11-15

    The use of mAb allowed us to further analyze the cross-reactivity between purified Dac g I and Lol p I, the major allergens of Dactylis glomerata (cocksfoot) and Lolium perenne (Rye grass), respectively. It was first shown, using IEF, followed by immunoprinting, that serum IgE antibodies from most grass-sensitive patients recognize both Dac g I and Lol p I. Second, three different anti-Lol p I mAb, 290A-167, 348A-6, and 539A-6, and one anti-Dac g I mAb, P3B2 were all shown to react with Dac g I and Lol p I, indicating that the two molecules share common epitopes. Epitope specificity of the mAb was determined by competitive binding inhibition of a given labeled mAb to solid phase fixed Dac g I or Lol p I by the mAb. The results indicated that the four mAb are directed against four different and non-overlapping epitopes present on both allergens. Using double-binding RIA, our data strongly suggest that the common epitopes are not repetitive on both molecules. In addition to their similar physicochemical characteristics, such as isolectric points and m.w., Dac g I and Lol p I share four identical epitopes. Binding inhibition of human IgE to Lol p I and Dac g I by the mAb was also assessed. The results indicated that each mAb was able to inhibit such reactions to variable degree but no additive inhibition was observed when two mAb of different specificities were used in combination, suggesting that the human IgE binding site is partially shared by each epitope recognized by the four mAb.

  8. Feasibility study for Tehran Research Reactor power upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhadi, Kazem [Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: kfarhadi@aeoi.org.ir; Khakshournia, Samad [Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    The present work is concerned with a power upgrading study of Tehran Research Reactor (TRR). The upgrading study is aimed at investigating the possibility of raising power of the TRR from the current level of 5 MW{sub th} to a higher level without violating the original thermal-hydraulic safety criteria. The existing core, comprising 22 standard fuel elements and five control fuel elements, is used for the analyses. Different reactor thermal powers (5-11 MW) and different core coolant flow rates (500-921 m{sup 3}/h) are considered. It is shown that, for the present core, this goal could be achieved safely by gradually opening the butterfly control valve until the desired coolant flow rate is reached. The TRR power could be upgraded up to around 7.5 MW{sub th} with the total power peaking factor maintained at less than or equal to 3.0.

  9. Feasibility study for Tehran Research Reactor power upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhadi, Kazem; Khakshournia, Samad

    2008-01-01

    The present work is concerned with a power upgrading study of Tehran Research Reactor (TRR). The upgrading study is aimed at investigating the possibility of raising power of the TRR from the current level of 5 MW th to a higher level without violating the original thermal-hydraulic safety criteria. The existing core, comprising 22 standard fuel elements and five control fuel elements, is used for the analyses. Different reactor thermal powers (5-11 MW) and different core coolant flow rates (500-921 m 3 /h) are considered. It is shown that, for the present core, this goal could be achieved safely by gradually opening the butterfly control valve until the desired coolant flow rate is reached. The TRR power could be upgraded up to around 7.5 MW th with the total power peaking factor maintained at less than or equal to 3.0

  10. B-physics studies for HL-LHC ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00236452; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Performance studies are made to estimate the ATLAS potential in $B$-physics after upgrade for Run2 and HL-LHC. Real data as well as Monte Carlo simulations are used to study the decay of $B^0_s \\to J/\\psi\\phi$ in order to measure the $CP$ violating mixing phase and the width difference between the $B^0_s$ eigenstates. The increased sensitivity is expected mainly due to the improved decay time resolution obtained with the upgraded IBL and ITk inner tracking detector.

  11. Integration of 128 channels for monitoring, acquisition and control with existing LHCD DAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Ramesh; Virani, Chetan; Wadhwani, Archana; Sharma, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) data acquisition system needs to be upgraded for additional channel requirement. The existing VME based DAC has been used since long with 32 analog input channels for data monitoring and control. Additional 128 channels require integrating with existing DAC. There are four layers of waveguides which deliver final output power into tokamak. Each layer requires 32 channels for power measurement. For the same requirement 128 analog input channels have been integrated with the help of carrier board and IP modules. Acromag IP330 modules have been procured and finally integrated with additional carrier board with existing VME hardware. Each module provides 32 analog input channels. Device driver has been developed for each module and integrated with existing program. LHCD DAC system has been upgraded with additional 128 channels requirement. It has been successfully testing with recent SST-1 campaign. (author)

  12. Assimilation of enterprise technology upgrades: a factor-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claybaugh, Craig C.; Ramamurthy, Keshavamurthy; Haseman, William D.

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the differences in the propensity of firms to initiate and commit to the assimilation of an enterprise technology upgrade. A research model is proposed that examines the influences that four technological and four organisational factors have on predicting assimilation of a technology upgrade. Results show that firms with a greater propensity to assimilate the new enterprise resource planning (ERP) version have a higher assessment of relative advantage, IS technical competence, and the strategic role of IS relative to those firms with a lower propensity to assimilate a new ERP version.

  13. 241-SY-101 data acquisition and control system (DACS) remote operator interface operational test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ERMI, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    The readiness of the upgraded 241-SY-101 Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) to provide proper control and monitoring of the mixer pump and instrumentation in tank 241-SY-101 was evaluated by the performance of OTP-440-001. Results of the OTP are reported here

  14. A case study of intelligent compaction used in road upgrades

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leyland, R

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available to traditional testing methods. In a field study numerous different IC systems where used during construction of a number of experimental road sections in South Africa. These sections formed part of a road upgrade project typical of most road construction...

  15. Plasma position stability studies for TEXT-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, E.R.; Neilson, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    A study of the vacuum vessel action on the plasma as a passive stabilizer is presented. The position feedback system is modelled in frequency domain to ascertain if the plasma in TEXT-Upgrade can be stabilized. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Preface: SciDAC 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzacappa, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    On 26-30 June 2005 at the Grand Hyatt on Union Square in San Francisco several hundred computational scientists from around the world came together for what can certainly be described as a celebration of computational science. Scientists from the SciDAC Program and scientists from other agencies and nations were joined by applied mathematicians and computer scientists to highlight the many successes in the past year where computation has led to scientific discovery in a variety of fields: lattice quantum chromodynamics, accelerator modeling, chemistry, biology, materials science, Earth and climate science, astrophysics, and combustion and fusion energy science. Also highlighted were the advances in numerical methods and computer science, and the multidisciplinary collaboration cutting across science, mathematics, and computer science that enabled these discoveries. The SciDAC Program was conceived and funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Science. It is the Office of Science's premier computational science program founded on what is arguably the perfect formula: the priority and focus is science and scientific discovery, with the understanding that the full arsenal of `enabling technologies' in applied mathematics and computer science must be brought to bear if we are to have any hope of attacking and ultimately solving today's computational Grand Challenge problems. The SciDAC Program has been in existence for four years, and many of the computational scientists funded by this program will tell you that the program has given them the hope of addressing their scientific problems in full realism for the very first time. Many of these scientists will also tell you that SciDAC has also fundamentally changed the way they do computational science. We begin this volume with one of DOE's great traditions, and core missions: energy research. As we will see, computation has been seminal to the critical advances that have been made in this arena. Of course, to

  17. DAC tries a new format

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Karlberg, Bo; Emons, Hendrik

    2008-01-01

    a platform of high quality research. Unfortunately, the various governmental financing of research in analytical sciences in Europe does not reflect and nor does it meet the industrial needs. The grants that are given to analytical chemists are marginal and heavily disproportional in comparison with other...... Materials and Measurements (IRMM) to give his perspectives of Analytical Chemistry with inputs obtained from colleagues at the same institute. Recent activities of DAC and changes of its governance are also reported. Analytical Chemistry in Europe has many facets and the Division of Analytical Chemistry...

  18. The Jlab Upgrade - Nucleon Studies with CLAS12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volker Burkert

    2007-01-01

    An overview is presented on the program to study the nucleon structure at the 12 GeV Jlab Upgrade using the CLAS12 detector. The focus is on deeply virtual exclusive processes to access the generalized parton distributions, semi-inclusive processes to study transveresx momentum-dependent distributions functions, and inclusive spin structure functions and resonance transition form factors at high Q 2 and with high precision

  19. Beam dynamics and optics studies for the LHC injectors upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bartosik, Hannes; Benedikt, Michael

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) upgrade, which aims at reaching significantly higher luminosities at the experiment sites, requires the existing injector chain to provide proton beams with unprecedented beam intensity and brightness. The required beam parameters are out of reach for the CERN accelerator complex in its present state. Therefore, upgrade possibilities of the existing injectors for mitigating their performance limitations or their partial replacement by new machines have been studied. The transition energy plays a central role for the performance of synchrotrons. Designing a lattice with negative momentum compaction (NMC), i.e. imaginary transition energy, allows avoiding transition crossing and thus the associated performance limitations. In the first part of this thesis, the properties of an NMC cell are studied. The limits of betatron stability are evaluated by a combination of analytical and numerical calculations. The NMC cell is then used for the design study of a new synchrotron called P...

  20. Global noise studies for CMS Tracker upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Arteche, F; Echevarria, I; Iglesias, M; Rivetta, C; Vila, I; 10.1088/1748-0221/5/12/C12029

    2010-01-01

    The characterization of the noise emissions of DC-DC converters at system level is critical to optimize the design of the detector and define rules for the integration strategy. This paper presents the impedance effects on the noise emissions of DC-DC converters at system level. Conducted and radiated noise emissions at the input and at the output from DC-DC converters have been simulated for different types of power network and FEE impedances. System aspects as granularity, stray capacitances of the system and different working conditions of the DC-DC converters are presented too. This study has been carried out using simulation models of noise emissions of DC-DC converters in the real scenario. The results of these studies show important recommendations and criteria to be applied to integrate the DC-DC converters and decrease the system noise level

  1. Studies on upgrading quality of zircon concentrate by flotation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duy Phap; Nguyen Duc Hung; Nguyen Duc Thai and others

    2004-01-01

    Results of this study show that it is possible to apply flotation to upgrading quality of zircon concentrate based on a simple technological flow-sheet and simple flotation agents. It is possible to use flotation equipment of Mexanov. Product criteria include ZrO 2 >64%; TiO 2 2 O 3 <0.1%. Flotation agents are simple, little noxious and easy for preparation. (PQM)

  2. Study of an energy upgrade of the CERN PS Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Hanke, K; Angoletta, M E; Bartmann, W; Bartolome, S; Bertone, C; Blas, A; Borburgh, J; Bozzini, D; Butterworth, A; Carli, C; Dahlen, P; Dobers, T; Findlay, A; Folch, R; Gilbert, N; Hansen, J; Hermanns, T; Jensen, S; Le Roux, P; Lopez-Hernandez, L A; Mahner, E; Masi, A; Mikulec, B; Muttoni, Y; Newborough, A; Nisbet, D; Nonis, M; Olek, S; Paoluzzi, M; Pittet, S; Puccio, B; Raginel, V; Ruehl, I; Tan, J; Todd, B; Weterings, W; Widorski, W

    2011-01-01

    CERN’s LHC injector chain will have to deliver beams with ultimate brilliance as the LHC is heading for increased luminosity in the coming years. In order to overcome bottlenecks in the injector chain, an increase of the beam transfer energy from the CERN Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) to the Proton Synchrotron (PS) has been investigated as a possible upgrade scenario. This paper gives an overview of the technical solutions and summarizes the conclusions of the feasibility study.

  3. Sensitivity study of a proposed polarimetry diagnostic on ASDEX upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaghan, H.P.; McCarthy, P.J.

    1994-09-01

    ASDEX-Upgrade currently uses FIR interferometry (DCN, 195 μm) as a technique for measuring line integrated electron density along eight chords of the plasma cross-section. A polarimetry diagnostic based on Faraday rotation using the existing setup would yield ∫ n e B.dl along the same chords which, in combination with the ∫ n e dl measurements, would provide additional information about the poloidal magnetic field. This would be helpful for reconstructing the q(ψ) profile, which is difficult to recover from external magnetic measurements alone. A sensitivity study to determine the effectiveness of adding polarimetry to ASDEX Upgrade is carried out using function parameterization on a simulated equilibrium database, together with a database of randomly chosen density profiles with four degrees of freedom. The robustness of the recovery in the presence of measurement noise and the effects of plasma birefringence are taken into account. (orig.)

  4. Study for the LHCb upgrade read-out board

    CERN Document Server

    Cachemiche, J P; Hachon, F; Le Gac, R; Marin, F; 10.1088/1748-0221/5/12/C12036

    2010-01-01

    The LHCb experiment envisages to upgrade its readout electronics in order to increase the readout rate from 1 MHz to 40 MHz. This electronics upgrade is very challenging, since readout boards will have to handle a higher number of serial links with an increased bandwidth. In addition, the new communication protocol (GBT) developed by the CERN micro-electronics group mixes data acquisition, slow control and clock distribution on the same link. To explore the feasibility of such a readout system, elementary building blocks have been studied. Their goals are multiple: understand signal integrity when using highly integrated high speed serial links running at 8 - 10 Gbits/s; test the implementation of the GBT protocol within FPGAs; understand advantages and limitations of commercial standard with a predefined interconnection topology; validate ideas on how to control easily such a system. We designed two boards compliant with the xTCA standard which meets an increasing interest in the physics community. The first...

  5. Resolution studies and performance evaluation of the LHCb VELO upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hynds, Daniel Peter McFarlane; Soler, Paul; Parkes, Christopher

    2015-03-25

    The LHCb detector at CERN is scheduled to undergo an upgrade during the second long shutdown of the LHC. As part of this upgrade, the vertex detector (VELO) will be replaced with a new hybrid pixel detector, based on an evolution of the Timepix ASIC. The performance of this detector should improve upon that achieved by the current VELO, in addition to facilitating the complete detector readout at 40 MHz. As part of the preparation for this upgrade, this thesis presents the results of studies carried out on the single hit resolution of silicon hybrid pixel detectors. The development of a particle beam telescope has been carried out to allow these studies, shown to operate with track rates in excess of 45 kHz and with a pointing resolution at the device under test of less than 2 μm. A wide range of sensor types, thicknesses and resistivities have then been tested under different operating conditions and the results presented, with single hit resolutions varying between 4 μm and 12 μm depending on the conditi...

  6. Preface: SciDAC 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Rick

    2008-07-01

    The fourth annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Conference was held June 13-18, 2008, in Seattle, Washington. The SciDAC conference series is the premier communitywide venue for presentation of results from the DOE Office of Science's interdisciplinary computational science program. Started in 2001 and renewed in 2006, the DOE SciDAC program is the country's - and arguably the world's - most significant interdisciplinary research program supporting the development of advanced scientific computing methods and their application to fundamental and applied areas of science. SciDAC supports computational science across many disciplines, including astrophysics, biology, chemistry, fusion sciences, and nuclear physics. Moreover, the program actively encourages the creation of long-term partnerships among scientists focused on challenging problems and computer scientists and applied mathematicians developing the technology and tools needed to address those problems. The SciDAC program has played an increasingly important role in scientific research by allowing scientists to create more accurate models of complex processes, simulate problems once thought to be impossible, and analyze the growing amount of data generated by experiments. To help further the research community's ability to tap into the capabilities of current and future supercomputers, Under Secretary for Science, Raymond Orbach, launched the Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) program in 2003. The INCITE program was conceived specifically to seek out computationally intensive, large-scale research projects with the potential to significantly advance key areas in science and engineering. The program encourages proposals from universities, other research institutions, and industry. During the first two years of the INCITE program, 10 percent of the resources at NERSC were allocated to INCITE awardees. However, demand for supercomputing resources

  7. Contribution of ASDEX Upgrade to disruption studies for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautasso, G.; Reiter, B.; Giannone, L.; Gruber, O.; Herrmann, A.; Kardaun, O.; Maraschek, M.; Mlynek, A.; Schneider, W.; Zhang, Y.; Khayrutdinov, K.K.; Lukash, V.E.; Nakamura, Y.; Sias, G.; Sugihara, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the most recent contributions of ASDEX Upgrade to ITER in the field of disruption studies. (1) The ITER specifications for the halo current magnitude are based on data collected from several tokamaks and summarized in the plot of the toroidal peaking factor versus the maximum halo current fraction. Even if the maximum halo current in ASDEX Upgrade reaches 50% of the plasma current, the duration of this maximum lasts a fraction of a ms. (2) Long-lasting asymmetries of the halo current are rare and do not give rise to a large asymmetric component of the mechanical forces on the machine. Differently from JET, these asymmetries are neither locked nor exhibit a stationary harmonic structure. (3) Recent work on disruption prediction has concentrated on the search for a simple function of the most relevant plasma parameters, which is able to discriminate between the safe and pre-disruption phases of a discharge. For this purpose, the disruptions of the last four years have been classified into groups and then discriminant analysis is used to select the most significant variables and to derive the discriminant function. (4) The attainment of the critical density for the collisional suppression of the runaway electrons seems to be technically and physically possible on our medium size tokamak. The CO 2 interferometer and the AXUV diagnostic provide information on the highly 3D impurity transport process during the whole plasma quench.

  8. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Welcome to San Diego and the 2009 SciDAC conference. Over the next four days, I would like to present an assessment of the SciDAC program. We will look at where we've been, how we got to where we are and where we are going in the future. Our vision is to be first in computational science, to be best in class in modeling and simulation. When Ray Orbach asked me what I would do, in my job interview for the SciDAC Director position, I said we would achieve that vision. And with our collective dedicated efforts, we have managed to achieve this vision. In the last year, we have now the most powerful supercomputer for open science, Jaguar, the Cray XT system at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). We also have NERSC, probably the best-in-the-world program for productivity in science that the Office of Science so depends on. And the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility offers architectural diversity with its IBM Blue Gene/P system as a counterbalance to Oak Ridge. There is also ESnet, which is often understated—the 40 gigabit per second dual backbone ring that connects all the labs and many DOE sites. In the President's Recovery Act funding, there is exciting news that ESnet is going to build out to a 100 gigabit per second network using new optical technologies. This is very exciting news for simulations and large-scale scientific facilities. But as one noted SciDAC luminary said, it's not all about the computers—it's also about the science—and we are also achieving our vision in this area. Together with having the fastest supercomputer for science, at the SC08 conference, SciDAC researchers won two ACM Gordon Bell Prizes for the outstanding performance of their applications. The DCA++ code, which solves some very interesting problems in materials, achieved a sustained performance of 1.3 petaflops, an astounding result and a mark I suspect will last for some time. The LS3DF application for studying nanomaterials also required the development of a

  9. A Data Analysis Center for Electromagnetic and Hadronic Interaction. Products of the DAC members

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briscoe, William John [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Strakovsky, Igor I. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Workman, Ronald L. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-08-31

    The Data Analysis Center (DAC) of the Center for Nuclear Studies (CNS) at the George Washington University (GW) has made significant progress in its program to enhance and expand the partial-wave (and multipole) analyses of fundamental two- and three-body reactions (such as pion-nucleon, photon-nucleon, and nucleon-nucleon scattering) by maintaining and augmenting the analysis codes and databases associated with these reactions. These efforts provide guidance to experimental groups at the international level, forming an important link between theory and experiment. A renaissance in light hadron spectroscopy is underway as a continuous stream of polarization data issues from existing precision electromagnetic facilities and the coming Jefferson Lab 12 GeV Upgrade. Our principal goals have been focused on supporting the national N* resonance physics program. We have also continued to study topics more generally related to the problems associated with partial-wave analysis. On the Experimental side of the CNS DAC. Its primary goal is the enhancement of the body of data necessary for our analyses of fundamental γ - N reactions. We perform experiments that study the dynamics responsible for the internal structure of the nucleon and its excitations. Our principal focus is on the N* programs at JLab and MAMI. At JLab we study spin-polarization observables using polarized photons, protons and neutrons and yielding charged final states. Similarly at MAMI we study neutral meson photoproduction off polarized protons and neutrons. We use the Crystal Ball and TAPS spectrometers (CBT) to detect photons and neutrons to measure the photoproduction of π0, η, 2π0, π0η, and K0 off the neutron. The CBT program complements our program at JLab, which studies reactions resulting in charged final states. We are also involved in a renewed effort to make neutral pion photoproduction measurements close to threshold at Mainz. In addition to the programs underway, we are contributing to

  10. Pellet-plasma interaction studies at ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocsis, G.; Belonohy, E.; Gal, K.; Kalvin, S.; Veres, G.; Lang, P.T.

    2005-01-01

    to localize the pellet cloud at a certain time (e. g. at the onset of the triggered ELMs). In order to facilitate scaling studies for the next generation of tokamaks, a database containing the decisive parameters of the pellet-plasma interaction was developed using the experimental results obtained at ASDEX Upgrade. Based upon this database a statistical multiple regression analysis is performed using the forward selection method to determine the penetration depth dependence on the main plasma and pellet parameters. Pellet ablation and cloud distribution is simulated by using 1D-Lagrangian cell code which was extended recently by combining it with the simulation of a neutral gas shielding model. Both a simple analytical approximation and a more elaborated quasi 2D approach were developed and validated with the experimental data. In this conference contribution the recent results of these investigations are presented with particular attention to the ELM triggering by pellets and pellet cloud dynamics and drift. (author)

  11. Simulation studies for the ATLAS upgrade Strip tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jike; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    ATLAS is making extensive efforts towards preparing a detector upgrade for the High luminosity operations of the LHC (HL-LHC), which will commence operation in ~10 years. The current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by a all-silicon tracker (comprising an inner Pixel tracker and outer Strip tracker). The software currently used for the new silicon tracker is broadly inherited from that used for the LHC Run 1 and 2, but many new developments have been made to better fulfil the future detector and operation requirements. One aspect in particular which will be highlighted is the simulation software for the Strip tracker. The available geometry description software (including the detailed description for all the sensitive elements, the services, etc.) did not allow for accurate modeling of the planned detector design. A range of sensors/layouts for the Strip tracker are being considered and must be studied in detailed simulations in order to assess the performance and ascertain that requirements are met. For...

  12. A high performance DAC/DDS daughter module for the RHIC LLRF platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, T.; Harvey, M.; Narayan, G.; Severino, F.; Smith, K.S.; Yuan, S.

    2011-01-01

    The RHIC LLRF upgrade is a flexible, modular system. Output signals are generated by a custom designed XMC card with 4 high speed digital to analog (DAC) converters interfaced to a high performance field programmable gate array (FPGA). This paper discusses the hardware details of the XMC DAC board as well as the implementation of a low noise rf synthesizer with digital IQ modulation. This synthesizer also provides injection phase cogging and frequency hop rebucketing capabilities. A new modular RHIC LLRF system was recently designed and commissioned based on custom designed XMC cards. As part of that effort a high speed, four channel DAC board was designed. The board uses Maxim MAX5891 16 bit DACs with a maximum update rate of 600 Msps. Since this module is intended to be used for many different systems throughout the Collider Accelerator complex, it was designed to be as generic as possible. One major application of this DAC card is to implement digital synthesizers to provide drive signals to the various cavities at RHIC. Since RHIC is a storage ring with stores that typically last many hours, extremely low RF noise is a critical requirement. Synchrotron frequencies at RHIC range from a few hertz to several hundred hertz depending on the species and point in the acceleration cycle so close in phase noise is a major concern. The RHIC LLRF system uses the Update Link, a deterministic, high speed data link that broadcasts the revolution frequency and the synchronous phase angle. The digital synthesizers use this data to generate a properly phased analog drive signal. The synthesizers must also provide smooth phase shifts for cogging and support frequency shift rebucketing. One additional feature implemented in the FPGA is a digital waveform generator (WFG) that generates I and Q data pairs based on a user selected amplitude and phase profile as a function of time.

  13. Controlled tungsten melting and droplet ejection studies in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieger, K; Lunt, T; Dux, R; Janzer, A; Müller, H W; Potzel, S; Pütterich, T; Yang, Z

    2011-01-01

    Tungsten rods of 1×1×3 mm 3 were exposed in single H-mode discharges at the outer divertor target plate of ASDEX Upgrade using the divertor manipulator system. Melting of the W rod at a pre-defined time was induced by moving the initially far away outer strike point close to the W-rod position. Visible light emissions of both the W pin and consecutively ejected W droplets were recorded by two fast cameras with crossed viewing cones. The time evolution of the local W source at the pin location was measured by spectroscopic observation of the WI line emission at 400.9 nm and compared to the subsequent increase of tungsten concentration in the confined plasma derived from tungsten vacuum UV line emission. Combining these measurements with the total amount of released tungsten due to the pin melt events and ejected droplets allowed us to derive an estimate of the screening factor for this type of tungsten source. The resulting values of the tungsten divertor retention in the range 10-20 agree with those found in previous studies using a W source of sublimated W(CO) 6 vapour at the same exposure location. Ejected droplets were found to be always accelerated in the general direction of the plasma flow, attributed to friction forces and to rocket forces. Furthermore, the vertically inclined target plates cause the droplets, which are repelled by the target plate surface potential due to their electric charge, to move upwards against gravity due to the centrifugal force component parallel to the target plate.

  14. Snowflake divertor configuration studies for NSTX-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soukhanovskii, V.A.

    2011-01-01

    Snowflake divertor experiments in NSTX provide basis for PMI development toward NSTX-Upgrade. Snowflake configuration formation was followed by radiative detachment. Significant reduction of steady-state divertor heat flux observed in snowflake divertor. Impulsive heat loads due to Type I ELMs are partially mitigated in snowflake divertor. Magnetic control of snowflake divertor configuration is being developed. Plasma material interface development is critical for NSTX-U success. Four divertor coils should enable flexibility in boundary shaping and control in NSTX-U. Snowflake divertor experiments in NSTX provide good basis for PMI development in NSTX-Upgrade. FY 2009-2010 snowflake divertor experiments in NSTX: (1) Helped understand control of magnetic properties; (2) Core H-mode confinement unchanged; (3) Core and edge carbon concentration reduced; and (4) Divertor heat flux significantly reduced - (a) Steady-state reduction due to geometry and radiative detachment, (b) Encouraging results for transient heat flux handling, (c) Combined with impurity-seeded radiative divertor. Outlook for snowflake divertor in NSTX-Upgrade: (1) 2D fluid modeling of snowflake divertor properties scaling - (a) Edge and divertor transport, radiation, detachment threshold, (b) Compatibility with cryo-pump and lithium conditioning; (2) Magnetic control development; and (3) PFC development - PFC alignment and PFC material choice.

  15. GMS/DACS interface acceptance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuehlke, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    The readiness of the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) to provide monitoring of existing, and newly installed, instrumentation associated with the SY-101 tank Gas Monitoring Systems will be systematically evaluated by performance of this procedure. All new alarms will be verified to function at the required setpoints. The change of I/O Drop 17 to I/O Drop 13 will be checked to verify that all associated alarms and screen displays are correct. All new or changed Control Screens which provide operator interface with the Gas Monitoring Systems readouts during operations will be verified to be adequate and correct. The DACS, which is housed in a trailer located just outside of the north fence at the SY tank farm, receives input signals from a variety of sensors located in and around the SY-101 tank. These sensors provide information such as: tank vapor space and ventilation system H 2 concentration; tank waste temperature; tank pressure; waste density; operating pump parameters such as speed, flow, rotational position, discharge pressure, and internal temperature; strain (for major equipment); and waste level. The output of these sensors is conditioned and transmitted to the DACS computers where these signals are displayed, recorded, and monitored for out-of-specification conditions. If abnormal conditions are detected, then, in certain situations, the DACS automatically generates alarms and causes the system to abort pump operations. The portions of the system to be tested include: new RGA5 gas monitor; existing gas chromatographs; FTIR; B ampersand K (Photo) NH 3 equipment; any new or changed Genesis screens; and I/O Drop 13

  16. System Design Description for the SY-101 Hydrogen Mitigation Test Project Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERMI, A.M.

    1999-08-25

    This document describes the hardware and software of the computer subsystems for the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) used in mitigation tests conducted on waste tank 241-SY-101 at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation, The original system was designed and implemented by LANL, supplied to WHC, and turned over to LMHC for operation. In 1999, the hardware and software were upgraded to provide a state-of-the-art, Year-2000 compliant system.

  17. Studies for the ALICE inner tracking system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidt, Felix

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC identifies D"0 mesons via secondary-vertex reconstruction and topological cuts to reduce the corresponding combinatorial background in heavy-ion collisions. The D"0 meson is produced promptly in initial, hard scatterings via the strong interaction or as feed-down from weakly decaying B hadrons. Within this thesis, a novel method for the separation of prompt and feed-down D"0 mesons using cut variations was implemented and applied to data from p-Pb collisions at √(s_N_N)=5.02 TeV. The effectiveness of the secondary-vertex reconstruction strongly depends on the performance and in particular the pointing resolution of the Inner Tracking System. The upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System for the Long Shutdown 2 of the LHC in 2019/2020 will significantly improve its vertex-reconstruction and tracking capabilities. It will be equipped with Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors manufactured using the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS process on wafers with a high-resistivity epitaxial layer. In another part of this thesis, several pixel-chip prototypes of the ALPIDE architecture with in-pixel amplification and discrimination as well as in-matrix data reduction were characterised. The pALPIDE-2 prototype was measured to fulfil the requirements in terms of detection efficiency, fake-hit rate, position resolution and tolerance to irradiation with non-ionising energy loss. Based on simulations modelling the tracking and vertex-reconstruction performance of the upgraded Inner Tracking System, the perspective of the feed-down separation using cut variations after the upgrade was assessed within this thesis.

  18. Studies for the ALICE inner tracking system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidt, Felix

    2016-04-28

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC identifies D{sup 0} mesons via secondary-vertex reconstruction and topological cuts to reduce the corresponding combinatorial background in heavy-ion collisions. The D{sup 0} meson is produced promptly in initial, hard scatterings via the strong interaction or as feed-down from weakly decaying B hadrons. Within this thesis, a novel method for the separation of prompt and feed-down D{sup 0} mesons using cut variations was implemented and applied to data from p-Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=5.02 TeV. The effectiveness of the secondary-vertex reconstruction strongly depends on the performance and in particular the pointing resolution of the Inner Tracking System. The upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System for the Long Shutdown 2 of the LHC in 2019/2020 will significantly improve its vertex-reconstruction and tracking capabilities. It will be equipped with Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors manufactured using the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS process on wafers with a high-resistivity epitaxial layer. In another part of this thesis, several pixel-chip prototypes of the ALPIDE architecture with in-pixel amplification and discrimination as well as in-matrix data reduction were characterised. The pALPIDE-2 prototype was measured to fulfil the requirements in terms of detection efficiency, fake-hit rate, position resolution and tolerance to irradiation with non-ionising energy loss. Based on simulations modelling the tracking and vertex-reconstruction performance of the upgraded Inner Tracking System, the perspective of the feed-down separation using cut variations after the upgrade was assessed within this thesis.

  19. H-mode and confinement studies in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suttrop, W.; Ryter, F.; Mertens, V.; Gruber, O.; Murmann, H.; Salzmann, H.; Schweinzer, J.

    2001-01-01

    H-mode operational boundaries and H-mode confinement are investigated on ASDEX Upgrade. The local edge parameter threshold for H-mode holds independent of divertor geometry and changes little with ion mass. The deviation of the H-mode power threshold at densities near the Greenwald limit can be understood as a consequence of a confinement deterioration, caused by 'stiff' temperature profiles and lack of core density gradients in gas puff fuelled discharges. Ion and electron temperature profiles can be described by a lower limit of gradient length L T =T/T'. (author)

  20. BPM STABILTIY STUDIES FOR THE APS MBA UPGRADE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lill, R.; Sereno, N.; Yang, B.

    2017-03-25

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is currently in the preliminary design phase for the multi-bend achromat (MBA) lattice upgrade. Beam stability is critical for the MBA and will require long term drift defined as beam mo-tion over a seven-day timescale to be no more than 1 mi-cron at the insertion device locations and beam angle change no more than 0.25 micro-radian. Mechanical stabil-ity of beam position monitor (BPM) pickup electrodes mounted on insertion device vacuum chambers place a fun-damental limitation on long-term beam stability for inser-tion device beamlines. We present the design and imple-mentation of prototype mechanical motion system (MMS) instrumentation for quantifying this type of motion specif-ically in the APS accelerator tunnel and experiment hall floor under normal operating conditions. The MMS pres-ently provides critical position information on the vacuum chamber and BPM support systems. Initial results of the R&D prototype systems have demonstrated that the cham-ber movements far exceed the long-term drift tolerance specified for the APS Upgrade MBA storage ring.

  1. Electron heat transport studies using transient phenomena in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacchia, A.; Angioni, C.; Manini, A.; Ryter, F.; Apostoliceanu, M.; Conway, G.; Fahrbach, H.-U.; Kirov, K.K.; Leuterer, F.; Reich, M.; Sutttrop, W.; Cirant, S.; Mantica, P.; De Luca, F.; Weiland, J.

    2005-01-01

    Experiments in tokamaks suggest that a critical gradient length may cause the resilient behavior of T e profiles, in the absence of ITBs. This agrees in general with ITG/TEM turbulence physics. Experiments in ASDEX Upgrade using modulation techniques with ECH and/or cold pulses demonstrate the existence of a threshold in R/L Te when T e >T i and T e ≤T i . For T e >T i linear stability analyses indicate that electron heat transport is dominated by TEM modes. They agree in the value of the threshold (both T e and n e ) and for the electron heat transport increase above the threshold. The stabilization of TEM modes by collisions yielded by gyro-kinetic calculations, which suggests a transition from TEM to ITG dominated transport at high collisionality, is experimentally demonstrated by comparing heat pulse and steady-state diffusivities. For the T e ∼T i discharges above the threshold the resilience, normalized by T e 3/2 , is similar to that of the TEM dominated cases, despite very different conditions. The heat pinch predicted by fluid modeling of ITG/TEM turbulence is investigated by perturbative transport in off-axis ECH-heated discharges. (author)

  2. Studies for the ALICE Inner Tracking System Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079168; Musa, Luciano

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC identifies D0 mesons via secondary-vertex reconstruction and topological cuts to reduce the corresponding combinatorial background in heavy-ion collisions. The D0 meson is produced promptly in initial, hard scatterings via the strong interaction or as feed-down from weakly decaying B hadrons. Within this thesis, a novel method for the separation of prompt and feed-down D0 mesons using cut variations was implemented and applied to data from p–Pb collisions at $\\sqrt(s_\\mathrm{NN})=5.02$ TeV. The effectiveness of the secondary-vertex reconstruction strongly depends on the performance and in particular the pointing resolution of the Inner Tracking System. The upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System for the Long Shutdown 2 of the LHC in 2019/2020 will significantly improve its vertex-reconstruction and tracking capabilities. It will be equipped with Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors manufactured using the TowerJazz 180nm CMOS process on wafers with a high-resistivity epitax...

  3. Application of 3DAC (3D anisotropy contrast) imaging to predict motor function outcome of patients with cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igase, Keiji; Matsubara, Ichiro; Arai, Masamori; Goishi, Jyunji; Sadamoto, Kazuhiko

    2009-01-01

    ThreeDAC (3D anisotropy contrast) image can depict neuronal fibers in 3 dimensions and the way those anatomical structures exist. However, despite its sophistication, quantitative analysis of 3DAC image has been performed poorly, probably, due to difficulties collecting numerical factors, thus we have tried to evaluate a feasible quantitative 3DAC image technique to predict motor function outcome in patients with cerebral infarction. Twenty-five patients with a acute cerebral infarctions, who underwent 3DAC procedure with 3 tesla MRI within 1 week after the onset, were enrolled in this study. To assess motor function, we applied manual muscle testing (MMT) score, which was modified by designating from 1 to 13 points corresponding to MMT, during both the onset and 3 months later. 3DAC image was created through the procedure assigning each direction to red, green and blue (RGB) colors after obtaining rare 3DAC images. On the slice showing the maximally injured region, Injured Fiber Ratio (IFR), defined as the ratio of injured area on horizontal fibers shown as blue area to the area of whole horizontal fibers in a healthy side, was calculated and compared with MMT score. Although MMT score at the onset did not correlate significantly with IFR, each MMT score of the arm and leg 3 months later revealed a significant correlation with IFR(R 2 =0.47 and R 2 =0.67, respectively). Given these results, by exploiting the IFR obtained from 3DAC image a motor function outcome in patients with cerebral infarction might be predicted even in a very acute stage and 3DAC image could be a feasible modality for analyzing a neuronal injury in cerebral infarction patients. (author)

  4. Mismatch-shaping switching for two-capacitor DAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper; Moon, U.; Temes, G.C.

    1998-01-01

    A mismatch-shaping scheme is proposed for a two-capacitor digital-to-analogue converter (DAC). It uses a delta-sigma loop for finding the optimal switching sequence for each input word. Simulations indicate that the scheme can be used for the realisation of DACs with 16 bit linearity and SNR...

  5. Paloma co-op rehabilitation case study examining the challenges to energy upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legge, C.; Schwartz, J. [JRS Enginerring LTd., Burnaby, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Paloma Cooperative consists of two wood-frame multi-unit residential buildings located in the Commercial Drive area of Vancouver, British Columbia. In 2006, investigations showed that the balconies were severely deteriorated due to water ingress. The complex was deemed to have suffered from a premature building failure. A complete building envelope remediation was necessary. This paper presented the challenges of incorporating energy efficient and sustainable design upgrades during a rehabilitation project, using the Paloma Cooperative as a case study. The various design options, the technical limitations, the financial analysis, the modelling assumptions and the involvement of third party lenders were presented. Initial air-leakage rates were measured and an energy modeling was completed using RETScreen software. Three scenarios were modeled to determine what effect different energy upgrades would have on the energy savings. This paper showed that cost was the biggest challenge faced by the Paloma Cooperative energy upgrade.

  6. Preliminary Seismic Response and Fragility Analysis for DACS Cabinet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jinho; Kwag, Shinyoung; Lee, Jongmin; Kim, Youngki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    A DACS cabinet is installed in the main control room. The objective of this paper is to perform seismic analyses and evaluate the preliminary structural integrity and seismic capacity of the DACS cabinet. For this purpose, a 3-D finite element model of the DACS cabinet was developed and its modal analyses are carried out to analyze the dynamic characteristics. The response spectrum analyses and the related safety evaluation are then performed for the DACS cabinet subject to seismic loads. Finally, the seismic margin and seismic fragility of the DACS cabinet are investigated. A seismic analysis and preliminary structural integrity of the DACS cabinet under self weight and SSE load have been evaluated. For this purpose, 3-D finite element models of the DACS cabinet were developed. A modal analysis, response spectrum analysis, and seismic fragility analysis were then performed. From the structural analysis results, the DACS cabinet is below the structural design limit of under SSE 0.3g, and can structurally withstand until less than SSE 3g based on an evaluation of the maximum effective stresses. The HCLPF capacity for the DGRS of the SSE 0.3g is 0.55g. A modal analysis, response spectrum analysis, and seismic fragility analysis were then performed. From the structural analysis results, the DACS cabinet is below the structural design limit of under SSE 0.3g, and can structurally withstand until less than SSE 3g based on an evaluation of the maximum effective stresses. The HCLPF capacity for the DGRS of the SSE 0.3g is 0.55g. Therefore, it is concluded that the DACS cabinet was safely designed in that no damage to the preliminary structural integrity and sufficient seismic margin is expected.

  7. Preliminary Seismic Response and Fragility Analysis for DACS Cabinet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jinho; Kwag, Shinyoung; Lee, Jongmin; Kim, Youngki

    2013-01-01

    A DACS cabinet is installed in the main control room. The objective of this paper is to perform seismic analyses and evaluate the preliminary structural integrity and seismic capacity of the DACS cabinet. For this purpose, a 3-D finite element model of the DACS cabinet was developed and its modal analyses are carried out to analyze the dynamic characteristics. The response spectrum analyses and the related safety evaluation are then performed for the DACS cabinet subject to seismic loads. Finally, the seismic margin and seismic fragility of the DACS cabinet are investigated. A seismic analysis and preliminary structural integrity of the DACS cabinet under self weight and SSE load have been evaluated. For this purpose, 3-D finite element models of the DACS cabinet were developed. A modal analysis, response spectrum analysis, and seismic fragility analysis were then performed. From the structural analysis results, the DACS cabinet is below the structural design limit of under SSE 0.3g, and can structurally withstand until less than SSE 3g based on an evaluation of the maximum effective stresses. The HCLPF capacity for the DGRS of the SSE 0.3g is 0.55g. A modal analysis, response spectrum analysis, and seismic fragility analysis were then performed. From the structural analysis results, the DACS cabinet is below the structural design limit of under SSE 0.3g, and can structurally withstand until less than SSE 3g based on an evaluation of the maximum effective stresses. The HCLPF capacity for the DGRS of the SSE 0.3g is 0.55g. Therefore, it is concluded that the DACS cabinet was safely designed in that no damage to the preliminary structural integrity and sufficient seismic margin is expected

  8. Studies of Inner Detector Layouts with 5 Pixel layers for the Phase-II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Ludwig, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Garcia-Sciveres, M

    2013-01-01

    This note describes a study of Inner Detector layouts for the phase-II upgrade. Starting from the LOI layout the impact of adding a 5th pixel layer, and shortening the pixel and/or SCT barrel layers is studied.

  9. Security and Privacy in a DACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Jaime; Llorente, Silvia; Pàmies, Martí; Vilalta, Josep

    2016-01-01

    The management of electronic health records (EHR), in general, and clinical documents, in particular, is becoming a key issue in the daily work of Healthcare Organizations (HO). The need for providing secure and private access to, and storage for, clinical documents together with the need for HO to interoperate, raises a number of issues difficult to solve. Many systems are in place to manage EHR and documents. Some of these Healthcare Information Systems (HIS) follow standards in their document structure and communications protocols, but many do not. In fact, they are mostly proprietary and do not interoperate. Our proposal to solve the current situation is the use of a DACS (Document Archiving and Communication System) for providing security, privacy and standardized access to clinical documents.

  10. Study with one global crab cavity at IR4 for LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Barranco, J; Morita, A; Ralph Assmann, R; Sun, Y; Tomás, R; Weiler, T; Zimmermann, F; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we discuss the possible installation and impact on the beam of a single global crab cavity (CC) for both nominal LHC optics and one upgrade LHC optics (Lowbetamax). We also summarize the results on dynamic aperture tracking, luminosity, expected closed orbits, preliminary studies on collimation cleaning efficiency, and the emittance growth due to crab cavity ramping and other sources.

  11. SciDAC advances and applications in computational beam dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryne, R; Abell, D; Adelmann, A; Amundson, J; Bohn, C; Cary, J; Colella, P; Dechow, D; Decyk, V; Dragt, A; Gerber, R; Habib, S; Higdon, D; Katsouleas, T; Ma, K-L; McCorquodale, P; Mihalcea, D; Mitchell, C; Mori, W; Mottershead, C T; Neri, F; Pogorelov, I; Qiang, J; Samulyak, R; Serafini, D; Shalf, J; Siegerist, C; Spentzouris, P; Stoltz, P; Terzic, B; Venturini, M; Walstrom, P

    2005-01-01

    SciDAC has had a major impact on computational beam dynamics and the design of particle accelerators. Particle accelerators-which account for half of the facilities in the DOE Office of Science Facilities for the Future of Science 20 Year Outlook-are crucial for US scientific, industrial, and economic competitiveness. Thanks to SciDAC, accelerator design calculations that were once thought impossible are now carried routinely, and new challenging and important calculations are within reach. SciDAC accelerator modeling codes are being used to get the most science out of existing facilities, to produce optimal designs for future facilities, and to explore advanced accelerator concepts that may hold the key to qualitatively new ways of accelerating charged particle beams. In this paper we present highlights from the SciDAC Accelerator Science and Technology (AST) project Beam Dynamics focus area in regard to algorithm development, software development, and applications

  12. SciDAC Advances and Applications in Computational Beam Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryne, R.; Abell, D.; Adelmann, A.; Amundson, J.; Bohn, C.; Cary, J.; Colella, P.; Dechow, D.; Decyk, V.; Dragt, A.; Gerber, R.; Habib, S.; Higdon, D.; Katsouleas, T.; Ma, K.-L.; McCorquodale, P.; Mihalcea, D.; Mitchell, C.; Mori, W.; Mottershead, C.T.; Neri, F.; Pogorelov, I.; Qiang, J.; Samulyak, R.; Serafini, D.; Shalf, J.; Siegerist, C.; Spentzouris, P.; Stoltz, P.; Terzic, B.; Venturini, M.; Walstrom, P.

    2005-01-01

    SciDAC has had a major impact on computational beam dynamics and the design of particle accelerators. Particle accelerators--which account for half of the facilities in the DOE Office of Science Facilities for the Future of Science 20 Year Outlook--are crucial for US scientific, industrial, and economic competitiveness. Thanks to SciDAC, accelerator design calculations that were once thought impossible are now carried routinely, and new challenging and important calculations are within reach. SciDAC accelerator modeling codes are being used to get the most science out of existing facilities, to produce optimal designs for future facilities, and to explore advanced accelerator concepts that may hold the key to qualitatively new ways of accelerating charged particle beams. In this poster we present highlights from the SciDAC Accelerator Science and Technology (AST) project Beam Dynamics focus area in regard to algorithm development, software development, and applications

  13. Schoolyard upgrade in a randomized controlled study design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars Breum Skov; Toftager, Mette; Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau

    2017-01-01

    of student perceptions across the intervention schools, and that a one unit increase in the Schoolyard index (SYi) led to a 12% increase in recess PA. This study shows that adolescent PA during recess can be increased through a multicomponent intervention. The prospect for making an impact is low...... and according to the process analysis dependent on direct involvement; active and supportive adults; and varied, connected and well located facilities....

  14. Environmental impact assessment as a complement of life cycle assessment. Case study: Upgrading of biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morero, Betzabet; Rodriguez, María B; Campanella, Enrique A

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a comparison between an environmental impact assessment (EIA) and a life cycle assessment (LCA) using a case study: upgrading of biogas. The upgrading of biogas is studied using three solvents: water, physical solvent and amine. The EIA follows the requirements of the legislation of Santa Fe Province (Argentina), and the LCA follows ISO 14040. The LCA results showed that water produces a minor impact in most of the considered categories whereas the high impact in the process with amines is the result of its high energy consumptions. The positive results obtained in the EIA (mainly associated with the cultural and socioeconomic components) make the project feasible and all the negative impacts can be mitigated by preventive and remedial measures. From the strengths and weaknesses of each tool, it is inferred that the EIA is a procedure that can complement the LCA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental study of simultaneous Athabasca bitumen recovery and upgrading using ultradispersed catalysts injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemi, R.; Pereira, P. [University of Calgary (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    As the demand for oil is continuously increasing, the need for unconventional resources is rising. Oil extraction from bitumen and heavy oil reservoirs requires advanced techniques in order to decrease the viscosity of the oil. To increase the recovered original oil in place (OOIP) of a reservoir and decrease refining costs, new techniques to upgrade oil in situ are being developed. The current study investigates the use of ultra-dispersed (UD) submicronic catalysts to decrease oil viscosity. The experiment involved the injection of the catalyst and hydrogen gas in a sand pack saturated with Athabasca bitumen. Analysis was carried out by building recovery curves, and by comparing the oil recovery from the catalyzed process with that of catalyst-free processes. The study demonstrated that the oil recovered from the new technique had higher API gravity and lower viscosity, indicating the success of the in situ upgrading process.

  16. ATCA - thermal management study for the ATLAS phase II upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Bortolin, Claudio; Kalinowski, Michal; Koziol, Piotr; Mendez, Julian; Walerianczyk, Jan; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    The AdvancedTCA (ATCA) telecom industry standard has been selected as the hardware platform for the “Phase-II Upgrade” of ATLAS at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. In November 2014 a project dedicated to the study of the impact of the ATCA integration in the actual counting rooms was launched analysing the impact on the cooling infrastructures. A spare rack equipped with two ATCA shelves, high power dissipating load blades, temperature and air velocity sensors were installed in a lab. Vertical and horizontal cooling performance were checked and some crtitical aspects identified.

  17. ATCA - thermal management study for the ATLAS phase II upgrades

    OpenAIRE

    Bortolin, Claudio; Dyngosz, Damian; Kalinowski, Michal; Koziol, Piotr; Mendez, Julian; Walerianczyk, Jan; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    The AdvancedTCA (ATCA) telecom industry standard has been selected as the hardware platform for the “Phase-II Upgrade” of ATLAS at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. In November 2014 a project dedicated to the study of the impact of the ATCA integration in the actual counting rooms was launched analysing the impact on the cooling infrastructures. A spare rack equipped with two ATCA shelves, high power dissipating load blades, temperature and air velocity sensors were installed in a lab....

  18. CMS FPix sensor study for phase I upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The next incarnation of the CMS forward pixel detector, to be installed at the extended year end technical stop 2016-17, will need to survive an integrated luminosity of 300\\,fb$^{-1}$, with the inner radius of the active region of the disks decreasing from 6 to 4.5\\,cm. The number of disks on each side will increase from two to three. Based on the Run I experience and irradiation studies, the Phase I forward pixel detector sensors will again be n$^+$-in-n diffusion oxygenated float zone, with parameters similar to those in the present run. Results from the quality assurance probing of the first batches of sensor wafers are described. The leakage current (IV) measurements are particularly impressive with current densities in the range of 6-7\\,nA/cm$^2$ at about twice the full depletion voltage.

  19. CMS Hadron Endcap Calorimeter Upgrade Studies for Super-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilki, Burak

    2011-01-01

    When the Large Hadron Collider approaches Super-LHC conditions above a luminosity of 10 34 cm -2 s -1 , the scintillator tiles of the CMS Hadron Endcap calorimeters will lose their efficiencies. As a radiation hard solution, the scintillator tiles are planned to be replaced by quartz plates. In order to improve the efficiency of the photodetection, various methods were investigated including radiation hard wavelength shifters, p-terphenyl or 4% gallium doped zinc oxide. We constructed a 20 layer calorimeter prototype with pTp coated plates of size 20 cm x 20 cm, and tested the hadronic and the electromagnetic capabilities at the CERN H2 beam-line. The beam tests revealed a substantial light collection increase with pTp or ZnO:Ga deposited quartz plates. Here we report on the current R and D for a viable endcap calorimeter solution for CMS with beam tests and radiation damage studies.

  20. Test Beam Studies for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Upgrade Readout Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Douglas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider is expected to deliver 3-4/ab of p-p collisions with around 200 collisions per proton bunch crossing starting in 2026, and the readout electronics of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter need to be upgraded to deal with the high rate of data taking as well as the large pileup conditions. The proposed digitizer/shaper cards were tested in 2016-7 in the North Area at CERN using the beam from the SPS to produce high energy pions, electrons, muons, and kaons. This presentation summarizes the setup for particle identification and study of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter data taking in preparation for the production of main boards and digitizer/shaper boards for the photo-multiplier tubes. The fully assembled and tested mini-drawers will start to be installed after the LHC long shutdown in December 2023. The pulse shape, uniformity, and timing precision of the upgrade system are demonstrated.

  1. Rationale and design of the BUDAPEST-CRT Upgrade Study: a prospective, randomized, multicentre clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkely, Bela; Kosztin, Annamaria; Roka, Attila; Geller, Laszlo; Zima, Endre; Kovacs, Attila; Boros, Andras Mihaly; Klein, Helmut; Wranicz, Jerzy K; Hindricks, Gerhard; Clemens, Marcell; Duray, Gabor Z; Moss, Arthur J; Goldenberg, Ilan; Kutyifa, Valentina

    2017-09-01

    There is lack of conclusive evidence from randomized clinical trials on the efficacy and safety of upgrade to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in patients with implanted pacemakers (PM) or defibrillators (ICD) with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and chronic heart failure (HF). The BUDAPEST-CRT Upgrade Study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of CRT upgrade from conventional PM or ICD therapy in patients with intermittent or permanent right ventricular (RV) septal/apical pacing, reduced LVEF, and symptomatic HF. The BUDAPEST-CRT study is a prospective, randomized, multicentre, investigator-sponsored clinical trial. A total of 360 subjects will be enrolled with LVEF ≤ 35%, NYHA functional classes II-IVa, paced QRS ≥ 150 ms, and a RV pacing ≥ 20%. Patients will be followed for 12 months. Randomization is performed in a 3:2 ratio (CRT-D vs. ICD). The primary composite endpoint is all-cause mortality, a first HF event, or less than 15% reduction in left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume at 12 months. Secondary endpoints are all-cause mortality, all-cause mortality or HF event, and LV volume reduction at 12 months. Tertiary endpoints include changes in quality of life, NYHA functional class, 6 min walk test, natriuretic peptides, and safety outcomes. The results of our prospective, randomized, multicentre clinical trial will provide important information on the role of cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) upgrade in patients with symptomatic HF, reduced LVEF, and wide-paced QRS with intermittent or permanent RV pacing. NCT02270840. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  2. From basic to fashion in the apparel industry: a study about upgrading in value chains

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Marcelo Machado Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation aims at explaining the elements involved with the upgrading processes in value chains. Empirical data about the upgrading processes of apparel production and consumption in Brazil is taken as a way to explore upgrading strategies in the context of a growing fashion industry. We assume that fashion has been a key element in the apparel production which responds to upgrading in apparel value chains, turning basic apparel into more valued products and services as they are embed...

  3. Quench Protection Studies of 11T Nb$_3$Sn Dipole Models for LHC Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlobin, Alexander [Fermilab; Chlachidze, Guram [Fermilab; Nobrega, Alfred [Fermilab; Novitski, Igor [Fermilab; Karppinen, Mikko [CERN

    2014-07-01

    CERN and FNAL are developing 11 T Nb3Sn dipole magnets for the LHC collimation system upgrade. Due to the large stored energy, protection of these magnets during a quench is a challenging problem. This paper reports the results of experimental studies of key quench protection parameters including longitudinal and radial quench propagation in the coil, coil heating due to a quench, and energy extraction and quench-back effect. The studies were performed using a 1 m long 11 T Nb3Sn dipole coil tested in a magnetic mirror configuration.

  4. Load Experiment of the vDACS Scheme in case of the 300 Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Odagiri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current Internet system, there are many problems using anonymity of the network communication such as personal information leaks and crimes using the Internet system. This is why TCP/IP protocol used in Internet system does not have the user identification information on the communication data, and it is difficult to supervise the user performing the above acts immediately. As a study for solving the above problem, there is the study of Policy Based Network Management (PBNM. This is the scheme for managing a whole Local Area Network (LAN through communication control for every user. In this PBNM, two types of schemes exist. The first is the scheme for managing the whole LAN by locating the communication control mechanisms on the path between network servers and clients. The second is the scheme of managing the whole LAN by locating the communication control mechanisms on clients. As the second scheme, we have studied theoretically about the Destination Addressing Control System (DACS Scheme. By applying this DACS Scheme to Internet system management, we will realize the policy-based Internet system management. In this paper, as the progression phase for the last goal, we perform the load experiment of the cloud type virtual PBNM named the vDACS Scheme, which can be used by plural organizations, for applications to the small and medium size scale organization. The number of clients used in an experiment is 300.

  5. SciDAC Center for Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zhihong [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2013-12-18

    During the first year of the SciDAC gyrokinetic particle simulation (GPS) project, the GPS team (Zhihong Lin, Liu Chen, Yasutaro Nishimura, and Igor Holod) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) studied the tokamak electron transport driven by electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence, and by trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence and ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence with kinetic electron effects, extended our studies of ITG turbulence spreading to core-edge coupling. We have developed and optimized an elliptic solver using finite element method (FEM), which enables the implementation of advanced kinetic electron models (split-weight scheme and hybrid model) in the SciDAC GPS production code GTC. The GTC code has been ported and optimized on both scalar and vector parallel computer architectures, and is being transformed into objected-oriented style to facilitate collaborative code development. During this period, the UCI team members presented 11 invited talks at major national and international conferences, published 22 papers in peer-reviewed journals and 10 papers in conference proceedings. The UCI hosted the annual SciDAC Workshop on Plasma Turbulence sponsored by the GPS Center, 2005-2007. The workshop was attended by about fifties US and foreign researchers and financially sponsored several gradual students from MIT, Princeton University, Germany, Switzerland, and Finland. A new SciDAC postdoc, Igor Holod, has arrived at UCI to initiate global particle simulation of magnetohydrodynamics turbulence driven by energetic particle modes. The PI, Z. Lin, has been promoted to the Associate Professor with tenure at UCI.

  6. Dimensionally similar studies of confinement and H-mode transition in ASDEX Upgrade and JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryter, F.; Stober, J.; Suttrop, W.

    2001-01-01

    Joint experiments on confinement and L-H transition were performed in ASDEX Upgrade and JET. The confinement experiments suggest that the invariance principle is not always fulfilled at high density. For the L-H transition studies, the dimensionless variables taken at the plasma edge can be in general only made identical per pair, due to the condition imposed by the L-H transition. This new approach to investigate the L-H physics suggests a weak dependence of the L-H transition mechanism on collisionality. (author)

  7. Dimensionally similar studies of confinement and H-mode transition in ASDEX Upgrade and JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryter, F.; Stober, J.; Suttrop, W.

    1999-01-01

    Joint experiments on confinement and L-H transition were performed in ASDEX Upgrade and JET. The confinement experiments suggest that the invariance principle is not always fulfilled at high density. For the L-H transition studies, the dimensionless variables taken at the plasma edge can be in general only made identical per pair, due to the condition imposed by the L-H transition. This new approach to investigate the L-H physics suggests a weak dependence of the L-H transition mechanism on collisionality. (author)

  8. Recirculating Beam Breakup Study for the 12 GeV Upgrade at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ilkyoung; Satogata, Todd; Ahmed, Shahid; Bogacz, Slawomir; Stirbet, Mircea; Wang, Haipeng; Wang, Yan; Yunn, Byung; Bodenstein, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Two new high gradient C100 cryomodules with a total of 16 new cavities were installed at the end of the CEBAF south linac during the 2011 summer shutdown as part of the 12-GeV upgrade project at Jefferson Lab. We surveyed the higher order modes (HOMs) of these cavities in the Jefferson Lab cryomodule test facility and CEBAF tunnel. We then studied recirculating beam breakup (BBU) in November 2011 to evaluate CEBAF low energy performance, measure transport optics, and evaluate BBU thresholds due to these HOMs. This paper discusses the experiment setup, cavity measurements, machine setup, optics measurements, and lower bounds on BBU thresholds by new cryomodules.

  9. Recirculating Beam Breakup Study for the 12 GeV Upgrade at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilkyoung Shin, Todd Satogata, Shahid Ahmed, Slawomir Bogacz, Mircea Stirbet, Haipeng Wang, Yan Wang, Byung Yunn, Ryan Bodenstein

    2012-07-01

    Two new high gradient C100 cryomodules with a total of 16 new cavities were installed at the end of the CEBAF south linac during the 2011 summer shutdown as part of the 12-GeV upgrade project at Jefferson Lab. We surveyed the higher order modes (HOMs) of these cavities in the Jefferson Lab cryomodule test facility and CEBAF tunnel. We then studied recirculating beam breakup (BBU) in November 2011 to evaluate CEBAF low energy performance, measure transport optics, and evaluate BBU thresholds due to these HOMs. This paper discusses the experiment setup, cavity measurements, machine setup, optics measurements, and lower bounds on BBU thresholds by new cryomodules.

  10. The impact of SciDAC on US climate change research and the IPCC AR4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, Michael

    2005-01-01

    SciDAC has invested heavily in climate change research. We offer a candid opinion as to the impact of the DOE laboratories' SciDAC projects on the upcoming Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

  11. Study of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for the Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00531401

    The upgrade of the ALICE vertex detector, the Inner Tracking System (ITS), is scheduled to be installed during the next long shutdown period (LS2 in 2019-2020) of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The current ITS will be replaced by seven concentric layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) with total active surface of $\\sim$10 m$^2$, thus making ALICE the first LHC experiment implementing MAPS detector technology on a large scale. The scope of this thesis is twofold; to report on the activity on the development and the characterisation of a MAPS for the ITS upgrade and to study the charge collection process using a first-principles Monte Carlo simulation. The performance of a MAPS depends on a large number of design and operational parameters, such as collection diode geometry, reverse bias voltage, and epitaxial layer thickness. I have studied this dependence by measuring the INVESTIGATOR chip response to X-rays emitted by an $^{55}$Fe source and to minimum ionising particles. In particular, I ha...

  12. Technological Capability Upgrading and Entrepreneurship: Case Study of Selected Indonesian Fish Processing Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erman Aminullah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the technological capability upgrading and entrepreneurship in the Indonesian fish processing industry. The analysis viewed from the Sectoral Innovation System (SIS focuses on two aspects: the enabling factors for innovation, and the role of entrepreneur in technological capability upgrading. The study finds that Indonesian fish processing companies: (i are less interactive with local universities or other STI (science, technology and innovation centers, and innovation was mostly done through learning by DUI (doing, using and interacting; (ii are characterized as low-tech industries with a high standard for food safety and product differentiation; (iii apply adaptive innovation, modified from existing technology or knowledge, except for the leading companies who apply innovation for new products in the market; (iv actors, technology, market trends, and networks are the main enabling factors for innovation; and (v the role of entrepreneurs – especially in building entrepreneurial networks – were dominant in the leading companies. The entrepreneurial networks exist and work in global distribution chains that are widely adopted by companies to export their products through buyer–producer relationships. The pathways toward export markets are: global born directly, fastly learned global, and delay learned global companies. These categories have enriched the Mets category (2012. The policy implications of the findings for government should: (i facilitate companies’ interaction with local universities or other STI centers; and (ii encourage domestic companies to improve their competitiveness by shifting to higher added value products through various innovations and trading policy schemes.

  13. Results of the PERI survey of SciDAC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supinski, Bronis R de; Hollingworth, Jeffrey K; Moore, Shirley; Worley, Patrick H

    2007-01-01

    The Performance Engineering Research Institute (PERI) project focuses on achieving superior performance for Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) applications on leadership class machines through cutting-edge research in performance modeling and automated performance tuning. This focus requires coordinated activities to engage SciDAC application teams. The initial application engagement activity was a survey of these teams to determine their performance goals, the criticality of those goals, current performance of their applications, application characteristics relevant to performance and their plans for future optimization. Using a web-based questionnaire, PERI researchers have worked with application developers to provide this information for over twenty-five applications. This paper describes the initial analysis of the application characteristics and performance goals, as well as current and future application engagement activities driven by these results. While the survey was conducted primarily to meet PERI needs, the results represent a snapshot of the state of SciDAC code development and may be of use to the DOE community at large. Overall, the results show that SciDAC application teams are engaged in significant new code development, which will require flexible performance optimization techniques that can improve performance as the applications evolve

  14. Mismatch-Shaped Pseudo-Passive Two-Capacitor DAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper; Moon, Un-Ku; Temes, Gabor C.

    1999-01-01

    A simple mismatch-shaping scheme is proposed for a two-capacitor DAC. Unlike in other mismatch-shaping systems, the shaped error is generated by direct filtering of a well-defined bounded signal, which can be generated as white noise. The operation is closely related to a specific digital...

  15. Performance Studies of Micromegas Chambers for the New Small Wheel Upgrade Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontsinis S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ATLAS collaboration has chosen the Micromegas technology along with the small-strip Thin Gap Chambers for the upgrade of the inner muon station in the high-rapidity region, the so called New Small Wheel upgrade project. It will employ eight layers of Micromegas and eight layers of small-strip Thin Gap Chambers per wheel. The New Small Wheel project requires fully efficient Micromegas chambers, able to cope with the maximum expected rate of 15 kHz/cm2 featuring single plane spatial resolution better than 100 μm. The Micromegas detectors will cover a total active area of ~ 1200 m2 and will be operated in a moderate magnetic field (≤ 0.3 T. Moreover, together with their precise tracking capability the New Small Wheel Micromegas chambers will contribute to the ATLAS Level-1 trigger system. Several studies have been performed on small (10 × 10 cm2 and medium (1 × 0.5 m2 size prototypes using medium (1 − 5 GeV/c and high momentum (120 – 150 GeV/c hadron beams at CERN. A brief overview of the results obtained is presented.

  16. Diagnostics upgrade and capability available for physics study on EAST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Liqun

    2013-01-01

    As a consequence of employment of many new techniques and upgrade of EAST superconducting tokamak to enhance divertor plasma performance, significant achievement has been realized in 2012, including 400s long pulse plasma, stationary 35s H-mode and 3.45s H-mode with only ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH) etc. To approach steady-state (SS) operation of high-performance plasmas and address key physics on fusion reactor-relevent subjects, recently, capability of the plasma heating and current drive of EAST machine are doubled with total auxiliary injection power over 20 MW, including new methodology of neutral beam injection (NBI) and electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH). Most diagnostics have been upgraded to be more compact and integrated due to limited port window and space available, and new advanced neutral-beam related diagnostics have been developed as well, to provide profile of all key parameters for study and understanding critical issues specific to SS high performance plasma. (author)

  17. Performance study of four stroke S.I. engine using upgraded biogas fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Prakash

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In resent year, increased environmental awareness and energy shortages have encouraged researchers to investigate the possibility of using alternate fuels. The purpose of finding the alternate sources is to minimize the consumption of conventional fossil fuels and in turn to reduce the degradation of environmental quality to a great extent. The use of bio-based fuels like biogas produced from biomass and bio-wastes is a valuable energy source which is sustainable that can be manufactured from locally available waste streams thereby solving the local waste problem. Local wastes (organic wastes contain enough energy to contribute significantly to energy supply especially the rural regions of developing countries. Biogas is a clean and environment friendly fuel produced from anaerobic digestion of agro, animal or human wastes. The biogas has about 60 % methane and 40 % carbon dioxide with small traces of H2S. The use of H2S leads to formation of SO2 which combines with the water vapor to form acids and hence corrode the metals. Thus, raw biogas as such cannot be used for powering vehicular I.C engine. In the present work, an attempt has been made to upgrade the quality of raw biogas by removing CO2 and H2S, thus enriching its methane content up to the natural gas level and to study the performance of four stroke S.I engine aspirating upgraded biogas as primary fuel and its emission characteristics.

  18. Development of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for studying erosion, deposition, and fuel retention in ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paris, Peeter; Piip, Kaarel [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Hakola, Antti [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Laan, Matti, E-mail: matti.laan@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Aints, Märt [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Koivuranta, Seppo; Likonen, Jari [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Lissovski, Aleksandr [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Mayer, Matej [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Neu, Rudolf [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Technische Universität München, Fachgebt Plasma-Material-Wechelwirkung, Garching (Germany); Rohde, Volker; Sugiyama, Kazuyoshi [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • LIBS development for in situ monitoring of first walls of fusion reactors. • Testing of samples extracted from the divertor tiles of ASDEX Upgrade. • Reliable detection of deuterium depth profiles. • A method of LIBS data processing which allows to find the elemental depth profiles. • Comparison of LIBS results with those of other surface characterization methods. - Abstract: The paper deals with the development of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) into an in situ method for studying erosion/deposition processes at the first walls of fusion reactors. To this end, samples extracted from the divertor tiles of ASDEX Upgrade after the 2009 plasma operations were analyzed using LIBS for their composition and the results were compared with other post mortem deposition data. Quantitative depth profiles for the elemental concentrations were extracted from LIBS spectra by applying a novel data processing method. In addition, both multiline and multispot averaging procedures were applied to reduce fluctuations in the data. The LIBS concentration profiles matched qualitatively with those given by secondary ion mass spectrometry and quantitatively with the ion-beam data. The deuterium content of the samples could be reliably determined if the surface densities were >10{sup 17} at/cm{sup 2}.

  19. Racial/Ethnic Minorities Ineligible for Direct Access Colonoscopy (DAC): Identifying Patients Who Fall Through the Cracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sarah J; Sly, Jamilia R; Itzkowitz, Steven H; Jandorf, Lina

    2015-03-01

    Patients ineligible for direct access colonoscopy (DAC) are typically referred for a pre-colonoscopy consultation with gastroenterology (GI). However, the referral from primary care to GI creates the potential for patients to drop out of treatment. The primary objective of the current study was to examine the proportion of participants deemed ineligible for DAC that (1) attended an appointment with GI and (2) completed a screening colonoscopy. The second aim of the study was to examine predictors of screening colonoscopy adherence. Participants (N = 144) were average-risk patients who received a primary care referral for a screening colonoscopy and were deemed ineligible for DAC between 2008 and 2012. Following the primary care visit, participants completed a questionnaire that assessed demographics and psychological factors. Medical chart review determined whether participants completed the screening colonoscopy via the GI referral. Of the 144 participants, only 19 (13 %) completed the screening colonoscopy via the GI referral. Multiple regression analyses revealed that decisional balance was the only unique predictor of screening colonoscopy adherence. Patients deemed ineligible for DAC are highly unlikely to complete a screening colonoscopy. Interventions are needed to increase screening colonoscopy adherence in this vulnerable population.

  20. PBX-M upgrade for advanced stabilization and profile control studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Kozub, T.; Barnes, G.

    1995-01-01

    PBX-M upgrades have been in progress for enhanced capability and reliability. These include upgrades to the vessel O-ring system for impurity control, the Ion Bernstein Wave and Lower Hybrid Current Drive Systems for plasma profile control, a double viewing upper and lower CHERS based Poloidal Rotation Diagnostic, and a new digital plasma control system

  1. An embodied biologically constrained model of foraging: from classical and operant conditioning to adaptive real-world behavior in DAC-X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Giovanni; Santos-Pata, Diogo; Marcos, Encarni; Sánchez-Fibla, Marti; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2015-12-01

    Animals successfully forage within new environments by learning, simulating and adapting to their surroundings. The functions behind such goal-oriented behavior can be decomposed into 5 top-level objectives: 'how', 'why', 'what', 'where', 'when' (H4W). The paradigms of classical and operant conditioning describe some of the behavioral aspects found in foraging. However, it remains unclear how the organization of their underlying neural principles account for these complex behaviors. We address this problem from the perspective of the Distributed Adaptive Control theory of mind and brain (DAC) that interprets these two paradigms as expressing properties of core functional subsystems of a layered architecture. In particular, we propose DAC-X, a novel cognitive architecture that unifies the theoretical principles of DAC with biologically constrained computational models of several areas of the mammalian brain. DAC-X supports complex foraging strategies through the progressive acquisition, retention and expression of task-dependent information and associated shaping of action, from exploration to goal-oriented deliberation. We benchmark DAC-X using a robot-based hoarding task including the main perceptual and cognitive aspects of animal foraging. We show that efficient goal-oriented behavior results from the interaction of parallel learning mechanisms accounting for motor adaptation, spatial encoding and decision-making. Together, our results suggest that the H4W problem can be solved by DAC-X building on the insights from the study of classical and operant conditioning. Finally, we discuss the advantages and limitations of the proposed biologically constrained and embodied approach towards the study of cognition and the relation of DAC-X to other cognitive architectures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. DB2 9 for Linux, Unix, and Windows database administration upgrade certification study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Roger E

    2007-01-01

    Written by one of the world's leading DB2 authors who is an active participant in the development of the DB2 certification exams, this resource covers everything a database adminstrator needs to know to pass the DB2 9 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows Database Administration Certification Upgrade exam (Exam 736). This comprehensive study guide discusses all exam topics: server management, data placement, XML concepts, analyzing activity, high availability, database security, and much more. Each chapter contains an extensive set of practice questions along with carefully explained answers. Both information-technology professionals who have experience as database administrators and have a current DBA certification on version 8 of DB2 and individuals who would like to learn the new features of DB2 9 will benefit from the information in this reference guide.

  3. Energy Deposition Studies for the LHC Insertion Region Upgrade Phase-I

    CERN Document Server

    Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Mereghetti, A; Wildner, E

    2010-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is starting operation with beam, aiming to achieve nominal performance in the shortest term, the upgrade of the LHC interaction regions is actively pursued in order to enhance the physics reach of the machine. Its first phase, with the target of increasing the LHC luminosity to 2-3 1034cm-2s-1, relies on the mature Nb-Ti superconducting magnet technology and is intended to maximize the use of the existing infrastructure. The impact of the increased power of the collision debris has been investigated through detailed energy deposition studies, considering the new aperture requirements for the low-ß quadrupoles and a number of other elements in the insertions. Effective solutions in terms of shielding options and design/layout optimization have been envisaged and the crucial factors have been pointed out.

  4. Nonlinear Correction Schemes for the Phase 1 LHC Insertion Region Upgrade and Dynamic Aperture Studies

    CERN Document Server

    de Maria, R; Tomás, R

    2009-01-01

    The Phase 1 LHC Interaction Region (IR) upgrade aims at increasing the machine luminosity essentially by reducing the beam size at the Interaction Point (IP). This requires a total redesign of the full IR. A large set of options has been proposed with conceptually different designs. This paper reports on a general approach for the compensation of the multipolar errors of the IR magnets in the design phase. The goal is to use the same correction approach for the different designs. The correction algorithm is based on the minimization of the differences between the IR transfer map with errors and the design IR transfer map. Its performance is tested using the dynamic aperture as figure of merit. The relation between map coefficients and resonance terms is also given as a way to target particular resonances by selecting the right map coefficients. The dynamic aperture is studied versus magnet aperture using recently established relations between magnetic errors and magnet aperture.

  5. Preliminary studies for the upgrading of the ININ TRIGA MARK III reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    An increase on the demand of services has led to the -consideration of reactor upgrading, for which a project has been proposed. This project includes the modification of the reactor core, using FLIP type (Erbium loaded, 70% U-235 enriched) fuel elements and the upgrading of the control - console which implies a careful analysis of the Safety -considerations involved in the system modification. In this paper, a brief description is given of: The modifications intended; Pre-operational tests for the system components to be modified; The safety report needed for the licensing of the upgraded reactor; The project management and evaluation

  6. Explorative economic analysis of a novel biogas upgrading technology using carbon mineralization. A case study for Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starr, Katherine; Ramirez, Andrea; Meerman, Hans; Villalba, Gara; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the potential application of a novel biogas upgrading technology called alkaline with regeneration (AwR). This technology uses an alkaline solution, along with carbon mineralization, to remove and store CO2 from biogas in order to create biomethane, a substitute of natural gas.

  7. PSI: Upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The accelerator complex at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen near Zurich (PSI - formed in 1988 by combining the Federal Institute for Reactor Research and the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research) is in the throes of a major and lengthy upgrade

  8. PSI: Upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-09-15

    The accelerator complex at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen near Zurich (PSI - formed in 1988 by combining the Federal Institute for Reactor Research and the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research) is in the throes of a major and lengthy upgrade.

  9. Study on wavelength shortening and upgrading of the free electron laser (FEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Tetsuo; Yamada, Kawakatsu; Sei, Norihiro; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Sugiyama, Suguru; Mikado, Tomohisa

    1997-01-01

    This study is a task of ''Comprehensive study'' in ''nuclear energy basic technology research'', which is promoted under cooperation of four research institutes. The Electrotechnical Laboratory conducted, in 1991 in the first period of colaboration, on successful oscillation at visible region (598 nm) as the first case in Japan, construction of small type accumulation ring NIJI-IV for FEL, successful oscillation of visible range from 595 to 488 nm by installing optical krystron with maximum frequency in the world, and successful emittance lowering of accumulation beam by wide improvement of the ring. In the optical resonator, studies on minute loss measuring technique and on recovery from mirror deterioration were promoted. In the second period started from fiscal year of 1994, studies on FEL oscillation technique in short wavelength and upgrading of FEL corresponding to a frontier area were started, to succeed an oscillation experiment at 350 nm in ultraviolet area on April, 1994. Then, studies on generation of high luminescence x-ray owing to laser Compton scattering using FEL as a future plan, on design of a new accumulation ring and on the others as well as studies on further quality improvement of electron beam and on optical resonator have been promoted. (G.K.)

  10. Exploring the Upgrading of Chinese Automotive Manufacturing Industry in the Global Value Chain: An Empirical Study Based on Panel Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fucai Lu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the age of globalization, the upgrading of China’s manufacturing industries has attracted great attention from both academicians and practitioners, as it certainly has great implications for the development of China and, even further, for the development of the whole world. To address this issue, the study clarifies the effects of the internal technological innovation capability (ITIC and external linkages (ELs on upgrading the Chinese automotive manufacturing industry (CAMI in the global value chain, in order to indicate the appropriate way for the CAMI to be further upgraded and provide references for the formulation of regional automotive industrial policies. Based on Chinese panel data, the results confirm that both ITIC and EL are important for the upgrading of the CAMI, with ITIC being the more important. Improvement of ITIC facilitates the industry’s cooperation with the EL, resulting in better knowledge access. Furthermore, the results of cluster analysis reveal that regions with relatively developed automotive industries place emphasis on both the ITIC and EL. However, in some regions (e.g., Shanghai and Chongqing, the utility of EL seems insufficient. Therefore, the results of this paper, on the one hand, suggest policies should be directed towards increasing the ITIC of CAMI. On the other hand, in some regions, managers and policymakers need to explore further the advantage of clustering.

  11. Study of planar pixel sensors hardener to radiations for the upgrade of the ATLAS vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, M.

    2011-05-01

    In this work, we present a study, using TCAD (Technology Computer-Assisted Design) simulation, of the possible methods of designing planar pixel sensors by reducing their inactive area and improving their radiation hardness for use in the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) project and for SLHC upgrade phase for the ATLAS experiment. Different physical models available have been studied to develop a coherent model of radiation damage in silicon that can be used to predict silicon pixel sensor behavior after exposure to radiation. The Multi-Guard Ring Structure, a protection structure used in pixel sensor design was studied to obtain guidelines for the reduction of inactive edges detrimental to detector operation while keeping a good sensor behavior through its lifetime in the ATLAS detector. A campaign of measurement of the sensor process parameters and electrical behavior to validate and calibrate the TCAD simulation models and results are also presented. A model for diode charge collection in highly irradiated environment was developed to explain the high charge collection observed in highly irradiated devices. A simple planar pixel sensor digitization model to be used in test beam and full detector system is detailed. It allows for easy comparison between experimental data and prediction by the various radiation damage models available. The digitizer has been validated using test beam data for unirradiated sensors and can be used to produce the first full scale simulation of the ATLAS detector with the IBL that include sensor effects such as slim edge and thinning of the sensor. (author)

  12. LHCb Upgrades and operation at 1034 cm-2 s-1 luminosity –A first study

    CERN Document Server

    Efthymiopoulos, Ilias; Baglin, Vincent; Burkhardt, Helmut; Cerutti, Francesco; Claudet, Serge; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; De Maria, Riccardo; Esposito, Luigi Salvatore; Karastathis, Nikos; Lindner, Rolf; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Pellegrini, Dario; Redaelli, Stefano; Roesler, Stefan; Sanchez Galan, Francisco; Thomas, Eric; Tsinganis, Andrea; Wollmann, Daniel; Wilkinson, Guy; Schwarz, Philip; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    Presently, the LHCb experiment at IP8 operates at reduced luminosity (~4.0 1032 cm-2 s-1) compared to ATLAS and CMS experiments. The LHCb collaboration is proposing an Upgrade II during HL-LHC operation, where the beams at IP8 will collide at high-luminosity (~1-2 1034 cm-2 s-1), comparable to the present high-luminosity regions IP1&IP5. The LHCb experiment aims to collect more than 300 fb-1 by the end of the HL-LHC operation. A feasibility study of operating IP8 at high-luminosity whilst preserving the performance at IP1 and IP5 and on the impact to the LHC machine and experimental cavern was done. Optics studies shows that solutions allowing to reach an integrated luminosity of 40 to 50 fb-1 per year to LHCb/IP8 at the cost of a reduction of about 5% in the integrated luminosity of the main experiments ATLAS and CMS, under the assumption that there are no lifetime limitations besides burn-off, are feasible. Energy deposition in the machine elements of the IR straight section 8 and LHC infrastructure and...

  13. OPENING REMARKS: SciDAC: Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Good morning. Welcome to SciDAC 2005 and San Francisco. SciDAC is all about computational science and scientific discovery. In a large sense, computational science characterizes SciDAC and its intent is change. It transforms both our approach and our understanding of science. It opens new doors and crosses traditional boundaries while seeking discovery. In terms of twentieth century methodologies, computational science may be said to be transformational. There are a number of examples to this point. First are the sciences that encompass climate modeling. The application of computational science has in essence created the field of climate modeling. This community is now international in scope and has provided precision results that are challenging our understanding of our environment. A second example is that of lattice quantum chromodynamics. Lattice QCD, while adding precision and insight to our fundamental understanding of strong interaction dynamics, has transformed our approach to particle and nuclear science. The individual investigator approach has evolved to teams of scientists from different disciplines working side-by-side towards a common goal. SciDAC is also undergoing a transformation. This meeting is a prime example. Last year it was a small programmatic meeting tracking progress in SciDAC. This year, we have a major computational science meeting with a variety of disciplines and enabling technologies represented. SciDAC 2005 should position itself as a new corner stone for Computational Science and its impact on science. As we look to the immediate future, FY2006 will bring a new cycle to SciDAC. Most of the program elements of SciDAC will be re-competed in FY2006. The re-competition will involve new instruments for computational science, new approaches for collaboration, as well as new disciplines. There will be new opportunities for virtual experiments in carbon sequestration, fusion, and nuclear power and nuclear waste, as well as collaborations

  14. Performance of the present ALICE Inner Tracking System and studies for the upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contin, G

    2012-01-01

    The Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment is made out of six layers of silicon detectors exploiting three different technologies (pixel, drift and strip). It covers the central pseudorapidity range of |η| < 0.9 and its distance from the beam line ranges from r = 3.9 cm for the innermost pixel layer up to r = 43 cm for the outermost strip layer. The main tasks of the ITS are to reconstruct the primary and secondary vertices, to track and identify charged particles with a low pt cutoff and to improve the momentum resolution at high pt. In this talk I will present the performance of the ITS in p-p and Pb-Pb collisions in 2010, both from the hardware point of view, with a brief overview of the features of the system, and the physics achievements for what concerns the vertexing, the tracking and the particle identification. Furthermore, I will give also an outlook on a possible upgrade of the ALICE ITS which is presently being studied, in order to extend its physics performance by improving the measurements of charmed hadrons and accessing new physics items like the measurement of the beauty hadrons.

  15. Irradiation study of different silicon materials for the CMS tracker upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Erfle, Joachim; Hansen, Wolfgang; Garutti, Erika

    Around 2022, an upgrade of the LHC collider complex is planned to significantly increase the luminosity (the High Luminosity LHC, HL-LHC). This means that the experiments have to cope with a higher number of collisions per bunch crossing and survive in a radiation environment much harsher than that at the present LHC. Especially the tracking detectors have to be improved for the HL-LHC. The increased number of tracks requires an increase of the number of readout channels while the higher radiation makes new sensor materials necessary. Within CMS, a measurement campaign was initiated to study the performance of different silicon materials in a corresponding radiation environment. To simulate the expected radiation the samples were irradiated with neutrons and with protons with two different energies. Radiation damage can be divided in two categories. First, ionizing energy loss in the surface isolation layers of the sensor leads to a change of the concentration of charged states in the sensor surface and there...

  16. Digital Offset Calibration of an OPAMP Towards Improving Static Parameters of 90 nm CMOS DAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Arbet

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an on-chip self-calibrated 8-bit R-2R digital-to-analog converter (DAC based on digitally compensated input offset of the operational amplifier (OPAMP is presented. To improve the overall DAC performance, a digital offset cancellation method was used to compensate deviations in the input offset voltage of the OPAMP caused by process variations. The whole DAC as well as offset compensation circuitry were designed in a standard 90 nm CMOS process. The achieved results show that after the self-calibration process, the improvement of 48% in the value of DAC offset error is achieved.

  17. Performance Studies of Resistive Micromegas Detectors for the Upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00387450

    2017-01-01

    With the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC the ATLAS Muon spectrometer will face increased particle rates, requiring an upgrade of the innermost end-cap detectors with a high-rate capable technology. Micromegas have been chosen as main tracking technology for this New Small Wheel upgrade. In an intense R$\\&$D and prototype phase the technology has proven to meet the stringent performance requirements of highly efficient particle detection with better than 100$\\rm{\\mu m}$ spatial resolution, independent of the track incidence angle up to 32$^\\circ$, in a magnetic field B $\\leq$ 0.3 T and at background hit rate of up to 15kHz/cm$^2$.

  18. The ALICE TPC Upgrad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Andrew; Alice-Usa Collaboration; Alice-Tpc Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) currently used for ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment at CERN) is a gaseous tracking detector used to study both proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) In order to accommodate the higher luminosit collisions planned for the LHC Run-3 starting in 2021, the ALICE-TPC will undergo a major upgrade during the next LHC shut down. The TPC is limited to a read out of 1000 Hz in minimum bias events due to the intrinsic dead time associated with back ion flow in the multi wire proportional chambers (MWPC) in the TPC. The TPC upgrade will handle the increase in event readout to 50 kHz for heavy ion minimum bias triggered events expected with the Run-3 luminosity by switching the MWPCs to a stack of four Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils. The GEM layers will combine different hole pitches to reduce the dead time while maintaining the current spatial and energy resolution of the existing TPC. Undertaking the upgrade of the TPC represents a massive endeavor in terms of design, production, construction, quality assurance, and installation, thus the upgrade is coordinated over a number of institutes worldwide. The talk will go over the physics motivation for the upgrade, the ALICE-USA contribution to the construction of Inner Read Out Chambers IROCs, and QA from the first chambers built in the U.S

  19. The BR2 materials testing reactor. Past, ongoing and under-study upgradings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baugnet, J M; Roedt, Ch de; Gubel, P; Koonen, E [Centre d' Etude de I' Energie Nucleaire, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie, C.E.N./S.C.K., Mol (Belgium)

    1990-05-01

    The BR2 reactor (Mol, Belgium) is a high-flux materials testing reactor. The fuel is 93% {sup 235}U enriched uranium. The nominal power ranges from 60 to 100 MW. The main features of the design are the following: 1) maximum neutron flux, thermal: 1.2 x 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2} s; fast (E > 0.1 MeV) : 8.4 x 10{sup 14} n /cm{sup 2} s; 2) great flexibility of utilization: the core configuration and operation mode can be adapted to the experimental loading; 3) neutron spectrum tailoring; 4) availability of five 200 mm diameter channels besides the standard channels (84 mm diameter); 5) access to the top and bottom covers of the reactor authorizing the irradiation of loops. The reactor is used to study the behaviour of fuel elements and structural materials intended for future nuclear power stations of several types (fission and fusion). Irradiations are carried out in connection with performance tests up to very high burn-up or neutron fluence as well as for safety experiments, power cycling experiments, and generally speaking, tests under off-normal conditions. Irradiations for nuclear transmutation (production of high specific activity radio-isotopes and transplutonium elements), neutron-radiography, use of beam tubes for physics studies, and gamma irradiations are also carried out. The BR2 is used in support of Belgian programs, at the request of utilities, industry and universities and in the framework of international agreements. The paper reviews the past and ongoing upgrading and enhancement of reactor capabilities as well as those under study or consideration, namely with regard to: reactor equipment, fuel elements, irradiation facilities, reactor operation conditions and long-term strategy. (author)

  20. Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional (UNEDF). SciDAC-2 Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vary, James P. [Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States); Carlson, Joe; Furnstahl, Dick; Horoi, Mihai; Lusk, Rusty; Nazarewicz, Witek; Ng, Esmond; Thompson, Ian

    2012-09-29

    An understanding of the properties of atomic nuclei is crucial for a complete nuclear theory, for element formation, for properties of stars, and for present and future energy and defense applications. During the period of Dec. 1 2006 – Jun. 30, 2012, the UNEDF collaboration carried out a comprehensive study of all nuclei, based on the most accurate knowledge of the strong nuclear interaction, the most reliable theoretical approaches, the most advanced algorithms, and extensive computational resources, with a view towards scaling to the petaflop platforms and beyond. Until recently such an undertaking was hard to imagine, and even at the present time such an ambitious endeavor would be far beyond what a single researcher or a traditional research group could carry out. The UNEDF SciDAC project has developed several key computational codes and algorithms for reaching the goal of solving the nuclear quantum many-body problem throughout the chart of nuclei. Without such developments, scientific progress would not be possible. In addition the UNEDF SciDAC successfully applied these developments to solve many forefront research problems.

  1. The study of nano technology utilization in upgrading the quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today, the first requirement for increasing quality and strength in construction industry is utilization of appropriate and high quality materials so that usage of these materials, in addition to reducing maintenance costs and also upgrading the structure's longevity, in engineering respect through change on weight reduction ...

  2. Coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. The SLD Vertex Detector Upgrade (VXD3) and a study of b anti bg events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervan, P.J.

    1998-04-01

    This thesis presents a variety of work concerning the design, construction and use of the SLD's vertex detector. SLD's pioneering 120 Mpixel vertex detector, VXD2, was replaced by VXD3, a 307Mpixel CCD vertex detector in january 1996. The motivation for the up-grade detector and its subsequent construction and testing are described in some detail. This work represents the collaborative work of a large number of people. The authors' work was mainly carried out at EEV on the testing of the CCDs and subsequent ladders. VXD3 was commissioned during the 1996 SLD run and performed very close to design specifications. Monitoring the position of VXD3 is crucial for reconstructing the data in the detector for physics analysis. This was carried out using a capacitive wire position monitoring system. The system indicated that VXD3 was very stable during the whole of the 1996 run, except for known controlled movements. VXD3 was aligned globally for each period in-between these known movements using the tracks from e + e - → Z 0 → hadrons. The structure of three-jet b anti bg events has been studied using hadronic Z 0 decays from the 1993--1995 SLD data. Three-jet final states were selected and the CCD-based vertex detector was used to identify two of the jets as a b or anti b. The distributions of the gluon energy and polar angle with respect to the electron beam direction were examined and were compared with perturbative QCD predictions. It was found that the QCD Parton Shower prediction was needed to describe the data well

  4. Performance studies of resistive Micromegas chambers for the upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntekas, Konstantinos

    2018-02-01

    The ATLAS collaboration at LHC has endorsed the resistive Micromegas technology (MM), along with the small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC), for the high luminosity upgrade of the first muon station in the high-rapidity region, the so called New Small Wheel (NSW) project. The NSW requires fully efficient MM chambers, up to a particle rate of ˜ 15 kHz/cm2, with spatial resolution better than 100 μm independent of the track incidence angle and the magnetic field (B ≤ 0.3 T). Along with the precise tracking the MM should be able to provide a trigger signal, complementary to the sTGC, thus a decent timing resolution is required. Several tests have been performed on small (10 × 10 cm2) MM chambers using medium (10 GeV/c) and high (150 GeV/c) momentum hadron beams at CERN. Results on the efficiency and position resolution measured during these tests are presented demonstrating the excellent characteristics of the MM that fulfil the NSW requirements. Exploiting the ability of the MM to work as a Time Projection Chamber a novel method, called the μTPC, has been developed for the case of inclined tracks, allowing for a precise segment reconstruction using a single detection plane. A detailed description of the method along with thorough studies towards refining the method's performance are shown. Finally, during 2014 the first MM quadruplet (MMSW) following the NSW design scheme, comprising four detection planes in a stereo readout configuration, has been realised at CERN. Test-beam results of this prototype are discussed and compared to theoretical expectations.

  5. An audio FIR-DAC in a BCD process for high power Class-D amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, T.S.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Schinkel, Daniel; Annema, Anne J.; Berkhout, M.; Berkhout, M.; Nauta, Bram

    A 322 coefficient semi-digital FIR-DAC using a 1-bit PWM input signal was designed and implemented in a high voltage, audio power bipolar CMOS DMOS (BCD) process. This facilitates digital input signals for an analog class-D amplifier in BCD. The FIR-DAC performance depends on the ISI-resistant

  6. Systematic analysis of the impact of mixing locality on Mixing-DAC linearity for multicarrier GSM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bechthum, E.; Radulov, G.I.; Briaire, J.; Geelen, G.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    In an RF transmitter, the function of the mixer and the DAC can be combined in a single block: the Mixing-DAC. For the generation of multicarrier GSM signals in a basestation, high dynamic linearity is required, i.e. SFDR>85dBc, at high output signal frequency, i.e. ƒout ˜ 4GHz. This represents a

  7. LHC luminosity upgrade detector challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; de Roeck, Albert; Bortoletto, Daniela; Wigmans, Richard; Riegler, Werner; Smith, Wesley H

    2006-01-01

    LHC luminosity upgrade: detector challenges The upgrade of the LHC machine towards higher luminosity (1035 cm -2s-1) has been studied over the last few years. These studies have investigated scenarios to achieve the increase in peak luminosity by an order of magnitude, as well as the physics potential of such an upgrade and the impact of a machine upgrade on the LHC DETECTORS. This series of lectures will cover the following topics: • Physics motivation and machine scenarios for an order of magnitude increase in the LHC peak luminosity (lecture 1) • Detector challenges including overview of ideas for R&D programs by the LHC experiments: tracking and calorimetry, other new detector developments (lectures 2-4) • Electronics, trigger and data acquisition challenges (lecture 5) Note: the much more ambitious LHC energy upgrade will not be covered

  8. Design and development of CAMAC 12 bit ADC/DAC dual purpose module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, S.G.; Gore, J.A.; Ramlal, V.; Matkar, U.V.; Lokare, R.N.; Yadav, M.L.; Ekambaram, M.; Gupta, A.K.; Datar, V.M.

    2013-01-01

    A dual function CAMAC module is designed for Pelletron Accelerator which can function as 12 bit 8 channels DAC or 12 bit 16 channels ADC. Spartan 2 series of FPGA is used for implementing the CAMAC interface logic as well as logic for ADC/DAC interface. The PCB has both the ADC and DAC mounted but the module can have only one function selected due to wiring constraint. Two different VHDL programs (one for the ADC and other for the DAC) reside on the EEPROM permitting selection of any one as per the functionality required. The module is working as a 12 bit DAC at BARC-TIFR Pelletron Linac Facility, successfully. (author)

  9. Studies on irradiated pixel detectors for the ATLAS IBL and HL-LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00371978; Gößling, Claus; Pernegger, Heinz

    The constant demand for higher luminosity in high energy physics is the reason for the continuous effort to adapt the accelerators and the experiments. The upgrade program for the experiments and the accelerators at CERN already includes several expansion stages of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which will increase the luminosity and the energy of the accelerator. Simultaneously the LHC experiments prepare the individual sub-detectors for the increasing demands in the coming years. Especially the tracking detectors have to cope with fluence levels unprecedented for high energy physics experiments. Correspondingly to the fluence increases the impact of the radiation damage which reduces the life time of the detectors by decreasing the detector performance and efficiency. To cope with this effect new and more radiation hard detector concepts become necessary to extend the life time. This work concentrates on the impact of radiation damage on the pixel sensor technologies to be used in the next upgrade of the ...

  10. Study on upgrade on nuclear control related open source information website

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. T.; Park, S. S.; Park, W. S.; Choi, Y. M.

    2002-01-01

    The open source information relevant to the nuclear control is regularly collected, analyzed, and published to the three web sites by the Technology Center for Nuclear Control (TCNC) of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). These web sites are world-wide, KAERI-wide, and TCNC-wide, respectively. We are to upgrade the KAERI-wide website to the access-controlled world-wide web site with some additional functionality. In this research, the current status of the three nuclear control related open source information websites managed by the TCNC was introduced and methods for upgrading the KAERI-wide open source information website and associated information security technology were reviewed

  11. Study of a Solution with COTS for the LHCb Calorimeter Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Beteta, C Abellan; Olloqui, E Picatoste; Machefert, F; Lefrançois, J; Vilasis-Cardona, X

    2012-01-01

    We present a solution made out of Components Out of Shelf (COTS) for the analog processing of the signal of the LHCb calorimeters in the framework of the foreseen upgrade of the detector. The present proposal is based on the current functional solution, yet, to meet the stringent noise requirements, a number of modifications are proposed. Preliminary results on the prototype boards show promising results.

  12. Brain Gain Malaysia (BGM): Feasibility Studies to Upgrading the Power of TRIGA PUSPATI Reactor (RTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naim Shauqi Hamzah; Mohd Fairus Abdul Farid; Julia Abdul Karim

    2011-01-01

    BGM Programme introduced by MOSTI has give the opportunities for Reactor Technology Division to get the expertise from Romania for upgrading the power output of RTP. 2 and a half months programme include expertise development in neutronic fields and thermal hydraulics and also introduction of reactor technology to IPTA and IPTS students. This programme also benefited the staffs of BTR as activities conducted intensively and hands-on to make the researchers can improved their knowledge on related computer code effectively. (author)

  13. LHCb: Study of a solution with COTS for the LHCb calorimeter upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Abellan Beteta, C

    2011-01-01

    Since the end of the commissioning of LHCb in 2009 the detector has proven to work nicely even in high pile-up conditions and by the end of 2010 nominal instantaneous luminosity was reached. Data taking is expected to continue for 5 more years, aiming to accumulate an integrated luminosity of 5fb-1. Even if new physics is discovered at that time, it will be difficult to characterize it and it would be more profitable to upgrade the detector. The foreseen long shutdown offers an opportunity to upgrade the detector . As expressed in the Letter of Intend for the LHCb upgrade [1] the main objective of this enhancement is to have a 40MHz readout electronics to allow the use of a more flexible and efficient software-based triggering system. Moreover, after the shutdown, the instantaneous luminosity at the LHCb interaction point is expected to be multiplied by 5. From the point of view of the LHCb calorimeter changing the readout implies a change of the electronic boards. Also because of the luminosity increase and ...

  14. Irradiation study of different silicon materials for the CMS tracker upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erfle, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    Around 2022, an upgrade of the LHC collider complex is planned to significantly increase the luminosity (the High Luminosity LHC, HL-LHC). This means that the experiments have to cope with a higher number of collisions per bunch crossing and survive in a radiation environment much harsher than that at the present LHC. Especially the tracking detectors have to be improved for the HL-LHC. The increased number of tracks requires an increase of the number of readout channels while the higher radiation makes new sensor materials necessary. Within CMS, a measurement campaign was initiated to study the performance of different silicon materials in a corresponding radiation environment. To simulate the expected radiation the samples were irradiated with neutrons and with protons with two different energies. Radiation damage can be divided in two categories. First, ionizing energy loss in the surface isolation layers of the sensor leads to a change of the concentration of charged states in the sensor surface and therefore alters the distribution of the electrical fields in the sensor. Second, non-ionizing energy loss in the bulk of the sensor material leads to a variety of defects in the silicon lattice. Electrically active defects can influence the material properties. The three properties under investigation are the reverse current, the full depletion voltage and the charge collection. While the reverse current and full depletion voltage influence the power dissipation and the noise of the detector, the charge collection directly influences the measurement. The material properties were studied using pad and strip sensor. The structures were electrically characterized before and after irradiation with different fluences of neutrons and protons, corresponding to the expected fluences at different radii of the outer tracker after 3000 fb -1 . The charge collection measurements were mainly performed using the ALiBaVa readout system and the charge was induced with

  15. Assessing and Upgrading Ocean Mixing for the Study of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, A. M.; Fells, J.; Lindo, F.; Tulsee, V.; Canuto, V.; Cheng, Y.; Dubovikov, M. S.; Leboissetier, A.

    2016-12-01

    Climate is critical. Climate variability affects us all; Climate Change is a burning issue. Droughts, floods, other extreme events, and Global Warming's effects on these and problems such as sea-level rise and ecosystem disruption threaten lives. Citizens must be informed to make decisions concerning climate such as "business as usual" vs. mitigating emissions to keep warming within bounds. Medgar Evers undergraduates aid NASA research while learning climate science and developing computer&math skills. To make useful predictions we must realistically model each component of the climate system, including the ocean, whose critical role includes transporting&storing heat and dissolved CO2. We need physically based parameterizations of key ocean processes that can't be put explicitly in a global climate model, e.g. vertical&lateral mixing. The NASA-GISS turbulence group uses theory to model mixing including: 1) a comprehensive scheme for small scale vertical mixing, including convection&shear, internal waves & double-diffusion, and bottom tides 2) a new parameterization for the lateral&vertical mixing by mesoscale eddies. For better understanding we write our own programs. To assess the modelling MATLAB programs visualize and calculate statistics, including means, standard deviations and correlations, on NASA-GISS OGCM output with different mixing schemes and help us study drift from observations. We also try to upgrade the schemes, e.g. the bottom tidal mixing parameterizations' roughness, calculated from high resolution topographic data using Gaussian weighting functions with cut-offs. We study the effects of their parameters to improve them. A FORTRAN program extracts topography data subsets of manageable size for a MATLAB program, tested on idealized cases, to visualize&calculate roughness on. Students are introduced to modeling a complex system, gain a deeper appreciation of climate science, programming skills and familiarity with MATLAB, while furthering climate

  16. 45 CFR 1705.3 - Procedures for requests pertaining to individual records in the D/AC File.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... records in the D/AC File. 1705.3 Section 1705.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... for requests pertaining to individual records in the D/AC File. (a) An individual who wishes to know whether the D/AC File contains a record pertaining to him or her shall submit a written request to that...

  17. OMEGA Upgrade preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.

    1989-10-01

    The OMEGA laser system at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester is the only major facility in the United States capable of conducting fully diagnosed, direct-drive, spherical implosion experiments. As such, it serves as the national Laser Users Facility, benefiting scientists throughout the country. The University's participation in the National Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program underwent review by a group of experts under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences (the Happer Committee) in 1985. The Happer Committee recommended that the OMEGA laser be upgraded in energy to 30 kJ. To this end, Congress appropriated $4,000,000 for the preliminary design of the OMEGA Upgrade, spread across FY88 and FY89. This document describes the preliminary design of the OMEGA Upgrade. The proposed enhancements to the existing OMEGA facility will result in a 30-kHJ, 351-nm, 60-beam direct-drive system, with a versatile pulse-shaping facility and a 1%--2% uniformity of target drive. The Upgrade will allow scientists to explore the ignition-scaling regime, and to study target behavior that is hydrodynamically equivalent to that of targets appropriate for a laboratory microfusion facility (LMF). In addition, it will be possible to perform critical interaction experiments with large-scale-length uniformly irradiated plasmas

  18. Quench protection studies of 11T 2-in-1 Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole models for LHC upgrades

    OpenAIRE

    Zlobin, AV; Chlachidze, G; Nobrega, F; Novitski, I; Karppinen, M

    2014-01-01

    CERN and FNAL are developing 11 T Nb3Sn dipole magnets for the LHC collimation system upgrade. Due to the large stored energy, protection of these magnets during a quench is a challenging problem. This paper reports the results of experimental studies of key quench protection parameters including longitudinal and radial quench propagation in the coil, coil heating due to a quench, and energy extraction and quench-back effect. The studies were performed using a 1 m long 11 T Nb3Sn dipole coil ...

  19. Quench protection studies of 11T 2-in-1 Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole models for LHC upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Zlobin, AV; Nobrega, F; Novitski, I; Karppinen, M

    2014-01-01

    CERN and FNAL are developing 11 T Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole magnets for the LHC collimation system upgrade. Due to the large stored energy, protection of these magnets during a quench is a challenging problem. This paper reports the results of experimental studies of key quench protection parameters including longitudinal and radial quench propagation in the coil, coil heating due to a quench, and energy extraction and quench-back effect. The studies were performed using a 1 m long 11 T Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole coil tested in a magnetic mirror configuration.

  20. Study of a pure CsI crystal readout by APD for Belle II end cap ECL upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Y., E-mail: jin@hep.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Borshchev, O.V. [Enikolopov Institute of Synthetic Polymeric Materials of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya st. 70, Moscow 117393 (Russian Federation); Epifanov, D.A. [Department of Physics, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ponomarenko, S.A.; Surin, N.M. [Enikolopov Institute of Synthetic Polymeric Materials of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya st. 70, Moscow 117393 (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-11

    A scintillation counter consisting of a pure CsI crystal and avalanche photodiodes (Hamamatsu APD S8664-55 and S8664-1010) has been studied for the upgrade of the end cap electromagnetic calorimeter of Belle II detector. An essential increase of the light output was achieved with wavelength shifters based on nanostructured organosilicon luminophores. - Highlights: • A scintillation counter consisting of a pure CsI crystal and avalanche photodiodes has been studied. • The equivalent noise charge and equivalent noise energy of the counter have been measured. • An essential increase of the light output was achieved with wavelength shifters.

  1. Characterization of dacC, which encodes a new low-molecular-weight penicillin-binding protein in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lotte Bang; Murray, T; Popham, D L

    1998-01-01

    The pbp gene (renamed dacC), identified by the Bacillus subtilis genome sequencing project, encodes a putative 491-residue protein with sequence homology to low-molecular-weight penicillin-binding proteins. Use of a transcriptional dacC-lacZ fusion revealed that dacC expression (i) is initiated...... at the end of stationary phase; (ii) depends strongly on transcription factor sigmaH; and (iii) appears to be initiated from a promoter located immediately upstream of yoxA, a gene of unknown function located upstream of dacC on the B. subtilis chromosome. A B. subtilis dacC insertional mutant grew...

  2. VISUAL ARTS AS THE FIELD OF KNOWLEDGE IN ARTE NA ESCOLA - DAC / UFSC PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Perassi Luiz de Sousa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and justifies the content worked in the extension course "The Visual Arts as a field of knowledge," which was sponsored by the Departamento Artístico Cultural – DAC/ UFSC, within the project "Arte na Escola". The course was directed at teachers of Art and also received other stakeholders in the study of Visual Arts, focusing on contemporary art. Art is justified as a field of knowledge in that, throughout its history, many have been developed knowledge, technologies and expertise applied to the development of artistic activities. In addition, each work of art represents a unique and innovative testimony of their time and offers a new set of knowledge, which broadens the cultural heritage of humanity. Finally, knowledge and artistic products are also applied in developing other areas of knowledge.

  3. Time accuracy requirements for fusion experiments: A case study at ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raupp, Gerhard; Behler, Karl; Eixenberger, Horst; Fitzek, Michael; Kollotzek, Horst; Lohs, Andreas; Lueddecke, Klaus; Mueller, Peter; Merkel, Roland; Neu, Gregor; Schacht, Joerg; Schramm, Gerold; Treutterer, Wolfgang; Zasche, Dieter; Zehetbauer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    To manage and operate a fusion device and measure meaningful data an accurate and stable time is needed. As a benchmark, we suggest to consider time accuracy as sufficient if it is better than typical data errors or process timescales. This allows to distinguish application domains and chose appropriate time distribution methods. For ASDEX Upgrade a standard NTP method provides Unix time for project and operation management tasks, and a dedicated time system generates and distributes a precise experiment time for physics applications. Applying the benchmark to ASDEX Upgrade shows that physics measurements tagged with experiment time meet the requirements, while correlation of NTP tagged operation data with physics data tagged with experiment time remains problematic. Closer coupling of the two initially free running time systems with daily re-sets was an efficient and satisfactory improvement. For ultimate accuracy and seamless integration, however, continuous adjustment of the experiment time clock frequency to NTP is needed, within frequency variation limits given by the benchmark.

  4. L-mode radiative plasma edge studies for model validation in ASDEX Upgrade and JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho-Mantila, L., E-mail: leena.aho-mantila@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Bernert, M. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Coenen, J.W. [Energie- und Klimaforschung IEK-4, FZJ, EURATOM Association, TEC, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Fischer, R. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lehnen, M. [Energie- und Klimaforschung IEK-4, FZJ, EURATOM Association, TEC, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Lowry, C. [EFDA JET CSU, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Marsen, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinsitut Greifswald, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); McCormick, K.; Müller, H.W.; Sieglin, B. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Stamp, M.F. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, EURATOM-CCFE Association, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Wischmeier, M. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bonnin, X. [LSPM, CNRS, Université Paris 13, F-93430 Villetaneuse (France); Coster, D.P. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Reiter, D.; Brezinsek, S. [Energie- und Klimaforschung IEK-4, FZJ, EURATOM Association, TEC, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    The presently favoured option for reactor power handling combines metallic plasma-facing components and impurity seeding to achieve highly radiative scrape-off layer and divertor plasmas. It is uncertain whether tolerable divertor power loads will be obtained in this scenario, necessitating the development of predictive modelling tools. L-mode experiments with N{sub 2} seeding have been conducted at both ASDEX Upgrade and JET for benchmarking the critically important impurity radiation models in edge fluid codes. In both machines, particle and power loads are observed to first reduce at the inner target, and only then at the outer target. The outer divertor cools down with increasing N seeding rate, evolving from low-recycling conditions to a regime with peak temperature of 8–10 eV in both devices. First SOLPS5.0 simulations of N{sub 2} seeding in ASDEX Upgrade geometry show a similar in–out asymmetry in the effect of impurity radiation when drifts are activated in the simulations.

  5. Beam dynamics studies of the ISOLDE post-accelerator for the high intensity and energy upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, M A

    2012-01-01

    The High Intensity and Energy (HIE) project represents a major upgrade of the ISOLDE (On-Line Isotope Mass Separator) nuclear facility at CERN with a mandate to significantly increase the energy, intensity and quality of the radioactive nuclear beams provided to the European nuclear physics community for research at the forefront of topics such as nuclear structure physics and nuclear astrophysics. The HIE-ISOLDE project focuses on the upgrade of the existing Radioactive ion beam EXperiment (REX) post-accelerator with the addition of a 40MVsuperconducting linac comprising 32 niobium sputter-coated copper quarter-wave cavities operating at 101.28 MHz and at an accelerating gradient close to 6 MV/m. The energy of post-accelerated radioactive nuclear beams will be increased from the present ceiling of 3 MeV/u to over 10 MeV/u, with full variability in energy, and will permit, amongst others, Coulomb interaction and few-nucleon transfer reactions to be carried out on the full inventory of radionuclides available ...

  6. Beam Dynamics Studies of the ISOLDE Post-accelerator for the High Intensity and Energy Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Matthew Alexander; Pasini, M

    2012-01-01

    The High Intensity and Energy (HIE) project represents a major upgrade of the ISOLDE (On-Line Isotope Mass Separator) nuclear facility at CERN with a mandate to significantly increase the energy, intensity and quality of the radioactive nuclear beams provided to the European nuclear physics community for research at the forefront of topics such as nuclear structure physics and nuclear astrophysics. The HIE-ISOLDE project focuses on the upgrade of the existing Radioactive ion beam EXperiment (REX) post-accelerator with the addition of a 40MVsuperconducting linac comprising 32 niobium sputter-coated copper quarter-wave cavities operating at 101.28 MHz and at an accelerating gradient close to 6 MV/m. The energy of post-accelerated radioactive nuclear beams will be increased from the present ceiling of 3 MeV/u to over 10 MeV/u, with full variability in energy, and will permit, amongst others, Coulomb interaction and few-nucleon transfer reactions to be carried out on the full inventory of radionuclides available ...

  7. Study of the performance of the Micromegas chambers for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00237763; The ATLAS Muon collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Micromegas (MICRO MEsh GAseous Structure) chambers are Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors designed to provide a high spatial resolution in highly irradiated environments. In 2007 an ambitious long-term R&D activity was started in the context of the ATLAS experiment, at CERN: the Muon ATLAS Micromegas Activity (MAMMA). After years of tests on prototypes and technology breakthroughs, Micromegas chambers were chosen as tracking detectors for an upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer. These novel detectors will be installed in 2018 and 2019 during the second long shutdown of the Large Hadron Collider, and will serve as precision detectors in the innermost part of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer. Eight layers of Micromegas modules of unprecedented size, up to 3 $\\rm{{m^2}}$, will cover a surface of 150 $\\rm{{m^2}}$ for a total active area of about 1200 $\\rm{{m^2}}$. This upgrade will be crucial to ensure high quality performance for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer in view of the third run of the Large Hadron Collider and...

  8. Performance studies of resistive Micromegas detectors for the upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Ntekas, Konstantinos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Resistive Micromegas (Micro MEsh Gaseous Structure) detectors have proven along the years to be a reliable high rate capable detector technology characterised by an excellent spatial resolution. The ATLAS collaboration at LHC has chosen the resistive Micromegas technology (mainly for tracking), along with the small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC, mainly for triggering), for the high luminosity upgrade of the inner muon station in the high-rapidity region, the so called New Small Wheel (NSW) upgrade project. The NSW requires fully efficient Micromegas chambers with spatial resolution better than $100\\,\\mu\\mathrm{m}$ independent of the track incidence angle and the magnetic field ($B<0.3\\,\\mathrm{T}$), with a rate capability up to $\\sim10\\,\\mathrm{kHz/cm^2}$. Moreover, together with the precise tracking capability the Micromegas chambers should be able to provide a trigger signal, complementary to the sTGC, thus a decent timing resolution is required. Several tests have been performed on small ($10\\times10\\,\\...

  9. Performance Studies of Micromegas Chambers for the New Small Wheel Upgrade Project

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00349891; The ATLAS collaboration; Leontsinis, Stefanos

    2015-01-01

    Micromegas, an abbreviation for Micro MEsh Gaseous Structure (MM), is a robust detector with excellent spatial resolution and high rate capability. An $R\\&D$ activity, called Muon ATLAS MicroMegas Activity (MAMMA), was initiated in 2007 in order to explore the potential of the MM technology for use in the ATLAS experiment. After several years of prototyping and testing, the ATLAS collaboration has chosen the MM technology along with the small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC) for the upgrade of the inner muon station in the high-rapidity region, the so called New Small Wheel (NSW) upgrade project. It will employ eight layers of MM and eight layers of sTGC detectors per wheel. The NSW project requires fully efficient MM chambers, able to cope with the maximum expected rate of $15\\,\\mathrm{kHz/cm^2}$ featuring single plane spatial resolution better than $100\\,\\mu\\mathrm{m}$. The MM detectors will cover a total active area of $\\sim1200\\,\\mathrm{m^2}$ and will be operated in a moderate magnetic field with intens...

  10. Performance studies of resistive Micromegas detectors for the upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Resistive Micromegas (Micro MEsh Gaseous Structure) detectors have proven along the years to be a reliable high rate capable detector techno- logy characterised by an excellent spatial resolution. The ATLAS colla- boration at LHC has chosen the resistive Micromegas technology (mainly for tracking), along with the small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC, mainly for triggering), for the high luminosity upgrade of the inner muon station in the high-rapidity region, the so called New Small Wheel (NSW) upgrade project. The NSW requires fully efficient Micromegas chambers with spatial resolution better than 100μm independent of the track inci- dence angle and the magnetic field (B < 0.3 T), with a rate capability up to ∼ 10kHz/cm2. Along with the precise tracking the Micromegas chambers should be able to provide a trigger signal, complementary to the sTGC, thus a decent timing resolution is required. Several tests have been performed on small (10×10cm2) and medium size (1×0.5m2) resistive Micromegas chambers (b...

  11. Design of integrated all optical digital to analog converter (DAC) using 2D photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniem, Tamer A.; El-Din, Eman S.

    2017-11-01

    A novel design of all optical 3 bit digital to analog (DAC) converter will be presented in this paper based on 2 Dimension photonic crystals (PhC). The proposed structure is based on the photonic crystal ring resonators (PCRR) with combining the nonlinear Kerr effect on the PCRR. The total size of the proposed optical 3 bit DAC is equal to 44 μm × 37 μm of 2D square lattice photonic crystals of silicon rods with refractive index equal to 3.4. The finite different time domain (FDTD) and Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) methods are used to back the overall operation of the proposed optical DAC.

  12. Fast-ion transport studies using FIDA spectroscopy at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, Benedikt

    2013-01-01

    A good confinement of fast-ions, i.e. ions with energies above the thermal energy, is essential for the success of fusion devices as it determines, amongst others, the plasma performance and the heating and current drive efficiencies. In case of a turbulent or magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) active background plasma, various mechanisms have to be considered in order to estimate the spatial distribution of the fast-ions: the slowing down and radial diffusion by Coulomb collisions on electrons and ions, the effect of potential fluctuations and the effect of perturbations of the magnetic field structure. These can lead to a broadening of the fast-ion distribution function which is not yet completely understood. At the fusion experiment ASDEX Upgrade, the fast-ions are generated by heating sources such as neutral beam injection (NBI). Their transport properties can be studied by a fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) spectroscopy diagnostic which has been built in the framework of this thesis. Through charge exchange reactions with neutrals, fast-ions can receive a bound electron and emit Balmer alpha line radiation. This so-called FIDA radiation can be measured with large Doppler shifts and is localized along the NBI path where a high density of neutrals is present. The FIDA diagnostic uses radially distributed lines of sight that intersect, in the horizontal and in the vertical plane, the path of a 2.5 MW NBI heating source. Thereby different parts of the fast-ion phase space above 25 keV can be analyzed. To interpret the FIDA radiation quantitatively, a forward modelling code has been implemented, tested and further developed. The code calculates, based on theoretical fast-ion distribution functions, synthetic FIDA spectra that can be compared to the measurement. In MHD-quiescent plasmas, the possible effect of turbulence on the fast-ion transport has been investigated with the FIDA diagnostic. The measurements obtained under different experimental conditions, such as during on- and

  13. Feasibility study to use an SRAM-based FPGA in the readout electronics of the upgraded LHCb outer tracker detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faerber, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents a study of the feasibility to use SRAM-based FPGAs as central component of the upgraded LHCb Outer Tracker readout electronics. The FPGA should contain the functionality of a TDC and should provide fast data links using multi-GBit/s transceivers. The TDC core that was developed provides 5 bit time measurements for 32 channels with a bin size of 780 ps. The TDC has the required time resolution of better than 1 ns. This was achieved by manually placing every logic element of the TDC channels and with an iterative procedure feeding timing measurements back to the Place and Route step of the router software. A transceiver and TDC card, and an adapter board for the existing readout electronics was developed. Both boards were used successfully to read out drift times from an Outer Tracker straw-tube module in a cosmic setup. To qualify the proposed electronics for the expected radiation levels an irradiation test with 22 MeV protons and two FPGA boards was performed up to a total ionization dose of 30 Mrad. Both chips sustained the irradiation expected for the full life time of the upgraded LHCb detector of up to 30 krad. After an irradiation dose of 150 krad the first deteriorations of the performance of the chips were observed. The proton cross section for configuration bit flips was determined to be 1.6.10 16 cm 2 per bit. The measured error rate scaled to the upgrade environment would correspond to a manageable firmware error rate.

  14. Studies on irradiated pixel detectors for the ATLAS IBL and HL-LHC upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallrapp, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The constant demand for higher luminosity in high energy physics is the reason for the continuous effort to adapt the accelerators and the experiments. The upgrade program for the experiments and the accelerators at CERN already includes several expansion stages of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which will increase the luminosity and the energy of the accelerator. Simultaneously the LHC experiments prepare the individual sub-detectors for the increasing demands in the coming years. Especially the tracking detectors have to cope with fluence levels unprecedented for high energy physics experiments. Correspondingly to the fluence increases the impact of the radiation damage which reduces the life time of the detectors by decreasing the detector performance and efficiency. To cope with this effect new and more radiation hard detector concepts become necessary to extend the life time. This work concentrates on the impact of radiation damage on the pixel sensor technologies to be used in the next upgrade of the ATLAS Pixel Detector as well as for applications in the ATLAS Experiment at HL-LHC conditions. The sensors considered in this work include various designs based on silicon and diamond as sensor material. The investigated designs include a planar silicon pixel design currently used in the ATLAS Experiment as well as a 3D pixel design which uses electrodes penetrating the entire sensor material. The diamond designs implement electrodes similar to the design used by the planar technology with diamond sensors made out of single- and poly-crystalline material. To investigate the sensor properties characterization tests are performed before and after irradiation with protons or neutrons. The measurements are used to determine the interaction between the read-out electronics and the sensors to ensure the signal transfer after irradiation. Further tests focus on the sensor performance itself which includes the analysis of the leakage current behavior and the charge

  15. Studies on irradiated pixel detectors for the ATLAS IBL and HL-LHC upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallrapp, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The constant demand for higher luminosity in high energy physics is the reason for the continuous effort to adapt the accelerators and the experiments. The upgrade program for the experiments and the accelerators at CERN already includes several expansion stages of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which will increase the luminosity and the energy of the accelerator. Simultaneously the LHC experiments prepare the individual sub-detectors for the increasing demands in the coming years. Especially the tracking detectors have to cope with fluence levels unprecedented for high energy physics experiments. Correspondingly to the fluence increases the impact of the radiation damage which reduces the life time of the detectors by decreasing the detector performance and efficiency. To cope with this effect new and more radiation hard detector concepts become necessary to extend the life time. This work concentrates on the impact of radiation damage on the pixel sensor technologies to be used in the next upgrade of the ATLAS Pixel Detector as well as for applications in the ATLAS Experiment at HL-LHC conditions. The sensors considered in this work include various designs based on silicon and diamond as sensor material. The investigated designs include a planar silicon pixel design currently used in the ATLAS Experiment as well as a 3D pixel design which uses electrodes penetrating the entire sensor material. The diamond designs implement electrodes similar to the design used by the planar technology with diamond sensors made out of single- and poly-crystalline material. To investigate the sensor properties characterization tests are performed before and after irradiation with protons or neutrons. The measurements are used to determine the interaction between the read-out electronics and the sensors to ensure the signal transfer after irradiation. Further tests focus on the sensor performance itself which includes the analysis of the leakage current behavior and the charge

  16. Study of ZZ to four leptons events in ATLAS at the LHC and upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    Kouskoura, V

    2014-01-01

    The study of the ZZ and ZZ* production in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is presented. The data analyzed in this study were recorded by the ATLAS experiment at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and of 8 TeV. The selected events are consistent with fully leptonic ZZ decays, in particular to electrons and muons. The total ZZ production cross section is measured and is found to be in agreement with the Standard Model (SM) prediction. The ZZ production allows the study of the anomalous neutral Triple Gauge Couplings. No deviation from the SM prediction is found that could indicate the presence of New Physics. In view of the forthcoming increase of the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC, the ATLAS Collaboration foresees upgrades of the detector. An upgrade of the Muon Spectrometer is presented. The integration of the new detection elements in the ATLAS Geometry is illustrated, as well as the increase in the total Barrel acceptance.

  17. Quench Protection Studies of the 11-T $Nb_3Sn$ Dipole for LHC Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Izquierdo Bermudez, Susana; BAJAS, Hugues; Bajko, Marta; Bordini, Bernardo; Bottura, Luca; Chlachidze, Guram; Karppinen, Mikko; Rysti, Juho; Savary, Frederic; Willering, Gerard; Zlobin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The planned upgrade of the LHC collimation system foresees additional collimators to be installed in the dispersion suppressor areas. Fermilab and CERN are developing an 11 T Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole to replace some 8.33 T-15-m-long Nb-Ti LHC main dipoles providing longitudinal space for the collimators. In case of a quench, the large stored energy and the low copper stabilizer fraction make the protection of the 11 T Nb$_{3}$Sn dipoles challenging. This paper presents the results of quench protection analysis, including quench protection heater design and efficiency, quench propagation and coil heating. The numerical results are compared with the experimental data from the 2-m-long Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole models. The validated model is used to predict the current decay and hot spot temperature under operating conditions in the LHC and the presently foreseen magnet protection scheme is discussed.

  18. Studies for an upgrade of ALICE Inner Tracking System: Pixel chip characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jonghan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inner Tracking System (ITS of ALICE is used for vertex determination and tracking. Future heavy-ion program at the LHC aims to run with high luminosity. To address this challenge, upgrade program of ITS is underway, which aims at better position resolution (factor of 3, high detection efficiency (>99%, high-rate readout capabilities (100 kHz for Pb-Pb and moderate radiation hardness (> 700 krad. The new ITS will be composed with 7 layers of silicon pixel chip based on Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS technology. The characterization test of various version of prototype chips at different phases of development has been performed. This contribution will provide the main characterization results obtained from the measurements performed at laboratories and using test beam for finalizing the pixel chip specification.

  19. Studies on up-gradation of Erbium from a heavy fraction of rare earths with EHEHPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.K.; Anitha, M.; Yadav, K.K.; Kotekar, M.K.; Vijayalakshmi, R.; Singh, H.

    2014-01-01

    Erbium is an important heavy rare earth element, which finds wide applications. Recently, use of Erbium oxide as structural coating material in fusion reactor has stimulated the interest in obtaining Erbium in pure form. The separation of Erbium from other rare earths such as Dy, Ho, Y, Yb, Tm etc is very difficult due to low separation factor owing to their similar chemical properties. Additionally due to very low concentration ( 2 O 3 : 1.09, Dy 2 O 3 : 58.07, Er 2 O 3 : 22.0, Ho 2 O 3 : 13.33, Yb 2 O 3 : 4.74, Tm 2 O 3 :0.67 is obtained during purification of Y by Aliquat 336 from thiocyanate medium. In the present investigation this HRE fraction is taken as the feed material for up-gradation of Er by an acidic extractant namely 2 ethyl hexyl - 2 ethyl hexyl phosphonic acid (EHEHPA)

  20. Trapped Mode Study For A Rotatable Collimator Design For The LHC Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Liling; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Smith, Jeffery Claiborne; Caspers, Fritz; /SLAC /CERN

    2009-06-23

    A rotatable collimator is proposed for the LHC phase II collimation upgrade. When the beam crosses the collimator, it will excite trapped modes that can contribute to the beam energy loss and power dissipation on the vacuum chamber wall. Transverse trapped modes can also generate transverse kicks on the beam and may thus affect the beam quality. In this paper, the parallel eigensolver code Omega3P is used to search for all the trapped modes below 2 GHz in two collimator designs, one with rectangular and the other with circular vacuum chamber. It is found that the longitudinal trapped modes in the circular vacuum chamber design may cause excessive heating. Adding ferrite tiles on the circular vacuum chamber wall can strongly damp these trapped modes. We will present and discuss the simulation results.

  1. Di-J/ψ Studies, Level 3 Tracking and the D0 Run IIb Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vint, Philip John

    2009-01-01

    The D0 detector underwent an upgrade to its silicon vertex detector and triggering systems during the transition from Run IIa to Run IIb to maximize its ability to fully exploit Run II at the Fermilab Tevatron. This thesis describes improvements made to the tracking and vertexing algorithms used by the high level trigger in both Run IIa and Run IIb, as well as a search for resonant di-J/ψ states using both Run IIa and Run IIb data. Improvements made to the tracking and vertexing algorithms during Run IIa included the optimization of the existing tracking software to reduce overall processing time and the certification and testing of a new software release. Upgrades made to the high level trigger for Run IIb included the development of a new tracking algorithm and the inclusion of the new Layer 0 silicon detector into the existing software. The integration of Layer 0 into the high level trigger has led to an improvement in the overall impact parameter resolution for tracks of ∼50%. The development of a new parameterization method for finding the error associated to the impact parameter of tracks returned by the high level tracking algorithm, in association with the inclusion of Layer 0, has led to improvements in vertex resolution of ∼4.5 (micro)m. A previous search in the di-J/ψ channel revealed a unpredicted resonance at ∼13.7 GeV/c 2 . A confirmation analysis is presented using 2.8 fb -1 of data and two different approaches to cuts. No significant excess is seen in the di-J/ψ mass spectrum.

  2. Di-J/Ψ Studies, Level 3 Tracking and the D0 Run IIb Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vint, Philip John [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-01

    The D0 detector underwent an upgrade to its silicon vertex detector and triggering systems during the transition from Run IIa to Run IIb to maximize its ability to fully exploit Run II at the Fermilab Tevatron. This thesis describes improvements made to the tracking and vertexing algorithms used by the high level trigger in both Run IIa and Run IIb, as well as a search for resonant di-J/Ψ states using both Run IIa and Run IIb data. Improvements made to the tracking and vertexing algorithms during Run IIa included the optimization of the existing tracking software to reduce overall processing time and the certification and testing of a new software release. Upgrades made to the high level trigger for Run IIb included the development of a new tracking algorithm and the inclusion of the new Layer 0 silicon detector into the existing software. The integration of Layer 0 into the high level trigger has led to an improvement in the overall impact parameter resolution for tracks of ~50%. The development of a new parameterization method for finding the error associated to the impact parameter of tracks returned by the high level tracking algorithm, in association with the inclusion of Layer 0, has led to improvements in vertex resolution of ~4.5 μm. A previous search in the di-J/Ψ channel revealed a unpredicted resonance at ~13.7 GeV/c2. A confirmation analysis is presented using 2.8 fb-1 of data and two different approaches to cuts. No significant excess is seen in the di-J/Ψ mass spectrum.

  3. The CDF upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman-Holmes, C.

    1995-01-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) has been used to study proton-antiproton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron since 1985. Over the years, the detector has evolved steadily to increase its physics capability and to keep pace with improvements to the Tevatron. Fermilab is currently building a new Main Injector accelerator which will lead to even larger luminosity values. This paper describes upgrades to CDF that will allow one to exploit the higher luminosity of the Main Injector

  4. A cryogenic DAC operating down to 4.2 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. T.; Lehmann, T.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a 10 bit CMOS current steering digital to analog converter (DAC) that operates from room temperature to as low as 4.2 K. It works as the core part of a cryogenic Silicon quantum computer controller circuit producing rapid control gate voltage pulses for quantum bits (qubits) initialization. An improved analog calibration method with a unique unit current cell design is included in the D/A converter structure to overcome the extended cryogenic nonlinear and mismatch effects. The DAC retains its 10 bit linear monotonic behavior over the wide temperature range and it drives a 50 Ω load to 516 mV with a full scale rise time of 10 ns. The differential non-linearity (DNL) of the converter is 0.35LSB while its average power consumption is 32.18 mW from a 3 V power supply. The complete converter is fabricated using a commercial 0.5 μm 1 poly 3 metal Silicon on Sapphire (SOS) CMOS process. He briefly worked as a Lecturer in the Stamford University Bangladesh prior to starting his Ph.D. in 2012 in the School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW. His Ph.D. research is focused on cryogenic electronics for Quantum Computer Interface. His main research interests are in designing data converters for ultra-low temperature electronics and biomedical applications. He spent two years as a Research Fellow at the University of Edinburgh, U.K., where he worked with biologically inspired artificial neural systems. From 1997 to 2000, he was an Assistant Professor in electronics at the Technical University of Denmark, working with low-power low-noise low-voltage analog and mixed analog-digital integrated circuits. From 2001 to 2003 he was Principal Engineer with Cochlear Ltd., Australia, where he was involved in the design of the world's first fully implantable cochlear implant. Today he is Associate Professor in microelectronics at the University of New South Wales, Australia. He has authored over 100 journal papers, conference papers, book chapters

  5. ALI and DAC for transuranic elements based on the metabolic data presented in ICRP Publication 48

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togawa, Orihiko; Yamaguchi, Yukichi; Homma, Toshimitsu

    1987-07-01

    The recently published ICRP report, ICRP Publication 48, presents the new metabolic data of some transuranic elements, compared with those employed in the calculation of ALI and DAC in ICRP Publication 30. Values of ALI and DAC for 72 radionuclides were calculated using the metabolic data presented in the Publication 48. The calculation was performed by a computer code system DOSDAC, which can systematically calculate ALI and DAC by the same method as that described in the Publication 30. The calculated values of ALI and DAC were tabulated in the same format as that of the supplements to the Publication 30. For the convenience of using in the dose assessment, also given are values of committed effective dose equivalent per intake of unit activity. It is expected that these values will be applied to the radiation protection purposes. (author)

  6. Computer system design description for the spare pump mini-dacs data acquisition and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargo, G.F. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The attached document outlines the computer software design for the mini data acquisition and control system (DACS), that supports the testing of the spare pump for Tank 241-SY-101, at the maintenance and storage facility (MASF)

  7. System design description for mini-dacs data acquisition and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargo, F.G. Jr.; Trujillo, L.T.; Smith, S.O.

    1994-01-01

    This document describes the hardware computer system, for the mini data acquisition and control system (DACS) that was fabricated by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to support the testing of the spare mixer pump for SY-101

  8. Genomes of Candidatus Wolbachia bourtzisii wDacA and Candidatus Wolbachia pipientis wDacB from the Cochineal Insect Dactylopius coccus (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamayim T. Ramírez-Puebla

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dactylopius species, known as cochineal insects, are the source of the carminic acid dye used worldwide. The presence of two Wolbachia strains in Dactylopius coccus from Mexico was revealed by PCR amplification of wsp and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. A metagenome analysis recovered the genome sequences of Candidatus Wolbachia bourtzisii wDacA (supergroup A and Candidatus Wolbachia pipientis wDacB (supergroup B. Genome read coverage, as well as 16S rRNA clone sequencing, revealed that wDacB was more abundant than wDacA. The strains shared similar predicted metabolic capabilities that are common to Wolbachia, including riboflavin, ubiquinone, and heme biosynthesis, but lacked other vitamin and cofactor biosynthesis as well as glycolysis, the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and sugar uptake systems. A complete tricarboxylic acid cycle and gluconeogenesis were predicted as well as limited amino acid biosynthesis. Uptake and catabolism of proline were evidenced in Dactylopius Wolbachia strains. Both strains possessed WO-like phage regions and type I and type IV secretion systems. Several efflux systems found suggested the existence of metal toxicity within their host. Besides already described putative virulence factors like ankyrin domain proteins, VlrC homologs, and patatin-like proteins, putative novel virulence factors related to those found in intracellular pathogens like Legionella and Mycobacterium are highlighted for the first time in Wolbachia. Candidate genes identified in other Wolbachia that are likely involved in cytoplasmic incompatibility were found in wDacB but not in wDacA.

  9. Studies of ageing effects of Small-Strip Thin Gap Chambers for the Muon Spectrometer Upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00425540; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The instantaneous luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will be increased by up to seven times its design value by undergoing an extensive upgrade program over the coming decade. The largest upgrade project for the ATLAS Muon System is the replacement of the present first station in the forward regions with the so-called New Small Wheels (NSWs), to be installed during the LHC long shutdown in 2019-2020. Small-Strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC) detectors are one chosen technology to provide fast trigger and high precision muon tracking under the high luminosity LHC conditions. The basic sTGC structure consists of a grid of gold-plated tungsten wires sandwiched between two resistive cathode planes at a small distance from the wire plane. We study ageing effects of sTGC detectors with a gas mixture of 55\\% of CO$_{2}$ and 45\\% of n-pentane. A sTGC detector was irradiated with beta-rays from a 10~mCi~$^{90}$Sr source. Three different gas flow rates were tested. We observed no deterioration on pulse height o...

  10. Studies of ageing effects of Small-Strip Thin Gap Chambers for the Muon Spectrometer Upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Gignac, Matthew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The instantaneous luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will be increased up to a factor of five with respect to the design value by undergoing an extensive upgrade program over the coming decade. The largest upgrade project for the ATLAS Muon System is the replacement of the present first station in the forward regions with the so-called New Small Wheels (NSWs), to be installed during the LHC long shutdown in 2019/20. Small-Strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC) detectors are one chosen technology to provide fast trigger and high precision muon tracking under the high luminosity LHC conditions. The basic sTGC structure consists of a grid of gold-plated tungsten wires sandwiched between two resistive cathode planes at a small distance from the wire plane. We study ageing effects of sTGC detectors with a gas mixture of 55% of CO_2 and 45% of n-pentane. A sTGC detector was irradiated with beta-rays from a Sr-90 source. Three different gas flow rates were tested. We observed no deterioration on pulse height of...

  11. Thermocouple module halt failure acceptance test procedure for Tank 241-SY-101 DACS-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermi, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The readiness of the Tank 241-SY-101 Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS-1) to provide monitoring and alarms for a halt failure of any thermocouple module will be tested during the performance of this procedure. Updated DACS-1 ''1/0 MODULE HEALTH STATUS'', ''MININ1'', and ''MININ2'' screens, which now provide indication of thermocouple module failure, will also be tested as part of this procedure

  12. Hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) ameliorates multiple sclerosis in mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangano, Katia; Fagone, Paolo; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    murine models of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). DAC treatment was associated with a significant amelioration of the clinical and histological hallmarks of EAE in both models. These effects were observed both in prophylactic and therapeutic regimens. The milder course of the disease....... Finally, DAC treatment increased the percentage of circulating regulatory T cells by inducing Foxp3 expression via demethylation of a CpG island in Foxp3....

  13. Upgrading the data acquisition and control systems of the European Breeding Blanket Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannori, Simone; Sermenghi, Valerio; Utili, Marco; Malavasi, Andrea; Gianotti, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Data Acquisition and Control Systems (DACS) upgrading of experimental plant for full size thermo hydraulic testing of nuclear subsystems. • DACS development using integrated hardware/software platform with graphical programming (LabVIEW). • Development of simplified models for real-time simulation. • Rapid prototyping with real time simulation of the complete plant. • Using the code developed for the real time simulator for the real plant DACS. -- Abstract: The EBBTF (European Breeding Blanket Test Facility) experimental plant is a key component for the development of the breeding blankets (TBMs test blanket modules, HCLL helium cooled lithium lead and HCPB helium cooled pebble bed types) used by ITER. EBBTF is an experimental plant which provides the double breeding/cooling loops (liquid metal and gas) required for HCLL testing. EBBTF is composed of four subsystems (TBM, IELLLO integrated European lead lithium loop, HE-FUS3 helium fusion loop, version 3 and helium compressor build by ATEKO) with dedicated control systems realized with hardware/software combinations covering 15 years (1995–2010) time span. At the end of 2010 we began to upgrade the HE-FUS3 data acquisition control systems (DACS) replacing the obsolete PLC Siemens S5 with National Instruments Compact FieldPoint and LabVIEW. The control room has been completely reorganized using high resolution monitors and workstations linked with standard Ethernet interfaces. The data acquisition, control, safety and SCADA software has been completely developed in ENEA using LabVIEW. In this paper we are going to discuss the technical difficulties and the solutions that we have used to accomplish the upgrade

  14. Environmental and comfort upgrading through lean technologies in informal settlements: Case study in Nairobi, Kenia and New Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Enrico; Tagliabue, Lavinia Chiara; Zecchini, Paolo; Milanesi, Mattia

    2016-07-01

    affordable choices on the envelope of such simple housing. A simplified LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) evaluation on embodied energy in the proposed upgrading materials used for the housing allows assessing the environmental impact of the considered alternatives. The present study aims to find out and to propose lean technological solutions to improve users' comfort levels with simple DIY (do it yourself) modification of shelter's envelopes and basic education for the use of the housing. The paper presents the study of lean technological solutions to improve comfort conditions and durability of informal settlements located in two climate zones in the world where slums are a critical issue in the urban development. The opportunity to improve such conditions can promote an upgrading of health and wealth status in such a critical situation in which millions of people are living today. The lean, affordable and low impact technologies that have been proposed and tested by dynamic simulation could allow a widespread diffusion of the concept without burden on the strongly compromised environment. The weak and fragile areas affected by the slums have pollution problems and a main task is not to worsen them during the life of the shelters/houses.

  15. Lobular neoplasia detected in MRI-guided core biopsy carries a high risk for upgrade: a study of 63 cases from four different institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Thaer; Kumar, Prasanna R; Li, Zaibo; Karabakhtsian, Rouzan G; Sanati, Souzan; Chen, Xiwei; Wang, Dan; Liu, Song; Reig, Beatriu

    2017-01-01

    There are certain criteria to recommend surgical excision for lobular neoplasia diagnosed in mammographically detected core biopsy. The aims of this study are to explore the rate of upgrade of lobular neoplasia detected in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided biopsy and to investigate the clinicopathological and radiological features that could predict upgrade. We reviewed 1655 MRI-guided core biopsies yielding 63 (4%) cases of lobular neoplasia. Key clinical features were recorded. MRI findings including mass vs non-mass enhancement and the reason for biopsy were also recorded. An upgrade was defined as the presence of invasive carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ in subsequent surgical excision. The overall rate of lobular neoplasia in MRI-guided core biopsy ranged from 2 to 7%, with an average of 4%. A total of 15 (24%) cases had an upgrade, including 5 cases of invasive carcinoma and 10 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ. Pure lobular neoplasia was identified in 34 cases, 11 (32%) of which had upgrade. In this group, an ipsilateral concurrent or past history of breast cancer was found to be associated with a higher risk of upgrade (6/11, 55%) than contralateral breast cancer (1 of 12, 8%; P = 0.03). To our knowledge, this is the largest series of lobular neoplasia diagnosed in MRI-guided core biopsy. The incidence of lobular neoplasia is relatively low. Lobular neoplasia detected in MRI-guided biopsy carries a high risk for upgrade warranting surgical excision. However, more cases from different types of institutions are needed to verify our results. PMID:26564004

  16. The LHCb VELO upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez Pérez, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    LHCb is a forward spectrometer experiment dedicated to the study of new physics in the decays of beauty and charm hadrons produced in proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The VErtex LOcator (VELO) is the microstrip silicon detector surrounding the interaction point, providing tracking and vertexing measurements. The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, planned for 2018, will increase the luminosity up to 2×10 33 cm −2 s −1 and will perform the readout as a trigger-less system with an event rate of 40 MHz. Extremely non-uniform radiation doses will reach up to 5×10 15 1 MeV n eq /cm 2 in the innermost regions of the VELO sensors, and the output data bandwidth will be increased by a factor of 40. An upgraded detector is under development based in a pixel sensor of the Timepix/Medipix family, with 55×55μm 2 pixels. In addition a microstrip solution with finer pitch, higher granularity and thinner than the current detector is being developed in parallel. The current status of the VELO upgrade program will be described together with recent testbeam results

  17. Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Ito, Hitoshi

    1998-03-01

    Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: 1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. 2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. 3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. 4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

  18. Study on the Transformation and Upgrade of E-Commerce Application in Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the Internet thinking, manufacturing management mode is changed, it is not depend on the scale, but in the user as the center, more dependent on the reaction rate of user requirements. As the big data, cloud computing, Internet of things technology such as the development of technology, manufacturing is from automatic to intelligent evolution, on the user's personalized customization is possible. Using Internet thinking positive development manufacturing enterprise electronic commerce application mode of transformation and upgrading of manufacturing industry plays an important role. Promoting the continued ascent of manufacturing industry informatization level, promote the transformation of the manufacturing production mode, provide greater profit space for the export of products. In industrial 4.0 mode, the user is the core of the enterprise, C2B model will be the mainstream of future manufacturing e-commerce application mode. This paper to present the sorted out the basic model of manufacturing enterprise electronic commerce application, point out the existing problems, and the computing technology, communication technology, the constant development of storage technology, such as background, puts forward the corresponding countermeasure, points out that the C2B model is the development direction of manufacturing enterprise electronic commerce application mode.

  19. Design studies for the Phase II upgrade of the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Orimoto, Toyoko Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will provide unprecedented instantaneous and integrated luminosity. The lead tungstate crystals forming the barrel part of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) will still perform well, even after the expected integrated luminosity of 3000fb-1 at the end of HL-LHC. The avalanche photodiodes (APDs) used to detect the scintillation light will also continue to be operational, although there will be some increase in noise due to radiation-induced dark currents. This will be mitigated by reducing the barrel operating temperature during HL-LHC running.The front-end electronics of the ECAL barrel will be replaced, in order to remove existing constraints on trigger rate and latency and to provide additional capability to fully exploit the higher luminosity delivered by the HL-LHC. New developments in high-speed optical links will allow single-crystal readout at 40 MHz to upgraded off-detector processors, allowing maximum flexibility and enhanced tri...

  20. Torrefaction study for energy upgrading on Indonesian biomass as low emission solid fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamsyah, R.; Siregar, N. C.; Hasanah, F.

    2017-05-01

    Torrefaction is a pyrolysis process with low heating rate and temperature lower than 300°C in an inert condition which transforms biomass into a low emission solid fuel with relatively high energy. Through the torrefaction process biomass can be altered so that the end product is easy to grind and simple in the supply chain. The research was aimed at designing torrefaction reactor and upgrading energy content of some Indonesian biomass. The biomass used consist of empty fruit bunches of oil palm (EFB), cassava peel solid waste, and cocopeat (waste of coconut fiber). These biomass were formed into briquette and pellet form and were torrified with 300°C temperature during 1.5 hours without air. The results of terrified biomass and non-torrefied biomass were compared after burning on the stove in term of energy content and air emission quality. The result shows that energy content of biomass have increased by 1.1 up to 1.36 times. Meanwhile emission air resulted from its combustion was met with Indonesian emission regulation.

  1. Low-Z impurity transport studies using CXRS at ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruhn, Cecilia; McDermott, Rachael; Dux, Ralph; Angioni, Clemente; Bobkov, Volodymyr; Kappatou, Athina; Lebschy, Alexander; Puetterich, Thomas; Viezzer, Eleonora [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-07-01

    Impurities in fusion plasmas arise from many sources including the erosion of material from plasma facing components and the intentional injection of impurities for control of the radiation losses. With the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) diagnostics at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) the density profiles of low-Z impurity species can be measured with high spatial and temporal resolution and can, thus, be used to investigate the transport of these impurities. Previous work on this topic at AUG has focused primarily on steady state profiles, which deliver the ratio of the diffusive and convective transport coefficients. However, from the time response of the density profiles after applying an external perturbation (e.g. a fast impurity puff) the convective and diffusive components of the transport can be separately determined. The work presented here aims to achieve this by a less conventional approach that is better suited to the limited time resolution of the CXRS diagnostics; namely, a sinusoidal modulation of the boron densities invoked by modulating the power from the ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) antennas. The work presented here aims to achieve this by an approach that is better suited to the limited time resolution of the CXRS diagnostics; namely, a sinusoidal modulation of the boron densities invoked by modulating the power from the ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) antennas. We present the first measurements of the boron density modulation as well as the machine and plasma parameter dependencies of the boron response to the ICRF power.

  2. A Decision-Analytic Feasibility Study of Upgrading Machinery at a Tools Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Chew Hernandez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation, from a Decision Analysis point of view, of the feasibility of upgrading machinery at an existing metal-forming workshop. The Integral Decision Analysis (IDA methodology is applied to clarify the decision and develop a decision model. One of the key advantages of the IDA is its careful selection of the problem frame, allowing a correct problem definition. While following most of the original IDA methodology, an addition to this methodology is proposed in this work, that of using the strategic Means-Ends Objective Network as a backbone for the development of the decision model. The constructed decision model uses influence diagrams to include factual operator and vendor expertise, simulation to evaluate the alternatives and a utility function to take into account the risk attitude of the decision maker. Three alternatives are considered: Base (no modification, CNC (installing an automatic lathe and CF (installation of an automatic milling machine. The results are presented as a graph showing zones in which a particular alternative should be selected. The results show the potential of IDA to tackle technical decisions that are otherwise approached without the due care.

  3. Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; and others

    1998-03-01

    Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: (1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. (2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. (3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. (4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

  4. Three-dimensional anisotropy contrast (3DAC) magnetic resonance imaging of the human brain. Application to assess Wallerian degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, Hironaka; Katayama, Yasuo; Tsuganezawa, Toshikazu; Yamamuro, Manabu; Terashi, Akiro; Owan, Chojin [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    Three-dimensional anisotropy contrast (3DAC) magnetic resonance imaging is a new algorithm for the treatment of apparent diffusion tensor using the three primary colors. To determine if 3DAC has a clinical application for human brain, six normal volunteers and twenty patients with supratentorial cerebrovascular accidents were examined using clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the changes in the 3DAC images associated with Wallerian degeneration of the pyramidal tract were evaluated. The 3DAC images exhibited impressive anatomical resolution. In all chronic stage patients with hemiparesis, the colors in the pyramidal tract were faded. Patients examined during the acute stage who later recovered from hemiparesis had no visible changes of the 3DAC image, whereas patients who recovered poorly showed distinct color fading in the pyramidal tract within 14 days following stroke. In conclusion, very fine anatomical structures are visible on 3DAC images, and it can be used as a diagnostic tool for the human brain. (author)

  5. Three-dimensional anisotropy contrast (3DAC) magnetic resonance imaging of the human brain. Application to assess Wallerian degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Hironaka; Katayama, Yasuo; Tsuganezawa, Toshikazu; Yamamuro, Manabu; Terashi, Akiro; Owan, Chojin

    1998-01-01

    Three-dimensional anisotropy contrast (3DAC) magnetic resonance imaging is a new algorithm for the treatment of apparent diffusion tensor using the three primary colors. To determine if 3DAC has a clinical application for human brain, six normal volunteers and twenty patients with supratentorial cerebrovascular accidents were examined using clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the changes in the 3DAC images associated with Wallerian degeneration of the pyramidal tract were evaluated. The 3DAC images exhibited impressive anatomical resolution. In all chronic stage patients with hemiparesis, the colors in the pyramidal tract were faded. Patients examined during the acute stage who later recovered from hemiparesis had no visible changes of the 3DAC image, whereas patients who recovered poorly showed distinct color fading in the pyramidal tract within 14 days following stroke. In conclusion, very fine anatomical structures are visible on 3DAC images, and it can be used as a diagnostic tool for the human brain. (author)

  6. Analysis of coke precursor on catalyst and study on regeneration of catalyst in upgrading of bio-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaoya; Zheng, Yong; Zhang, Baohua; Chen, Jinyang

    2009-01-01

    Catalyst HZSM-5 was used in bio-oil catalytic cracking upgrading. The precursor of coke on the catalyst was analyzed by means of TGA, FTIR and C13 NMR. Precursors of coke deposited in the pore of the molecular sieve were mainly aromatic hydrocarbon with the boiling point range from 350 o C to 650 o C. Those on the outer surface of the pellet precursor were identified as saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons with the boiling point below 200 o C. The activity of HZSM-5 was studied after regeneration. In terms of yield of organic distillate and formation rate of coke, results showed that catalytic activity change moderately during the first three times of regeneration.

  7. Experimental studies and modelling of high radiation and high density plasmas in the ASDEX upgrade tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casali, Livia

    2015-11-24

    Fusion plasmas contain impurities, either intrinsic originating from the wall, or injected willfully with the aim of reducing power loads on machine components by converting heat flux into radiation. The understanding and the prediction of the effects of these impurities and their radiation on plasma performances is crucial in order to retain good confinement. In addition, it is important to understand the impact of pellet injection on plasma performance since this technique allows higher core densities which are required to maximise the fusion power. This thesis contributes to these efforts through both experimental investigations and modelling. Experiments were conducted at ASDEX Upgrade which has a full-W wall. Impurity seeding was applied to H-modes by injecting nitrogen and also medium-Z impurities such as Kr and Ar to assess the impact of both edge and central radiation on confinement. A database of about 25 discharges has been collected and analysed. A wide range of plasma parameters was achieved up to ITER relevant values such as high Greenwald and high radiation fractions. Transport analyses taking into account the radiation distribution reveal that edge localised radiation losses do not significantly impact confinement as long as the H-mode pedestal is sustained. N seeding induces higher pedestal pressure which is propagated to the core via profile stiffness. Central radiation must be limited and controlled to avoid confinement degradation. This requires reliable control of the impurity concentration but also possibilities to act on the ELM frequency which must be kept high enough to avoid an irreversible impurity accumulation in the centre and the consequent radiation collapse. The key role of the f{sub ELM} is confirmed also by the analysis of N+He discharges. Non-coronal effects affect the radiation of low-Z impurities at the plasma edge. Due to the radial transport, the steep temperature gradients and the ELM flush out, a local equilibrium cannot be

  8. Low Power Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma ADC with Current Output DAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker-Villumsen, Niels; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bruun, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a continuous-time (CT) DeltaSigma (∆Σ) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) using a current output digital-to-analog converter (DAC) for the feedback. From circuit analysis it is shown that using a current output DAC makes it possible to relax the noise requirements of the 1st...... integrator of the loopfilter, and thereby reduce the current consumption. Furthermore, the noise of the current output DAC being dependent on the ADC input signal level, enabling a dynamic range that is larger than the peak signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The current output DAC is used in a 3rd order multibit...... CT ∆Σ ADC for audio applications, designed in a 0.18 µm CMOS process, with active-RC integrators, a 7-level Flash ADC quantizer and current output DAC for the feedback. From simulations the ADC achieves a dynamic range of 95.0 dB in the audio band, with a current consumption of 284 µA for a 1.7 V...

  9. 10-bit segmented current steering DAC in 90nm CMOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringas, R Jr; Dy, F; Gerasta, O J

    2015-01-01

    This special project presents a 10-Bit 1Gs/s 1.2V/3.3V Digital-to-Analog Converter using1 Poly 9 Metal SAED 90-nm CMOS Technology intended for mixed-signal and power IC applications. To achieve maximum performance with minimum area, the DAC has been implemented in 6+4 Segmentation. The simulation results show a static performance of ±0.56 LSB INL and ±0.79 LSB DNL with a total layout chip area of 0.683 mm 2 .The segmented architecture is implemented using two sub DAC's, which are the LSB and MSB section with certain number bits. The DAC is designed using 4-BitBinary Weighted DAC for the LSB section and 6-BitThermometer-coded DAC for the MSB section. The thermometer-coded architecture provides the most optimized results in terms of linearity through reducing the clock feed-through effect especially in hot switching between multiple transistors. The binary- weighted architecture gives better linearity output in higher frequencies with better saturation in current sources. (paper)

  10. Subsidiary Upgrading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Dörrenbächer, Christoph

    2004-01-01

    AbstractThis study reports the results of interviews with 65 managers in 11 Germanheadquarters and in their 13 Hungarian subsidiaries. We focused on the role of thesubsidiary with regard to market, product and value-adding mandates. Further, weinvestigated whether the Hungarian subsidiaries had...

  11. Radial electric field studies in the plasma edge of ASDEX upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viezzer, Eleonora

    2012-01-01

    In magnetically confined fusion plasmas, edge transport barriers (ETBs) are formed during the transition from a highly turbulent state (low confinement regime, L-mode) to a high energy confinement regime (H-mode) with reduced turbulence and transport. The performance of an H-mode fusion plasma is highly dependent on the strength of the ETB which extends typically over the outermost 5% of the confined plasma. The formation of the ETB is strongly connected to the existence of a sheared plasma flow perpendicular to the magnetic field caused by a local radial electric field E r . The gradients in E r and the accompanying E x B velocity shear play a fundamental role in edge turbulence suppression, transport barrier formation and the transition to H-mode. Thus, the interplay between macroscopic flows and transport at the plasma edge is of crucial importance to understanding plasma confinement and stability. The work presented in this thesis is based on charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) measurements performed at the plasma edge of the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak. During this thesis new high-resolution CXRS diagnostics were installed at the outboard and inboard miplane of AUG, which provide measurements of the temperature, density and flows of the observed species. From these measurements the radial electric field can be directly determined via the radial force balance equation. The new CXRS measurements, combined with the other edge diagnostics available at AUG, allow for an unprecedented, high-accuracy localization (2-3 mm) of the E r profile. The radial electric field has been derived from charge exchange spectra measured on different impurity species including He 2+ , B 5+ , C 6+ and Ne 10+ . The resulting E r profiles are found to be identical within the uncertainties regardless of the impurity species used, thus demonstrating the validity of the diagnostic technique. Inside the ETB the E r profile forms a deep, negative (i.e. directed towards the

  12. DAC with LQR Control Design for Pitch Regulated Variable Speed Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Raja Muhammad; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Soltani, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Disturbance Accommodation Control (DAC) is used to model and simulate a system with known disturbance waveform. This paper presents a control scheme to mitigate the effect of disturbances by using collective pitch control for the aboverated wind speed (Region III) for a variable speed wind turbine....... We have used Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) to obtain full state feedback gain, disturbance feedback gain is calculated independently and then estimator gain is achieved by poleplacement technique in the DAC augmented plant model. The reduced order model (two-mass model) of wind turbine is used...... and 5MW National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) wind turbine is used in this research. We have shown comparison of results relating to pitch angle, drive train torsion and generator speed obtained by a PID controller and DAC. Simulations are performed in MATLAB/Simulink. The results are compared...

  13. Project scenarios for bitumen upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppel, P.E.; Mazurek, W.L.; Harji, A.

    2002-01-01

    The established reserves of Alberta's heavy oil resources are 178 billion barrels, and potential recoverable reserves are 315 billion barrels. The challenge of production includes the logistics of recovery, upgrading and transportation to market. Utilization of the bitumen is not simple because bitumen is too viscous to transport by pipeline. In addition, it is not processable by most existing refineries unless it can be upgraded through dilution. This paper examined different factors regarding the economic viability of various upgrading methods of a wide range of bitumen feedstocks. The study also examined the sensitivity of refinery demand to the prices of these feedstocks, along with the competitiveness among bitumen-based feedstock and conventional crudes. Western Canada, Ontario and the PADD II district in the United States are the 3 major markets for western Canadian bitumen based feedstock, the demand for which depends on refinery configurations and asphalt demand. This paper described the following 4 generic scenarios that describe Alberta bitumen upgrading projects: (1) adjacent to open pit mines, (2) adjacent to steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) facilities, (3) remotely located from resource production at an existing refinery, and (4) pipeline bitumen. It was noted that producers should determine the best way to upgrade the bitumen to ensure there is an economic market for the product, but they should also be aware not to over process the bitumen so as not to leave existing refinery facilities under-utilized. 2 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  14. Processing options for bitumen upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harji, A.N.; Koppel, P.E.; Mazurek, W.L.; Meysami, P.

    2003-01-01

    It is estimated that 178 billion barrels of oil can be recovered from Alberta's vast heavy oil reserves. The challenge lies in the logistics of recovering, upgrading and transporting the oil to market. The Canadian Energy Research Institute conducted a recent study to determine market potential by 2007 for diluted bitumen and synthetic crude oil produced from upgraded bitumen. The viability for a wide range of bitumen feedstocks was assessed along with the sensitivity of refinery demand to their prices. The 3 major markets for western Canadian bitumen include PADD 2 in the United States, western Canada, and Ontario. Bitumen is too viscous to transport by pipeline and cannot be processed by most of the existing refineries. Therefore, in order to develop a mass market for the product, bitumen must undergo the energy intensive upgrading process at existing refineries. The factors impacting which method of upgrading is most suitable were discussed with particular attention to the impact that Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol may have on Alberta's bitumen resource in terms of costs of complying with greenhouse gas reduction initiatives. The authors emphasized that it is crucial to customize an upgrading project to meet site and market specific factors. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  15. Radial electric field studies in the plasma edge of ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viezzer, Eleonora

    2012-12-18

    In magnetically confined fusion plasmas, edge transport barriers (ETBs) are formed during the transition from a highly turbulent state (low confinement regime, L-mode) to a high energy confinement regime (H-mode) with reduced turbulence and transport. The performance of an H-mode fusion plasma is highly dependent on the strength of the ETB which extends typically over the outermost 5% of the confined plasma. The formation of the ETB is strongly connected to the existence of a sheared plasma flow perpendicular to the magnetic field caused by a local radial electric field E{sub r}. The gradients in E{sub r} and the accompanying E x B velocity shear play a fundamental role in edge turbulence suppression, transport barrier formation and the transition to H-mode. Thus, the interplay between macroscopic flows and transport at the plasma edge is of crucial importance to understanding plasma confinement and stability. The work presented in this thesis is based on charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) measurements performed at the plasma edge of the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak. During this thesis new high-resolution CXRS diagnostics were installed at the outboard and inboard miplane of AUG, which provide measurements of the temperature, density and flows of the observed species. From these measurements the radial electric field can be directly determined via the radial force balance equation. The new CXRS measurements, combined with the other edge diagnostics available at AUG, allow for an unprecedented, high-accuracy localization (2-3 mm) of the E{sub r} profile. The radial electric field has been derived from charge exchange spectra measured on different impurity species including He{sup 2+}, B{sup 5+}, C{sup 6+} and Ne{sup 10+}. The resulting E{sub r} profiles are found to be identical within the uncertainties regardless of the impurity species used, thus demonstrating the validity of the diagnostic technique. Inside the ETB the E{sub r} profile forms a deep

  16. Development and application of poloidal correlation reflectometry to study turbulent structures in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prisiazhniuk, Dmitrii

    2017-06-05

    One of the key question of high temperature plasma confinement in a magnetic field is how plasma turbulence influences the radial transport of particles and energy. A better understanding of transport processes caused by turbulence would allow to improve the plasma confinement in fusion devices. To this end a deeper understanding of the mechanisms controlling the development, saturation and stabilization of turbulence is needed. From the experimental point of view a main challenge in these investigations is the measurement of plasma parameters on both small temporal (μs) and spatial (mm) scales. In this thesis a new microwave heterodyne poloidal correlation reflectometry diagnostic has been developed and installed at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak to investigate the cross-correlation of turbulent density fluctuations. This diagnostic yields information on fundamental turbulence parameters such as the perpendicular propagation velocity v {sub perpendicular} {sub to}, the perpendicular correlation length l {sub perpendicular} {sub to} (characteristic size of the turbulent eddies) and the decorrelation time τ{sub d} (characteristic life time of the turbulent eddies) over a wide range of plasma densities. The inclination of the turbulent eddies α in the poloidal-toroidal plane spanned by the magnetic flux surfaces of a tokamak, being a measure of the magnetic field pitch angle, can also be obtained. The turbulence investigations were performed in low confinement mode (L-mode) plasmas for a range of plasma parameters. All measurements were interpreted taking into account the transfer function of reflectometry in the Born approximation. The results are compared with theoretical predictions and simulations. In the first part of this thesis the inclination and the propagation of turbulent structures are investigated. It is shown that eddies are nearly aligned to the magnetic field line and, therefore, the magnetic field pitch angle can be measured with a precision of about 1

  17. Final Report for DOE Project: Portal Web Services: Support of DOE SciDAC Collaboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mary Thomas, PI; Geoffrey Fox, Co-PI; Gannon, D; Pierce, M; Moore, R; Schissel, D; Boisseau, J

    2007-10-01

    Grid portals provide the scientific community with familiar and simplified interfaces to the Grid and Grid services, and it is important to deploy grid portals onto the SciDAC grids and collaboratories. The goal of this project is the research, development and deployment of interoperable portal and web services that can be used on SciDAC National Collaboratory grids. This project has four primary task areas: development of portal systems; management of data collections; DOE science application integration; and development of web and grid services in support of the above activities.

  18. Leading Strategies of the “DAC People” Program in Budjak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Shevchuk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the prospects of the international activities of Izmail State University for Humanities as a Danube academic consortium partner. The project of DAC pilot implementation of the programs “Innovation is Hope” and “Sky is the Limit” within the framework of “DAC People” in Budjak is presented in the article. Its key components include the following information: data about the prominent creative community in Budjak; the project of Budjak Art Center of Craft Excellence of Euroregional importance (BACCE as its integral unit; the challenges of the project and its geography; the people, involved in the implementation.

  19. Environmental upgrading of a landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostinetto, V.; Vendrame, G.

    1999-01-01

    This article refers to an experimental study concerning the vegetative upgrading of a closed-down landfill (once used for industrial waste disposal). The aim was to check the possibility of reconstructing or aiding the natural growth of a vegetation in keeping with the surrounding area, in a tried environment such as that of landfills. The original idea contained in the approved project - which meant to generically upgrade the territory by planting species belonging to the grassy layer, shrubs and trees - has, with time, undergone some changes. On the basis of both the knowledge acquired during management and of a more accurate analysis of the territory, the experiment was preferred to aim at finding out which were the species, both continental and Mediterranean, able to gradually adjust to the surrounding landscape, leaving to natural selection the task to decide which species were more suitable to the upgrading of closed-down landfills, and which planting technique was more effective [it

  20. Developing Major Steps for a Feasibility Study for Upgrading I and C Systems in a Large Scale for an Operating Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Yong Suk; Keum, Jong Yong; Kim, Dong Hoon; Kang, Hyeon Tae; Sung, Chan Ho; Lee, Jae Ki; Cho, Chang Hwan

    2009-01-01

    According to the IAEA report as of Jan. 2008, 436 nuclear power reactors are in operation over the world and 368 nuclear power reactors exceed their operating ages by 20 years. The average I and C equipment's life span is 20 years comparing with that the average reactor's life time is 40 to 60 years. This means that a reactor must be faced with I and C equipment obsolescence problems once or twice during its operating years. The I and C equipment is replaced with new equipment only when the obsolescence problem occurs in a nuclear power plant. This is called an equipment basis upgrade in this paper. This replacement is such a general practice that occurs only when needed. We can assume that most of I and C equipment of a plant will meet with the obsolescence problem almost same time since it started operating. Although there must be a little time difference in the occurrence of the problems among I and C equipment, the replacement will be required in consecutive years. With this assumption, it is recommendable to upgrade the equipment, which is to meet with the problem at the same time, with new equipment at the same time. This is called a system basis upgrade in this paper. The system-basis replacement can be achieved in a large scale by coupling systems whose functions are related each other and replacing them together with a new upto- date platform. This paper focuses on the large scale upgrade of I and C systems for existing and operating NPPs. While performing a feasibility study for the large scale upgrade for Korea standard nuclear power plants (KSNPs), six major steps are developed for the study. This paper is to present what to perform in each step

  1. A rigorous analysis of digital pre-emphasis and DAC resolution for interleaved DAC Nyquist-WDM signal generation in high-speed coherent optical transmission systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi; Wang, Junyi; He, Xuan; Pan, Zhongqi

    2018-02-01

    The Nyquist spectral shaping techniques facilitate a promising solution to enhance spectral efficiency (SE) and further reduce the cost-per-bit in high-speed wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) transmission systems. Hypothetically, any Nyquist WDM signals with arbitrary shapes can be generated by the use of the digital signal processing (DSP) based electrical filters (E-filter). Nonetheless, in actual 100G/ 200G coherent systems, the performance as well as DSP complexity are increasingly restricted by cost and power consumption. Henceforward it is indispensable to optimize DSP to accomplish the preferred performance at the least complexity. In this paper, we systematically investigated the minimum requirements and challenges of Nyquist WDM signal generation, particularly for higher-order modulation formats, including 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) or 64QAM. A variety of interrelated parameters, such as channel spacing and roll-off factor, have been evaluated to optimize the requirements of the digital-to-analog converter (DAC) resolution and transmitter E-filter bandwidth. The impact of spectral pre-emphasis has been predominantly enhanced via the proposed interleaved DAC architecture by at least 4%, and hence reducing the required optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) at a bit error rate (BER) of 10-3 by over 0.45 dB at a channel spacing of 1.05 symbol rate and an optimized roll-off factor of 0.1. Furthermore, the requirements of sampling rate for different types of super-Gaussian E-filters are discussed for 64QAM Nyquist WDM transmission systems. Finally, the impact of the non-50% duty cycle error between sub-DACs upon the quality of the generated signals for the interleaved DAC structure has been analyzed.

  2. The D0 Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abachi, S.; D0 Collaboration

    1995-07-01

    In this paper we describe the approved DO Upgrade detector, and its physics capabilities. The DO Upgrade is under construction and will run during the next Fermilab collider running period in early 1999 (Run II). The upgrade is designed to work at the higher luminosities and shorter bunch spacings expected during this run. The major elements of t he upgrade are: a new tracking system with a silicon tracker, scintillating fiber tracker, a 2T solenoid, and a central preshower detector; new calorimeter electronics; new muon trigger and tracking detectors with new muon system electronics; a forward preshower detector; new trigger electronics and DAQ improvements to handle the higher rates.

  3. Parametric study on the thermal performance of beam screen samples of the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges de Sousa, P.; Morrone, M.; Hovenga, N.; Garion, C.; van Weelderen, R.; Koettig, T.; Bremer, J.

    2017-12-01

    The High-Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) will increase the accelerator’s luminosity by a factor 10 beyond its original design value, giving rise to more collisions and generating an intense flow of debris. A new beam screen has been designed for the inner triplets that incorporates tungsten alloy blocks to shield the superconducting magnets and the 1.9 K superfluid helium bath from incoming radiation. These screens will operate between 60 K and 80 K and are designed to sustain a nominal head load of 15 Wm-1, over 10 times the nominal heat load for the original LHC design. Their overall new and more complex design requires them and their constituent parts to be characterised from a thermal performance standpoint. In this paper we describe the experimental parametric study carried out on two principal thermal components: a representative sample of the beam screen with a tungsten-based alloy block and thermal link and the supporting structure composed of an assembly of ceramic spheres and titanium springs. Results from both studies are shown and discussed regarding their impact on the baseline considerations for the thermal design of the beam screens.

  4. Electron-cloud simulation studies for the CERN-PS in the framework of the LHC Injectors Upgrade project

    CERN Document Server

    Rioja Fuentelsaz, Sergio

    The present study aims to provide a consistent picture of the electron cloud effect in the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) and to investigate possible future limitations due to the requirements foreseen by the LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) project. It consists of a complete simulation survey of the electron cloud build-up in the different beam pipe sections of the ring depending on several controllable beam parameters and vacuum chamber surface properties, covering present and future operation parameters. As the combined function magnets of the accelerator constitute almost the $80\\%$ in length of the ring, the implementation of a new feature for the simulation of any external magnetic field on the PyECLOUD code, made it possible to perform this study. All the results of the simulations are given as a function of the vacuum chamber surface properties in order to deduce them, both locally and globally, when compared with experimental data. In a first step, we characterize locally the maximum possible number of ...

  5. Work plan for transition of SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClees, J.; Truitt, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this effort is to transfer operating and maintenance responsibility for the 241-SY-101 data acquisition and control system (DACS-1) from Los Alamos National Laboratory to Westinghouse Hanford Company. This work plan defines the tasks required for a successful turnover. It identifies DACS-1 transition, deliverables, responsible organizations and individuals, interfaces, cost, and schedule. The transition plan will discuss all required hardware, software, documentation, maintenance, operations, and training for use at Hanford Waste Tank 241-SY-101. The transfer of responsibilities for DACS-1 to WHC is contingent on final approval of applicable Acceptance for Beneficial Use documentation by Waste Tank Operations. The DACS-1 was designed to provide data monitoring, display, and storage for Tank 241-SY-101. The DACS-1 also provides alarm and control of all the hydrogen mitigation testing systems, as well as ancillary systems and equipment (HVAC, UPS, etc.) required to achieve safe and reliable operation of the testing systems in the tank

  6. Studies of tungsten erosion at the inner and outer main chamber wall of the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabasso, A.; Maier, H.; Roth, J.; Krieger, K.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2001-03-01

    A critical issue for the choice of main chamber first wall materials in future fusion devices such as ITER is the erosion rate due to bombardment by charge-exchange (CX) neutrals. Due to the relatively small flux density of impacting particles, respective measurements are only possible using long term samples (LTS) exposed for a full experimental campaign. In ASDEX Upgrade, CX erosion has been studied extensively for tungsten on the inner heat shield by placing four W coated tiles at different poloidal positions in one toroidal sector. During the same campaign, several LTS were placed at different poloidal and toroidal positions of the outer wall. 13C and Cu coated graphite probes were also used in order to test and compare W low and medium Z alternatives. The erosion results from the probes are compared with the calculated erosion [W. Eckstein, C. Garcia-Rosales, J. Roth, W. Ottenberger IPP Report, IPP 9/82]; [H. Verbeek, J. Stober, D. Coster, W. Eckstein, R. Schneider Nucl. Fus. 38 (1998) 12] and a figure of merit (F. of M.) between several materials is proposed which also takes into account the plasma isotope effect in CX erosion.

  7. Studies of tungsten erosion at the inner and outer main chamber wall of the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabasso, A.; Maier, H.; Roth, J.; Krieger, K.

    2001-01-01

    A critical issue for the choice of main chamber first wall materials in future fusion devices such as ITER is the erosion rate due to bombardment by charge-exchange (CX) neutrals. Due to the relatively small flux density of impacting particles, respective measurements are only possible using long term samples (LTS) exposed for a full experimental campaign. In ASDEX Upgrade, CX erosion has been studied extensively for tungsten on the inner heat shield by placing four W coated tiles at different poloidal positions in one toroidal sector. During the same campaign, several LTS were placed at different poloidal and toroidal positions of the outer wall. 13 C and Cu coated graphite probes were also used in order to test and compare W low and medium Z alternatives. The erosion results from the probes are compared with the calculated erosion [W. Eckstein, C. Garcia-Rosales, J. Roth, W. Ottenberger IPP Report, IPP 9/82]; [H. Verbeek, J. Stober, D. Coster, W. Eckstein, R. Schneider Nucl. Fus. 38 (1998) 12] and a figure of merit (F. of M.) between several materials is proposed which also takes into account the plasma isotope effect in CX erosion

  8. Annealing studies of irradiated p-type sensors designed for the upgrade of ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The upgrade for the High Luminosity LHC in 2025 will challenge the silicon strip detector performance with high fluence and long operation time. Sensors have been designed and tests on charge collection and electrical performance have been carried out in order to evaluate their behavior. Besides that, it is important to understand and predict the long-term evolution of the sensor properties. In this work, we present detailed studies on the annealing behavior of ATLAS12 strip sensors designed by the ITK Strip Sensor Working Group and irradiated from 510^13 to 210^15 n_eq/cm^2. Systematic charge collection, leakage current and impedance measurements have been carried out during the annealing time at 23 and 60°C until break-down or the appearance of charge multiplication. Sensors showing charge multiplication have been then kept at high voltage for a long time in order to monitor their stability. The difference in the annealing behavior between the two temperatures has been analyzed. From the impedance measurem...

  9. Annealing Studies of irradiated p-type Sensors Designed for the Upgrade of ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The upgrade for the High Luminosity LHC in 2025 will challenge the silicon strip detector performance with high fluence and long operation time. Sensors have been designed and tests on charge collection and electrical performance have been carried out in order to evaluate their behaviour. Besides that, it is important to understand and predict the long-term evolution of the sensor prop- erties. In this work, detailed studies on the annealing behaviour of ATLAS12 strip sensors designed by the ITK Strip Sensor Working Group and irradiated from 5 × 1013 neqcm−2 to 2 × 1015 neqcm−2 are presented. Systematic charge collection, leakage current and impedance measurements have been carried out during the annealing time at 23 and 60◦C until break-down or the appearance of charge multiplication. Sensors showing charge multiplication have been then kept at high voltage for a long time in order to monitor their stability. The difference in the annealing behaviour between the two temperatures has been analysed and...

  10. Cross Talk Study to the Single Photon Response of a Flat Panel PMT for the RICH Upgrade at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Arnaboldi, C; Calvi, M; Fanchini, E; Gotti, C; Maino, M; Matteuzzi, C; Perego, D L; Pessina, G; Wang, J C

    2009-01-01

    The Ring Imaging CHerenkov, RICH, detector at LHCb is now readout by Hybrid Photon Detectors. In view of its upgrade a possible option is the adoption of the flat panel Photon Multipliers Tubes, PMT. An important issue for the good determination of the rings produced in the sensitive media is a negligible level of cross talk. We have experimentally studied the cross talk from the 64x64 pixels of the H9500 PMT from Hamamatsu. Results have shown that at the single photon signal level, as expected at LHCb, the statistics applied to the small number of electrons generated at the first dynode of the PMT chain leads to a cross talk mechanism that must be interpreted in term of the percentage of the number of induced signals rather than on the amplitude of the induced signals. The threshold to suppress cross talk must be increased to a significant fraction of the single photon signal for the worst case. The number of electrons generated at the first dynode is proportional to the biasing voltage. Measurements have sh...

  11. Upgrading uncompetitive products economically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Hua; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2012-01-01

    for upgrading an uncompetitive product, and combine the solutions into a single solution. We also propose a spatial join-based solution that assumes P and T are indexed by an R-tree. Given a set of products in the same R-tree node, we derive three lower bounds on their upgrading costs. These bounds are employed...

  12. Maintenance procedure upgrade programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.J.; Zimmerman, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a systematic approach to upgrading nuclear power plant maintenance procedures. The approach consists of four phases: diagnosis, program planning, program implementation, and program evaluation. Each phase is explained as a series of steps to ensure that all factors in a procedure upgrade program are considered

  13. A new BIST scheme for low-power and high-resolution DAC testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Li

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A BIST scheme for testing on chip DAC is presented in this paper. We discuss the generation of on chip testing stimuli and the measurement of digital signals with a narrow-band digital filter. We validate the scheme with software simulation and point out the possibility of ADC BIST with verified DACicus-journals.

  14. Work plan for SY Farm Integrated Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS-2a)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, R.P.; Katz, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    The SY Farm currently has a temporary Data Acquisition ampersand Control System (DACS) housed in a mobile trailer. The system is currently referred to as DACS-1. It was designed and configured to support engineers and scientists conducting the special performance evaluation and testing program for the safety mitigation test equipment located in waste tank 241-SY-101 (101-SY). It is currently being maintained and utilized by engineering personnel to monitor and control the 101-SY mitigation pump activities. Based upon the results of the mitigation testing program, some of the temporary test mitigation equipment (such as mixing pump) will be replaced with longer-term ''operational'' mitigation equipment. This is resulting in new requirements for the Data Acquisition and Control System which will be full-filled by a newer control facility referred to as the DACS-2. A teaming between Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been established for the SY farm mitigation program in order to develop and implement the ''next generation'' of the data acquisition and control system for the mitigation pump operations. The new system will be configured for use by the tank farm operational personnel. It will support the routine operations necessary for safety mitigation and the future waste retrieval of Project W-211. It is intended to replace the existing DACS-1 and provide the necessary control room space for future integration of W-211

  15. 241-SY-101 DACS instrument problem screen (SCR 448) acceptance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ERMI, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    The operability of the 241-SY-101 Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) to provide proper control and monitoring of the mitigation mixer pump and instrumentation installed in the 241-SY-101 underground storage tank utilizing the [INSTPROB] screen will be systematically evaluated by the performance of this procedure

  16. NSLS control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.D.; Ramamoorthy, Susila; Tang, Y.N.

    1994-01-01

    The NSLS consists of two storage rings, a booster and a linac. A major upgrade of the control system (installed in 1978) was undertaken and has been completed. The computer architecture is being changed from a three level star-network to a two level distributed system. The microprocessor subsystem, host computer and workstations, communication link and the main software components are being upgraded or replaced. Since the NSLS rings operate twenty four hours a day a year with minimum maintenance time, the key requirement during the upgrade phase is a non-disruptive transition with minimum downtime. Concurrent with the upgrade, some immediate improvements were required. This paper describes the various components of the upgraded system and outlines the future plans. ((orig.))

  17. NSLS control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.D.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Tang, Yong N.

    1995-01-01

    The NSLS consists of two storage rings, a booster and a linac. A major upgrade of the control system (installed in 1978) was undertaken and has been completed. The computer architecture is being changed from a three level star-network to a two level distributed system. The microprocessor subsystem, host computer and workstations, communication link and the main software components are being upgraded or replaced. Since the NSLS rings operate twenty four hours a day a year with minimum maintenance time, the key requirement during the upgrade phase is a non-disruptive transition with minimum downtime. Concurrent with the upgrade, some immediate improvements were required. This paper describes the various components of the upgraded system and outlines the future plans

  18. [Technology upgrades and exposure to chemical agents: results of the PPTP study in the footwear industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoli, Enrica; Brusoni, Daniela; Cornaggia, Nicoletta; Saretto, Gianni

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the chemical compositions of the products used in shoes manufacturing are reported. The data were collected over the period 2004-2007 in 156 shoe factories in Vigevano area during a study aiming the evaluation of safety conditions and occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals of the employees. The study was part of a regional project for "Occupational cancer prevention in the footwear industry". In the first phase of the study an information form on production cycle, products used and their composition was filled during preliminary audit. In the second phase of the study an in depth qualitative/quantitative evaluation of professional exposure was conducted in 13 selected shoe factories. Data analysis showed the increase in use of water-based adhesives at expense of solvent-based adhesives, the reduction to less than 3.5 weight %, and up to 1 weight %, of n-hexane concentration in solvent mixtures, the increase in use of products containing less hazardous ketones, esters, cyclohexane and heptane. Only in very few cases, products containing from 4 to 12 weight% of toluene were used. These data attest a positive trend in workers risks prevention in shoes industry.

  19. Aging studies of resistive bulk Micromegas chambers for the ATLAS muon spectrometer upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Katie Louise

    2017-01-01

    A long-term operation study is presented as a probe of the aging properties of two bulk-resistive Micromegas chambers installed at the GIF$^{++}$ Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN. Trends in the instantaneous chamber current, recorded over $\\approx$ 500 days of sustained exposure to the GIF$^{++}$ high intensity photon source, are analysed as a function of time in order to identify any signs of detector aging. As part of the study, additional variations in the current due to the changing external conditions of the chambers must be corrected for in order to isolate any aging effects. These include the changing chamber positions with respect to the photon source and the temperature and pressure fluctuations of the detector gas medium. Due to a number of subsets of the total irradiation period in which the exact detector positions are unknown, the aging study at the present time remains inconclusive. As a result, an alternative long-term aging study utilising the instantaneous chamber dark currents is suggested...

  20. To upgrade or not to upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Rose, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    This paper identifies the key indicators that owners need to take into account in order to choose the most affordable extent of upgrading of a typical post-1945 building. The exterior look of the building is not to be changed. Indicators include measures, risk assessment related to the changes in...

  1. Confinement studies of a high current density RFP in the Extrap T1 Upgrade device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, J.R.; Brzozowski, J.H.; Brunsell, P.; Hellblom, G.; Karlsson, P.; Mazur, S.; Nordlund, P.; Welander, A.; Zastrow, K.D.

    1992-01-01

    Confinement studies have been carried out on the Extrap T1 device operated in the reversed field pinch (RFP) mode. Extrap T1 is a small device with a major radius of R=0.5 m and a high aspect ratio, R/a=8.9. For these experiments, the device has been operated with a resistive shell with measured, toroidally-averaged flux penetration times of τ sv = 500μs (vertical) and τ sR =300μs (radial). The pulse lengths are about 600 μs, which is slightly longer than the shell penetration time. The purpose of these experiments is to study energy confinement in a high aspect-ratio, high current-density RFP device with a resistive shell. The device can be operated with high current densities which exceed 20 MAm -2 on axis. For these discharges, the average electron density is relatively high, ≅ 1x10 20 m -3 . Therefore, although the average current density exceeds 5 MAm -2 , the important parameter / ≅ I/N is maintained less than 1x10 -13 Am, where N is the line density. The plasma diagnostics for the device include a single chord CO 2 laser interferometer ( ), single point Thomson scattering (T e , n o ), VUV and visible spectroscopy (T e , Z eff ) surface barrier diodes for soft X-ray measurements (T e ), bolometry (P rad ), surface probes (Γ p ,T i ) and comprehensive magnetic diagnostics for both equilibrium and magnetic fluctuation studies. (author) 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. Studies of characteristics of triple GEM detector for the ALICE-TPC upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, Rajendra Nath; Singaraju, R.N.; Ahammed, Z.; Nayak, T.K.; Biswas, S.

    2015-01-01

    Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) is a novel gas detector in the field of radiation detection. GEM detectors have tremendous advantages over other types gas detectors like high rate handling capability with high efficiency and very low ion back flow (IBF). These detectors are most suitable for the use in the future experiments in high-energy proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI. A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) at the LHC is a dedicated experiment for the study of Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). In few years, the data taking rate for Pb-Pb collisions will increase by 100 times to 50 KHz. The ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main tracking detector in ALICE. It is planned that by the year 2018, GEM detectors will replace the present readout planes of TPC. The goal of the present study is to characterize the GEM detector to achieve the performance goal of the TPC

  3. Events as spaces for upgrading : Automotive events in Shanghai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van Tuijl (Erwin); K. Dittrich (Koen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis study contributes to the literature dealing with upgrading of the Chinese automotive industry by analysing the role of events in the upgrading process. By combining literature on temporary clusters with that of knowledge sourcing and upgrading, we investigate how firms use events

  4. MITR-III: Upgrade and relicensing studies for the MIT Research Reactor. Second annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosman, H.G.; Lanning, D.D.; Harling, O.K.

    1994-08-01

    The current operating license of the MIT research reactor will expire on May 7, 1996 or possibly a few years later if the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission agrees that the license period can start with the date of initial reactor operation. Driven by the imminent expiration of the operating license, a team of nuclear engineering staff and students have begun a study of the future options for the MIT Research Reactor. These options have included the range from a major rebuilding of the reactor to its decommissioning. This document reports the results of a two year intensive activity which has been supported by a $148,000 grant from the USDOE contract Number DEFG0293ER75859, approximately $100,000 of internal MIT funds and Nuclear Engineering Department graduate student fellowships as well as assistance from international visiting scientists and engineers

  5. Study of the performance of the data acquisition chain for BCM1F software upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempel, Maria

    2011-05-15

    BCM1F, the Fast Beam Conditions Monitor, is a sub-detector of the CMS experiment at LHC. It monitors the beam halo and the collision product rates inside the CMS experiment. The data acquisition of BCM1F is independent from CMS. Major components of the BCM1F back-end are discriminators, ADCs, TDCs, look-up tables and a Veto module. In the thesis the performance of several components is investigated. For the TDC two different readout modes are compared, and the impact of a Ring Buffer in the readout software was investigated. For one discriminator the thresholds of all channels are investigated and offsets of about 10 mV are found. Data taken in the LHC runs with the TDC are presented and discussed. Also the application of BCM1F as a luminosity monitor is studied. (orig.)

  6. Study of the performance of the data acquisition chain for BCM1F software upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempel, Maria

    2011-05-01

    BCM1F, the Fast Beam Conditions Monitor, is a sub-detector of the CMS experiment at LHC. It monitors the beam halo and the collision product rates inside the CMS experiment. The data acquisition of BCM1F is independent from CMS. Major components of the BCM1F back-end are discriminators, ADCs, TDCs, look-up tables and a Veto module. In the thesis the performance of several components is investigated. For the TDC two different readout modes are compared, and the impact of a Ring Buffer in the readout software was investigated. For one discriminator the thresholds of all channels are investigated and offsets of about 10 mV are found. Data taken in the LHC runs with the TDC are presented and discussed. Also the application of BCM1F as a luminosity monitor is studied. (orig.)

  7. Building America Case Study: Accelerating the Delivery of Home-Performance Upgrades Using a Synergistic Business Model, Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    Achieving Building America energy savings goals (40 percent by 2030) will require many existing homes to install energy upgrades. Engaging large numbers of homeowners in building science-guided upgrades during a single remodeling event has been difficult for a number of reasons. Performance upgrades in existing homes tend to occur over multiple years and usually result from component failures (furnace failure) and weather damage (ice dams, roofing, siding). This research attempted to: A) Understand the homeowner's motivations regarding investing in building science based performance upgrades. B) Determining a rapidly scalable approach to engage large numbers of homeowners directly through existing customer networks. C) Access a business model that will manage all aspects of the contractor-homeowner-performance professional interface to ensure good upgrade decisions over time. The solution results from a synergistic approach utilizing networks of suppliers merging with networks of homeowner customers. Companies in the $400 to $800 billion home services industry have proven direct marketing and sales proficiencies that have led to the development of vast customer networks. Companies such as pest control, lawn care, and security have nurtured these networks by successfully addressing the ongoing needs of homes. This long-term access to customers and trust established with consistent delivery has also provided opportunities for home service providers to grow by successfully introducing new products and services like attic insulation and air sealing. The most important component for success is a business model that will facilitate and manage the process. The team analyzes a group that developed a working model.

  8. Technical design study. BESSY VSR. Variable pulse length Storage Ring. Upgrade of BESSY II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    BESSY-VSR is a novel approach to create in the Storage Ring BESSY II long and short photon pulses simultaneously for all beam lines through a pair of superconducting bunch compression cavities. Pulse-picking schemes will allow each individual user to freely switch between high average flux for X-ray spectroscopy, microscopy and scattering and picosecond pulses up to 500 MHz repetition rate for dynamic studies. Thus BESSY-VSR preserves the present average brilliance of BESSY II and adds the new capability of user accessible picosecond pulses at high repetition rate. In addition, high intensities for THz radiation with intrinsic synchronization of THz and X-ray pulses can be extracted from BESSY-VSR. For the scientific challenges of quantum materials for energy, future information technologies and basic energy science BESSY-VSR is the multi-user Synchrotron Radiation facility that allows with the flexible switching between high repetition rate for picosecond dynamics and high average brightness to move classical 3rd generation Synchrotron Radiation science from the observation of static properties and their quantum mechanical description towards the function and the control of materials properties, technologically relevant switching processes and chemical dynamics and kinetics on the picosecond time scale. Strategic relevance of BESSY-VSR for science with photons BESSY-VSR creates for the highly productive Synchrotron Radiation community a uniquely attractive multi user storage ring adding the soft X-ray picosecond dynamics at MHz repetition rate. In particular investigations on reversible dynamics and switching in molecular systems and materials are accessible in a non destructive way. The investigations with X-rays from BESSY-VSR are highly complementary and compatible to dynamic studies conducted by users with optical lasers at their home universities and laboratories. Technologically, the employed superconducting bunch compression cavities in BESSY-VSR are a

  9. Technical design study. BESSY VSR. Variable pulse length Storage Ring. Upgrade of BESSY II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    BESSY-VSR is a novel approach to create in the Storage Ring BESSY II long and short photon pulses simultaneously for all beam lines through a pair of superconducting bunch compression cavities. Pulse-picking schemes will allow each individual user to freely switch between high average flux for X-ray spectroscopy, microscopy and scattering and picosecond pulses up to 500 MHz repetition rate for dynamic studies. Thus BESSY-VSR preserves the present average brilliance of BESSY II and adds the new capability of user accessible picosecond pulses at high repetition rate. In addition, high intensities for THz radiation with intrinsic synchronization of THz and X-ray pulses can be extracted from BESSY-VSR. For the scientific challenges of quantum materials for energy, future information technologies and basic energy science BESSY-VSR is the multi-user Synchrotron Radiation facility that allows with the flexible switching between high repetition rate for picosecond dynamics and high average brightness to move classical 3rd generation Synchrotron Radiation science from the observation of static properties and their quantum mechanical description towards the function and the control of materials properties, technologically relevant switching processes and chemical dynamics and kinetics on the picosecond time scale. Strategic relevance of BESSY-VSR for science with photons BESSY-VSR creates for the highly productive Synchrotron Radiation community a uniquely attractive multi user storage ring adding the soft X-ray picosecond dynamics at MHz repetition rate. In particular investigations on reversible dynamics and switching in molecular systems and materials are accessible in a non destructive way. The investigations with X-rays from BESSY-VSR are highly complementary and compatible to dynamic studies conducted by users with optical lasers at their home universities and laboratories. Technologically, the employed superconducting bunch compression cavities in BESSY-VSR are a

  10. The Upgrade to Hybrid Incubators in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Gao, Yuchen

    countries and emerging economics. Based on a single in-depth case-study of Tuspark Incubator, this study explores key factors and specific ways for the upgrade to hybrid incubators in the context of China. By using categorical analysis, three factors, i.e. incubation subdivision, intermediary platform......, and proactive approach, are found to be essential for a formerly government-sponsored TBI’s upgrading. The result of this study also provides new insights and several implications for incubator managers and policy makers in emerging economies. In addition, whether the key factors can be used in upgrade of other...... TBIs in China requires further study....

  11. Study of the Fluorescence Detector Upgrade of the Auger Observatory of Cosmic Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, D. G.; Micheletti, M. I.; Etchegoyen, A.; Rovero, A. C.

    2007-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) consists of two kinds of detectors: fluorescence detectors (FD) and surface detectors (SD). In this work we evaluate the effect, on the number and quality of the reconstructed events, of new telescopes (or 'eyes') with an enhanced field of view (FOV) up to approximately 60 degrees in elevation. By using numerical simulations, we calculated the mean total efficiency of the eye, the resolution of reconstruction of the basic parameters that characterize the primary cosmic rays (CR) and the elongation rate. To do this, we considered showers of protons and irons with energies of log(E/eV) between 17.50 and 18.25, impinging inside a circular area, placed in front of the eye at distances varying between 3.5 and 11 km. The extension of the FOV of the eye turns to be very convenient for the selected energy range, due to the fact that the atmospheric depths where the showers develop their maximum number of secondary particles (X max ) are directly observed by the extended eye in most of the cases. Being this X max a parameter sensible to the chemical composition of the primary cosmic ray, its correct determination is very important in composition studies

  12. Study of high-Z target plate materials in the divertor of ASDEX-Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, S; Asmussen, K; Engelhardt, W; Field, A R; Fussmann, G; Lieder, G; Naujoks, D; Neu, R; Radtke, R; Wenzel, U [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The reduction of divertor tile erosion is a challenging problem in present and future tokamaks. Until now, graphite has almost exclusively been used for divertor plates, and it is estimated that unacceptable amounts of material would be eroded under reactor relevant conditions where power fluxes to the target plates as high as 20 MW/m{sup 2} are expected. In a high-recycling divertor with relatively low temperature (5 eVstudies of the erosion of various divertor target materials have been performed by means of passive spectroscopy. From our spectroscopic observations we infer that under high density divertor conditions the advantages of high-Z materials become fully efficient. (author) 6 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Upgrading during difficult times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiefenbach, K.

    1993-01-01

    The Co-op Upgrader is part of an integrated refinery and upgrader complex in Regina, Saskatchewan. The upgrader processes 50,000 bbl/d heavy sour crude oil, mostly Fosterton and dilute Lloydminster crude, via hydrogen addition and carbon rejection, desulfurization, demetallization, and denitrification to yield a synthetic crude blend. The synthetic crude is refined to produce gasoline and diesel fuel. Byproducts from the integrated operation include 100,000 tonnes/y of petroleum coke, 65,000 tonnes/y of sulfur, propane, butane, fuel oil, and metals (Ni and V) in the form of spent catalysts. Recent operational and economic challenges faced by the upgrader are reviewed. Technical challenges include operating the upgrader's high-temperature high-pressure heavy oil hydrotreating unit and distillate hydrogenation unit, removal and replacement of the desulfurization catalyst, waste management, and producing coke of sufficient quality. Economic challenges include the shrinking differential between light and heavy oil, higher prices for natural gas (the main raw material for hydrogen production for upgrading), seasonal changes in product specifications, and lower prices for sulfur and metal byproducts. The upgrader is also affected by interest rates since borrowing costs are the single largest expenditure after crude oil purchases. 4 figs

  14. Upgraded biogas from municipal solid waste for natural gas substitution and CO2 reduction – A case study of Austria, Italy, and Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, Katherine; Villalba, Gara; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Biogas can be upgraded to create biomethane, a substitute to natural gas. • Biogas upgrading was applied to landfills and anaerobic digestors in 3 countries. • Up to 0.6% of a country’s consumption of natural gas could be replaced by biomethane. • Italy could save 46% of the national CO 2 emissions attributed to the waste sector. • Scenarios were created to increase biomethane production. - Abstract: Biogas is rich in methane and can be further purified through biogas upgrading technologies, presenting a viable alternative to natural gas. Landfills and anaerobic digestors treating municipal solid waste are a large source of such biogas. They therefore offer an attractive opportunity to tap into this potential source of natural gas while at the same time minimizing the global warming impact resulting from methane emissions in waste management schemes (WMS) and fossil fuel consumption reduction. This study looks at the current municipal solid waste flows of Spain, Italy, and Austria over one year (2009), in order to determine how much biogas is generated. Then it examines how much natural gas could be substituted by using four different biogas upgrading technologies. Based on current waste generation rates, exploratory but realistic WMS were created for each country in order to maximize biogas production and potential for natural gas substitution. It was found that the potential substitution of natural gas by biogas resulting from the current WMS seems rather insignificant: 0.2% for Austria, 0.6% for Italy and 0.3% for Spain. However, if the WMS is redesigned to maximize biogas production, these figures can increase to 0.7% for Austria, 1% for Italy and 2% for Spain. Furthermore, the potential CO 2 reduction as a consequence of capturing the biogas and replacing fossil fuel can result in up to a 93% reduction of the annual national waste greenhouse gas emissions of Spain and Italy

  15. Upgraded biogas from municipal solid waste for natural gas substitution and CO{sub 2} reduction – A case study of Austria, Italy, and Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, Katherine [Sostenipra, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Villalba, Gara, E-mail: gara.villalba@uab.es [Sostenipra, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Sostenipra, Institute de Ciencia i Technologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Gabarrell, Xavier [Sostenipra, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Sostenipra, Institute de Ciencia i Technologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Biogas can be upgraded to create biomethane, a substitute to natural gas. • Biogas upgrading was applied to landfills and anaerobic digestors in 3 countries. • Up to 0.6% of a country’s consumption of natural gas could be replaced by biomethane. • Italy could save 46% of the national CO{sub 2} emissions attributed to the waste sector. • Scenarios were created to increase biomethane production. - Abstract: Biogas is rich in methane and can be further purified through biogas upgrading technologies, presenting a viable alternative to natural gas. Landfills and anaerobic digestors treating municipal solid waste are a large source of such biogas. They therefore offer an attractive opportunity to tap into this potential source of natural gas while at the same time minimizing the global warming impact resulting from methane emissions in waste management schemes (WMS) and fossil fuel consumption reduction. This study looks at the current municipal solid waste flows of Spain, Italy, and Austria over one year (2009), in order to determine how much biogas is generated. Then it examines how much natural gas could be substituted by using four different biogas upgrading technologies. Based on current waste generation rates, exploratory but realistic WMS were created for each country in order to maximize biogas production and potential for natural gas substitution. It was found that the potential substitution of natural gas by biogas resulting from the current WMS seems rather insignificant: 0.2% for Austria, 0.6% for Italy and 0.3% for Spain. However, if the WMS is redesigned to maximize biogas production, these figures can increase to 0.7% for Austria, 1% for Italy and 2% for Spain. Furthermore, the potential CO{sub 2} reduction as a consequence of capturing the biogas and replacing fossil fuel can result in up to a 93% reduction of the annual national waste greenhouse gas emissions of Spain and Italy.

  16. Criticality and safety parameter studies for upgrading 3 MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor and validation of generated cross section library and computational method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiyan, S.I.; Mondal, M.A.W.; Sarker, M.M.; Rahman, M.; Shahdatullah, M.S.; Huda, M.Q.; Chakrroborty, T.K.; Khan, M.J.H.

    2000-01-01

    This study deals with the neutronic and thermal hydraulic analysis of the 3MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor to upgrade it to a higher flux. The upgrading will need a major reshuffling and reconfiguration of the current core. To reshuffle the current core configuration, the chain of NJOY94.10 - WIMSD-5A - CITATION - PARET - MCNP4B2 codes has been used for the overall analysis. The computational methods, tools and techniques, customisation of cross section libraries, various models for cells and super cells, and a lot of associated utilities have been standardised and established/validated for the overall core analysis. Analyses using the 4-group and 7-group libraries of macroscopic cross sections generated from the 69-group WIMSD-5 library showed that a 7-group structure is more suitable for TRIGA calculations considering its LEU fuel composition. The MCNP calculations established that the CITATION calculations and the generated cross section library are reasonably good for neutronic analysis of TRIGA reactors. Results obtained from PARET demonstrated that the flux upgrade will not cause the temperature limit on the fuel to be exceeded. Also, the maximum power density remains, by a substantial margin below the level at which the departure from nucleate boiling could occur. A possible core with two additional irradiation channels around the CT is projected where almost identical thermal fluxes as in the CT are obtained. The reconfigured core also shows 7.25% thermal flux increase in the Lazy Susan. (author)

  17. The LHCb Muon Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Cardini, A

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration is currently working on the upgrade of the experiment to allow, after 2018, an efficient data collection while running at an instantaneous luminosity of 2x10$^{33}$/cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. The upgrade will allow 40 MHz detector readout, and events will be selected by means of a very flexible software-based trigger. The muon system will be upgraded in two phases. In the first phase, the off-detector readout electronics will be redesigned to allow complete event readout at 40 MHz. Also, part of the channel logical-ORs, used to reduce the total readout channel count, will be removed to reduce dead-time in critical regions. In a second phase, higher-granularity detectors will replace the ones installed in highly irradiated regions, to guarantee efficient muon system performances in the upgrade data taking conditions.

  18. Bi-Provincial Upgrader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Husky Oil's Bi-Provincial Upgrader is located in the rural municipality of Wilton, east of Lloydminster, Saskatchewan. It is jointly owned by Husky Oil and the Saskatchewan government. The upgrader is designed to produce 7.300 m 3 /cd of synthetic crude from 8.440 m 3 /cd of diluted Lloyd blend and distillates from the existing Lloydminster refinery. The designed coke and sulphur production is 415 t/day and 240 t/day respectively. Chronology of the Bi-Provincial Upgrader project was presented, along with details of the heavy oil feedstock properties for Cold Lake, Lloydminster and Lloyd Blend. Upgrader production history since start-up, synthetic crude oil customers, and the evolution of prices for Edmonton light vs. Husky LLB at Hardisty were also reviewed. 3 tabs., 9 figs

  19. LEP is upgraded

    CERN Multimedia

    1995-01-01

    A superconducting radio-frequency cavity is installed on the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider. This upgrade, known as LEP-2, allowed the accelerator to reach new, higher energies and so investigate new areas of physics.

  20. SciDAC GSEP: Gyrokinetic Simulation of Energetic Particle Turbulence and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zhihong [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2017-12-30

    Energetic particle (EP) confinement is a key physics issue for burning plasma experiment ITER, the crucial next step in the quest for clean and abundant energy, since ignition relies on self-heating by energetic fusion products (α-particles). Due to the strong coupling of EP with burning thermal plasmas, plasma confinement property in the ignition regime is one of the most uncertain factors when extrapolating from existing fusion devices to the ITER tokamak. EP population in current tokamaks are mostly produced by auxiliary heating such as neutral beam injection (NBI) and radio frequency (RF) heating. Remarkable progress in developing comprehensive EP simulation codes and understanding basic EP physics has been made by two concurrent SciDAC EP projects GSEP funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Science (OFES), which have successfully established gyrokinetic turbulence simulation as a necessary paradigm shift for studying the EP confinement in burning plasmas. Verification and validation have rapidly advanced through close collaborations between simulation, theory, and experiment. Furthermore, productive collaborations with computational scientists have enabled EP simulation codes to effectively utilize current petascale computers and emerging exascale computers. We review here key physics progress in the GSEP projects regarding verification and validation of gyrokinetic simulations, nonlinear EP physics, EP coupling with thermal plasmas, and reduced EP transport models. Advances in high performance computing through collaborations with computational scientists that enable these large scale electromagnetic simulations are also highlighted. These results have been widely disseminated in numerous peer-reviewed publications including many Phys. Rev. Lett. papers and many invited presentations at prominent fusion conferences such as the biennial International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Fusion Energy Conference and the annual meeting of the

  1. Technology Solutions for Existing Homes Case Study: Accelerating the Delivery of Home-Performance Upgrades Using a Synergistic Business Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-04-14

    The Building America team NorthernSTAR investigated opportunities to use the massive customer networks of the home service industry as a means to connect homeowners to home-performance solutions. Home service companies could provide a pathway to advance building-science-guided upgrades by being in close proximity to homeowners when a decision-making moment is at hand. Established trust provides an opportunity for the company to deliver sound information and influence during a remodeling decision.

  2. Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation Upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trageser, Katherine H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the design and fabrication associated with upgrades for the Medical Operations Workstation in the Habitat Demonstration Unit. The work spanned a ten week period. The upgrades will be used during the 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) field campaign. Upgrades include a deployable privacy curtain system, a deployable tray table, an easily accessible biological waste container, reorganization and labeling of the medical supplies, and installation of a retractable camera. All of the items were completed within the ten week period.

  3. System Design Description for the SY-101 Hydrogen Mitigation Test Project Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERMI, A.M.

    2000-01-24

    This document describes the hardware and software of the computer subsystems for the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) used in mitigation tests conducted on waste tank 241-SY-101 at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation.

  4. A low-cost DAC BIST structure using a resistor loop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Jang

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new DAC BIST (digital-to-analog converter built-in self-test structure using a resistor loop known as a DDEM ADC (deterministic dynamic element matching analog-to-digital converter. Methods for both switch reduction and switch effect reduction are proposed for solving problems related to area overhead and accuracy of the conventional DAC BIST. The proposed BIST modifies the length of each resistor in the resistor loop via a merging operation and reduces the number of switches and resistors. In addition, the effect of switches is mitigated using the proposed switch effect reduction method. The accuracy of the proposed BIST is demonstrated by the reduction in the switch effect. The experimental results show that the proposed BIST reduces resource usages and the mismatch error caused by the switches.

  5. A low-cost DAC BIST structure using a resistor loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jaewon; Kim, Heetae; Kang, Sungho

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new DAC BIST (digital-to-analog converter built-in self-test) structure using a resistor loop known as a DDEM ADC (deterministic dynamic element matching analog-to-digital converter). Methods for both switch reduction and switch effect reduction are proposed for solving problems related to area overhead and accuracy of the conventional DAC BIST. The proposed BIST modifies the length of each resistor in the resistor loop via a merging operation and reduces the number of switches and resistors. In addition, the effect of switches is mitigated using the proposed switch effect reduction method. The accuracy of the proposed BIST is demonstrated by the reduction in the switch effect. The experimental results show that the proposed BIST reduces resource usages and the mismatch error caused by the switches.

  6. Low-power DAC-less PAM-4 transmitter using a cascaded microring modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé-Demers, Raphaël; LaRochelle, Sophie; Shi, Wei

    2016-11-15

    Future super-computer interconnect systems and data centers request ultrahigh data rate links at low cost and power consumption, for which transmitters with a high level of integration and spectral efficient formats are key components. We report 60 Gb/s pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM-4) of an optical signal using a dual-microring silicon photonics circuit, making a low-power, digital-to-analog converter (DAC)-less PAM modulator. The power consumption is evaluated below 100 fJ/bit, including thermal adjustments. To the best of our knowledge, these results feature the lowest reported power consumption for PAM signaling in a DAC-less scheme for data rate beyond 40 Gb/s.

  7. A VME based cryogenic data acquisition and control system (CRYO-DACS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, Joby; Rajkumar; Datta, T.S.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes a newly developed VME based data acquisition and control system named CRYO-DACS for acquiring and controlling various analog and digital cryogenic parameters from equipment's like beam-line cryostats, Helium compressors, liquefier, cryogenic distribution line etc. A new central control room has been set-up for the remote controls and monitoring. The system monitors various analog parameters like temperature, pressure, vacuum and cryogenic fluid levels inside the cryostats and performs closed loop controls of cryogen valves. The hardware architecture of CRYO-DACS is multi-crate distributed VME, all linked by workstation clients in 100 Mb/s LAN for distributed logging, historical trending, analysis, alarm management and control GUIs. (author)

  8. On-demand Simulation of Atmospheric Transport Processes on the AlpEnDAC Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachinger, S.; Harsch, C.; Meyer-Arnek, J.; Frank, A.; Heller, H.; Giemsa, E.

    2016-12-01

    The "Alpine Environmental Data Analysis Centre" (AlpEnDAC) develops a data-analysis platform for high-altitude research facilities within the "Virtual Alpine Observatory" project (VAO). This platform, with its web portal, will support use cases going much beyond data management: On user request, the data are augmented with "on-demand" simulation results, such as air-parcel trajectories for tracing down the source of pollutants when they appear in high concentration. The respective back-end mechanism uses the Compute Cloud of the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) to transparently calculate results requested by the user, as far as they have not yet been stored in AlpEnDAC. The queuing-system operation model common in supercomputing is replaced by a model in which Virtual Machines (VMs) on the cloud are automatically created/destroyed, providing the necessary computing power immediately on demand. From a security point of view, this allows to perform simulations in a sandbox defined by the VM configuration, without direct access to a computing cluster. Within few minutes, the user receives conveniently visualized results. The AlpEnDAC infrastructure is distributed among two participating institutes [front-end at German Aerospace Centre (DLR), simulation back-end at LRZ], requiring an efficient mechanism for synchronization of measured and augmented data. We discuss our iRODS-based solution for these data-management tasks as well as the general AlpEnDAC framework. Our cloud-based offerings aim at making scientific computing for our users much more convenient and flexible than it has been, and to allow scientists without a broad background in scientific computing to benefit from complex numerical simulations.

  9. Alberta propylene upgrading prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    A very significant byproduct recovery and purification scheme is at present being prepared by TransCanada Midstream (TCMS). Alberta Economic Development commissioned an independent study to identify propylene supply options while proceeding with the evaluation of various propylene derivatives with regard to their fit with the Alberta context. Identification of chemical companies with derivative interests was also accomplished. By 2005, it is estimated that 280 kilo-tonnes of propylene will be available on an annual basis from byproduct sources. Those sources are oil sands upgraders, ethylene plants and refineries. The ranges of impurities and supply costs vary between the different sources. An option being considered involves pipeline and rail receipt with a major central treating and distillation facility for the production of polymer grade (PG) propylene with propane and other smaller byproducts. Special consideration was given to three chemicals in this study, namely: polypropylene (PP), acrylonitrile (ACN), and acrylic acid (AA). Above average growth rates were identified for these chemicals: demand is growing at 6 to 7 per cent a year for both PP and ACN, while demand for AA grows at 8 per cent annually. Two other possibilities were identified, propylene oxide (PO) and phenol. The study led to the conclusion that low capital and operating costs and shipping costs to the Pacific Rim represent advantages to the development of propylene derivatives in the future in Alberta. 4 refs., 87 tabs., 7 figs

  10. The potential of a dielectrophoresis activated cell sorter (DACS) as a next generation cell sorter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongkyu; Hwang, Bohyun; Kim, Byungkyu

    2016-12-01

    Originally introduced by H. A. Pohl in 1951, dielectrophoretic (DEP) force has been used as a striking tool for biological particle manipulation (or separation) for the last few decades. In particular, dielectrophoresis activated cell sorters (DACSes) have been developed for applications in various biomedical fields. These applications include cell replacement therapy, drug screening and medical diagnostics. Since a DACS does not require a specific bio-marker, it is able to function as a biological particle sorting tool with numerous configurations for various cells [e.g. red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), circulating tumor cells, leukemia cells, breast cancer cells, bacterial cells, yeast cells and sperm cells]. This article explores current DACS capabilities worldwide, and it also looks at recent developments intended to overcome particular limitations. First, the basic theories are reviewed. Then, representative DACSes based on DEP trapping, traveling wave DEP systems, DEP field-flow fractionation and DEP barriers are introduced, and the strong and weak points of each DACS are discussed. Finally, for the purposes of commercialization, prerequisites regarding throughput, efficiency and recovery rates are discussed in detail through comparisons with commercial cell sorters (e.g. fluorescent activated and magnetic activated cell sorters).

  11. RF upgrade program in LHC injectors and LHC machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, E.

    2012-01-01

    The main themes of the RF upgrade program are: the Linac4 project, the LLRF-upgrade and the study of a tuning-free wide-band system for PSB, the upgrade of the SPS 800 MHz amplifiers and beam controls and the upgrade of the transverse dampers of the LHC. Whilst LHC Splice Consolidation is certainly the top priority for LS1, some necessary RF consolidation and upgrade is necessary to assure the LHC performance for the next 3- year run period. This includes: 1) necessary maintenance and consolidation work that could not fit the shorter technical stops during the last years, 2) the upgrade of the SPS 200 MHz system from presently 4 to 6 cavities and possibly 3) the replacement of one LHC cavity module. On the longer term, the LHC luminosity upgrade requires crab cavities, for which some preparatory work in SPS Coldex must be scheduled during LS1. (author)

  12. Feasibility study of upgrading Byllesby and Buck power plants on the New River in the Commonwealth of Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    The feasibility of upgrading alternatives of the 66-year-old Byllesby and Buck hydroelectric developments located on the New River in Virginia was investigated. Evaluation of technical, economic and environmental factors led to the conclusion that modernization of the plants could result in an annual generation increase of 20.2 GWh at a cost of $6.1 million and with a benefit-cost ratio of 2.32. The recommended retrofitting includes replacing existing runners with new, more efficiently designed runners, modifying draft tube and wicker gate, and rewinding the generators. (LCL)

  13. Incidence, predictors, and procedural results of upgrade to resynchronization therapy: the RAFT upgrade substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essebag, Vidal; Joza, Jacqueline; Birnie, David H; Sapp, John L; Sterns, Laurence D; Philippon, Francois; Yee, Raymond; Crystal, Eugene; Kus, Teresa; Rinne, Claus; Healey, Jeffrey S; Sami, Magdi; Thibault, Bernard; Exner, Derek V; Coutu, Benoit; Simpson, Chris S; Wulffhart, Zaev; Yetisir, Elizabeth; Wells, George; Tang, Anthony S L

    2015-02-01

    The resynchronization-defibrillation for ambulatory heart failure trial (RAFT) study demonstrated that adding cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in selected patients requiring de novo implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICD) reduced mortality as compared with ICD therapy alone, despite an increase in procedure-related adverse events. Data are lacking regarding the management of patients with ICD therapy who develop an indication for CRT upgrade. Participating RAFT centers provided data regarding de novo CRT-D (CRT with ICD) implant, upgrade to CRT-D during RAFT (study upgrade), and upgrade within 6 months after presentation of study results (substudy). Substudy centers enrolled 1346 (74.9%) patients in RAFT, including 644 de novo, 80 study upgrade, and 60 substudy CRT attempts. The success rate (initial plus repeat attempts) was 95.2% for de novo versus 96.3% for study upgrade and 90.0% for substudy CRT attempts (P=0.402). Acute complications occurred among 26.2% of de novo versus 18.8% of study upgrade and 3.4% of substudy CRT implantation attempts (PRAFT study and other trials. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. ATLAS Upgrade Programme

    CERN Document Server

    Hillier, S J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    With the already outstanding LHC luminosity performance, and planned LHC upgrades in the upcoming shutdowns, it is expected that within a short time-scale, the general purpose LHC experiments will have to cope with luminosities beyond their original design. In order to maintain detector performance and sensitivity to expected and new physics processes, ATLAS has defined a continuous upgrade programme which foresees staged enhancements during the next 10 years of operation, and then more widespread changes before the transition to the highest luminosities after 2022. This talk will describe several components of the ATLAS upgrade, focusing in particular on the Inner Detector and Trigger. The Inner Detector faces two challenges in the higher luminosity environment: high particle multiplicities and increased radiation dose. These will be addressed in the short term by a new layer of Pixel detectors, and in the long term by a complete replacement. The Trigger faces an increasingly difficult task of distinguishing...

  15. Upgradation of Apsara reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammen, S.; Mukherjee, P.; Bhatnagar, A.; Sasidharan, K.; Raina, V.K.

    2009-01-01

    Apsara is a 1 MW swimming pool type research reactor using high enriched uranium as fuel with light water as coolant and moderator. The reactor is in operation for more than five decades and has been extensively used for basic research, radioisotope production, neutron radiography, detector testing, shielding experiments etc. In view of its long service period, it is planned to carry out refurbishment of the reactor to extend its useful life. During refurbishment, it is also planned to upgrade the reactor to a 2 MW reactor to improve its utilization and to upgrade the structure, system and components in line with the current safety standards. This paper gives a brief account of the design features and safety aspects of the upgraded Apsara reactor. (author)

  16. Electric utility transmission and distribution upgrade deferral benefits from modular electricity storage : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Inc., Livermore, CA)

    2009-06-01

    The work documented in this report was undertaken as part of an ongoing investigation of innovative and potentially attractive value propositions for electricity storage by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Electricity Storage Systems (ESS) Program. This study characterizes one especially attractive value proposition for modular electricity storage (MES): electric utility transmission and distribution (T&D) upgrade deferral. The T&D deferral benefit is characterized in detail. Also presented is a generalized framework for estimating the benefit. Other important and complementary (to T&D deferral) elements of possible value propositions involving MES are also characterized.

  17. Studies on upgrading quality of zircon concentrate to meet the standard for frit by a combination of using a screen plate electrostatic separator and other beneficiation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duc Hung

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, researches on qualitative upgrade of zircon concentrate in order to meet the standard for frit were carried out by combinations of a screen plate type electrostatic separator with other physical beneficiation methods such as magnetic separation, flotation, gravity by air-table along with chemical treatment on laboratory scale was itself manufactured for studied scopes, after that zircon concentrate about 63.9-64.8% of ZrO 2 , less than 0.13% of TiO 2 and 0.128% of Fe 2 O 3 values were recovered. (NDH)

  18. The Read-Out Driver (ROD) card for the ATLAS experiment: commissioning for the IBL detector and upgrade studies for the Pixel Layers 1 and 2

    CERN Document Server

    Travaglini, R; The ATLAS collaboration; Bindi, M; Falchieri, D; Gabrielli, A; Lama, L; Chen, S P; Hsu, S C; Hauck, S; Kugel, A; Flick, T; Wensing, M

    2013-01-01

    The upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at LHC foresees the insertion of an innermost silicon layer, called Insertable B-layer (IBL). IBL read-out system will be equipped with new electronics. The Readout-Driver card (ROD) is a VME board devoted to data processing, configuration and control. A pre-production batch has been delivered in order to perform tests with instrumented slices of the overall acquisition chain, aiming to finalize strategies for system commissioning. In this contribution both setups and results will be described, as well as preliminary studies on changes in order to adopt the ROD for the ATLAS Pixel Layers 1 and 2.

  19. A study on the upgrading by physical means of low grade uranium ore from Phu Wiang District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wihokratna, W.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to upgrade the uranium ore at Phu Wiang district. Because of the fine grains and high degree of dissemination of uranium in ores, resulting practically complete envelopment of the uranium minerals by the gangue minerals, the ore must first undergo digestion in order to reveal the uranium minerals. After digestion, sodium hydroxide of 0.05 normal was added to the ore and the mixture was fed into the agitator provided with baffles and two specially designed propellers. Due to the 'Push - Pull' motion of the propellers a zone of specially high turbulence was created between them. Also in this region higher concentration of uranium is revealed and the high concentrated uranium ore was regularly stripped off for further analysis. It was found that by using mineral of grain size of 100 mesh and 0.0187% of uranium content a concentration up to 0.063% uranium content (an upgrading better than by a factor of three times) was achieved with the above method. The uranium content was analyzed with 3'' x 3'' NaI (Tl) detector and 1024 channels MCA

  20. A study on the digital image transfer application mass chest X-ray system up-grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Chil; Park, Jong Sam; Lee, Jon Il

    2003-01-01

    By converting movable indirect mass chest X-ray devices for vehicles into digital systems and upgrading it to share information with the hospital's medical image information system, excellencies have been confirmed as a result of installing and running this type of system and are listed hereinafter. Upgrading analog systems, such as indirect mass chest X-ray devices dependent on printed film, to digital systems allows them to be run and managed much more efficiently, contributing to the increase in the stability and the efficiency of the system. Unlike existing images, communication based on DICOM standards allow images to be compatible with the hospital's outer and inner network PACS systems, extending the scope of the radiation departments information system. Assuming chest-exclusive indirect mass chest X-rays, a linked development of CAD (Computer Aided Diagnosis, Detector) becomes possible. By applying wireless Internet, Web-PACS for movable indirect mass chest X-ray devices for vehicles will become possible. Research in these fields must continue and if the superior image quality and convenience of digital systems are confirmed, I believe that the conversion of systems still dependent on analog images to modernized digital systems is a must

  1. The compositional study of nitrogen and oxygen compounds in products of heavy oil primary and secondary upgrading processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielowiec, J.

    1986-02-01

    The primary objective was to characterize nitrogen and oxygen compound types in the upgraded products derived from Athabasca bitumen. Nitrogen compounds, depending on their nature and concentrations, in charge stocks to catalytic processess (hydro-processes and reforming) can severely limit or poison the catalyst activity. Oxygen compounds are corrosive (especially naphthenic acids) and can promote gum formation as part of the deterioration of the hydrocarbons in the petroleum product. A secondary objective was to evaluate the advantages and limitations of in-house mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy methods for analyzing specific classes of polar compounds in naphthas, middle distillates, and gas oils. An analytical procedure that was based on the discrimination of polar compound classes using liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometric analysis was tested. The chemical intelligence on the fractions obtained from Athabasca bitumen and its upgrading products has been advanced by determining structural characteristics of the nitrogen and oxygen components. This report describes the determination of the distributions of nitrogen and oxygen compounds in samples from various process streams. This procedure is capable of providing information useful for evaluating hydrodenitrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation reactions.

  2. Experimental studies of high-confinement mode plasma response to non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttrop, W.; Kirk, A.; Nazikian, R.; Leuthold, N.; Strumberger, E.; Willensdorfer, M.; Cavedon, M.; Dunne, M.; Fischer, R.; Fietz, S.; Fuchs, J. C.; Liu, Y. Q.; McDermott, R. M.; Orain, F.; Ryan, D. A.; Viezzer, E.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team; The DIII-D Team; The Eurofusion MST1 Team

    2017-01-01

    The interaction of externally applied small non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations (MP) with tokamak high-confinement mode (H-mode) plasmas is reviewed and illustrated by recent experiments in ASDEX Upgrade. The plasma response to the vacuum MP field is amplified by stable ideal kink modes with low toroidal mode number n driven by the H-mode edge pressure gradient (and associated bootstrap current) which is experimentally evidenced by an observable shift of the poloidal mode number m away from field alignment (m  =  qn, with q being the safety factor) at the response maximum. A torque scan experiment demonstrates the importance of the perpendicular electron flow for shielding of the resonant magnetic perturbation, as expected from a two-fluid MHD picture. Two significant effects of MP occur in H-mode plasmas at low pedestal collisionality, ν \\text{ped}\\ast≤slant 0.4 : (a) a reduction of the global plasma density by up to 61 % and (b) a reduction of the energy loss associated with edge localised modes (ELMs) by a factor of up to 9. A comprehensive database of ELM mitigation pulses at low {ν\\ast} in ASDEX Upgrade shows that the degree of ELM mitigation correlates with the reduction of pedestal pressure which in turn is limited and defined by the onset of ELMs, i. e. a modification of the ELM stability limit by the magnetic perturbation.

  3. Design study of high gradient, low impedance accelerating structures for the FERMI free electron laser linac upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafqat, N.; Di Mitri, S.; Serpico, C.; Nicastro, S.

    2017-09-01

    The FERMI free-electron laser (FEL) of Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy, is a user facility driven by a 1.5 GeV 10-50 Hz S-band radiofrequency linear accelerator (linac), and it is based on an external laser seeding scheme that allows lasing at the shortest fundamental wavelength of 4 nm. An increase of the beam energy to 1.8 GeV at a tolerable breakdown rate, and an improvement of the final beam quality is desired in order to allow either lasing at 4 nm with a higher flux, or lasing at shorter wavelengths. This article presents the impedance analysis of newly designed S-band accelerating structures, for replacement of the existing backward travelling wave structures (BTWS) in the last portion of the FERMI linac. The new structure design promises higher accelerating gradient and lower impedance than those of the existing BTWS. Particle tracking simulations show that, with the linac upgrade, the beam relative energy spread, its linear and nonlinear z-correlation internal to the bunch, and the beam transverse emittances can be made smaller than the ones in the present configuration, with expected advantage to the FEL performance. The repercussion of the upgrade on the linac quadrupole magnets setting, for a pre-determined electron beam optics, is also considered.

  4. Rapid healing of cutaneous leishmaniasis by high-frequency electrocauterization and hydrogel wound care with or without DAC N-055: a randomized controlled phase IIa trial in Kabul.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fawad Jebran

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL due to Leishmania (L. tropica infection is a chronic, frequently disfiguring skin disease with limited therapeutic options. In endemic countries healing of ulcerative lesions is often delayed by bacterial and/or fungal infections. Here, we studied a novel therapeutic concept to prevent superinfections, accelerate wound closure, and improve the cosmetic outcome of ACL.From 2004 to 2008 we performed a two-armed, randomized, double-blinded, phase IIa trial in Kabul, Afghanistan, with patients suffering from L. tropica CL. The skin lesions were treated with bipolar high-frequency electrocauterization (EC followed by daily moist-wound-treatment (MWT with polyacrylate hydrogel with (group I or without (group II pharmaceutical sodium chlorite (DAC N-055. Patients below age 5, with facial lesions, pregnancy, or serious comorbidities were excluded. The primary, photodocumented outcome was the time needed for complete lesion epithelialization. Biopsies for parasitological and (immunohistopathological analyses were taken prior to EC (1(st, after wound closure (2(nd and after 6 months (3(rd. The mean duration for complete wound closure was short and indifferent in group I (59 patients, 43.1 d and II (54 patients, 42 d; p = 0.83. In patients with Leishmania-positive 2(nd biopsies DAC N-055 caused a more rapid wound epithelialization (37.2 d vs. 58.3 d; p = 0.08. Superinfections occurred in both groups at the same rate (8.8%. Except for one patient, reulcerations (10.2% in group I, 18.5% in group II; p = 0.158 were confined to cases with persistent high parasite loads after healing. In vitro, DAC N-055 showed a leishmanicidal effect on pro- and amastigotes.Compared to previous results with intralesional antimony injections, the EC plus MWT protocol led to more rapid wound closure. The tentatively lower rate of relapses and the acceleration of wound closure in a subgroup of patients with parasite persistence warrant

  5. The UKIRT Upgrades Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Andy; Davies, John; Robson, Ian

    Tim Hawarden presented this paper to the 30th anniversary workshop, just a month before his untimely death. The editors have done their best to convert his talk into this paper, and gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Nick Rees (a member of the Upgrades team, now at Diamond Light Source). Tim's discussion concerned the UKIRT Upgrades Project, which ran through the 1990s and transformed the telescope and made it truly competitive on the world stage for operation into the twenty-first century. The reference list at the end of the paper is comprehensive; some of these are referred to in the paper itself and some are included for completeness only.

  6. AGS intensity upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    After the successful completion of the AGS Booster and several upgrades of the AGS, a new intensity record of 6.3 x 10 13 protons per pulse accelerated to 24 GeV was achieved. The high intensity slow-extracted beam program at the AGS typically serves about five production targets and about eight experiments including three rare Kaon decay experiments. Further intensity upgrades are being discussed that could increase the average delivered beam intensity by up to a factor of four

  7. OMEGA upgrade staging options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.H.; Shoup, M.J.; Smith, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    The authors discuss how they are designing an upgrade to its 24-beam OMEGA laser system, OMEGA is a frequency tripled, all-rod system capable of producing 2 kJ at 0.8 ns on target. Important direct-drive-target-ignition physics could be investigated with an upgraded system capable of producing a shaped pulse consisting of a long (5ns) low-intensity, foot, smoothly transitioning into a short (0.5 ns), intense, compression pulse. The total pulse energy is 30 kJ, which, from target-irradiation uniformity considerations, must be distributed over 60 beams

  8. Pulsed power supply for Nova Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, J.L.; Kajs, J.P.; Walls, A.; Weldon, W.F.; Zowarka, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes work carried out at the Center for Electromechanics at The University of Texas at Austin (CEM-UT). A baseline design of the Nova Upgrade has been completed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Nova Upgrade is an 18 beamline Nd: glass laser design utilizing fully relayed 4x4 30 cm aperture segmented optical components. The laser thus consists of 288 independent beamlets nominally producing 1.5 to 2.0 MJ of 0.35 μm light in a 3 to 5 ns pulse. The laser design is extremely flexible and will allow a wide range of pulses to irradiate ICF targets. This facility will demonstrate ignition/gain and the scientific feasibility of ICF for energy and defense applications. The pulsed power requirements for the Nova Upgrade are given. CEM-UT was contracted to study and develop a design for a homopolar generator/inductor (HPG/inductor) opening switch system which would satisfy the pulsed power supply requirements of the Nova Upgrade. The Nd:glass laser amplifiers used in the Nova Upgrade will be powered by light from xenon flashlamps. The pulsed power supply for the Nova Upgrade powers the xenon flashlamps. This design and study was for a power supply to drive flashlamps

  9. Upgrade of the CMS hardron calorimeter for an upgraded LHC

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Jake

    2012-01-01

    The CMS barrel and endcap hadron calorimeters (Hcal) upgrading the current photo-sensors are hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) to meet the demands of the upgraded luminosity of the LHC. A key aspect of the Hcal upgrade is to add longitudinal segmentation to improve background rejection, energy resolution, and electron isolation at L1 trigger. The increased segmentation can be achieved by replacing the HPD's with multi-pixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. The upgraded electron...

  10. Membrane topology and identification of key residues of EaDAcT, a plant MBOAT with unusual substrate specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tam N T; Shelton, Jennifer; Brown, Susan; Durrett, Timothy P

    2017-10-01

    Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase (EaDAcT) catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the sn-3 position of diacylglycerol to form 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol (acetyl-TAG). EaDAcT belongs to a small, plant-specific subfamily of the membrane bound O-acyltransferases (MBOAT) that acylate different lipid substrates. Sucrose gradient density centrifugation revealed that EaDAcT colocalizes to the same fractions as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-specific marker. By mapping the membrane topology of EaDAcT, we obtained an experimentally determined topology model for a plant MBOAT. The EaDAcT model contains four transmembrane domains (TMDs), with both the N- and C-termini orientated toward the lumen of the ER. In addition, there is a large cytoplasmic loop between the first and second TMDs, with the MBOAT signature region of the protein embedded in the third TMD close to the interface between the membrane and the cytoplasm. During topology mapping, we discovered two cysteine residues (C187 and C293) located on opposite sides of the membrane that are important for enzyme activity. In order to identify additional amino acid residues important for acetyltransferase activity, we isolated and characterized acetyltransferases from other acetyl-TAG-producing plants. Among them, the acetyltransferase from Euonymus fortunei possessed the highest activity in vivo and in vitro. Mutagenesis of conserved amino acids revealed that S253, H257, D258 and V263 are essential for EaDAcT activity. Alteration of residues unique to the acetyltransferases did not alter the unique acyl donor specificity of EaDAcT, suggesting that multiple amino acids are important for substrate recognition. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Towards novel biogas upgrading processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privalova, E.

    2013-06-01

    Biogas production has considerable development possibilities not only in Finland but all over the world since it it the easiest way of creating value out of various waste fractions and represents an alternative source of renewable energy. Development of efficient biogas upgrading technology has become an important issue since it improves the quality of biogas and for example facilitating its injection into the natural gas pipelines. Moreover, such upgrading contributes to resolving the issue of increasing CO{sub 2} emissions and addresses the increasing climate change concerns. Together with traditional CO{sub 2} capturing technologies a new class of recently emerged sorbents such as ionic liquids is claimed as promising media for gas separations. In this thesis, an extensive comparison of the performance of different solvents in terms of CO{sub 2} capture has been performed. The focus of the present study was on aqueous amine solutions and their mixtures, traditional ionic liquids, 'switchable' ionic liquids and poly(ionic liquid)s in order to reveal the best option for biogas upgrading. The CO{sub 2} capturing efficiency for the most promising solvents achieved values around 50-60 L CO{sub 2}/L absorbent. These values are superior to currently widely applied water wash biogas upgrading system. Regeneration of the solvent mixtures appeared to be challenging since the loss of initial efficiency upon CO{sub 2} release was in excess of 20-40 vol %, especially in the case of aqueous amine solutions. In contrast, some of the ionic liquids displayed reversible behavior. Thus, for selected 'switchable' ionic and poly(ionic liquid)s the CO{sub 2} absorption/regeneration cycles were performed 3-4 times without any notable efficiency decrease. The viscosity issue, typical for ionic liquids upon CO{sub 2} saturation, was addressed and the information obtained was evaluated and related to the ionic interactions. The occurrence of volatile organic compounds

  12. Treat upgrade fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, K.V.; Schell, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    An extrusion and thermal treatment process was developed to produce graphite fuel rods containing a dispersion of enriched UO 2 . These rods will be used in an upgraded version of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT). The improved fuel provides a higher graphite matrix density, better fuel dispersion and higher thermal capabilities than the existing fuel

  13. ATLAS Pixel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Flick, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The first upgrade for higher luminosity at LHC for the ATLAS pixel detector is the insertion of a forth layer, the IBL. The talk gives an overview about what the IBL is and how it will be set up, as well as to give a status of the research and develoment work.

  14. Upgrading Undergraduate Biology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2011-01-01

    On many campuses throughout the country, undergraduate biology education is in serious need of an upgrade. During the past few decades, the body of biological knowledge has grown exponentially, and as a research endeavor, the practice of biology has evolved. Education research has also made great strides, revealing many new insights into how…

  15. Upgrade of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, work will be carried out on the CERN switching centre between Monday 23 October 8.00 p.m. and Tuesday 24 October 2.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  16. Feasibility study of the university of Utah TRIGA reactor power upgrade - part II: Thermohydraulics and heat transfer study in respect to cooling system requirements and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babitz Philip

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermodynamic conditions of the University of Utah's TRIGA Reactor were simulated using SolidWorks Flow Simulation, Ansys, Fluent and PARET-ANL. The models are developed for the reactor's currently maximum operating power of 90 kW, and a few higher power levels to analyze thermohydraulics and heat transfer aspects in determining a design basis for higher power including the cost estimate. It was found that the natural convection current becomes much more pronounced at higher power levels with vortex shedding also occurring. A departure from nucleate boiling analysis showed that while nucleate boiling begins near 210 kW it remains in this state and does not approach the critical heat flux at powers up to 500 kW. Based on these studies, two upgrades are proposed for extended operation and possibly higher reactor power level. Together with the findings from Part I studies, we conclude that increase of the reactor power is highly feasible yet dependable on its purpose and associated investments.

  17. SRS control system upgrade requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.F.

    1998-01-01

    This document defines requirements for an upgrade of the Sodium Removal System (SRS) control system. The upgrade is being performed to solve a number of maintainability and operability issues. The upgraded system will provide the same functions, controls and interlocks as the present system, and in addition provide enhanced functionality in areas discussed in this document

  18. Performing instrumentation and controls upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, F. M.; Connell, T. J.; Ryan, M. P.

    1992-01-01

    I and C upgrades are comprised of a varying range of content, complexity, expansiveness, and criticality. There are common threads in all upgrades which can be simplified by the development of a long term I and C upgrade plan. The development of a such a plan can establish effective ground rules for upgrades, large and small. It can be the basis from which to begin an upgrade evaluation and the standard which is used to compare the degree of compliance of any upgrade regarding the plan or to define the differences from the plan and an individual upgrade. Primary motivation for I and C upgrades are obsolescence and unavailability of spare parts. Numerous other areas of consideration are also involved in an upgrade. Today's technology results in most upgrades largely or totally utilizing digital equipment. The use of digital equipment is fairly new in many I and C applications and requires an elaborate evaluation from functional, qualification, operational, and licensing perspectives as well as others. A well defined upgrade plan developed as a basis for I and C upgrades is a significant start to ensuring an effective upgrade process. Properly developed and implemented, the plan will support I and C upgrade efforts to ensure that the intricacies associated with such tasks eliminate the existing problems which require the upgrade to be performed. The upgrade plan also results in ensuring the maximum benefit from all perspectives of the plant enhancements being carried out and considered for future implementation. Instrumentation and controls aging and replacement are issues of growing importance due to the potential for significant impact on plant operation and efficiency. Obsolescence and unavailability of spare parts are major drivers towards evaluating the cost benefits of upgrading current equipment. In addition to these two primary factors, the advantages of utilizing digital equipment have also become of prime importance when evaluating instrumentation and

  19. Upgrade to iterative image reconstruction (IR) in abdominal MDCT imaging. A clinical study for detailed parameter optimization beyond vendor recommendations using the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction environment (ASIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, F.G.; Koerner, M.; Scherr, M.K.; Geyer, L.L.; Deak, Z.; Linsenmaier, U.; Reiser, M.; Wirth, S.

    2012-01-01

    To compare the image quality of dose-reduced 64-row abdominal CT reconstructed at different levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) to full-dose baseline examinations reconstructed with filtered back-projection (FBP) in a clinical setting and upgrade situation. Abdominal baseline examinations (noise index NI = 29; LightSpeed VCT XT, GE) were intra-individually compared to follow-up studies on a CT with an ASIR option (NI = 43; Discovery HD750, GE), n = 42. Standard-kernel images were calculated with ASIR blendings of 0 - 100 % in slice and volume mode, respectively. Three experienced radiologists compared the image quality of these 567 sets to their corresponding full-dose baseline examination (-2: diagnostically inferior, -1: inferior, 0: equal, +1: superior, +2: diagnostically superior). Furthermore, a phantom was scanned. Statistical analysis used the Wilcoxon - the Mann-Whitney U-test and the intra-class correlation (ICC). The mean CTDIvol decreased from 19.7 ± 5.5 to 12.2 ± 4.7 mGy (p 0.10). Volume mode performed 73 % slower than slice mode (p < 0.01). After the system upgrade, the vendor recommendation of ASIR 50 % in slice mode allowed for a dose reduction of 38 % in abdominal CT with comparable image quality and time expenditure. However, there is still further dose reduction potential for more complex reconstruction settings. (orig.)

  20. Subpixel mapping and test beam studies with a HV2FEI4v2 CMOS-Sensor-Hybrid Module for the ATLAS inner detector upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisanz, T.; Große-Knetter, J.; Quadt, A.; Rieger, J.; Weingarten, J.

    2017-08-01

    The upgrade to the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider will increase the instantaneous luminosity by more than a factor of 5, thus creating significant challenges to the tracking systems of all experiments. Recent advancement of active pixel detectors designed in CMOS processes provide attractive alternatives to the well-established hybrid design using passive sensors since they allow for smaller pixel sizes and cost effective production. This article presents studies of a high-voltage CMOS active pixel sensor designed for the ATLAS tracker upgrade. The sensor is glued to the read-out chip of the Insertable B-Layer, forming a capacitively coupled pixel detector. The pixel pitch of the device under test is 33× 125 μm2, while the pixels of the read-out chip have a pitch of 50× 250 μm2. Three pixels of the CMOS device are connected to one read-out pixel, the information of which of these subpixels is hit is encoded in the amplitude of the output signal (subpixel encoding). Test beam measurements are presented that demonstrate the usability of this subpixel encoding scheme.

  1. Upgraded biogas from municipal solid waste for natural gas substitution and CO2 reduction--a case study of Austria, Italy, and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Katherine; Villalba, Gara; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Biogas is rich in methane and can be further purified through biogas upgrading technologies, presenting a viable alternative to natural gas. Landfills and anaerobic digestors treating municipal solid waste are a large source of such biogas. They therefore offer an attractive opportunity to tap into this potential source of natural gas while at the same time minimizing the global warming impact resulting from methane emissions in waste management schemes (WMS) and fossil fuel consumption reduction. This study looks at the current municipal solid waste flows of Spain, Italy, and Austria over one year (2009), in order to determine how much biogas is generated. Then it examines how much natural gas could be substituted by using four different biogas upgrading technologies. Based on current waste generation rates, exploratory but realistic WMS were created for each country in order to maximize biogas production and potential for natural gas substitution. It was found that the potential substitution of natural gas by biogas resulting from the current WMS seems rather insignificant: 0.2% for Austria, 0.6% for Italy and 0.3% for Spain. However, if the WMS is redesigned to maximize biogas production, these figures can increase to 0.7% for Austria, 1% for Italy and 2% for Spain. Furthermore, the potential CO2 reduction as a consequence of capturing the biogas and replacing fossil fuel can result in up to a 93% reduction of the annual national waste greenhouse gas emissions of Spain and Italy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. SciDAC-Data, A Project to Enabling Data Driven Modeling of Exascale Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubarak, M.; Ding, P.; Aliaga, L.; Tsaris, A.; Norman, A.; Lyon, A.; Ross, R.

    2016-10-10

    The SciDAC-Data project is a DOE funded initiative to analyze and exploit two decades of information and analytics that have been collected by the Fermilab Data Center on the organization, movement, and consumption of High Energy Physics data. The project will analyze the analysis patterns and data organization that have been used by the NOvA, MicroBooNE, MINERvA and other experiments, to develop realistic models of HEP analysis workflows and data processing. The SciDAC-Data project aims to provide both realistic input vectors and corresponding output data that can be used to optimize and validate simulations of HEP analysis. These simulations are designed to address questions of data handling, cache optimization and workflow structures that are the prerequisites for modern HEP analysis chains to be mapped and optimized to run on the next generation of leadership class exascale computing facilities. We will address the use of the SciDAC-Data distributions acquired from Fermilab Data Center’s analysis workflows and corresponding to around 71,000 HEP jobs, as the input to detailed queuing simulations that model the expected data consumption and caching behaviors of the work running in HPC environments. In particular we describe in detail how the Sequential Access via Metadata (SAM) data handling system in combination with the dCache/Enstore based data archive facilities have been analyzed to develop the radically different models of the analysis of HEP data. We present how the simulation may be used to analyze the impact of design choices in archive facilities.

  3. Computer system requirements specification for 101-SY hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeece, S.G.; Truitt, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    The system requirements specification for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project (HMTP) data acquisition and control system (DACS-1) documents the system requirements for the DACS-1 project. The purpose of the DACS is to provide data acquisition and control capabilities for the hydrogen mitigation testing of Tank SY-101. Mitigation testing uses a pump immersed in the waste, directed at varying angles and operated at different speeds and time durations. Tank and supporting instrumentation is brought into the DACS to monitor the status of the tank and to provide information on the effectiveness of the mitigation test. Instrumentation is also provided for closed loop control of the pump operation. DACS is also capable for being expanded to control and monitor other mitigation testing. The intended audience for the computer system requirements specification includes the SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test data acquisition and control system designers: analysts, programmers, instrument engineers, operators, maintainers. It is intended for the data users: tank farm operations, mitigation test engineers, the Test Review Group (TRG), data management support staff, data analysis, Hanford data stewards, and external reviewers

  4. ALI and DAC for transuranic elements based on the metabolic data presented in ICRP publication 48

    OpenAIRE

    外川 織彦; 山口 勇吉; 本間 俊充

    1987-01-01

    最近刊行されたICRPの報告書、ICRP Publication 48にはICRP Publication 30の年摂取限度(ALI)と誘導空気中濃度(DAC)の計算に採用されたデータと比較して、いくつかの超ウラン元素について新しい代謝データが示されている。

  5. Pulse oximeter improvement with an ADC-DAC feedback loop and a radial reflectance sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David; Wareing, Austin; Day, Dwight; Warren, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Pulse oximeter circuitry must meet several design constraints, including the ability to separate a small pulsatile signal component from a large signal baseline. This paper describes pulse oximeter design changes that produced order-of-magnitude improvements in signal quality. The primary changes were (a) the replacement of an analog sample-and-hold-based differentiator circuit with an ADC-DAC feedback loop and (b) the replacement of a side-by-side reflectance sensor design with a radial sensor arrangement that maximizes the pulsatile-to-baseline signal ratio.

  6. Preoperative depiction of cavernous sinus invasion by pituitary macroadenomas using three-dimensional anisotropy contrast (3DAC) magnetic resonance axonography on a 3-tesla system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Naoto

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether the cavernous invasion of pituitary macroadenomas can be preoperatively depicted by 3DAC MR images, by comparison of surgical and imaging findings. The depiction is desirable to make the surgical injury of cranial nerves minimal. Subjects are 33 patients (15 males, 18 females; mean age 52.8 y) with macroadenomas who underwent its extraction by endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery in author's hospital and 25 normal healthy volunteers (12 males, 13 females). Signa-3.0T equipment (General Electric) was used for PROPELLER MR 3DAC and T2 reverse images of coronary cross sections to identify cranial nerves (oculomotor, trochlear, abducent, ophthalmic and maxillary) in the cavernous sinus. Localization of the imaged tumor/nerves in the sinus was statistically analyzed with the endoscopic surgical findings for the invasion. The former obtained here by the high magnetic field imaging was found quite useful for preoperative depiction of the sinus invasion with high sensitivity and specificity. (T.I.)

  7. CMS pixel upgrade project

    CERN Document Server

    Kaestli, Hans-Christian

    2010-01-01

    The LHC machine at CERN finished its first year of pp collisions at a center of mass energy of 7~TeV. While the commissioning to exploit its full potential is still ongoing, there are plans to upgrade its components to reach instantaneous luminosities beyond the initial design value after 2016. A corresponding upgrade of the innermost part of the CMS detector, the pixel detector, is needed. A full replacement of the pixel detector is planned in 2016. It will not only address limitations of the present system at higher data rates, but will aggressively lower the amount of material inside the fiducial tracking volume which will lead to better tracking and b-tagging performance. This article gives an overview of the project and illuminates the motivations and expected improvements in the detector performance.

  8. CMS pixel upgrade project

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00575876

    2011-01-01

    The LHC machine at CERN finished its first year of pp collisions at a center of mass energy of 7 TeV. While the commissioning to exploit its full potential is still ongoing, there are plans to upgrade its components to reach instantaneous luminosities beyond the initial design value after 2016. A corresponding upgrade of the innermost part of the CMS detector, the pixel detector, is needed. A full replacement of the pixel detector is planned in 2016. It will not only address limitations of the present system at higher data rates, but will aggressively lower the amount of material inside the fiducial tracking volume which will lead to better tracking and b-tagging performance. This article gives an overview of the project and illuminates the motivations and expected improvements in the detector performance.

  9. LHCb VELO upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennessy, Karol

    2017-02-11

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, scheduled for LHC Run-III, scheduled to start in 2021, will transform the experiment to a trigger-less system reading out the full detector at 40 MHz event rate. All data reduction algorithms will be executed in a high-level software farm enabling the detector to run at luminosities of 2×10{sup 33} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. The Vertex Locator (VELO) is the silicon vertex detector surrounding the interaction region. The current detector will be replaced with a hybrid pixel system equipped with electronics capable of reading out at 40 MHz. The upgraded VELO will provide fast pattern recognition and track reconstruction to the software trigger. The silicon pixel sensors have 55×55 μm{sup 2} pitch, and are read out by the VeloPix ASIC, from the Timepix/Medipix family. The hottest region will have pixel hit rates of 900 Mhits/s yielding a total data rate of more than 3 Tbit/s for the upgraded VELO. The detector modules are located in a separate vacuum, separated from the beam vacuum by a thin custom made foil. The foil will be manufactured through milling and possibly thinned further by chemical etching. The material budget will be minimised by the use of evaporative CO{sub 2} coolant circulating in microchannels within 400 μm thick silicon substrates. The current status of the VELO upgrade is described and latest results from operation of irradiated sensor assemblies are presented.

  10. DAC to Mitigate the Effect of Periodic Disturbances on Drive Train using Collective Pitch for Variable Speed Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Raja Muhammad; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Soltani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    scheme to mitigate the effect of 3p flicker on drive train. 5MW wind turbine of the National Renewable Laboratories (NREL) is used as research object and results are simulated in MATLAB/Simulink. We designed the controller based on linearized model of the wind turbine generated for above rated wind speed...... and then tested its performance on the nonlinear model of wind turbine. We have shown a comparison of the results for proportional-integral(PI) and proposed DAC controller tested on nonlinear model of wind turbine. Result shows that our proposed controller shows better mitigation of flicker generated due to 3p......DAC is a linear control technique used to mitigate the effect of disturbance on the plant. It is a superposition of full state feedback and disturbance feedback. This paper presents a control technique based on Disturbance Accommodation Control (DAC) to reduce fatigue on drive train generated...

  11. ECRH experiments in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuterer, F.; Guenter, S.; Hobirk, J.; Kirov, K.; Ryter, F.; Wolf, R.; Zohm, H.; Gantenbein, G.

    2001-01-01

    In ASDEX Upgrade ECRH and ECCD with a power of up to 2 MW has been used. With counter ECCD in discharges with an internal transport barrier we achieved an electron temperature of ≅13 keV. In low density ohmic plasmas we obtained an rf driven current of ≅80% both in co- and counter directions. Neoclassical tearing modes have been completly stabilised by driving a current on the resonant q-surface. Electron heat transport has been studied in standard L- and H-mode plasmas and can be described by a dependence on a critical electron temperature gradient

  12. X-ray imaging studies of electron cyclotron microwave-heated plasmas in the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failor, B.H.

    1986-02-01

    An x-ray pinhole camera designed to efficiently detect photons with energies between 5 and 250 keV was built to image bremsstrahlung emission from a microwave-heated hot electron plasma. This plasma is formed at one of the thermal barrier locations in the Tandem Experiment-Upgrade at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The instrument consists of a lead aperture, an x-ray converter in the form of a sodium-activated cesium iodide scintillator, light intensifier electronics, and a recording medium that may either be high speed film or a CCD array. The nominal spatial and temporal resolutions are one part in 40 and 17 msec, respectively. The component requirements for optimum performance were determined both analytically and by computer simulation, and were verified experimentally. The details of these results are presented. The instrument has been used to measure x-ray emission from the TMX-U west end cell. Data acquired with the x-ray camera has allowed us to infer the temporal evolution of the mirror-trapped electron radial profile

  13. 3D trajectories re-construction of droplets ejected in controlled tungsten melting studies in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhongshi; Krieger, K.; Lunt, T.; Brochard, F.; Briancon, J.-L.; Neu, R.; Dux, R.; Janzer, A.; Potzel, S.; Pütterich, T.

    2013-01-01

    Two fast visible range camera systems with vertically and tangentially oriented crossed viewing fields in the divertor region of ASDEX Upgrade were used to observe tungsten (W) droplets ejected from a melting W-pin into the divertor plasma. To obtain the spatial (3D) trajectories of the tungsten droplets, the trajectory of a given droplet in the (2D) camera image coordinate system was derived for each view separately. From these data, the 3D droplet position was derived by computing the shortest line segment connecting crossed viewing chords to a given droplet taking the centre coordinate of the line segment as actual coordinate. The experimental error of the derived position was estimated from the length of the connecting line segment. In the toroidal direction, the computed trajectories can be described by an analytical transport model for the droplets assuming an initial droplet diameter in the range of 60–100 μm. In the vertical direction the vertical distance droplets travelled when reaching the edge of the viewing field also agrees with the model predictions. However, discrepancies are found with respect to the time point whence a droplet reverts its initial downwards motion due to centrifugal forces exceeding gravity and plasma generated force components

  14. Measurements of ion mobility and GEM discharge studies for the upgrade of the ALICE time projection chamber

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00507268

    2018-02-20

    ALICE is one of the four experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The quark-gluon plasma, which is predominantly produced in lead-lead collisions at LHC, is of particular interest for ALICE. After the long shut-down 2 (2019-2021) the LHC will provide lead-lead collisions at an increased interaction rate of 50 kHz. In order to examine every event at this interaction rate the ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) needs to be upgraded. The TPC’s ReadOut Chambers (ROCs) are currently multi-wire proportional chambers. To prevent space charge build-up of slow ions, drifting from the ROCs into the TPC, a gating grid is used. The corresponding closure time imposes a dead time on the TPC read out, which prohibits data taking at a readout rate higher than 3 kHz. New ROCs have therefore been designed, relying on stacks of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils for the gas amplification, allowing for continuous readout. With the new ROCs, a certain fraction of ions will be drifting at all time into the TPC. Knowing t...

  15. arXiv Particle identification studies with a full-size 4-GEM prototype for the ALICE TPC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00180720; Aiola, S.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Amend, W.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arslandok, M.; Averbeck, R.; Ball, M.; Barnaföldi, G.G.; Bartsch, E.; Bellwied, R.; Bencedi, G.; Berger, M.; Bialas, N.; Bialas, P.; Bianchi, L.; Biswas, S.; Boldizsár, L.; Bratrud, L.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Britton, C.L.; Brucken, E.J.; Caines, H.; Castro, A.J.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Christiansen, P.; Clonts, L.G.; Cormier, T.M.; Das, S.; Dash, S.; Deisting, A.; Dittrich, S.; Dubey, A.K.; Ehlers, R.; Erhardt, F.; Ezell, N.B.; Fabbietti, L.; Frankenfeld, U.; Gaardhøje, J.J.; Garabatos, C.; Gasik, P.; Gera, A.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S.K.; Glässel, P.; Grachov, O.; Grein, A.; Gunji, T.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Harris, J.W.; Hehner, J.; Hellbär, E.; Helstrup, H.; Hilden, T.E.; Hohlweger, B.; Ivanov, M.; Jung, M.; Just, D.; Kangasaho, E.; Keidel, R.; Ketzer, B.; Khan, S.A.; Kirsch, S.; Klemenz, T.; Klewin, S.; Knospe, A.G.; Kowalski, M.; Kumar, L.; Lang, R.; Langoy, R.; Lautner, L.; Liebske, F.; Lien, J.; Lippmann, C.; Ljunggren, H.M.; Llope, W.J.; Mahmood, S.; Mahmoud, T.; Majka, R.; Malzacher, P.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Masciocchi, S.; Mathis, A.; Matyja, A.; Meres, M.; Mihaylov, D.L.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mittelstaedt, T.; Morhardt, T.; Mulligan, J.; Munzer, R.H.; Münning, K.; Munhoz, M.G.; Muhuri, S.; Murakami, H.; Nandi, B.K.; Natal da Luz, H.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T.K.; Negrao De Oliveira, R.A.; Nicassio, M.; Nielsen, B.S.; Oláh, L.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Paić, G.; Patra, R.N.; Peskov, V.; Pikna, M.; Pinsky, L.; Planinic, M.; Poghosyan, M.G.; Poljak, N.; Pompei, F.; Prasad, S.K.; Pruneau, C.A.; Putschke, J.; Raha, S.; Rak, J.; Rasson, J.; Ratza, V.; Read, K.F.; Rehman, A.; Renfordt, R.; Richert, T.; Røed, K.; Röhrich, D.; Rudzki, T.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P.K.; Saini, J.; Schaefer, B.; Schambach, J.; Scheid, S.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H.R.; V Schmidt, N.; Schulte, H.; Schweda, K.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Sharma, N.; Silvermyr, D.; Singaraju, R.N.; Sitar, B.; Smirnov, N.; Sorensen, S.P.; Sozzi, F.; Stachel, J.; Stenlund, E.; Strmen, P.; Szarka, I.; Tambave, G.; Terasaki, K.; Timmins, A.; Ullaland, K.; Utrobicic, A.; Varga, D.; Varma, R.; Velure, A.; Vislavicius, V.; Voloshin, S.; Voss, B.; Vranic, D.; Wiechula, J.; Winkler, S.; Wikne, J.; Windelband, B.; Zhao, C.

    A large Time Projection Chamber is the main device for tracking and charged-particle identification in the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. After the second long shutdown in 2019/20, the LHC will deliver Pb beams colliding at an interaction rate of about 50 kHz, which is about a factor of 50 above the present readout rate of the TPC. This will result in a significant improvement on the sensitivity to rare probes that are considered key observables to characterize the QCD matter created in such collisions. In order to make full use of this luminosity, the currently used gated Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers will be replaced. The upgrade relies on continuously operated readout detectors employing Gas Electron Multiplier technology to retain the performance in terms of particle identification via the measurement of the specific energy loss by ionization d$E$/d$x$. A full-size readout chamber prototype was assembled in 2014 featuring a stack of four GEM foils as an amplification stage. The performance of the pr...

  16. Study and Development of a novel Silicon Pixel Detector for the Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    van Hoorn, Jacobus Willem; Riedler, Petra

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the heavy-ion experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As an important part of its upgrade plans, the ALICE experiment schedules the installation of a new Inner Tracking System (ITS) during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in 2019/20. The new ITS will consist of seven concentric layers, covering about 10m2 with Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). This choice of technology has been guided by the tight requirements on the material budget of 0.3 % x/X0 per layer for the three innermost layers and backed by the significant progress in the field of MAPS in recent years. The pixel chips are manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS process on wafers with a high-resistivity epitaxial layer on top of the substrate. During the R&D phase several chip architectures have been investigated, which take full advantage of a particular process feature, the deep p-well, that allows for full CMOS circuitry within the pixel matrix while retaining full charge colle...

  17. TileCal Trigger Tower studies considering additional segmentation on the ATLAS upgrade for high luminosity at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    March, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels and provides a compact information, called trigger towers (around 2000 signals), to the ATLAS first level online event selection system. The ATLAS upgrade program is divided in three phases: Phase 0 occurs during 2013- 2014 and prepares the LHC to reach peak luminosities of 10^34 cm2s-1; Phase 1, foreseen for 2018-1019, prepares the LHC for peak luminosity up to 2-3 x 10^34 cm2s-1, corresponding to 55 to 80 interactions per bunch-crossing with 25 ns bunch interval; and Phase 2 is foreseen for 2022-2023, whereafter the peak luminosity will reach 5-7 x 1034 cm2s-1 (HL-LHC). The ATLAS experiment is operating very well since 2009 providing large amount of data for physics analysis. The online event selection system (trigger system) was designed to reject the huge amount of background noise generated at LHC and is one of the main systems re...

  18. The LHCb VELO upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosil Suárez, Álvaro, E-mail: alvaro.dosil@usc.es

    2016-07-11

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, planned for 2019, will transform the experiment to a trigger-less system reading out the full detector at 40 MHz event rate. All data reduction algorithms will be executed in a high-level software farm. The upgraded detector will run at luminosities of 2×10{sup 33} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} and probe physics beyond the Standard Model in the heavy flavour sector with unprecedented precision. The Vertex Locator (VELO) is the silicon vertex detector surrounding the interaction region. The current detector will be replaced with a hybrid pixel system equipped with electronics capable of reading out at 40 MHz. The detector comprises silicon pixel sensors with 55×55 μm{sup 2} pitch, read out by the VeloPix ASIC, based on the TimePix/MediPix family. The hottest region will have pixel hit rates of 900 Mhits/s yielding a total data rate more than 3 Tbit/s for the upgraded VELO. The detector modules are located in a separate vacuum, separated from the beam vacuum by a thin custom made foil. The detector halves are retracted when the beams are injected and closed at stable beams, positioning the first sensitive pixel at 5.1 mm from the beams. The material budget will be minimised by the use of evaporative CO{sub 2} coolant circulating in microchannels within 400 μm thick silicon substrates.

  19. The D0 upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuts, P.M.

    1992-10-01

    The original D0 detector was proposed in 1983, with a focus on high P T physics using precision measurements of e's, μ's, jets, and missing E T . This detector, as of the summer of 1992, has started data taking at the Fermilab Collider. However, by 1995/6 the luminosity will reach 10 31 cm -2 sec -1 , and the minimum bunch spacing will drop to 396ns from the present 3.5μs (by the Main Injector era, luminosities will approach 10 32 cm -2 sec -1 and minimum bunch spacings may reach 132ns). These changes in the accelerator conditions force us to upgrade or replace a number of detector subsystems in order to meet these new demands. In addition, the upgrade offers us the opportunity to expand the physics horizons to include not only the all important high P T physics menu, but also the low P T physics that has become increasingly important. In this paper we describe the D0 detector upgrade

  20. ATLAS Upgrade Plans

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, W; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    After the successful LHC operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The final goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000/fb by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. In parallel, the experiments need to be keep lockstep with the accelerator to accommodate running beyond the nominal luminosity this decade. Current planning in ATLAS envisions significant upgrades to the detector during the consolidation of the LHC to reach full LHC energy and further upgrades. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new...

  1. The LHCb VELO Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    de Capua, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, scheduled for LHC Run-3, will transform the experiment to a triggerless system reading out the full detector at 40 MHz event rate. All data reduction algorithms will be executed in a high-level software farm, enabling the detector to run at luminosities of 2×1033 cm−2 s −1 . The Vertex Locator (VELO) is the silicon vertex detector surrounding the interaction region. The current strip detector will be replaced with a hybrid pixel system equipped with electronics capable of reading out at 40 MHz. The upgraded VELO will allow for fast pattern recognition and track reconstruction in the software trigger. The silicon pixel sensors have 55×55 µm2 pitch, and are read out by the VeloPix ASIC. The VeloPix builds on the currently available Timepix3, modified to deliver a radiation hard design capable of an order of magnitude increase in output rate. The hottest regions will have pixel hit rates of 900 Mhits/s, yielding a total data rate more than 3 Tbit/s for the upgraded VELO...

  2. LHCb VELO Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hennessy, Karol

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, scheduled for LHC Run-III, scheduled to start in 2021, will transform the experiment to a trigger-less system reading out the full detector at 40 MHz event rate. All data reduction algorithms will be executed in a high-level software farm enabling the detector to run at luminosities of $2\\times10^{33} \\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$. The Vertex Locator (VELO) is the silicon vertex detector surrounding the interaction region. The current detector will be replaced with a hybrid pixel system equipped with electronics capable of reading out at 40 MHz. The upgraded VELO will provide fast pattern recognition and track reconstruction to the software trigger. The silicon pixel sensors have $55\\times55 \\mu m^{2}$ pitch, and are read out by the VeloPix ASIC, from the Timepix/Medipix family. The hottest region will have pixel hit rates of 900 Mhits/s yielding a total data rate of more than 3 Tbit/s for the upgraded VELO. The detector modules are located in a separate vacuum, separate...

  3. Climate balance of biogas upgrading systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertl, A.; Mostbauer, P.; Obersteiner, G.

    2010-01-01

    One of the numerous applications of renewable energy is represented by the use of upgraded biogas where needed by feeding into the gas grid. The aim of the present study was to identify an upgrading scenario featuring minimum overall GHG emissions. The study was based on a life-cycle approach taking into account also GHG emissions resulting from plant cultivation to the process of energy conversion. For anaerobic digestion two substrates have been taken into account: (1) agricultural resources and (2) municipal organic waste. The study provides results for four different upgrading technologies including the BABIU (Bottom Ash for Biogas Upgrading) method. As the transport of bottom ash is a critical factor implicated in the BABIU-method, different transport distances and means of conveyance (lorry, train) have been considered. Furthermore, aspects including biogas compression and energy conversion in a combined heat and power plant were assessed. GHG emissions from a conventional energy supply system (natural gas) have been estimated as reference scenario. The main findings obtained underlined how the overall reduction of GHG emissions may be rather limited, for example for an agricultural context in which PSA-scenarios emit only 10% less greenhouse gases than the reference scenario. The BABIU-method constitutes an efficient upgrading method capable of attaining a high reduction of GHG emission by sequestration of CO 2 .

  4. Performance Engineering Research Institute SciDAC-2 Enabling Technologies Institute Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Mary [University of Utah

    2014-09-19

    Enhancing the performance of SciDAC applications on petascale systems has high priority within DOE SC. As we look to the future, achieving expected levels of performance on high-end com-puting (HEC) systems is growing ever more challenging due to enormous scale, increasing archi-tectural complexity, and increasing application complexity. To address these challenges, PERI has implemented a unified, tripartite research plan encompassing: (1) performance modeling and prediction; (2) automatic performance tuning; and (3) performance engineering of high profile applications. The PERI performance modeling and prediction activity is developing and refining performance models, significantly reducing the cost of collecting the data upon which the models are based, and increasing model fidelity, speed and generality. Our primary research activity is automatic tuning (autotuning) of scientific software. This activity is spurred by the strong user preference for automatic tools and is based on previous successful activities such as ATLAS, which has automatically tuned components of the LAPACK linear algebra library, and other re-cent work on autotuning domain-specific libraries. Our third major component is application en-gagement, to which we are devoting approximately 30% of our effort to work directly with Sci-DAC-2 applications. This last activity not only helps DOE scientists meet their near-term per-formance goals, but also helps keep PERI research focused on the real challenges facing DOE computational scientists as they enter the Petascale Era.

  5. A 6-bit 4 GS/s pseudo-thermometer segmented CMOS DAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yijun, Song; Wenyuan, Li

    2014-06-01

    A 6-bit 4 GS/s, high-speed and power-efficient DAC for ultra-high-speed transceivers in 60 GHz band millimeter wave technology is presented. A novel pseudo-thermometer architecture is proposed to realize a good compromise between the fast conversion speed and the chip area. Symmetrical and compact floor planning and layout techniques including tree-like routing, cross-quading and common-centroid method are adopted to guarantee the chip is fully functional up to near-Nyquist frequency in a standard 0.18 μm CMOS process. Post simulation results corroborate the feasibility of the designed DAC, which canperform good static and dynamic linearity without calibration. DNL errors and INL errors can be controlled within ±0.28 LSB and ±0.26 LSB, respectively. SFDR at 4 GHz clock frequency for a 1.9 GHz near-Nyquist sinusoidal output signal is 40.83 dB and the power dissipation is less than 37 mW.

  6. A 6-bit 4 GS/s pseudo-thermometer segmented CMOS DAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yijun; Li Wenyuan

    2014-01-01

    A 6-bit 4 GS/s, high-speed and power-efficient DAC for ultra-high-speed transceivers in 60 GHz band millimeter wave technology is presented. A novel pseudo-thermometer architecture is proposed to realize a good compromise between the fast conversion speed and the chip area. Symmetrical and compact floor planning and layout techniques including tree-like routing, cross-quading and common-centroid method are adopted to guarantee the chip is fully functional up to near-Nyquist frequency in a standard 0.18 μm CMOS process. Post simulation results corroborate the feasibility of the designed DAC, which canperform good static and dynamic linearity without calibration. DNL errors and INL errors can be controlled within ±0.28 LSB and ±0.26 LSB, respectively. SFDR at 4 GHz clock frequency for a 1.9 GHz near-Nyquist sinusoidal output signal is 40.83 dB and the power dissipation is less than 37 mW. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  7. Development of a Corrosion Potential Measuring System Based on the Generalization of DACS Physical Scale Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Dalei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A feasible method in evaluating the protection effect and corrosion state of marine cathodic protection (CP systems is collecting sufficient electric potential data around a submarine pipeline and then establishing the mapping relations between these data and corrosion states of pipelines. However, it is difficult for scientists and researchers to obtain those data accurately due to the harsh marine environments and absence of dedicated potential measurement device. In this paper, to alleviate these two problems, firstly, the theory of dimension and conductivity scaling (DACS physical scale modeling of marine impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP systems is generalized to marine CP systems, secondly, a potential measurement device is developed specially and analogue experiment is designed according to DACS physical scale modeling to verify the feasibility of the measuring system. The experimental results show that 92 percent of the measurement errors are less than 0.25mv, thereby providing an economical and feasible measuring system to get electric potential data around an actual submarine pipeline under CP.

  8. Cost evaluation of I and C upgrade approach in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun-Tae; Lee, Jae-Ki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Cost evaluation process for I and C system upgrade is built. • 4 cost factors affecting I and C system upgrade are described. • Additional cost incurred by a phased upgrade is calculated. • Cost for system upgrade between upgrade implementations is compared. - Abstract: Utilities have recently been debating the respective pros and cons of implementation of a multi-phase upgrade during several normal outages versus a single major upgrade implementation during a prolonged outage. We have studied these approaches and have been developing the basic design of nuclear power plants (NPPs) instrumentation and control (I and C) upgrade since early 2008. As part of this study, analyses of the NPPs I and C systems were conducted and the need for upgrading the systems was raised. One of the primary concerns regarding the system upgrade is a cost-benefit implementation, which will influence the upgrade approach. From this viewpoint, the I and C upgrade must consider economic factors such as I and C vendor cost, architecture engineering cost, installation cost, utility cost, and other transition costs such as training and procedure development. This paper presents a comparison study of economical aspects including cost evaluation between the aforementioned upgrade implementations and suggests a solution for I and C upgrade approach

  9. Distribution automation and control support; Analysis and interpretation of DAC working group results for use in project planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klock, P.; Evans, D.

    1979-01-01

    The Executive Summary and Proceedings of the Working Group Meeting was analyzed to identify specific projects appropriate for Distribution Automation and Control DAC RD&D. Specific projects that should be undertaken in the DAC RD&D program were recommended. The projects are presented under broad categories of work selected based on ESC's interpretation of the results of the Working Group Meeting. Some of the projects are noted as utility industry projects. The ESC recommendations regarding program management are presented. Utility versus Government management responsibilities are noted.

  10. European analytical column No. 36 from the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC) of the European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences (EuCheMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Bo; Emons, Hendrik; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2008-01-01

    European analytical column no. 36 from the division of analytical chemistry (DAC) of the European association for chemical and molecular sciences (EuCheMS)......European analytical column no. 36 from the division of analytical chemistry (DAC) of the European association for chemical and molecular sciences (EuCheMS)...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix C to Part 835 - Derived Air Concentration (DAC) for Workers From External Exposure During Immersion in a Cloud of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Exposure During Immersion in a Cloud of Airborne Radioactive Material C Appendix C to Part 835 Energy... Concentration (DAC) for Workers From External Exposure During Immersion in a Cloud of Airborne Radioactive...-infinite cloud of airborne radioactive material. The DACs listed in this appendix may be modified to allow...

  12. submitter Quench Protection Heater Study With the 2-m Model Magnet of Beam Separation Dipole for the HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Kento; Higashi, Norio; Iida, Masahisa; Ikemoto, Yukiko; Kawamata, Hiroshi; Kimura, Nobuhiro; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Ogitsu, Toru; Ohata, H; Okada, Naoki; Okada, Ryutaro; Sugano, Michinaka; Musso, Andrea; Todesco, Ezio

    2018-01-01

    The beam separation dipole magnet (D1), which is being operated in the large hadron collider (LHC), has to be replaced in accordance with upgrade to the high-luminosity LHC. The new D1 will be equipped with several circuits of heaters by which most of the stored energy is dissipated in the whole of the magnet during its quench, thereby avoiding localization of hot spots. Prior to construction of the production magnet, the 2-m mechanical short model is fabricated, and performance of this quench protection heater is evaluated through a series of the cold tests. As a result, we confirm that the maximum hot spot temperature obtained in the measurement reaches the practical limit of 300 K, and determine to design a new heater circuit. In this paper, we report the heater studies together with the prospect for future design of the quench protection heater.

  13. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. Its main upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) where the luminosity will have increased 5-fold compared to the design luminosity (1034 cm−2s−1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional luminosity increase by a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity leveling. This upgrade will probably happen around 2022. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off- detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. An ambitious upgrade development program is pursued studying different electronics options. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Which one to u...

  14. Microbial biocatalyst developments to upgrade fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbane, John J

    2006-06-01

    Steady increases in the average sulfur content of petroleum and stricter environmental regulations concerning the sulfur content have promoted studies of bioprocessing to upgrade fossil fuels. Bioprocesses can potentially provide a solution to the need for improved and expanded fuel upgrading worldwide, because bioprocesses for fuel upgrading do not require hydrogen and produce far less carbon dioxide than thermochemical processes. Recent advances have demonstrated that biodesulfurization is capable of removing sulfur from hydrotreated diesel to yield a product with an ultra-low sulfur concentration that meets current environmental regulations. However, the technology has not yet progressed beyond laboratory-scale testing, as more efficient biocatalysts are needed. Genetic studies to obtain improved biocatalysts for the selective removal of sulfur and nitrogen from petroleum provide the focus of current research efforts.

  15. Upgrade to iterative image reconstruction (IR) in abdominal MDCT imaging. A clinical study for detailed parameter optimization beyond vendor recommendations using the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction environment (ASIR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueck, F.G.; Koerner, M.; Scherr, M.K.; Geyer, L.L.; Deak, Z.; Linsenmaier, U.; Reiser, M.; Wirth, S. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2012-03-15

    To compare the image quality of dose-reduced 64-row abdominal CT reconstructed at different levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) to full-dose baseline examinations reconstructed with filtered back-projection (FBP) in a clinical setting and upgrade situation. Abdominal baseline examinations (noise index NI = 29; LightSpeed VCT XT, GE) were intra-individually compared to follow-up studies on a CT with an ASIR option (NI = 43; Discovery HD750, GE), n = 42. Standard-kernel images were calculated with ASIR blendings of 0 - 100 % in slice and volume mode, respectively. Three experienced radiologists compared the image quality of these 567 sets to their corresponding full-dose baseline examination (-2: diagnostically inferior, -1: inferior, 0: equal, +1: superior, +2: diagnostically superior). Furthermore, a phantom was scanned. Statistical analysis used the Wilcoxon - the Mann-Whitney U-test and the intra-class correlation (ICC). The mean CTDIvol decreased from 19.7 {+-} 5.5 to 12.2 {+-} 4.7 mGy (p < 0.001). The ICC was 0.861. The total image quality of the dose-reduced ASIR studies was comparable to the baseline at ASIR 50 % in slice (p = 0.18) and ASIR 50 - 100 % in volume mode (p > 0.10). Volume mode performed 73 % slower than slice mode (p < 0.01). After the system upgrade, the vendor recommendation of ASIR 50 % in slice mode allowed for a dose reduction of 38 % in abdominal CT with comparable image quality and time expenditure. However, there is still further dose reduction potential for more complex reconstruction settings. (orig.)

  16. Upgrading of TREAT experimental capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerman, C.E.; Rose, D.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    The TREAT facility at the Argonne National Laboratory site in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is being upgraded to provide capabilities for fast-reactor-safety transient experiments not possible at any other experimental facility. Principal TREAT Upgrade (TU) goal is provision for 37-pin size experiments on energetics of core-disruptive accidents (CDA) in fast breeder reactor cores with moderate sodium void coefficients. this goal requires a significant enhancement of the capabilities of the TREAT facility, specifically including reactor control, hardened neutron spectrum incident on the test sample, and enlarged building. The upgraded facility will retain the capability for small-size experiments of the types currently being performed in TREAT. Reactor building and crane upgrading have been completed. TU schedules call for the components of the upgraded reactor system to be finished in 1984, including upgraded TREAT fuel and control system, and expanded coverage by the hodoscope fuel-motion diagnostics system

  17. Use of ultrasound in petroleum residue upgradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawarkar, A.N.; Pandit, A.B.; Samant, S.D.; Joshi, J.B. [Mumbai Univ., Mumbai (India). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2009-06-15

    The importance of bottom-of-the barrel upgrading has increased in the current petroleum refining scenario because of the progressively heavier nature of crude oil. Heavy residues contain large concentrations of metals such as vanadium and nickel which foul catalysts and reduce the potential effect of residue fluidized catalytic cracking. This study showed that the cavitational energy induced by ultrasound be be successfully used to upgrade hydrocarbon mixtures. Conventional processes for the upgrading of residual feedstocks, such as thermal cracking and catalytic cracking, were carried out in the temperature range of 400-520 degrees C. Experiments were performed on 2 vacuum residues, Arabian mix vacuum residue (AMVR) and Bombay high vacuum residue (BHVR) and 1 Haldia asphalt (HA). These were subjected to acoustic cavitation for different reaction times from 15 to 120 minutes at ambient temperature and pressure. Two acoustic cavitation devices were compared, namely the ultrasonic bath and ultrasonic horn. In particular, this study compared the ability of these 2 devices to upgrade the petroleum residues to lighter, more value-added products. Different surfactants were used to examine the effect of ultrasound on upgrading the residue when emulsified in water. In order to better understand the reaction mechanism, a kinetic model was developed based on the constituents of the residue. The ultrasonic horn was found to be more effective in bringing about the upgrading than ultrasonic bath. The study also showed that the acoustic cavitation of the aqueous emulsified hydrocarbon mixture could reduce the asphaltenes content to a greater extent than the acoustic cavitation of non-emulsified hydrocarbon mixture. 20 refs., 11 tabs., 17 figs.

  18. The Bevalac Upgrade Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.R.; Dwinell, R.D.; Feinberg, B.

    1987-03-01

    This paper describes a proposed upgrade of the Bevalac accelerator complex in which the present Bevatron is replaced with a modern, strong-focusing 17 T-m synchrotron. This new ring is designed to accelerate all ions throughout the periodic table with intensities 100 to 1000 times higher than the present Bevatron. It will also provide a substantially improved beam spill structure and will reduce operating costs. A fast extraction capability can be used to inject a future heavy ion storage ring. Pulse-to-pulse switching of energy and ion species is an important goal. The existing injectors, shielding, experimental facilities and utilities of the present Bevalac will remain substantially intact

  19. Upgrade Software and Computing

    CERN Document Server

    The LHCb Collaboration, CERN

    2018-01-01

    This document reports the Research and Development activities that are carried out in the software and computing domains in view of the upgrade of the LHCb experiment. The implementation of a full software trigger implies major changes in the core software framework, in the event data model, and in the reconstruction algorithms. The increase of the data volumes for both real and simulated datasets requires a corresponding scaling of the distributed computing infrastructure. An implementation plan in both domains is presented, together with a risk assessment analysis.

  20. Upgrading Enterprise Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDunn, R

    2005-04-28

    This presentation will describe the process we went through this past year to upgrade our enterprise search tool from a very old version of Inktomi to the latest version of Verity Ultraseek. We started with requirements gathering and then compared requirements against several available products to determine which product to choose. After purchasing the product, we worked through several defined phases of implementation and customization, with initial rollout late January 2004. Finally, we will show you where we are today and describe future search plans.

  1. Upgrade, rebuild or replace?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Ageing reactor simulators present some tough decisions for utility managers. Although most utilities have chosen the cheaper, upgrading solution as the best compromise between costs and outage length, some US utilities have found that for them, replacement represents the best option. Simulators may be less than ten years old, but they have limited instructor systems, older low fidelity models that cannot reproduce important training scenarios, and out of date, difficult to maintain computers that do not permit much expansion of the models anyway. Perhaps worse than this is the possibility that the simulator may no longer be a faithful reproduction of the referenced plant, or have poor (or non-existent) documentation. (author)

  2. Study of the performance of the photovoltaic system of the Pierre Auger Observatory and proposal for an upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguera, A.L.; Anjos, J.C. dos; Barbosa, A.F.; Piombini, F.M.; Ramos, V.S. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bonifazi, C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Guedes, G.P. [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS), BA (Brazil); Pepe, I.M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Each one of the 1660 stations of the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is powered by a 100W stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system composed of a solar panel and two batteries in series on a 24 V setup. Each station continuously stores information by use of a data logger and a radio link. Data is recorded and transmitted roughly every 6 minutes to the Central Data Acquisition Building. In addition to cosmic ray related data, PV performance parameters are also monitored. As a consequence, Auger constitutes an interesting setup for PV stand-alone systems research. In this work, we present the control processes used to ensure optimal performance of the solar power system in the Auger Observatory and propose an upgrade to ensure a better system performance. Most of the work is centered on the batteries, which are the most sensitive elements of the power chain. The batteries are of the Valve Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) type, manufactured by Moura-Brazil. A dedicated system has been designed and built in order to qualify the batteries before installation in the field. During regular operation, the monitoring data are exhaustively analyzed in order to detect failures. A set of analysis tools has been developed, both for anomalies detection and for lifetime predictions. From the reported analysis, it has been possible to identify some aspects of the adopted PV system that may be improved, mainly on the batteries voltage unbalance, which rises on charging two batteries in series on a 24V setup. We show that the same behavior is observed in laboratory tests. In order to reduce battery failures, we proposed and tested the detector electronics performance when working with batteries in parallel on a 12V setup. The main changes on the solar power system of the detector are the connections of the solar panel and batteries (from 24V to 12V), the replacement of the charge controller and the introduction a low power DC-DC converter. Our results show that this

  3. Study of the performance of the photovoltaic system of the Pierre Auger Observatory and proposal for an upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguera, A.L.; Anjos, J.C. dos; Barbosa, A.F.; Piombini, F.M.; Ramos, V.S.; Bonifazi, C.; Guedes, G.P.; Pepe, I.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Each one of the 1660 stations of the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is powered by a 100W stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system composed of a solar panel and two batteries in series on a 24 V setup. Each station continuously stores information by use of a data logger and a radio link. Data is recorded and transmitted roughly every 6 minutes to the Central Data Acquisition Building. In addition to cosmic ray related data, PV performance parameters are also monitored. As a consequence, Auger constitutes an interesting setup for PV stand-alone systems research. In this work, we present the control processes used to ensure optimal performance of the solar power system in the Auger Observatory and propose an upgrade to ensure a better system performance. Most of the work is centered on the batteries, which are the most sensitive elements of the power chain. The batteries are of the Valve Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) type, manufactured by Moura-Brazil. A dedicated system has been designed and built in order to qualify the batteries before installation in the field. During regular operation, the monitoring data are exhaustively analyzed in order to detect failures. A set of analysis tools has been developed, both for anomalies detection and for lifetime predictions. From the reported analysis, it has been possible to identify some aspects of the adopted PV system that may be improved, mainly on the batteries voltage unbalance, which rises on charging two batteries in series on a 24V setup. We show that the same behavior is observed in laboratory tests. In order to reduce battery failures, we proposed and tested the detector electronics performance when working with batteries in parallel on a 12V setup. The main changes on the solar power system of the detector are the connections of the solar panel and batteries (from 24V to 12V), the replacement of the charge controller and the introduction a low power DC-DC converter. Our results show that this

  4. Repairing and Upgrading Your PC

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Repairing and Upgrading Your PC delivers start-to-finish instructions, simple enough for even the most inexperienced PC owner, for troubleshooting, repairing, and upgrading your computer. Written by hardware experts Robert Bruce Thompson and Barbara Fritchman Thompson, this book covers it all: how to troubleshoot a troublesome PC, how to identify which components make sense for an upgrade, and how to tear it all down and put it back together. This book shows how to repair and upgrade all of your PC's essential components.

  5. Design features impacting mobile phone upgrading frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saaksjarvi, M.C.; Hellen, K.; Tuunanen, T.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of design on customer upgrading frequency, and differentiates between functional and aesthetic aspects of design. For the empirical study, we conducted an intercept survey in Beijing and Shanghai with Chinese consumers (n=170) in a retail mall setting. The survey’s

  6. A 115dB-DR Audio DAC with –61dBFS out-of-band noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, H.J.; Schinkel, Daniel; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-band noise (OBN) is troublesome in analog circuits that process the output of a noise-shaping audio DAC. It causes slewing in amplifiers and aliasing in sampling circuits like ADCs and class-D amplifiers. Nonlinearity in these circuits also causes cross-modulation of the OBN into the audio

  7. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Dobre, Monica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the successful operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010 - 2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the center-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000 fb−1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of extens...

  8. ATLAS detector upgrade prospects

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00184940; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    After the successful operation at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the centre-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb$^{-1}$ expected for LHC running to 3000 fb $^{-1}$ by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of ...

  9. LHCb VELO Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    van Beuzekom, Martin; Ketel, Tjeerd; Gershon, Timothy; Parkes, Christopher; Reid, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The VErtex LOcator (VELO) is a vital piece of apparatus for allowing precision measurements in hadronic physics. It provides not only superb impact parameter resolutions but also excellent momentum resolution, both important discriminating tools for precision high energy physics. This poster focuses on the R&D going into the future LHCb VELO detector. At present there are two proposed options for the upgrade; pixel chips or strip detectors. The LHCb upgrade is designed with higher luminosities and increased yields in mind. In order to get more out of the LHCb detector changes to the front end electronics will have to be made. At present, the first level hardware trigger is sets a limiting factor on the maximum efficiency for hadronic channels. As the VELO is positioned so close the proton-proton interaction region, whatever the choice of sensor, we will require efficient cooling and some proposed solutions are outlined. The LHCb TimePix telescope has had a very successful years running, with various devic...

  10. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobre, M

    2017-01-01

    After the successful operation at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, the LHC was ramped up and successfully took data at the centre-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015 and 2016. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, which will deliver of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb −1 expected for LHC running by the end of 2018 to 3000 fb −1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of extensions to larger pseudorapidity, particularly in tracking and muon systems. This report summarizes various improvements to the ATLAS detector required to cope with the anticipated evolution of the LHC luminosity during this decade and the next. A brief overview is also given on physics prospects with a pp centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. (paper)

  11. Biogas upgrading to biomethane. Proceedings; Biogasaufbereitung zu Biomethan. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-05

    Within the 6th Hanauer Dialogue 'Biogas upgrading to biomethane' at 21st February, 2008, the following lectures were held: (a) Processing of biogas - an introduction (Michael Beil); (b) The climate protecting targets of the Federal Republic of Germany: Which role will play the upgrading of biogas, and which legal boundary conditions are created by the Federal Government? (Uwe Holzhammer); (c) Future strategy: CH{sub 4} grids (Juergen Schmid); (d) Biogas upgrading and biomethane utilization in Sweden (Anneli Petersson); (e) Biogas upgrading and utilization of bio methane in Switzerland (Arthur Wellinger); (f) Biogas upgrading by means of pressure swing adsorption (Alfons Schulte-Schulze Berndt); (g) Biogas upgrading by means of pressurized water washing (Ulf Richter); (h) Biogas upgrading for feeding in public grids. The case of biogas plant Bruck a.d. Leitha (Michael Harasek); (i) Biogas upgrading by means of chemical absorption according to the LP Cooab process (Jerome van Beek); (j) Practical experiences in unpressurized amine washing MT bio methane (Karsten Wuensche); (k) Biogas upgrading by means of organic physical washing with HAASE biogas amplifiers (Roland Kahn); (l) Upgrading using cryogenic technology; the GPP registered -system (Jeroen de Pater); (m) Micro Gas Distribution Systems: Alternatives to biogas upgrading and grid injection (Michael Beil, Bernd Krautkremer); (n) Feeding of exchange gas. The case of project Straelen and Kerpen (Frank Schaefer); (o) Feeding of biogas from the view of grid operators (Norbert Nordmeyer); BIOGASMAX: Biogas as Vehicle Fuel - Market Expansion to 2020 Air Quality (Michael Beil, Uwe Hoffstede); (p) Study: Feeding of biogas into the natural gas distribution system (Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe).

  12. System-Level Optimization of a DAC for Hearing-Aid Audio Class D Output Stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bruun, Erik

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with system-level optimization of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) for hearing-aid audio Class D output stage. We discuss the ΣΔ modulator system-level design parameters – the order, the oversampling ratio (OSR) and the number of bits in the quantizer. We show that combining...... by comparing two ΣΔ modulator designs. The proposed optimization has impact on the whole hearing-aid audio back-end system including less hardware in the interpolation filter and half the switching rate in the digital-pulse-width-modulation (DPWM) block and Class D output stage...... a reduction of the OSR with an increase of the order results in considerable power savings while the audio quality is kept. For further savings in the ΣΔ modulator, overdesign and subsequent coarse coefficient quantization are used. A figure of merit (FOM) is introduced to confirm this optimization approach...

  13. A current-steering self-calibration 14-bit 100-MSPs DAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Dong; Fang Sheng; Li Ran; Xie Renzhong; Yi Ting; Hong Zhfflang, E-mail: yiting@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a 14-bit, 100 MS/s CMOS digital-to-analog converter (DAC). Analog background self-calibration based on the concept of analog current trimming is introduced. A constant clock load switch driver, a calibration period randomization circuit and a return-to-zero output stage have been adopted to improve the dynamic performance. The chip has been manufactured in a SMIC 0.13-{mu}m process and occupies 1.33 x 0.97 mm{sup 2} of the core area. The current consumption is 50 mA under 1.2/3.3 V dual power supplies for digital and analog, respectively. The measured differential and integral nonlinearity is 3.1 LSB and 4.3 LSB, respectively. The SFDR is 72.8 dB at a 1 MHz signal and a 100 MHz sampling frequency. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  14. A current-steering self-calibration 14-bit 100-MSPs DAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Dong; Fang Sheng; Li Ran; Xie Renzhong; Yi Ting; Hong Zhfflang

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a 14-bit, 100 MS/s CMOS digital-to-analog converter (DAC). Analog background self-calibration based on the concept of analog current trimming is introduced. A constant clock load switch driver, a calibration period randomization circuit and a return-to-zero output stage have been adopted to improve the dynamic performance. The chip has been manufactured in a SMIC 0.13-μm process and occupies 1.33 x 0.97 mm 2 of the core area. The current consumption is 50 mA under 1.2/3.3 V dual power supplies for digital and analog, respectively. The measured differential and integral nonlinearity is 3.1 LSB and 4.3 LSB, respectively. The SFDR is 72.8 dB at a 1 MHz signal and a 100 MHz sampling frequency. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  15. Extraordinary tools for extraordinary science: the impact of SciDAC on accelerator science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryne, Robert D.

    2006-09-01

    Particle accelerators are among the most complex and versatile instruments of scientific exploration. They have enabled remarkable scientific discoveries and important technological advances that span all programs within the DOE Office of Science (DOE/SC). The importance of accelerators to the DOE/SC mission is evident from an examination of the DOE document, ''Facilities for the Future of Science: A Twenty-Year Outlook.'' Of the 28 facilities listed, 13 involve accelerators. Thanks to SciDAC, a powerful suite of parallel simulation tools has been developed that represent a paradigm shift in computational accelerator science. Simulations that used to take weeks or more now take hours, and simulations that were once thought impossible are now performed routinely. These codes have been applied to many important projects of DOE/SC including existing facilities (the Tevatron complex, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider), facilities under construction (the Large Hadron Collider, the Spallation Neutron Source, the Linac Coherent Light Source), and to future facilities (the International Linear Collider, the Rare Isotope Accelerator). The new codes have also been used to explore innovative approaches to charged particle acceleration. These approaches, based on the extremely intense fields that can be present in lasers and plasmas, may one day provide a path to the outermost reaches of the energy frontier. Furthermore, they could lead to compact, high-gradient accelerators that would have huge consequences for US science and technology, industry, and medicine. In this talk I will describe the new accelerator modeling capabilities developed under SciDAC, the essential role of multi-disciplinary collaboration with applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and other IT experts in developing these capabilities, and provide examples of how the codes have been used to support DOE/SC accelerator projects.

  16. Extraordinary tools for extraordinary science: the impact of SciDAC on accelerator science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryne, Robert D

    2006-01-01

    Particle accelerators are among the most complex and versatile instruments of scientific exploration. They have enabled remarkable scientific discoveries and important technological advances that span all programs within the DOE Office of Science (DOE/SC). The importance of accelerators to the DOE/SC mission is evident from an examination of the DOE document, 'Facilities for the Future of Science: A Twenty-Year Outlook'. Of the 28 facilities listed, 13 involve accelerators. Thanks to SciDAC, a powerful suite of parallel simulation tools has been developed that represent a paradigm shift in computational accelerator science. Simulations that used to take weeks or more now take hours, and simulations that were once thought impossible are now performed routinely. These codes have been applied to many important projects of DOE/SC including existing facilities (the Tevatron complex, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider), facilities under construction (the Large Hadron Collider, the Spallation Neutron Source, the Linac Coherent Light Source), and to future facilities (the International Linear Collider, the Rare Isotope Accelerator). The new codes have also been used to explore innovative approaches to charged particle acceleration. These approaches, based on the extremely intense fields that can be present in lasers and plasmas, may one day provide a path to the outermost reaches of the energy frontier. Furthermore, they could lead to compact, high-gradient accelerators that would have huge consequences for US science and technology, industry, and medicine. In this talk I will describe the new accelerator modeling capabilities developed under SciDAC, the essential role of multi-disciplinary collaboration with applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and other IT experts in developing these capabilities, and provide examples of how the codes have been used to support DOE/SC accelerator projects

  17. Extraordinary Tools for Extraordinary Science: The Impact ofSciDAC on Accelerator Science&Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryne, Robert D.

    2006-08-10

    Particle accelerators are among the most complex and versatile instruments of scientific exploration. They have enabled remarkable scientific discoveries and important technological advances that span all programs within the DOE Office of Science (DOE/SC). The importance of accelerators to the DOE/SC mission is evident from an examination of the DOE document, ''Facilities for the Future of Science: A Twenty-Year Outlook''. Of the 28 facilities listed, 13 involve accelerators. Thanks to SciDAC, a powerful suite of parallel simulation tools has been developed that represent a paradigm shift in computational accelerator science. Simulations that used to take weeks or more now take hours, and simulations that were once thought impossible are now performed routinely. These codes have been applied to many important projects of DOE/SC including existing facilities (the Tevatron complex, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider), facilities under construction (the Large Hadron Collider, the Spallation Neutron Source, the Linac Coherent Light Source), and to future facilities (the International Linear Collider, the Rare Isotope Accelerator). The new codes have also been used to explore innovative approaches to charged particle acceleration. These approaches, based on the extremely intense fields that can be present in lasers and plasmas, may one day provide a path to the outermost reaches of the energy frontier. Furthermore, they could lead to compact, high-gradient accelerators that would have huge consequences for US science and technology, industry, and medicine. In this talk I will describe the new accelerator modeling capabilities developed under SciDAC, the essential role of multi-disciplinary collaboration with applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and other IT experts in developing these capabilities, and provide examples of how the codes have been used to support DOE/SC accelerator projects.

  18. Extraordinary Tools for Extraordinary Science: The Impact of SciDAC on Accelerator Science and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryne, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    Particle accelerators are among the most complex and versatile instruments of scientific exploration. They have enabled remarkable scientific discoveries and important technological advances that span all programs within the DOE Office of Science (DOE/SC). The importance of accelerators to the DOE/SC mission is evident from an examination of the DOE document, ''Facilities for the Future of Science: A Twenty-Year Outlook''. Of the 28 facilities listed, 13 involve accelerators. Thanks to SciDAC, a powerful suite of parallel simulation tools has been developed that represent a paradigm shift in computational accelerator science. Simulations that used to take weeks or more now take hours, and simulations that were once thought impossible are now performed routinely. These codes have been applied to many important projects of DOE/SC including existing facilities (the Tevatron complex, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider), facilities under construction (the Large Hadron Collider, the Spallation Neutron Source, the Linac Coherent Light Source), and to future facilities (the International Linear Collider, the Rare Isotope Accelerator). The new codes have also been used to explore innovative approaches to charged particle acceleration. These approaches, based on the extremely intense fields that can be present in lasers and plasmas, may one day provide a path to the outermost reaches of the energy frontier. Furthermore, they could lead to compact, high-gradient accelerators that would have huge consequences for US science and technology, industry, and medicine. In this talk I will describe the new accelerator modeling capabilities developed under SciDAC, the essential role of multi-disciplinary collaboration with applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and other IT experts in developing these capabilities, and provide examples of how the codes have been used to support DOE/SC accelerator projects

  19. ISOLDE Off-line Gas Leak Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Kristoffer Bested

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates gas injection system of the ISOLDE Off-line separator. A quadrupole mass spectrometer is used to analysis the composition of the gas. Based on these measurements a contamination of the injected gas is found and a system upgrade is purposed. Furthermore a calibration of the leak rate of the leak valve is made.

  20. Slum Upgrading and Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corburn, Jason; Sverdlik, Alice

    2017-03-24

    Informal settlement upgrading is widely recognized for enhancing shelter and promoting economic development, yet its potential to improve health equity is usually overlooked. Almost one in seven people on the planet are expected to reside in urban informal settlements, or slums, by 2030. Slum upgrading is the process of delivering place-based environmental and social improvements to the urban poor, including land tenure, housing, infrastructure, employment, health services and political and social inclusion. The processes and products of slum upgrading can address multiple environmental determinants of health. This paper reviewed urban slum upgrading evaluations from cities across Asia, Africa and Latin America and found that few captured the multiple health benefits of upgrading. With the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focused on improving well-being for billions of city-dwellers, slum upgrading should be viewed as a key strategy to promote health, equitable development and reduce climate change vulnerabilities. We conclude with suggestions for how slum upgrading might more explicitly capture its health benefits, such as through the use of health impact assessment (HIA) and adopting an urban health in all policies (HiAP) framework. Urban slum upgrading must be more explicitly designed, implemented and evaluated to capture its multiple global environmental health benefits.

  1. Upgrade trigger: Biannual performance update

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Couturier, Ben; Esen, Sevda; De Cian, Michel; De Vries, Jacco Andreas; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Grillo, Lucia; Hasse, Christoph; Jones, Christopher Rob; Le Gac, Renaud; Matev, Rosen; Neufeld, Niko; Nikodem, Thomas; Polci, Francesco; Del Buono, Luigi; Quagliani, Renato; Schwemmer, Rainer; Seyfert, Paul; Stahl, Sascha; Szumlak, Tomasz; Vesterinen, Mika Anton; Wanczyk, Joanna; Williams, Mark Richard James; Yin, Hang; Zacharjasz, Emilia Anna

    2017-01-01

    This document presents the performance of the LHCb Upgrade trigger reconstruction sequence, incorporating changes to the underlying reconstruction algorithms and detector description since the Trigger and Online Upgrade TDR. An updated extrapolation is presented using the most recent example of an Event Filter Farm node.

  2. Upgrading the ATLAS control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, F.H.; Ferraretto, M.

    1993-01-01

    Heavy-ion accelerators are tools used in the research of nuclear and atomic physics. The ATLAS facility at the Argonne National Laboratory is one such tool. The ATLAS control system serves as the primary operator interface to the accelerator. A project to upgrade the control system is presently in progress. Since this is an upgrade project and not a new installation, it was imperative that the development work proceed without interference to normal operations. An additional criteria for the development work was that the writing of additional ''in-house'' software should be kept to a minimum. This paper briefly describes the control system being upgraded, and explains some of the reasons for the decision to upgrade the control system. Design considerations and goals for the new system are described, and the present status of the upgrade is discussed

  3. The Fermilab ACNET upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briegel, C.; Johnson, G.; Winterowd, L.

    1990-01-01

    The Fermilab Accelerator Controls Network (ACNET) upgrade consists of a new physical medium (IEEE 802.5 token ring), additions to the calling sequence and added processor support. ACNET is the accelerator control backbone network for all data communication. A proprietary network was replaced by an IEEE standard enabling an open network with excellent characteristics for the control system. The calling sequence was enhanced for the added capabilities of the token-ring interface such as 'gather-read' and 'scatter-write'. In addition to prior support of DEC PDP11s under RS11M and VAXs under VMS, the ACNET calling sequence was implemented in the language C for the IBM PC with MS-DOS and Motorola 680x0 with MTOS using VME bus. Additional support is in progress for Intel 80x86 with MTOS using Multibus II. (orig.)

  4. ISTTOK control system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail: ivoc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •ISTTOK fast controller. •All real-time diagnostic and actuators were integrated in the control platform. •100 μs control cycle under the MARTe framework. •The ISTTOK control system upgrade provides reliable operation with an improved operational space. -- Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak (Ip = 4 kA, BT = 0.5 T, R = 0.46 m, a = 0.085 m) is one of the few tokamaks with regular alternate plasma current (AC) discharges scientific programme. In order to improve the discharge stability and to increase the number of AC discharge cycles a novel control system was developed. The controller acquires data from 50 analog-to-digital converter (ADC) channels of real-time diagnostics and measurements: tomography, Mirnov coils, interferometer, electric probes, sine and cosine probes, bolometer, current delivered by the power supplies, loop voltage and plasma current. The system has a control cycle of 100 μs during which it reads all the diagnostics connected to the advanced telecommunications computing architecture (ATCA) digitizers and sends the control reference to ISTTOK actuators. The controller algorithms are executed on an Intel{sup ®} Q8200 chip with 4 cores running at 2.33 GHz and connected to the I/O interfaces through an ATCA based environment. The real-time control system was programmed in C++ on top of the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe). To extend the duration of the AC discharges and the plasma stability a new magnetising field power supply was commissioned and the horizontal and vertical field power supplies were also upgraded. The new system also features a user-friendly interface based on HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and Javascript to configure the controller parameters. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the consequent update of real-time diagnostics and actuators.

  5. ISTTOK control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Ivo S.; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •ISTTOK fast controller. •All real-time diagnostic and actuators were integrated in the control platform. •100 μs control cycle under the MARTe framework. •The ISTTOK control system upgrade provides reliable operation with an improved operational space. -- Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak (Ip = 4 kA, BT = 0.5 T, R = 0.46 m, a = 0.085 m) is one of the few tokamaks with regular alternate plasma current (AC) discharges scientific programme. In order to improve the discharge stability and to increase the number of AC discharge cycles a novel control system was developed. The controller acquires data from 50 analog-to-digital converter (ADC) channels of real-time diagnostics and measurements: tomography, Mirnov coils, interferometer, electric probes, sine and cosine probes, bolometer, current delivered by the power supplies, loop voltage and plasma current. The system has a control cycle of 100 μs during which it reads all the diagnostics connected to the advanced telecommunications computing architecture (ATCA) digitizers and sends the control reference to ISTTOK actuators. The controller algorithms are executed on an Intel ® Q8200 chip with 4 cores running at 2.33 GHz and connected to the I/O interfaces through an ATCA based environment. The real-time control system was programmed in C++ on top of the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe). To extend the duration of the AC discharges and the plasma stability a new magnetising field power supply was commissioned and the horizontal and vertical field power supplies were also upgraded. The new system also features a user-friendly interface based on HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and Javascript to configure the controller parameters. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the consequent update of real-time diagnostics and actuators

  6. Production of the new pixel detector for the upgrade of the CMS experiment and study of anomalous couplings in the non-resonant Higgs bosons pair production in p-p collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00367286; Dorigo, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    The present Ph.D thesis describes the work done within the CMS collaboration on the pixel detector upgrade and on the search for non-resonant di-Higgs production in p-p collision at LHC. The CMS upgrade project foresees, inter alia, the production of a new pixel detector (CMS Phase 1 Pixel Upgrade) to be commissioned at the beginning of 2017. Crucial part of the upgrade is the new readout chip (ROC) for the silicon sensor, psi46digV2respin, designed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) with a 250 nm CMOS technology. The thesis concerns the study and the development of test procedures for this new readout chip. Thanks to a long stay at PSI, I could provide an important contribution to the debug phases of the first version of the ROC and TBM, the chip that handles the various ROCs in the pixel module, and to the development of the software used by the whole collaboration for the ROC and module testing. Furthermore, I managed the ROC wafers test from the early project phases. The ROCs are produced on silicon wa...

  7. Academic Training - LHC luminosity upgrade: detector challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE SERIES 13, 14, 15, March, from 11:00 to 12:00 - 16 March from 10:00 to 12:00 Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 on 14, 15 March, Council Room on 13, 16 March LHC luminosity upgrade: detector challenges A. De Roeck / CERN-PH, D. Bortoletto / Purdue Univ. USA, R. Wigmans / Texas, Tech Univ. USA, W. Riegler / CERN-PH, W. Smith / Wisconsin Univ. USA The upgrade of the LHC machine towards higher luminosity (1035 cm-2s-1) has been studied over the last few years. These studies have investigated scenarios to achieve the increase in peak luminosity by an order of magnitude, as well as the physics potential of such an upgrade and the impact of a machine upgrade on the LHC DETECTORS. This series of lectures will cover the following topics: Physics motivation and machine scenarios for an order of magnitude increase in the LHC peak luminosity (lecture 1) Detector challenges including overview of ideas for R&D programs by the LHC experiments: tracking and calorimetry, other new detector ...

  8. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Oreglia, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The main upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) which is scheduled around 2022. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off- detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. An ambitious upgrade development program is pursued studying different electronics options. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Which one to use will be decided after extensive test beam studies. High speed optical links are used to read out all digitized data to the counting room. For the off-detector electronics a new back-end architecture is being developed, including the initial trigger processing and pipeline memories. A demonstrator prototype read-out for a slice of the ...

  9. A comparative study of the radiation hardness of plastic scintillators for the upgrade of the Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S.; Erasmus, R.; Jivan, H.; Pelwan, C.; Peters, G.; Sideras-Haddad, E.

    2015-10-01

    The influence of radiation on the light transmittance of plastic scintillators was studied experimentally. The high optical transmittance property of plastic scintillators makes them essential in the effective functioning of the Tile calorimeter of the ATLAS detector at CERN. This significant role played by the scintillators makes this research imperative in the movement towards the upgrade of the tile calorimeter. The radiation damage of polyvinyl toluene (PVT) based plastic scintillators was studied, namely, EJ-200, EJ-208 and EJ-260, all manufactured and provided to us by ELJEN technology. In addition, in order to compare to scintillator brands actually in use at the ATLAS detector currently, two polystyrene (PS) based scintillators and an additional PVT based scintillator were also scrutinized in this study, namely, Dubna, Protvino and Bicron, respectively. All the samples were irradiated using a 6 MeV proton beam at different doses at iThemba LABS Gauteng. The radiation process was planned and mimicked by doing simulations using a SRIM program. In addition, transmission spectra for the irradiated and unirradiated samples of each grade were obtained, observed and analyzed.

  10. Five-megajoule homopolar upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullion, T.M.; Zowarka, R.C.; Aanstoos, T.A.; Weldon, W.F.; Rylander, H.G.; Woodson, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    The five-megajoule homopolar generator (5-MJ HPG) designed and built in 1974 by the Center for Eelctromechanics at the University of Texas at Austin (CEM-UT) was the result of an engineering feasibility study that examined alternate means of pulsed energy storage for controlled thermonuclear fusion experiments. The machine proved very reliable and useful in a variety of applications, notably pulsed resistance welding, and was modified in 1978 to improve its flexibility and ease of maintenance. CEM-UT is now completing a major upgrading of this HPG to a hydraulically motored, 10-MJ, 47-V, 1.02-MA device capable of welding large-section, high-carbon railroad rail. This report considers the design and fabrication of the new rotor, shaft, brush mechanisms, field coil, making switch, busbar system, and control system, as well as the addition of the 31-MPa (4500 psi) hydraulic motoring system. Future applications of the 10-MJ HPG are also discussed

  11. Design study of the large hadron electron collider and a rapid cycling synchrotron as alternative to the PS booster upgrade at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitterer, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    With the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) the exploration of particle physics at center of mass energies at the TeV scale has begun. To extend the discovery potential of the LHC, a major upgrade is foreseen around 2020 of the LHC itself and the LHC injectors - the chain of accelerators preparing the beam for the LHC. One of the injectors - the second one in the chain - is the Proton Synchrotron (PS) Booster. Its performance is currently limited by the space-charge effect, which is the effect of the electromagnetic field of the particle beam on itself. This effect becomes weaker with higher energy, and therefore an energy upgrade of the PS Booster to 2 GeV maximum beam energy is foreseen. As the PS Booster is with its 40 years already an old machine, the construction of a new accelerator, a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS), to replace the PS Booster has been proposed. In this thesis different options for the beam guidance in the RCS - referred to as lattice and optics - are studied, followed by a more general comparison of different lattices and optics and their performance under consideration of the space-charge effect. To further complement the LHC physics program, also the possibility of deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering at the LHC has been suggested, referred to as Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC). In this case the proton beam of the LHC collides with the electron beam, which is accelerated in a separate newly built machine. Two options are considered as electron accelerator: a new energy recovery linac - the Linac-Ring option - and the installation of an electron ring in the existing LHC tunnel - the Ring-Ring option. One of the main challenges of the Ring-Ring option is the integration of the electron ring in the current LHC tunnel. A layout, lattice and optics of the electron accelerator is developed in this thesis, which meets the requirements with regard to integration and reaches the beam parameters demanded by the particle physics experiments.

  12. Design study of the large hadron electron collider and a rapid cycling synchrotron as alternative to the PS booster upgrade at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitterer, Miriam

    2013-02-22

    With the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) the exploration of particle physics at center of mass energies at the TeV scale has begun. To extend the discovery potential of the LHC, a major upgrade is foreseen around 2020 of the LHC itself and the LHC injectors - the chain of accelerators preparing the beam for the LHC. One of the injectors - the second one in the chain - is the Proton Synchrotron (PS) Booster. Its performance is currently limited by the space-charge effect, which is the effect of the electromagnetic field of the particle beam on itself. This effect becomes weaker with higher energy, and therefore an energy upgrade of the PS Booster to 2 GeV maximum beam energy is foreseen. As the PS Booster is with its 40 years already an old machine, the construction of a new accelerator, a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS), to replace the PS Booster has been proposed. In this thesis different options for the beam guidance in the RCS - referred to as lattice and optics - are studied, followed by a more general comparison of different lattices and optics and their performance under consideration of the space-charge effect. To further complement the LHC physics program, also the possibility of deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering at the LHC has been suggested, referred to as Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC). In this case the proton beam of the LHC collides with the electron beam, which is accelerated in a separate newly built machine. Two options are considered as electron accelerator: a new energy recovery linac - the Linac-Ring option - and the installation of an electron ring in the existing LHC tunnel - the Ring-Ring option. One of the main challenges of the Ring-Ring option is the integration of the electron ring in the current LHC tunnel. A layout, lattice and optics of the electron accelerator is developed in this thesis, which meets the requirements with regard to integration and reaches the beam parameters demanded by the particle physics experiments.

  13. Control system upgrades support better plant economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Grosbois, J.; Hepburn, A.; Storey, H.; Basso, R.; Kumar, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper (second in the series, see [1]) provides insight on how nuclear plants can achieve better efficiencies and reduced operations and maintenance (O and M) costs through focused control system upgrades. An understanding of this relationship is necessary to properly assess the economics of plant refurbishment decisions. Traditional economic feasibility assessment methods such as benefit cost analysis (BCA), internal rate of return (IRR), benefit cost ratios (B/C), or payback analysis are often performed without full consideration of project alternatives, quantified benefits, and life cycle costing. Consideration must be given to not only capital cost and project risk, but also to the potential economic benefits of new technology and added functionality offered by plant upgrades. Recent experience shows that if upgrades are focused on priority objectives, and are effectively implemented, they can deliver significant payback over the life of the plant, sometimes orders of magnitude higher than their initial capital cost. The following discussion explores some of the key issues and rationale behind upgrade decisions and their impact on improved plant efficiency and reduced O and M costs. A subsequent paper will explain how the justification for these improvements can be captured in an economic analysis and feasibility study to support strategic decision-making in a plant refurbishment context. (author)

  14. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5x compared to the design luminosity (10^34 cm−2s−1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity leveling. This upgrade is expected to happen around 2023. The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 ...

  15. CMS: Present status, limitations, and upgrade plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, H.W.K.

    2011-01-01

    An overview of the CMS upgrade plans will be presented. A brief status of the CMS detector will be given, covering some of the issues we have so far experienced. This will be followed by an overview of the various CMS upgrades planned, covering the main motivations for them, and the various R and D efforts for the possibilities under study. The CMS detector has been working extremely well since the start of data-taking at the LHC as is evidenced by the numerous excellent results published by CMS and presented at this workshop and recent conferences. Less well documented are the various issues that have been encountered with the detector. In the spirit of this workshop I will cover some of these issues with particular emphasis on problems that motivate some of the upgrades to the CMS detector for this decade of data-taking. Though the CMS detector has been working extremely well and expectations are great for making the most of the LHC luminosity, there have been a number of issues encountered so far. Some of these have been described and while none currently presents a problem for physics performance, some of them are expected to become more problematic, especially at the highest Phase 1 luminosities for which the majority of the integrated luminosity will be collected. These motivate upgrades for various parts of the CMS detector so that the current excellent physics performance can be maintained or even surpassed in the realm of the highest Phase 1 luminosities.

  16. Study of Quench Protection for the Nb$_3$Sn Low-β Quadrupole for the LHC Luminosity Upgrade (HiLumi-LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Todesco, E; Bellomo, G; Sorbi, M; Ambrosio, G; Chlachidze, G; Felice, H; Marchevsky, M; Salmi, T

    2015-01-01

    The HiLumi program is aiming to develop and build new Nb$_{3}$Sn, high-field (12 T) and large aperture (150 mm) superconducting quadrupoles, which will be inserted in the LHC interaction regions and will provide the final focusing of the beam, in the program of the luminosity upgrade. The quench protection of these magnets is one of the most challenging aspects, mainly because of the large value of the magnet inductance (160 mH for the configuration with two 8 m long magnets in series), of the large value of the stored magnetic energy density in the coils (0.12 J/mm3, a factor 2 larger than in the conventional NbTi quadrupoles) and of the use of Nb$_{3}$Sn as conductor, which has never been used for large accelerator magnets. Previous works have demonstrated that a “standard” conservative analysis, assuming quench heaters only on the coils outer layer, gives high hot spot temperature, close to the design limit (350 K). In this paper, a new study of quench protection is presented. The benefic effects of la...

  17. H-1 Upgrades (4BW/4BN) (H-1 Upgrades)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    automatic blade fold of the new composite rotor blades, new performance matched transmissions, a new four-bladed tail rotor and drive system, upgraded...Upgrades December 2015 SAR March 18, 2016 10:59:17 UNCLASSIFIED 4 Col Steven Girard PMA-276 USMC Light/Attack Helicopter Program Executive Officer...attack helicopter is to provide rotary wing close air support, anti-armor, armed escort, armed/visual reconnaissance and fire support coordination

  18. Production and Quality Assurance of Modules and Study of optimized Pixel Sensor Designs for the Upgrade of the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Heindl, Stefan; Husemann, Ulrich

    In der vorliegenden Dissertation wird die Modulproduktion am Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik des KIT für das Phase-I-Upgrade des CMS-Pixeldetektors im Jahr 2017 vorgestellt. Dies umfasst die gesamte Produktionskette, an deren Ende die fertigen Module stehen. Ein besonderes Augenmerk wird dabei auf die Qualitätssicherung während der Produktion gelegt. Darüber hinaus werden die Ergebnisse von Teststrahluntersuchungen von optimierten Pixelsensoren für das geplante Phase-II-Upgrade des CMS-Pixeldetektors präsentiert.

  19. The Atlas upgrade project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    ATLAS is a heavy-ion accelerator system consisting of a 9-MV tandem electrostatic injector coupled to a superconducting linac. A project now well advanced will upgrade the capabilities of ATLAS immensely by replacing the tandem and its negative-ion source with a positive-ion injector that consists of an electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source and a 12-MV superconducting injector linac of novel design. This project will increase the beam intensity 100 fold and will extend the projectile-mass range up to uranium. Phase 1 of the work, which is nearing completion in late 1988, will provide an injector comprising the ECR source and its 350-kV voltage platform, beam analysis and bunching systems, beam lines, and a prototype 3-MV linac. The ECR source and its voltage platform are operational, development of the new class of low-frequency interdigital superconducting resonators required for the injector linac has been completed, and assembly of the whole system is in progress. Test runs and then routine use of the Phase 1 injector systems are planned for early 1989, and the final 12-MV injector linac will be commissioned in 1990. 12 refs., 6 figs

  20. Superhilac upgrade project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinberg, B.; Brown, I.G.

    1985-05-01

    This project will increase the uranium output of the Bevalac heavy-ion facility from the currently available 10 7 to 5 x 10 7 ions/pulse, allowing accurate Lamb shift measurements to be made in U 90+ and U 91+ with important applications to the testing of quantum electrodynamics and the development of an x-ray laser. The injected beam intensity will be increased to make better use of the 10emA output space-charge limit of the Wideroe linac. Components will include a new high current MEtal Vapor Vacuum Arc (MEVVA) ion source along with an improved high current, high voltage Cockcroft-Walton power supply to handle the increased beam current. The Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line will be upgraded with additional focusing to manage the increased space-charge forces and with an improved vacuum to reduce charge exchange losses. Finally, the phase matching between the 23MHz Wideroe linac and the 70MHz Alvarez linac will be improved by the addition of the appropriate buncher cavities. Physics design is underway and detailed engineering is scheduled to begin in October 1985, with installation slated for the 1986 summer shutdown

  1. Altair performance and upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Olivier; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Herriot, Glen; White, John; Ball, Jesse; Trujillo, Chad

    2014-07-01

    Altair is the facility single conjugate AO system for Gemini North. Although it has been in operation for more than 10 years (and upgraded to LGS in 2007), Altair's performance is degraded by three main issues: vibrations of the telescope and instrument support structure, spatial aliasing on centroid offsets from the M2 support structure print-through on the optical surface and static non-common path aberrations. Monte-Carlo simulations can reproduce the behavior of Altair when including these three effects and they are roughly of the same order of magnitude. Solutions or mitigations are being investigated to overcome these nefarious effects and restore Altair's performance to its nominal level. A simplex algorithm as well as a phase diversity approach are being investigated to measure and correct for static aberrations. A high accuracy phase map of the M2 print-through has been obtained and is being used to calibrate and/or filter centroids affected by aliasing. A new real time computer is under consideration, to be able to handle more advanced controllers, especially notch filters to combat vibrations. In this paper we will report on the various simulations and on-sky results of this rejuvenation of one of Gemini's workhorse instruments.

  2. Final Report: ATLAS Phase-2 Tracker Upgrade Layout Task Force

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Hessey, N; Mättig, P; Styles, N; Wells, P; Burdin, S; Cornelissen, T; Todorov, T; Vankov, P; Watson, I; Wenig, S

    2012-01-01

    he mandate of the Upgrade Layout Task Force was to develop a benchmark layout proposal for the ATLAS Phase-2 Upgrade Letter of Intent (LOI), due in late 2012. The work described in this note has evolved from simulation and design studies made using an earlier "UTOPIA" upgrade tracker layout, and experience gained from the current ATLAS Inner Detector during the first years of data taking. The layout described in this document, called the LoI-layout, will be used as a benchmark layout for the LoI and will be used for simulation and engineering studies described in the LoI.

  3. Mongolia - Vocational Education - Equipment Upgrades

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Evaluation design The impact evaluation sought to identify the causal impact of exposure to equipment upgrades on subsequent outcomes. Insofar as we were not able to...

  4. Mining Upgrades to Reduce Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settlement with Southern Coal Corporation and 26 affiliates requires the companies to comprehensively upgrade their coal mining and processing operations to prevent polluted wastewater from threatening rivers and streams and communities across Appalachia.

  5. Silicon Tracking Upgrade at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, M.C.

    1998-04-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is scheduled to begin recording data from Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron in early 2000. The silicon tracking upgrade constitutes both the upgrade to the CDF silicon vertex detector (SVX II) and the new Intermediate Silicon Layers (ISL) located at radii just beyond the SVX II. Here we review the design and prototyping of all aspects of these detectors including mechanical design, data acquisition, and a trigger based on silicon tracking

  6. WNP-2 core model upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golightly, C.E.; Ravindranath, T.K.; Belblidia, L.A.; O'Farrell, D.; Andersen, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the core model upgrade of the WNP-2 training simulator and the reasons for the upgrade. The core model as well as the interface with the rest of the simulator are briefly described . The paper also describes the procedure that will be used by WNP-2 to update the simulator core data after future core reloads. Results from the fully integrated simulator are presented. (author)

  7. Interpolation by a prime factor other than 2 in low-voltage low-power ΣΔ DAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Chen, Liang

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents power optimization of a sigma-delta (ΣΔ) modulator based digital-to-analog converter (DAC) for hearing-aid audio back-end application. In a number of state-of-the-art publications the oversampling ratio (OSR) of the ΣΔ modulator is chosen as a factor of integer power of two...... optimization approach can be used for other low voltage low power portable audio applications (mobile phones, notebook computers etc.)....

  8. Upgrade of MHD data acquisition system from ISX-B [Impurity Study Experiment] to ATF [Advanced Toroidal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.D.; Pare, V.L.

    1987-01-01

    The data acquisition system assembled to study magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity on the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX-B) tokamak at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is being revised for use on the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF). The new hardware and software architectures are based on ISX-B experience and will feature different modes of operation for storing various subsets of available data, a user interface that requires less routine activity than the earlier system, and continued support of calibration and testing measurement used on ISX-B. The new hardware organization and software components are described in detail. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  9. Study of possible energy upgrade for the ALS and modeling of the ''Real Lattice'' for the diagnosis of lattice problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meddahi, M.; Bengtsson, J.

    1993-05-01

    We have studied change of expected performance of the Advanced Light Source storage ring at LBL for the (design) nominal and maximum energy of 1.5 and 1.9 GeV respectively. Furthermore, we have also studied a possible increase to 2.3 GeV by modeling the change of dynamical aperture caused by saturation of the magnets. Independently, we have also modeled the beam's trajectory at injection. Comparison with bpm data from early storage ring commissioning led to the diagnosis of a major lattice error due to a short in a quadrupole, which was rectified leading to stored beam of 60 turns

  10. Summer program Report : Quality control and Aging study for the GE1/1 detectors in CMS Muon endcap upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Rajan, Adithya

    2017-01-01

    In this report, I summarize the work I did during my tenure in the Summer program. The project started with conducting three quality controls -- gas leak test, High Voltage test and Gas gain test. These are necessary to check if the GE1/1 detectors pass the requirements necessary for its deployment in the CMS. Then, I explain how aging study of the detectors was conducted and how the data was analyzed to ascertain if the detector has undergone aging. Lastly, the ongoing process of setting up a further accelerated aging study within the GEM lab is explained, with some potential difficulties associated with it.

  11. Setting priorities for safeguards upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.; Patenaude, C.J.; Sicherman, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes an analytic approach and a computer program for setting priorities among safeguards upgrades. The approach provides safeguards decision makers with a systematic method for allocating their limited upgrade resources. The priorities are set based on the upgrades cost and their contribution to safeguards effectiveness. Safeguards effectiveness is measured by the probability of defeat for a spectrum of potential insider and outsider adversaries. The computer program, MI$ER, can be used alone or as a companion to ET and SAVI, programs designed to evaluate safeguards effectiveness against insider and outsider threats, respectively. Setting the priority required judgments about the relative importance (threat likelihoods and consequences) of insider and outsider threats. Although these judgments are inherently subjective, MI$ER can analyze the sensitivity of the upgrade priorities to these weights and determine whether or not they are critical to the priority ranking. MI$ER produces tabular and graphical results for comparing benefits and identifying the most cost-effective upgrades for a given expenditure. This framework provides decision makers with an explicit and consistent analysis to support their upgrades decisions and to allocate the safeguards resources in a cost-effective manner

  12. Numerical and experimental study of the redistribution of energetic and impurity ions by sawteeth in ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaulmes, F.; Geiger, B.; Odstrčil, T.

    2016-01-01

    with tungsten impurity that include the centrifugal force are achieved and recover the soft x-ray measurements. Based on this full-reconnection description of the sawtooth, a simple tool dedicated to estimate the duration of the reconnection is introduced. This work then studies the redistribution of fast ions...

  13. Patterns of Participation in Canadian Literacy and Upgrading Programs: Results of a National Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ellen

    In early 1999, ABC Canada and Literacy British Columbia (BC) worked with 55 literacy organizations across Canada to study student recruitment and retention. Telephone interviews were conducted with 338 people who had contacted programs seeking literacy information or services (callers). Findings indicated callers constituted a broad cross-section…

  14. Lambda Station: Alternate network path forwarding for production SciDAC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, Maxim; Bobyshev, Andrey; Crawford, Matt; DeMar, Phil; Grigaliunas, Vyto; Moibenko, Alexander; Petravick, Don; Newman, Harvey; Steenberg, Conrad; Thomas, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The LHC era will start very soon, creating immense data volumes capable of demanding allocation of an entire network circuit for task-driven applications. Circuit-based alternate network paths are one solution to meeting the LHC high bandwidth network requirements. The Lambda Station project is aimed at addressing growing requirements for dynamic allocation of alternate network paths. Lambda Station facilitates the rerouting of designated traffic through site LAN infrastructure onto so-called 'high-impact' wide-area networks. The prototype Lambda Station developed with Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach in mind will be presented. Lambda Station has been successfully integrated into the production version of the Storage Resource Manager (SRM), and deployed at US CMS Tier1 center at Fermilab, as well as at US-CMS Tier-2 site at Caltech. This paper will discuss experiences using the prototype system with production SciDAC applications for data movement between Fermilab and Caltech. The architecture and design principles of the production version Lambda Station software, currently being implemented as Java based web services, will also be presented in this paper

  15. Final Technical Report - SciDAC Cooperative Agreement: Center for Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnack, Dalton D.

    2012-01-01

    Final technical report for research performed by Dr. Thomas G. Jenkins in collaboration with Professor Dalton D. Schnack on SciDAC Cooperative Agreement: Center for Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodyanics, DE-FC02-06ER54899, for the period of 8/15/06 - 8/14/11. This report centers on the Slow MHD physics campaign work performed by Dr. Jenkins while at UW-Madison and then at Tech-X Corporation. To make progress on the problem of RF induced currents affect magnetic island evolution in toroidal plasmas, a set of research approaches are outlined. Three approaches can be addressed in parallel. These are: (1) Analytically prescribed additional term in Ohm's law to model the effect of localized ECCD current drive; (2) Introduce an additional evolution equation for the Ohm's law source term. Establish a RF source 'box' where information from the RF code couples to the fluid evolution; and (3) Carry out a more rigorous analytic calculation treating the additional RF terms in a closure problem. These approaches rely on the necessity of reinvigorating the computation modeling efforts of resistive and neoclassical tearing modes with present day versions of the numerical tools. For the RF community, the relevant action item is - RF ray tracing codes need to be modified so that general three-dimensional spatial information can be obtained. Further, interface efforts between the two codes require work as well as an assessment as to the numerical stability properties of the procedures to be used.

  16. THEORY AND PRACTICE IN THE WORKSHOP OF EXPRESSION VISUAL-GRAPHICS FOR MULTIPLIERS - DAC / UFSC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Perassi Sousa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents theoretical reasons and procedures that structure the practices of free artistic expression in working with adolescents and adults. The goal is to identify and justify the theory, pedagogical methods and the practical activities developed with the multipliers for the release of graphic and plastic expression, as an exercise in personal expression within a social context. The method adopted provides a theoretical justification and development activities of artistic expression-visual graph, as a field of significant interaction between subject and his inner universe. These activities are motivated by the need for expression, which is inherent in human beings, requiring the participants' ministrator and planning and organization. Therefore, beyond the scope of self-expressive, the proposed activities serve as the organizing principle subject to significant social and working life. Here are the relevant issues included the theoretical and practical theories "Free Expression" and "Education through Art." The procedures described here were developed with teachers, artists and other participants of "Workshop of expression visual-graphics for multipliers" held at the Departamento de Arte e Cultura (DAC / UFSC within the Project Arte na Escola in the years 2008 and 2009.

  17. An IP-oriented 11-bit 160 MS/s 2-channel current-steering DAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ning; Li Fule; Zhang Chun; Wang Zhihua

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an 11-bit 160 MS/s 2-channel current-steering digital-to-analog converter (DAC) IP. The circuit and layout are carefully designed to optimize its performance and area. A 6-2-3 segmented structure is used for the trade-off among linearity, area and layout complexity. The sizes of current source transistors are calculated out according to the process matching parameter. The unary current cells are placed in a one-dimension distribution to simplify the layout routing, spare area and wiring layer. Their sequences are also carefully designed to reduce integral nonlinearity. The test result presents an SFDR of 72 dBc at 4.88 MHz input signal with DNL ⩽ 0.25 LSB, INL ⩽ 0.8 LSB. The full-scale output current is 5 mA with a 2.5 V analog power supply. The core of each channel occupies 0.08 mm 2 in a 1P-8M 55 nm CMOS process. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  18. DACS II - A distributed thermal/mechanical loads data acquisition and control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanzadeh, Behzad; Trover, William F.; Anderson, Karl F.

    1987-01-01

    A distributed data acquisition and control system has been developed for the NASA Flight Loads Research Facility. The DACS II system is composed of seven computer systems and four array processors configured as a main computer system, three satellite computer systems, and 13 analog input/output systems interconnected through three independent data networks. Up to three independent heating and loading tests can be run concurrently on different test articles or the entire system can be used on a single large test such as a full scale hypersonic aircraft. Thermal tests can include up to 512 independent adaptive closed loop control channels. The control system can apply up to 20 MW of heating to a test specimen while simultaneously applying independent mechanical loads. Each thermal control loop is capable of heating a structure at rates of up to 150 F per second over a temperature range of -300 to +2500 F. Up to 64 independent mechanical load profiles can be commanded along with thermal control. Up to 1280 analog inputs monitor temperature, load, displacement and strain on the test specimens with real time data displayed on up to 15 terminals as color plots and tabular data displays. System setup and operation is accomplished with interactive menu-driver displays with extensive facilities to assist the users in all phases of system operation.

  19. CORRECTION SYSTEMS UPGRADE FOR THE SNS RING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAPAPHILIPPOU, Y.; GARDNER, C.J.; LEE, Y.Y.; WEI, J.

    2001-01-01

    In view of the changes in the design of the SNS ring from the original FODO lattice [l] to the 220m hybrid lattice [2] and finally 1.3GeV compatible 248m ring [3], complementary studies have been undertaken, in order to upgrade its correction packages. We review the evolution of the correction systems and present the accelerator physics studies for the adopted schemes and powering plan

  20. Upgrading inflatable door seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, T.M.; Metcalfe, R.; Welch, L.A.; Josefowich, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Inflatable door seals are used for airlocks in CANDU stations. They have been a significant source of unreliability and maintenance cost. A program is underway to improve their performance and reliability, backed by environmental qualification testing. Only commercial products and suppliers existed in 1993. For historical reasons, these 'existing products' did not use the most durable material then available. In hindsight, neither had they been adapted nor optimized to combat conditions often experienced in the plants-sagging doors, damaged sealing surfaces, and many thousands of openings and closings per year. Initial attempts to involve the two existing suppliers in efforts to upgrade these seals were unsuccessful. Another suitable supplier had therefore to be found, and a 'new,' COG-owned seal developed; this was completed in 1997. This paper summarizes its testing, along with that of the two existing products. Resistance to aging has been improved significantly. Testing has shown that an accident can be safely withstood after 10 years of service or 40,000 openings-closings, whichever comes first. AECL's Fluid Sealing Technology Unit (FSTU) has invested in the special moulds, test fixtures and other necessary tooling and documentation required to begin commercial manufacture of this new quality product. Accordingly, as with FSTU's other nuclear products such as pump seals, the long-term supply of door seals to CANDU plants is now protected from many external uncertainties-e.g., commercial products being discontinued, materials being changed, companies going out of business. Manufacturing to AECL's detailed specifications is being subcontracted to the new supplier. FSTU is performing the quality surveillance, inspection, testing, and customer service activities concomitant with direct responsibility for supply to the plants. (author)

  1. Constructing an I and C Upgrade Architecture for Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Yong Suk; Hur, Seop; Kim, Dong Hoon; Sung, Chan Ho; Kang, Hyun Tai; Lee, Jae Ki; Cho, Chang Hwan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents three architectures of the KSNP I and C upgrade. The architectures are constructed with an adoption of PLCs and DCS technology and 3-phase upgrade strategy. The 3-phase upgrade strategy is established to ensure the safety of the upgrade. Based on the architecture, the cabinet configuration is being constructed. From the configuration, it is expected to figure out how to optimize the layout of the cabinets. It is required to study the performance and safety design requirements of the upgrade further

  2. Study on application of zirconium dioxide for upgrading quality of pouring cups used in continuous steel casting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Ba Kien; Vu Thanh Quang and Ngo Van Tuyen

    2004-01-01

    This theme studies on technology of zirconium oxide powder stabilized by calcium and testing production of steel pouring cup made of the stabilized dioxide zirconium ceramic. As a product of the theme, the steel pouring cup has had the following main characteristics: heat resistance > 1700 o C, density of 4.7 g/cm 3 , apparent sponge degree of 1.63%, compressibility of 3300 kg/cm 2 . The quality of the cup has been tested and highly evaluated during the actual production. (author)

  3. Pyrolysis bio-oil upgrading to renewable fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to upgrade woody biomass pyrolysis bio-oil into transportation fuels by catalytic hydrodeoxygenation : (HDO) using nanospring (NS) supported catalyst via the following research objectives: (1) develop nanospring-based : catalysts (nan...

  4. Upgrade to iterative image reconstruction (IR) in abdominal MDCT imaging: a clinical study for detailed parameter optimization beyond vendor recommendations using the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction environment (ASIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueck, F G; Körner, M; Scherr, M K; Geyer, L L; Deak, Z; Linsenmaier, U; Reiser, M; Wirth, S

    2012-03-01

    To compare the image quality of dose-reduced 64-row abdominal CT reconstructed at different levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) to full-dose baseline examinations reconstructed with filtered back-projection (FBP) in a clinical setting and upgrade situation. Abdominal baseline examinations (noise index NI = 29; LightSpeed VCT XT, GE) were intra-individually compared to follow-up studies on a CT with an ASIR option (NI = 43; Discovery HD750, GE), n = 42. Standard-kernel images were calculated with ASIR blendings of 0 - 100 % in slice and volume mode, respectively. Three experienced radiologists compared the image quality of these 567 sets to their corresponding full-dose baseline examination (- 2: diagnostically inferior, - 1: inferior, 0: equal, + 1: superior, + 2: diagnostically superior). Furthermore, a phantom was scanned. Statistical analysis used the Wilcoxon - the Mann-Whitney U-test and the intra-class correlation (ICC). The mean CTDIvol decreased from 19.7 ± 5.5 to 12.2 ± 4.7 mGy (p ASIR studies was comparable to the baseline at ASIR 50 % in slice (p = 0.18) and ASIR 50 - 100 % in volume mode (p > 0.10). Volume mode performed 73 % slower than slice mode (p ASIR 50 % in slice mode allowed for a dose reduction of 38 % in abdominal CT with comparable image quality and time expenditure. However, there is still further dose reduction potential for more complex reconstruction settings. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Design studies for a tracking upgrade of the Crystal Barrel experiment at ELSA and installation of tracking test bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winnebeck, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Ever since mankind was interested in the understanding of the universe and especially the matter in it. The fundamental building blocks of matter seem to be quarks and gluons, whose interactions are investigated in hadron physics. To study this strong interaction different experimental approaches can be used. One way is to do spectroscopy similar to atomic physics. The Crystal Barrel experiment at ELSA performs spectroscopy of nucleons to learn more about the strong interaction. A major improvement of this experimental setup will be the introducing of charged particle tracking as it is shown in this thesis. Different detector concepts are discussed concerning feasibility, material budget and especially momentum resolution. It turns out that a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the optimal solution. Then it is shown how a prototype TPC is tested using a newly installed tracking test bench with an electron beam, and obtained results are presented. The design of the final TPC and its integration into the Crystal Barrel experiment are discussed as well as methods to calibrate the detector. (orig.)

  6. Design studies for a tracking upgrade of the Crystal Barrel experiment at ELSA and installation of tracking test bench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winnebeck, Alexander

    2009-12-17

    Ever since mankind was interested in the understanding of the universe and especially the matter in it. The fundamental building blocks of matter seem to be quarks and gluons, whose interactions are investigated in hadron physics. To study this strong interaction different experimental approaches can be used. One way is to do spectroscopy similar to atomic physics. The Crystal Barrel experiment at ELSA performs spectroscopy of nucleons to learn more about the strong interaction. A major improvement of this experimental setup will be the introducing of charged particle tracking as it is shown in this thesis. Different detector concepts are discussed concerning feasibility, material budget and especially momentum resolution. It turns out that a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the optimal solution. Then it is shown how a prototype TPC is tested using a newly installed tracking test bench with an electron beam, and obtained results are presented. The design of the final TPC and its integration into the Crystal Barrel experiment are discussed as well as methods to calibrate the detector. (orig.)

  7. Catalytic Upgrading of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Vapors with Nano Metal Oxides: An Analytical Py-GC/MS Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang Lu [National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Power Generation Equipment, North China Electric Power University, Beijing (China); Zhi-Fei Zhang [National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Power Generation Equipment, North China Electric Power University, Beijing (China); Chang-Qing Dong [National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Power Generation Equipment, North China Electric Power University, Beijing (China); Xi-Feng Zhu [Key Laboratory for Biomass Clean Energy of Anhui Province, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China)

    2010-10-15

    Fast pyrolysis of poplar wood followed with catalytic cracking of the pyrolysis vapors was performed using analytical pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The catalysts applied in this study were nano MgO, CaO, TiO2, Fe2O3, NiO and ZnO. These catalysts displayed different catalytic capabilities towards the pyrolytic products. The catalysis by CaO significantly reduced the levels of phenols and anhydrosugars, and eliminated the acids, while it increased the formation of cyclopentanones, hydrocarbons and several light compounds. ZnO was a mild catalyst, as it only slightly altered the pyrolytic products. The other four catalysts all decreased the linear aldehydes dramatically, while the increased the ketones and cyclopentanones. They also reduced the anhydrosugars, except for NiO. Moreover, the catalysis by Fe2O3 resulted in the formation of various hydrocarbons. However, none of these catalysts except CaO were able to greatly reduce the acids.

  8. Study of double charm B decays with the LHCb experiment at CERN and track reconstruction for the LHCb upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2091576; Rademacker, Jonas

    Double charmed $B$ meson decays are dominated by the Cabibbo favoured $b\\rightarrow c (W^{-} \\rightarrow \\overline{c}s)$ transition. This thesis presents the study of $B^{0}\\rightarrow D^{0}\\overline{D}^{0}K^{\\ast 0}$ decay which has never been observed so far. The branching ratio is quoted with respect to the $B^{0}\\rightarrow D^{\\ast -} D^{0} K^{+}$ decay mode. No $K^{\\ast0}$ mass window selection is applied in sigmode, reconstructing the $K\\pi$ system as a $K^{\\ast0}$. The invariant mass of the $K\\pi$ system is selected to be in full allowed phase space: $ m(K) + m(\\pi) < m(K\\pi) < m(B)-2 m(D^{0})$. $D^{0}$ mesons are reconstructed through the Cabibbo favoured $D^{0}\\rightarrow K^{-}\\pi^{+}$ mode and the $K^{\\ast 0}$ as $K^{+}\\pi^{-}$. The integrated luminosity of 3fb$^{-1}$ collected by LHCb during LHC Run 1 are used to select and reconstruct $B{0}\\rightarrow D^{0}\\overline{D}^{0} K^{\\ast 0}$ leading to a preliminary branching ratio corresponding to: $$\\dfrac{\\mathcal{B}(B{0}\\rightarrow D^{0}\\over...

  9. Optimization bitumen-based upgrading and refining schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munteanu, M.; Chen, J. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada); Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CanmetENERGY

    2009-07-01

    This poster highlighted the results of a study in which the entire refining scheme for Canadian bitumen as feedstocks was modelled and simulated under different process configurations, operating conditions and product structures. The aim of the study was to optimize the economic benefits, product quality and energy use under a range of operational scenarios. Optimal refining schemes were proposed along with process conditions for existing refinery configurations and objectives. The goal was to provide guidelines and information for upgrading and refining process design and retrofitting. Critical steps were identified with regards to the upgrading process. It was concluded that the information obtained from this study would lead to significant improvement in process performance and operations, and in reducing the capital cost for building new upgraders and refineries. The simulation results provided valuable information for increasing the marketability of bitumen, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental impacts associated with bitumen upgrading and refining. tabs., figs.

  10. Primary Vertex Reconstruction for Upgrade at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Wanczyk, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the LHCb experiment is the study of beauty and charm hadron decays with the main focus on CP violating phenomena and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model through rare decays. At the present, the second data taking period is ongoing, which is called Run II. After 2018 during the long shutdown, the replacement of signicant parts of the LHCb detector is planned. One of main changes is upgrade of the present software and hardware trigger to a more rapid full software trigger. Primary Vertex (PV) is a basis for the further tracking and it is sensitive to the LHC running conditions, which are going to change for the Upgrade. In particular, the center-of-mass collision energy should reach the maximum value of 14 TeV. As a result the quality of the reconstruction has to be studied and the reconstruction algorithms have to be optimized.

  11. The FELIX experimental program and future upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.; Praeg, W.F.; Lari, R.J.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    As part of the DOE First Wall/Blanket/Shield (FW/B/S) Engineering Test Program, Argonne National Laboratory FELIX (Fusion ELectromagnetic Induction EXperiment to study electromagnetic effects. T.he earliest test will select and verify appropriate eddy current simulation computer program (codes), followed by component concept tests, component model tests, and finally tests with prototypes. This paper describes the experimental and computer code plans and future upgrades for the FELIX facility

  12. The Upgraded Plasma Focus Installation > - The Installation >

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krokhin, O.N.; Nikulin, V.Ya.; Babenko, B.A.; Gorbunov, D.N.; Gurei, A.E.; Kalachev, N.V.; Kozlova, T.A.; Malafeev, Yu.S.; Polukhin, S.N.; Sychev, A.A.; Tikhomirov, A.A.; Tsybenko, S.P.; Volobuev, I.V.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the upgraded plasma focus installation > - the installation > and some preliminary experimental results. The total energy stored in capacity bank is now 400 kJ, current - 5 MA with the rise time 3.5 μs. The investigation is targeted on the study of near electrode processes and its influence on plasma dynamics in a special operating regime of Filippov type PF - Hard X-ray regime. (author)

  13. Upgrading of bitumen using supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayukawa, T. [JGC Corp., Ibaraki (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation outlined the technical and economic aspects of thermal cracking by supercritical water. Supercritical water (SCW) is a commonly used method for upgrading heavy oil to produce pipeline-transportable oil from high-viscous bitumen. The process uses water and does not require hydrogen nor catalysts. Pre-heated bitumen and water enter a vertical reactor with flows of counter current at the supercritical point of water. The upgraded synthetic crude oil (SCO) and pitch are obtained from the top of the reactor when the bitumen is thermally cracked. Bench-scale studies have shown that Canadian oil sands bitumen can be converted to 80 volume per cent of SCO and 20 volume per cent of pitch. The SCO has satisfied Canadian pipeline specifications in terms of API gravity and kinetic viscosity. The kinetic viscosity of the pitch has also satisfied boiler fuel specifications. tabs., figs.

  14. Upgrade of of monitoring devices for radiation information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Taek; Park, Won Man; Kim, Jung Soo; Lee, Bong Jae; Jae Yoo Kyung

    1999-01-01

    The Radiation Monitoring System (RMS) in Hanaro of KAERI and NPPs of Korea, supplied by victoreen, sometimes has been stopped to use slow 486 PC (Personal computer) and not to be enough memory in main processing computer, IOCA and IOCB, for signal processing and storing. It is very difficult for operator to operate and maintain RMS, because of using an unfamiliar operating system, SCO Unix, of main computer. And also, ScanRad (TM) program for processing and storing radiation signal has Y2K problems and is able to lose and not to display measuring signals. Therefore it needs to upgrade the computer system in RMS. This study is upgrading the main computer, IOCA, in RMS of Hanaro to Pentium PC, and changing operating System to Window NT-based system. Therefore it needs to upgrade the computer system in RMS. This study is upgrading the main computer, IOCA, in RMS of Hanaro to Pentium PC, and changing Operating System to Window NT-based system. Therefore a performance of the computer system in RMS has been upgraded for operator to be useful. This study is going two steps. First, the main computer, IOCA a part of the whole computer system has been upgraded to Pentium PC, and changed to Window NT-based system. Second, all of the computer system in Hanaro RMS is going to be upgraded. This study has got the following results: a RS-232C serial communication program: between the upgraded IOCA and LCU (Local Control Unit) -- a serial communication test configurating two LCU serial --a parallel communication test configurating two LCU parallel: GUI program to present a radioactive information -- overview schematic display page -- detail display pages -- alarm and event pages -- trend pages and group trend pages.

  15. Upgrade of of monitoring devices for radiation information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Taek; Park, Won Man; Kim, Jung Soo; Lee, Bong Jae; Jae Yoo Kyung

    1999-01-01

    The Radiation Monitoring System (RMS) in Hanaro of KAERI and NPPs of Korea, supplied by victoreen, sometimes has been stopped to use slow 486 PC (Personal computer) and not to be enough memory in main processing computer, IOCA and IOCB, for signal processing and storing. It is very difficult for operator to operate and maintain RMS, because of using an unfamiliar operating system, SCO Unix, of main computer. And also, ScanRad (TM) program for processing and storing radiation signal has Y2K problems and is able to lose and not to display measuring signals. Therefore it needs to upgrade the computer system in RMS. This study is upgrading the main computer, IOCA, in RMS of Hanaro to Pentium PC, and changing operating System to Window NT-based system. Therefore it needs to upgrade the computer system in RMS. This study is upgrading the main computer, IOCA, in RMS of Hanaro to Pentium PC, and changing Operating System to Window NT-based system. Therefore a performance of the computer system in RMS has been upgraded for operator to be useful. This study is going two steps. First, the main computer, IOCA a part of the whole computer system has been upgraded to Pentium PC, and changed to Window NT-based system. Second, all of the computer system in Hanaro RMS is going to be upgraded. This study has got the following results: a RS-232C serial communication program: between the upgraded IOCA and LCU (Local Control Unit) -- a serial communication test configurating two LCU serial --a parallel communication test configurating two LCU parallel: GUI program to present a radioactive information -- overview schematic display page -- detail display pages -- alarm and event pages -- trend pages and group trend pages

  16. Analyzing how we do Analysis and Consume Data, Results from the SciDAC-Data Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, P.; Aliaga, L.; Mubarak, M.; Tsaris, A.; Norman, A.; Lyon, A.; Ross, R.

    2017-10-01

    One of the main goals of the Dept. of Energy funded SciDAC-Data project is to analyze the more than 410,000 high energy physics datasets that have been collected, generated and defined over the past two decades by experiments using the Fermilab storage facilities. These datasets have been used as the input to over 5.6 million recorded analysis projects, for which detailed analytics have been gathered. The analytics and meta information for these datasets and analysis projects are being combined with knowledge of their part of the HEP analysis chains for major experiments to understand how modern computing and data delivery is being used. We present the first results of this project, which examine in detail how the CDF, D0, NOvA, MINERvA and MicroBooNE experiments have organized, classified and consumed petascale datasets to produce their physics results. The results include analysis of the correlations in dataset/file overlap, data usage patterns, data popularity, dataset dependency and temporary dataset consumption. The results provide critical insight into how workflows and data delivery schemes can be combined with different caching strategies to more efficiently perform the work required to mine these large HEP data volumes and to understand the physics analysis requirements for the next generation of HEP computing facilities. In particular we present a detailed analysis of the NOvA data organization and consumption model corresponding to their first and second oscillation results (2014-2016) and the first look at the analysis of the Tevatron Run II experiments. We present statistical distributions for the characterization of these data and data driven models describing their consumption.

  17. Hybrid biogas upgrading in a two-stage thermophilic reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corbellini, Viola; Kougias, Panagiotis; Treu, Laura

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to propose a hybrid biogas upgrading configuration composed of two-stage thermophilic reactors. Hydrogen is directly injected in the first stage reactor. The output gas from the first reactor (in-situ biogas upgrade) is subsequently transferred to a second upflow reactor...... (ex-situ upgrade), in which enriched hydrogenotrophic culture is responsible for the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide to methane. The overall objective of the work was to perform an initial methane enrichment in the in-situ reactor, avoiding deterioration of the process due to elevated pH levels......, and subsequently, to complete the biogas upgrading process in the ex-situ chamber. The methane content in the first stage reactor reached on average 87% and the corresponding value in the second stage was 91%, with a maximum of 95%. A remarkable accumulation of volatile fatty acids was observed in the first...

  18. Physical protection upgrades in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djakov, A.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. DOE is providing nuclear material safeguards assistance in both material control and accountability and in physical protection to several facilities in Ukraine. This paper summarizes the types of physical protection upgrades that have been or are presently being implemented at these facilities. These facilities include the Kiev Institute for Nuclear Research, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Sevastopol Institute of Nuclear Energy and Industry, and the South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant. Typical upgrades include: hardening of storage areas; improvements in access control, intrusion detection, and CCTV assessment; central alarm station improvements; and implementation of new voice communication systems. Methods used to implement these upgrades and problems encountered are discussed. Training issues are also discussed

  19. The D0 detector upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bross, A.D.

    1995-02-01

    The Fermilab collider program is undergoing a major upgrade of both the accelerator complex and the two detectors. Operation of the Tevatron at luminosities upwards of ten time that currently provided will occur in early 1999 after the commissioning of the new Fermilab Main Injector. The D0 upgrade program has been established to deliver a detector that will meet the challenges of this environment. A new magnetic tracker consisting of a superconducting solenoid, a silicon vertex detector, a scintillating fiber central tracker, and a central preshower detector will replace the current central tracking and transition radiation chambers. We present the design and performance capabilities of these new systems and describe results from physics simulations that demonstrate the physics reach of the upgraded detector

  20. Hydrogen assisted biological biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassani, Ilaria

    Wind and biomass are promoted worldwide as sustainable forms of energy. Anaerobic digestion of biomass produces biogas with ∼50−70% CH4 and 30−50% CO2. However, biogas with >90% CH4 content has higher heating value, can be injected into the natural gas grid or used as alternative to natural gas...... as vehicle fuel. Methods currently available for biogas upgrading mainly consists of physicochemical CO2 removal, requiring the use of chemical substances and energy input and, thus, increasing process costs. This PhD project proposes an alternative to existing biogas upgrading technologies, where H2......, produced by water electrolysis, using excess of electricity from wind mills, is coupled with the CO2 contained in the biogas to convert them to CH4. This process is defined as biological biogas upgrading and is carried out by hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea that couples CO2 with H2 to produce...

  1. Status of TMX upgrade diagnostics construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornady, R.S.; Davis, J.C.; Simonen, T.C.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the status of the initial TMX Upgrade diagnostics and the state of development of additional diagnostics being prepared for later TMX Upgrade experiments. The initial diagnostic instrument set has been described in the TMX Upgrade Proposal. This set is required to get TMX Upgrade operational and to evaluate its initial performance. Additional diagnostic instruments are needed to then carry out the more detailed experiments outlined by the TMX Upgrade program milestones. The relation of these new measurements to the physics program is described in The TMX Upgrade Program Plan

  2. Feasibility Study of the PS Injection for 2 GeV LIU Beams with an Upgraded KFA-45 Injection Kicker System Operating in Short Circuit Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Thomas; Borburgh, Jan; Ducimetière, Laurent; Feliciano, Luis; Ferrero Colomo, Alvaro; Goddard, Brennan; Sermeus, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Under the scope of the LIU project the CERN PS Booster to PS beam transfer will be modified to match the requirements for the future 2 GeV beams. This paper describes the evaluation of the proposed upgrade of the PS injection kicker. Different schemes of an injection for LIU beams into the PS have been outlined in the past already under the aspect of individual transfer kicker rise and fall time performances. Homogeneous rise and fall time requirements in the whole PSB to PS transfer chain have been established which allowed to consider an upgrade option of the present injection kicker system operated in short circuit mode. The challenging pulse quality constraints require an improvement of the flat top and post pulse ripples. Both operation modes, terminated and short circuit mode are analysed and analogue circuit simulations for the present and upgraded system are outlined. Recent measurements on the installed kickers are presented and analysed together with the simulation data. First measurements verifying...

  3. Catalytic Upgrading of Biomass-Derived Compounds via C-C Coupling Reactions. Computational and Experimental Studies of Acetaldehyde and Furan Reactions in HZSM-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Cong [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Evans, Tabitha J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cheng, Lei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nimlos, Mark R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mukarakate, Calvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Robichaud, David J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Assary, Rajeev S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Curtiss, Larry A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-02

    These catalytic C–C coupling and deoxygenation reactions are essential for upgrading of biomass-derived oxygenates to fuel-range hydrocarbons. Detailed understanding of mechanistic and energetic aspects of these reactions is crucial to enabling and improving the catalytic upgrading of small oxygenates to useful chemicals and fuels. Using periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we have investigated the reactions of furan and acetaldehyde in an HZSM-5 zeolite catalyst, a representative system associated with the catalytic upgrading of pyrolysis vapors. Comprehensive energy profiles were computed for self-reactions (i.e., acetaldehyde coupling and furan coupling) and cross-reactions (i.e., acetaldehyde + furan) of this representative mixture. Major products proposed from the computations are further confirmed using temperature controlled mass spectra measurements. Moreover, the computational results show that furan interacts with acetaldehyde in HZSM-5 via an alkylation mechanism, which is more favorable than the self-reactions, indicating that mixing furans with aldehydes could be a promising approach to maximize effective C–C coupling and dehydration while reducing the catalyst deactivation (e.g., coke formation) from aldehyde condensation.

  4. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrió, F

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (Phase-II) where the peak luminosity will increase 5 times compared to the design luminosity (10 34 cm −2 s −1 ) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity levelling. This upgrade is expected to happen around 2024. The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off- detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to the counting room while 5 Gbps down-links are used for synchronization, configuration and detector control. For the off-detector electronics a pre-processor (sROD) is being developed, which takes care of the initial trigger processing while temporarily storing the main data flow in pipeline and derandomizer memories. One demonstrator prototype module with the new calorimeter module electronics, but still compatible with the present system, is planned to be inserted in ATLAS this year

  5. Upgrade of reactor operation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hideaki; Suzuki, Toshiaki; O-kawa, Toshikatsu

    2003-01-01

    To improve operational reliability and availability, the operation technology for a fast reactor was developed in the ''JOYO''. This report describes the upgrading of the simulator, plant operation management tools and fuel handling system for the MK-III core operation. The simulator was modified to the MK-III version to verify operation manuals, and to train operators in MK-III operation. The plant operation management tool was replaced on the operation experience to increase the reliability and efficiency of plant management works relating to plant operation and maintenance. To shorten the refueling period, the fuel handling system was upgraded to full automatic remote control. (author)

  6. Upgrading the BEPC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Liping; Wang Lizheng; Liu Shiyao

    1992-01-01

    The BEPC control system has been put into operation and operated normally since the end of 1987. Three years's experience shows this system can satisfy basically the operation requirements, also exhibits some disadvantages araised from the original centralized system architecture based on the VAX-VCC-CAMAC, such as slow response, bottle neck of VCC, less CPU power for control etc.. This paper describes the method and procedure for upgrading the BEPC control system which will be based on DEC net and DEC-WS, and thus intend to upgrade the control system architecture from the centralized to the distributed and improve the integral system performance. (author)

  7. Argonne's atlas control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, F.; Quock, D.; Chapin, B.; Figueroa, J.

    1999-01-01

    The ATLAS facility (Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System) is located at the Argonne National Laboratory. The facility is a tool used in nuclear and atomic physics research, which focuses primarily on heavy-ion physics. The accelerator as well as its control system are evolutionary in nature, and consequently, continue to advance. In 1998 the most recent project to upgrade the ATLAS control system was completed. This paper briefly reviews the upgrade, and summarizes the configuration and features of the resulting control system

  8. Reflections on a digital upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadjalli, M.

    2013-07-01

    Upon receiving US NRC's approval in 2010, the first RPS/ESPS digital upgrade using TELEPERM® XS technology was successfully installed in Spring of 2011 at the first Unit of a three-unit station, followed by the 2nd Unit installation in spring of 2012. Both Units' systems have been operating flawlessly since installation. After about two years of operation, a reflection on digital upgrades and lessons learned, from a vendor perspective, provides valuable insight for the commercial nuclear power industry.

  9. LHCb DAQ network upgrade tests

    CERN Document Server

    Pisani, Flavio

    2013-01-01

    My project concerned the evaluation of new technologies for the DAQ network upgrade of LHCb. The first part consisted in developing and Open Flow-based Clos network. This new technology is very interesting and powerful but, as shown by the results, it still needs further improvements. The second part consisted in testing and benchmarking 40GbE network equipment: Mellanox MT27500, Chelsio T580 and Huawei Cloud Engine 12804. An event-building simulation is currently been performed in order to check the feasibility of the DAQ network upgrade in LS2. The first results are promising.

  10. LHCb; DAQ Architecture for the LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Neufeld, N

    2013-01-01

    LHCb will have an upgrade of its detector in 2018. After the upgrade, the LHCb experiment will run at a high luminosity of 2x 10$^{33}$ cm$^{-2}$ . s$^{-1}$. The upgraded detector will be read out at 40 MHz with a highly flexible software-based triggering strategy. The Data Acquisition (DAQ) system of HCb reads out the data fragments from the Front-End Electronics and transports them to the High-Lever Trigger farm at an aggregate throughput of 32 Tbit/s. The DAQ system will be based on high speed network technologies such as InfiniBand and/or 10/40/100 Gigabit Ethernet. Independent of the network technology, there are different possible architectures for the DAQ system. In this paper, we present our studies on the DAQ architecture, where we analyze size, complexity and (relative) cost. We evaluate and compare several data-flow schemes for a network-based DAQ: push, pull and push with barrel-shifter traffic shaping. We also discuss the requirements and overall implications of the data-flow schemes on the DAQ ...

  11. Proposal to upgrade the MIPP experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isenhower, D.; Sadler, M.; Towell, R.; Watson, S. [Abilene Christian Univ., TX (United States); Peterson, R. J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Baker, W.; Carey, D.; Christian, D.; Demarteau, M.; Jensen, D.; Johnstone, C.; Meyer, H.; Raja, R.; Ronzhin, A.; Solomey, N.; Wester, W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gutbrod, H.; Peters, K. [GSI-Darmstadt (Germany); Feldman, G. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Torun, Y. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Messier, M. D.; Paley, J. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2006-09-01

    The upgraded MIPP physics results are needed for the support of NuMI projects, atmospheric cosmic ray and neutrino programs worldwide and will permit a systematic study of non-perturbative QCD interactions. The MIPP TPC is the largest contributor to the MIPP event size by far. Its readout system and electronics were designed in the 1990's and limit it to a readout rate of 60 Hz in simple events and {approx} 20 Hz in complicated events. With the readout chips designed for the ALICE collaboration at the LHC, we propose a low cost scheme of upgrading the MIPP data acquisition speed to 3000 Hz. This will also enable us to measure the medium energy numi target to be used for the NOvA/MINERvA experiments. We outline the capabilities of the upgraded MIPP detector to obtain high statistics particle production data on a number of nuclei that will help towards the understanding and simulation of hadronic showers in matter. Measurements of nitrogen cross sections will permit a better understanding of cosmic ray shower systematics in the atmosphere. In addition, we explore the possibilities of providing tagged neutral beams using the MIPP spectrometer that may be crucial for validating the Particle Flow Algorithm proposed for calorimeters for the International Linear Collider detectors. Lastly, we outline the physics potential of such a detector in understanding non-perturbative QCD processes.

  12. DAQ Architecture for the LHCb Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guoming; Neufeld, Niko

    2014-01-01

    LHCb will have an upgrade of its detector in 2018. After the upgrade, the LHCb experiment will run at a high luminosity of 2 × 10 33 cm −2 s −1 . The upgraded detector will be read out at 40 MHz with a highly flexible software-based triggering strategy. The Data Acquisition (DAQ) system of LHCb reads out the data fragments from the Front-End Electronics and transports them to the High-Lever Trigger farm at an aggregate throughput of ∼ 32 Tbit/s. The DAQ system will be based on high speed network technologies such as InfiniBand and/or 10/40/100 Gigabit Ethernet. Independent of the network technology, there are different possible architectures for the DAQ system. In this paper, we present our studies on the DAQ architecture, where we analyze size, complexity and relative cost. We evaluate and compare several data-flow schemes for a network-based DAQ: push, pull and push with barrel-shifter traffic shaping. We also discuss the requirements and overall implications of the data-flow schemes on the DAQ system.

  13. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Robert; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the main hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC operation (Phase 2 around 2023) where the peak luminosity will increase 5x compared to the design luminosity (10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). The TileCal upgrade aims to replace the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals can be digitized and directly sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. This will reduce pile-up problems and allow more complex trigger algorithms. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to t...

  14. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (Phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5$\\times$ compared to the design luminosity ($10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to the counting room while 5 Gbps down-links are used for synchronization, c...

  15. Investigation of thermal integration between biogas production and upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Yan, Jinying; Li, Hailong; Chekani, Shabnam; Liu, Loncheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Identify thermal characteristics of amine-based biogas upgrading for waste heat recovery. • Identify thermal characteristics of AD biogas production as sink for heat recovery. • Evaluation of thermal integration between biogas production and upgrading to improve overall energy efficiency. • Cost analysis applied for the economic feasibility of the thermal integration. • Using the principles of target design and system integration for connected thermal processes. - Abstract: Thermal integration of anaerobic digestion (AD) biogas production with amine-based chemical absorption biogas upgrading has been studied to improve the overall efficiency of the intergraded system. The thermal characteristics have been investigated for industrial AD raw biogas production and amine-based chemical absorption biogas upgrading. The investigation provides a basic understanding for the possibilities of energy saving through thermal integration. The thermal integration is carried out through well-defined cases based on the thermal characteristics of the biogas production and the biogas upgrading. The following factors are taken into account in the case study: thermal conditions of sub-systems, material and energy balances, cost issues and main benefits. The potential of heat recovery has been evaluated to utilise the waste heat from amine-based upgrading process for the use in the AD biogas production. The results show that the thermal integration has positive effects on improving the overall energy efficiency of the integrated biogas plant. Cost analysis shows that the thermal integration is economically feasible

  16. Efficient recovery and upgrading of waste heat from humid air in the forest industry. Pre-feasibility study; Energieffektivisering inom skogsindustrin genom spillvaermeaatervinning fraan vaatluft. Foerprojektering och loensamhetsbedoemning av anlaeggningsalternativ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingman, Daniel; Gustafsson, Maria; Westermark, Mats

    2007-12-15

    Within the pulp and paper and saw mill industries there are large quantities of waste heat in the form of moist air or humid flue gases. The temperature and dew point are generally too low for the streams to be useful as process heat. Waste heat can be recovered from humid gas streams e.g. outgoing gas from paper machines, lumber dryers, green liquor flash tanks, flue gases from power and recovery boilers, lime kilns etc. In general, this waste heat is available around 50-65 deg C. One way to utilise the heat on a higher temperature level is by means of heat pumping. The present project studies the possibility to use a recently developed absorption heat pump technology for upgrading waste heat to district heating or process steam. Via direct contact between the absorbent and humid gas stream, the moisture is condensed in the absorbent and the latent heat simultaneously increases the liquid's temperature. A number of process solutions have been calculated in terms of technical and economic performance. The process can be designed for production of hot water or process steam from upgraded waste heat. The end product is indirectly governed be the selection of absorbent or working medium. Investigated absorbents are solutions of potassium formate, sodium hydroxide and phosphoric acid, of which the former two have been included in the techno-economic calculations. The upgraded heat can either save costs by replacing primary fuel or result in increased revenues by exporting produced heat. Internally, the produced heat often replaces oil or electricity on the margin. The choice of regeneration method for the used and diluted absorbent is governed by the mill's energy situation. Industries with large waste heat resources, high value on process steam and use of heat on district heat level, waste heat driven regeneration is advisable. Industries with similar value on MP and LP steam should use back-pressure regeneration with MP steam for optimum cost and energy

  17. RESTRUCTURING MEASURES, UPGRADING AND RETHINKING OF THE ROLE AND FUNCTIONING OF THE GOVERNMENT UNDER THE REQUIRED INFORMATION SOCIETY. CASE STUDY: GORJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanţa Enea

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The spirit of the Lisbon strategy (2000 defines a new opportunity to increase competitiveness at all levels, which is supported by the implementation of scientific knowledge, infrastructure and its implementation mechanisms to serve the new economy based on a new revolution, a life-oriented good for present and next, taking control of major risks that affect global action under uncertainty. With the relaunch of the Lisbon Strategy (2005, the policy has been recognized as a primary tool at the community level, helping to implement the idea of growth and jobs - not only because a third of the Community budget, but also that the strategies drawn up at the local and regional levels should form an integral part of efforts to promote sustainable development at local level. Programming period 2007-2013 suggests that one of the areas of intervention of the Structural Funds, namely the European Social Fund reform and upgrading administrative capacity in the context of achieving good governance, especially in those areas that generate progress, as well as economic, employment, education, social and environmental. Romania is the most important development opportunities, nearly four years after accession to the European Union and integration in an increasingly globalized economy. Romania's future is that of a dynamic, competitive and innovative, working in the economic, social and political European Union and the global economy. In this context, we can say that “we need to rebuild post-integration is first and foremost a spiritual and institutional process that must include all public and private interests carriers” (revised Lisbon Strategy, 2005, p.4. Therefore, the Romanian National Reform Programme for 2007- 2010, elaborated in the context of the European Strategy for Growth and Employment Strategy (revised Lisbon Strategy, 2005, p.4 states that “to achieve economic and employment performance, coupled with a social system is the essence of policies

  18. A major upgrade of the sediment echosounder ATLAS PARASOUND and the digital acquisition software ParaDigMA for high-resolution sea floor studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerriets, A.; von Lom-Keil, H.; Spiess, V.; Zwanzig, C.; Bruns, R.

    2003-04-01

    The combination of the ATLAS PARASOUND sediment echosounder, designed by ATLAS Hydrographic, and the digital recording software package ParaDigMA (commercially available as ATLAS PARASTORE-3) for online digitisation, preprocessing and visualisation of recorded seismograms has proven to be a reliable system for high-resolution acoustic sea floor studies. During 10 years of successful operation aboard several research vessels, including R/V Meteor, R/V Sonne and R/V Polarstern, the system has been only slightly modified. Based on this experience, today's PARASOUND/ParaDigMA system has accomplished the step from DOS towards Windows platform and network capability. In cooperation of ATLAS Hydrographic and the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bremen a major upgrade of the PARASOUND/ParaDigMA system has been developed that adds significant functionality for surveys of sediment structures and sea floor morphology. The innovations primarily concern the control section of the ATLAS PARASOUND echosounder and the ParaDigMA user front end. The previous analogue PARASOUND control terminal has been replaced by a small real time control PC responsible for the control of the echosounder as well as for the continuous digitisation of the data. The control PC communicates via standard network protocols metadata and data with client applications that can display and store the acquired data on different computers on the network. The new network capabilities of the system overcome former limitations and admit a high flexibility with respect to numbers and locations of operator and recording/display PCs. The system now offers a simultaneous parallel registration of the 2.5-5.5kHz parametric signal and the 18kHz NBS signal. This feature in combination with the recording of complete soundings including the entire water column provides the basis for evolving scientific research topics e. g. gas venting. The ParaDigMA recording software now operates on Windows platforms which

  19. Old PCs: Upgrade or Abandon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Ernest

    1997-01-01

    Examines the practical realities of upgrading Intel personal computers in libraries, considering budgets and technical personnel availability. Highlights include adding RAM; putting in faster processor chips, including clock multipliers; new hard disks; CD-ROM speed; motherboards and interface cards; cost limits and economic factors; and…

  20. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroth, U.; Adamek, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Akaslompolo, S.; Amdor, C.; Angioni, C.; Balden, M.; Bardin, S.; L. Barrera Orte,; Behler, K.; Belonohy, E.; Bergmann, A.; Bernert, M.; Bilato, R.; Birkenmeier, G.; Bobkov, V.; Boom, J.; Bottereau, C.; Bottino, A.; Braun, F.; Brezinsek, S.; Brochard, T.; M. Brüdgam,; Buhler, A.; Burckhart, A.; Casson, F. J.; Chankin, A.; Chapman, I.; Clairet, F.; Classen, I.G.J.; Coenen, J. W.; Conway, G. D.; Coster, D. P.; Curran, D.; da Silva, F.; P. de Marné,; D' Inca, R.; Douai, D.; Drube, R.; Dunne, M.; Dux, R.; Eich, T.; Eixenberger, H.; Endstrasser, N.; Engelhardt, K.; Esposito, B.; Fable, E.; Fischer, R.; H. Fünfgelder,; Fuchs, J. C.; K. Gál,; M. García Muñoz,; Geiger, B.; Giannone, L.; T. Görler,; da Graca, S.; Greuner, H.; Gruber, O.; Gude, A.; Guimarais, L.; S. Günter,; Haas, G.; Hakola, A. H.; Hangan, D.; Happel, T.; T. Härtl,; Hauff, T.; Heinemann, B.; Herrmann, A.; Hobirk, J.; H. Höhnle,; M. Hölzl,; Hopf, C.; Houben, A.; Igochine, V.; Ionita, C.; Janzer, A.; Jenko, F.; Kantor, M.; C.-P. Käsemann,; Kallenbach, A.; S. Kálvin,; Kantor, M.; Kappatou, A.; Kardaun, O.; Kasparek, W.; Kaufmann, M.; Kirk, A.; H.-J. Klingshirn,; Kocan, M.; Kocsis, G.; Konz, C.; Koslowski, R.; Krieger, K.; Kubic, M.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Kurzan, B.; Lackner, K.; Lang, P. T.; Lauber, P.; Laux, M.; Lazaros, A.; Leipold, F.; Leuterer, F.; Lindig, S.; Lisgo, S.; Lohs, A.; Lunt, T.; Maier, H.; Makkonen, T.; Mank, K.; M.-E. Manso,; Maraschek, M.; Mayer, M.; McCarthy, P. J.; McDermott, R.; Mehlmann, F.; Meister, H.; Menchero, L.; Meo, F.; Merkel, P.; Merkel, R.; Mertens, V.; Merz, F.; Mlynek, A.; Monaco, F.; Müller, S.; H.W. Müller,; M. Münich,; Neu, G.; Neu, R.; Neuwirth, D.; Nocente, M.; Nold, B.; Noterdaeme, J. M.; Pautasso, G.; Pereverzev, G.; B. Plöckl,; Podoba, Y.; Pompon, F.; Poli, E.; Polozhiy, K.; Potzel, S.; Puschel, M. J.; Putterich, T.; Rathgeber, S. K.; Raupp, G.; Reich, M.; Reimold, F.; Ribeiro, T.; Riedl, R.; Rohde, V.; van Rooij, G. J.; Roth, J.; Rott, M.; Ryter, F.; Salewski, M.; Santos, J.; Sauter, P.; Scarabosio, A.; Schall, G.; Schmid, K.; Schneider, P. A.; Schneider, W.; Schrittwieser, R.; Schubert, M.; Schweinzer, J.; Scott, B.; Sempf, M.; Sertoli, M.; Siccinio, M.; Sieglin, B.; Sigalov, A.; Silva, A.; Sommer, F.; A. Stäbler,; Stober, J.; Streibl, B.; Strumberger, E.; Sugiyama, K.; Suttrop, W.; Tala, T.; Tardini, G.; Teschke, M.; Tichmann, C.; Told, D.; Treutterer, W.; Tsalas, M.; VanZeeland, M. A.; Varela, P.; Veres, G.; Vicente, J.; Vianello, N.; Vierle, T.; Viezzer, E.; Viola, B.; Vorpahl, C.; Wachowski, M.; Wagner, D.; Wauters, T.; Weller, A.; Wenninger, R.; Wieland, B.; Willensdorfer, M.; Wischmeier, M.; Wolfrum, E.; E. Würsching,; Yu, Q.; Zammuto, I.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.; Zhang, Y.; Zilker, M.; Zohm, H.

    2013-01-01

    The medium size divertor tokamak ASDEX Upgrade (major and minor radii 1.65 m and 0.5 m, respectively, magnetic-field strength 2.5 T) possesses flexible shaping and versatile heating and current drive systems. Recently the technical capabilities were extended by increasing the electron cyclotron

  1. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenbach, A.; Adamek, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.

    2011-01-01

    The ASDEX Upgrade programme is directed towards physics input to critical elements of the ITER design and the preparation of ITER operation, as well as addressing physics issues for a future DEMO design. After the finalization of the tungsten coating of the plasma facing components, the re-availa...

  2. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroth, U.; Adamek, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.

    2013-01-01

    The medium size divertor tokamak ASDEX Upgrade (major and minor radii 1.65 m and 0.5 m, respectively, magnetic-field strength 2.5 T) possesses flexible shaping and versatile heating and current drive systems. Recently the technical capabilities were extended by increasing the electron cyclotron r...

  3. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenbach, A.; Adamek, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Akaslompolo, S.; Angioni, C.; Atanasiu, C. V.; Balden, M.; Behler, K.; Belonohy, E.; Bergmann, A.; Bernert, M.; Bilato, R.; Bobkov, V.; Boom, J.; Bottino, A.; Braun, F.; Brudgam, M.; Buhler, A.; Burckhart, A.; Chankin, A.; Classen, I.G.J.; Conway, G. D.; Coster, D. P.; de Marne, P.; D' Inca, R.; Drube, R.; Dux, R.; Eich, T.; Endstrasser, N.; Engelhardt, K.; Esposito, B.; Fable, E.; Fahrbach, H. U.; Fattorini, L.; Fischer, R.; Flaws, A.; Funfgelder, H.; Fuchs, J. C.; Gal, K.; Munoz, M. G.; Geiger, B.; Adamov, M. G.; Giannone, L.; Giroud, C.; Gorler, T.; da Graca, S.; Greuner, H.; Gruber, O.; Gude, A.; Gunter, S.; Haas, G.; Hakola, A. H.; Hangan, D.; Happel, T.; Hauff, T.; Heinemann, B.; Herrmann, A.; Hicks, N.; Hobirk, J.; Hohnle, H.; Holzl, M.; Hopf, C.; Horton, L.; Huart, M.; Igochine, V.; Ionita, C.; Janzer, A.; Jenko, F.; Kasemann, C. P.; Kalvin, S.; Kardaun, O.; Kaufmann, M.; Kirk, A.; Klingshirn, H. J.; Kocan, M.; Kocsis, G.; Kollotzek, H.; Konz, C.; Koslowski, R.; Krieger, K.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Kurzan, B.; Lackner, K.; Lang, P. T.; Lauber, P.; Laux, M.; Leipold, F.; Leuterer, F.; Lohs, A.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Lunt, T.; Lyssoivan, A.; Maier, H.; Maggi, C.; Mank, K.; Manso, M. E.; Maraschek, M.; Martin, P.; Mayer, M.; McCarthy, P. J.; McDermott, R.; Meister, H.; Menchero, L.; Meo, F.; Merkel, P.; Merkel, R.; Mertens, V.; Merz, F.; Mlynek, A.; Monaco, F.; Muller, H. W.; Munich, M.; Murmann, H.; Neu, G.; Neu, R.; Nold, B.; Noterdaeme, J. M.; Park, H. K.; Pautasso, G.; Pereverzev, G.; Podoba, Y.; Pompon, F.; Poli, E.; Polochiy, K.; Potzel, S.; Prechtl, M.; Puschel, M. J.; Putterich, T.; Rathgeber, S. K.; Raupp, G.; Reich, M.; Reiter, B.; Ribeiro, T.; Riedl, R.; Rohde, V.; Roth, J.; Rott, M.; Ryter, F.; Sandmann, W.; Santos, J.; Sassenberg, K.; Sauter, P.; Scarabosio, A.; Schall, G.; Schmid, K.; Schneider, P. A.; Schneider, W.; Schramm, G.; Schrittwieser, R.; Schweinzer, J.; Scott, B.; Sempf, M.; Serra, F.; Sertoli, M.; Siccinio, M.; Sigalov, A.; Silva, A.; Sips, A.C.C.; Sommer, F.; Stabler, A.; Stober, J.; Streibl, B.; Strumberger, E.; Sugiyama, K.; Suttrop, W.; Szepesi, T.; Tardini, G.; Tichmann, C.; Told, D.; Treutterer, W.; Urso, L.; Varela, P.; Vincente, J.; Vianello, N.; Vierle, T.; Viezzer, E.; Vorpahl, C.; Wagner, D.; Weller, A.; Wenninger, R.; Wieland, B.; Wigger, C.; Willensdorfer, M.; Wischmeier, M.; Wolfrum, E.; Wursching, E.; Yadikin, D.; Yu, Q.; Zammuto, I.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.; Zhang, Y.; Zilker, M.; Zohm, H.

    2011-01-01

    The ASDEX Upgrade programme is directed towards physics input to critical elements of the ITER design and the preparation of ITER operation, as well as addressing physics issues for a future DEMO design. After the finalization of the tungsten coating of the plasma facing components, the

  4. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zohm, H.; Adamek, J.; Angioni, C.

    2009-01-01

    ASDEX Upgrade was operated with a fully W-covered wall in 2007 and 2008. Stationary H-modes at the ITER target values and improved H-modes with H up to 1.2 were run without any boronization. The boundary conditions set by the full W wall (high enough ELM frequency, high enough central heating and...

  5. Upgrading of the Budapest reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosta, L.

    1986-10-01

    The increasing importance of neutron sources, high demand for irradiation and experimental facilities as well as improved safety requirements in the 'eighties, necessitate not only a technical modernization of the Reactor but an overall upgrade including instrumentation. Such a reconstruction was decided by the Hungarian governement in 1983

  6. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  7. LHC challenges and upgrade options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruning, O [CERN AB/ABP, Y03600, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)], E-mail: Oliver.Bruning@cern.ch

    2008-05-15

    The presentation summarizes the key parameters of the LHC collider. Following a discussion of the main challenges for reaching the nominal machine performance the presentation identifies options for increasing the operation tolerances and the potential performance reach of the LHC by means of future hardware upgrades of the LHC and its injector complex.

  8. LHC challenges and upgrade options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruning, O

    2008-01-01

    The presentation summarizes the key parameters of the LHC collider. Following a discussion of the main challenges for reaching the nominal machine performance the presentation identifies options for increasing the operation tolerances and the potential performance reach of the LHC by means of future hardware upgrades of the LHC and its injector complex

  9. Five-Megajoule Homopolar Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    near the bearing lands to monitor temperature rise during motoring. AISI 4140 steel sleeves were shrunk onto the beryllium copper shaft of the new...MJ HPG in this upgrade. Rotor and Shaft A 0.75-m diameter, 0.28-m thick AISI 4340 air- craft quality steel rotor is shrunk on to a 0. 14-m diameter

  10. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenbach, A.; Aguiam, D.; Aho-Mantila, L.

    2017-01-01

    The ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) programme is directed towards physics input to critical elements of the ITER design and the preparation of ITER operation, as well as addressing physics issues for a future DEMO design. Since 2015, AUG is equipped with a new pair of 3-strap ICRF antennas, which were design...

  11. Computer system design description for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1). Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truitt, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides descriptions of components and tasks that are involved in the computer system for the data acquisition and control of the mitigation tests conducted on waste tank SY-101 at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. The system was designed and implemented by Los alamos National Laboratory and supplied to Westinghouse Hanford Company. The computers (both personal computers and specialized data-taking computers) and the software programs of the system will hereafter collectively be referred to as the DACS (Data Acquisition and Control System)

  12. Major upgrades of the high frequency B-dot probe diagnostic suite on ASDEX Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochoukov Roman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The high frequency B-dot (HFB probe diagnostic on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak has undergone a considerable upgrade during the 2016 opening of the torus. The probe coverage is now greatly expanded toroidally, as well as radially with the addition of probes on the high field side and the removable manipulator head. A new 2-channel fast digitizer now allows to examine and record radio frequency (RF wave emissions emanating from the plasma in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF. Possible studies that can be achieved now include: a study of core ICRF power absorption efficiency; a study of ion cyclotron emissions from the plasma generated by energetic ions; and study of ICRF wave/plasma turbulence interactions in the scrape-off layer region.

  13. Recent ECRH results in ASDEX upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuterer, F.; Dux, R.; Gantenbein, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on recent experimental results obtained in ASDEX Upgrade using electron cyclotron heating and current drive. The following topics are covered: determination of the power deposition profile, modulated power deposition, studies of the electron heat transport via power balance and heat wave analysis and a comparison with turbulent transport theory, generation of an internal transport barrier for the electron heat flux, impact of electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) on particle and impurity transport, and studies related to neoclassical tearing modes and to sawteeth. (author)

  14. The architecture design of a 2mW 18-bit high speed weight voltage type DAC based on dual weight resistance chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qixing, Chen; Qiyu, Luo

    2013-03-01

    At present, the architecture of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) in essence is based on the weight current, and the average value of its D/A signal current increases in geometric series according to its digital signal bits increase, which is 2n-1 times of its least weight current. But for a dual weight resistance chain type DAC, by using the weight voltage manner to D/A conversion, the D/A signal current is fixed to chain current Icha; it is only 1/2n-1 order of magnitude of the average signal current value of the weight current type DAC. Its principle is: n pairs dual weight resistances form a resistance chain, which ensures the constancy of the chain current; if digital signals control the total weight resistance from the output point to the zero potential point, that could directly control the total weight voltage of the output point, so that the digital signals directly turn into a sum of the weight voltage signals; thus the following goals are realized: (1) the total current is less than 200 μA (2) the total power consumption is less than 2 mW; (3) an 18-bit conversion can be realized by adopting a multi-grade structure; (4) the chip area is one order of magnitude smaller than the subsection current-steering type DAC; (5) the error depends only on the error of the unit resistance, so it is smaller than the error of the subsection current-steering type DAC; (6) the conversion time is only one action time of switch on or off, so its speed is not lower than the present DAC.

  15. The architecture design of a 2mW 18-bit high speed weight voltage type DAC based on dual weight resistance chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qixing; Luo Qiyu

    2013-01-01

    At present, the architecture of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) in essence is based on the weight current, and the average value of its D/A signal current increases in geometric series according to its digital signal bits increase, which is 2 n−1 times of its least weight current. But for a dual weight resistance chain type DAC, by using the weight voltage manner to D/A conversion, the D/A signal current is fixed to chain current I cha ; it is only 1/2 n−1 order of magnitude of the average signal current value of the weight current type DAC. Its principle is: n pairs dual weight resistances form a resistance chain, which ensures the constancy of the chain current; if digital signals control the total weight resistance from the output point to the zero potential point, that could directly control the total weight voltage of the output point, so that the digital signals directly turn into a sum of the weight voltage signals; thus the following goals are realized: (1) the total current is less than 200 μA; (2) the total power consumption is less than 2 mW; (3) an 18-bit conversion can be realized by adopting a multi-grade structure; (4) the chip area is one order of magnitude smaller than the subsection current-steering type DAC; (5) the error depends only on the error of the unit resistance, so it is smaller than the error of the subsection current-steering type DAC; (6) the conversion time is only one action time of switch on or off, so its speed is not lower than the present DAC. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  16. System design description for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truitt, R.W.; Pounds, T.S.; Smith, S.O.

    1994-01-01

    This document describes the hardware subsystems of the data acquisition and control system (DACS) used in mitigation tests conducted on waste tank SY-101 at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. The system was designed and implemented by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and supplied to Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The mitigation testing uses a pump immersed in the waste tank, directed at certain angles and operated at different speeds and time durations. The SY-101 tank has experienced recurrent periodic gas releases of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and (recently discovered) methane. The hydrogen gas represents a danger, as some of the releases are in amounts above the lower flammability limit (LFL). These large gas releases must be mitigated. Several instruments have been added to the tank to monitor the gas compositions, the tank level, the tank temperature, and other parameters. A mixer pump has been developed to stir the tank waste to cause the gases to be released at a slow rate. It is the function of the DACS to monitor those instruments and to control the mixer pump in a safe manner. During FY93 and FY94 the mixer pump was installed with associated testing operations support equipment and a mitigation test project plan was implemented. These activities successfully demonstrated the mixer pump's ability to mitigate the SY-101 tank hydrogen gas hazard

  17. Kansas State University accelerator laboratory upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, P.

    1989-01-01

    The J.R. Macdonald Laboratory is undergoing a major upgrade of its facilities and capabilities. The laboratory is dedicated to the study of ion-atom collisions using highly charged ions from accelerators and/or ion sources. The mainstay of the laboratory over the last two decades has been a 6 MV tandem accelerator. It has been used to produce one- to a few-MeV/u highly charged ions for studying high energy atomic collisions, and to produce recoil ions from ocllisions with projectile ions for studying low energy atomic collisions. In order to enhance the capabilities of studying atomic collisions in these two energy regimes, we are constructing a superconducting LINAC booster to the tandem, and a stand-alone CRYEBIS source. The project, which is funded by the US Department of Energy, began in May 1985 with a May 1989 completion schedule. The upgrade includes a building addition, funded by the State of Kansas, to house the new facilities. The LINAC consists of a time-superbunching module, followed by three large cryostat modules each containing four superconducting resonators, and followed by an energy-rebunching module. The resonators are the split-ring superconducting Nb type designed and constructed at Argonne National Laboratory, and are presently being tested at KSU. The CRYEBIS source, which consists of a 1 m long 5 T superconducting solenoid with a high degree of straightness, is in the final stages of assembly. We have in operation a new computer network for data acquisition and analysis. A progress report on the status of the upgrade is presented. (orig.)

  18. Bioelectrochemical removal of carbon dioxide (CO2): an innovative method for biogas upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Heng; Wang, Kaijun; Holmes, Dawn E

    2014-12-01

    Innovative methods for biogas upgrading based on biological/in-situ concepts have started to arouse considerable interest. Bioelectrochemical removal of CO2 for biogas upgrading was proposed here and demonstrated in both batch and continuous experiments. The in-situ biogas upgrading system seemed to perform better than the ex-situ one, but CO2 content was kept below 10% in both systems. The in-situ system's performance was further enhanced under continuous operation. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and alkali production with CO2 absorption could be major contributors to biogas upgrading. Molecular studies showed that all the biocathodes associated with biogas upgrading were dominated by sequences most similar to the same hydrogenotrophic methanogen species, Methanobacterium petrolearium (97-99% sequence identity). Conclusively, bioelectrochemical removal of CO2 showed great potential for biogas upgrading. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Upgraded wood residue fuels 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinterbaeck, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Swedish market for upgraded residue fuels, i.e. briquettes, pellets and wood powder, has developed considerably during the nineties. The additional costs for the upgrading processes are regained and create a surplus in other parts of the system, e.g. in the form of higher combustion efficiencies, lower investment costs for burning equipment, lower operation costs and a diminished environmental impact. All these factors put together have resulted in a rapid growth of this part of the energy sector. In 1994 the production was 1.9 TWh, an increase of 37 % compared to the previous year. In the forthcoming heating season 1995/96 the production may reach 4 TWh. 57 refs, 11 figs, 6 tabs

  20. AliPDU Package Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    "Martin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    "AliPDU Package" is a set of script, panels, and datapoints designed in WinCC to manage and monitor PDU's. PDU is an essential component in the data center, in order to make data center working properly through the monitoring of power distribution and environmental condition of the data center. In this project "AliPDU Package" is upgraded so it can be used to monitor environmental condition of data center using PDU's and external environmental sensor connected to PDU.

  1. AliPDU Package Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    AliPDU Package is a set of script, panels, and datapoints designed in WinCC to manage and monitor PDU's. PDU is an essential component in the data center, in order to make data center working properly through the monitoring of power distribution and environmental condition of the data center. In this project "AliPDU Package" is upgraded so it can be used to monitor environmental condition of data center using PDU's and external environmental sensor connected to PDU.

  2. The TEXT upgrade vertical interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallock, G.A.; Gartman, M.L.; Li, W.; Chiang, K.; Shin, S.; Castles, R.L.; Chatterjee, R.; Rahman, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    A far-infrared interferometer has been installed on TEXT upgrade to obtain electron density profiles. The primary system views the plasma vertically through a set of large (60-cm radialx7.62-cm toroidal) diagnostic ports. A 1-cm channel spacing (59 channels total) and fast electronic time response is used, to provide high resolution for radial profiles and perturbation experiments. Initial operation of the vertical system was obtained late in 1991, with six operating channels

  3. Upgrading Temelin to international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.J.; Gisoni, G.A.; Stormer, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    The digital technology being installed to upgrade the Instrumentation and Control system at the Temelin twin VVER-1000 station in the Czech Republic will allow the plant to operate more safely because it allows key information to be organised and presented to the operators, enabling them to make better informed decisions about the status of the plant. The new system is based on proven technology previously applied at Beznau in Switzerland and Sizewell B in the UK. (author)

  4. Upgrading of boron ores and colemanite flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarar, B.; Mager, J.

    1979-01-01

    Processes applied for the processing and upgrading of sodium and calcium borates in Turkey are described. Details of froth flotation study where a low grade colemanite ore containing calcite and clays as a gangue minerals are given. It has been found that, at the natural pH of a colemanite-containing pulp (pH=9,2) it is possible to float colemanite selectively using dodecyl benzene sulphonate or its combinations with a non-polar reagent or naphthenic acids. (author)

  5. Upgrade of the CMS Event Builder

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The Data Acquisition (DAQ) system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN assembles events at a rate of 100 kHz, transporting event data at an aggregate throughput of 100 GB/s. By the time the LHC restarts after the 2013/14 shut-down, the current compute nodes and networking infrastructure will have reached the end of their lifetime. We are presenting design studies for an upgrade of the CMS event builder based on advanced networking technologies such as 10 Gb/s Ethernet. We report on tests and performance measurements with small-scale test setups.

  6. Safety system upgrades to a research reactor: A regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarre, G.B.; Martin, W.G.

    2003-01-01

    The NRU (National Research Universal) reactor, located at the Chalk River Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), first achieved criticality November 3, 1957. AECL continues to operate NRU for research to support safety and reliability studies for CANDU reactors and as a major supplier of medical radioisotopes. Following a detailed systematic review and assessment of NRU's design and the condition of its primary systems, AECL formally notified the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's (CNSC) predecessor - the Atomic Energy Control Board - in 1992 of its intention to upgrade NRU's safety systems. AECL proposed seven major upgrades to provide improvements in shutdown capability, heat removal, confinement, and reactor monitoring, particularly during and after a seismic event. From a CNSC perspective, these upgrades were necessary to meet modern safety standards. From the start of the upgrades project, the CNSC provided regulatory oversight aimed at ensuring that AECL maintained a structured approach to the upgrades. The elements of the approach include, but are not limited to, the determination of project milestones and target dates; the formalization of the design process and project quality assurance requirements; the requirements for updated documentation, including safety reports, safety notes and commissioning reports; and the approval and authorization process. This paper details, from a regulatory perspective, the structured approach used in approving the design, construction, commissioning and subsequent operation of safety system upgrades for an existing and operating research reactor, including the many challenges faced when attempting to balance the requirements of the upgrades project with AECL's need to keep NRU operating to meet its important research and production objectives. (author)

  7. Scenarios for the LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter

    2008-01-01

    The projected lifetime of the LHC low-beta quadrupoles, the evolution of the statistical error halving time, and the physics potential all call for an LHC luminosity upgrade by the middle of the coming decade. In the framework of the CARE-HHH network three principal scenarios have been developed for increasing the LHC peak luminosity by more than a factor of 10, to values above 1035 cm−2s−1. All scenarios imply a rebuilding of the high-luminosity interaction regions (IRs) in combination with a consistent change of beam parameters. However, their respective features, bunch structures, IR layouts, merits and challenges, and luminosity variation with β∗ differ substantially. In all scenarios luminosity leveling during a store would be advantageous for the physics experiments. An injector upgrade must complement the upgrade measures in the LHC proper in order to provide the beam intensity and brightness needed as well as to reduce the LHC turnaround time for higher integrated luminosity.

  8. MAST Upgrade – Construction Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milnes, Joe, E-mail: Joe.Milnes@ccfe.ac.uk; Ayed, Nizar Ben; Dhalla, Fahim; Fishpool, Geoff; Hill, John; Katramados, Ioannis; Martin, Richard; Naylor, Graham; O’Gorman, Tom; Scannell, Rory

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Outlines unique capability of MAST-U, including divertor and diagnostic capability. • Describes progress made in the manufacture and assembly of key MAST-U components. • Highlights the design challenges that have been overcome. • Lists the key lessons learned thus far in the project. - Abstract: The Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) is the centre piece of the UK fusion research programme. In 2010, a MAST Upgrade programme was initiated with three primary objectives, to contribute to: (1) testing reactor concepts (in particular exhaust solutions via a flexible divertor allowing Super-X and other extended leg configurations); (2) adding to the knowledge base for ITER (by addressing important plasma physics questions and developing predictive models to help optimise ITER performance of ITER) and (3) exploring the feasibility of using a spherical tokamak as the basis for a fusion Component Test Facility. With the project mid-way through its construction phase, progress will be reported on a number of the critical subsystems. This will include manufacture and assembly of the coils, armour and support structures that make up the new divertors, construction of the new set coils that make up the centre column, installation of the new power supplies for powering the divertor coils and enhanced TF coil set, progress in delivering the upgraded diagnostic capability, the modification and upgrading of the NBI heating systems and the complete overhaul of the machine control infrastructure, including a new control room with full remote participation facilities.

  9. Design, Fabrication and High Power RF Test of a C-band Accelerating Structure for Feasibility Study of the SPARC photo-injector energy upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Alesini, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Di Raddo, R.; Ferrario, M.; Gallo, A.; Lollo, V.; Marcellini, F.; Higo, T.; Kakihara, K.; Matsumoto, S.; Campogiani, G.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Persichelli, S.; Spizzo, V.; Verdú-Andrés, S.

    2011-01-01

    The energy upgrade of the SPARC photo-injector from 160 to more than 260 MeV will be done by replacing a low gradient 3m S-Band structure with two 1.4m high gradient C-band structures. The structures are travelling wave, constant impedance sections, have symmetric waveguide input couplers and have been optimized to work with a SLED RF input pulse. A prototype with a reduced number of cells has been fabricated and tested at high power in KEK (Japan) giving very good performances in terms of breakdown rates (10^6 bpp/m) at high accelerating gradient (>50 MV/m). The paper illustrates the design criteria of the structures, the fabrication procedure and the high power RF test results.

  10. Upgrader alley : oil sands fever strikes Edmonton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, M.; Dyer, S.

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale industrial complexes called upgraders are similar to oil refineries. Several upgraders are planned for the area just northeast of Edmonton, known as Upgrader Alley. Concerns have been expressed over the potential congestion and environmental impacts of these upgraders. Upgraders will also attract other industry, and the cumulative effects of development will have major impacts on the region, its people and the natural environment. The report provided an overview of Upgrader Alley, with reference to what is driving development; upgrading issues; what Upgrader Alley will look like; and how much water Upgrader Alley needs. The report also discussed impacts on the land, air quality, and greenhouse gases. Water demand issues were discussed with reference to impacts on the North Saskatchewan River, water levels, water quality, a water management framework, and groundwater resources. Cumulative impacts were also presented. It was concluded that if all the projects for which applications had been submitted were approved, the rapid pace of growth in Upgrader Alley would mimic that of Fort McMurray. If the rate of development were somewhat slower, there would be more time to develop and implement plans to reduce the impacts. 189 refs., 6 tabs., 14 figs

  11. Biophotonics for Biofuel Upgradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Gopinath; Mandal, Tanusri

    2017-12-01

    Experimental studies have been made to find out Cyanobacterias' biophotonical response in gaseous-fuelation and carbon dioxide fixation during photo-anaerobic digestion. A new horizontal type photo-bioreactor has been designed by using environment hazard plastic bottles and it works ideally for anoxygenic cyanobacterial growth. Through `V3-metagenomics' of 16S rRNA gene sequencing by paired-end Illumina MiSeq and downstream analysis by QIIME program, we have identified anaerobic cyanobacteria, represent the orders YS2 and Streptophyta. OTUs have been identified by aligning against Greengenes and Silva databases, separately. The flame temperature of the fuel gas is 860°C and the percent-content of carbon dioxide (CO2) is 17.6%.

  12. Upgrading France's emergency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moures, Y.

    1991-01-01

    In France as elsewhere, the Chernobyl accident spurred a new stage in the development of nuclear safety. In the months following the accident, France's Minister of Industry launched a campaign to strengthen research and safety measures to: prevent reactor accidents; reinforce the concept of quality in operations; train staff, in areas such as crisis management; systematically review plans, installations and techniques related to crisis management; study accident containment procedures. There was also a systematic review of communication links with authorities and outside emergency organizations during the critical phase of an accident. On the operational level regulatory monitoring procedures were reorganized and reinforced. France has not opted for the permanent presence of on-site inspectors, but rather for the total, continuous responsibility of the power plant operator, with the safety authority intervening at frequent intervals. A major programme was also established to increase capabilities for investigation and intervention in a radioactive environment in nuclear installations. (author)

  13. LLL hydrodiagnostics upgrade program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpluk, G.T.; Innes, T.G.; Trost, S.R.

    1978-01-01

    The continued success of the nuclear weapon design and test programs is a direct result of the effective hydrodynamic programs developed at Livermore. Hydrodynamic studies provide the weapon designer with experimental verification and analysis of weapon designs through the use of explosively driven, nonfissile materials. Hydrodiagnostic techniques include (1) flash radiography; (2) high-speed photography; (3) electrical-pin diagnostics; and (4) interferometry. The focus of all hydrodynamic testing at LLL is the Site 300 Explosive Test Area located 18 miles east of Livermore. This remote, 10-mi 2 facility consists of: (1) areas for machining and assembling explosives; (2) environmental test facilities; (3) administrative and support facilities; and (4) five underground, reinforced-concrete bunkers equipped with high-speed cameras, electrical data-acquisition systems, and electron accelerators for flash radiography. The report summarizes the improvements made in radiography, optics, electronics, and interferometry, and indicates the projects that remain to be completed

  14. Overview of ASDEX Upgrade results

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Kallenbachthe ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-10-01

    The ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) programme is directed towards physics input to critical elements of the ITER design and the preparation of ITER operation, as well as addressing physics issues for a future DEMO design. Since 2015, AUG is equipped with a new pair of 3-strap ICRF antennas, which were designed for a reduction of tungsten release during ICRF operation. As predicted, a factor two reduction on the ICRF-induced W plasma content could be achieved by the reduction of the sheath voltage at the antenna limiters via the compensation of the image currents of the central and side straps in the antenna frame. There are two main operational scenario lines in AUG. Experiments with low collisionality, which comprise current drive, ELM mitigation/suppression and fast ion physics, are mainly done with freshly boronized walls to reduce the tungsten influx at these high edge temperature conditions. Full ELM suppression and non-inductive operation up to a plasma current of {{I}\\text{p}}=0.8 MA could be obtained at low plasma density. Plasma exhaust is studied under conditions of high neutral divertor pressure and separatrix electron density, where a fresh boronization is not required. Substantial progress could be achieved for the understanding of the confinement degradation by strong D puffing and the improvement with nitrogen or carbon seeding. Inward/outward shifts of the electron density profile relative to the temperature profile effect the edge stability via the pressure profile changes and lead to improved/decreased pedestal performance. Seeding and D gas puffing are found to effect the core fueling via changes in a region of high density on the high field side (HFSHD). The integration of all above mentioned operational scenarios will be feasible and naturally obtained in a large device where the edge is more opaque for neutrals and higher plasma temperatures provide a lower collisionality. The combination of exhaust control with pellet fueling has been successfully

  15. Selected issues for the LHC luminosity upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laface, E.

    2008-12-01

    The Large Hadron Collider started its operations on September 10. 2008. In a realistic forecast it is supposed to demonstrate (or confute) the existence of the Higgs boson for the year 2014. After this date the physics of rare events will be explored more in details and an upgrade of the luminosity can make an important difference in the program of experiments at CERN. This thesis proposes several ideas to increase the luminosity of ATLAS and CMS experiments and the acceptance of TOTEM experiment. The main object of study is the Interaction Region, that consists in the set of magnets in charge to provide the final beam focalization for the collisions. The Interaction Region is studied with the methods of beam optics and beam dynamics to design new layouts for the upgrade. These layouts are also explored from the point of view of integrability in the existing experiments developing the analysis of energy deposition and misalignment tolerances. This study was performed with the use of analytical methods for the general considerations and numerical methods for the parameters optimization. (author)

  16. Recent Upgrades and Extensions of the ASDEX Upgrade ECRH System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dietmar; Stober, Jörg; Leuterer, Fritz; Monaco, Francesco; Münich, Max; Schmid-Lorch, Dominik; Schütz, Harald; Zohm, Hartmut; Thumm, Manfred; Scherer, Theo; Meier, Andreas; Gantenbein, Gerd; Flamm, Jens; Kasparek, Walter; Höhnle, Hendrik; Lechte, Carsten; Litvak, Alexander G.; Denisov, Gregory G.; Chirkov, Alexey; Popov, Leonid G.; Nichiporenko, Vadim O.; Myasnikov, Vadim E.; Tai, Evgeny M.; Solyanova, Elena A.; Malygin, Sergey A.

    2011-03-01

    The multi-frequency Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECRH) system at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak employs depressed collector gyrotrons, step-tunable in the range 105-140 GHz. The system is equipped with a fast steerable launcher allowing for remote steering of the ECRH RF beam during the plasma discharge. The gyrotrons and the mirrors are fully integrated in the discharge control system. The polarization can be controlled in a feed-forward mode. 3 Sniffer probes for millimeter wave stray radiation detection have been installed.

  17. Upgrading of Visbreaker Naphtha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratiev, D.; Argirov, G.; Tzingov, T. [Research and Development Dept., Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas, Bourgas (Bulgaria); Minkov, D. [Bourgas ' ' Assen Zlatarov' ' , Bourgas (Bulgaria)

    2006-10-15

    This work investigates the feasibility of hydrotreatment of mixtures of straight run naphtha (SRN), visbreaker naphtha (VBN) and naphtha from a middle distillate hydrotreating unit (MDHN). Hydrotreating experiments were carried out in a trickle bed pilot reactor charged with Albermarle KF 752-3Q Co-Mo catalyst under the following conditions: reactor inlet temperature (RIT) of 290 C; total reactor pressure of 3.5 MPa; liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) in the range 1-2 hr{sup -1}; treating gas/oil ratio of 300 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3}. The treating gas purity was 99 mole.% hydrogen. It was found that under the conditions studied the degree of hydrogenation of feedstock olefins was about 98% and reactor {delta}T showed a linear relationship with the feedstock olefins content. It was estimated that the metallurgical material limitation of 420 C in a commercial hydrotreating reactor could be reached at 90% of VBN in the feedstock mixture and 290 C reactor inlet temperature. The hydrogenate obtained by hydrotreatment of light VBN (final boiling point of 122 C) is suitable as a feedstock for pyrolysis, since it has a low content of aromatics and naphthenes (the characteristic index of 2A + N amounts to 33.2). The hydrogenate obtained by hydrotreatment of full range VBN (final boiling point of 205 C) is suitable as a feedstock for reforming since its characteristic index of 2A + N of 57.6 is close to that of SRN (2A + N = 55.8), which is a typical reformer feedstock. The highest characteristic index of 2A + N = 74 was displayed by MDHN. (orig.)

  18. Plans for the upgrade of the LHC injectors

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, R; Goddard, B; Hanke, K; Meddahi, M; Vretenar, M

    2011-01-01

    The LHC injectors upgrade (LIU) project has been launched at the end of 2010 to prepare the CERN accelerator complex for reliably providing beam with the challenging characteristics required by the high luminosity LHC until at least 2030. Based on the work already started on Linac4, PS Booster, PS and SPS, the LIU project coordinates studies and implementation, and interfaces with the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project which looks after the upgrade of the LHC itself, expected by the end of the present decade. The anticipated beam characteristics are described, as well as the status of the studies and the solutions envisaged for improving the injector performances.

  19. A wide bandwidth fractional-N synthesizer for LTE with phase noise cancellation using a hybrid-ΔΣ-DAC and charge re-timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, D.; Lu, Ping; Andreani, Pietro; van der Zee, Ronan A.R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a 1MHz bandwidth, ΔΣ fractional-N PLL as the frequency synthesizer for LTE. A noise cancellation path composed of a novel hybrid ΔΣ DAC with 9 output bits is incorporated into the PLL in order to cancel the out-of-band phase noise caused by the quantization error. Further, a

  20. VISIR upgrade overview and status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Florian; Käufl, Hans Ulrich; Baksai, Pedro; Dobrzycka, Danuta; Finger, Gert; Ives, Derek; Jakob, Gerd; Lagadec, Eric; Lundin, Lars; Mawet, Dimitri; Mehrgan, Leander; Moerchen, Margaret; Momany, Yazan; Moreau, Vincent; Pantin, Eric; Riquelme, Miguel; Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Silber, Armin; Smette, Alain; Taylor, Julian; van den Ancker, Mario; Venema, Lars; Weilenmann, Ueli; Yegorova, Irina

    2012-09-01

    We present an overview of the VISIR upgrade project. VISIR is the mid-infrared imager and spectrograph at ESO's VLT. The project team is comprised of ESO staff and members of the original VISIR consortium: CEA Saclay and ASTRON. The project plan is based on input from the ESO user community with the goal of enhancing the scientific performance and efficiency of VISIR by a combination of measures: installation of improved hardware, optimization of instrument operations and software support. The cornerstone of the upgrade is the 1k by 1k Si:As Aquarius detector array (Raytheon) which has demonstrated very good performance (sensitivity, stability) in the laboratory IR detector test facility (modified TIMMI 2 instrument). A prism spectroscopic mode will cover the N-band in a single observation. New scientific capabilities for high resolution and high-contrast imaging will be offered by sub-aperture mask (SAM) and phase-mask coronagraphic (4QPM/AGPM) modes. In order to make optimal use of favourable atmospheric conditions a water vapour monitor has been deployed on Paranal, allowing for real-time decisions and the introduction of a userdefined constraint on water vapour. Improved pipelines based on the ESO Reflex concept will provide better support to astronomers. The upgraded VISIR will be a powerful instrument providing background limited performance for diffraction-limited observations at an 8-m telescope. It will offer synergy with facilities such as ALMA, JWST, VLTI and SOFIA, while a wealth of targets is available from survey work (e.g. VISTA, WISE). In addition it will bring confirmation of the technical readiness and scientific value of several aspects of potential mid-IR instrumentation at Extremely Large Telescopes. The intervention on VISIR and installation of hardware has been completed in July and commissioning will take place during July and August. VISIR is scheduled to be available to the users starting Oct 2012.

  1. Final Technical Report - SciDAC Cooperative Agreement: Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling/ Transport and Dynamics in Torodial Fusion System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schanck, Dalton D.

    2010-01-01

    Final technical report for research performed by Professor Dalton D. Schnack on SciDAC Cooperative Agreement: Center for Extended MHD Modeling, DE-FC02-06ER54870, for the period 7/1/06 to 2/15/08. Principal results for this period are: 1. Development of a model for computational modeling for the primitive form of the extended MMD equations. This was reported as Phys. Plasmas 13, 058103 (2006). 2. Comparison between the NIMROD and M3D codes for simulation of the nonlinear sawtooth crash in the CDXU tokamak. This was reported in Phys. Plasmas 14, 056105 (2006). 3. Demonstration of 2-fluid and gyroviscous stabilization of interchange modes using computational extended MHD models. This was reported in Phys. Rev. Letters 101, 085005 (2008). Each of these publications is attached as an Appendix of this report. They should be consulted for technical details.

  2. Interpolating by a factor of 3 in low-voltage low-power ∑Δ DAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bruun, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the power optimization of a sigma-delta (RD) modulator based digital-to-analog converter (DAC) for hearing aid audio back-end application. In a number of state-of-the-art publications the oversampling ratio (OSR) of the RD modulator is chosen as a factor of integer power of two...... by a factor of 3 are investigated. This new design freedom is used to lower the operating frequency of the whole back-end and save considerable amount of power. It is shown that the figure of- merit of such designs can be lower than designs using oversampling by a factor of integer powers of two. The same...... optimization approach can be used for other low voltage low power portable audio applications (mobile phones, notebook computers etc.)....

  3. Upgrade plans for hadron calorimeter in the CMS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugad, Shashikant R.

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is expected to undergo upgrades in two phases in next decade. Luminosity at the completion of the second phase is expected to increase by an order of magnitude to 10 35 /cm 2 s. The upgrade of the CMS Hadron Calorimeter (HCAL) is being planned to sustain an increased dose of radiation and challenges arising from occupancy rate due to higher luminosity. Replacement of existing photo readout device by silicon photomultipliers is being planned for the HCAL. Detailed studies performed on this device are presented. Plans on the upgrade of the front-end electronics, DAQ, trigger, and the active elements in some part of the detector will be discussed in detail.

  4. Facilities upgrade for natural forces: traditional vs. realistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terkun, V.

    1985-01-01

    The traditional method utilized for upgrading existing buildings and equipment involves the following steps: performs structural study using finite element analysis and some in situ testing; compare predicted member forces/stresses to material code allowables; determine strengthening schemes for those structural members judged to be weak; estimate cost for required upgrades. This approach will result in structural modifications that are not only conservative but very expensive as well. The realistic structural evaluation approach uses traditional data to predict structural weaknesses as a final step. Next, using considerable information now available for buildings and equipment exposed to natural hazards, engineering judgments about structures being evaluated can be made with a great deal of confidence. This approach does not eliminate conservatism entirely, but it does reduce it to a reasonable and realistic level. As a result, the upgrade cost goes down without compromising the low risk necessary for vital facilities

  5. The Upgraded D0 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U.

    2005-07-01

    The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

  6. Upgrades and their training impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geise, W.B.

    1991-01-01

    In January, 1990, implementation of thermal hydraulic and core model upgrades to the Brunswick Simulator was completed. Static and dynamic NRC examination preparation, Licensed Operator Requalification training and training material development had to be completed to support an April, 1990's NRC exam date. Dramatic simulator improvements resulted in expanded performance. Unfortunately, insufficient time was available to fully retrain operators before their examinations. Because of this and other factors, the examinations resulted in 14 of 20 operators failing the dynamic simulator examination. The following paper describes the BSEP simulator impact on Licensed Training in 1990

  7. LHC Status and Upgrade Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey

    2009-11-01

    The Large Hadron Collider has had a trying start-up and a challenging operational future lays ahead. Critical to the machine's performance is controlling a beam of particles whose stored energy is equivalent to 80 kg of TNT. Unavoidable beam losses result in energy deposition throughout the machine and without adequate protection this power would result in quenching of the superconducting magnets. A brief overview of the machine layout and principles of operation will be reviewed including a summary of the September 2008 accident. The current status of the LHC, startup schedule and upgrade options to achieve the target luminosity will be presented.

  8. The CEBAF RF Separator System Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovater, J.; Mark Augustine; Al Guerra; Richard Nelson; Robert Terrell; Mark Wissmann

    2004-01-01

    The CEBAF accelerator uses RF deflecting cavities operating at the third sub-harmonic (499 MHz) of the accelerating frequency (1497 MHz) to ''kick'' the electron beam to the experimental halls. The cavities operate in a TEM dipole mode incorporating mode enhancing rods to increase the cavity's transverse shunt impedance [1]. As the accelerators energy has increased from 4 GeV to 6 GeV the RF system, specifically the 1 kW solid-state amplifiers, have become problematic, operating in saturation because of the increased beam energy demands. Two years ago we began a study to look into replacement for the RF amplifiers and decided to use a commercial broadcast Inductive Output Tube (IOT) capable of 30 kW. The new RF system uses one IOT amplifier on multiple cavities as opposed to one amplifier per cavity as was originally used. In addition, the new RF system supports a proposed 12 GeV energy upgrade to CEBAF. We are currently halfway through the upgrade with three IOTs in operation and the remaining one nearly installed. This paper reports on the new RF system and the IOT performance

  9. The enhanced ASDEX Upgrade pellet centrifuge launcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plöckl, B.; Lang, P. T. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Pellets played an important role in the program of ASDEX Upgrade serving both for investigations on efficient particle fuelling and high density scenarios but also for pioneering work on Edge Localised Mode (ELM) pacing and mitigation. Initially designed for launching fuelling pellets from the magnetic low field side, the system was converted already some time ago to inject pellets from the magnetic high field side as much higher fuelling efficiency was found using this configuration. In operation for more than 20 years, the pellet launching system had to undergo a major revision and upgrading, in particular of its control system. Furthermore, the control system installed adjacent to the launcher had to be transferred to a more distant location enforcing a complete galvanic separation from torus potential and a fully remote control solution. Changing from a hybrid system consisting of PLC S5/S7 and some hard wired relay control to a state of the art PLC system allowed the introduction of several new operational options enabling more flexibility in the pellet experiments. This article describes the new system architecture of control hardware and software, the operating procedure, and the extended operational window. First successful applications for ELM pacing and triggering studies are presented as well as utilization for the development of high density scenarios.

  10. The enhanced ASDEX Upgrade pellet centrifuge launcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plöckl, B.; Lang, P. T.

    2013-01-01

    Pellets played an important role in the program of ASDEX Upgrade serving both for investigations on efficient particle fuelling and high density scenarios but also for pioneering work on Edge Localised Mode (ELM) pacing and mitigation. Initially designed for launching fuelling pellets from the magnetic low field side, the system was converted already some time ago to inject pellets from the magnetic high field side as much higher fuelling efficiency was found using this configuration. In operation for more than 20 years, the pellet launching system had to undergo a major revision and upgrading, in particular of its control system. Furthermore, the control system installed adjacent to the launcher had to be transferred to a more distant location enforcing a complete galvanic separation from torus potential and a fully remote control solution. Changing from a hybrid system consisting of PLC S5/S7 and some hard wired relay control to a state of the art PLC system allowed the introduction of several new operational options enabling more flexibility in the pellet experiments. This article describes the new system architecture of control hardware and software, the operating procedure, and the extended operational window. First successful applications for ELM pacing and triggering studies are presented as well as utilization for the development of high density scenarios

  11. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Popeneciu, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. Around 2023, after the upgrade of the LHC (High Luminosity LHC, phase 2) the peak luminosity will increase by a factor of 5 compared to the design value (1034 cm-2 s-1), thus requiring an upgrade of the TileCal readout electronics. Except the 9852 photomultipliers (PMTs), most of the on- and off-detector electronics will be replaced, with the aim of digitizing all PMT pulses at 40 MHz at the front-end level and sending them with 10 Gbps optical links to the back-end electronics. Moreover, to increase reliability, redundancy will be introduced at different levels. Three different options are currently being investigated for the front-end electronics and extensive test beam studies are planned to select the best option. One demonstrator prototype module is also planned to be inserted in TileCal in 2014 that will include hybrid electronic components able to probe the new design, but still compatible with the presen...

  12. APS Storage Ring Monopulse RF BPM Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lill, R.; Pietryla, A.; Norum, E.; Lenkszus, F.

    2004-11-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation synchrotron light source in its ninth year of operation. The storage ring monopulse radio frequency (rf) beam position monitor (BPM) was designed to measure single-turn and multi-turn beam positions for operations and machine physics studies. Many of the components used in the original design are obsolete and costly to replace. In this paper we present a proposal to upgrade the monopulse rf BPMs in which the existing system hardware is repartitioned and the aging data acquisition system is replaced. By replacing only the data acquisition system, we will demonstrate a cost-effective approach to improved beam stability, reliability, and enhanced postmortem capabilities. An eight-channel ADC/digitizer VXI board with sampling rate of up to 105 MHz (per channel) and 14-bit resolution coupled with a field-programmable gate array and embedded central processing will provide the flexibility to revitalize this system for another decade of operation. We will discuss the upgrade system specifications, design, and prototype test results.

  13. CMS Phase II Upgrade Scope Document

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, J; Klute, M; Mans, J; Silvestris, L; on behalf of the CMS, Collaboration; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2015-01-01

    The High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) has been identified as the highest priority program in High Energy Physics by both the European Strategy Group and the US Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel. To fulfil the full potential of this program, which includes the study of the nature of the Higgs boson, the investigation of the properties of any newly discovered particles in the upcoming LHC runs, and the extension of the mass reach for further discoveries, an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1 will have to be accumulated by the end of the program. In preparation for operation at the HL-LHC , CMS has documented the necessary upgrades and their expected costs in a Technical Proposal submitted to the CERN LHC Committee (LHCC) in mid-2015. The material presented in the current “Scope Document” provides additional information to assist the LHCC and the CERN Resource Review Board (RRB) in their review of the CMS upgrade. The document commences with a summary of the process followed to develop the scope of t...

  14. Pipeline transportation of emerging partially upgraded bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhning, R.W.; Anand, A.; Blackmore, T.; Lawson, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    The recoverable reserves of Canada's vast oil deposits is estimated to be 335 billion barrels (bbl), most of which are in the Alberta oil sands. Canada was the largest import supplier of crude oil to the United States in 2001, followed by Saudi Arabia. By 2011, the production of oil sands is expected to increase to 50 per cent of Canada's oil, and conventional oil production will decline as more production will be provided by synthetic light oil and bitumen. This paper lists the announced oil sands projects. If all are to proceed, production would reach 3,445,000 bbl per day by 2011. The three main challenges regarding the transportation and marketing of this new production were described. The first is to expand the physical capacity of existing pipelines. The second is the supply of low viscosity diluent (such as natural gas condensate or synthetic diluent) to reduce the viscosity and density of the bitumen as it passes through the pipelines. The current pipeline specifications and procedures to transport partially upgraded products are presented. The final challenge is the projected refinery market constraint to process the bitumen and synthetic light oil into consumer fuel products. These challenges can be addressed by modifying refineries and increasing Canadian access in Petroleum Administration Defense District (PADD) II and IV. The technology for partial upgrading of bitumen to produce pipeline specification oil, reduce diluent requirements and add sales value, is currently under development. The number of existing refineries to potentially accept partially upgraded product is listed. The partially upgraded bitumen will be in demand for additional upgrading to end user products, and new opportunities will be presented as additional pipeline capacity is made available to transport crude to U.S. markets and overseas. The paper describes the following emerging partial upgrading methods: the OrCrude upgrading process, rapid thermal processing, CPJ process for

  15. Upgrade of the AGS H- linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, J.G.; Buxton, W.; Kponou, A.; LoDestro, V.; Mapes, M.; McNerney, A.J.; Raparia, D.

    1994-01-01

    The AGS linac presently accelerates 25 mA of H - to 200 MeV at a 5 Hz rep-rate and 500 μs pulse width. The Booster takes 4 pulses every 3.8 seconds, and the remaining pulses are used for isotope production. The authors are in the process of upgrading the linac to increase the average current delivered for isotope production by more than a factor of two, while at the same time expecting to decrease linac downtime. Various aspects of this upgrade are discussed, including the upgrade of the control system, new high power transmission line, transport line vacuum, and rf power supply system upgrades

  16. High resolution upgrade of the ATF damping ring BPM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Frisch, J.; May, J.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Seryi, A.; Smith, T.; Woodley, M.; Briegel, C.; Dysert, R.

    2008-01-01

    A beam position monitor (BPM) upgrade at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring has been accomplished in its first stage, carried out by a KEK/FNAL/SLAC collaboration under the umbrella of the global ILC R and D effort. The upgrade consists of a high resolution, high reproducibility read-out system, based on analog and digital downconversion techniques, digital signal processing, and also tests a new automatic gain error correction schema. The technical concept and realization, as well as preliminary results of beam studies are presented

  17. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance for the phase II upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Sellapillay, Kevissen

    2017-01-01

    The first part of the internship is focused on trying to assess the performance of the upgraded geometry of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. To do this, we use Monte Carlo generated samples for the upgraded geometry and from the current geometry, then we derive the pT response and resolution. The second part of the study is an analysis of the sensitivity of the two different geometries to a new heavy boson that would decay into a top quark pair $Z^{\\prime} \\rightarrow t\\bar{t}$.

  18. Electrolytic process for upgrading heavy water (Preprint No. PD-16)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rammohan, K.; Sadhukhan, H.K.

    1989-04-01

    In the reactor system the heavy water gets depleted in concentration due to leakages, intermixing and vapour collection in boiler vault system etc. Electrolysis of water was used as a secondary plant to enrich the dilute heavy water produced in the primery plant by hydrogen-sulfide-water exchange process. The studies made in the development of this process for the upgrading of downgra ded heavy water by setting up a full size Electrolyser Test Assembly are discussed a nd complete design of a heavy water upgrading plant based on electrolytic process for MAPS and NAPP is described. (author). 7 refs., 5 figs

  19. Upgradation of Bangladeshi Apparel firms in the Global Value Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Md.Tarikul; Bakhtiar Rana, Mohammad

    The study investigates the knowledge spill-over from the TNCs to supplier-firms in the apparel industry in Bangladesh. Study finds that dynamic capability of the entrepreneurs and the absorptive capacity of the employees enable firms to upgrade their position from CMT (cut-make-trim) to ODM (own...

  20. Governance and Upgrading Practices in Cloth Production Value Chain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the governance _pal/ern and upgrading _practices of value chain of cloth _production, focusing on micro and small cloth _producing entetprises in Addis Ababa. The study is based on a sample of 222 respondents drawn from various actors of the value chain in the city. The value chain is found out to ...

  1. DOE SciDAC's Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-09-27

    final report at the end of project funding. To continue to serve the climate-science community, we are currently seeking additional funding. Such funding would allow us to maintain and enhance ESGF production and operation of this vital endeavor of cataloging, serving, and analyzing ultra-scale climate science data. At this time, the entire ESG-CET team would like to take this opportunity to sincerely thank our funding agencies in the DOE Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER) - as well as our national and international collaborators, stakeholders, and partners - for allowing us to work with you and serve the community these past several years.

  2. Production of advanced biofuels: co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refinery units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Miguel Mercader, F.; de Miguel Mercader, F.; Groeneveld, M.J.; Hogendoorn, Kees; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Way, N.W.J.; Schaverien, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    One of the possible process options for the production of advanced biofuels is the co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refineries. The applicability of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) was studied as a pyrolysis oil upgrading step to allow FCC co-processing. Different HDO reaction end

  3. Upgrading Fast Pyrolysis Oil via Hydrodeoxygenation and Thermal Treatment: Effects of Catalytic Glycerol Pretreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyhanitash, Ehsan; Tymchyshyn, M.; Yuan, Zhongshun; Albion, K.; van Rossum, G.; Xu, C.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of stabilizing fast pyrolysis oil (PO) with glycerol via catalytic glycerol pretreatment on upgrading via hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) or thermal treatment (TT) were studied. Nonstabilized (original) fast pyrolysis oil was also upgraded via HDO or TT to obtain benchmarks. Generally, HDO

  4. Physico - chemical Up-grading studies of uraniferous xenotime mineral from ferruginous siltstone sediments of Um hamd, Um bogma area, sinai, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Monem, H.M.; Elassy, I.E.; Bishay, A.F.; El-Kammar, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The exposed paleozoic deposits at Um Bogma area in west central sinai contain three main units namely; the lower sandstone, the middle carbonate and the upper sandstone. These units are composed of intercalation of clay minerals, sand, carbonate and iron oxides.The upper layers of the lower sandstone and the base of the middle carbonate units contain possible resources of anomalously uraniferous xenotime (YPO 4 ). Xenotime, being preferentially concentrated with the very fine grain sizes, is more abundant in the argillaceous sediments. The associated clay minerals are represented by kaolinite the non-clay minerals include hematite, goethite and quartz.The up-grading of uraniferous xenotime from a bulk head sample assaying 1.44% Y 2 O 3 was performed by collaborative technological processes that include; liquid/liquid separation using two immiscible liquids (CCI 4 and H 2 O) and finally acid leaching. By applying the proposed flowsheet, more than 90% of xenotime is recovered with an assay value of more than 45% Y 2 O 3 . The simplicity of the proposed flowsheet allows it to be adopted to semi-industrial or even industrial purposes

  5. Study of built-in amplifier performance on HV-CMOS sensor for the ATLAS phase-II strip tracker upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Z., E-mail: zhijun.liang@cern.ch [University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP) (United States); Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Affolder, A. [University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Arndt, K. [University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Bates, R. [SUPA – School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Benoit, M.; Di Bello, F. [University of Geneva (Switzerland); Blue, A. [SUPA – School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Bortoletto, D. [University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Buckland, M. [University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); CERN, European Center for Nuclear Research (Switzerland); Buttar, C. [SUPA – School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Caragiulo, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); Das, D.; Dopke, J. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Dragone, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); Ehrler, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H. [University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP) (United States); Gregor, I.M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (Germany); Grenier, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); and others

    2016-09-21

    This paper focuses on the performance of analog readout electronics (built-in amplifier) integrated on the high-voltage (HV) CMOS silicon sensor chip, as well as its radiation hardness. Since the total collected charge from minimum ionizing particle (MIP) for the CMOS sensor is 10 times lower than for a conventional planar sensor, it is crucial to integrate a low noise built-in amplifier on the sensor chip to improve the signal to noise ratio of the system. As part of the investigation for the ATLAS strip detector upgrade, a test chip that comprises several pixel arrays with different geometries, as well as standalone built-in amplifiers and built-in amplifiers in pixel arrays has been fabricated in a 0.35 μm high-voltage CMOS process. Measurements of the gain and the noise of both the standalone amplifiers and built-in amplifiers in pixel arrays were performed before and after gamma radiation of up to 60 Mrad. Of special interest is the variation of the noise as a function of the sensor capacitance. We optimized the configuration of the amplifier for a fast rise time to adapt to the LHC bunch crossing period of 25 ns, and measured the timing characteristics including jitter. Our results indicate an adequate amplifier performance for monolithic structures used in HV-CMOS technology. The results have been incorporated in the next submission of a large-structure chip.

  6. ALICE Upgrades: Plans and Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Tieulent, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE collaboration consolidated and completed the installation of current detectors during LS1 with the aim to accumulate 1 nb$^{-1}$ of Pb-Pb collisions during Run 2 corresponding to about 10 times the Run 1 integrated luminosity. In parallel, the ALICE experiment has a rich detector upgrade programme scheduled during the second LHC long shutdown (LS2, 2018-2019) in order to fully exploit the LHC Runs 3 and 4. The main objectives of this programme are: improving the tracking precision and enabling the read-out of all Pb-Pb interactions at a rate of up to 50 kHz, with the goal to record an integrated luminosity of 10 nb$^{-1}$ after LS2 in minimum-bias trigger mode. This sample would represent an increase by a factor of one hundred with respect to the minimum-bias sample expected during Run 2. The implementation of this upgrade programme, foreseen in LS2, includes: a new low-material Inner Tracking System at central rapidity with a forward rapidity extension to add vertexing capabilities to the current M...

  7. Upgrade and modernization of NBSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    The NBSR, a 20-MW research reactor operated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, has become the leading US laboratory in neutron research. About 1000 scientists from 200 industries, government and foreign laboratories, and universities conducted experiments at the NBSR in 19931. Since 1990, when the first instruments in the Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF) became available, the number of research participants has doubled. A major program of modernization and facility upgrade was initiated in order to meet this growing demand, and to assure safe and reliable reactor operations for 30 additional years. A scheduled shutdown, begun in late May 1994, is nearing completion at this writing (May 1995). To upgrade the CNRF, the D 2 0 cold neutron source has been replaced with a liquid hydrogen cold source, and the remaining four neutron guides are being installed. In addition, the primary and secondary cooling systems have been modernized with the installation of plate heat exchangers, and the refueling system has been completely refurbished. Periodic maintenance is also being done. The entire D20 primary coolant inventory is about to be replaced, and new shim arms have been installed

  8. Formaldehyde OMI operational retrieval upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Abad, G.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.

    2013-05-01

    Total column of formaldehyde (HCHO), a proxy for biogenic emissions, can be observed from satellites using the ultraviolet region of the spectrum. The operational HCHO retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the AURA satellite, part of NASA's A-train constellation of Earth Observing satellites, are described. The operational retrieval, based on a basic optical absorption spectroscopy (BOAS) algorithm, has been affected by the degradation of the instrument especially from 2008 onwards. The most significant problems are the unrealistic increasing high background concentrations of HCHO retrieved from OMI and the row anomaly. An upgrade for the original operational algorithm is therefore needed to ensure its trend quality and to account for these difficulties. The strategies implemented to deal with the instrumental degradation are presented here. Air mass factors (AMFs) in the current fitting window show significant wavelength dependence. Fitting uncertainties can potentially be improved by including shorter wavelengths as long as the AMFs wavelength dependence is taken into account. As part of these improvements a look-up table of wavelength-dependent AMFs have been calculated. Using this new table it is possible to retrieve the HCHO total column directly, weighting the HCHO cross sections with the wavelength-dependent AMFs. Additionally, the pixels affected by the row anomaly are now flagged in the level 2 data generated with the upgraded algorithm.

  9. Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Titus, P.; Rogoff, P.; Zolfaghari, A.; Mangra, D.; Smith, M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

  10. BNFL Magnox - Upgrades and enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udbinac, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the past, generic models, restrictive budgets,and general shortages of resources have limited the scope of the UK's older Magnox simulators. Nevertheless, the simulators evolved slowly over time, becoming more like their reference plants, as resources became available. Three years ago, the Training and Development Branch of Magnox Electric plc took a giant leap, investing significant resources into the modernization of their training simulators. New hardware was built, including a new simulator room. The simulator software was ported from Unix running on outdated servers to new servers running Microsoft Windows NT. Perhaps most significantly, major model enhancements were made to key plant systems to significantly increase the likeness of each simulator to its reference plant. The upgrade to NT, the addition of state-of-the-art instructor stations, and some of the model enhancements were achieved with SimPort, an all-inclusive simulation package provided by DS and S. This paper will provide a more detailed view of the Magnox modular simulators, including how they are used and how they have benefited from the enhancements and upgrades implemented during the project. (author)

  11. Heavy water upgrader of 'Fugen'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Tadashi; Sasaki, Shigeo

    1980-01-01

    The nuclear power station of the advanced thermal prototype reactor ''Fugen'' has continued the smooth operation since it started the fullscale operation in March, 1979. Fugen is the first heavy water-moderated, boiling light water-cooled reactor in Japan, and its outstanding feature is the use of heavy water as the moderator. The quantity of heavy water retained in Fugen is about 140 m 3 , and the concentration is 99.8 wt.%. This heavy water had been made is USA, and was imported from F.R. of Germany where it had been used. Heavy water is an internationally regulated material, and it is very expensive and hard to purchase. Therefore in order to prevent the deterioration of heavy water and to avoid its loss as far as possible, the management of the quantity and the control of the water quality have been carried out carefully and strictly. The generation of deteriorated heavy water occurs from the exchange of ion exchange resin for poison removal and purification. The heavy water upgrader reconcentrates the deteriorated heavy water of high concentration and returns to the heavy water system, and it was installed for the purpose of reducing the purchase of supplementary heavy water. The outline of the heavy water upgrader, its construction, the performance test and the operation are described. (Kako, I.)

  12. ALICE upgrades its powerful eyes

    CERN Multimedia

    Yuri Kharlov, ALICE Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE Photon Spectrometer (PHOS) is a high-resolution photon detector that measures the photons coming out of the extremely hot plasma created in the lead-lead collisions at the LHC. Taking advantage of the long accelerator shut-down, the ALICE teams are now repairing and upgrading the existing modules and getting ready to install the brand-new module in time for the next run. The upgraded PHOS detector will be faster and more stable with wider acceptance and improved photon identification.   PHOS crystal matrix during repair. The key feature and the main complexity of the ALICE PHOS detector is that it operates at a temperature of -25°C, which makes it the second-coldest equipment element at the LHC after the cryogenic superconducting magnets. Since 2009 when it was installed, the PHOS detector, with its cold and warm volumes, has been immersed in airtight boxes to avoid condensation in the cold volumes. The 10,752 lead tungstate crystals of the PHOS were completely insulated fr...

  13. Feasibility study of the university of Utah TRIGA reactor power upgrade - Part I: Neutronics-based study in respect to control rod system requirements and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćutić Avdo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a summary of extensive studies in determining the highest achievable power level of the current University of Utah TRIGA core configuration in respect to control rod requirements. Although the currently licensed University of Utah TRIGA power of 100 kW provides an excellent setting for a wide range of experiments, we investigate the possibility of increasing the power with the existing fuel elements and core structure. Thus, we have developed numerical models in combination with experimental procedures so as to assess the potential maximum University of Utah TRIGA power with the currently available control rod system and have created feasibility studies for assessing new core configurations that could provide higher core power levels. For the maximum determined power of a new University of Utah TRIGA core arrangement, a new control rod system was proposed.

  14. Slum upgrading in developing countries: lessons from Ghana and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proliferation of slums in many cities of the developing countries has ... slum upgrading in Ghana and Kenya as model examples to make a case for .... improvement in housing, and still others, infrastructural development. ..... Class Summer Research Report), City and Regional Planning: International and Area Studies.

  15. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashar, M.

    2008-01-01

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs

  16. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashar, M. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs.

  17. Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARPENTER, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This project will execute the design, procurement, construction, startup, and turnover activities for upgrades to the stack monitoring system on selected Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) ventilation systems. In this plan, the technical, schedule, and cost baselines are identified, and the roles and responsibilities of project participants are defined for managing the Stack Monitoring System Upgrades, Project W-420

  18. Bohunice V1 NPP upgrading programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerak, J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes whole process of Bohunice V1 NPP nuclear safety and operational reliability level increase which has been performed since units commissioning (1. unit in 1978, 2. unit in 1980), continued Small Reconstruction (1991 -1993) and finished Gradual Upgrading(1994 -2000). The main purpose is to last stage -Gradual upgrading of Bohunice V1 NPP. (author)

  19. FTU bolometer electronic system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollastrone, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.pollastrone@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Neri, Carlo; Florean, Marco; Ciccone, Giovanni [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Design and realization of a new bolometer electronic system. ► Many improvements over the actual commercial system. ► Architecture based on digital electronic hardware with minimal analog front end. ► Auto off-set correction, real time visualization features and small system size. ► Test results for the electronic system. -- Abstract: The FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) requires a bolometer diagnostic in order to measure the total plasma radiation. The current diagnostic architecture is based on a full analog multichannel AC bolometer system, which uses a carrier frequency amplifier with a synchronous demodulation. Taking into account the technological upgrades in the field of electronics, it was decided to realize an upgrade for the bolometric electronic system by using a hybrid analog/digital implementation. The new system developed at the ENEA Frascati laboratories has many improvements, and mainly a massive system volume reduction, a good measurement linearity and a simplified use. The new hardware system consists of two subsystems: the Bolometer Digital Control and the Bolometer Analog System. The Bolometer Digital Control can control 16 bolometer bridges through the Bolometer Analog System. The Bolometer Digital Control, based on the FPGA architecture, is connected via Ethernet with a PC; therefore, it can receive commands settings from the PC and send the stream of bolometric measurements in real time to the PC. In order to solve the cross-talk between the bridges and the cables, each of the four bridges in the bolometer head receives a different synthesized excitation frequency. Since the system is fully controlled by a PC GUI (Graphic User Interface), it is very user friendly. Moreover, some useful features have been developed, such as: auto off-set correction, bridge amplitude regulation, software gain setting, real time visualization, frequency excitation selection and noise spectrum analyzer embedded function. In this paper, the

  20. The effect of health insurance and health facility-upgrades on hospital deliveries in rural Nigeria: a controlled interrupted time-series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brals, Daniëlla; Aderibigbe, Sunday A; Wit, Ferdinand W; van Ophem, Johannes C M; van der List, Marijn; Osagbemi, Gordon K; Hendriks, Marleen E; Akande, Tanimola M; Boele van Hensbroek, Michael; Schultsz, Constance

    2017-09-01

    Access to quality obstetric care is considered essential to reducing maternal and new-born mortality. We evaluated the effect of the introduction of a multifaceted voluntary health insurance programme on hospital deliveries in rural Nigeria. We used an interrupted time-series design, including a control group. The intervention consisted of providing voluntary health insurance covering primary and secondary healthcare, including antenatal and obstetric care, combined with improving the quality of healthcare facilities. We compared changes in hospital deliveries from 1 May 2005 to 30 April 2013 between the programme area and control area in a difference-in-differences analysis with multiple time periods, adjusting for observed confounders. Data were collected through household surveys. Eligible households ( n = 1500) were selected from a stratified probability sample of enumeration areas. All deliveries during the 4-year baseline period ( n = 460) and 4-year follow-up period ( n = 380) were included. Insurance coverage increased from 0% before the insurance was introduced to 70.2% in April 2013 in the programme area. In the control area insurance coverage remained 0% between May 2005 and April 2013. Although hospital deliveries followed a common stable trend over the 4 pre-programme years ( P = 0.89), the increase in hospital deliveries during the 4-year follow-up period in the programme area was 29.3 percentage points (95% CI: 16.1 to 42.6; P health insurance but who could make use of the upgraded care delivered significantly more often in a hospital during the follow-up period than women living in the control area ( P = 0.04). Voluntary health insurance combined with quality healthcare services is highly effective in increasing hospital deliveries in rural Nigeria, by improving access to healthcare for insured and uninsured women in the programme area. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and